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Sample records for ac-drive applications volume

  1. Evaluation of semiconductor devices for Electric and Hybrid Vehicle (EHV) ac-drive applications, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, F. C.; Chen, D. Y.; Jovanovic, M.; Hopkins, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    The results of evaluation of power semiconductor devices for electric hybrid vehicle ac drive applications are summarized. Three types of power devices are evaluated in the effort: high power bipolar or Darlington transistors, power MOSFETs, and asymmetric silicon control rectifiers (ASCR). The Bipolar transistors, including discrete device and Darlington devices, range from 100 A to 400 A and from 400 V to 900 V. These devices are currently used as key switching elements inverters for ac motor drive applications. Power MOSFETs, on the other hand, are much smaller in current rating. For the 400 V device, the current rating is limited to 25 A. For the main drive of an electric vehicle, device paralleling is normally needed to achieve practical power level. For other electric vehicle (EV) related applications such as battery charger circuit, however, MOSFET is advantageous to other devices because of drive circuit simplicity and high frequency capability. Asymmetrical SCR is basically a SCR device and needs commutation circuit for turn off. However, the device poses several advantages, i.e., low conduction drop and low cost.

  2. Passivity-based control of AC drives: theory for the user and application examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Romeo; Espinosa-Pérez, Gerardo; Astolfi, Alessandro

    2013-04-01

    Passivity-based control is a methodology to design (possibly nonlinear) controllers for nonlinear physical systems modifying its total energy function and damping characteristics. In this article, the basic principles of this technique, and some of the recent results of application for high performance AC drives, are briefly reviewed. Since the target audience of this article is the drives community, the material is presented emphasising its immediate practical applicability, with minimal mathematical details. However, it is underscored that in all applications, a rigorous stability analysis for the full nonlinear dynamics has been reported in the literature.

  3. Evaluation of semiconductor devices for Electric and Hybrid Vehicle (EHV) ac-drive applications, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, F. C.; Chen, D. Y.; Jovanic, M.; Hopkins, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    Test data of switching times characterization of bipolar transistors, of field effect transistor's switching times on-resistance and characterization, comparative data of field effect transistors, and test data of field effect transistor's parallel operation characterization are given. Data is given in the form of graphs.

  4. Organic magnetoresistance under resonant ac drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roundy, R. C.; Raikh, M. E.

    2013-09-01

    Motivated by a recent experiment, we develop a theory of organic magnetoresistance (OMAR) in the presence of a resonant ac drive. To this end, we perform a thorough analysis of the dynamics of ac-driven electron-hole polaron pair in magnetic field, which is a sum of external and random hyperfine fields. Resonant ac drive affects the OMAR by modifying the singlet content of the eigenmodes. This, in turn, leads to the change of recombination rate, and ultimately, to the change of the spin-blocking that controls the current. Our analysis demonstrates that, upon increasing the drive amplitude, the blocking eigenmodes of the triplet type acquire a singlet admixture and become unblocking. Most surprisingly, the opposite process goes in parallel: new blocking modes emerge from nonblocking precursors as the drive increases. These emergent blocking modes are similar to subradiant modes in the Dicke effect. A nontrivial evolution of eigenmodes translates into a nontrivial behavior of OMAR with the amplitude of the ac drive: it is initially linear, then passes through a maximum, drops, and finally saturates.

  5. Installation considerations for IGBT AC drives

    SciTech Connect

    Skibinski, G.L.

    1997-06-01

    In the last four years, Adjustable Speed ac Drive (ASD) manufacturers have migrated from Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) semiconductors to Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs) as the preferred Output switching device. The advantage of IGBTs over BJTs is that device rise and fall time switching capability is 5 - 10 times faster, resulting in lower device switching loss and a more efficient drive. However, for a similar motor cable length as the BJT drive, the faster output voltage risetime of the IGBT drive may increase the dielectric voltage stress on the motor and cable due to a phenomenon called reflected wave. Faster output dv/dt transitions of IGBT drives also increase the possibility for phenomenon such as increased Common Mode (CM) electrical noise, Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) problems and increased capacitive cable charging current problems. Also, recent experience suggests any Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) drive with a steep fronted output voltage wave form may increase motor shaft voltage and lead to a bearing current phenomenon known as fluting. This paper provides a basic understanding of these issues, as well as solutions, to insure a successful drive system installation.

  6. Development of a computer algorithm for the analysis of variable-frequency AC drives: Case studies included

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kankam, M. David; Benjamin, Owen

    1991-01-01

    The development of computer software for performance prediction and analysis of voltage-fed, variable-frequency AC drives for space power applications is discussed. The AC drives discussed include the pulse width modulated inverter (PWMI), a six-step inverter and the pulse density modulated inverter (PDMI), each individually connected to a wound-rotor induction motor. Various d-q transformation models of the induction motor are incorporated for user-selection of the most applicable model for the intended purpose. Simulation results of selected AC drives correlate satisfactorily with published results. Future additions to the algorithm are indicated. These improvements should enhance the applicability of the computer program to the design and analysis of space power systems.

  7. Power Electronic Transformer based Three-Phase PWM AC Drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Kaushik

    A Transformer is used to provide galvanic isolation and to connect systems at different voltage levels. It is one of the largest and most expensive component in most of the high voltage and high power systems. Its size is inversely proportional to the operating frequency. The central idea behind a power electronic transformer (PET) also known as solid state transformer is to reduce the size of the transformer by increasing the frequency. Power electronic converters are used to change the frequency of operation. Steady reduction in the cost of the semiconductor switches and the advent of advanced magnetic materials with very low loss density and high saturation flux density implies economic viability and feasibility of a design with high power density. Application of PET is in generation of power from renewable energy sources, especially wind and solar. Other important application include grid tied inverters, UPS e.t.c. In this thesis non-resonant, single stage, bi-directional PET is considered. The main objective of this converter is to generate adjustable speed and magnitude pulse width modulated (PWM) ac waveforms from an ac or dc grid with a high frequency ac link. The windings of a high frequency transformer contains leakage inductance. Any switching transition of the power electronic converter connecting the inductive load and the transformer requires commutation of leakage energy. Commutation by passive means results in power loss, decrease in the frequency of operation, distortion in the output voltage waveform, reduction in reliability and power density. In this work a source based partially loss-less commutation of leakage energy has been proposed. This technique also results in partial soft-switching. A series of converters with novel PWM strategies have been proposed to minimize the frequency of leakage inductance commutation. These PETs achieve most of the important features of modern PWM ac drives including 1) Input power factor correction, 2) Common

  8. Shapiro steps for skyrmion motion on a washboard potential with longitudinal and transverse ac drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichhardt, C.; Reichhardt, C. J. Olson

    2015-12-01

    We numerically study the behavior of two-dimensional skyrmions in the presence of a quasi-one-dimensional sinusoidal substrate under the influence of externally applied dc and ac drives. In the overdamped limit, when both dc and ac drives are aligned in the longitudinal direction parallel to the direction of the substrate modulation, the velocity-force curves exhibit classic Shapiro step features when the frequency of the ac drive matches the washboard frequency that is dynamically generated by the motion of the skyrmions over the substrate, similar to previous observations in superconducting vortex systems. In the case of skyrmions, the additional contribution to the skyrmion motion from a nondissipative Magnus force shifts the location of the locking steps to higher dc drives, and we find that the skyrmions move at an angle with respect to the direction of the dc drive. For a longitudinal dc drive and a perpendicular or transverse ac drive, the overdamped system exhibits no Shapiro steps; however, when a finite Magnus force is present, we find pronounced transverse Shapiro steps along with complex two-dimensional periodic orbits of the skyrmions in the phase-locked regimes. Both the longitudinal and transverse ac drives produce locking steps whose widths oscillate with increasing ac drive amplitude. We examine the role of collective skyrmion interactions and find that additional fractional locking steps occur for both longitudinal and transverse ac drives. At higher skyrmion densities, the system undergoes a series of dynamical order-disorder transitions, with the skyrmions forming a moving solid on the phase locking steps and a fluctuating dynamical liquid in regimes between the steps.

  9. Shape of the Hanle curve in spin-transport structures in the presence of an ac drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roundy, R. C.; Prestgard, M. C.; Tiwari, A.; Raikh, M. E.

    2014-11-01

    Resistance between two ferromagnetic electrodes coupled to a normal channel depends on their relative magnetizations. The spin-dependent component, R , of the resistance changes with magnetic field, B , normal to the directions of magnetizations. In the field of spin transport, this change, R (B ) , originating from the Larmour spin precession, is called the Hanle curve. We demonstrate that the shape of the Hanle curve evolves upon application of an ac drive and study this evolution theoretically as a function of the amplitude, B1, and frequency, ω , of the drive. If the distance between the electrodes, L , is smaller than the spin-diffusion length, λs, the prime effect of a weak circular-polarized drive is the shift of the center of the curve to the value of B for which the Larmour frequency, ωL, is ˜B12/ω . Magnetic resonance at ωL˜ω manifests itself in the derivative, d/R d B . For large L ≫λs the ac drive affects the Hanle curve if the drive amplitude exceeds the spin-relaxation rate, τs-1, i.e., at B1τs≳1 . The prime effect of the drive is the elimination of a minimum in R (B ) . A linearly polarized drive has a fundamentally different effect on the Hanle curve, affecting not its shape but rather its width.

  10. Energy transfer in strained graphene assisted by discrete breathers excited by external ac driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evazzade, Iman; Lobzenko, Ivan P.; Korznikova, Elena A.; Ovid'ko, Ilya A.; Roknabadi, Mahmood Rezaee; Dmitriev, Sergey V.

    2017-01-01

    In the present molecular-dynamics study, external ac driving is used at frequencies outside the phonon spectrum to excite gap DBs in uniformly strained graphene nanoribbon. Harmonic displacement or harmonic force is applied to a zigzag atomic chain of graphene. In the former case, nonpropagating DBs are excited on the atoms next to the driven atoms, while in the latter case the excited DBs propagate along the nanoribbon. The energy transfer along the nanoribbon assisted by the DBs is investigated in detail, and the differences between harmonic displacement driving and harmonic force driving are discussed. It is concluded that the amplitude of external driving at out-of-phonon spectrum frequencies should not necessarily be large to obtain a noticeable energy transfer to the system. Overall, our results suggest that external harmonic driving even at relatively small driving amplitudes can be used to control excitation of DBs and consequently the energy transfer to the system.

  11. High performance control of a three-level IGBT inverter fed AC drive

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J.

    1995-12-31

    Three-level PWM inverters have been increasingly employed in industry and traction applications where high power and efficiency energy conversions are required. This paper presents a high performance control of a cage induction motor drive fed by a 100 Hp three-level IGBT inverter operating at a low switching frequency. A practical math model of the drive control system is established to aid in the control design to improve the system stability, dynamic performance and robustness over a wide speed range. The modeling and the simulation in Matlab/Simulink facilitate the self-tuning of the regulators in the multi-loop systems. The field oriented control and three-level space-vector modulation together with the drive protection and diagnostics are implemented in software based on a DSP TMS320C31. Experimental results based on the IGBT inverter prototype are given to verify the design and performance. Test results in motor common-mode voltage reduction and inverter neutral-point potential control re also briefly presented.

  12. Applications of Tethers in Space, Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cron, A. C. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Topics discussed include tethered satellites, tether deployment, satellite systems, science applications, electrodynamic interactions, transportation applications, artificial gravity, constellations, and technology and testing.

  13. Applications of Tethers in Space: Workshop Proceedings, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baracat, W. A. (Compiler)

    1986-01-01

    The complete documentation of the workshop including all addresses, panel reports, charts, and summaries are presented. This volume presents all the reports on the fundamentals of applications of tethers in space. These applications include electrodynamic interactions, transportation, gravity utilization, constellations, technology and test, and science applications.

  14. Unified Technical Concepts. Application Modules Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    Unified Technical Concepts (UTC) is a modular system for teaching applied physics in two-year postsecondary technician programs. This UTC laboratory textbook, the second of two volumes, consists of 45 learning modules dealing with basic concepts of physics. Addressed in the individual chapters of the guide are the following topics: force…

  15. Unified Technical Concepts. Application Modules Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    Unified Technical Concepts (UTC) is a modular system for teaching applied physics in two-year postsecondary technician programs. This UTC laboratory textbook, the first of two volumes, consists of 56 learning modules dealing with basic concepts of physics. Addressed in the individual chapters of the guide are the following topics: force, work,…

  16. Flat-panel volume CT: fundamental principles, technology, and applications.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rajiv; Cheung, Arnold C; Bartling, Soenke H; Lisauskas, Jennifer; Grasruck, Michael; Leidecker, Christianne; Schmidt, Bernhard; Flohr, Thomas; Brady, Thomas J

    2008-01-01

    Flat-panel volume computed tomography (CT) systems have an innovative design that allows coverage of a large volume per rotation, fluoroscopic and dynamic imaging, and high spatial resolution that permits visualization of complex human anatomy such as fine temporal bone structures and trabecular bone architecture. In simple terms, flat-panel volume CT scanners can be thought of as conventional multidetector CT scanners in which the detector rows have been replaced by an area detector. The flat-panel detector has wide z-axis coverage that enables imaging of entire organs in one axial acquisition. Its fluoroscopic and angiographic capabilities are useful for intraoperative and vascular applications. Furthermore, the high-volume coverage and continuous rotation of the detector may enable depiction of dynamic processes such as coronary blood flow and whole-brain perfusion. Other applications in which flat-panel volume CT may play a role include small-animal imaging, nondestructive testing in animal survival surgeries, and tissue-engineering experiments. Such versatility has led some to predict that flat-panel volume CT will gain importance in interventional and intraoperative applications, especially in specialties such as cardiac imaging, interventional neuroradiology, orthopedics, and otolaryngology. However, the contrast resolution of flat-panel volume CT is slightly inferior to that of multidetector CT, a higher radiation dose is needed to achieve a comparable signal-to-noise ratio, and a slower scintillator results in a longer scanning time.

  17. Nanocomposites for Electronic Applications. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-14

    Stannate Thin Films Prepared by Sol-Gel Process Large Strain Microactuator Applications," Materials Research Society Meeting, Boston, Massachusetts...also made from transition-metal oxide solid solutions. Glass- bonded Bi2 _2.Pb 2xRu2O07 _.. having the pyrochlore 112174-36-6] structure is typi- cal

  18. Applications of Tethers in Space, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cron, A. C. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    The tethered satellite system is described including tether fundamentals. Applications of very long tethers in space to a broad spectrum of future space missions are explored. Topics covered include: science, transportation, constellations, artificial gravity, technology and test, and electrodynamic interactions. Recommendations to NASA are included.

  19. Active Optical Devices and Applications. Volume 228

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    obscuration, 5-cm-thick solid, segmented (6 petals) Zerodur . Mirror A is near the limit of what can be fabricated with current technology. The honeycomb...DEW Descriptors, Keywords: Active Optical Device Application Large Optics Adaptive Technology Wavefront Sensor Deformable Mirror Performance...Cuneo, Jr., U.S. Air Force, NASA Headquarters 228-01 Wavefront sensors and deformable mirrors for visible wavelengths 4 Noah Bareket, Lockheed

  20. Nanocomposites for electronic applications, volume 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, L. E.

    1993-06-01

    Work on this program and studies associated with the ONR program on 'Piezoelectric and Electrostrictive materials for Transducer Applications' has lead to a significantly improved understanding of the fundamental mechanisms in Relaxor Ferroelectrics. For the perovskite Lead Magnesium Niobate which is the prototype for many other relaxor perovskites, the self limiting nonstoichiometric ordering of Mg/Nb ions is shown to be the symmetry breaking key to the onset of micropolar regions at the Burns temperature well above the dielectric maximum. The simple paraelectric behavior at high temperature is shown to be modified by cooperation on cooling, leading to a Vogel/Fulcher type condensation into a glass like state at low temperature

  1. Nanocomposites for electronic applications, volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, L. E.

    1993-06-01

    Work on this program and studies associated with the ONR program on 'Piezoelectric and Electrostrictive Materials for Transducer Applications' has lead to a significantly improved understanding of the fundamental mechanisms in Relaxor Ferroelectrics. For the perovskite Lead Magnesium Niobate which is the prototype for many other relaxor perovskites, the self limiting nonstoichiometric ordering of Mg/Nb ions is shown to be the symmetry breaking key to the onset of micropolar regions at the Burns temperature well above the dielectric maximum. The simple paraelectric behavior at high temperature is shown to be modified by cooperation on cooling, leading to a Vogel/Fulcher type condensation into a glass like state at low temperature

  2. Nanocomposites for electronic applications, volume 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, L. E.

    1993-06-01

    Work on this program and studies associated with the ONR program on 'Piezoelectric and Electrostrictive materials for Transducer Applications' has lead to a significantly improved understanding of the fundamental mechanisms in Relaxor Ferroelectrics. For the perovskite Lead Magnesium Niobate which is the prototype for many other relaxor perovskites, the self limiting nonstoichiometric ordering of Mg/Nb ions is shown to be the symmetry breaking key to the onset of micropolar regions at the Burns temperature well above the dielectric maximum. The simple paraelectric behavior at high temperature is shown to be modified by cooperation on cooling, leading to a Vogel/Fulcher type condensation into a glass like state at low temperature

  3. Advanced Energetics for Aeronautical Applications. Volume II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, David S.

    2005-01-01

    NASA has identified water vapor emission into the upper atmosphere from commercial transport aircraft, particularly as it relates to the formation of persistent contrails, as a potential environmental problem. Since 1999, MSE has been working with NASA-LaRC to investigate the concept of a transport-size emissionless aircraft fueled with liquid hydrogen combined with other possible breakthrough technologies. The goal of the project is to significantly advance air transportation in the next decade and beyond. The power and propulsion (P/P) system currently being studied would be based on hydrogen fuel cells (HFCs) powering electric motors, which drive fans for propulsion. The liquid water reaction product is retained onboard the aircraft until a flight mission is completed. As of now, NASA-LaRC and MSE have identified P/P system components that, according to the high-level analysis conducted to date, are light enough to make the emissionless aircraft concept feasible. Calculated maximum aircraft ranges (within a maximum weight constraint) and other performance predictions are included in this report. This report also includes current information on advanced energy-related technologies, which are still being researched, as well as breakthrough physics concepts that may be applicable for advanced energetics and aerospace propulsion in the future.

  4. Quality of Life. Volume II: Application to Persons with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schalock, Robert L., Ed.; Siperstein, Gary N., Ed.

    This volume summarizes current policies and programmatic practices that are influencing the quality of life of persons with mental retardation and developmental disabilities. Part 1, "Service Delivery Application," contains: "Using Person-Centered Planning To Address Personal Quality of Life" (John Butterworth and others); "The Aftermath of…

  5. A proposed application programming interface for a physical volume repository

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Merritt; Williams, Joel; Wrenn, Richard

    1996-01-01

    The IEEE Storage System Standards Working Group (SSSWG) has developed the Reference Model for Open Storage Systems Interconnection, Mass Storage System Reference Model Version 5. This document, provides the framework for a series of standards for application and user interfaces to open storage systems. More recently, the SSSWG has been developing Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) for the individual components defined by the model. The API for the Physical Volume Repository is the most fully developed, but work is being done on APIs for the Physical Volume Library and for the Mover also. The SSSWG meets every other month, and meetings are open to all interested parties. The Physical Volume Repository (PVR) is responsible for managing the storage of removable media cartridges and for mounting and dismounting these cartridges onto drives. This document describes a model which defines a Physical Volume Repository, and gives a brief summary of the Application Programming Interface (API) which the IEEE Storage Systems Standards Working Group (SSSWG) is proposing as the standard interface for the PVR.

  6. The application of volume-outcome contouring in data warehousing.

    PubMed

    Studnicki, James; Berndt, Donald J; Luther, Stephen L; Fisher, John W

    2004-01-01

    Despite a compelling body of published research on the nature of provider volume and clinical outcomes, healthcare executives and policymakers have not managed to develop and implement systems that are useful in directing patients to higher volume providers via selective referral or avoidance. A specialized data warehouse application, utilizing hospital discharge data linked to physician biographical information, allows detailed analysis of physician and hospital volume and the resulting pattern (contour) of related outcomes such as mortality, complications, and medical errors. The approach utilizes a historical repository of hospital discharge data in which the outcomes of interest, important patient characteristics and risk factors used in severity-adjusting of the outcomes are derived from the coding structure of the data.

  7. Transonic Symposium: Theory, Application, and Experiment, volume 1, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foughner, Jerome T., Jr. (Compiler)

    1989-01-01

    In order to assess the state of the art in transonic flow disciplines and to glimpse at future directions, NASA-Langley held a Transonic Symposium. Emphasis was placed on steady, three dimensional external, transonic flow and its simulation, both numerically and experimentally. The symposium included technical sessions on wind tunnel and flight experiments; computational fluid dynamic applications; inviscid methods and grid generation; viscous methods and boundary layer stability; and wind tunnel techniques and wall interference. This, being volume 1, is unclassified.

  8. STARS Conceptual Framework for Reuse Processes (CFRP). Volume 2: application Version 1.0

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-30

    This document, STARS Conceptual Framework for Reuse Processes (CFRP), Volume II: Application, Version 1.0, is Volume II of the two-volume STARS CFRP...document set. It provides initial guidance in how to apply the STARS CFRP, as defined in the companion volume, STARS Conceptual Framework for Reuse Processes (CFRP), Volume I: Definition, Version 3.0

  9. Application of Control Volume Analysis to Cerebrospinal Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Timothy; Cohen, Benjamin; Anor, Tomer; Madsen, Joseph

    2011-11-01

    Hydrocephalus is among the most common birth defects and may not be prevented nor cured. Afflicted individuals face serious issues, which at present are too complicated and not well enough understood to treat via systematic therapies. This talk outlines the framework and application of a control volume methodology to clinical Phase Contrast MRI data. Specifically, integral control volume analysis utilizes a fundamental, fluid dynamics methodology to quantify intracranial dynamics within a precise, direct, and physically meaningful framework. A chronically shunted, hydrocephalic patient in need of a revision procedure was used as an in vivo case study. Magnetic resonance velocity measurements within the patient's aqueduct were obtained in four biomedical state and were analyzed using the methods presented in this dissertation. Pressure force estimates were obtained, showing distinct differences in amplitude, phase, and waveform shape for different intracranial states within the same individual. Thoughts on the physiological and diagnostic research and development implications/opportunities will be presented.

  10. Musculoskeletal applications of flat-panel volume CT.

    PubMed

    Reichardt, Benjamin; Sarwar, Ammar; Bartling, Soenke H; Cheung, Arnold; Grasruck, Michael; Leidecker, Christianne; Bredella, Miriam A; Brady, Thomas J; Gupta, Rajiv

    2008-12-01

    Flat-panel volume computed tomography (fpVCT) is a recent development in imaging. We discuss some of the musculoskeletal applications of a high-resolution flat-panel CT scanner. FpVCT has four main advantages over conventional multidetector computed tomography (MDCT): high-resolution imaging; volumetric coverage; dynamic imaging; omni-scanning. The overall effective dose of fpVCT is comparable to that of MDCT scanning. Although current fpVCT technology has higher spatial resolution, its contrast resolution is slightly lower than that of MDCT (5-10HU vs. 1-3HU respectively). We discuss the efficacy and potential utility of fpVCT in various applications related to musculoskeletal radiology and review some novel applications for pediatric bones, soft tissues, tumor perfusion, and imaging of tissue-engineered bone growth. We further discuss high-resolution CT and omni-scanning (combines fluoroscopic and tomographic imaging).

  11. Status of ferrite technology for high volume microwave applications

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, D.C.

    1995-08-01

    With the emergence of high volume commercial and military applications, there is a growing need to reduce the size and cost of microwave ferrite components, especially ferrite circulators, to be more compatible with monolithic integrated circuits. The Ferrite Development Consortium, consisting of leading US ferrite government, university and industrial institutions, was formed under Advanced Research Project Agency (ARPA) sponsorship to address these needs. Areas of Consortium technical activity include bulk and thick-film techniques for batch processing of ferrite devices, improved computer-aided-design tools and protype demonstrations. This paper will review the Consortium`s materials development needs and progress.

  12. Remote volume rendering pipeline for mHealth applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutenko, Ievgeniia; Petkov, Kaloian; Papadopoulos, Charilaos; Zhao, Xin; Park, Ji Hwan; Kaufman, Arie; Cha, Ronald

    2014-03-01

    We introduce a novel remote volume rendering pipeline for medical visualization targeted for mHealth (mobile health) applications. The necessity of such a pipeline stems from the large size of the medical imaging data produced by current CT and MRI scanners with respect to the complexity of the volumetric rendering algorithms. For example, the resolution of typical CT Angiography (CTA) data easily reaches 512^3 voxels and can exceed 6 gigabytes in size by spanning over the time domain while capturing a beating heart. This explosion in data size makes data transfers to mobile devices challenging, and even when the transfer problem is resolved the rendering performance of the device still remains a bottleneck. To deal with this issue, we propose a thin-client architecture, where the entirety of the data resides on a remote server where the image is rendered and then streamed to the client mobile device. We utilize the display and interaction capabilities of the mobile device, while performing interactive volume rendering on a server capable of handling large datasets. Specifically, upon user interaction the volume is rendered on the server and encoded into an H.264 video stream. H.264 is ubiquitously hardware accelerated, resulting in faster compression and lower power requirements. The choice of low-latency CPU- and GPU-based encoders is particularly important in enabling the interactive nature of our system. We demonstrate a prototype of our framework using various medical datasets on commodity tablet devices.

  13. Ground Operations Aerospace Language (GOAL). Volume 5: Application Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The Ground Operations Aerospace Language (GOAL) was designed to be used by test oriented personnel to write procedures which would be executed in a test environment. A series of discussions between NASA LV-CAP personnel and IBM resulted in some peripheral tasks which would aid in evaluating the applicability of the language in this environment, and provide enhancement for future applications. The results of these tasks are contained within this volume. The GOAL vocabulary provides a high degree of readability and retainability. To achieve these benefits, however, the procedure writer utilizes words and phrases of considerable length. Brief form study was undertaken to determine a means of relieving this burden. The study resulted in a version of GOAL which enables the writer to develop a dialect suitable to his needs and satisfy the syntax equations. The output of the compiler would continue to provide readability by printing out the standard GOAL language. This task is described.

  14. Sensors Applications, Volume 3, Sensors in Medicine and Health Care

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öberg, P. Åke; Togawa, Tatsuo; Spelman, Francis A.

    2004-08-01

    Taken as a whole, this series covers all major fields of application for commercial sensors, as well as their manufacturing techniques and major types. As such the series does not treat bulk sensors, but rather places strong emphasis on microsensors, microsystems and integrated electronic sensor packages. Each of the individual volumes is tailored to the needs and queries of readers from the relevant branch of industry. A review of applications for point-of-care diagnostics, their integration into portable systems and the comfortable, easy-to-use sensors that allow patients to monitor themselves at home. The book covers such advanced topics as minimal invasive surgery, implantable sensors and prostheses, as well as biocompatible sensing.

  15. Solar concentrator technology development for space based applications, volume 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pintz, A.; Castle, C. H.; Reimer, R. R.

    1992-12-01

    Thermoelectric conversion using a radio-isotope heat source has been used where outer planetary space craft are too far away for absorbing significant solar energy. Solar dynamic power (SDP) conversion is one technology that offers advantages for applications within the inner planet region. Since SDP conversion efficiency can be 2 to 3 times higher than photovoltaic, the collecting surfaces are much reduced in area and therefore lighter. This becomes an advantage in allocating more weight to launched payloads. A second advantage results for low earth orbit applications. The reduced area results in lower drag forces on the spacecraft and requires less reboost propellant to maintain orbit. A third advantage occurs because of the sun-to-shade cycling while in earth orbit. Photovoltaic systems require batteries to store energy for use when in the shade, and battery life for periods of 10 to 15 years is not presently achievable. For these reasons the Solar Dynamics and Thermal Systems Branch at NASA LeRC has funded work in developing SDP systems. The generic SDP system uses a large parabolic solar concentrator to focus solar energy onto a power conversion device. The concentrators are large areas and must therefore be efficient and have low specific weights. Yet these surfaces must be precise and capable of being stowed in a launch vehicle and then deployed and sometimes unfurled in space. There are significant technical challenges in engineering such structures, and considerable investigation has been made to date. This is the second of two volumes reporting on the research done by the Advanced Manufacturing Center at Cleveland State University to assist NASA LeRC in evaluating this technology. This volume includes the appendices of selected data sets, drawings, and procedures. The objective of the grant was to restore the solar concentrator development technology of the 1960s while improving it with advances that have occurred since then. This report summarizes the

  16. Solar concentrator technology development for space based applications, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pintz, A.; Castle, C. H.; Reimer, R. R.

    1992-01-01

    Thermoelectric conversion using a radio-isotope heat source has been used where outer planetary space craft are too far away for absorbing significant solar energy. Solar dynamic power (SDP) conversion is one technology that offers advantages for applications within the inner planet region. Since SDP conversion efficiency can be 2 to 3 times higher than photovoltaic, the collecting surfaces are much reduced in area and therefore lighter. This becomes an advantage in allocating more weight to launched payloads. A second advantage results for low earth orbit applications. The reduced area results in lower drag forces on the spacecraft and requires less reboost propellant to maintain orbit. A third advantage occurs because of the sun-to-shade cycling while in earth orbit. Photovoltaic systems require batteries to store energy for use when in the shade, and battery life for periods of 10 to 15 years is not presently achievable. For these reasons the Solar Dynamics and Thermal Systems Branch at NASA LeRC has funded work in developing SDP systems. The generic SDP system uses a large parabolic solar concentrator to focus solar energy onto a power conversion device. The concentrators are large areas and must therefore be efficient and have low specific weights. Yet these surfaces must be precise and capable of being stowed in a launch vehicle and then deployed and sometimes unfurled in space. There are significant technical challenges in engineering such structures, and considerable investigation has been made to date. This is the second of two volumes reporting on the research done by the Advanced Manufacturing Center at Cleveland State University to assist NASA LeRC in evaluating this technology. This volume includes the appendices of selected data sets, drawings, and procedures. The objective of the grant was to restore the solar concentrator development technology of the 1960s while improving it with advances that have occurred since then. This report summarizes the

  17. Turbine design and application volumes 1, 2, and 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glassman, Arthur J. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    NASA has an interest in turbines related primarily to aeronautics and space applications. Airbreathing turbine engines provide jet and turboshaft propulsion, as well as auxiliary power for aircraft. Propellant-driven turbines provide rocket propulsion and auxiliary power for spacecraft. Closed-cycle turbine engines using inert gases, organic fluids, and metal fluids have been studied for providing long-duration electric power for spacecraft. Other applications of interest for turbine engines include land-vehicle (cars, trucks, buses, trains, etc.) propulsion power and ground-based electrical power. In view of the turbine-system interest and efforts at Lewis Research Center, a course entitled 'Turbine Design and Application' was presented during 1968-69 as part of the In-house Graduate Study Program. The course was somewhat revised and again presented in 1972-73. Various aspects of turbine technology were covered including thermodynamic and fluid-dynamic concepts, fundamental turbine concepts, velocity diagrams, losses, blade aerodynamic design, blade cooling, mechanical design, operation, and performance. The notes written and used for the course have been revised and edited for publication. Such a publication can serve as a foundation for an introductory turbine course, a means for self-study, or a reference for selected topics. Any consistent set of units will satisfy the equations presented. Two commonly used consistent sets of units and constant values are given after the symbol definitions. These are the SI units and the U.S. customary units. A single set of equations covers both sets of units by including all constants required for the U.S. customary units and defining as unity those not required for the SI units. Three volumes are compiled into one.

  18. Solar concentrator technology development for space based applications, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pintz, A.; Castle, C. H.; Reimer, R. R.

    1992-01-01

    Thermoelectric conversion using a radio-isotope heat source has been used where outer planetary space craft are too far away for absorbing significant solar energy. Solar dynamic power (SDP) conversion is one technology that offers advantages for applications within the inner planet region. Since SDP conversion efficiency can be 2 to 3 times higher than photovoltaic, the collecting surfaces are much reduced in area and therefore lighter. This becomes an advantage in allocating more weight to launched payloads. A second advantage results for low earth orbit applications. The reduced area results in lower drag forces on the spacecraft and requires less reboost propellant to maintain orbit. A third advantage occurs because of the sun-to-shade cycling while in earth orbit. Photovoltaic systems require batteries to store energy for use when in the shade, and battery life for periods of 10 to 15 years is not presently achievable. For these reasons the Solar Dynamics and Thermal Systems Branch at NASA LeRC has funded work in developing SDP systems. The generic SDP system uses a large parabolic solar concentrator to focus solar energy onto a power conversion device. The concentrators are large areas and must therefore be efficient and have low specific weights. Yet these surfaces must be precise and capable of being stowed in a launch vehicle and then deployed and sometimes unfurled in space. There are significant technical challenges in engineering such structures, and considerable investigation has been made to date. This is the first of two volumes reporting on the research done by the Advanced Manufacturing Center at Cleveland State University to assist NASA LeRC in evaluating this technology. The objective of the grant was to restore the solar concentrator development technology of the 1960s while improving it with advances that have occurred since then. This report summarizes the work done from January 1989 through December 1991.

  19. Solar concentrator technology development for space based applications, volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pintz, A.; Castle, C. H.; Reimer, R. R.

    1992-12-01

    Thermoelectric conversion using a radio-isotope heat source has been used where outer planetary space craft are too far away for absorbing significant solar energy. Solar dynamic power (SDP) conversion is one technology that offers advantages for applications within the inner planet region. Since SDP conversion efficiency can be 2 to 3 times higher than photovoltaic, the collecting surfaces are much reduced in area and therefore lighter. This becomes an advantage in allocating more weight to launched payloads. A second advantage results for low earth orbit applications. The reduced area results in lower drag forces on the spacecraft and requires less reboost propellant to maintain orbit. A third advantage occurs because of the sun-to-shade cycling while in earth orbit. Photovoltaic systems require batteries to store energy for use when in the shade, and battery life for periods of 10 to 15 years is not presently achievable. For these reasons the Solar Dynamics and Thermal Systems Branch at NASA LeRC has funded work in developing SDP systems. The generic SDP system uses a large parabolic solar concentrator to focus solar energy onto a power conversion device. The concentrators are large areas and must therefore be efficient and have low specific weights. Yet these surfaces must be precise and capable of being stowed in a launch vehicle and then deployed and sometimes unfurled in space. There are significant technical challenges in engineering such structures, and considerable investigation has been made to date. This is the first of two volumes reporting on the research done by the Advanced Manufacturing Center at Cleveland State University to assist NASA LeRC in evaluating this technology. The objective of the grant was to restore the solar concentrator development technology of the 1960s while improving it with advances that have occurred since then. This report summarizes the work done from January 1989 through December 1991.

  20. Microcomputer Applications for Health Care Professionals. Volume II. Curriculum Improvement Project. Region II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Lucy

    This volume is one of three in a self-paced computer literacy course that gives allied health students a firm base of knowledge concerning computer usage in the hospital environment. It also develops skill in several applications software packages. Volume II contains materials for three one-hour courses on word processing applications, spreadsheet…

  1. EPA RREL'S MOBILE VOLUME REDUCTION UNIT -- APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The volume reduction unit (VRU) is a pilot-scale, mobile soil washing system designed to remove organic contaminants from the soil through particle size separation and solubilization. The VRU removes contaminants by suspending them in a wash solution and by reducing the volume of...

  2. Navy Tactical Applications Guide. Volume 5. Part 1. Indian Ocean (Red Sea/Persian Gulf) Weather Analysis and Forecast Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    NO. Navy Tactical Applications Guide. Volume 5. Part 1 Indian Ocean (Red Sea/Persian Gulf) Weather Analysis and Forecast Applications 7...tldt It ntctf try mid Idtnlltr by block numOtr) Meteorological Satellite Systems Analysis and Forecast Applications Indian Ocean Northeast Monsoon...by block numbtr) Case studies describing regional environmental analysis and forecast applications based on satellite data and conventional

  3. Microcomputer Applications for Health Care Professionals. Volume I. Curriculum Improvement Project. Region II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Lucy

    This volume is one of three in a self-paced computer literacy course that gives allied health students a firm base of knowledge concerning computer usage in the hospital environment. It also develops skill in several applications software packages. Volume I contains materials for a three-hour course. A student course syllabus provides this…

  4. Cooperative Instructional Application of Writing Research. Final Report. Volume Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronnell, Bruce; And Others

    The second of three volumes on the relationship between writing research and instruction, this report first describes a 1982 conference on writing policies and problems sponsored by the Educational Research and Development division of the Southwest Regional Laboratory (SWRL) and the California State University, Long Beach. The second section…

  5. Data catalog series for space science and applications flight missions. Volume 6: Master index volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horowitz, Richard; Ross, Patricia A.; King, Joseph H.

    1989-01-01

    The main purpose of the data catalog series is to provide descriptive references to data generated by space science flight missions. The data sets described include all of the actual holdings of the Space Science Data Center (NSSDC), all data sets for which direct contact information is available, and some data collections held and serviced by foreign investigators, NASA, and other U.S. government agencies. This volume contains the Master Index. The following spacecraft are included: Mariner, Pioneer, Pioneer Venus, Venera, Viking, Voyager, and Helios. Separate indexes to the planetary and interplanetary missions are also provided.

  6. Space shuttle orbiter heat pipe applications. Volume 1: Synopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alario, J. P.; Prager, R. C.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation was made to formulate and evaluate heat pipe applications for the space shuttle orbiter. Of the twenty-seven specific applications which were identified, a joint evaluation resulted in the selection of five of the most promising ones for prototype development. The formulation process is described, along with the applications which evolved. The bulk of the discussion deals with the top five applications: (1) heat pipe augmented cold rail; (2) avionics heat pipe circuit; (3) heat pipe/phase change material modular sink; (4) air-to-heat-pipe heat exchanger; and (5) heat pipe radiator for compartment temperature control. The philosophy, physical design details, and performance data are presented for each concept along with a comparison to the baseline design where applicable. A sixth application, heat pipe space radiator for waste heat rejection, was also recommended for prototype development.

  7. Who Gets the App? Explaining Law School Application Volume, 1993 to 1996. LSAC Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longley, Charles

    In recent years there has been a steady decline in the number of applications filed for full-time admission to American Bar Association-approved law schools. This study sought to determine what explains interinstitutional variation in application volume for the years 1993 to 1996. Using multivariate regression analysis, the study tested a…

  8. Applications of aerospace technology to petroleum exploration. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1976-01-01

    Participants in the investigation of problem areas in oil exploration are listed and the data acquisition methods used to determine categories to be studied are described. Specific aerospace techniques applicable to the tasks identified are explained and their costs evaluated.

  9. Photovoltaic off-farm agricultural applications. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adolfson, W. F.

    1982-02-01

    The major off farm agricultural applications and photovoltaic system options available for supplying electricity and low temperature heat required by these industries are highlighted. The off farm agricultural industry, which includes food processing, agricultural chemicals, tobacco and alcohol fuels, consumes about 2 percent of the United States energy supply for direct heat and mechanical power. Photovoltaic energy systems can cut energy costs in many of these industrial applications, although early market penetration may be hampered by certain market barriers.

  10. Piezoelectric and electrostrictive materials for transducers applications, volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, L. E.; Newnham, R. E.; Bhalla, A. S.; Dougherty, J. P.; Adair, J. H.; Varadan, V. K.; Varadan, V. V.

    1992-01-01

    Highlights of the past year's activities include: An increased emphasis upon the flextensional (moonie) type actuators, modeling both the internal stress distribution as a function of geometry, and the very interesting resonant mode structure of the composites; a more refined focus upon the performance of piezoelectric ceramic transducers, particularly under high drive levels is developing with concern for the extrinsic domain and phase boundary contributions to response. Measurement and modelling are being used to explore the nonlinearity and the frequency response and to examine the phase partitioning at the rhombohedral:tetragonal morphotropic phase boundary in the PZT system. Phenomena limiting lifetime in polarization and phase switching actuators are being explored to separate surface and volume effects and those due to grain size and flaw population differences. New work has been initiated to examine Acoustic Emission as a technique, in combination with Barkhausen current pulse analysis, to separate and evaluate domain switching and microcracking in polarization switching systems.

  11. Photovoltaic off-farm agricultural applications: Volume 2: Technical report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adolfson, W. F.

    1982-02-01

    Five conceptual designs available for supplementing the energy required by off-farm agricultural applications are highlighted. Illustrations and parametric cost analyses are provided to assist energy managers in assessing the options and selecting designs for retrofit of existing systems or incorporation of new installations.

  12. Update: Applications of Research in Music Education Yearbook. Volume 24

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowman & Littlefield Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Readers of the online journal "Update: Applications of Research in Music Education" who prefer a printed copy of articles most relevant to their work will find them in the new 2005-2006 "Update Yearbook." Now available to everyone interested in the latest music education trends, the Yearbook contains in print the entire online issues for…

  13. Multi-Rate Digital Control Systems with Simulation Applications. Volume II. Computer Algorithms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    34 ~AFWAL-TR-80-31 01 • • Volume II L IL MULTI-RATE DIGITAL CONTROL SYSTEMS WITH SIMULATiON APPLICATIONS Volume II: Computer Algorithms DENNIS G. J...29 Ma -8 - Volume II. Computer Algorithms ~ / ’+ 44MWLxkQT N Uwe ~~ 4 ~jjskYIF336l5-79-C-369~ 9. PER~rORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS IPROG AMEL...additional options. The analytical basis for the computer algorithms is discussed in Ref. 12. However, to provide a complete description of the program, some

  14. 3D ultrasound volume stitching using phase symmetry and harris corner detection for orthopaedic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalvi, Rupin; Hacihaliloglu, Ilker; Abugharbieh, Rafeef

    2010-03-01

    Stitching of volumes obtained from three dimensional (3D) ultrasound (US) scanners improves visualization of anatomy in many clinical applications. Fast but accurate volume registration remains the key challenge in this area.We propose a volume stitching method based on efficient registration of 3D US volumes obtained from a tracked US probe. Since the volumes, after adjusting for probe motion, are coarsely registered, we obtain salient correspondence points in the central slices of these volumes. This is done by first removing artifacts in the US slices using intensity invariant local phase image processing and then applying the Harris Corner detection algorithm. Fast sub-volume registration on a small neighborhood around the points then gives fast, accurate 3D registration parameters. The method has been tested on 3D US scans of phantom and real human radius and pelvis bones and a phantom human fetus. The method has also been compared to volumetric registration, as well as feature based registration using 3D-SIFT. Quantitative results show average post-registration error of 0.33mm which is comparable to volumetric registration accuracy (0.31mm) and much better than 3D-SIFT based registration which failed to register the volumes. The proposed method was also much faster than volumetric registration (~4.5 seconds versus 83 seconds).

  15. Manipulating biological agents and cells in micro-scale volumes for applications in medicine

    PubMed Central

    Tasoglu, Savas; Gurkan, Umut Atakan; Wang, ShuQi

    2013-01-01

    Recent technological advances provide new tools to manipulate cells and biological agents in micro/nano-liter volumes. With precise control over small volumes, the cell microenvironment and other biological agents can be bioengineered; interactions between cells and external stimuli can be monitored; and the fundamental mechanisms such as cancer metastasis and stem cell differentiation can be elucidated. Technological advances based on the principles of electrical, magnetic, chemical, optical, acoustic, and mechanical forces lead to novel applications in point-of-care diagnostics, regenerative medicine, in vitro drug testing, cryopreservation, and cell isolation/purification. In this review, we first focus on the underlying mechanisms of emerging examples for cell manipulation in small volumes targeting applications such as tissue engineering. Then, we illustrate how these mechanisms impact the aforementioned biomedical applications, discuss the associated challenges, and provide perspectives for further development. PMID:23575660

  16. Piezoelectric and Electrostrictive Materials for Transducer Applications. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-31

    used in permanent magnets and in high frequency applications. Small grain microstructures and low porosity are also required for microwave ferrites to...procedures or the addition of grain growth inhibitors keep the grain size small and lower losses. Small grain size is also an advantage in microwave ferrites ...titanate electrostrictors have been confirmed using both resonance and ultra-dilatometer methods . In parallel studies of aging in these systems a

  17. Proceedings of the 2009 Antenna Applications Symposium, Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-12

    Repository (USA), 28 Dec., 1984. [11] Ramo et al., Fields and Waves in Modern Radio , Second Edition, pp.388-390, John Wiley and Sons, New York...wire monocone) in Trans-Atlantic experiments [4], and Carter’s version for wideband short wave radio [5]. An excellent survey of various topics in...Proceedings of the 2009 Antenna Applications Symposium is a collection of state-of-the art papers relating to antenna arrays and elements, millimeter wave

  18. Thermal Storage Applications Workshop. Volume 1: Plenary Session Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The importance of the development of inexpensive and efficient thermal and thermochemical energy storage technology to the solar power program is discussed in a summary of workship discussions held to exchange information and plan for future systems. Topics covered include storage in central power applications such as the 10 MW-e demonstration pilot receiver to be constructed in Barstow, California; storage for small dispersed systems, and problems associated with the development of storage systems for solar power plants interfacing with utility systems.

  19. Proceedings of the 1989 Antenna Applications Symposium. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    Center 200 150 100 50 wi w 0 0 w 2 -50 -100 - 150 -200 *-250 -300 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 DISTANCE ( MILLIMETERS ) M964150 19 (b) Feedline Current Phase vs...mixture by means of a high temperature arc discharge. This device is an attractive candidate for auxiliary propulsion applications on satellites. One...mixture by means of a high temperature arc discharge. The heated propellant is then ejected through a nozzle to produce thrust. Current research

  20. Aluminum Tailor-Welded Blanks for High Volume Automotive Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hovanski, Yuri; Upadhyay, Piyush; Pilli, Siva Prasad; Carlson, Blair; Carsley, John; Hartfield-Wunsch, Susan; Eisenmenger, Mark

    2014-02-04

    A Design of Experiment based approach is used to systematically investigate relationships between 8 different welding factors (4 related to tool geometry, 4 related to weld process control) and resulting weld properties including strength, elongation and formability in 1.2mm-2mm thick friction stir welding of AA5182-O for TWB application. The factors that result in most significant effects are elucidated. The interactions between several key factors like plunge depth, tool tilt, pin feature and pin length on the overall weld quality is discussed. Appropriate levels of factors that lead to excellent weld properties are also identified.

  1. Piezoelectric and electrostrictive materials for transducers applications, volume 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, L. E.; Newnham, R. E.; Bhalla, A. S.; Dougherty, J. P.; Adair, J. H.; Varadan, V. K.; Varadan, V. V.

    1992-01-01

    The topics discussed are as follows: A Study of Y1Ba2Cu3O(7-x) Thick Films on Ferroelectric Substrates; Y1Ba2Cu30(7-x) as an Electrode Material for Ferroelectric Devices; Polarization Reversal and High Dielectric Permittivity in Lead Magnesium Niobate Titanate Thin Films; Ferroelectric Switching in Lead Zirconate-Lead Zinc Niobate Thin Films; Lead Zirconate Titanate Stannate Thin Films for Large Strian Microactuator Applications; Ferroelectric Thin Film Ultrasonic Micromotors; and Piezoelectric Micromotors for Microrobots.

  2. Thermal Storage Applications Workshop. Volume 2: Contributed Papers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The solar thermal and the thermal and thermochemical energy storage programs are described as well as the technology requirements for both external (electrical) and internal (thermal, chemical) modes for energy storage in solar power plants. Specific technical issues addressed include thermal storage criteria for solar power plants interfacing with utility systems; optimal dispatch of storage for solar plants in a conventional electric grid; thermal storage/temperature tradeoffs for solar total energy systems; the value of energy storage for direct-replacement solar thermal power plants; systems analysis of storage in specific solar thermal power applications; the value of seasonal storage of solar energy; criteria for selection of the thermal storage system for a 10 MW(2) solar power plant; and the need for specific requirements by storage system development teams.

  3. High Volume Fraction Carbon Nanotube Composites for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siochi, E. J.; Kim, J.-W.; Sauti, G.; Cano, R. J.; Wincheski, R. A.; Ratcliffe, J. G.; Czabaj, M.

    2016-01-01

    Reported mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) at the nanoscale suggest their potential to enable significantly lighter structures of interest for space applications. However, their utility depends on the retention of these properties in bulk material formats that permit practical fabrication of large structures. This presentation summarizes recent progress made to produce carbon nanotube composites with specific tensile properties that begin to rival those of carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites. CNT content in these nanocomposites was greater than 70% by weight. Tested nanocomposite specimens were fabricated from kilometers or tens of square meters of CNT, depending on the starting material format. Processing methods to yield these results, and characterization and testing to evaluate the performance of these composites will be discussed. The final objective is the demonstration of a CNT composite overwrapped pressure vessel to be flight tested in the Fall of 2016.

  4. The Meshfree Finite Volume Method with application to multi-phase porous media models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foy, Brody H.; Perré, Patrick; Turner, Ian

    2017-03-01

    Numerical methods form a cornerstone of the analysis and investigation of mathematical models for physical processes. Many classical numerical schemes rely on the application of strict meshing structures to generate accurate solutions, which in some applications are an infeasible constraint. Within this paper we outline a new meshfree numerical scheme, which we call the Meshfree Finite Volume Method (MFVM). The MFVM uses interpolants to approximate fluxes in a disjoint finite volume scheme, allowing for the accurate solution of strong-form PDEs. We present a derivation of the MFVM, and give error bounds on the spatial and temporal approximations used within the scheme. We present a wide variety of applications of the method, showing key features, and advantages over traditional meshed techniques. We close with an application of the method to a non-linear multi-phase wood drying model, showing the potential for solving numerically challenging problems.

  5. High Volume Fraction Carbon Nanotube Composites for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siochi, Emilie J.; Kim, Jae-Woo; Sauti, Godfrey; Cano, Roberto J.; Wincheski, Russell A.; Ratcliffe, James G.; Czabaj, Michael; Jensen, Benjamin D.; Wise, Kristopher E.

    2015-01-01

    Reported nanoscale mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) suggest that their use may enable the fabrication of significantly lighter structures for use in space applications. To be useful in the fabrication of large structures, however, their attractive nanoscale properties must be retained as they are scaled up to bulk materials and converted into practically useful forms. Advances in CNT production have significantly increased the quantities available for use in manufacturing processes, but challenges remain with the retention of nanoscale properties in larger assemblies of CNTs. This work summarizes recent progress in producing carbon nanotube composites with tensile properties approaching those of carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites. These advances were achieved in nanocomposites with CNT content of 70% by weight. The processing methods explored to yield these CNT composite properties will be discussed, as will the characterization and test methods that were developed to provide insight into the factors that contribute to the enhanced tensile properties. Technology maturation was guided by parallel advancements in computational modeling tools that aided in the interpretation of experimental data.

  6. Composite materials. Volume 3 - Engineering applications of composites. Volume 4 - Metallic matrix composites. Volume 8 - Structural design and analysis, Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noton, B. R. (Editor); Kreider, K. G.; Chamis, C. C.

    1974-01-01

    This volume discusses a vaety of applications of both low- and high-cost composite materials in a number of selected engineering fields. The text stresses the use of fiber-reinforced composites, along with interesting material systems used in the electrical and nuclear industries. As to technology transfer, a similarity is noted between many of the reasons responsible for the utilization of composites and those problems requiring urgent solution, such as mechanized fabrication processes and design for production. Features topics include road transportation, rail transportation, civil aircraft, space vehicles, builing industry, chemical plants, and appliances and equipment. The laminate orientation code devised by Air Force materials laboratory is included. Individual items are announced in this issue.

  7. SU-E-T-611: Effective Treatment Volume of the Small Size IORT Applicators

    SciTech Connect

    Krechetov, A.S.; Goer, D.A.

    2014-06-01

    Purpose Mobile electron linear accelerators are gaining more attention recently, providing a lower cost and simpler way to perform intraoperative treatment. However, the simplicity of the treatment process does not eliminate the need for proper attention to the technical aspects of the treatment. One of the potential pitfalls is incorrect selection of the appropriate applicator size to adequately cover the tumor bed to the prescription dose. When treating tumor beds in the pelvis, the largest applicator that fits into the pelvis is usually selected as there is concern about microscopic extension of the disease along the sidewalls of the pelvis. But when treating early stage breast tumors, there is a natural tendency to select an applicator as small as possible so as not to jeopardize cosmesis. Methods This investigation questions how much of the typical breast treatment volume gets adequate exposure and what is the correct strategy in selecting the proper applicator size. Actual data from isodose scans were analyzed. Results We found that typical treatment dose prescriptions can cover as much as 80% and as little as 20% of the nominal treatment volume depending on the applicator size and energy of the beam and whether the dose is prescribed to the 80 or 90% isodose level. Treatment volume is defined as a cylinder with diameter equal to applicator and height equal to the corresponding D80 or D90 depth. Conclusion If mobile linear accelerators are used, there can be significant amount of “cold volume” depending on the applicator size and this should be taken into account when selecting the applicator that is needed. Using too small of an applicator could result in significant under-dosing to the tissue at risk. Long-term clinical data demonstrates that selecting an adequate field size results in good ontological control as well as excellent cosmesis. Intraop Medical Corp was providing facilities and equipment for this research.

  8. The clinical application of pulse contour cardiac output and intrathoracic volume measurements in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, Nicky A; Braaf, Sandra C

    2006-08-01

    Cardiac output (CO) determination by pulmonary artery (PA) catheter has increasingly been criticised within the literature due to its invasive nature and poor correlation between the pressure measurements and intravascular volume status in mechanically ventilated patients. Consequently, alternative less invasive technologies to PA catheterisation are emerging within intensive care. One such novel technology are pulse contour CO (PCCO) systems. They establish comprehensive and continuous haemodynamic monitoring utilising a central venous catheter (CVC) and an arterial line. Furthermore, a key feature of this technology is its ability to produce intrathoracic volume measurements which may provide a better estimation of cardiac preload as well as indicate the presence and severity of pulmonary oedema. This article aims to discuss the theoretical basis and clinical application of PCCO systems, how PCCO systems differ from PA catheters and how the intrathoracic volume measurements are derived. Understanding these advanced concepts will ensure that clinicians are able to employ this innovative monitoring technology more effectively.

  9. Normal and refractory concretes for LMFBR applications. Volume 2. Evaluation of concretes for LMFBR applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bazant, Z.P.; Chern, J.C.; Abrams, M.S.; Gillen, M.P.

