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Sample records for ac-dc power transmission

  1. Nonlinear control of voltage source converters in AC-DC power system.

    PubMed

    Dash, P K; Nayak, N

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents the design of a robust nonlinear controller for a parallel AC-DC power system using a Lyapunov function-based sliding mode control (LYPSMC) strategy. The inputs for the proposed control scheme are the DC voltage and reactive power errors at the converter station and the active and reactive power errors at the inverter station of the voltage-source converter-based high voltage direct current transmission (VSC-HVDC) link. The stability and robust tracking of the system parameters are ensured by applying the Lyapunov direct method. Also the gains of the sliding mode control (SMC) are made adaptive using the stability conditions of the Lyapunov function. The proposed control strategy offers invariant stability to a class of systems having modeling uncertainties due to parameter changes and exogenous inputs. Comprehensive computer simulations are carried out to verify the proposed control scheme under several system disturbances like changes in short-circuit ratio, converter parametric changes, and faults on the converter and inverter buses for single generating system connected to the power grid in a single machine infinite-bus AC-DC network and also for a 3-machine two-area power system. Furthermore, a second order super twisting sliding mode control scheme has been presented in this paper that provides a higher degree of nonlinearity than the LYPSMC and damps faster the converter and inverter voltage and power oscillations.

  2. Nonlinear control of voltage source converters in AC-DC power system.

    PubMed

    Dash, P K; Nayak, N

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents the design of a robust nonlinear controller for a parallel AC-DC power system using a Lyapunov function-based sliding mode control (LYPSMC) strategy. The inputs for the proposed control scheme are the DC voltage and reactive power errors at the converter station and the active and reactive power errors at the inverter station of the voltage-source converter-based high voltage direct current transmission (VSC-HVDC) link. The stability and robust tracking of the system parameters are ensured by applying the Lyapunov direct method. Also the gains of the sliding mode control (SMC) are made adaptive using the stability conditions of the Lyapunov function. The proposed control strategy offers invariant stability to a class of systems having modeling uncertainties due to parameter changes and exogenous inputs. Comprehensive computer simulations are carried out to verify the proposed control scheme under several system disturbances like changes in short-circuit ratio, converter parametric changes, and faults on the converter and inverter buses for single generating system connected to the power grid in a single machine infinite-bus AC-DC network and also for a 3-machine two-area power system. Furthermore, a second order super twisting sliding mode control scheme has been presented in this paper that provides a higher degree of nonlinearity than the LYPSMC and damps faster the converter and inverter voltage and power oscillations. PMID:24906895

  3. High-power ac/dc variable load simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joncas, K. P.; Birnbach, S.; Bruce, L. D.; Smith, L.

    1975-01-01

    Design of medium-power dynamic electrical load simulator has been extended to permit simulation of ac as well as dc loads and to provide for operation at higher power levels. Simulator is internally protected against reverse voltage, overvoltage, overcurrent, and overload conditions.

  4. Comprehensive review of high power factor ac-dc boost converters for PFC applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Castro Pereira, Dênis; Da Silva, Márcio Renato; Mateus Silva, Elder; Lessa Tofoli, Fernando

    2015-08-01

    High power factor rectifiers have been consolidated as an effective solution to improve power quality indices in terms of input power factor correction, reduction in the total harmonic distortion of the input current and also regulated dc voltages. Within this context, this subject has motivated the introduction of numerous converter topologies based on classic dc-dc structures associated with novel control techniques, thus leading to the manufacturing of dedicated integrated circuits that allow high input power factor by adding a front-end stage to switch-mode converters. In particular, boost converters in continuous current mode (CCM) are widely employed since they allow obtaining minimised electromagnetic interference levels. This work is concerned with a literature review involving relevant ac-dc single-phase boost-based topologies with high input power factor. The evolution of aspects regarding the conventional boost converter is shown in terms of improved characteristics inherent to other ac-dc boost converters. Additionally, the work intends to be a fast and concise reference to single-phase ac-dc boost converters operating in CCM for engineers, researchers and experts in the field of power electronics by properly analysing and comparing the aforementioned rectifiers.

  5. Very low noise AC/DC power supply systems for large detector arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnaboldi, C.; Baù, A.; Carniti, P.; Cassina, L.; Giachero, A.; Gotti, C.; Maino, M.; Passerini, A.; Pessina, G.

    2015-12-01

    In this work, we present the first part of the power supply system for the CUORE and LUCIFER arrays of bolometric detectors. For CUORE, it consists of AC/DC commercial power supplies (0-60 V output) followed by custom DC/DC modules (48 V input, ±5 V to ±13.5 V outputs). Each module has 3 floating and independently configurable output voltages. In LUCIFER, the AC/DC + DC/DC stages are combined into a commercial medium-power AC/DC source. At the outputs of both setups, we introduced filters with the aim of lowering the noise and to protect the following stages from high voltage spikes that can be generated by the energy stored in the cables after the release of accidental short circuits. Output noise is very low, as required: in the 100 MHz bandwidth the RMS level is about 37 μVRMS (CUORE setup) and 90 μVRMS (LUCIFER setup) at a load of 7 A, with a negligible dependence on the load current. Even more importantly, high frequency switching disturbances are almost completely suppressed. The efficiency of both systems is above 85%. Both systems are completely programmable and monitored via CAN bus (optically coupled).

  6. Wind-powered asynchronous AC/DC/AC converter system. [for electric power supply regulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reitan, D. K.

    1973-01-01

    Two asynchronous ac/dc/ac systems are modelled that utilize wind power to drive a variable or constant hertz alternator. The first system employs a high power 60-hertz inverter tie to the large backup supply of the power company to either supplement them from wind energy, storage, or from a combination of both at a preset desired current; rectifier and inverter are identical and operate in either mode depending on the silicon control rectifier firing angle. The second system employs the same rectification but from a 60-hertz alternator arrangement; it provides mainly dc output, some sinusoidal 60-hertz from the wind bus and some high harmonic content 60-hertz from an 800-watt inverter.

  7. Fuzzy based power factor improvement strategy for a multiple connected AC-DC converter fed drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radhakrishnan, N.; Muthiah, Ramaswamy

    2012-01-01

    The main focus of this paper is to design a Fuzzy based control algorithm to realize an improvement in the input power factor of a multiple connected AC-DC converter fed drive system. It incorporates the role of fuzzy inference principles to generate appropriate PWM pulses for the power switches at the second stage of the power module. The philosophy is developed, with a view to reshape the input current phasor and enables it to align with the supply voltage wave in the perspective of improving the input power factor. The closed loop scheme evaluated using MATLAB based simulation exhibits an enhancement in supply power factor over a range of operating loads in addition to illustrating the speed regulating capability of the drive.

  8. Lowest of AC-DC power output for electrostrictive polymers energy harvesting systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meddad, Mounir; Eddiai, Adil; Hajjaji, Abdelowahed; Guyomar, Daniel; Belkhiat, Saad; Boughaleb, Yahia; Chérif, Aida

    2013-11-01

    Advances in technology led to the development of electronic circuits and sensors with extremely low electricity consumption. At the same time, structural health monitoring, technology and intelligent integrated systems created a need for wireless sensors in hard to reach places in aerospace vehicles and large civil engineering structures. Powering sensors with energy harvesters eliminates the need to replace batteries on a regular basis. Scientists have been forced to search for new power source that are able to harvested energy from their surrounding environment (sunlight, temperature gradients etc.). Electrostrictive polymer belonging to the family of electro-active polymers, offer unique properties for the electromechanical transducer technology has been of particular interest over the last few years in order to replace conventional techniques such as those based on piezoelectric or electromagnetic, these materials are highly attractive for their low-density, with large strain capability that can be as high as two orders of magnitude greater than the striction-limited, rigid and fragile electroactive ceramics. Electrostrictive polymers sensors respond to vibration with an ac output signal, one of the most important objectives of the electronic interface is to realize the required AC-DC conversion. The goal of this paper is to design an active, high efficiency power doubler converter for electrostrictive polymers exclusively uses a fraction of the harvested energy to supply its active devices. The simulation results show that it is possible to obtain a maximum efficiency of the AC-DC converter equal to 80%. Premiliminary experimental measurements were performed and the results obtained are in good agreement with simulations.

  9. A Kalman filtering based control scheme for the improvement of dynamic performance of an AC/DC power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecen, Recayi

    In this dissertation, two major accomplishments are achieved. First, the feasibility of a proposed Wyoming to California HVDC system having the ratings of 1000 MW, ±500 kV, 2 kA, 860 miles and 12-pulse bipolar lines is shown for exporting Wyoming's electrical power resources to the heavy loaded western states. The second and the main objective of this dissertation is the development of a Kalman filtering (KF) based control scheme applied to an ac/dc power system. It is shown that the use KF algorithm to estimate some of the system states and utilizing them in a proportional Integral (PI) controller which has a better performance for this specific control scheme have resulted in a better dynamic performance of the proposed system. A set of case studies has shown that the system dynamic performance is improved for most of the contingencies. Ac and dc noisy voltage and current measurements received from the simulated ac/dc power system are sent to the KF estimation algorithm. The noise-separated best estimates of measurable states are computed and sent to a PI controller-based current and firing angle control subsections in order to provide a set of optimum thyristor firing angles for both converter stations during and after contingencies until the normal operation is reached. To evaluate the dynamic performance of the system with the KF algorithm, the model is simulated by a well-known digital simulation package, Electromagnetic Transients DC Program (PSCAD/EMTDC) of Manitoba HVDC Research Center. To apply the KF algorithm, a general, linearized, state-space model of the proposed ac/dc system, appropriate for analyzing both the KF and the electromagnetics transients, is derived first. The derived model enables the representation of an ac power system with two ac sources and one HVDC line with a parallel ac line connecting the two systems. It is shown that system eigenvalues of the discretized system model for a normal operating point are inside the unit circle that

  10. AC/DC Power Systems with Applications for future Lunar/Mars base and Crew Exploration Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chowdhury, Badrul H.

    2005-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Power Systems branch at JSC faces a number of complex issues as it readies itself for the President's initiative on future space exploration beyond low earth orbit. Some of these preliminary issues - those dealing with electric power generation and distribution on board Mars-bound vehicle and that on Lunar and Martian surface may be summarized as follows: Type of prime mover - Because solar power may not be readily available on parts of the Lunar/Mars surface and also during the long duration flight to Mars, the primary source of power will most likely be nuclear power (Uranium fuel rods) with a secondary source of fuel cell (Hydrogen supply). The electric power generation source - With nuclear power being the main prime mover, the electric power generation source will most likely be an ac generator at a yet to be determined frequency. Thus, a critical issue is whether the generator should generate at constant or variable frequency. This will decide what type of generator to use - whether it is a synchronous machine, an asynchronous induction machine or a switched reluctance machine. The type of power distribution system - the distribution frequency, number of wires (3- wire, 4-wire or higher), and ac/dc hybridization. Building redundancy and fault tolerance in the generation and distribution sub-systems so that the system is safe; provides 100% availability to critical loads; continues to operate even with faulted sub-systems; and requires minimal maintenance. This report descril_es results of a summer faculty fellowship spent in the Power Systems Branch with the specific aim of investigating some of the lessons learned in electric power generation and usage from the terrestrial power systems industry, the aerospace industry as well as NASA's on-going missions so as to recommend novel surface and vehicle-based power systems architectures in support of future space exploration initiatives. A hybrid ac/dc architecture with source side and load side

  11. Power Quality Improvement in Bridgeless Ac-Dc Converter Based Multi-output Switched Mode Power Supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Shihka; Singh, Bhim; Bhuvaneswari, G.; Bist, Vashist

    2014-12-01

    Computer power supplies are required to have multiple isolated regulated dc voltages with low ripple content and high input power factor at the utility interface. A dc-dc converter is used for obtaining these isolated multi-output dc voltages with excellent regulation. In this paper, a non-isolated ac-dc converter is proposed as the first stage converter to obtain a regulated dc output rather than using a simple uncontrolled diode bridge rectifier at the front end. A dc-dc converter is used at the second stage that has a high frequency transformer with multiple secondary windings to obtain different dc voltage levels at the output. The proposed bridgeless converter based power supply is designed using fundamental design equations, and different component values are calculated. Extensive simulations are carried out to demonstrate the improved performance of the proposed bridgeless converter based multi-output computer power supply at varying source voltages and load conditions. Experimental validation of the power supply is carried on a developed hardware prototype, and the test results are compared with the simulated performance for design verification.

  12. Pulse doubling in zigzag-connected autotransformer-based 12-pulse ac-dc converter for power quality improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdollahi, Rohollah

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents a pulse doubling technique in a 12-pulse ac-dc converter which supplies direct torque controlled motor drives (DTCIMDs) in order to have better power quality conditions at the point of common coupling. The proposed technique increases the number of rectification pulses without significant changes in the installations and yields in harmonic reduction in both ac and dc sides. The 12-pulse rectified output voltage is accomplished via two paralleled six-pulse acdc converters each of them consisting of three-phase diode bridge rectifiers. An autotransformer is designed to supply the rectifiers. The design procedure of magnetics is in a way such that makes it suitable for retrofit applications where a six-pulse diode bridge rectifier is being utilized. Independent operation of paralleled diode-bridge rectifiers, i.e. dc-ripple re-injection methodology, requires a Zero Sequence Blocking Transformer (ZSBT). Finally, a tapped interphase reactor is connected at the output of ZSBT to double the pulse numbers of output voltage up to 24 pulses. The aforementioned structure improves power quality criteria at ac mains and makes them consistent with the IEEE-519 standard requirements for varying loads. Furthermore, near unity power factor is obtained for a wide range of DTCIMD operation. A comparison is made between 6-pulse, 12-pulse, and proposed converters from view point of power quality indices. Results show that input current total harmonic distortion (THD) is less than 5% for the proposed topology at various loads.

  13. Single stage AC-DC converter for Galfenol-based micro-power energy harvesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavaroc, Peyton; Curtis, Chandra; Naik, Suketu; Cooper, James

    2014-06-01

    Military based sensor systems are often hindered in operational deployment and/or other capabilities due to limitations in their energy storage elements. Typically operating from lithium based batteries, there is a finite amount of stored energy which the sensor can use to collect and transmit data. As a result, the sensors have reduced sensing and transmission rates. However, coupled with the latest advancements in energy harvesting, these sensors could potentially operate at standard sensing and transition rates as well as dramatically extend lifetimes. Working with the magnetostrictive material Galfenol, we demonstrate the production of enough energy to supplement and recharge a solid state battery thereby overcoming the deficiencies faced by unattended sensors. As with any vibration-based energy harvester, this solution produces an alternating current which needs to be rectified and boosted to a level conducive to recharge the storage element. This paper presents a power converter capable of efficiently converting an ultra-low AC voltage to a solid state charging voltage of 4.1VDC. While we are working with Galfenol transducers as our energy source, this converter may also be applied with any AC producing energy harvester, particularly at operating levels less than 2mW and 200mVAC.

  14. High power ac/dc variable R dynamic electrical load simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joncas, K. P.

    1974-01-01

    A study program was undertaken to investigate various concepts and techniques for identifying and simulating both the steady-state and dynamic characteristics of electrical loads for use during integrated system test and evaluation. The development of hardware capable of providing the simulation capability is discussed. A general purpose simulator was developed with the capability of realizing a variety of models where element values were discretely variable. The different models, each corresponding to real spacecraft equipment, are set up manually for each case by suitable switching and patching. The models are capable of duplicating the dynamic and steady-state response of real loads at full power.

  15. Development of a 10 kW High Temperature High Power Density Three-Phase AC-DC-AC SiC Converter

    SciTech Connect

    Ning, Puqi

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the development and experimental performance of a 10 kW, all SiC, 250 C junction temperature high-power-density three-phase ac-dc-ac converter. The electromagnetic interference filter, thermal system, high temperature package, and gate drive design are discussed in detail. Finally, tests confirming the feasibility and validating the theoretical basis of the prototype converter system are described.

  16. Observer-based higher order sliding mode control of power factor in three-phase AC/DC converter for hybrid electric vehicle applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianxing; Laghrouche, Salah; Wack, Maxime

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, a full-bridge boost power converter topology is studied for power factor control, using output higher order sliding mode control. The AC/DC converters are used for charging the battery and super-capacitor in hybrid electric vehicles from the utility. The proposed control forces the input currents to track the desired values, which can control the output voltage while keeping the power factor close to one. Super-twisting sliding mode observer is employed to estimate the input currents and load resistance only from the measurement of output voltage. Lyapunov analysis shows the asymptotic convergence of the closed-loop system to zero. Multi-rate simulation illustrates the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed controller in the presence of measurement noise.

  17. Ac-dc converter firing error detection

    SciTech Connect

    Gould, O.L.

    1996-07-15

    Each of the twelve Booster Main Magnet Power Supply modules consist of two three-phase, full-wave rectifier bridges in series to provide a 560 VDC maximum output. The harmonic contents of the twelve-pulse ac-dc converter output are multiples of the 60 Hz ac power input, with a predominant 720 Hz signal greater than 14 dB in magnitude above the closest harmonic components at maximum output. The 720 Hz harmonic is typically greater than 20 dB below the 500 VDC output signal under normal operation. Extracting specific harmonics from the rectifier output signal of a 6, 12, or 24 pulse ac-dc converter allows the detection of SCR firing angle errors or complete misfires. A bandpass filter provides the input signal to a frequency-to-voltage converter. Comparing the output of the frequency-to-voltage converter to a reference voltage level provides an indication of the magnitude of the harmonics in the ac-dc converter output signal.

  18. Study on AC-DC Electrical Conductivities in Warm Dense Matter Generated by Pulsed-power Discharge with Isochoric Vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Toru; Ohuchi, Takumi; Takahashi, Takuya; Kawaguchi, Yoshinari; Saito, Hirotaka; Miki, Yasutoshi; Takahashi, Kazumasa; Kikuchi, Takashi; Aso, Tsukasa; Harada, Nob.

    2016-03-01

    To observe AC and DC electrical conductivity in warm dense matter (WDM), we have demonstrated to apply the spectroscopic ellipsometry for a pulsed-power discharge with isochoric vessel. At 10 μs from the beginning of discharge, the generated parameters by using pulsed-power discharge with isochoric vessel are 0.1 ρ s (ρ s: solid density) of density and 4000 K of temperature, respectively. The DC electrical conductivity for above parameters is estimated to be 104 S/m. In order to measure the AC electrical conductivity, we have developed a four-detector spectroscopic ellipsometer with a multichannel spectrometer. The multichannel spectrometer, in which consists of a 16-channel photodiode array, a two-stages voltage adder, and a flat diffraction grating, has 10 MHz of the frequency response with covered visible spectrum. For applying the four-detector spectroscopic ellipsometer, we observe the each observation signal evolves the polarized behavior compared to the ratio as I 1/I 2.

  19. Design and Analysis of the Main AC/DC Converter System for ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Zhicai; Xu, Liuwei; Fu, Peng

    2012-04-01

    A design of the main AC/DC converter system for ITER is described and the configuration of the main AC/DC converters is presented. To reduce the reactive power absorbed from the converter units, the main AC/DC converters are designed to be series-connected and work in a sequential mode. The structure of the regulator of the converter system is described. A simulation model was built up for the PSCAD/EMTDC code, and the design was validated accordingly. Harmonic analysis and reactive power calculation of the converters units are presented. The results reveal the advantage of sequential control in reducing reactive power and harmonics.

  20. Marine High Voltage Power Conditioning and Transmission System with Integrated Storage DE-EE0003640 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Frank Hoffmann, PhD; Aspinall, Rik

    2012-12-10

    Design, Development, and test of the three-port power converter for marine hydrokinetic power transmission. Converter provides ports for AC/DC conversion of hydrokinetic power, battery storage, and a low voltage to high voltage DC port for HVDC transmission to shore. The report covers the design, development, implementation, and testing of a prototype built by PPS.

  1. An efficient switch-mode power supply using an AC-DC interleaved boost converter and a DC-DC full-bridge topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lessa Tofoli, Fernando; Gallo, Carlos Alberto

    2011-04-01

    This work presents the conception and analysis of a switch-mode power supply with desirable characteristics of high power factor, low harmonic distortion, regulated output voltage, and high efficiency. An interleaved boost converter associated with a nondissipative snubber is used as a preregulator stage. Additionally, a soft switching full-bridge converter is chosen as DC-DC stage. The combination of both topologies results in the proposed switch-mode power supply. Theoretical background on each one of the converters is presented and analytical results are discussed in order to validate the proposal.

  2. Power transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Ordo, J.P.; Raszkowski, J.A.; Klemen, D.

    1991-04-23

    This patent describes a transmission. It comprises a housing having first and second end covers; an input shaft rotatably mounted in the first end cover; an output shaft rotatably supported on the input shaft and in the second end cover; first and second countershafts rotatably supported in the end covers for rotation on respective axis parallel with the input shaft and the output shaft; a first head gear continuously rotatable with the input shaft; second and third head gears meshing with the first head gear and continuously rotatable with the first and second countershafts respectively; ratio gears rotatably supported on each of the countershafts including a first ratio gear on the first countershaft and a second ratio gear on the second countershaft; reverse gear means including a first ratio gear on the first countershaft and a second ratio gear on the second countershaft; reverse gear means including a first member rotatable with the first ratio gear means including a first member rotatable with the first ratio gear and a second member rotatably supported on the second countershaft; synchronizer clutch means selectively and alternatively connectible with the second ratio gear and the second member of the reverse gear means; output gear means drivingly connected with the output shaft and including a first ratio output gear meshing with the second ratio gear; first selectively engageable friction clutch means for connecting the first ratio gear with the first countershaft for completing a low forward drive ratio between the input and output shafts; and second selectively engageable friction clutch means for selectively connecting the synchronizer clutch means to the second countershaft and cooperating therewith to selectively alternatively complete a reverse drive ratio between the input shaft and the output shaft and another forward drive ratio between the input and output shafts.

  3. Power transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Gunda, R.; McCarty, M.R.; Rode, M.A.

    1988-05-03

    This patent describes an electrohydraulic servo system which includes, in combination, a pressure compensated flow control servo valve for proportionally variably feeding hydraulic fluid to a load at a flow rate which is a predetermined proportional function of an electronic valve control signal, a variable output pump for coupling to a source of motive power to feed hydraulic fluid under pressure from a source to the servo valve, pump control means for controlling output of the pump, and an electronic servo control coupled to the valve and including means for receiving a first signal indicative of motion desired at the load, means for receiving a second signal indicative of actuation motion at the load and means for generating the valve control signal to the valve as a function of a difference between the first and second signals. The valve control signal is indicative of fluid flow velocity at the valve required to obtain the desired motion at the load, characterized in that the pump control means comprises: means for receiving the valve control signal, means for providing a signal indicative of fluid flow rate at the valve as the predetermined function of the valve control signal, and means for providing an output control signal to the pump as a function of the flow-indicative signal.

  4. Verification of low frequency ac-dc transfer differences of thermal converters using sampling with sine-wave fit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funck, Torsten; Spiegel, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Thermal converters show significant ac-dc transfer differences at low frequencies due to nonlinearities of the heat transport mechanism and of the thermal-to-electric conversion. It is assumed that the ac-dc transfer differences at low frequencies are proportional to the input power. We have proved this assumption by an independent method with sampling techniques. A novel approach based on sine-wave fitting is used to calculate the RMS value of the sampled signal from the samples. It makes use of the low noise in a metrological environment. Expanded uncertainties in the order of 1.2 μV/V have been achieved.

  5. Disrupted bandcount doubling in an AC-DC boost PFC circuit modeled by a time varying map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avrutin, Viktor; Zhusubaliyev, Zhanybai T.; El Aroudi, Abdelali; Fournier-Prunaret, Danièle; Garcia, Germain; Mosekilde, Erik

    2016-02-01

    Power factor correction converters are used in many applications as AC-DC power supplies aiming at maintaining a near unity power factor. Systems of this type are known to exhibit nonlinear phenomena such as sub-harmonic oscillations and chaotic regimes that cannot be described by traditional averaged models. In this paper, we derive a time varying discretetime map modeling the behavior of a power factor correction AC-DC boost converter. This map is derived in closed-form and is able to faithfully reproduce the system behavior under realistic conditions. In the chaotic regime the map exhibits a sequence of bifurcation similar to a bandcount doubling cascade on the low frequency. However, the observed scenario appears in some sense incomplete, with some gaps in the bifurcation diagram, whose appearance to our knowledge has never been reported before. We show that these gaps are caused by high frequency oscillations.

  6. Laser power transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, Edmund J.

    1992-01-01

    An overview of previous studies related to laser power transmission is presented. Particular attention is given to the use of solar pumped lasers for space power applications. Three general laser mechanisms are addressed: photodissociation lasing driven by sunlight, photoexcitation lasing driven directly by sunlight, and photoexcitation lasing driven by thermal radiation.

  7. Power superconducting power transmission cable

    DOEpatents

    Ashworth, Stephen P.

    2003-06-10

    The present invention is for a compact superconducting power transmission cable operating at distribution level voltages. The superconducting cable is a conductor with a number of tapes assembled into a subconductor. These conductors are then mounted co-planarly in an elongated dielectric to produce a 3-phase cable. The arrangement increases the magnetic field parallel to the tapes thereby reducing ac losses.

  8. Power superconducting power transmission cable

    DOEpatents

    Ashworth, Stephen P.

    2003-01-01

    The present invention is for a compact superconducting power transmission cable operating at distribution level voltages. The superconducting cable is a conductor with a number of tapes assembled into a subconductor. These conductors are then mounted co-planarly in an elongated dielectric to produce a 3-phase cable. The arrangement increases the magnetic field parallel to the tapes thereby reducing ac losses.

  9. Zigzag Connected Autotransformer-Based 24-pulse AC-DC Converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao-qiang, Chen; Hao, Qiu

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, a zigzag connected autotransformer-based 24-pulse AC-DC converter is designed, modeled and simulated to feed direct torque controlled induction motor drives. Winding arrangements and parameters of the autotransformer and interphase reactor are given. Moreover, the design procedure of the autotransformer is modified to make it suitable for retrofit applications. Simulation results indicate that the system is capable of eliminating up to 21st harmonics in the ac mains current. The effect of load variation and load character is also studied to demonstrate the performance and effectiveness of the proposed 24-pulse converters. A set of power quality indices at ac mains and dc side are presented to compare the performance of 6-, 12- and 24-pulse converters.

  10. Simplified power shift transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Michael, R.A.

    1987-04-21

    A multi-speed transmission is described for transferring power between a first shaft and a second shaft, the transmission comprising: a compound planetary assembly including a sun gear, a ring gear concentric with the sun gear, a reaction gear concentric with the ring gear, a planetary gear carrier rotatably supporting first and second sets of planet gears, the first planet gear set intermeshing with the ring gear. The sun gear and the second planet gear set intermesh with the first planet gear set and the reaction gear, means for selectively coupling the first shaft with the sun gear and the reaction gear, and means for selectively preventing rotation of the ring gear, and reaction gear and the planetary carrier; a simple planetary assembly comprising a sun gear component concentric with the sun gear of the compound planetary assembly, a ring gear component concentric with both of the sun gears, and a planetary gear carrier component rotatably supporting a set of planet gears, the planet gear set meshing with the sun gear and the ring gear of the simple planetary.

  11. Design of a robust modulation controller over a wide range of load characteristics for ac/dc systems

    SciTech Connect

    Choudry, M.A.; Reza, M.A. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Ellithy, K.A. )

    1990-02-01

    This paper presents a method to design a robust modulation controller to improve the dynamic performance of ac/dc systems. Static load is modeled as a nonlinear function of load bus voltage and dynamic load is modeled by an equivalent induction motor. Reactive power and dc power are considered for the modulation control. Static var compensator (SVC) is used for the reactive power modulation. The rotor speed and angle deviations of the synchronous generator are used as a stabilizing signal to the SVC. The controller gains are selected based on the eigenvalue sensitivity of electromechanical mode of the closed loop system with respect to load characteristic. Eigenvalue analysis and simulation results show that the proposed reactive power modulation control improves the system response over a wide range of voltage dependent load characteristic as compared with the control using only the rotor speed deviation.

  12. Free-Space Power Transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center organized a workshop on technology availability for free-space power transmission (beam power). This document contains a collection of viewgraph presentations that describes the effort by academia, industry, and the national laboratories in the area of high-frequency, high-power technology applicable to free-space power transmission systems. The areas covered were rectenna technology, high-frequency, high-power generation (gyrotrons, solar pumped lasers, and free electron lasers), and antenna technology.

  13. Dust particles precipitation in AC/DC electrostatic precipitator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaworek, A.; Marchewicz, A.; Krupa, A.; Sobczyk, A. T.; Czech, T.; Antes, T.; Śliwiński, Ł.; Kurz, M.; Szudyga, M.; Rożnowski, W.

    2015-10-01

    Submicron and nanoparticles removal from flue or exhaust gases remain still a challenge for engineers. The most effective device used for gas cleaning in power plants or industry is electrostatic precipitator, but its collection efficiency steeply decreases for particles smaller than 1 micron. In this paper, fractional collection efficiency of two-stage electrostatic precipitator comprising of alternating electric field charger and DC supplied parallel-plate collection stage has been investigated. The total number collection efficiency for PM2.5 particles was higher than 95% and mass collection efficiency >99%. Fractional collection efficiency for particles between 300 nm and 1 μm was >95%.

  14. A flux-coupled ac/dc magnetizing device.

    PubMed

    Gopman, D B; Liu, H; Kent, A D

    2013-06-01

    We report on an instrument for applying ac and dc magnetic fields by capturing the flux from a rotating permanent magnet and projecting it between two adjustable pole pieces. This can be an alternative to standard electromagnets for experiments with small samples or in probe stations in which an applied magnetic field is needed locally, with advantages that include a compact form-factor, very low power requirements and dissipation as well as fast field sweep rates. This flux capture instrument (FLUXCAP) can produce fields from -400 to +400 mT, with field resolution less than 1 mT. It generates static magnetic fields as well as ramped fields, with ramping rates as high as 10 T/s. We demonstrate the use of this apparatus for studying the magnetotransport properties of spin-valve nanopillars, a nanoscale device that exhibits giant magnetoresistance. PMID:23822372

  15. An automatic AC/DC thermal voltage converter and AC voltage calibration system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lentner, K. J.; Flach, D. R.; Bell, B. A.

    1985-10-01

    An automatic ac/dc difference calibration system is described which uses direct measurement of thermoelement emfs. In addition to ac/dc difference testing, the system can be used to measure some important characteristics of thermoelements, as well as to calibrate ac voltage calibrators and precision voltmeters. The system operates over a frquency range from 20 Hz to 100 kHz, covering the voltage range from 0.5 V to 1 kv. For all voltages the total measurement uncertainties expected (including the uncertainty of the specific reference thermal converters used) were 50 parts per million (ppm) at frequencies from 20 Hz to 20 kHz, inclusive, and 100 ppm at higher frequencies up to 100 kHz.

  16. Automatic ac/dc thermal voltage converter and ac voltage calibration system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lentner, K. J.; Flach, D. R.; Bell, B. A.

    1984-11-01

    An automatic ac/dc difference calibration system is described which uses direct measurement of thermoelement emfs. In addition to ac/dc difference testing, the system can be used to measure some important characteristics of thermoelements, as well as to calibrate ac voltage calibrators and precision voltmeters. The system operates over a frequency range from 20 Hz to 100 kHz, covering the voltage range from 0.5 V to 1 kv. For all voltages the total measurement uncertainties expected (including the uncertainty of the specific reference thermal converters used) were 50 parts per million (ppm) at frequencies from 20 Hz to 20 kHz, inclusive, and 100 ppm at higher frequencies up to 100 kHz.

  17. SIM regional comparison of ac-dc current transfer difference SIM.EM-K12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Lillo, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    The ac-dc current transfer difference identified as SIM.EM.K-12 began in July 2010 and was completed in September 2012. Six NMIs in the SIM region and one NMI in the AFRIMET region took part: NRC (Canada), NIST (United States of America), CENAM (Mexico), INTI (Argentina), UTE (Uruguay), INMETRO (Brazil) and NIS (Egypt). The comparisons were proposed to assess the measurement capabilities in ac-dc current transfer difference of the participants NMIs. The ac-dc current transfer differences of the travelling standard had been measured at 10 mA and 5 A at 10 Hz, 55 Hz, 1 kHz, 10 kHz, 20 kHz, 50 kHz and 100 kHz. The test points were selected to link the results with the equivalent CCEM Key Comparisons (CCEM-K12), through three NMIs participating in both SIM and CCEM key comparisons (INTI, NRC and NIST). The report shows the degree of equivalence in the SIM region and also the degree of equivalence with the corresponding CCEM reference value. The results of all participants support the values and uncertainties of the applicable CMC entries for ac-dc current transfer difference in the Key Comparison Database held at the BIPM. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  18. HVDC power transmission technology assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Hauth, R.L.; Tatro, P.J.; Railing, B.D.; Johnson, B.K.; Stewart, J.R.; Fink, J.L.

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an assessment of the national utility system`s needs for electric transmission during the period 1995-2020 that could be met by future reduced-cost HVDC systems. The assessment was to include an economic evaluation of HVDC as a means for meeting those needs as well as a comparison with competing technologies such as ac transmission with and without Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) controllers. The role of force commutated dc converters was to be assumed where appropriate. The assessment begins by identifying the general needs for transmission in the U.S. in the context of a future deregulated power industry. The possible roles for direct current transmission are then postulated in terms of representative scenarios. A few of the scenarios are illustrated with the help of actual U.S. system examples. non-traditional applications as well as traditional applications such as long lines and asynchronous interconnections are discussed. The classical ``break-even distance`` concept for comparing HVDC and ac lines is used to assess the selected scenarios. The impact of reduced-cost converters is reflected in terms of the break-even distance. This report presents a comprehensive review of the functional benefits of HVDC transmission and updated cost data for both ac and dc system components. It also provides some provocative thoughts on how direct current transmission might be applied to better utilize and expand our nation`s increasingly stressed transmission assets.

  19. Multiple piezo-patch energy harvesters integrated to a thin plate with AC-DC conversion: analytical modeling and numerical validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghakhani, Amirreza; Basdogan, Ipek; Erturk, Alper

    2016-04-01

    Plate-like components are widely used in numerous automotive, marine, and aerospace applications where they can be employed as host structures for vibration based energy harvesting. Piezoelectric patch harvesters can be easily attached to these structures to convert the vibrational energy to the electrical energy. Power output investigations of these harvesters require accurate models for energy harvesting performance evaluation and optimization. Equivalent circuit modeling of the cantilever-based vibration energy harvesters for estimation of electrical response has been proposed in recent years. However, equivalent circuit formulation and analytical modeling of multiple piezo-patch energy harvesters integrated to thin plates including nonlinear circuits has not been studied. In this study, equivalent circuit model of multiple parallel piezoelectric patch harvesters together with a resistive load is built in electronic circuit simulation software SPICE and voltage frequency response functions (FRFs) are validated using the analytical distributedparameter model. Analytical formulation of the piezoelectric patches in parallel configuration for the DC voltage output is derived while the patches are connected to a standard AC-DC circuit. The analytic model is based on the equivalent load impedance approach for piezoelectric capacitance and AC-DC circuit elements. The analytic results are validated numerically via SPICE simulations. Finally, DC power outputs of the harvesters are computed and compared with the peak power amplitudes in the AC output case.

  20. 77 FR 6554 - Zephyr Power Transmission, LLC; Pathfinder Power Transmission, LLC; Duke-American Transmission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ... Renewable Wind Energy, LLC (PWE) and Zephyr may enter into the New Precedent Agreement as an anchor customer... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Zephyr Power Transmission, LLC; Pathfinder Power Transmission, LLC;...

  1. Wildlife and electric power transmission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.; Goodwin, J.G.; Hunt, J.R.; Fletcher, John L.; Busnel, R.G.

    1978-01-01

    Hundreds of thousands of miles of transmission lines have been introduced into our natural environment. These lines and their corridors can be damaging or beneficial to wildlife communities depending on how they are designed, where they are placed, and when they are constructed and maintained. With the current trend toward UHV systems, new problems (associated with additional increments in audible noise, electric and magnetic force fields, etc.) must be addressed. We recommend the following areas for careful study: (1) the response of wilderness species to transmission lines and line construction and maintenance activities (2) the magnitude of bird collision and electrocution mortality, (3) the response of power corridor and power tower in habiting wildlife to laboratory and field doses of electro-chemical oxidants, corona noise, electric and magnetic fields, etc., (4) the productivity of tower inhabiting birds compared with nearby non-tower nesters, and (5) the influence of powerline corridors on mammalian and avian migration patterns. It is our hope that the questions identified in this study will help stimulate further research so that we can maximize wildlife benefits and minimize wildlife detriments.

  2. Evaluation of damage-induced permeability using a three-dimensional Adaptive Continuum/Discontinuum Code (AC/DC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabian, Dedecker; Peter, Cundall; Daniel, Billaux; Torsten, Groeger

    Digging a shaft or drift inside a rock mass is a common practice in civil engineering when a transportation way, such as a motorway, railway tunnel or storage shaft is to be built. In most cases, the consequences of the disturbance on the medium must be known in order to estimate the behaviour of the disturbed rock mass. Indeed, excavating part of the rock causes a new distribution of the stress field around the excavation that can lead to micro-cracking and even to the failure of some rock volume in the vicinity of the shaft. Consequently, the formed micro-cracks modify the mechanical and hydraulic properties of the rock. In this paper, we present an original method for the evaluation of damage-induced permeability. ITASCA has developed and used discontinuum models to study rock damage by building particle assemblies and checking the breakage of bonds under stress. However, such models are limited in size by the very large number of particles needed to model even a comparatively small volume of rock. In fact, a large part of most models never experiences large strains and does not require the accurate description of large-strain/damage/post-peak behaviour afforded by a discontinuum model. Thus, a large model frequently can be separated into a strongly strained “core” area to be represented by a Discontinuum and a peripheral area for which continuum zones would be adequate. Based on this observation, Itasca has developed a coupled, three-dimensional, continuum/discontinuum modelling approach. The new approach, termed Adaptive Continuum/Discontinuum Code (AC/DC), is based on the use of a periodic discontinuum “base brick” for which more or less simplified continuum equivalents are derived. Depending on the level of deformation in each part of the model, the AC/DC code can dynamically select the appropriate brick type to be used. In this paper, we apply the new approach to an excavation performed in the Bure site, at which the French nuclear waste agency

  3. Feasibility study of wireless power transmission systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, W. J., Jr.

    1968-01-01

    Wireless microwave or laser energy transfers power from a manned earth-orbiting central station to unmanned astronomical substations. More efficient systems are required for the microwave power transmission.

  4. Solar Power Satellite Microwave Transmission and Reception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietz, R. H.

    1980-01-01

    Numerous analytical and experimental investigations related to SPS microwave power transmission and reception are reported. Aspects discussed include system performance, phase control, power amplifiers, radiating elements, rectenna, solid state configurations, and planned program activities.

  5. 1993 Wholesale Power and Transmission Rate Schedules.

    SciTech Connect

    US Bonneville Power Administration

    1993-10-01

    Bonneville Power Administration 1993 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions and 1993 Transmission Rate Schedules and General Transmission Rate Schedule Provisions, contained herein, were approved on an interim basis effective October 1, 1993. These rate schedules and provisions were approved by the Federal Energy Commission, United States Department of Energy, in September, 1993. These rate schedules and provisions supersede the Administration`s Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions and Transmission Rate Schedules and General Transmission Rate Schedule Provisions effective October 1, 1991.

  6. AC and DC power transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The technical and economic assessment of AC and DC transmission systems; long distance transmission, cable transmission, system inter-connection, voltage support, reactive compensation, stabilisation of systems; parallel operation of DC links with AC systems; comparison between alternatives for particular schemes. Design and application equipment: design, testing and application of equipment for HVDC, series and shunt static compensated AC schemes, including associated controls. Installations: overall design of stations and conductor arrangements for HVDC, series and shunt static AC schemes including insulation co-ordination. System analysis and modelling.

  7. Space-to-earth power transmission system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, G. H.; Schuh, R.

    1976-01-01

    A preliminary analysis was conducted to establish the requirements of a space-to-earth microwave power transmission system. The need for accurate phase control on the transmitter was established and methods for assessing the impact of power density and thermal constraints on system performance were demonstrated. Potential radio frequency interference was considered. The sensitivity of transmission system scale to variations in power source, transportation and orbital fabrication and assembly costs was also determined.

  8. High Voltage Power Transmission for Wind Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young il

    The high wind speeds and wide available area at sea have recently increased the interests on offshore wind farms in the U.S.A. As offshore wind farms become larger and are placed further from the shore, the power transmission to the onshore grid becomes a key feature. Power transmission of the offshore wind farm, in which good wind conditions and a larger installation area than an onshore site are available, requires the use of submarine cable systems. Therefore, an underground power cable system requires unique design and installation challenges not found in the overhead power cable environment. This paper presents analysis about the benefit and drawbacks of three different transmission solutions: HVAC, LCC/VSC HVDC in the grid connecting offshore wind farms and also analyzed the electrical characteristics of underground cables. In particular, loss of HV (High Voltage) subsea power of the transmission cables was evaluated by the Brakelmann's theory, taking into account the distributions of current and temperature.

  9. Concurrent Wind Cooling in Power Transmission Lines

    SciTech Connect

    Jake P Gentle

    2012-08-01

    Idaho National Laboratory and the Idaho Power Company, with collaboration from Idaho State University, have been working on a project to monitor wind and other environmental data parameters along certain electrical transmission corridors. The combination of both real-time historical weather and environmental data is being used to model, validate, and recommend possibilities for dynamic operations of the transmission lines for power and energy carrying capacity. The planned results can also be used to influence decisions about proposed design criteria for or upgrades to certain sections of the transmission lines.

  10. Solar Power Satellite Microwave Power Transmission System Description Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, G. R.

    1980-01-01

    The history of the concept of microwave power beaming to Earth is reviewed with emphasis on transmission frequency selection. Constraints on the system power level results from (1) required rejection of waste heat resulting from inefficiencies in the cover conversion of dc electric power to microwave power; (2) the rf power intensity in the ionosphere; and (3) the effect of sidelobe level on aperture illumination factors. Transmitter arrangement, the power distribution system, attitude control, subarrays, waveguides, and alignment are discussed.

  11. Transmission Line Adapted Analytical Power Charts Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakala, Japhet D.; Daka, James S. J.; Setlhaolo, Ditiro; Malichi, Alec Pulu

    2016-08-01

    The performance of a transmission line has been assessed over the years using power charts. These are graphical representations, drawn to scale, of the equations that describe the performance of transmission lines. Various quantities that describe the performance, such as sending end voltage, sending end power and compensation to give zero voltage regulation, may be deduced from the power charts. Usually required values are read off and then converted using the appropriate scales and known relationships. In this paper, the authors revisit this area of circle diagrams for transmission line performance. The work presented here formulates the mathematical model that analyses the transmission line performance from the power charts relationships and then uses them to calculate the transmission line performance. In this proposed approach, it is not necessary to draw the power charts for the solution. However the power charts may be drawn for the visual presentation. The method is based on applying derived equations and is simple to use since it does not require rigorous derivations.

  12. Potential of laser for SPS power transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bain, C. N.

    1978-01-01

    Research on the feasibility of using a laser subsystem as an additional option for the transmission of the satellite power system (STS) power is presented. Current laser work and predictions for future laser performance provide a level of confidence that the development of a laser power transmission system is technologically feasible in the time frame required to develop the SBS. There are significant economic advantages in lower ground distribution costs and a reduction of more than two orders of magnitude in real estate requirements for ground based receiving/conversion sites.

  13. Termination for superconducting power transmission systems

    DOEpatents

    Forsyth, E.B.; Jensen, J.E.

    1975-08-26

    This patent relates to a cold, electrical gradient, terminal section for a superconducting cable for alternating current power transmission. A cold electrical gradient section filled with a gaseous coolant acting as an insulator is provided in series with a separate thermal gradient section. (auth)

  14. Microwave power transmission beam safety system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, R. M. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A system in which the characteristics of a microwave power transmission beam are controlled in accordance with power distribution profiles altered due to the detected presence or entrance of an object into the beam which causes changes that are perceived in various received, reflected and scattered power distribution profiles resulting over various receiving elements of the system is presented. The system comprises a microwave power beam radiator array, a microwave power beam receiving antenna array, the radiator array in one embodiment being located on an orbiting spacecraft and the receiving array being located at a ground station. Another embodiment provides a ground based transmitting array and a receiving array aboard an aircraft or airship.

  15. 1996 Wholesale Power and Transmission Rate Schedules.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1996-10-01

    Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) 1996 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules, 1996 Ancillary Products and Services Rate Schedule, 1996 Transmission Rate Schedules, and General Rate Schedule Provisions, contained herein, were approved on an interim basis effective October 1, 1996. These rate schedules and provisions were approved by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), United States Department of Energy, in September 1996 (Docket Nos EF96-2011-000 and EF96f-2021-000). These rate schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions were approved on a final basis by the FERC July 30, 1997, in Dept. of Energy--Bonneville Power Administration, Docket Nos. EF96-2011-000 and EF96-2021-000. Except as noted elsewhere, these 1996 rate schedules and provisions supersede BPA`s Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions, and Transmission Rate Schedules and General Transmission Rate Schedule Provisions, effective October 1, 1995. These rate schedules and general rate schedule provisions include all errata.

  16. Equivalent circuit modeling of a piezo-patch energy harvester on a thin plate with AC-DC conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayik, B.; Aghakhani, A.; Basdogan, I.; Erturk, A.

    2016-05-01

    As an alternative to beam-like structures, piezoelectric patch-based energy harvesters attached to thin plates can be readily integrated to plate-like structures in automotive, marine, and aerospace applications, in order to directly exploit structural vibration modes of the host system without mass loading and volumetric occupancy of cantilever attachments. In this paper, a multi-mode equivalent circuit model of a piezo-patch energy harvester integrated to a thin plate is developed and coupled with a standard AC-DC conversion circuit. Equivalent circuit parameters are obtained in two different ways: (1) from the modal analysis solution of a distributed-parameter analytical model and (2) from the finite-element numerical model of the harvester by accounting for two-way coupling. After the analytical modeling effort, multi-mode equivalent circuit representation of the harvester is obtained via electronic circuit simulation software SPICE. Using the SPICE software, electromechanical response of the piezoelectric energy harvester connected to linear and nonlinear circuit elements are computed. Simulation results are validated for the standard AC-AC and AC-DC configurations. For the AC input-AC output problem, voltage frequency response functions are calculated for various resistive loads, and they show excellent agreement with modal analysis-based analytical closed-form solution and with the finite-element model. For the standard ideal AC input-DC output case, a full-wave rectifier and a smoothing capacitor are added to the harvester circuit for conversion of the AC voltage to a stable DC voltage, which is also validated against an existing solution by treating the single-mode plate dynamics as a single-degree-of-freedom system.

  17. Development of superconducting power transmission technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsyth, E. B.

    Superconducting power transmission cables are the latest innovation in a technology which is as old as electric power engineering. Distribution of power by means of wires suspended from poles was tried briefly but the densely populated areas chosen as sites for the early generators soon forced the distribution system underground. Edison's low voltage dc system was a technological dead-end but by 1890 Ferranti had built a 7 mile-long underground cable system which operated at the then unprecedented level of 10,000 V, alternating current. Ferranti was remarkably prescient in his choice of wrapped brown paper for the cable insulation, a material which has continued to be used in this application until the present day. Paper was chosen for the insulation because it gave good operating performance at low cost compared to other insulating materials then available, such as rubber and gutta percha. Economic considerations must be weighed carefully in the design of underground power transmission systems and they have been a compelling factor in the pattern of development from the turn of the century to the advanced superconducting systems under test in the 1980's.

  18. Development of superconducting power transmission technology

    SciTech Connect

    Forsyth, E.B.

    1985-01-01

    Superconducting power transmission cables are the latest innovation in a technology which is as old as electric power engineering. The construction of central electricity generating stations by Thomas Edison in the USA and Sebastian Ferranti in England in the 1880's immediately posed the problem of how customers could be connected to the power source. Distribution by means of wires suspended from poles was tried briefly but the densely populated areas chosen as sites for the early generators soon forced the distribution system underground. Edison's low voltage dc system was a technological dead-end but by 1890 Ferranti had built a 7 mile-long underground cable system from the generating plant at Deptford to central London which operated at the then unprecedented level of 10,000 V, alternating current. Ferranti was remarkably prescient in his choice of wrapped brown paper for the cable insulation, a material which has continued to be used in this application until the present day. Paper was chosen for the insulation because it gave good operating performance at low cost compared to other insulating materials then available, such as rubber and gutta percha. Economic considerations must be weighed carefully in the design of underground power transmission systems and they have been a compelling factor in the pattern of development from the turn of the century to the advanced superconducting systems under test in the 1980's.

  19. Power collection and transmission system and method

    SciTech Connect

    Criswell, D.R.; Waldron, R.D.

    1993-06-29

    A solar power collection and transmission system is described comprising: a plurality of solar power collecting assemblies for collecting solar radiation incident on the solar power collecting assemblies; means defining a microwave radiating aperture of predetermined area comprising an array of separate, spaced apart microwave sources for emitting a plurality of separate microwave beams, and structurally separate microwave redirector means for redirecting the emitted microwave beams in a predetermined beam direction and expanding the effective microwave emitting area to substantially fill the microwave radiating aperture; conversion means associated with each solar power collecting assembly for converting the collected solar power into a power form suitable for connection to the microwave sources; each solar power collecting assembly and associated conversion means being connected to at least a respective one of the sources; phase control means associated with the microwave sources for controlling the relative phase of microwave beams emitted from the sources to form a composite, shaped microwave beam directed from the microwave redirector means, the composite beam having separate radiating near field and far field regions; and at least one microwave receiver assembly positioned in the radiating near field region of the microwave beam.

  20. Power control for a hydrostatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Geringer, K.G.

    1988-05-24

    A power control for a hydrostatic transmission is described having a pair of hydraulic units at least one of which being of variable displacement. The variable displacement hydraulic unit has hydraulic servo means for varying the displacement. The hydrostatic transmission furthermore has a fixed displacement speed signal pump driven at a speed proportional to the input speed of the transmission and providing a hydraulic input speed signal. The power control comprises first and second valves in series flow relationship between the speed signal pump and the servo means. The first valve is a variable orifice valve spring biased toward a cloeed position and biased by the input speed signal toward an open position to establish a pressure drop having a generally linear relationship to the input speed signal. The second valve is spring biased toward a closed position relative to communicating the output of the first valve to the servo means and having first and second opposed pilots connected across the first valve so that the input speed signal induced pressure drop biases the second valve toward an open position. The second valve also has an output feedback proportional to pressure in the servo means and connected to a third pilot biasing the second valve towards the closed position.

  1. Power transmission studies for tethered SP-100

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, David J.

    1988-01-01

    The tether and/or transmission line connecting the SP-100 to space station presents some unorthodox challenges in high voltage engineering, power transmission, and distribution. The line, which doubles as a structural element of this unusual spacecraft, will convey HVDC from SP-100 to the platform in low Earth orbit, and environment where the local plasma is sufficient to cause breakdown of exposed conductors at potentials of only a few hundred volts. Its anticipated several years operation, and continuously accumulating exposure to meteoroids and debris, raises an increasing likelihood that mechanical damage, including perforation, will be sustained in service. The present concept employs an array of gas insulated solid wall aluminum coaxial tubes; a conceptual design which showed basic feasibility of the SP-100 powered space station. Practical considerations of launch, deployment and assembly have lead to investigation of reel deployable, dielectric insulated coaxial cables. To be competitive, the dielectric would have to operate reliably in a radiation environment under electrical stresses exceeding 50 kV/cm. The SP-100 transmission line high voltage interfaces are also considered.

  2. Power transmission studies for tethered SP-100

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, David J.

    1988-01-01

    The tether and/or transmission line connecting the SP-100 to Space Station presents some unorthodox challenges in high voltage engineering, power transmission, and distribution. The line, which doubles as a structural element of this unusual spacecraft, will convey HVDC from SP-100 to the platform in low Earth orbit, and environment where the local plasma is sufficient to cause breakdown of exposed conductors at potentials of only a few hundred volts. Its anticipated several years operation, and continuously accumulating exposure to meteoroids and debris, raises an increasing likelihood that mechanical damage, including perforation, will be sustained in service. The present concept employs an array of gas insulated solid wall aluminum coaxial tubes; a conceptual design which showed basic feasibility of the SP-100 powered Space Station. Practical considerations of launch, deployment and assembly have led to investigation of reel deployable, dielectric insulated coaxial cables. To be competitive, the dielectric would have to operate reliably in a radiation environment under electrical stresses exceeding 50 kV/cm. The SP-100 transmission line high voltage interfaces are also considered.

  3. 32 CFR 644.431 - Power transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Power transmission lines. 644.431 Section 644... Power transmission lines. (a) Authority. Pursuant to the provisions of section 13(d) of the Surplus... power transmission line and the right of way acquired for its construction is needed for or adaptable...

  4. 32 CFR 644.431 - Power transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Power transmission lines. 644.431 Section 644... Power transmission lines. (a) Authority. Pursuant to the provisions of section 13(d) of the Surplus... power transmission line and the right of way acquired for its construction is needed for or adaptable...

  5. Statistical Design of Electric Power Transmission Networks.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guvenis, Albert

    This thesis presents a statistical planning method for expanding electric power transmission networks in the presence of load/generation and network uncertainties. The objective of the proposed algorithm is to obtain a set of alternative network expansion plans which have optimum reliability and expansion cost. Present methods optimize the existing network based on a deterministic performance index. Therefore, they are limited to a nominal design and cannot minimize the loss of load probability due to random fluctuations in the power system parameters. This thesis addresses this problem of designing a power transmission network that minimizes the loss-of-load probability (or equivalently maximizes the reliability) under random load/generation and network fluctuations. Two probabilistic indices, reliability and adequacy, are defined in order to quantify the transmission network performance under uncertainties. Reliability is defined as the probability of supplying the random substation load demands under random circuit outages, whereas adequacy is the same index computed under the non-outage condition. The effectiveness of the proposed statistical planning method is its ability to optimize these two indices by using efficient gradient methods. The approach taken is to first optimize the adequacy using a set-imbedding technique. Then the adequate network obtained in the first design stage is reoptimized with respect to reliability using a modified Parametric Sampling technique. The reliability optimization method developed in this thesis optimizes the discrete reliability of the network by successively optimizing approximate continuous functions. It is shown that the solution of the continuous optimization problems converge to the solution of the discrete reliability optimization problem. Two objectives, reliability and expansion cost, are optimized simultaneously. By weighting these objectives differently a set of alternative expansion plans are obtained, which

  6. Transmission Of Power Via Combined Laser Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwon, Jin H.; Lee, Ja H.

    1992-01-01

    Laser Diode Array (LDA) appears to be most efficient means of transferring power from Earth to satellites and between satellites, in terms of mass and size, of various laser configurations. To form large-scale-array amplifier (LSAA), element LDA's must generate well-defined diffraction-limited beams. Coherent matching of phases among LDA's enables system to generate good beam pattern in far field over thousands of kilometers. By passing beam from master laser through number of LDA amplifiers simultaneously, one realizes coherence among amplified output beams. LSAA used for transmission of power with efficiency of approximately 80 percent into receiver of moderate size at 5,000 km. Also transmits data at high rates by line-of-sight rather than fiber optics.

  7. A feed-forward controlled AC-DC boost converter for biomedical implants.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hao; Lan, Di; Lin, Dahsien; Zhang, Junmin; Liou, Shyshenq; Shahnasser, Hamid; Shen, Ming; Harrison, Michael; Roy, Shuvo

    2012-01-01

    Miniaturization is important to make implants clinic friendly. Wireless power transfer is an essential technology to miniaturize implants by reducing their battery size or completely eliminating their batteries. Traditionally, a pair of inductively-coupled coils operating at radio-frequency (RF) is employed to deliver electrical power wirelessly. In this approach, a rectifier is needed to convert the received RF power to a stable DC one. To achieve high efficiency, the induced voltage of the receiving coil must be much higher than the turn-on voltage of the rectifying diode (which could be an active circuit for low turn-on voltage) [1]. In order to have a high induced voltage, the size of the receiving coil often is significantly larger than rest of the implant. A rotating magnets based wireless power transfer has been demonstrated to deliver the same amount of power at much lower frequency (around 100 Hz) because of the superior magnetic strength produced by rare-earth magnets [2]. Taking the advantage of the low operating frequency, an innovative feed-forward controlled AC to DC boost converter has been demonstrated for the first time to accomplish the following two tasks simultaneously: (1) rectifying the AC power whose amplitude (500 mV) is less than the rectifier's turn-on voltage (1.44 V) and (2) boosting the DC output voltage to a much higher level (5 V). Within a range, the output DC voltage can be selected by the control circuit. The standard deviation of the output DC voltage is less than 2.1% of its mean. The measured load regulation is 0.4 V/kΩ. The estimated conversion efficiency excluding the power consumption of the control circuits reaches 75%. The converter in this paper has the potential to reduce the size of the receiving coil and yet achieve desirable DC output voltage for powering biomedical implants. PMID:23366230

  8. Wireless electricity (Power) transmission using solar based power satellite technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maqsood, M.; Nauman Nasir, M.

    2013-06-01

    In the near future due to extensive use of energy, limited supply of resources and the pollution in environment from present resources e.g. (wood, coal, fossil fuel) etc, alternative sources of energy and new ways to generate energy which are efficient, cost effective and produce minimum losses are of great concern. Wireless electricity (Power) transmission (WET) has become a focal point as research point of view and nowadays lies at top 10 future hot burning technologies that are under research these days. In this paper, we present the concept of transmitting power wirelessly to reduce transmission and distribution losses. The wired distribution losses are 70 - 75% efficient. We cannot imagine the world without electric power which is efficient, cost effective and produce minimum losses is of great concern. This paper tells us the benefits of using WET technology specially by using Solar based Power satellites (SBPS) and also focuses that how we make electric system cost effective, optimized and well organized. Moreover, attempts are made to highlight future issues so as to index some emerging solutions.

  9. Wireless Power Transmission Options for Space Solar Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, Seth; Henley, Mark; Davis, Dean; Born, Andrew; Howell, Joe; Mankins, John

    2008-01-01

    Space Solar Power (SSP), combined with Wireless Power Transmission (WPT), offers the far-term potential to solve major energy problems on Earth. In the long-term, we aspire to beam energy to Earth from geostationary Earth orbit (GEO), or even further distances in space. In the near-term, we can beam power over more moderate distances, but still stretch the limits of today s technology. In recent studies, a 100 kWe-class "Power Plug" Satellite and a 10 kWe-class Lunar Polar Solar Power outpost have been considered as the first steps in using these WPT options for SSP. Our current assessments include consideration of orbits, wavelengths, and structural designs to meet commercial, civilian government, and military needs. Notional transmitter and receiver sizes are considered for use in supplying 5 to 15 MW of power. In the longer term, lunar or asteroidal material can be used. By using SSP and WPT technology for near-term missions, we gain experience needed for sound decisions in designing and developing larger systems to send power from space to Earth.