    1982-06-01

    The extensive literature on the properties and behavior at elevated temperature of portland cement concrete and various refractory concretes was reviewed to collect in concise form the physical and chemical properties of castable refractory concretes and of conventional portland cement concretes at elevated temperature. This survey, together with an extensive bibliography of source documents, is presented in Volume 1. A comparison was made of these properties, the relative advantages of the various concretes was evaluated for possible liquid metal fast breeder reactor applications, and a selection was made of several materials of interest for such applications. Volume 2 concludes with a summary of additional knowledge needed to support such uses of these materials together with recommendations on research to provide that knowledge.

  10. Volume visualization: a technical overview with a focus on medical applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi; Eagleson, Roy; Peters, Terry M

    2011-08-01

    With the increasing availability of high-resolution isotropic three- or four-dimensional medical datasets from sources such as magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, and ultrasound, volumetric image visualization techniques have increased in importance. Over the past two decades, a number of new algorithms and improvements have been developed for practical clinical image display. More recently, further efficiencies have been attained by designing and implementing volume-rendering algorithms on graphics processing units (GPUs). In this paper, we review volumetric image visualization pipelines, algorithms, and medical applications. We also illustrate our algorithm implementation and evaluation results, and address the advantages and drawbacks of each algorithm in terms of image quality and efficiency. Within the outlined literature review, we have integrated our research results relating to new visualization, classification, enhancement, and multimodal data dynamic rendering. Finally, we illustrate issues related to modern GPU working pipelines, and their applications in volume visualization domain.

  11. Photopolymer-Based Volume Holographic Optical Elements: Design and Possible Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianco, G.; Ferrara, M. A.; Borbone, F.; Roviello, A.; Striano, V.; Coppola, G.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, Volume Holographic Optical Elements (V-HOEs), such as holographic gratings and spherical lenses, are designed and fabricated by using a prototype of photopolymer. The recording process of V-HOEs and their appropriate characterization are described. Moreover, V-HOEs possible applications as solar concentrator are investigated and results are discussed. Finally, a system that allows passive solar tracking is proposed and preliminary results are reported.

  12. Higher-Order, Space-Time Adaptive Finite Volume Methods: Algorithms, Analysis and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Minion, Michael

    2014-04-29

    The four main goals outlined in the proposal for this project were: 1. Investigate the use of higher-order (in space and time) finite-volume methods for fluid flow problems. 2. Explore the embedding of iterative temporal methods within traditional block-structured AMR algorithms. 3. Develop parallel in time methods for ODEs and PDEs. 4. Work collaboratively with the Center for Computational Sciences and Engineering (CCSE) at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab towards incorporating new algorithms within existing DOE application codes.

  13. Tunnel Boring Machine Technology for a Deeply Based Missile System. Volume I, Application Feasibility. Part 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    AD-A091 976 COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES GOLDEN F/G 13/2 NNEL BORING MACHINE TECHNOLOGY FOR A DEEPLY BASED MISSILE SYS-ETC(U) .UA 80 G B CLARK. L...TR-79-120, Vol. I, Pt. 1 AFWL-TR- 79-120 Vol. I ~Pt. I TUNNEL BORING MACHINE TECHNOLOGY FOR A DEEPLY BASED MISSILE SYSTEM Volume I of 11 lApplication... BORING MACHINE TECHNOLOGY FOR A DEEPLY BASED MISSILE SYSTEM Final Report Vol I of II: Application Feasibility 6. PERFORMINGORO. REPORTNUMM Part I of 2 7

  14. Navy Tactical Applications Guide. Volume 5. Part 1. Indian Ocean (Red Sea/Persian Gulf) Weather Analysis and Forecast Applications. Revision.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-02-01

    Tactical Applications Guide. Volume 5. Part I Indian Ocean (Red Sea/Persian Gulf) Weather Analysis and Forecast Applications . . PERFORMING ORD. REPORT...and ideaittp by hiocA nb..) Meteorological Satellite Systems Southwest Monsoon Analysis and Forecast Applications Coastal Zone Phenomena Indian Ocean...describing regional environmental analysis and forecast applications based on satellite data and conventional meteorological observations for the Indian Ocean

  15. Electrical power free, low dead volume, pressure-driven pumping for microfluidic applications.

    PubMed

    Moscovici, Mario; Chien, Wei-Yin; Abdelgawad, Mohamed; Sun, Yu

    2010-10-13

    This paper presents a simple-to-construct, low dead volume pump capable of generating a wide range of positive and negative pressures for microfluidic applications. The pump generates pressure or vacuum by changing the volume of air confined inside a syringe and is able to generate pressures between -95 and +300 kPa with a resolution as high as 1 Pa. Different from syringe pumps and electrokinetic pumping, which are capable of controlling flow rates only, our pump can be used to generate constant flow rates or constant pressures, which are required for certain applications such as the aspiration of biological cells for biophysical characterization. Compared to syringe pumps, the new pump has almost zero dead volume and does not exhibit pulsatile flows. Additionally, the system does not require electrical power and is cost effective (∼$100). To demonstrate the capabilities of the pump, we used it to aspirate osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1 cells) and to determine Young's modulus of the cells, to generate a concentration gradient, and to produce variable-sized droplets in microchannels using hydrodynamic focusing.

  16. Electrical power free, low dead volume, pressure-driven pumping for microfluidic applications

    PubMed Central

    Moscovici, Mario; Chien, Wei-Yin; Abdelgawad, Mohamed; Sun, Yu

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a simple-to-construct, low dead volume pump capable of generating a wide range of positive and negative pressures for microfluidic applications. The pump generates pressure or vacuum by changing the volume of air confined inside a syringe and is able to generate pressures between −95 and +300 kPa with a resolution as high as 1 Pa. Different from syringe pumps and electrokinetic pumping, which are capable of controlling flow rates only, our pump can be used to generate constant flow rates or constant pressures, which are required for certain applications such as the aspiration of biological cells for biophysical characterization. Compared to syringe pumps, the new pump has almost zero dead volume and does not exhibit pulsatile flows. Additionally, the system does not require electrical power and is cost effective (∼$100). To demonstrate the capabilities of the pump, we used it to aspirate osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1 cells) and to determine Young’s modulus of the cells, to generate a concentration gradient, and to produce variable-sized droplets in microchannels using hydrodynamic focusing. PMID:21057609

  17. Draft Title 40 CFR 191 compliance certification application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Volume 4: Appendix BIR Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-31

    This report consists of the waste stream profile for the WIPP transuranic waste baseline inventory at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The following assumptions/modifications were made by the WTWBIR team in developing the LL waste stream profiles: since only current volumes were provided by LL, the final form volumes were assumed to be the same as the current volumes; the WTWBIR team had to assign identification numbers (IDs) to those LL waste streams not given an identifier by the site, the assigned identification numbers are consistent with the site reported numbers; LL Final Waste Form Groups were modified to be consistent with the nomenclature used in the WTWBID, these changes included word and spelling changes, the assigned Final Waste Form Groups are consistent with the information provided by LL; the volumes for the year 1993 were changed from an annual rate of generation (m{sup 3}/year) to a cumulative value (m{sup 3}).

  18. Application of three-dimensional digital image processing for reconstruction of microstructural volume from serial sections

    SciTech Connect

    Tewari, A.; Gokhale, A.M.

    2000-03-01

    Three-dimensional digital image processing is useful for reconstruction of microstructural volume from a stack of serial sections. Application of this technique is demonstrated via reconstruction of a volume segment of the liquid-phase sintered microstructure of a tungsten heavy alloy processed in the microgravity environment of NASA's space shuttle, Columbia. Ninety serial sections (approximately one micrometer apart) were used for reconstruction of the three-dimensional microstructure. The three-dimensional microstructural reconstruction clearly revealed that the tungsten grains are almost completely connected in three-dimensional space. Both the matrix and the grains are topologically co-continuous, although the alloy was liquid-phase sintered in microgravity. Therefore, absence of gravity did not produced a microstructure consisting of discrete isolated W grains uniformly dispersed in the liquid Ni-Fe alloy matrix at the sintering temperature.

  19. Characterization of volume holographic optical elements recorded in Bayfol HX photopolymer for solar photovoltaic applications.

    PubMed

    Marín-Sáez, Julia; Atencia, Jesús; Chemisana, Daniel; Collados, María-Victoria

    2016-03-21

    Volume Holographic Optical Elements (HOEs) present interesting characteristics for photovoltaic applications as they can select spectrum for concentrating the target bandwidth and avoiding non-desired wavelengths, which can cause the decrease of the performance on the cell, for instance by overheating it. Volume HOEs have been recorded on Bayfol HX photopolymer to test the suitability of this material for solar concentrating photovoltaic systems. The HOEs were recorded at 532 nm and provided a dynamic range, reaching close to 100% efficiency at 800 nm. The diffracted spectrum had a FWHM of 230 nm when illuminating at Bragg angle. These characteristics prove HOEs recorded on Bayfol HX photopolymer are suitable for concentrating solar light onto photovoltaic cells sensitive to that wavelength range.

  20. Principles and applications of imaging radar. Manual of remote sensing: Third edition, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, F.M.; Lewis, A.J.

    1998-12-31

    This second volume in the Third Edition of the Manual of Remote Sensing offers a current and comprehensive survey of the theory, methods, and applications of imaging radar for geoscientists, engineers and application scientists interested in the advantages of radar remote sensing. Produced under the auspices of the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, it brings together contributions from experts around the world to discuss the basic principles of imaging radars and trace the research activity--past, present, and future--across the many sciences where radar remote sensing may be applied. This book offers an invaluable snapshot of radar remote sensing technology, including radargrammetry, radar polarimetry and interferometry and its uses. It combines technical and procedural coverage of systems, data interpretation, and other fundamentals with generous coverage of practical applications in agriculture; forestry; soil moisture monitoring; geology; geomorphology and hydrology; oceanography; land use, land cover mapping and archeology.

  1. High internal free volume compositions for low-k dielectric and other applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swager, Timothy M. (Inventor); Bouffard, Jean (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention provides materials, devices, and methods involving new heterocyclic, shape-persistent monomeric units with internal free volume. In some cases, materials the present invention may comprise monomers, oligomers, or polymers that incorporate a heterocyclic, shape-persistent iptycene. The present invention may provide materials having low dielectric constants and improved stability at high operating temperatures due to the electron-poor character of materials. In addition, compositions of the invention may be easily synthesized and readily modified to suit a particular application.

  2. Horizontal oil well applications and oil recovery assessment. Volume 2: Applications overview, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Deskins, W.G.; McDonald, W.J.; Knoll, R.G.; Springer, S.J.

    1995-03-01

    Horizontal technology has been applied in over 110 formations in the USA. Volume 1 of this study addresses the overall success of horizontal technology, especially in less-publicized formations, i.e., other than the Austin Chalk, Bakken, and Niobrara. Operators in the USA and Canada were surveyed on a formation-by-formation basis by means of a questionnaire. Response data were received describing horizontal well projects in 58 formations in the USA and 88 in Canada. Operators` responses were analyzed for trends in technical and economic success based on lithology (clastics and carbonates) and resource type (light oil, heavy oil, and gas). The potential impact of horizontal technology on reserves was also estimated. A forecast of horizontal drilling activity over the next decade was developed.

  3. Packing and deploying Soft Origami to and from cylindrical volumes with application to automotive airbags.

    PubMed

    Bruton, Jared T; Nelson, Todd G; Zimmerman, Trent K; Fernelius, Janette D; Magleby, Spencer P; Howell, Larry L

    2016-09-01

    Packing soft-sheet materials of approximately zero bending stiffness using Soft Origami (origami patterns applied to soft-sheet materials) into cylindrical volumes and their deployment via mechanisms or internal pressure (inflation) is of interest in fields including automobile airbags, deployable heart stents, inflatable space habitats, and dirigible and parachute packing. This paper explores twofold patterns, the 'flasher' and the 'inverted-cone fold', for packing soft-sheet materials into cylindrical volumes. Two initial packing methods and mechanisms are examined for each of the flasher and inverted-cone fold patterns. An application to driver's side automobile airbags is performed, and deployment tests are completed to compare the influence of packing method and origami pattern on deployment performance. Following deployment tests, two additional packing methods for the inverted-cone fold pattern are explored and applied to automobile airbags. It is shown that modifying the packing method (using different methods to impose the same base pattern on the soft-sheet material) can lead to different deployment performance. In total, two origami patterns and six packing methods are examined, and the benefits of using Soft Origami patterns and packing methods are discussed. Soft Origami is presented as a viable method for efficiently packing soft-sheet materials into cylindrical volumes.

  4. Packing and deploying Soft Origami to and from cylindrical volumes with application to automotive airbags

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Todd G.; Zimmerman, Trent K.; Fernelius, Janette D.; Magleby, Spencer P.; Howell, Larry L.

    2016-01-01

    Packing soft-sheet materials of approximately zero bending stiffness using Soft Origami (origami patterns applied to soft-sheet materials) into cylindrical volumes and their deployment via mechanisms or internal pressure (inflation) is of interest in fields including automobile airbags, deployable heart stents, inflatable space habitats, and dirigible and parachute packing. This paper explores twofold patterns, the ‘flasher’ and the ‘inverted-cone fold’, for packing soft-sheet materials into cylindrical volumes. Two initial packing methods and mechanisms are examined for each of the flasher and inverted-cone fold patterns. An application to driver’s side automobile airbags is performed, and deployment tests are completed to compare the influence of packing method and origami pattern on deployment performance. Following deployment tests, two additional packing methods for the inverted-cone fold pattern are explored and applied to automobile airbags. It is shown that modifying the packing method (using different methods to impose the same base pattern on the soft-sheet material) can lead to different deployment performance. In total, two origami patterns and six packing methods are examined, and the benefits of using Soft Origami patterns and packing methods are discussed. Soft Origami is presented as a viable method for efficiently packing soft-sheet materials into cylindrical volumes. PMID:27703707

  5. Packing and deploying Soft Origami to and from cylindrical volumes with application to automotive airbags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruton, Jared T.; Nelson, Todd G.; Zimmerman, Trent K.; Fernelius, Janette D.; Magleby, Spencer P.; Howell, Larry L.

    2016-09-01

    Packing soft-sheet materials of approximately zero bending stiffness using Soft Origami (origami patterns applied to soft-sheet materials) into cylindrical volumes and their deployment via mechanisms or internal pressure (inflation) is of interest in fields including automobile airbags, deployable heart stents, inflatable space habitats, and dirigible and parachute packing. This paper explores twofold patterns, the `flasher' and the `inverted-cone fold', for packing soft-sheet materials into cylindrical volumes. Two initial packing methods and mechanisms are examined for each of the flasher and inverted-cone fold patterns. An application to driver's side automobile airbags is performed, and deployment tests are completed to compare the influence of packing method and origami pattern on deployment performance. Following deployment tests, two additional packing methods for the inverted-cone fold pattern are explored and applied to automobile airbags. It is shown that modifying the packing method (using different methods to impose the same base pattern on the soft-sheet material) can lead to different deployment performance. In total, two origami patterns and six packing methods are examined, and the benefits of using Soft Origami patterns and packing methods are discussed. Soft Origami is presented as a viable method for efficiently packing soft-sheet materials into cylindrical volumes.

  6. Development, Verification and Validation of Parallel, Scalable Volume of Fluid CFD Program for Propulsion Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, Jeff; Yang, H. Q.

    2014-01-01

    There are many instances involving liquid/gas interfaces and their dynamics in the design of liquid engine powered rockets such as the Space Launch System (SLS). Some examples of these applications are: Propellant tank draining and slosh, subcritical condition injector analysis for gas generators, preburners and thrust chambers, water deluge mitigation for launch induced environments and even solid rocket motor liquid slag dynamics. Commercially available CFD programs simulating gas/liquid interfaces using the Volume of Fluid approach are currently limited in their parallel scalability. In 2010 for instance, an internal NASA/MSFC review of three commercial tools revealed that parallel scalability was seriously compromised at 8 cpus and no additional speedup was possible after 32 cpus. Other non-interface CFD applications at the time were demonstrating useful parallel scalability up to 4,096 processors or more. Based on this review, NASA/MSFC initiated an effort to implement a Volume of Fluid implementation within the unstructured mesh, pressure-based algorithm CFD program, Loci-STREAM. After verification was achieved by comparing results to the commercial CFD program CFD-Ace+, and validation by direct comparison with data, Loci-STREAM-VoF is now the production CFD tool for propellant slosh force and slosh damping rate simulations at NASA/MSFC. On these applications, good parallel scalability has been demonstrated for problems sizes of tens of millions of cells and thousands of cpu cores. Ongoing efforts are focused on the application of Loci-STREAM-VoF to predict the transient flow patterns of water on the SLS Mobile Launch Platform in order to support the phasing of water for launch environment mitigation so that vehicle determinantal effects are not realized.

  7. Proceedings of the fourth international conference on remote sensing for marine and coastal environments. Technology and applications: Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The conference proceedings contain papers which focus on the application of remote sensing technology and geographic information systems to solve problems in marine and coastal environments. Sixty-nine papers were selected for the database from Volume 1 of the proceedings. The topics included in the proceedings are: natural resource management, coastal hazards, oceanographic applications, mapping and charting, data access, coastal ocean color, radar satellites/coastal radars, underwater remote sensing, and new sensors and systems. Subtopics of papers in Volume 1 include: oil spills and marine pollution; Florida ecosystems; air-sea interaction and sea ice; living resources; optics and models; hyperspectral sensors and applications; and charting and mapping.

  8. Multispectral scanner data applications evaluation. Volume 2: Sensor system study. [thematic mapper for earth resources application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The optimization of a thematic mapper for earth resources application is discussed in terms of cost versus performance. Performance tradeoffs and the cost impact are analyzed. The instrument design and radiometric performance are also described. The feasibility of a radiative cooler design for a scanning spectral radiometer is evaluated along with the charge coupled multiplex operation. Criteria for balancing the cost and complexity of data acquisition instruments against the requirements of the user, and a pushbroom scanner version of the thematic mapper are presented.

  9. Application of Hydrogel in Reconstruction Surgery: Hydrogel/Fat Graft Complex Filler for Volume Reconstruction in Critical Sized Muscle Defects

    PubMed Central

    Ip, W. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Autogenic fat graft usually suffers from degeneration and volume shrinkage in volume reconstruction applications. How to maintain graft viability and graft volume is an essential consideration in reconstruction therapies. In this presented investigation, a new fat graft transplantation method was developed aiming to improve long term graft viability and volume reconstruction effect by incorporation of hydrogel. The harvested fat graft is dissociated into small fragments and incorporated into a collagen based hydrogel to form a hydrogel/fat graft complex for volume reconstruction purpose. In vitro results indicate that the collagen based hydrogel can significantly improve the survivability of cells inside isolated graft. In a 6-month investigation on artificial created defect model, this hydrogel/fat graft complex filler has demonstrated the ability of promoting fat pad formation inside the targeted defect area. The newly generated fat pad can cover the whole defect and restore its original dimension in 6-month time point. Compared to simple fat transplantation, this hydrogel/fat graft complex system provides much improvement on long term volume restoration effect against degeneration and volume shrinkage. One notable effect is that there is continuous proliferation of adipose tissue throughout the 6-month period. In summary, the hydrogel/fat graft system presented in this investigation demonstrated a better and more significant effect on volume reconstruction in large sized volume defect than simple fat transplantation. PMID:27446947

  10. Wavelets in the solution of the volume integral equation: Application to eddy current modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, B.; Moulder, J.C.; Basart, J.P.

    1997-05-01

    There is growing interest in the applications of wavelets as basis functions in solutions of integral equations, especially in the area of electromagnetic field problems. In this article we apply a wavelet expansion to the solution of the three-dimensional eddy current modeling problem based on the volume integral method. Although this method shows promise for eddy current modeling of three-dimensional flaws, it is restricted by the computing power required to solve a large linear system. In this article we show that applying a wavelet basis to the volume integral method can dramatically reduce the size of the linear system to be solved. In our approach, the unknown total field is expressed as a twofold summation of shifted and dilated forms of a properly chosen basis function that is often referred to as the mother wavelet. The wavelet expansion can adaptively fit itself to the total field distribution by distributing the localized functions near the flaw boundary, where the field change is large, and the more spatially diffused functions over the interior of the flaw where the total field tends to be smooth. The approach is thus best suited to modeling large three-dimensional flaws where the large number of elements used in the volume integral method requires extremely large memory space and computational capacity. The feasibility of the wavelet method is discussed in the context of the physical nature of eddy-current modeling problems. Numerical examples using both Haar wavelets and Daubechies compactly supported wavelets with periodic extension are given. The results of the wavelet method are also compared with experimental results from a cylindrical flat-bottom hole in an aluminum plate. These numerical examples and comparisons indicate that the wavelet method can greatly reduce the numerical complexity of the problem with negligible loss in accuracy. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. Formation of superpower volume discharges and their application for modification of surface of metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasenko, Victor F.; Shulepov, M. A.

    2008-05-01

    The results of experimental investigations of a volume avalanche discharge initiated by an e-beam (VADIEB) and surface layer of Cu and AlBe foils modifications at the plasma action of VADIEB are given. The volume discharge in the air of atmosphere pressure formed in the gap with the cathode having small curvature radius and with high voltage pulses of nanosecond duration and positive and negative polarity. A supershort avalanche electron beam (SAEB) with formation conditions in gases under atmospheric pressure have been investigated. It is proved that the surface layer is cleared of carbon at foil treatment, and atoms of oxygen penetrate into a foil. It is show that the cleaning depth depends on polarity of voltage pulses. At positive polarity of a copper foil electrode the cleaning is observed at the depth over 50 nm, and atoms of oxygen penetrate at the depth up to 25 nm. Plasma of the superpower volume discharge of nanosecond duration with a specific excitation power of hundreds of MW/cm3, and SAEB, and the discharge plasma radiation of various spectral ranges (including UV, VUV and X-ray) has the influence on the anode. The supershort avalanche electronic beam is generated only at negative polarity of a voltage pulse on an electrode with a small radius of curvature. SAEB influence on modifications of the copper foil surface is registered. VADIEB is easily realized in various gases and at various pressures, and, at gas pressure decrease the density of the beam current in helium can achieve 2 kA/cm2. It allows predicting an opportunity of VADIEB application for metal surface modifications in various technological processes, and for surface dielectric modifications at the certain design of the anode.

  12. Wavelets in the solution of the volume integral equation: Application to eddy current modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bing; Moulder, John C.; Basart, John P.

    1997-05-01

    There is growing interest in the applications of wavelets as basis functions in solutions of integral equations, especially in the area of electromagnetic field problems. In this article we apply a wavelet expansion to the solution of the three-dimensional eddy current modeling problem based on the volume integral method. Although this method shows promise for eddy current modeling of three-dimensional flaws, it is restricted by the computing power required to solve a large linear system. In this article we show that applying a wavelet basis to the volume integral method can dramatically reduce the size of the linear system to be solved. In our approach, the unknown total field is expressed as a twofold summation of shifted and dilated forms of a properly chosen basis function that is often referred to as the mother wavelet. The wavelet expansion can adaptively fit itself to the total field distribution by distributing the localized functions near the flaw boundary, where the field change is large, and the more spatially diffused functions over the interior of the flaw where the total field tends to be smooth. The approach is thus best suited to modeling large three-dimensional flaws where the large number of elements used in the volume integral method requires extremely large memory space and computational capacity. The feasibility of the wavelet method is discussed in the context of the physical nature of eddy-current modeling problems. Numerical examples using both Haar wavelets and Daubechies compactly supported wavelets with periodic extension are given. The results of the wavelet method are also compared with experimental results from a cylindrical flat-bottom hole in an aluminum plate. These numerical examples and comparisons indicate that the wavelet method can greatly reduce the numerical complexity of the problem with negligible loss in accuracy.

  13. Application of a photogrammetric kinematic model for prediction of lung volumes in adolescents: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There are several ways to measure the respiratory system, among them inductance plethysmography and three-dimensional kinematic analysis, methods of high cost and difficult transportability. The objective of this study was to correlate respiratory volumes obtained by spirometry standard equipment with a biomechanical model photogrammetric analysis of adolescents. Methods We evaluated 50 subjects of both genders, aged between 14 and 17 years old, excluding those with respiratory obstruction or restriction. Stickers with markers, there was a five-point mapping for anatomical modeling and photogrammetry, with each evaluated in supine position, was sought to test the Forced Vital Capacity (FVC). The test was filmed and repeated three times. Images of the films were extracted for the moment of maximum exhalation and inhalation of proof with better breathing. With the use of a commercial software, defined the respiratory volumes to the thorax and abdomen. Results The photogrammetric analysis has found values strongly correlated with the spirometric measurements of FVC (0.812), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 – 0.708), Peak Expiratory Flow (PEF – 0.762) in addition to post test performed Inspiration (IP- 0.816). There was a higher ventilatory mobility for boys than girls for Lower Chest and Lower and Upper Abdomen. It was possible to reach a regression R2 = 0.866 for proof of FVC and R2 = 0.776 for IP with the use of photogrammetry, presenting a standard error of 0.353 and 0.451, respectively. Conclusions Photogrammetry can be used to study thoracoabdominal movements by applying analytical two-dimensional and three-dimensional images acquired using a video camera being, applicable and reproducible. PMID:24571595

  14. Multiplexed Volume Bragg Gratings in Narrowand Broad-band Spectral Systems: Analysis and Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingersoll, Gregory B.

    Volume Bragg gratings (VBGs) are important holographic optical elements in many spectral systems. Using multiple volume gratings, whether multiplexed or arranged sequentially, provides advantages to many types of systems in overall efficiency, dispersion performance, flexibility of design, etc. However, the use of multiple gratings---particularly when the gratings are multiplexed in a single holographic optical element (HOE)---is subject to inter-grating coupling effects that ultimately limit system performance. Analyzing these coupling effects requires a more complex mathematical model than the straightforward analysis of a single volume grating. We present a matrix-based algorithm for determining diffraction efficiencies of significant coupled waves in these multiplexed grating holographic optical elements (HOEs). Several carefully constructed experiments with spectrally multiplexed gratings in dichromated gelatin verify our conclusions. Applications of this theory to broad- and narrow-band systems are explored in detailed simulations. Broadband systems include spectrum splitters for diverse-bandgap photovoltaic (PV) cells. Volume Bragg gratings can serve as effective spectrum splitters, but the inherent dispersion of a VBG can be detrimental given a broad-spectrum input. The performance of a holographic spectrum splitter element can be improved by utilizing multiple volume gratings, each operating in a slightly different spectral band. However, care must be taken to avoid inter-grating coupling effects that limit ultimate performance. We explore broadband multi-grating holographic optical elements (HOEs) in sandwiched arrangements where individual single-grating HOEs are placed in series, and in multiplexed arrangements where multiple gratings are recorded in a single HOE. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is used to tailor these systems to the solar spectrum taking into account both efficiency and dispersion. Both multiplexed and sandwiched two-grating systems

  15. Application of Local Discretization Methods in the NASA Finite-Volume General Circulation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, Kao-San; Lin, Shian-Jiann; Rood, Richard B.

    2002-01-01

    We present the basic ideas of the dynamics system of the finite-volume General Circulation Model developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center for climate simulations and other applications in meteorology. The dynamics of this model is designed with emphases on conservative and monotonic transport, where the property of Lagrangian conservation is used to maintain the physical consistency of the computational fluid for long-term simulations. As the model benefits from the noise-free solutions of monotonic finite-volume transport schemes, the property of Lagrangian conservation also partly compensates the accuracy of transport for the diffusion effects due to the treatment of monotonicity. By faithfully maintaining the fundamental laws of physics during the computation, this model is able to achieve sufficient accuracy for the global consistency of climate processes. Because the computing algorithms are based on local memory, this model has the advantage of efficiency in parallel computation with distributed memory. Further research is yet desirable to reduce the diffusion effects of monotonic transport for better accuracy, and to mitigate the limitation due to fast-moving gravity waves for better efficiency.

  16. Environmental fate model for ultra-low-volume insecticide applications used for adult mosquito management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schleier, Jerome J.; Peterson, Robert K.D.; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Marshall, Lucy M.; Weaver, David K.; Preftakes, Collin J.

    2012-01-01

    One of the more effective ways of managing high densities of adult mosquitoes that vector human and animal pathogens is ultra-low-volume (ULV) aerosol applications of insecticides. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency uses models that are not validated for ULV insecticide applications and exposure assumptions to perform their human and ecological risk assessments. Currently, there is no validated model that can accurately predict deposition of insecticides applied using ULV technology for adult mosquito management. In addition, little is known about the deposition and drift of small droplets like those used under conditions encountered during ULV applications. The objective of this study was to perform field studies to measure environmental concentrations of insecticides and to develop a validated model to predict the deposition of ULV insecticides. The final regression model was selected by minimizing the Bayesian Information Criterion and its prediction performance was evaluated using k-fold cross validation. Density of the formulation and the density and CMD interaction coefficients were the largest in the model. The results showed that as density of the formulation decreases, deposition increases. The interaction of density and CMD showed that higher density formulations and larger droplets resulted in greater deposition. These results are supported by the aerosol physics literature. A k-fold cross validation demonstrated that the mean square error of the selected regression model is not biased, and the mean square error and mean square prediction error indicated good predictive ability.

  17. Moving control volume analysis of compressible flow-structure interactions - An application to sustained vocal folds vibration in glottis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lucy; Yang, Jubiao; Krane, Michael

    2016-11-01

    The fundamental mechanism of a self-sustained vibration can be analyzed and explained using a moving control volume analysis. In contrast to the conventional "textbook" derivation of control volume analysis, this work shows the derivation of a moving control volume based the "first principles" of physics where the control volume changes its size and location with time. This generalized derivation is demonstrated in a framework for compressible flow-structure interactions where the structure moves and deforms in a compressible fluid medium, e.g. air, within a control volume. The moving control volume analysis helps explain self-sustained vibrations of structures in fluid. An application to the vocal folds vibration in glottis is studied, where the interaction between laryngeal airflow and vocal folds are successfully simulated using the modified Immersed Finite Element Method (mIFEM), a fully coupled approach to simulate fluid-structure interactions. Control volume equations are derived for compressible airflow in a moving control volume in the vicinity of the moving vocal folds. Utilization of mechanical energy is evaluated to understand how vocal folds vibration is self-sustained. We acknowledge the funding support of NIH 2R01DC005642-10A1.

  18. ATHOS: a computer program for thermal-hydraulic analysis of steam generators. Volume 4. Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Singhal, A.K.; Keeton, L.W.; Przekwas, A.J.; Weems, J.S.

    1984-08-01

    Purpose of this volume is to consolidate the description of all code qualification and verification applications. These have been divided into five categories: code checkout studies, parametric calculations, simulations of small-scale experiments, model steam generator simulations, and full-scale operating steam generator simulations. Findings can be summarized as follows: Agreement with available experimental data is generally good. Agreement with experimental data is always better when employing the algebraic-slip (rather than homogeneous) flow model. Consistent and plausible trends are found in all parametric studies undertaken. Agreement with experiment is generally not as good for low-power-levl cases (less than 50%). This indicates that further study of empirical correlations is needed, particularly for low-power-level calculations. Several model improvements and further developments are identified and suggested for future implementation.

  19. Microwave remote sensing: Active and passive. Volume 3 - From theory to applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulaby, F. T.; Moore, R. K.; Fung, A. K.

    1986-01-01

    Aspects of volume scattering and emission theory are discussed, taking into account a weakly scattering medium, the Born approximation, first-order renormalization, the radiative transfer method, and the matrix-doubling method. Other topics explored are related to scatterometers and probing systems, the passive microwave sensing of the atmosphere, the passive microwave sensing of the ocean, the passive microwave sensing of land, the active microwave sensing of land, and radar remote sensing applications. Attention is given to inversion techniques, atmospheric attenuation and emission, a temperature profile retrieval from ground-based observations, mapping rainfall rates, the apparent temperature of the sea, the emission behavior of bare soil surfaces, the emission behavior of vegetation canopies, the emission behavior of snow, wind-vector radar scatterometry, radar measurements of sea ice, and the back-scattering behavior of cultural vegetation canopies.

  20. Impacts of ultra-low volume resmethrin applications on non-target insects.

    PubMed

    Oberhauser, Karen S; Manweiler, Stephen A; Lelich, Rosemary; Blank, Meredith; Batalden, Rebecca V; de Anda, Alma

    2009-03-01

    We studied the impacts of exposure to ultra-low volume (ULV) applications of resmethrin (Scourge) on monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) larvae and adults. In a series of 3 experiments, we measured short- and long-term survival of monarch larvae and adults, and the impacts of consuming previously exposed host plants on monarch larvae. We measured efficacy during all experiments with caged sentinel mosquitoes, and during Experiments 1 and 2 with pretreatment, treatment, and posttreatment measurements of mosquito abundance in CO2 traps. Downwind monarch larval and adult mortality were higher than upwind or control mortality up to 120 m, but not 170 m, from the spray path. In 1 experiment, monarchs exposed to spray as larvae developed into smaller adults, suggesting sublethal impacts. Milkweed host plants sprayed 1, but not 2 or 4 days previously, resulted in increased monarch larval mortality. Sentinel mosquito mortality was generally high, and CO2 traps revealed substantially lower mosquito abundance immediately after the treatment (>90% reduction) but <20% reduction 24 h after treatment. Our results suggest that ULV resmethrin applications will impact lepidopteran larvae and adults that are directly exposed to the spray but that generalizations about other nontarget taxa will require additional research. The magnitude of population-level impacts on monarchs will depend on the proportion of the population that is exposed.

  1. Stenosis map for volume visualization of constricted tubular structures: Application to coronary artery stenosis.

    PubMed

    Yun, Jihye; Kim, Yeo Koon; Chun, Eun Ju; Shin, Yeong-Gil; Lee, Jeongjin; Kim, Bohyoung

    2016-02-01

    Although direct volume rendering (DVR) has become a commodity, effective rendering of interesting features is still a challenge. In one of active DVR application fields, the medicine, radiologists have used DVR for the diagnosis of lesions or diseases that should be visualized distinguishably from other surrounding anatomical structures. One of most frequent and important radiologic tasks is the detection of lesions, usually constrictions, in complex tubular structures. In this paper, we propose a 3D spatial field for the effective visualization of constricted tubular structures, called as a stenosis map which stores the degree of constriction at each voxel. Constrictions within tubular structures are quantified by using newly proposed measures (i.e. line similarity measure and constriction measure) based on the localized structure analysis, and classified with a proposed transfer function mapping the degree of constriction to color and opacity. We show the application results of our method to the visualization of coronary artery stenoses. We present performance evaluations using twenty eight clinical datasets, demonstrating high accuracy and efficacy of our proposed method. The ability of our method to saliently visualize the constrictions within tubular structures and interactively adjust the visual appearance of the constrictions proves to deliver a substantial aid in radiologic practice.

  2. The Institute for Mathematics and its Applications. Volume 68, Flow Control,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    Calvin Wilcox Volume 33: Directions in Robust Statistics and Diagnostics: Part I Editors: Wernepr A . Stahel and Sanford Weisberg Volume 341: Directions in...Volume 50: Conibinatorial andi Graph ’I heorelic Probiprii’s in Linear Algebra Editors: Richard A . Brualdi. Shniul- Fricedland, and Victor TKlr Volumne 51...Kinderlehrer, Richard Jamm. Mitchell Luskin. and Jerry L. Erickvcn Volume 55: Turbulence in Fluid Flows: A Dynamical Systems Approach Editors: George R

  3. Personnel neutron dose assessment upgrade: Volume 2, Field neutron spectrometer for health physics applications

    SciTech Connect

    Brackenbush, L.W.; Reece, W.D.; Miller, S.D.; Endres, G.W.R.; Durham, J.S.; Scherpelz, R.I.; Tomeraasen, P.L.; Stroud, C.M.; Faust, L.G.; Vallario, E.J.

    1988-07-01

    Both the (ICRP) and the (NCPR) have recommended an increase in neutron quality factors and the adoption of effective dose equivalent methods. The series of reports entitled Personnel Neutron Dose Assessment Upgrade (PNL-6620) addresses these changes. Volume 1 in this series of reports (Personnel Neutron Dosimetry Assessment) provided guidance on the characteristics, use, and calibration of personnel neutron dosimeters in order to meet the new recommendations. This report, Volume 2: Field Neutron Spectrometer for Health Physics Applications describes the development of a portable field spectrometer which can be set up for use in a few minutes by a single person. The field spectrometer described herein represents a significant advance in improving the accuracy of neutron dose assessment. It permits an immediate analysis of the energy spectral distribution associated with the radiation from which neutron quality factor can be determined. It is now possible to depart from the use of maximum Q by determining and realistically applying a lower Q based on spectral data. The field spectrometer is made up of two modules: a detector module with built-in electronics and an analysis module with a IBM PC/reg sign/-compatible computer to control the data acquisition and analysis of data in the field. The unit is simple enough to allow the operator to perform spectral measurements with minimal training. The instrument is intended for use in steady-state radiation fields with neutrons energies covering the fission spectrum range. The prototype field spectrometer has been field tested in plutonium processing facilities, and has been proven to operate satisfactorily. The prototype field spectrometer uses a /sup 3/He proportional counter to measure the neutron energy spectrum between 50 keV and 5 MeV and a tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) to measure absorbed neutron dose.

  4. Accurate Automatic Delineation of Heterogeneous Functional Volumes in Positron Emission Tomography for Oncology Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hatt, Mathieu; Cheze le Rest, Catherine; Descourt, Patrice; Dekker, Andre; De Ruysscher, Dirk; Oellers, Michel; Lambin, Philippe; Pradier, Olivier; Visvikis, Dimitris

    2010-05-01

    Purpose: Accurate contouring of positron emission tomography (PET) functional volumes is now considered crucial in image-guided radiotherapy and other oncology applications because the use of functional imaging allows for biological target definition. In addition, the definition of variable uptake regions within the tumor itself may facilitate dose painting for dosimetry optimization. Methods and Materials: Current state-of-the-art algorithms for functional volume segmentation use adaptive thresholding. We developed an approach called fuzzy locally adaptive Bayesian (FLAB), validated on homogeneous objects, and then improved it by allowing the use of up to three tumor classes for the delineation of inhomogeneous tumors (3-FLAB). Simulated and real tumors with histology data containing homogeneous and heterogeneous activity distributions were used to assess the algorithm's accuracy. Results: The new 3-FLAB algorithm is able to extract the overall tumor from the background tissues and delineate variable uptake regions within the tumors, with higher accuracy and robustness compared with adaptive threshold (T{sub bckg}) and fuzzy C-means (FCM). 3-FLAB performed with a mean classification error of less than 9% +- 8% on the simulated tumors, whereas binary-only implementation led to errors of 15% +- 11%. T{sub bckg} and FCM led to mean errors of 20% +- 12% and 17% +- 14%, respectively. 3-FLAB also led to more robust estimation of the maximum diameters of tumors with histology measurements, with <6% standard deviation, whereas binary FLAB, T{sub bckg} and FCM lead to 10%, 12%, and 13%, respectively. Conclusion: These encouraging results warrant further investigation in future studies that will investigate the impact of 3-FLAB in radiotherapy treatment planning, diagnosis, and therapy response evaluation.

  5. Applications of on-product diffraction-based focus metrology in logic high volume manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noyes, Ben F.; Mokaberi, Babak; Bolton, David; Li, Chen; Palande, Ashwin; Park, Kevin; Noot, Marc; Kea, Marc

    2016-03-01

    The integration of on-product diffraction-based focus (DBF) capability into the majority of immersion lithography layers in leading edge logic manufacturing has enabled new applications targeted towards improving cycle time and yield. A CD-based detection method is the process of record (POR) for excursion detection. The drawback of this method is increased cycle time and limited sampling due to CD-SEM metrology capacity constraints. The DBFbased method allows the addition of focus metrology samples to the existing overlay measurements on the integrated metrology (IM) system. The result enables the addition of measured focus to the SPC system, allowing a faster excursion detection method. For focus targeting, the current method involves using a dedicated focus-exposure matrix (FEM) on all scanners, resulting in lengthy analysis times and uncertainty in the best focus. The DBF method allows the measurement to occur on the IM system, on a regular production wafer, and at the same time as the exposure. This results in a cycle time gain as well as a less subjective determination of best focus. A third application aims to use the novel onproduct focus metrology data in order to apply per-exposure focus corrections to the scanner. These corrections are particularly effective at the edge of the wafer, where systematic layer-dependent effects can be removed using DBFbased scanner feedback. This paper will discuss the development of a methodology to accomplish each of these applications in a high-volume production environment. The new focus metrology method, sampling schemes, feedback mechanisms and analysis methods lead to improved focus control, as well as earlier detection of failures.

  6. An AC drive system for a battery driven moped

    SciTech Connect

    Nandi, S.; Saha, S.; Sharon, M.; Sundersingh, V.P.

    1995-12-31

    A petrol driven moped is converted to an electric one by replacing the petrol engine by a three phase 1.5 HR, AC squirrel cage induction motor drive system. The motor voltage rating selected is 200 V to keep the DC boost voltage level to a reasonable value.f the power source used is a high energy density, 24 V, 110 Ah, Ni-Zn battery. A modified indirect current controlled step-up chopper as well as a standard push-pull DC-DC boost converter is studied for the boost scheme. A simple three phase quasi-square wave inverter is designed along with suitable protection for driving the motor. Successful trial test of the system has been conducted at the laboratory.

  7. Application Level Protocol Development for Library and Information Science Applications. Volume 1: Service Definition. Volume 2: Protocol Specification. Report No. TG.1.5; TG.50.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aagaard, James S.; And Others

    This two-volume document specifies a protocol that was developed using the Reference Model for Open Systems Interconnection (OSI), which provides a framework for communications within a heterogeneous network environment. The protocol implements the features necessary for bibliographic searching, record maintenance, and mail transfer between…

  8. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B permit application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)]. Volume 1, Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    This volume includes the following chapters: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant RCRA A permit application; facility description; waste analysis plan; groundwater monitoring; procedures to prevent hazards; RCRA contingency plan; personnel training; corrective action for solid waste management units; and other Federal laws.

  9. Electrochemistry in Colloids and Dispersions. Volume 1. Electroanalytical Methods and Applications, Electrosynthesis and Electrocatalysis, Polymers and Latexes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-04

    Volume I ELECTROANALY1ICAL METHODS AND APPLICATIONS ELECTROSYNTHESIS AND ELECTROCATALYSIS POLYMERS AND LATEXES This document hias been approved for...distribution, diffusion, and transport, electrosynthesis and electrocatalysis , polymers and latexes, and colloidal metals and semiconductors. 3 This report... ELECTROCATALYSIS 6. Electrochemical catalysis in surfactant mediaI James F. Rusling, Naifei Hu, Heping Zhang, David Howe, Chang-ling Miaw, and Eric Couture

  10. Application of a dry-gas meter for measuring air sample volumes in an ambient air monitoring network

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, Brad G.

    2009-05-24

    Ambient air monitoring for non-research applications (e.g. compliance) occurs at locations throughout the world. Often, the air sampling systems employed for these purposes employee simple yet robust equipment capable of handling the rigors of demanding sampling schedules. At the Hanford Site (near Richland, Washington) concentrations of radionuclides in ambient air are monitored continuously at 44 locations. In 2004, mechanical dry-gas meters were incorporated into the Hanford Site ambient air sample collection system to allow the direct measurement of sample volumes. These meters replaced a portable airflow measurement system that required two manual flow measurements and a sample duration measurement to determine sample volume. A six-month evaluation of the dry-gas meters compared sample volumes calculated using the original flow rate method to the direct sample volume measurement (new method). The results of the evaluation indicate that use of the dry-gas meters result in accurate sample volume measurements and provide greater confidence in the measured sample volumes. In several years of in-network use, the meters have proven to be reliable and have resulted in an improved sampling system.

  11. A next-generation optical surface form inspection instrument for high-volume production applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bills, Richard; Freischlad, Klaus

    Despite the introduction of phase-shifting interferometers in the 1980's, high volume catalog and camera production lenses are still inspected using qualitative visual fringe inspection methods. This error-prone inspection technique requires the human operator to quickly judge whether the lens "passes" or "fails" based on the appearance of the fringes. Although this method is sufficient for optics with < 0.25 wave of surface figure irregularity, it is not sensitive enough to properly inspect surfaces in the increasingly common 0.1 wave regime. Furthermore, as visual fringe inspection is not quantitative, it does not produce the statistical surface measurement data that is necessary to monitor and optimize production polish process yields. To overcome these disadvantages, we have developed a robust, quantitative lens surface inspection instrument. A compact, user-friendly, and economical 60 mm aperture Fizeau interferometer directly addresses production optical test applications, providing rapid vibration-robust optical surface measurements of P-V irregularity, RMS irregularity, astigmatism magnitude, and power via a simple touch-screen interface. Pass/Fail criteria are applied to these values, enabling accurate and repeatable sorting of production optics based on these quantitative values and eliminating human interpretive error. Batch statistics are also displayed and stored for customer inspection reports and rapid polish process feedback. This paper will also describe how next-generation Fizeau interferometers serve as part of a total optical production process improvement strategy.

  12. Lung Volume Reduction After Stereotactic Ablative Radiation Therapy of Lung Tumors: Potential Application to Emphysema

    SciTech Connect

    Binkley, Michael S.; Shrager, Joseph B.; Leung, Ann N.; Popat, Rita; Trakul, Nicholas; Atwood, Todd F.; Chaudhuri, Aadel; Maxim, Peter G.; Diehn, Maximilian; Loo, Billy W.

    2014-09-01

    Purpose: Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) improves dyspnea and other outcomes in selected patients with severe emphysema, but many have excessive surgical risk for LVRS. We analyzed the dose-volume relationship for lobar volume reduction after stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR) of lung tumors, hypothesizing that SABR could achieve therapeutic volume reduction if applied in emphysema. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively identified patients treated from 2007 to 2011 who had SABR for 1 lung tumor, pre-SABR pulmonary function testing, and ≥6 months computed tomographic (CT) imaging follow-up. We contoured the treated lobe and untreated adjacent lobe(s) on CT before and after SABR and calculated their volume changes relative to the contoured total (bilateral) lung volume (TLV). We correlated lobar volume reduction with the volume receiving high biologically effective doses (BED, α/β = 3). Results: 27 patients met the inclusion criteria, with a median CT follow-up time of 14 months. There was no grade ≥3 toxicity. The median volume reduction of the treated lobe was 4.4% of TLV (range, −0.4%-10.8%); the median expansion of the untreated adjacent lobe was 2.6% of TLV (range, −3.9%-11.6%). The volume reduction of the treated lobe was positively correlated with the volume receiving BED ≥60 Gy (r{sup 2}=0.45, P=.0001). This persisted in subgroups determined by high versus low pre-SABR forced expiratory volume in 1 second, treated lobe CT emphysema score, number of fractions, follow-up CT time, central versus peripheral location, and upper versus lower lobe location, with no significant differences in effect size between subgroups. Volume expansion of the untreated adjacent lobe(s) was positively correlated with volume reduction of the treated lobe (r{sup 2}=0.47, P<.0001). Conclusions: We identified a dose-volume response for treated lobe volume reduction and adjacent lobe compensatory expansion after lung tumor SABR, consistent across

  13. New Applications for ARPANET Developed Information Processing Technology. Volume 1. On the Automation of the Procurement Process: Present Status, Feasibility for Improvements, Proposed Next Steps, and Payoffs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-02-03

    AD/A-006 900 NEW APPLICATIONS FOR ARPANET DEVELOPED INFORMATION PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY , VOLUME I. ON THE AUTOMATION OF THE PROCUREMENT PROCESS...RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER AD///- CLü± C/6ö 4 TITLE (end Subiin») NEW APPLICATIONS FOR ARPANET DEVEL- OPED INFORMATION PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY -- VOLUME

  14. New Applications for ARPANET Developed Information Processing Technology. Volume 2. Security in the Automated Procurement Process; Secrecy vs. Efficiency: A Legal Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-02-03

    ÜP* AD/A-006 901 NEW APPLICATIONS FOR ARPANET DEVELOPED INFORMATION PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY , VOLUME XI. SECURITY IN THE AUTOMATED PROCUREMENT...RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER R-171 AV/A-COA 9ot «. TiTLCraKMMM*) j^ APPLICATIONS POR ARPANET DEVEL- OPED INFORMATION PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY — VOLUME II

  15. Application of one-compartmental bio-metric blood loss calculations with transfused blood volume taken into account after aneurysmectomy.

    PubMed

    Božičković, Nataša; Popović, Jovan; Kolak, Radmila; Popović, Kosta; Popović, Dušica

    2011-06-01

    Blood loss can be measured directly and indirectly. The latter reflects blood loss through the assessment of hemoglobin level. Thus aim of this study was to determine the applicability of the drop in hemoglobin levels blood loss calculation when transfused blood volume is taken into account on the patients who underwent aneurysmectomy and to estimate whether this model is applicable on geriatric population. In this study, 14 patients were included and their blood loss was calculated based on hemoglobin concentration. Linear correlation (y = 0.18467 + 1.19315·x) with high correlation coefficient (r = 0.90809) was found between calculated and collected blood loss only if transfused blood volume was taken into account. The coefficient of the regression slope for the blood volume measured during surgery and the calculated blood loss in eight patients ≤65 years (y = 0.90866 + 0.86296·x) and six patients >65 years (y = 0.0299 + 1.32707·x) did not show any significant difference. The applicability of the indirect measurement of surgical blood loss, when transfused blood volume was taken into account, was demonstrated in both populations, in the age of 65 and less and in the age over 65 years after aneurysmectomy.

  16. Energy-state formulation of lumped volume dynamic equations with application to a simplified free piston Stirling engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniele, C. J.; Lorenzo, C. F.

    1979-01-01

    Lumped volume dynamic equations are derived using an energy state formulation. This technique requires that kinetic and potential energy state functions be written for the physical system being investigated. To account for losses in the system, a Rayleigh dissipation function is formed. Using these functions, a Lagrangian is formed and using Lagrange's equation, the equations of motion for the system are derived. The results of the application of this technique to a lumped volume are used to derive a model for the free piston Stirling engine. The model was simplified and programmed on an analog computer. Results are given comparing the model response with experimental data.

  17. Energy-state formulation of lumped volume dynamic equations with application to a simplified free piston Stirling engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniele, C. J.; Lorenzo, C. F.

    1979-01-01

    Lumped volume dynamic equations are derived using an energy-state formulation. This technique requires that kinetic and potential energy state functions be written for the physical system being investigated. To account for losses in the system, a Rayleigh dissipation function is also formed. Using these functions, a Lagrangian is formed and using Lagrange's equation, the equations of motion for the system are derived. The results of the application of this technique to a lumped volume are used to derive a model for the free-piston Stirling engine. The model was simplified and programmed on an analog computer. Results are given comparing the model response with experimental data.

  18. Application of Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Measure Fasting and Postprandial Volumes in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Fidler, Jeff; Bharucha, Adil E.; Camilleri, Michael; Camp, Jon; Burton, Duane; Grimm, Roger; Riederer, Stephen J.; Robb, Richard A.; Zinsmeister, Alan R.

    2008-01-01

    Our aims were to measure the gastric volume response in excess of ingested meal volume (i.e., gastric accommodation), contribution of swallowed air to this excess, day-to-day variability of gastric volumes measured by MRI and their relationship to volumes measured by single-photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT). In 20 healthy volunteers, fasting and postprandial gastric volumes were measured after technetium99m-pertechnetate labeling of the gastric mucosa by SPECT and separately by MRI, using 3D gradient echo and 2D half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin echo (HASTE) sequences. Ten of these subjects had a second MRI exam to assess intra-individual variation. Thereafter, another 10 subjects had 2 MRI studies during which they ingested the nutrient in 30 or 150 mL aliquots. During MRI, the postprandial gastric volume change exceeded the ingested meal volume by 106 ± 12 mL (Mean ± SEM). The HASTE and gradient echo sequences distinguished air from fluid under fasting and postprandial conditions respectively. This postprandial excess mainly comprised air (61 ± 5 mL), which was not significantly different when ingested as 30 mL or 150 mL aliquots. Fasting and postprandial gastric volumes measured by MRI were generally reproducible within subjects. During SPECT, postprandial volumes increased by 158 ± 18 mL; gastric volumes measured by SPECT were higher than MRI. MRI measures gastric volumes with acceptable performance characteristics; the postprandial excess primarily consists of air, which is not affected by the mode of ingestion. Gastric volumes are technique specific and differ between MRI and SPECT. PMID:19019018

  19. Assessment of research needs for advanced heterogeneous catalysts for energy applications. Final report: Volume 1, Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, G.A.

    1994-04-01

    This report assesses the direction, technical content, and priority of research needs judged to provide the best chance of yielding new and improved heterogeneous catalysts for energy-related applications over a period of 5--20 years. It addresses issues of energy conservation, alternate fuels and feedstocks, and the economics and applications that could alleviate pollution from energy processes. Recommended goals are defined in 3 major, closely linked research thrusts: catalytic science, environmental protection by catalysis, and industrial catalytic applications. This volume provides a comprehensive executive summary, including research recommendations.

  20. Comparison of different methods of cell lysis and protein measurements in Clostridium perfringens: application to the cell volume determination.

    PubMed

    Guerlava, P; Izac, V; Tholozan, J L

    1998-03-01

    Four cell lysis methods (NaOH-SDS solubilization, French press treatment, sonication, mutanolysin treatment) and three methods of protein assays (Lowry, Bradford, Pierce) were studied for their applicability to determination of cell volume in Clostridium perfringens NCTC 8798 cell suspensions. Protein contents were higher after a mechanical disruption of the cells than with the other techniques of lysis. The lowest concentrations of protein were obtained with the Bradford procedure. With each of the three protein assay methods, Clostridium perfringens NCTC 8798 protein cell contents were 45% to 58% of protein. Other factors possibly involved in variations of the intracellular volume measurements were examined. A control of the level of protein concentration in the test sample and the type of silicone oil used for the centrifugation were of prime importance during sample preparation. Under our conditions, an intracellular volume of 4 microl/(mg of protein) was routinely found for Clostridium perfringens NCTC 8798.

  1. Computing n-Dimensional Volumes of Complexes: Application to Constructive Entropy Bounds

    SciTech Connect

    Beiu, Valeriu; Makaruk, Hanna E.

    1997-12-31

    Constructive bounds on the needed number-of-bits (entropy) for solving a dichotomy problem can be represented by a quotient of two volumes of multidimensional solids. Exact methods for the calculation of these volumes are presented. They lead to a tighter lower bound on the needed number-of-bits than the ones previously known.

  2. Hydration and blood volume effects on human thermoregulation in the heat: Space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawka, Michael N.; Gonzalez, Richard R.; Pandolf, Kent B.

    1994-01-01

    Astronauts exposed to prolonged weightlessness will experience deconditioning, dehydration, and hypovolemia which all adversely affect thermoregulation. These thermoregulatory problems can be minimized by several countermeasures that manipulate body water and vascular volumes. USARIEM scientists have extensively studied dehydration effects and several possible countermeasures including hyperhydration, plasma and erythrocyte volume expansion. This paper reviews USARIEM research into these areas.

  3. The application of the principle of conserved myocardium volume in guiding automated chamber estimation in mouse cardiac imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garson, Christopher D.; Li, Bing; Hossack, John A.

    2007-03-01

    Active contours have been used in a wide variety of image processing applications due to their ability to effectively distinguish image boundaries with limited user input. In this paper, we consider 3D gradient vector field (GVF) active surfaces and their application in the determination of the volume of the mouse heart left ventricle. The accuracy and efficacy of a 3D active surface is strongly dependent upon the selection of several parameters, corresponding to the tension and rigidity of the active surface and the weight of the GVF. However, selection of these parameters is often subjective and iterative. We observe that the volume of the cardiac muscle is, to a good approximation, conserved through the cardiac cycle. Therefore, we propose using the degree of conservation of heart muscle volume as a metric for assessing optimality of a particular set of active surface parameters. A synthetic dataset consisting of nested ellipsoids of known volume was constructed. The outer ellipsoid contracted over time to imitate a heart cycle, and the inner ellipsoid compensated to maintain constant volume. The segmentation algorithm was also investigated in vivo using B-mode data sets obtained by scanning the hearts of three separate mice. Active surfaces were initialized using a broad range of values for each of the parameters under consideration. Conservation of volume was a useful predictor of the efficacy of the model for the range of values tested for the GVF weighting parameter, though it was less effective at predicting the efficacy of the active surface tension and rigidity parameters.

  4. Applications of a finite-volume algorithm for incompressible MHD problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vantieghem, S.; Sheyko, A.; Jackson, A.

    2016-02-01

    We present the theory, algorithms and implementation of a parallel finite-volume algorithm for the solution of the incompressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations using unstructured grids that are applicable for a wide variety of geometries. Our method implements a mixed Adams-Bashforth/Crank-Nicolson scheme for the nonlinear terms in the MHD equations and we prove that it is stable independent of the time step. To ensure that the solenoidal condition is met for the magnetic field, we use a method whereby a pseudo-pressure is introduced into the induction equation; since we are concerned with incompressible flows, the resulting Poisson equation for the pseudo-pressure is solved alongside the equivalent Poisson problem for the velocity field. We validate our code in a variety of geometries including periodic boxes, spheres, spherical shells, spheroids and ellipsoids; for the finite geometries we implement the so-called ferromagnetic or pseudo-vacuum boundary conditions appropriate for a surrounding medium with infinite magnetic permeability. This implies that the magnetic field must be purely perpendicular to the boundary. We present a number of comparisons against previous results and against analytical solutions, which verify the code's accuracy. This documents the code's reliability as a prelude to its use in more difficult problems. We finally present a new simple drifting solution for thermal convection in a spherical shell that successfully sustains a magnetic field of simple geometry. By dint of its rapid stabilization from the given initial conditions, we deem it suitable as a benchmark against which other self-consistent dynamo codes can be tested.

  5. A simple method for the production of large volume 3D macroporous hydrogels for advanced biotechnological, medical and environmental applications

    PubMed Central

    Savina, Irina N.; Ingavle, Ganesh C.; Cundy, Andrew B.; Mikhalovsky, Sergey V.

    2016-01-01

    The development of bulk, three-dimensional (3D), macroporous polymers with high permeability, large surface area and large volume is highly desirable for a range of applications in the biomedical, biotechnological and environmental areas. The experimental techniques currently used are limited to the production of small size and volume cryogel material. In this work we propose a novel, versatile, simple and reproducible method for the synthesis of large volume porous polymer hydrogels by cryogelation. By controlling the freezing process of the reagent/polymer solution, large-scale 3D macroporous gels with wide interconnected pores (up to 200 μm in diameter) and large accessible surface area have been synthesized. For the first time, macroporous gels (of up to 400 ml bulk volume) with controlled porous structure were manufactured, with potential for scale up to much larger gel dimensions. This method can be used for production of novel 3D multi-component macroporous composite materials with a uniform distribution of embedded particles. The proposed method provides better control of freezing conditions and thus overcomes existing drawbacks limiting production of large gel-based devices and matrices. The proposed method could serve as a new design concept for functional 3D macroporous gels and composites preparation for biomedical, biotechnological and environmental applications. PMID:26883390

  6. A simple method for the production of large volume 3D macroporous hydrogels for advanced biotechnological, medical and environmental applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savina, Irina N.; Ingavle, Ganesh C.; Cundy, Andrew B.; Mikhalovsky, Sergey V.

    2016-02-01

    The development of bulk, three-dimensional (3D), macroporous polymers with high permeability, large surface area and large volume is highly desirable for a range of applications in the biomedical, biotechnological and environmental areas. The experimental techniques currently used are limited to the production of small size and volume cryogel material. In this work we propose a novel, versatile, simple and reproducible method for the synthesis of large volume porous polymer hydrogels by cryogelation. By controlling the freezing process of the reagent/polymer solution, large-scale 3D macroporous gels with wide interconnected pores (up to 200 μm in diameter) and large accessible surface area have been synthesized. For the first time, macroporous gels (of up to 400 ml bulk volume) with controlled porous structure were manufactured, with potential for scale up to much larger gel dimensions. This method can be used for production of novel 3D multi-component macroporous composite materials with a uniform distribution of embedded particles. The proposed method provides better control of freezing conditions and thus overcomes existing drawbacks limiting production of large gel-based devices and matrices. The proposed method could serve as a new design concept for functional 3D macroporous gels and composites preparation for biomedical, biotechnological and environmental applications.

  7. Price-volume multifractal analysis and its application in Chinese stock markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Ying; Zhuang, Xin-tian; Liu, Zhi-ying

    2012-06-01

    An empirical research on Chinese stock markets is conducted using statistical tools. First, the multifractality of stock price return series, ri(ri=ln(Pt+1)-ln(Pt)) and trading volume variation series, vi(vi=ln(Vt+1)-ln(Vt)) is confirmed using multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis. Furthermore, a multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis between stock price return and trading volume variation in Chinese stock markets is also conducted. It is shown that the cross relationship between them is also found to be multifractal. Second, the cross-correlation between stock price Pi and trading volume Vi is empirically studied using cross-correlation function and detrended cross-correlation analysis. It is found that both Shanghai stock market and Shenzhen stock market show pronounced long-range cross-correlations between stock price and trading volume. Third, a composite index R based on price and trading volume is introduced. Compared with stock price return series ri and trading volume variation series vi, R variation series not only remain the characteristics of original series but also demonstrate the relative correlation between stock price and trading volume. Finally, we analyze the multifractal characteristics of R variation series before and after three financial events in China (namely, Price Limits, Reform of Non-tradable Shares and financial crisis in 2008) in the whole period of sample to study the changes of stock market fluctuation and financial risk. It is found that the empirical results verified the validity of R.

  8. Footbridge between finite volumes and finite elements with applications to CFD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascal, Frédéric; Ghidaglia, Jean-Michel

    2001-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce a new algorithm for the discretization of second-order elliptic operators in the context of finite volume schemes on unstructured meshes. We are strongly motivated by partial differential equations (PDEs) arising in computational fluid dynamics (CFD), like the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. Our technique consists of matching up a finite volume discretization based on a given mesh with a finite element representation on the same mesh. An inverse operator is also built, which has the desirable property that in the absence of diffusion, one recovers exactly the finite volume solution. Numerical results are also provided. Copyright

  9. On the emergence of a generalised Gamma distribution. Application to traded volume in financial markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte Queirós, S. M.

    2005-08-01

    This letter reports on a stochastic dynamical scenario whose associated stationary probability density function is exactly a generalised form, with a power law instead of exponencial decay, of the ubiquitous Gamma distribution. This generalisation, also known as F-distribution, was empirically proposed for the first time to adjust for high-frequency stock traded volume distributions in financial markets and verified in experiments with granular material. The dynamical assumption presented herein is based on local temporal fluctuations of the average value of the observable under study. This proposal is related to superstatistics and thus to the current nonextensive statistical mechanics framework. For the specific case of stock traded volume, we connect the local fluctuations in the mean stock traded volume with the typical herding behaviour presented by financial traders. Last of all, NASDAQ 1 and 2 minute stock traded volume sequences and probability density functions are numerically reproduced.

  10. Multi-Segment Hemodynamic and Volume Assessment With Impedance Plethysmography: Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Yu-Tsuan E.; Montgomery, Leslie D.; Webbon, Bruce W. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Definition of multi-segmental circulatory and volume changes in the human body provides an understanding of the physiologic responses to various aerospace conditions. We have developed instrumentation and testing procedures at NASA Ames Research Center that may be useful in biomedical research and clinical diagnosis. Specialized two, four, and six channel impedance systems will be described that have been used to measure calf, thigh, thoracic, arm, and cerebral hemodynamic and volume changes during various experimental investigations.

  11. Proceedings of a Workshop on Applications of Tethers in Space, Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The panel conclusions for each of the following panels (science applications; electrodynamic interactions; transportation applications; artificial gravity; constellations; and technology and test) are given.

  12. Licensing an assured isolation facility for low-level radioactive waste. Volume 2: Recommendations on the content and review of an application

    SciTech Connect

    Silverman, D.J.; Bauser, M.A.; Baird, R.D.

    1998-07-01

    This report provides a detailed set of proposed criteria and guidance for the preparation of a license application for an assured isolation facility (AIF). The report is intended to provide a detailed planning basis upon which a prospective applicant may begin pre-licensing discussions with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and initiate development of a license application. The report may also be useful to the NRC or to state regulatory agencies that may be asked to review such an application. Volume 1 of this report provides background information, and describes the licensing approach and methodology. Volume 2 identifies specific information that is recommended for inclusion in a license application.

  13. The Distributed Memory Computing Conference (5th) Held in Charleston, South Carolina on April 8-12, 1990. Volume 1. Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-31

    ART), Official Production System, ver- sion 5 (OPSh) from Carnegie-Mellon University and the NASA developed C- Language Integrated Produc- on the...categories. Volume 1 covers applications, and Volume 2 deals with all other areas, including hardware, software tools, performance, languages , and so on...Laboratories Organizational Assistance Leigh Hayes University of South Carolina Donna Reynolds Palmetto Economic Development Corporation Courtnay Squires

  14. Navy Tactical Applications Guide, Volume 8 Part 2: Arctic - East Siberian/Chukchi/Beaufort Seas. Weather Analysis and Forecast Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    respond realistically to Arctic conditions. Hope for improvement lies in employing new high resolution numerical models with better planetary... new analysis and forecast techniques, specifically adapted to this region. This volume has been developed to illustrate, with high resolution...an important role leading to more rapid intensification. This is certainly not a new finding, but is important to emphasize. These jet streaks

  15. Viability Assessment of a Repository at Yucca Mountain. Volume 4: License Application Plan and Costs

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    Volume 4 provides the DOE plan and cost estimate for the remaining work necessary to proceed from completing this VA to submitting an LA to NRC. This work includes preparing an EIS and evaluating the suitability of the site. Both items are necessary components of the documentation required to support a decision in 2001 by the Secretary of Energy on whether or not to recommend that the President approve the site for development as a repository. If the President recommends the site to Congress and the site designation becomes effective, then DOE will submit the LA to NRC in 2002 for authorization to construct the repository. The work described in Volume 4 constitutes the last step in the characterization of the Yucca Mountain site and the design and evaluation of the performance of a repository system in the geologic setting of this site. The plans in this volume for the next 4 years' work are based on the results of the previous 15 years' work, as reported in Volumes 1, 2, and 3 of this VA. Volume 1 summarizes what DOE has learned to date about the Yucca Mountain site. Volume 2 describes the current, reference repository design, several design options that might enhance the performance of the reference design, and several alternative designs that represent substantial departures from the reference design. Volume 2 also summarizes the results of tests of candidate materials for waste packages and for support of the tunnels into which waste would be emplaced. Volume 3 provides the results of the latest performance assessments undertaken to evaluate the performance of the design in the geologic setting of Yucca Mountain. The results described in Volumes 1, 2, and 3 provide the basis for identifying and prioritizing the work described in this volume. DOE believes that the planned work, together with the results of previous work, will be sufficient to support a site suitability evaluation for site recommendation and, if the site is recommended and designated, a

  16. PROCEEDINGS: EIGHTH SYMPOSIUM ON THE TRANSFER AND UTILIZATION OF PARTICULATE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY - VOLUME 2. BAGHOUSES AND PARTICULATE CONTROL FOR NEW APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two-volume proceedings describe the latest research and development efforts to improve particulate control devices, while treating traditional concerns of operational cost and compliance. Overall, particulate control remains a key issue in the cost and applicability of furnac...

  17. Proceedings of a Workshop on the Applications of Tethers in Space, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Project overview; tether deployment; satellite system description; tether fundamentals; science applications; electrodynamic interactions; transportation; artificial gravity; and constellations; were described.

  18. Analytical challenges of determining composition and structure in small volumes with applications to semiconductor technology, nanostructures and solid state science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zhiyong; Kuhn, Markus; Johnson, David C.

    2017-03-01

    Determining the structure and composition of small volumes is vital to the ability to understand and control nanoscale properties and critical for advancing both fundamental science and applications, such as semiconductor device manufacturing. While metrology of nanoscale materials (nanoparticles, nanocomposites) and nanoscale semiconductor structures is challenging, both basic research and cutting edge technology benefit from new and enhanced analytical techniques. This focus issue contains articles describing approaches to overcome the challenges in obtaining statistically significant atomic-scale quantification of structure and composition in a variety of materials and devices using electron microscopy and atom probe tomography.

  19. The Environment for Application Software Integration and Execution (EASIE) version 1.0. Volume 1: Executive overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowell, Lawrence F.; Davis, John S.

    1989-01-01

    The Environment for Application Software Integration and Execution (EASIE) provides a methodology and a set of software utility programs to ease the task of coordinating engineering design and analysis codes. EASIE was designed to meet the needs of conceptual design engineers that face the task of integrating many stand-alone engineering analysis programs. Using EASIE, programs are integrated through a relational database management system. Volume 1, Executive Overview, gives an overview of the functions provided by EASIE and describes their use. Three operational design systems based upon the EASIE software are briefly described.

  20. Application of Control Volume Method Using the Voronoi Tessellation in Numerical Modelling of Solidification Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domański, Zbigniew; Ciesielski, Mariusz; Mochnacki, Bohdan

    2010-03-01

    The paper presents the method to analyse the thermal processes occurring in the cast composite solidification. The cast is formed by a bundle of parallel fibres randomly immersed in a host metal matrix. The heat is transferred from the metal matrix and absorbed by the fibres. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the volumetric fraction of the fibres for which the solidification of the metal matrix occurs only due to the presence of fibres playing a role of internal chills. Our method is to compute Voronoi diagrams with Voronoi regions representing the geometric location of the fibres in the metal matrix and to use these regions as control volumes within a variant of the Control Volume Method.

  1. Application of the control volume mixed finite element method to a triangular discretization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naff, R.L.

    2012-01-01

    A two-dimensional control volume mixed finite element method is applied to the elliptic equation. Discretization of the computational domain is based in triangular elements. Shape functions and test functions are formulated on the basis of an equilateral reference triangle with unit edges. A pressure support based on the linear interpolation of elemental edge pressures is used in this formulation. Comparisons are made between results from the standard mixed finite element method and this control volume mixed finite element method. Published 2011. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. ?? 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  2. Volume and Mass Estimation of Three-Phase High Power Transformers for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimnach, Greg L.

    2004-01-01

    Spacecraft historically have had sub-1kW(sub e), electrical requirements for GN&C, science, and communications: Galileo at 600W(sub e), and Cassini at 900W(sub e), for example. Because most missions have had the same order of magnitude power requirements, the Power Distribution Systems (PDS) use existing, space-qualified technology and are DC. As science payload and mission duration requirements increase, however, the required electrical power increases. Subsequently, this requires a change from a passive energy conversion (solar arrays and batteries) to dynamic (alternator, solar dynamic, etc.), because dynamic conversion has higher thermal and conversion efficiencies, has higher power densities, and scales more readily to higher power levels. Furthermore, increased power requirements and physical distribution lengths are best served with high-voltage, multi-phase AC to maintain distribution efficiency and minimize voltage drops. The generated AC-voltage must be stepped-up (or down) to interface with various subsystems or electrical hardware. Part of the trade-space design for AC distribution systems is volume and mass estimation of high-power transformers. The volume and mass are functions of the power rating, operating frequency, the ambient and allowable temperature rise, the types and amount of heat transfer available, the core material and shape, the required flux density in a core, the maximum current density, etc. McLyman has tabulated the performance of a number of transformers cores and derived a "cookbook" methodology to determine the volume of transformers, whereas Schawrze had derived an empirical method to estimate the mass of single-phase transformers. Based on the work of McLyman and Schwarze, it is the intent herein to derive an empirical solution to the volume and mass estimation of three-phase, laminated EI-core power transformers, having radiated and conducted heat transfer mechanisms available. Estimation of the mounting hardware, connectors

  3. 3D cell-printing of large-volume tissues: Application to ear regeneration.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Seob; Kim, Byung Soo; Seo, Dong Hwan; Park, Jeong Hun; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2017-01-17

    The three-dimensional (3D) printing of large-volume cells, printed in a clinically relevant size, is one of the most important challenges in the field of tissue engineering. However, few studies have reported the fabrication of large-volume cell-printed constructs (LCCs). To create LCCs, appropriate fabrication conditions should be established: factors involved include fabrication time, residence time, and temperature control of the cell-laden hydrogel in the syringe to ensure high cell viability and functionality. The prolonged time required for 3D printing of LCCs can reduce cell viability and result in insufficient functionality of the construct, because the cells are exposed to a harsh environment during the printing process. In this regard, we present an advanced 3D cell-printing system composed of a clean air workstation, humidifier, and Peltier system, which provides a suitable printing environment for production of LCCs with high cell viability. We confirmed that the advanced 3D cell-printing system was capable of providing enhanced printability of hydrogels and fabricating an ear-shaped LCC with high cell viability. In vivo results for the ear-shaped LCC also showed that printed chondrocytes proliferated sufficiently and differentiated into cartilage tissue. Thus, we conclude that the advanced 3D cell-printing system is a versatile tool to create cell-printed constructs for the generation of large-volume tissues.

  4. Photovoltaic system criteria documents. Volume 6: Criteria for auditing photovoltaic system applications and experiments. Revision A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, John C.; Billitti, Joseph W.; Tallon, John M.

    1980-01-01

    The criteria is defined for auditing photovoltaic system applications and experiments. The purpose of the audit is twofold: to see if the application is meeting its stated objectives and to measure the application's progress in terms of the National Photovoltaic Program's goals of performance, cost, reliability, safety, and socio-environmental acceptance. The information obtained from an audit will be used to assess the status of an application and to provide the Department of Energy with recommendations on the future conduct of the application. Those aspects are covered of a site audit necessary to produce a systematic method for the gathering of qualitative and quantitative data to measure the success of an application. A sequence of audit events and guidelines for obtaining the required information is presented.

  5. Tri-color composite volume H-PDLC grating and its application to 3D color autostereoscopic display.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kangni; Zheng, Jihong; Gao, Hui; Lu, Feiyue; Sun, Lijia; Yin, Stuart; Zhuang, Songlin

    2015-11-30

    A tri-color composite volume holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal (H-PDLC) grating and its application to 3-dimensional (3D) color autostereoscopic display are reported in this paper. The composite volume H-PDLC grating consists of three different period volume H-PDLC sub-gratings. The longer period diffracts red light, the medium period diffracts the green light, and the shorter period diffracts the blue light. To record three different period gratings simultaneously, two photoinitiators are employed. The first initiator consists of methylene blue and p-toluenesulfonic acid and the second initiator is composed of Rose Bengal and N-phenyglycine. In this case, the holographic recording medium is sensitive to entire visible wavelengths, including red, green, and blue so that the tri-color composite grating can be written simultaneously by harnessing three different color laser beams. In the experiment, the red beam comes from a He-Ne laser with an output wavelength of 632.8 nm, the green beam comes from a Verdi solid state laser with an output wavelength of 532 nm, and the blue beam comes from a He-Cd laser with an output wavelength of 441.6 nm. The experimental results show that diffraction efficiencies corresponding to red, green, and blue colors are 57%, 75% and 33%, respectively. Although this diffraction efficiency is not perfect, it is high enough to demonstrate the effect of 3D color autostereoscopic display.

  6. Photovoltaic applications definition and photovoltaic system definition study in the agricultural sector. Volume 3. Appendixes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mengel, R. W.; Nadolski, T. P.; Sparks, D. C.; Young, S. K.; Yingst, A.

    1980-05-01

    A description of energy consumption for representative farm operations, design and simulation of ventilation for livestock shelters; irrigation systems and calculations; and detailed methodology for selecting multifunction PV system applications are presented. Hourly load data for the chosen farm operations; sample linear programming solution output format; life cycle cost calculation; and illustrative monthly load data for applications analysis and equipment data for applications analysis are also discussed.

  7. [Application of bedside ultrasound in measuring gastric residual volume in neurosurgical critical patients with enteral nutrition support].

    PubMed

    Cao, L; Ye, X H; Li, J; Zhang, L N; Li, L; Zhang, W Y; Deng, L L

    2017-03-07

    Objective: To explore the effect of bedside ultrasound in measuring gastric residual volume in neurosurgical critical patients with enteral nutrition support. Method: From March to August 2016, 70 critically neurological patients with continues enteral nutrition who admitted in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) were randomized into two groups. The observation group applied the bedside ultrasound monitoring gastric residual volume every day to guide the implementation of enteral nutrition. The control group used syringes withdrawing every 8 hours to measure the gastric residual volume. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of complications include regurgitation and aspiration in this two group patients (P=0.356; P=1.000), while the times of interrupting enteral nutrition was lower in the observation group(25.7% vs 5.7%, 74.3% vs 94.3%, P=0.045), the length of target feeding time and the length of ICU stay, the operation time was shortened, with a statistically significant difference[(2.37±0.69) d vs (3.49±0.74) d, P=0.028; (8.52±5.45) d vs (6.40±2.71) d, P=0.022; (58.29±11.22)s vs (67.60±7.05) s, P=0.000]. Conclusion: The application of bedside ultrasound to measure gastric residual volume can be a scientific method to guide enteral nutrition in neurosurgical critical patients, which can reduce the times of interrupting enteral nutrition and shorten the length of target feeding time and ICU length of stay, reduce the workload of nurses.

  8. Integrated Power/Attitude Control System (IPACS) study. Volume 1: Feasibility studies. [application of flywheels for power storage and generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Notti, J. E.; Cormack, A., III; Schmill, W. C.

    1974-01-01

    An Integrated Power/Attitude Control System (IPACS) concept consisting of an array of spinning flywheels, with or without gimbals, capable of performing the dual function of power storage and generation, as well as attitude control has been investigated. This system provides attitude control through momentum storage, and replaces the storage batteries onboard the spacecraft. The results of the investigation are presented in two volumes. The trade-off studies performed to establish the feasibility, cost effectiveness, required level of development, and boundaries of application of IPACS to a wide variety of spacecraft are discussed. The conceptual designs for a free-flying research application module (RAM), and for a tracking and data relay satellite (TDRS) are presented. Results from dynamic analyses and simulations of the IPACS conceptual designs are included.

  9. Proceedings of the National Conference on Energy Resource Management. Volume 2: Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brumfield, J. O. (Editor); Schiffman, Y. M. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Subject areas related to the integration of remotely sensed data with geographic information systems for application in energy resource management are covered. The current trends and advances in the application of these systems to a number of energy concerns are addressed.

  10. Manned maneuvering unit mission definition study. Volume 2: Appendices to the MMU applications analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Information used in identifying representative Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU) from the many Automated and Sortie Payloads and orbiter subsystems is presented. Representative missions were selected to represent typical MMU applications across all payloads and orbiter subsystems. Data analysis sheets are provided with other applicable information. Calculations used in defining MMU general performance and control requirements to satisfy eleven space missions are included.

  11. Application of the QSDC procedure to the formulation of space shuttle design criteria. Volume 2: Applications guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouton, I.; Martin, G. L.

    1972-01-01

    Criteria to determine the probability of aircraft structural failure were established according to the Quantitative Structural Design Criteria by Statistical Methods, the QSDC Procedure. This criteria method was applied to the design of the space shuttle during this contract. An Applications Guide was developed to demonstrate the utilization of the QSDC Procedure, with examples of the application to a hypothetical space shuttle illustrating the application to specific design problems. Discussions of the basic parameters of the QSDC Procedure: the Limit and Omega Conditions, and the strength scatter, have been included. Available data pertinent to the estimation of the strength scatter have also been included.

  12. Application of radar for automotive collision avoidance. Volume 2: Development plan and progress reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichtenberg, Christopher L. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this project was research and development of an automobile collision avoidance radar system. Items within the scope of the one-year effort were to: (1) review previous authors' work in this field; (2) select a suitable radar approach; (3) develop a system design; (4) perform basic analyses and observations pertinent to radar design, performance, and effects; (5) fabricate and collect radar data from a data collection radar; (6) analyze and derive conclusions from the radar data; and (7) make recommendations about the likelihood of success of the investigated radar techniques. The final technical report presenting all conclusions is contained in Volume 1.

  13. [Application possibilities and initial experience with digital volume tomography in hand and wrist imaging].

    PubMed

    Goerke, Sebastian M; Neubauer, J; Zajonc, H; Thiele, J R; Kotter, E; Langer, M; Stark, G B; Lampert, F M

    2015-02-01

    During the last decade, DVT (digital volume tomography) imaging has become a widely used standard technique in head and neck imaging. Lower radiation exposure compared to conventional computed tomography (MDCT) has been described. Recently, DVT has been developed as an extremity scanner and as such represents a new imaging technique for hand surgery. We here describe the first 24 months experience with this new imaging modality in hand and wrist imaging by presenting representative cases and by describing the technical background. Furthermore, the method's advantages and disadvantages are discussed with reference to the given literature.

  14. Data catalog series for space science and applications flight missions. Volume 4B: Descriptions of data sets from meteorological and terrestrial applications spacecraft and investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Carolyn; Stonesifer, G. Richard

    1989-01-01

    The main purpose of the data catalog series is to provide descriptive references to data generated by space science flight missions. The data sets described include all of the actual holdings of the Space Science Data Center (NSSDC), all data sets for which direct contact information is available, and some data collections held and serviced by foreign investigators, NASA and other U.S. government agencies. This volume contains narrative descriptions of data sets from meteorological and terrestrial applications spacecraft and investigations. The following spacecraft series are included: Mariner, Pioneer, Pioneer Venus, Venera, Viking, Voyager, and Helios. Separate indexes to the planetary and interplanetary missions are also provided.

  15. Data catalog series for space science and applications flight missions. Volume 4A: Descriptions of meteorological and terrestrial applications spacecraft and investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, C. Y. (Editor); Sheu, Y. T. P. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    The National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) provides data from and information about space science and applications flight investigations in support of additional studies beyond those performed as the principal part of any flight mission. The Earth-orbiting spacecraft for investigations of the earth and its atmosphere is discussed. Geodetic tracking data are included in this category. The principal subject areas presented are meteorology and earth resources survey, and the spacecraft selection is made according to those subjects. All experiments on board the spacecraft are described. No attempt is made to reference investigations that are related to the above disciplines, but that are described in other volumes of this series.

  16. Development of a multicomponent force and moment balance for water tunnel applications, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suarez, Carlos J.; Malcolm, Gerald N.; Kramer, Brian R.; Smith, Brooke C.; Ayers, Bert F.

    1994-01-01

    The principal objective of this research effort was to develop a multicomponent strain gauge balance to measure forces and moments on models tested in flow visualization water tunnels. Static experiments (which are discussed in Volume 1 of this report) were conducted, and the results showed good agreement with wind tunnel data on similar configurations. Dynamic experiments, which are the main topic of this Volume, were also performed using the balance. Delta wing models and two F/A-18 models were utilized in a variety of dynamic tests. This investigation showed that, as expected, the values of the inertial tares are very small due to the low rotating rates required in a low-speed water tunnel and can, therefore, be ignored. Oscillations in pitch, yaw and roll showed hysteresis loops that compared favorably to data from dynamic wind tunnel experiments. Pitch-up and hold maneuvers revealed the long persistence, or time-lags, of some of the force components in response to the motion. Rotary-balance experiments were also successfully performed. The good results obtained in these dynamic experiments bring a whole new dimension to water tunnel testing and emphasize the importance of having the capability to perform simultaneous flow visualization and force/moment measurements during dynamic situations.

  17. Development of a multicomponent force and moment balance for water tunnel applications, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suarez, Carlos J.; Malcolm, Gerald N.; Kramer, Brian R.; Smith, Brooke C.; Ayers, Bert F.

    1994-01-01

    The principal objective of this research effort was to develop a multicomponent strain gauge balance to measure forces and moments on models tested in flow visualization water tunnels. An internal balance was designed that allows measuring normal and side forces, and pitching, yawing and rolling moments (no axial force). The five-components to applied loads, low interactions between the sections and no hysteresis. Static experiments (which are discussed in this Volume) were conducted in the Eidetics water tunnel with delta wings and a model of the F/A-18. Experiments with the F/A-18 model included a thorough baseline study and investigations of the effect of control surface deflections and of several Forebody Vortex Control (FVC) techniques. Results were compared to wind tunnel data and, in general, the agreement is very satisfactory. The results of the static tests provide confidence that loads can be measured accurately in the water tunnel with a relatively simple multicomponent internal balance. Dynamic experiments were also performed using the balance, and the results are discussed in detail in Volume 2 of this report.

  18. Optimization of multi-grating volume holographic spectrum splitters for photovoltaic applications.

    PubMed

    Ingersoll, G B; Leger, J R

    2016-07-10

    Recent research has shown that using multiple diverse-bandgap photovoltaic (PV) cells in conjunction with a spectrum splitting optical system can significantly improve PV power generation efficiency. Although volume Bragg gratings (VBGs) can serve as effective spectrum splitters, the inherent dispersion of a VBG can be detrimental given a broad-spectrum input. The performance of a single holographic spectrum splitter element can be improved by utilizing multiple single volume gratings, each operating in a slightly different spectral band. However, care must be taken to avoid inter-grating coupling effects that limit the ultimate performance. This work explores broadband two-grating holographic optical elements (HOEs) in multiplexed (single element) and sandwiched-grating arrangements. Particle swarm optimization is used to tailor these systems to the solar spectrum, taking into account both efficiency and dispersion. Both multiplexed and sandwiched two-grating systems exhibit performance improvements over single-grating solutions, especially when reduced dispersion is required. Under a ±2° constraint on output angular spread from wavelength dispersion, sandwiched-, multiplexed-, and single-grating systems exhibit power conversion efficiencies of 82.1%, 80.9%, and 77.5%, respectively, compared to an ideal bandpass spectrum splitter. Dispersion performance can be further improved by employing more than two VBGs in the spectrum splitter, but efficiency is compromised by additional cross-coupling effects. Multiplexed-grating systems are especially susceptible to these effects, but have the advantage of utilizing only a single HOE.

  19. Development of a multicomponent force and moment balance for water tunnel applications, volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarez, Carlos J.; Malcolm, Gerald N.; Kramer, Brian R.; Smith, Brooke C.; Ayers, Bert F.

    1994-12-01

    The principal objective of this research effort was to develop a multicomponent strain gauge balance to measure forces and moments on models tested in flow visualization water tunnels. An internal balance was designed that allows measuring normal and side forces, and pitching, yawing and rolling moments (no axial force). The five-components to applied loads, low interactions between the sections and no hysteresis. Static experiments (which are discussed in this Volume) were conducted in the Eidetics water tunnel with delta wings and a model of the F/A-18. Experiments with the F/A-18 model included a thorough baseline study and investigations of the effect of control surface deflections and of several Forebody Vortex Control (FVC) techniques. Results were compared to wind tunnel data and, in general, the agreement is very satisfactory. The results of the static tests provide confidence that loads can be measured accurately in the water tunnel with a relatively simple multicomponent internal balance. Dynamic experiments were also performed using the balance, and the results are discussed in detail in Volume 2 of this report.

  20. Development of a multicomponent force and moment balance for water tunnel applications, volume 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarez, Carlos J.; Malcolm, Gerald N.; Kramer, Brian R.; Smith, Brooke C.; Ayers, Bert F.

    1994-12-01

    The principal objective of this research effort was to develop a multicomponent strain gauge balance to measure forces and moments on models tested in flow visualization water tunnels. Static experiments (which are discussed in Volume 1 of this report) were conducted, and the results showed good agreement with wind tunnel data on similar configurations. Dynamic experiments, which are the main topic of this Volume, were also performed using the balance. Delta wing models and two F/A-18 models were utilized in a variety of dynamic tests. This investigation showed that, as expected, the values of the inertial tares are very small due to the low rotating rates required in a low-speed water tunnel and can, therefore, be ignored. Oscillations in pitch, yaw and roll showed hysteresis loops that compared favorably to data from dynamic wind tunnel experiments. Pitch-up and hold maneuvers revealed the long persistence, or time-lags, of some of the force components in response to the motion. Rotary-balance experiments were also successfully performed. The good results obtained in these dynamic experiments bring a whole new dimension to water tunnel testing and emphasize the importance of having the capability to perform simultaneous flow visualization and force/moment measurements during dynamic situations.

  1. Application of Remote Sensing to the Chesapeake Bay Region. Volume 2: Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, W. T. (Editor); Freas, G. W., Jr. (Editor); Hickman, G. D. (Editor); Pemberton, D. A. (Editor); Wilkerson, T. D. (Editor); Adler, I. (Editor); Laurie, V. J. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    A conference was held on the application of remote sensing to the Chesapeake Bay region. Copies of the papers, resource contributions, panel discussions, and reports of the working groups are presented.

  2. Intersatellite Link (ISL) application to commercial communications satellites. Volume 2: Technical final report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, S. Lee

    1987-01-01

    Intersatellite Link (ISL) applications can improve and expand communication satellite services in a number of ways. As the demand for orbital slots within prime regions of the geostationary arc increases, attention is being focused on ISLs as a method to utilize this resource more efficiently and circumvent saturation. Various GEO-to-GEO applications were determined that provide potential benefits over existing communication systems. A set of criteria was developed to assess the potential applications. Intersatellite link models, network system architectures, and payload configurations were developed. For each of the chosen ISL applications, ISL versus non-ISL satellite systems architectures were derived. Both microwave and optical ISL implementation approaches were evaluated for payload sizing and cost analysis. The technological availability for ISL implementations was assessed. Critical subsystems technology areas were identified, and an estamate of the schedule and cost to advance the technology to the requiered state of readiness was made.

  3. Photovoltaic system criteria documents. Volume 3: Environmental issues and evaluation criteria for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, John C.; Billitti, Joseph W.; Tallon, John M.

    1979-01-01

    The environmental issues and evaluation criteria relating to the suitability of sites proposed for photovoltaic (PV) system deployment are identified. The important issues are defined, briefly discussed and then developed into evaluation criteria. System designers are provided with information on the environmental sensitivity of PV systems in realistic applications, background material which indicates the applicability of the siting issues identified, and evaluation criteria are defined to facilitate the selection of sites that maximize PV system operation.

  4. Reference earth orbital research and applications investigations (blue book). Volume 5: Communications/navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The design and development of a communications/navigation facility for operation aboard space stations and space shuttles are discussed. The objectives of the facility are as follows: (1) to develop and demonstrate satellite and spacecraft technology applicable to space communications, navigation, and traffic control, (2) to optimize the use of the electromagnetic spectrum for communications and navigation satellite systems, and (3) to provide fundamental understanding of the space communications and navigation sciences to permit application of this discipline to government and industry.

  5. Evaluation of Low-volume Sprayers Used in Asian Citrus Psyllid Control Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    Arysta Life- Science North America, Cary, NC), and fenpropathrin. Two of the prod- ucts were wettable powders: difluben- zuron and spinetoram. The...no attempt to characterize Table 1. Five a.i. (three liquid and two wettable powders) and the rates at which they were used in the sprayer calibration...trials. Liquid formulation Application rate (oz/acre a.i.)z Malathion 9.0 Dimethoate 13.9 Fenpropathrin 6.2 Wettable powders Application rate (oz/acre

  6. An overview of artificial intelligence and robotics. Volume 1: Artificial intelligence. Part B: Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gevarter, W. B.

    1983-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) is an emerging technology that has recently attracted considerable attention. Many applications are now under development. This report, Part B of a three part report on AI, presents overviews of the key application areas: Expert Systems, Computer Vision, Natural Language Processing, Speech Interfaces, and Problem Solving and Planning. The basic approaches to such systems, the state-of-the-art, existing systems and future trends and expectations are covered.

  7. Assessment of research needs for advanced heterogeneous catalysts for energy applications. Final report: Volume 2, Topic reports

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, G.A.

    1994-04-01

    This report assesses the direction, technical content, and priority of research needs judged to provide the best chance of yielding new and improved heterogeneous catalysts for energy-related applications over the period of 5-20 years. It addresses issues of energy conservation, alternate fuels and feedstocks, and the economics and applications that could alleviate pollution from energy processes. Recommended goals are defined in 3 research thrusts: catalytic science, environmental protection by catalysis, and industrial catalytic applications. This study was conducted by an 11-member panel of experts from industry and academia, including one each from Japan and Europe. This volume first presents an in-depth overview of the role of catalysis in future energy technology in chapter 1; then current catalytic research is critically reviewed and research recommended in 8 topic chapters: catalyst preparation (design and synthesis), catalyst characterization (structure/function), catalyst performance testing, reaction kinetics/reactor design, catalysis for industrial chemicals, catalysis for electrical applications (clean fuels, pollution remediation), catalysis for control of exhaust emissions, and catalysts for liquid transportation fuels from petroleum, coal, residual oil, and biomass.

  8. Logistics of oil spill dispersant application. Volume II. Application techniques, stockpiling, dispersant selection, strategies. Final report, October 1979-September 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Bellantoni, J.

    1982-11-01

    The use of chemicals for oil spill dispersal, while not presently widespread in the U.S., would have implications for the U.S. Coast Guard's Marine Environmental Protection program. This report explores the logistics of oil disperant application by the U.S. Coast Guard. Data were reviewed for the 13 disperants for which data had been submitted to the EPA as of October 1979. Manufacturer's data and published test results were also examined and information summarized with regard to classification, handling and storage application, availability and cost.

  9. Capillary plasma jet: A low volume plasma source for life science applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topala, I.; Nagatsu, M.

    2015-02-01

    In this letter, we present results from multispectroscopic analysis of protein films, after exposure to a peculiar plasma source, i.e., the capillary plasma jet. This plasma source is able to generate very small pulsed plasma volumes, in kilohertz range, with characteristic dimensions smaller than 1 mm. This leads to specific microscale generation and transport of all plasma species. Plasma diagnosis was realized using general electrical and optical methods. Depending on power level and exposure duration, this miniature plasma jet can induce controllable modifications to soft matter targets. Detailed discussions on protein film oxidation and chemical etching are supported by results from absorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and microscopy techniques. Further exploitation of principles presented here may consolidate research interests involving plasmas in biotechnologies and plasma medicine, especially in patterning technologies, modified biomolecule arrays, and local chemical functionalization.

  10. Application of a finite volume based method of lines to turbulent forced convection in circular tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Campo, A.; Tebeest, K.; Lacoa, U.; Morales, J.C.

    1996-10-01

    A semianalytic analysis of in-tube turbulent forced convection is performed whose special computational feature is the combination of the method of lines, the finite volume technique, and a radial coordinate transformation. First, a numerical solution of the momentum equation was obtained by a simple Runge-Kutta integration scheme. Second, the energy equation was reformulated into a system of ordinary differential equations of first order. Each equation in the system controls the temperature along a line in a mesh consisting of concentric lines. Reliable analytic solutions for the temperature distribution of fluids in the region of thermal development can be determined for combinations of Reynolds and Prandtl numbers. Predicted results for the distributions of mean bulk temperature and local Nusselt numbers for air, water, and oils compare satisfactorily with the available experimental data.

  11. Capillary plasma jet: A low volume plasma source for life science applications

    SciTech Connect

    Topala, I. E-mail: tmnagat@ipc.shizuoka.ac.jp; Nagatsu, M. E-mail: tmnagat@ipc.shizuoka.ac.jp

    2015-02-02

    In this letter, we present results from multispectroscopic analysis of protein films, after exposure to a peculiar plasma source, i.e., the capillary plasma jet. This plasma source is able to generate very small pulsed plasma volumes, in kilohertz range, with characteristic dimensions smaller than 1 mm. This leads to specific microscale generation and transport of all plasma species. Plasma diagnosis was realized using general electrical and optical methods. Depending on power level and exposure duration, this miniature plasma jet can induce controllable modifications to soft matter targets. Detailed discussions on protein film oxidation and chemical etching are supported by results from absorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and microscopy techniques. Further exploitation of principles presented here may consolidate research interests involving plasmas in biotechnologies and plasma medicine, especially in patterning technologies, modified biomolecule arrays, and local chemical functionalization.

  12. Clinical Applicability of Cone-Beam Computed Tomography in Monitoring Seroma Volume Change During Breast Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Tzu-I; Minkema, Danny; Elkhuizen, Paula; Heemsbergen, Wilma; Mourik, Anke M. van; Vliet-Vroegindeweij, Corine van

    2010-09-01

    Purpose: To determine whether cone-beam CT (CBCT) is effective in monitoring seroma reduction during breast irradiation when compared with conventional CT. Patients and Methods: This study included 19 women with Stage T1-2 breast cancer treated with breast-conserving therapy. Each patient underwent two to four CT and multiple CBCT scans (mean, 8; range, 7-13 scans) at various time intervals during radiotherapy. Seroma were contoured by two observers on all scans and checked by one radiation oncologist. Seroma clarity was determined according to The British Columbia Cancer Agency Seroma Clarity Score scale, and conformity index (CI) of the two observers was evaluated. Correlations in seroma contours and seroma characteristics between CBCT and CT, as well as interobserver variation, were examined. Results: The mean differences in seroma volume between CT and CBCT (3%, p = 0.3) and between the two observers (6%, p = 0.2) were not statistically significant. Seroma clarity correlated significantly with CI for both CT and CBCT (p = 0.02 and p = 0.001, respectively), indicating the higher the seroma clarity score, the greater the CI between the observers. With seroma clarity 3 or higher for CT and CBCT, a high level of observer concordance was shown (all CI of these scans were {>=}50%). Conclusion: Volume discrepancy between CBCT and CT and between the two observers was not statistically significant. Seroma clarity influenced observers' ability to contour on CT or CBCT equally. Therefore, CBCT is a good clinical surrogate for CT in monitoring seroma reduction during breast radiotherapy, especially for patients with seroma clarity score 3 or higher.

  13. Photovoltaic system criteria documents. Volume 2: Quality assurance criteria for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, John C.; Billitti, Joseph W.; Tallon, John M.

    1979-01-01

    Quality assurance criteria are described for manufacturers and installers of solar photovoltaic tests and applications. Quality oriented activities are outlined to be pursued by the contractor/subcontractor to assure the physical and operational quality of equipment produced is included. In the broad sense, guidelines are provided for establishing a QA organization if none exists. Mainly, criteria is provided to be considered in any PV quality assurance plan selected as appropriate by the responsible Field Center. A framework is established for a systematic approach to ensure that photovoltaic tests and applications are constructed in a timely and cost effective manner.

  14. Reference earth orbital research and applications investigations (blue book). Volume 7: Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The candidate experiment program for manned space stations with specific application to technology disciplines is presented. The five functional program elements are devoted to the development of new technology for application to future generation spacecraft and experiments. The functional program elements are as follows: (1) monitor and trace movement of external contaminants to determine methods for controlling contamination, (2) analysis of fundamentals of fluid systems management, (3) extravehicular activity, (4) advanced spacecraft systems tests, and (5) development of teleoperator system for use with space activities.

  15. Space processing applications payload equipment study. Volume 2A: Experiment requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, A. G.; Anderson, W. T., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    An analysis of the space processing applications payload equipment was conducted. The primary objective was to perform a review and an update of the space processing activity research equipment requirements and specifications that were derived in the first study. The analysis is based on the six major experimental classes of: (1) biological applications, (2) chemical processes in fluids, (3) crystal growth, (4) glass technology, (5) metallurgical processes, and (6) physical processes in fluids. Tables of data are prepared to show the functional requirements for the areas of investigation.

  16. URSULA2 computer program. Volume 2. Applications (sensitivity studies and demonstration calculations). Final report. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Keeton, L.W.; Marchland, E.O.; Singhal, A.K.; Spalding, D.B.

    1980-01-01

    The URSULA2 computer program has been developed for the thermal-hydraulic analysis of steam generators for PWR nuclear power plants. It computes three-dimensional distributions of velocity, pressure, enthalpy, etc., in the shell of the generator, and the distributions of primary-fluid temperature within the tubes. The code is applicable to both steady and unsteady flows and is equiped with three physical models: the equal velocity homogeneous model, a slip (or two-fluid) model, and an algebraic slip model. Applications, sensitivity studies, and demonstration calculations are presented.

  17. [Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B permit application: Volume 6, Revision 3: Engineering Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    This report is part of revision 3 to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act part B permit application for the WIPP facility. Engineering drawings and details are included on the following: fire protection sprinkler system and fire water collection system; fault analysis and protective device coordination; primary power distribution, area electrical diagrams; paving details; fencing plan; railroad access plan; and access road plans.

  18. [Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B permit application: Volume 6, Revision 3: Engineering Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    This report is part of revision 3 to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act part B permit application for the WIPP facility. Engineering drawings and details are included on the following: fire protection sprinkler system and fire water collection system; fault analysis and protective device coordination; primary power distribution, area electrical diagrams; paving details; fencing plan; railroad access plan; and access road plans.

  19. Study of airborne science experiment management concepts for application to space shuttle. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulholland, D. R.; Reller, J. O., Jr.; Neel, C. B.; Haughney, L. C.

    1973-01-01

    The management concepts and operating procedures are documented as they apply to the planning of shuttle spacelab operations. Areas discussed include: airborne missions; formulation of missions; management procedures; experimenter involvement; experiment development and performance; data handling; safety procedures; and applications to shuttle spacelab planning. Characteristics of the airborne science experience are listed, and references and figures are included.

  20. Application of System Identification Techniques to Turbine Engine Post-Stall Test and Evaluation. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    Application of System Identification Techniques to Turbine Engine Post-Stall Test and Evaluation was an Air Force funded study to investigate and...apply system identification techniques to post-stall engine models in a manner which allowed AEDC personnel to become proficient in the use of these

  1. Fifth Annual Workshop on Space Operations Applications and Research (SOAR 1991), volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishen, Kumar (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    Papers given at the Space Operations and Applications Symposium, host by the NASA Johnson Space Center on July 9-11, 1991 are given. The technical areas covered included intelligent systems, automation and robotics, human factors and life sciences, and environmental interactions.

  2. Draft Title 40 CFR 191 compliance certification application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-31

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a research and development facility for the demonstration of the permanent isolation of transuranic radioactive wastes in a geologic formation. The facility was constructed in southeastern New Mexico in a manner intended to meet criteria established by the scientific and regulatory community for the safe, long-term disposal of transuranic wastes. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing an application to demonstrate compliance with the requirements outlined in Title 40, Part 191 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) for the permanent disposal of transuranic wastes. As mandated by the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Land Withdrawal Act of 1992, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) must evaluate this compliance application and provide a determination regarding compliance with the requirements within one year of receiving a complete application. Because the WIPP is a very complex program, the DOE has planned to submit the application as a draft in two parts. This strategy will allow for the DOE and the EPA to begin technical discussions on critical WIPP issues before the one-year compliance determination period begins. This report is the first of these two draft submittals.

  3. Best Visual Presentation--Observations from the Award Committee. IR Applications. Volume 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bers, Trudy

    2005-01-01

    In 2003, the Association for Institutional Research (AIR) initiated the Best Visual Presentation (BVP) award to acknowledge the contributions made through new ways of professional communication, in addition to those made through more traditional scholarly formats. The purpose of this "IR Applications" is to provide observations from the BVP Award…

  4. Application of Shuttle EVA Systems to Payloads. Volume 2: Payload EVA Task Completion Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Candidate payload tasks for EVA application were identified and selected, based on an analysis of four representative space shuttle payloads, and typical EVA scenarios with supporting crew timelines and procedures were developed. The EVA preparations and post EVA operations, as well as the timelines emphasizing concurrent payload support functions, were also summarized.

  5. Impact Factors for Microinvasion in Patients With Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Possible Application to the Definition of Clinical Tumor Volume

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Minhua; Ji Yuan; Zeng Zhaochong; Tang Zhaoyou; Fan Jia; Zhou Jian; Zeng Mengsu; Bi Aihong; Tan Yunshan

    2010-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the degree of invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) microscopically that will provide a potential application for gross tumor volume to clinical tumor volume (GTV-to-CTV) expansion. Methods and Materials: From January 2002 to January 2006, 149 HCC patients were selected from those who had undergone surgical resection. Pathology slides and clinical data of all patients were reviewed, including platelet counts, serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels, degree of liver cirrhosis, tumor size, capsular status, portal vein invasion, TNM stage, and histologic tumor grade. The distance between the tumor margin (or fibrous capsule) and the invasive lesions was measured by senior pathologists. Results: Of these 149 patients, 79 (53.0%) patients presented with tumor microinvasion between 0.5 and 4 mm. This degree of microinvasion was inversely correlated with lower platelet counts and positively correlated with higher AFP levels, larger tumor sizes, portal vein invasion, and advanced TNM stage. Microinvasion distances less than or equal to 2 mm were found in 96.1% of patients (74/77) with tumor dimensions less than or equal to 5 cm and in 94.5% of patients (85/90) with AFP levels less than 400 mug/l. Conclusions: Based on our study findings, GTV-to-CTV expansions of 4 mm for HCC are required to conceal the gross tumor and any microscopic disease with 100% accuracy. Tumor size and AFP levels are the simplest indicators for determining the GTV-to-CTV distance for HCC.

  6. A review of partial volume correction techniques for emission tomography and their applications in neurology, cardiology and oncology.

    PubMed

    Erlandsson, Kjell; Buvat, Irène; Pretorius, P Hendrik; Thomas, Benjamin A; Hutton, Brian F

    2012-11-07

    Accurate quantification in PET and SPECT requires correction for a number of physical factors, such as photon attenuation, Compton scattering and random coincidences (in PET). Another factor affecting quantification is the limited spatial resolution. While considerable effort has gone into development of routine correction techniques for the former factors, less attention has been paid to the latter. Spatial resolution-related effects, referred to as 'partial volume effects' (PVEs), depend not only on the characteristics of the imaging system but also on the object and activity distribution. Spatial and/or temporal variations in PVE can often be confounding factors. Partial volume correction (PVC) could in theory be achieved by some kind of inverse filtering technique, reversing the effect of the system PSF. However, these methods are limited, and usually lead to noise-amplification or image artefacts. Some form of regularization is therefore needed, and this can be achieved using information from co-registered anatomical images, such as CT or MRI. The purpose of this paper is to enhance understanding of PVEs and to review possible approaches for PVC. We also present a review of clinical applications of PVC within the fields of neurology, cardiology and oncology, including specific examples.

  7. Preliminary studies on the use of ultra-low-volume applications of malathion for control of Aedes simpsoni

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, G. D.; Neri, P.; Gratz, N. G.; Weathers, D. B.

    1970-01-01

    In view of the threat of additional yellow fever epidemics in East Africa and recent successes in the use of malathion applied by the ultra-low-volume technique against insect vectors, field trials were initiated in November 1968 to test the efficacy of this method against Aedes simpsoni. Results of these trials show that in areas where Musa ensetta is the principal breeding site, the application of 20.2 US fl oz/acre (1474 ml/ha) of malathion was capable of reducing vector populations 93%-100%. Comparable applications of 6 US fl oz/acre (438 ml/ha) reduced populations by 76% and 89%. Since this study did not conclusively demonstrate that the 6 US fl oz/acre dosage rate was sufficient to obtain maximum population reduction, further studies should be initiated to obtain information on the optimal dosage to be employed against this species. Under the conditions of these trials, the use of a light, single-engined aircraft equipped with a rotary atomizer spray system and capable of operation from improvised fields was shown to be feasible against this vector species. It was further demonstrated that the canopy formed by M. ensetta does not present an impossible barrier to the penetration of the spray droplets produced by the ULV application technique. Observations made on the application methodology and on the biology of A. simpsoni show the versatility of this species and the need for further studies on the integration of spray applications with the peak activity periods of the insect. PMID:5309519

  8. Ka-band MMIC receiver with ion-implanted technology for high-volume and low-cost application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, J.; Geddes, J.; Detry, J.; Carlson, D.

    1991-10-01

    A monolithic-microwave-integrated-circuit (MMIC) receiver in ion implantation technology, with LNA and mixer integrated circuits (ICs) shows 4.7-dB noise figure and 6.8-dB conversion gain at 35 GHz with a low IF frequency of 10-50 MHz. The data reported are for a receiver in the Ka-band. The results are for two separate amplifier and mixer ICs combined to form a receiver or down converter. The authors have successfully demonstrate viable and manufacturable technology that is useful for high volume and cost-effective applications. The measured results show the technology is able to deliver high performance with very good yield.

  9. Assessment of solar options for small power systems applications. Volume III. Analysis of concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Laity, W.W.; Aase, D.T.; Apley, W.J.; Bird, S.P.; Drost, M.K.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Williams, T.A.

    1980-09-01

    A comparative analysis of solar thermal conversion concepts that are potentially suitable for development as small electric power systems (1 to 10 MWe) is given. Seven generic types of collectors, together with associated subsystems for electric power generation, were considered. The collectors can be classified into three categories: (1) two-axis tracking (with compound-curvature reflecting surfaces; (2) one-axis tracking (with single-curvature reflecting suraces; and (3) nontracking (with low-concentration reflecting surfaces). All seven collectors were analyzed in conceptual system configurations with Rankine-cycle engines. In addition, two of the collectors (the Point Focus Central Receiver and the Point Focus Distributed Receiver) were analyzed with Brayton-cycle engines, and the latter of the two also was analyzed with Stirling-cycle engines. This volume describes the systems analyses performed on all the alternative configurations of the seven generic collector concepts and the results obtained. The SOLSTEP computer code used to determine each configuration's system cost and performance is briefly described. The collector and receiver performance calculations used are also presented. The capital investment and related costs that were obtained from the systems studies are presented, and the levelized energy costs are given as a function of capacity factor obtained from the systems studies. Included also are the values of the other attributes used in the concepts' final ranking. The comments, conclusions, and recommendations developed by the PNL study team during the concept characterization and systems analysis tasks of the study are presented. (WHK)

  10. Bootstrap current in enhanced reversed shear tokamaks for volume neutron source applications

    SciTech Connect

    Houlberg, W.A.