  10. Wireless Power Transmission Options for Space Solar Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, Seth; Davis, Dean; Born, Martin; Bayer, Martin; Howell, Joe; Mankins, John

    2008-01-01

    Space Solar Power (SSP), combined with Wireless Power Transmission (WPT), offers the far-term potential to solve major energy problems on Earth. In the long term, we aspire to beam energy to Earth from geostationary Earth orbit (GEO), or even further distances in space. In the near term, we can beam power over more moderate distances, but still stretch the limits of today s technology. In recent studies, a 100 kWe-class "Power Plug" Satellite and a 10 kWe-class Lunar Polar Solar Power outpost have been considered as the first steps in using these WPT options for SSP. Our current assessments include consideration of orbits, wavelengths, and structural designs to meet commercial, civilian government, and military needs. Notional transmitter and receiver sizes are considered for use in supplying 5 to 40 MW of power. In the longer term, lunar or asteroidal material can be used. By using SSP and WPT technology for near-term missions, we gain experience needed for sound decisions in designing and developing larger systems to send power from space to Earth.

  11. Improved 60 Hz superconducting power transmission cable

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, G.H.; Schauer, F.; Thomas, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    The third in a series of 10 m, Nb/sub 3/Sn cables for ac power transmission has been installed in a horizontal, refrigerated cryostat. Like the two previous ones, this coaxial cable has its ends rigidly fixed so that it cannot contract axially on cooldown, and has two layers of superconducting helices and two layers of high purity aluminum helices for stabilization in each conductor. It differs from the previous one in having thicker electrical insulation (7.4 mm vs 3.6 mm), in having increased contact resistance between the superconducting layers to reduce ac loss, and in being driven by an external supply through horizontal, coaxial, vapor-cooled current leads. This is the final short cable prior to construction late this year of a 100 m cable which will be tested with high voltage and high current simultaneously. Results of current tests are presented, including ac loss at various temperatures and recovery from thermally induced quenches.

  12. Wireless Power Transmission Options for Space Solar Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henley, Mark; Potter, Seth; Howell, Joseph; Mankins, John

    2007-01-01

    Space Solar Power (SSP), combined with Wireless Power Transmission (WPT), offers the far-term potential to solve major energy problems on Earth. In this presentation, two basic WPT options, using radio waves an d light waves, are considered for both long-term and near-term SSP applications. In the long-term, we aspire to beam energy to Earth from geostationary Earth orbit (GEO), or even further distances in space. Accordingly, radio- and light- wave WPT options are compared through a wide range of criteria, each showing certain strengths. In the near-term, we plan to beam power over more moderate distances, but still stretch the limits of today's technology. For the near-term, a 100 kWe-class "Power Plug" Satellite and a 10 kWe-class Lunar Polar Solar Power outpost are considered as the first steps in using these WPT options for SSP. By using SSP and WPT technology in nearterm space science and exploration missions, we gain experience needed for sound decisions in designing and developing larger systems to send power from Space to Earth.

  13. Wireless Power Transmission Options for Space Solar Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henley, Mark; Potter, Seth; Howell, Joseph; Mankins, John

    2002-01-01

    Space Solar Power (SSP), combined with Wireless Power Transmission (WPT), offers the far-term potential to solve major energy problems on Earth. In this paper two basic WPT options, using radio waves and light waves, are considered for both long-term and near-term SSP applications. In the long-term, we aspire to beam energy to Earth from geostationary Earth orbit (GEO), or even further distances in space. Accordingly, radio- and light- wave WPT options are compared through a wide range of criteria, each showing certain strengths. In the near-term, we plan to beam power over more moderate distances, but still stretch the limits of today's technology. For the near-term, a 100 kWe-class 'Power Plug' Satellite and a 10 kWe-class Lunar Polar Solar Power outpost are considered as the first steps in using these WPT options for SSP. By using SSP and WPT technology in near-term space science and exploration missions, we gain experience needed for sound decisions in designing and developing larger systems to send power from Space to Earth.

  14. Wireless Power Transmission Options for Space Solar Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henley, M. W.; Potter, Seth D.; Howell, J.; Mankins, J. C.; Fikes, John C. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Space Solar Power (SSP). combined with Wireless Power Transmission (WPT), offers the far-term potential to solve major energy problems on Earth. In this paper WPT options using radio waves and light waves are considered for both long-term and near-term SSP applications. In the long-term, we aspire to beam energy to Earth from geostationary Earth orbit (GEO), or even from the moon. Accordingly, radio- and light- wave WPT options are compared through a wide range of criteria, each showing certain strengths. In the near-term. we plan to beam power over more moderate distances, but still stretch the limits of today's technology. For the near-term, a 100 kWe-class 'Power Plug' Satellite and a 10 kWe-class Lunar Polar Solar Power outpost are considered as the first steps in using these WPT options for SSP. By using SSP and WPT technology in near-term space science and exploration missions, we gain experience needed for sound decisions in designing and developing larger systems to send power from Space to Earth. Power Relay Satellites are also considered as a potential near- to mid-term means to transmit power from Earth to Space and back to distant receiving sites on Earth. This paper briefly considers microwave and laser beaming for an initial Power Relay Satellite system, and concludes that anticipated advancements in laser technology make laser-based concepts more attractive than microwave-based concepts. Social and economic considerations are briefly discussed, and a conceptual description for a laser-based system is offered for illustrative purposes. Continuing technological advances are needed if laser-based systems are to become practical and efficient or near- and far-term applications.

  15. Transmission control method providing overlapped engagement of power transmission systems

    SciTech Connect

    Akashi, T.; Ito, H.; Yamada, S.

    1986-10-14

    A method for controlling a transmission mechanism for a vehicle wherein: the transmission mechanism comprises an input shaft; and output shaft; a first on-off clutch; a second on-off clutch; a first one way clutch; a second one way clutch; a first gear train having a first reduction gear ratio; a second gear train having a second reduction gear ratio smaller than the first reduction gear ratio; a third gear train having a third reduction gear ratio smaller than the second reduction gear ratio; and a fourth gear train having a fourth reduction gear ratio smaller than the third reduction gear ratio.

  16. 32 CFR 644.431 - Power transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Power transmission lines. 644.431 Section 644.431... transmission lines. (a) Authority. Pursuant to the provisions of section 13(d) of the Surplus Property Act of... transmission line and the right of way acquired for its construction is needed for or adaptable to...

  17. 32 CFR 644.431 - Power transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Power transmission lines. 644.431 Section 644.431... transmission lines. (a) Authority. Pursuant to the provisions of section 13(d) of the Surplus Property Act of... transmission line and the right of way acquired for its construction is needed for or adaptable to...

  18. 32 CFR 644.431 - Power transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Power transmission lines. 644.431 Section 644.431... transmission lines. (a) Authority. Pursuant to the provisions of section 13(d) of the Surplus Property Act of... transmission line and the right of way acquired for its construction is needed for or adaptable to...

  19. Microwave power - An energy transmission alternative for the year 2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nalos, E.; Sperber, R.

    1980-01-01

    Recent technological advances related to the feasibility of efficient RF-dc rectification make it likely that by the year 2000 the transmission of power through space will have become a practical reality. Proposals have been made to power helicopters, aircraft, balloons, and rockets remotely. Other proposals consider the transfer of power from point to point on earth via relay through space or a transmission of power from large power sources in space. Attention has also been given to possibilities regarding the transmission of power between various points in the solar system. An outline is provided of the microwave power transmission system envisaged for the solar power satellite, taking into account the transmitting antenna, the receiver on earth, aspects of beam formation and control, transmitter options, the receiving antenna design, and cost and efficiency considerations.

  20. Power management for multi-100 KWe space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mildice, J. W.; Valgora, M. E.

    1980-01-01

    This paper examines mid to late 1980s power management technology needs to support development of a general-purpose space platform, capable of supplying 100 to 250 KWe to a variety of users in LEO. To that end, a typical Shuttle-assembled and supplied space platform is described, along with a group of payloads which might reasonably be expected to use such a facility. Examination of platform and user power needs yields a set of power system requirements used to evaluate power management options for life cycle cost effectiveness. The most cost-effective AC/DC and DC systems are evaluated, specifically to develop system details which lead to technology goals including array and transmission voltage, best frequency for AC power transmission, and advantages and disadvantages of AC and DC systems for this application. Finally, system and component requirements are compared with the state of the art to identify areas where technology development is required.

  1. Enabling lunar and space missions by laser power transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deyoung, R. J.; Nealy, J. E.; Humes, D. H.; Meador, W. E.

    1992-01-01

    Applications are proposed for laser power transmission on the Moon. A solar-pumped laser in lunar orbit would beam power to the lunar surface for conversion into either electricity or propulsion needs. For example, lunar rovers could be much more flexible and lighter than rovers using other primary power sources. Also, laser power could be absorbed by lunar soil to create a hard glassy surface for dust-free roadways and launch pads. Laser power could also be used to power small lunar rockets or orbital transfer vehicles, and finally, photovoltaic laser converters could power remote excavation vehicles and human habitats. Laser power transmission is shown to be a highly flexible, enabling primary power source for lunar missions.

  2. Workshop on Microwave Power Transmission and Reception. Workshop Paper Summaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Microwave systems performance and phase control are discussed. Component design and reliability are highlighted. The power amplifiers, radiating elements, rectennas, and solid state configurations are described. The proper sizing of microwave transmission systems is also discussed.

  3. Accelerator power concepts using isolated transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Nunnally, W.C.

    1981-05-01

    This report outlines the rationale and the advantages of using multiple transmission-line sections isolated by transit time and inductance in accelerating high-current (approx. = 10 -kA), short-pulse (less than or equal to 100-ns) particle beams to the multimegavolt level. The main advantages of this system include reducing the number of output switches required per output pulse by nearly an order of magnitude over conventional systems and increasing the system capability for repetition-rate operation. The isolated transmission-line concept is developed, and possible modes of operation are outlined. In addition, a point design of a 10-kA short-pulse accelerator is presented.

  4. Pulse transmission transceiver architecture for low power communications

    DOEpatents

    Dress, Jr., William B.; Smith, Stephen F.

    2003-08-05

    Systems and methods for pulse-transmission low-power communication modes are disclosed. A method of pulse transmission communications includes: generating a modulated pulse signal waveform; transforming said modulated pulse signal waveform into at least one higher-order derivative waveform; and transmitting said at least one higher-order derivative waveform as an emitted pulse. The systems and methods significantly reduce lower-frequency emissions from pulse transmission spread-spectrum communication modes, which reduces potentially harmful interference to existing radio frequency services and users and also simultaneously permit transmission of multiple data bits by utilizing specific pulse shapes.

  5. Five Mass Power Transmission Line of a Ship Computer Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazakoff, Alexander Borisoff; Marinov, Boycho Ivanov

    2016-03-01

    The work, presented in this paper, appears to be a natural continuation of the work presented and reported before, on the design of power transmission line of a ship, but with different multi-mass model. Some data from the previous investigations are used as a reference data, mainly from the analytical investigations, for the developed in the previ- ous study, frequency and modal analysis of a five mass model of a power transmission line of a ship. In the paper, a profound dynamic analysis of a concrete five mass dynamic model of the power transmission line of a ship is performed using Finite Element Analysis (FEA), based on the previously recommended model, investigated in the previous research and reported before. Thus, the partially validated by frequency analysis five mass model of a power transmission line of a ship is subjected to dynamic analysis. The objective of the work presented in this paper is dynamic modelling of a five mass transmission line of a ship, partial validation of the model and von Mises stress analysis calculation with the help of Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and comparison of the derived results with the analytically calculated values. The partially validated five mass power transmission line of a ship can be used for definition of many dy- namic parameters, particularly amplitude of displacement, velocity and acceleration, respectively in time and frequency domain. The frequency behaviour of the model parameters is investigated in frequency domain and it corresponds to the predicted one.

  6. Power availability at terrestrial receptor sites for laser-power transmission from the satellite power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beverly, R. E., III

    1982-01-01

    A statistical model was developed for relating the temporal transmission parameters of a laser beam from a solar power satellite to observable meteorological data to determine the influence of weather on power reception at the earth-based receiver. Sites within 100 miles of existing high voltage transmission lines were examined and the model was developed for clear-sky and clouded conditions. The cases of total transmission through clouds at certain wavelengths, no transmission, and partial transmission were calculated for the cloud portion of the model. The study covered cirriform, stratiform, cumiliform, and mixed type clouds and the possibility of boring holes through the clouds with the beam. Utilization of weapons-quality beams for hole boring, was found to yield power availability increases of 9-33%, although no beneficial effects could be predicted in regions of persistent cloud cover. An efficiency of 80% was determined as possible if several receptor sites were available within 200-300 miles of each other, thereby allowing changes of reception point in cases of unacceptable meteorological conditions.

  7. Reception-Conversion Subsystem (RXCV) for microwave power transmission system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    As part of a program to demonstrate the feasibility of power transmission from space, an approximately 25 sq m Reception-Conversion Subsystem was designed and tested. The device collects high power microwave energy, converts it into dc, and dissipates it in an instrumented demonstration load.

  8. Microwave Power Transmission System Studies. Volume 1: Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, O. E.; Brown, W. C.; Edwards, A.; Meltz, G.; Haley, J. T.; Howell, J. M.; Nathan, A.

    1975-01-01

    A study of microwave power generation, transmission, reception and control was conducted as a part of a program to demonstrate the feasibility of power transmission from geosynchronous orbit. A summary is presented of results concerning design approaches, estimated costs (ROM), critical technology, associated ground and orbital test programs with emphasis on dc to rf conversion, transmitting antenna, phase control, mechanical systems, flight operations, ground power receiving-rectifying antenna with systems analysis, and evaluation. Recommendations for early further in-depth studies complementing the technology program are included.

  9. Resonant ultrasonic wireless power transmission for bio-implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sung Q.; Youm, Woosub; Hwang, Gunn; Moon, Kee S.; Ozturk, Yusuf

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we present the ultrasonic wireless power transmission system as part of a brain-machine interface (BMI) system in development to supply the required electric power. Making a small-size implantable BMI, it is essential to design a low power unit with a rechargeable battery. The ultrasonic power transmission system has two piezoelectric transducers, facing each other between skin tissues converting electrical energy to mechanical vibrational energy or vice versa. Ultrasound is free from the electromagnetic coupling effect and medical frequency band limitations which making it a promising candidate for implantable purposes. In this paper, we present the design of piezoelectric composite transducer, the rectifier circuit, and rechargeable battery that all packaged in biocompatible titanium can. An initial prototype device was built for demonstration purpose. The early experimental results demonstrate the prototype device can reach 50% of energy transmission efficiency in a water medium at 20mm distance and 18% in animal skin tissue at 18mm distance, respectively.

  10. Diode laser power module for beamed power transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, S. H.; Williams, M. D.; Lee, J. H.; Conway, E. J.

    1991-01-01

    Recent progress with powerful, efficient, and coherent monolithic diode master-oscillator/power-amplifier (M-MOPA) systems is promising for the development of a space-based diode laser power station. A conceptual design of a 50-kW diode laser power module was made for space-based power stations capable of beaming coherent power to the moon, Martian rovers, or other satellites. The laser diode power module consists of a solar photovoltaic array or nuclear power source, diode laser arrays (LDAs), a phase controller, beam-steering optics, a thermal management unit, and a radiator. Thermal load management and other relevant aspects of the system (such as power requirements and system mass) are considered. The 50-kW power module described includes the highest available efficiency of LD M-MOPA system to date. However, the overall efficiency of three amplifier stages, including the coupling efficiency, turns out to be 55.5 percent. Though a chain of PA stages generates a high-power coherent beam, there is a penalty due to the coupling loss between stages. The specific power of the 50-kW module using solar power is 6.58 W/kg.

  11. Radiated microwave power transmission system efficiency measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, R. M.; Brown, W. C.

    1975-01-01

    The measured and calculated results from determining the operating efficiencies of a laboratory version of a system for transporting electric power from one point to another via a wireless free space radiated microwave beam are reported. The system's overall end-to-end efficiency as well as intermediated conversion efficiencies were measured. The maximum achieved end-to-end dc-to-ac system efficiency was 54.18% with a probable error of + or - 0.94%. The dc-to-RF conversion efficiency was measured to be 68.87% + or - 1.0% and the RF-to-dc conversion efficiency was 78.67 + or - 1.1%. Under these conditions a dc power of 495.62 + or - 3.57 W was received with a free space transmitter antenna receiver antenna separation of 170.2 cm (67 in).

  12. Power transmission with parallel identical countershafts

    SciTech Connect

    Raszkowski, J.A.; Klemen, D.

    1991-04-23

    This patent describes an improvement in multiple countershaft transmissions. It includes a housing having a casing, a first end support and a second end support; an input shaft rotatably mounted in the first end support; an output shaft rotatably supported on the input shaft and in the casing; first and second countershafts rotatably supported in one of the end supports and in the casing for rotation on respective axis parallel with the input shaft and the output shaft; a first head gear continuously rotatable with the input shaft; a first head gear continuously rotatable with the input shaft; second and third head gears meshing with the first head gear and continuously rotatable with the first and second countershafts respectively; a plurality of ratio gears rotatably supported on each of the countershafts including a first ratio gear on the first countershaft and a second ratio gear on the second countershaft; reverse gear means including a first member rotatable with the first ratio gear and a second member rotatably supported on the second countershaft; synchronizer clutch means selectively and alternatively connectable with the second ratio gear and the second member of the reverse gear means; output gear means drivingly connected with the output shaft and including a first ratio output gear meshing with the first ratio gear and a second ratio output gear meshing with the second ratio gear; first selectively engageable friction clutch means for connecting the first ratio gear with the first countershaft for completing a low forward drive ratio between the input and output shafts.

  13. Transmission grating stretcher for contrast enhancement of high power lasers.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yunxin; Hooker, Chris; Chekhlov, Oleg; Hawkes, Steve; Collier, John; Rajeev, P P

    2014-12-01

    We propose, for the first time, a transmission grating stretcher for high power lasers and demonstrate its superiority over conventional, reflective gold grating stretchers in terms of pulse temporal quality. We show that, compared to a conventional stretcher with the same stretching factor, the transmission-grating based stretcher yields more than an order of magnitude improvement in the contrast pedestal. We have also quantitatively characterized the roughness of the grating surfaces and estimated its impact on the contrast pedestal.

  14. Flex-gear electrical power transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John; Peritt, Jonathan

    1993-01-01

    This study was conducted to develop an alternative way of transferring electricity across a continuously rotating joint, with little wear and the potential for low electrical noise. The problems with wires, slip rings, electromagnetic couplings, and recently invented roll-rings are discussed. Flex-gears, an improvement of roll-rings, are described. An entire class of flexgear devices is developed. Finally, the preferred flex-gear device is optimized for maximum electrical contact and analyzed for average mechanical power loss and maximum stress. For a device diameter of six inches, the preferred device is predicted to have a total electrical contact area of 0.066 square inches. In the preferred device, a small amount of internal sliding produces a 0.003 inch-pound torque that resists the motion of the device.

  15. HVDC power transmission electrode siting and design

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, R.J.; Dabkowski, J.; Hauth, R.L.

    1997-04-01

    This research strives to shed light on the feasibility and practicality of using deep earth electrodes to permit their use for extended periods without adverse consequences. This report begins with a review of the fundamentals associated with current conduction in earth, including the various techniques available for measuring the earth`s electrical properties. The sources of existing data are discussed and some specific data for selected regions of the U.S. and Canada are reviewed as examples. Electrode technology and design issues are reviewed and recent experience gained by New England Power and Hydro-Quebec is discussed. The issues associated with direct current flowing in underground pipelines (and other facilities) are described and the present-day mitigation measures are evaluated. Suggestions are made for further R&D in the coordination of cathodic protection systems, an area that has evolved as an empirical, trial- and-error art more than a science.

  16. Meteorological effects on laser propagation for power transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beverly, R. E., III

    1982-01-01

    An examination of possible laser operating parameters for power transmission to earth from solar power satellites is presented, with particular attention paid to assuring optimal delivery at midlatitudes. The degradation of beam efficiency due to molecular scattering, molecular absorption, aerosol scattering, and aerosol absorption during beam propagation through the atmosphere can be alleviated by judicious choice of wavelength windows, elevating the receptor sites, using a vertical propagation path, or by hole boring, i.e., vaporizing the aerosol particles in the beam path. Analyses are given for the beam propagation through fog, haze, clouds, and snow using various transitions. Only weapons-quality lasers are seen as being capable of boring through clouds and aerosols, employing a CW beam with superimposed pulses at high power densities. It is concluded that further short wavelength transmission experiments be performed to demonstrate transmission feasibility with the CW/pulsed mode of beam propagation.

  17. Free-space microwave power transmission study, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. C.

    1975-01-01

    The results of an investigation of the technology of free-space power transmission by microwave beam are presented. A description of the steps that were taken to increase the overall dc to dc efficiency of microwave power transmission from 15 percent to over 50 percent is given. Included in this overall efficiency were the efficiencies of the dc to microwave conversion, the microwave transmission itself, and the microwave to dc conversion. Improvements in launching the microwave beam with high efficiency by means of a dual mode horn resulted in 95 percent of the output of the microwave generator reaching the receiving area. Emphasis was placed upon successive improvements in reception and rectification of the microwave power, resulting in the design of a rectenna device for this purpose whose efficiency was 75 percent. The procedures and the hardware developed were the basis for tests certified by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in which an overall dc to dc efficiency of 54 percent was achieved.

  18. Prospects of long-distance HTS DC power transmission systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romashov, M. A.; Sytnikov, V. E.; Shakarian, Y. G.; Ivanov, Y. V.

    2014-05-01

    Continual improvement of technologies for the safe use of power resources is a key to sustainable development of a human society. In particular, high-temperature superconductivity (HTS) should be used to meet the growing needs of the electric-power industry. It is known that HTS power cables allow us to increase the level of transmitted energy to several GW at voltage of 66-110 kV. HTS power cables of a coaxial design are almost ideal non-polluting system shielding electromagnetic field. In the present work we have tried to analyze various configurations of HTS power transmission systems, estimate the cable transmission capacitance depending on distance, and characterize reliability and efficiency of the systems.

  19. Study of power management technology for orbital multi-100KWe applications. Volume 3: Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mildice, J. W.

    1980-01-01

    Mid to late 1980's power management technology needs to support development of a general purpose space platform, capable of suplying 100 to 250 KWe to a variety of users in low Earth orbit are examined. A typical, shuttle assembled and supplied space platform is illustred, along with a group of payloads which might reasonably be expected to use such a facility. Examination of platform and user power needs yields a set of power requirements used to evaluate power management options for life cycle cost effectivness. The most cost effective ac/dc and dc systems are evaluated, specifically to develop system details which lead to technology goals, including: array and transmission voltages, best frequency for ac power transmission, and advantages and disadvantages of ac and dc systems for this application. System and component requirements are compared with the state-of-the-art to identify areas where technological development is required.

  20. Study of power management technology for orbital multi-100KWe applications. Volume 3: Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mildice, J. W.

    1980-07-01

    Mid to late 1980's power management technology needs to support development of a general purpose space platform, capable of suplying 100 to 250 KWe to a variety of users in low Earth orbit are examined. A typical, shuttle assembled and supplied space platform is illustred, along with a group of payloads which might reasonably be expected to use such a facility. Examination of platform and user power needs yields a set of power requirements used to evaluate power management options for life cycle cost effectivness. The most cost effective ac/dc and dc systems are evaluated, specifically to develop system details which lead to technology goals, including: array and transmission voltages, best frequency for ac power transmission, and advantages and disadvantages of ac and dc systems for this application. System and component requirements are compared with the state-of-the-art to identify areas where technological development is required.

  1. European Transmission Interconnection; Eurasian power grid

    SciTech Connect

    Posch, J. )

    1991-09-01

    Systems and philosophies perceived on a grand scale, encompassing new ideas, are often characterized as a dream. But in fact, such dreams often lead to the first step to fruitful development. This article is based on a preliminary study of the existing electrical high-tension networks of Western Europe, Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union - which, as explained herein, may be merged into a multinational energy supply system. Such a system would constitute a completely interconnected Eurasian Power Grid. The idea of a Eurasian super grid, spanning from the Atlantic to the Ural and Siberia, is not new. Various studies have been conducted by both western Europe and the Soviet Union on this topic. Our world is currently in an era of extra high voltage (EHV) and ultra high voltage (UHV) electrical systems. This translates into existing UHV lines of 1150 kV which have already been proven in successful operation. Such UHV systems are capable of transmitting thousands of megawatts over a distance of a 1000 miles. Furthermore, national boundaries are not more a hindrance than the challenge of interconnecting complete networks into an overall synchronized working system with load exchange capabilities in all directions.

  2. Microwave beam power transmission at an arbitrary range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinero, L. R.; Christian, J. L., Jr.; Acosta, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    The power transfer efficiency between two circular apertures at an arbitrary range is obtained numerically. The apertures can have generally different sizes and arbitrary taper illuminations. The effects of distance and taper illumination on the transmission efficiency are investigated for equal size apertures. The result shows that microwave beam power is more effective at close ranges, namely distances less than 2D(exp 2)/lambda. Also shown was the power transfer efficiency increase with taper illumination for close range distances. A computer program was developed for calculating the power transfer efficiency at an arbitrary range.

  3. Dynamic Power Flow Controller: Compact Dynamic Phase Angle Regulators for Transmission Power Routing

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-03

    GENI Project: Varentec is developing compact, low-cost transmission power controllers with fractional power rating for controlling power flow on transmission networks. The technology will enhance grid operations through improved use of current assets and by dramatically reducing the number of transmission lines that have to be built to meet increasing contributions of renewable energy sources like wind and solar. The proposed transmission controllers would allow for the dynamic control of voltage and power flow, improving the grid’s ability to dispatch power in real time to the places where it is most needed. The controllers would work as fail-safe devices whereby the grid would be restored to its present operating state in the event of a controller malfunction instead of failing outright. The ability to affordably and dynamically control power flow with adequate fail-safe switchgear could open up new competitive energy markets which are not possible under the current regulatory structure and technology base.

  4. Beamed microwave power transmission and its application to space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, William C.; Eves, E. E.

    1992-01-01

    The general principles and special components of beamed microwave power transmission systems are outlined and their application to the space program are discussed. The beamed system is defined as starting with a dc source of power at the transmitting end, converting it to a microwave beam for transmission through space, and ending with the dc power output at the receiving end. An experimentally measured and certified dc-to-dc efficiency of 54 percent has been achieved, using this definition. The application discussed is that of a LEO to GEO transportation system that depends upon vehicles propelled by electric thrusters whose power is supplied by a microwave beam originating at the earth's surface. The advantages of the all-electronic system over a chemically propelled system are enumerated. The principles of space propulsion, particularly as they relate to electric propulsion, are outlined. Key components of the system and environmental considerations are discussed.

  5. Enhanced Wireless Power Transmission Using Strong Paramagnetic Response

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Dukju; Kiani, Mehdi; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2015-01-01

    A method of quasi-static magnetic resonant coupling has been presented for improving the power transmission efficiency (PTE) in near-field wireless power transmission, which improves upon the state of the art. The traditional source resonator on the transmitter side is equipped with an additional resonator with a resonance frequency that is tuned substantially higher than the magnetic field excitation frequency. This additional resonator enhances the magnetic dipole moment and the effective permeability of the power transmitter, owing to a phenomenon known as the strong paramagnetic response. Both theoretical calculations and experimental results show increased PTE due to amplification of the effective permeability. In measurements, the PTE was improved from 57.8% to 64.2% at the nominal distance of 15 cm when the effective permeability was 2.6. The power delivered to load was also improved significantly, with the same 10 V excitation voltage, from 0.38 to 5.26 W. PMID:26120144

  6. Case study on the US superconducting power transmission program

    SciTech Connect

    Hammel, E.F.

    1996-02-01

    After the 1911 discovery of superconductivity (the abrupt loss of electrical resistance in certain materials at very low temperatures), attempts were made to make practical use of this phenomenon. Initially these attempts failed, but in the early 1960s (after 50 years of research) they succeeded. By then, the projected growth in the production and consumption of electrical energy required much higher capacity power transmission capabilities than were available or likely to become available from incremental improvements in existing transmission technology. Since superconductors were capable in principle of transmitting huge amounts of power, research programs to develop and demonstrate superconducting transmission lines were initiated in the US and abroad. The history of the US program, including the participants, their objectives, funding and progress made, is outlined. Since the R&D program was terminated before the technology was completely demonstrated, the reasons for and consequences of this action are discussed in a final section.

  7. Continuous adaptive beam pointing and tracking for laser power transmission.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Christian A

    2010-06-21

    The adaptive beam pointing concept has been revisited for the purpose of controlled transmission of laser energy from an optical transmitter to a target. After illumination, a bidirectional link is established by a retro-reflector on the target and an amplifier-phase conjugate mirror (A-PCM) on the transmitter. By setting the retro-reflector's aperture smaller than the diffraction limited spot size but big enough to provide sufficient amount of optical feedback, a stable link can be maintained and light that hits the retro-reflector's surrounded area can simultaneously be reconverted into usable electric energy. The phase conjugate feedback ensures that amplifier's distortions are compensated and the target tracked accurately.After deriving basic arithmetic expressions for the proposed system, a section is devoted for the motivation of free-space laser power transmission which is supposed to find varied applicability in space. As an example, power transmission from a satellite to the earth is described where recently proposed solar power generating structures on high-altitudes receive the power above the clouds to provide constant energy supply.In the experimental part, an A-PCM setup with reflectivity of about R(A-PCM) = 100 was realized using a semiconductor optical amplifier and a photorefractive self-pumped PCM. Simulation results show that a reflectivity of R(A-PCM)>1000 could be obtained by improving the self-pumped PCM's efficiency. That would lead to a transmission efficiency of eta>90%.

  8. Lightning location system supervising Swedish power transmission network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melin, Stefan A.

    1991-01-01

    For electric utilities, the ability to prevent or minimize lightning damage on personnel and power systems is of great importance. Therefore, the Swedish State Power Board, has been using data since 1983 from a nationwide lightning location system (LLS) for accurately locating lightning ground strikes. Lightning data is distributed and presented on color graphic displays at regional power network control centers as well as at the national power system control center for optimal data use. The main objectives for use of LLS data are: supervising the power system for optimal and safe use of the transmission and generating capacity during periods of thunderstorms; warning service to maintenance and service crews at power line and substations to end operations hazardous when lightning; rapid positioning of emergency crews to locate network damage at areas of detected lightning; and post analysis of power outages and transmission faults in relation to lightning, using archived lightning data for determination of appropriate design and insulation levels of equipment. Staff have found LLS data useful and economically justified since the availability of power system has increased as well as level of personnel safety.

  9. Diode laser satellite systems for beamed power transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, M. D.; Kwon, J. H.; Walker, G. H.; Humes, D. H.

    1990-01-01

    A power system composed of an orbiting laser satellite and a surface-based receiver/converter is described. Power is transmitted from the satellite to the receiver/converter by laser beam. The satellite components are: (1) solar collector; (2) blackbody; (3) photovoltaic cells; (4) heat radiators; (5) laser system; and (6) transmission optics. The receiver/converter components are: receiver dish; lenticular lens; photocells; and heat radiator. Although the system can be adapted to missions at many locations in the solar system, only two are examined here: powering a lunar habitat; and powering a lunar rover. Power system components are described and their masses, dimensions, operating powers, and temperatures, are estimated using known or feasible component capabilities. The critical technologies involved are discussed and other potential missions are mentioned.

  10. Optimal operating frequency in wireless power transmission for implantable devices.

    PubMed

    Poon, Ada S Y; O'Driscoll, Stephen; Meng, Teresa H

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines short-range wireless powering for implantable devices and shows that existing analysis techniques are not adequate to conclude the characteristics of power transfer efficiency over a wide frequency range. It shows, theoretically and experimentally, that the optimal frequency for power transmission in biological media can be in the GHz-range while existing solutions exclusively focus on the MHz-range. This implies that the size of the receive coil can be reduced by 10(4) times which enables the realization of fully integrated implantable devices. PMID:18003300

  11. High-Power Microwave Transmission and Mode Conversion Program

    SciTech Connect

    Vernon, Ronald J.

    2015-08-14

    This is a final technical report for a long term project to develop improved designs and design tools for the microwave hardware and components associated with the DOE Plasma Fusion Program. We have developed basic theory, software, fabrication techniques, and low-power measurement techniques for the design of microwave hardware associated gyrotrons, microwave mode converters and high-power microwave transmission lines. Specifically, in this report we discuss our work on designing quasi-optical mode converters for single and multiple frequencies, a new method for the analysis of perturbed-wall waveguide mode converters, perturbed-wall launcher design for TE0n mode gyrotrons, quasi-optical traveling-wave resonator design for high-power testing of microwave components, and possible improvements to the HSX microwave transmission line.

  12. An automotive transmission for automotive gas turbine power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polak, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    A joint government-industry program was initiated to investigate the two-shaft gas turbine concept as an alternative to present-day automotive powerplants. Both were examined, compared and evaluated on the basis of the federal automotive driving cycle in terms of specific fuel/power/speed characteristics of the engine and the efficiency and performance of the transmission. The results showed that an optimum match of vehicle, gas turbine engine, and conventional automatic transmission is capable of a significant improvement in fuel economy. This system offers many advantages that should lead to its wide acceptance in future vehicles.

  13. Low-power digital communication with unterminated transmission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooperman, Michael; Sieber, Richard W.; Moolenbeek, Rob

    1988-06-01

    Conventional telecommunication techniques are optimized to communicate over long distances (greater than 1 mi), subject to high attenuation, high crosstalk, and other deteriorations in transmission. A trend in telecommunication system architectures is to disperse the previously centralized switching centers, thereby providing switching within a few hundred feet of the subscriber. This creates an opportunity for great improvements in cost and performance for short distance communication links. A technique for low-power digital communication over short transmission lines that exploits this possibility is described. The typical power is more than an order of magnitude lower than the power required with conventional circuits. Associated with this technique are a tenfold reduction in the chip area occupied by the transmission line drivers and the elimination of coupling transformers. The power and chip-area reductions result from terminating the line at the transmitter and maintaining an open circuit at the receiver. These advantages make this line-driving technique particularly suitable for single-chip VLSI systems.

  14. Impedance matching wireless power transmission system for biomedical devices.

    PubMed

    Lum, Kin Yun; Lindén, Maria; Tan, Tian Swee

    2015-01-01

    For medical application, the efficiency and transmission distance of the wireless power transfer (WPT) are always the main concern. Research has been showing that the impedance matching is one of the critical factors for dealing with the problem. However, there is not much work performed taking both the source and load sides into consideration. Both sides matching is crucial in achieving an optimum overall performance, and the present work proposes a circuit model analysis for design and implementation. The proposed technique was validated against experiment and software simulation. Result was showing an improvement in transmission distance up to 6 times, and efficiency at this transmission distance had been improved up to 7 times as compared to the impedance mismatch system. The system had demonstrated a near-constant transfer efficiency for an operating range of 2cm-12cm. PMID:25980873

  15. Electric power transmission for a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center (HNEC)

    SciTech Connect

    Harty, H.; Dowis, W.J.

    1983-06-01

    The original study of transmission for a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center (HNEC), which was completed in September 1975, was updated in June 1978. The present 1983 revision takes cognizance of recent changes in the electric power situation of the PNW with respect to: (1) forecasts of load growth, (2) the feasibility of early use of 1100 kV transmission, and (3) the narrowing opportunities for siting nuclear plants in the region. The purpose of this update is to explore and describe additions to the existing transmission system that would be necessary to accommodate three levels of generation at HNEC. Comparisons with a PNW system having new thermal generating capacity distributed throughout the marketing region are not made as was done in earlier versions.

  16. HIGH FREQUENCY POWER TRANSMISSION LINE FOR CYCLOTRONS AND THE LIKE

    DOEpatents

    Armstrong, W.J.

    1954-04-20

    High-frequency power transmission systems, particularly a stacked capacitance alternating power current transmission line wherein maximum utilization of the effective conductios skin of the line conductors is achieved while enabling a low impedance to be obtained are reported. The transmission line consists of a number of flat metal strips with interleaved dielectric strips. The metal dielectric strips are coiled spirally with the axis of the spiral extending along the length of the strips, and the alternating metal strips at the output end have outwardly extending aligned lugs which are directly strapped together and connected to the respective terminals on the load. At the input end of the transmission line, similarly, the alternate metal strips are directly strapped together and connected to an altereating current source. With the arrangement described each metal strip conducts on both sides, so that the metal strips are designed to have a thickness corresponding to twice the depth of the "skin effect" conducting lamina of each conductor at the source frequency.

  17. American lifelines alliance efforts to improve electric power transmission reliability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nishenko, S.P.; Savage, W.U.; Honegger, D.G.; McLane, T.R.; ,

    2002-01-01

    A study was performed on American Lifelines Alliance (ALA) efforts to improve electric power transmission reliability. ALA is a public-private partnership project, with the goal of reducing risks to lifelines from natural hazards and human threat events. The mechanism used by ALA for developing national guidelines for lifeline systems is dependent upon using existing Standards Developing Organizations (SDO) accredited by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) as means to achieve national consensus.

  18. Factors that affect the fatigue strength of power transmission shafting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, S. H.

    1984-01-01

    A long standing objective in the design of power transmission shafting is to eliminate excess shaft material without compromising operational reliability. A shaft design method is presented which accounts for variable amplitude loading histories and their influence on limited life designs. The effects of combined bending and torsional loading are considered along with a number of application factors known to influence the fatigue strength of shafting materials. Among the factors examined are surface condition, size, stress concentration, residual stress and corrosion fatigue.

  19. Solar pumped laser technology options for space power transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, E. J.

    1986-01-01

    An overview of long-range options for in-space laser power transmission is presented. The focus is on the new technology and research status of solar-pumped lasers and their solar concentration needs. The laser options include gas photodissociation lasers, optically-pumped solid-state lasers, and blackbody-pumped transfer lasers. The paper concludes with a summary of current research thrusts.

  20. Applications of free-space microwave power transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fordyce, S. W.; Brown, W. C.

    1979-01-01

    Some applications and properties of free-space power transmission are examined. Among the properties discussed are: no mass, either in the form of wire conductors or ferrying vehicles, is needed between the source of energy and the point of consumption; energy can be transferred at the velocity of light; no loss of energy in transferring energy throught the vacuum of space; and the energy transfer is insensitive to a difference in the gravitational potential of the transmitter and receiver locations. Applications discussed include the Solar Power Satellite, high altitude platforms for communications and remote sensing. Also discussed are rectennas and retrodirective arrays. Finally, an expression yielding minimum cost is presented.

  1. Experimental Equipments for Microwave Power Transmission in Kyoto University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, H.; Hashimoto, K.; Shinohara, N.; Mitani, T.

    2004-12-01

    RISH, Research Institute of Sustainable Humanosphere, of Kyoto University is one of the most active research laboratories for a microwave power transmission (MPT) and SSPS (Space Solar Power System) in Japan. Since the first MPT rocket experiment in the ionosphere was conducted in early 1980's by Radio Science Center for Space and Atmosphere (RASC), the former institute of the RISH, the RISH has conducted a variety of theoretical and experimental studies on the MPT and SSPS both in laboratory and field. In the paper, we will show the experimental equipments for the MPT and the SSPS research in the RISH. We have two facilities of METLAB (Microwave Energy Transmission LABoratory) and SPSLAB (SPS LABoratory) for the MPT researches. The METLAB is composed of an anechoic radio wave chamber and an experimental system specially designed for the MPT experiment. The SPSLAB is a facility to promote a systematic research for conceptual, technical and coordinative research with our colleagues in all parts of Japan including the industrial partners. These facilities are now open for inter-universities collaborations. The other available experimental facilities are multiple MPT systems with a phased array transmitter using phase controlled magnetrons (PCMs) at both 2.45 GHz and 5.8 GHz, and a semiconductor-based beam control system and a retrodirective target detecting system. These facilities are named SPORTS (Space POwer Radio Transmission System) 2.45 and SPORTS5.8.

  2. Power and signal transmission for mobile teleoperated systems

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, A.C. Jr.; Hamel, W.R.

    1985-01-01

    Appropriate means must be furnished for supplying power and for sending controlling commands to mobile teleoperated systems. Because a sizable number of possibilities are available for such applications, methods used in designing both the power and communications systems built into mobile vehicles that serve in radiological emergencies must be carefully selected. This paper describes a number of umbilical, on-board, and wireless systems used in tranmitting power that are available for mobile teleoperator services. The pros and cons of selecting appropriate methods from a list of possible communication systems (wired, fiber optic, and radio frequency) are also examined. Moreover, hybrid systems combining wireless power transmissions with command-information signals are also possible.

  3. Wireless data and power transmission aiming intracranial epilepsy monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz, Gurkan; Atasoy, Oguz; Dehollain, Catherine

    2013-05-01

    This study presents a wireless power and data transmission system to overcome the problems in intracranial epilepsy monitoring associated with transcutaneous wires. Firstly, a wireless power transfer link based on inductive coupling is implemented and a power management unit for the implant is designed. 4-coil resonant inductive link scheme is exploited since it exhibits a high efficiency and optimal load flexibility. Power management unit consists of an active rectifier, a low drop-out voltage regulator which is biased internally with a supply independent current source; all implemented as integrated circuit. Wireless power link provides 10 mW under 1.8 V dc to the load, more specifically the electrodes and read-out electronics. Wireless data communication is realized using the same frequency, 8.4 MHz, as the power link. Load shift keying is performed for uplink (from implant to external) communication by switching an integrated modulator which, in fact, detunes the resonance. Modulated signal is recovered on the external device by means of an integrated self-referenced ASK demodulator. Data rate is adapted for a fast ripple ( < 500 Hz) detection system which requires 300 kbps communication. The measurements show that the system works at 36% power transfer efficiency without communication link and the efficiency drops to 33% with 300 kbps uplink data transfer. Finally, in-vitro tests that emulate the real operation scenario are performed thanks to the two-polymer packaging and almost the same power transfer efficiency is achieved under same operation conditions.

  4. Power transmission device for four wheel drive vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Iwatsuki, T.; Kawamoto, M.; Kano, T.

    1988-12-13

    This patent describes a power transmission device with an improved differential motion limiting mechanism for a four wheel drive vehicle having automatic transmission means, front wheel differential gear means, differential motion limiting means and transfer unit means including center differential gear means, comprising: a first gear mount casing having a gear adapted to mesh with an output of a transmission; a differential motion limiting device arranged together with a front wheel differential gear in the first gear mount casing. The front wheel differential gear having a first diff-carrier and the differential motion limiting device comprising a hydraulic friction clutch for engaging and disengaging the first gear mount casing with the first diff-carrier of the front wheel differential gear; a second gear mount casing disposed coaxially with respect to the first gear mount casing; and a transfer unit including a center differential gear arranged in the second gear mount casing, the center differential gear comprising a second diff-carrier coupled with the first gear mount casing, a first side gear coupled with the first diff-carrier of the front wheel differential gear, and a second side gear coupled with the second gear mount casing for transmitting power to the rear wheels.

  5. 75 FR 81264 - Critical Path Transmission, LLC; Clear Power, LLC; v. California Independent System Operator, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Critical Path Transmission, LLC; Clear Power, LLC; v. California Independent... (2006), Critical Path Transmission, LLC and Clear Power LLC (Complainants) filed a complaint...

  6. The window of opportunity for Wireless Power Transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaser, Peter E., Dr.

    1995-01-01

    The rationale for Wireless Power Transmission (WPT) technology applications is presented to meet the needs of the growing global population. These applications include high-altitude, long-endurance aircraft to supplement communication satellites, power relay satellites to acess large-scale terrestrial renewable energy sources, and solar power satellites to meet global energy demands without increasing stresses on the Earth's ecology. An overview of past developments and demonstrations of WPT is provided and international activities in Europe, Japan, United States and the former USSR in this field highlighted. These ongoing activities are considered to provide opportunities for a growth path for commercial endeavors with defined milestones so as to gain public acceptance. The conclusion is presented that WPT technologies can provide the impetus for international cooperation to meet global energy demands, and for effective management of both terrestrial and extraterrestrial resources on an unprecedented scale.

  7. The window of opportunity for Wireless Power Transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Glaser, D.P.E. Consultant

    1995-01-20

    The rationale for Wireless Power Transmission (WPT) technology applications is presented to meet the needs of the growing global population. These applications include high-altitude, long-endurance aircraft to supplement communication satellites, power relay satellites to acess large-scale terrestrial renewable energy sources, and solar power satellites to meet global energy demands without increasing stresses on the Earth`s ecology. An overview of past developments and demonstrations of WPT is provided and international activities in Europe, Japan, United States and the former USSR in this field highlighted. These ongoing activities are considered to provide opportunities for a growth path for commercial endeavors with defined milestones so as to gain public acceptance. The conclusion is presented that WPT technologies can provide the impetus for international cooperation to meet global energy demands, and for effective management of both terrestrial and extraterrestrial resources on an unprecedented scale. {copyright} 1995 {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}

  8. Comparative analysis of wireless systems as alternative to high-voltage power lines for global terrestrial power transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Smakhtin, A.P.; Rybakov, V.V.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses the problem of creating the global terrestrial power transmission system, the method to analyze alternative systems including such non traditional systems as wireless power transmission systems. From the above discussion it appears that using microwave beam power transmission with an orbital reflector may be more effective in the case of power transportation between two very distant regions on the Earth, right up to the power transportation between two continents.

  9. Optimal Operation of Energy Storage in Power Transmission and Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhavan Hejazi, Seyed Hossein

    In this thesis, we investigate optimal operation of energy storage units in power transmission and distribution grids. At transmission level, we investigate the problem where an investor-owned independently-operated energy storage system seeks to offer energy and ancillary services in the day-ahead and real-time markets. We specifically consider the case where a significant portion of the power generated in the grid is from renewable energy resources and there exists significant uncertainty in system operation. In this regard, we formulate a stochastic programming framework to choose optimal energy and reserve bids for the storage units that takes into account the fluctuating nature of the market prices due to the randomness in the renewable power generation availability. At distribution level, we develop a comprehensive data set to model various stochastic factors on power distribution networks, with focus on networks that have high penetration of electric vehicle charging load and distributed renewable generation. Furthermore, we develop a data-driven stochastic model for energy storage operation at distribution level, where the distribution of nodal voltage and line power flow are modelled as stochastic functions of the energy storage unit's charge and discharge schedules. In particular, we develop new closed-form stochastic models for such key operational parameters in the system. Our approach is analytical and allows formulating tractable optimization problems. Yet, it does not involve any restricting assumption on the distribution of random parameters, hence, it results in accurate modeling of uncertainties. By considering the specific characteristics of random variables, such as their statistical dependencies and often irregularly-shaped probability distributions, we propose a non-parametric chance-constrained optimization approach to operate and plan energy storage units in power distribution girds. In the proposed stochastic optimization, we consider

  10. 50 CFR 29.21-8 - Electric power transmission line rights-of-way.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Electric power transmission line rights-of... General Regulations § 29.21-8 Electric power transmission line rights-of-way. By accepting a right-of-way for a power transmission line, the applicant thereby agrees and consents to comply with and be...

  11. 50 CFR 29.21-8 - Electric power transmission line rights-of-way.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Electric power transmission line rights-of... General Regulations § 29.21-8 Electric power transmission line rights-of-way. By accepting a right-of-way for a power transmission line, the applicant thereby agrees and consents to comply with and be...

  12. 50 CFR 29.21-8 - Electric power transmission line rights-of-way.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Electric power transmission line rights-of... General Regulations § 29.21-8 Electric power transmission line rights-of-way. By accepting a right-of-way for a power transmission line, the applicant thereby agrees and consents to comply with and be...

  13. 50 CFR 29.21-8 - Electric power transmission line rights-of-way.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Electric power transmission line rights-of... General Regulations § 29.21-8 Electric power transmission line rights-of-way. By accepting a right-of-way for a power transmission line, the applicant thereby agrees and consents to comply with and be...

  14. Study of novel concepts of power transmission gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivin, Eugene I.

    1991-01-01

    Two concepts in power transmission gear design are proposed which provide a potential for large noise reduction and for improving weight to payload ratio due to use of advanced fiber reinforced and ceramic materials. These concepts are briefly discussed. Since both concepts use ultrathin layered rubber-metal laminates for accommodating limited travel displacements, properties of the laminates, such as their compressive strength, compressive and shear moduli were studied. Extensive testing and computational analysis were performed on the first concept gears (laminate coated conformal gears). Design and testing of the second conceptual design (composite gear with separation of sliding and rolling motions) are specifically described.

  15. Multi-angle pinion and gear power transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, F.M.

    1986-02-04

    This patent describes a worm and gear power transmission which consists of a housing, an input shaft, two axially aligned, different ratio worms formed on the input shaft in the housing. It also includes a pair of gears spaced apart in the housing such that a first gear of the pair meshes with one of the worms, and a second gear of the pair meshes with the other worm, the first and second gears positioned such that planes through the gears and the axis of the input shaft are at a right angle to one another, and output shafts extending out of the housing from the respective gears.

  16. Power Flow Controller for Renewables: Transformer-less Unified Power Flow Controller for Wind and Solar Power Transmission

    SciTech Connect

    2012-02-08

    GENI Project: MSU is developing a power flow controller to improve the routing of electricity from renewable sources through existing power lines. The fast, innovative, and lightweight circuitry that MSU is incorporating into its controller will eliminate the need for a separate heavy and expensive transformer, as well as the construction of new transmission lines. MSU’s controller is better suited to control power flows from distributed and intermittent wind and solar power systems than traditional transformer-based controllers are, so it will help to integrate more renewable energy into the grid. MSU‘s power flow controller can be installed anywhere in the existing grid to optimize energy transmission and help reduce transmission congestion.

  17. A 2- μ m BiCMOS Rectifier-Free AC-DC Piezoelectric Energy Harvester-Charger IC.

    PubMed

    Dongwon Kwon; Rincon-Mora, Gabriel A

    2010-12-01

    A fundamental problem that miniaturized systems, such as biomedical implants, face is limited space for storing energy, which translates to short operational life. Harvesting energy from the surrounding environment, which is virtually a boundless source at these scales, can overcome this restriction, if losses in the system are sufficiently low. To that end, the 2-μm bi-complementary metal-oxide semiconductor switched-inductor piezoelectric harvester prototype evaluated and presented in this paper eliminates the restrictions associated with a rectifier to produce and channel 30 μW from a periodic 72- μW piezoelectric source into a battery directly. In doing so, the circuit also increases the system's electrical damping force to draw more power and energy from the transducer, effectively increasing its mechanical-electrical efficiency by up to 78%. The system also harnesses up to 659 nJ from nonperiodic mechanical vibrations, which are more prevalent in the environment, with 6.1±1.5% to 8.8±6.9% of end-to-end mechanical-electrical efficiency. PMID:23850757

  18. Recent Accomplishments in Laser-Photovoltaic Wireless Power Transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fikes, John C.; Henley, Mark W.; Mankins, John C.; Howell, Joe T.; Fork, Richard L.; Cole, Spencer T.; Skinner, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Wireless power transmission can be accomplished over long distances using laser power sources and photovoltaic receivers. Recent research at AMOS has improved our understanding of the use of this technology for practical applications. Research by NASA, Boeing, the University of Alabama-Huntsville, the University of Colorado, Harvey Mudd College, and the Naval Postgraduate School has tested various commercial lasers and photovoltaic receiver configurations. Lasers used in testing have included gaseous argon and krypton, solid-state diodes, and fiber optic sources, at wavelengths ranging from the visible to the near infra-red. A variety of Silicon and Gallium Arsenide photovoltaic have been tested with these sources. Safe operating procedures have been established, and initial tests have been conducted in the open air at AMOS facilities. This research is progressing toward longer distance ground demonstrations of the technology and practical near-term space demonstrations.

  19. HTS DC Transmission Line for Megalopolis Grid Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopylov, S.; Sytnikov, V.; Bemert, S.; Ivanov, Yu; Krivetskiy, I.; Romashov, M.; Shakaryan, Yu; Keilin, V.; Shikov, A.; Patrikeev, V.; Lobyntsev, V.; Shcherbakov, V.

    2014-05-01

    Using of HTS AC and DC cables in electric power grids allows increasing of the transferred power, losses diminishing, decreasing of exclusion zone areas, the enhancement of the environmental conditions and fire/explosion safety of electric power systems. However, the use of DC superconducting cable lines together with converters brings additional advantages as reduction of losses in cables and suitable lowering of refrigerating plant capacity, as well as the realization of the function of short-circuit currents limitation by means of the appropriate setting of converter equipment. Russian Federal Grid Company and its R&D Center started the construction of the DC HTS power transmission line which includes the cable itself, cryogenic equipment, AC/DC converters, terminals and cable coupling boxes. This line will connect two substations in Saint-Petersburg - 330 kV "Centralnaya" and 220 kV "RP-9". The length of this HTS transmission line will be about 2500 meters. Nowadays are developed all the elements of the line and technologies of the cable manufacturing. Two HTS cable samples, each 30 m length, have been made. This paper describes the results of cables tests.

  20. Performance evaluation of power transmission coils for powering endoscopic wireless capsules.

    PubMed

    Basar, Md Rubel; Ahmad, Mohd Yazed; Cho, Jongman; Ibrahim, Fatimah

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of H-field generated by a simple solenoid, pair of solenoids, pair of double-layer solenoids, segmented-solenoid, and Helmholtz power transmission coils (PTCs) to power an endoscopic wireless capsule (WC). The H-fields were computed using finite element analysis based on partial differential equations. Three parameters were considered in the analysis: i) the maximum level of H-field (Hmax) to which the patient's body would be exposed, ii) the minimum level of H-field (Hmin) effective for power transmission, and iii) uniformity of H-field. We validated our analysis by comparing the computed data with data measured from a fabricated Helmholtz PTC. This analysis disclosed that at the same excitation power, all the PTCs are able to transfer same amount of minimum usable power since they generated almost equal value of Hmin. The level of electromagnetic exposure and power transfer stability across all the PTCs would vary significantly which is mainly due to the different level of Hmax and H-field uniformity. The segmented solenoid PTC would cause the lowest exposure and this PTC can transfer the maximum amount of power. The Helmholtz PTC would be able to transfer the most stable power with a moderate level of exposure. PMID:26736743

  1. Space Solar Power Technology Demonstration for Lunar Polar Applications: Laser-Photovoltaic Wireless Power Transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henley, M. W.; Fikes, J. C.; Howell, J.; Mankins, J. C.; Howell, Joe T. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Space Solar Power technology offers unique benefits for near-term NASA space science missions, which can mature this technology for other future applications. "Laser-Photo-Voltaic Wireless Power Transmission" (Laser-PV WPT) is a technology that uses a laser to beam power to a photovoltaic receiver, which converts the laser's light into electricity. Future Laser-PV WPT systems may beam power from Earth to satellites or large Space Solar Power satellites may beam power to Earth, perhaps supplementing terrestrial solar photo-voltaic receivers. In a near-term scientific mission to the moon, Laser-PV WPT can enable robotic operations in permanently shadowed lunar polar craters, which may contain ice. Ground-based technology demonstrations are proceeding, to mature the technology for this initial application, in the moon's polar regions.

  2. A portable wireless power transmission system for video capsule endoscopes.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yu; Yan, Guozheng; Zhu, Bingquan; Liu, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Wireless power transmission (WPT) technology can solve the energy shortage problem of the video capsule endoscope (VCE) powered by button batteries, but the fixed platform limited its clinical application. This paper presents a portable WPT system for VCE. Besides portability, power transfer efficiency and stability are considered as the main indexes of optimization design of the system, which consists of the transmitting coil structure, portable control box, operating frequency, magnetic core and winding of receiving coil. Upon the above principles, the correlation parameters are measured, compared and chosen. Finally, through experiments on the platform, the methods are tested and evaluated. In the gastrointestinal tract of small pig, the VCE is supplied with sufficient energy by the WPT system, and the energy conversion efficiency is 2.8%. The video obtained is clear with a resolution of 320×240 and a frame rate of 30 frames per second. The experiments verify the feasibility of design scheme, and further improvement direction is discussed. PMID:26405939

  3. Self-powered system with wireless data transmission.

    PubMed

    Hu, Youfan; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Chen; Lin, Long; Snyder, Robert L; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2011-06-01

    We demonstrate the first self-powered system driven by a nanogenerator (NG) that works wirelessly and independently for long-distance data transmission. The NG was made of a free cantilever beam that consisted of a five-layer structure: a flexible polymer substrate, ZnO nanowire textured films on its top and bottom surfaces, and electrodes on the surfaces. When it was strained to 0.12% at a strain rate of 3.56% S(-1), the measured output voltage reached 10 V, and the output current exceeded 0.6 μA (corresponding power density 10 mW/cm(3)). A system was built up by integrating a NG, rectification circuit, capacitor for energy storage, sensor, and RF data transmitter. Wireless signals sent out by the system were detected by a commercial radio at a distance of 5-10 m. This study proves the feasibility of using ZnO nanowire NGs for building self-powered systems, and its potential application in wireless biosensing, environmental/infrastructure monitoring, sensor networks, personal electronics, and even national security. PMID:21604749

  4. Power transmission cable development for the Space Station Freedom electrical power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Gregory V.; Biess, John J.

    1989-01-01

    Power transmission cable is presently being evaluated under a NASA Lewis Research Center advanced development contract for application in the Space Station Freedom (SSF) electrical power system (EPS). Evaluation testing has been performed by TRW and NASA Lewis Research Center. The results of this development contract are presented. The primary cable design goals are to provide (1) a low characteristic inductance to minimize line voltage drop at 20 kHz, (2) electromagnetic compatibility control of the 20-kHz ac power current, (3) a physical configuration that minimizes ac resistance and (4) release of trapped air for corona-free operation.

  5. Silicon nitride waveguide router enabling directional power transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Vivek Raj; Lee, Hak-Soon; Lee, Yong-Geon; Lee, Sang-Shin

    2014-11-01

    A passive guided-wave router featuring directional power transmission among three different input/output ports has been proposed and demonstrated, taking advantage of appropriately disposed straight and bent waveguides in silicon nitride. The proposed router consists of a straight waveguide and a curved waveguide of the same width, which are brought together with a small offset between them and are interconnected together to another curved waveguide of an enlarged width. Due to the passively directional steering of excited guided modes induced by the device configuration, a three-port guided wave router is demonstrated where a signal input from Port I passes to Port II, but a signal fed from Port II is directed to Port III instead of Port I, providing a good contrast level of 14 dB at λ=1546 nm for forward and backward transmissions. Insertion losses of 4.6 dB and 1.2 dB were respectively obtained for the routes from Port I to Port II and from Port II to Port III. Due to the absence of active control and the use of conventional linear materials, the proposed passive router featuring a compact configuration will play a pivotal role in creating fully functional on-chip photonic circuits.

  6. Pulsed Power for a Dynamic Transmission Electron Microscope

    SciTech Connect

    dehope, w j; browning, n; campbell, g; cook, e; king, w; lagrange, t; reed, b; stuart, b; Shuttlesworth, R; Pyke, B

    2009-06-25

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has converted a commercial 200kV transmission electron microscope (TEM) into an ultrafast, nanoscale diagnostic tool for material science studies. The resulting Dynamic Transmission Electron Microscope (DTEM) has provided a unique tool for the study of material phase transitions, reaction front analyses, and other studies in the fields of chemistry, materials science, and biology. The TEM's thermionic electron emission source was replaced with a fast photocathode and a laser beam path was provided for ultraviolet surface illumination. The resulting photoelectron beam gives downstream images of 2 and 20 ns exposure times at 100 and 10 nm spatial resolution. A separate laser, used as a pump pulse, is used to heat, ignite, or shock samples while the photocathode electron pulses, carefully time-synchronized with the pump, function as probe in fast transient studies. The device functions in both imaging and diffraction modes. A laser upgrade is underway to make arbitrary cathode pulse trains of variable pulse width of 10-1000 ns. Along with a fast e-beam deflection scheme, a 'movie mode' capability will be added to this unique diagnostic tool. This talk will review conventional electron microscopy and its limitations, discuss the development and capabilities of DTEM, in particularly addressing the prime and pulsed power considerations in the design and fabrication of the DTEM, and conclude with the presentation of a deflector and solid-state pulser design for Movie-Mode DTEM.

  7. Ultra high performance connectors for power transmission applications

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Jy-An; Ren, Fei; Lee, Dominic F; Jiang, Hao

    2014-03-04

    Disclosed are several examples of an apparatus for connecting the free ends of two electrical power transmission lines having conductor strands disposed around a central, reinforcing core. The examples include an inner sleeve having a body defining an inner bore passing through an axially-extending, central axis, an outer rim surface disposed radially outward from the central bore, and one or more axially-extending grooves penetrating the body at the outer rim surface. Also included is an outer splice having a tubular shaped body with a bore passing coaxially through the central axis, the bore defining an inner rim surface for accepting the inner sleeve. The inner bore of the inner sleeve accepts the reinforcement cores of the two conductors, and the grooves accept the conductor strands in an overlapping configuration so that a majority of the electrical current flows between the overlapped conductor strands when the conductors are transmitting electrical current.

  8. Solid state systems concepts. [solar power satellite transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroeder, I. K.

    1980-01-01

    Two prototype solid state phased array systems concepts for potential use in the Solar Power Satellite are described; the end-mounted and the sandwich systems. In both concepts, the beam is centered on the rectenna by means of phase conjugation of a pilot signal emanating from the ground. In the end-mounted system 36-watt amplifiers are mounted on the ground-plane, whereas in the sandwich the amplifiers are elevated to the dipoles, and their waste heat is dissipated by beryllium oxide discs. The feed lines are underneath the ground-plane, and a coaxial transmission line is carried all the way to the amplifier input. Also discussed is solid state amplifier development.

  9. Evaluation of a microwave high-power reception-conversion array for wireless power transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    Initial performance tests of a 24-sq m area array of rectenna elements are presented. The array is used as the receiving portion of a wireless microwave power transmission engineering verification test system. The transmitting antenna was located at a range of 1.54 km. Output dc voltage and power, input RF power, efficiency, and operating temperatures were obtained for a variety of dc load and RF incident power levels at 2388 MHz. Incident peak RF intensities of up to 170 mW/sq cm yielded up to 30.4 kW of dc output power. The highest derived collection-conversion efficiency of the array was greater than 80 percent.

  10. Health and safety issues for microwave power transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Osepchuk, J.M.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, a historical review shows that the solar power satellite (SPS) was reviewed a number of times relative to potential microwave exposure hazards. In all cases, no `show-stopper` was found but often the shibboleth `more research is needed` was aired. It is shown that standards for safe exposure to microwaves are the most important asset in convincing an audience that microwave exposure associated with microwave power transmission (MPT) or SPS is safe. Standard-setting, world-wide, is shown to converge towards rational limits that are supportive of the MPT/SPS concepts. In recent times there has been the proposed substitute of `risk communication` (`prudent avoidance`). This is an unwise substitute for standards. Other aspects of microwave exposure standards are the new interface with interference (RFI) - hence the need for a rational division of responsibility between the radiators and the victim devices, like medical electronics - using both radiation limits and susceptibility limits. Beneficial applications of microwave exposure are being developed. Several studies are recommended which could put into perspective the likelihood of improbable events that represent `catastrophe` - e.g. the inadvertant focusing of a great amount of energy into inhabited areas. 1 ref., 2 figs.

  11. Thermoelectronic laser energy conversion for power transmission in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britt, E. J.; Yuen, C.

    1977-01-01

    Long distance transmission of power in space by means of laser beams is an attractive concept because of the very narrow beam divergence. Such a system requires efficient means to both generate the laser beam and to convert the light energy in the beam into useful electric output at the receiver. A plasma-type device known as a Thermo-Electronic Laser Energy Converter (TELEC) has been studied as a method of converting a 10.6 micron CO2 laser beam into electric power. In the TELEC process, electromagnetic radiation is absorbed directly in the plasma electrons producing a high electron temperature. The energetic electrons diffuse out of the plasma striking two electrodes with different areas. Since more electrons are collected by the larger electrode there is a net transport of current, and an EMF is generated in the external circuit. The smaller electrode functions as an electron emitter to provide continuity of the current. Waste heat is rejected from the large electrode. A design for a TELEC system with an input 1 MW laser beam was developed as part of the study. The calculated performance of the system showed an overall efficiency of about 42%.

  12. 78 FR 4873 - Electrical Protective Equipment Standard and the Electric Power Generation, Transmission, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Electrical Protective Equipment Standard and the Electric Power... on Electrical Protective Equipment (29 CFR 1910.137) and Electric Power Generation, Transmission, and... Equipment Standard (29 CFR 1910.137) and the Electric Power Generation, Transmission, and...

  13. 77 FR 26275 - Bonneville Power Administration; Montana-to-Washington Transmission System Upgrade Project EIS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-03

    ... Bonneville Power Administration; Montana-to-Washington Transmission System Upgrade Project EIS AGENCY... Sinha, Project Manager, Bonneville Power Administration--TEP-3, P.O. Box 3621, Portland, Oregon 97208... (including wind generators and power marketers) requested the use of BPA's transmission system to...

  14. Face Gear Technology for Aerospace Power Transmission Progresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The use of face gears in an advanced rotorcraft transmission design was first proposed by the McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Company during their contracted effort with the U.S. Army under the Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program. Face gears would be used to turn the corner between the horizontal gas turbine engine and the vertical output rotor shaft--a function currently done by spiral bevel gears. This novel gearing arrangement would substantially lower the drive system weight partly because a face gear mesh would be used to split the input power between two output gears. However, the use of face gears and their ability to operate successfully at the speeds and loads required for an aerospace environment was unknown. Therefore a proof-of-concept phase with an existing test stand at the NASA Lewis Research Center was pursued. Hardware was designed that could be tested in Lewis' Spiral Bevel Gear Test Rig. The initial testing indicated that the face gear mesh was a feasible design that could be used at high speeds and load. Surface pitting fatigue was the typical failure mode, and that could lead to tooth fracture. An interim project was conducted to see if slight modifications to the gear tooth geometry or an alternative heat treating process could overcome the surface fatigue problems. From the initial and interim tests, it was apparent that for the surface fatigue problems to be overcome the manufacturing process used for this component would have to be developed to the level used for spiral bevel gears. The current state of the art for face gear manufacturing required using less than optimal gear materials and manufacturing techniques because the surface of the tooth form does not receive final finishing after heat treatment as it does for spiral bevel gears. This resulted in less than desirable surface hardness and manufacturing tolerances. An Advanced Research and Projects Agency (ARPA) Technology Reinvestment Project has been funded to investigate

  15. Choice of antenna geometry for microwave power transmission from solar power satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, Seth D.

    1992-01-01

    A comparison is made between square and circular transmitting antennas for solar power satellite microwave power transmission. It is seen that the exclusion zone around the rectenna needed to protect populations from microwaves is smaller for a circular antenna operating at 2.45 GHz than it is for a square antenna at that frequency. If the frequency is increased, the exclusion zone size remains the same for a square antenna, but becomes even smaller for a circular antenna. Peak beam intensity is the same for both antennas if the frequency and antenna area are equal. The circular antenna puts a somewhat greater amount of power in the main lobe and somewhat less in the side lobes. Since rain attenuation and atmospheric heating remain problems above 10 GHz, it is recommended that future solar power satellite work concentrate on circular transmitting antennas at frequencies of roughly 10 GHz.

  16. Space-Based Solar Power Conversion and Delivery Systems Study. Volume 3: Microwave Power Transmission Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The Microwave Fower Beam Ionosphere effects and critical interfaces between th Microwave Power Transmission System (MPTS) and the Satellite were studied as part of the NASA/MSFC continuing research on the feasibility of power transmission from geosynchronous orbit. Theoretical predications of ionospheric modifications produced by the direct interaction of the MPTS on the earth's upper atmosphere are used to determine their impact on the performance of the Microwave Power Beam and Pilot Beam System as well as on other RF systems effected by the ionosphere. A technology program to quantitatively define these interactions is developed. Critical interface areas between the MPTS and the satellite which could have a major impact on cost and performance of the power system are idenfified and analyzed. The areas selected include: use of either a 20 kV versus 40 kV Amplitron, thermal blockage effects of Amplitron heat radiation by the satellite structure, effect of dielectric carry-through structure on power beam, and effect of material sublimation on performance of the Amplitron in Geosynchronous Orbit.

  17. Novel binary PSO algorithm based optimization of transmission expansion planning considering power losses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astuty; Haryono, T.

    2016-04-01

    Transmission expansion planning (TEP) is one of the issue that have to be faced caused by addition of large scale power generation into the existing power system. Optimization need to be conducted to get optimal solution technically and economically. Several mathematic methods have been applied to provide optimal allocation of new transmission line such us genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization and tabu search. This paper proposed novel binary particle swarm optimization (NBPSO) to determine which transmission line should be added to the existing power system. There are two scenerios in this simulation. First, considering transmission power losses and the second is regardless transmission power losses. NBPSO method successfully obtain optimal solution in short computation time. Compare to the first scenario, the number of new line in second scenario which regardless power losses is less but produces high power losses that cause the cost becoming extremely expensive.

  18. Trends In U.S. Electric Power Transmission

    SciTech Connect

    2007-11-15

    The report provides an overview of the changes that are occurring in the industry to implement the goals of improved reliability and reduced congestion costs. As the electric industry works to become a more efficient market, transmission stands as a key link between the competitive generation and the regulated distribution sectors. In this role as a key link, transmission is a major focus of government efforts to improve reliability and reduce congestion costs. The scope of the report is to analyze the dominant reliability, investment, siting, and competition/open access trends that are occurring in the domestic electric transmission industry. Topics covered include: the impact of the 2003 Northeast blackout on reliability rules; the move from voluntary to mandatory reliability standards; the advent of real-time transmission system monitoring; ISO/RTO efforts to improve system reliability; the drivers of government intervention in transmission investment; the move towards incentive-based rates for transmission investment; legislative and regulatory efforts to spur transmission investment to support renewable energy resources; the emergence of merchant transmission; the need for federal backstop authority on regional transmission projects; the designation of national interest electric transmission corridors; FERC Orders on siting transmission; the need for changes in open access and competition regulations; FERC efforts to increase open access and competition; legislative efforts to increase competition; and, current competitive issues in the industry.

  19. Final report on SIM bilateral INMETRO-LNE comparisons SIM.EM-K6.1 and SIM.EM-K9.1: AC-DC voltage transfer difference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasconcellos, Renata de Barros e.; Poletaeff, Andre

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this comparison was to compare the measurement capabilities of INMETRO and LNE in the field of AC-DC voltage transfer. INMETRO participated in the previous SIM comparison of AC-DC voltage transfer standards in 2004. In the last few years INMETRO has been improving the methodology of its AC-DC voltage transfer difference measurements, now using multijunction thermal converters. The degrees of equivalence of INMETRO relative to the corresponding CCEM key comparison reference values range between 0.1 µV/V and 10 µV/V in the frame of the SIM.EM-K6.1 key comparison, and between 0.5 µV/V and 4 µV/V in the frame of the SIM.EM-K9.1 key comparison. In all cases, they are consistent with the associated uncertainties. For results that are not linked to CCEM key comparisons, the agreement between INMETRO and LNE is very good at 1.5 V/50 kHz (0.1 µV/V). At 10 Hz (at 1.5 V and at 1000 V) a larger difference is observed between the two laboratories, which remains nevertheless consistent with the given uncertainties. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  20. Design study for a gound microwave power transmission system for use with a high-altitude powered platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. C.

    1983-01-01

    The conceptual design of a ground-based microwave power transmission system is described. This system is intended to supply electrical power via an air link to a high-altitude (21 km) powered platform. The platform must be equipped with the required instrumentation (RECTENNA) to convert the RF energy to dc power.

  1. 47 CFR 74.795 - Digital low power TV and TV translator transmission system facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... transmission system facilities. 74.795 Section 74.795 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... translator transmission system facilities. (a) A digital low power TV or TV translator station shall operate... consumer receiving equipment based on the digital broadcast television transmission standard in §...

  2. Power factor corrector on insulated metal substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Aime, G.; Barbaroux, J.; Ferrieux, J.P. |

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes a high density Power Factor Correction converter for AC-DC applications with sinusoidal input current. After analysis of the thermal behavior of several types of Insulated-Metal Substrates, study and design have been implemented on IMS with Surface Mount components. Experimental results are discussed for a 1 kW prototype operating at 100 kHz.

  3. Electrical Power Transmission and Distribution Safety. Module SH-40. Safety and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This student module on electrical power transmission and distribution safety is one of 50 modules concerned with job safety and health. This module focuses on some of the general safety rules, techniques, and procedures that are essential in establishing a safe environment for the electrical power transmission worker. Following the introduction,…

  4. 76 FR 56428 - Southern Cross Transmission LLC; Pattern Power Marketing LLC; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Cross Transmission LLC; Pattern Power Marketing LLC; Notice of..., Southern Cross Transmission, LLC (SCT) and Pattern Power Marketing LLC (PPM) jointly filed an...

  5. Design And Structural Analysis Of A Powered Wheelchair Transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geonea, Ionut Daniel; Dumitru, Nicolae; Margine, Alexandru

    2015-09-01

    In this paper are presented the author's researches on designing, dynamical and structural evaluation of a transmission for a wheelchair, intended to persons with locomotors disabilities. The kinematics of proposed transmission is analyzed in order to realize a proper synthesis and design of gears. A 3D model of the transmission and wheelchair are designed in Solid Works, and they will be used for the dynamic simulation of the wheelchair robotic system in Adams software. In Adams is analyzed wheelchair trajectory and dynamics for a combined trajectory: linear motion and steering. Dynamic parameters obtained from simulation are used to perform a finite element analysis of bevel and worm gears. Simulation results reveal the transmission dynamics parameters, emphasize the efficiency of the transmission and enable implementation of this design to a wheelchair model.

  6. 47 CFR 74.795 - Digital low power TV and TV translator transmission system facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Digital low power TV and TV translator... DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.795 Digital low power TV and TV translator transmission system facilities. (a) A digital low power TV or TV translator station shall...

  7. 47 CFR 74.795 - Digital low power TV and TV translator transmission system facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Digital low power TV and TV translator... DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.795 Digital low power TV and TV translator transmission system facilities. (a) A digital low power TV or TV translator station shall...

  8. 47 CFR 74.795 - Digital low power TV and TV translator transmission system facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Digital low power TV and TV translator... DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.795 Digital low power TV and TV translator transmission system facilities. (a) A digital low power TV or TV translator station shall...

  9. 47 CFR 74.795 - Digital low power TV and TV translator transmission system facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital low power TV and TV translator... DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.795 Digital low power TV and TV translator transmission system facilities. (a) A digital low power TV or TV translator station shall...

  10. Batteryless wireless transmission system for electronic drum uses piezoelectric generator for play signal and power source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, H.; Yoshimi, A.; Takemura, K.; Tanaka, A.; Douseki, T.

    2015-12-01

    A batteryless self-powered wireless transmission system has been developed that sends a signal from a drum pad to a synthesizer. The power generated by a piezoelectric generator functions both as the “Play” signal for the synthesizer and as the power source for the transmitter. An FM transmitter, which theoretically operates with zero latency, and a receiver with quick-response squelch of the received signal were developed for wireless transmission with a minimum system delay. Experimental results for an electronic drum without any connecting wires fully demonstrated the feasibility of self-powered wireless transmission with a latency of 900 μs.

  11. A Switching-Mode Power Supply Design Tool to Improve Learning in a Power Electronics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miaja, P. F.; Lamar, D. G.; de Azpeitia, M.; Rodriguez, A.; Rodriguez, M.; Hernando, M. M.

    2011-01-01

    The static design of ac/dc and dc/dc switching-mode power supplies (SMPS) relies on a simple but repetitive process. Although specific spreadsheets, available in various computer-aided design (CAD) programs, are widely used, they are difficult to use in educational applications. In this paper, a graphic tool programmed in MATLAB is presented,…

  12. Millimeter-Gap Magnetically Insulated Transmission Line Power Flow Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Hutsel, Brian Thomas; Stoltzfus, Brian S.; Fowler, William E.; LeChien, Keith R.; Mazarakis, Michael G.; Moore, James K.; Mulville, Thomas D.; Savage, Mark E.; Stygar, William A.; McKenney, John L.; Jones, Peter A.; MacRunnels, Diego J.; Long, Finis W.; Porter, John L.

    2014-09-01

    An experiment platform has been designed to study vacuum power flow in magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs). The platform was driven by the 400-GW Mykonos-V accelerator. The experiments conducted quantify the current loss in a millimeter-gap MITL with respect to vacuum conditions in the MITL for two different gap distances, 1.0 and 1.3 mm. The current loss for each gap was measured for three different vacuum pump down times. As a ride along experiment, multiple shots were conducted with each set of hardware to determine if there was a conditioning effect to increase current delivery on subsequent shots. The experiment results revealed large differences in performance for the 1.0 and 1.3 mm gaps. The 1.0 mm gap resulted in current loss of 40%-60% of peak current. The 1.3 mm gap resulted in current losses of less than 5% of peak current. Classical MITL models that neglect plasma expansion predict that there should be zero current loss, after magnetic insulation is established, for both of these gaps. The experiments result s indicate that the vacuum pressure or pump down time did not have a significant effect on the measured current loss at vacuum pressures between 1e-4 and 1e-5 Torr. Additionally, there was not repeatable evidence of a conditioning effect that reduced current loss for subsequent full-energy shots on a given set of hardware. It should be noted that the experiments conducted likely did not have large loss contributions due to ion emission from the anode due to the relatively small current densi-ties (25-40 kA/cm) in the MITL that limited the anode temperature rise due to ohmic heating. The results and conclusions from these experiments may have limited applicability to MITLs of high current density (>400 kA/cm) used in the convolute and load region of the Z which experience temperature increases of >400° C and generate ion emission from anode surfaces.

  13. High-Voltage, High-Power Gaseous Electronics Switch For Electric Grid Power Conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommerer, Timothy J.

    2014-05-01

    We are developing a high-voltage, high-power gas switch for use in low-cost power conversion terminals on the electric power grid. Direct-current (dc) power transmission has many advantages over alternating current (ac) transmission, but at present the high cost of ac-dc power interconversion limits the use of dc. The gas switch we are developing conducts current through a magnetized cold cathode plasma in hydrogen or helium to reach practical current densities > 1 A/cm2. Thermal and sputter damage of the cathode by the incident ion flux is a major technical risk, and is being addressed through use of a ``self-healing'' liquid metal cathode (eg, gallium). Plasma conditions and cathode sputtering loss are estimated by analyzing plasma spectral emission. A particle-in-cell plasma model is used to understand various aspects of switch operation, including the conduction phase (where plasma densities can exceed 1013 cm-3), the switch-open phase (where the high-voltage must be held against gas breakdown on the left side of Paschen's curve), and the switching transitions (especially the opening process, which is initiated by forming an ion-matrix sheath adjacent to a control grid). The information, data, or work presented herein was funded in part by the Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E), U.S. Department of Energy, under Award Number DE-AR0000298.

  14. Comparison of electrically driven lasers for space power transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deyoung, R. J.; Lee, J. H.; Williams, M. D.; Schuster, G.; Conway, E. J.

    1988-01-01

    High-power lasers in space could provide power for a variety of future missions such as spacecraft electric power requirements and laser propulsion. This study investigates four electrically pumped laser systems, all scaled to 1-MW laser output, that could provide power to spacecraft. The four laser systems are krypton fluoride, copper vapor, laser diode array, and carbon dioxide. Each system was powered by a large solar photovoltaic array which, in turn, provided power for the appropriate laser power conditioning subsystem. Each system was block-diagrammed, and the power and efficiency were found for each subsystem block component. The copper vapor system had the lowest system efficiency (6 percent). The CO2 laser was found to be the most readily scalable but has the disadvantage of long laser wavelength.

  15. Space power by ground-based laser transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Landis, G.A. NASA, Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH )

    1992-07-01

    A new method for providing power to space vehicles consists of using high-power CW lasers on the ground to beam power to photovoltaic receivers in space. Such large lasers could be located at cloud-free sites at one or more ground locations, and use large mirrors with adaptive optical correction to reduce the beam spread due to diffraction or atmospheric turbulence. This can result in lower requirements for battery storage, due to continuous illumination of arrays even during periods of shadow by the earth, and higher power output, due to the higher efficiency of photovoltaic arrays under laser illumination compared to solar and the ability to achieve higher intensities of illumination. Applications include providing power for satellites during eclipse, providing power to resurrect satellites which are failing due to solar array degradation, powering orbital transfer vehicles or lunar transfer shuttles, and providing night power to a solar array on the moon. 22 refs.

  16. The integration of renewable energy sources into electric power transmission systems

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, P.R.; Dykas, W.P.; Kirby, B.J.; Purucker, S.L.; Lawler, J.S.

    1995-07-01

    Renewable energy technologies such as photovoltaics, solar thermal power plants, and wind turbines are nonconventional, environmentally attractive sources of energy that can be considered for electric power generation. Many of the areas with abundant renewable energy resources (very sunny or windy areas) are far removed from major load centers. Although electrical power can be transmitted over long distances of many hundreds of miles through high-voltage transmission lines, power transmission systems often operate near their limits with little excess capacity for new generation sources. This study assesses the available capacity of transmission systems in designated abundant renewable energy resource regions and identifies the requirements for high-capacity plant integration in selected cases. In general, about 50 MW of power from renewable sources can be integrated into existing transmission systems to supply local loads without transmission upgrades beyond the construction of a substation to connect to the grid. Except in the Southwest, significant investment to strengthen transmission systems will be required to support the development of high-capacity renewable sources of 1000 MW or greater in areas remote from major load centers. Cost estimates for new transmission facilities to integrate and dispatch some of these high-capacity renewable sources ranged from several million dollars to approximately one billion dollars, with the latter figure an increase in total investment of 35%, assuming that the renewable source is the only user of the transmission facility.

  17. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES: Large signal RF power transmission characterization of InGaP HBT for RF power amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lixin, Zhao; Zhi, Jin; Xinyu, Liu

    2010-01-01

    The large signal RF power transmission characteristics of an advanced InGaP HBT in an RF power amplifier are investigated and analyzed experimentally. The realistic RF powers reflected by the transistor, transmitted from the transistor and reflected by the load are investigated at small signal and large signal levels. The RF power multiple frequency components at the input and output ports are investigated at small signal and large signal levels, including their effects on RF power gain compression and nonlinearity. The results show that the RF power reflections are different between the output and input ports. At the input port the reflected power is not always proportional to input power level; at large power levels the reflected power becomes more serious than that at small signal levels, and there is a knee point at large power levels. The results also show the effects of the power multiple frequency components on RF amplification.

  18. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT XXI, MICHIGAN/CLARK TRANSMISSION--COMPLETE POWER TRAIN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MOSULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF A SPECIFIC POWER TRAIN SYSTEM USED ON DIESEL POWERED EQUIPMENT. TOPICS ARE EXAMINING THE POWER FLOW, UNIT OIL FLOW, AND OIL PRESSURE IN THE CONVERTER AND TRANSMISSION SYSTEM. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAM TRAINING FILM "UNDERSTANDING THE…

  19. 18 CFR 2.22 - Pricing policy for transmission services provided under the Federal Power Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pricing policy for transmission services provided under the Federal Power Act. 2.22 Section 2.22 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES GENERAL POLICY...

  20. 18 CFR 2.22 - Pricing policy for transmission services provided under the Federal Power Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pricing policy for transmission services provided under the Federal Power Act. 2.22 Section 2.22 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES GENERAL POLICY...

  1. 18 CFR 2.22 - Pricing policy for transmission services provided under the Federal Power Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pricing policy for transmission services provided under the Federal Power Act. 2.22 Section 2.22 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES GENERAL POLICY...

  2. 18 CFR 2.22 - Pricing policy for transmission services provided under the Federal Power Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pricing policy for transmission services provided under the Federal Power Act. 2.22 Section 2.22 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES GENERAL POLICY...

  3. Power transmission by laser beam from lunar-synchronous satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, M. D.; Deyoung, R. J.; Schuster, G. L.; Choi, S. H.; Dagle, J. E.; Coomes, E. P.; Antoniak, Z. I.; Bamberger, J. A.; Bates, J. M.; Chiu, M. A.

    1993-01-01

    The possibility of beaming power from synchronous lunar orbits (the L1 and L2 Lagrange points) to a manned long-range lunar rover is addressed. The rover and two versions of a satellite system (one powered by a nuclear reactor, the other by photovoltaics) are described in terms of their masses, geometries, power needs, missions, and technological capabilities. Laser beam power is generated by a laser diode array in the satellite and converted to 30 kW of electrical power at the rover. Present technological capabilities, with some extrapolation to near future capabilities, are used in the descriptions. The advantages of the two satellite/rover systems over other such systems and over rovers with onboard power are discussed along with the possibility of enabling other missions.

  4. 75 FR 41895 - Emerson Power Transmission, a Division of Emerson Electric Co., Including On-Site Leased From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... Employment and Training Administration Emerson Power Transmission, a Division of Emerson Electric Co..., 2010, applicable to workers of Emerson Power Transmission, a Division of Emerson Electric Co..., location of Emerson Power Transmission, a Division of Emerson Electric Co. The amended notice applicable...

  5. Power Switching Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The MOS-Controlled Thyristor is a new type of power switching device for faster and more efficient control and management of power electronics. It enables power electronic switching at frequencies of 50 to 100 thousand times a second with much lower power losses than other semiconductor devices. Advantages include electric power savings and smaller space. The device is used in motor and power controllers, AC & DC motor drives and induction heating. Early development was supported by Lewis Research Center (LEW) and other agencies. General Electric''s power semiconductor operation, the initial NASA contractor, was later purchased by Harris Semiconductor.

  6. Transmission of High-Power Electron Beams Through Small Apertures

    SciTech Connect

    Tschalaer, Christoph; Alarcon, Ricardo O.; Balascuta, S.; Benson, Stephen V.; Bertozzi, William; Boyce, James R.; Cowan, Ray Franklin; Douglas, David R.; Evtushenko, Pavel; Fisher, Peter H.; Ihloff, Ernest E.; Kalantarians, Narbe; Kelleher, Aidan Michael; Legg, Robert A.; Milner, Richard; Neil, George R.; Ou, Longwu; Schmookler, Barak Abraham; Tennant, Christopher D.; Williams, Gwyn P.; Zhang, Shukui

    2013-11-01

    Tests were performed to pass a 100 MeV, 430 kWatt c.w. electron beam from the energy-recovery linac at the Jefferson Laboratory's FEL facility through a set of small apertures in a 127 mm long aluminum block. Beam transmission losses of 3 p.p.m. through a 2 mm diameter aperture were maintained during a 7 hour continuous run.

  7. Test Results From a Simulated High-Voltage Lunar Power Transmission Line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchenough, Arthur; Hervol, David

    2008-01-01

    The Alternator Test Unit (ATU) in the Lunar Power System Facility (LPSF) located at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio was modified to simulate high-voltage transmission capability. The testbed simulated a 1 km transmission cable length from the ATU to the LPSF using resistors and inductors installed between the distribution transformers. Power factor correction circuitry was used to compensate for the reactance of the distribution system to improve the overall power factor. This test demonstrated that a permanent magnet alternator can successfully provide high-frequency ac power to a lunar facility located at a distance.

  8. Test Results from a Simulated High Voltage Lunar Power Transmission Line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchenough, Arthur; Hervol, David

    2008-01-01

    The Alternator Test Unit (ATU) in the Lunar Power System Facility (LPSF) located at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, OH was modified to simulate high voltage transmission capability. The testbed simulated a 1 km transmission cable length from the ATU to the LPSF using resistors and inductors installed between the distribution transformers. Power factor correction circuitry was used to compensate for the reactance of the distribution system to improve the overall power factor. This test demonstrated that a permanent magnet alternator can successfully provide high frequency AC power to a lunar facility located at a distance.

  9. Power budget improvement for long-haul WDM transmission with optimum placement of SOAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Surinder; Kaler, R. S.

    2008-05-01

    Sufficient power margin is investigated for ten-channels WDM transmission over 68,908 km by using cascaded in-line semiconductor optical amplifier for the differential phase-shift keying (DPSK) modulation format for the first time. For this, we used the structural optimization and placement scheme of semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) for long-haul WDM transmission. The SOA model for in-line amplifier has low crosstalk, ASE noise power and low noise figure with sufficient gain. The impact of noise figure, amplification factor, ASE noise power, optical gain and crosstalk with signal input power for the SOA model has been illustrated, which shows that 400 mA is the optimum bias current. We observed that the optimized optical filter bandwidth for the 100 GHz channel spacing is 0.4 nm. We observe that as we decrease the channel spacing, the quality of signal is degraded. We show that the optimum span scheme-1 is used up to a transmission distance of 68,908 km with good quality for power margin more than 24 dB. This placement scheme of SOAs shows good power budget for long transmission distance. We show the optical spectrum and clear eye diagram at the transmission distance of 68,908 km for optimum span schemes. Finally, we investigate the maximum transmission distance with decrease in channel spacing, i.e., 20 and 50 GHz.

  10. Assessment of research directions for high-voltage direct-current power systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Long, W F

    1982-09-01

    High voltage direct current (HVDC) power transmission continues to be an emerging technology nearly thirty years after its introduction into modern power systems. To date its use has been restricted to either specialized applications having identifiable economic advantages (e.g., breakeven distance) or, rarely, applications where decoupling is needed. Only recently have the operational advantages (e.g., power modulation) of HVDC been realized on operating systems. A research project whose objective was to identify hardware developments and, where appropriate, system applications which can exemplify cost and operational advantages of integrated ac/dc power systems is discussed. The three principal tasks undertaken were: assessment of equipment developments; quantification of operational advantages; and interaction with system planners. Interest in HVDC power transmission has increased markedly over the past several years, and many new systems are now being investigated. The dissemination of information about HVDC, including specifically the symposium undertaken for Task 3, is a critical factor in fostering an understanding of this important adjunct to ac power transmission.

  11. Power quality control and design of power converter for variable-speed wind energy conversion system with permanent-magnet synchronous generator.

    PubMed

    Oğuz, Yüksel; Güney, İrfan; Çalık, Hüseyin

    2013-01-01

    The control strategy and design of an AC/DC/AC IGBT-PMW power converter for PMSG-based variable-speed wind energy conversion systems (VSWECS) operation in grid/load-connected mode are presented. VSWECS consists of a PMSG connected to a AC-DC IGBT-based PWM rectifier and a DC/AC IGBT-based PWM inverter with LCL filter. In VSWECS, AC/DC/AC power converter is employed to convert the variable frequency variable speed generator output to the fixed frequency fixed voltage grid. The DC/AC power conversion has been managed out using adaptive neurofuzzy controlled inverter located at the output of controlled AC/DC IGBT-based PWM rectifier. In this study, the dynamic performance and power quality of the proposed power converter connected to the grid/load by output LCL filter is focused on. Dynamic modeling and control of the VSWECS with the proposed power converter is performed by using MATLAB/Simulink. Simulation results show that the output voltage, power, and frequency of VSWECS reach to desirable operation values in a very short time. In addition, when PMSG based VSWECS works continuously with the 4.5 kHz switching frequency, the THD rate of voltage in the load terminal is 0.00672%.

  12. Power quality control and design of power converter for variable-speed wind energy conversion system with permanent-magnet synchronous generator.

    PubMed

    Oğuz, Yüksel; Güney, İrfan; Çalık, Hüseyin

    2013-01-01

    The control strategy and design of an AC/DC/AC IGBT-PMW power converter for PMSG-based variable-speed wind energy conversion systems (VSWECS) operation in grid/load-connected mode are presented. VSWECS consists of a PMSG connected to a AC-DC IGBT-based PWM rectifier and a DC/AC IGBT-based PWM inverter with LCL filter. In VSWECS, AC/DC/AC power converter is employed to convert the variable frequency variable speed generator output to the fixed frequency fixed voltage grid. The DC/AC power conversion has been managed out using adaptive neurofuzzy controlled inverter located at the output of controlled AC/DC IGBT-based PWM rectifier. In this study, the dynamic performance and power quality of the proposed power converter connected to the grid/load by output LCL filter is focused on. Dynamic modeling and control of the VSWECS with the proposed power converter is performed by using MATLAB/Simulink. Simulation results show that the output voltage, power, and frequency of VSWECS reach to desirable operation values in a very short time. In addition, when PMSG based VSWECS works continuously with the 4.5 kHz switching frequency, the THD rate of voltage in the load terminal is 0.00672%. PMID:24453905

  13. Power Quality Control and Design of Power Converter for Variable-Speed Wind Energy Conversion System with Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Generator

    PubMed Central

    Oğuz, Yüksel; Güney, İrfan; Çalık, Hüseyin

    2013-01-01

    The control strategy and design of an AC/DC/AC IGBT-PMW power converter for PMSG-based variable-speed wind energy conversion systems (VSWECS) operation in grid/load-connected mode are presented. VSWECS consists of a PMSG connected to a AC-DC IGBT-based PWM rectifier and a DC/AC IGBT-based PWM inverter with LCL filter. In VSWECS, AC/DC/AC power converter is employed to convert the variable frequency variable speed generator output to the fixed frequency fixed voltage grid. The DC/AC power conversion has been managed out using adaptive neurofuzzy controlled inverter located at the output of controlled AC/DC IGBT-based PWM rectifier. In this study, the dynamic performance and power quality of the proposed power converter connected to the grid/load by output LCL filter is focused on. Dynamic modeling and control of the VSWECS with the proposed power converter is performed by using MATLAB/Simulink. Simulation results show that the output voltage, power, and frequency of VSWECS reach to desirable operation values in a very short time. In addition, when PMSG based VSWECS works continuously with the 4.5 kHz switching frequency, the THD rate of voltage in the load terminal is 0.00672%. PMID:24453905

  14. A Novel Power Efficient Location-Based Cooperative Routing with Transmission Power-Upper-Limit for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Juanfei; Calveras, Anna; Cheng, Ye; Liu, Kai

    2013-01-01

    The extensive usage of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) has led to the development of many power- and energy-efficient routing protocols. Cooperative routing in WSNs can improve performance in these types of networks. In this paper we discuss the existing proposals and we propose a routing algorithm for wireless sensor networks called Power Efficient Location-based Cooperative Routing with Transmission Power-upper-limit (PELCR-TP). The algorithm is based on the principle of minimum link power and aims to take advantage of nodes cooperation to make the link work well in WSNs with a low transmission power. In the proposed scheme, with a determined transmission power upper limit, nodes find the most appropriate next nodes and single-relay nodes with the proposed algorithm. Moreover, this proposal subtly avoids non-working nodes, because we add a Bad nodes Avoidance Strategy (BAS). Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm with BAS can significantly improve the performance in reducing the overall link power, enhancing the transmission success rate and decreasing the retransmission rate. PMID:23676625

  15. Wireless Power Transmission Technology State-Of-The-Art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickinson, R. M. T.

    2002-01-01

    This first Bill Brown SSP La Crescenta, CA 91214 technology , including microwave and laser systems for the transfer of electric , as related to eventually developing Space Solar Power (SSP) systems. Current and past technology accomplishments in ground based and air and space applied energy conversion devices, systems and modeling performance and cost information is presented, where such data are known to the author. The purpose of the presentation is to discuss and present data to encourage documenting and breaking the current technology records, so as to advance the SOA in WPT for SSP . For example, regarding DC to RF and laser converters, 83% efficient 2.45 GHz cooker-tube magnetrons with 800W CW output have been jointly developed by Russia and US. Over 50% wa11-plug efficient 1.5 kW/cm2 CW, water cooled, multibeam, solid state laser diode bar-arrays have been developed by LLNL at 808 nm wavelength. The Gennans have developed a 36% efficient, kW level, sing1e coherent beam, lateral pumped semiconductor laser. The record for end-to-end DC input to DC output power overall WPT link conversion efficiency is 54% during the Raytheon-JPL experiments in 1975 for 495.6 W recovered at 1.7-mrange at 2.4469 GAz. The record for usefully recovered electric power output ( as contrasted with thennally induced power in structures) is 34 kW OC output at a range of 1.55 km, using 2.388 GHz microwaves, during the JPL- Raytheon experiments by Bill Brown and the author at Goldstone, CA in 1975. The GaAs-diode rectenna array had an average collection-conversion efficiency of 82.5%. A single rectenna element operating a 6W RF input, developed by Bill Brown demonstrated 91.4% efficiency. The comparable record for laser light to OC output power conversion efficiency of photovoltaics is 590/0. for AlGaAs at 1.7 Wand 826nm wavelength. Russian cyclotron-wave converters have demonstrated 80% rectification efficiency at S-band. Concerning WPT technology equipment costs, magnetron conversion

  16. Solar Dynamic Power System Stability Analysis and Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Momoh, James A.; Wang, Yanchun

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this research is to conduct dynamic analysis, control design, and control performance test of solar power system. Solar power system consists of generation system and distribution network system. A bench mark system is used in this research, which includes a generator with excitation system and governor, an ac/dc converter, six DDCU's and forty-eight loads. A detailed model is used for modeling generator. Excitation system is represented by a third order model. DDCU is represented by a seventh order system. The load is modeled by the combination of constant power and constant impedance. Eigen-analysis and eigen-sensitivity analysis are used for system dynamic analysis. The effects of excitation system, governor, ac/dc converter control, and the type of load on system stability are discussed. In order to improve system transient stability, nonlinear ac/dc converter control is introduced. The direct linearization method is used for control design. The dynamic analysis results show that these controls affect system stability in different ways. The parameter coordination of controllers are recommended based on the dynamic analysis. It is concluded from the present studies that system stability is improved by the coordination of control parameters and the nonlinear ac/dc converter control stabilize system oscillation caused by the load change and system fault efficiently.

  17. Mobile Robot Positioning with 433-MHz Wireless Motes with Varying Transmission Powers and a Particle Filter.

    PubMed

    Canedo-Rodriguez, Adrian; Rodriguez, Jose Manuel; Alvarez-Santos, Victor; Iglesias, Roberto; Regueiro, Carlos V

    2015-01-01

    In wireless positioning systems, the transmitter's power is usually fixed. In this paper, we explore the use of varying transmission powers to increase the performance of a wireless localization system. To this extent, we have designed a robot positioning system based on wireless motes. Our motes use an inexpensive, low-power sub-1-GHz system-on-chip (CC1110) working in the 433-MHz ISM band. Our localization algorithm is based on a particle filter and infers the robot position by: (1) comparing the power received with the expected one; and (2) integrating the robot displacement. We demonstrate that the use of transmitters that vary their transmission power over time improves the performance of the wireless positioning system significantly, with respect to a system that uses fixed power transmitters. This opens the door for applications where the robot can localize itself actively by requesting the transmitters to change their power in real time. PMID:25942641

  18. Mobile Robot Positioning with 433-MHz Wireless Motes with Varying Transmission Powers and a Particle Filter

    PubMed Central

    Canedo-Rodriguez, Adrian; Rodriguez, Jose Manuel; Alvarez-Santos, Victor; Iglesias, Roberto; Regueiro, Carlos V.

    2015-01-01

    In wireless positioning systems, the transmitter's power is usually fixed. In this paper, we explore the use of varying transmission powers to increase the performance of a wireless localization system. To this extent, we have designed a robot positioning system based on wireless motes. Our motes use an inexpensive, low-power sub-1-GHz system-on-chip (CC1110) working in the 433-MHz ISM band. Our localization algorithm is based on a particle filter and infers the robot position by: (1) comparing the power received with the expected one; and (2) integrating the robot displacement. We demonstrate that the use of transmitters that vary their transmission power over time improves the performance of the wireless positioning system significantly, with respect to a system that uses fixed power transmitters. This opens the door for applications where the robot can localize itself actively by requesting the transmitters to change their power in real time. PMID:25942641

  19. Enhanced Electric Power Transmission by Hybrid Compensation Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palanichamy, C.; Kiu, G. Q.

    2015-04-01

    In today's competitive environment, new power system engineers are likely to contribute immediately to the task, without years of seasoning via on-the-job training, mentoring, and rotation assignments. At the same time it is becoming obligatory to train power system engineering graduates for an increasingly quality-minded corporate environment. In order to achieve this, there is a need to make available better-quality tools for educating and training power system engineering students and in-service system engineers too. As a result of the swift advances in computer hardware and software, many windows-based computer software packages were developed for the purpose of educating and training. In line with those packages, a simulation package called Hybrid Series-Shunt Compensators (HSSC) has been developed and presented in this paper for educational purposes.

  20. Advanced Receiver/Converter Experiments for Laser Wireless Power Transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Joe T.; ONeill, Mark; Fork, Richard

    2004-01-01

    For several years NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, UAH and ENTECH have been working on various aspects of space solar power systems. The current activity was just begun in January 2004 to further develop this new photovoltaic concentrator laser receiver/converter technology. During the next few months, an improved prototype will be designed, fabricated, and thoroughly tested under laser illumination. The final paper will describe the new concept, present its advantages over other laser receiver/converter approaches (including planar photovoltaic arrays), and provide the latest experiment results on prototype hardware (including the effects of laser irradiance level and cell temperature). With NASA's new human exploration plans to first return to the Moon, and then to proceed to Mars, the new photovoltaic concentrator laser receiver/converter technology could prove to be extremely useful in providing power to the landing sites and other phases of the missions. For example, to explore the scientifically interesting and likely resource-rich poles of the Moon (which may contain water) or the poles of Mars (which definitely contain water and carbon dioxide), laser power beaming could represent the simplest means of providing power to these regions, which receive little or no sunlight, making solar arrays useless there. In summary, the authors propose a paper on definition and experimental results of a novel photovoltaic concentrator approach for collecting and converting laser radiation to electrical power. The new advanced photovoltaic concentrator laser receiver/converter offers higher performance, lighter weight, and lower cost than competing concepts, and early experimental results are confirming the expected excellent Performance levels. After the small prototypes are successfully demonstrated, a larger array with even better performance is planned for the next phase experiments and demonstrations. Thereafter, a near-term flight experiment of the new technology

  1. 29 CFR 1910.269 - Electric power generation, transmission, and distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Electric power generation, transmission, and distribution. 1910.269 Section 1910.269 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Special Industries § 1910.269 Electric power...

  2. 29 CFR 1910.269 - Electric power generation, transmission, and distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Electric power generation, transmission, and distribution. 1910.269 Section 1910.269 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Special Industries § 1910.269 Electric power...

  3. 29 CFR 1910.269 - Electric power generation, transmission, and distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Electric power generation, transmission, and distribution. 1910.269 Section 1910.269 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Special Industries § 1910.269 Electric power...

  4. A survey of beam-combining technologies for laser space power transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwon, J. H.; Williams, M. D.; Lee, J. H.

    1988-01-01

    The combination of laser beams holds much promise for obtaining powerful beams. Methods are surveyed for beam combination (coherent and incoherent) and two of them are identified as the most effective means for achieving high power transmission in space. The two methods as applied to laser diode arrays are analyzed, and potentially productive work areas for the advancement of technology are delineated.

  5. Research Plan for Study of Biological and Ecological Effects of the Solar Power Satellite Transmission System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newsom, B. D.

    1978-01-01

    A programmatic research plan for a three year study is presented to generate knowledge on effects of the continuous wave 2.45 GHz microwave power transmission that the Solar Power Satellite might have on biological and ecological elements, within and around the rectenna receiving site.

  6. Electrical Collection and Transmission Systems for Offshore Wind Power: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Green, J.; Bowen, A.; Fingersh, L.J.; Wan, Y.

    2007-03-01

    The electrical systems needed for offshore wind farms to collect power from wind turbines--and transmit it to shore--will be a significant cost element of these systems. This paper describes the development of a simplified model of the cost and performance of such systems.

  7. Progress in Acoustic Transmission of Power through Walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit,Stewart; Coty, Benjamin; Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Badescu, Mircea; Chang, Zensheu

    2008-01-01

    A document presents updated information on implementation of the wireless acoustic-electric feed-through (WAEF) concept, which was reported in Using Piezoelectric Devices To Transmit Power Through Walls (NPO-41157), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No. 6 (June 2008), page 70. To recapitulate: In a basic WAEF setup, a transmitting piezoelectric transducer on one side of a wall is driven at resonance to excite ultrasonic vibrations in the wall. A receiving piezoelectric transducer on the opposite side of the wall converts the vibrations back to an ultrasonic AC electric signal, which is then detected and otherwise processed in a manner that depends on the modulation (if any) applied to the signal and whether the signal is used to transmit power, data, or both. The present document expands upon the previous information concerning underlying physical principles, advantages, and potential applications of WAEF. It discusses the design and construction of breadboard prototype piezoelectric transducers for WAEF. It goes on to present results of computational simulations of performance and results of laboratory tests of the prototypes. In one notable test, a 100-W light bulb was lit by WAEF to demonstrate the feasibility of powering a realistic load.

  8. Through-Metal-Wall Power Delivery and Data Transmission for Enclosed Sensors: A Review.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ding-Xin; Hu, Zheng; Zhao, Hong; Hu, Hai-Feng; Sun, Yun-Zhe; Hou, Bao-Jian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review was to assess the current viable technologies for wireless power delivery and data transmission through metal barriers. Using such technologies sensors enclosed in hermetical metal containers can be powered and communicate through exterior power sources without penetration of the metal wall for wire feed-throughs. In this review, we first discuss the significant and essential requirements for through-metal-wall power delivery and data transmission and then we: (1) describe three electromagnetic coupling based techniques reported in the literature, which include inductive coupling, capacitive coupling, and magnetic resonance coupling; (2) present a detailed review of wireless ultrasonic through-metal-wall power delivery and/or data transmission methods; (3) compare various ultrasonic through-metal-wall systems in modeling, transducer configuration and communication mode with sensors; (4) summarize the characteristics of electromagnetic-based and ultrasound-based systems, evaluate the challenges and development trends. We conclude that electromagnetic coupling methods are suitable for through thin non-ferromagnetic metal wall power delivery and data transmission at a relatively low data rate; piezoelectric transducer-based ultrasonic systems are particularly advantageous in achieving high power transfer efficiency and high data rates; the combination of more than one single technique may provide a more practical and reliable solution for long term operation. PMID:26694392

  9. Through-Metal-Wall Power Delivery and Data Transmission for Enclosed Sensors: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ding-Xin; Hu, Zheng; Zhao, Hong; Hu, Hai-Feng; Sun, Yun-Zhe; Hou, Bao-Jian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review was to assess the current viable technologies for wireless power delivery and data transmission through metal barriers. Using such technologies sensors enclosed in hermetical metal containers can be powered and communicate through exterior power sources without penetration of the metal wall for wire feed-throughs. In this review, we first discuss the significant and essential requirements for through-metal-wall power delivery and data transmission and then we: (1) describe three electromagnetic coupling based techniques reported in the literature, which include inductive coupling, capacitive coupling, and magnetic resonance coupling; (2) present a detailed review of wireless ultrasonic through-metal-wall power delivery and/or data transmission methods; (3) compare various ultrasonic through-metal-wall systems in modeling, transducer configuration and communication mode with sensors; (4) summarize the characteristics of electromagnetic-based and ultrasound-based systems, evaluate the challenges and development trends. We conclude that electromagnetic coupling methods are suitable for through thin non-ferromagnetic metal wall power delivery and data transmission at a relatively low data rate; piezoelectric transducer-based ultrasonic systems are particularly advantageous in achieving high power transfer efficiency and high data rates; the combination of more than one single technique may provide a more practical and reliable solution for long term operation. PMID:26694392

  10. Optical fiber cable for transmission of high power laser energy over great distances

    DOEpatents

    Zediker, Mark S.; Rinzler, Charles C.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Moxley, Joel F.; Koblick, Yeshaya

    2016-05-24

    There is provided a system and apparatus for the transmission of high power laser energy over great distances without substantial power loss and without the presence of stimulated Raman scattering. There is further provided systems and optical fiber cable configurations and optical fiber structures for the delivering high power laser energy over great distances to a tool or surface to perform an operation or work with the tool or upon the surface.

  11. Transmission Benefits of Co-Locating Concentrating Solar Power and Wind

    SciTech Connect

    Sioshansi, R.; Denholm, P.

    2012-03-01

    In some areas of the U.S. transmission constraints are a limiting factor in deploying new wind and concentrating solar power (CSP) plants. Texas is an example of one such location, where the best wind and solar resources are in the western part of the state, while major demand centers are in the east. The low capacity factor of wind is a compounding factor, increasing the relative cost of new transmission per unit of energy actually delivered. A possible method of increasing the utilization of new transmission is to co-locate both wind and concentrating solar power with thermal energy storage. In this work we examine the benefits and limits of using the dispatachability of thermal storage to increase the capacity factor of new transmission developed to access high quality solar and wind resources in remote locations.

  12. A role for high frequency superconducting devices in free space power transmission systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, Jose L., Jr.; Cull, Ronald C.

    1988-01-01

    Major advances in space power technology are being made in photovoltaic, solar thermal, and nuclear systems. Despite these advances, the power systems required by the energy and power intensive mission of the future will be massive due to the large collecting surfaces, large thermal management systems, and heavy shielding. Reducing this mass on board the space vehicle can result in significant benefits because of the high cost of transporting and moving mass about in space. An approach to this problem is beaming the power from a point where the massiveness of the power plant is not such a major concern. The viability of such an approach was already investigated. Efficient microwave power beam transmission at 2.45 GHz was demonstrated over short range. Higher frequencies are desired for efficient transmission over several hundred or thousand kilometers in space. Superconducting DC-RF conversion as well as RF-DC conversion offers exciting possibilities. Multivoltage power conditioning for multicavity high power RF tubes could be eliminated since only low voltages are required for Josephson junctions. Small, high efficiency receivers may be possible using the reverse Josephson effects. A conceptual receiving antenna design using superconducting devices to determine possible system operating efficiency is assessed. If realized, these preliminary assessments indicate a role for superconducting devices in millimeter and submillimeter free space power transmission systems.

  13. Wireless power transmission for biomedical implants: The role of near-zero threshold CMOS rectifiers.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Ali; Redoute, Jean-Michel; Yuce, Mehmet R

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical implants require an electronic power conditioning circuitry to provide a stable electrical power supply. The efficiency of wireless power transmission is strongly dependent on the power conditioning circuitry specifically the rectifier. A cross-connected CMOS bridge rectifier is implemented to demonstrate the impact of thresholds of rectifiers on wireless power transfer. The performance of the proposed rectifier is experimentally compared with a conventional Schottky diode full wave rectifier over 9 cm distance of air and tissue medium between the transmitter and receiver. The output voltage generated by the CMOS rectifier across a 1 KΩ resistive load is around twice as much as the Schottky rectifier. PMID:26737525

  14. Status of magnetically-insulated power transmission theory

    SciTech Connect

    Mendel, C.W. Jr.

    1995-12-31

    The theory of magnetically-insulated power flow has improved dramatically over the last two decades since the early works of Creedon, Lovelace and Ott, Ron, Mondelli, and Rostoker, and of Bergeron. During the intervening years theoretical improvements included a complete general kinetic theory that involved distributions of electrons based on quasi-conserved canonical variables and was used to study flow stability and to analyze simulations and pulsers with voltage adders. The status of theory at this time allowed them to understand many features of these flows, but did not allow detailed analysis for design and data interpretation. Recent theoretical advances have drastically changed this situation. Two recent static models based on layered flows have allowed them to understand and to improve power coupling in voltage adders, current adders, plasma opening switches and in systems where the vacuum impedance varies along the flow. A dynamic model based upon electrons flowing in one or more thin layers has permitted detailed self-consistent time-dependent calculations which include electron flow. This model accurately predicts experimental and simulational data.

  15. Study of power management technology for orbital multi-100KWe applications. Volume 2: Study results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mildice, J. W.

    1980-01-01

    The preliminary requirements and technology advances required for cost effective space power management systems for multi-100 kilowatt requirements were identified. System requirements were defined by establishing a baseline space platform in the 250 KE KWe range and examining typical user loads and interfaces. The most critical design parameters identified for detailed analysis include: increased distribution voltages and space plasma losses, the choice between ac and dc distribution systems, shuttle servicing effects on reliability, life cycle costs, and frequency impacts to power management system and payload systems for AC transmission. The first choice for a power management system for this kind of application and size range is a hybrid ac/dc combination with the following major features: modular design and construction-sized minimum weight/life cycle cost; high voltage transmission (100 Vac RMS); medium voltage array or = 440 Vdc); resonant inversion; transformer rotary joint; high frequency power transmission line or = 20 KHz); energy storage on array side or rotary joint; fully redundant; and 10 year life with minimal replacement and repair.

  16. Study of power management technology for orbital multi-100KWe applications. Volume 2: Study results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mildice, J. W.

    1980-07-01

    The preliminary requirements and technology advances required for cost effective space power management systems for multi-100 kilowatt requirements were identified. System requirements were defined by establishing a baseline space platform in the 250 KE KWe range and examining typical user loads and interfaces. The most critical design parameters identified for detailed analysis include: increased distribution voltages and space plasma losses, the choice between ac and dc distribution systems, shuttle servicing effects on reliability, life cycle costs, and frequency impacts to power management system and payload systems for AC transmission. The first choice for a power management system for this kind of application and size range is a hybrid ac/dc combination with the following major features: modular design and construction-sized minimum weight/life cycle cost; high voltage transmission (100 Vac RMS); medium voltage array or = 440 Vdc); resonant inversion; transformer rotary joint; high frequency power transmission line or = 20 KHz); energy storage on array side or rotary joint; fully redundant; and 10 year life with minimal replacement and repair.

  17. Decorative power generating panels creating angle insensitive transmissive colors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Yong; Lee, Kyu-Tae; Seo, Sungyong; Guo, L Jay

    2014-02-28

    We present ultra-thin (6 to 31 nm) undoped amorphous silicon/organic hybrid solar cell structure, which can transmit desired color of light. The transmitted colors show great angular tolerance due to the negligible optical phase associated with light propagating in ultra-thin amorphous silicon (a-Si) layers. We achieved the power conversion efficiency of the hybrid cells up to 2 %; and demonstrated that most of the absorbed photons in the undoped a-Si layer contributed to the extracted electric charges due to the suppressed electron-hole recombination in the ultra-thin a-Si layer. We also show the resonance is invariant with respect to the angle of incidence up to ± 70° regardless of the polarization of the incident light. Our exploration provides a design to realize energy harvesting colored photovoltaic panels for innovative applications.

  18. Decorative power generating panels creating angle insensitive transmissive colors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Yong; Lee, Kyu-Tae; Seo, Sungyong; Guo, L Jay

    2014-01-01

    We present ultra-thin (6 to 31 nm) undoped amorphous silicon/organic hybrid solar cell structure, which can transmit desired color of light. The transmitted colors show great angular tolerance due to the negligible optical phase associated with light propagating in ultra-thin amorphous silicon (a-Si) layers. We achieved the power conversion efficiency of the hybrid cells up to 2 %; and demonstrated that most of the absorbed photons in the undoped a-Si layer contributed to the extracted electric charges due to the suppressed electron-hole recombination in the ultra-thin a-Si layer. We also show the resonance is invariant with respect to the angle of incidence up to ± 70° regardless of the polarization of the incident light. Our exploration provides a design to realize energy harvesting colored photovoltaic panels for innovative applications. PMID:24577075

  19. Rocket experiment on microwave power transmission with Furoshiki deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaya, Nobuyuki; Iwashita, Masashi; Tanaka, Kohei; Nakasuka, Shinichi; Summerer, Leopold

    2009-07-01

    Huge antennas has many useful applications in space as well as on the ground, for example, Solar Power Satellite to provide electricity to the ground, telecommunication for cellular phones, radars for remote sensing, navigation and observation, and so on. The S-310-36 sounding rocket was successfully launched on 22 January 2006 to verify our newly proposed scheme to construct huge antennas under microgravity condition in space. The rocket experiment has three main objectives, the first objective of which is to verify the Furoshiki deployment system [S. Nakasuka, R. Funase, K. Nakada, N. Kaya, J. Mankins, Large membrane "FUROSHIKI Satellite" applied to phased array antenna and its sounding rocket experiment, in: Proceedings of the 54th International Astronautical Congress, 2003. [1

  20. Decorative power generating panels creating angle insensitive transmissive colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae Yong; Lee, Kyu-Tae; Seo, Sungyong; Guo, L. Jay

    2014-02-01

    We present ultra-thin (6 to 31 nm) undoped amorphous silicon/organic hybrid solar cell structure, which can transmit desired color of light. The transmitted colors show great angular tolerance due to the negligible optical phase associated with light propagating in ultra-thin amorphous silicon (a-Si) layers. We achieved the power conversion efficiency of the hybrid cells up to 2 %; and demonstrated that most of the absorbed photons in the undoped a-Si layer contributed to the extracted electric charges due to the suppressed electron-hole recombination in the ultra-thin a-Si layer. We also show the resonance is invariant with respect to the angle of incidence up to +/-70° regardless of the polarization of the incident light. Our exploration provides a design to realize energy harvesting colored photovoltaic panels for innovative applications.