    1995-12-31

    The bootstrap current is evaluated for two reference tokamak designs for a Volume Neutron Source (VNS). One is a larger aspect ratio design using superconducting coils (VNS-SC) and the other is a small aspect ratio design using a solid core with normal conducting toroidal field coils (VNS-ST). The target plasma profiles are taken as representative of the recently observed enhanced reverse shear plasmas with hollow magnetic safety factor (q) profiles in the core and corresponding peaked density profiles. The higher q in the plasma center in combination with peaked density is shown to move the peak in the bootstrap current toward the plasma center. This reduces the current drive requirements to a very small axial seed current and a source localized around the location of the desired minimum in the q profile. Very high bootstrap current fractions can be attained in the VNS-SC design with normalized betas (defined in terms of the vacuum toroidal magnetic field at the geometric center of the plasma) of {beta}{sub N} {le} 3.5. The bootstrap current is lower in the VNS-ST design because of its lower aspect ratio; the highest bootstrap fraction found in these limited cases is 50% at {beta}{sub N} = 5.

  11. High-volume manufacturing equipment and processing for directed self-assembly applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somervell, Mark; Yamauchi, Takashi; Okada, Soichiro; Tomita, Tadatoshi; Nishi, Takanori; Iijima, Etsuo; Nakano, Takeo; Ishiguro, Takumi; Nagahara, Seiji; Iwaki, Hiroyuki; Dojun, Makiko; Ozawa, Mariko; Yatsuda, Koichi; Tobana, Toshikatsu; Romo Negreira, Ainhoa; Parnell, Doni; Kawakami, Shinchiro; Muramatsu, Makoto; Rathsack, Benjamen; Nafus, Kathleen; Peyre, Jean-Luc; Kitano, Takahiro

    2014-03-01

    Directed Self-Assembly (DSA) is one of the most promising technologies for scaling feature sizes to 16 nm and below. Both line/space and hole patterns can be created with various block copolymer morphologies, and these materials allow for molecular-level control of the feature shapes—exactly the characteristics that are required for creating high fidelity lithographic patterns. Over the past five years, the industry has been addressing the technical challenges of maturing this technology by addressing concerns such as pattern defectivity, materials specifications, design layout, and tool requirements. Though the learning curve has been steep, DSA has made significant progress toward implementation in high-volume manufacturing. Tokyo Electron has been focused on the best methods of achieving high-fidelity patterns using DSA processing. Unlike other technologies where optics and photons drive the formation of patterns, DSA relies on surface interactions and polymer thermodynamics to determine the final pattern shapes. These phenomena, in turn, are controlled by the processing that occurs on clean-tracks, etchers, and cleaning systems, and so a host of new technology has been developed to facilitate DSA. In this paper we will discuss the processes and hardware that are emerging as critical enablers for DSA implementation, and we will also demonstrate the kinds of high fidelity patterns typical of mainstream DSA integrations.

  12. Development of a Cartesian-grid finite-volume characteristic flux model for marine applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, C.; Le Touzé, D.; Alessandrini, B.

    2010-06-01

    A Finite Volume method based on Characteristic Fluxes for compressible fluids is developed. An explicit cell-centered resolution is adopted, where second-order accuracy is provided by using a MUSCL scheme with Sweby or Superbee limiters for the hyperbolic part. Resolution is performed on a generic unstructured Cartesian grid, where solid boundaries are handled by a Cut-Cell method. Interfaces are explicitely advected in a non-diffusive way, ensuring local mass conservation of each fluid. An improved cell cutting has been developed to handle boundaries of arbitrary geometrical complexity. The mesh density is locally adapted to provide accuracy along these boundaries, which can be fixed or move inside the mesh. Instead of using a polygon clipping algorithm, we use the Voxel traversal algorithm coupled with a local floodfill scanline to intersect 2D or 3D boundary surface meshes with the fixed Cartesian grid. Small cells stability problem near the boundaries is solved using a fully conservative merging method. Inflow and outflow conditions are also implemented in the model. The solver is validated on 2D academic test cases, such as the flow past a cylinder. The latter test cases are performed both in the frame of the body and in a fixed frame where the body is moving across the mesh. Extension to 3D is presently being implemented and first results will be presented at the conference.

  13. Space Applications of Automation, Robotics and Machine Intelligence Systems (ARAMIS). Volume 1: Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. H.; Minsky, M. L.; Smith, D. B. S.

    1982-01-01

    Potential applications of automation, robotics, and machine intelligence systems (ARAMIS) to space activities, and to their related ground support functions are explored. The specific tasks which will be required by future space projects are identified. ARAMIS options which are candidates for those space project tasks and the relative merits of these options are defined and evaluated. Promising applications of ARAMIS and specific areas for further research are identified. The ARAMIS options defined and researched by the study group span the range from fully human to fully machine, including a number of intermediate options (e.g., humans assisted by computers, and various levels of teleoperation). By including this spectrum, the study searches for the optimum mix of humans and machines for space project tasks.

  14. Application handbook for a Standardized Control Module (SCM) for DC-DC converters, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, F. C.; Mahmoud, M. F.; Yu, Y.

    1980-01-01

    The standardized control module (SCM) was developed for application in the buck, boost and buck/boost DC-DC converters. The SCM used multiple feedback loops to provide improved input line and output load regulation, stable feedback control system, good dynamic transient response and adaptive compensation of the control loop for changes in open loop gain and output filter time constraints. The necessary modeling and analysis tools to aid the design engineer in the application of the SCM to DC-DC Converters were developed. The SCM functional block diagram and the different analysis techniques were examined. The average time domain analysis technique was chosen as the basic analytical tool. The power stage transfer functions were developed for the buck, boost and buck/boost converters. The analog signal and digital signal processor transfer functions were developed for the three DC-DC Converter types using the constant on time, constant off time and constant frequency control laws.

  15. 64 kW concentrator Photovoltaics Application Test Center. Volume. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, D.M.; Jones, D.W.

    1980-06-01

    Kaman Sciences Corporation has designed a 64 kW Concentrating Photovoltaic Applications Test Center (APTEC). The APTEC employs a combined concentrating photovoltaic array in a total energy system application for load sharing the electric and thermal demands of a large computer center with the interfaced electric and natural gas utility. The photovoltaic array is composed of two-axis tracking heliostats of Fresnel lens concentrating, silicon solar cell modules. The modules are cooled with a fluid which transfers heat to a ground coupled heat sink/storage unit for subsequent use in meeting the computer center's thermal load demand. The combined photovoltaic power system shares basic components - a power conditioning unit, batteries and thermal conditioning equipment - with the electric and natural gas utility service, improving the computer center's operating availability time and displacing a portion of the fossil fuel required to power the computer center with solar energy. The detailed system design is reported.

  16. Solar thermal power systems point-focusing thermal and electric applications projects. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marriott, A.

    1980-01-01

    The activities of the Point-Focusing Thermal and Electric Applications (PETEA) project for the fiscal year 1979 are summarized. The main thrust of the PFTEA Project, the small community solar thermal power experiment, was completed. Concept definition studies included a small central receiver approach, a point-focusing distributed receiver system with central power generation, and a point-focusing distributed receiver concept with distributed power generation. The first experiment in the Isolated Application Series was initiated. Planning for the third engineering experiment series, which addresses the industrial market sector, was also initiated. In addition to the experiment-related activities, several contracts to industry were let and studies were conducted to explore the market potential for point-focusing distributed receiver (PFDR) systems. System analysis studies were completed that looked at PFDR technology relative to other small power system technology candidates for the utility market sector.

  17. Evaluation of the Trajectory Operations Applications Software Task (TOAST). Volume 2: Interview transcripts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, Sharon; Martin, Andrea; Bavinger, Bill

    1990-01-01

    The Trajectory Operations Applications Software Task (TOAST) is a software development project whose purpose is to provide trajectory operation pre-mission and real-time support for the Space Shuttle. The purpose of the evaluation was to evaluate TOAST as an Application Manager - to assess current and planned capabilities, compare capabilities to commercially-available off the shelf (COTS) software, and analyze requirements of MCC and Flight Analysis Design System (FADS) for TOAST implementation. As a major part of the data gathering for the evaluation, interviews were conducted with NASA and contractor personnel. Real-time and flight design users, orbit navigation users, the TOAST developers, and management were interviewed. Code reviews and demonstrations were also held. Each of these interviews was videotaped and transcribed as appropriate. Transcripts were edited and are presented chronologically.

  18. Application of the digital volume correlation technique for the measurement of displacement and strain fields in bone: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Bryant C; Perilli, Egon; Reynolds, Karen J

    2014-03-21

    Digital volume correlation (DVC) provides experimental measurements of displacements and strains throughout the interior of porous materials such as trabecular bone. It can provide full-field continuum- and tissue-level measurements, desirable for validation of finite element models, by comparing image volumes from subsequent µCT scans of a sample in unloaded and loaded states. Since the first application of DVC for measurement of strain in bone tissue, subsequent reports of its application to trabecular bone cores up to whole bones have appeared within the literature. An "optimal" set of procedures capable of precise and accurate measurements of strain, however, still remains unclear, and a systematic review focussing explicitly on the increasing number of DVC algorithms applied to bone or structurally similar materials is currently unavailable. This review investigates the effects of individual parameters reported within individual studies, allowing to make recommendations for suggesting algorithms capable of achieving high accuracy and precision in displacement and strain measurements. These recommendations suggest use of subsets that are sufficiently large to encompass unique datasets (e.g. subsets of 500 µm edge length when applied to human trabecular bone cores, such as cores 10mm in height and 5mm in diameter, scanned at 15 µm voxel size), a shape function that uses full affine transformations (translation, rotation, normal strain and shear strain), the robust normalized cross-correlation coefficient objective function, and high-order interpolation schemes. As these employ computationally burdensome algorithms, researchers need to determine whether they have the necessary computational resources or time to adopt such strategies. As each algorithm is suitable for parallel programming however, the adoption of high precision techniques may become more prevalent in the future.

  19. Program EAGLE User’s Manual. Volume 1. Introduction and Grid Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    BASE+BMAX. Note that files 1 through 10 and 20 cannot be used. These are reserved as scratch files for code usage . The maximum number of sub-blocks is...distribution is 2b DECLASSIFICA rON/ DOWNGRADING SCHEDULE unlimited. 4. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER (S) 5. MONITORING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER ...OFFICE SYMBOL 9 PROCUREMENT INSTRUMENT IDENTIFICATION NUMBER ORGANIZATION (if applicable) Aer(m echanics Division AFATL/FX 8c. ADDRESS (City, State, and

  20. Space applications of automation, robotics and machine intelligence systems (ARAMIS). Volume 2. Space projects overview

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.H.; Minsky, M.L.; Smith, D.B.S.

    1982-08-01

    Applications of automation, robotics, and machine intelligence systems (ARAMIS) to space activities, and their related ground support functions are studied so that informed decisions can be made on which aspects of ARAMIS to develop. The space project breakdowns, which are used to identify tasks ('functional elements'), are described. The study method concentrates on the production of a matrix relating space project tasks to pieces of ARAMIS.

  1. Reference earth orbital research and applications investigations (blue book). Volume 4: Earth observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The earth observations capability of the space station and space shuttle program definition is discussed. The stress in the functional program element has been to update the sensor specifications and to shift some of the emphasis from sensors to experiments to be done aboard the facility. The earth observations facility will include provisions for data acquisition, sensor control and display, data analysis, and maintenance and repair. The facility is research and development in nature with a potential for operational applications.

  2. Canola Oil Fuel Cell Demonstration: Volume 3 - Technical, Commercialization, and Application Issues Associated with Harvested Biomass

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-17

    defense and civilian power generation applications. ERDC/CERL SR-06-41 5 Mode of Technology Transfer This report will be made accessible through...consider them as an en- ergy crop. Although there have also been reports of experimental-size soy- bean plantings in Montana, soybeans do not do well in...been reported that oilseed crushing plants with a capacity above 10 million gal of oil per year generally use solvent extraction systems. In con

  3. Environmental Fate Model for Ultra-Low-Volume Insecticide Applications Used for Adult Mosquito Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    drift hazard (Hewitt, 2008; Teske et al., 2000). Little is currently known about the deposition and drift of small droplets such as those used during...ULV applications for adult mosquito management ( Teske et al., 2000). Droplets smaller than 50 μm have very low settling velocities, and have similar...risk and regulatory assessments have used models like ISCST3, AgDrift® (Stewart Agricultural Research Services, Macon, MO, USA) ( Teske et al., 2002), and

  4. A thermal scale modeling study for Apollo and Apollo applications, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    The development and demonstration of practical thermal scale modeling techniques applicable to systems involving radiation, conduction, and convection with emphasis on cabin atmosphere/cabin wall thermal interface are discussed. The Apollo spacecraft environment is used as the model. Four possible scaling techniques were considered: (1) modified material preservation, (2) temperature preservation, (3) scaling compromises, and Nusselt number preservation. A thermal mathematical model was developed for use with the Nusselt number preservation technique.

  5. Space applications of Automation, Robotics and Machine Intelligence Systems (ARAMIS). Volume 2: Space projects overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. H.; Minsky, M. L.; Smith, D. B. S.

    1982-01-01

    Applications of automation, robotics, and machine intelligence systems (ARAMIS) to space activities, and their related ground support functions are studied so that informed decisions can be made on which aspects of ARAMIS to develop. The space project breakdowns, which are used to identify tasks ('functional elements'), are described. The study method concentrates on the production of a matrix relating space project tasks to pieces of ARAMIS.

  6. High-volume use of self-cementing spray dry absorber material for structural applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Charles E.

    Spray dry absorber (SDA) material, or spray dryer ash, is a byproduct of energy generation by coal combustion and sulfur emissions controls. Like any resource, it ought to be used to its fullest potential offsetting as many of the negative environmental impacts of coal combustion as possible throughout its lifecycle. Its cementitious and pozzolanic properties suggest it be used to augment or replace another energy and emissions intensive product: Portland cement. There is excellent potential for spray dryer ash to be used beneficially in structural applications, which will offset CO2 emissions due to Portland cement production, divert landfill waste by further utilizing a plentiful coal combustion by-product, and create more durable and sustainable structures. The research into beneficial use applications for SDA material is relatively undeveloped and the material is highly underutilized. This dissertation explored a specific self-cementing spray dryer ash for use as a binder in structural materials. Strength and stiffness properties of hydrated spray dryer ash mortars were improved by chemical activation with Portland cement and reinforcement with polymer fibers from automobile tire recycling. Portland cement at additions of five percent of the cementitious material was found to function effectively as an activating agent for spray dryer ash and had a significant impact on the hardened properties. The recycled polymer fibers improved the ductility and toughness of the material in all cases and increased the compressive strength of weak matrix materials like the pure hydrated ash. The resulting hardened materials exhibited useful properties that were sufficient to suggest that they be used in structural applications such as concrete, masonry block, or as a hydraulic cement binder. While the long-term performance characteristics remain to be investigated, from an embodied-energy and carbon emissions standpoint the material investigated here is far superior to

  7. Space processing applications payload equipment study. Volume 2D: SPA supplemental power and heat rejection kit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammel, R. L. (Editor); Smith, A. G. (Editor)

    1974-01-01

    The design and application of a supplementary power and heat rejection kit for the Spacelab are discussed. Two subsystems of electric power and thermal control were analyzed to define the requirements for the power and heat rejection kit (PHRK). Twelve exemplary experiments were defined and power timelines were developed. From these timeline, the experiment requirements for sustained power, peak power, and energy were determined. The electrical power subsystem of the PHRK will consist of two fuel cells, oxygen and hydrogen reactant tank assemblies, water storage tanks, plumbing, cabling, and inverters to convert the nominal 28 volt dc fuel cell output to ac power.

  8. Intersatellite Link (ISL) application to commercial communications satellites. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, S. Lee

    1987-01-01

    Based on a comprehensive evaluation of the fundamental Intersatellite Link (ISL) systems characteristics, potential applications of ISLs to domestic, regional, and global commercial satellite communications were identified, and their cost-effectiveness and other systems benefits quantified wherever possible. Implementation scenarios for the cost-effective communications satellite systems employing ISLs were developed for the first launch in 1993 to 1994 and widespread use of ISLs in the early 2000's. Critical technology requirements for both the microwave (60 GHz) and optical (0.85 micron) ISL implementations were identified, and their technology development programs, including schedule and cost estimates, were derived.

  9. Water recovery and solid waste processing for aerospace and domestic applications. Volume 1: Final report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    A comprehensive study of advanced water recovery and solid waste processing techniques employed in both aerospace and domestic or commercial applications is reported. A systems approach was used to synthesize a prototype system design of an advanced water treatment/waste processing system. Household water use characteristics were studied and modified through the use of low water use devices and a limited amount of water reuse. This modified household system was then used as a baseline system for development of several water treatment waste processing systems employing advanced techniques. A hybrid of these systems was next developed and a preliminary design was generated to define system and hardware functions.

  10. Liquid rocket booster study. Volume 2, book 5, appendix 9: LRB alternate applications and evolutionary growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The analyses performed in assessing the merit of the Liquid Rocket Booster concept for use in alternate applications such as for Shuttle C, for Standalone Expendable Launch Vehicles, and possibly for use with the Air Force's Advanced Launch System are presented. A comparison is also presented of the three LRB candidate designs, namely: (1) the LO2/LH2 pump fed, (2) the LO2/RP-1 pump fed, and (3) the LO2/RP-1 pressure fed propellant systems in terms of evolution along with design and cost factors, and other qualitative considerations. A further description is also presented of the recommended LRB standalone, core-to-orbit launch vehicle concept.

  11. Phase 3 study of selected tether applications in space. Volume 2: Study results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Engineering designs were developed relative to a tethered launch assist from the Shuttle for payloads up to 10,000 kg mass and the tethering of a 15,000 kg science platform from the space station. These designs are used for a cost benefit analysis which assesses the feasibility of using such systems as a practical alternative to what would otherwise be accomplished by conventional means. The term conventional as related to both these applications is intended to apply to the use of some form(s) of chemical propulsion system.

  12. Thirteenth Workshop for Computational Fluid Dynamic Applications in Rocket Propulsion and Launch Vehicle Technology. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. W. (Compiler)

    1996-01-01

    This conference publication includes various abstracts and presentations given at the 13th Workshop for Computational Fluid Dynamic Applications in Rocket Propulsion and Launch Vehicle Technology held at the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center April 25-27 1995. The purpose of the workshop was to discuss experimental and computational fluid dynamic activities in rocket propulsion and launch vehicles. The workshop was an open meeting for government, industry, and academia. A broad number of topics were discussed including computational fluid dynamic methodology, liquid and solid rocket propulsion, turbomachinery, combustion, heat transfer, and grid generation.

  13. Seventh Annual Workshop on Space Operations Applications and Research (SOAR 1993), volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishen, Kumar (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    This document contains papers presented at the Space Operations, Applications and Research Symposium (SOAR) Symposium hosted by NASA/Johnson Space Center (JSC) and cosponsored by NASA/JSC and U.S. Air Force Materiel Command. SOAR included NASA and USAF programmatic overviews, plenary session, panel discussions, panel sessions, and exhibits. It invited technical papers in support of U.S. Army, U.S. Navy, Department of Energy, NASA, and USAF programs in the following areas: robotics and telepresence, automation and intelligent systems, human factors, life support, and space maintenance and servicing. SOAR was concerned with Government-sponsored research and development relevant to aerospace operations.

  14. Sixth Annual Workshop on Space Operations Applications and Research (SOAR 1992), volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishen, Kumar (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    This document contains papers presented at the Space Operations, Applications, and Research Symposium (SOAR) hosted by the U.S. Air Force (USAF) on 4-6 Aug. 1992. The symposium was cosponsored by the Air Force Material Command and by NASA/JSC. Key technical areas covered during the symposium were robotics and telepresence, automation and intelligent systems, human factors, life sciences, and space maintenance and servicing. The SOAR differed from most other conferences in that it was concerned with Government-sponsored research and development relevant to aerospace operations. Symposium proceedings include papers covering various disciplines presented by experts from NASA, the USAF, universities, and industry.

  15. Thermal power systems, small power systems application project. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marriott, A. T.

    1979-01-01

    Current small power system technology as applied to power plants up to 10 MWe in size was assessed. Markets for small power systems were characterized and cost goals were established. Candidate power plant system design concepts were selected for evaluation and preliminary performance and cost assessments were made. Economic studies were conducted and breakeven capital costs were determined for leading contenders among the candidate systems. An application study was made of the potential use of small power systems in providing part of the demand for pumping power by the extensive aqueduct system of California, estimated to be 1000 MWe by 1985. Criteria and methodologies were developed for application to the ranking of candidate power plant system design concepts. Experimental power plants concepts of 1 MWe rating were studied leading toward the definition of a power plant configuration for subsequent detail design, construction, testing and evaluation as Engineering Experiment No. 1 (EE No. 1). Site selection criteria and ground rules for the solicitation of EE No. 1 site participation proposals by DOE were developed.

  16. Study of selected tether applications in space, phase 3, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The results of a Phase 3 study of two Selected Tether Applications in Space (STAIS); deorbit of a Shuttle and launch of an Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV), both from the space station using a tether were examined. The study objectives were to: perform a preliminary engineering design, define operational scenarios, develop a common cost model, perform cost benefits analyses, and develop a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS). Key features of the performance analysis were to identify the net increases in effective Shuttle cargo capability if tethers are used to assist in the deorbit of Shuttles and the launching of the OTVs from the space station and to define deployer system designs required to accomplish these tasks. Deployer concepts were designed and discussed. Operational scenarios, including timelines, for both tethered and nontethered Shuttle and OTV operations at the space station were evaluated. A summary discussion of the Selected Tether Applications Cost Model (STACOM) and the results of the cost benefits analysis are presented. Several critical technologies needed to implement tether assisted deployment of payloads are also discussed. Conclusions and recommendations are presented.

  17. Controlling Aedes aegypti in Cryptic Environments with Manually Carried Ultra-Low Volume and Mist Blower Pesticide Applications.

    PubMed

    Harwood, James F; Helmey, Wendy L; Turnwall, Brent B; Justice, Kevin D; Farooq, Muhammed; Richardson, Alec G

    2016-09-01

    Because Aedes aegypti , a vector of dengue, chikungunya, and Zika viruses, exhibits resting and reproductive behaviors that present challenges to control them, pesticide application equipment available for vector control must be evaluated for their ability to control this species in a variety of cryptic environments. Five types of pesticide sprayers, representing 3 spray technologies (1 mister, 2 ultra-low volume [ULV] cold foggers, and 2 ULV thermal foggers), were evaluated for their ability to control adult and immature stages of Ae. aegypti in indoor and outdoor environments. Cages holding adult mosquitoes and larvae were placed in cryptic sites for indoor sprays and placed among dense vegetation for outdoor sprays. Adult and pupal mortality data were recorded following applications of a mixture of synergized pyrethrins and pyriproxyfen. We found that no single sprayer was best suited for controlling Ae. aegypti in indoor and outdoor environments, nor was one best for controlling adult and immature mosquitoes. Sprayers producing larger droplets (misters and cold foggers) were more effective in controlling immature mosquitoes indoors and outdoors. Thermal fogging was more effective in controlling adults indoors, whereas cold fogs and misters were more effective for outdoor control.

  18. Finite-volume application of high order ENO schemes to multi-dimensional boundary-value problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casper, Jay; Dorrepaal, J. Mark

    1990-01-01

    The finite volume approach in developing multi-dimensional, high-order accurate essentially non-oscillatory (ENO) schemes is considered. In particular, a two dimensional extension is proposed for the Euler equation of gas dynamics. This requires a spatial reconstruction operator that attains formal high order of accuracy in two dimensions by taking account of cross gradients. Given a set of cell averages in two spatial variables, polynomial interpolation of a two dimensional primitive function is employed in order to extract high-order pointwise values on cell interfaces. These points are appropriately chosen so that correspondingly high-order flux integrals are obtained through each interface by quadrature, at each point having calculated a flux contribution in an upwind fashion. The solution-in-the-small of Riemann's initial value problem (IVP) that is required for this pointwise flux computation is achieved using Roe's approximate Riemann solver. Issues to be considered in this two dimensional extension include the implementation of boundary conditions and application to general curvilinear coordinates. Results of numerical experiments are presented for qualitative and quantitative examination. These results contain the first successful application of ENO schemes to boundary value problems with solid walls.

  19. The Environment for Application Software Integration and Execution (EASIE), version 1.0. Volume 2: Program integration guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Kennie H.; Randall, Donald P.; Stallcup, Scott S.; Rowell, Lawrence F.

    1988-01-01

    The Environment for Application Software Integration and Execution, EASIE, provides a methodology and a set of software utility programs to ease the task of coordinating engineering design and analysis codes. EASIE was designed to meet the needs of conceptual design engineers that face the task of integrating many stand-alone engineering analysis programs. Using EASIE, programs are integrated through a relational data base management system. In volume 2, the use of a SYSTEM LIBRARY PROCESSOR is used to construct a DATA DICTIONARY describing all relations defined in the data base, and a TEMPLATE LIBRARY. A TEMPLATE is a description of all subsets of relations (including conditional selection criteria and sorting specifications) to be accessed as input or output for a given application. Together, these form the SYSTEM LIBRARY which is used to automatically produce the data base schema, FORTRAN subroutines to retrieve/store data from/to the data base, and instructions to a generic REVIEWER program providing review/modification of data for a given template. Automation of these functions eliminates much of the tedious, error prone work required by the usual approach to data base integration.

  20. Assessment of human sinus cavity air volume using tunable diode laser spectroscopy, with application to sinusitis diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jing; Zhang, Hao; Li, Tianqi; Lin, Huiying; Svanberg, Katarina; Svanberg, Sune

    2015-11-01

    Sinusitis is a very common disease and improved diagnostic tools are desirable also in view of reducing over-prescription of antibiotics. A non-intrusive optical technique called GASMAS (GAs in Scattering Media Absorption Spectroscopy), which has a true potential of being developed into an important complement to other means of detection, was utilized in this work. Water vapor in the frontal sinuses, related to the free gas volume, was studied at around 937 nm in healthy volunteers. The results show a good stability of the GASMAS signals over extended times for the frontal sinuses for all volunteers, showing promising applicability to detect anomalies due to sinusitis. Measurements were also performed following the application of a decongestion spray. No noticeable signal change was observed, which is consistent with the fact that the water vapor concentration is given by the temperature only, and is not influenced by changes in cavity ventilation. Evaluated GASMAS data recorded on 6 consecutive days show signal stability for the left and right frontal sinus in one of the test volunteers.

  1. End-systolic Pressure-Volume Relation, Ejection Fraction, and Heart Failure: Theoretical Aspect and Clinical Applications.

    PubMed

    Shoucri, Rachad M

    2015-01-01

    A mathematical formalism describing the nonlinear end-systolic pressure-volume relation (ESPVR) is used to derive new indexes that can be used to assess the performance of the heart left ventricle by using the areas under the ESPVR (units of energy), the ordinates of the ESPVR (units of pressure), or from slopes of the curvilinear ESPVR. New relations between the ejection fraction (EF) and the parameters describing the ESPVR give some insight into the problem of heart failure (HF) with normal or preserved ejection fraction. Relations between percentage occurrence of HF and indexes derived from the ESPVR are also discussed. When ratios of pressures are used, calculation can be done in a noninvasive way with the possibility of interesting applications in routine clinical work. Applications to five groups of clinical data are given and discussed (normal group, aortic stenosis, aortic valvular regurgitation, mitral valvular regurgitation, miscellaneous cardiomyopathies). No one index allows a perfect segregation between all clinical groups, it is shown that appropriate use of two indexes (bivariate analysis) can lead to better separation of different clinical groups.

  2. Seventh Annual Workshop on Space Operations Applications and Research (SOAR 1993), volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishen, Kumar (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    This document contains papers presented at the Space Operations, Applications and Research Symposium (SOAR) Symposium hosted by NASA/Johnson Space Center (JSC) on August 3-5, 1993, and held at JSC Gilruth Recreation Center. SOAR included NASA and USAF programmatic overview, plenary session, panel discussions, panel sessions, and exhibits. It invited technical papers in support of U.S. Army, U.S. Navy, Department of Energy, NASA, and USAF programs in the following areas: robotics and telepresence, automation and intelligent systems, human factors, life support, and space maintenance and servicing. SOAR was concerned with Government-sponsored research and development relevant to aerospace operations. More than 100 technical papers, 17 exhibits, a plenary session, several panel discussions, and several keynote speeches were included in SOAR '93.

  3. Study of power management technology for orbital multi-100KWe applications. Volume 3: Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mildice, J. W.

    1980-01-01

    Mid to late 1980's power management technology needs to support development of a general purpose space platform, capable of suplying 100 to 250 KWe to a variety of users in low Earth orbit are examined. A typical, shuttle assembled and supplied space platform is illustred, along with a group of payloads which might reasonably be expected to use such a facility. Examination of platform and user power needs yields a set of power requirements used to evaluate power management options for life cycle cost effectivness. The most cost effective ac/dc and dc systems are evaluated, specifically to develop system details which lead to technology goals, including: array and transmission voltages, best frequency for ac power transmission, and advantages and disadvantages of ac and dc systems for this application. System and component requirements are compared with the state-of-the-art to identify areas where technological development is required.

  4. NSSDC Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies for Space and Earth Science Applications, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobler, Ben (Editor); Hariharan, P. C. (Editor); Blasso, L. G. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This report contains copies of nearly all of the technical papers and viewgraphs presented at the NSSDC Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies for Space and Earth Science Application. This conference served as a broad forum for the discussion of a number of important issues in the field of mass storage systems. Topics include the following: magnetic disk and tape technologies; optical disk and tape; software storage and file management systems; and experiences with the use of a large, distributed storage system. The technical presentations describe, among other things, integrated mass storage systems that are expected to be available commercially. Also included is a series of presentations from Federal Government organizations and research institutions covering their mass storage requirements for the 1990's.

  5. LANDSAT follow-on: A report by the applications survey groups. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billingsley, F. C.; Helton, M. R.; Obrien, V. M.

    1976-01-01

    Attempts at operational usage of the LANDSAT imagery by non NASA users are studied with particular emphasis on profitable use of the imagery, as contrasted with investigations concerned with research and development of a technology. An evaluation is given of the functional capabilities of the LANDSAT follow-on and ground systems designs in terms of user requirements and desiderata for data measurements, products, and parameters. Applications survey groups (ASGs) were formed for mineral and petroleum exploration, inland water resources, land inventory, and agriculture. The members were drawn from all segments of the user community: Federal agencies, state and local governments or agencies (or from associations of such constituencies), industry and universities. They were selected so that in aggregate they would be able to adequately assess the state-of-the-art in their technical areas and represent this in the ASG deliberations.

  6. NSSDC Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies for Space and Earth Science Applications, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobler, Ben (Editor); Hariharan, P. C. (Editor); Blasso, L. G. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This report contains copies of nearly all of the technical papers and viewgraphs presented at the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies for Space and Earth Science Applications. This conference served as a broad forum for the discussion of a number of important issues in the field of mass storage systems. Topics include magnetic disk and tape technologies, optical disk and tape, software storage and file management systems, and experiences with the use of a large, distributed storage system. The technical presentations describe, among other things, integrated mass storage systems that are expected to be available commercially. Also included is a series of presentations from Federal Government organizations and research institutions covering their mass storage requirements for the 1990s.

  7. A study of application of remote sensing to river forecasting. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A project is described whose goal was to define, implement and evaluate a pilot demonstration test to show the practicability of applying remotely sensed data to operational river forecasting in gaged or previously ungaged watersheds. A secondary objective was to provide NASA with documentation describing the computer programs that comprise the streamflow forecasting simulation model used. A computer-based simulation model was adapted to a streamflow forecasting application and implemented in an IBM System/360 Model 44 computer, operating in a dedicated mode, with operator interactive control through a Model 2250 keyboard/graphic CRT terminal. The test site whose hydrologic behavior was simulated is a small basin (365 square kilometers) designated Town Creek near Geraldine, Alabama.

  8. The Influence of Atmospheric Stability on Wind Drift from Ultra-Low-volume Aerial Forest Spray Applications.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crabbe, R. S.; McCooeye, M.; Mickle, R. E.

    1994-04-01

    Measurements of drift cloud mass from 11 cases selected from a study of wind-borne droplet drift from ultra low-volume aerial spray applications over northern Ontario forests are presented as a function of atmospheric stability. Six swaths were overlaid onto a flight line in 30 min to obtain ensemble-averaged data from rotary atomizer emissions from an agricultural spray plane flying at about 21 and 26 m above ground level. The estimated volume median diameters of the spray were 100 µm for the 21-m height and 70 µm for the 26-m height. The mass of spray material in the drift cloud was measured at 400, 1200, and 2200 m downwind of the (crosswind) flight line using Rotorods' suspended from tethered blimps. Wind speed at aircraft height varied from 2 to 5 m s1 and meteorological conditions varied from moderately stable to moderately unstable.Analysis of the data revealed that 35% more drift occurred in stable than in unstable conditions. The lowest drift was measured when the aircraft was flown in the morning mixing layer beneath a low capping inversion. Under thee conditions, only 18% of the emission drifted put 400 m downwind and 10% past 1200 m. The highest drift occurred in moderately stable flow, 71% past 400 m and 50% past 2200 m in 3 m s1 wind speeds and, in slightly stable flow, 77% past 400 m and 27% past 2200 m in 5 m s1 wind speeds.Within experimental error, little difference was observed between wind drift of the 100-µm-diameter droplets and the 70-µm-diameter droplets past 400 m downwind although farther downwind, drift from the larger-droplet emission was less. This difference is discussed in terms of the descent rate of the aircraft vortex wake in stable conditions.

  9. Study of power management technology for orbital multi-100KWe applications. Volume 2: Study results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mildice, J. W.

    1980-01-01

    The preliminary requirements and technology advances required for cost effective space power management systems for multi-100 kilowatt requirements were identified. System requirements were defined by establishing a baseline space platform in the 250 KE KWe range and examining typical user loads and interfaces. The most critical design parameters identified for detailed analysis include: increased distribution voltages and space plasma losses, the choice between ac and dc distribution systems, shuttle servicing effects on reliability, life cycle costs, and frequency impacts to power management system and payload systems for AC transmission. The first choice for a power management system for this kind of application and size range is a hybrid ac/dc combination with the following major features: modular design and construction-sized minimum weight/life cycle cost; high voltage transmission (100 Vac RMS); medium voltage array or = 440 Vdc); resonant inversion; transformer rotary joint; high frequency power transmission line or = 20 KHz); energy storage on array side or rotary joint; fully redundant; and 10 year life with minimal replacement and repair.

  10. An analysis for high speed propeller-nacelle aerodynamic performance prediction. Volume 1: Theory and application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egolf, T. Alan; Anderson, Olof L.; Edwards, David E.; Landgrebe, Anton J.

    1988-01-01

    A computer program, the Propeller Nacelle Aerodynamic Performance Prediction Analysis (PANPER), was developed for the prediction and analysis of the performance and airflow of propeller-nacelle configurations operating over a forward speed range inclusive of high speed flight typical of recent propfan designs. A propeller lifting line, wake program was combined with a compressible, viscous center body interaction program, originally developed for diffusers, to compute the propeller-nacelle flow field, blade loading distribution, propeller performance, and the nacelle forebody pressure and viscous drag distributions. The computer analysis is applicable to single and coaxial counterrotating propellers. The blade geometries can include spanwise variations in sweep, droop, taper, thickness, and airfoil section type. In the coaxial mode of operation the analysis can treat both equal and unequal blade number and rotational speeds on the propeller disks. The nacelle portion of the analysis can treat both free air and tunnel wall configurations including wall bleed. The analysis was applied to many different sets of flight conditions using selected aerodynamic modeling options. The influence of different propeller nacelle-tunnel wall configurations was studied. Comparisons with available test data for both single and coaxial propeller configurations are presented along with a discussion of the results.

  11. Application of radar for automotive collision avoidance. Volume 1: Technical report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichtenberg, C. L. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this project was research and development of an automobile collision avoidance radar system. The major finding was that the application of radar to the automobile collision avoidance problem deserves continued research even though the specific approach investigated in this effort did not perform adequately in its angle measurement capability. Additional findings were that: (1) preliminary performance requirements of a candidate radar system are not unreasonable; (2) the number and severity of traffic accidents could be reduced by using a collision avoidance radar system which observes a fairly wide (at least + or - 10 deg) field of view ahead of the vehicle; (3) the health radiation hazards of a probable radar design are not significant even when a large number of radar-equipped vehicles are considered; (4) effects of inclement weather on radar operation can be accommodated in most cases; (5) the phase monopulse radar technique as implemented demonstrated inferior angle measurement performance which warrants the recommendation of investigating alternative radar techniques; and (6) extended target and multipath effects, which presumably distort the amplitude and phase distribution across the antenna aperture, are responsible for the observed inadequate phase monopulse radar performance.

  12. Study of power management technology for orbital multi-100KWe applications. Volume 2: Study results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mildice, J. W.

    1980-07-01

    The preliminary requirements and technology advances required for cost effective space power management systems for multi-100 kilowatt requirements were identified. System requirements were defined by establishing a baseline space platform in the 250 KE KWe range and examining typical user loads and interfaces. The most critical design parameters identified for detailed analysis include: increased distribution voltages and space plasma losses, the choice between ac and dc distribution systems, shuttle servicing effects on reliability, life cycle costs, and frequency impacts to power management system and payload systems for AC transmission. The first choice for a power management system for this kind of application and size range is a hybrid ac/dc combination with the following major features: modular design and construction-sized minimum weight/life cycle cost; high voltage transmission (100 Vac RMS); medium voltage array or = 440 Vdc); resonant inversion; transformer rotary joint; high frequency power transmission line or = 20 KHz); energy storage on array side or rotary joint; fully redundant; and 10 year life with minimal replacement and repair.

  13. Application of matched asymptotic expansions to lunar and interplanetary trajectories. Volume 1: Technical discussion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lancaster, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    Previously published asymptotic solutions for lunar and interplanetary trajectories have been modified and combined to formulate a general analytical solution to the problem on N-bodies. The earlier first-order solutions, derived by the method of matched asymptotic expansions, have been extended to second order for the purpose of obtaining increased accuracy. The derivation of the second-order solution is summarized by showing the essential steps, some in functional form. The general asymptotic solution has been used as a basis for formulating a number of analytical two-point boundary value solutions. These include earth-to-moon, one- and two-impulse moon-to-earth, and interplanetary solutions. The results show that the accuracies of the asymptotic solutions range from an order of magnitude better than conic approximations to that of numerical integration itself. Also, since no iterations are required, the asymptotic boundary value solutions are obtained in a fraction of the time required for comparable numerically integrated solutions. The subject of minimizing the second-order error is discussed, and recommendations made for further work directed toward achieving a uniform accuracy in all applications.

  14. PUREX Storage Tunnels dangerous waste permit application. Revision 1, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    The PUREX Storage Tunnels are a mixed waste storage unit consisting of two underground railroad tunnels: Tunnel Number 1 designated 218-E-14 and Tunnel Number 2 designated 218-E-15. The two tunnels are connected by rail to the PUREX Plant and combine to provide storage space for 48 railroad cars (railcars). The PUREX Storage Tunnels provide a long-term storage location for equipment removed from the PUREX Plant. Transfers into the PUREX Storage Tunnels are made on an as-needed basis. Radioactively contaminated equipment is loaded on railcars and remotely transferred by rail into the PUREX Storage Tunnels. Railcars act as both a transport means and a storage platform for equipment placed into the tunnels. This report consists of part A and part B. Part A reports on amounts and locations of the mixed water. Part B permit application consists of the following: Facility Description and General Provisions; Waste Characteristics; Process Information; Groundwater Monitoring; Procedures to Prevent Hazards; Contingency Plan; Personnel Training; Exposure Information Report.

  15. Evaluation of ultra low volume and thermal fog pesticide applications against Old World Phlebotomine sand fly vectors of Leishmania in Kenya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One component of the Department of Defense (DoD) pest management system is ultra-low volume (ULV) and/or thermal fog aerosol pesticide application. Despite widespread implementations of this and other components of the system, such as use of repellents and permethrin, US military operations in hot-a...

  16. Main Trend Extraction Based on Irregular Sampling Estimation and Its Application in Storage Volume of Internet Data Center.

    PubMed

    Miao, Beibei; Dou, Chao; Jin, Xuebo

    2016-01-01

    The storage volume of internet data center is one of the classical time series. It is very valuable to predict the storage volume of a data center for the business value. However, the storage volume series from a data center is always "dirty," which contains the noise, missing data, and outliers, so it is necessary to extract the main trend of storage volume series for the future prediction processing. In this paper, we propose an irregular sampling estimation method to extract the main trend of the time series, in which the Kalman filter is used to remove the "dirty" data; then the cubic spline interpolation and average method are used to reconstruct the main trend. The developed method is applied in the storage volume series of internet data center. The experiment results show that the developed method can estimate the main trend of storage volume series accurately and make great contribution to predict the future volume value. 
.

  17. Technical issues associated with in situ vitrification of the INEL Subsurface Disposal Area. Volume 3, Application of technical issues to the TRU-contaminated pits and trenches

    SciTech Connect

    Stoots, C.M.; Bates, S.O.; Callow, R.A.; Campbell, K.A.; Farnsworth, R.K.; Krisman, G.K.; McKellar, M.G.; Nickelson, D.F.; Slater, C.E.

    1992-07-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) has been identified as an alternative technology for remediation of the acid pit and transuranic pits and trenches (TRU-PTs) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA). However, a number of technical issues must be resolved before ISV can be considered applicable to these waste sites. To assist in the ISV technology evaluation, an ISV Steering Committee was formed to identify, prioritize, and develop closure roadmaps for technical issues lated with ISV application at the SDA. The activities of the ISV Steering Committee are summarized in a three-volume report. Volume I identifies the systematic approach used to identify and prioritize the ISV technical issues and briefly discusses the methodology that will be employed to resolve these issues. Volumes 2 and 3 discuss each technical issue in greater detail and suggest specific closure roadmaps to be used in resolving technical issues associated with ISV at the SDA Acid Pit and TRU-PTS, respectively. The three-volume report is a working document that will be updated as necessary to reflect current evaluation strategy for the ISV technology. This is Volume 3.

  18. 2D wavelet-analysis-based calibration technique for flat-panel imaging detectors: application in cone beam volume CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xiangyang; Ning, Ruola; Yu, Rongfeng; Conover, David L.

    1999-05-01

    The application of the newly developed flat panel x-ray imaging detector in cone beam volume CT has attracted increasing interest recently. Due to an imperfect solid state array manufacturing process, however, defective elements, gain non-uniformity and offset image unavoidably exist in all kinds of flat panel x-ray imaging detectors, which will cause severe streak and ring artifacts in a cone beam reconstruction image and severely degrade image quality. A calibration technique, in which the artifacts resulting from the defective elements, gain non-uniformity and offset image can be reduced significantly, is presented in this paper. The detection of defective elements is distinctively based upon two-dimensional (2D) wavelet analysis. Because of its inherent localizability in recognizing singularities or discontinuities, wavelet analysis possesses the capability of detecting defective elements over a rather large x-ray exposure range, e.g., 20% to approximately 60% of the dynamic range of the detector used. Three-dimensional (3D) images of a low-contrast CT phantom have been reconstructed from projection images acquired by a flat panel x-ray imaging detector with and without calibration process applied. The artifacts caused individually by defective elements, gain non-uniformity and offset image have been separated and investigated in detail, and the correlation with each other have also been exposed explicitly. The investigation is enforced by quantitative analysis of the signal to noise ratio (SNR) and the image uniformity of the cone beam reconstruction image. It has been demonstrated that the ring and streak artifacts resulting from the imperfect performance of a flat panel x-ray imaging detector can be reduced dramatically, and then the image qualities of a cone beam reconstruction image, such as contrast resolution and image uniformity are improved significantly. Furthermore, with little modification, the calibration technique presented here is also applicable

  19. High volume molecular genetic identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms using Genetic Bit Analysis Application to human genetic diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Boyce-Jacino, M.T.; Reynolds, J.; Nikiforov, T.

    1994-09-01

    The most common type of genetic disease-associated mutation is the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). Because most genetic diseases can be caused by multiple SNPs in the same gene, effective routine diagnosis of complex genetic diseases is dependent on a simple and reliable method of interrogating SNP sites. Molecular Tool`s solid phase assay capable of direct genotyping (single base sequencing) of SNP sites, Genetic Bit Analysis (GBA), involves hybridization-capture of a single-stranded PCR product to a sequence-specific, microtiter plate-bound oligonucleotide primer. The captured PCR product then acts as template for single-base extension of the capture primer across the polymorphic site, enabling direct determination of the base composition of the polymorphism through a simple colormetric assay. Genotyping in a high volume, semi-automated, processing system with a current capacity of 100 SNP interrogations per technician per day enables the screening of candidate mutations rapidly and cost-effectively, critically important to comprehensive genetic diagnosis. Using this gel-free technology, we have developed prototype diagnostic tests for CFTR and ApoE polymorphisms which enable direct sequencing of the polymorphic base at each site of interest. Routine clinical diagnosis of genetically complex diseases such as cystic fibrosis is dependent on this combination of robust biochemistry and simple format. Additionally, the ability to transfer the format and biochemistry to any disease gene of interest enables the broad application of this technology to clinical diagnostics, especially for genetically complex diseases.

  20. Mars Global Digital Dune Database (MGD3): North polar region (MC-1) distribution, applications, and volume estimates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayward, R.K.

    2011-01-01

    The Mars Global Digital Dune Database (MGD3) now extends from 90??N to 65??S. The recently released north polar portion (MC-1) of MGD3 adds ~844 000km2 of moderate- to large-size dark dunes to the previously released equatorial portion (MC-2 to MC-29) of the database. The database, available in GIS- and tabular-format in USGS Open-File Reports, makes it possible to examine global dune distribution patterns and to compare dunes with other global data sets (e.g. atmospheric models). MGD3 can also be used by researchers to identify areas suitable for more focused studies. The utility of MGD3 is demonstrated through three example applications. First, the uneven geographic distribution of the dunes is discussed and described. Second, dune-derived wind direction and its role as ground truth for atmospheric models is reviewed. Comparisons between dune-derived winds and global and mesoscale atmospheric models suggest that local topography may have an important influence on dune-forming winds. Third, the methods used here to estimate north polar dune volume are presented and these methods and estimates (1130km3 to 3250km3) are compared with those of previous researchers (1158km3 to 15 000km3). In the near future, MGD3 will be extended to include the south polar region. ?? 2011 by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

  1. Permanent lesion of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve after low-volume ethanol 96%application on the lumbar sympathetic chain.

    PubMed

    Pennekamp, Werner; Krumova, Elena K; Feigl, Georg Pd; Frombach, Elke; Nicolas, Volkmar; Schwarzer, Andreas; Maier, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Lumbar sympathetic blocks and chemical sympathectomies are used for the pain treatment of peripheral arterial occlusive disease or sympathetically maintained pain syndrome after nerve injury or complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). A 30-year-old patient was referred to the pain department with all the clinical signs and symptoms of a CRPS of the right foot one and a half years after being surgically treated for rupture of the achilles tendon. An inpatient admission was necessary due to insufficient pain reduction upon the current treatment, strong allodynia in the medial distal right lower leg and decreased load-bearing capacity of the right foot. A computed tomography (CT)-guided lumbar sympathetic block at the right L3 (Bupivacaine 0.5%, 4 mL) led to a skin temperature increase from 21° C before block to > 34° C for about 5 hours after the intervention. The patient experienced significant pain relief, indicating sympathetically maintained pain. Thus, we performed a CT-guided lumbar sympathetic neurolysis at the same level (ethanol 96%, 2 mL) 5 days later, achieving again a significant skin temperature increase of the right foot and a slight reduction of his pain intensity from numeric rating scale (NRS) 7 prior to the intervention to NRS 4 after 8 hours (NRS, 0 = no pain, 10 = strongest pain imaginable). Eight months later a repeated inpatient admission was necessary due to considerable pain relapse and decreased load-bearing capacity of his right foot. A CT-guided lumbar sympathetic neurolysis was repeated at the L4 level on the right side and was successful, inducing a significant skin temperature increase. Despite a temporary irritation of the genitofemoral nerve 8 hours after the intervention, a delayed irritation of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve occurred. This was a long-lasting lesion of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve following a CT-guided chemical sympathectomy with a low-volume ethanol 96% application - a complication which has not been

  2. Application of ultradisperse magnetic adsorbents for removal of small concentrations of pollutants from large volumes of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nechitailo, Galina S.; Kuznetsov, Anatoli; Kuznetsov, Oleg

    2016-07-01

    with the adsorbed toluidine blue were removed from the solution by magnetic separation. The sorbent was proven to have high sorption capacity and rapid adsorption kinetics for toluidine blue. These experiments demonstrated the validity of the method, where a small concentration of a pollutant was successfully collected from a large volume of water. By varying the ratio of the sorbent/pollutant, it is possible to optimize the sorbent use and the time required to adsorb all pollutant present in the treated water. A variety of magnetically controlled sorbents can be designed and used in this method, from broad-spectrum adsorbing sorbents to sorbents specifically targeting a particular pollutant. These sorbents can be used either individually or as mixtures of sorbents with different properties, depending on the desired purification goals. Simplicity and scalability of this method allow a variety of ecological applications, as well as industrial ones, from process water purification to wastewater treatment.

  3. Higher-order conservative interpolation between control-volume meshes: Application to advection and multiphase flow problems with dynamic mesh adaptivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, A.; Pavlidis, D.; Percival, J. R.; Salinas, P.; Xie, Z.; Fang, F.; Pain, C. C.; Muggeridge, A. H.; Jackson, M. D.

    2016-09-01

    A general, higher-order, conservative and bounded interpolation for the dynamic and adaptive meshing of control-volume fields dual to continuous and discontinuous finite element representations is presented. Existing techniques such as node-wise interpolation are not conservative and do not readily generalise to discontinuous fields, whilst conservative methods such as Grandy interpolation are often too diffusive. The new method uses control-volume Galerkin projection to interpolate between control-volume fields. Bounded solutions are ensured by using a post-interpolation diffusive correction. Example applications of the method to interface capturing during advection and also to the modelling of multiphase porous media flow are presented to demonstrate the generality and robustness of the approach.

  4. Rapid jetting status inspection and accurate droplet volume measurement for a piezo drop-on-demand inkjet print head using a scanning mirror for display applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Dong-Youn; Kim, Minsung

    2017-02-01

    Despite the inherent fabrication simplicity of piezo drop-on-demand inkjet printing, the non-uniform deposition of colourants or electroluminescent organic materials leads to faulty display products, and hence, the importance of rapid jetting status inspection and accurate droplet volume measurement increases from a process perspective. In this work, various jetting status inspections and droplet volume measurement methods are reviewed by discussing their advantages and disadvantages, and then, the opportunities for the developed prototype with a scanning mirror are explored. This work demonstrates that jetting status inspection of 384 fictitious droplets can be performed within 17 s with maximum and minimum measurement accuracies of 0.2 ± 0.5 μ m for the fictitious droplets of 50 μ m in diameter and -1.2 ± 0.3 μ m for the fictitious droplets of 30 μ m in diameter, respectively. In addition to the new design of an inkjet monitoring instrument with a scanning mirror, two novel methods to accurately measure the droplet volume by amplifying a minute droplet volume difference and then converting to other physical properties are suggested and the droplet volume difference of ±0.3% is demonstrated to be discernible using numerical simulations, even with the low measurement accuracy of 1 μ m . When the fact is considered that the conventional vision-based method with a CCD camera requires the optical measurement accuracy less than 25 nm to measure the volume of an in-flight droplet in the nominal diameter of 50 μ m at the same volume measurement accuracy, the suggested method with the developed prototype offers a whole new opportunity to inkjet printing for display applications.

  5. Rapid jetting status inspection and accurate droplet volume measurement for a piezo drop-on-demand inkjet print head using a scanning mirror for display applications.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong-Youn; Kim, Minsung

    2017-02-01

    Despite the inherent fabrication simplicity of piezo drop-on-demand inkjet printing, the non-uniform deposition of colourants or electroluminescent organic materials leads to faulty display products, and hence, the importance of rapid jetting status inspection and accurate droplet volume measurement increases from a process perspective. In this work, various jetting status inspections and droplet volume measurement methods are reviewed by discussing their advantages and disadvantages, and then, the opportunities for the developed prototype with a scanning mirror are explored. This work demonstrates that jetting status inspection of 384 fictitious droplets can be performed within 17 s with maximum and minimum measurement accuracies of 0.2 ± 0.5 μm for the fictitious droplets of 50 μm in diameter and -1.2 ± 0.3 μm for the fictitious droplets of 30 μm in diameter, respectively. In addition to the new design of an inkjet monitoring instrument with a scanning mirror, two novel methods to accurately measure the droplet volume by amplifying a minute droplet volume difference and then converting to other physical properties are suggested and the droplet volume difference of ±0.3% is demonstrated to be discernible using numerical simulations, even with the low measurement accuracy of 1 μm. When the fact is considered that the conventional vision-based method with a CCD camera requires the optical measurement accuracy less than 25 nm to measure the volume of an in-flight droplet in the nominal diameter of 50 μm at the same volume measurement accuracy, the suggested method with the developed prototype offers a whole new opportunity to inkjet printing for display applications.

  6. An Industrial Perspective of CAM/ROB Fuzzy Integrated Postprocessing Implementation for Redundant Robotic Workcells Applicability for Big Volume Prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrés, J.; Gracia, L.; Tornero, J.; García, J. A.; González, F.