  1. The Effect Analysis of Strain Rate on Power Transmission Tower-Line System under Seismic Excitation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenming

    2014-01-01

    The effect analysis of strain rate on power transmission tower-line system under seismic excitation is studied in this paper. A three-dimensional finite element model of a transmission tower-line system is created based on a real project. Using theoretical analysis and numerical simulation, incremental dynamic analysis of the power transmission tower-line system is conducted to investigate the effect of strain rate on the nonlinear responses of the transmission tower and line. The results show that the effect of strain rate on the transmission tower generally decreases the maximum top displacements, but it would increase the maximum base shear forces, and thus it is necessary to consider the effect of strain rate on the seismic analysis of the transmission tower. The effect of strain rate could be ignored for the seismic analysis of the conductors and ground lines, but the responses of the ground lines considering strain rate effect are larger than those of the conductors. The results could provide a reference for the seismic design of the transmission tower-line system. PMID:25105157

  2. The effect analysis of strain rate on power transmission tower-line system under seismic excitation.

    PubMed

    Tian, Li; Wang, Wenming; Qian, Hui

    2014-01-01

    The effect analysis of strain rate on power transmission tower-line system under seismic excitation is studied in this paper. A three-dimensional finite element model of a transmission tower-line system is created based on a real project. Using theoretical analysis and numerical simulation, incremental dynamic analysis of the power transmission tower-line system is conducted to investigate the effect of strain rate on the nonlinear responses of the transmission tower and line. The results show that the effect of strain rate on the transmission tower generally decreases the maximum top displacements, but it would increase the maximum base shear forces, and thus it is necessary to consider the effect of strain rate on the seismic analysis of the transmission tower. The effect of strain rate could be ignored for the seismic analysis of the conductors and ground lines, but the responses of the ground lines considering strain rate effect are larger than those of the conductors. The results could provide a reference for the seismic design of the transmission tower-line system. PMID:25105157

  3. The effect analysis of strain rate on power transmission tower-line system under seismic excitation.

    PubMed

    Tian, Li; Wang, Wenming; Qian, Hui

    2014-01-01

    The effect analysis of strain rate on power transmission tower-line system under seismic excitation is studied in this paper. A three-dimensional finite element model of a transmission tower-line system is created based on a real project. Using theoretical analysis and numerical simulation, incremental dynamic analysis of the power transmission tower-line system is conducted to investigate the effect of strain rate on the nonlinear responses of the transmission tower and line. The results show that the effect of strain rate on the transmission tower generally decreases the maximum top displacements, but it would increase the maximum base shear forces, and thus it is necessary to consider the effect of strain rate on the seismic analysis of the transmission tower. The effect of strain rate could be ignored for the seismic analysis of the conductors and ground lines, but the responses of the ground lines considering strain rate effect are larger than those of the conductors. The results could provide a reference for the seismic design of the transmission tower-line system.

  4. Space-based solar power generation using a distributed network of satellites and methods for efficient space power transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLinko, Ryan M.; Sagar, Basant V.

    2009-12-01

    Space-based solar power (SSP) generation is being touted as a solution to our ever-increasing energy consumption and dependence on fossil fuels. Satellites in Earth's orbit can capture solar energy through photovoltaic cells and transmit that power to ground based stations. Solar cells in orbit are not hindered by weather, clouds, or night. The energy generated by this process is clean and pollution-free. Although the concept of space-based solar power was initially proposed nearly 40 years ago, the level of technology in photovoltaics, power transmission, materials, and efficient satellite design has finally reached a level of maturity that makes solar power from space a feasible prospect. Furthermore, new strategies in methods for solar energy acquisition and transmission can lead to simplifications in design, reductions in cost and reduced risk. This paper proposes using a distributed array of small satellites to collect power from the Sun, as compared to the more traditional SSP design that consists of one monolithic satellite. This concept mitigates some of SSP's most troublesome historic constraints, such as the requirement for heavy lift launch vehicles and the need for significant assembly in space. Instead, a larger number of smaller satellites designed to collect solar energy are launched independently. A high frequency beam will be used to aggregate collected power into a series of transmission antennas, which beam the energy to Earth's surface at a lower frequency. Due to the smaller power expectations of each satellite and the relatively short distance of travel from low earth orbit, such satellites can be designed with smaller arrays. The inter-satellite rectenna devices can also be smaller and lighter in weight. Our paper suggests how SSP satellites can be designed small enough to fit within ESPA standards and therefore use rideshare to achieve orbit. Alternatively, larger versions could be launched on Falcon 9s or on Falcon 1s with booster stages

  5. Proactive and Reactive Transmission Power Control for Energy-Efficient On-Body Communications

    PubMed Central

    Vallejo, Mónica; Recas, Joaquín.; Ayala, José L.

    2015-01-01

    In wireless body sensor network (WBSNs), the human body has an important effect on the performance of the communication due to the temporal variations caused and the attenuation and fluctuation of the path loss. This fact suggests that the transmission power must adapt to the current state of the link in a way that it ensures a balance between energy consumption and packet loss. In this paper, we validate our two transmission power level policies (reactive and predictive approaches) using the Castalia simulator. The integration of our experimental measurements in the simulator allows us to easily evaluate complex scenarios, avoiding the difficulties associated with a practical realization. Our results show that both schemes perform satisfactorily, providing overall energy savings of 24% and 22% for a case of study, as compared to the maximum transmission power mode. PMID:25769049

  6. Investigation of energy harvesting for magnetic sensor arrays on Mars by wireless power transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chunhua; Chau, K. T.; Qiu, Chun; Lin, Fei

    2014-05-01

    This paper proposes the energy harvesting for magnetic sensor arrays on Mars, which can receive the power from Mars Rover by wireless power transmission (WPT). The schematic idea is presented with the energy receiver as the magnetic sensor and the energy transmitter as the transducer on Mars Rover. The key is to adopt the resonant inductive power transmission (IPT) topology between the magnetic sensor and Mars Rover. The basic topology and its operating principle are discussed. By using the magnetic frequency analysis with the finite element method, the output power and efficiency of the WPT system are calculated. The results show that Mars Rover could flexibly transmit its power to different types of small-size magnetic sensors based on their energy on demand using different resonant frequencies and distances.

  7. Design and application of a test rig for super-critical power transmission shafts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darlow, M.; Smalley, A.

    1979-01-01

    The design, assembly, operational check-out and application of a test facility for testing supercritical power transmission shafts under realistic conditions of size, speed and torque are described. Alternative balancing methods and alternative damping mechanisms are demonstrated and compared. The influence of torque upon the unbalance distribution is studied, and its effect on synchronous vibrations is investigated. The feasibility of operating supercritical power transmission shafting is demonstrated, but the need for careful control, by balancing and damping, of synchronous and nonsynchronous vibrations is made clear. The facility was demonstrated to be valuable for shaft system development programs and studies for both advanced and current-production hardware.

  8. Control system and method for a power delivery system having a continuously variable ratio transmission

    DOEpatents

    Frank, A.A.

    1984-07-10

    A control system and method for a power delivery system, such as in an automotive vehicle, having an engine coupled to a continuously variable ratio transmission (CVT). Totally independent control of engine and transmission enable the engine to precisely follow a desired operating characteristic, such as the ideal operating line for minimum fuel consumption. CVT ratio is controlled as a function of commanded power or torque and measured load, while engine fuel requirements (e.g., throttle position) are strictly a function of measured engine speed. Fuel requirements are therefore precisely adjusted in accordance with the ideal characteristic for any load placed on the engine. 4 figs.

  9. Control system and method for a power delivery system having a continuously variable ratio transmission

    DOEpatents

    Frank, Andrew A.

    1984-01-01

    A control system and method for a power delivery system, such as in an automotive vehicle, having an engine coupled to a continuously variable ratio transmission (CVT). Totally independent control of engine and transmission enable the engine to precisely follow a desired operating characteristic, such as the ideal operating line for minimum fuel consumption. CVT ratio is controlled as a function of commanded power or torque and measured load, while engine fuel requirements (e.g., throttle position) are strictly a function of measured engine speed. Fuel requirements are therefore precisely adjusted in accordance with the ideal characteristic for any load placed on the engine.

  10. Micro-size antenna structure with vertical nanowires for wireless power transmission and communication.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jong-Gu; Jeong, Yeri; Shin, Jeong Hee; Choi, Ji-Woong; Sohn, Jung Inn; Cha, Seung Nam; Jang, Jae Eun

    2014-11-01

    For biomedical implanted devices, a wireless power or a signal transmission is essential to protect an infection and to enhance durability. In this study, we present a magnetic induction technique for a power transmission without any wire connection between transmitter (Tx) and receiver (Rx) in a micro scale. Due to a micro size effect of a flat spiral coil, a magnetic inductance is not high. To enhance the magnetic inductance, a three dimensional magnetic core is added to an antenna structure, which is consisted of ZnO nano wires coated by a nickel (Ni) layer. ZnO nano wires easily supply a large effective surface area with a vertical structural effect to the magnetic core structure, which induces a higher magnetic inductance with a ferro-magnetic material Ni. The magnetic induction antenna with the magnetic core shows a high inductance value, a low reflection power and a strong power transmission. The power transmission efficiencies are tested under the air and the water medium are almost the same values, so that the magnetic induction technique is quite proper to body implanted systems.

  11. GPS-Like Phasing Control of the Space Solar Power System Transmission Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Psiaki, Mark L.

    2003-01-01

    The problem of phasing of the Space Solar Power System's transmission array has been addressed by developing a GPS-like radio navigation system. The goal of this system is to provide power transmission phasing control for each node of the array that causes the power signals to add constructively at the ground reception station. The phasing control system operates in a distributed manner, which makes it practical to implement. A leader node and two radio navigation beacons are used to control the power transmission phasing of multiple follower nodes. The necessary one-way communications to the follower nodes are implemented using the RF beacon signals. The phasing control system uses differential carrier phase relative navigation/timing techniques. A special feature of the system is an integer ambiguity resolution procedure that periodically resolves carrier phase cycle count ambiguities via encoding of pseudo-random number codes on the power transmission signals. The system is capable of achieving phasing accuracies on the order of 3 mm down to 0.4 mm depending on whether the radio navigation beacons operate in the L or C bands.

  12. Micro-size antenna structure with vertical nanowires for wireless power transmission and communication.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jong-Gu; Jeong, Yeri; Shin, Jeong Hee; Choi, Ji-Woong; Sohn, Jung Inn; Cha, Seung Nam; Jang, Jae Eun

    2014-11-01

    For biomedical implanted devices, a wireless power or a signal transmission is essential to protect an infection and to enhance durability. In this study, we present a magnetic induction technique for a power transmission without any wire connection between transmitter (Tx) and receiver (Rx) in a micro scale. Due to a micro size effect of a flat spiral coil, a magnetic inductance is not high. To enhance the magnetic inductance, a three dimensional magnetic core is added to an antenna structure, which is consisted of ZnO nano wires coated by a nickel (Ni) layer. ZnO nano wires easily supply a large effective surface area with a vertical structural effect to the magnetic core structure, which induces a higher magnetic inductance with a ferro-magnetic material Ni. The magnetic induction antenna with the magnetic core shows a high inductance value, a low reflection power and a strong power transmission. The power transmission efficiencies are tested under the air and the water medium are almost the same values, so that the magnetic induction technique is quite proper to body implanted systems. PMID:25958501

  13. One-phase dual converter for two quadrant power control of superconducting magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Ehsani, M.; Kustom, R.I.; Boom, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents the results of theoretical and experimental development of a new dc-ac-dc converter for superconducting magnet power supplies. The basic operating principles of the circuit are described followed by a theoretical treatment of the dynamics and control of the system. The successful results of the first experimental operation and control of such a circuit are presented and discussed.

  14. Magnet Lattice Design for the Transmission of Power Using Particle Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Marley, Daniel; /North Carolina State U. /SLAC

    2012-08-24

    As the amount of electricity generated by renewable energy sources continues to increase, the current method of power transmission will not serve as an adequate method for transmitting power over very long distances. A new method for transmitting power is proposed using particle beams in a storage ring. Particle beams offer an incredibly energy efficient alternative to transmission lines in transmitting power over very long distances. A thorough investigation of the magnet lattice design for this storage ring is presented. The design demonstrates the ability to design a ring with stable orbits over a 381.733 km circumference. Double bend achromats and FODO cells are implemented to achieve appropriate {beta} functions and dispersion functions for 9-11 GeV electron beams.

  15. A Beacon Transmission Power Control Algorithm Based on Wireless Channel Load Forecasting in VANETs.

    PubMed

    Mo, Yuanfu; Yu, Dexin; Song, Jun; Zheng, Kun; Guo, Yajuan

    2015-01-01

    In a vehicular ad hoc network (VANET), the periodic exchange of single-hop status information broadcasts (beacon frames) produces channel loading, which causes channel congestion and induces information conflict problems. To guarantee fairness in beacon transmissions from each node and maximum network connectivity, adjustment of the beacon transmission power is an effective method for reducing and preventing channel congestion. In this study, the primary factors that influence wireless channel loading are selected to construct the KF-BCLF, which is a channel load forecasting algorithm based on a recursive Kalman filter and employs multiple regression equation. By pre-adjusting the transmission power based on the forecasted channel load, the channel load was kept within a predefined range; therefore, channel congestion was prevented. Based on this method, the CLF-BTPC, which is a transmission power control algorithm, is proposed. To verify KF-BCLF algorithm, a traffic survey method that involved the collection of floating car data along a major traffic road in Changchun City is employed. By comparing this forecast with the measured channel loads, the proposed KF-BCLF algorithm was proven to be effective. In addition, the CLF-BTPC algorithm is verified by simulating a section of eight-lane highway and a signal-controlled urban intersection. The results of the two verification process indicate that this distributed CLF-BTPC algorithm can effectively control channel load, prevent channel congestion, and enhance the stability and robustness of wireless beacon transmission in a vehicular network.

  16. A Beacon Transmission Power Control Algorithm Based on Wireless Channel Load Forecasting in VANETs.

    PubMed

    Mo, Yuanfu; Yu, Dexin; Song, Jun; Zheng, Kun; Guo, Yajuan

    2015-01-01

    In a vehicular ad hoc network (VANET), the periodic exchange of single-hop status information broadcasts (beacon frames) produces channel loading, which causes channel congestion and induces information conflict problems. To guarantee fairness in beacon transmissions from each node and maximum network connectivity, adjustment of the beacon transmission power is an effective method for reducing and preventing channel congestion. In this study, the primary factors that influence wireless channel loading are selected to construct the KF-BCLF, which is a channel load forecasting algorithm based on a recursive Kalman filter and employs multiple regression equation. By pre-adjusting the transmission power based on the forecasted channel load, the channel load was kept within a predefined range; therefore, channel congestion was prevented. Based on this method, the CLF-BTPC, which is a transmission power control algorithm, is proposed. To verify KF-BCLF algorithm, a traffic survey method that involved the collection of floating car data along a major traffic road in Changchun City is employed. By comparing this forecast with the measured channel loads, the proposed KF-BCLF algorithm was proven to be effective. In addition, the CLF-BTPC algorithm is verified by simulating a section of eight-lane highway and a signal-controlled urban intersection. The results of the two verification process indicate that this distributed CLF-BTPC algorithm can effectively control channel load, prevent channel congestion, and enhance the stability and robustness of wireless beacon transmission in a vehicular network. PMID:26571042

  17. A Beacon Transmission Power Control Algorithm Based on Wireless Channel Load Forecasting in VANETs

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Yuanfu; Yu, Dexin; Song, Jun; Zheng, Kun; Guo, Yajuan

    2015-01-01

    In a vehicular ad hoc network (VANET), the periodic exchange of single-hop status information broadcasts (beacon frames) produces channel loading, which causes channel congestion and induces information conflict problems. To guarantee fairness in beacon transmissions from each node and maximum network connectivity, adjustment of the beacon transmission power is an effective method for reducing and preventing channel congestion. In this study, the primary factors that influence wireless channel loading are selected to construct the KF-BCLF, which is a channel load forecasting algorithm based on a recursive Kalman filter and employs multiple regression equation. By pre-adjusting the transmission power based on the forecasted channel load, the channel load was kept within a predefined range; therefore, channel congestion was prevented. Based on this method, the CLF-BTPC, which is a transmission power control algorithm, is proposed. To verify KF-BCLF algorithm, a traffic survey method that involved the collection of floating car data along a major traffic road in Changchun City is employed. By comparing this forecast with the measured channel loads, the proposed KF-BCLF algorithm was proven to be effective. In addition, the CLF-BTPC algorithm is verified by simulating a section of eight-lane highway and a signal-controlled urban intersection. The results of the two verification process indicate that this distributed CLF-BTPC algorithm can effectively control channel load, prevent channel congestion, and enhance the stability and robustness of wireless beacon transmission in a vehicular network. PMID:26571042

  18. Factors influencing efficiency of laser wireless power transmission system for micro unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaoguang; Hua, Wenshen; Liu, Xun

    2014-12-01

    Micro unmanned aerial vehicle, mostly powered by electricity, plays an important role in many military and civil applications, e.g. military detection, communication relay et al. But restricted endurance ability severely limits its applications. To solve the problem, laser wireless power transmission system is proposed. However, overall efficiency of the system is quite low. This paper describes basic structure of laser wireless power transmission system and its working process. The system consists of two major modules: a high power laser source transmitting energy and a photovoltaic receiver converting optical energy into electricity. Then factors influencing efficiency of the system are analyzed. It suggests that electro-optical efficiency of laser, atmospheric impact on laser beam and photo-electric efficiency of photovoltaic receiver play significant role in overall efficiency of the system. Atmospheric impact on laser beam mostly derived from refraction, absorption, scattering and turbulence effects, leads to drop in energy and quality of laser beam. Efficiency of photovoltaic receiver is affected by photovoltaic materials. In addition, matching degree between intensity distribution of laser beam and layout of photovoltaic receiver also obviously influence efficiency of photovoltaic receiver. Experiment results suggest that under non-uniform laser beam illumination, efficiency of photovoltaic receiver mostly depends on layout of photovoltaic receiver. Through optimizing the layout of photovoltaic receiver based on intensity distribution of laser beam, output power is significantly improved. The analysis may help to take corresponding measures to alleviate negative effects of these factors and improve performance of laser wireless power transmission system.

  19. Bias-field controlled phasing and power combination of gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Reale, D. V. Bragg, J.-W. B.; Gonsalves, N. R.; Johnson, J. M.; Neuber, A. A.; Dickens, J. C.; Mankowski, J. J.

    2014-05-15

    Gyromagnetic Nonlinear Transmission Lines (NLTLs) generate microwaves through the damped gyromagnetic precession of the magnetic moments in ferrimagnetic material, and are thus utilized as compact, solid-state, frequency agile, high power microwave (HPM) sources. The output frequency of a NLTL can be adjusted by control of the externally applied bias field and incident voltage pulse without physical alteration to the structure of the device. This property provides a frequency tuning capability not seen in many conventional e-beam based HPM sources. The NLTLs developed and tested are mesoband sources capable of generating MW power levels in the L, S, and C bands of the microwave spectrum. For an individual NLTL the output power at a given frequency is determined by several factors including the intrinsic properties of the ferrimagnetic material and the transmission line structure. Hence, if higher power levels are to be achieved, it is necessary to combine the outputs of multiple NLTLs. This can be accomplished in free space using antennas or in a transmission line via a power combiner. Using a bias-field controlled delay, a transient, high voltage, coaxial, three port, power combiner was designed and tested. Experimental results are compared with the results of a transient COMSOL simulation to evaluate combiner performance.

  20. Analysis of electromagnetic interference from power system processing and transmission components for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barber, Peter W.; Demerdash, Nabeel A. O.; Wang, R.; Hurysz, B.; Luo, Z.

    1991-01-01

    The goal is to analyze the potential effects of electromagnetic interference (EMI) originating from power system processing and transmission components for Space Station Freedom.The approach consists of four steps: (1) develop analytical tools (models and computer programs); (2) conduct parameterization studies; (3) predict the global space station EMI environment; and (4) provide a basis for modification of EMI standards.

  1. Asymptotically Optimal Transmission Policies for Large-Scale Low-Power Wireless Sensor Networks

    SciTech Connect

    I. Ch. Paschalidis; W. Lai; D. Starobinski

    2007-02-01

    We consider wireless sensor networks with multiple gateways and multiple classes of traffic carrying data generated by different sensory inputs. The objective is to devise joint routing, power control and transmission scheduling policies in order to gather data in the most efficient manner while respecting the needs of different sensing tasks (fairness). We formulate the problem as maximizing the utility of transmissions subject to explicit fairness constraints and propose an efficient decomposition algorithm drawing upon large-scale decomposition ideas in mathematical programming. We show that our algorithm terminates in a finite number of iterations and produces a policy that is asymptotically optimal at low transmission power levels. Furthermore, we establish that the utility maximization problem we consider can, in principle, be solved in polynomial time. Numerical results show that our policy is near-optimal, even at high power levels, and far superior to the best known heuristics at low power levels. We also demonstrate how to adapt our algorithm to accommodate energy constraints and node failures. The approach we introduce can efficiently determine near-optimal transmission policies for dramatically larger problem instances than an alternative enumeration approach.

  2. Effects of Scandinavian hydro power on storage needs in a fully renewable European power system for various transmission capacity scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kies, Alexander; Nag, Kabitri; von Bremen, Lueder; Lorenz, Elke; Heinemann, Detlev

    2015-04-01

    The penetration of renewable energies in the European power system has increased in the last decades (23.5% share of renewables in the gross electricity consumption of the EU-28 in 2012) and is expected to increase further up to very high shares close to 100%. Planning and organizing this European energy transition towards sustainable power sources will be one of the major challenges of the 21st century. It is very likely that in a fully renewable European power system wind and photovoltaics (pv) will contribute the largest shares to the generation mix followed by hydro power. However, feed-in from wind and pv is due to the weather dependant nature of their resources fluctuating and non-controllable. To match generation and consumption several solutions and their combinations were proposed like very high backup-capacities of conventional power generation (e.g. fossile or nuclear), storages or the extension of the transmission grid. Apart from those options hydro power can be used to counterbalance fluctuating wind and pv generation to some extent. In this work we investigate the effects of hydro power from Norway and Sweden on residual storage needs in Europe depending on the overlaying grid scenario. High temporally and spatially resolved weather data with a spatial resolution of 7 x 7 km and a temporal resolution of 1 hour was used to model the feed-in from wind and pv for 34 investigated European countries for the years 2003-2012. Inflow into hydro storages and generation by run-of-river power plants were computed from ERA-Interim reanalysis runoff data at a spatial resolution of 0.75° x 0.75° and a daily temporal resolution. Power flows in a simplified transmission grid connecting the 34 European countries were modelled minimizing dissipation using a DC-flow approximation. Previous work has shown that hydro power, namely in Norway and Sweden, can reduce storage needs in a renewable European power system by a large extent. A 15% share of hydro power in Europe

  3. Optical sensing in high voltage transmission lines using power over fiber and free space optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosolem, João Batista; Bassan, Fabio Renato; Penze, Rivael Strobel; Leonardi, Ariovaldo Antonio; Fracarolli, João Paulo Vicentini; Floridia, Claudio

    2015-12-01

    In this work we propose the use of power over fiber (PoF) and free space optics (FSO) techniques to powering and receive signals from an electrical current sensor placed at high voltage potential using a pair of optical collimators. The technique evaluation was performed in a laboratorial prototype using 62.5/125 μm multimode fiber to study the sensitivity of the optical alignment and the influence of the collimation process in the sensing system wavelengths: data communication (1310 nm) and powering (830 nm). The collimators were installed in a rigid electric insulator in order to maintain the stability of transmission.

  4. Influence of the drawbar pull over the power flux within the automotive transmissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truţă, M.; Marinescu, M.; Vînturiş, V.

    2016-08-01

    This paper performs an analysis of the drawbar pull influence over the power flow within the automotive transmissions. First part of the work presents a serial of theoretical approaches with respect to the analyzed elements. Second part of the paper reveals the vehicle's instrumentation to achieve the experimental data and some of the research results as well. The final part of the paper draws a series of conclusions with respect to mode the power loop's magnitude is influenced by the general drawbar pull. Last, but not least, technical solutions are introduced to decrease the power loops and contribute to the fuel savings.

  5. A low-power high-speed ultra-wideband pulse radio transmission system.

    PubMed

    Wei Tang; Culurciello, E

    2009-10-01

    We present a low-power high-speed ultra-wideband (UWB) transmitter with a wireless transmission test platform. The system is specifically designed for low-power high-speed wireless implantable biosensors. The integrated transmitter consists of a compact pulse generator and a modulator. The circuit is fabricated in the 0.5-mum silicon-on-sapphire process and occupies 420 mum times 420 mum silicon area. The transmitter is capable of generating pulses with 1-ns width and the pulse rate can be controlled between 90 MHz and 270 MHz. We built a demonstration/testing system for the transmitter. The transmitter achieves a 14-Mb/s data rate. With 50% duty cycle data, the power consumption of the chip is between 10 mW and 21 mW when the transmission distance is from 3.2 to 4 m. The core circuit size is 70 mum times 130 mum. PMID:23853267

  6. Lumped-element model of a tapered transmission line for impedance matching in a pulsed power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kun-A.; Ko, Kwang-Cheol

    2016-07-01

    In a pulsed power system, impedance matching is one of the significant factors for increasing the efficiency of the system. One of the most general methods for impedance matching is to use a tapered transmission line. Because the characteristics of a tapered transmission line are changed continuously according to its position, modeling the tapered transmission line by using lumped elements is difficult. In this study, we investigated a tapered transmission line to match the impedance of power supply to that of a load by using lumped elements especially in a pulsed power system. In modeling the tapered transmission line, we used the concept of a transmission, and we introduced an efficient modeling method. We propose a simulation model based on the investigation results. The results of the study will be useful for research on tapered transmission lines.

  7. Analysis of a Mars-stationary orbiting microwave power transmission system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, Kenwyn J.

    1990-01-01

    To determine the feasibility of providing efficient RF power transmission from a Mars-stationary orbit to the surface of the planet, an assessment was made focussing on RF propagation in the 2.45- to 300-GHz range. The proposed orbiting system configuration provides for power generation by either photovoltaic array or nuclear reactor, the conversion of the dc output to RF, and subsequent propagation of RF energy from the orbiting array to the Martian surface. On the planet, a rectenna array will convert RF to dc power to be distributed for planetary power needs. Total efficiency of the energy conversion chain from dc to RF in orbit through RF to dc on the planetary surface was derived for several representative frequencies in the range of study. Tradeoffs between component efficiency and transmitting antenna requirements were considered for each of these frequencies. Rectenna element power density thresholds and desired received power levels were used to determine receiving antenna criteria. Recommendations are presented for research into developing technologies which may afford enhanced viability of the proposed microwave power transmission system.

  8. Satellite power system: Concept development and evaluation program. Volume 3: Power transmission and reception. Technical summary and assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietz, R. H.; Arndt, G. D.; Seyl, J. W.; Leopold, L.; Kelley, J. S.

    1981-01-01

    Efforts in the DOE/NASA concept development and evaluation program are discussed for the solar power satellite power transmission and reception system. A technical summary is provided together with a summary of system assessment activities. System options and system definition drivers are described. Major system assessment activities were in support of the reference system definition, solid state system studies, critical technology supporting investigations, and various system and subsystem tradeoffs. These activities are described together with reference system updates and alternative concepts for each of the subsystem areas. Conclusions reached as a result of the numerous analytical and experimental evaluations are presented. Remaining issues for a possible follow-on program are identified.

  9. Engineering science research issues in high power density transmission dynamics for aerospace applications. [rotorcraft geared rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Rajendra; Houser, Donald R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses analytical and experimental approaches that will be needed to understand dynamic, vibro-acoustic and design characteristics of high power density rotorcraft transmissions. Complexities associated with mathematical modeling of such systems will be discussed. An overview of research work planned during the next several years will be presented, with emphasis on engineering science issues such as gear contact mechanics, multi-mesh drive dynamics, parameter uncertainties, vibration transmission through bearings, and vibro-acoustic characteristics of geared rotor systems and housing-mount structures. A few examples of work in progress are cited.

  10. Design of a telemetry system based on wireless power transmission for physiological parameter monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, Zhiwei; Yan, Guozheng; Zhu, Bingquan

    2015-04-15

    An implanted telemetry system for experimental animals with or without anaesthesia can be used to continuously monitor physiological parameters. This system is significant not only in the study of organisms but also in the evaluation of drug efficacy, artificial organs, and auxiliary devices. The system is composed of a miniature electronic capsule, a wireless power transmission module, a data-recording device, and a processing module. An electrocardiograph, a temperature sensor, and a pressure sensor are integrated in the miniature electronic capsule, in which the signals are transmitted in vitro by wireless communication after filtering, amplification, and A/D sampling. To overcome the power shortage of batteries, a wireless power transmission module based on electromagnetic induction was designed. The transmitting coil of a rectangular-section solenoid and a 3D receiving coil are proposed according to stability and safety constraints. Experiments show that at least 150 mW of power could pick up on the load in a volume of Φ10.5 mm × 11 mm, with a transmission efficiency of 2.56%. Vivisection experiments verified the feasibility of the integrated radio-telemetry system.

  11. Design of a telemetry system based on wireless power transmission for physiological parameter monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Zhiwei; Yan, Guozheng; Zhu, Bingquan

    2015-04-01

    An implanted telemetry system for experimental animals with or without anaesthesia can be used to continuously monitor physiological parameters. This system is significant not only in the study of organisms but also in the evaluation of drug efficacy, artificial organs, and auxiliary devices. The system is composed of a miniature electronic capsule, a wireless power transmission module, a data-recording device, and a processing module. An electrocardiograph, a temperature sensor, and a pressure sensor are integrated in the miniature electronic capsule, in which the signals are transmitted in vitro by wireless communication after filtering, amplification, and A/D sampling. To overcome the power shortage of batteries, a wireless power transmission module based on electromagnetic induction was designed. The transmitting coil of a rectangular-section solenoid and a 3D receiving coil are proposed according to stability and safety constraints. Experiments show that at least 150 mW of power could pick up on the load in a volume of Φ10.5 mm × 11 mm, with a transmission efficiency of 2.56%. Vivisection experiments verified the feasibility of the integrated radio-telemetry system.

  12. Space Weather Impact on the European Interconnected Power Transmission System at High Latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccinelli, Roberta; Krausmann, Elisabeth

    2016-04-01

    High voltage power transmission grids can suffer outages or blackouts during geomagnetic storms (GMS). More specifically, GMS can inject geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) into the power network. Transformers were identified as the most vulnerable components of the power networks: GICs cause transformers to work in saturation regions generating voltage instabilities and eventually driving the system to collapse. Since GMS are expected to cause more pronounced disturbances at high latitudes, we addressed the effects of extreme GMS on the Scandinavian 400 kV interconnected power transmission grid, including Finland, Sweden and Norway. By applying extreme 100-year-benchmark scenarios, we analyzed potential space-weather triggered voltage instabilities in the power grid considering mono-phase transformers, which are known to be more vulnerable to GIC injection, and three-phase transformers, which are more resistant. We assumed that every node of the grid included either transformers of the mono-phase type, or three-phase transformers.Our simulations indicate that the three-phase configuration of the network is significantly more robust than the mono-phase one. Our study indicates that for a system with only three-phase transformers the likelihood of grid collapse is very low, and collapse only occurs for the worst-case scenario with extremely high geoelectric field intensities. In such a case, the increase in reactive power demand caused by transformer saturation is too high for the system to continue to provide power. Our results indicate that lines that experience higher reactive power losses during normal operation are more likely to increase losses during a GMS event. According to our study, the portion of the Scandinavian interconnected power transmission grid most vulnerable to extreme space weather is the part where the highest reactive losses in transmission lines and in voltage magnitudes are observed. This corresponds to the southern parts of Sweden and

  13. Electrical Characteristics, Electrode Sheath and Contamination Layer Behavior of a Meso-Scale Premixed Methane-Air Flame Under AC/DC Electric Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qi; Yan, Limin; Zhang, Hao; Li, Guoxiu

    2016-05-01

    Electrical characteristics of a nozzle-attached meso-scale premixed methane-air flame under low-frequency AC (0-4300 V, 0-500 Hz) and DC (0-3300 V) electric fields were studied. I-V curves were measured under different experimental conditions to estimate the magnitude of the total current 100-102 μA, the electron density 1015-1016 m-3 and further the power dissipation ≤ 0.7 W in the reaction zone. At the same time, the meso-scale premixed flame conductivity 10-4-10-3 Ω-1·m-1 as a function of voltage and frequency was experimentally obtained and was believed to represent a useful order-of magnitude estimate. Moreover, the influence of the collision sheath relating to Debye length (31-98 μm) and the contamination layer of an active electrode on measurements was discussed, based on the combination of simulation and theoretical analysis. As a result, the electrode sheath dimension was evaluated to less than 0.5 mm, which indicated a complex effect of the collision sheath on the current measurements. The surface contamination effect of an active electrode was further analyzed using the SEM imaging method, which showed elements immigration during the contamination layer formation process. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51376021), and the Fundamental Research Fund for Major Universities (No. 2013JBM079)

  14. Electrical Characteristics, Electrode Sheath and Contamination Layer Behavior of a Meso-Scale Premixed Methane-Air Flame Under AC/DC Electric Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qi; Yan, Limin; Zhang, Hao; Li, Guoxiu

    2016-05-01

    Electrical characteristics of a nozzle-attached meso-scale premixed methane-air flame under low-frequency AC (0-4300 V, 0-500 Hz) and DC (0-3300 V) electric fields were studied. I-V curves were measured under different experimental conditions to estimate the magnitude of the total current 100-102 μA, the electron density 1015-1016 m‑3 and further the power dissipation ≤ 0.7 W in the reaction zone. At the same time, the meso-scale premixed flame conductivity 10‑4-10‑3 Ω‑1·m‑1 as a function of voltage and frequency was experimentally obtained and was believed to represent a useful order-of magnitude estimate. Moreover, the influence of the collision sheath relating to Debye length (31–98 μm) and the contamination layer of an active electrode on measurements was discussed, based on the combination of simulation and theoretical analysis. As a result, the electrode sheath dimension was evaluated to less than 0.5 mm, which indicated a complex effect of the collision sheath on the current measurements. The surface contamination effect of an active electrode was further analyzed using the SEM imaging method, which showed elements immigration during the contamination layer formation process. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51376021), and the Fundamental Research Fund for Major Universities (No. 2013JBM079)

  15. Magnetohydrodynamic electromagnetic pulse (MHD-EMP) interaction with power transmission and distribution systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tesche, F.M. , Dallas, TX ); Barnes, P.R. ); Meliopoulos, A.P.S. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering)

    1992-02-01

    This report discusses the effects of the late-time high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) on electrical transmission and distribution (T D) systems. This environment, known as the magnetohydrodynamic electromagnetic pulse (MHD-EMP), is a very slowly varying electric field induced in the earth's surface, similar to the field induced by a geomagnetic storm. It can result in the flow of a quasi-dc current in grounded power lines and in the subsequent magnetic saturation of transformers. This saturation, in turn, causes 6-Hz harmonic distortion and an increase in the reactive power required by generation facilities. This report analyzes and discusses these phenomena. The MHD-EMP environment is briefly discussed, and a simplified form of the earth-induced electric field is developed for use in a parametric study of transmission line responses. Various field coupling models are described, and calculated results for the responses of both transmission- and distribution-class power lines are presented. These calculated responses are compared with measurements of transformer operation under dc excitation to infer the MHD-EMP response of these power system components. It is found that the MHD-EMP environment would have a marked effect on a power system by inducing up to several hundreds of amperes of quasi-dc current on power lines. These currents will cause transformers to saturate which could result in excessive harmonic generation, voltage swings, and voltage suppression. The design of critical facilities which are required to operate during and after MHD-EMP events will have to be modified in order to mitigate the effects of these abnormal power system conditions.

  16. Magnetohydrodynamic electromagnetic pulse (MHD-EMP) interaction with power transmission and distribution systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tesche, F.M.; Barnes, P.R.; Meliopoulos, A.P.S.

    1992-02-01

    This report discusses the effects of the late-time high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) on electrical transmission and distribution (T&D) systems. This environment, known as the magnetohydrodynamic electromagnetic pulse (MHD-EMP), is a very slowly varying electric field induced in the earth`s surface, similar to the field induced by a geomagnetic storm. It can result in the flow of a quasi-dc current in grounded power lines and in the subsequent magnetic saturation of transformers. This saturation, in turn, causes 6-Hz harmonic distortion and an increase in the reactive power required by generation facilities. This report analyzes and discusses these phenomena. The MHD-EMP environment is briefly discussed, and a simplified form of the earth-induced electric field is developed for use in a parametric study of transmission line responses. Various field coupling models are described, and calculated results for the responses of both transmission- and distribution-class power lines are presented. These calculated responses are compared with measurements of transformer operation under dc excitation to infer the MHD-EMP response of these power system components. It is found that the MHD-EMP environment would have a marked effect on a power system by inducing up to several hundreds of amperes of quasi-dc current on power lines. These currents will cause transformers to saturate which could result in excessive harmonic generation, voltage swings, and voltage suppression. The design of critical facilities which are required to operate during and after MHD-EMP events will have to be modified in order to mitigate the effects of these abnormal power system conditions.

  17. An Implementation of Low Cost and Low-power Network Broadcast Data Transmission and Storage System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Qing-Ming; Shi, Min; He, Yi-Hua

    A connectivity and realization method for the one-to-many remote network data transmission and storage was introduced in this paper. 3D LED display array needs large size data to display a stereo picture. This method was used in 3D LED display array to resolve data secure transmission problem. Combining the Intel 28FJ3A series Flash and Ethernet control chip DM9000A,it applied the Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and Verilog HDL programming technology to the system, implemented synchronic display and storage of stereograph, and reached 100 Mbps in the network transmission .Testing shows that the system is of low-cost,low-power and high-speed.

  18. A closed loop wireless power transmission system using a commercial RFID transceiver for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Kiani, Mehdi; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a standalone closed loop wireless power transmission system that is built around a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) radio frequency identification (RFID) transceiver (MLX90121) operating at 13.56 MHz. It can be used for inductively powering implantable biomedical devices in a closed loop fashion. Any changes in the distance and misalignment between transmitter and receiver coils in near-field wireless power transmission can cause a significant change in the received power, which can cause either malfunction or excessive heat dissipation. RFID transceivers are often used open loop. However, their back telemetry capability can be utilized to stabilize the received voltage on the implant. Our measurements showed that the delivered power to the transponder was maintained at 1.48 mW over a range of 6 to 12 cm, while the transmitter power consumption changed from 0.3 W to 1.21 W. The closed loop system can also oppose voltage variations as a result of sudden changes in load current. PMID:19963595

  19. An RFID-Based Closed-Loop Wireless Power Transmission System for Biomedical Applications.

    PubMed

    Kiani, Mehdi; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2010-04-01

    This brief presents a standalone closed-loop wireless power transmission system that is built around a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) radio-frequency identification (RFID) reader (TRF7960) operating at 13.56 MHz. It can be used for inductively powering implantable biomedical devices in a closed loop. Any changes in the distance and misalignment between transmitter and receiver coils in near-field wireless power transmission can cause a significant change in the received power, which can cause either a malfunction or excessive heat dissipation. RFID circuits are often used in an open loop. However, their back telemetry capability can be utilized to stabilize the received voltage on the implant. Our measurements showed that the delivered power to the transponder was maintained at 11.2 mW over a range of 0.5 to 2 cm, while the transmitter power consumption changed from 78 mW to 1.1 W. The closed-loop system can also oppose voltage variations as a result of sudden changes in the load current. PMID:21179391

  20. Wireless power and data transmission strategies for next-generation capsule endoscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puers, R.; Carta, R.; Thoné, J.

    2011-05-01

    Capsular endoscopy is becoming increasingly popular as an alternative to traditional gastro-intestinal (GI) examination techniques. However, the breakthrough of these devices is hindered by the limited amount of power that can be stored in a tiny pill. Most commercial devices use two watch batteries that can only provide an average power of 25 mW for about 6 h, certainly not sufficient for advanced robotic features. A dedicated inductive powering system, operating at 1 MHz to limit the human body absorption, has been developed which was proven to support the transfer of over 300 mW. The system relies on a condensed set of orthogonal ferrite coils, embedded in the capsule, and an external unit based on a Helmholtz coil driven by a class E amplifier. Control data can be sent through the inductive link by modulating the power carrier, whereas a dedicated high data rate RF link is used to transfer the images from the capsule to the base station. Besides evaluating the compatibility with radio transmission, several demonstrators were assembled combining the wireless powering system with various locomotion strategies and LED illumination. This paper describes the design and implementation of the inductive powering system, its combination with data transmission techniques and the testing activity with other capsule-dedicated modules.

  1. Systems definition space-based power conversion systems. [for satellite power transmission to earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Potential space-located systems for the generation of electrical power for use on Earth are discussed and include: (1) systems producing electrical power from solar energy; (2) systems producing electrical power from nuclear reactors; and (3) systems for augmenting ground-based solar power plants by orbital sunlight reflectors. Systems (1) and (2) would utilize a microwave beam system to transmit their output to Earth. Configurations implementing these concepts were developed through an optimization process intended to yield the lowest cost for each. A complete program was developed for each concept, identifying required production rates, quantities of launches, required facilities, etc. Each program was costed in order to provide the electric power cost appropriate to each concept.

  2. Low-Power Testing of Losses in Millimeter-Wave Transmission Lines for High-Power Applications.

    PubMed

    Han, S T; Comfoltey, E N; Shapiro, M A; Sirigiri, J R; Tax, D S; Temkin, R J; Woskov, P P; Rasmussen, D A

    2008-11-01

    We report the measurement of small losses in transmission line (TL) components intended for high-power millimeter-wave applications. Measurements were made using two different low-power techniques: a coherent technique using a vector network analyzer (VNA) and an incoherent technique using a radiometer. The measured loss in a 140 GHz 12.7 mm diameter TL system, consisting of 1.7 m of circular corrugated waveguide and three miter bends, is dominated by the miter bend loss. The measured loss was 0.3±0.1 dB per miter bend using a VNA; and 0.22±0.1 dB per miter bend using a radiometer. Good agreement between the two measurement techniques implies that both are useful for measuring small losses. To verify the methodology, the VNA technique was employed to measure the extremely small transmission loss in a 170 GHz ITER prototype TL system consisting of three lengths of 1 m, 63.5 mm diameter, circular corrugated waveguide and two miter bends. The measured loss of 0.05±0.02 dB per miter bend may be compared with the theoretical loss of 0.027 dB per miter bend. These results suggest that low-power testing of TL losses, utilizing a small, simple TL system and a VNA, is a reliable method for evaluating performance of low-loss millimeter-wave TL components intended for use in high-power applications.

  3. Low-Power Testing of Losses in Millimeter-Wave Transmission Lines for High-Power Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Han, S. T.; Comfoltey, E. N.; Shapiro, Michael; Sirigiri, Jagadishwar R.; Tax, David; Temkin, Richard J; Woskov, P. P.; Chang, Won; Rasmussen, David A

    2008-08-01

    We report the measurement of small losses in transmission line (TL) components intended for high-power millimeter-wave applications. Measurements were made using two different low-power techniques: a coherent technique using a vector network analyzer (VNA) and an incoherent technique using a radiometer. The measured loss in a 140 GHz 12.7 mm diameter TL system, consisting of 1.7 m of circular corrugated waveguide and three miter bends, is dominated by the miter bend loss. The measured loss was 0.3 {+-} 0.1 dB per miter bend using a VNA; and 0.22 {+-} 0.1 dB per miter bend using a radiometer. Good agreement between the two measurement techniques implies that both are useful for measuring small losses. To verify the methodology, the VNA technique was employed to measure the extremely small transmission loss in a 170 GHz ITER prototype TL system consisting of three lengths of 1 m, 63.5 mm diameter, circular corrugated waveguide and two miter bends. The measured loss of 0.05 {+-} 0.02 dB per miter bend may be compared with the theoretical loss of 0.027 dB per miter bend. These results suggest that low-power testing of TL losses, utilizing a small, simple TL system and a VNA, is a reliable method for evaluating performance of low-loss millimeter-wave TL components intended for use in high-power applications.

  4. Power shift transmission power train having a forward low speed gear train with dual reduction gear set means

    SciTech Connect

    Mori, M.

    1986-04-29

    A power train for a power shift transmission is described which consists of: a hollow first input shaft coaxially and rotatably disposed on a first output shaft on a first axis therewith, the first input shaft and the first output shaft being selectively engaged and disengaged with each other through a forward driving first speed clutch; a second input shaft and a hollow second output shaft coaxially and rotatably disposed on the second input shaft on a second axis therewith, the second input shaft and the second output shaft being selectively engaged and disengaged with each other through a forward driving second speed clutch; a driving shaft disposed in parallel relation with the first input shaft, the first output shaft, the second input shaft and the second output shaft, the driving shaft being interconnected through transmission gears to the second input shaft; a driven shaft directly interconnected through transmission gears with the second output shaft; a forward driving first speed first reduction gear set interconnecting the first input shaft with the second imput shaft; and a forward driving first speed second reduction gear set interconnecting the first output shaft with the second output shaft.

  5. Analysis of electromagnetic interference from power system processing and transmission components for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barber, Peter W.; Demerdash, Nabeel A. O.; Hurysz, B.; Luo, Z.; Denny, Hugh W.; Millard, David P.; Herkert, R.; Wang, R.

    1992-01-01

    The goal of this research project was to analyze the potential effects of electromagnetic interference (EMI) originating from power system processing and transmission components for Space Station Freedom. The approach consists of four steps: (1) developing analytical tools (models and computer programs); (2) conducting parameterization (what if?) studies; (3) predicting the global space station EMI environment; and (4) providing a basis for modification of EMI standards.

  6. Factors that affect the fatigue strength of power transmission shafting and their impact on design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leowenthal, S. H.

    1986-01-01

    A long standing objective in the design of power transmission shafting is to eliminate excess shaft material without compromising operational reliability. A shaft design method is presented which accounts for variable amplitude loading histories and their influence on limited life designs. The effects of combined bending and torsional loading are considered along with a number of application factors known to influence the fatigue strength of shafting materials. Among the factors examined are surface condition, size, stress concentration, residual stress and corrosion fatigue.

  7. Horizontal cryogenic bushing for the termination of a superconducting power-transmission line

    DOEpatents

    Minati, K.F.; Morgan, G.H.; McNerney, A.J.; Schauer, F.

    1982-07-29

    A termination for a superconducting power transmission line is disclosed which is comprised of a standard air entrance insulated vertical bushing with an elbow, a horizontal cryogenic bushing linking the pressurized cryogenic cable environment to the ambient temperature bushing and a stress cone which terminated the cable outer shield and transforms the large radial voltage gradient in the cable dielectric into a much lower radial voltage gradient in the high density helium coolant at the cold end of the cryogenic bushing.

  8. Termination for a superconducting power transmission line including a horizontal cryogenic bushing

    DOEpatents

    Minati, Kurt F.; Morgan, Gerry H.; McNerney, Andrew J.; Schauer, Felix

    1984-01-01

    A termination for a superconducting power transmission line is disclosed which is comprised of a standard air entrance insulated vertical bushing with an elbow, a horizontal cryogenic bushing linking the pressurized cryogenic cable environment to the ambient temperature bushing and a stress cone which terminates the cable outer shield and transforms the large radial voltage gradient in the cable dielectric into a much lower radial voltage gradient in the high density helium coolant at the cold end of the cryogenic bushing.

  9. Environmental testing and laser transmission results for ruggedized high power IR fiber cables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busse, Lynda; Kung, Frederic; Florea, Catalin; Shaw, Brandon; Aggarwal, Ishwar; Sanghera, Jas

    2013-03-01

    We present successful results of high mid-IR laser power transmission as well as MIL-SPEC environmental testing (thermal cycling and vibration testing) of ruggedized, IR-transmitting chalcogenide glass fiber cables. The cables tested included chalcogenide fiber cables with endfaces imprinted with anti-reflective "moth eye" surfaces, whereby the reflection loss is reduced from about 17% per end to less than 3%. The cables with these moth eye surfaces also show excellent laser damage resistance.

  10. 50 CFR 29.21-8 - Electric power transmission line rights-of-way.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electric power transmission line rights-of-way. 29.21-8 Section 29.21-8 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM LAND USE MANAGEMENT Rights-of-Way General Regulations § 29.21-8 Electric...

  11. Characterization of high performance silicon-based VMJ PV cells for laser power transmission applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perales, Mico; Yang, Mei-huan; Wu, Cheng-liang; Hsu, Chin-wei; Chao, Wei-sheng; Chen, Kun-hsien; Zahuranec, Terry

    2016-03-01

    Continuing improvements in the cost and power of laser diodes have been critical in launching the emerging fields of power over fiber (PoF), and laser power beaming. Laser power is transmitted either over fiber (for PoF), or through free space (power beaming), and is converted to electricity by photovoltaic cells designed to efficiently convert the laser light. MH GoPower's vertical multi-junction (VMJ) PV cell, designed for high intensity photovoltaic applications, is fueling the emergence of this market, by enabling unparalleled photovoltaic receiver flexibility in voltage, cell size, and power output. Our research examined the use of the VMJ PV cell for laser power transmission applications. We fully characterized the performance of the VMJ PV cell under various laser conditions, including multiple near IR wavelengths and light intensities up to tens of watts per cm2. Results indicated VMJ PV cell efficiency over 40% for 9xx nm wavelengths, at laser power densities near 30 W/cm2. We also investigated the impact of the physical dimensions (length, width, and height) of the VMJ PV cell on its performance, showing similarly high performance across a wide range of cell dimensions. We then evaluated the VMJ PV cell performance within the power over fiber application, examining the cell's effectiveness in receiver packages that deliver target voltage, intensity, and power levels. By designing and characterizing multiple receivers, we illustrated techniques for packaging the VMJ PV cell for achieving high performance (> 30%), high power (> 185 W), and target voltages for power over fiber applications.

  12. On lossless switched-capacitor power converters

    SciTech Connect

    Tse, C.K.; Wong, S.C.; Chow, M.H.L.

    1995-05-01

    This paper addresses the design of efficient switched-capacitor power converters. The discussion starts with a review of the fundamental limitation of switched-capacitor circuits which shows that the topology of such circuits and the ``forced`` step changes of capacitor voltages are the inherent attributes of power loss. Although the argument follows from a rather trivial result from basic circuit theory, it addresses an important issue on the maximum efficiency achievable in a switched-capacitor converter circuit. Based on the observed topological constraint of switched-capacitor converter circuits, the simplest lossless topology for AC/DC conversion is deduced. Also discussed is a simple version of lossless topology that achieves isolation between the source and the load. Finally, an experimental AC/DC switched-capacitor converter, based on the proposed idea, is presented which demonstrates an improved efficiency over other existing switched-capacitor converters. The proposed AC/DC converter contains no inductors and thus is suitable for custom IC implementation for very low power applications.

  13. Damage characteristics at optical fiber connector for high power light transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, S.; Shibuya, T.; Wakaki, M.

    2008-01-01

    In the field of optical communication, either fusion splicing of optical fibers or physical contact between optical-fibers using a fiber connector has been utilized as the typical method of optical fiber connection. Optical fiber connectors have been widely employed in optical transmission systems according to their features of easy and quick connection without special apparatus to connect fibers. The power of laser diodes for light sources became more intense and the multiplexing of wavelength (WDM) of a light source was enhanced with increasing traffic data. As a result, intense light transmits through the optical fiber. The high power transmission characteristics of the optical fiber connector are important factors to realize dense wavelength division multiplexing systems (DWDM). In this paper, we present an experimental investigation about the degradation of the transmission properties through the optical fiber connector by introducing the contamination between the end faces of a connector. The metal foils to simulate the contamination at the end of the core were inserted between the optical fibers to cover the core of an optical fiber partially. As metal foils, Nickel, SUS304, and Phosphor Bronze which were typically used as the components of the ferrule and sleeve were selected. The Nd: YAG laser with the wavelength of 1064 nm was used as a high power light source at various output powers. The transmission loss was set by adjusting the insertion of a metal foil into the core region of the fiber and the temperature rising of the connector induced by the absorption of incident light was measured at a sleeve portion. The damage at the end face of the physical contact region was observed using an optical microscope. The temperatures increase of the core of the fiber was estimated for the fiber connector with a zirconia ferrule through the thermal simulation using the MSC Visual Nastran. The damage of the fiber end face was recognized depending on the species of

  14. Experimental hybrid power transmission line with liquid hydrogen and MgB2-based superconducting cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostyuk, V. V.; Antyukhov, I. V.; Blagov, E. V.; Vysotsky, V. S.; Katorgin, B. I.; Nosov, A. A.; Fetisov, S. S.; Firsov, V. P.

    2012-03-01

    Results of developing and testing an experimental hybrid power transmission line with liquid hydrogen and superconducting power (SCP) cable based on magnesium diboride (MgB2) are presented. Critical currents of the MgB2 based prototype SCP cable have been determined for the first time at the forced flow of liquid hydrogen in a temperature interval of 20-26 K. Various regimes of SCP cable cryostatting with both subcooled saturated liquid hydrogen have been tested in a broad range of supply rates (7-220 g/s) and pressures (0.15-0.4 MPa).

  15. A Horn-to-Horn Power Transmission System at Terahertz Frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, A.; Uzawa, Y.; Fujii, Y.; Kaneko, K.; Kuroiwa, K.

    2011-11-01

    A horn-to-horn power transmission system at Terahertz frequencies has been designed and tested. Power is generated at microwave frequencies and then frequency multiplied to the band 799-938 GHz. The resultant signal is radiated by a diagonal horn and redirected by two identical elliptical mirrors to another diagonal horn located far away. Useful design equations have been derived for the proposed system. The concept has been proven by careful measurements and utilized for the local oscillator injection in the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) Band-10 receiver.

  16. Impact of Transmission on Resource Adequacy in Systems with Wind and Solar Power: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Ibanez, E.; Milligan, M.

    2012-02-01

    Variable generation is on track to become a significant contributor to electric power systems worldwide. Thus, it is important to analyze the effect that renewables will have on the reliability of systems. In this paper we present a new tool being implemented at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, which allows the inclusion of variable generation in the power system resource adequacy. The tool is used to quantify the potential contribution of transmission to reliability in highly interconnected systems and an example is provided using the Western Interconnection footprint.

  17. Alleviation SSR and Low Frequency Power Oscillations in Series Compensated Transmission Line using SVC Supplementary Controllers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sanjiv; Kumar, Narendra

    2016-07-01

    In this work, supplementary sub-synchronous damping controllers (SSDC) are proposed for damping sub-synchronous oscillations in power systems with series compensated transmission lines. Series compensation have extensively been used as effective means of increasing the power transfer capability of a transmission lines and improving transient stability limits of power systems. Series compensation with transmission lines may cause sub-synchronous resonance (SSR). The eigenvalue investigation tool is used to ascertain the existence of SSR. It is shown that the addition of supplementary controller is able to stabilize all unstable modes for T-network model. Eigenvalue investigation and time domain transient simulation of detailed nonlinear system are considered to investigate the performance of the controllers. The efficacies of the suggested supplementary controllers are compared on the IEEE first benchmark model for computer simulations of SSR by means of time domain simulation in Matlab/Simulink environment. Supplementary SSDC are considered in order to compare effectiveness of SSDC during higher loading in alleviating the small signal stability problem.

  18. Islanding the power grid on the transmission level: less connections for more security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mureddu, Mario; Caldarelli, Guido; Damiano, Alfonso; Scala, Antonio; Meyer-Ortmanns, Hildegard

    2016-10-01

    Islanding is known as a management procedure of the power system that is implemented at the distribution level to preserve sensible loads from outages and to guarantee the continuity in electricity supply, when a high amount of distributed generation occurs. In this paper we study islanding on the level of the transmission grid and shall show that it is a suitable measure to enhance energy security and grid resilience. We consider the German and Italian transmission grids. We remove links either randomly to mimic random failure events, or according to a topological characteristic, their so-called betweenness centrality, to mimic an intentional attack and test whether the resulting fragments are self-sustainable. We test this option via the tool of optimized DC power flow equations. When transmission lines are removed according to their betweenness centrality, the resulting islands have a higher chance of being dynamically self-sustainable than for a random removal. Less connections may even increase the grid’s stability. These facts should be taken into account in the design of future power grids.

  19. Islanding the power grid on the transmission level: less connections for more security

    PubMed Central

    Mureddu, Mario; Caldarelli, Guido; Damiano, Alfonso; Scala, Antonio; Meyer-Ortmanns, Hildegard

    2016-01-01

    Islanding is known as a management procedure of the power system that is implemented at the distribution level to preserve sensible loads from outages and to guarantee the continuity in electricity supply, when a high amount of distributed generation occurs. In this paper we study islanding on the level of the transmission grid and shall show that it is a suitable measure to enhance energy security and grid resilience. We consider the German and Italian transmission grids. We remove links either randomly to mimic random failure events, or according to a topological characteristic, their so-called betweenness centrality, to mimic an intentional attack and test whether the resulting fragments are self-sustainable. We test this option via the tool of optimized DC power flow equations. When transmission lines are removed according to their betweenness centrality, the resulting islands have a higher chance of being dynamically self-sustainable than for a random removal. Less connections may even increase the grid’s stability. These facts should be taken into account in the design of future power grids. PMID:27713509

  20. Experimental studies of using wireless energy transmission for powering embedded sensor nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mascarenas, David L.; Flynn, Eric B.; Todd, Michael D.; Overly, Timothy G.; Farinholt, Kevin M.; Park, Gyuhae; Farrar, Charles R.

    2010-06-01

    A major challenge impeding the deployment of wireless sensor networks for structural health monitoring (SHM) is developing a means to supply power to the sensor nodes in an efficient manner. In this paper, we explore possible solutions to this challenge by using a mobile-host based wireless energy transmission system to provide both power and data interrogation commands to sensor nodes. The mobile host features the capability of wirelessly transmitting energy to sensor nodes on an as-needed basis. In addition, it serves as a central data repository and processing center for the data collected from the sensing network. The wirelessly transmitted microwave energy is captured by a receiving antenna, transformed into DC power by a rectifying circuit, and stored in a storage medium to provide the required energy to the sensor node. The application of wireless energy transmission is targeted toward SHM sensor nodes that have been recently developed by the authors, which can be used to collect peak mechanical displacements or piezoelectric impedance measurements. This paper will describe considerations needed to design such energy transmission systems, experimental procedure and results, method of increasing the efficiency, energy conditioning circuits and storage medium, and target applications. Experimental results from a field test on the Alamosa Canyon Bridge in southern New Mexico will also be presented.

  1. On variable hydrostatic transmission for road vehicles, powered by supply of fluid at constant pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magi, M.; Freivald, A.; Andersson, I.; Ericsson, U.

    1981-01-01

    Various hydrostatic power transmission systems for automotive applications with power supply at constant pressure and unrestricted flow and with a Volvo Flygmotor variable displacement motor as the principal unit were investigated. Two most promising concepts were analyzed in detail and their main components optimized for minimum power loss at the EPA Urban Driving Cycle. The best fuel consumption is less than 10 lit. per 100 kM for a 1542 kG vehicle with a hydrostatic motor and a two speed gear box in series (braking power not recovered). Realistic system pressure affects the fuel consumption just slightly, but the package volume/weight drastically. Back pressure increases losses significantly. Special attention was paid to description of the behavior and modeling of the losses of variable displacement hydrostatic machines.

  2. On variable hydrostatic transmission for road vehicles, powered by supply of fluid at constant pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magi, M.; Freivald, A.; Andersson, I.; Ericsson, U.

    1981-05-01

    Various hydrostatic power transmission systems for automotive applications with power supply at constant pressure and unrestricted flow and with a Volvo Flygmotor variable displacement motor as the principal unit were investigated. Two most promising concepts were analyzed in detail and their main components optimized for minimum power loss at the EPA Urban Driving Cycle. The best fuel consumption is less than 10 lit. per 100 kM for a 1542 kG vehicle with a hydrostatic motor and a two speed gear box in series (braking power not recovered). Realistic system pressure affects the fuel consumption just slightly, but the package volume/weight drastically. Back pressure increases losses significantly. Special attention was paid to description of the behavior and modeling of the losses of variable displacement hydrostatic machines.

  3. Parametric analysis of hollow conductor parallel and coaxial transmission lines for high frequency space power distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeffries, K. S.; Renz, D. D.

    1984-01-01

    A parametric analysis was performed of transmission cables for transmitting electrical power at high voltage (up to 1000 V) and high frequency (10 to 30 kHz) for high power (100 kW or more) space missions. Large diameter (5 to 30 mm) hollow conductors were considered in closely spaced coaxial configurations and in parallel lines. Formulas were derived to calculate inductance and resistance for these conductors. Curves of cable conductance, mass, inductance, capacitance, resistance, power loss, and temperature were plotted for various conductor diameters, conductor thickness, and alternating current frequencies. An example 5 mm diameter coaxial cable with 0.5 mm conductor thickness was calculated to transmit 100 kW at 1000 Vac, 50 m with a power loss of 1900 W, an inductance of 1.45 micron and a capacitance of 0.07 micron-F. The computer programs written for this analysis are listed in the appendix.

  4. K-Band Power Enbedded Transmission Line (ETL) MMIC Amplifiers for Satellite Communication Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tserng, Hua-Quen; Ketterson, Andrew; Saunier, Paul; McCarty, Larry; Davis, Steve

    1998-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and performance of K-band high-efficiency, linear power pHEMT amplifiers implemented in Embedded Transmission Line (ETL) MMIC configuration with unthinned GaAs substrate and topside grounding are reported. A three-stage amplifier achieved a power-added efficiency of 40.5% with 264 mW output at 20.2 GHz. The linear gain is 28.5 dB with 1-dB gain compression output power of 200 mW and 31% power-added efficiency. The carrier-to-third-order intermodulation ratio is approx. 20 dBc at the 1-dB compression point. A RF functional yield of more than 90% has been achieved.

  5. Application of wireless power transmission systems in wireless capsule endoscopy: an overview.

    PubMed

    Basar, Md Rubel; Ahmad, Mohd Yazed; Cho, Jongman; Ibrahim, Fatimah

    2014-01-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) is a promising technology for direct diagnosis of the entire small bowel to detect lethal diseases, including cancer and obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB). To improve the quality of diagnosis, some vital specifications of WCE such as image resolution, frame rate and working time need to be improved. Additionally, future multi-functioning robotic capsule endoscopy (RCE) units may utilize advanced features such as active system control over capsule motion, drug delivery systems, semi-surgical tools and biopsy. However, the inclusion of the above advanced features demands additional power that make conventional power source methods impractical. In this regards, wireless power transmission (WPT) system has received attention among researchers to overcome this problem. Systematic reviews on techniques of using WPT for WCE are limited, especially when involving the recent technological advancements. This paper aims to fill that gap by providing a systematic review with emphasis on the aspects related to the amount of transmitted power, the power transmission efficiency, the system stability and patient safety. It is noted that, thus far the development of WPT system for this WCE application is still in initial stage and there is room for improvements, especially involving system efficiency, stability, and the patient safety aspects. PMID:24949645

  6. Application of Wireless Power Transmission Systems in Wireless Capsule Endoscopy: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Basar, Md Rubel; Ahmad, Mohd Yazed; Cho, Jongman; Ibrahim, Fatimah

    2014-01-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) is a promising technology for direct diagnosis of the entire small bowel to detect lethal diseases, including cancer and obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB). To improve the quality of diagnosis, some vital specifications of WCE such as image resolution, frame rate and working time need to be improved. Additionally, future multi-functioning robotic capsule endoscopy (RCE) units may utilize advanced features such as active system control over capsule motion, drug delivery systems, semi-surgical tools and biopsy. However, the inclusion of the above advanced features demands additional power that make conventional power source methods impractical. In this regards, wireless power transmission (WPT) system has received attention among researchers to overcome this problem. Systematic reviews on techniques of using WPT for WCE are limited, especially when involving the recent technological advancements. This paper aims to fill that gap by providing a systematic review with emphasis on the aspects related to the amount of transmitted power, the power transmission efficiency, the system stability and patient safety. It is noted that, thus far the development of WPT system for this WCE application is still in initial stage and there is room for improvements, especially involving system efficiency, stability, and the patient safety aspects. PMID:24949645

  7. Application of wireless power transmission systems in wireless capsule endoscopy: an overview.

    PubMed

    Basar, Md Rubel; Ahmad, Mohd Yazed; Cho, Jongman; Ibrahim, Fatimah

    2014-01-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) is a promising technology for direct diagnosis of the entire small bowel to detect lethal diseases, including cancer and obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB). To improve the quality of diagnosis, some vital specifications of WCE such as image resolution, frame rate and working time need to be improved. Additionally, future multi-functioning robotic capsule endoscopy (RCE) units may utilize advanced features such as active system control over capsule motion, drug delivery systems, semi-surgical tools and biopsy. However, the inclusion of the above advanced features demands additional power that make conventional power source methods impractical. In this regards, wireless power transmission (WPT) system has received attention among researchers to overcome this problem. Systematic reviews on techniques of using WPT for WCE are limited, especially when involving the recent technological advancements. This paper aims to fill that gap by providing a systematic review with emphasis on the aspects related to the amount of transmitted power, the power transmission efficiency, the system stability and patient safety. It is noted that, thus far the development of WPT system for this WCE application is still in initial stage and there is room for improvements, especially involving system efficiency, stability, and the patient safety aspects.

  8. Laser power beaming: an emerging technology for power transmission and propulsion in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Harold E.

    1997-05-01

    A ground based laser beam transmitted to space can be used as an electric utility for satellites. It can significantly increase the electric power available to operate a satellite or to transport it from low earth orbit (LEO) to mid earth or geosynchronous orbits. The increase in electrical power compared to that obtainable from the sun is as much as 1000% for the same size solar panels. An increase in satellite electric power is needed to meet the increasing demands for power caused by the advent of 'direct to home TV,' for increased telecommunications, or for other demands made by the burgeoning 'space highway.' Monetary savings as compared to putting up multiple satellites in the same 'slot' can be over half a billion dollars. To obtain propulsion, the laser power can be beamed through the atmosphere to an 'orbit transfer vehicle' (OTV) satellite which travels back and forth between LEO and higher earth orbits. The OTV will transport the satellite into orbit as does a rocket but does not require the heavy fuel load needed if rocket propulsion is used. Monetary savings of 300% or more in launch costs are predicted. Key elements in the proposed concept are a 100 to 200 kW free- electron laser operating at 0.84 m in the photographic infrared region of the spectrum and a novel adaptive optic telescope.

  9. Low-power magnetometer observation with satellite data transmission at unmanned site in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamagishi, H.; Kadokura, A.

    2012-12-01

    We will report technical experiences from 6 years of unmanned low power magnetometer observation in Antarctica with daily data transmission via Iridium satellite telephone link. One of the difficulties of unmanned observation in Antarctica is dark winter months in which power supply from solar panel can not be expected. One solution for this difficulty is to minimize the power consumption (as small as ~1 W) to manage the observation in winter months with limited amount of batteries (~400Ah). Another difficulty is to collect data from the observation site. It is quite expensive and laborious to send a party to the observation site to obtain the data in Antarctica. Although cost for satellite communication is expensive, it is much more economical to collect data via satellite data link by installing a telephone terminal into the observation system. It seems that power consumption of a satellite phone (~10 W) does not fit to the low power system. However, as long as the observed data is not too large (<1 Mbyte per day), turn on period of the satellite phone is short (<1 hour per day) and the daily average of total power consumption lies within the available power of ~1 W. We have developed low-power magnetometer system with Iridium satellite phone data link. Basic design of the low-power system is similar to that developed by British Antarctic Survey (intermittent operation of magnetometer and GPS). However, we have made some improvements; reduced power consumption (0.2 W) at high sampling rate (1Hz) and increased sensitivity (0.2nT), so that geomagnetic pulsation study can be possible. In our observation system, satellite data transfer is only made in sunlit season with the total power consumption of 1 W (0.8W for Iridium phone and 0.2W for others). During dark winter months, observed data are stored in CF memory with diminished power consumption of 0.2W. When the sun comes in spring, the stored data are transmitted along with the daily observed data. It takes nearly

  10. Critical Assessment of the Foundations of Power Transmission and Distribution Reliability Metrics and Standards.

    PubMed

    Nateghi, Roshanak; Guikema, Seth D; Wu, Yue Grace; Bruss, C Bayan

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. federal government regulates the reliability of bulk power systems, while the reliability of power distribution systems is regulated at a state level. In this article, we review the history of regulating electric service reliability and study the existing reliability metrics, indices, and standards for power transmission and distribution networks. We assess the foundations of the reliability standards and metrics, discuss how they are applied to outages caused by large exogenous disturbances such as natural disasters, and investigate whether the standards adequately internalize the impacts of these events. Our reflections shed light on how existing standards conceptualize reliability, question the basis for treating large-scale hazard-induced outages differently from normal daily outages, and discuss whether this conceptualization maps well onto customer expectations. We show that the risk indices for transmission systems used in regulating power system reliability do not adequately capture the risks that transmission systems are prone to, particularly when it comes to low-probability high-impact events. We also point out several shortcomings associated with the way in which regulators require utilities to calculate and report distribution system reliability indices. We offer several recommendations for improving the conceptualization of reliability metrics and standards. We conclude that while the approaches taken in reliability standards have made considerable advances in enhancing the reliability of power systems and may be logical from a utility perspective during normal operation, existing standards do not provide a sufficient incentive structure for the utilities to adequately ensure high levels of reliability for end-users, particularly during large-scale events. PMID:25976848

  11. Critical Assessment of the Foundations of Power Transmission and Distribution Reliability Metrics and Standards.

    PubMed

    Nateghi, Roshanak; Guikema, Seth D; Wu, Yue Grace; Bruss, C Bayan

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. federal government regulates the reliability of bulk power systems, while the reliability of power distribution systems is regulated at a state level. In this article, we review the history of regulating electric service reliability and study the existing reliability metrics, indices, and standards for power transmission and distribution networks. We assess the foundations of the reliability standards and metrics, discuss how they are applied to outages caused by large exogenous disturbances such as natural disasters, and investigate whether the standards adequately internalize the impacts of these events. Our reflections shed light on how existing standards conceptualize reliability, question the basis for treating large-scale hazard-induced outages differently from normal daily outages, and discuss whether this conceptualization maps well onto customer expectations. We show that the risk indices for transmission systems used in regulating power system reliability do not adequately capture the risks that transmission systems are prone to, particularly when it comes to low-probability high-impact events. We also point out several shortcomings associated with the way in which regulators require utilities to calculate and report distribution system reliability indices. We offer several recommendations for improving the conceptualization of reliability metrics and standards. We conclude that while the approaches taken in reliability standards have made considerable advances in enhancing the reliability of power systems and may be logical from a utility perspective during normal operation, existing standards do not provide a sufficient incentive structure for the utilities to adequately ensure high levels of reliability for end-users, particularly during large-scale events.

  12. Complex Dynamics of the Power Transmission Grid (and other Critical Infrastructures)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, David

    2015-03-01

    Our modern societies depend crucially on a web of complex critical infrastructures such as power transmission networks, communication systems, transportation networks and many others. These infrastructure systems display a great number of the characteristic properties of complex systems. Important among these characteristics, they exhibit infrequent large cascading failures that often obey a power law distribution in their probability versus size. This power law behavior suggests that conventional risk analysis does not apply to these systems. It is thought that much of this behavior comes from the dynamical evolution of the system as it ages, is repaired, upgraded, and as the operational rules evolve with human decision making playing an important role in the dynamics. In this talk, infrastructure systems as complex dynamical systems will be introduced and some of their properties explored. The majority of the talk will then be focused on the electric power transmission grid though many of the results can be easily applied to other infrastructures. General properties of the grid will be discussed and results from a dynamical complex systems power transmission model will be compared with real world data. Then we will look at a variety of uses of this type of model. As examples, we will discuss the impact of size and network homogeneity on the grid robustness, the change in risk of failure as generation mix (more distributed vs centralized for example) changes, as well as the effect of operational changes such as the changing the operational risk aversion or grid upgrade strategies. One of the important outcomes from this work is the realization that ``improvements'' in the system components and operational efficiency do not always improve the system robustness, and can in fact greatly increase the risk, when measured as a risk of large failure.

  13. Analysis and Experimental Evaluation of Power Line Transmission Parameters for Power Line Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mlynek, P.; Misurec, J.; Koutny, M.; Fujdiak, R.; Jedlicka, T.

    2015-04-01

    The article describes a way of evaluating the power line channel frequency response and input impedance by means of the linear time-invariant (LTI) power line generator. Two possible methods are introduced for the calculation of primary parameters: the first method depends on the physical realization and physical dimension of the cable, and the second method is derived from the data provided by typical electrical cable manufacturers. Based on these methods, a comparison of transfer functions was made. This is followed by measurement evaluation and numerical verification on a simple topology

  14. Wind power development in the United States: Effects of policies and electricity transmission congestion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hitaj, Claudia

    In this dissertation, I analyze the drivers of wind power development in the United States as well as the relationship between renewable power plant location and transmission congestion and emissions levels. I first examine the role of government renewable energy incentives and access to the electricity grid on investment in wind power plants across counties from 1998-2007. The results indicate that the federal production tax credit, state-level sales tax credit and production incentives play an important role in promoting wind power. In addition, higher wind power penetration levels can be achieved by bringing more parts of the electricity transmission grid under independent system operator regulation. I conclude that state and federal government policies play a significant role in wind power development both by providing financial support and by improving physical and procedural access to the electricity grid. Second, I examine the effect of renewable power plant location on electricity transmission congestion levels and system-wide emissions levels in a theoretical model and a simulation study. A new renewable plant takes the effect of congestion on its own output into account, but ignores the effect of its marginal contribution to congestion on output from existing plants, which results in curtailment of renewable power. Though pricing congestion removes the externality and reduces curtailment, I find that in the absence of a price on emissions, pricing congestion may in some cases actually increase system-wide emissions. The final part of my dissertation deals with an econometric issue that emerged from the empirical analysis of the drivers of wind power. I study the effect of the degree of censoring on random-effects Tobit estimates in finite sample with a particular focus on severe censoring, when the percentage of uncensored observations reaches 1 to 5 percent. The results show that the Tobit model performs well even at 5 percent uncensored observations

  15. Evaluation of a closed loop inductive power transmission system on an awake behaving animal subject.

    PubMed

    Kiani, Mehdi; Kwon, Ki Yong; Zhang, Fei; Oweiss, Karim; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents in vivo experimental results for a closed loop wireless power transmission system to implantable devices on an awake behaving animal subject. In this system, wireless power transmission takes place across an inductive link, controlled by a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) radio frequency identification (RFID) transceiver (TRF7960) operating at 13.56 MHz. Induced voltage on the implantable secondary coil is rectified, digitized by a 10-bit analog to digital converter, and transmitted back to the primary via back telemetry. Transmitter (Tx) and receiver (Rx) circuitry were mounted on the back of an adult rat with a nominal distance of ~7 mm between their coils. Our experiments showed that the closed loop system was able to maintain the Rx supply voltage at the designated 3.8 V despite changes in the coils' relative distance and alignment due to animal movements. The Tx power consumption changed between 410 ~ 560 mW in order to deliver 27 mW to the receiver. The open loop system, on the other hand, showed undesired changes in the Rx supply voltage while the Tx power consumption was constant at 660 mW. PMID:22256112

  16. A Cool-down and Fault Study of a Long Length HTS Power Transmission Cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, J.; Maguire, J.; Allais, A.; Schmidt, F.

    2006-04-01

    High temperature superconductor (HTS) power transmission cables offer significant advantages in power density over conventional copper-based cables. Currently the US Department of Energy is funding the design, development, and demonstration of the first long length, transmission level voltage, cold dielectric, underground high temperature superconductor power cable. The cable is 620 meters long and is designed for permanent installation in the Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) grid. The cable is specified to carry 574 MVA at a voltage of 138 kV and is designed to withstand a 69 kA fault current for a duration of 200ms. The superconducting state of the cable conductors is maintained by circulating sub-cooled liquid nitrogen, which flows through one phase conductor of the cable and returns through the other two. As HTS cables develop and lengths increase to what may be considered commercial, it is critical to study the cable thermal behavior during cool-down process and fault condition to avoid any possible damage to the cable core due to the thermal stress, over heating or bubble formation. This paper reviews the efforts that have been made to study the cool-down process and fault condition. Descriptions of the transient thermal and fluid model are provided. A discussion of the simulation results is also included.

  17. A high-efficiency power and data transmission system for biomedical implanted electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamici, Zoubir; Itti, Roland; Champier, Jacques

    1996-02-01

    In biomedical engineering, inductive transcutaneous links can be used for power and data transfer between external systems and implanted electronic devices. The development of a micro-telemeter having a significant implantation depth needs a high-efficiency magnetic transcutaneous link. This paper presents a new system, which uses a multi-frequency load network for transmitter coil based on the class E power amplifier. At the carrier frequency used, the resistive load is influenced by the coupling of the coils and by the variation of the implant equivalent resistance. Modulating this latter between two rails permits one to modulate the amplitude of the external transmitter current and then to transmit internal data without the use of the classical implanted emitter design. Furthermore, the fact that the modulation index depends on the coupling factor, allows one to find the external coil's correct position using a position feedback loop. A complete study of the concept of digital data transmission by impedance modulation associated with a class E power amplifier is presented. Internal data transmission using this system yields a decrease of the internal electronic circuitry bulk and constitutes a high-efficiency energizing device. A theoretical investigation shows that the efficiency of the power transfer varies between 44 and 75% within a wide range of implantation depths (20 - 40 mm).

  18. Solar power satellite system definition study. Part 2, volume 4: Microwave power transmission systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A slotted waveguide planar array was established as the baseline design for the spaceborne transmitter antenna. Key aspects of efficient energy conversion at both ends of the power transfer link were analyzed and optimized alternate approaches in the areas of antenna and tube design are discussed. An integrated design concept was developed which meets design requirements, observes structural and thermal constraints, exhibits good performance and was developed in adequate depth to permit cost estimating at the subsystem/component level.

  19. The voltage profile improvement using static var compensator (SVC) in power system transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramdan, G. M.; Mulyadi, Y.; Hasbullah

    2016-04-01

    In transmission system named ‘Subsistem Bandung Selatan dan New Ujungberung’ there are the voltage drop which relatively high and the voltage profile at the receiving ends below 0.95 p.u. Therefore, this research proposed a method to improve the voltage profile in the transmission system using one of Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) technology which is Static Var Compensator (SVC) and ‘Subsistem Bandung Selatan and New Ujungberung’ as the object. This research aims to get the voltage profile in ‘Subsistem Bandung Selatan dan New Ujungberung’ before and after connected to SVC and to set optimal location and rating of SVC to maintain the voltage profile at the system that has desire range (0.95 p.u - 1.05 p.u). To get the result in accordance with these objects, Newton -Raphson power flow solution is applied to the system. The result of Newton- Raphson power flow solution of the system shows the voltage profile before connecting to SVC are averagely 140.95 kV or 0.94 p.u while after connecting to SVC are 145.28 kV or 0.97 p.u. The SVC installation is connected to ‘Bandung Utara I’ as the weakest bus, and the SVC rating is -250 Mvar to 300 Mvar.

  20. Final environmental impact statement, Washington Water Power/B.C. Hydro Transmission Interconnection Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    Washington Water Power (WWP) proposes to construct and operate an electric transmission line that would connect with the electrical system of the British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority (B.C. Hydro). The project would be composed of a double-circuit, 230-kilovolt (kV) transmission line from WWP`s existing Beacon Substation located northeast of Spokane, Washington to the international border located northwest of Metaline Falls, Washington. The original Presidential permit application and associated proposed route presented in the draft environmental impact statement (DEIS) have been modified to terminate at the Beacon Substation, instead of WWP`s initially proposed termination point at the planned Marshall Substation located southwest of Spokane. A supplemental draft EIS was prepared and submitted for review to not only examine the new proposed 5.6 miles of route, but to also compare the new Proposed Route to the other alternatives previously analyzed in the DEIS. This final EIS (FEIS) assesses the environmental effects of the proposed transmission line through construction, operation, maintenance, and abandonment activities and addresses the impacts associated with the Proposed Action, Eastern Alternative, Western Alternative, Northern Crossover Alternative, Southern Crossover Alternative, and No Action Alternative. The FEIS also contains the comments received and the responses to these comments submitted on the DEIS and Supplemental DEIS.

  1. Multivariable time series prediction for the icing process on overhead power transmission line.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Zhao, Na; Zhou, Donghua; Cao, Min; Li, Jingjie; Shi, Xinling

    2014-01-01

    The design of monitoring and predictive alarm systems is necessary for successful overhead power transmission line icing. Given the characteristics of complexity, nonlinearity, and fitfulness in the line icing process, a model based on a multivariable time series is presented here to predict the icing load of a transmission line. In this model, the time effects of micrometeorology parameters for the icing process have been analyzed. The phase-space reconstruction theory and machine learning method were then applied to establish the prediction model, which fully utilized the history of multivariable time series data in local monitoring systems to represent the mapping relationship between icing load and micrometeorology factors. Relevant to the characteristic of fitfulness in line icing, the simulations were carried out during the same icing process or different process to test the model's prediction precision and robustness. According to the simulation results for the Tao-Luo-Xiong Transmission Line, this model demonstrates a good accuracy of prediction in different process, if the prediction length is less than two hours, and would be helpful for power grid departments when deciding to take action in advance to address potential icing disasters. PMID:25136653

  2. Multivariable Time Series Prediction for the Icing Process on Overhead Power Transmission Line

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peng; Zhao, Na; Zhou, Donghua; Cao, Min; Li, Jingjie; Shi, Xinling

    2014-01-01

    The design of monitoring and predictive alarm systems is necessary for successful overhead power transmission line icing. Given the characteristics of complexity, nonlinearity, and fitfulness in the line icing process, a model based on a multivariable time series is presented here to predict the icing load of a transmission line. In this model, the time effects of micrometeorology parameters for the icing process have been analyzed. The phase-space reconstruction theory and machine learning method were then applied to establish the prediction model, which fully utilized the history of multivariable time series data in local monitoring systems to represent the mapping relationship between icing load and micrometeorology factors. Relevant to the characteristic of fitfulness in line icing, the simulations were carried out during the same icing process or different process to test the model's prediction precision and robustness. According to the simulation results for the Tao-Luo-Xiong Transmission Line, this model demonstrates a good accuracy of prediction in different process, if the prediction length is less than two hours, and would be helpful for power grid departments when deciding to take action in advance to address potential icing disasters. PMID:25136653

  3. High-power COIL fiber transmission for D&D application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruenewald, Karin M.; Bohn, Willy L.; Duschek, Frank R.; Handke, Juergen; Schall, Wolfgang O.

    2004-06-01

    11 kW of COIL power are successfully transmitted through a 20 meter long modified commercial fiber system with optical losses below 10%. The transmission ratio is derived from simultaneous measurement of the laser output power behind the total reflector and the transmitted laser power behind the complete optical fiber system. The fiber delivery system is used to demonstrate cutting of various materials pertinent to dismantling & decommissioning of nuclear installations. Nitrogen and oxygen gas assisted cuts are performed for metal and nonmetal samples, which are made of steel, aluminum, concrete and graphite. The cutting results are validated with theoretical models from literature. The COIL cutting performance is compared to referenced data of laser materials processing.

  4. 77 FR 24950 - Meeting Related to the Transmission Planning Activities of the Southwest Power Pool, Inc.; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-26

    ... Power Pool, Inc.; Notice of Commission Staff Attendance The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission hereby... transmission planning activities of the Southwest Power Pool, Inc. (SPP): Strategic Planning Committee Task... Plains, LLC. Docket No. ER11-4105-000, Southwest Power Pool, Inc. Docket No. EL11-34-001,...

  5. Transmission line design for a power distribution system at 20 kHz for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelby, L. W.; Mathes, J. B.; Shawver, J. W.

    1986-01-01

    A low inductance, low characteristic impedance transmission line was designed for a 20 kHz power distribution system. Several different conductor configurations were considered: strip lines, interdigitated metal ribbons, and standard insulated wires in multiwire configurations (circular and rectangular cylindrical arrangements). The final design was a rectangular arrangement of multiple wires of the same gauge with alternating polarities from wire to wire. This offered the lowest inductance per unit length (on the order of several nanohenries/meter) and the lowest characteristic impedance (on the order of one Ohm). Standard multipin connectors with gold-plated elements were recommended with this transmission line, the junction boxes to be internally connected with flat metal ribbons for low inductance, and the line to be constructed in sections of suitable length. Computer programs for the calculation of inductance of multiwire lines and of capacitances of strip lines were developed.

  6. Energy harvesting and wireless energy transmission for powering SHM sensor nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Stuart G; Farinholt, Kevin M; Park, Gyuhae; Farrar, Charles R

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a feasibility study of using energy harvesting and wireless energy transmission systems to operate SHM sensor nodes. The energy harvesting approach examines the use of kinetic energy harvesters to scavenge energy from the ambient sources. Acceleration measurements were made on a bridge, and serve as the basis for a series of laboratory experiments that replicate these sources using an electromagnetic shaker. We also investigated the use of wireless energy transmission systems to operate SHM sensor nodes. The goal of this investigation is to develop SHM sensing systems which can be permanently embedded in the host structure and do not require on-board power sources. This paper summarizes considerations needed to design such systems, experimental procedures and results, and additional issues that can be used as guidelines for future investigations.

  7. 1KW Power Transmission Using Wireless Acoustic-Electric Feed-Through (WAEF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, S.; Bao, X.; Badescu, M.; Aldrich, J.; Bar-Cohen, Y.; Biederman, W.

    2008-01-01

    A variety of space applications require the delivery of power into sealed structures. Since the structural integrity can be degraded by holes for cabling we present an alternative method of delivering power and information using stress waves to the internal space of a sealed structure. One particular application of this technology is in sample return missions where it is critical to preserve the sample integrity and to prevent earth contamination. Therefore, the container has to be hermetically sealed and the integrity of the seal must be monitored in order to insure to a high degree of reliability the integrity of the sample return vessel. In this study we investigated the use of piezoelectric acoustic-electric power feed-through devices to transfer electric power wirelessly through a solid wall by using elastic or acoustic waves. The technology is applicable to a range of space and terrestrial applications where power is required by electronic equipment inside sealed containers, vacuum or pressure vessels, etc., where holes in the wall are prohibitive or may result in significant structural performance degradation or unnecessarily complex designs. To meet requirements of higher power applications, the feasibility to transfer kilowatts level power was investigated. Pre-stressed longitudinal piezoelectric feed-through devices were analyzed by finite element models and an equivalent circuit model was developed to predict the power transfer characteristics to different electric loads. Based on the results of the analysis a prototype device was designed, fabricated and a demonstration of the transmission of electric power up to 1.068-kW was successfully conducted. Efficiencies in the 80-90% range were also demonstrated and methods to increase the efficiency further are currently being considered.

  8. Evaluation Of Different Power Conditioning Options For Stirling Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrigos, A.; Blanes, J. M.; Carrasco, J. A.; Maset, E.; Montalban, G.; Ejea, J.; Ferreres, A.; Sanchis, E.

    2011-10-01

    Free-piston Stirling engines are an interesting alternative for electrical power systems, especially in deep space missions where photovoltaic systems are not feasible. This kind of power generators contains two main parts, the Stirling machine and the linear alternator that converts the mechanical energy from the piston movement to electrical energy. Since the generated power is in AC form, several aspects should be assessed to use such kind of generators in a spacecraft power system: AC/DC topologies, power factor correction, power regulation techniques, integration into the power system, etc. This paper details power generator operation and explores different power conversion approaches.

  9. Plasma evolution and dynamics in high-power vacuum-transmission-line post-hole convolutes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, D. V.; Welch, D. R.; Hughes, T. P.; Clark, R. E.; Stygar, W. A.

    2008-06-01

    Vacuum-post-hole convolutes are used in pulsed high-power generators to join several magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITL) in parallel. Such convolutes add the output currents of the MITLs, and deliver the combined current to a single MITL that, in turn, delivers the current to a load. Magnetic insulation of electron flow, established upstream of the convolute region, is lost at the convolute due to symmetry breaking and the formation of magnetic nulls, resulting in some current losses. At very high-power operating levels and long pulse durations, the expansion of electrode plasmas into the MITL of such devices is considered likely. This work examines the evolution and dynamics of cathode plasmas in the double-post-hole convolutes used on the Z accelerator [R. B. Spielman , Phys. Plasmas 5, 2105 (1998)PHPAEN1070-664X10.1063/1.872881]. Three-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations that model the entire radial extent of the Z accelerator convolute—from the parallel-plate transmission-line power feeds to the z-pinch load region—are used to determine electron losses in the convolute. The results of the simulations demonstrate that significant current losses (1.5 MA out of a total system current of 18.5 MA), which are comparable to the losses observed experimentally, could be caused by the expansion of cathode plasmas in the convolute regions.

  10. Outgassing of lower hybrid antenna modules during high-power long-pulse transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Goniche, M.; Kazarian, F.; Bibet, P.; Maebara, S.; Seki, M.; Ikeda, Y.; Imai, T.

    2005-01-01

    During high-power, long-pulse transmission from lower-hybrid-range-of-frequency (LHRF) antennas, the waveguide walls outgas as a result of rf-loss-induced heating. If the resulting pressure rise is too high, power transmission will be adversely affected and additional pumping may be required to maintain the pressure at a low enough value. The outgassing rates of waveguides made of various materials (oxygen-free high-conductivity copper, dispersoid copper, copper-coated carbon fiber composite, copper-coated graphite) were measured during rf injection at high power density (50-200 MW/m{sup 2}) for a duration in the range 100-4700 s. The experiments were performed on a test-bed facility equipped with a 3.7 GHz klystron on multiwaveguide (2 to 18) mock-ups. The effect of the main parameters, namely, the waveguide surface temperature and the initial wall gas loading ('conditioning'), are analyzed in detail. It is concluded that an outgassing rate of 1x10{sup -5} (5x10{sup -5}) Pa m{sup 3} s{sup -1} m{sup -2} at 300 deg. C (400 deg. C) can be considered for most materials. The requirement, in terms of additional pumping, for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor LHRF antenna is finally discussed.

  11. The Cost and Benefit of Bulk Energy Storage in the Arizona Power Transmission System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggiero, John

    This thesis addresses the issue of making an economic case for energy storage in power systems. Bulk energy storage has often been suggested for large scale electric power systems in order to levelize load; store energy when it is inexpensive and discharge energy when it is expensive; potentially defer transmission and generation expansion; and provide for generation reserve margins. As renewable energy resource penetration increases, the uncertainty and variability of wind and solar may be alleviated by bulk energy storage technologies. The quadratic programming function in MATLAB is used to simulate an economic dispatch that includes energy storage. A program is created that utilizes quadratic programming to analyze various cases using a 2010 summer peak load from the Arizona transmission system, part of the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC). The MATLAB program is used first to test the Arizona test bed with a low level of energy storage to study how the storage power limit effects several optimization out-puts such as the system wide operating costs. Very high levels of energy storage are then added to see how high level energy storage affects peak shaving, load factor, and other system applications. Finally, various constraint relaxations are made to analyze why the applications tested eventually approach a constant value. This research illustrates the use of energy storage which helps minimize the system wide generator operating cost by "shaving" energy off of the peak demand.

  12. BPA/Puget Power Northwest Washington Transmission Project Final Environmental Impact Statement.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-08-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and Puget Sound Power & Light Company (Puget Power) propose to upgrade the existing high-voltage transmission system in the Whatcom and Skagit counties area between the towns of Custer and Sedro Woolley, including some areas within the City of Bellingham, starting in 1995. A Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for the project was issued in November 1993, followed by a 45-day public comment period. Public response to the DEIS included the identification of several new transmission route alternatives in the Lake Whatcom area. BPA issued a Supplemental DEIS in April 1995 to provide a second public review-and-comment period. Rebuilding an existing 230-kV line to a double-circuit 230-kV transmission line was identified in the Supplemental DEIS as the Proposed Action. The Supplemental DEIS also examined in detail a North Shore Road alternative which was proposed by some members of the public. Public comments on the EIS were listed and responded to in the Supplemental DEIS. In May 1995, a second set of open houses and public meetings was held to review the Supplemental DEIS. Electromagnetic field (EMF) effects raised as an issue in the DEIS continued to be an issue of public concern in the meetings. The EIS has identified impacts that would generally be classified as low to moderate and localized. Effects on soils and water resources in sensitive areas (e.g., near Lake Whatcom) would be low to moderate; there would be little change in magnetic fields; noise levels would remain at existing levels; and land use and property value impacts would be minimal. Threatened and endangered species would not be adversely affected, and all proposed actions in wetlands would be covered by a Corps of Engineers Nationwide Permit. Visual and socioeconomic would be low to moderate. There would be no effect on cultural resources.

  13. Theory and simulation of high-power microwave generation in a magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemke, Raymond W.; Clark, Collins M.

    1987-10-01

    The magnetically insulated transmission line (MITE-LINE) oscillator is an electron beam diode comprised of a field emitting cathode and a corrugated anode. The device is similar to a linear magnetron except that the insulating magnetic field is self-generated. The self-insulating property makes this device a robust high-power microwave tube. Using the thin-beam approximation a dispersion relation for a cylindrical MITE-LINE oscillator is derived. The dispersion relation is used to predict frequency and growth rate of the microwave generating instability. Analytical results are compared with CCUBE particle simulations.

  14. Efficiencies of photovoltaic cell receivers for laser power transmission under the lunar environment

    SciTech Connect

    Yugami, H.; Naito, H.; Itagaki, H.

    1998-07-01

    Major space activities in the next century will substantially increase the demand for power. The system of powering a very diverse set of remote missions will be an important infrastructure in space. Especially, the nighttime power supply to a space base placed on the Moon is a central problem in the development and utilization of the Moon, because the period of the nighttime on the Moon corresponds to 15 Earth-days. Photovoltaic cells could potentially be used as power receivers for several lasers at visible and near infrared regions. Several paper studies on the solar-cell response to laser illumination are available. However, the efficiency and response of cells would be quite different if these were used on the nighttime Moon surface since the temperature of lunar environment drops very low during the nighttime (about {minus}170 C). A feasibility of a laser energy transmission concept for a first stage lunar mission on 2005--2015 has been studied by NASDA. The lunar energy system consists of a small battery and a receiver (solar cell panel) on the lunar surface and a laser power transmission satellite on the moon orbit. In order to study the plausible lunar laser energy transmission system based on the state of the art of lasers and PV cell technologies, the authors report the cell efficiencies illuminated with several kinds of CW and pulsed lasers under the temperature range from {minus}190 C to 60 C. Solar cells of c-Si, GaAs for space use, CuInSe{sub 2} and infrared enhanced c-Si photodiode have been tested by changing the laser power from 3mW/cm{sup 2} to 1000mW/cm{sup 2}. The authors observed that the temperature dependence of the efficiency for YAG fundamental laser light is quite different from that for LD and Ar ion laser. In the latter cases, the efficiency increases with decreasing temperature. This is the general feature for the efficiency of conventional solar cells. In contrast with those, the PV cell efficiency under YAG fundamental light

  15. A Figure-of-Merit for Designing High-Performance Inductive Power Transmission Links

    PubMed Central

    Kiani, Mehdi; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2014-01-01

    Power transfer efficiency (PTE) and power delivered to the load (PDL) are two key inductive link design parameters that relate to the power source and driver specs, power loss, transmission range, robustness against misalignment, variations in loading, and interference with other devices. Designers need to strike a delicate balance between these two because designing the link to achieve high PTE will degrade the PDL and vice versa. We are proposing a new figure-of-merit (FoM), which can help designers to find out whether a two-, three-, or four-coil link is appropriate for their particular application and guide them through an iterative design procedure to reach optimal coil geometries based on how they weigh the PTE versus PDL for that application. Three design examples at three different power levels have been presented based on the proposed FoM for implantable microelectronic devices, handheld mobile devices, and electric vehicles. The new FoM suggests that the two-coil links are suitable when the coils are strongly coupled, and a large PDL is needed. Three-coil links are the best when the coils are loosely coupled, the coupling distance varies considerably, and large PDL is necessary. Finally, four-coil links are optimal when the PTE is paramount, the coils are loosely coupled, and their relative distance and alignment are stable. Measurement results support the accuracy of the theoretical design procedure and conclusions. PMID:25382898

  16. Losses at magnetic nulls in pulsed-power transmission line systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mendel, C.W. Jr.; Pointon, T.D.; Savage, M.E.; Seidel, D.B.; Magne, I.; Vezinet, R.

    2006-04-15

    Pulsed-power systems operating in the terawatt regime must deal with large electron flows in vacuum transmission lines. In most parts of these transmission lines the electrons are constrained by the self-magnetic field to flow parallel to the conductors. In very low impedance systems, such as those used to drive Z-pinch radiation sources, the currents from multiple transmission lines are added together. This addition necessarily involves magnetic nulls that connect the positive and negative electrodes. The resultant local loss of magnetic insulation results in electron losses at the anode in the vicinity of the nulls. The lost current due to the magnetic null might or might not be appreciable. In some cases the lost current due to the null is not large, but is spatially localized, and may create a gas and plasma release from the anode that can lead to an excessive loss, and possibly to catastrophic damage to the hardware. In this paper we describe an analytic model that uses one geometric parameter (aside from straightforward hardware size measurements) that determines the loss to the anode, and the extent of the loss region when the driving source and load are known. The parameter can be calculated in terms of the magnetic field in the region of the null calculated when no electron flow is present. The model is compared to some experimental data, and to simulations of several different hardware geometries, including some cases with multiple nulls, and unbalanced feeds.

  17. Losses at magnetic nulls in pulsed-power transmission line systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Magne, I.; Savage, Mark Edward; Seidel, David Bruce; Mendel, Clifford Will, Jr.; Pointon, Timothy David; Vezinet, R.

    2004-08-01

    Pulsed-power systems operating in the terawatt regime must deal with large electron flows in vacuum transmission lines. In most parts of these transmission lines the electrons are constrained by the self-magnetic field to flow parallel to the conductors. In very low impedance systems, such as those used to drive Z-pinch radiation sources, the currents from multiple transmission lines are added together. This addition necessarily involves magnetic nulls that connect the positive and negative electrodes. The resultant local loss of magnetic insulation results in electron losses at the anode in the vicinity of the nulls. The lost current due to the magnetic null might or might not be appreciable. In some cases the lost current due to the null is not large, but is spatially localized, and may create a gas and plasma release from the anode that can lead to an excessive loss, and possibly to catastrophic damage to the hardware. In this paper we describe an analytic model that uses one geometric parameter (aside from straightforward hardware size measurements) that determines the loss to the anode, and the extent of the loss region when the driving source and load are known. The parameter can be calculated in terms of the magnetic field in the region of the null calculated when no electron flow is present. The model is compared to some experimental data, and to simulations of several different hardware geometries, including some cases with multiple nulls, and unbalanced feeds.

  18. Independent transmission system operators and their role in maintaining reliability in a restructured electric power industry

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes the current status of proposals to form Independent System Operators (ISOs) to operate high-voltage transmission systems in the United States and reviews their potential role in maintaining bulk power system reliability. As background information, the likely new industry structure, nature of deregulated markets, and institutional framework for bulk power system reliability are reviewed. The report identifies issues related to the formation of ISOs and their roles in markets and in reliability, and describes potential policy directions for encouraging the formation of effective ISOs and ensuring bulk system reliability. Two appendices are provided, which address: (1) system operation arrangements in other countries, and (2) summaries of regional U.S. ISO proposals.

  19. Characteristics of a four element gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission line array high power microwave source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, J. M.; Reale, D. V.; Krile, J. T.; Garcia, R. S.; Cravey, W. H.; Neuber, A. A.; Dickens, J. C.; Mankowski, J. J.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a solid-state four element array gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission line high power microwave system is presented as well as a detailed description of its subsystems and general output capabilities. This frequency agile S-band source is easily adjusted from 2-4 GHz by way of a DC driven biasing magnetic field and is capable of generating electric fields of 7.8 kV/m at 10 m correlating to 4.2 MW of RF power with pulse repetition frequencies up to 1 kHz. Beam steering of the array at angles of ±16.7° is also demonstrated, and the associated general radiation pattern is detailed.

  20. Characteristics of a four element gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission line array high power microwave source.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J M; Reale, D V; Krile, J T; Garcia, R S; Cravey, W H; Neuber, A A; Dickens, J C; Mankowski, J J

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a solid-state four element array gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission line high power microwave system is presented as well as a detailed description of its subsystems and general output capabilities. This frequency agile S-band source is easily adjusted from 2-4 GHz by way of a DC driven biasing magnetic field and is capable of generating electric fields of 7.8 kV/m at 10 m correlating to 4.2 MW of RF power with pulse repetition frequencies up to 1 kHz. Beam steering of the array at angles of ±16.7° is also demonstrated, and the associated general radiation pattern is detailed. PMID:27250448

  1. Self-powered wireless carbohydrate/oxygen sensitive biodevice based on radio signal transmission.

    PubMed

    Falk, Magnus; Alcalde, Miguel; Bartlett, Philip N; De Lacey, Antonio L; Gorton, Lo; Gutierrez-Sanchez, Cristina; Haddad, Raoudha; Kilburn, Jeremy; Leech, Dónal; Ludwig, Roland; Magner, Edmond; Mate, Diana M; Conghaile, Peter Ó; Ortiz, Roberto; Pita, Marcos; Pöller, Sascha; Ruzgas, Tautgirdas; Salaj-Kosla, Urszula; Schuhmann, Wolfgang; Sebelius, Fredrik; Shao, Minling; Stoica, Leonard; Sygmund, Cristoph; Tilly, Jonas; Toscano, Miguel D; Vivekananthan, Jeevanthi; Wright, Emma; Shleev, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    Here for the first time, we detail self-contained (wireless and self-powered) biodevices with wireless signal transmission. Specifically, we demonstrate the operation of self-sustained carbohydrate and oxygen sensitive biodevices, consisting of a wireless electronic unit, radio transmitter and separate sensing bioelectrodes, supplied with electrical energy from a combined multi-enzyme fuel cell generating sufficient current at required voltage to power the electronics. A carbohydrate/oxygen enzymatic fuel cell was assembled by comparing the performance of a range of different bioelectrodes followed by selection of the most suitable, stable combination. Carbohydrates (viz. lactose for the demonstration) and oxygen were also chosen as bioanalytes, being important biomarkers, to demonstrate the operation of the self-contained biosensing device, employing enzyme-modified bioelectrodes to enable the actual sensing. A wireless electronic unit, consisting of a micropotentiostat, an energy harvesting module (voltage amplifier together with a capacitor), and a radio microchip, were designed to enable the biofuel cell to be used as a power supply for managing the sensing devices and for wireless data transmission. The electronic system used required current and voltages greater than 44 µA and 0.57 V, respectively to operate; which the biofuel cell was capable of providing, when placed in a carbohydrate and oxygen containing buffer. In addition, a USB based receiver and computer software were employed for proof-of concept tests of the developed biodevices. Operation of bench-top prototypes was demonstrated in buffers containing different concentrations of the analytes, showcasing that the variation in response of both carbohydrate and oxygen biosensors could be monitored wirelessly in real-time as analyte concentrations in buffers were changed, using only an enzymatic fuel cell as a power supply. PMID:25310190

  2. Self-Powered Wireless Carbohydrate/Oxygen Sensitive Biodevice Based on Radio Signal Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Falk, Magnus; Alcalde, Miguel; Bartlett, Philip N.; De Lacey, Antonio L.; Gorton, Lo; Gutierrez-Sanchez, Cristina; Haddad, Raoudha; Kilburn, Jeremy; Leech, Dónal; Ludwig, Roland; Magner, Edmond; Mate, Diana M.; Conghaile, Peter Ó.; Ortiz, Roberto; Pita, Marcos; Pöller, Sascha; Ruzgas, Tautgirdas; Salaj-Kosla, Urszula; Schuhmann, Wolfgang; Sebelius, Fredrik; Shao, Minling; Stoica, Leonard; Sygmund, Cristoph; Tilly, Jonas; Toscano, Miguel D.; Vivekananthan, Jeevanthi; Wright, Emma; Shleev, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    Here for the first time, we detail self-contained (wireless and self-powered) biodevices with wireless signal transmission. Specifically, we demonstrate the operation of self-sustained carbohydrate and oxygen sensitive biodevices, consisting of a wireless electronic unit, radio transmitter and separate sensing bioelectrodes, supplied with electrical energy from a combined multi-enzyme fuel cell generating sufficient current at required voltage to power the electronics. A carbohydrate/oxygen enzymatic fuel cell was assembled by comparing the performance of a range of different bioelectrodes followed by selection of the most suitable, stable combination. Carbohydrates (viz. lactose for the demonstration) and oxygen were also chosen as bioanalytes, being important biomarkers, to demonstrate the operation of the self-contained biosensing device, employing enzyme-modified bioelectrodes to enable the actual sensing. A wireless electronic unit, consisting of a micropotentiostat, an energy harvesting module (voltage amplifier together with a capacitor), and a radio microchip, were designed to enable the biofuel cell to be used as a power supply for managing the sensing devices and for wireless data transmission. The electronic system used required current and voltages greater than 44 µA and 0.57 V, respectively to operate; which the biofuel cell was capable of providing, when placed in a carbohydrate and oxygen containing buffer. In addition, a USB based receiver and computer software were employed for proof-of concept tests of the developed biodevices. Operation of bench-top prototypes was demonstrated in buffers containing different concentrations of the analytes, showcasing that the variation in response of both carbohydrate and oxygen biosensors could be monitored wirelessly in real-time as analyte concentrations in buffers were changed, using only an enzymatic fuel cell as a power supply. PMID:25310190

  3. Characterizing the topological and controllability features of U.S. power transmission networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jian; Dueñas-Osorio, Leonardo; Chen, Changkun; Berryhill, Benjamin; Yazdani, Alireza

    2016-07-01

    Understanding the controllability of complex networks continues to gain traction across disciplinary fields, including the exploration of infrastructure systems such as power grids. Through topological principles, this paper investigates the controllability features of an ensemble of 58 U.S. city-level power transmission networks in seven U.S. states. To perform structural controllability analyses, the topological characteristics of the ensemble of networks are first quantified, including degree, shortest path length, clustering coefficient, meshedness and betweenness centrality, as well as the uncertainty associated with these and related properties. Then, the paper focuses on the controllability features of complex networks so as to detect the minimal sets of driver nodes to possibly control the networks given system linearity assumptions. Accordingly, a node is critical, intermittent or redundant if it acts as a driver node in all, some, or none of the potentially controllable system configurations. Moreover, this paper constructs a new methodology to quantify the probability of being a driver node among the intermittent nodes, and reveals the controllability importance of system components. Results show that a small proportion of driver nodes can provide the conditions for controlling the slow dynamics of entire power transmission networks from a topological perspective, despite variations in network sizes and configurations. This paper also reveals that the driver nodes tend to avoid high degree nodes and high triangulation sub-graph nodes as well as high betweenness centrality nodes. The identification of topological differences for different categories of nodes (critical, intermittent or redundant) could help researchers and utilities understand the conditions for future functional controllability of power networks while improving their reliability and resilience as well as facilitating their transition into smart grid systems.

  4. Mitigating the Detrimental Impacts of Solar PV Penetration on Electric Power Transmission Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Nitin

    At present, almost 70% of the electric energy in the United States is produced utilizing fossil fuels. Combustion of fossil fuels contributes CO 2 to the atmosphere, potentially exacerbating the impact on global warming. To make the electric power system (EPS) more sustainable for the future, there has been an emphasis on scaling up generation of electric energy from wind and solar resources. These resources are renewable in nature and have pollution free operation. Various states in the US have set up different goals for achieving certain amount of electrical energy to be produced from renewable resources. The Southwestern region of the United States receives significant solar radiation throughout the year. High solar radiation makes concentrated solar power and solar PV the most suitable means of renewable energy production in this region. However, the majority of the projects that are presently being developed are either residential or utility owned solar PV plants. This research explores the impact of significant PV penetration on the steady state voltage profile of the electric power transmission system. This study also identifies the impact of PV penetration on the dynamic response of the transmission system such as rotor angle stability, frequency response and voltage response after a contingency. The light load case of spring 2010 and the peak load case of summer 2018 have been considered for analyzing the impact of PV. If the impact is found to be detrimental to the normal operation of the EPS, mitigation measures have been devised and presented in the thesis. Commercially available software tools/packages such as PSLF, PSS/E, DSA Tools have been used to analyze the power network and validate the results.

  5. Wholesale Power and Transmission Rate Projections 1993--2014 and Historical Wholesale Power Rates 1939--1992.

    SciTech Connect

    US Bonneville Power Administration

    1993-11-01

    This document provides a range of high, medium, and low case long-term projections of Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) wholesale power rates and a medium case long-term projection of BPA`s wheeling rates. These projections are produced annually by BPA. BPA uses these projections in long-term marketing, resource, transmission, and financial planning assessments. BPA`s projections also are used by public utility commissions, utilities, and others for a variety of planning purposes. The analysis used for these rate projections assumes that current rate making methodologies continue into the future and are further based on certain assumptions about regional loads, extra-regional markets, the costs of resources, BPA`s financial requirements, and the capability of the region`s power plants. While these projections are intended to address the overall uncertainty in rate levels, BPA realizes that the future will not reflect any specific set of assumptions. The rate projections in this document have been prepared prior to the Draft 1993 BPA Marketing Plan, the implementation of which is almost certain to push BPA away from any set of assumptions in this document. Therefore, this document can be thought of as representing the ``old`` BPA with its products and policies. It can be viewed as a starting point or reference point to measure the impact of the ``new`` BPA with its Marketing Plan, and the broader undertaking referred to as the Competitiveness Project.

  6. A Triple-Loop Inductive Power Transmission System for Biomedical Applications.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byunghun; Kiani, Mehdi; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2016-02-01

    A triple-loop wireless power transmission (WPT) system equipped with closed-loop global power control, adaptive transmitter (Tx) resonance compensation (TRC), and automatic receiver (Rx) resonance tuning (ART) is presented. This system not only opposes coupling and load variations but also compensates for changes in the environment surrounding the inductive link to enhance power transfer efficiency (PTE) in applications such as implantable medical devices (IMDs). The Tx was built around a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) radio-frequency identification (RFID) reader, operating at 13.56 MHz. A local Tx loop finds the optimal capacitance in parallel with the Tx coil by adjusting a varactor. A global power control loop maintains the received power at a desired level in the presence of changes in coupling distance, coil misalignments, and loading. Moreover, a local Rx loop is implemented inside a power management integrated circuit (PMIC) to avoid PTE degradation due to the Rx coil surrounding environment and process variations. The PMIC was fabricated in a 0.35- μm 4M2P standard CMOS process with 2.54 mm(2) active area. Measurement results show that the proposed triple-loop system improves the overall PTE by up to 10.5% and 4.7% compared to a similar open- and single closed-loop system, respectively, at nominal coil distance of 2 cm. The added TRC and ART loops contribute 2.3% and 1.4% to the overall PTE of 13.5%, respectively. This is the first WPT system to include three loops to dynamically compensate for environment and circuit variations and improve the overall power efficiency all the way from the driver output in Tx to the load in Rx. PMID:25667358

  7. Transmission line pulse system for avalanche characterization of high power semiconductor devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riccio, Michele; Ascione, Giovanni; De Falco, Giuseppe; Maresca, Luca; De Laurentis, Martina; Irace, Andrea; Breglio, Giovanni

    2013-05-01

    Because of the increasing in power density of electronic devices for medium and high power application, reliabilty of these devices is of great interest. Understanding the avalanche behaviour of a power device has become very important in these last years because it gives an indication of the maximum energy ratings which can be seen as an index of the device ruggedness. A good description of this behaviour is given by the static IV blocking characteristc. In order to avoid self heating, very relevant in high power devices, very short pulses of current have to be used, whose value can change from few milliamps up to tens of amps. The most used method to generate short pulses is the TLP (Transmission Line Pulse) test, which is based on charging the equivalent capacitance of a transmission line to high value of voltage and subsequently discharging it onto a load. This circuit let to obtain very short square pulses but it is mostly used for evaluate the ESD capability of semiconductor and, in this environment, it generates pulses of low amplitude which are not high enough to characterize the avalanche behaviour of high power devices . Advanced TLP circuit able to generate high current are usually very expensive and often suffer of distorption of the output pulse. In this article is proposed a simple, low cost circuit, based on a boosted-TLP configuration, which is capable to produce very square pulses of about one hundreds of nanosecond with amplitude up to some tens of amps. A prototype is implemented which can produce pulses up to 20A of amplitude with 200 ns of duration which can characterize power devices up to 1600V of breakdown voltage. Usage of microcontroller based logic make the circuit very flexible. Results of SPICE simulation are provided, together with experimental results. To prove the effectiveness of the circuit, the I-V blocking characteristics of two commercial devices, namely a 600V PowerMOS and a 1200V Trench-IGBT, are measured at different

  8. Communication Range Dynamics and Performance Analysis for a Self-Adaptive Transmission Power Controller.

    PubMed

    Lucas Martínez, Néstor; Martínez Ortega, José-Fernán; Hernández Díaz, Vicente; Del Toro Matamoros, Raúl M

    2016-05-12

    The deployment of the nodes in a Wireless Sensor and Actuator Network (WSAN) is typically restricted by the sensing and acting coverage. This implies that the locations of the nodes may be, and usually are, not optimal from the point of view of the radio communication. Additionally, when the transmission power is tuned for those locations, there are other unpredictable factors that can cause connectivity failures, like interferences, signal fading due to passing objects and, of course, radio irregularities. A control-based self-adaptive system is a typical solution to improve the energy consumption while keeping good connectivity. In this paper, we explore how the communication range for each node evolves along the iterations of an energy saving self-adaptive transmission power controller when using different parameter sets in an outdoor scenario, providing a WSAN that automatically adapts to surrounding changes keeping good connectivity. The results obtained in this paper show how the parameters with the best performance keep a k-connected network, where k is in the range of the desired node degree plus or minus a specified tolerance value.

  9. Communication Range Dynamics and Performance Analysis for a Self-Adaptive Transmission Power Controller †

    PubMed Central

    Lucas Martínez, Néstor; Martínez Ortega, José-Fernán; Hernández Díaz, Vicente; del Toro Matamoros, Raúl M.

    2016-01-01

    The deployment of the nodes in a Wireless Sensor and Actuator Network (WSAN) is typically restricted by the sensing and acting coverage. This implies that the locations of the nodes may be, and usually are, not optimal from the point of view of the radio communication. Additionally, when the transmission power is tuned for those locations, there are other unpredictable factors that can cause connectivity failures, like interferences, signal fading due to passing objects and, of course, radio irregularities. A control-based self-adaptive system is a typical solution to improve the energy consumption while keeping good connectivity. In this paper, we explore how the communication range for each node evolves along the iterations of an energy saving self-adaptive transmission power controller when using different parameter sets in an outdoor scenario, providing a WSAN that automatically adapts to surrounding changes keeping good connectivity. The results obtained in this paper show how the parameters with the best performance keep a k-connected network, where k is in the range of the desired node degree plus or minus a specified tolerance value. PMID:27187397

  10. Communication Range Dynamics and Performance Analysis for a Self-Adaptive Transmission Power Controller.

    PubMed

    Lucas Martínez, Néstor; Martínez Ortega, José-Fernán; Hernández Díaz, Vicente; Del Toro Matamoros, Raúl M

    2016-01-01

    The deployment of the nodes in a Wireless Sensor and Actuator Network (WSAN) is typically restricted by the sensing and acting coverage. This implies that the locations of the nodes may be, and usually are, not optimal from the point of view of the radio communication. Additionally, when the transmission power is tuned for those locations, there are other unpredictable factors that can cause connectivity failures, like interferences, signal fading due to passing objects and, of course, radio irregularities. A control-based self-adaptive system is a typical solution to improve the energy consumption while keeping good connectivity. In this paper, we explore how the communication range for each node evolves along the iterations of an energy saving self-adaptive transmission power controller when using different parameter sets in an outdoor scenario, providing a WSAN that automatically adapts to surrounding changes keeping good connectivity. The results obtained in this paper show how the parameters with the best performance keep a k-connected network, where k is in the range of the desired node degree plus or minus a specified tolerance value. PMID:27187397

  11. Design and cost estimate of an 800 MVA superconducting power transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Alex, P.; Ernst, A. ); Forsyth, E.; Gibbs, R.; Thomas, R.; Muller, T. )

    1990-10-18

    Numerous studies involving cost estimates have been performed for superconducting power transmission systems. As these systems were usually aimed at providing transmission from large clusters of generation the base power rating of the corridor was very high; in the case of the most comprehensive study it was 10,000 MVA. The purpose of this study is to examine a system which is very closely based on the prototype 1000 MVA system which was operated at Brookhaven National Laboratory over a four year period. The purpose of the study is to provide cost estimates for the superconducting system and to compare these estimates with a design based on the use of advanced but conventional cable designs. The work is supported by funding from the Office of Energy Research's Industry/Laboratory Technology Exchange Program. This program is designed to commercialize energy technologies. The technical design of the superconducting system was prepared by the BNL staff, the design of the 800 MVA conventional cable system was done by engineers from Underground Systems Incorporated. Both institutions worked on the cost estimate of the superconducting system. The description and cost estimate of the conventional cable system is given in the Appendix. 5 refs.