    2009-11-01

    The implementation of a postprocessor for the NX™ platform (Siemens Corp.) is described in this paper. It is focused on a milling redundant robotic milling workcell consisting of one KUKA KR 15/2 manipulator (6 rotary joints, KRC2 controller) mounted on a linear axis and synchronized with a rotary table (i.e., two additional joints). For carrying out a milling task, a choice among a set of possible configurations is required, taking into account the ability to avoid singular configurations by using both additional joints. Usually, experience and knowledge of the workman allow an efficient control in these cases, but being it a tedious job. Similarly to this expert knowledge, a stand-alone fuzzy controller has been programmed with Matlab's Fuzzy Logic Toolbox (The MathWorks, Inc.). Two C++ programs complement the translation of the toolpath tracking (expressed in the Cartesian space) from the NX™-CAM module into KRL (KUKA Robot Language). In order to avoid singularities or joint limits, the location of the robot and the workpiece during the execution of the task is fit after an inverse kinematics position analysis and a fuzzy inference (i.e., fuzzy criterion in the Joint Space). Additionally, the applicability of robot arms for the manufacture of big volume prototypes with this technique is proven by means of one case studied. It consists of a big orographic model to simulate floodways, return flows and retention storage of a reservoir in the Mijares river (Puebla de Arenoso, Spain). This article deals with the problem for a constant tool orientation milling process and sets the technological basis for future research at five axis milling operations.

  7. Technical issues associated with in situ vitrification of the INEL Subsurface Disposal Area. Volume 2, Application of technical issues to the Acid Pit

    SciTech Connect

    Stoots, C.M.; Bates, S.O.; Callow, R.A.; Campbell, K.A.; Farnsworth, R.K.; Gratson, G.K.; McKellar, M.G.; Nickelson, D.F.; Slater, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) has been identified as an alternative technology for remediation of the Acid Pit and Transuranic Pits and Trenches (TRU-PTs) that are present at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA). However, a number of technical issues exist that must be resolved before ISV can be considered applicable to these waste sites. To assist in the ISV technology evaluation, an ISV Steering Committee was formed to identify, prioritize, and develop closure roadmaps for technical issues associated with ISV application at the INEL SDA. The activities of the ISV Steering Committee are summarized in three volumes of this report. Volume 1 identifies the systematic approach used to identify and prioritize the ISV technical issues, and briefly discusses the methodology that will be employed to resolve these issues. This document Volume 2 and Volume 3 discusses each technical issue in greater detail and suggest specific closure roadmaps to be used in resolving technical issues associated with ISV at the SDA Acid Pit and TRU-PTs, respectively.

  8. Direct interval volume visualization.

    PubMed

    Ament, Marco; Weiskopf, Daniel; Carr, Hamish

    2010-01-01

    We extend direct volume rendering with a unified model for generalized isosurfaces, also called interval volumes, allowing a wider spectrum of visual classification. We generalize the concept of scale-invariant opacity—typical for isosurface rendering—to semi-transparent interval volumes. Scale-invariant rendering is independent of physical space dimensions and therefore directly facilitates the analysis of data characteristics. Our model represents sharp isosurfaces as limits of interval volumes and combines them with features of direct volume rendering. Our objective is accurate rendering, guaranteeing that all isosurfaces and interval volumes are visualized in a crack-free way with correct spatial ordering. We achieve simultaneous direct and interval volume rendering by extending preintegration and explicit peak finding with data-driven splitting of ray integration and hybrid computation in physical and data domains. Our algorithm is suitable for efficient parallel processing for interactive applications as demonstrated by our CUDA implementation.

  9. Main Trend Extraction Based on Irregular Sampling Estimation and Its Application in Storage Volume of Internet Data Center

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Chao

    2016-01-01

    The storage volume of internet data center is one of the classical time series. It is very valuable to predict the storage volume of a data center for the business value. However, the storage volume series from a data center is always “dirty,” which contains the noise, missing data, and outliers, so it is necessary to extract the main trend of storage volume series for the future prediction processing. In this paper, we propose an irregular sampling estimation method to extract the main trend of the time series, in which the Kalman filter is used to remove the “dirty” data; then the cubic spline interpolation and average method are used to reconstruct the main trend. The developed method is applied in the storage volume series of internet data center. The experiment results show that the developed method can estimate the main trend of storage volume series accurately and make great contribution to predict the future volume value. 
 PMID:28090205

  10. Relationship Between LIBS Ablation and Pit Volume for Geologic Samples: Applications for the In Situ Absolute Geochronology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devismes, Damien; Cohen, Barbara; Miller, J.-S.; Gillot, P.-Y.; Lefevre, J.-C.; Boukari, C.

    2014-01-01

    These first results demonstrate that LIBS spectra can be an interesting tool to estimate the ablated volume. When the ablated volume is bigger than 9.10(exp 6) cubic micrometers, this method has less than 10% of uncertainties. Far enough to be directly implemented in the KArLE experiment protocol. Nevertheless, depending on the samples and their mean grain size, the difficulty to have homogeneous spectra will increase with the ablated volume. Several K-Ar dating studies based on this approach will be implemented. After that, the results will be shown and discussed.

  11. Variable volume combustor

    DOEpatents

    Ostebee, Heath Michael; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Keener, Christopher Paul

    2017-01-17

    The present application provides a variable volume combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The variable volume combustor may include a liner, a number of micro-mixer fuel nozzles positioned within the liner, and a linear actuator so as to maneuver the micro-mixer fuel nozzles axially along the liner.

  12. Application of 3D Scanned Imaging Methodology for Volume, Surface Area, and Envelope Density Evaluation of Densified Biomass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Measurement of surface area, volume, and density is an essential for quantifying, evaluating, and designing the biomass densification, storage, and transport operations. Acquiring accurate and repeated measurements of these parameters for hygroscopic densified biomass are not straightforward and on...

  13. Application of machine learning methods to describe the effects of conjugated equine estrogens therapy on region-specific brain volumes.

    PubMed

    Casanova, Ramon; Espeland, Mark A; Goveas, Joseph S; Davatzikos, Christos; Gaussoin, Sarah A; Maldjian, Joseph A; Brunner, Robert L; Kuller, Lewis H; Johnson, Karen C; Mysiw, W Jerry; Wagner, Benjamin; Resnick, Susan M

    2011-05-01

    Use of conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) has been linked to smaller regional brain volumes in women aged ≥65 years; however, it is unknown whether this results in a broad-based characteristic pattern of effects. Structural magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess regional volumes of normal tissue and ischemic lesions among 513 women who had been enrolled in a randomized clinical trial of CEE therapy for an average of 6.6 years, beginning at ages 65-80 years. A multivariate pattern analysis, based on a machine learning technique that combined Random Forest and logistic regression with L(1) penalty, was applied to identify patterns among regional volumes associated with therapy and whether patterns discriminate between treatment groups. The multivariate pattern analysis detected smaller regional volumes of normal tissue within the limbic and temporal lobes among women that had been assigned to CEE therapy. Mean decrements ranged as high as 7% in the left entorhinal cortex and 5% in the left perirhinal cortex, which exceeded the effect sizes reported previously in frontal lobe and hippocampus. Overall accuracy of classification based on these patterns, however, was projected to be only 54.5%. Prescription of CEE therapy for an average of 6.6 years is associated with lower regional brain volumes, but it does not induce a characteristic spatial pattern of changes in brain volumes of sufficient magnitude to discriminate users and nonusers.

  14. Application and Evaluation of Portable Field Instruments for Measuring Forced Expiratory Volume of Children and Adults in Environmental Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Robert M.; Kozel, Walter M.; Penley, Robert L.; Ward, George H.; Chapman, Robert S.

    1974-01-01

    In support of Health Effects Research Studies, pulmonary function tests are periodically administered to a large number of children. The ventilatory performance of these children is being evaluated by measuring the 0.75-sec forced expiratory volume (FEV0.75) with a waterless mechanical volume spirometer used in conjunction with an electronic timing unit. During a 1-yr testing period, operation with the volume spirometer and the EPA designed electronic timing unit proved to be highly successful. The volume spirometer was found to be more advantageous in conducting tests at remote field stations than the water spirometer and other electronic instruments which measure flow rate with a transducer element. The volume spirometer is lightweight, easy to operate, and has the capability of easy and accurate field calibration when used in conjunction with the electronic timing unit. Presently the volume spirometer and EPA designed electronic timing package are employed in all Community Health and Surveillance System (CHESS) pulmonary function testing studies. ImagesFIGURE 1.FIGURE 2.FIGURE 3. PMID:4470917

  15. Hold-up volume and its application in estimating effective phase ratio and thermodynamic parameters on a polysaccharide-coated chiral stationary phase.

    PubMed

    Lao, Wenjian; Gan, Jay

    2007-11-01

    As an "unretained" marker, 1,3,5-tri-tert-butylbenzene (TTBB) has been commonly used to measure the hold-up volume. Despite many racemates have been resolved on Chiralcel OJ column, the hold-up volume of the column is still not well characterized. The aim of this work was to evaluate the chromatographic behavior of TTBB on the OJ column, and its application in estimating the effective phase ratio and thermodynamic parameters. The hold-up volume was affected not only by the mobile phase composition but also the solvents used for dissolving TTBB. A higher concentration of TTBB (0.500 mg/mL) showed a better reproducibility than when used at a lower concentration. After correction for thermal expansion of the mobile phase, TTBB was found to have slight retention on the OJ phase. The effective phase ratio increased with an increase in the temperature and decrease in the strength of the mobile phase. The enthalpy and entropy of enantiomers of imidazolinone herbicides were independent of the temperature in a linear van't Hoff plot when the effective phase ratio was changed. This study shows that, based on the hold-up volume from TTBB, thermodynamic evaluation with parameters derived from the distribution constant is valuable for understanding chromatographic retention and enantioseparation mechanisms of chiral analytes.

  16. Magnetic susceptibility, artifact volume in MRI, and tensile properties of swaged Zr-Ag composites for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Imai, Haruki; Tanaka, Yoji; Nomura, Naoyuki; Doi, Hisashi; Tsutsumi, Yusuke; Ono, Takashi; Hanawa, Takao

    2017-02-01

    Zr-Ag composites were fabricated to decrease the magnetic susceptibility by compensating for the magnetic susceptibility of their components. The Zr-Ag composites with a different Zr-Ag ratio were swaged, and their magnetic susceptibility, artifact volume, and mechanical properties were evaluated by magnetic balance, three-dimensional (3-D) artifact rendering, and a tensile test, respectively. These properties were correlated with the volume fraction of Ag using the linear rule of mixture. We successfully obtained the swaged Zr-Ag composites up to the reduction ratio of 96% for Zr-4, 16, 36, 64Ag and 86% for Zr-81Ag. However, the volume fraction of Ag after swaging tended to be lower than that before swaging, especially for Ag-rich Zr-Ag composites. The magnetic susceptibility of the composites linearly decreased with the increasing volume fraction of Ag. No artifact could be estimated with the Ag volume fraction in the range from 93.7% to 95.4% in three conditions. Young's modulus, ultimate tensile strength (UTS), and 0.2% yield strength of Zr-Ag composites showed slightly lower values compared to the estimated values using a linear rule of mixture. The decrease in magnetic susceptibility of Zr and Ag by alloying or combining would contribute to the decrease of the Ag fraction, leading to the improvement of mechanical properties.

  17. Theoretical volume profiles for conformational changes: Application to internal rotation of benzene ring in 1,12-dimethoxy-[12]-paracyclophane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiebe, Heather; Louwerse, Miranda; Weinberg, Noham

    2017-03-01

    Identification of the transition state is an important step in the study of reaction kinetics and mechanisms. However, for non-rigid chemical systems where multiple viable reaction pathways may exist, enumeration of all possible transition states quickly becomes computationally expensive, if at all feasible. As an alternative approach, we recently proposed a methodology where the volumetric properties of a flexible reaction system are used to locate its transition state ensemble through a comparison of its theoretically determined volume profile and experimental activation volumes derived from high pressure kinetic data. In this work, we apply this method to internal rotation of the benzene ring in 1,12-dimethoxy-[12]-paracyclophane. For this system, the transition state ensemble was found to be the state with the lowest volume, where the benzene ring and the flexible methylene tether are coplanar. This result was verified by comparison with a Gibbs free energy profile obtained via umbrella sampling.

  18. Sensitivity of the urban airshed model to ozone precursor vehicular emissions. Volume 2. UAM application manual. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, B.; Miller, J.S.; Demetsky, M.J.

    1996-05-01

    Volume II is the user`s manual for running the UAM on a UNIX-based computer system. Although the UAM modeling system consists of several sub-systems, this volume of the report concentrates only on the UAM simulation program, the UAM Emissions Preprocessor System 2.0 (EPS2.0) and DISPLAY, the postprocessing program. The first two programs are directly related to vehicle emissions and the third is used to present output data. Included in the report is a case study. The manual is a guide for transportation professionals to more easily apply the UAM to analyze how transportation related decisions may affect air quality.

  19. Applicability of ultrasonic testing for the determination of volume fraction of particulates in alumina-reinforced aluminum matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, C.K.; Fang, R.L.; Weng, W.P.; Chuang, T.H.

    1999-10-01

    An ultrasonic testing technique was employed to determine the volume fraction of alumina particulate reinforcement in 6061 aluminum matrix composites. this study was performed on various composites with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nominal volume fractions of 10, 15, and 20%. For comparison, other techniques were employed as well, including the Archimedes method, metallographic image analysis, X-ray diffraction, and acid dissolution. Observations indicated that ultrasonic testing and acid dissolution methods are more reliable than the other techniques, while ultrasonic testing is faster than the acid dissolution method.

  20. NASA Historical Data Book. Volume 6; NASA Space Applications, Aeronautics and Space Research and Technology, Tracking and Data Acquisition/Support Operations, Commercial Programs and

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumerman, Judy A.

    2000-01-01

    This sixth volume of the NASA Historical Data Book is a continuation of those earlier efforts. This fundamental reference tool presents information, much of it statistical, documenting the development of several critical areas of NASA responsibility for the period between 1979 and 1988. This volume includes detailed information on the space applications effort, the development and operation of aeronautics and space research and technology programs, tracking and data acquisition/space operations, commercial programs, facilities and installations, personnel, and finances and procurement during this era. Special thanks are owed to the student research assistants who gathered and input much of the tabular material-a particularly tedious undertaking. There are numerous people at NASA associated with historical study, technical information, and the mechanics of publishing who helped in myriad ways in the preparation of this historical data book.

  1. Respiratory induced dynamic variations of stroke volume and its surrogates as predictors of fluid responsiveness: applicability in the early stages of specific critical states.

    PubMed

    Benes, Jan; Zatloukal, Jan; Kletecka, Jakub; Simanova, Alena; Haidingerova, Lenka; Pradl, Richard

    2014-06-01

    Respiratory induced dynamic variations of stroke volume and its surrogates are very sensitive and specific predictors of fluid responsiveness, but their use as targets for volume management can be limited. In a recent study, limiting factors were present in 53 % of surgical patients with inserted arterial line. In the intensive care unit (ICU) population the frequency is presumably higher, but the real prevalence is unknown. Our goal was to study the feasibility of dynamic variations guided initial volume resuscitation in specific critical states. We have performed a 5 year retrospective evaluation of patients admitted with diagnosis sepsis, polytrauma, after high risk surgery or cardiac arrest. Occurrence of major (sedation, mandatory ventilation and tidal volume, open chest and arrhythmias) and minor limiting factors (PEEP level, use of vasopressors and presence of arterial catheter) was screened within the first 24 h after admission. In the study period 1296 patients were hospitalized in our ICU with severe sepsis (n = 242), polytrauma (n = 561), after high risk surgery (n = 351) or cardiac arrest (n = 141). From these patients 549 (42.4 %) fulfilled all major criteria for applicability of dynamic variations. In our evaluation only limited number of patients admitted for polytrauma (51 %), sepsis (37 %), after cardiac arrest (39 %) or surgical procedure (33 %) fulfil all the major criteria for use of dynamic variations at the ICU admission. The prevalence was similar in patients with shock. Occurrence of minor factors can pose further bias in evaluation of these patients. General use of dynamic variations guided protocols for initial resuscitations seems not universally applicable.

  2. Spatial and temporal single-cell volume estimation by a fluorescence imaging technique with application to astrocytes in primary culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatibi, Siamak; Allansson, Louise; Gustavsson, Tomas; Blomstrand, Fredrik; Hansson, Elisabeth; Olsson, Torsten

    1999-05-01

    Cell volume changes are often associated with important physiological and pathological processes in the cell. These changes may be the means by which the cell interacts with its surrounding. Astroglial cells change their volume and shape under several circumstances that affect the central nervous system. Following an incidence of brain damage, such as a stroke or a traumatic brain injury, one of the first events seen is swelling of the astroglial cells. In order to study this and other similar phenomena, it is desirable to develop technical instrumentation and analysis methods capable of detecting and characterizing dynamic cell shape changes in a quantitative and robust way. We have developed a technique to monitor and to quantify the spatial and temporal volume changes in a single cell in primary culture. The technique is based on two- and three-dimensional fluorescence imaging. The temporal information is obtained from a sequence of microscope images, which are analyzed in real time. The spatial data is collected in a sequence of images from the microscope, which is automatically focused up and down through the specimen. The analysis of spatial data is performed off-line and consists of photobleaching compensation, focus restoration, filtering, segmentation and spatial volume estimation.

  3. Application of taxonomy theory, Volume 1: Computing a Hopf bifurcation-related segment of the feasibility boundary. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Zaborszky, J.; Venkatasubramanian, V.

    1995-10-01

    Taxonomy Theory is the first precise comprehensive theory for large power system dynamics modeled in any detail. The motivation for this project is to show that it can be used, practically, for analyzing a disturbance that actually occurred on a large system, which affected a sizable portion of the Midwest with supercritical Hopf type oscillations. This event is well documented and studied. The report first summarizes Taxonomy Theory with an engineering flavor. Then various computational approaches are sighted and analyzed for desirability to use with Taxonomy Theory. Then working equations are developed for computing a segment of the feasibility boundary that bounds the region of (operating) parameters throughout which the operating point can be moved without losing stability. Then experimental software incorporating large EPRI software packages PSAPAC is developed. After a summary of the events during the subject disturbance, numerous large scale computations, up to 7600 buses, are reported. These results are reduced into graphical and tabular forms, which then are analyzed and discussed. The report is divided into two volumes. This volume illustrates the use of the Taxonomy Theory for computing the feasibility boundary and presents evidence that the event indeed led to a Hopf type oscillation on the system. Furthermore it proves that the Feasibility Theory can indeed be used for practical computation work with very large systems. Volume 2, a separate volume, will show that the disturbance has led to a supercritical (that is stable oscillation) Hopf bifurcation.

  4. New municipal solid waste processing technology reduces volume and provides beneficial reuse applications for soil improvement and dust control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A garbage-processing technology has been developed that shreds, sterilizes, and separates inorganic and organic components of municipal solid waste. The technology not only greatly reduces waste volume, but the non-composted byproduct of this process, Fluff®, has the potential to be utilized as a s...

  5. The Logistics of Oil Spill Dispersant Application. Volume I. Logistics-Related Properties of Oil Spill Dispersants.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-01

    junction before distribution, the mixing does not depend on eduction and hence need not involve high pressures and volumes. A larger range of...Reference 6, p. 469 and Smith and Holliday , Reference 6, p. 475) seem to indi- cate that "self-mixing" dispersants are effective without breaker

  6. BEDVH--A method for evaluating biologically effective dose volume histograms: Application to eye plaque brachytherapy implants

    SciTech Connect

    Gagne, Nolan L.; Leonard, Kara L.; Huber, Kathryn E.; Mignano, John E.; Duker, Jay S.; Laver, Nora V.; Rivard, Mark J.

    2012-02-15

    Purpose: A method is introduced to examine the influence of implant duration T, radionuclide, and radiobiological parameters on the biologically effective dose (BED) throughout the entire volume of regions of interest for episcleral brachytherapy using available radionuclides. This method is employed to evaluate a particular eye plaque brachytherapy implant in a radiobiological context. Methods: A reference eye geometry and 16 mm COMS eye plaque loaded with {sup 103}Pd, {sup 125}I, or {sup 131}Cs sources were examined with dose distributions accounting for plaque heterogeneities. For a standardized 7 day implant, doses to 90% of the tumor volume ( {sub TUMOR}D{sub 90}) and 10% of the organ at risk volumes ( {sub OAR}D{sub 10}) were calculated. The BED equation from Dale and Jones and published {alpha}/{beta} and {mu} parameters were incorporated with dose volume histograms (DVHs) for various T values such as T = 7 days (i.e., {sub TUMOR} {sup 7}BED{sub 10} and {sub OAR} {sup 7}BED{sub 10}). By calculating BED throughout the volumes, biologically effective dose volume histograms (BEDVHs) were developed for tumor and OARs. Influence of T, radionuclide choice, and radiobiological parameters on {sub TUMOR}BEDVH and {sub OAR}BEDVH were examined. The nominal dose was scaled for shorter implants to achieve biological equivalence. Results: {sub TUMOR}D{sub 90} values were 102, 112, and 110 Gy for {sup 103}Pd, {sup 125}I, and {sup 131}Cs, respectively. Corresponding {sub TUMOR} {sup 7}BED{sub 10} values were 124, 140, and 138 Gy, respectively. As T decreased from 7 to 0.01 days, the isobiologically effective prescription dose decreased by a factor of three. As expected, {sub TUMOR} {sup 7}BEDVH did not significantly change as a function of radionuclide half-life but varied by 10% due to radionuclide dose distribution. Variations in reported radiobiological parameters caused {sub TUMOR} {sup 7}BED{sub 10} to deviate by up to 46%. Over the range of {sub OAR

  7. Determining the representative volume element size for three-dimensional microstructural material characterization. Part 2: Application to experimental data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, William M.; Chiu, Wilson K. S.

    2015-05-01

    Improved microstructural imaging and characterization methods have recently opened the door for quantitative evaluation of microstructures of such functional materials as solid oxide fuel cell and battery electrodes and composite gas separation membranes. Accurate quantitative characterization of these structures relies on the concept of a representative volume element (RVE) to provide a sufficiently large sample to be statistically representative of the material. In Part 1 of this work, several models were described to determine the RVE size for several common microstructural properties: volume fraction, particle size, and network contiguity. In this work, extensive synchrotron X-ray nanotomography imaging of a multiphase composite gas separation membrane is used to provide an experimental comparison to the model predictions. Results suggest that the models provide a reasonable estimate of RVE size, and can serve as a starting point for researchers planning imaging and characterization experiments.

  8. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B permit application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)]. Volume 6, Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    This volume contains Appendix D2, engineering design basis reports. Contents include: Design considerations for the waste hoist of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP); A site-specific study of wind and tornado probabilities at the WIPP Site in southeast New Mexico; Seismic evaluation report of underground facilities; and calculations for analysis of wind loads and tornado loads for WHB, seismic calculations, calculations for VOC-10 monitoring system, and for shaft at station A.

  9. Environmental Report 1996, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Harrach, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    This is Volume 2 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) annual Environmental Report 1996, prepared for the US Department of Energy. Volume 2 supports Volume 1 summary data and is essentially a detailed data report that provides individual data points, where applicable. Volume 2 includes information on monitoring of air, air effluents, sewerable water, surface water, ground water, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, environmental radiation, and quality assurance.

  10. The Moving Boundary Node Method: A level set-based, finite volume algorithm with applications to cell motility

    PubMed Central

    Wolgemuth, Charles W.; Zajac, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Eukaryotic cell crawling is a highly complex biophysical and biochemical process, where deformation and motion of a cell are driven by internal, biochemical regulation of a poroelastic cytoskeleton. One challenge to building quantitative models that describe crawling cells is solving the reaction-diffusion-advection dynamics for the biochemical and cytoskeletal components of the cell inside its moving and deforming geometry. Here we develop an algorithm that uses the level set method to move the cell boundary and uses information stored in the distance map to construct a finite volume representation of the cell. Our method preserves Cartesian connectivity of nodes in the finite volume representation while resolving the distorted cell geometry. Derivatives approximated using a Taylor series expansion at finite volume interfaces lead to second order accuracy even on highly distorted quadrilateral elements. A modified, Laplacian-based interpolation scheme is developed that conserves mass while interpolating values onto nodes that join the cell interior as the boundary moves. An implicit time-stepping algorithm is used to maintain stability. We use the algoirthm to simulate two simple models for cellular crawling. The first model uses depolymerization of the cytoskeleton to drive cell motility and suggests that the shape of a steady crawling cell is strongly dependent on the adhesion between the cell and the substrate. In the second model, we use a model for chemical signalling during chemotaxis to determine the shape of a crawling cell in a constant gradient and to show cellular response upon gradient reversal. PMID:20689723

  11. GASP cloud- and particle-encounter statistics and their application to LFC aircraft studies. Volume 2: Appendixes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jasperson, W. H.; Nastron, G. D.; Davis, R. E.; Holdeman, J. D.

    1984-01-01

    Summary studies are presented for the entire cloud observation archive from the NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP). Studies are also presented for GASP particle-concentration data gathered concurrently with the cloud observations. Cloud encounters are shown on about 15 percent of the data samples overall, but the probability of cloud encounter is shown to vary significantly with altitude, latitude, and distance from the tropopause. Several meteorological circulation features are apparent in the latitudinal distribution of cloud cover, and the cloud-encounter statistics are shown to be consistent with the classical mid-latitude cyclone model. Observations of clouds spaced more closely than 90 minutes are shown to be statistically dependent. The statistics for cloud and particle encounter are utilized to estimate the frequency of cloud encounter on long-range airline routes, and to assess the probability and extent of laminaar flow loss due to cloud or particle encounter by aircraft utilizing laminar flow control (LFC). It is shown that the probability of extended cloud encounter is too low, of itself, to make LFC impractical. This report is presented in two volumes. Volume I contains the narrative, analysis, and conclusions. Volume II contains five supporting appendixes.

  12. Application of Hollow Fiber Forward Osmosis Membranes for Produced and Process Water Volume Reduction: An Osmotic Concentration Process.

    PubMed

    Minier-Matar, Joel; Santos, Ana; Hussain, Altaf; Janson, Arnold; Wang, Rong; Fane, Anthony G; Adham, Samer

    2016-06-07

    Produced and process water (PPW) from oil and gas operations, specifically in Qatar, are disposed of by deep well injection in onshore facilities. Disposing large volumes of PPW may affect deep well formation sustainability highlighting the need for effective PPW management. Forward osmosis (FO) was applied as an "osmotic concentration" process to reduce PPW injection volumes by 50% using brines and seawater as draw solutions (DS). The energy intensive step of restoring the salinity of the DS was eliminated; the diluted DS would be simply discharged to the ocean. Both hollow fiber and flat sheet FO membranes were tested and the former exhibited better flux and rejection; they are the focus of this study. Optimization experiments, conducted using Box-Behnken statistical design, confirmed that temperature and DS concentration had a substantial effect on performance. To validate the concept, a long-term experiment, under optimized conditions, was conducted with PPW as feed and brine from thermal desalination plant as DS which yielded an average flux of 24 L/m(2)h. The results confirmed that low-energy osmotic concentration FO has the potential for full-scale implementation to reduce PPW injection volumes. Pilot testing opportunities are being evaluated to demonstrate the effectiveness of this technology under field conditions.

  13. Effect of lone-pair stereoactivity on polyhedral volume and structural flexibility: application to Te(IV)O6 octahedra.

    PubMed

    Christy, Andrew G; Mills, Stuart J

    2013-10-01

    The Distortion Theorem implies that the irregularity of bond distances in a distorted coordination polyhedron causes an increase of mean bond distance. Examination of 40 polyhedra containing the lone-pair cation Te(IV) shows that this does not imply an increase in polyhedral volume. Volumes of these polyhedra are 10.3-23.7 Å(3), compared with the 12.83 Å(3) expected for a hypothetical regular octahedron. There is little correlation between volume and measures of polyhedral distortion such as quadratic elongation, bond-angle variance or vector bond valence. However, the oxygens of our polyhedra lie very close to a sphere of best fit, centred at ~ 1 Å from the Te(IV) atom. The Te(IV)-centre distance is an index of lone-pair stereoactivity and is linearly related to the radius Rsph of the sphere; this is explained by a more localized lone pair repelling the anions more strongly, leading to a longer non-bonded distance between the lone pair and anions. Polyhedral volume still varies considerably for a given Rsph, because the oxygen ligands may be distributed over the whole sphere surface, or confined to a small portion of it. The uniformity of this distribution can be estimated from the distance between the sphere centre and the centroid of the O6 polyhedron. Te(IV)-centre and centroid-centre distances alone then account for 95% of the variation observed in volume for polyhedra which are topologically octahedral. Six of the polyhedra studied that are outliers are closer in shape to pentagonal pyramids than octahedra. These have short distances from the central Te(IV) cation to other Te(IV) and/or to large, polarizable cations, suggesting additional weak bonding interactions between these species and the central lone pair. The flexibility of lone-pair polyhedra is further enhanced by the ability of a single polyhedron to accommodate different cations with different degrees of lone-pair activity, which facilitates more diverse solid solution behaviour than would

  14. A prospective study of the effects of ultralow volume (ULV) aerial application of malathion on epidemic Plasmodium falciparum malaria. I. Study design and perspective.

    PubMed

    Eliason, D A; Joseph, V R; Karam, J

    1975-03-01

    A large-scale prospective study was designed to test the effects of aerial ultralow volume (ULV) application of malathion on epidemic Plasmodium falciparum malaria. The study was conducted during 1972 to 1973, in the Miragoane Valley of Haiti, an area having annual anticipated outbreaks of malaria, which allowed prospective assessment. Spraying of malathion at a dosage of 4.5 fluid ounces per acre reduced populations of adult Anopheles albimanus to less than 1% of prespray levels and interrupted epidemic transmission of P. falciparum malaria. No change was measured in susceptibility of the vector mosquito to malathion after six applications of spray during a period of 50 days. Ecologic study revealed no significant impact on nontarget vertebrates. Factors that contributed to the success of this method in Haiti were: 1) a susceptible population of mosquitoes; 2) suitable topography and climate conditions for spraying; and 3) treatment of an area sufficiently large to minimize the influence of immigration of mosquitoes from unsprayed areas.

  15. Validation of Student and Parent Reported Data on the Basic Grant Application Form. Final Report. Volume VI, Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applied Management Sciences, Inc., Silver Spring, MD.

    Objectives and findings of the Basic Grant Validation Study, which investigated the validity of information provided by applicants to the Basic Educational Opportunity Grant (BEOG) program, are described. Implications of the findings for financial aid application validation are also discussed. Seven separate studies were conducted in order to:…

  16. Proceedings of the Eleventh International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment, volume 2. [application and processing of remotely sensed data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Application and processing of remotely sensed data are discussed. Areas of application include: pollution monitoring, water quality, land use, marine resources, ocean surface properties, and agriculture. Image processing and scene analysis are described along with automated photointerpretation and classification techniques. Data from infrared and multispectral band scanners onboard LANDSAT satellites are emphasized.

  17. The Application of a Representative Volume Element (RVE) Model for the Prediction of Rice Husk Particulate-Filled Polymer Composite Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pochanard, Pandhita

    Polymer composite is one of the most widely used materials with application in multiple industries. However, its versatility and subsequent rise in consumption have prompted an increase in research on alternative materials to address the associated environmental concerns. The forefront of this investigation is on the potential use of biocomposite materials as a more sustainable replacement to the traditional polymer composite. Consequently, the ability to apply a theoretical model capable of replicating the microstructures of particulate-filled composite would make a very powerful analytical tool for material design. To address these requirements, this thesis applies a representative volume element (RVE) model for the investigation on the potential use of rice husk particulate-filled polymer composite as alternative material in non-critical application. In this work, rice husk powder (RHP) was used with epoxy for the fabrication of biocomposite samples with 0%, 10% and 30% RHP volume percentage. It was observed that a 10% increase in RHP did not affect the composite elastic property, but led to 15% and 20% decrease in yield stress and tensile strength, respectively. Further increase in RHP to 30% volume percentage also led to 8%, 21% and 28% reduction in Young's modulus, yield stress and tensile strength, respectively. Additionally, the material's responses to uniaxial loading predicted by the RVE model were found to be in reasonable agreement with the analytical and experimental results. No coupling agent was used in this study. The results of this present study suggested that rice husk powder could be used to reduce the composite raw material costs by replacing the more expensive polymer content with agricultural waste products without significant compromise to the composite's mechanical properties.

  18. Multiphase flow modelling using non orthogonal collocated finite volumes : application to fluid catalytical cracking and large scale geophysical flows.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, R. M.; Nicolas, A. N.

    2003-04-01

    A modeling approach of gas solid flow, taking into account different physical phenomena such as gas turbulence and inter-particle interactions is presented. Moment transport equations are derived for the second order fluctuating velocity tensor which allow to involve practical closures based on single phase turbulence modeling on one hand and kinetic theory of granular media on the other hand. The model is applied to fluid catalytic cracking processes and explosive volcanism. In the industry as well as in the geophysical community, multiphase flows are modeled using a finite volume approach and a multicorrector algorithm in time in order to determine implicitly the pressures, velocities and volume fractions for each phase. Pressures, and velocities are generally determined at mid-half mesh step from each other following the staggered grid approach. This ensures stability and prevents oscillations in pressure. It allows to treat almost all the Reynolds number ranges for all speeds and viscosities. The disadvantages appear when we want to treat more complex geometries or if a generalized curvilinear formulation of the conservation equations is considered. Too many interpolations have to be done and accuracy is then lost. In order to overcome these problems, we use here a similar algorithm in time and a Rhie and Chow interpolation (1983) of the collocated variables and essentially the velocities at the interface. The Rhie and Chow interpolation of the velocities at the finite volume interfaces allows to have no oscillations of the pressure without checkerboard effects and to stabilize all the algorithm. In a first predictor step, fluxes at the interfaces of the finite volumes are then computed using 2nd and 3rd order shock capturing schemes of MUSCL/TVD or Van Leer type, and the orthogonal stress components are treated implicitly while cross viscous/diffusion terms are treated explicitly. Pentadiagonal linear systems are solved in each geometrical direction (the so

  19. Novel application of confocal laser scanning microscopy and 3D volume rendering toward improving the resolution of the fossil record of charcoal.

    PubMed

    Belcher, Claire M; Punyasena, Surangi W; Sivaguru, Mayandi

    2013-01-01

    Variations in the abundance of fossil charcoals between rocks and sediments are assumed to reflect changes in fire activity in Earth's past. These variations in fire activity are often considered to be in response to environmental, ecological or climatic changes. The role that fire plays in feedbacks to such changes is becoming increasingly important to understand and highlights the need to create robust estimates of variations in fossil charcoal abundance. The majority of charcoal based fire reconstructions quantify the abundance of charcoal particles and do not consider the changes in the morphology of the individual particles that may have occurred due to fragmentation as part of their transport history. We have developed a novel application of confocal laser scanning microscopy coupled to image processing that enables the 3-dimensional reconstruction of individual charcoal particles. This method is able to measure the volume of both microfossil and mesofossil charcoal particles and allows the abundance of charcoal in a sample to be expressed as total volume of charcoal. The method further measures particle surface area and shape allowing both relationships between different size and shape metrics to be analysed and full consideration of variations in particle size and size sorting between different samples to be studied. We believe application of this new imaging approach could allow significant improvement in our ability to estimate variations in past fire activity using fossil charcoals.

  20. Classification of SD-OCT volumes with multi pyramids, LBP and HOG descriptors: application to DME detections.

    PubMed

    Alsaih, Khaled; Lemaitre, Guillaume; Vall, Join Massich; Rastgoo, Mojdeh; Sidibe, Desire; Wong, Tien Y; Lamoureux, Ecosse; Milea, Dan; Cheung, Carol Y; Meriaudeau, Fabrice

    2016-08-01

    This paper deals with the automated detection of Diabetic Macular Edema (DME) on Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) volumes. Our method considers a generic classification pipeline with preprocessing for noise removal and flattening of each B-Scan. Features such as Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG) and Local Binary Patterns (LBP) are extracted and combined to create a set of different feature vectors which are fed to a linear-Support Vector Machines (SVM) Classifier. Experimental results show a promising sensitivity/specificity of 0.75/0.87 on a challenging dataset.

  1. Measurements of intracellular volumes by 59Co and 2H/1H NMR and their physiological applications.

    PubMed

    Askenasy, Nadir; Navon, Gil

    2005-04-01

    Determination of the intracellular water volumes using NMR spectroscopy was performed using the NMR-visible nuclei: 59Co and 2H or 1H. Accurate measurement of intracellular water in cell suspensions and perfused organs is an important physiological parameter in the context of electrolyte homeostasis and energy metabolism, in particular when these parameters are monitored by non-invasive NMR spectroscopy. Furthermore, repeated or continuous monitoring of intracellular water provided significant insights into the physiology of cardiac muscle and sarcolemmal membrane permeability and integrity.

  2. Boron-doped diamond heater and its application to large-volume, high-pressure, and high-temperature experiments.

    PubMed

    Shatskiy, Anton; Yamazaki, Daisuke; Morard, Guillaume; Cooray, Titus; Matsuzaki, Takuya; Higo, Yuji; Funakoshi, Ken-ichi; Sumiya, Hitoshi; Ito, Eiji; Katsura, Tomoo

    2009-02-01

    A temperature of 3500 degrees C was generated using a diamond resistance heater in a large-volume Kawai-type high-pressure apparatus. Re and LaCrO(3) have conventionally been used for heaters in high-pressure studies but they cannot generate temperatures higher than 2900 degrees C and make in situ x-ray observations difficult due to their high x-ray absorption. Using a boron-doped diamond heater overcomes these problems and achieves stable temperature generation for pressure over 10 GPa. The heater starting material is a cold-compressed mixture of graphite with boron used to avoid the manufacturing difficulties due to the extreme hardness of diamond. The diamond heater was synthesized in situ from the boron-graphite mixture at temperature of 1600+/-100 degrees C and pressure of 20 GPa. By using the proposed technique, we have employed the diamond heater for high-temperature generation in a large-volume high-pressure apparatus. Achievement of temperatures above 3000 degrees C allows us to measure the melting points of the important constituents in earth's mantle (MgSiO(3), SiO(2), and Al(2)O(3)) and core (Fe and Ni) at extremely high pressures.

  3. Application of 3D scanned imaging methodology for volume, surface area, and envelope density evaluation of densified biomass.

    PubMed

    Igathinathane, C; Davis, J D; Purswell, J L; Columbus, E P

    2010-06-01

    Measurement of volume, surface area, and density is an essential for quantifying, evaluating, and designing the biomass densification, storage, and transport operations. Acquiring accurate and repeated measurements of these parameters for hygroscopic densified biomass are not straightforward and only a few methods are available. A 3D laser scanner was used as a measurement device and the 3D images were analyzed using image processing software. The validity of the method was verified using reference objects of known geometry and the accuracy obtained was in excess of 98%. Cotton gin trash briquettes, switchgrass pellets, switchgrass cubes, hardwood pellets, and softwood chips were tested. Most accurate results of the volume and surface area required the highest possible resolution of the scanner, which increased the total scan-process times, and image file size. Physical property determination using the 3D scanning and image analysis is highly repeatable (coefficient of variation <0.3%), non-invasive, accurate, and alternative methodology. The various limitations and merits of the developed method were also enumerated.

  4. Continuation of the compendium of applications technology satellite and communications technology satellite user experiments 1967-1977, volume 2. [bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engler, N. A.; Nash, J. F.; Strange, J. D.

    1978-01-01

    Approximately 453 reports, papers, and articles catalogued into an information retrieval system, covering communications experiments and demonstrations conducted, utilizing the Communications Technology Satellite and the Applications Technology Satellites 1, 3, 5, and 6 are listed.

  5. Effectiveness of Ultra-Low Volume Nighttime Applications of an Adulticide against Diurnal Aedes albopictus, a Critical Vector of Dengue and Chikungunya Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Farajollahi, Ary; Healy, Sean P.; Unlu, Isik; Gaugler, Randy; Fonseca, Dina M.

    2012-01-01

    Aedes albopictus, the Asian tiger mosquito, continues expanding its geographic range and involvement in mosquito-borne diseases such as chikungunya and dengue. Vector control programs rarely attempt to suppress this diurnal species with an ultra-low volume (ULV) adulticide because for maximum efficacy applications are conducted at night. During 2009–2011 we performed experimental nighttime applications of a novel adulticide (DUET®) against field populations of Ae. albopictus within an urban site composed of approximately 1,000 parcels (home and yard) in northeastern USA. Dual applications at mid label rate of the adulticide spaced one or two days apart accomplished significantly higher control (85.0±5.4% average reduction) than single full rate applications (73.0±5.4%). Our results demonstrate that nighttime ULV adulticiding is effective in reducing Ae. albopictus abundance and highlight its potential for use as part of integrated pest management programs and during disease epidemics when reducing human illness is of paramount importance. PMID:23145115

  6. Finite Volume schemes on unstructured grids for non-local models: Application to the simulation of heat transport in plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Goudon, Thierry; Parisot, Martin

    2012-10-15

    In the so-called Spitzer-Haerm regime, equations of plasma physics reduce to a nonlinear parabolic equation for the electronic temperature. Coming back to the derivation of this limiting equation through hydrodynamic regime arguments, one is led to construct a hierarchy of models where the heat fluxes are defined through a non-local relation which can be reinterpreted as well by introducing coupled diffusion equations. We address the question of designing numerical methods to simulate these equations. The basic requirement for the scheme is to be asymptotically consistent with the Spitzer-Haerm regime. Furthermore, the constraints of physically realistic simulations make the use of unstructured meshes unavoidable. We develop a Finite Volume scheme, based on Vertex-Based discretization, which reaches these objectives. We discuss on numerical grounds the efficiency of the method, and the ability of the generalized models in capturing relevant phenomena missed by the asymptotic problem.

  7. Low concentration ratio solar array for low Earth orbit multi-100kW application. Volume 2: Drawings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nalbandian, S. J.; French, E. P.

    1982-01-01

    A preliminary design effort directed toward a low concentration ratio photovoltaic array system based on 1984 technology and capable of delivering multi-hundred kilowatts (300 kW to 100 kW range) in low Earth orbit. The array system consists of two or more array modules each capable of delivering between 113 kW to 175 kW using silicon solar cells or gallium arsenide solar cells, respectively. The array module deployed area is 1320 square meters and consists of 4356 pyramidal concentrator elements. The module, when stowed in the Space Shuttle's payload bay, has a stowage volume of a cube with 3.24 meters on a side. The concentrator elements are sized for a geometric concentration ratio (GCR) of six with an aperture area of 0.5 meters x 0.5 meters. Drawings for the preliminary design configuration and for the test hardware that was fabricated for design evaluation and test are provided.

  8. Horizontal oil well applications and oil recovery assessment. Volume 1: Success of horizontal well technology, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Deskins, W.G.; McDonald, W.J.; Knoll, R.G.; Springer, S.J.

    1995-03-01

    Horizontal technology has been applied in over 110 formations in the USA. Volume I of this study addresses the overall success of horizontal technology, especially in less-publicized formations, i.e., other than the Austin Chalk, Bakken, and Niobrara. Operators in the USA. and Canada were surveyed on a formation-by-formation basis by means of a questionnaire. Response data were received describing horizontal well projects in 58 formations in the USA. and 88 in Canada. Operators responses were analyzed for trends in technical and economic success based on lithology (clastics and carbonates) and resource type (light oil, heavy oil, and gas). The potential impact of horizontal technology on reserves was also estimated. A forecast of horizontal drilling activity over the next decade was developed.

  9. The Shorelands: General Policies Plan Amendment 83-23, Zone Change Application 83-24. Volume 2. Appendices.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    1.6 MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART NATIONAL BJJ[A ) OF STANDARDS Tq9 A ... -- mb mm a m mm mmmimmm mmmm"amm m mmm ’I SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF...necesay m ideftif by block number) ,Joint State/Federal environmental impact document concerning a regulatory permit application, by The Shorelands Corp...ALTERNATIVES ANALYSIS AcceSiJEn or NTIS CR A&I C1iE L DTIC TAB / Dist iJ ;tl~T l __ju m | • m • • m AFPENDIX A- SUMMARY OF APPLICANT’S SITE ALTERNATIVES

  10. Institutional origins of the Department of Energy: the Office of Military Application. Energy History Series Volume 1, No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, R. M.

    1980-08-01

    The Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977 brought together for the first time in one department most of the government's energy programs. With these programs came a score of organizational entities, each with its own history and traditions, from a dozen departments and independent agencies. This report traces the history of the Office of Military Application, from its inception as the Division of Military Application in the Atomic Energy Commission, through the Energy Research and Development Administration to its present status as an office in the Department of Energy. (RWR)

  11. Configuration and design study of manipulator systems applicable to the free flying teleoperator. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tewell, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    A preliminary design of a manipulator system, applicable to a free flying teleoperator spacecraft operating in conjunction with the shuttle or tug, is presented. A new control technique is proposed for application to the manipulator system. This technique, a range/azimuth/elevation rate-rate mode, was selected based upon the results of man-in-the-loop simulations. Several areas are identified in which additional emphasis must be placed prior to the development of the manipulator system. The study results in a manipulator system which will provide an effective method for servicing, maintaining, and repairing satellites to increase their useful life.

  12. Environmental report 1995. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Harrach, R.J.; Failor, R.A.; Gallegos, G.M.

    1996-09-01

    This is Volume 2 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) annual Environmental Report 1995. This volume is intended to support summary data from Volume 1 and is essentially a detailed data report that provides additional data points, where applicable. Some summary data are also included in Volume 2, and more detailed accounts are given of sample collection and analytical methods. Volume 2 includes information in eight chapters on monitoring of air, air effluent, sewage, surface water, ground water, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, and environmental radiation, as well as three chapters on ground water protection, compliance self-monitoring and quality assurance.

  13. Assessing the impacts of truck based ultra-low volume applications of mosquito adulticides on honey bees (Apis mellifera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mosquito control reduces populations of mosquitoes to minimize the risk of mosquito-borne diseases. As part of an integrated approach to mosquito control, application of adulticides can be effective in rapidly reducing mosquito populations during times of high arbovirus transmission. However, impact...

  14. The Finite Analytic Method and its Applications. Laminar and Turbulent Flows Past Two Dimensional and Axisymmetric Bodies. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    analytic method. My thanks also go to Dr. Oscar P. Manley of the U.S. Department of Energy for his support of the application of the finite analytic...Shyy, S. S. Tong and S. M. Correa , " Numerical Recirculating Flow calculation Using a Body-Fitted Coordinate System," Numerical heat transfer, Vol.8, pp

  15. NASTRAN thermal analyzer: Theory and application including a guide to modeling engineering problems, volume 1. [thermal analyzer manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, H. P.

    1977-01-01

    The NASTRAN Thermal Analyzer Manual describes the fundamental and theoretical treatment of the finite element method, with emphasis on the derivations of the constituent matrices of different elements and solution algorithms. Necessary information and data relating to the practical applications of engineering modeling are included.

  16. Technology and Education: Issues in Administration, Policy and Applications in K12 Schools. (Advances in Educational Administration, Volume 8)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tettegah, Sharon Y., Ed.; Hunter, Richard C, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    In today's society where most students own MP3 players, engage in constant instant messaging and downloading from the Internet, more than ever school administrators and staff should be aware of issues in administration, policy, and applications. This book provides a comprehensive presentation of current policies and practices of technology in…

  17. Fracture control methods for space vehicles. Volume 2: Assessment of fracture mechanics technology for space shuttle applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehret, R. M.

    1974-01-01

    The concepts explored in a state of the art review of those engineering fracture mechanics considered most applicable to the space shuttle vehicle include fracture toughness, precritical flaw growth, failure mechanisms, inspection methods (including proof test logic), and crack growth predictive analysis techniques.

  18. Worldwide Intelligent Systems: Approaches to Telecommunications and Network Management. Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications, Volume 24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebowitz, Jay, Ed.; Prerau, David S., Ed.

    This is an international collection of 12 papers addressing artificial intelligence (AI) and knowledge technology applications in telecommunications and network management. It covers the latest and emerging AI technologies as applied to the telecommunications field. The papers are: "The Potential for Knowledge Technology in…

  19. A volume birdcage coil with an adjustable sliding tuner ring for neuroimaging in high field vertical magnets: ex and in vivo applications at 21.1 T

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Chunqi; Masad, Ihssan S.; Rosenberg, Jens T.; Elumalai, Malathy; Brey, William W.; Grant, Samuel C.; Gor’kov, Peter L.

    2012-01-01

    A tunable 900 MHz transmit/receive volume coil was constructed for 1H MR imaging of biological samples in a 21.1 T vertical bore magnet. To accommodate a diverse range of specimen and RF loads at such a high frequency, a sliding-ring adaptation of a low-pass birdcage was implemented through simultaneous alteration of distributed capacitance. To make efficient use of the constrained space inside the vertical bore, a modular probe design was implemented with a bottom-adjustable tuning and matching apparatus. The sliding ring coil displays good homogeneity and sufficient tuning range for different samples of various dimensions representing large span of RF loads. High resolution in vivo and ex vivo images of large rats (up to 350 g), mice and human postmortem tissues were obtained to demonstrate coil functionality and to provide examples of potential applications at 21.1 T. PMID:22750638

  20. Proceedings of the thirteenth national conference on artificial intelligence and the eighth innovative applications of artificial intelligence conference. Volume 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    This report contain papers from the Thirteenth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence and the Eighth Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence collected in two volumes. General areas of research for these papers are: interaction; internet agents; multiagent learning; multiagent problem solving; negotiation and coalition; AI in art and entertainment; constraint satisfaction; data consistency; game-tree search; phase transition; search control; search and learning; stochastic search; temporal reasoning; education; information retrieval and natural language processing; knowledge-based systems; knowledge compilation; knowledge representation; belief and belief revision; description logics and probabilities reasoning; knowledge-base and context; nonmonotonic reasoning; reasoning about action; learning; mobile robots; model-based reasoning; natural language; preception; planning; rule-based reasoning and connectionism; uncertainty; robot competition; student abstracts; and case studies.

  1. Remedial Investigation concept plan for Picatinny arsenal: Volume 1, Environmental setting, applicable regulations, summaries of site sampling plans, sampling priorities, and supporting appendixes

    SciTech Connect

    Benioff, P.A.; Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Biang, C.; Chiu, S.Y.; Miller, S.; Patton, T.; Pearl, R.; Yonk, A.; Yuen, C.R. )

    1991-03-01

    Argonne National Laboratory has prepared a Remedial Investigation (RI) Concept Plan for Picatinny Arsenal in New Jersey. Based on types of activity and location, the 156 RI Sites identified during the study are grouped into 16 Areas. The plan assesses the environmental status and identifies additional data needed for each RI Site in each Area. The plan was developed to comply with state and federal hazardous waste and water quality regulations. The plan also provides a ranking of the 16 Areas according to their potential for impacts on public health and the environment. Volume 1 describes the environmental setting of Picatinny Arsenal, discusses applicable federal and state environmental regulations, briefly describes the Areas and the Sites within each Area, provides a ranking of the Areas, summarizes the proposed RI sampling plan for each Site in each Area, and gives supplementary information. 60 refs., 9 figs., 25 tabs.

  2. Kondo physics in the single-electron transistor with ac driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordlander, Peter; Wingreen, Ned S.; Meir, Yigal; Langreth, David C.

    2000-01-01

    Using a time-dependent Anderson Hamiltonian, a quantum dot with an ac voltage applied to a nearby gate is investigated. A rich dependence of the linear response conductance on the external frequency and driving amplitude is demonstrated. At low frequencies a sufficiently strong ac potential produces sidebands of the Kondo peak in the spectral density of the dot, and a slow, roughly logarithmic decrease in conductance over several decades of frequency. At intermediate frequencies, the conductance of the dot displays an oscillatory behavior due to the appearance of Kondo resonances of the satellites of the dot level. At high frequencies, the conductance of the dot can vary rapidly due to the interplay between photon-assisted tunneling and the Kondo resonance.

  3. Intensity targeted radial structure tensor analysis and its application for automated mediastinal lymph node detection from CT volumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Hirohisa; Nimura, Yukitaka; Oda, Masahiro; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Iwano, Shingo; Honma, Hirotoshi; Takabatake, Hirotsugu; Mori, Masaki; Natori, Hiroshi; Mori, Kensaku

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a new blob-like enhancement filter based on Intensity Targeted Radial Structure Tensor (ITRST) analysis to improve mediastinal lymph node detection from chest CT volumes. Blob-like structure enhancement filter based on Radial Structure Tensor (RST) analysis can be utilized for initial detection of lymph node candidate regions. However, some of lymph nodes cannot be detected because RST analysis is influenced by neighboring regions whose intensity is very high or low, such as contrast-enhanced blood vessels and air. To overcome the problem, we propose ITRST analysis that integrate the prior knowledge on detection target intensity into RST analysis. Our lymph node detection method consists of two steps. First, candidate regions are obtained by ITRST analysis. Second, false positives (FPs) are removed by the Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier. We applied the proposed method to 47 cases. Among 19 lymph nodes whose short axis is no less than 10 mm, 100.0 % of them were detected with 247.7 FPs/case by ITRST analysis, while only 80.0 % were detected with 123.0 FPs/case by RST analysis. After the false positive (FP) reduction by SVM, ITRST analysis outperformed RST analysis in lymph node detection performance.

  4. Nanostructural Free-Volume Effects in Humidity-Sensitive MgO-Al2O3 Ceramics for Sensor Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klym, H.; Ingram, A.; Shpotyuk, O.; Hadzaman, I.; Hotra, O.; Kostiv, Yu.

    2016-03-01

    Technologically modified spinel MgO-Al2O3 ceramics were prepared from Al2O3 and 4MgCO3·Mg(OH)2·5H2O powders at sintering temperatures of 1200, 1300, and 1400 °C. Free-volume structural effects in MgO-Al2O3 ceramics and their electrophysical properties were studied using combined x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Hg-porosimetry, and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. It is shown that increasing of sintering temperature from 1200 to 1400 °C results in the transformation of pore size distribution in ceramics from tri- to bi-modal including open macro- and meso(micro)pores with sizes from ten to hundreds nm and nanopores with sizes up to a few nm. Microstructure of these ceramics is improved with the increase of sintering temperature, which results in decreased amount of additional phases located near grain boundaries. These phase extractions serve as specific trapping centers for positrons penetrating the ceramics. The positron trapping and ortho-positronium decaying components are considered in the mathematical treatment of the measured spectra. Classic Tao-Eldrup model is used to draw the correlation between the ortho-positronium lifetime and the size of nanopores, which is complementary to porosimetry data. The studied ceramics with optimal nanoporous structure are highly sensitive to humidity changes in the region of 31-96% with minimal hysteresis in adsorption-desorption cycles.