  12. Estimating Magnetic Fields of Homes Near Transmission Lines in the California Power Line Study

    PubMed Central

    Vergara, Ximena P.; Kavet, Robert; Crespi, Catherine M.; Hooper, Chris; Silva, J. Michael; Kheifets, Leeka

    2015-01-01

    The California Power Line Study is a case-control study investigating the relation between residences near transmission lines and risk of childhood leukemia. It includes 5788 childhood leukemia cases and 5788 matched primary controls born between 1986 and 2007. We describe the methodology for estimating magnetic fields at study residences as well as for characterizing sources of uncertainty in these estimates. Birth residences of study subjects were geocoded and their distances to transmission lines were ascertained. 302 residences were deemed sufficiently close to transmission lines to have non-zero magnetic fields attributable to the lines. These residences were visited and detailed data, describing the physical configuration and dimensions of the lines contributing to the magnetic field at the residence, were collected. Phasing, loading, and directional load flow data for years of birth and diagnosis for each subject as well as for the day of site visit were obtained from utilities when available; when yearly average load for a particular year was not available, extrapolated values based on expert knowledge and prediction models were obtained. These data were used to estimate the magnetic fields at the center, closest and farthest point of each residence. We found good correlation between calculated fields and spot measurements of fields taken on site during visits. Our modeling strategies yielded similar calculated field estimates, and they were in high agreement with utility extrapolations. Phasing was known for over 90% of the lines. Important sources of uncertainty included a lack of information on the precise location of residences located within apartment buildings or other complexes. Our findings suggest that we were able to achieve high specificity in exposure assessment, which is essential for examining the association between distance to or magnetic fields from power lines and childhood leukemia risk. PMID:26005950

  13. Power processing and control requirements of dispersed solar thermal electric generation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    Power Processing and Control requirements of Dispersed Receiver Solar Thermal Electric Generation Systems are presented. Kinematic Stirling Engines, Brayton Engines and Rankine Engines are considered as prime movers. Various types of generators are considered for ac and dc link generations. It is found that ac-ac Power Conversion is not suitable for implementation at this time. It is also found that ac-dc-ac Power Conversion with a large central inverter is more efficient than ac-dc-ac Power Conversion using small dispersed inverters. Ac-link solar thermal electric plants face potential stability and synchronization problems. Research and development efforts are needed in improving component performance characteristics and generation efficiency to make Solar Thermal Electric Generation economically attractive.

  14. An Implantable Neural Sensing Microsystem with Fiber-Optic Data Transmission and Power Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sunmee; Borton, David A.; Kang, Mingyu; Nurmikko, Arto V.; Song, Yoon-Kyu

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a prototype cortical neural sensing microsystem for brain implantable neuroengineering applications. Its key feature is that both the transmission of broadband, multichannel neural data and power required for the embedded microelectronics are provided by optical fiber access. The fiber-optic system is aimed at enabling neural recording from rodents and primates by converting cortical signals to a digital stream of infrared light pulses. In the full microsystem whose performance is summarized in this paper, an analog-to-digital converter and a low power digital controller IC have been integrated with a low threshold, semiconductor laser to extract the digitized neural signals optically from the implantable unit. The microsystem also acquires electrical power and synchronization clocks via optical fibers from an external laser by using a highly efficient photovoltaic cell on board. The implantable unit employs a flexible polymer substrate to integrate analog and digital microelectronics and on-chip optoelectronic components, while adapting to the anatomical and physiological constraints of the environment. A low power analog CMOS chip, which includes preamplifier and multiplexing circuitry, is directly flip-chip bonded to the microelectrode array to form the cortical neurosensor device. PMID:23666130

  15. High power microwave beam steering based on gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Romanchenko, I. V. Rostov, V. V.; Gunin, A. V.; Konev, V. Yu.

    2015-06-07

    We demonstrate electronically controlled beam steering by high power RF pulses produced by two gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission lines (NLTLs) connected to a one high voltage driver. Each NLTL is capable of producing several ns RF pulses with peak power from 50 to 700 MW (6% standard deviation) at frequencies from 0.5 to 1.7 GHz (1% standard deviation) with 100 Hz repetition rate. Using a helix antenna allows irradiating of RF pulses with almost circular polarization and 350 MW maximum peak power, which corresponds to 350 kV effective potential of radiation. At the installation of two identical channels, we demonstrate the possibility of beam steering within ±15° in the horizontal plane by coherent RF pulses with circular polarization at 1.0 GHz center frequency. Fourfold increase in the power flux density for in-phase irradiation of RF pulses is confirmed by comparison with one-channel operation.

  16. A wireless transmission low-power radiation sensor for in vivo dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuschino, F.; Gabrielli, A.; Baldazzi, G.; Campana, R.; Valentinetti, S.; Crepaldi, M.; Demarchi, D.; Villani, G.

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the paper is to illustrate the design and the performance of a microelectronic circuit composed of a dosimeter, an oscillator, a modulator, a transmitter and an antenna. The device was designed for specific in vivo dosimetry applications. However, the layout area of less than 1 mm2 makes it suitable for a large variety of applications, from spot radiation monitoring systems in medicine to accurate measurements of radiation level in high-energy physics experiments. Moreover, due to its extremely low-power budget, it might be also of interest for space applications. The chip embeds a re-programmable floating-gate transistor configured as a radiation sensor and a read-out circuit. Prototype chips have been fabricated and tested exploiting a commercial 180 nm, four-metal CMOS technology. Characterization tests of the performance of the Ultra-Wide Band transmission are summarized. The dosimeter prototype has an estimated sensitivity of 1 mV/rad within a total absorbed dose range up to 10 krad. The read-out circuit is powered with 3.3 V and the total power consumption is very low, i.e. about 165 μW, making it also upgradable with a remote power system.

  17. Harmonic Resonance in Power Transmission Systems due to the Addition of Shunt Capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Hardik U.

    Shunt capacitors are often added in transmission networks at suitable locations to improve the voltage profile. In this thesis, the transmission system in Arizona is considered as a test bed. Many shunt capacitors already exist in the Arizona transmission system and more are planned to be added. Addition of these shunt capacitors may create resonance conditions in response to harmonic voltages and currents. Such resonance, if it occurs, may create problematic issues in the system. It is main objective of this thesis to identify potential problematic effects that could occur after placing new shunt capacitors at selected buses in the Arizona network. Part of the objective is to create a systematic plan for avoidance of resonance issues. For this study, a method of capacitance scan is proposed. The bus admittance matrix is used as a model of the networked transmission system. The calculations on the admittance matrix were done using Matlab. The test bed is the actual transmission system in Arizona; however, for proprietary reasons, bus names are masked in the thesis copy intended for the public domain. The admittance matrix was obtained from data using the PowerWorld Simulator after equivalencing the 2016 summer peak load (planning case). The full Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) system data were used. The equivalencing procedure retains only the Arizona portion of the WECC. The capacitor scan results for single capacitor placement and multiple capacitor placement cases are presented. Problematic cases are identified in the form of 'forbidden response. The harmonic voltage impact of known sources of harmonics, mainly large scale HVDC sources, is also presented. Specific key results for the study indicated include: (1) The forbidden zones obtained as per the IEEE 519 standard indicates the bus 10 to be the most problematic bus. (2) The forbidden zones also indicate that switching values for the switched shunt capacitor (if used) at bus 3 should be

  18. Co-optimizing Generation and Transmission Expansion with Wind Power in Large-Scale Power Grids Implementation in the US Eastern Interconnection

    DOE PAGESBeta

    You, Shutang; Hadley, Stanton W.; Shankar, Mallikarjun; Liu, Yilu

    2016-01-12

    This paper studies the generation and transmission expansion co-optimization problem with a high wind power penetration rate in the US Eastern Interconnection (EI) power grid. In this paper, the generation and transmission expansion problem for the EI system is modeled as a mixed-integer programming (MIP) problem. Our paper also analyzed a time series generation method to capture the variation and correlation of both load and wind power across regions. The obtained series can be easily introduced into the expansion planning problem and then solved through existing MIP solvers. Simulation results show that the proposed planning model and series generation methodmore » can improve the expansion result significantly through modeling more detailed information of wind and load variation among regions in the US EI system. Moreover, the improved expansion plan that combines generation and transmission will aid system planners and policy makers to maximize the social welfare in large-scale power grids.« less

  19. Vegetation Height Estimation Near Power transmission poles Via satellite Stereo Images using 3D Depth Estimation Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qayyum, A.; Malik, A. S.; Saad, M. N. M.; Iqbal, M.; Abdullah, F.; Rahseed, W.; Abdullah, T. A. R. B. T.; Ramli, A. Q.

    2015-04-01

    Monitoring vegetation encroachment under overhead high voltage power line is a challenging problem for electricity distribution companies. Absence of proper monitoring could result in damage to the power lines and consequently cause blackout. This will affect electric power supply to industries, businesses, and daily life. Therefore, to avoid the blackouts, it is mandatory to monitor the vegetation/trees near power transmission lines. Unfortunately, the existing approaches are more time consuming and expensive. In this paper, we have proposed a novel approach to monitor the vegetation/trees near or under the power transmission poles using satellite stereo images, which were acquired using Pleiades satellites. The 3D depth of vegetation has been measured near power transmission lines using stereo algorithms. The area of interest scanned by Pleiades satellite sensors is 100 square kilometer. Our dataset covers power transmission poles in a state called Sabah in East Malaysia, encompassing a total of 52 poles in the area of 100 km. We have compared the results of Pleiades satellite stereo images using dynamic programming and Graph-Cut algorithms, consequently comparing satellites' imaging sensors and Depth-estimation Algorithms. Our results show that Graph-Cut Algorithm performs better than dynamic programming (DP) in terms of accuracy and speed.

  20. A monolithic integrated low-voltage deep brain stimulator with wireless power and data transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhang; Ye, Tan; Jianmin, Zeng; Xu, Han; Xin, Cheng; Guangjun, Xie

    2016-09-01

    A monolithic integrated low-voltage deep brain stimulator with wireless power and data transmission is presented. Data and power are transmitted to the stimulator by mutual inductance coupling, while the in-vitro controller encodes the stimulation parameters. The stimulator integrates the digital control module and can generate the bipolar current with equal amplitude in four channels. In order to reduce power consumption, a novel controlled threshold voltage cancellation rectifier is proposed in this paper to provide the supply voltage of the stimulator. The monolithic stimulator was fabricated in a SMIC 0.18 μm 1-poly 6-metal mixed-signal CMOS process, occupying 0.23 mm2, and consumes 180 μW on average. Compared with previously published stimulators, this design has advantages of large stimulated current (0–0.8 mA) with the double low-voltage supply (1.8 and 3.3 V), and high-level integration. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61404043, 61401137), the Key Laboratory of Infrared Imaging Materials and Detectors, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (Nos. IIMDKFJJ-13-06, IIMDKFJJ-14-03), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (No. 2015HGZX0026).

  1. Electromagnetic interference-aware transmission scheduling and power control for dynamic wireless access in hospital environments.

    PubMed

    Phunchongharn, Phond; Hossain, Ekram; Camorlinga, Sergio

    2011-11-01

    We study the multiple access problem for e-Health applications (referred to as secondary users) coexisting with medical devices (referred to as primary or protected users) in a hospital environment. In particular, we focus on transmission scheduling and power control of secondary users in multiple spatial reuse time-division multiple access (STDMA) networks. The objective is to maximize the spectrum utilization of secondary users and minimize their power consumption subject to the electromagnetic interference (EMI) constraints for active and passive medical devices and minimum throughput guarantee for secondary users. The multiple access problem is formulated as a dual objective optimization problem which is shown to be NP-complete. We propose a joint scheduling and power control algorithm based on a greedy approach to solve the problem with much lower computational complexity. To this end, an enhanced greedy algorithm is proposed to improve the performance of the greedy algorithm by finding the optimal sequence of secondary users for scheduling. Using extensive simulations, the tradeoff in performance in terms of spectrum utilization, energy consumption, and computational complexity is evaluated for both the algorithms. PMID:21843997

  2. Electromagnetic interference-aware transmission scheduling and power control for dynamic wireless access in hospital environments.

    PubMed

    Phunchongharn, Phond; Hossain, Ekram; Camorlinga, Sergio

    2011-11-01

    We study the multiple access problem for e-Health applications (referred to as secondary users) coexisting with medical devices (referred to as primary or protected users) in a hospital environment. In particular, we focus on transmission scheduling and power control of secondary users in multiple spatial reuse time-division multiple access (STDMA) networks. The objective is to maximize the spectrum utilization of secondary users and minimize their power consumption subject to the electromagnetic interference (EMI) constraints for active and passive medical devices and minimum throughput guarantee for secondary users. The multiple access problem is formulated as a dual objective optimization problem which is shown to be NP-complete. We propose a joint scheduling and power control algorithm based on a greedy approach to solve the problem with much lower computational complexity. To this end, an enhanced greedy algorithm is proposed to improve the performance of the greedy algorithm by finding the optimal sequence of secondary users for scheduling. Using extensive simulations, the tradeoff in performance in terms of spectrum utilization, energy consumption, and computational complexity is evaluated for both the algorithms.

  3. Phased Array Technology with Phase and Amplitude Controlled Magnetron for Microwave Power Transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinohara, N.; Matsumoto, H.

    2004-12-01

    We need a microwave power transmitter with light weight and high DC-RF conversion efficiency for an economical SSPS (Space Solar Power System). We need a several g/W for a microwave power transmission (MPT) system with a phased array with 0.0001 degree of beam control accuracy (=tan-1 (100m/36,000km)) and over 80 % of DC-RF conversion efficiency when the weight of the 1GW-class SPS is below a several thousand ton - a several tens of thousand ton. We focus a microwave tube, especially magnetron by economical reason and by the amount of mass-production because it is commonly used for microwave oven in the world. At first, we have developed a phase controlled magnetron (PCM) with different technologies from what Dr. Brown developed. Next we have developed a phase and amplitude controlled magnetron (PACM). For the PACM, we add a feedback to magnetic field of the PCM with an external coil to control and stabilize amplitude of the microwave. We succeed to develop the PACM with below 10-6 of frequency stability and within 1 degree of an error in phase and within 1% of amplitude. We can control a phase and amplitude of the PACM and we have developed a phased array the PCMs. With the PCM technology, we have developed a small light weight MPT transmitter COMET (Compact Microwave Energy Transmitter) with consideration of heat radiation for space use and with consideration of mobility to space.

  4. The Circuit Theory Behind Coupled-Mode Magnetic Resonance-Based Wireless Power Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Kiani, Mehdi; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2014-01-01

    Inductive coupling is a viable scheme to wirelessly energize devices with a wide range of power requirements from nanowatts in radio frequency identification tags to milliwatts in implantable microelectronic devices, watts in mobile electronics, and kilowatts in electric cars. Several analytical methods for estimating the power transfer efficiency (PTE) across inductive power transmission links have been devised based on circuit and electromagnetic theories by electrical engineers and physicists, respectively. However, a direct side-by-side comparison between these two approaches is lacking. Here, we have analyzed the PTE of a pair of capacitively loaded inductors via reflected load theory (RLT) and compared it with a method known as coupled-mode theory (CMT). We have also derived PTE equations for multiple capacitively loaded inductors based on both RLT and CMT. We have proven that both methods basically result in the same set of equations in steady state and either method can be applied for short- or midrange coupling conditions. We have verified the accuracy of both methods through measurements, and also analyzed the transient response of a pair of capacitively loaded inductors. Our analysis shows that the CMT is only applicable to coils with high quality factor (Q) and large coupling distance. It simplifies the analysis by reducing the order of the differential equations by half compared to the circuit theory. PMID:24683368

  5. A novel wireless power and data transmission AC to DC converter for an implantable device.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jhao-Yan; Tang, Kea-Tiong

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a novel AC to DC converter implemented by standard CMOS technology, applied for wireless power transmission. This circuit combines the functions of the rectifier and DC to DC converter, rather than using the rectifier to convert AC to DC and then supplying the required voltage with regulator as in the transitional method. This modification can reduce the power consumption and the area of the circuit. This circuit also transfers the loading condition back to the external circuit by the load shift keying(LSK), determining if the input power is not enough or excessive, which increases the efficiency of the total system. The AC to DC converter is fabricated with the TSMC 90nm CMOS process. The circuit area is 0.071mm(2). The circuit can produce a 1V DC voltage with maximum output current of 10mA from an AC input ranging from 1.5V to 2V, at 1MHz to 10MHz. PMID:24110077

  6. The Circuit Theory Behind Coupled-Mode Magnetic Resonance-Based Wireless Power Transmission.

    PubMed

    Kiani, Mehdi; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2012-09-01

    Inductive coupling is a viable scheme to wirelessly energize devices with a wide range of power requirements from nanowatts in radio frequency identification tags to milliwatts in implantable microelectronic devices, watts in mobile electronics, and kilowatts in electric cars. Several analytical methods for estimating the power transfer efficiency (PTE) across inductive power transmission links have been devised based on circuit and electromagnetic theories by electrical engineers and physicists, respectively. However, a direct side-by-side comparison between these two approaches is lacking. Here, we have analyzed the PTE of a pair of capacitively loaded inductors via reflected load theory (RLT) and compared it with a method known as coupled-mode theory (CMT). We have also derived PTE equations for multiple capacitively loaded inductors based on both RLT and CMT. We have proven that both methods basically result in the same set of equations in steady state and either method can be applied for short- or midrange coupling conditions. We have verified the accuracy of both methods through measurements, and also analyzed the transient response of a pair of capacitively loaded inductors. Our analysis shows that the CMT is only applicable to coils with high quality factor (Q) and large coupling distance. It simplifies the analysis by reducing the order of the differential equations by half compared to the circuit theory. PMID:24683368

  7. A novel wireless power and data transmission AC to DC converter for an implantable device.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jhao-Yan; Tang, Kea-Tiong

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a novel AC to DC converter implemented by standard CMOS technology, applied for wireless power transmission. This circuit combines the functions of the rectifier and DC to DC converter, rather than using the rectifier to convert AC to DC and then supplying the required voltage with regulator as in the transitional method. This modification can reduce the power consumption and the area of the circuit. This circuit also transfers the loading condition back to the external circuit by the load shift keying(LSK), determining if the input power is not enough or excessive, which increases the efficiency of the total system. The AC to DC converter is fabricated with the TSMC 90nm CMOS process. The circuit area is 0.071mm(2). The circuit can produce a 1V DC voltage with maximum output current of 10mA from an AC input ranging from 1.5V to 2V, at 1MHz to 10MHz.

  8. Optimal Design of Wireless Power Transmission Links for Millimeter-Sized Biomedical Implants.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Dukju; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a design methodology for RF power transmission to millimeter-sized implantable biomedical devices. The optimal operating frequency and coil geometries are found such that power transfer efficiency (PTE) and tissue-loss-constrained allowed power are maximized. We define receiver power reception susceptibility (Rx-PRS) and transmitter figure of merit (Tx-FoM) such that their multiplication yields the PTE. Rx-PRS and Tx-FoM define the roles of the Rx and Tx in the PTE, respectively. First, the optimal Rx coil geometry and operating frequency range are identified such that the Rx-PRS is maximized for given implant constraints. Since the Rx is very small and has lesser design freedom than the Tx, the overall operating frequency is restricted mainly by the Rx. Rx-PRS identifies such operating frequency constraint imposed by the Rx. Secondly, the Tx coil geometry is selected such that the Tx-FoM is maximized under the frequency constraint at which the Rx-PRS was saturated. This aligns the target frequency range of Tx optimization with the frequency range at which Rx performance is high, resulting in the maximum PTE. Finally, we have found that even in the frequency range at which the PTE is relatively flat, the tissue loss per unit delivered power can be significantly different for each frequency. The Rx-PRS can predict the frequency range at which the tissue loss per unit delivered power is minimized while PTE is maintained high. In this way, frequency adjustment for the PTE and tissue-loss-constrained allowed power is realized by characterizing the Rx-PRS. The design procedure was verified through full-wave electromagnetic field simulations and measurements using de-embedding method. A prototype implant, 1 mm in diameter, achieved PTE of 0.56% ( -22.5 dB) and power delivered to load (PDL) was 224 μW at 200 MHz with 12 mm Tx-to-Rx separation in the tissue environment. PMID:25616074

  9. Optimal Design of Wireless Power Transmission Links for Millimeter-Sized Biomedical Implants.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Dukju; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a design methodology for RF power transmission to millimeter-sized implantable biomedical devices. The optimal operating frequency and coil geometries are found such that power transfer efficiency (PTE) and tissue-loss-constrained allowed power are maximized. We define receiver power reception susceptibility (Rx-PRS) and transmitter figure of merit (Tx-FoM) such that their multiplication yields the PTE. Rx-PRS and Tx-FoM define the roles of the Rx and Tx in the PTE, respectively. First, the optimal Rx coil geometry and operating frequency range are identified such that the Rx-PRS is maximized for given implant constraints. Since the Rx is very small and has lesser design freedom than the Tx, the overall operating frequency is restricted mainly by the Rx. Rx-PRS identifies such operating frequency constraint imposed by the Rx. Secondly, the Tx coil geometry is selected such that the Tx-FoM is maximized under the frequency constraint at which the Rx-PRS was saturated. This aligns the target frequency range of Tx optimization with the frequency range at which Rx performance is high, resulting in the maximum PTE. Finally, we have found that even in the frequency range at which the PTE is relatively flat, the tissue loss per unit delivered power can be significantly different for each frequency. The Rx-PRS can predict the frequency range at which the tissue loss per unit delivered power is minimized while PTE is maintained high. In this way, frequency adjustment for the PTE and tissue-loss-constrained allowed power is realized by characterizing the Rx-PRS. The design procedure was verified through full-wave electromagnetic field simulations and measurements using de-embedding method. A prototype implant, 1 mm in diameter, achieved PTE of 0.56% ( -22.5 dB) and power delivered to load (PDL) was 224 μW at 200 MHz with 12 mm Tx-to-Rx separation in the tissue environment.

  10. Overhead electric power transmission line jumpering system for bundles of five or more subconductors

    DOEpatents

    Winkelman, Paul F.

    1982-01-01

    Jumpering of electric power transmission lines at a dead end tower. Two transmission line conductor bundles each contain five or more spaced apart subconductors (5) arranged in the shape of a cylinder having a circular cross section. The ends of each bundle of subconductors are attached with insulators to a dead end tower (1). Jumpering allows the electric current to flow between the two bundles of subconductors using jumper buses, internal jumper conductors, and external jumper conductors. One or more current collecting jumper buses (37) are located inside each bundle of subconductors with each jumper bus being attached to the end of a subconductor. Small-diameter internal jumper conductors (33) are located in the inherently electrically shielded area inside each bundle of subconductors with each subconductor (except ones having an attached jumper bus) having one internal jumper conductor connected between that subconductor's end and a jumper bus. Large-diameter external jumper conductors (9) are located outside each bundle of subconductors with one or more external jumper conductors being connected between the jumper buses in one bundle of subconductors and the jumper buses in the other bundle.

  11. Measuring the attenuation characteristics of biological tissues enabling for low power in vivo RF transmission.

    PubMed

    Laqua, Daniel; Just, Thomas; Husar, Peter

    2010-01-01

    In clinical routine there is a need of periodical recording of vital parameters in high risk groups, for example the intraocular pressure. A solution for this could be an intracorporeal sensor using a wireless radio frequency (RF) transmitter. Thereby the risk of an infection is reduced, because a percutaneous connection is not necessary. A limiting factor for some organs is the size of implants. For designing an energy efficient low power RF transmitter, the dielectric parameters of representative biological tissues have to be determined. In this article two methods of measurement are presented, the coaxial probe and transmission line method. With this information about the dielectric parameters a miniaturized RF transmitter was built for proofing tests on phantoms with equal properties like biological tissue. PMID:21096351

  12. Frequency-Preserved Acoustic Diode Model with High Forward-Power-Transmission Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chang; Du, Zongliang; Sun, Zhi; Gao, Huajian; Guo, Xu

    2015-06-01

    The acoustic diode (AD) can provide brighter and clearer ultrasound images by eliminating acoustic disturbances caused by sound waves traveling in two directions at the same time and interfering with each other. Such an AD could give designers new flexibility in making ultrasonic sources like those used in medical imaging or nondestructive testing. However, current AD designs, based on nonlinear effects, only partially fill this role by converting sound to a new frequency and blocking any backward flow of the original frequency. In this work, an AD model that preserves the frequencies of acoustic waves and has a relatively high forward-power-transmission rate is proposed. Theoretical analysis indicates that the proposed AD has forward, reverse, and breakdown characteristics very similar to electrical diodes. The significant rectifying effect of the proposed AD is verified numerically through a one-dimensional example. Possible schemes for experimental realization of this model as well as more complex and efficient AD designs are also discussed.

  13. Development of Face Gear Technology for Industrial and Aerospace Power Transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heath, Gregory F.; Filler, Robert R.; Tan, Jie

    2002-01-01

    Tests of a 250 horsepower proof-of-concept (POC) split torque face gear transmission were completed by The Boeing Company in Mesa, Arizona, while working under a Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Technology Reinvestment Program (TRP) This report provides a summary of these cooperative tests, which were jointly funded by Boeing and DARPA Design, manufacture and testing of the scaled-power TRP split torque gearbox followed preliminary evaluations of the concept performed early in the program The testing demonstrated the theory of operation for the concentric, tapered face gear assembly The results showed that the use of floating pinions in a concentric face gear arrangement produces a nearly even torque split The POC split torque tests determined that, with some improvements, face gears can be applied effectively in a split torque configuration which yields significant weight, cost and reliability improvements over conventional designs.

  14. Low power wireless ultra-wide band transmission of bio-signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabrielli, A.; Bastianini, S.; Crepaldi, M.; D'Amen, G.; Demarchi, D.; Lax, I.; Motto Ros, P.; Zoccoli, G.

    2014-12-01

    The paper shows the design of microelectronic circuits composed of an oscillator, a modulator, a transmitter and an antenna. Prototype chips were recently fabricated and tested exploiting commercial 130 nm [1] and 180 nm [2,3] CMOS technologies. Detected signals have been measured using a commercial Ultra-Wide-Band amplifier connected to custom designed filters and a digital demodulator. Preliminary results are summarized along with some waveforms of the transmitted and received signals. A digital Synchronized On-Off Keying (S-OOK) was implemented to exploit the Ultra-Wide-Band transmission. In this way, each transmitted bit is coded with a S-OOK protocol. Wireless transmission capabilities of the system have been also evaluated within a one-meter distance. The chips fit a large variety of applications like spot radiation monitoring, punctual measurements of radiation in High-Energy Physics experiments or, since they have been characterized as low-power components, readout of the system for medical applications. These latter fields are those that we are investigating for in-vivo measurements on small animals. In more detail, if we refer to electromyographic, electrocardiographic or electroencephalographic signals [4], we need to handle very small signal amplitudes, of the order of tens of μV, overwhelmed with a much higher (white) noise. In these cases the front-end of the readout circuit requires a so-called amplifier for instrumentation, here not described, to interface with metal-plate sensor's outputs such those used for electrocardiograms, to normal range of amplitude signals of the order of 1 V. We are also studying these circuits, to be also designed on a microelectronic device, without adding further details since these components are technically well known in the literature [5,6]. The main aim of this research is hence integrating all the described electronic components into a very small, low-powered, microelectronic circuit fully compatible with in

  15. Soft x-ray blazed transmission grating spectrometer with high resolving power and extended bandpass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilmann, Ralf K.; Bruccoleri, Alexander Robert; Schattenburg, Mark

    2016-04-01

    A number of high priority questions in astrophysics can be addressed by a state-of-the-art soft x-ray grating spectrometer, such as the role of Active Galactic Nuclei in galaxy and star formation, characterization of the Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium and the “missing baryon” problem, characterization of halos around the Milky Way and nearby galaxies, as well as stellar coronae and surrounding winds and disks. An Explorer-scale, large-area (> 1,000 cm2), high resolving power (R = λ/Δλ > 3,000) soft x-ray grating spectrometer is highly feasible based on Critical-Angle Transmission (CAT) grating technology. Still significantly higher performance can be provided by a CAT grating spectrometer on an X-ray-Surveyor-type mission. CAT gratings combine the advantages of blazed reflection gratings (high efficiency, use of higher diffraction orders) with those of conventional transmission gratings (low mass, relaxed alignment tolerances and temperature requirements, transparent at higher energies) with minimal mission resource requirements. They are high-efficiency blazed transmission gratings that consist of freestanding, ultra-high aspect-ratio grating bars fabricated from silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers using advanced anisotropic dry and wet etch techniques. Blazing is achieved through grazing-incidence reflection off the smooth grating bar sidewalls. The reflection properties of silicon are well matched to the soft x-ray band. Nevertheless, CAT gratings with sidewalls made of higher atomic number elements allow extension of the CAT grating principle to higher energies and larger dispersion angles. We show x-ray data from metal-coated CAT gratings and demonstrate efficient blazing to higher energies and larger blaze angles than possible with silicon alone. We also report on measurements of the resolving power of a breadboard CAT grating spectrometer consisting of a Wolter-I slumped-glass focusing mirror pair from Goddard Space Flight Center and CAT gratings, to be

  16. A Transmission Power Optimization with a Minimum Node Degree for Energy-Efficient Wireless Sensor Networks with Full-Reachability

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Ting; Horng, Mong-Fong; Lo, Chih-Cheng; Chu, Shu-Chuan; Pan, Jeng-Shyang; Liao, Bin-Yih

    2013-01-01

    Transmission power optimization is the most significant factor in prolonging the lifetime and maintaining the connection quality of wireless sensor networks. Un-optimized transmission power of nodes either interferes with or fails to link neighboring nodes. The optimization of transmission power depends on the expected node degree and node distribution. In this study, an optimization approach to an energy-efficient and full reachability wireless sensor network is proposed. In the proposed approach, an adjustment model of the transmission range with a minimum node degree is proposed that focuses on topology control and optimization of the transmission range according to node degree and node density. The model adjusts the tradeoff between energy efficiency and full reachability to obtain an ideal transmission range. In addition, connectivity and reachability are used as performance indices to evaluate the connection quality of a network. The two indices are compared to demonstrate the practicability of framework through simulation results. Furthermore, the relationship between the indices under the conditions of various node degrees is analyzed to generalize the characteristics of node densities. The research results on the reliability and feasibility of the proposed approach will benefit the future real deployments. PMID:23519351

  17. Treatment of biodiversity issues in impact assessment of electricity power transmission lines: A Finnish case review

    SciTech Connect

    Soederman, Tarja . E-mail: tarja.soderman@ymparisto.fi

    2006-05-15

    The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) process concerning the route of a 400 kV power transmission line between Loviisa and Hikiae in southern Finland was reviewed in order to assess how biodiversity issues are treated and to provide suggestions on how to improve the effectiveness of treatment of biodiversity issues in impact assessment of linear development projects. The review covered the whole assessment process, including interviews of stakeholders, participation in the interest group meetings and review of all documents from the project. The baseline studies and assessment of direct impacts in the case study were detailed but the documentation, both the assessment programme and the assessment report, only gave a partial picture of the assessment process. All existing information, baseline survey and assessment methods should be addressed in the scoping phase in order to promote interaction between all stakeholders. In contrast to the assessment of the direct effects, which first emphasized impacts on the nationally important and protected flying squirrel but later expanded to deal with the assessment of impacts on ecologically important sites, the indirect and cumulative impacts of the power line were poorly addressed. The public was given the opportunity to become involved in the EIA process. However, they were more concerned with impacts on their properties and less so on biodiversity and species protection issues. This suggests that the public needs to become more informed about locally important features of biodiversity.

  18. Transmission of microwave beamed-power from an orbiting space station to the ground

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, R.M.; Davis, J.M.; Cox, S.K.

    1982-01-01

    Transmission efficiencies and surface power densities are calculated from the interaction of a 10 GW microwave beam with rain clouds. Computations are made as a function of (a) frequency (2.45 to 10 GHz); (b) beam nadir angle; (c) raindrop size distribution; and (d) cloud shape. Scattered surface power densities outside of the receiving rectenna do not exceed 10 ..mu..W/cm/sup 2/ for frequencies of 2.45 and 3.3 GHz, even for extremely heavy rainfall rates. At higher frequencies exposure levels outside of the rectenna may reach 100 ..mu..W/cm/sup 2/, or two orders of magnitude less than the US safety standard. From the standpoint of public health and safety, the scattering of microwaves by rain clouds is not a serious problem, with scattered fluxes outside of the rectenna much smaller than sidelobe fluxes. Beam losses due to absorption in rain clouds are significant in some cases, with absorption losses far more important than scattering losses. The amount of scattering increases with increasing microwave frequency, increasing drop size and drop concentration and increasing nadir angle of the beam.

  19. Fiber-optic sensor for real-time monitoring of temperature on high voltage (400KV) power transmission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangopadhyay, Tarun K.; Paul, Mukul C.; Bjerkan, Leif

    2009-10-01

    On-line monitoring of temperature and sag in 400KV power transmission line has successfully been implemented by a novel device using fibre Bragg grating (FBG) sensors. The complete device has been fabricated with aluminum mount connected via fibre-optic cable and installed on ACSR power conductor for continuous two years measurement. This paper presents the excellent results and experience of the tests in controlled indoor environments conducted in Norway and real-field application on installed power conductor in India. Thus, better surveillance of the thermal and mechanical loads on power lines can be possible using this FBG sensor system.

  20. Planar micro-nano-coils for electrically driving liquid crystal microlenses based on wireless power transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Cheng; Hu, Wei; Luo, Jun; Lei, Yu; Tong, Qing; Zhang, Xinyu; Sang, Hongshi; Xie, Changsheng

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, the planar micro-nano-coils (PMNCs) with diverse planar spiral structures are designed for electrically driving and controlling liquid crystal microlenses (LCMs) based on wireless power transmission approaches. The PMNCs with different basic shapes are fabricated, including typical micro-triangle, micro-square, micro-pentagon, micro-hexagon, and micro-circle. According to the designed microstructures, using loop iterative approximation means based on Greenhouse algorithm, the inductance values of the microcoils can be calculated through combining self-inductance with mutual-inductance. In experiments, both the wet and dry etching technologies are adapted to obtain the desired PMNCs over aluminum-coated glass substrates. The etching technologies utilized by us are implemented on initial glass substrates spread by photoresist mask, which has been processed by common ultraviolet lithography. And the wet and dry etching technologies are different in the way of eroding aluminum film. Usually, the wet etching is a kind of the chemical reaction of alkali element in the developing liquid used, but the dry etching is a type of physical etching process such as the ion beam etching so as to fabricate microstructures with smaller size than that of wet etching. After the fabrication of the PMNCs, the electrical testing circuit for the inductance of the PMNCs is built to obtain their actual inductance values. By comparing inductances with theoretical prediction, the improved PMNCs are proposed for driving and controlling LCMs, which demonstrates enhanced light transmission efficiency of the PMNCs, and makes it more efficient to adjust LCMs developed by us.

  1. Power and transmission rate orders and related documents. Office of Power Marketing Coordination, data compiled January 1, 1980-December 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    1982-08-01

    This publication contains the power and transmission rate orders and related documents issued by the Department of Energy. It covers calendar years 1980 and 1981. The first publication, DOE/CE-007 covering the period from March through December 1979, was published July 1981. This publication is a compilation of all rate orders issued by the Assistant Secretary for Resource Applications and the Assistant Secretary for Conservation and Renewable Energy during calendar years 1980 and 1981 under Delegation Order No. 0204-33. It also includes all final approvals, remands, and disapprovals by the FERC, and a petition to the FERC for reconsideration by a Power Marketing Administration during 1980 and 1981. Also included are two delegation orders along with an amendment and a supplement to one delegation order, a departmental order on financial reporting, and Power and Transmission Rate Adjustment Procedures relating to federal power marketing.

  2. Hybrid power system intelligent operation and protection involving distributed architectures and pulsed loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Ahmed

    Efficient and reliable techniques for power delivery and utilization are needed to account for the increased penetration of renewable energy sources in electric power systems. Such methods are also required for current and future demands of plug-in electric vehicles and high-power electronic loads. Distributed control and optimal power network architectures will lead to viable solutions to the energy management issue with high level of reliability and security. This dissertation is aimed at developing and verifying new techniques for distributed control by deploying DC microgrids, involving distributed renewable generation and energy storage, through the operating AC power system. To achieve the findings of this dissertation, an energy system architecture was developed involving AC and DC networks, both with distributed generations and demands. The various components of the DC microgrid were designed and built including DC-DC converters, voltage source inverters (VSI) and AC-DC rectifiers featuring novel designs developed by the candidate. New control techniques were developed and implemented to maximize the operating range of the power conditioning units used for integrating renewable energy into the DC bus. The control and operation of the DC microgrids in the hybrid AC/DC system involve intelligent energy management. Real-time energy management algorithms were developed and experimentally verified. These algorithms are based on intelligent decision-making elements along with an optimization process. This was aimed at enhancing the overall performance of the power system and mitigating the effect of heavy non-linear loads with variable intensity and duration. The developed algorithms were also used for managing the charging/discharging process of plug-in electric vehicle emulators. The protection of the proposed hybrid AC/DC power system was studied. Fault analysis and protection scheme and coordination, in addition to ideas on how to retrofit currently available

  3. Calculation of transmission system losses for the Taiwan Power Company by the artificial neural network with time decayed weight

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, W.C.; Chen, B.K.; Mo, P.C.

    1995-12-31

    For energy conservation and improvement of power system operation efficiency, how to reduce the transmission system losses becomes an important topic of grave concern. To understand the cause, and to evaluate the amount, of the losses are the prior steps to diminish them. To simplify the evaluation procedure without losing too much accuracy, this paper adopts the artificial neural network, which is a model free network, to analyze the transmission system losses. As the artificial neural network with time decayed weight has the capability of learning, memorizing, and forgetting, it is more suitable for a power system with gradually changing characteristics. By using this artificial neural network, the estimation of transmission system losses will be more precise. In this paper, comparison will be made between the results of artificial neural network analysis and polynomial loss equations analysis.

  4. Transmission characteristics of high-power 589-nm laser beam in photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Meguru; Hayano, Yutaka; Saito, Norihito; Akagawa, Kazuyuki; Kato, Mayumi; Saito, Yoshihiko; Takazawa, Akira; Takami, Hideki; Iye, Masanori; Wada, Satoshi; Colley, Stephen A.; Dinkins, Matthew C.; Eldred, Michael; Golota, Taras I.; Guyon, Olivier; Hattori, Masayuki; Oya, Shin; Watanabe, Makoto

    2006-06-01

    We are developing Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics (LGSAO) system for Subaru Telescope at Hawaii, Mauna Kea. We achieved an all-solid-state 589.159 nm laser in sum-frequency generation. Output power at 589.159 nm reached 4W in quasi-continuous-wave operation. To relay the laser beam from laser location to laser launching telescope, we used an optical fiber because the optical fiber relay is more flexible and easier than mirror train. However, nonlinear scattering effect, especially stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) and stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS), will happen when the inputted laser power increases, i.e., intensity at the fiber core exceed each threshold. In order to raise the threshold levels of each nonlinear scattering, we adopt photonic crystal fiber (PCF). Because the PCF can be made larger core than usual step index fiber (SIF), one can reduce the intensity in the core. We inputted the high power laser into the PCF whose mode field diameter (MFD) is 14 μm and the SIF whose MFD is 5 μm, and measured the transmission characteristics of them. In the case of the SIF, the SRS was happen when we inputted 2 W. On the other hand, the SRS and the SBS were not induced in the PCF even for an input power of 4 W. We also investigated polarization of the laser beam transmitting through the PCF. Because of the fact that the backscattering efficiency of exciting the sodium layer with a narrowband laser is dependent on the polarization state of the incident beam, we tried to control the polarization of the laser beam transmitted the PCF. We constructed the system which can control the polarization of input laser and measure the output polarization. The PCF showed to be able to assume as a double refraction optical device, and we found that the output polarization is controllable by injecting beam with appropriate polarization through the PCF. However, the Laser Guide Star made by the beam passed through the PCF had same brightness as the state of the polarization.

  5. PLANETSYS, a Computer Program for the Steady State and Transient Thermal Analysis of a Planetary Power Transmission System: User's Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadden, G. B.; Kleckner, R. J.; Ragen, M. A.; Dyba, G. J.; Sheynin, L.

    1981-01-01

    The material presented is structured to guide the user in the practical and correct implementation of PLANETSYS which is capable of simulating the thermomechanical performance of a multistage planetary power transmission. In this version of PLANETSYS, the user can select either SKF or NASA models in calculating lubricant film thickness and traction forces.

  6. 77 FR 41369 - Dairyland Power Cooperative: CapX 2020 Hampton-Rochester-La Crosse Transmission Line Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ... Rural Utilities Service Dairyland Power Cooperative: CapX 2020 Hampton-Rochester-La Crosse Transmission Line Project AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Availability of a Final Environmental Impact Statement. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the Rural Utilities Service (RUS)...

  7. Environmental justice: a contrary finding for the case of high-voltage electric power transmission lines.

    PubMed

    Wartenberg, Daniel; Greenberg, Michael R; Harris, Gerald

    2010-05-01

    Environmental justice is the consideration of whether minority and/or lower-income residents in a geographic area are likely to have disproportionately higher exposures to environmental toxins than those living elsewhere. Such situations have been identified for a variety of factors, such as air pollution, hazardous waste, water quality, noise, residential crowding, and housing quality. This study investigates the application of this concept to high-voltage electric power transmission lines (HVTL), which some perceive as a health risk because of the magnetic fields they generate, and also as esthetically unpleasing. We mapped all 345 kV and higher voltage HVTL in New York State and extracted and summarized proximate US Census sociodemographic and housing characteristic data into four categories on the basis of distances from HVTL. Contrary to our expectation, people living within 2000 ft from HVTL were more likely to be exposed to magnetic fields, white, of higher income, more educated and home owners, than those living farther away, particularly in urban areas. Possible explanations for these patterns include the desire for the open space created by the rights-of-way, the preference for new homes/subdivisions that are often located near HVTL, and moving closer to HVTL before EMFs were considered a risk. This study suggests that environmental justice may not apply to all environmental risk factors and that one must be cautious in generalizing. In addition, it shows the utility of geographical information system methodology for summarizing information from extremely large populations, often a challenge in epidemiology.

  8. Effects of high power microwave pulses on synaptic transmission and long term potentiation in hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Pakhomov, Andrei G; Doyle, Joanne; Stuck, Bruce E; Murphy, Michael R

    2003-04-01

    Effects of short, extremely high power microwave pulses (EHPP) on neuronal network function were explored by electrophysiological techniques in the isolated rat hippocampal slice model. Population spikes (PS) in the CA1 area were evoked by repeated stimulation (1 per 30 s) of the Schaffer collateral pathway. A brief tetanus (2 s at 50 Hz) was used to induce long term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic transmission. In three different series of experiments with a total of 160 brain slices, the EHPP irradiation was performed before, during, or after the tetanus. The EHPP carrier frequency was 9.3 GHz, the pulse width and repetition rate were from 0.5 to 2 micros and from 0.5 to 10 Hz, respectively, and the peak specific absorption rate (SAR) in brain slices reached up to 500 MW/kg. Microwave heating of the preparation ranged from 0.5 degrees C (at 0.3 kW/kg time average SAR) to 6 degrees C (at 3.6 kW/kg). The experiments established that the only effect caused by EHPP exposure within the studied range of parameters was a transient and fully reversible decrease in the PS amplitude. Recovery took no more than a few minutes after the cessation of exposure and return to the initial temperature. This effect's features were characteristic of an ordinary thermal response: it was proportional to the temperature rise but not to any specific parameter of EHPP, and it could also be induced by a continuous wave (CW) irradiation or conventional heating. Irradiation did not affect the ability of neurons to develop LTP in response to tetanus or to retain the potentiated state that was induced before irradiation. No lasting or delayed effects of EHPP were observed. The results are consistent with the thermal mechanism of EHPP action and thus far provided no indication of EHPP-specific effects on neuronal function.

  9. Effects of submarine power transmission cables on a glass sponge reef and associated megafaunal community.

    PubMed

    Dunham, A; Pegg, J R; Carolsfeld, W; Davies, S; Murfitt, I; Boutillier, J

    2015-06-01

    We examined the effects of submarine power transmission cable installation and operation on glass sponge reef condition and associated megafauna. Video and still imagery were collected using a Remotely Operated Vehicle twice a year for 4 years following cable installation. The effects of cables on glass sponges were assessed by comparing sponge cover along fixed transects and at marked index sites. Megafauna counts along transects were used to explore the effects on associated community. We found no evidence of cable movement across the sponge reef surface. Live sponge cover was found to be consistently lower along cable transects and at cable index sites compared to controls. Live sponge cover was the lowest (55 ± 1.1% decrease) at cable index sites 1.5 years after installation and recovered to 85 ± 30.6% of the original size over the following 2 years. Our data suggest 100% glass sponge mortality along the direct cable footprint and 15% mortality in the surrounding 1.5 m corridor 3.5 years after cable installation. Growth rate of a new glass sponge was 1 and 3 cm/year in first and second year, respectively, and appeared to be seasonal. We observed a diverse megafaunal community with representatives from 7 phyla and 14 classes. Total megafauna, spot prawn, and other Arthropoda abundances were slightly lower along cable transects although the effect of cable presence was not statistically significant. The following measures could be taken to reduce the amount of damage to glass sponge reefs and associated fauna: routing the cable around reefs, whenever possible, minimizing cable movement across the surface of the reef at installation and routine operation, and assessing potential damage to glass sponges prior to decommissioning.

  10. Bonneville Power Administration Transmission System Vegetation Management Program - Final Environmental Impact Statement

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2000-06-23

    Bonneville is responsible for maintaining a network of 24,000 kilometers (km) or 15,000 miles (mi.) of electric transmission lines and 350 substations in a region of diverse vegetation. This vegetation can interfere with electric power flow, pose safety problems for us and the public, and interfere with our ability to maintain these facilities. We need to (1) keep vegetation away from our electric facilities; (2) increase our program efficiency and consistency; (3) review herbicide use (under increased public scrutiny); and (4) maximize the range of tools we can use while minimizing environmental impact (Integrated Vegetation Management). This Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) establishes Planning Steps for managing vegetation for specific projects (to be tiered to this Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)). In addition to No Action (current practice), alternatives are presented for Rights-of-way, Electric Yards, and Non-electric Facilities (landscaping, work yards). Four vegetation control methods are analyzed manual, mechanical, herbicide, and biological. Also evaluated are 23 herbicide active ingredients and 4 herbicide application techniques (spot, localized, broadcast, and aerial). For rights-of-way, we consider three sets of alternatives: alternative management approaches (time-driven or establishing low-growing plant communities); alternative method packages; and, if herbicides are in a methods package, alternative vegetation selections (noxious weeds, deciduous, or any vegetation). For electric yards, one herbicide-use alternative is considered. For non-electric facilities, two method package alternatives are considered. For rights-of-way, the environmentally preferred alternative(s) would use manual, mechanical, and biological control methods, as well as spot and localized herbicide applications for noxious and deciduous plant species; the BPA-preferred alternative(s) would add broadcast and aerial herbicide applications, and would use herbicides

  11. Effects of submarine power transmission cables on a glass sponge reef and associated megafaunal community.

    PubMed

    Dunham, A; Pegg, J R; Carolsfeld, W; Davies, S; Murfitt, I; Boutillier, J

    2015-06-01

    We examined the effects of submarine power transmission cable installation and operation on glass sponge reef condition and associated megafauna. Video and still imagery were collected using a Remotely Operated Vehicle twice a year for 4 years following cable installation. The effects of cables on glass sponges were assessed by comparing sponge cover along fixed transects and at marked index sites. Megafauna counts along transects were used to explore the effects on associated community. We found no evidence of cable movement across the sponge reef surface. Live sponge cover was found to be consistently lower along cable transects and at cable index sites compared to controls. Live sponge cover was the lowest (55 ± 1.1% decrease) at cable index sites 1.5 years after installation and recovered to 85 ± 30.6% of the original size over the following 2 years. Our data suggest 100% glass sponge mortality along the direct cable footprint and 15% mortality in the surrounding 1.5 m corridor 3.5 years after cable installation. Growth rate of a new glass sponge was 1 and 3 cm/year in first and second year, respectively, and appeared to be seasonal. We observed a diverse megafaunal community with representatives from 7 phyla and 14 classes. Total megafauna, spot prawn, and other Arthropoda abundances were slightly lower along cable transects although the effect of cable presence was not statistically significant. The following measures could be taken to reduce the amount of damage to glass sponge reefs and associated fauna: routing the cable around reefs, whenever possible, minimizing cable movement across the surface of the reef at installation and routine operation, and assessing potential damage to glass sponges prior to decommissioning. PMID:25884466

  12. Bonneville Power Administration Transmission System Vegetation Management Program Draft Environmental Impact Statement

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    1999-08-20

    Bonneville is responsible for maintaining a network of 24,000 kilometers (km) or 15,000 miles (mi.) of electric transmission lines and 350 substations in a region of diverse vegetation. This vegetation can interfere with electric power flow, pose safety problems for us and the public, and interfere with our ability to maintain these facilities. We need to (1) keep vegetation away from the electric facilities; (2) increase the program efficiency and consistency; (3) review herbicide use (under increased public scrutiny); and (4) maximize the range of tools we can use while minimizing environmental impact (Integrated Vegetation Management). This DEIS establishes Planning Steps for managing vegetation for specific projects (to be tiered to this EIS). In addition to No Action (current practice), alternatives are presented for Rights-of-way, Electric Yards, and Non-electric Facilities (landscaping, work yards). Four vegetation control methods are analyzed: manual, mechanical, herbicide, and biological. Also evaluated are 24 herbicide active ingredients and 4 herbicide application techniques (spot, localized, broadcast, and aerial). For rights-of-way, they consider three sets of alternatives: alternative management approaches (time-driven or establishing low-growing plant communities); alternative method packages; and, if herbicides are in a methods package, alternative vegetation selections (noxious weeds, deciduous, or any vegetation). For electric yards, one herbicide-use alternative is considered. For non-electric facilities, two method package alternatives are considered. For rights-of-way, the environmentally preferred alternative(s) would use manual, mechanical, and biological control methods, as well as spot and localized herbicide applications for noxious and deciduous plant species; the BPA-preferred alternative(s) would add broadcast and aerial herbicide applications, and would use herbicides on any vegetation. Both would factor a management approach that

  13. Environmental justice: a contrary finding for the case of high-voltage electric power transmission lines.

    PubMed

    Wartenberg, Daniel; Greenberg, Michael R; Harris, Gerald

    2010-05-01

    Environmental justice is the consideration of whether minority and/or lower-income residents in a geographic area are likely to have disproportionately higher exposures to environmental toxins than those living elsewhere. Such situations have been identified for a variety of factors, such as air pollution, hazardous waste, water quality, noise, residential crowding, and housing quality. This study investigates the application of this concept to high-voltage electric power transmission lines (HVTL), which some perceive as a health risk because of the magnetic fields they generate, and also as esthetically unpleasing. We mapped all 345 kV and higher voltage HVTL in New York State and extracted and summarized proximate US Census sociodemographic and housing characteristic data into four categories on the basis of distances from HVTL. Contrary to our expectation, people living within 2000 ft from HVTL were more likely to be exposed to magnetic fields, white, of higher income, more educated and home owners, than those living farther away, particularly in urban areas. Possible explanations for these patterns include the desire for the open space created by the rights-of-way, the preference for new homes/subdivisions that are often located near HVTL, and moving closer to HVTL before EMFs were considered a risk. This study suggests that environmental justice may not apply to all environmental risk factors and that one must be cautious in generalizing. In addition, it shows the utility of geographical information system methodology for summarizing information from extremely large populations, often a challenge in epidemiology. PMID:19352413

  14. Radiofrequency Energy Deposition and Radiofrequency Power Requirements in Parallel Transmission with Increasing Distance from the Coil to the Sample

    PubMed Central

    Deniz, Cem M.; Vaidya, Manushka V.; Sodickson, Daniel K.; Lattanzi, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We investigated global specific absorption rate (SAR) and radiofrequency (RF) power requirements in parallel transmission as the distance between the transmit coils and the sample was increased. Methods We calculated ultimate intrinsic SAR (UISAR), which depends on object geometry and electrical properties but not on coil design, and we used it as the reference to compare the performance of various transmit arrays. We investigated the case of fixing coil size and increasing the number of coils while moving the array away from the sample, as well as the case of fixing coil number and scaling coil dimensions. We also investigated RF power requirements as a function of liftoff, and tracked local SAR distributions associated with global SAR optima. Results In all cases, the target excitation profile was achieved and global SAR (as well as associated maximum local SAR) decreased with lift-off, approaching UISAR, which was constant for all lift-offs. We observed a lift-off value that optimizes the balance between global SAR and power losses in coil conductors. We showed that, using parallel transmission, global SAR can decrease at ultra high fields for finite arrays with a sufficient number of transmit elements. Conclusion For parallel transmission, the distance between coils and object can be optimized to reduce SAR and minimize RF power requirements associated with homogeneous excitation. PMID:25752250

  15. Generation of Acoustic Gravity Waves by Periodic Radio Transmissions from a High-Power Ionospheric Heater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolov, Vladimir; Chernogor, Leonid; Rozumenko, Victor

    The Radiophysical Research Institute (Nizhny Novgorod, Russia) and Kharkiv V. N. Karazin National University (Kharkiv, Ukraine) have studied opportunities for the effective generation of acoustic gravity waves (AGWs) in 3 - 180-min period range. The excitation of such waves was conducted for the last several years using the SURA heating facility (Nizhny Novgorod). The detection of the HF-induced AGWs was carried out in the Radiophysical Observatory located near Kharkiv City at a distance of about 960 km from the SURA. A coherent radar for vertical sounding, an ionosonde, and magnetometer chains were used in our measurements. The main results are the following (see [1-5]): 1. Infrasound oscillation trains with a period of 6 min are detected during periodic SURA heater turn-on and -off. Similar oscillation trains are detected after long time pumping, during periodic transmissions with a period of 20 s, as well as after pumping turn-off. The train recordings begin 28 - 54 min after the heater turn-on or -off, and the train propagation speeds are about 300 - 570 m/s, the value of which is close to the sound speed at upper atmospheric altitudes. The amplitude of the Doppler shift frequency is of 10 - 40 mHz, which fits to the 0.1 - 0.3% electron density disturbances at ionospheric altitudes. The amplitude of the infrasound oscillations depends on the SURA mode of operation and the state of the upper atmosphere and ionosphere. 2. High-power radio transmissions stimulate the generation (or enhancement) of waves at ionospheric altitudes in the range of internal gravity wave periods. The HF-induced waves propagate with speeds of 360 - 460 m/s and produce changes in electron density with amplitudes of 2 - 3%. The generation of such periodic perturbations is more preferable with periods of 10 - 60 minutes. Their features depend significantly on the heater mode of operation. It should be stressed that perturbation intensity increases when a pumping wave frequency approaches

  16. Fully roll-to-roll gravure printed rectenna on plastic foils for wireless power transmission at 13.56 MHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyejin; Kang, Hwiwon; Lee, Yonggil; Park, Yongsu; Noh, Jinsoo; Cho, Gyoujin

    2012-08-01

    Wireless power transmission to inexpensive and disposable smart electronic devices is one of the key issues for the realization of a ubiquitous society where sensor networks such as RFID tags, price tags, smart logos, signage and sensors could be fully interconnected and utilized by DC power of less than 0.3 W. This DC power can be provided by inductively coupled AC from a 13.56 MHz power transmitter through a rectenna, consisting of an antenna, a diode and a capacitor, which would be cheap to integrate with inexpensive smart electronic devices. To integrate the rectenna with a minimum cost, a roll-to-roll (R2R) gravure printing process has been considered to print the rectenna on plastic foils. In this paper, R2R gravure printing systems including printing condition and four different nanoparticle based inks will be reported to print the rectenna (antenna, diode and capacitor) on plastic foils at a printing speed of 8 m min-1 and more than 90% device yield for a wireless power transmission of 0.3 W using a standard 13.56 MHz power transmitter.

  17. Fully roll-to-roll gravure printed rectenna on plastic foils for wireless power transmission at 13.56 MHz.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyejin; Kang, Hwiwon; Lee, Yonggil; Park, Yongsu; Noh, Jinsoo; Cho, Gyoujin

    2012-08-31

    Wireless power transmission to inexpensive and disposable smart electronic devices is one of the key issues for the realization of a ubiquitous society where sensor networks such as RFID tags, price tags, smart logos, signage and sensors could be fully interconnected and utilized by DC power of less than 0.3 W. This DC power can be provided by inductively coupled AC from a 13.56 MHz power transmitter through a rectenna, consisting of an antenna, a diode and a capacitor, which would be cheap to integrate with inexpensive smart electronic devices. To integrate the rectenna with a minimum cost, a roll-to-roll (R2R) gravure printing process has been considered to print the rectenna on plastic foils. In this paper, R2R gravure printing systems including printing condition and four different nanoparticle based inks will be reported to print the rectenna (antenna, diode and capacitor) on plastic foils at a printing speed of 8 m min(-1) and more than 90% device yield for a wireless power transmission of 0.3 W using a standard 13.56 MHz power transmitter. PMID:22885995

  18. Number of lightning discharges causing damage to lightning arrester cables for aerial transmission lines in power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nikiforov, E. P.

    2009-07-15

    Damage by lightning discharges to lightning arrester cables for 110-175 kV aerial transmission lines is analyzed using data from power systems on incidents with aerial transmission lines over a ten year operating period (1997-2006). It is found that failures of lightning arrester cables occur when a tensile force acts on a cable heated to the melting point by a lightning current. The lightning currents required to heat a cable to this extent are greater for larger cable cross sections. The probability that a lightning discharge will develop decreases as the amplitude of the lightning current increases, which greatly reduces the number of lightning discharges which damage TK-70 cables compared to TK-50 cables. In order to increase the reliability of lightning arrester cables for 110 kV aerial transmission lines, TK-70 cables should be used in place of TK-50 cables. The number of lightning discharges per year which damage lightning arrester cables is lowered when the density of aerial transmission lines is reduced within the territory of electrical power systems. An approximate relationship between these two parameters is obtained.

  19. Analytical modeling and experimental verification of vibration-based piezoelectric bimorph beam with a tip-mass for power harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongjin; Meng, Qingfeng

    2013-03-01

    Power harvesting techniques that convert vibration energy into electrical energy through piezoelectric transducers show strong potential for powering smart wireless sensor devices in applications of structural health monitoring. This paper presents an analytical model of the dynamic behavior of an electromechanical piezoelectric bimorph cantilever harvester connected with an AC-DC circuit based on the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory and Hamiltonian theorem. A new cantilevered piezoelectric bimorph structure is proposed in which the plug-type connection between support layer and tip-mass ensures that the gravity center of the tip-mass is collinear with the gravity center of the beam so that the brittle fracture of piezoelectric layers can also be avoided while vibrating with large amplitude. The tip-mass is equated by the inertial force and inertial moment acting at the end of the piezoelectric bimorph beam based on D'Alembert's principle. An AC-DC converting circuit soldered with the piezoelectric elements is also taken into account. A completely new analytic expression of the global behavior of the electromechanical piezoelectric bimorph harvesting system with AC-DC circuit under input base transverse excitation is derived. Moreover, an experimental energy harvester is fabricated and the theoretical analysis and experimental results of the piezoelectric harvester under the input base transverse displacement excitation are validated by using measurements of the absolute tip displacement, electric voltage response, electric current response and electric power harvesting.

  20. Experiments on localized wireless power transmission using a magneto-inductive wave two-dimensional metamaterial cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son Pham, Thanh; Kumara Ranaweera, Aruna; Dinh Lam, Vu; Lee, Jong-Wook

    2016-04-01

    In this letter, we propose a magneto-inductive wave (MIW) metamaterial cavity for enhanced mid-range wireless power transfer (WPT) applications. Cavity operation is achieved by controlling the propagation of MIWs at lower megahertz frequencies. The cavity is realized by omitting a cell and thereby breaking the periodicity of the closely coupled metamaterial slabs. The cavity in the proposed metamaterial effectively confines the MIWs into a subwavelength region. Consequently, it localizes the magnetic field in the WPT region and provides enhanced power transmission. When the proposed MIW metamaterial cavity is used, the measured efficiency improves significantly from 8.7 to 54.9%.

  1. Design and simulation of printed spiral coil used in wireless power transmission systems for implant medical devices.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Fang, Qiang

    2011-01-01

    Printed Spiral Coil (PSC) is a coil antenna for near-field wireless power transmission to the next generation implant medical devices. PSC for implant medical device should be power efficient and low electromagnetic radiation to human tissues. We utilized a physical model of printed spiral coil and applied our algorithm to design PSC operating at 13.56 MHz. Numerical and electromagnetic simulation of power transfer efficiency of PSC in air medium is 77.5% and 71.1%, respectively. The simulation results show that the printed spiral coil which is optimized for air will keep 15.2% power transfer efficiency in human subcutaneous tissues. In addition, the Specific Absorption Ratio (SAR) for this coil antenna in subcutaneous at 13.56 MHz is below 1.6 W/Kg, which suggests this coil is implantable safe based on IEEE C95.1 safety guideline. PMID:22255221

  2. Microwave power transmission system studies. Volume 4: Sections 9 through 14 with appendices. [ground tests and antenna design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, O. E.; Brown, W. C.; Edwards, A.; Haley, J. T.; Meltz, G.; Howell, J. M.; Nathan, A.

    1975-01-01

    The microwave rectifier technology, approaches to the receiving antenna, topology of rectenna circuits, assembly and construction, ROM cost estimates are discussed. Analyses and cost estimates for the equipment required to transmit the ground power to an external user. Noise and harmonic considerations are presented for both the amplitron and klystron and interference limits are identified and evaluated. The risk assessment discussion is discussed wherein technology risks are rated and ranked with regard to their importance in impacting the microwave power transmission system. The system analyses and evaluation are included of parametric studies of system relationships pertaining to geometry, materials, specific cost, specific weight, efficiency, converter packing, frequency selection, power distribution, power density, power output magnitude, power source, transportation and assembly. Capital costs per kW and energy costs as a function of rate of return, power source and transportation costs as well as build cycle time are presented. The critical technology and ground test program are discussed along with ROM costs and schedule. The orbital test program with associated critical technology and ground based program based on full implementation of the defined objectives is discussed.

  3. 78 FR 35017 - Prairie Power, Inc. v. Ameren Services Company, Ameren Illinois Company, Ameren Transmission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Prairie Power, Inc. v. Ameren Services Company, Ameren Illinois Company... Regulatory Commission's (Commission) Rules of Practice and Procedure, 18 CFR 385.206, Prairie Power, Inc.... Prairie Power, Inc. certifies that copies of the complaint were served on the contacts for the...

  4. Efficient algorithm for locating and sizing series compensation devices in large power transmission grids: II. Solutions and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolov, Vladimir; Backhaus, Scott; Chertkov, Misha

    2014-10-01

    In a companion manuscript (Frolov et al 2014 New J. Phys. 16 art. no.) , we developed a novel optimization method for the placement, sizing, and operation of flexible alternating current transmission system (FACTS) devices to relieve transmission network congestion. Specifically, we addressed FACTS that provide series compensation (SC) via modification of line inductance. In this sequel manuscript, this heuristic algorithm and its solutions are explored on a number of test cases: a 30-bus test network and a realistically-sized model of the Polish grid (˜2700 nodes and ˜3300 lines). The results from the 30-bus network are used to study the general properties of the solutions, including nonlocality and sparsity. The Polish grid is used to demonstrate the computational efficiency of the heuristics that leverage sequential linearization of power flow constraints, and cutting plane methods that take advantage of the sparse nature of the SC placement solutions. Using these approaches, we can use the algorithm to solve a Polish transmission grid in tens of seconds. We explore the utility of the algorithm by analyzing transmission networks congested by (i) uniform load growth, (ii) multiple overloaded configurations, and (iii) sequential generator retirements.

  5. Finite time-Lyapunov based approach for robust adaptive control of wind-induced oscillations in power transmission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghabraei, Soheil; Moradi, Hamed; Vossoughi, Gholamreza

    2016-06-01

    Large amplitude oscillation of the power transmission lines, which is also known as galloping phenomenon, has hazardous consequences such as short circuiting and failure of transmission line. In this article, to suppress the undesirable vibrations of the transmission lines, first the governing equations of transmission line are derived via mode summation technique. Then, due to the occurrence of large amplitude vibrations, nonlinear quadratic and cubic terms are included in the derived linear equations. To suppress the vibrations, arbitrary number of the piezoelectric actuators is assumed to exert the actuation forces. Afterwards, a Lyapunov based approach is proposed for the robust adaptive suppression of the undesirable vibrations in the finite time. To compensate the supposed parametric uncertainties with unknown bands, proper adaption laws are introduced. To avoid the vibration devastating consequences as quickly as possible, appropriate control laws are designed. The vibration suppression in the finite time with supposed adaption and control laws is mathematically proved via Lyapunov finite time stability theory. Finally, to illustrate and validate the efficiency and robustness of the proposed finite time control scheme, a parametric case study with three piezoelectric actuators is performed. It is observed that the proposed active control strategy is more efficient and robust than the passive control methods.

  6. Safe inductive power transmission to millimeter-sized implantable microelectronics devices.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Ahmed; Kiani, Mehdi

    2015-08-01

    Power transfer efficiency (PTE) and power delivered to the load (PDL) are key inductive link design parameters for powering millimeter-sized implants. While several groups have suggested increasing the power carrier frequency (fp) of inductive links to 100s of MHz to maximize PTE, we have demonstrated that operating at 10s of MHz offers higher allowable PDL under the safety absorption rate (SAR) constraints. We have proposed a closed-form power function that relates maximum power levels that can safely be transferred at different frequencies under the SAR constraints. Three sets of inductive links at different frequencies of 50 MHz, 200 MHz, and 400 MHz have been optimized for powering a 1 mm(3)-sized implant. We have shown in simulations that reducing fp from 200 MHz to 50 MHz along with shrinking the size of the transmitter coil results in ~7.8 times higher PDL under SAR constraints, at the cost of only 52% drop in PTE.

  7. High power free space optical link for rapid energy and data transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhadwal, Harbans S.; Rastegar, Jahangir; Feng, Dake; Kwok, Philip

    2016-05-01

    Design and experimental data for a high power laser diode based free space point-to-point optical power/data link is presented. In time critical power up applications, such as providing power and guidance information to a munition shell just prior to deployment, energy of the order of 100 J needs to be transferred in under 10 s. Current inductive technology is slow and broadcasts a radio-frequency signal which is undesirable for stealth operation. Rapid energy transfer times require high irradiance levels at the surface of the photovoltaic cells, typically, exceeding 1000X suns. Through efficient thermal design of heat sinks, high optical to electrical power conversion efficiencies of 50%, which are usually attainable at low power levels of 1 W, are achievable at higher power levels.

  8. Ray tracing method with Fresnel's transmission to calculate polarized radiation power distribution focused by a terahertz Silicon lens antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apriono, Catur; Rahardjo, Eko Tjipto; Hiromoto, Norihisa

    2015-03-01

    We study a method for simulating a power-flow density distribution of terahertz-wave focused by a hemispherical Silicon lens antenna. A regular ray-tracing method is not enough to evaluate a correct radiation power-flow because it does not take into account transmittances dependent on angles of incidence at different positions on the spherical boundary of the Si-lens. In this study, we propose a ray-tracing method including Fresnel's transmission coefficients on the surface of a Si-lens for incoming polarized rays. The power-flow-density distribution calculated by the proposed method has a good agreement except for interference and diffraction with the result obtained by an electromagnetic wave simulator. Our method is so simple and reliable that it is useful for designing and evaluating THz optical systems using dielectric lens antennas.

  9. High-power electromagnetic wave in a magnetically insulated transmission line of the ANGARA-5-1 facility

    SciTech Connect

    Samokhin, A. A.

    2010-08-15

    Studies of physical phenomena in magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs) of high-power pulsed current generators, analysis of operation of existing megavolt generators, and designing of new high-current generators with a power of up to {approx}10 TW require creating an efficient numerical code for modeling the propagation of a high-power electromagnetic pulse in an MITL. This paper presents basic theoretical concepts of MITL operation in the framework of telegraph equations with allowance for electron leakage and variations in the electrode emissivity and analyzes propagation of an electromagnetic wave in the MITLs of the ANGARA-5-1 eight-module facility toward a dynamic load installed in the central unit with a matrix inductance.

  10. A 13.56-mbps pulse delay modulation based transceiver for simultaneous near-field data and power transmission.

    PubMed

    Kiani, Mehdi; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2015-02-01

    A fully-integrated near-field wireless transceiver has been presented for simultaneous data and power transmission across inductive links, which operates based on pulse delay modulation (PDM) technique. PDM is a low-power carrier-less modulation scheme that offers wide bandwidth along with robustness against strong power carrier interference, which makes it suitable for implantable neuroprosthetic devices, such as retinal implants. To transmit each bit, a pattern of narrow pulses are generated at the same frequency of the power carrier across the transmitter (Tx) data coil with specific time delays to initiate decaying ringing across the tuned receiver (Rx) data coil. This ringing shifts the zero-crossing times of the undesired power carrier interference on the Rx data coil, resulting in a phase shift between the signals across Rx power and data coils, from which the data bit stream can be recovered. A PDM transceiver prototype was fabricated in a 0.35- μm standard CMOS process, occupying 1.6 mm(2). The transceiver achieved a measured 13.56 Mbps data rate with a raw bit error rate (BER) of 4.3×10(-7) at 10 mm distance between figure-8 data coils, despite a signal-to-interference ratio (SIR) of -18.5 dB across the Rx data coil. At the same time, a class-D power amplifier, operating at 13.56 MHz, delivered 42 mW of regulated power across a separate pair of high-Q power coils, aligned with the data coils. The PDM data Tx and Rx power consumptions were 960 pJ/bit and 162 pJ/bit, respectively, at 1.8 V supply voltage. PMID:24760945

  11. 78 FR 65641 - Recommendation From the Western Area Power Administration To Pursue Regional Transmission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... criteria in each of the three options. 1. RTO Trade Benefit 2. Administrative Costs 3. Transmission... more benefits than the other two options. Qualitative risks were analyzed through the use of a Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) tool. The MCDA uses marketing plan and rate stability, and agreements...

  12. Power transmission by laser beam from lunar-synchronous satellites to a lunar rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, M. D.; Deyoung, R. J.; Schuster, G. L.; Choi, S. H.; Dagle, J. E.; Coomes, E. P.; Antoniak, Z. I.; Bamberger, J. A.; Bates, J. M.; Chiu, M. A.

    1992-01-01

    This study addresses the possibility of beaming laser power from synchronous lunar orbits (L1 and L2 LaGrange points) to a manned long-range lunar rover. The rover and two versions of a satellite system (one powered by a nuclear reactor; the other by photovoltaics) are described in terms of their masses, geometry, power needs, mission and technological capabilities. Laser beam power is generated by a laser diode array in the satellite and converted to 30 kW of electrical power at the rover. Present technological capabilities, with some extrapolation to near future capabilities, are used in the descriptions. The advantages of the two satellite/rover systems over other such systems and over rovers with on-board power are discussed along with the possibility of enabling other missions.

  13. Fabrication of Very High Efficiency 5.8 GHz Power Amplifiers using AlGaN HFETs on SiC Substrates for Wireless Power Transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Gerry

    2001-01-01

    For wireless power transmission using microwave energy, very efficient conversion of the DC power into microwave power is extremely important. Class E amplifiers have the attractive feature that they can, in theory, be 100% efficient at converting, DC power to RF power. Aluminum gallium nitride (AlGaN) semiconductor material has many advantageous properties, relative to silicon (Si), gallium arsenide (GaAs), and silicon carbide (SiC), such as a much larger bandgap, and the ability to form AlGaN/GaN heterojunctions. The large bandgap of AlGaN also allows for device operation at higher temperatures than could be tolerated by a smaller bandgap transistor. This could reduce the cooling requirements. While it is unlikely that the AlGaN transistors in a 5.8 GHz class E amplifier can operate efficiently at temperatures in excess of 300 or 400 C, AlGaN based amplifiers could operate at temperatures that are higher than a GaAs or Si based amplifier could tolerate. Under this program, AlGaN microwave power HFETs have been fabricated and characterized. Hybrid class E amplifiers were designed and modeled. Unfortunately, within the time frame of this program, good quality HFETs were not available from either the RSC laboratories or commercially, and so the class E amplifiers were not constructed.

  14. Energy transmission and power sources for mechanical circulatory support devices to achieve total implantability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jake X; Smith, Joshua R; Bonde, Pramod

    2014-04-01

    Left ventricular assist device therapy has radically improved congestive heart failure survival with smaller rotary pumps. The driveline used to power today's left ventricular assist devices, however, continues to be a source of infection, traumatic damage, and rehospitalization. Previous attempts to wirelessly power left ventricular assist devices using transcutaneous energy transfer systems have been limited by restrictions on separation distance and alignment between the transmit and receive coils. Resonant electrical energy transfer allows power delivery at larger distances without compromising safety and efficiency. This review covers the efforts to wirelessly power mechanical circulatory assist devices and the progress made in enhancing their energy sources.

  15. Simultaneous backward data transmission and power harvesting in an ultrasonic transcutaneous energy transfer link employing acoustically dependent electric impedance modulation.

    PubMed

    Ozeri, Shaul; Shmilovitz, Doron

    2014-09-01

    The advancement and miniaturization of body implanted medical devices pose several challenges to Ultrasonic Transcutaneous Energy Transfer (UTET), such as the need to reduce the size of the piezoelectric resonator, and the need to maximize the UTET link power-transfer efficiency. Accordingly, the same piezoelectric resonator that is used for energy harvesting at the body implant, may also be used for ultrasonic backward data transfer, for instance, through impedance modulation. This paper presents physical considerations and design guidelines of the body implanted transducer of a UTET link with impedance modulation for a backward data transfer. The acoustic matching design procedure was based on the 2×2 transfer matrix chain analysis, in addition to the Krimholtz Leedom and Matthaei KLM transmission line model. The UTET power transfer was carried out at a frequency of 765 kHz, continuous wave (CW) mode. The backward data transfer was attained by inserting a 9% load resistance variation around its matched value (550 Ohm), resulting in a 12% increase in the acoustic reflection coefficient. A backward data transmission rate of 1200 bits/s was experimentally demonstrated using amplitude shift keying, simultaneously with an acoustic power transfer of 20 mW to the implant. PMID:24861424

  16. Simultaneous backward data transmission and power harvesting in an ultrasonic transcutaneous energy transfer link employing acoustically dependent electric impedance modulation.

    PubMed

    Ozeri, Shaul; Shmilovitz, Doron

    2014-09-01

    The advancement and miniaturization of body implanted medical devices pose several challenges to Ultrasonic Transcutaneous Energy Transfer (UTET), such as the need to reduce the size of the piezoelectric resonator, and the need to maximize the UTET link power-transfer efficiency. Accordingly, the same piezoelectric resonator that is used for energy harvesting at the body implant, may also be used for ultrasonic backward data transfer, for instance, through impedance modulation. This paper presents physical considerations and design guidelines of the body implanted transducer of a UTET link with impedance modulation for a backward data transfer. The acoustic matching design procedure was based on the 2×2 transfer matrix chain analysis, in addition to the Krimholtz Leedom and Matthaei KLM transmission line model. The UTET power transfer was carried out at a frequency of 765 kHz, continuous wave (CW) mode. The backward data transfer was attained by inserting a 9% load resistance variation around its matched value (550 Ohm), resulting in a 12% increase in the acoustic reflection coefficient. A backward data transmission rate of 1200 bits/s was experimentally demonstrated using amplitude shift keying, simultaneously with an acoustic power transfer of 20 mW to the implant.

  17. Semiannual report for the period October 1, 1979-March 31, 1980 of work on: (1) superconducting power transmission system development; (2) cable insulation development. Power Transmission Project Technical Note No. 106

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-07

    Progress is reported in a program whose objective is to develop an underground superconducting power transmission system which is economical and technically attractive to the utility industry. The system would be capable of carrying very large blocks of electric power, and would supplant overhead lines in urban and suburban areas and regions of natural beauty. The program consisted initially of work in the laboratory to develop suitable materials, cryostats, and cable concepts. The materials work covers the development and testing of suitable superconductors and dielectric insulation. The laboratory work has now been extended to an outside test facility which represents an intermediate step between the laboratory scale and a full-scale system. The facility will allow cables several hundred feet long to be tested under realistic conditions. In addition, the refrigerator has been designed for optimum service for utility applications.

  18. Semiannual report for the period April 1-September 30, 1979 of work on: (1) Superconducting power transmission development; (2) Cable insulation development. Power Transmission Project Technical Note No. 99

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-15

    The objective of the program is to develop an underground superconducting power transmission system which is economical and technically attractive to the utility industry. The system would be capable of carrying very large blocks of electric power, thus enabling it to supplant overhead lines in urban and suburban areas and regions of natural beauty. The program consisted initially of work in the laboratory to develop suitable materials, cryostats, and cable concepts. The materials work covers the development and testing of suitable superconductors and dielectric insulation. The laboratory work has now been extended to an outside test facility which represents an intermediate step between the laboratory scale and a full-scale system. The facility will allow cables several hundred feet long to be tested under realistic conditions. In addition, the refrigerator has been designed for optimum service for utility applications.

  19. Terawatt power division and combination using self-magnetically insulated transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Crow, J.T.; Peterson, G.D.

    1980-01-01

    Self-magnetically insulated transmission lines are necessary for the efficient transport of the terawatt pulses used in electron and ion accelerators. For some applications it is desirable to divide one transmission line into two, or to combine outputs of two or more lines into one, by means of self-magnetically insulated convolutes. Tests have been made on a coaxial-to-triaxial convolute in which connections between negative inner and outer lines are made by pins passing through holes in the intermediate positive conductor. Measurements in the 2 MV, 400 kA, 40 ns pulse Mite facility indicate virtually 100% current transport through the convolute and the ability to vary the division of current between the inner and outer lines of the triax by choice of inner line impedance. These measurements, and results obtained with this convolute connected to the ion diode for which it was designed, will be presented.

  20. Prediction of solar induced currents and effects on power transmission systems in central Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goddard, W. R.; Boerner, W. M.

    1979-01-01

    The auroral-electrojet zone covers three quarters of Manitoba and consequently, solar storms strongly affect transmission lines. Harmonics are generated at transformers due to the saturation of their cores by induced currents, and the level of harmonics produced may cause malfunction of control relays, and yield unacceptable distortions in normal ac waveforms. The expected effects of long ac transmission systems were studied with emphasis on a 500 kv line to be built from Winnipeg to Minneapolis-St. Paul. Spectral analysis of induced current records from Manitoba Hydro's LaVerendrye station and magnetograms from IMS stations in Manitoba were used along with results of Campbell's work on the Alaskan pipeline induction problem (1978) in order to predict periodic and surge currents. It is concluded that the surge currents will produce significant levels of harmonics and corresponding operating problems during magnetic storms.

  1. Electric power high-voltage transmission lines: Design options, cost, and electric and magnetic field levels

    SciTech Connect

    Stoffel, J.B.; Pentecost, E.D.; Roman, R.D.; Traczyk, P.A.

    1994-11-01

    This report provides background information about (1) the electric and magnetic fields (EMFs) of high-voltage transmission lines at typical voltages and line configurations and (2) typical transmission line costs to assist on alternatives in environmental documents. EMF strengths at 0 {+-} 200 ft from centerline were calculated for ac overhead lines, and for 345 and 230-kV ac underground line and for a {+-}450-kV dc overhead line. Compacting and height sensitivity factors were computed for the variation in EMFs when line conductors are moved closer or raised. Estimated costs for the lines are presented and discussed so that the impact of using alternative strategies for reducing EMF strengths and the implications of implementing the strategies can be better appreciated.

  2. A Multi-Level Grid Interactive Bi-directional AC/DC-DC/AC Converter and a Hybrid Battery/Ultra-capacitor Energy Storage System with Integrated Magnetics for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Onar, Omer C

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a bi-directional multi-level power electronic interface for the grid interactions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) as well as a novel bi-directional power electronic converter for the combined operation of battery/ultracapacitor hybrid energy storage systems (ESS). The grid interface converter enables beneficial vehicle-to-grid (V2G) interactions in a high power quality and grid friendly manner; i.e, the grid interface converter ensures that all power delivered to/from grid has unity power factor and almost zero current harmonics. The power electronic converter that provides the combined operation of battery/ultra-capacitor system reduces the size and cost of the conventional ESS hybridization topologies while reducing the stress on the battery, prolonging the battery lifetime, and increasing the overall vehicle performance and efficiency. The combination of hybrid ESS is provided through an integrated magnetic structure that reduces the size and cost of the inductors of the ESS converters. Simulation and experimental results are included as prove of the concept presenting the different operation modes of the proposed converters.

  3. Directly solar-pumped iodine laser for beamed power transmission in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, S. H.; Meador, W. E.; Lee, J. H.

    1992-01-01

    A new approach for development of a 50-kW directly solar-pumped iodine laser (DSPIL) system as a space-based power station was made using a confocal unstable resonator (CUR). The CUR-based DSPIL has advantages, such as performance enhancement, reduction of total mass, and simplicity which alleviates the complexities inherent in the previous system, master oscillator/power amplifier (MOPA) configurations. In this design, a single CUR-based DSPIL with 50-kW output power was defined and compared to the MOPA-based DSPIL. Integration of multiple modules for power requirements more than 50-kW is physically and structurally a sound approach as compared to building a single large system. An integrated system of multiple modules can respond to various mission power requirements by combining and aiming the coherent beams at the user's receiver.

  4. Application of fiber-optic bragg grating sensors in monitoring environmental loads of overhead power transmission lines.

    PubMed

    Bjerkan, L

    2000-02-01

    We demonstrate the capability of using fiber-optic sensors for measurements on environmental loads on a high-power, overhead transmission line. A trial system with three Bragg gratings, including a temperature reference, was installed on a 160-m span of a 60-kV line. An interrogation system with a tunable distributed Bragg reflector laser source was used. Several measurements of the induced loads on a conductor were recorded in various wind conditions. In particular, aeolian vibrations were frequently observed, and several measurements of this phenomenon were made. The results correlate well with simple theoretical predictions and visual observations.

  5. The Himalayan hydro machine and space transmission power systems - An Asian dream of 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Admoddie, M.

    The advantages and disadvantages for the development of hydroelectric power are assessed for the Himalayan Rectangle, an area rising 1500 km north of a baseline between Karachi and Mandalay. This area has the potential for possessing one of the world's greatest power production capabilities. Among the disadvantages cited are the political instability and religious fundamentalism of the area, the bankrupt governments, environmental degradation, and inefficient power and irrigation systems. The advantages include the millions of talented and enterprising people in the region awaiting higher opportunities who are eager to improve their families' living standards and the large untapped hydropower resources. The concepts for hydropower development are discussed and go beyond the technologies of power and water. They include catchment ecodevelopment strategies with massive afforestation plans, setting up plans to strengthen village-level institutions to manage local natural biomass and water assets, the conversion of this regional hydropower potential into a subcontinental power system, and the exporting of power and the development of an interregional and international power grid by 2030, when both oil and local ecosystems would be dangerously depleted.

  6. Development of real-time voltage stability monitoring tool for power system transmission network using Synchrophasor data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulok, Md Kamrul Hasan

    Intelligent and effective monitoring of power system stability in control centers is one of the key issues in smart grid technology to prevent unwanted power system blackouts. Voltage stability analysis is one of the most important requirements for control center operation in smart grid era. With the advent of Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) or Synchrophasor technology, real time monitoring of voltage stability of power system is now a reality. This work utilizes real-time PMU data to derive a voltage stability index to monitor the voltage stability related contingency situation in power systems. The developed tool uses PMU data to calculate voltage stability index that indicates relative closeness of the instability by producing numerical indices. The IEEE 39 bus, New England power system was modeled and run on a Real-time Digital Simulator that stream PMU data over the Internet using IEEE C37.118 protocol. A Phasor data concentrator (PDC) is setup that receives streaming PMU data and stores them in Microsoft SQL database server. Then the developed voltage stability monitoring (VSM) tool retrieves phasor measurement data from SQL server, performs real-time state estimation of the whole network, calculate voltage stability index, perform real-time ranking of most vulnerable transmission lines, and finally shows all the results in a graphical user interface. All these actions are done in near real-time. Control centers can easily monitor the systems condition by using this tool and can take precautionary actions if needed.

  7. A general and accurate approach for computing the statistical power of the transmission disequilibrium test for complex disease genes.

    PubMed

    Chen, W M; Deng, H W

    2001-07-01

    Transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) is a nuclear family-based analysis that can test linkage in the presence of association. It has gained extensive attention in theoretical investigation and in practical application; in both cases, the accuracy and generality of the power computation of the TDT are crucial. Despite extensive investigations, previous approaches for computing the statistical power of the TDT are neither accurate nor general. In this paper, we develop a general and highly accurate approach to analytically compute the power of the TDT. We compare the results from our approach with those from several other recent papers, all against the results obtained from computer simulations. We show that the results computed from our approach are more accurate than or at least the same as those from other approaches. More importantly, our approach can handle various situations, which include (1) families that consist of one or more children and that have any configuration of affected and nonaffected sibs; (2) families ascertained through the affection status of parent(s); (3) any mixed sample with different types of families in (1) and (2); (4) the marker locus is not a disease susceptibility locus; and (5) existence of allelic heterogeneity. We implement this approach in a user-friendly computer program: TDT Power Calculator. Its applications are demonstrated. The approach and the program developed here should be significant for theoreticians to accurately investigate the statistical power of the TDT in various situations, and for empirical geneticists to plan efficient studies using the TDT.

  8. Ka-Band TWT High-Efficiency Power Combiner for High-Rate Data Transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wintucky, Edwin G.; Simons, Rainee; Vaden, Karl R.; Lesny, Gary G.; Glass, Jeffrey L.

    2007-01-01

    A four-port magic-T hybrid waveguide junction serves as the central component of a high-efficiency two-way power combiner circuit for transmitting a high-rate phase-modulated digital signal at a carrier frequency in the Ka-band (between 27 and 40 GHz). This power combiner was developed to satisfy a specific requirement to efficiently combine the coherent outputs of two traveling-wavetube (TWT) amplifiers that are typically characterized by power levels on the order of 100 W or more. In this application, the use of a waveguide-based power combiner (instead of a coaxial-cable- or microstrip-based power combiner, for example) is dictated by requirements for low loss, high power-handling capability, and broadband response. Combiner efficiencies were typically 90 percent or more over both the linear and saturated output power regions of operation of the TWTs . Figure 1 depicts the basic configuration of the magic-T hybrid junction. The coherent outputs of the two TWTs enter through ports 1 and 4. As a result of the orientations of the electromagnetic fields, which also provides a needed high port-to-port isolation, of these two input signals and the interior design of the magic-T junction, the input powers are divided so as to add in phase at one output port (port 2), and to be opposite in phase and hence cancel each other at the opposite coplanar output port (port 3). The net result is that the output power at port 2 is essentially double that of the output of one TWT, minus the power lost in the magic-T hybrid junction. Optimum performance as a high-efficiency power combiner thus requires a balance of both power and phase at the input ports of the magic-T. Replicas of this two-way combiner can be arranged in a binary configuration to obtain a 2n-way (where n is an integer) combiner. For example, Figure 2 illustrates the use of three two-way combiners to combine the outputs of four TWTs.

  9. Efficient algorithm for locating and sizing series compensation devices in large power transmission grids: I. Model implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolov, Vladimir; Backhaus, Scott; Chertkov, Misha

    2014-10-01

    We explore optimization methods for planning the placement, sizing and operations of flexible alternating current transmission system (FACTS) devices installed to relieve transmission grid congestion. We limit our selection of FACTS devices to series compensation (SC) devices that can be represented by modification of the inductance of transmission lines. Our master optimization problem minimizes the l1 norm of the inductance modification subject to the usual line thermal-limit constraints. We develop heuristics that reduce this non-convex optimization to a succession of linear programs (LP) that are accelerated further using cutting plane methods. The algorithm solves an instance of the MatPower Polish Grid model (3299 lines and 2746 nodes) in 40 seconds per iteration on a standard laptop—a speed that allows the sizing and placement of a family of SC devices to correct a large set of anticipated congestions. We observe that our algorithm finds feasible solutions that are always sparse, i.e., SC devices are placed on only a few lines. In a companion manuscript, we demonstrate our approach on realistically sized networks that suffer congestion from a range of causes, including generator retirement. In this manuscript, we focus on the development of our approach, investigate its structure on a small test system subject to congestion from uniform load growth, and demonstrate computational efficiency on a realistically sized network.

  10. Efficient algorithm for locating and sizing series compensation devices in large power transmission grids: I. Model implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Frolov, Vladimir; Backhaus, Scott; Chertkov, Misha

    2014-10-24

    We explore optimization methods for planning the placement, sizing and operations of Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) devices installed to relieve transmission grid congestion. We limit our selection of FACTS devices to Series Compensation (SC) devices that can be represented by modification of the inductance of transmission lines. Our master optimization problem minimizes the l1 norm of the inductance modification subject to the usual line thermal-limit constraints. We develop heuristics that reduce this non-convex optimization to a succession of Linear Programs (LP) which are accelerated further using cutting plane methods. The algorithm solves an instance of the MatPower Polish Grid model (3299 lines and 2746 nodes) in 40 seconds per iteration on a standard laptop—a speed up that allows the sizing and placement of a family of SC devices to correct a large set of anticipated congestions. We observe that our algorithm finds feasible solutions that are always sparse, i.e., SC devices are placed on only a few lines. In a companion manuscript, we demonstrate our approach on realistically-sized networks that suffer congestion from a range of causes including generator retirement. In this manuscript, we focus on the development of our approach, investigate its structure on a small test system subject to congestion from uniform load growth, and demonstrate computational efficiency on a realistically-sized network.

  11. Efficient algorithm for locating and sizing series compensation devices in large power transmission grids: I. Model implementation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Frolov, Vladimir; Backhaus, Scott; Chertkov, Misha

    2014-10-24

    We explore optimization methods for planning the placement, sizing and operations of Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) devices installed to relieve transmission grid congestion. We limit our selection of FACTS devices to Series Compensation (SC) devices that can be represented by modification of the inductance of transmission lines. Our master optimization problem minimizes the l1 norm of the inductance modification subject to the usual line thermal-limit constraints. We develop heuristics that reduce this non-convex optimization to a succession of Linear Programs (LP) which are accelerated further using cutting plane methods. The algorithm solves an instance of the MatPower Polishmore » Grid model (3299 lines and 2746 nodes) in 40 seconds per iteration on a standard laptop—a speed up that allows the sizing and placement of a family of SC devices to correct a large set of anticipated congestions. We observe that our algorithm finds feasible solutions that are always sparse, i.e., SC devices are placed on only a few lines. In a companion manuscript, we demonstrate our approach on realistically-sized networks that suffer congestion from a range of causes including generator retirement. In this manuscript, we focus on the development of our approach, investigate its structure on a small test system subject to congestion from uniform load growth, and demonstrate computational efficiency on a realistically-sized network.« less

  12. Efficient algorithm for locating and sizing series compensation devices in large power transmission grids: II. Solutions and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Frolov, Vladimir; Backhaus, Scott; Chertkov, Misha

    2014-10-01

    In a companion manuscript, we developed a novel optimization method for placement, sizing, and operation of Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) devices to relieve transmission network congestion. Specifically, we addressed FACTS that provide Series Compensation (SC) via modification of line inductance. In this manuscript, this heuristic algorithm and its solutions are explored on a number of test cases: a 30-bus test network and a realistically-sized model of the Polish grid (~ 2700 nodes and ~ 3300 lines). The results on the 30-bus network are used to study the general properties of the solutions including non-locality and sparsity. The Polish grid is used as a demonstration of the computational efficiency of the heuristics that leverages sequential linearization of power flow constraints and cutting plane methods that take advantage of the sparse nature of the SC placement solutions. Using these approaches, the algorithm is able to solve an instance of Polish grid in tens of seconds. We explore the utility of the algorithm by analyzing transmission networks congested by (a) uniform load growth, (b) multiple overloaded configurations, and (c) sequential generator retirements.

  13. Efficient algorithm for locating and sizing series compensation devices in large power transmission grids: II. Solutions and applications

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Frolov, Vladimir; Backhaus, Scott; Chertkov, Misha

    2014-10-01

    In a companion manuscript, we developed a novel optimization method for placement, sizing, and operation of Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) devices to relieve transmission network congestion. Specifically, we addressed FACTS that provide Series Compensation (SC) via modification of line inductance. In this manuscript, this heuristic algorithm and its solutions are explored on a number of test cases: a 30-bus test network and a realistically-sized model of the Polish grid (~ 2700 nodes and ~ 3300 lines). The results on the 30-bus network are used to study the general properties of the solutions including non-locality and sparsity. The Polishmore » grid is used as a demonstration of the computational efficiency of the heuristics that leverages sequential linearization of power flow constraints and cutting plane methods that take advantage of the sparse nature of the SC placement solutions. Using these approaches, the algorithm is able to solve an instance of Polish grid in tens of seconds. We explore the utility of the algorithm by analyzing transmission networks congested by (a) uniform load growth, (b) multiple overloaded configurations, and (c) sequential generator retirements.« less

  14. Numerical investigation of the physical model of a high-power electromagnetic wave in a magnetically insulated transmission line

    SciTech Connect

    Samokhin, A. A.

    2010-02-15

    An efficient numerical code for simulating the propagation of a high-power electromagnetic pulse in a vacuum transmission line is required to study the physical phenomena occurring in such a line, to analyze the operation of present-day megavolt generators at an {approx}10-TW power level, and to design such new devices. The main physical theoretical principles are presented, and the stability of flows in the near-threshold region at the boundary of the regime of magnetic self-insulation is investigated based on one-dimensional telegraph equations with electron losses. Numerical (difference) methods-specifically, a method of characteristics and a finite-difference scheme-are described and their properties and effectiveness are compared by analyzing the high-frequency modes.

  15. A novel high-density power energy harvesting methodology for transmission line online monitoring devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yadong; Xie, Xiaolei; Hu, Yue; Qian, Yong; Sheng, Gehao; Jiang, Xiuchen; Liu, Yilu

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a novel energy-harvesting model which takes the primary current, secondary turns, dimension, the magnitude of magnetic flux density B, and the core loss resistance into consideration systematically. The relationship among the potential maximum output power, the dimension of energy harvesting coil (EHC), the load type of EHC, and the secondary turns is predicted by theoretical analysis and further verified by experiments. A high power density harvester is also developed and tested. It is shown that the power density of this novel harvester is 0.7 mW/g at 10 A, which is more than 2 times powerful than the traditional ones. Hence, it could lighten the half weight of the harvester at the same conditions.

  16. A novel high-density power energy harvesting methodology for transmission line online monitoring devices.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yadong; Xie, Xiaolei; Hu, Yue; Qian, Yong; Sheng, Gehao; Jiang, Xiuchen; Liu, Yilu

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a novel energy-harvesting model which takes the primary current, secondary turns, dimension, the magnitude of magnetic flux density B, and the core loss resistance into consideration systematically. The relationship among the potential maximum output power, the dimension of energy harvesting coil (EHC), the load type of EHC, and the secondary turns is predicted by theoretical analysis and further verified by experiments. A high power density harvester is also developed and tested. It is shown that the power density of this novel harvester is 0.7 mW/g at 10 A, which is more than 2 times powerful than the traditional ones. Hence, it could lighten the half weight of the harvester at the same conditions. PMID:27475607

  17. Factors affecting frequency and orbit utilization by high power transmission satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhns, P. W.; Miller, E. F.; Malley, T. A.

    1972-01-01

    The factors affecting the sharing of the geostationary orbit by high power (primarily television) satellite systems having the same or adjacent coverage areas and by satellites occupying the same orbit segment are examined and examples using the results of computer computations are given. The factors considered include: required protection ratio, receiver antenna patterns, relative transmitter power, transmitter antenna patterns, satellite grouping, and coverage pattern overlap. The results presented indicated the limits of system characteristics and orbit deployment which can result from mixing systems.

  18. Active photonic sensor communication cable for field application of optical data and power transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suthau, Eike; Rieske, Ralf; Zerna, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Omitting electrically conducting wires for sensor communication and power supply promises protection for sensor systems and monitored structures against lightning or high voltages, prevention of explosion hazards, and reduction of susceptibility to tampering. The ability to photonically power remote systems opens up the full range of electrical sensors. Power-over-fiber is an attractive option in electromagnetically sensitive environments, particularly for longterm, maintenance-free applications. It can deliver uninterrupted power sufficient for elaborate sensors, data processing or even actuators alongside continuous high speed data communication for remote sensor application. This paper proposes an active photonic sensor communication system, which combines the advantages of optical data links in terms of immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI), high bandwidth, hardiness against tampering or eavesdropping, and low cable weight with the robustness one has come to expect from industrial or military electrical connectors. An application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) is presented that implements a closed-loop regulation of the sensor power supply to guarantee continuous, reliable data communications while maintaining a highly efficient, adaptive sensor supply scheme. It is demonstrated that the resulting novel photonic sensor communication cable can handle sensors and actuators differing orders of magnitude with respect to power consumption. The miniaturization of the electro-optical converters and driving electronics is as important to the presented development as the energy efficiency of the detached, optically powered sensor node. For this reason, a novel photonic packaging technology based on wafer-level assembly of the laser power converters by means of passive alignment will be disclosed in this paper.

  19. A wireless power transmission system for implantable devices in freely moving rodents.

    PubMed

    Eom, Kyungsik; Jeong, Joonsoo; Lee, Tae Hyung; Kim, Jinhyung; Kim, Junghoon; Lee, Sung Eun; Kim, Sung June

    2014-08-01

    Reliable wireless power delivery for implantable devices in animals is highly desired for safe and effective experimental use. Batteries require frequent replacement; wired connections are inconvenient and unsafe, and short-distance inductive coupling requires the attachment of an exterior transmitter to the animal's body. In this article, we propose a solution by which animals with implantable devices can move freely without attachments. Power is transmitted using coils attached to the animal's cage and is received by a receiver coil implanted in the animal. For a three-dimensionally uniform delivery of power, we designed a columnar dual-transmitter coil configuration. A resonator-based inductive link was adopted for efficient long-range power delivery, and we used a novel biocompatible liquid crystal polymer substrate as the implantable receiver device. Using this wireless power delivery system, we obtain an average power transfer efficiency of 15.2% (minimum efficiency of 10% and a standard deviation of 2.6) within a cage of 15×20×15 cm3. PMID:24946939

  20. Microwave power transmission system studies. Volume 2: Introduction, organization, environmental and spaceborne systems analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, O. E.; Brown, W. C.; Edwards, A.; Haley, J. T.; Meltz, G.; Howell, J. M.; Nathan, A.

    1975-01-01

    Introduction, organization, analyses, conclusions, and recommendations for each of the spaceborne subsystems are presented. Environmental effects - propagation analyses are presented with appendices covering radio wave diffraction by random ionospheric irregularities, self-focusing plasma instabilities and ohmic heating of the D-region. Analyses of dc to rf conversion subsystems and system considerations for both the amplitron and the klystron are included with appendices for the klystron covering cavity circuit calculations, output power of the solenoid-focused klystron, thermal control system, and confined flow focusing of a relativistic beam. The photovoltaic power source characteristics are discussed as they apply to interfacing with the power distribution flow paths, magnetic field interaction, dc to rf converter protection, power distribution including estimates for the power budget, weights, and costs. Analyses for the transmitting antenna consider the aperture illumination and size, with associated efficiencies and ground power distributions. Analyses of subarray types and dimensions, attitude error, flatness, phase error, subarray layout, frequency tolerance, attenuation, waveguide dimensional tolerances, mechanical including thermal considerations are included. Implications associated with transportation, assembly and packaging, attitude control and alignment are discussed. The phase front control subsystem, including both ground based pilot signal driven adaptive and ground command approaches with their associated phase errors, are analyzed.

  1. Transmission of wireless neural signals through a 0.18 µm CMOS low-power amplifier.

    PubMed

    Gazziro, M; Braga, C F R; Moreira, D A; Carvalho, A C P L F; Rodrigues, J F; Navarro, J S; Ardila, J C M; Mioni, D P; Pessatti, M; Fabbro, P; Freewin, C; Saddow, S E

    2015-01-01

    In the field of Brain Machine Interfaces (BMI) researchers still are not able to produce clinically viable solutions that meet the requirements of long-term operation without the use of wires or batteries. Another problem is neural compatibility with the electrode probes. One of the possible ways of approaching these problems is the use of semiconductor biocompatible materials (silicon carbide) combined with an integrated circuit designed to operate with low power consumption. This paper describes a low-power neural signal amplifier chip, named Cortex, fabricated using 0.18 μm CMOS process technology with all electronics integrated in an area of 0.40 mm(2). The chip has 4 channels, total power consumption of only 144 μW, and is impedance matched to silicon carbide biocompatible electrodes. PMID:26737437

  2. A special protection scheme utilizing trajectory sensitivity analysis in power transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suriyamongkol, Dan

    In recent years, new measurement techniques have provided opportunities to improve the North American Power System observability, control and protection. This dissertation discusses the formulation and design of a special protection scheme based on a novel utilization of trajectory sensitivity techniques with inputs consisting of system state variables and parameters. Trajectory sensitivity analysis (TSA) has been used in previous publications as a method for power system security and stability assessment, and the mathematical formulation of TSA lends itself well to some of the time domain power system simulation techniques. Existing special protection schemes often have limited sets of goals and control actions. The proposed scheme aims to maintain stability while using as many control actions as possible. The approach here will use the TSA in a novel way by using the sensitivities of system state variables with respect to state parameter variations to determine the state parameter controls required to achieve the desired state variable movements. The initial application will operate based on the assumption that the modeled power system has full system observability, and practical considerations will be discussed.

  3. Impurity Radiation for Detecting Arcs during High Lower Hybrid Power Transmission at JET

    SciTech Connect

    Goniche, M.; Delpech, L.; Ekedahl, A.; Hillairet, J.; Mailloux, J.; Baranov, Y.; Coffey, I.; Kirov, K.; Mayoral, M.-L.; Sergienko, G.; Ongena, J.

    2009-11-26

    During high power commissioning of the JET LH launcher, the radiation and impurity release has been analyzed from various diagnostics: VUV and visible spectroscopy, bolometry. These two last diagnostics have lines-of-sight viewing the launcher and can provide information about the electron and/or impurity source localisation. Using a database of 800 plasmas, it is concluded that the iron contamination (FeXV and FeXXIII) is very low for 94% of the pulses and increases linearly with LH power. During arcs, a strong and fast increase of the radiation along the line-of-sight viewing the launcher is observed. This diagnostic could provide a tool for arc detection complementary to the RF measurements aiming at reducing the metal contamination in the plasma.

  4. Studies of acoustic-electric feed-throughs for power transmission through structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Doty, Benjamin; Badescu, Mircea; Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Aldrich, Jack; Chang, Zensheu

    2006-01-01

    There are numerous engineering design problems where the use of wires to transfer power and communicate data thru the walls of a structure is prohibitive or significantly difficult that it may require a complex design. Using physical feedthroughs in such systems may make them susceptible to leakage of chemicals or gasses, loss of pressure or vacuum, as well as difficulties in providing adequate thermal or electrical insulation. Moreover, feeding wires thru a wall of a structure reduces the strength of the structure and makes the structure prone to cracking due to fatigue that can result from cyclic loading and stress concentrations. One area that has already been identified to require a wireless alternative to electrical feedthroughs is the container of the Mars Sample Return Mission, which will need wireless sensors to sense a pressure leak and to avoid potential contamination. The idea of using elastic or acoustic waves to transfer power was suggested recently by [Y. Hu, et al., July 2003]. This system allows for the avoidance of cabling or wiring. The technology is applicable to the transfer of power for actuation, sensing and other tasks inside any sealed container or vacuum/pressure vessel. An alternative approach to the modeling presented previously [Sherrit et a., 2005] used network analysis to solve the same problem in a clear and expandable manner. Experimental tests on three different designs of these devices were performed. The three designs used different methods of coupling the piezoelectric element to the wall. In the first test the piezoelectric material was bolted using a backing structure. In the second test the piezoelectric was clamped after the application of grease and finally the piezoelectric element was attached using a conductive epoxy. The mechanical clamp with grease produced the highest measured efficiency of 53% however this design was the least practical from a fabrication viewpoint. The power transfer efficiency of conductive epoxy

  5. The Abacus/Reflector and Integrated Symmetrical Concentrator: Concepts for Space Solar Power Collection and Transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrington, Connie; Fikes, John; Gerry, Mark; Perkinson, Don

    2000-01-01

    New energy sources are vital for the development of emerging nations, and the growth of industry in developed economies. Also vital is the need for these energy sources to be clean and renewable. For the past several years, NASA has been taking a new look at collecting solar energy in space and transmitting it to Earth, to planetary surfaces, and to orbiting spacecraft. Several innovative concepts are being studied for the space segment component of solar power beaming. One is the Abacus/Reflector, a large sun-oriented array structure fixed to the transmitter, and a rotating RF reflector that tracks a receiving rectenna on Earth. This concept eliminates the need for power-conducting slip rings in rotating joints between the solar collectors and the transmitter. Another concept is the Integrated Symmetrical Concentrator (ISC), composed of two very large segmented reflectors which rotate to collect and reflect the incident sunlight onto two centrally-located photovoltaic arrays. Adjacent to the PV arrays is the RF transmitter, which as a unit track the receiving rectenna, again eliminating power-conducting joints, and in addition reducing the cable lengths between the arrays and transmitter. The metering structure to maintain the position of the reflectors is a long mast, oriented perpendicular to the equatorial orbit plane. This paper presents a status of ongoing systems studies and configurations for the Abacus/Reflector and the ISC concepts, and a top-level study of packaging for launch and assembly.

  6. Protection relay of phase-shifting device with thyristor switch for high voltage power transmission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachugin, V. F.; Panfilov, D. I.; Akhmetov, I. M.; Astashev, M. G.; Shevelev, A. V.

    2014-12-01

    Problems of functioning of differential current protection systems of phase shifting devices (PSD) with mechanically changed coefficient of transformation of shunt transformer are analyzed. Requirements for devices of protection of PSD with thyristor switch are formulated. Based on use of nonlinear models of series-wound and shunt transformers of PSD modes of operation of major protection during PSD, switching to zero load operation and to operation under load and during short circuit operation were studied for testing PSD with failures. Use of the principle of duplicating by devices of differential current protection (with realization of functions of breaking) of failures of separate pares of PSD with thyristor switch was substantiated. To ensure protection sensitivity to the shunt transformer winding short circuit, in particular, to a short circuit that is not implemented in the current differential protection for PSD with mechanical switch, the differential current protection reacting to the amount of primary ampere-turns of high-voltage and low-voltage winding of this transformer was designed. Studies have shown that the use of differential current cutoff instead of overcurrent protection for the shunt transformer wndings allows one to provide the sensitivity during thyristor failure with the formation of a short circuit. The results of simulation mode for the PSD with switch thyristor designed to be installed as switching point of Voskhod-Tatarskaya-Barabinsk 220 kV transmission line point out the efficiency of the developed solutions that ensure reliable functioning of the PSD.

  7. Theory of magnetically insulated electron flows in coaxial pulsed power transmission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawconnell, Robert I.; Neri, Jesse

    1990-03-01

    The Cartesian magnetically insulated transmission line (MITL) theory of Mendel et al. [Appl. Phys. 50, 3830 (1979); Phys. Fluids 26, 3628 (1983)] is extended to cylindrical coordinates. A set of equations that describe arbitrary electron flows in cylindrical coordinates is presented. These equations are used to derive a general theory for laminar magnetically insulated electron flows. The laminar theory allows one to specify the potentials, fields, and densities across a coaxial line undergoing explosive electron emission at the cathode. The theory is different from others available in cylindrical coordinates in that the canonical momentum and total energy for each electron may be nonzero across the electron sheath. A nonzero canonical momentum and total energy for the electrons in the sheath allows the model to produce one-dimensional flows that resemble flows from lines with impedance mismatches and perturbing structures. The laminar theory is used to derive two new self-consistent cylindrical flow solutions: (1) for a constant density profile and (2) for a quadratic density profile of the form ρ=ρc[(r2m-r2)/(r2m-r2c)]. This profile is of interest in that it is similar to profiles observed in a long MITL simulation [Appl. Phys. 50, 4996 (1979)]. The theoretical flows are compared to numerical results obtained with two-dimensional (2-D) electromagnetic particle-in-cell (PIC) codes.

  8. Design and experiment for realization of laser wireless power transmission for small unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qi; Zhang, Dechen; Zhu, Dandi; Shi, Qianyun; Gu, Jian; Ai, Yong

    2015-10-01

    Currently various types of aircraft booming and maturing, however, their long-time navigational capability should be improved urgently. This paper aims at studying laser power beaming, which includes the technology of high-efficient photoelectric conversion and APT(acquiring, pointing and tracking) technology, to provide power for flying UAV(unmanned aerial vehicles) and improve their flight endurance. The experiment of testing different types of solar cells under various conditions has been done to choose the solar cell which has the highest photoelectric conversion rate and find its most sensitive wavelength. In addition, the charge management module has been chose on the base of the characteristics of lithium batteries. Besides, a laser APT system was designed and set up, at the same time FSM (Fast Scan Mirror) control program and digital image processing program were used to control the system. The success of the indoor experiment of scan-tracking and charging for the moving UAV model via laser proves that this system is workable. And in this experiment, the photoelectric conversion rate of the whole system is up to 17.55%.

  9. Thick plate bending wave transmission using a mobility power flow approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccollum, M. D.; Cuschieri, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    The mobility power flow (MPF) approach is used in this paper to describe the flexural behavior of an L-shaped plate structure consisting of thick plates with rotary inertia and shear deformation effects included in the analysis. The introduction of the thick plate effects significantly increases the complexity of the structural mobility functions used in the definitions of the power flow terms; however, because of the substructuring that is used in the MPF approach, the complexity of the problem is significantly reduced as compared to solving for the global structure. Additionally, with the MPF approach the modal behavior is described. The MPF analysis of the L-shaped plate is performed for the case of point force excitation on one plate, with the two plates being identical in both size and thickness. The results of this analysis are compared to results from the finite-element analysis (FEA) and the statistical energy analysis (SEA) and show very good agreement in the low- and high-frequency regimes, respectively.

  10. Robust mean traveltime curves: a powerful tool for analysis in 2D transmission tomographic surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez Martinez, J.; Pedruelo Gonzalez, L.; Rector, J.

    2008-12-01

    Acoustic tomography methods belong to the class of non destructive inspection techniques and are widely used in engineering applications. One of the main issues for these methods is the direct arrivals, which can be noisy or affected by scattering or other propagation effects. Mean traveltime curves (mean and standard deviation) have been introduced by Fernández Martínez et al (2006), and describe the variation of the main statistical parameters of the traveltime distribution for the different gathering subsets as a function of the gather index. These curves constitute a simple methodology (Fernández Martínez et al., 2008) to analyze before inversion the traveltime quality in 2D acoustic transmission tomography experiments conducted in relatively homogeneous blocks. This analysis can help to discriminate the contribution of picking errors from that of geological heterogeneities. In this contribution we present the so-called robust mean traveltime curves, which refer to the variation of the different p-percentiles and related measures of dispersion (inter-quartile range and minimum absolute deviation) for the above mentioned gathering subsets. Together with the mean curve, the median and upper-quartile traveltime curves are very resistant to the presence of outliers, and thus, are preferred to infer a background velocity model, which is valid at experiment scale and honors the experimental traveltime distribution. This methodology is valid for 2D zonal isotropic or elliptical anisotropic media, explored via any arbitrary acquisition geometry. We show the application to a well-known granitic medium (Febex Project, Nagra, Switzerland). Fernández Martínez et al. 2006. Mathematical Geology:38-3.343-374 Fernández Martínez et al.2008. Computer and Geosciences:34-3,213-225, 2008.

  11. NASA powered lift facility internally generated noise and its transmission to the acoustic far field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Ronald G.

    1988-01-01

    Noise tests of NASA Lewis Research Center's Powered Lift Facility (PLF) were performed to determine the frequency content of the internally generated noise that reaches the far field. The sources of the internally generated noise are the burner, elbows, valves, and flow turbulence. Tests over a range of nozzle pressure ratios from 1.2 to 3.5 using coherence analysis revealed that low frequency noise below 1200 Hz is transmitted through the nozzle. Broad banded peaks at 240 and 640 Hz were found in the transmitted noise. Aeroacoustic excitation effects are possible in this frequency range. The internal noise creates a noise floor that limits the amount of jet noise suppression that can be measured on the PLF and similar facilities.

  12. High-power microwave LDMOS transistors for wireless data transmission technologies (Review)

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsov, E. V. Shemyakin, A. V.

    2010-12-15

    The fields of the application, structure, fabrication, and packaging technology of high-power microwave LDMOS transistors and the main advantages of these devices were analyzed. Basic physical parameters and some technology factors were matched for optimum device operation. Solid-state microwave electronics has been actively developed for the last 10-15 years. Simultaneously with improvement of old devices, new devices and structures are actively being adopted and developed and new semiconductor materials are being commercialized. Microwave LDMOS technology is in demand in such fields as avionics, civil and military radars, repeaters, base stations of cellular communication systems, television and broadcasting transmitters, and transceivers for high-speed wireless computer networks (promising Wi-Fi and Wi-Max standards).

  13. Bi-directional four quadrant (BDQ4) power converter development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, F. C.

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility for implementation of a concept for direct ac/dc multikilowatt power conversion with bidirectional transfer of energy was investigated. A 10 kHz current carrier was derived directly from a common 60 Hz three phase power system. This carrier was modulated to remove the 360 Hz ripple, inherent in the three phase power supply and then demodulated and processed by a high frequency filter. The resulting dc power was then supplied to a load. The process was implemented without the use of low frequency transformers and filters. This power conversion processes was reversible and can operate in the four quadrants as viewed from any of the two of the converter's ports. Areas of application include: power systems on air and spacecraft; terrestrial traction; integration of solar and wind powered systems with utility networks; HVDC; asynchronous coupling of polyphase networks; heat treatment; industrial machine drives; and power supplies for any use including instrumentation.

  14. A High Frequency Active Voltage Doubler in Standard CMOS Using Offset-Controlled Comparators for Inductive Power Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyung-Min; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present a fully integrated active voltage doubler in CMOS technology using offset-controlled high speed comparators for extending the range of inductive power transmission to implantable microelectronic devices (IMD) and radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags. This active voltage doubler provides considerably higher power conversion efficiency (PCE) and lower dropout voltage compared to its passive counterpart and requires lower input voltage than active rectifiers, leading to reliable and efficient operation with weakly coupled inductive links. The offset-controlled functions in the comparators compensate for turn-on and turn-off delays to not only maximize the forward charging current to the load but also minimize the back current, optimizing PCE in the high frequency (HF) band. We fabricated the active voltage doubler in a 0.5-μm 3M2P std. CMOS process, occupying 0.144 mm2 of chip area. With 1.46 V peak AC input at 13.56 MHz, the active voltage doubler provides 2.4 V DC output across a 1 kΩ load, achieving the highest PCE = 79% ever reported at this frequency. In addition, the built-in start-up circuit ensures a reliable operation at lower voltages. PMID:23853321

  15. 0.52-11.86 Gbit/s OFDM modulation for power-sharing VLC transmission by using VCSEL laser.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chien-Hung; Lu, I-Cheng

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we propose employing a 682 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) with 1 GHz bandwidth for high-speed and power-sharing wireless visible light communication (VLC) in the different transmission distances of 2 to 5 m. In the measurement, the data rate of 0.52 to 11.86 Gbit/s (0.44 to 10.8 Gbit/s in a net data rate) can be achieved by using spectral-efficient orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) modulation with bit-loading algorithm. Therefore, 4- to 256-quadrature amplitude modulations (QAMs) are employed simultaneously in the modulation bandwidth for VCSEL-based VLC. The proposed power-sharing VLC system can be divided to four end-users, when three beam splitters (BSs) are used simultaneously. Moreover, all of the measured bit error rates (BERs) are below the forward error correction (FEC) threshold (BER = 3.8 × 10-3). PMID:27607714

  16. Station-keeping of a high-altitude balloon with electric propulsion and wireless power transmission: A concept study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Wynsberghe, Erinn; Turak, Ayse

    2016-11-01

    A stable, ultra long-duration high-altitude balloon (HAB) platform which can maintain stationary position would represent a new paradigm for telecommunications and high-altitude observation and transmission services, with greatly reduced cost and complexity compared to existing technologies including satellites, telecom towers, and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). This contribution proposes a lightweight superpressure balloon platform for deployment to an altitude of 25 km. Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) thrusters are presented to maintain position by overcoming stratospheric winds. Critical to maintaining position is a continual supply of electrical power to operate the on-board propulsion system. One viable solution is to deliver power wirelessly to a high-altitude craft from a ground-based transmitter. Microwave energy, not heavily attenuated by the atmosphere, can be provided remotely from a ground-based generator (magnetron, klystron, etc.) and steered electrically with an antenna array (phased array) at a designated frequency (such as 2.45 or 5.8 GHz). A rectifying antenna ("rectenna") on the bottom of the balloon converts waves into direct current for on-board use. Preliminary mission architecture, energy requirements, and safety concerns for a proposed system are presented along with recommended future work.

  17. Single and three-phase AC losses in HTS superconducting power transmission line prototype cables

    SciTech Connect

    Daney, D.E.; Boenig, H.J.; Maley, M.P.; Coulter, J.Y.; Fleshler, S.