  5. Software design specification. Part 2: Orbital Flight Test (OFT) detailed design specification. Volume 3: Applications. Book 2: System management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The functions performed by the systems management (SM) application software are described along with the design employed to accomplish these functions. The operational sequences (OPS) control segments and the cyclic processes they control are defined. The SM specialist function control (SPEC) segments and the display controlled 'on-demand' processes that are invoked by either an OPS or SPEC control segment as a direct result of an item entry to a display are included. Each processing element in the SM application is described including an input/output table and a structured control flow diagram. The flow through the module and other information pertinent to that process and its interfaces to other processes are included.

  6. The Environment for Application Software Integration and Execution (EASIE) version 1.0. Volume 4: System installation and maintenance guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randall, Donald P.; Jones, Kennie H.; Rowell, Lawrence F.

    1988-01-01

    The Environment for Application Software Integration and Execution (EASIE) provides both a methodology and a set of software utility programs to ease the task of coordinating engineering design and analysis codes. This document provides necessary information for installing the EASIE software on a host computer system. The target host is a DEX VAX running VMS version 4; host dependencies are noted when appropriate. Relevant directories and individual files are identified, and compile/load/execute sequences are specified. In the case of the data management utilities, database management system (DBMS) specific features are described in an effort to assist the maintenance programmer in converting to a new DBMS. The document also describes a sample EASIE program directory structure to guide the program implementer in establishing his/her application dependent environment.

  7. Space Applications of Automation, Robotics and Machine Intelligence Systems (ARAMIS). Volume 4: Supplement, Appendix 4.3: Candidate ARAMIS Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. H.; Minsky, M. L.; Smith, D. B. S.

    1982-01-01

    Potential applications of automation, robotics, and machine intelligence systems (ARAMIS) to space activities, and to their related ground support functions, in the years 1985-2000, so that NASA may make informed decisions on which aspects of ARAMIS to develop. The study first identifies the specific tasks which will be required by future space projects. It then defines ARAMIS options which are candidates for those space project tasks, and evaluates the relative merits of these options. Finally, the study identifies promising applications of ARAMIS, and recommends specific areas for further research. The ARAMIS options defined and researched by the study group span the range from fully human to fully machine, including a number of intermediate options (e.g., humans assisted by computers, and various levels of teleoperation). By including this spectrum, the study searches for the optimum mix of humans and machines for space project tasks.

  8. Photovoltaic system criteria documents. Volume 1: Guidelines for evaluating the management and operations planning of photovoltaic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, John C.; Billitti, Joseph W.; Tallon, John M.

    1979-01-01

    Guidelines are provided to the Field Centers for organization, scheduling, project and cost control, and performance in the areas of project management and operations planning for Photovoltaics Test and Applications. These guidelines may be used in organizing a T and A Project Team for system design/test, site construction and operation, and as the basis for evaluating T and A proposals. The attributes are described for project management and operations planning to be used by the Field Centers. Specifically, all project management and operational issues affecting costs, schedules and performance of photovoltaic systems are addressed. Photovoltaic tests and applications include residential, intermediate load center, central station, and stand-alone systems. The sub-categories of system maturity considered are: Initial System Evaluation Experiments (ISEE); System Readiness Experiments (SRE); and Commercial Readiness Demonstration Projects (CRDP).

  9. Intermediate photovoltaic-system application: Experiment operational performance report. Volume 1 for Newman Power Station site, El Paso, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-07-01

    A project is described for application of a photovoltaic power supply to computers that control the operation of a combined cycle power plant. The photovoltaic power supply will be used with an existing DC facility. The project is briefly outlined, and the participants are listed. Relevant weather data and reference operating conditions are given and four operational and collection modes are described. System specifications are given and the solar array, protection, and data acquisition and instrumentation subsystems are described.

  10. Regional applicability and potential of salt-gradient solar ponds in the United States. Volume 2: Detailed report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, E. I. H.

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of the regional applicability and potential of salt-gradient solar ponds in the United States is provided. The assessment is focused on the general characteristics of twelve defined geographic regions. Natural resources essential to solar ponds are surveyed. Meteorological and hydrogeological conditions affecting pond performance are examined. Potentially favorable pond sites are identified. Regional thermal and electrical energy output from solar ponds is calculated. Selected pond design cases are studied. Five major potential market sectors are evaluated in terms of technical and energy-consumption characteristics, and solar-pond applicability and potential. Relevant pond system data and financial factors are analyzed. Solar-pond energy costs are compared with conventional energy costs. The assessment concludes that, excepting Alaska, ponds are applicable in all regions for at least two market sectors. Total solar pond energy supply potential in the five market sectors examined is estimated to be 8.94 quads/yr by the year 2000, approximately 7.2% of the projected total national energy demand.

  11. Applications systems verification and transfer project. Volume 2: Operational applications of satellite snow-cover observations and data-collection systems in the Arizona test site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumann, H. H.

    1981-01-01

    Ground surveys and aerial observations were used to monitor rapidly changing moisture conditions in the Salt-Verde watershed. Repetitive satellite snow cover observations greatly reduce the necessity for routine aerial snow reconnaissance flights over the mountains. High resolution, multispectral imagery provided by LANDSAT satellite series enabled rapid and accurate mapping of snow-cover distributions for small- to medium-sized subwatersheds; however, the imagery provided only one observation every 9 days of about a third of the watershed. Low resolution imagery acquired by the ITOSa dn SMS/GOES meteorological satellite series provides the daily synoptic observation necessary to monitor the rapid changes in snow-covered area in the entire watershed. Short term runoff volumes can be predicted from daily sequential snow cover observations.

  12. Applications of supercomputers in engineering: Fluid flow and stress analysis applications; Proceedings of the First International Conference, University of Southampton, England, Sept. 5-7, 1989. Volume 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brebbia, Carlos Alberto; Peters, Alexander

    The application of different numerical techniques to the solution of a large variety of engineering applications on supercomputers is examined. Problems related to the impact of the novel architectures on the performance of computer programs are addressed. Future trends in the development of new software tools for the solution of large industrial problems are discussed. Attention is focused on the use of supercomputers for the solving Navier-Stokes equations, computational aerodynamics on highly parallel processors, parallel numerical simulation for supersonic flows, and the vectorization of a boundary element code. Structural and stress-analysis applications are considered, and emphasis is placed on a large-scale vectorized three-dimensional geometric nonlinear shell analysis, vector and parallel numerical integration scheme for structural dynamics, large-scale structural design optimization, and dynamic analysis on parallel computers using a fast parallel algorithm.

  13. A Mathematical Model for Vertical Attitude Takeoff and Landing (VATOL) Aircraft Simulation. Volume 1; Model Description Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortenbaugh, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    A mathematical model of a high performance airplane capable of vertical attitude takeoff and landing (VATOL) was developed. An off line digital simulation program incorporating this model was developed to provide trim conditions and dynamic check runs for the piloted simulation studies and support dynamic analyses of proposed VATOL configuration and flight control concepts. Development details for the various simulation component models and the application of the off line simulation program, Vertical Attitude Take-Off and Landing Simulation (VATLAS), to develop a baseline control system for the Vought SF-121 VATOL airplane concept are described.

  14. Study of the application of advanced technologies to long range transport aircraft. Volume 2: Advanced technology program recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The benefits of the application of advanced technology to future transport aircraft were investigated. The noise reduction goals established by the CARD (Civil Aviation Research and Development) study for the 1981-1985 time period can be satisfied. Reduced terminal area and airway congestion can result from use of advanced on-board systems and operating procedures. The use of advanced structural design concepts can result in greatly reduced gross weight and improved operating economics. The full potential of these benefits can be realized in a 1985 airplane by implementing a research and development program that is funded to an average level of approximately $55 million per year over a ten year period.

  15. An improved approach for flight readiness certification: Methodology for failure risk assessment and application examples, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, N. R.; Ebbeler, D. H.; Newlin, L. E.; Sutharshana, S.; Creager, M.

    1992-01-01

    An improved methodology for quantitatively evaluating failure risk of spaceflight systems to assess flight readiness and identify risk control measures is presented. This methodology, called Probabilistic Failure Assessment (PFA), combines operating experience from tests and flights with engineering analysis to estimate failure risk. The PFA methodology is of particular value when information on which to base an assessment of failure risk, including test experience and knowledge of parameters used in engineering analyses of failure phenomena, is expensive or difficult to acquire. The PFA methodology is a prescribed statistical structure in which engineering analysis models that characterize failure phenomena are used conjointly with uncertainties about analysis parameters and/or modeling accuracy to estimate failure probability distributions for specific failure modes. These distributions can then be modified, by means of statistical procedures of the PFA methodology, to reflect any test or flight experience. Conventional engineering analysis models currently employed for design of failure prediction are used in this methodology. The PFA methodology is described and examples of its application are presented. Conventional approaches to failure risk evaluation for spaceflight systems are discussed, and the rationale for the approach taken in the PFA methodology is presented. The statistical methods, engineering models, and computer software used in fatigue failure mode applications are thoroughly documented.

  16. An improved approach for flight readiness certification: Methodology for failure risk assessment and application examples. Volume 2: Software documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, N. R.; Ebbeler, D. H.; Newlin, L. E.; Sutharshana, S.; Creager, M.

    1992-01-01

    An improved methodology for quantitatively evaluating failure risk of spaceflight systems to assess flight readiness and identify risk control measures is presented. This methodology, called Probabilistic Failure Assessment (PFA), combines operating experience from tests and flights with engineering analysis to estimate failure risk. The PFA methodology is of particular value when information on which to base an assessment of failure risk, including test experience and knowledge of parameters used in engineering analyses of failure phenomena, is expensive or difficult to acquire. The PFA methodology is a prescribed statistical structure in which engineering analysis models that characterize failure phenomena are used conjointly with uncertainties about analysis parameters and/or modeling accuracy to estimate failure probability distributions for specific failure modes, These distributions can then be modified, by means of statistical procedures of the PFA methodology, to reflect any test or flight experience. Conventional engineering analysis models currently employed for design of failure prediction are used in this methodology. The PFA methodology is described and examples of its application are presented. Conventional approaches to failure risk evaluation for spaceflight systems are discussed, and the rationale for the approach taken in the PFA methodology is presented. The statistical methods, engineering models, and computer software used in fatigue failure mode applications are thoroughly documented.

  17. Volume production of high quality SiC substrates and epitaxial layers: Defect trends and device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, St. G.; Sanchez, E. K.; Hansen, D. M.; Drachev, R. D.; Chung, G.; Thomas, B.; Zhang, J.; Loboda, M. J.; Dudley, M.; Wang, H.; Wu, F.; Byrappa, S.; Raghothamachar, B.; Choi, G.

    2012-08-01

    We review the progress of silicon carbide (SiC) bulk growth by the sublimation method, highlighting recent advances at Dow Corning, which resulted in the commercial release of 100 mm n-type 4H-SiC wafers with median micropipe densities (MPD) in production wafers <0.1 cm-2 and the demonstration of micropipe free material over a full 100 mm diameter. Investigations by Synchrotron White Beam X-ray Topography (SWBXRT) and molten KOH etch pit analysis of 100 mm wafers demonstrate threading screw dislocation densities <500 cm-2. Additional results indicate the positive impact of maintaining thermo-mechanical stress levels in the growing crystal below the critical resolved shear stress on reducing basal plane dislocation densities to values as low as ˜300-400 cm-2 in 100 mm crystals. We summarize the steps of systematic quality improvements on increasing wafer diameter, utilizing numerical simulations of the SiC growth system as a critical tool to guide this process. For the economical production of SiC epitaxy, a 10×100 mm wafer platform has been established in a warm-wall planetary chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reactor. The combined improvements in the epitaxy process, pre-epi wafer surface preparation and the underlying substrate quality itself have led to a reduction of the device killer defect density from 8 cm-2 to 1.5 cm-2 on a volume product like 100 mm 4° off-axis 6.5 μm epi-wafers. Dow Corning production epi-wafers routinely show Schottky diode yields above 90% at a die size of 2 mm×2 mm. Additionally, 50-100 μm thick epitaxy on 76 mm 4° off-axis wafers with morphological defect densities of 2-6 cm-2, a surface roughness (RMS) ≤1 nm as measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM), and carrier lifetimes consistently in the range of 2-3 μs has been demonstrated.

  18. VOLUME CALCULATION OF RATS' ORGANS AND ITS APPLICATION IN THE VALIDATION OF THE VOLUME RELATION BETWEEN THE ABDOMINAL CAVITY AND THE HERNIAL SAC IN INCISIONAL HERNIAS WITH "LOSS OF ABDOMINAL DOMAIN"

    PubMed Central

    de ARAÚJO, Luz Marina Gonçalves; SERIGIOLLE, Leonardo Carvalho; GOMES, Helbert Minuncio Pereira; RODRIGUES, Daren Athiê Boy; LOPES, Carolina Marques; LEME, Pedro Luiz Squilacci

    2014-01-01

    Background The calculation of the volume ratio between the hernia sac and the abdominal cavity of incisional hernias is based on tomographic sections as well as the mathematical formula of the volume of the ellipsoid, which allows determining whether this is a giant hernia or there is a "loss of domain". As the images used are not exact geometric figures, the study of the volume of two solid organs of Wistar rats was performed to validate these calculations. Aim To correlate two methods for determining the volume of the kidney and spleen of rats, comparing a direct method of observation of the volume with the mathematical calculation of this value. Methods The volume of left kidney, geometrically more regular, and spleen, with its peculiar shape, of ten animals was established in cubic centimeters after complete immersion in water with the aid of a beaker graduated in millimeters. These values ​​were compared with those obtained by calculating the same volume with a specific mathematical formula: V = 4/3 × π × (r1 x r2 x r3). Data were compared and statistically analyzed by Student's t test. RESULTS: Although the average volume obtained was higher through the direct method (1.13 cm3 for the left kidney and 0.71 cm3 for the spleen) than the values ​​calculated with the mathematical formula (0.81 cm3 and 0.54 cm3), there were no statistically significant differences between the values ​​found for the two organs (p>0.05). Conclusion There was adequate correlation between the direct calculation of the volume of the kidney and spleen with the result of mathematical calculation of these values ​​in the animals' studies. PMID:25184766

  19. Rotary-wing aerodynamics. Volume 1: Basic theories of rotor aerodynamics with application to helicopters. [momentum, vortices, and potential theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepniewski, W. Z.

    1979-01-01

    The concept of rotary-wing aircraft in general is defined. The energy effectiveness of helicopters is compared with that of other static thrust generators in hover, as well as with various air and ground vehicles in forward translation. The most important aspects of rotor-blade dynamics and rotor control are reviewed. The simple physicomathematical model of the rotor offered by the momentum theory is introduced and its usefulness and limitations are assessed. The combined blade-element and momentum theory approach, which provides greater accuracy in performance predictions, is described as well as the vortex theory which models a rotor blade by means of a vortex filament or vorticity surface. The application of the velocity and acceleration potential theory to the determination of flow fields around three dimensional, non-rotating bodies as well as to rotor aerodynamic problems is described. Airfoil sections suitable for rotors are also considered.

  20. Study of the application of advanced technologies to long-range transport aircraft. Volume 2: Research and development requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lange, R. H.; Sturgeon, R. F.; Adams, W. E.; Bradley, E. S.; Cahill, J. F.; Eudaily, R. R.; Hancock, J. P.; Moore, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    Investigations were conducted to evaluate the relative benefits attainable through the exploitation of advanced technologies and to identify future research and development efforts required to permit the application of selected technologies to transport aircraft entering commercial operation in 1985. Results show that technology advances, particularly in the areas of composite materials, supercritical aerodynamics, and active control systems, will permit the development of long-range, high-payload commercial transports operating at high-subsonic speeds with direct operating costs lower than those of current aircraft. These advanced transports also achieve lower noise levels and lower engine pollutant emissions than current transports. Research and development efforts, including analytical investigations, laboratory test programs, and flight test programs, are required in essentially all technology areas to achieve the potential technology benefits.

  1. Technique for integrative energy planning in developing nations with illustrative application to Pakistan. (Volumes I and II)

    SciTech Connect

    Ciliano, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the conceptual definition, development and illustrative application of a new methodology for integrative energy planning in less developed countries (LDCs). The author terms his approach the Integrative Planning Technique (IPT). The IPT provides a direct linkage between sectoral activity levels and targets specified in the overall economic development plan and the energy system physical infrastructure and resource flows upon which they depend. Central concepts within the IPT include (a) the Energy Resource Delivery Network (ERDN), a network representation of the overall energy system from resource extraction through ultimate end-use; and (b) the Resource Coefficient Table (RCT), a computational matrix method which prepares inputs to the ERDN and provides the building block basis for translating policy initiatives relating to new technology penetration, interfuel substitution, and re-directed development targets into corresponding energy requirements associated with policy implementation.

  2. A distribution benefits model for improved information on worldwide crop production. Volume 1: Model structure and application to wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, J.

    1976-01-01

    The improved model is suitable for the study of benefits of worldwide information on a variety of crops. Application to the previously studied case of worldwide wheat production shows that about $108 million per year of distribution benefits to the United States would be achieved by a satellite-based wheat information system meeting the goals of LACIE. The model also indicates that improved information alone will not change world stock levels unless production itself is stabilized. The United States benefits mentioned above are associated with the reduction of price fluctuations within the year and the more effective use of international trade to balance supply and demand. Price fluctuations from year to year would be reduced only if production variability were itself reduced.

  3. Conceptual design of thermal energy storage systems for near term electric utility applications. Volume 1: Screening of concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hausz, W.; Berkowitz, B. J.; Hare, R. C.

    1978-01-01

    Over forty thermal energy storage (TES) concepts gathered from the literature and personal contacts were studied for their suitability for the electric utility application of storing energy off-peak discharge during peak hours. Twelve selections were derived from the concepts for screening; they used as storage media high temperature water (HTW), hot oil, molten salts, and packed beds of solids such as rock. HTW required pressure containment by prestressed cast-iron or concrete vessels, or lined underground cavities. Both steam generation from storage and feedwater heating from storage were studied. Four choices were made for further study during the project. Economic comparison by electric utility standard cost practices, and near-term availability (low technical risk) were principal criteria but suitability for utility use, conservation potential, and environmental hazards were considered.

  4. Numerical simulation of dynamics of brushless dc motors for aerospace and other applications. Volume 1: Model development and applications, part A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demerdash, N. A. O.; Nehl, T. W.

    1979-01-01

    The development, fabrication and evaluation of a prototype electromechanical actuator (EMA) is discussed. Application of the EMA as a motor for control surfaces in aerospace flight is examined. A mathematical model of the EMA is developed for design optimization. Nonlinearities which complicate the mathematical model are discussed. The dynamics of the EMA from the underlying physical principles are determined and a discussion of similating the control logic by means of equivalent boolean expressions is presented.

  5. An automated method for measuring static pressure-volume curves of the respiratory system and its application in healthy lungs and after lung damage by oleic acid infusion.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y; Rees, S E; Kjaergaard, S; Smith, B W; Larsson, A; Andreassen, S

    2007-03-01

    Elastic pressure/volume (PV) curves of the respiratory system have attracted increasing interest, because they may be helpful to optimize ventilator settings in patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. Clinically applicable methods need to be fast, use routinely available equipment, draw the inspiratory and expiratory PV curve limbs, separate the resistive and viscoelastic properties of the respiratory system from the elastic properties, and provide reproducible measurements. This paper presents a computer-controlled method for rapid measurements of static PV curves using a long inflation-deflation with pauses, and its evaluation in six pigs before and after lung damage caused by oleic acid. The method is fast, i.e. 20.5 +/- 1.9 s (mean +/- SD) in healthy lungs and 17.7 +/- 4.1 s in diseased lungs, this including inspiratory and expiratory pauses of 1.1 s duration. In addition the only equipment used was a clinical ventilator and a PC. For healthy and damaged lungs expiratory PV curve limbs were very reproducible and were at higher volume than the inspiratory limbs, indicating hysteresis. For damaged lungs inspiratory PV limbs were reproducible. For healthy lungs the inspiratory limbs were reproducible but only after the first inflation-deflation. It is possible that during the first inflation alveoli are recruited which are not derecruited on deflation, shifting the inspiratory limb of the PV curve. The paused long inflation-deflation technique provides a quick, automated measurement of static PV curves on both inspiratory and expiratory limbs using routinely available equipment in the intensive care unit.

  6. Minimizing the impact of the mosquito adulticide naled on honey bees, Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae): aerial ultra-low-volume application using a high-pressure nozzle system.

    PubMed

    Zhong, He; Latham, Mark; Payne, Steve; Brock, Cate

    2004-02-01

    The impact of the mosquito adulticide naled on honey bees, Apis mellifera L., was evaluated by exposing test beehives to nighttime aerial ultra-low-volume (ULV) applications using a high-pressure nozzle system. The tests were conducted during routine mosquito control missions at Manatee County, Florida, in summer 2000. Two treatment sites were sprayed a total of four times over a 10-wk period. Honey bees, which clustered outside of the hive entrances, were subjected to naled exposure during these mosquito control sprays. The highest average naled ground deposition was 2,688 microg/m2 at the Port Manatee site, which resulted in statistically significant bee mortality (118) compared with the controls. At the Terra Ceia Road site, an intermediate level of naled deposition was found (1,435 microg/m2). For this spray mission, the range of dead bees per hive at Terra Ceia was 2 to 9 before spraying and 5 to 36 after naled application. Means of all other naled ground depositions were < 850 microl/m2. We concluded that substantial bee mortality (> 100 dead bees) resulted when naled residue levels were > 2,000 kg/m2 and honey bees were clustered outside of the hive entrances during mosquito adulticide applications. Compared with the flat-fan nozzle systems currently used by most of Florida's mosquito control programs, the high-pressure nozzle system used in this experiment substantially reduced environmental insecticide contamination and lead to decreased bee mortality. Statistical analysis also showed that average honey yield at the end of the season was not significantly reduced for those hives that were exposed to the insecticide.

  7. Low-volume application by mist-blower compared with conventional compression sprayer treatment of houses with residual pyrethroid to control the malaria vector Anopheles albimanus in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, C; Rodriguez, M H; Bown, D N; Arredondo-Jiménez, J I

    1995-04-01

    Village-scale trials were carried out in southern Mexico to compare the efficacy of indoor-spraying of the pyrethroid insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin applied either as low-volume (LV) aqueous emulsion or as wettable-powder (WP) aqueous suspension for residual control of the principal coastal malaria vector Anopheles albimanus. Three indoor spray rounds were conducted at 3-month intervals using back-pack mist-blowers to apply lambda-cyhalothrin 12.5 mg a.i./m2 by LV, whereas the WP was applied by conventional compression sprayer at a mean rate of 26.5 mg a.i./m2. Both treatments caused mosquito mortality indoors and outdoors (collected inside house curtains) as a result of contact with treated surfaces before and after feeding, but had no significant impact on overall population density of An. albimanus resting indoors or assessed by human bait collections. Contact bioassays showed that WP and LV treatments with lambda-cyhalothrin were effective for 12-20 weeks (> 75% mortality) without causing excito-repellency. Compared to the WP treatment (8 houses/man/day), LV treatment (25 houses/man/day) was more than 3 times quicker per house, potentially saving 68% of labour costs. This is offset, however, by the much lower unit price of a compression sprayer (e.g. Hudson 'X-pert' at US$120) than a mist-blower (e.g. 'Super Jolly' at US$350), and higher running costs for LV applications. It was calculated, therefore, that LV becomes more economical than WP after 18.8 treatments/100 houses/10 men at equivalent rates of application, or after 7.6 spray rounds with half-rate LV applications.

  8. Guidebook for performance assessment parameters used in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant compliance certification application. Volume 2: Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Howarth, S.M.; Martell, M.A.; Weiner, R.; Lattier, C.

    1998-06-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Compliance Certification Application (CCA) Performance Assessment (PA) Parameter Database and its ties to supporting information evolved over the course of two years. When the CCA was submitted to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in October 1996, information such as identification of parameter value or distribution source was documented using processes established by Sandia National Laboratories WIPP Quality Assurance Procedures. Reviewers later requested additional supporting documentation, links to supporting information, and/or clarification for many parameters. This guidebook is designed to document a pathway through the complex parameter process and help delineate flow paths to supporting information for all WIPP CCA parameters. In addition, this report is an aid for understanding how model parameters used in the WIPP CCA were developed and qualified. To trace the source information for a particular parameter, a dual-route system was established. The first route uses information from the Parameter Records package as it existed when the CCA calculations were run. The second route leads from the EPA Parameter Database to additional supporting information.

  9. 3D Segmentation with an application of level set-method using MRI volumes for image guided surgery.

    PubMed

    Bosnjak, A; Montilla, G; Villegas, R; Jara, I

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes an innovation in the application for image guided surgery using a comparative study of three different method of segmentation. This segmentation method is faster than the manual segmentation of images, with the advantage that it allows to use the same patient as anatomical reference, which has more precision than a generic atlas. This new methodology for 3D information extraction is based on a processing chain structured of the following modules: 1) 3D Filtering: the purpose is to preserve the contours of the structures and to smooth the homogeneous areas; several filters were tested and finally an anisotropic diffusion filter was used. 2) 3D Segmentation. This module compares three different methods: Region growing Algorithm, Cubic spline hand assisted, and Level Set Method. It then proposes a Level Set-based on the front propagation method that allows the making of the reconstruction of the internal walls of the anatomical structures of the brain. 3) 3D visualization. The new contribution of this work consists on the visualization of the segmented model and its use in the pre-surgery planning.

  10. Small capacity, low cost (Ni-H2) design concept for commercial, military, and higher-volume aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, James R.; Cook, William D.; Smith, Ron

    1991-01-01

    Nickel Hydrogen (Ni/H2) batteries have become the technology of choice for both commercial and defense related satellites in geosynchronous orbits. Their use for low earth orbit (LEO) applications is not as advanced, but seems just as inevitable because of their inherent advantages over nickel cadmium batteries. These include superior energy density, longer cycle life, and better tolerance to over-charge and reversal. Ni/H2 cells have the added advantage in both construction and operation of not presenting the environmental possibility of cadmium pollution. Unfortunately, but necessarily, the design of these cells has been driven to high cost by the sophistication of the satellites and their uses. Now, using most of the same concepts but less costly materials and techniques, a low cost, small cell design was developed. Combined with the concept of the common pressure vessel, this new design promises to be ideal for the small-sat and commercial markets which, increasingly, are calling for large numbers of less expensive satellites.

  11. Application potential of energy systems at Navy sites. Volume I. Methodology and results. Final report, March 1978-October 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, S.J.; Jackson, M.D.; Chaump, S.J.

    1980-01-01

    Application of renewable and nonrenewable energy conversion technologies are forecast for the Navy's ten largest industrial locations and four smaller locations. Data are obtained from an optimization model that determines the least, life-cycle cost energy supply system for an industrial location. Optimal solutions were composed of integrated combinations of energy conversion technologies. Besides being more cost-effective than status quo systems fired exclusively on fuel oil, the optimal integrated systems displace a significant percentage of fuel oil. Energy conversion technologies that participate in the optimal supply systems for large Naval industrial locations include fluidized-bed coal combustion, cogeneration, oil-fired systems, with smaller contributions from refuse derived fuel systems. Oil-fired systems participate only in a peaking capacity wherever coal combustion is permitted. Otherwise, the status quo systems are forecasted to prevail. Renewable energy conversion systems were not competitive in plant-size configurations at nine of the ten large Naval industrial locations studied, Pearl Harbor being the exception.

  12. Space applications of automation, robotics and machine intelligence systems (ARAMIS). Volume 4. Application of ARAMIS capabilities to space project functional elements

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.H.; Minsky, M.L.; Smith, D.B.S.

    1982-08-01

    Applications of automation, robotics, and machine intelligence systems (ARAMIS) to space activities and their related ground support functions are studied, so that informed decisions can be made on which aspects of ARAMIS to develop. The specific tasks which will be required by future space project tasks are identified and the relative merits of these options are evaluated. The ARAMIS options defined and researched span the range from fully human to fully machine, including a number of intermediate options (e.g., humans assisted by computers, and various levels of teleoperation). By including this spectrum, the study searches for the optimum mix of humans and machines for space project tasks.

  13. Space applications of Automation, Robotics and Machine Intelligence Systems (ARAMIS). Volume 4: Application of ARAMIS capabilities to space project functional elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. H.; Minsky, M. L.; Smith, D. B. S.

    1982-01-01

    Applications of automation, robotics, and machine intelligence systems (ARAMIS) to space activities and their related ground support functions are studied, so that informed decisions can be made on which aspects of ARAMIS to develop. The specific tasks which will be required by future space project tasks are identified and the relative merits of these options are evaluated. The ARAMIS options defined and researched span the range from fully human to fully machine, including a number of intermediate options (e.g., humans assisted by computers, and various levels of teleoperation). By including this spectrum, the study searches for the optimum mix of humans and machines for space project tasks.

  14. RCRA Part B Permit Application for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory - Volume 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Pamela R. Cunningham

    1992-07-01

    This section of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) Part B permit application describes the waste characteristics Of the transuranic (TRU) mixed wastes at the RWMC waste management units to be permitted: the Intermediate-Level Transuranic Storage Facility (ILTSF) and the Waste Storage Facility (WSF). The ILTSF is used to store radioactive remote-handled (RH) wastes. The WSF will be used to store radioactive contact-handled (CH) wastes. The Transuranic Storage Area (TSA) was established at the RWMC to provide interim storage of TRU waste. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A defines TRU waste as waste contaminated with alpha-emitting transuranium radionuclides with half-lives greater than 20 years in concentrations greater than 100 nanocuries per gram (nCi/g) o f waste material. The TSA serves generators both on and off the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The ILTSF is located at the TSA, and the WSF will be located there also. Most of the wastes managed at the TSA are mixed wastes, which are radioactive wastes regulated under the Atomic Energy Act (AEA) that also contain hazardous materials regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Idaho Hazardous Waste Management Regulations. These wastes include TRU mixed wastes and some low-level mixed wastes. Accordingly, the TSA is subject to the permitting requirements of RCRA and the Idaho Administrative Procedures Act (IDAPA). Prior to 1982, DOE orders defined TRU wastes as having transuranium radionuclides in concentrations greater than 10 nCi/g, The low-level mixed wastes managed at the TSA are those wastes with 10 to 100 nCi/g of TRU radionuclides that prior to 1982 were considered TRU waste.

  15. Restoration of central blood volume: Application of a simple concept and simple device to counteract cardiovascular instability in syncope and hemorrhage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Convertino, Victor A.; Cooke, William H.; Lurie, Keith G.

    2005-08-01

    The inability to tolerate upright standing posture due to development of severe orthostatic hypotension and syncope is a clinical problem that has plagued astronauts and military personnel in their austere operational environments as well as millions of people worldwide. More critically, hemorrhagic shock remains a leading cause of death in both civilian and battlefield trauma. Central hypovolemia and cardiovascular collapse (insufficiency) are the common features shared by syncope and hemorrhagic shock. It is therefore clear that the development of an effective countermeasure against the onset of syncope or hemorrhagic shock should focus on the simple concept of functionally restoring central blood volume. Although replacing blood or fluids may be beneficial in a clinical setting, it can prove impossible in operational settings such as a spacecraft and battlefields.One of the primary mechanisms that contribute to syncope or hemorrhagic shock is the reduction in cardiac filling and stroke volume (SV). Therefore, any therapeutic approach that is designed to increase venous return and SV should be an effective countermeasure against cardiovascular collapse. Increased negative intrathoracic pressure during spontaneous inspiration represents a natural mechanism for enhancing venous return and cardiac filling. Taking advantage of this simple concept, the development and application of a resistance device applied during spontaneous inspiration has been shown to cause an immediate increase in arterial blood pressure when applied in different animal and clinical models associated with significant lifethreatening hypotension [12-16]. This device has been named the impedance threshold device (ITD; Fig. 1). With its design, the inspiratory resistance induced by the ITD results in a greater vacuum within the thorax during each inspiration, and subsequently enhances venous return and preload to the heart [12,14-16].The purpose of this paper is to review observations made from a

  16. Applications systems verification and transfer project. Volume 7: Cost/benefit analysis for the ASVT on operational applications of satellite snow-cover observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castruccio, P.; Loats, H.; Lloyd, D.; Newman, P.

    1981-01-01

    The results of the OASSO ASVT's were used to estimate the benefits accruing from the added information available from satellite snowcover area measurement. Estimates of the improvement in runoff prediction due to addition of SATSCAM were made by the Colorado ASVT personnel. The improvement estimate is 6-10%. Data were applied to subregions covering the Western States snow area amended by information from the ASVT and other watershed experts to exclude areas which are not impacted by snowmelt runoff. Benefit models were developed for irrigation and hydroenergy uses. The benefit/cost ratio is 72:1. Since only two major benefit contributors were used and since the forecast improvement estimate does not take into account future satellite capabilities these estimates are considered to be conservative. The large magnitude of the benefit/cost ratio supports the utility and applicability of SATSCAM.

  17. Efficacy of aerial ultra-low volume applications of two novel water-based formulations of unsynergized pyrethroids against riceland mosquitoes in Greece.

    PubMed

    Chaskopoulou, Alexandra; Latham, Mark D; Pereira, Roberto M; Connelly, Roxanne; Bonds, Jane A S; Koehler, Philip G

    2011-12-01

    We assessed the efficacy of ultra-low volume aerial adulticiding with 2 new water-based, unsynergized formulations of Aqua-K-Othrin (2% deltamethrin) and Pesguard S102 (10% d-phenothrin) against the riceland mosquitoes of Greece. A helicopter with Global Positioning System (GPS) navigation, real-time weather recording, and spray dispersal modeling (AgDISP) was utilized to accurately treat the experimental blocks by adjusting spray line positions to changing meteorological conditions. Two application rates were applied per formulation that corresponded to 0.75 and 1.00 g AI/ha of deltamethrin and 7.50 and 10.00 g AI/ha of d-phenothrin. The mosquitoes used for the trials were the main nuisance species found in rice field areas of Thessaloniki, which were primarily Aedes caspius, followed by Culex modestus and Anopheles sacharovi. Overall mean mortality of caged mosquitoes was 69.2% and 64.8% for deltamethrin and d-phenothrin, respectively. Mean population decrease in wild mosquito populations within the treatment areas was 76.5% and 78% for deltamethrin and d-phenothrin, respectively. The AgDISP dispersal model, coupled with GPS navigation and real-time weather recording, enabled accurate placement of the spray cloud such that the majority of the treatment area received sufficiently high droplet densities to result in uniform caged-mosquito mortality across all sampling sites.

  18. The impact of sequential ultra-low volume ground aerosol applications of malathion on the population dynamics of Aedes aegypti (L.).

    PubMed

    Focks, D A; Kloter, K O; Carmichael, G T

    1987-05-01

    The efficacy of sequential, ultra-low volume ground aerosol applications of malathion at current U.S. label rates was evaluated as an emergency control measure for adult populations of Aedes aegypti (L.) in New Orleans, Louisiana. Replicates of 11 sequential aerosol treatments applied 12 hr apart during a 5.5-day period reduced mean adult captures and oviposition rates during the treatment period 73% and 75%, respectively. We hypothesize that oviposition was not completely suppressed because females with a developing egg burden remained sequestered during treatment periods or were more tolerant to the pesticide. We further concluded that adults could not be totally suppressed because of continued emergence. After treatment, adult densities recovered to pretreatment and control levels within approximately 1 week. A simulation study of the results suggested that, under the conditions of closely spaced housing and abundant vegetation that is typical of much of New Orleans, a single aerosol killed an average of 88% of the males and only 30% of the females present.

  19. Capital Requirements Estimating Model (CREMOD) for electric utilities. Volume I. Methodology description, model, description, and guide to model applications. [For each year up to 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, D E; Gammon, J; Shaw, M L

    1980-01-01

    The Capital Requirements Estimating Model for the Electric Utilities (CREMOD) is a system of programs and data files used to estimate the capital requirements of the electric utility industry for each year between the current one and 1990. CREMOD disaggregates new electric plant capacity levels from the Mid-term Energy Forecasting System (MEFS) Integrating Model solution over time using actual projected commissioning dates. It computes the effect on aggregate capital requirements of dispersal of new plant and capital expenditures over relatively long construction lead times on aggregate capital requirements for each year. Finally, it incorporates the effects of real escalation in the electric utility construction industry on these requirements and computes the necessary transmission and distribution expenditures. This model was used in estimating the capital requirements of the electric utility sector. These results were used in compilation of the aggregate capital requirements for the financing of energy development as published in the 1978 Annual Report to Congress. This volume, Vol. I, explains CREMOD's methodology, functions, and applications.

  20. Volume of magma accumulation or withdrawal estimated from surface uplift or subsidence, with application to the 1960 collapse of Kilauea volcano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Delaney, P.T.; McTigue, D.F.

    1994-01-01

    An elastic point source model proposed by Mogi for magma chamber inflation and deflation has been applied to geodetic data collected at many volcanoes. The volume of ground surface uplift or subsidence estimated from this model is closely related to the volume of magma injection into or withdrawal from the reservoir below. The analytical expressions for these volumes are reviewed for a spherical chamber and it is shown that they differ by the factor 2(1-v), where v is Poisson's ratio of the host rock. For the common estimate v=0.25, as used by Mogi and subsequent workers, the uplift volume is 3/2 the injection volume. For highly fractured rocks, v can be even less and the uplift volume can approach twice the injection volume. Unfortunately, there is no single relation between the inflation of magma reservoirs and the dilation or contraction of host rocks. The inflation of sill-like bodies, for instance, generates no overall change in host rock volume. Inflation of dike-like bodies generates contraction such that, in contrast with Mogi's result, the uplift volume is generally less than the injection volume; for v=0.25, the former is only 3/4 of the latter. Estimates of volumes of magma injection or withdrawal are there-fore greatly dependent on the magma reservoir configuration. Ground surface tilt data collected during the 1960 collapse of Kilauea crater, one of the first events interpreted with Mogi's model and one of the largest collapses measured at Kilauea, is not favored by any one of a variety of deformation models. These models, however, predict substantially different volumes of both magma withdrawal and ground surface subsidence. ?? 1994 Springer-Verlag.

  1. Theoretical Formability. Volume 2. Application

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1961-08-01

    TABLE OF CONTENTS (Contd.) Section Pg MANUAL SPINNING (Contd.) Predictability Equations ......................... V-29 Composite Graphs...Pressure ............................... V-17 MANUAL SPINNING VB-1 A Single Stage Setup for Manual Spinning ............ V-25 VB-2 Geometric Variables for...Aluminum ...... . ........ .... .............. V-i4 ASD TR 61-191(II) LIST OF GRAPHS (Contd.) Graph Pg MANUAL SPINNING VB-1 Spinning Composite for Elastic

  2. AGARD Flight Test Instrumentation Series. Volume 16. Trajectory Measurements for Take-Off and Landing Tests and Other Short-Range Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    from a lock-follow radar. 3.5.2.3 The reflector on the aircraft This reflector consists of an assembly of so-called corner reflectors or retroreflectors ...GOVERNMENT EXPENSE"LA ,’\\i IhI ti i ptiul)lication of the present volume thc hollowing volumes were in preparation: Flight ’rest instrumentation Analog

  3. New Applications for ARPANET Developed Information Processing Technology. Volume 3. Briareus - Computer Netting for Design, Fabrication and Repair of Electronic Equipment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-02-03

    INFORMATION PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY , VOLUME HI. BRIAREUS - COMPUTER NETTING FOR DESIGN, FABRICATION AND REPAIR OF ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT CABLEDATA ASSOCIATES...E& ED INFORMATION PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY — VOLUME III; . Final Report "BRIAREUS — COMPUTER NETTING FOR DESIGN, FABRICA- ■ February 1974 - January

  4. The Funding of Social Knowledge Production and Application: A Survey of Federal Agencies. Study Project on Social Research and Development, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Mark A.

    This survey is volume two of a six-volume report on the organization and management of social research and development throughout the U.S. government. The main body of the work contains a summary of spending for social research and development for each department of the federal government and the independent agencies. Agencies included are:…

  5. A new development of the dynamic procedure in large-eddy simulation based on a Finite Volume integral approach. Application to stratified turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denaro, Filippo Maria; de Stefano, Giuliano

    2011-10-01

    A Finite Volume-based large-eddy simulation method is proposed along with a suitable extension of the dynamic modelling procedure that takes into account for the integral formulation of the governing filtered equations. Discussion about the misleading interpretation of FV in some literature is addressed. Then, the classical Germano identity is congruently rewritten in such a way that the determination of the modelling parameters does not require any arbitrary averaging procedure and thus retains a fully local character. The numerical modelling of stratified turbulence is the specific problem considered in this study, as an archetypal of simple geophysical flows. The original scaling formulation of the dynamic sub-grid scale model proposed by Wong and Lilly (Phys. Fluids 6(6), 1994) is suitably extended to the present integral formulation. This approach is preferred with respect to traditional ones since the eddy coefficients can be independently computed by avoiding the addition of unjustified buoyancy production terms in the constitutive equations. Simple scaling arguments allow us not to use the equilibrium hypothesis according to which the dissipation rate should equal the sub-grid scale energy production. A careful a priori analysis of the relevance of the test filter shape as well as the filter-to-grid ratio is reported. Large-eddy simulation results are a posteriori compared with a reference pseudo-spectral direct numerical solution that is suitably post-filtered in order to have a meaningful comparison. In particular, the spectral distribution of kinetic and thermal energy as well as the viscosity and diffusivity sub-grid scale profiles are illustrated. The good performances of the proposed method, in terms of both evolutions of global quantities and statistics, are very promising for the future development and application of the method.

  6. Proceedings of the AMEDD (Army Medical Department) Clinical Psychology Short Course: Military Applications of Neuropsychology and Health Psychology Held in Presidio of San Francisco, California on 9-13 March 1987. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    Journal of Transpersonal Psychology . 1975, 7, 29-47. 23. Spittel, J.A., Chapter 19. In J.F., Fiarbaion, J.L., Jubrgene, and J.A. Spittel (Eds...1 ,•i \\fLL c;R: MILITARY APPLICATIONS OF CLINICAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY AND HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY 00 ;-"~~L’ -’L--, ’• - 9-13 March 1987 .4+; Volume I...Clinical Psychology Short Course: Military Applications of Neuropsychology and Health Psychology Held in Presido -of San Franciscoj, California on 9-ý13

  7. Data catalog series for space science and applications flight missions. Volume 5A: Descriptions of astronomy, astrophysics, and solar physics spacecraft and investigations. Volume 5B: Descriptions of data sets from astronomy, astrophysics, and solar physics spacecraft and investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Sang J. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The main purpose of the data catalog series is to provide descriptive references to data generated by space science flight missions. The data sets described include all of the actual holdings of the Space Science Data Center (NSSDC), all data sets for which direct contact information is available, and some data collections held and serviced by foreign investigators, NASA and other U.S. government agencies. This volume contains narrative descriptions of data sets of astronomy, astrophysics, solar physics spacecraft and investigations. The following spacecraft series are included: Mariner, Pioneer, Pioneer Venus, Venera, Viking, Voyager, and Helios. Separate indexes to the planetary and interplanetary missions are also provided.

  8. Transport properties of mixtures by the soft-SAFT + free-volume theory: application to mixtures of n-alkanes and hydrofluorocarbons.

    PubMed

    Llovell, F; Marcos, R M; Vega, L F

    2013-05-02

    In a previous paper (Llovell et al. J. Phys. Chem. B, submitted for publication), the free-volume theory (FVT) was coupled with the soft-SAFT equation of state for the first time to extend the capabilities of the equation to the calculation of transport properties. The equation was tested with molecular simulations and applied to the family of n-alkanes. The capability of the soft-SAFT + FVT treatment is extended here to other chemical families and mixtures. The compositional rules of Wilke (Wilke, C. R. J. Chem. Phys. 1950, 18, 517-519) are used for the diluted term of the viscosity, while the dense term is evaluated using very simple mixing rules to calculate the viscosity parameters. The theory is then used to predict the vapor-liquid equilibrium and the viscosity of mixtures of nonassociating and associating compounds. The approach is applied to determine the viscosity of a selected group of hydrofluorocarbons, in a similar manner as previously done for n-alkanes. The soft-SAFT molecular parameters are taken from a previous work, fitted to vapor-liquid equilibria experimental data. The application of FVT requires three additional parameters related to the viscosity of the pure fluid. Using a transferable approach, the α parameter is taken from the equivalent n-alkane, while the remaining two parameters B and Lv are fitted to viscosity data of the pure fluid at several isobars. The effect of these parameters is then investigated and compared to those obtained for n-alkanes, in order to better understand their effect on the calculations. Once the pure fluids are well characterized, the vapor-liquid equilibrium and the viscosity of nonassociating and associating mixtures, including n-alkane + n-alkane, hydrofluorocarbon + hydrofluorocarbon, and n-alkane + hydrofluorocarbon mixtures, are calculated. One or two binary parameters are used to account for deviations in the vapor-liquid equilibrium diagram for nonideal mixtures; these parameters are used in a

  9. Apodized Volume Bragg Gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhov, Sergiy

    2015-03-01

    Reflective and transmissive volume Bragg grating (VBGs) are widely used in high power laser applications because of their large operational aperture and robustness. They are fabricated in photosensitive material through holographic recording of uniform interference pattern of two overlapping coherent waves obtained by splitting a flat-top shaped laser beam. The following thermal treatment produces permanent refractive index modulation (RIM). Reflective VBGs have fringes parallel to operational anti-reflective coated surfaces and they demonstrate narrow reflection bandwidth. Transmissive VBGs are cut with fringes perpendicular to surfaces and they are characterized by narrow angular selectivity. Uniform RIM causes secondary lobes in corresponding reflection and transmission spectra due to sharp boundary conditions for volume Bragg diffraction. We propose to create apodization of RIM by recording two interference patterns with slightly different parameters in the same volume which would create slow varying moire envelope of amplitude of RIM. Cutting the specimen at zeros of moire envelope with one sine semi-period thickness will produce VBGs apodized at sides which will reduce parasitic secondary lobes in spectra. In reflection geometry, two patterns of the same orientation with slightly different periods are required for apodization along Bragg wave vector. In transmission case, recording of the same interference patterns with small mutual rotation angle provides apodization in direction perpendicular to Bragg wave vector. Modeling results show significant improvement in selective properties of VBGs with such moire apodization.

  10. Earth Observations Division version of the Laboratory for Applications of Remote Sensing System (EOD-LARSYS) user guide for the IBM 370/148. Volume 2: User reference manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aucoin, P. J.; Stewart, J.; Mckay, M. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    This document presents instructions for analysts who use the EOD-LARSYS as programmed on the Purdue University IBM 370/148 (recently replaced by the IBM 3031) computer. It presents sample applications, control cards, and error messages for all processors in the system and gives detailed descriptions of the mathematical procedures and information needed to execute the system and obtain the desired output. EOD-LARSYS is the JSC version of an integrated batch system for analysis of multispectral scanner imagery data. The data included is designed for use with the as built documentation (volume 3) and the program listings (volume 4). The system is operational from remote terminals at Johnson Space Center under the virtual machine/conversational monitor system environment.

  11. Ambient isobaric heat capacities, C(p,m), for ionic solids and liquids: an application of volume-based thermodynamics (VBT).

    PubMed

    Glasser, Leslie; Jenkins, H Donald Brooke

    2011-09-05

    Thermodynamic properties, such as standard entropy, among others, have been shown to correlate well with formula volume, V(m), thus permitting prediction of these properties on the basis of chemical formula and density alone, with no structural detail required. We have termed these procedures "volume-based thermodynamics" (VBT). We here extend these studies to ambient isobaric heat capacities, C(p,m), of a wide range of materials. We show that heat capacity is strongly linearly correlated with formula volume for large sets of minerals, for ionic solids in general, and for ionic liquids and that the results demonstrate that the Neumann-Kopp rule (additivity of heat capacity contributions per atom) is widely valid for ionic materials, but the smaller heat capacity contribution per unit volume for ionic liquids is noted and discussed. Using these correlations, it is possible to predict values of ambient (298 K) heat capacities quite simply. We also show that the heat capacity contribution of water molecules of crystallization is remarkably constant, at 41.3 ± 4.7 J K(-1) (mol of water)(-1), so that the heat capacities of various hydrates may be reliably estimated from the values of their chemical formula neighbors. This result complements similar observations that we have reported for other thermodynamic differences of hydrates.

  12. Manual of Documentation Practices Applicable to Defence-Aerospace Scientific and Technical Information. Volume III: Sections 7--Information Retrieval; 8--Dissemination Practices; 9--Microform Systems and Reprography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuler, S. C., Ed.

    The third of four volumes in a series describing the basic documentation practices involved in the initial setting up and subsequent operation of an information-library organization to provide defense-aerospace scientific and technical information services, this manual consists of three sections. "Information Retrieval," by Tom Norton,…

  13. Manual of Documentation Practices Applicable to Defence-Aerospace Scientific and Technical Information. Volume I: Sections 1--Acquisition and Sources; 2--Descriptive Cataloguing; 3--Abstracting and Subject Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuler, S. C., Ed.

    The first volume in a series of publications describing the basic documentation practices involved in the initial setting up and subsequent operation of an information-library organization to provide defense-aerospace scientific and technical information services, this manual consists of three sections. "Acquisition and Sources," by…

  14. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act: Part B, Permit application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)]. Volume 1, Revison 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    This report contains information related to the permit application for the WIPP facility. Information is presented on solid waste management; personnel safety; emergency plans; site characterization; applicable regulations; decommissioning; and ground water monitoring requirements.

  15. A method to estimate the fractional fat volume within a ROI of a breast biopsy for WAXS applications: Animal tissue evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Robert Y.; McDonald, Nancy Laamanen, Curtis; LeClair, Robert J.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To develop a method to estimate the mean fractional volume of fat (ν{sup ¯}{sub fat}) within a region of interest (ROI) of a tissue sample for wide-angle x-ray scatter (WAXS) applications. A scatter signal from the ROI was obtained and use of ν{sup ¯}{sub fat} in a WAXS fat subtraction model provided a way to estimate the differential linear scattering coefficient μ{sub s} of the remaining fatless tissue. Methods: The efficacy of the method was tested using animal tissue from a local butcher shop. Formalin fixed samples, 5 mm in diameter 4 mm thick, were prepared. The two main tissue types were fat and meat (fibrous). Pure as well as composite samples consisting of a mixture of the two tissue types were analyzed. For the latter samples, ν{sub fat} for the tissue columns of interest were extracted from corresponding pixels in CCD digital x-ray images using a calibration curve. The means ν{sup ¯}{sub fat} were then calculated for use in a WAXS fat subtraction model. For the WAXS measurements, the samples were interrogated with a 2.7 mm diameter 50 kV beam and the 6° scattered photons were detected with a CdTe detector subtending a solid angle of 7.75 × 10{sup −5} sr. Using the scatter spectrum, an estimate of the incident spectrum, and a scatter model, μ{sub s} was determined for the tissue in the ROI. For the composite samples, a WAXS fat subtraction model was used to estimate the μ{sub s} of the fibrous tissue in the ROI. This signal was compared to μ{sub s} of fibrous tissue obtained using a pure fibrous sample. Results: For chicken and beef composites, ν{sup ¯}{sub fat}=0.33±0.05 and 0.32 ± 0.05, respectively. The subtractions of these fat components from the WAXS composite signals provided estimates of μ{sub s} for chicken and beef fibrous tissue. The differences between the estimates and μ{sub s} of fibrous obtained with a pure sample were calculated as a function of the momentum transfer x. A t-test showed that the mean of the

  16. Validation of Student and Parent Reported Data on the Basic Grant Application Form. Final Report. Volume III, Internal Revenue Service Comparison Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuchak, JoAnn

    Application forms for the Basic Educational Opportunity Grant (BEOG) Program for 1974-1975 were compared to Internal Revenue Service (IRA) tax forms to determine the scope of applicants' misreporting and to identify categories of applicants who tend to misreport. A total of 70,063 tax forms and BEOG records from eligible and ineligible applicants…

  17. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L., Ed.; Chapman, Kenneth, Ed.

    This volume contains chapters 26-31 for the American Chemical Society (ACS) "Modern Chemical Technology" (ChemTeC) instructional material intended to prepare chemical technologists. Chapter 26 reviews oxidation and reduction, including applications in titrations with potassium permanganate and iodometry. Coordination compounds are…

  18. Temporal behavior of peripheral organ distribution volume in mammillary systems. II. Application to background correction in separate glomerular filtration rate estimation in man

    SciTech Connect

    Decostre, P.L.; Salmon, Y. )

    1990-10-01

    An original approach to background subtraction is presented for 99mTc-DTPA separate glomerular filtration rate (SGFR) estimation in man. The method is based on the properties of the peripheral organ distribution volume (PODV) in mammillary systems. These PODV properties allow easy separation of the components of the renogram, i.e., interstitial fluid, plasma and renal activities. The proposed algorithm takes advantage of the linear time dependence of the kidney distribution volume, during the renal uptake phase, to correct for the plasma residual activity, which always remains after classical background correction. Theoretically, the ratio between kidney uptake and SGFR should be identical for both left and right kidneys, even for very asymmetrical kidney functions. This is best verified when the proposed plasma residual activity correction is applied.

  19. APPLICATIONS OF LASERS AND OTHER TOPICS IN LASER PHYSICS AND TECHNOLOGY: Nonlinear processes in the formation of dynamic volume holographic gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorshkov, V. G.; Danileĭko, Yu K.; Lebedeva, T. P.; Nesterov, D. A.

    1987-10-01

    The solutions of wave equations are used to develop new ideas on the dynamics of the diffraction efficiency of a volume light-induced grating in a medium with a nonlinear refractive index and/or absorption coefficient. It is shown that the earlier solutions have failed to describe satisfactorily the diffraction of radiation by volume phase and amplitude gratings because of distortion of the amplitude-phase profile of the radiation forming the grating. An analysis is made of the influence of the radial distribution of the intensity of the grating-forming beams on the observed changes in the diffraction efficiency. Predictions are made and experimental evidence is provided of the role of nonlinear refraction of a beam as a whole, which is an important factor in the space-time dynamics of the diffracted radiation in the far-field zone.

  20. Design and development of Stirling engines for stationary power generation applications in the 500 to 3000 horsepower range. Volume 2. Program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available,

    1980-09-15

    A plan for implementing the proposed state-of-the-art design described in Volume I has been developed. The main objective of the project is to demonstrate a large coal-fired Stirling engine and thus shorten the lead time to commercialization. The demonstration engine will be based on the concepts developed in the first phase of this program, as detailed in Volume I of this report. Thus the proposed program plan is based on the U-4 engine concept fired by a fluidized bed combustor with a two-stage gravity-assisted heat pipe. The plan is divided into five phases and an ongoing supporting technology program. Phase I, Conceptual Design, has been completed. The remaining phases are: Preliminary Design; Final Design; Fabrication; and Testing and Demonstration. The primary target is to begin testing the large coal-fired engine by the fifth year (1985) after the start of Preliminary Design.