    1997-11-01

    AC losses in two, one-meter-long lengths of HTS prototype multi-strand conductors (PMC`s) are measured with a temperature-difference calorimeter. Both single-phase and three-phase losses are examined with ac currents up to 1,000 A rms. The calorimeter, designed specifically for these measurements, has a precision of 1 mW. PMC {number_sign}1 has two helically-wound, non-insulated layers of HTS tape (19 tapes per layer), each layer wrapped with opposite pitch. PMC {number_sign}2 is identical except for insulation between the layers. The measured ac losses show no significant effect of interlayer insulation and depend on about the third power of the current--a result in agreement with the Bean-Norris model adapted to the double-helix configuration. The three-phase losses are a factor of two higher than those exhibited by a single isolated conductor, indicating a significant interaction between phases.

  18. Optical design and development of a fiber coupled high-power diode laser system for laser transmission welding of plastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Vidal, Eva; Quintana, Iban; Etxarri, Jon; Azkorbebeitia, Urko; Otaduy, Deitze; González, Francisco; Moreno, Fernando

    2012-12-01

    Laser transmission welding (LTW) of thermoplastics is a direct bonding technique already used in different industrial applications sectors such as automobiles, microfluidics, electronics, and biomedicine. LTW evolves localized heating at the interface of two pieces of plastic to be joined. One of the plastic pieces needs to be optically transparent to the laser radiation whereas the other part has to be absorbent, being that the radiation produced by high power diode lasers is a good alternative for this process. As consequence, a tailored laser system has been designed and developed to obtain high quality weld seams with weld widths between 0.7 and 1.4 mm. The developed laser system consists of two diode laser bars (50 W per bar) coupled into an optical fiber using a nonimaging solution: equalization of the beam parameter product (BPP) in the slow and fast axes by a pair of step-mirrors. The power scaling was carried out by means of a multiplexing polarization technique. The analysis of energy balance and beam quality was performed considering ray tracing simulation (ZEMAX) and experimental validation. The welding experiments were conducted on acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene (ABS), a thermoplastic frequently used in automotive, electronics and aircraft applications, doped with two different concentrations of carbon nanotubes (0.01% and 0.05% CNTs). Quality of the weld seams on ABS was analyzed in terms of the process parameters (welding speed, laser power and clamping pressure) by visual and optical microscope inspections. Mechanical properties of weld seams were analyzed by mechanical shear tests. High quality weld seams were produced in ABS, revealing the potential of the laser developed in this work for a wide range of plastic welding applications.

  19. Real power measurement using a thermal converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möhring, Tobias; Spiegel, Thomas; Funck, Torsten

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, a new application of thermal converters is presented which allows energy, power and rms measurement without the need to substitute the measurement signal with a dc signal as performed in ac-dc transfer. Using a mathematical model of standard planar multijunction thermal converters (PMJTCs), the effective power acting inside the heater of the PMJTC is calculated from the output signal of its thermocouples. Due to the underlying physical principles, this method not only allows the calculation of the rms value of sinusoidal signals but also the average power and absolute energy contained in non-sinusoidal, non-periodic and even non-stationary signals, as appearing in the characterization of energy harvesters.

  20. DC/DC Power Converter for Super-Capacitor Supplied by Electric Power Splitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haubert, T.; Mindl, P.

    The aim of the article is design of DC/DC converter and discussing of problematic supply using electric power splitter. The electric power splitter with AC/DC converter is source for the DC/DC converter, which is dedicated for charging and discharging of hybrid car drive super-capacitor energy storage. The electric power splitter is synchronous machine with two rotating parts. First rotor contains permanent magnet and the second rotor contains three-phase windings. The amplitude of output voltage depends on difference between first and second rotor speed. The main role of the DC/DC converter is to optimize energy content in super-capacitor storage used to acceleration and deceleration driving period of the passenger car with hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) drive system using electric power splitter.

  1. Fracture size and transmissivity correlations: Implications for transport simulations in sparse three-dimensional discrete fracture networks following a truncated power law distribution of fracture size

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hyman, Jeffrey De'Haven; Aldrich, Garrett Allen; Viswanathan, Hari S.; Makedonska, Nataliia; Karra, Satish

    2016-08-25

    We characterize how different fracture size-transmissivity relationships influence flow and transport simulations through sparse three-dimensional discrete fracture networks. Although it is generally accepted that there is a positive correlation between a fracture's size and its transmissivity/aperture, the functional form of that relationship remains a matter of debate. Relationships that assume perfect correlation, semicorrelation, and noncorrelation between the two have been proposed. To study the impact that adopting one of these relationships has on transport properties, we generate multiple sparse fracture networks composed of circular fractures whose radii follow a truncated power law distribution. The distribution of transmissivities are selected somore » that the mean transmissivity of the fracture networks are the same and the distributions of aperture and transmissivity in models that include a stochastic term are also the same. We observe that adopting a correlation between a fracture size and its transmissivity leads to earlier breakthrough times and higher effective permeability when compared to networks where no correlation is used. While fracture network geometry plays the principal role in determining where transport occurs within the network, the relationship between size and transmissivity controls the flow speed. Lastly, these observations indicate DFN modelers should be aware that breakthrough times and effective permeabilities can be strongly influenced by such a relationship in addition to fracture and network statistics.« less

  2. A novel approach to smart grid technology for electrical power transmission lines by a self-organized optical network node based on optical bistability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakanishi, Soichiro; Sasaki, Wakao

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we have demonstrated a new smart grid model by our novel green photonics technology based on selforganized optical networks realizing an autonomous peer-to-peer electric power transmissions without centralized control for the power grid. In this optical network, we introduced an adaptive algorithm for concurrent peer-to-peer communications, by utilizing optical nonlinearity depending only on the signal strength passing through the network. This method is applicable for autonomous organization of functions for ad-hoc electric power distribution systems for the power grid. For this purpose, a simple optical- electrical hybrid bistable circuit composed of such as light emitting diode (LED) and photo diode (PD), has been incorporated into the network node. In the experiment, the method uses a simple, local adaptation of transmission weights at each network node, which enables self-organizing functions of the network, such as self-routing, self-optimization, self-recovery and self-protection. Based on this method, we have demonstrated experimentally a new smart grid model applicable for ad-hoc electric power distribution systems mediated by power comsumptions. In this model, electric power flow is controlled autonomously through the self-organized network nodes associated with individual power facilities having photovoltaics and electric storage devices, etc., and the nodes convert the amounts of electric power supply and/or comsumption to the light intensity values using above mentioned transmission weights at each node. As a consequence, we have experimentally demonstrated a simple shorthaul system model for ad-hoc electric power distribution with a self-organized optical network as a novel green photonics technology application for smart grid.

  3. EV/PHEV Bidirectional Charger Assessment for V2G Reactive Power Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Kisacikoglu, Mithat C; Ozpineci, Burak; Tolbert, Leon M

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of the available single-phase ac-dc topologies used for EV/PHEV, level-1 and -2 on-board charging and for providing reactive power support to the utility grid. It presents the design motives of single-phase on-board chargers in detail and makes a classification of the chargers based on their future vehicle-to-grid usage. The pros and cons of each different ac-dc topology are discussed to shed light on their suitability for reactive power support. This paper also presents and analyzes the differences between charging-only operation and capacitive reactive power operation that results in increased demand from the dc-link capacitor (more charge/discharge cycles and increased second harmonic ripple current). Moreover, battery state of charge is spared from losses during reactive power operation, but converter output power must be limited below its rated power rating to have the same stress on the dc-link capacitor.

  4. Feasibility study of monitoring of plasma etching chamber conditions using superimposed high-frequency signals on rf power transmission line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasashima, Y.; Uesugi, F.

    2015-10-01

    An in situ monitoring system that can detect changes in the conditions of a plasma etching chamber has been developed. In the system, low-intensity high-frequency signals are superimposed on the rf power transmission line used for generating plasma. The system measures reflected high-frequency signals and detects the change in their frequency characteristics. The results indicate that the system detects the changes in the conditions in etching chambers caused by the changes in the electrode gap and the inner wall condition and demonstrate the effectiveness of the system. The system can easily be retrofitted to mass-production equipment and it can be used with or without plasma discharge. Therefore, our system is suitable for in situ monitoring of mass-production plasma etching chambers. The system is expected to contribute to development of predictive maintenance, which monitors films deposited on the inner wall of the chamber and prevents equipment faults caused by misalignment of chamber parts in mass-production equipment.

  5. Model Specification for Rework of Aircraft Engine, Power Transmission, and Accessory/Auxiliary Ball and Roller Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.; Branzai, Emanuel V.

    2007-01-01

    This document provides a model specification for the rework and/or repair of bearings used in aircraft engines, helicopter main power train transmissions, and auxiliary bearings determined to be critical by virtue of performance, function, or availability. The rolling-element bearings to be processed under the provisions of this model specification may be used bearings removed after service, unused bearings returned from the field, or certain rejected bearings returned for reinspection and salvage. In commercial and military aircraft application, it has been a practice that rolling-element bearings removed at maintenance or overhaul be reworked and returned to service. Depending on the extent of rework and based upon theoretical analysis, representative life factors (LF) for bearings subject to rework ranged from 0.87 to 0.99 the lives of new bearings. Based on bearing endurance data, 92 percent of the bearing sets that would be subject to rework would result in L(sub 10) lives equaling and/or exceeding that predicted for new bearings. The remaining 8 percent of the bearings have the potential to achieve the analytically predicted life of new bearings when one of the rings is replaced at rework. The potential savings from bearing rework varies from 53 to 82 percent of that of new bearings depending on the cost, size, and complexity of the bearing

  6. Transmission Cost Allocation Methodologies for Regional Transmission Organizations

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, S.; Rogers, J.; Porter, K.

    2010-07-01

    This report describes transmission cost allocation methodologies for transmission projects developed to maintain or enhance reliability, to interconnect new generators, or to access new resources and enhance competitive bulk power markets, otherwise known as economic transmission projects.

  7. Geared power transmission technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coy, J. J.

    1983-01-01

    The historical path of the science and art of gearing is reviewed. The present state of gearing technology is discussed along with examples of some of the NASA-sponsored contributions to gearing technology. Future requirements in gearing are summarized.

  8. Power transmission device

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, S.; Kishizawa, Y.; Kato, Y.

    1988-11-22

    This patent describes a multistage gear shifting device for a motor vehicle in which first speed to fourth speed gear trains and reverse gear trains are arranged between two shafts in an order such that a low speed gear train comes first, one gear of each gear train being able to engage with and disengage from one of the two shafts through a hydraulic clutch, the gear shifting device including a manual valve which has operating positions corresponding to first speed to fourth speed and reverse and which is adapted to selectively operate hydraulic clutches for the respective gear trains, the one gear of the fourth speed gear train and one gear of the reverse gear train being integrally formed with each other and loosely fitting on one of two shafts and detachably engaged with one of the two shafts through a common hydraulic clutch, the other gears of the fourth speed and reverse gear trains being loosely fitting on the other shaft, the multistage gear shifting device including a selector for selectively engaging the other gears of the fourth speed and reverse gear trains, an actuator for actuating the selector in response to the action of the manual valve, and a switching valve annexed to the actuator, the switching valve guiding hydraulic oil from the manual valve to the common hydraulic clutch when the manual valve is brought to an operating position corresponding to fourth speed or reverse and discharging the hydraulic oil in the common hydraulic clutch to a drain through the manual valve.

  9. Structure-property relationships in an Al matrix Ca nanofilamentary composite conductor with potential application in high-voltage power transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Liang

    This study investigated the processing-structure-properties relationships in an Al/Ca composites using both experiments and modeling/simulation. A particular focus of the project was understanding how the strength and electrical conductivity of the composite are related to its microstructure in the hope that a conducting material with light weight, high strength, and high electrical conductivity can be developed to produce overhead high-voltage power transmission cables. The current power transmission cables (e.g., Aluminum Conductor Steel Reinforced (ACSR)) have acceptable performance for high-voltage AC transmission, but are less well suited for high-voltage DC transmission due to the poorly conducting core materials that support the cable weight. This Al/Ca composite was produced by powder metallurgy and severe plastic deformation by extrusion and swaging. The fine Ca metal powders have been produced by centrifugal atomization with rotating liquid oil quench bath, and a detailed study about the atomization process and powder characteristics has been conducted. The microstructure of Al/Ca composite was characterized by electron microscopy. Microstructure changes at elevated temperature were characterized by thermal analysis and indirect resistivity tests. The strength and electrical conductivity were measured by tensile tests and four-point probe resistivity tests. Predicting the strength and electrical conductivity of the composite was done by micro-mechanics-based analytical modeling. Microstructure evolution was studied by mesoscale-thermodynamics-based phase field modeling and a preliminary atomistic molecular dynamics simulation. The application prospects of this composite was studied by an economic analysis. This study suggests that the Al/Ca (20 vol. %) composite shows promise for use as overhead power transmission cables. Further studies are needed to measure the corrosion resistance, fatigue properties and energized field performance of this composite.

  10. Power conditioning for low-voltage piezoelectric stack energy harvesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skow, E.; Leadenham, S.; Cunefare, K. A.; Erturk, A.

    2016-04-01

    Low-power vibration and acoustic energy harvesting scenarios typically require a storage component to be charged to enable wireless sensor networks, which necessitates power conditioning of the AC output. Piezoelectric beam-type bending mode energy harvesters or other devices that operate using a piezoelectric element at resonance produce high voltage levels, for which AC-DC converters and step-down DC-DC converters have been previously investigated. However, for piezoelectric stack energy harvesters operating off-resonance and producing low voltage outputs, a step-up circuit is required for power conditioning, such as seen in electromagnetic vibration energy scavengers, RF communications, and MEMS harvesters. This paper theoretically and experimentally investigates power conditioning of a low-voltage piezoelectric stack energy harvester.

  11. Consideration of the use of origami-style solar panels for use on a terrestrial/orbital wireless power generation and transmission spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, Alexander F.; Pearson, Jens; Lysford, Wilson; Straub, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents work on the development of Origami-style solar panels and their adaption and efficacy for use in Earth orbit. It focuses on the enabling capability of this technology for the generation and transmission of power. The proposed approach provides increased collection (solar panel) and transmission (microwave radiation) surface area, as compared to other systems with similar mass and volume. An overview of the system is presented, including its pre-deployment configuration, the deployment process and its final configuration. Its utility for wireless power transmission mission is then considered. An economic discussion is then presented to consider how the mass and volume efficiencies provided enable the system to approach target willingness-to-pay values that were presented and considered in prior work. A key consideration regarding the use of wireless power transfer in Earth orbit is the reliability of the technology. This has several different areas of consideration. It must reliably supply power to its customers (or they would have to have local generation capabilities sufficient for their needs, defeating the benefit of this system). It must also be shown to reliably supply power only to designated locations (and not inadvertently or otherwise beam power at other locations). The effect of the system design (including the Origami structure and deployment / rigidity mechanisms) is considered to assess whether the use of this technology may impair either of these key mission/safety-critical goals. This analysis is presented and a discussion of mitigation techniques to several prospective problems is presented, before concluding with a discussion of future work.

  12. Estimating electricity storage power rating and discharge duration for utility transmission and distribution deferral :a study for the DOE energy storage program.

    SciTech Connect

    Eyer, James M. (Distributed Utility Associates, Livermore, CA); Butler, Paul Charles; Iannucci, Joseph J., Jr.

    2005-11-01

    This report describes a methodology for estimating the power and energy capacities for electricity energy storage systems that can be used to defer costly upgrades to fully overloaded, or nearly overloaded, transmission and distribution (T&D) nodes. This ''sizing'' methodology may be used to estimate the amount of storage needed so that T&D upgrades may be deferred for one year. The same methodology can also be used to estimate the characteristics of storage needed for subsequent years of deferral.

  13. Earth to space dc to dc power transmission system utilizing a microwave beam as source of energy for electric propelled interorbital vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. C.

    1985-01-01

    The paper contributes to the credibility of an electric propelled interorbital transportation system by introducing a new low-mass source of continuous dc power for electric propulsion and illustrating how the source can be economically tied to an electric utility on earth by an electronically steered microwave beam. The new thin-film rectenna, which functions as the receiving end of an earth-to-space microwave power transmission system is described. It is easily fabricated, is over 80 percent efficient, has a specific mass of no more than 2 kilograms per kilowatt of continuous dc power output, and is well adapted for deployment in space. The paper then describes a complete system consisting of the interorbital vehicle and the microwave power transmission system that supplies it with power. A design scenario is used to obtain performance data from the system in terms of vehicle transfer times, payload fractions, and costs. Electric energy costs are found to be less than $1000 per kilogram of payload delivered to geosynchronous orbit from low-earth orbit.

  14. Study of multi-megawatt technology needs for photovoltaic space power systems, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, D. M.; Pleasant, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    Possible missions requiring multimegawatt photovoltaic space power systems in the 1990's time frame and power system technology needs associated with these missions are examined. Four specific task areas were considered: (1) missions requiring power in the 1-10 megawatt average power region; (2) alternative power systems and component technologies; (3) technology goals and sensitivity trades and analyses; and (4) technology recommendations. Specific concepts for photovoltaic power approaches considered were: planar arrays, concentrating arrays, hybrid systems using Rankine engines, thermophotovoltaic approaches; all with various photovoltaic cell component technologies. Various AC/DC power management approaches, and battery, fuel cell, and flywheel energy storage concepts are evaluated. Interactions with the electrical ion engine injection and stationkeeping system are also considered.

  15. Power Electronics for Distributed Energy Systems and Transmission and Distribution Applications: Assessing the Technical Needs for Utility Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Tolbert, L.M.

    2005-12-21

    Power electronics can provide utilities the ability to more effectively deliver power to their customers while providing increased reliability to the bulk power system. In general, power electronics is the process of using semiconductor switching devices to control and convert electrical power flow from one form to another to meet a specific need. These conversion techniques have revolutionized modern life by streamlining manufacturing processes, increasing product efficiencies, and increasing the quality of life by enhancing many modern conveniences such as computers, and they can help to improve the delivery of reliable power from utilities. This report summarizes the technical challenges associated with utilizing power electronics devices across the entire spectrum from applications to manufacturing and materials development, and it provides recommendations for research and development (R&D) needs for power electronics systems in which the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) could make a substantial impact toward improving the reliability of the bulk power system.

  16. Solar Power Satellite (SPS) pilot beam and communication link subsystem investigation study, phase 1. [ionospheric propagation, radio frequency interference, and microwave transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A preliminary engineering model of ionospheric interactions with the pilot beam was established and used to demonstrate that the dual frequency baseline pilot beam system might not be viable in the presence of an unstable transmission path. Alternate approaches to remove this difficulty are described. Although ionospheric fluctuations will not significantly degrade beam pointing or raise the sidelobe levels, they will reduce transmission efficiency by upwards of 25%. Mitigating strategies to substantially reduce this effect are proposed. Based on the Klystron noise spectrum, the pilot beam transmitter power was determined as a function of frequency offset from the power beam carrier frequency. The RFI from the pilot beam, on the ground and at geosynchronous orbit is shown. Noise levels on the earth's surface due to the SPS are presented as a function of frequency and the number of SPS systems. Analysis of the communication subsystem indicates that a standard telemetry line of 1.544 MB/s would satisfy both voice and data link requirements. Additional links would be required for TV and radio transmissions.

  17. Study of multi-megawatt technology needs for photovoltaic space power systems. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, D. M.; Pleasant, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    Possible missions requiring multimegawatt photovoltaic space power systems in the 1990's time frame and associated power system technology needs are examined. The following concepts for photovoltaic power approaches are considered: planar arrays, concentrating arrays, hybrid systems using Rankine engines, thermophotovoltaic and AC/DC power management approaches, battery, fuel cell, flywheel energy storage, and interactions with the electrical ion engine injection and stationkeeping system. The levels of modularity for efficient, safe, constructable, serviceable, and cost effective system design are analyzed, and the benefits of alternate approaches developed. Both manned low Earth orbit and unmanned geosynchronous Earth orbit applications were examined for technological development. Technology developments applicable to power systems which appear to have benefits independent of the absolute power level are suggested.

  18. Transmission Planning Analysis Tool

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-23

    Developed to solve specific problem: Assist transmission planning for regional transfers in interconnected power systems. This work was originated in a study for the U.S. Department of State, to recommend transmission reinforcements for the Central American regional system that interconnects 6 countries. Transmission planning analysis is currently performed by engineers with domainspecific and systemspecific knowledge without a unique methodology. The software codes of this disclosure assists engineers by defining systematic analysis procedures to help identify weak points and make decisions on transmission planning of regional interconnected power systems. Transmission Planning Analysis Tool groups PSS/E results of multiple AC contingency analysis and voltage stability analysis and QV analysis of many scenarios of study and arrange them in a systematic way to aid power system planning engineers or transmission operators in effective decision]making process or in the off]line study environment.

  19. Transmission Planning Analysis Tool

    2015-06-23

    Developed to solve specific problem: Assist transmission planning for regional transfers in interconnected power systems. This work was originated in a study for the U.S. Department of State, to recommend transmission reinforcements for the Central American regional system that interconnects 6 countries. Transmission planning analysis is currently performed by engineers with domainspecific and systemspecific knowledge without a unique methodology. The software codes of this disclosure assists engineers by defining systematic analysis procedures to help identifymore » weak points and make decisions on transmission planning of regional interconnected power systems. Transmission Planning Analysis Tool groups PSS/E results of multiple AC contingency analysis and voltage stability analysis and QV analysis of many scenarios of study and arrange them in a systematic way to aid power system planning engineers or transmission operators in effective decision]making process or in the off]line study environment.« less

  20. Techniques and equipment for detecting and locating incipient faults in underground power transmission cable systems. Technical progress report 2, 1 April 1979-30 June 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, A.C.; Naneviez, J.E.; Adamo, R.C.; Cole, C.A.; Honey, S.K.; Petro, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    The study has been divided into seven tasks: (1) development of RF probing techniques including experimental detector/locator units; (2) construction of a prototype detector/locator unit; (3) measurement of cable characteristics; (4) development of power-transmission-line signal couplers; (5) construction of a high-voltage (HV) source to augment experimental or prototype detector/locator units; (6) evaluation of the prototype detector/locator unit; and (7) study of technically effective and economical use of incipient-fault detector/locator units.

  1. Techniques and equipment for detecting and locating incipient faults in underground power transmission cable systems. Technical progress report 3, 1 July 1979-30 September 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, A.C.; Nanevicz, J.E.; Adamo, R.C.; Cole, C.A.; Honey, S.K.; Petro, J.P.

    1980-04-01

    The study is divided into seven tasks: (1) developing RF sounding techniques including experimental detector/locator units such as the HV crossmodulation sounder; (2) constructing a prototype swept-frequency cable sounder; (3) measuring cable characteristics; (4) developing power-transmission-line signal couplers; (5) constructing an HV source to augment experimental and prototype detector/locator units; (6) evaluating the prototype swept-frequency cable sounder; and (7) studying technically effective and economical use of incipient-fault detector/locator units.

  2. Hybrid2: The hybrid power system simulation model

    SciTech Connect

    Baring-Gould, E I; Green, H J; van Dijk, V A.P.; Manwell, J F

    1996-07-01

    There is a large-scale need and desire for energy in remote communities, especially in the developing world; however the lack of a user friendly, flexible performance prediction model for hybrid power systems incorporating renewables hindered the analysis of hybrids (including wind turbines, PV, diesel generators, AC/DC energy storage) as options to conventional solutions. A user friendly model was needed with the versatility to simulate the many system locations, widely varying hardware configurations, and differing control options for potential hybrid power systems. To meet these ends, NREL and U. Mass. researchers developed the Hybrid2 software. This paper provides an overview of the capabilities, features, and functionality of the Hybrid2 code, discusses its validation and future plans. Model availability and technical support provided to Hybrid2 users are also discussed.

  3. Theory of intense radio waves in an underdense ionosphere: application to solar power satellite transmissions. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, M V

    1980-11-01

    The instabilities in the F-region plasma are investigated that can be created by the passage of a solar power satellite beam (2.45 Ghz frequency, at a power flux of 23 mW/cm/sup 2/) at frequencies much higher than the cut-off plasma frequency of the ionosphere. The threshold geometry and frequency and intensity scaling laws are calculated for the thermal self-focusing instability, and its saturation level is estimated. The possibility is considered of scaled experiments at HF power to detect the thermal self-focusing instability for an underdense ionosphere. Other experimental possibilities are discussed in terms of the scaling laws. (LEW)

  4. A Line Weighted Frequency Droop Controller for Decentralized Enforcement of Transmission Line Power Flow Constraints in Inverter-Based Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Ainsworth, Nathan G; Grijalva, Prof. Santiago

    2013-01-01

    Recent works have shown that networks of voltagesource inverters implementing frequency droop control may be analyzed as consensus-like networks. Based on this understanding, we show that enforcement of network line power flows can be viewed as an edge-preservation problem in a -disk dynamic interaction graph. Inspired by other works solving similar problems in other domains, we propose a line weighted frequency droop controller such that a network of all active buses implementing this controller enforces the specified line power flow constraints without need for communication. We provide simulation results verifying that our proposed controller limits line power to enforce constraints, and otherwise acts as a traditional droop controller.

  5. From sunlight in space to 60 Hz on earth - The losses along the way. [satellite solar power transmission efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denman, O. S.

    1978-01-01

    The space-to-ground links for the Solar Power Satellite System are discussed in terms of worst, best, and nominal efficiency used in the development of the preliminary design. An uncertainty analysis of this design illustrates the effect of link efficiency on SPS size and mass. It is shown that a solar power satellite can deliver power to a ground-based utility for 4 to 5 cents per kWh, depending on the efficiency of the solar cells available in 1987. The overall efficiency of converting sunlight in space to electric power delivered to utilities ranged from 3.83% for the worst combination of efficiencies to 9.5% for the best, with a nominal efficiency of 7.12%.

  6. Iridium Short Burst Data: Two-Way, Robust, Reliable, Low Power Communications for Oceanographic Data Transmission Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roggenstein, E. B.; Hensley, W.

    2011-12-01

    Over the past two hundred years, water level observations in coastal areas have been used to help mariners navigate oceans and estuaries, cartographers develop nautical charts, government agencies regulate boundaries, and scientists gain a better understanding of various physical processes in the ocean. As technology has progressed the latency in providing these data to the user has been reduced. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS) provides near real-time oceanographic and meteorological data to support navigation, coastal managers, and storm surge and tsunami warning programs. CO-OPS maintains the National Water Level Observation Network (NWLON), a system of over 200 stations for the coastal United States, Great Lakes, Caribbean islands, and Pacific island territories. CO-OPS also supports the NOAA Physical Oceanographic Real Time Systems° (PORTS), which are currently operating in 21 US ports. With an expanding role in Arctic and Alaska support, CO-OPS has identified a need for a robust and reliable data communications pathway to supplement the existing Geostationary Operational Environmental Systems (GOES) network, which has limitations at high latitudes. Iridium satellite Short Burst Data (SBD) services offer a global coverage, including remote Arctic regions outside of GOES coverage. Previous testing conducted by CO-OPS has shown a great potential for the SBD service including continuous near-real-time 6 minute data transmissions from two CO-OPS test water level stations located in Guam, with >99.9% data return. Also, successful transmissions of hourly wave statistics were demonstrated with a with a test system that employed a Nortek Acoustic Wave and Current (AWAC) instrument in Chesapeake Bay were accomplished. Data transmissions involved a buoy-mounted SIM-less SBD modem. Independent of location, data can be transmitted from a remote instrument platform to Iridium

  7. Did Geomagnetic Activity Challenge Electric Power Reliability During Solar Cycle 23? Evidence from the PJM Regional Transmission Organization in North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forbes, Kevin F.; Cyr, Chris St

    2012-01-01

    During solar cycle 22, a very intense geomagnetic storm on 13 March 1989 contributed to the collapse of the Hydro-Quebec power system in Canada. This event clearly demonstrated that geomagnetic storms have the potential to lead to blackouts. This paper addresses whether geomagnetic activity challenged power system reliability during solar cycle 23. Operations by PJM Interconnection, LLC (hereafter PJM), a regional transmission organization in North America, are examined over the period 1 April 2002 through 30 April 2004. During this time PJM coordinated the movement of wholesale electricity in all or parts of Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia, and the District of Columbia in the United States. We examine the relationship between a proxy of geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) and a metric of challenged reliability. In this study, GICs are proxied using magnetometer data from a geomagnetic observatory located just outside the PJM control area. The metric of challenged reliability is the incidence of out-of-economic-merit order dispatching due to adverse reactive power conditions. The statistical methods employed make it possible to disentangle the effects of GICs on power system operations from purely terrestrial factors. The results of the analysis indicate that geomagnetic activity can significantly increase the likelihood that the system operator will dispatch generating units based on system stability considerations rather than economic merit.

  8. Characterization of the resolving power and contrast transfer function of a transmission X-ray microscope with partially coherent illumination.

    PubMed

    Rehbein, Stefan; Guttmann, Peter; Werner, Stephan; Schneider, Gerd

    2012-03-12

    The achievable spatial resolution and the contrast transfer function (CTF) are key parameters characterizing an X-ray microscope. We measured the spatial resolution and the contrast transfer function of the transmission X-ray microscope (TXM) at the electron storage ring BESSY II. The TXM uses the radiation of an undulator source and operates under partially coherent illumination conditions. For spatial resolutions down to 25 nm, our measurements of the CTF's are in good agreement with theoretical CTF data for partial coherence. With higher resolution zone plate objectives, we measured a spatial resolution (half-pitch) of 11 nm in 1st and 3rd order of diffraction. However, with these objectives the stray light level increases significantly. PMID:22418460

  9. Electrifying the disk: a modular rotating platform for wireless power and data transmission for Lab on a disk application.

    PubMed

    Höfflin, Jens; Torres Delgado, Saraí M; Suárez Sandoval, Fralett; Korvink, Jan G; Mager, Dario

    2015-06-21

    We present a design for wireless power transfer, via inductively coupled coils, to a spinning disk. The rectified and stabilised power feeds an Arduino-compatible microcontroller (μC) on the disc, which in turn drives and monitors various sensors and actuators. The platform, which has been conceived to flexibly prototype such systems, demonstrates the feasibility of a wireless power supply and the use of a μC circuit, for example for Lab-on-a-disk applications, thereby eliminating the need for cumbersome slip rings or batteries, and adding a cogent and new degree of freedom to the setup. The large number of sensors and actuators included demonstrate that a wide range of physical parameters can be easily monitored and altered. All devices are connected to the μC via an I(2)C bus, therefore can be easily exchanged or augmented by other devices in order to perform a specific task on the disk. The wireless power supply takes up little additional physical space and should work in conjunction with most existing Lab-on-a-disk platforms as a straightforward add-on, since it does not require modification of the rotation axis and can be readily adapted to specific geometrical requirements. PMID:25968976

  10. Electronic and mechanical improvement of the receiving terminal of a free-space microwave power transmission system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. C.

    1977-01-01

    Significant advancements were made in a number of areas: improved efficiency of basic receiving element at low power density levels, improved resolution and confidence in efficiency measurements mathematical modelling and computer simulation of the receiving element and the design, construction, and testing of an environmentally protected two-plane construction suitable for low cost, highly automated construction of large receiving arrays.

  11. 77 FR 26686 - Transmission Planning Reliability Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 40 Transmission Planning Reliability Standards AGENCY: Federal... Act, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission remands proposed Transmission Planning (TPL) Reliability... section 215(d) of the Federal Power Act,\\1\\ the Commission remands proposed Transmission Planning...

  12. Longitudinal variations of very-low-frequency chorus activity in the magnetosphere - Evidence of excitation by electrical power transmission lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luette, J. P.; Park, C. G.; Helliwell, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    The distribution of VLF chorus in the high-altitude magnetosphere as detected by the Ogo 3 satellite was investigated. Chorus occurrence frequency over 4,668 samples of 5 min of broadband data was computed for Northern Hemisphere bins of 10 deg by 10 deg in dipole invariant latitude and longitude. Peaks in activity were noted over Alaska, the eastern U.S. and Canada, western Europe, and western Siberia, and were shown not to be the result of biased sampling. It is suggested that power line radiation of only about 1 W or less at a given harmonic frequency may be sufficient to stimulate the observed chorus activity and that such power levels can be expected in industrial areas or from large distribution networks. Preliminary results show that chorus starting frequencies are highly correlated with 60 Hz harmonics in the American sector and with 50 Hz harmonics in the European sector.

  13. Analysis and Control of Vibrational Power Transmission to Machinery Supporting Structures Subjected to a Multi-Excitation System, Part Iii: Vibrational Power Cancellation and Control Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koh, Y. K.; White, R. G.

    1996-10-01

    The study of time-averaged vibrational power input to flexible beams and rectangular plates subjected to co-located simultaneously sinusoidal force and moment excitations has resulted in various potential vibration control schemes, both active and passive approaches, based on minimization of the resultant vibrational power input to the structures. The theory and analytical results have been presented in the two companion papers. In this paper the experimental arrangements for verification of the theoretical predictions are described. The optimal moment arm concept for the vibration levels by using combined force and moment excitations is validated on beams and rectangular plates experimentally. It is also demonstrated that by using a set of force and moment seating devices with predetermined moment arms, the vibrational response around the fundamental resonance frequency of a supporting rectangular plate caused by unbalance motor excitations can be reduced.

  14. Automated manual transmission controller

    DOEpatents

    Lawrie, Robert E.; Reed, Jr., Richard G.; Bernier, David R.

    1999-12-28

    A powertrain system for a hybrid vehicle. The hybrid vehicle includes a heat engine, such as a diesel engine, and an electric machine, which operates as both an electric motor and an alternator, to power the vehicle. The hybrid vehicle also includes a manual-style transmission configured to operate as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver. The engine and the electric machine drive an input shaft which in turn drives an output shaft of the transmission. In addition to driving the transmission, the electric machine regulates the speed of the input shaft in order to synchronize the input shaft during either an upshift or downshift of the transmission by either decreasing or increasing the speed of the input shaft. When decreasing the speed of the input shaft, the electric motor functions as an alternator to produce electrical energy which may be stored by a storage device. Operation of the transmission is controlled by a transmission controller which receives input signals and generates output signals to control shift and clutch motors to effect smooth launch, upshift shifts, and downshifts of the transmission, so that the transmission functions substantially as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver, while internally substantially functioning as a manual transmission.

  15. Measurement of the Electron Bernstein Wave Emission with One of the Power Transmission Lines for ECH in LHD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiroe, Igami; Hiroshi, Idei; Shin, Kubo; Yasuo, Yoshimura; Takashi, Shimozuma; Hiromi, Takahashi

    2011-08-01

    Possibility of the measurement of radiated waves derived from the thermally emitted electron Bernstein wave (EBW) is numerically investigated based on the assumption of the super dense core (SDC) plasma generated in LHD. EBW that is thermally emitted in the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) layer may couple with the electromagnetic wave and be emitted to the vacuum via the EBW-extraordinary-ordinary (B-X-O) mode conversion process. We consider the use of one of the transmission lines for electron cyclotron heating (ECH) in LHD as a receiving system of the emission. It is derived that the waves in the fundamental cyclotron frequency range are emitted as the EBW near their upper hybrid resonance (UHR) layer outside the last close flux surface (LCFS). On the other hand, waves in the second harmonics cyclotron frequency range are emitted in the core region. It means that successful measurement of waves of the second harmonic frequency range emitted from extremely high dense core plasma with setting an aim angle for receiving indicates a possibility of the second harmonic ECH by EBW in the core region with setting the same aim angle and the same polarization for launching.

  16. Free-piston Stirling Engine system considerations for various space power applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dochat, George R.; Dhar, Manmohan

    1991-01-01

    Free-Piston Stirling Engines (FPSE) have the potential to provide high reliability, long life, and efficient operation. Therefore, they are excellent candidates for the dynamic power conversion module of a space-based, power-generating system. FPSE can be coupled with many potential heat sources (radioisotope, solar, or nuclear reactor), various heat input systems (pumped loop, heat pipe), heat rejection (pumped loop or heat pipe), and various power management and distribution systems (ac, dc, high or low voltage, and fixed or variable load). This paper reviews potential space missions that can be met using free-piston Stirling engines and discusses options of various system integration approaches. This paper briefly outlines the program and recent progress.

  17. Study of the EAST Fast Control Power Supply Based on Carrier Phase-Shift PWM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hui; Tang, Ke; Gao, Ge; Fu, Peng; Huang, Haihong; Dong, Lin

    2013-09-01

    EAST (experimental advanced superconducting tokamak) fast control power supply is a high-capacity single-phase AC/DC/AC inverter power supply, which traces the displacement signal of plasma, and excites coils in a vacuum vessel to produce a magnetic field that realizes plasma stabilization. To meet the requirements of a large current and fast response, the multiple structure of the carrier phase-shift three-level inverter is presented, which realizes parallelled multi-inverters, raises the equivalent switching frequency of the inverters and improves the performance of output waves. In this work the design scheme is analyzed, and the output harmonic characteristic of parallel inverters is studied. The simulation and experimental results confirm that the scheme and control strategy is valid. The power supply system can supply a large current, and has a perfect performance on harmonic features as well as the ability of a fast response.

  18. Transmission electron microscopy characterization of Au/Pt/Ti/Pt/GaAs ohmic contacts for high power GaAs/InGaAs semiconductor lasers.

    PubMed

    Łaszcz, A; Czerwinski, A; Ratajczak, J; Szerling, A; Phillipp, F; Van Aken, P A; Katcki, J

    2010-03-01

    We report on transmission electron microscopy studies of Au/Pt/Ti/Pt(10-30 nm) contact structures for high power GaAs/InGaAs semiconductor lasers. The studies showed that annealing at 450 degrees C of contact structures causes the reaction of whole Pt with substrate components (Ga and As) and the formation of Pt-GaAs interlayers with smooth interfaces as required for such structures. Annealing of the structures at 470 and 490 degrees C unfavourably affects the contact structure. At this condition, the strong downward diffusion of Au and Pt from the top layers causes a formation of Au-Pt pits, which break the Ti barrier. Transmission electron microscopy observation revealed that Au/Pt/Ti/Pt(10-30 nm) system annealed at 450 degrees C is appropriate for practical applications. The EDS technique used to identify the phase composition in the Pt(30 nm)/GaAs structure (specially produced for the EDS analysis) annealed at 450 degrees C showed that two layers were formed as a result of the reaction of the whole Pt layer with GaAs, and they consist of Ga, Pt and As. The top layer has the highest concentration of Ga. However, the bottom layer, which is close to the substrate, has the highest concentration of As.

  19. Time and frequency transfer by the Master-Slave Returnable Timing System technique - Application to solar power transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsey, W. C.; Kantak, A. V.

    1979-01-01

    The concept of the Master Slave Returnable Timing System (MSRTS) is presented which combines the advantages of the master slave (MS) and the Returnable Timing System (RTS) for time and frequency transfer. The basic idea of MSRTS is to send the time-frequency signal received at a particular node back to the sending node. The delay accumulated by this return signal is used to advance the phase of the master (sending) node thereby canceling the effect of the delay introduced by the path. The method can be used in highly accurate clock distribution systems required in avionics, computer communications, and large retrodirective phased arrays such as the Solar Power Satellite.

  20. A Fully Implantable Stimulator With Wireless Power and Data Transmission for Experimental Investigation of Epidural Spinal Cord Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qi; Hu, Dingyin; Duan, Bingyu; He, Jiping

    2015-07-01

    Epidural spinal cord stimulation (ESCS) combined with partial weight-bearing therapy (PWBT) has been shown to facilitate recovery of functional walking for individuals after spinal cord injury (SCI). The investigation of neural mechanisms of recovery from SCI under this treatment has been conducted broadly in rodent models, yet a suitable ESCS system is still unavailable. This paper describes a practical, programmable, and fully implantable stimulator for laboratory research on rats to explore fundamental neurophysiological principles for functional recovery after SCI. The ESCS system is composed of a personal digital assistant (PDA), an external controller, an implantable pulse generator (IPG), lead extension, and stimulating electrodes. The stimulation parameters can be programmed and adjusted through a graphical user interface on the PDA. The external controller is placed on the rat back and communicates with the PDA via radio-frequency (RF) telemetry. An RF carrier from the class-E power amplifier in the external controller provides both data and power for the IPG through an inductive link. The IPG is built around a microcontroller unit to generate voltage-regulated pulses delivered to the bipolar electrode for ESCS in rats. The encapsulated IPG measures 22 mm × 23 mm × 7 mm with a mass of  ∼  3.78 g. This fully implantable batteryless stimulator provided a simplified and efficient method to carry out chronic experiments in untethered animals for medical electro-neurological research. PMID:25680207

  1. Transmission policy proposals and the keystone transmission project

    SciTech Connect

    Edelston, B.S. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the use of the nation's electric transmission systems, not only for the purposes of maintaining reliability, but also for reducing costs of power supply by moving power from low-cost areas of generation to higher-cost areas. The push for increased use of the transmission system has essentially come from two constituency groups - wholesale purchasers of electricity who do not own sufficient transmission themselves to import power, and non-utility generators of power (or NUGs, as they have come to be known) who wish to use the transmission system to sell power from their generation projects to remote utility purchasers. There has been some advocacy for allowing individual retail customers to access transmission to buy power from other than their local utility, but that movement has gained little ground.

  2. High-power microwave transmission and mode conversion program. Progress report, June 15, 1993--June 15, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Vernon, R.J.; Lorbeck, J.A.

    1994-06-01

    This report briefly discusses the following topics: (1) Quasi-optical converter design for Varian gyrotron SN 4.1; (2) Quasi-optical converter cold-test measurement; (3) Modification of geometrical-optics synthesized surfaces; (4)Diffraction synthesis; (5) Tapered dimpled launcher; (6) Work on Vlasov converter system for Varian gyrotron SN 4.1R; (7) Analysis of gyrotron spurious modes; (8) MIT code benchmarking; (9) Development of low-power efficiency test for Vlasov converters; (10) Investigation of optimal beam waist size and mode content for injection into a circular and rectangular corrugated waveguides; (11) The effect of corrugations on reduction of the fields at the wall of waveguides; (12) Shipping of a microwave scanner to Varian and further microwave scanner development; and (13) Code transferred to Varian.

  3. High-field actively detuneable transverse electromagnetic (TEM) coil with low-bias voltage for high-power RF transmission.

    PubMed

    Avdievich, Nikolai I; Bradshaw, Ken; Kuznetsov, Andrey M; Hetherington, Hoby P

    2007-06-01

    The design and construction of a 4T (170 MHz) transverse electromagnetic (TEM) actively detuneable quadrature head coil is described. Conventional schemes for active detuning require high negative bias voltages (>300 V) to prevent leakage of RF pulses with amplitudes of 1-2 kW. To extend the power handling capacity and avoid the use of high DC bias voltages, we developed an alternate method of detuning the volume coil. In this method the PIN diodes in the detuning circuits are shorted when the RF volume coil is tuned, and negatively biased with -12 V when the coil is detuned. To preserve the high Q(U)/Q(L) ratio of the TEM coil, we modified the method of Nabetani and Watkins (Proceedings of the 13th Annual Meeting of ISMRM, Kyoto, Japan, 2004, abstract 1574) by utilizing a high-impedance (approximately 200 Omega), lumped-element, quarter-wavelength transformer. A Q(U) of 500 was achieved for the detuneable TEM, such that incorporation of the detuning network had minimal effect (<1 dB) on the performance of the coil in vivo. PMID:17534919

  4. A fully implantable stimulator with wireless power and data transmission for experimental use in epidural spinal cord stimulation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qi; Li, Jun; Han, Wenjuan; Zhou, Houlun

    2011-01-01

    Epidural spinal cord stimulation (ESCS) combined with partial weight bearing therapy (PWBT) has been reported to facilitate recovery of functional walking for individuals after chronic incomplete spinal cord injury. This paper describes a low cost, fully implantable, advanced ESCS stimulator that can be manufactured in a research laboratory for use in small animals. The system is composed of four main parts: an external personal digital assistant (PDA), an external controller, an implantable pulse generator (IPG), lead extension and electrode. The PDA allows the experimenter to program the stimulation parameters through a user-friendly graphical interface. The external controller placed on the rat back communicates with PDA via RF telemetry. The IPG generates the biphasic charge-balanced voltage-regulated pulses, which are delivered to the bipolar electrode by the lead extension to achieve chronic ESCS in freely moving rats. A RF carrier from the Class-E amplifier in the external controller provides both data and power for the implanted circuitry through a closely coupled inductive link. The IPG is hermetically packaged using a silicon elastomer and measures 22 mm × 23 mm × 7 mm with a mass of ~3.78 g.

  5. A fully implantable stimulator with wireless power and data transmission for experimental use in epidural spinal cord stimulation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qi; Li, Jun; Han, Wenjuan; Zhou, Houlun

    2011-01-01

    Epidural spinal cord stimulation (ESCS) combined with partial weight bearing therapy (PWBT) has been reported to facilitate recovery of functional walking for individuals after chronic incomplete spinal cord injury. This paper describes a low cost, fully implantable, advanced ESCS stimulator that can be manufactured in a research laboratory for use in small animals. The system is composed of four main parts: an external personal digital assistant (PDA), an external controller, an implantable pulse generator (IPG), lead extension and electrode. The PDA allows the experimenter to program the stimulation parameters through a user-friendly graphical interface. The external controller placed on the rat back communicates with PDA via RF telemetry. The IPG generates the biphasic charge-balanced voltage-regulated pulses, which are delivered to the bipolar electrode by the lead extension to achieve chronic ESCS in freely moving rats. A RF carrier from the Class-E amplifier in the external controller provides both data and power for the implanted circuitry through a closely coupled inductive link. The IPG is hermetically packaged using a silicon elastomer and measures 22 mm × 23 mm × 7 mm with a mass of ~3.78 g. PMID:22256007

  6. Shingles Transmission

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Shingles Immunization Action Coalition Chickenpox Q&As Transmission Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Prevention & Treatment Related Pages Preventing Varicella Zoster Virus Transmission in Healthcare Settings Related Links Medline Plus NIH ...

  7. Analysis and design of sliding mode controller gains for boost power factor corrector.

    PubMed

    Kessal, Abdelhalim; Rahmani, Lazhar

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents a systematic procedure to compute the gains of sliding mode controller based on an optimization scheme. This controller is oriented to drive an AC-DC converter operating in continuous mode with power factor near unity, and in order to improve static and dynamic performances with large variations of reference voltage and load. This study shows the great influence of the controller gains on the global performances of the system. Hence, a methodology for choosing the gains is detailed. The sliding surface used in this study contains two state variables, input current and output voltage; the advantage of this surface is getting reactions against various disturbances-at the power source, the reference of the output, or the value of the load. The controller is experimentally confirmed for steady-state performance and transient response. PMID:23735439

  8. Analysis and design of sliding mode controller gains for boost power factor corrector.

    PubMed

    Kessal, Abdelhalim; Rahmani, Lazhar

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents a systematic procedure to compute the gains of sliding mode controller based on an optimization scheme. This controller is oriented to drive an AC-DC converter operating in continuous mode with power factor near unity, and in order to improve static and dynamic performances with large variations of reference voltage and load. This study shows the great influence of the controller gains on the global performances of the system. Hence, a methodology for choosing the gains is detailed. The sliding surface used in this study contains two state variables, input current and output voltage; the advantage of this surface is getting reactions against various disturbances-at the power source, the reference of the output, or the value of the load. The controller is experimentally confirmed for steady-state performance and transient response.

  9. Laser transmission welding of Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) using a tailored high power diode-laser optical fiber coupled system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Vidal, E.; Quintana, I.; Etxarri, J.; Otaduy, D.; González, F.; Moreno, F.

    2012-06-01

    Laser transmission welding (LTW) of polymers is a direct bonding technique which is already used in different industrial applications sectors such as automobile, microfluidic, electronic and biomedicine. This technique offers several advantages over conventional methods, especially when a local deposition of energy and minimum thermal distortions are required. In LTW one of the polymeric materials needs to be transparent to the laser wavelength and the second part needs to be designed to be absorbed in IR spectrum. This report presents a study of laser weldability of ABS (acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene) filled with two different concentrations of carbon nanotubes (0.01% and 0.05% CNTs). These additives are used as infrared absorbing components in the laser welding process, affecting the thermal and optical properties of the material and, hence, the final quality of the weld seam. A tailored laser system has been designed to obtain high quality weld seams with widths between 0.4 and 1.0mm. It consists of two diode laser bars (50W per bar) coupled into an optical fiber using a non-imaging solution: equalization of the beam quality factor (M2) in the slow and fast axes by a pair of micro step-mirrors. The beam quality factor has been analyzed at different laser powers with the aim to guarantee a coupling efficiency to the multimode optical fiber. The power scaling is carried out by means of multiplexing polarization technique. The analysis of energy balance and beam quality is performed in two linked steps: first by means ray tracing simulations (ZEMAX®) and second, by validation. Quality of the weld seams is analyzed in terms of the process parameters (welding speed, laser power and clamping pressure) by visual and optical microscope inspections. The optimum laser power range for three different welding speeds is determinate meanwhile the clamping pressure is held constant. Additionally, the corresponding mechanical shear tests were carried out to analyze the

  10. Multistate differential transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Whalen, B.

    1987-09-01

    A multistate transmission is described having an input shaft and an output shaft comprising: a. planetary gear train means having a ring gear, planetary gears with planetary gear carrier, and a sun gear, the planetary gear train means connected to the output shaft; b. first bypass means connecting the input shaft to the planetary gear train means; c. differential transmission means for receiving its input from the input shaft and having means to adjust the torque and speed output infinitely variable over its range of operation for each state of the transmission; d. power return means for receiving the output of the differential transmission means; e. means including clutch operated speed reversing means for interconnecting the sun gear in the planetary gear train means with the power return means; f. the power return means including a first gear to receive the output of the differential transmission means; g. first multispeed transmission means connecting the means for supporting the carrier shaft to the first bypass means.

  11. Hydromechanical transmission

    DOEpatents

    Orshansky, Jr. deceased, Elias; Weseloh, William E.

    1978-01-01

    A power transmission having three planetary assemblies, each having its own carrier and its own planet, sun, and ring gears. A speed-varying module is connected in driving relation to the input shaft and in driving relationship to the three sun gears, all of which are connected together. The speed-varying means may comprise a pair of hydraulic units hydraulically interconnected so that one serves as a pump while the other serves as a motor and vice versa, one of the units having a variable stroke and being connected in driving relation to the input shaft, the other unit, which may have a fixed stroke, being connected in driving relation to the sun gears. The input shaft also drives the carrier of the third planetary assembly. A brake grounds the first carrier in the first range and in reverse and causes drive to be delivered to the output through the first ring gear in a hydrostatic mode. The carrier of the third planetary assembly drives the ring gear of the second planetary assembly, and a first clutching means connects the second carrier with the output in a second range, the brake for grounding the first carrier then being released. A second clutching means enables the third ring gear to drive the output shaft in a third range.

  12. Determination of surface resistance and magnetic penetration depth of superconducting YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) thin films by microwave power transmission measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhasin, K. B.; Warner, J. D.; Miranda, F. A.; Gordon, W. L.; Newman, H. S.

    1991-01-01

    A novel waveguide power transmission measurement technique was developed to extract the complex conductivity of superconducting thin films at microwave frequencies. The microwave conductivity was taken of two laser ablated YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) thin films on LaAlO3 with transition temperatures of approximately 86.3 and 82 K, respectively, in the temperature range 25 to 300 K. From the conductivity values, the penetration depth was found to be approximately 0.54 and 0.43 micron, and the surface resistance (R sub s) to be approximately 24 and 36 micro-Ohms at 36 GHz and 76 K for the two films under consideration. The R sub s values were compared with those obtained from the change in the Q-factor of a 36 GHz Te sub 011-mode (OFHC) copper cavity by replacing one of its end walls with the superconducting sample. This technique allows noninvasive characterization of high transition superconducting thin films at microwave frequencies.

  13. A 0.18 μm CMOS low-power radiation sensor for asynchronous event-driven UWB wireless transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastianini, S.; Crepaldi, M.; Demarchi, D.; Gabrielli, A.; Lolli, M.; Margotti, A.; Villani, G.; Zhang, Z.; Zoccoli, G.

    2013-12-01

    The paper describes the design of a readout element, proposed as a radiation monitor, which implements an embedded sensor based on a floating-gate transistor. The paper shows the design of a microelectronic circuit composed of a sensor, an oscillator, a modulator, a transmitter and an integrated antenna. A prototype chip has recently been fabricated and tested exploiting a commercial 180 nm, four metal CMOS technology. Simulation results of the entire behavior of the circuit before submission are presented along with some measurements of the actual chip response. In addition, preliminary tests of the performance of the Ultra-Wide Band transmission via the integrated antenna are summarized. As the complete chip prototype area is less than 1 mm2, the chip fits a large variety of applications, from spot radiation monitoring systems in medicine to punctual measurements of radiation level in High-Energy Physics experiments. A sensitivity of 1 mV/rad was estimated within an absorbed dose range up to 10 krad and a total power consumption of about 165 μW.

  14. Determination of surface resistance and magnetic penetration depth of superconducting YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) thin films by microwave power transmission measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhasin, K. B.; Warner, J. D.; Miranda, F. A.; Gordon, W. L.; Newman, H. S.

    1990-01-01

    A novel waveguide power transmission measurement technique was developed to extract the complex conductivity of superconducting thin films at microwave frequencies. The microwave conductivity was taken of two laser ablated YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) thin films on LaAlO3 with transition temperatures of approx. 86.3 and 82 K, respectively, in the temperature range 25 to 300 K. From the conductivity values, the penetration depth was found to be approx. 0.54 and 0.43 micron, and the surface resistance (R sub s) to be approx. 24 and 36 micro-Ohms at 36 GHz and 76 K for the two films under consideration. The R sub s values were compared with those obtained from the change in the Q-factor of a 36 GHz Te sub 011-mode (OFHC) copper cavity by replacing one of its end walls with the superconducting sample. This technique allows noninvasive characterization of high transition temperature superconducting thin films at microwave frequencies.

  15. Description of a 20 kilohertz power distribution system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, I. G.

    1986-01-01

    A single phase, 440 VRMS, 20 kHz power distribution system with a regulated sinusoidal wave form is discussed. A single phase power system minimizes the wiring, sensing, and control complexities required in a multi-sourced redundantly distributed power system. The single phase addresses only the distribution links multiphase lower frequency inputs and outputs accommodation techniques are described. While the 440 V operating potential was initially selected for aircraft operating below 50,000 ft, this potential also appears suitable for space power systems. This voltage choice recognizes a reasonable upper limit for semiconductor ratings, yet will direct synthesis of 220 V, 3 power. A 20 kHz operating frequency was selected to be above the range of audibility, minimize the weight of reactive components, yet allow the construction of single power stages of 25 to 30 kW. The regulated sinusoidal distribution system has several advantages. With a regulated voltage, most ac/dc conversions involve rather simple transformer rectifier applications. A sinusoidal distribution system, when used in conjunction with zero crossing switching, represents a minimal source of EMI. The present state of 20 kHz power technology includes computer controls of voltage and/or frequency, low inductance cable, current limiting circuit protection, bi-directional power flow, and motor/generator operating using standard induction machines. A status update and description of each of these items and their significance is presented.

  16. Description of a 20 Kilohertz power distribution system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, I. G.

    1986-01-01

    A single phase, 440 VRMS, 20 kHz power distribution system with a regulated sinusoidal wave form is discussed. A single phase power system minimizes the wiring, sensing, and control complexities required in a multi-sourced redundantly distributed power system. The single phase addresses only the distribution link; mulitphase lower frequency inputs and outputs accommodation techniques are described. While the 440 V operating potential was initially selected for aircraft operating below 50,000 ft, this potential also appears suitable for space power systems. This voltage choice recognizes a reasonable upper limit for semiconductor ratings, yet will direct synthesis of 220 V, 3 power. A 20 kHz operating frequency was selected to be above the range of audibility, minimize the weight of reactive components, yet allow the construction of single power stages of 25 to 30 kW. The regulated sinusoidal distribution system has several advantages. With a regulated voltage, most ac/dc conversions involve rather simple transformer rectifier applications. A sinusoidal distribution system, when used in conjunction with zero crossing switching, represents a minimal source of EMI. The present state of 20 kHz power technology includes computer controls of voltage and/or frequency, low inductance cable, current limiting circuit protection, bi-directional power flow, and motor/generator operating using standard induction machines. A status update and description of each of these items and their significance is presented.

  17. Facsimile transmissions.

    PubMed

    Grant, A E

    1996-04-01

    Some provincial regulators of nursing are setting out professional standards for the use of facsimile transmissions. While the facsimile machine is a tool that can improve client care through the timely, accurate transmission of vital information, nurses should recognize the potential hazards. Clear policies and procedures for the usage and management of facsimile transmissions are necessary to ensure that legal and professional standards are met.

  18. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT II, MECHANICAL TRANSMISSIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF MECHANICAL TRANSMISSIONS USED ON DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE (1) PURPOSE OF TRANSMISSIONS, (2) RATIO DIFFERENCE, (3) CONSTANT MESH TRANSMISSIONS, (4) FOUR-SPEED TRUCK TRANSMISSION POWER FLOW, AND (5) TRANSMISSION TROUBLESHOOTING.…

  19. Design and experiment of wireless power transfer systems via electromagnetic field near-zone region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wensong; Chen, Yinchao; Yang, Shuhui; Chan, Allan; Wang, Yi; Cao, Qunsheng

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents the fundamental principle, circuit implementation and measurement of wireless power transfer (WPT) technology through both Colpitts and Hartley oscillation prototype circuits. The Colpitts and Hartley oscillation prototypes are used to convert DC voltages into AC ones. Meanwhile, both half- and full-wave rectification circuits are designed correspondingly for AC/DC voltage conversion. In addition, the orientation and distance effects between the transmitting and receiving coils are investigated. The self-inductance, mutual-inductance and coupling coefficient for the coupled inductors are extracted as a function of distance and frequency by using an equivalent T-circuit network and a derived Z-parameter matrix. The proposed WPT systems operate at around 3.6 MHz and the transferred voltage is measured at the WPT receiving terminal. The measured results indicate that the two proposed WPT systems can operate properly for potential short-distance applications.

  20. Design and real time implementation of single phase boost power factor correction converter.

    PubMed

    Bouafassa, Amar; Rahmani, Lazhar; Mekhilef, Saad

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a real time implementation of the single-phase power factor correction (PFC) AC-DC boost converter. A combination of higher order sliding mode controller based on super twisting algorithm and predictive control techniques are implemented to improve the performance of the boost converter. Due to the chattering effects, the higher order sliding mode control (HOSMC) is designed. Also, the predictive technique is modified taking into account the large computational delays. The robustness of the controller is verified conducting simulation in MATLAB, the results show good performances in both steady and transient states. An experiment is conducted through a test bench based on dSPACE 1104. The experimental results proved that the proposed controller enhanced the performance of the converter under different parameters variations.