  1. Intrascleral concentration vs depth profile of mitomycin-C after episcleral application: impact of applied concentration and volume of mitomycin-C solution.

    PubMed

    Vass, C; Georgopoulos, M; el Menyawi, I; Radda, S; Nimmerrichter, P

    2000-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of different concentrations and volumes of Mitomycin-C (MMC) on the intrascleral concentration vs depth profile of MMC in an experimental model. The episcleral sides of scleral quadrants of human donor eyes were exposed for 1 min to sponges (corneal light shield, Merocel Corp.) soaked with MMC. After irrigation with 40 ml saline a central 8 mm diameter scleral disk was horizontally dissected with a cryotome. MMC concentrations of six layers of 140 microns thickness were analysed by means of high-performance liquid chromatography. In Experiment 1 (11 eyes) the sponges were soaked with 50 microliters of 10, 100 and 200 micrograms ml-1 MMC solutions. In Experiment 2 (12 eyes) the sponges were soaked with 10, 30, 50 and 80 microliters of a 200 micrograms ml-1 isotonic MMC solution. In Experiment 1 the MMC concentrations (microgram g-1) of layer 1 were 0.35 (+/- 0.20; 10 micrograms ml-1 group) and 9.22 (+/- 2.92; 200 micrograms ml-1 group). In Experiment 2 the MMC concentrations were 2.57 (+/- 1.17; 10 microliters group), 7.35 (+/- 2.49; 30 microliters group) and 11.67 (+/- 3.25; 80 microliters group). The scleral MMC concentrations were significantly influenced by the applied concentrations (layers 1-5) and by the applied volumes (all layers) of MMC solution. The intrascleral MMC concentration increased linearly with increasing concentration and not linearly with increasing volume of the applied MMC solution. To achieve more predictable scleral concentrations of MMC after trabeculectomy with MMC it seems advisable to control both the concentration and the volume of the MMC solution used to soak the sponge.

  2. Estimation of gonad volume, fecundity, and reproductive stage of shovelnose sturgeon using sonography and endoscopy with application to the endangered pallid sturgeon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bryan, J.L.; Wildhaber, M.L.; Papoulias, D.M.; DeLonay, A.J.; Tillitt, D.E.; Annis, M.L.

    2007-01-01

    Most species of sturgeon are declining in the Mississippi River Basin of North America including pallid (Scaphirhynchus albus F. and R.) and shovelnose sturgeons (S. platorynchus R.). Understanding the reproductive cycle of sturgeon in the Mississippi River Basin is important in evaluating the status and viability of sturgeon populations. We used non-invasive, non-lethal methods for examining internal reproductive organs of shovelnose and pallid sturgeon. We used an ultrasound to measure egg diameter, fecundity, and gonad volume; endoscope was used to visually examine the gonad. We found the ultrasound to accurately measure the gonad volume, but it underestimated egg diameter by 52%. After correcting for the measurement error, the ultrasound accurately measured the gonad volume but it was higher than the true gonad volume for stages I and II. The ultrasound underestimated the fecundity of shovelnose sturgeon by 5%. The ultrasound fecundity was lower than the true fecundity for stage III and during August. Using the endoscope, we viewed seven different egg color categories. Using a model selection procedure, the presence of four egg categories correctly predicted the reproductive stage ± one reproductive stage of shovelnose sturgeon 95% of the time. For pallid sturgeon, the ultrasound overestimated the density of eggs by 49% and the endoscope was able to view eggs in 50% of the pallid sturgeon. Individually, the ultrasound and endoscope can be used to assess certain reproductive characteristics in sturgeon. The use of both methods at the same time can be complementary depending on the parameter measured. These methods can be used to track gonad characteristics, including measuring Gonadosomatic Index in individuals and/or populations through time, which can be very useful when associating gonad characteristics with environmental spawning triggers or with repeated examinations of individual fish throughout the reproductive cycle.

  3. Estimation of gonad volume, fecundity, and reproductive stage of shovelnose sturgeon using sonography and endoscopy with application to the endangered pallid sturgeon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bryan, J.L.; Wildhaber, M.L.; Papoulias, D.M.; DeLonay, A.J.; Tillitt, D.E.; Annis, M.L.

    2007-01-01

    Most species of sturgeon are declining in the Mississippi River Basin of North America including pallid (Scaphirhynchus albus F. and R.) and shovelnose sturgeons (S. platorynchus R.). Understanding the reproductive cycle of sturgeon in the Mississippi River Basin is important in evaluating the status and viability of sturgeon populations. We used non-invasive, non-lethal methods for examining internal reproductive organs of shovelnose and pallid sturgeon. We used an ultrasound to measure egg diameter, fecundity, and gonad volume; endoscope was used to visually examine the gonad. We found the ultrasound to accurately measure the gonad volume, but it underestimated egg diameter by 52%. After correcting for the measurement error, the ultrasound accurately measured the gonad volume but it was higher than the true gonad volume for stages I and II. The ultrasound underestimated the fecundity of shovelnose sturgeon by 5%. The ultrasound fecundity was lower than the true fecundity for stage III and during August. Using the endoscope, we viewed seven different egg color categories. Using a model selection procedure, the presence of four egg categories correctly predicted the reproductive stage ?? one reproductive stage of shovelnose sturgeon 95% of the time. For pallid sturgeon, the ultrasound overestimated the density of eggs by 49% and the endoscope was able to view eggs in 50% of the pallid sturgeon. Individually, the ultrasound and endoscope can be used to assess certain reproductive characteristics in sturgeon. The use of both methods at the same time can be complementary depending on the parameter measured. These methods can be used to track gonad characteristics, including measuring Gonadosomatic Index in individuals and/or populations through time, which can be very useful when associating gonad characteristics with environmental spawning triggers or with repeated examinations of individual fish throughout the reproductive cycle. ?? 2007 Blackwell Verlag.

  4. Eleventh annual Department of Energy low-level waste management conference. Volume 3: Waste characterization, waste reduction and minimization, prototype licensing application

    SciTech Connect

    1989-11-01

    Thirteen papers are presented in volume 3. The seven papers on waste characterization discuss sampling, analysis, and certification techniques for low-level radioactive wastes. Three papers discuss US DOE waste minimization policies and regulations, Y-12 Plant`s reduction of chlorinated solvents, and C-14 removal from spent resins. The last three papers discuss the licensing studies for earth-mounded concrete bunkers for LLW disposal. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  5. Quantification of adipose volume reduction with a prospective study analyzing the application of external radiofrequency energy and high voltage ultrashort pulse duration electrical fields.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Diane Irvine; Kim, Theresa H M; Temaat, Robbin

    2016-10-01

    To date, there have been no objective measurements of subcutaneous volume loss following treatments with a noninvasive radiofrequency (RF)-based device. Twenty female patients were treated with a suction-coupled bipolar RF device using external RF energy combined with pulsed electromagnetic RF energy for subcutaneous fat reduction. Parameters followed included weight, Vectra measurements of abdominal circumference and torso volume, and high-definition ultrasound measurements of fat thickness. Measurements were taken before treatment and three times following treatment. Analysis of the measured parameters showed that mean circumference reduction of 2.30 cm was noted at three months post-treatment. Independent volumetric analysis showed a mean subcutaneous volume reduction of 428 cc three months following RF treatment. High-resolution ultrasound fat thickness was reduced by a mean of 39.6% three months following the final BodyFX treatment. Independent and paired-sample t-tests showed a p value of < 0.05. Repeated measures of analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) adjusted for differences in age, as well as height and weight (proxy for body mass index) to minimize individual differences and control for extraneous variables that may affect the pre- and post-treatment results were analyzed. No confounding variables were found. All analyses were conducted using IBM SPSS 21.0.

  6. Liposome technology. Volume I: Preparation of liposomes

    SciTech Connect

    Gregoriadis, G.

    1984-01-01

    These three volumes cover liposome technology in pharmacology and medicine. Contributors emphasize methodology used in their own laboratories, and include a brief introduction, coverage of relevant literature, applications and critical evaluations for the methods they describe. Volume I examine methods for the preparation of liposomes and auxiliary techniques.

  7. A Summary of Proceedings of the Department of Defense Robotics Applications Workshop Held at Sacramento, California on October 4-7, 1983. Volume 1. (Exclusive of Presentations).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-07

    Applications - V. Scheinman 11. Robot Welding Systems - J. Pouse 12. The Future-Robotics in the Next Decade - M. Knasel 13. Air Force Aircraft Repair- G...VICTOR SCHEINMAN SENSORS (AUTOMATIX) o MICHAEL KNASEL TRANSPORTABILITY/MOBILITY (SAI, INC.) ~! I APPLICATIONS -SESSIONS 1 2 1. PAINT/DEPAINT 2... Knasel , next decade hold? Science Applications Inc. 1225 - 1345 Lunch DEPOT PROCESS REVIEW SESSION Moderator: F. Gale, Defense Systems manage- meat

  8. Vector quantization for volume rendering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ning, Paul; Hesselink, Lambertus

    1992-01-01

    Volume rendering techniques typically process volumetric data in raw, uncompressed form. As algorithmic and architectural advances improve rendering speeds, however, larger data sets will be evaluated requiring consideration of data storage and transmission issues. In this paper, we analyze the data compression requirements for volume rendering applications and present a solution based on vector quantization. The proposed system compresses volumetric data and then renders images directly from the new data format. Tests on a fluid flow data set demonstrate that good image quality may be achieved at a compression ratio of 17:1 with only a 5 percent cost in additional rendering time.

  9. LANDSAT-4 Science Characterization Early Results. Volume 4: Applications. [agriculture, soils land use, geology, hydrology, wetlands, water quality, biomass identification, and snow mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, J. L. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    The excellent quality of TM data allows researchers to proceed directly with applications analyses, without spending a significant amount of time applying various corrections to the data. The early results derived of TM data are discussed for the following applications: agriculture, land cover/land use, soils, geology, hydrology, wetlands biomass, water quality, and snow.

  10. Application of time-lapse seismic shear wave inversion to characterize the stimulated rock volume in the Niobrara and Codell Reservoirs, Wattenberg Field, CO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Staci K.

    Advances in horizontal drilling and completions in shale reservoirs have allowed operators to extract hydrocarbons within low permeability reservoirs that were once impossible to access. The integration of time-lapse multicomponent seismic data with engineering technology aids in the characterization of these reservoirs through monitoring. This thesis investigates the fast and slow shear wave components of a time-lapse, nine-component seismic survey to determine the stimulated volume in the Niobrara and Codell reservoir intervals. The time-lapse post-stack inversions of the shear wave datasets provide insight into how the shear impedance is affected by hydraulic fracturing through the work of cross-equalized seismic shear impedances and shear wave splitting. The study area is the Wishbone Section within Wattenberg Field, CO, which is owned and operated by Anadarko Petroleum Corporation and contains eleven horizontal wells that vary in spacing and completion methods. Shear seismic data sets were acquired over this section before and after hydraulic stimulation. The time-lapse shear seismic inversions show an increase in fast shear wave velocity and a decrease in slow shear velocity after stimulation. The sensitivity of both the fast and slow shear seismic to stimulation correlates with the net pressure trends at each stage. Borehole image log interpretations are compared to the inversions to analyze the affect that a complex fracture network has on induced anisotropy. The stimulated volume for the Niobrara and Codell reservoir intervals are now more accurately defined. Time-lapse shear seismic is the only technology that is able to define the stimulated rock volume and reveal areas that are not being accessed by the wells currently drilled. These areas are now detected within the Wishbone section, and may be candidates for future re-completion.

  11. Fracture Flow Research, Volume 1: Modeling Rock Fracture Intersections - Application in the Boston Area and Estimation of the Well-Test Flow Dimension

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    the three points will cause the formation of polygon 1. a12, D 12 C 7 ao, Do alo , DIo Figure 3.9 - Remaining initial directions for B8, B1 and B2 after...P32 lies within a narrow band . " The plot of the relationship is slightly curved and the slope increases with increasing P32. This observation will...within a narrow band and the shape of the relationship is very similar to that between the intersection length per unit volume versus the fracture

  12. Data catalog series for space science and applications flight missions. Volume 1A: Descriptions of planetary and heliocentric spacecraft and investigations, second edition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, Winifred Sawtell (Editor); Vostreys, Robert W. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The main purpose of the data catalog series is to provide descriptive references to data generated by space science flight missions. The data sets described include all of the actual holdings of the Space Science Data Center (NSSDC), all data sets for which direct contact information is available, and some data collections held and serviced by foreign investigators, NASA and other U.S. government agencies. This volume contains narrative descriptions of planetary and heliocentric spacecraft and associated experiments. The following spacecraft series are included: Mariner, Pioneer, Pioneer Venus, Venera, Viking, Voyager, and Helios. Separate indexes to the planetary and interplanetary missions are also included.

  13. Data Catalog Series for Space Science and Applications Flight Missions. Volume 2B; Descriptions of Data Sets from Geostationary and High-Altitude Scientific Spacecraft and Investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schofield, Norman J. (Editor); Parthasarathy, R. (Editor); Hills, H. Kent (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The main purpose of the data catalog series is to provide descriptive references to data generated by space science flight missions. The data sets described include all of the actual holdings of the Space Science Data Center (NSSDC), all data sets for which direct contact information is available, and some data collections held and serviced by foreign investigators, NASA and other U.S. government agencies. This volume contains narrative descriptions of data sets from geostationary and high altitude scientific spacecraft and investigations. The following spacecraft series are included: Mariner, Pioneer, Pioneer Venus, Venera, Viking, Voyager, and Helios. Separate indexes to the planetary and interplanetary missions are also provided.

  14. Data catalog series for space science and applications flight missions. Volume 1B: Descriptions of data sets from planetary and heliocentric spacecraft and investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horowitz, Richard (Compiler); Jackson, John E. (Compiler); Cameron, Winifred S. (Compiler)

    1987-01-01

    The main purpose of the data catalog series is to provide descriptive references to data generated by space science flight missions. The data sets described include all of the actual holdings of the Space Science Data Center (NSSDC), all data sets for which direct contact information is available, and some data collections held and serviced by foreign investigators, NASA and other U.S. government agencies. This volume contains narrative descriptions of planetary and heliocentric spacecraft and associated experiments. The following spacecraft series are included: Mariner, Pioneer, Pioneer Venus, Venera, Viking, Voyager, and Helios. Separate indexes to the planetary and interplanetary missions are also provided.

  15. Data catalog series for space science and applications flight missions. Volume 3B: Descriptions of data sets from low- and medium-altitude scientific spacecraft and investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, John E. (Editor); Horowitz, Richard (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    The main purpose of the data catalog series is to provide descriptive references to data generated by space science flight missions. The data sets described include all of the actual holdings of the Space Science Data Center (NSSDC), all data sets for which direct contact information is available, and some data collections held and serviced by foreign investigators, NASA and other U.S. government agencies. This volume contains narrative descriptions of data sets from low and medium altitude scientific spacecraft and investigations. The following spacecraft series are included: Mariner, Pioneer, Pioneer Venus, Venera, Viking, Voyager, and Helios. Separate indexes to the planetary and interplanetary missions are also provided.

  16. Mapping directionality specific volume changes using tensor based morphometry: An application to the study of gyrogenesis and lateralization of the human fetal brain

    PubMed Central

    Rajagopalan, Vidya; Scott, Julia; Habas, Piotr A.; Kim, Kio; Rousseau, Francois; Glenn, Orit A.; Barkovich, A. James; Studholme, Colin

    2013-01-01

    Tensor based morphometry (TBM) is a powerful approach to analyze local structural changes in brain anatomy. However, conventional scalar TBM methods do not completely capture all direction specific volume changes required to model complex changes such as those during brain growth. In this paper, we describe novel TBM descriptors for studying direction-specific changes in a subject population which can be used in conjunction with scalar TBM to analyze local patterns in directionality of volume change during brain development. We also extend the methodology to provide a new approach to mapping directional asymmetry in deformation tensors associated with the emergence of structural asymmetry in the developing brain. We illustrate the use of these methods by studying developmental patterns in the human fetal brain, in vivo. Results show that fetal brain development exhibits a distinct spatial pattern of anisotropic growth. The most significant changes in the directionality of growth occurs in the cortical plate at major sulci. Our analysis also detected directional growth asymmetry in the peri-sylvian region and the medial frontal lobe of the fetal brain. PMID:22503938

  17. Mapping directionality specific volume changes using tensor based morphometry: an application to the study of gyrogenesis and lateralization of the human fetal brain.

    PubMed

    Rajagopalan, Vidya; Scott, Julia; Habas, Piotr A; Kim, Kio; Rousseau, Francois; Glenn, Orit A; Barkovich, A James; Studholme, Colin

    2012-11-01

    Tensor based morphometry (TBM) is a powerful approach to analyze local structural changes in brain anatomy. However, conventional scalar TBM methods do not completely capture all direction specific volume changes required to model complex changes such as those during brain growth. In this paper, we describe novel TBM descriptors for studying direction-specific changes in a subject population which can be used in conjunction with scalar TBM to analyze local patterns in directionality of volume change during brain development. We also extend the methodology to provide a new approach to mapping directional asymmetry in deformation tensors associated with the emergence of structural asymmetry in the developing brain. We illustrate the use of these methods by studying developmental patterns in the human fetal brain, in vivo. Results show that fetal brain development exhibits a distinct spatial pattern of anisotropic growth. The most significant changes in the directionality of growth occur in the cortical plate at major sulci. Our analysis also detected directional growth asymmetry in the peri-Sylvian region and the medial frontal lobe of the fetal brain.

  18. The influence of voice volume, pitch, and speech rate on progressive relaxation training: application of methods from speech pathology and audiology.

    PubMed

    Knowlton, Glenn E; Larkin, Kevin T

    2006-06-01

    Vocal characteristics of therapists, including voice volume, pitch and timbre of speech, and rate of speech have been hypothesized to facilitate the therapeutic process, particularly during procedures like progressive relaxation training (PRT). Very little empirical work, however, has examined the relation between vocal characteristics and treatment process or outcome. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of vocal characteristics during a single session of PRT applying technological innovations devised for speech pathology and audiology settings for evaluating therapist's vocal characteristics. Forty-eight high anxious young adult women were randomly assigned to one of four conditions for training: PRT with the recommended therapist voice (RV) that decreased in tone, volume, and rate across the session, PRT with conversational therapist voice during the session (CV), a credible treatment control called systematic self-relaxation (SR), or no treatment control (NT). All subjects participated in a single PRT session during which heart rate, EMG, self-report measures of tension (SRT) and anxiety, and treatment credibility ratings were obtained. Results revealed significant reductions in SRT, self-reported anxiety, and heart rate for participants in all groups. Only the RV group displayed significant reductions in EMG when compared with the other three groups. Participants in the RV group also rated the therapist's voice as "more facilitating" of relaxation when compared to the CV group. These results suggest that methods employed for evaluating the quality of vocal characteristics in speech and audiology clinics may be useful for evaluating the quality of therapist's voice when conducting PRT.

  19. Age estimation from canine volumes.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Danilo; Gaudio, Daniel; Guercini, Nicola; Cipriani, Filippo; Gibelli, Daniele; Caputi, Sergio; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2015-08-01

    Techniques for estimation of biological age are constantly evolving and are finding daily application in the forensic radiology field in cases concerning the estimation of the chronological age of a corpse in order to reconstruct the biological profile, or of a living subject, for example in cases of immigration of people without identity papers from a civil registry. The deposition of teeth secondary dentine and consequent decrease of pulp chamber in size are well known as aging phenomena, and they have been applied to the forensic context by the development of age estimation procedures, such as Kvaal-Solheim and Cameriere methods. The present study takes into consideration canines pulp chamber volume related to the entire teeth volume, with the aim of proposing new regression formulae for age estimation using 91 cone beam computerized scans and a freeware open-source software, in order to permit affordable reproducibility of volumes calculation.

  20. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B permit application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)]. Volume 7: Revision 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    This permit application (Vol. 7) for the WIPP facility contains appendices related to the following information: Ground water protection; personnel; solid waste management; and memorandums concerning environmental protection standards.

  1. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B Permit Application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)]. Chapter D, Appendix D1 (conclusion): Volume 3, Revision 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    This report, Part B (Vol. 3) of the permit application for the WIPP facility, contains information related to the site characterization of the facility, including geology, design, rock salt evaluations, maps, drawings, and shaft excavations. (CBS)

  2. Proceedings of the Organization of 1990 Meeting of International Neural Network Society Jointed with IEEE Held in Washington, DC on January 15 - 19, 1990. Volume 2. Applications Track.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-30

    on probl em, Further work musti be done to adapt the network to handle non-homogeneous background, I1- 317 RA- £ exren c es 11 R. Nitz berg ... Luscher prognosis to in- clude more modem philosophical approaches. Finally, the specific equipment needed would be a Macintosh6 with a color display... LUSCHER APPLICATION The Macintosh software development has resulted in a reasonably small application, under 75K bytes in size. The Macintosh

  3. An effective rate equation approach to reaction kinetics in small volumes: theory and application to biochemical reactions in nonequilibrium steady-state conditions.

    PubMed

    Grima, R

    2010-07-21

    Chemical master equations provide a mathematical description of stochastic reaction kinetics in well-mixed conditions. They are a valid description over length scales that are larger than the reactive mean free path and thus describe kinetics in compartments of mesoscopic and macroscopic dimensions. The trajectories of the stochastic chemical processes described by the master equation can be ensemble-averaged to obtain the average number density of chemical species, i.e., the true concentration, at any spatial scale of interest. For macroscopic volumes, the true concentration is very well approximated by the solution of the corresponding deterministic and macroscopic rate equations, i.e., the macroscopic concentration. However, this equivalence breaks down for mesoscopic volumes. These deviations are particularly significant for open systems and cannot be calculated via the Fokker-Planck or linear-noise approximations of the master equation. We utilize the system-size expansion including terms of the order of Omega(-1/2) to derive a set of differential equations whose solution approximates the true concentration as given by the master equation. These equations are valid in any open or closed chemical reaction network and at both the mesoscopic and macroscopic scales. In the limit of large volumes, the effective mesoscopic rate equations become precisely equal to the conventional macroscopic rate equations. We compare the three formalisms of effective mesoscopic rate equations, conventional rate equations, and chemical master equations by applying them to several biochemical reaction systems (homodimeric and heterodimeric protein-protein interactions, series of sequential enzyme reactions, and positive feedback loops) in nonequilibrium steady-state conditions. In all cases, we find that the effective mesoscopic rate equations can predict very well the true concentration of a chemical species. This provides a useful method by which one can quickly determine the

  4. Image plane sweep volume illumination.

    PubMed

    Sundén, Erik; Ynnerman, Anders; Ropinski, Timo

    2011-12-01

    In recent years, many volumetric illumination models have been proposed, which have the potential to simulate advanced lighting effects and thus support improved image comprehension. Although volume ray-casting is widely accepted as the volume rendering technique which achieves the highest image quality, so far no volumetric illumination algorithm has been designed to be directly incorporated into the ray-casting process. In this paper we propose image plane sweep volume illumination (IPSVI), which allows the integration of advanced illumination effects into a GPU-based volume ray-caster by exploiting the plane sweep paradigm. Thus, we are able to reduce the problem complexity and achieve interactive frame rates, while supporting scattering as well as shadowing. Since all illumination computations are performed directly within a single rendering pass, IPSVI does not require any preprocessing nor does it need to store intermediate results within an illumination volume. It therefore has a significantly lower memory footprint than other techniques. This makes IPSVI directly applicable to large data sets. Furthermore, the integration into a GPU-based ray-caster allows for high image quality as well as improved rendering performance by exploiting early ray termination. This paper discusses the theory behind IPSVI, describes its implementation, demonstrates its visual results and provides performance measurements.

  5. Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting. Volume 3, Primary system integrity; Aging research, products and applications; Structural and seismic engineering; Seismology and geology: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Monteleone, S.

    1994-04-01

    This three-volume report contains 90 papers out of the 102 that were presented at the Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, during the week of October 25-27, 1993. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Germany, Japan, Russia, Switzerland, Taiwan, and United Kingdom. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting. Selected papers were indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  6. Isolating cells from female/male blood mixtures using florescence in situ hybridization combined with low volume PCR and its application in forensic science.

    PubMed

    Feng, Lei; Li, Cai-Xia; Han, Jun-Ping; Xu, Cheng; Hu, Lan

    2015-11-01

    To obtain single-source short tandem repeat (STR) profiles in trace female/male blood mixture samples, we combined florescence in situ hybridization (FISH), laser microdissection, and low volume PCR (LV-PCR) to isolate male/female cells and improve sensitivity. The results showed that isolation of as few as 10 leukocytes was sufficient to yield full STR profiles in fresh female or male blood samples for 32 independent tests with a low additional alleles rate (3.91%) and drop-out alleles rate (5.01%). Moreover, this procedure was tested in two fresh blood mixture series at three ratios (1:5, 1:10, and 1:20), two mock female/male blood mixture casework samples, and one practical casework sample. Male and female STR profiles were successfully detected in all of these samples, showing that this procedure could be used in forensic casework in the future.

  7. Ultra-trace plutonium determination in small volume seawater by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with application to Fukushima seawater samples.

    PubMed

    Bu, Wenting; Zheng, Jian; Guo, Qiuju; Aono, Tatsuo; Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo; Tazoe, Hirofumi; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2014-04-11

    Long-term monitoring of Pu isotopes in seawater is required for assessing Pu contamination in the marine environment from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. In this study, we established an accurate and precise analytical method based on anion-exchange chromatography and SF-ICP-MS. This method was able to determine Pu isotopes in seawater samples with small volumes (20-60L). The U decontamination factor was 3×10(7)-1×10(8), which provided sufficient removal of interfering U from the seawater samples. The estimated limits of detection for (239)Pu and (240)Pu were 0.11fgmL(-1) and 0.08fgmL(-1), respectively, which corresponded to 0.01mBqm(-3) for (239)Pu and 0.03mBqm(-3) for (240)Pu when a 20L volume of seawater was measured. We achieved good precision (2.9%) and accuracy (0.8%) for measurement of the (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratio in the standard Pu solution with a (239)Pu concentration of 11fgmL(-1) and (240)Pu concentration of 2.7fgmL(-1). Seawater reference materials were used for the method validation and both the (239+240)Pu activities and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios agreed well with the expected values. Surface and bottom seawater samples collected off Fukushima in the western North Pacific since March 2011 were analyzed. Our results suggested that there was no significant variation of the Pu distribution in seawater in the investigated areas compared to the distribution before the accident.

  8. Application of large volume injection GC-MS to analysis of organic compounds in the extracts and leachates of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    Korenkova, Eva; Slobodnik, Jaroslav

    2006-07-01

    Organic solvent and water extracts of fly ash from a Milan (Italy) municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) were analyzed by large volume injection-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (LVI-GC-MS) with programmable temperature vaporizer (PTV). Using injection volumes of 10-100 {mu}l, typically over a hundred compounds were detected in organic solvent extracts and ca. 35% of them could be tentatively identified from their electron impact ionization mass spectra. A protocol for the determination of the maximum amount of a potential environmental pollutant available for leaching (availability test) was developed for four selected target compounds: pentachlorobenzene (PeCB), hexachlorobenzene (HxCB), o-terphenyl (o-TPH) and m-terphenyl (m-TPH). Key parameters, extraction time and liquid-to-solid ratio (L/S), were studied in more detail. Recoveries of PeCB, HxCB and o-TPH spiked into the fly ash samples at two concentration levels ranged from 38% to 53% for freshly spiked and from 14% to 40% for 40-day aged fly ash. Recoveries of m-TPH were 8% to 11% from freshly spiked and less than 3% from aged spiked fly ash. The native amounts in Milan MSWI fly ash, determined in an interlaboratory exercise using the developed protocol, were 31 ng/g PeCB, 34 ng/g HxCB, 72 ng/g o-TPH and 4.4 ng/g m-TPH. A separate methodology was developed for the determination of compounds extracted from fly ash by water (leaching test). Following 8-h sonication at L/S 20, the leached amounts of PeCB, HxCB and o-TPH were 1.1, 3.1 and 6.0 ng/g fly ash, respectively.

  9. Development and application of a volume penalization immersed boundary method for the computation of blood flow and shear stresses in cerebral vessels and aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Mikhal, Julia; Geurts, Bernard J

    2013-12-01

    A volume-penalizing immersed boundary method is presented for the simulation of laminar incompressible flow inside geometrically complex blood vessels in the human brain. We concentrate on cerebral aneurysms and compute flow in curved brain vessels with and without spherical aneurysm cavities attached. We approximate blood as an incompressible Newtonian fluid and simulate the flow with the use of a skew-symmetric finite-volume discretization and explicit time-stepping. A key element of the immersed boundary method is the so-called masking function. This is a binary function with which we identify at any location in the domain whether it is 'solid' or 'fluid', allowing to represent objects immersed in a Cartesian grid. We compare three definitions of the masking function for geometries that are non-aligned with the grid. In each case a 'staircase' representation is used in which a grid cell is either 'solid' or 'fluid'. Reliable findings are obtained with our immersed boundary method, even at fairly coarse meshes with about 16 grid cells across a velocity profile. The validation of the immersed boundary method is provided on the basis of classical Poiseuille flow in a cylindrical pipe. We obtain first order convergence for the velocity and the shear stress, reflecting the fact that in our approach the solid-fluid interface is localized with an accuracy on the order of a grid cell. Simulations for curved vessels and aneurysms are done for different flow regimes, characterized by different values of the Reynolds number (Re). The validation is performed for laminar flow at Re = 250, while the flow in more complex geometries is studied at Re = 100 and Re = 250, as suggested by physiological conditions pertaining to flow of blood in the circle of Willis.

  10. Investigation of storage system designs and techniques for optimizing energy conservation in integrated utility systems. Volume 2: (Application of energy storage to IUS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The applicability of energy storage devices to any energy system depends on the performance and cost characteristics of the larger basic system. A comparative assessment of energy storage alternatives for application to IUS which addresses the systems aspects of the overall installation is described. Factors considered include: (1) descriptions of the two no-storage IUS baselines utilized as yardsticks for comparison throughout the study; (2) discussions of the assessment criteria and the selection framework employed; (3) a summary of the rationale utilized in selecting water storage as the primary energy storage candidate for near term application to IUS; (4) discussion of the integration aspects of water storage systems; and (5) an assessment of IUS with water storage in alternative climates.

  11. Multivariate volume rendering

    SciTech Connect

    Crawfis, R.A.

    1996-03-01

    This paper presents a new technique for representing multivalued data sets defined on an integer lattice. It extends the state-of-the-art in volume rendering to include nonhomogeneous volume representations. That is, volume rendering of materials with very fine detail (e.g. translucent granite) within a voxel. Multivariate volume rendering is achieved by introducing controlled amounts of noise within the volume representation. Varying the local amount of noise within the volume is used to represent a separate scalar variable. The technique can also be used in image synthesis to create more realistic clouds and fog.

  12. Logistics of oil spill dispersant application. Volume I. Logistics-related properties of oil spill dispersants. Final report, October 1979-September 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Bellantoni, J.

    1982-11-01

    The use of chemicals for oil spill dispersal, while not presently widespread in the U.S., would have implications for the U.S. Coast Guard's Marine Environmental Protection program. This report explores the logistics of oil disperant application by the U.S. Coast Guard. Data were reviewed for the 13 dispersants for which data had been submitted to the EPA as of October 1979. Manufacturer's data and published test results were also examined and information summarized with regard to classification, handling and storage application, availability and cost.

  13. APPLICATIONS OF LASERS AND OTHER TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS: Principles for construction of a Hopfield neuron network with the aid of volume echo holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manykin, É. A.; Belov, M. N.

    1991-02-01

    A theoretical investigation is reported of the properties of the photon echo as a method for dynamic holography of three-dimensional media. It is shown that an optical Hopfield neuron network can be constructed on this basis. Potential applications of the photon echo in other tasks involving neuron networks in optics are considered.

  14. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project. ACT/Control/Guidance System study. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The integrated application of active controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport is reported. Supplementary technical data on the following topics are included: (1) 1990's avionics technology assessment; (2) function criticality assessment; (3) flight deck system for total control and functional features list; (4) criticality and reliability assessment of units; (5) crew procedural function task analysis; and (6) recommendations for simulation mechanization.

  15. Environmental Concentrations, Fate, and Risk Assessment of Pyrethrins and Piperonyl Butoxide After Aerial Ultralow-Volume Applications for Adult Mosquito Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    end point) for PBO samples taken 1 h before the appli- cation for Daphnia magna , rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus my- kiss), and bluegill sunfish (Lepomis...after application in Princeton for D. magna , rainbow trout, and bluegill sunfish were 0.0003, less than 0.0001, and less than 0.0001, respectively

  16. Numerical simulation of dynamics of brushless dc motors for aerospace and other applications. Volume 2: User's guide to computer EMA model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demerdash, N. A. O.; Nehl, T. W.

    1979-01-01

    A description and user's guide of the computer program developed to simulate the dynamics of an electromechanical actuator for aerospace applications are presented. The effects of the stator phase currents on the permanent magnets of the rotor are examined. The voltage and current waveforms present in the power conditioner network during the motoring, regenerative braking, and plugging modes of operation are presented and discussed.

  17. Validation of Student and Parent Report Data on the Basic Grant Application Form: Institution Referral Study, Pre-established Criteria Study, Overpayment Recovery. Final Report, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Ronald J.; And Others

    The types and ranges of errors made on applications to the Basic Educational Opportunity Grant (BEOG) program were studied, along with procedures used in recovering overpayments. The objective was to assess the scope and nature of misreporting and misuse of the BEOG program. A 1975-1976 study reviewed cases referred to the U.S. Office of Education…

  18. A theoretical analysis of the free vibrations of ring- and/or stringer-stiffened elliptical cylinders with arbitrary end conditions. Volume 1: Analytical derivation and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, D. E.; Rao, C. K. P.

    1973-01-01

    The derivation and application of a Rayleigh-Ritz modal vibration analysis are presented for ring and/or stringer stiffened noncircular cylindrical shells with arbitrary end conditions. Comparisons with previous results from experimental and analytical studies showed this method of analysis to be accurate for a variety of end conditions. Results indicate a greater effect of rings on natural frequencies than of stringers.

  19. Volcanic sulfur dioxide index and volcanic explosivity index inferred from eruptive volume of volcanoes in Jeju Island, Korea: application to volcanic hazard mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Bokyun; Yun, Sung-Hyo

    2016-04-01

    Jeju Island located in the southwestern part of Korea Peninsula is a volcanic island composed of lavaflows, pyroclasts, and around 450 monogenetic volcanoes. The volcanic activity of the island commenced with phreatomagmatic eruptions under subaqueous condition ca. 1.8-2.0 Ma and lasted until ca. 1,000 year BP. For evaluating volcanic activity of the most recently erupted volcanoes with reported age, volcanic explosivity index (VEI) and volcanic sulfur dioxide index (VSI) of three volcanoes (Ilchulbong tuff cone, Songaksan tuff ring, and Biyangdo scoria cone) are inferred from their eruptive volumes. The quantity of eruptive materials such as tuff, lavaflow, scoria, and so on, is calculated using a model developed in Auckland Volcanic Field which has similar volcanic setting to the island. The eruptive volumes of them are 11,911,534 m3, 24,987,557 m3, and 9,652,025 m3, which correspond to VEI of 3, 3, and 2, respectively. According to the correlation between VEI and VSI, the average quantity of SO2 emission during an eruption with VEI of 3 is 2-8 × 103 kiloton considering that the island was formed under intraplate tectonic setting. Jeju Island was regarded as an extinct volcano, however, several studies have recently reported some volcanic eruption ages within 10,000 year BP owing to the development in age dating technique. Thus, the island is a dormant volcano potentially implying high probability to erupt again in the future. The volcanoes might have explosive eruptions (vulcanian to plinian) with the possibility that SO2 emitted by the eruption reaches stratosphere causing climate change due to backscattering incoming solar radiation, increase in cloud reflectivity, etc. Consequently, recommencement of volcanic eruption in the island is able to result in serious volcanic hazard and this study provides fundamental and important data for volcanic hazard mitigation of East Asia as well as the island. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS: This research was supported by a grant [MPSS

  20. Multimodal evaluation of 2-D and 3-D ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in measurements of the thyroid volume using universally applicable cross-sectional imaging software: a phantom study.

    PubMed

    Freesmeyer, Martin; Wiegand, Steffen; Schierz, Jan-Henning; Winkens, Thomas; Licht, Katharina

    2014-07-01

    A precise estimate of thyroid volume is necessary for making adequate therapeutic decisions and planning, as well as for monitoring therapy response. The goal of this study was to compare the precision of different volumetry methods. Thyroid-shaped phantoms were subjected to volumetry via 2-D and 3-D ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The 3-D US scans were performed using sensor navigation and mechanical sweeping methods. Volumetry calculation ensued with the conventional ellipsoid model and the manual tracing method. The study confirmed the superiority of manual tracing with CT and MRI volumetry of the thyroid, but extended this knowledge also to the superiority of the 3-D US method, regardless of whether sensor navigation or mechanical sweeping is used. A novel aspect was successful use of the same universally applicable cross-imaging software for all modalities.

  1. Low concentration ratio solar array for low Earth orbit multi-100 kW application. Volume 1: Design, analysis and development tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A preliminary design effort directed toward a low concentration ratio photovoltaic array system capable of delivering multihundred kilowatts (300 kW to 1000 kW range) in low earth orbit is described. The array system consists of two or more array modules each capable of delivering between 113 kW to 175 kW using silicon solar cells or gallium arsenide solar cells, respectively. The array module deployed area is 1320 square meters and consists of 4356 pyramidal concentrator elements. The module, when stowed in the Space Shuttle's payload bay, has a stowage volume of a cube with 3.24 meters on a side. The concentrator elements are sized for a geometric concentration ratio (GCR) of six with an aperture area of .25 sq. m. The structural analysis and design trades leading to the baseline design are discussed. It describes the configuration, as well as optical, thermal and electrical performance analyses that support the design and overall performance estimates for the array are described.

  2. Sensitive method for the determination of rocilinostat in small volume mouse plasma by LC-MS/MS and its application to a pharmacokinetic study in mice.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Manish; Dixit, Abhishek; Devaraj, V C; Zainuddin, Mohd; Bhamidipati, Ravi Kanth; Hallur, Mahanandeesha S; Dewang, Purushottam; Rajagopal, Sridharan; Rajagopal, Sriram; Mullangi, Ramesh

    2016-07-01

    A highly sensitive, specific and rapid LC-ESI-MS/MS method has been developed and validated for the quantification of rocilinostat in small volume mouse plasma (20 μL) using vorinostat as an internal standard (IS) as per regulatory guidelines. Sample preparation was accomplished through a protein precipitation procedure with acetonitrile. Chromatography was achieved on Prodigy ODS-2 column using a binary gradient using mobile phase A (0.2% formic acid in water) and B (acetonitrile) at a flow rate of 0.38 mL/min. The total chromatographic run time was 4.1 min and the elution of rocilinostat and IS occurred at ~3.2 and 2.9 min, respectively. A linear response function was established in the concentration range of 0.28-1193 ng/mL in mouse plasma. The intra- and inter-day accuracy and precisions were in the ranges of 3.12-8.93 and 6.41-11.6%, respectively. This novel method has been applied to a pharmacokinetic study in mice. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Adaptive finite volume methods with well-balanced Riemann solvers for modeling floods in rugged terrain: Application to the Malpasset dam-break flood (France, 1959)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    George, D.L.

    2011-01-01

    The simulation of advancing flood waves over rugged topography, by solving the shallow-water equations with well-balanced high-resolution finite volume methods and block-structured dynamic adaptive mesh refinement (AMR), is described and validated in this paper. The efficiency of block-structured AMR makes large-scale problems tractable, and allows the use of accurate and stable methods developed for solving general hyperbolic problems on quadrilateral grids. Features indicative of flooding in rugged terrain, such as advancing wet-dry fronts and non-stationary steady states due to balanced source terms from variable topography, present unique challenges and require modifications such as special Riemann solvers. A well-balanced Riemann solver for inundation and general (non-stationary) flow over topography is tested in this context. The difficulties of modeling floods in rugged terrain, and the rationale for and efficacy of using AMR and well-balanced methods, are presented. The algorithms are validated by simulating the Malpasset dam-break flood (France, 1959), which has served as a benchmark problem previously. Historical field data, laboratory model data and other numerical simulation results (computed on static fitted meshes) are shown for comparison. The methods are implemented in GEOCLAW, a subset of the open-source CLAWPACK software. All the software is freely available at. Published in 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Realtime or Delayed Tele-Echography Using (A) a Robotic Arm, ISDN or Satellite Lines, (B) a Volumic Echographic Capture Mode and Internet (Application to Abdomen and Fetus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbeille, Ph.; Cloppet, F.; Boucher, A.; Capri, A.; Vincent, N.

    2008-06-01

    Objective: to test (a) the tele-echography in realtime based on the use of a robotic arm, (b) the delayed tele echography using a volumic echographic capture and delayed processing. Method: A dedicated robotic arm (ESTELE) holding a real ultrasound probe is remotely controlled from the expert site with a fictive probe, and reproduces on the real probe all the movements of the expert hand. A dedicated motorized probe holder (TILTER) was used for tilting a 2D probe from -45 to +45°. Results: During fetal robotized Tele-echography (n=50) the expert was able to visualize and measure the fetal structures in 95% of the cases, while during abdomen echography (n=87) the expert visualized the main organs and lesions in 87% of the cases. The mean duration of the robotized tele echography session for one patient was 20+/-10 min. The delayed echography using the TILTER was tested on 40 patients. The organs were adequately visualized in 85% of the cases after 3 capture per organ. The average time from the first capture until the diagnostic was delivered was 40+/-10 minutes. Conclusion: Realtime or delayed Tele-echography provide similar information as direct examination in at least 85% of the cases. No false diagnostic was reported.

  5. Proceedings of the Symposium on GPS Applications in Space (2nd) Held in Bedford, Massachusetts on 10-11 October 1989. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-13

    Advanced Spacecraft Applications, Triveni N. Upadhyay, George J. Priovolos, Harley Rhodehamel . . . 245 An Experiment In Attitude, Position And Velocity...Priovolos*, Harley Rhodehamel*, A. Wayne Deaton** (*Mayflower Communications, **NASA Marshall SFC): "Autonomous Integrated GPS/INS Navigation Filter for...optical path (for example, due to splices or connectors, nicks in the fiber cladding, impurities in the fiber core, etc.) will cause small-scale (1

  6. Parts, Materials, and Processes Experience Summary. Volume 1; [Catalog of ALERT and Other Information on Basic Design, Reliability, Quality and Applications Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The ALERT program, a system for communicating common problems with parts, materials, and processes, is condensed and catalogued. Expanded information on selected topics is provided by relating the problem area (failure) to the cause, the investigations and findings, the suggestions for avoidance (inspections, screening tests, proper part applications), and failure analysis procedures. The basic objective of ALERT is the avoidance of the recurrence of parts, materials, and processed problems, thus improving the reliability of equipment produced for and used by the government.

  7. Acquisition and Application of Transonic Wing and Far-Field Test Data for Three-Dimensional Computational Method Evaluation. Volume I.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    ACCESSION NO. 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER TITLE (and Subtitle) .ORT a PERID COVERED ACQUISITION AND APPLICATION OF TRANSONIC W NG Final e,_;. AND FAR...the FLO-22 analysis. The difference between viscous and inviscid solutions was small. iii TABLE OF CONTENTS Page SYMBOLS...computational methods for analyzing the transonic flow about isolated wings and simple wing-body combinations. Table 1 lists some of the methods which are readily

  8. A Database Management System Application for the Graduate Programs Office of the School of Systems and Logistics. Volume 1. Development and User’s Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    processing procedures used by the Air Force Institute of Technology School of Systems and Logistics Graduate Programs Office. The author was able to create an...efficient DBMS application that met the needs of the Graduate Programs Office using the Ashton-Tate dBASE III Plus (TM) DBMS and the Concentric Data...successful in achieving his goal of solving the specific problem. Chapter IV describes the impact on Graduate Programs Office operations using the DBMS and

  9. Advanced vehicle systems assessment. Volume 2: Subsystems assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, K.

    1985-01-01

    Volume 2 (Subsystems Assessment) is part of a five-volume report entitled Advanced Vehicle Systems Assessment. Volume 2 presents the projected performance capabilities and cost characteristics of applicable subsystems, considering an additional decade of development. Subsystems of interest include energy storage and conversion devices as well as the necessary powertrain components and vehicle subsystems. Volume 2 also includes updated battery information based on the assessment of an independent battery review board (with the aid of subcontractor reports on advanced battery characteristics).

  10. Application of Bistatic TanDEM-X Interferometry to Measure Lava Flow Volume and Lava Extrusion Rates During the 2012-13 Tolbachik, Kamchatka Fissure Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubanek, J.; Westerhaus, M.; Heck, B.

    2015-12-01

    Aerial imaging methods are a well approved source for mapping lava flows during eruptions and can serve as a base to assess the eruption dynamics and to determine the affected area. However, clouds and smoke often hinder optical systems like the Earth Observation Advanced Land Imager (EO-1-ALI, operated by NASA) to map lava flows properly, which hence affects its reliability. Furthermore, the amount of lava that is extruded during an eruption cannot be determined from optical images - however, it can significantly contribute to assess the accompanying hazard and risk. One way to monitor active lava flows is to quantify the topographic changes over time while using up-to-date high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs). Whereas photogrammetric methods still fail when clouds and fume obstruct the sight, innovative radar satellite missions have the potential to generate high-resolution DEMs at any time. The innovative bistatic TanDEM-X (TerraSAR-X Add-on for Digital Elevation Measurements) satellite mission enables for the first time generating high-resolution DEMs from synthetic aperture radar satellite data repeatedly with reasonable costs and high resolution. The satellite mission consists of the two nearly identical satellites TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X that build a large synthetic aperture radar interferometer with adaptable across- and along-track baselines aiming to generate topographic information globally. In the present study, we apply the TanDEM-X data to study the lava flows that were emplaced during the 2012-13 Tolbachik, Kamchatka fissure eruption. The eruption was composed of very fluid lava flows that effused along a northeast-southwest trending fissure. We used about fifteen bistatic data pairs to generate DEMs prior to, during, and after the eruption. The differencing of the DEMs enables mapping the lava flow field at different times. This allows measuring the extruded volume and to derive the changes in lava extrusion over time.

  11. High altitude chemically reacting gas particle mixtures. Volume 3: Computer code user's and applications manual. [rocket nozzle and orbital plume flow fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. D.

    1984-01-01

    A users manual for the RAMP2 computer code is provided. The RAMP2 code can be used to model the dominant phenomena which affect the prediction of liquid and solid rocket nozzle and orbital plume flow fields. The general structure and operation of RAMP2 are discussed. A user input/output guide for the modified TRAN72 computer code and the RAMP2F code is given. The application and use of the BLIMPJ module are considered. Sample problems involving the space shuttle main engine and motor are included.

  12. An improved approach for flight readiness certification: Probabilistic models for flaw propagation and turbine blade failure. Volume 1: Methodology and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, N. R.; Ebbeler, D. H.; Newlin, L. E.; Sutharshana, S.; Creager, M.

    1992-01-01

    An improved methodology for quantitatively evaluating failure risk of spaceflight systems to assess flight readiness and identify risk control measures is presented. This methodology, called Probabilistic Failure Assessment (PFA), combines operating experience from tests and flights with analytical modeling of failure phenomena to estimate failure risk. The PFA methodology is of particular value when information on which to base an assessment of failure risk, including test experience and knowledge of parameters used in analytical modeling, is expensive or difficult to acquire. The PFA methodology is a prescribed statistical structure in which analytical models that characterize failure phenomena are used conjointly with uncertainties about analysis parameters and/or modeling accuracy to estimate failure probability distributions for specific failure modes. These distributions can then be modified, by means of statistical procedures of the PFA methodology, to reflect any test or flight experience. State-of-the-art analytical models currently employed for designs failure prediction, or performance analysis are used in this methodology. The rationale for the statistical approach taken in the PFA methodology is discussed, the PFA methodology is described, and examples of its application to structural failure modes are presented. The engineering models and computer software used in fatigue crack growth and fatigue crack initiation applications are thoroughly documented.

  13. An improved approach for flight readiness certification: Methodology for failure risk assessment and application examples. Volume 3: Structure and listing of programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, N. R.; Ebbeler, D. H.; Newlin, L. E.; Sutharshana, S.; Creager, M.

    1992-01-01

    An improved methodology for quantitatively evaluating failure risk of spaceflight systems to assess flight readiness and identify risk control measures is presented. This methodology, called Probabilistic Failure Assessment (PFA), combines operating experience from tests and flights with engineering analysis to estimate failure risk. The PFA methodology is of particular value when information on which to base an assessment of failure risk, including test experience and knowledge of parameters used in engineering analyses of failure phenomena, is expensive or difficult to acquire. The PFA methodology is a prescribed statistical structure in which engineering analysis models that characterize failure phenomena are used conjointly with uncertainties about analysis parameters and/or modeling accuracy to estimate failure probability distributions for specific failure modes. These distributions can then be modified, by means of statistical procedures of the PFA methodology, to reflect any test or flight experience. Conventional engineering analysis models currently employed for design of failure prediction are used in this methodology. The PFA methodology is described and examples of its application are presented. Conventional approaches to failure risk evaluation for spaceflight systems are discussed, and the rationale for the approach taken in the PFA methodology is presented. The statistical methods, engineering models, and computer software used in fatigue failure mode applications are thoroughly documented.

  14. Evaluation of coated columbium alloy heat shields for space shuttle thermal protection system application. Volume 2, phase 2: Subsize heat shield and small size TPS evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, W. E.

    1973-01-01

    Initially a trade study was conducted of seven heat shield configurations. These were evaluated for structural reliability, fabricability, weight, inspectability, and refurbishability. Two concepts, a tee-stiffened and an open corrugation, were selected as offering the most potential for system success. Fourteen subsize heat shields of a full scale section were fabricated from C-129Y and Cb-752 and silicide coated with R-512E. These subsize panels were subjected to a simulated flight profile representing temperature, local surface pressures, and applied pressure differential loads. All corrugated panels of both alloys sustained 100 cycles without structural or coating failure. All Cb-752/R-512E panels performed well with one panel being successfully repaired after 66 cycles and completing 100 cycles. As a result of this evaluating the Cb-752/R-512E system was selected for hardware application during the subsequent phases. In addition, the tee-stiffened configuration was selected for further development and application in Phase III. This selection was based on an overall assessment of relative weight, cost, and structural performance of the tee-stiffened and open corrugation TPS.

  15. Development and application of optimal design capability for coal gasification systems - Task 1 (Volume 1, 2 and 3). Topical report, July 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is a process for the post-combustion removal of NO{sub x} from the flue gas of fossil-fuel-fired power plants. SCR is capable of NO{sub x} reduction efficiencies of up to 80 or 90 percent. SCR technology has been applied for treatment of flue gases from a variety of emission sources, including natural gas- and oil-fired gas turbines, process steam boilers in refineries, and coal-fired power plants. SCR applications to coal-fired power plants have occurred in Japan and Germany. Full-scale SCR systems have not been applied to coal-fired power plants in the U.S., although there have been small-scale demonstration projects. SCR has become increasingly widely applied in the U.S. to natural-gas fired gas turbine combined cycle systems. In the remainder of this section, we review the applicability of SCR, as well as the need for post-combustion NO{sub x} control, for several power generation systems.

  16. The volume change during solidification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rittich, M.

    1985-01-01

    The liquid-solid phase transformation of solidifying metallic melts is accompanied by a volume change Delta-Vm. This volume change produces a gravity-independent microscopic flow near the solidification front. In a ground-based laboratory, solidification processes are also affected by convection due to temperature and concentration gradients. A quantitative evaluation of the effects of these flows on the formation of structure requires reproducible values of Delta-Vm. Alloys with Delta-Vm = 0 would be best suited for such an evaluation, while alloys with a constant value for Delta-Vm are still usable. Another requirement is related to a solidus-liquidus interval which is as small as possible. One-phase alloys, which would be particularly well suited, could not be found. For these reasons, alloys which solidify in two phases, as for example eutectics, have been considered, taking into account the Al-Ge system. Attention is given to the volume change at the melting point, the measurement of this change, the volume change at solidification, and applications to terrestrial technology.

  17. Extension of a dynamic headspace multi-volatile method to milliliter injection volumes with full sample evaporation: Application to green tea.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Nobuo; Sasamoto, Kikuo; Tsunokawa, Jun; Hoffmann, Andreas; Okanoya, Kazunori; MacNamara, Kevin

    2015-11-20

    An extension of multi-volatile method (MVM) technology using the combination of a standard dynamic headspace (DHS) configuration, and a modified DHS configuration incorporating an additional vacuum module, was developed for milliliter injection volume of aqueous sample with full sample evaporation. A prior step involved investigation of water management by weighing of the water residue in the adsorbent trap. The extended MVM for 1 mL aqueous sample consists of five different DHS method parameter sets including choice of the replaceable adsorbent trap. An initial two DHS sampling sets at 25°C with the standard DHS configuration using a carbon-based adsorbent trap target very volatile solutes with high vapor pressure (>10 kPa) and volatile solutes with moderate vapor pressure (1-10 kPa). Subsequent three DHS sampling sets at 80°C with the modified DHS configuration using a Tenax TA trap target solutes with low vapor pressure (<1 kPa) and/or hydrophilic characteristics. After the five sequential DHS samplings using the same HS vial, the five traps are sequentially desorbed with thermal desorption in reverse order of the DHS sampling and the desorbed compounds are trapped and concentrated in a programmed temperature vaporizing (PTV) inlet and subsequently analyzed in a single GC-MS run. Recoveries of 21 test aroma compounds in 1 mL water for each separate DHS sampling and the combined MVM procedure were evaluated as a function of vapor pressure in the range of 0.000088-120 kPa. The MVM procedure provided high recoveries (>88%) for 17 test aroma compounds and moderate recoveries (44-71%) for 4 test compounds. The method showed good linearity (r(2)>0.9913) and high sensitivity (limit of detection: 0.1-0.5 ng mL(-1)) even with MS scan mode. The improved sensitivity of the method was demonstrated with analysis of a wide variety of aroma compounds in brewed green tea. Compared to the original 100 μL MVM procedure, this extension to 1 mL MVM allowed detection of nearly

  18. Development of a plume-in-grid model for industrial point and volume sources: application to power plant and refinery sources in the Paris region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Seigneur, C.; Duclaux, O.

    2013-11-01

    Plume-in-grid (PinG) models incorporating a host Eulerian model and a subgrid-scale model (usually a Gaussian plume or puff model) have been used for the simulations of stack emissions (e.g., fossil fuel-fired power plants and cement plants) for gaseous and particulate species such as nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), particulate matter (PM) and mercury (Hg). Here, we describe the extension of a PinG model to study the impact of an oil refinery where volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions can be important. The model is based on a reactive PinG model for ozone (O3), which incorporates a three-dimensional (3-D) Eulerian model and a Gaussian puff model. The model is extended to treat PM, with treatments of aerosol chemistry, particle size distribution, and the formation of secondary aerosols, which are consistent in both the 3-D Eulerian host model and the Gaussian puff model. Furthermore, the PinG model is extended to include the treatment of volume sources to simulate fugitive VOC emissions. The new PinG model is evaluated over Greater Paris during July 2009. Model performance is satisfactory for O3, PM2.5 and most PM2.5 components. Two industrial sources, a coal-fired power plant and an oil refinery, are simulated with the PinG model. The characteristics of the sources (stack height and diameter, exhaust temperature and velocity) govern the surface concentrations of primary pollutants (NOx, SO2 and VOC). O3 concentrations are impacted differently near the power plant than near the refinery, because of the presence of VOC emissions at the latter. The formation of sulfate is influenced by both the dispersion of SO2 and the oxidant concentration; however, the former tends to dominate in the simulations presented here. The impact of PinG modeling on the formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) is small and results mostly from the effect of different oxidant concentrations on biogenic SOA formation. The investigation of the criteria for injecting

  19. Development of a plume-in-grid model for industrial point and volume sources: application to power plant and refinery sources in the Paris region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Seigneur, C.; Duclaux, O.

    2014-04-01

    Plume-in-grid (PinG) models incorporating a host Eulerian model and a subgrid-scale model (usually a Gaussian plume or puff model) have been used for the simulations of stack emissions (e.g., fossil fuel-fired power plants and cement plants) for gaseous and particulate species such as nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), particulate matter (PM) and mercury (Hg). Here, we describe the extension of a PinG model to study the impact of an oil refinery where volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions can be important. The model is based on a reactive PinG model for ozone (O3), which incorporates a three-dimensional (3-D) Eulerian model and a Gaussian puff model. The model is extended to treat PM, with treatments of aerosol chemistry, particle size distribution, and the formation of secondary aerosols, which are consistent in both the 3-D Eulerian host model and the Gaussian puff model. Furthermore, the PinG model is extended to include the treatment of volume sources to simulate fugitive VOC emissions. The new PinG model is evaluated over Greater Paris during July 2009. Model performance is satisfactory for O3, PM2.5 and most PM2.5 components. Two industrial sources, a coal-fired power plant and an oil refinery, are simulated with the PinG model. The characteristics of the sources (stack height and diameter, exhaust temperature and velocity) govern the surface concentrations of primary pollutants (NOx, SO2 and VOC). O3 concentrations are impacted differently near the power plant than near the refinery, because of the presence of VOC emissions at the latter. The formation of sulfate is influenced by both the dispersion of SO2 and the oxidant concentration; however, the former tends to dominate in the simulations presented here. The impact of PinG modeling on the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is small and results mostly from the effect of different oxidant concentrations on biogenic SOA formation. The investigation of the criteria for injecting

  20. 49th JANNAF Propulsion Meeting. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eggleston, Debra S. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    This volume, the first of three volumes, is a collection of 15 unclassified/unlimited-distribution papers which were presented at the 49,h Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) Propulsion Meeting, held 14-16 December 1999 at the Sheraton El Conquistador Resort in Tucson, Arizona. Specific subjects discussed include solid propellants; solid propellant ingredients, hazards, and demilitarization/disposal; composite materials used in propulsion applications; and sensors.

  1. Optimizing Crystal Volume for Neutron Diffraction Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snell, E. H.

    2003-01-01

    For structural studies with neutron diffraction more intense neutron sources, improved sensitivity detector and larger volume crystals are all means by which the science is being advanced to enable studies on a wider range of samples. We have chosen a simplistic approach using a well understood crystallization method, with minimal amounts of sample and using design of experiment techniques to maximize the crystal volume all for minimum effort. Examples of the application are given.

  2. Command History, 1970. Volume 1. Sanitized

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1970-01-01

    Lo REGSTR____ LL) 0ý10 COMANIS TORY & ...,.<VOLUME I copy Nio, 86_-OF 150 COPIES ~tL~ D FT~ ’~ LMACV S 000 570-71 hip ~mdsm mewk ast;* HEADQUARTERS...programs, or the reader has been referred to the applicable volume of previous MACV Command Histories. Additional information on subjects discussed in the...VII.3Z2 UNCLASSIFIED xlv Bak ru d . . . . . . . .. .NI• UNCLASSIFIED Chapter Page TRAINING ....................... ....................... VII-33

  3. A plan for application system verification tests: The value of improved meteorological information, volume 1. [economic consequences of improved meteorological information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The framework within which the Applications Systems Verification Tests (ASVTs) are performed and the economic consequences of improved meteorological information demonstrated is described. This framework considers the impact of improved information on decision processes, the data needs to demonstrate the economic impact of the improved information, the data availability, the methodology for determining and analyzing the collected data and demonstrating the economic impact of the improved information, and the possible methods of data collection. Three ASVTs are considered and program outlines and plans are developed for performing experiments to demonstrate the economic consequences of improved meteorological information. The ASVTs are concerned with the citrus crop in Florida, the cotton crop in Mississippi and a group of diverse crops in Oregon. The program outlines and plans include schedules, manpower estimates and funding requirements.

  4. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project. ACT/Control/Guidance System study, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The active control technology (ACT) control/guidance system task of the integrated application of active controls (IAAC) technology project within the NASA energy efficient transport program was documented. The air traffic environment of navigation and air traffic control systems and procedures were extrapolated. An approach to listing flight functions which will be performed by systems and crew of an ACT configured airplane of the 1990s, and a determination of function criticalities to safety of flight, are the basis of candidate integrated ACT/Control/Guidance System architecture. The system mechanizes five active control functions: pitch augmented stability, angle of attack limiting, lateral/directional augmented stability, gust load alleviation, and maneuver load control. The scope and requirements of a program for simulating the integrated ACT avionics and flight deck system, with pilot in the loop, are defined, system and crew interface elements are simulated, and mechanization is recommended. Relationships between system design and crew roles and procedures are evaluated.

  5. Draft Title 40 CFR 191 compliance certification application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Volume 9: Appendices RM, SCR, SER, SUM, WRAC

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-31

    The Rock Mechanics Program is important to the establishment of a radioactive waste repository in salt because rock mechanics deals with the prediction of creep closure and eventual encapsulation of the waste. The intent of this paper is to give the current status of the program. This program consists of three major modeling efforts: continuum creep, fracture, and the disturbed rock zone. These models, together with laboratory material parameters, plastic flow potentials, initial and boundary input data, and other peripheral information forms the predictive technology. The extent to which the predictive technology is validated against in situ test data adds certainty to the method. Application of the technology is through simulations of the test results, design, or performance using numerical codes. In summary, the predictive capabilities are technically sound and reasonable. The current status of the program is that which would be advanced for compliance.

  6. Finite-volume scheme for anisotropic diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Es, Bram van; Koren, Barry; Blank, Hugo J. de

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we apply a special finite-volume scheme, limited to smooth temperature distributions and Cartesian grids, to test the importance of connectivity of the finite volumes. The area of application is nuclear fusion plasma with field line aligned temperature gradients and extreme anisotropy. We apply the scheme to the anisotropic heat-conduction equation, and compare its results with those of existing finite-volume schemes for anisotropic diffusion. Also, we introduce a general model adaptation of the steady diffusion equation for extremely anisotropic diffusion problems with closed field lines.

  7. Finite volume hydromechanical simulation in porous media

    PubMed Central

    Nordbotten, Jan Martin

    2014-01-01

    Cell-centered finite volume methods are prevailing in numerical simulation of flow in porous media. However, due to the lack of cell-centered finite volume methods for mechanics, coupled flow and deformation is usually treated either by coupled finite-volume-finite element discretizations, or within a finite element setting. The former approach is unfavorable as it introduces two separate grid structures, while the latter approach loses the advantages of finite volume methods for the flow equation. Recently, we proposed a cell-centered finite volume method for elasticity. Herein, we explore the applicability of this novel method to provide a compatible finite volume discretization for coupled hydromechanic flows in porous media. We detail in particular the issue of coupling terms, and show how this is naturally handled. Furthermore, we observe how the cell-centered finite volume framework naturally allows for modeling fractured and fracturing porous media through internal boundary conditions. We support the discussion with a set of numerical examples: the convergence properties of the coupled scheme are first investigated; second, we illustrate the practical applicability of the method both for fractured and heterogeneous media. PMID:25574061

  8. Finite volume hydromechanical simulation in porous media.

    PubMed

    Nordbotten, Jan Martin

    2014-05-01

    Cell-centered finite volume methods are prevailing in numerical simulation of flow in porous media. However, due to the lack of cell-centered finite volume methods for mechanics, coupled flow and deformation is usually treated either by coupled finite-volume-finite element discretizations, or within a finite element setting. The former approach is unfavorable as it introduces two separate grid structures, while the latter approach loses the advantages of finite volume methods for the flow equation. Recently, we proposed a cell-centered finite volume method for elasticity. Herein, we explore the applicability of this novel method to provide a compatible finite volume discretization for coupled hydromechanic flows in porous media. We detail in particular the issue of coupling terms, and show how this is naturally handled. Furthermore, we observe how the cell-centered finite volume framework naturally allows for modeling fractured and fracturing porous media through internal boundary conditions. We support the discussion with a set of numerical examples: the convergence properties of the coupled scheme are first investigated; second, we illustrate the practical applicability of the method both for fractured and heterogeneous media.

  9. Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Arthur M.

    1986-07-01

    Economic incentives have spurred numerous applications of genetically engineered organisms in manufacture of pharmaceuticals and industrial chemicals. These successes, involving a variety of methods of genetic manipulation, have dispelled early fears that genetic engineering could not be handled safely, even in the laboratory. Consequently, the potential for applications in the wider environment without physical containment is being considered for agriculture, mining, pollution control, and pest control. These proposed applications range from modest extensions of current plant breeding techniques for new disease-resistant species to radical combinations of organisms (for example, nitrogen-fixing corn plants). These applications raise concerns about potential ecological impacts (see chapter 5), largely because of adverse experiences with both deliberate and inadvertent introductions of nonindigenous species.

  10. Waste minimization handbook, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Boing, L.E.; Coffey, M.J.

    1995-12-01

    This technical guide presents various methods used by industry to minimize low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated during decommissioning and decontamination (D and D) activities. Such activities generate significant amounts of LLW during their operations. Waste minimization refers to any measure, procedure, or technique that reduces the amount of waste generated during a specific operation or project. Preventive waste minimization techniques implemented when a project is initiated can significantly reduce waste. Techniques implemented during decontamination activities reduce the cost of decommissioning. The application of waste minimization techniques is not limited to D and D activities; it is also useful during any phase of a facility`s life cycle. This compendium will be supplemented with a second volume of abstracts of hundreds of papers related to minimizing low-level nuclear waste. This second volume is expected to be released in late 1996.

  11. Application of matched asymptotic expansions to lunar and interplanetary trajectories. Volume 2: Derivations of second-order asymptotic boundary value solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lancaster, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    Previously published asymptotic solutions for lunar and interplanetery trajectories have been modified and combined to formulate a general analytical solution to the problem of N-bodies. The earlier first-order solutions, derived by the method of matched asymptotic expansions, have been extended to second order for the purpose of obtaining increased accuracy. The complete derivation of the second-order solution, including the application of a regorous matching principle, is given. It is shown that the outer and inner expansions can be matched in a region of order mu to the alpha power, where 2/5 alpha 1/2, and mu (the moon/earth or planet/sun mass ratio) is much less than one. The second-order asymptotic solution has been used as a basis for formulating a number of analytical two-point boundary value solutions. These include earth-to-moon, one- and two-impulse moon-to-Earth, and interplanetary solutions. Each is presented as an explicit analytical solution which does not require iterative steps to satisfy the boundary conditions. The complete derivation of each solution is shown, as well as instructions for numerical evaluation. For Vol. 1, see N73-27738.

  12. Applications of thin-film multilayered structures to figured X-ray optics; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, August 20-22, 1985. Volume 563

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, G.F.

    1985-01-01

    Papers are presented on a sputter deposition system for controlled fabrication of multilayers, space qualification of multilayered optics, the development of single and multilayered Wolter X-ray microscopes, and an X-ray microscope using multilayer optics with a laser-produced plasma source. Also considered are multilayer mirrors as X-ray filters for slit scan radiography, a structural study of multiayered vanadium/nickel superlattices, synchrotron based measurements of the soft X-ray performance of thin film multilayer structures, and measurement of multilayer mirror reflectivity and stimulated emission in the XUV spectral region. Other topics include the construction of a multilayered telescope for solar coronal studies from space, layered synthetic microstructures for solar EUV telescopes, multilayers on flexible mica, and LSM-based X-ray diagnostics for magnetic fusion energy applications. Papers are also presented on multilayer structures for X-ray laser cavities, layered synthetic microstructures for long wavelength X-ray spectrometry, the performance of an LSM spectrogoniometer for characteristic X-ray lines, and measurements of surface roughness transducers at angstrom levels using X-ray interferometry.

  13. Design and development of Stirling engines for stationary power generation applications in the 500 to 3000 horsepower range. Volume 1. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available,

    1980-09-15

    This project was Phase I of a multiphased program for the design and development of Stirling engines for stationary power generation applications in the 500 to 3000 horsepower range. Phase I comprised the conceptual design and associated cost estimates of a stationary Stirling engine capable of being fueled by a variety of heat sources, with emphasis on coal firing, followed by the preparation of a plan for implementing the design, fabrication and testing of a demonstration engine by 1985. The development and evaluation of conceptual designs have been separated into two broad categories: the A designs which represent the present state-of-the-art and which are demonstrable by 1985 with minimum technical risk; and the B designs which involve advanced technology and therefore would require significant research and development prior to demonstration and commercialization, but which may ultimately offer advantages in terms of lower cost, better performance, or higher reliability. The majority of the effort in Phase I was devoted to the A designs.

  14. Precision volume measurement system.

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Erin E.; Shugard, Andrew D.

    2004-11-01

    A new precision volume measurement system based on a Kansas City Plant (KCP) design was built to support the volume measurement needs of the Gas Transfer Systems (GTS) department at Sandia National Labs (SNL) in California. An engineering study was undertaken to verify or refute KCP's claims of 0.5% accuracy. The study assesses the accuracy and precision of the system. The system uses the ideal gas law and precise pressure measurements (of low-pressure helium) in a temperature and computer controlled environment to ratio a known volume to an unknown volume.

  15. Design optimization in underground coal systems. Volume VIII. The roof truss: an analysis with applications to mine design. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-28

    The purpose of this research effort was to optimize the application of the roof truss for use in supporting coal mine roofs. Model analysis using two-dimensinal, body-loaded, photoelastic models was supplemented with field data and testing. A detailed literature review was also undertaken. The detailed analysis of photoelastic models of roof trusses was pursued by varying a number of the truss parameters - center-span installation angles and blocking-point configuration. In obtaining reduced deflection, the best support was achieved employing an angle of installation of 90/sup 0/. However, due to roof failute considerations, the recommended angle of installation was 45/sup 0/. Blocking points were shown to have an effect on roof-support capacity as well as truss span, and field tests indicated that the installation of a roof truss actually raised the roof. Also, from field measurements, it was shown that all sections of the arch carried the same load. The use of the roof truss as a major support principle and device in underground coal mines was confined. The installation angle should be 45/sup 0/ in any specified roof span. Blocking is an essential part of the arch installation and should be carefully implemented to insure maximum efficiency of the arch. It was concluded that: the truss installation of 45/sup 0/ produces maximum benefit when the overall stability of the roof is considered; the two-dimensional, body-loaded photoelastic model may be used to analyze underground structures; in underground installations, all components of the roof truss structure sustain the same load; and uplift of the roof may be achieved during installation of the roof truss system.

  16. Anatomical Volume Visualization with Weighted Distance Fields.

    PubMed

    Kerwin, Thomas; Hittle, Brad; Shen, Han-Wei; Stredney, Don; Wiet, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    We describe the use of the weighted distance transform (WDT) to enhance applications designed for volume visualization of segmented anatomical datasets. The WDT is presented as a general technique to generate a derived characteristic of a scalar field that can be used in multiple ways during rendering. We obtain real-time interaction with the volume by calculating the WDT on the graphics card. Several examples of this technique as it applies to an application for teaching anatomical structures are detailed, including rendering embedded structures, fuzzy boundaries, outlining, and indirect lighting estimation.

  17. [Innovation in gynaecological brachytherapy: new technologies, pulse dose-rate brachytherapy, image, definition of new volumes of interest and their impact on dosimetry: application in a clinical research programme "STIC"].

    PubMed

    Haie-Meder, C; Peiffert, D

    2006-11-01

    Brachytherapy plays a fundamental role in the therapeutic approach of patients with stage I-IV cervical carcinoma. Technical modalities have evolved during the last decades: stepping source technology, imaging modalities development, specially IMN, treatment planning system integrating 3D images. Images from CT-Scan and MRI have contributed to a better knowledge of tumoral extension and critical organs. CT and/or MRI compatible applicators allow a sectional image based approach with a better definition of tumour volume compared to traditional approaches. The introduction of 3D image based approach for GTV and CTV requires new definitions and a common language. In 2000, a working group within GEC-ESTRO was created to support 3D image based 3D treatment planning approach in cervix cancer BT. The task was to determine a common terminology enabling various groups to use a common language. Recommendations were described and proposed based on clinical experience and dosimetric concepts of different institutions. Two CTVs were described en relation to the risk for recurrence: high-risk CTV and intermediate risk CTV. In order to better define the role of such definitions and their potential impact on the complication incidence in patients with cervical cancer, a special French programme was developed. The aim of this programme is to study the incidence of the severe 2-year complication rate in two comparable patient populations: one population is treated using PDR brachytherapy with CT-Scan or MRI with the applicators in place allowing a 3D dosimetry with optimization, the second population is treated using standard X-rays radiographs without any delineation of the target nor optimisation. Each population arm includes 425 patients. A medicoeconomic assessment is performed, allowing a real cost of the most sophisticated approach compared to a historical dosimetric system.

  18. Advanced space system concepts and their orbital support needs (1980 - 2000). Volume 4: Detailed data. Part 2: Program plans and common support needs (a study of the commonality of space vehicle applications to future national needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bekey, I.; Mayer, H. L.; Wolfe, M. G.

    1976-01-01

    The methodology of alternate world future scenarios is utilized for selecting a plausible, though not advocated, set of future scenarios each of which results in a program plan appropriate for the respective environment. Each such program plan gives rise to different building block and technology requirements, which are analyzed for common need between the NASA and the DoD for each of the alternate world scenarios. An essentially invariant set of system, building block, and technology development plans is presented at the conclusion, intended to allow protection of most of the options for system concepts regardless of what the actual future world environment turns out to be. Thus, building block and technology needs are derived which support: (1) each specific world scenario; (2) all the world scenarios identified in this study; or (3) generalized scenarios applicable to almost any future environment. The output included in this volume consists of the building blocks, i.e.: transportation vehicles, orbital support vehicles, and orbital support facilities; the technology required to support the program plans; identification of their features which could support the DoD and NASA in common; and a complete discussion of the planning methodology.

  19. Solar cell array design handbook, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauschenbach, H. S.

    1976-01-01

    Twelve chapters discuss the following: historical developments, the environment and its effects, solar cells, solar cell filters and covers, solar cell and other electrical interconnections, blocking and shunt diodes, substrates and deployment mechanisms, material properties, design synthesis and optimization, design analysis, procurement, production and cost aspects, evaluation and test, orbital performance, and illustrative design examples. A comprehensive index permits rapid locating of desired topics. The handbook consists of two volumes: Volume 1 is of an expository nature while Volume 2 contains detailed design data in an appendix-like fashion. Volume 2 includes solar cell performance data, applicable unit conversion factors and physical constants, and mechanical, electrical, thermal optical, magnetic, and outgassing material properties. Extensive references are provided.

  20. Stratified volume diffractive optical elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, Diana Marie

    2000-11-01

    Gratings with high diffraction efficiency into a single order find use in applications ranging from optical interconnects to beam steering. Such gratings have been realized with volume holographic, blazed, and diffractive optical techniques. However, each of these methods has limitations that restrict the range of applications in which they can be used. In this work an alternate, novel approach and method for creating high efficiency gratings has been developed. These new gratings are named stratified volume diffractive optical elements (SVDOE's). In this approach diffractive optic techniques are used to create an optical structure that emulates volume grating behavior. An SVDOE consists of binary gratings interleaved with homogeneous layers in a multi-layer, stratified grating structure. The ridges of the binary gratings form fringe planes analogous to those of a volume hologram. The modulation and diffraction of an incident beam, which occur concurrently in a volume grating, are achieved sequentially by the grating layers and the homogeneous layers, respectively. The layers in this type of structure must be fabricated individually, which introduces the capability to laterally shift the binary grating layers relative to one another to create a grating with slanted fringe planes. This allows an element to be designed with high diffraction efficiency into the first order for any arbitrary angle of incidence. A systematic design process has been developed for SVDOE's. Optimum modulation depth of the SVDOE is determined analytically and the number of grating layers along with the thickness of homogeneous layers is determined by numerical simulation. A rigorous electromagnetic simulation of the diffraction properties of multi-layer grating structures, based on the Rigorous Coupled-Wave Analysis (RCWA) algorithm, was developed and applied to SVDOE performance prediction. Fabrication of an SVDOE structure presents unique challenges. Microfabrication combined with

  1. Unsteady flow volumes

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, B.G.; Lane, D.A.; Max, N.L.

    1995-03-01

    Flow volumes are extended for use in unsteady (time-dependent) flows. The resulting unsteady flow volumes are the 3 dimensional analog of streamlines. There are few examples where methods other than particle tracing have been used to visualize time varying flows. Since particle paths can become convoluted in time there are additional considerations to be made when extending any visualization technique to unsteady flows. We will present some solutions to the problems which occur in subdivision, rendering, and system design. We will apply the unsteady flow volumes to a variety of field types including moving multi-zoned curvilinear grids.

  2. The GPS Space Service Volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, F. H.; Moreau, M. C.; Dahle-Melsaether, M. E.; Petrofski, W. P.; Stanton, B. J.; Thomason, S.; Harris, G. A.; Sena, R. P.; Temple, L. Parker, III

    2006-01-01

    Prior to the advent of artificial satellites, the concept of navigating in space and the desire to understand and validate the laws of planetary and satellite motion dates back centuries. At the initiation of orbital flight in 1957, space navigation was dominated by inertial and groundbased tracking methods, underpinned by the laws of planetary motion. It was early in the 1980s that GPS was first explored as a system useful for refining the position, velocity, and timing (PVT) of other spacecraft equipped with GPS receivers. As a result, an entirely new GPS utility was developed beyond its original purpose of providing PVT services for land, maritime, and air applications. Spacecraft both above and below the GPS constellation now receive the GPS signals, including the signals that spill over the limb of the Earth. The use of radionavigation satellite services for space navigation in High Earth Orbits is in fact a capability unique to GPS. Support to GPS space applications is being studied and planned as an important improvement to GPS. This paper discusses the formalization of PVT services in space as part of an overall GPS improvement effort. It describes the GPS Space Service Volume (SSV) and compares it to the Terrestrial Service Volume (TSV). It also discusses SSV coverage with the current GPS constellation, coverage characteristics as a function of altitude, expected power levels, and coverage figures of merit.

  3. NASA Propulsion Engineering Research Center, Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is the second volume in the 1994 annual report for the NASA Propulsion Engineering Research Center's Sixth Annual Symposium. This conference covered: (1) Combustors and Nozzles; (2) Turbomachinery Aero- and Hydro-dynamics; (3) On-board Propulsion systems; (4) Advanced Propulsion Applications; (5) Vaporization and Combustion; (6) Heat Transfer and Fluid Mechanics; and (7) Atomization and Sprays.

  4. Mathematics and Sports. Mathematical World. Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadovskii, L. E.; Sadovskii, A. L.

    This volume contains some examples of mathematical applications in sports. Sports discussed include tennis, figure skating, gymnastics, track and field, soccer, skiing, hockey, and swimming. Problems and situations are posed and answers with thorough explanations are provided. Chapters include: (1) Mathematics and Sports; (2) What Is Applied…

  5. Practical Nursing, Volume I. Health Occupations Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Helen W.; And Others

    This curriculum guide provides teachers with up-to-date information and skill-related applications needed by the practical nurse. The volume contains three sections and 24 instructional units: Personal Vocational Relationships (6 units), Nutrition (3 units), and Basic Nursing Principles and Applied Skills (15 units covering such topics as…

  6. First CLIPS Conference Proceedings, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The topics of volume 2 of First CLIPS Conference are associated with following applications: quality control; intelligent data bases and networks; Space Station Freedom; Space Shuttle and satellite; user interface; artificial neural systems and fuzzy logic; parallel and distributed processing; enchancements to CLIPS; aerospace; simulation and defense; advisory systems and tutors; and intelligent control.

  7. Stereometric body volume measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herron, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    The following studies are reported: (1) effects of extended space flight on body form of Skylab astronauts using biostereometrics; (2) comparison of body volume determinations using hydrostatic weighing and biostereometrics; and (3) training of technicians in biostereometric principles and procedures.

  8. Environmental chemistry: Volume A

    SciTech Connect

    Yen, T.F.

    1999-08-01

    This is an extensive introduction to environmental chemistry for engineering and chemical professionals. The contents of Volume A include a brief review of basic chemistry prior to coverage of litho, atmo, hydro, pedo, and biospheres.

  9. IR Activities. IR Applications, Volume 12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Stephen; Gerek, Mary Louise

    2007-01-01

    Institutional research is the sum total of all activities directed at describing the full spectrum of functions (educational, administrative, and support) occurring within a college or university. Institutional research activities examine those functions in their broadest definitions, and embrace data collection and analytical strategies in…

  10. Applications of remote sensing, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landgrebe, D. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ECHO successfully exploits the redundancy of states characteristics of sampled imagery of ground scenes to achieve better classification accuracy, reduce the number of classifications required, and reduce the variability of classification results. The information required to produce ECHO classifications are cell size, cell homogeneity, cell-to-field annexation parameters, input data, and a class conditional marginal density statistics deck.

  11. Combustion Diagnostic Development and Application. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    the visible flame surface. Entrainment of air is another important effect of the outer vortex structures. As the vor- lices rotate, they entrain air...to the turbulent case by conceptualizing the flame surface as wrinkled and stretched. In this school of thought, the turbulent flame is represented by...included angle of 90 deg. The fuel was propane flowing at 41 Ipm , and the iotal air-flow rate was 1514 pm (air-to-fuel ratio of 23.68). Alumina parti- cles

  12. Applications of remote sensing, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landgrebe, D. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Of the four change detection techniques (post classification comparison, delta data, spectral/temporal, and layered spectral temporal), the post classification comparison was selected for further development. This was based upon test performances of the four change detection method, straightforwardness of the procedures, and the output products desired. A standardized modified, supervised classification procedure for analyzing the Texas coastal zone data was compiled. This procedure was developed in order that all quadrangles in the study are would be classified using similar analysis techniques to allow for meaningful comparisons and evaluations of the classifications.

  13. Nanocomposites for Electronic Applications. Volume 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-14

    a pyrochlore phase). It is not possible to distinguish between these two mechanisms on the basis of the SE data and both may be operative. Similarly...although it is likely that a pyrochlore phase was formed during these lower temperature anneals (at least for the film on Pt-coated Si), this could...processes involving diffusion. Thus, in ferroelectric films elimination of excess PbO, reaction with the substrate, crystallization of either the pyrochlore

  14. Combustion Diagnostic Development and Application. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    lasers. The OLD technique is Illustrated in Figure 24. The output from the XeCI laser is focused to a line on a titanium or titanium- alloy wire, which...Velocimetry, vol. 2, pp. The ability of the CARS/LDA system to examine bias 471-476. (eds. Thompson, H. D., Stevenson, W. H.) Purdue University errors...sooty combustion work environs-environs affording 112 is preferably fabricated as an aluminum oxide film, less than ideal temperature measuring

  15. Turbine Design and Application, Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glassman, A. J. (Editor)

    1975-01-01

    Turbine technology concepts for thermodynamic and fluid dynamics are presented along with velocity diagrams, losses, mechanical design, operation and performance. Designs discussed include: supersonic turbines, radial-inflow turbines, and turbine cooling.

  16. Advances in rheology. Volume 4: Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mena, B.; Garcia-Rejon, A.; Rangel-Nafaile, C.

    1984-01-01

    This book contains over 50 selections. Some of the titles are: Rheology and mass transfer in a stationary or pulsatile two phase flow of suspended particles investigated by electrochemical techniques; The helical screw rheometer; Characterization of polymer solutions in flow through porous media; A discrete model for the recovery of oil from a reservoir; and Nonlinear creep characteristics of Devonian oil shale.

  17. Determination of gas volume trapped in a closed fluid system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, W. F.; Jolley, J. E.

    1971-01-01

    Technique involves extracting known volume of fluid and measuring system before and after extraction, volume of entrapped gas is then computed. Formula derived from ideal gas laws is basis of this method. Technique is applicable to thermodynamic cycles and hydraulic systems.

  18. Health Occupations Education. Units of Instruction. Teacher's Guide. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East Texas State Univ., Commerce. Occupational Curriculum Lab.

    This manual is the first part of a two-volume teacher's guide to a series of instructional units for use in health occupations education programs in Texas. Covered in the 10 units included in this volume are the following topics: taking and recording vital signs; job applications and interviews; grooming and personal hygiene; health careers;…

  19. 10 CFR 590.208 - Small volume exports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small volume exports. 590.208 Section 590.208 Energy... WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Applications for Authorization To Import or Export Natural Gas § 590.208 Small volume exports. Any person may export up to 100,000 cubic feet of natural...

  20. Live ultrasound volume reconstruction using scout scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Amelie; Lasso, Andras; Ungi, Tamas; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2015-03-01

    Ultrasound-guided interventions often necessitate scanning of deep-seated anatomical structures that may be hard to visualize. Visualization can be improved using reconstructed 3D ultrasound volumes. High-resolution 3D reconstruction of a large area during clinical interventions is challenging if the region of interest is unknown. We propose a two-stage scanning method allowing the user to perform quick low-resolution scouting followed by high-resolution live volume reconstruction. Scout scanning is accomplished by stacking 2D tracked ultrasound images into a low-resolution volume. Then, within a region of interest defined in the scout scan, live volume reconstruction can be performed by continuous scanning until sufficient image density is achieved. We implemented the workflow as a module of the open-source 3D Slicer application, within the SlicerIGT extension and building on the PLUS toolkit. Scout scanning is performed in a few seconds using 3 mm spacing to allow region of interest definition. Live reconstruction parameters are set to provide good image quality (0.5 mm spacing, hole filling enabled) and feedback is given during live scanning by regularly updated display of the reconstructed volume. Use of scout scanning may allow the physician to identify anatomical structures. Subsequent live volume reconstruction in a region of interest may assist in procedures such as targeting needle interventions or estimating brain shift during surgery.

  1. Sensors, Volume 1, Fundamentals and General Aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandke, Thomas; Ko, Wen H.

    1996-12-01

    'Sensors' is the first self-contained series to deal with the whole area of sensors. It describes general aspects, technical and physical fundamentals, construction, function, applications and developments of the various types of sensors. This volume deals with the fundamentals and common principles of sensors and covers the wide areas of principles, technologies, signal processing, and applications. Contents include: Sensor Fundamentals, e.g. Sensor Parameters, Modeling, Design and Packaging; Basic Sensor Technologies, e.g. Thin and Thick Films, Integrated Magnetic Sensors, Optical Fibres and Intergrated Optics, Ceramics and Oxides; Sensor Interfaces, e.g. Signal Processing, Multisensor Signal Processing, Smart Sensors, Interface Systems; Sensor Applications, e.g. Automotive: On-board Sensors, Traffic Surveillance and Control, Home Appliances, Environmental Monitoring, etc. This volume is an indispensable reference work and text book for both specialits and newcomers, researchers and developers.

  2. Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS) Volume III: Part A

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS) Volume 3A provides policies and guiding principles on the application of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methods to human health and ecological risk assessment in the EPA Superfund Program.

  3. Cerebrospinal fluid volume measurements in hydrocephalic rats.

    PubMed

    Basati, Sukhraaj; Desai, Bhargav; Alaraj, Ali; Charbel, Fady; Linninger, Andreas

    2012-10-01

    Object Experimental data about the evolution of intracranial volume and pressure in cases of hydrocephalus are limited due to the lack of available monitoring techniques. In this study, the authors validate intracranial CSF volume measurements within the lateral ventricle, while simultaneously using impedance sensors and pressure transducers in hydrocephalic animals. Methods A volume sensor was fabricated and connected to a catheter that was used as a shunt to withdraw CSF. In vitro bench-top calibration experiments were created to provide data for the animal experiments and to validate the sensors. To validate the measurement technique in a physiological system, hydrocephalus was induced in weanling rats by kaolin injection into the cisterna magna. At 28 days after induction, the sensor was implanted into the lateral ventricles. After sealing the skull using dental cement, an acute CSF drainage/infusion protocol consisting of 4 sequential phases was performed with a pump. Implant location was confirmed via radiography using intraventricular iohexol contrast administration. Results Controlled CSF shunting in vivo with hydrocephalic rats resulted in precise and accurate sensor measurements (r = 0.98). Shunting resulted in a 17.3% maximum measurement error between measured volume and actual volume as assessed by a Bland-Altman plot. A secondary outcome confirmed that both ventricular volume and intracranial pressure decreased during CSF shunting and increased during infusion. Ventricular enlargement consistent with successful hydrocephalus induction was confirmed using imaging, as well as postmortem. These results indicate that volume monitoring is feasible for clinical cases of hydrocephalus. Conclusions This work marks a departure from traditional shunting systems currently used to treat hydrocephalus. The overall clinical application is to provide alternative monitoring and treatment options for patients. Future work includes development and testing of a chronic

  4. Estimation of feline renal volume using computed tomography and ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Tyson, Reid; Logsdon, Stacy A; Werre, Stephen R; Daniel, Gregory B

    2013-01-01

    Renal volume estimation is an important parameter for clinical evaluation of kidneys and research applications. A time efficient, repeatable, and accurate method for volume estimation is required. The purpose of this study was to describe the accuracy of ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) for estimating feline renal volume. Standardized ultrasound and CT scans were acquired for kidneys of 12 cadaver cats, in situ. Ultrasound and CT multiplanar reconstructions were used to record renal length measurements that were then used to calculate volume using the prolate ellipsoid formula for volume estimation. In addition, CT studies were reconstructed at 1 mm, 5 mm, and 1 cm, and transferred to a workstation where the renal volume was calculated using the voxel count method (hand drawn regions of interest). The reference standard kidney volume was then determined ex vivo using water displacement with the Archimedes' principle. Ultrasound measurement of renal length accounted for approximately 87% of the variability in renal volume for the study population. The prolate ellipsoid formula exhibited proportional bias and underestimated renal volume by a median of 18.9%. Computed tomography volume estimates using the voxel count method with hand-traced regions of interest provided the most accurate results, with increasing accuracy for smaller voxel sizes in grossly normal kidneys (-10.1 to 0.6%). Findings from this study supported the use of CT and the voxel count method for estimating feline renal volume in future clinical and research studies.

  5. Aperiodic Volume Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerke, Tim D.

    Presented in this thesis is an investigation into aperiodic volume optical devices. The three main topics of research and discussion are the aperiodic volume optical devices that we call computer-generated volume holograms (CGVH), defects within periodic 3D photonic crystals, and non-periodic, but ordered 3D quasicrystals. The first of these devices, CGVHs, are designed and investigated numerically and experimentally. We study the performance of multi-layered amplitude computer-generated volume holograms in terms of efficiency and angular/frequency selectivity. Simulation results show that such aperiodic devices can increase diffraction efficiency relative to periodic amplitude volume holograms while maintaining angular and wavelength selectivity. CGVHs are also designed as voxelated volumes using a new projection optimization algorithm. They are investigated using a volumetric diffraction simulation and a standard 3D beam propagation technique as well as experimentally. Both simulation and experiment verify that the structures function according to their design. These represent the first diffractive structures that have the capacity for generating arbitrary transmission and reflection wave fronts and that provide the ability for multiplexing arbitrary functionality given different illumination conditions. Also investigated and discussed in this thesis are 3D photonic crystals and quasicrystals. We demonstrate that these devices can be fabricated using a femtosecond laser direct writing system that is particularly appropriate for fabrication of such arbitrary 3D structures. We also show that these devices can provide 3D partial bandgaps which could become complete bandgaps if fabricated using high index materials or by coating lower index materials with high index metals. Our fabrication method is particularly suited to the fabrication of engineered defects within the periodic or quasi-periodic systems. We demonstrate the potential for fabricating defects within

  6. OMAE 1994. Volume 3: Materials Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Salama, M.M.; Toyoda, Masao; Lui, S.; Dos Santos, J.F.; Kocak, M.; Patterson, E.A.; Berge, S.

    1994-12-31

    The International Symposium on Offshore and Arctic Materials Technology of the OMAE Conference continues to serve as a major forum for researchers, engineers, manufacturers, and fabricators to share recent advances, discuss problems, and identify challenges associated with materials application in the offshore industry. This volume discusses recent advances in several areas that are important for offshore and arctic development and operations with emphasis on fatigue and fracture control, weld metal and HAZ properties, underwater welding, elastomers and composites, and recent advances in high strength steel and welding technology. Additional materials papers are presented in the proceedings on Reliability (Volume 2) and the proceedings on Pipeline (Volume 5). Forty nine papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  7. Extending the imaging volume for biometric iris recognition.

    PubMed

    Narayanswamy, Ramkumar; Johnson, Gregory E; Silveira, Paulo E X; Wach, Hans B

    2005-02-10

    The use of the human iris as a biometric has recently attracted significant interest in the area of security applications. The need to capture an iris without active user cooperation places demands on the optical system. Unlike a traditional optical design, in which a large imaging volume is traded off for diminished imaging resolution and capacity for collecting light, Wavefront Coded imaging is a computational imaging technology capable of expanding the imaging volume while maintaining an accurate and robust iris identification capability. We apply Wavefront Coded imaging to extend the imaging volume of the iris recognition application.

  8. Extending the imaging volume for biometric iris recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanswamy, Ramkumar; Johnson, Gregory E.; Silveira, Paulo E. X.; Wach, Hans B.

    2005-02-01

    The use of the human iris as a biometric has recently attracted significant interest in the area of security applications. The need to capture an iris without active user cooperation places demands on the optical system. Unlike a traditional optical design, in which a large imaging volume is traded off for diminished imaging resolution and capacity for collecting light, Wavefront Coded imaging is a computational imaging technology capable of expanding the imaging volume while maintaining an accurate and robust iris identification capability. We apply Wavefront Coded imaging to extend the imaging volume of the iris recognition application.

  9. Leadership Abstracts, Volume 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milliron, Mark D., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    The abstracts in this series provide brief discussions of issues related to leadership, administration, professional development, technology, and education in community colleges. Volume 10 for 1997 contains the following 12 abstracts: (1) "On Community College Renewal" (Nathan L. Hodges and Mark D. Milliron); (2) "The Community College Niche in a…

  10. Deafness Annual, Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Arthur G., Ed.

    Presented is the second of two volumes on deafness which contains 12 papers and a review of programs or grants sponsored by the federal government and other groups. Larry Stewart identifies the deaf in "A Truly Silent Minority". In the "Seven-Faces of Deafness", G. Loyd tells what deafness means to seven people. E. Mindel maintains that parents…

  11. RESEARCH ABSTRACTS, VOLUME VI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COLETTE, SISTER M.

    THIS SIXTH VOLUME OF RESEARCH ABSTRACTS PRESENTS REPORTS OF 35 RESEARCH STUDIES COMPLETED BY CANDIDATES FOR THE MASTER'S DEGREE AT THE CARDINAL STRITCH COLLEGE IN 1964. TWENTY-NINE STUDIES ARE CONCERNED WITH READING, AND SIX ARE CONCERNED WITH THE EDUCATION OF THE MENTALLY HANDICAPPED. OF THE READING STUDIES, FIVE PERTAIN TO THE JUNIOR HIGH LEVEL…

  12. FLES News, Volume 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FLES News, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Volume 8 of the newslettter for teachers of foreign language in elementary schools (FLES) features these articles: "The Teacher's Voice: Action Research in Your Classroom" (Anna Uhl Chamot); "Teacher Preparation: Using Videotapes in a Teaching Practicum" (Gisela Ernst, Kerri J. Richard); and "Hawaiian Language Immersion:…

  13. Children's Literature. Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Francelia, Ed.; Brockman, Bennett A., Ed.

    This volume applies critical literary standards to the field of children's literature in a long-range effort to improve its quality and teaching. Contributors and editors represent international scholarship in all of the humanities, as well as in the specific area of children's literature. Articles span topics from European children's literature…

  14. Strategic Plan. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to present the strategic plan and associated organizational structure that the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) will utilize to achieve the defined mission and objectives provided by NASA. Much of the information regarding the background and establishment of the NSBRI by NASA has been provided in other documentation and will not be repeated in this Strategic Plan. This Strategic Plan is presented in two volumes. Volume I (this volume) begins with an Introduction (Section 2) that provides the Institute's NASA-defined mission and objectives, and the organizational structure adopted to implement these through three Strategic Programs: Countermeasure Research; Education, Training and Outreach; and Cooperative Research and Development. These programs are described in Sections 3 to 5. Each program is presented in a similar way, using four subsections: Goals and Objectives; Current Strategies; Gaps and Modifications; and Resource Requirements. Section 6 provides the administrative infrastructure and total budget required to implement the Strategic Programs and assures that they form a single cohesive plan. This plan will ensure continued success of the Institute for the next five years. Volume II of the Strategic Plan provides an in-depth analysis of the current and future strategic programs of the 12 current NSBRI teams, including their goals, objectives, mutual interactions and schedules.

  15. New constitutive equation for the volume viscosity in fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuckerwar, Allan J.; Ash, Robert L.

    1994-01-01

    The traditional volume viscosity, Stokes' hypothesis, and acoustical relaxation are reviewed. The lossy Navier-Stokes Equation is applied to periodic (acoustic) flow, and it is shown that the traditional volume viscosity leads to a result which contradicts that describing acoustical relaxation. It is demonstrated that the addition of a second volume viscosity term to the constitutive equation, to account for pressure relaxation, resolves the conflict, and leads to a direct correspondence between the volume viscosity parameters and the acoustical relaxation parameters. The representation of volume viscosity is formulated for the case of multiple relaxations, as occur in air. Finally, an application of the new constitutive equation to a simple convective compressible flow, namely a linearly accelerating flow, demonstrates the impact of volume viscosity upon the flow and the physical conditions for which it is important.

  16. WYSIWYG (What You See is What You Get) volume visualization.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hanqi; Mao, Ningyu; Yuan, Xiaoru

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a volume visualization system that accepts direct manipulation through a sketch-based What You See Is What You Get (WYSIWYG) approach. Similar to the operations in painting applications for 2D images, in our system, a full set of tools have been developed to enable direct volume rendering manipulation of color, transparency, contrast, brightness, and other optical properties by brushing a few strokes on top of the rendered volume image. To be able to smartly identify the targeted features of the volume, our system matches the sparse sketching input with the clustered features both in image space and volume space. To achieve interactivity, both special algorithms to accelerate the input identification and feature matching have been developed and implemented in our system. Without resorting to tuning transfer function parameters, our proposed system accepts sparse stroke inputs and provides users with intuitive, flexible and effective interaction during volume data exploration and visualization.

  17. Web based brain volume calculation for magnetic resonance images.

    PubMed

    Karsch, Kevin; Grinstead, Brian; He, Qing; Duan, Ye

    2008-01-01

    Brain volume calculations are crucial in modern medical research, especially in the study of neurodevelopmental disorders. In this paper, we present an algorithm for calculating two classifications of brain volume, total brain volume (TBV) and intracranial volume (ICV). Our algorithm takes MRI data as input, performs several preprocessing and intermediate steps, and then returns each of the two calculated volumes. To simplify this process and make our algorithm publicly accessible to anyone, we have created a web-based interface that allows users to upload their own MRI data and calculate the TBV and ICV for the given data. This interface provides a simple and efficient method for calculating these two classifications of brain volume, and it also removes the need for the user to download or install any applications.

  18. Partial Volume Correction in Quantitative Amyloid Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yi; Blazey, Tyler M.; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Raichle, Marcus E.; Marcus, Daniel S.; Ances, Beau M.; Bateman, Randall J.; Cairns, Nigel J.; Aldea, Patricia; Cash, Lisa; Christensen, Jon J.; Friedrichsen, Karl; Hornbeck, Russ C.; Farrar, Angela M.; Owen, Christopher J.; Mayeux, Richard; Brickman, Adam M.; Klunk, William; Price, Julie C.; Thompson, Paul M.; Ghetti, Bernardino; Saykin, Andrew J.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Johnson, Keith A.; Schofield, Peter R.; Buckles, Virginia; Morris, John C.; Benzinger, Tammie. LS.

    2014-01-01

    Amyloid imaging is a valuable tool for research and diagnosis in dementing disorders. As positron emission tomography (PET) scanners have limited spatial resolution, measured signals are distorted by partial volume effects. Various techniques have been proposed for correcting partial volume effects, but there is no consensus as to whether these techniques are necessary in amyloid imaging, and, if so, how they should be implemented. We evaluated a two-component partial volume correction technique and a regional spread function technique using both simulated and human Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) PET imaging data. Both correction techniques compensated for partial volume effects and yielded improved detection of subtle changes in PiB retention. However, the regional spread function technique was more accurate in application to simulated data. Because PiB retention estimates depend on the correction technique, standardization is necessary to compare results across groups. Partial volume correction has sometimes been avoided because it increases the sensitivity to inaccuracy in image registration and segmentation. However, our results indicate that appropriate PVC may enhance our ability to detect changes in amyloid deposition. PMID:25485714

  19. Volume of a laser-induced microjet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamoto, Sennosuke; Hayasaka, Keisuke; Noguchi, Yuto; Tagawa, Yoshiyuki

    2015-11-01

    Needle-free injection systems are of great importance for medical treatments. In spite of their great potential, these systems are not commonly used. One of the common problems is strong pain caused by diffusion shape of the jet. To solve this problem, the usage of a high-speed highly-focused microjet as needle-free injection system is expected. It is thus crucial to control important indicators such as ejected volume of the jet for its safe application. We conduct experiments to reveal which parameter influences mostly the ejected volume. In the experiments, we use a glass tube of an inner diameter of 500 micro-meter, which is filled with the liquid. One end is connected to a syringe and the other end is opened. Radiating the pulse laser instantaneously vapors the liquid, followed by the generation of a shockwave. We find that the maximum volume of a laser-induced bubble is approximately proportional to the ejected volume. It is also found that the occurrence of cavitation does not affect the ejected volume while it changes the jet velocity.

  20. Small-Volume Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fratila, Raluca M.; Velders, Aldrik H.

    2011-07-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is one of the most information-rich analytical techniques available. However, it is also inherently insensitive, and this drawback precludes the application of NMR spectroscopy to mass- and volume-limited samples. We review a particular approach to increase the sensitivity of NMR experiments, namely the use of miniaturized coils. When the size of the coil is reduced, the sample volume can be brought down to the nanoliter range. We compare the main coil geometries (solenoidal, planar, and microslot/stripline) and discuss their applications to the analysis of mass-limited samples. We also provide an overview of the hyphenation of microcoil NMR spectroscopy to separation techniques and of the integration with lab-on-a-chip devices and microreactors.

  1. High dynamic, low volume GPS receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurd, W. J.

    1983-01-01

    A new GPS receiver concept and design are presented to meet the high dynamic and low volume requirements for range applications in missiles and drones. The receiver has the potential to satisfy all range requirements with one basic receiver, which has significant potential economic benefit over the alternate approach of using a family of receivers, each tailored for specific applications. The main new concept is to use approximate maximum likelihood estimates of pseudo range and range-rate, rather than tracking with carrier phase locked loops and code delay locked loops. Preliminary analysis indicates that receivers accelerating at 50 g or more can track with position errors due to acceleration of approximately 0.2 m/g, or 10 m at 50 g. Implementation is almost entirely digital to meet the low volume requirements.

  2. The RAAF Logistics Study. Volume 4,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-10-01

    Use of Issue-Based Root Definitions Application of Soft Systems Methodology to 27 Information Systems Analysis Conclusion 30 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS 58 k...Management Control Systems’, Journal of Applied Systems Analysis, Volume 6, 1979, pages 51 to 67. 5. The soft systems methodology was developed to tackle...the soft systems methodology has many advantages whi-h recmmenrl it to this type of study area, it does not mcklel the timo ev, lut i, n :-f a system

  3. Cost optimization in low volume VLSI circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, K. B., Jr.; Kerns, D. V., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The relationship of integrated circuit (IC) cost to electronic system cost is developed using models for integrated circuit cost which are based on design/fabrication approach. Emphasis is on understanding the relationship between cost and volume for custom circuits suitable for NASA applications. In this report, reliability is a major consideration in the models developed. Results are given for several typical IC designs using off the shelf, full custom, and semicustom IC's with single and double level metallization.

  4. Wound Volume Measurement.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    III and IV decubitus ulcers ). Wounds can also be classified by etiology as (a) surgical, (b) traumatic (such as mechanical or thermal injuries), and...had either decubitus ulcers or venous stasis ulcers . Each patient’s wound was measured with each of the three methods. First, the wound was...standardized and clinically available method to estimate wound volume is needed to determine rate of pressure ulcer healing. This quasi-experimental

  5. Multispectral scanner data applications evaluation. Volume 1: User applications study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, F. J.; Erickson, J. D.; Nalepka, R. F.; Weber, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    A six-month systems study of earth resource surveys from satellites was conducted and is reported. SKYLAB S-192 multispectral scanner (MSS) data were used as a baseline to aid in evaluating the characteristics of future systems using satellite MSS sensors. The study took the viewpoint that overall system (sensor and processing) characteristics and parameter values should be determined largely by user requirements for automatic information extraction performance in quasi-operational earth resources surveys, the other major factor being hardware limitations imposed by state-of-the-art technology and cost. The objective was to use actual aircraft and spacecraft MSS data to outline parametrically the trade-offs between user performance requirements and hardware performance and limitations so as to allow subsequent evaluation of compromises which must be made in deciding what system(s) to build.

  6. Algorithmic Complexity. Volume II.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    works, give an example, and discuss the inherent weaknesses and their causes. Electrical Network Analysis Knuth mentions the applicability of...of these 3 products of 2-coefficient 2 1 polynomials can be found by a repeated application of the 3 multiplication W Ascheme, only 3.3-9 scalar...see another application of this paradigm later. We now investigate the efficiency of the divide-and-conquer polynomial multiplication algorithm. Let M(n

  7. Calculus Students' Understanding of Volume

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorko, Allison; Speer, Natasha M.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have documented difficulties that elementary school students have in understanding volume. Despite its importance in higher mathematics, we know little about college students' understanding of volume. This study investigated calculus students' understanding of volume. Clinical interview transcripts and written responses to volume…

  8. REFLECTION AND REFRACTION, VOLUME 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KLAUS, DAVID J.; AND OTHERS

    THIS VOLUME 2 OF A TWO-VOLUME SET PROVIDES AUTOINSTRUCTION IN PHYSICS. THE UNITS COVERED IN THIS VOLUME ARE (1) REFLECTION OF LIGHT, (2) PHOTOMETRY, (3) POLARIZATION, (4) REFRACTION OF LIGHT, (5) SNELL'S LAW, (6) LENSES, FOCUS, AND FOCAL POINTS, (7) IMAGE FORMATION, AND (8) ABERRATIONS, THE EYE, AND MAGNIFICATION. THE INTRODUCTION AND UNITS ON…

  9. THE PREPARATION OF CURRICULUM MATERIALS AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF TEACHERS FOR AN EXPERIMENTAL APPLICATION OF THE CLUSTER CONCEPT OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AT THE SECONDARY SCHOOL LEVEL. VOLUME II, INSTRUCTIONAL PLANS FOR THE CONSTRUCTION CLUSTER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MALEY, DONALD

    DESIGNED FOR USE WITH 11TH AND 12TH GRADE STUDENTS, THIS CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR THE OCCUPATIONAL CLUSTER IN CONSTRUCTION WAS DEVELOPED BY PARTICIPATING TEACHERS FROM RESULTS OF THE RESEARCH PROCEDURES DESCRIBED IN VOLUME I (VT 004 162). THE COURSE DESCRIPTION, NEED FOR THE COURSE, COURSE OBJECTIVES, PROCEDURE, AND INSTRUCTIONAL PLAN ARE DISCUSSED…

  10. THE PREPARATION OF CURRICULUM MATERIALS AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF TEACHERS FOR AN EXPERIMENTAL APPLICATION OF THE CLUSTER CONCEPT OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AT THE SECONDARY SCHOOL LEVEL. VOLUME III, INSTRUCTIONAL PLANS FOR THE METAL FORMING AND FABRICATION CLUSTER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MALEY, DONALD

    DESIGNED FOR USE WITH 11TH AND 12TH GRADE STUDENTS, THIS CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR THE OCCUPATIONAL CLUSTER IN METAL FORMING AND FABRICATION WAS DEVELOPED BY PARTICIPATING TEACHERS FROM RESULTS OF THE RESEARCH PROCEDURES DESCRIBED IN VOLUME I (VT 004 162). THE COURSE DESCRIPTION, NEED FOR THE COURSE, COURSE OBJECTIVES, PROCEDURES AND INSTRUCTIONAL PLAN…

  11. THE PREPARATION OF CURRICULUM MATERIALS AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF TEACHERS FOR AN EXPERIMENTAL APPLICATION OF THE CLUSTER CONCEPT OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AT THE SECONDARY SCHOOL LEVEL. VOLUME IV, INSTRUCTIONAL PLANS FOR THE ELECTRO-MECHANICAL CLUSTER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MALEY, DONALD

    DESIGNED FOR USE WITH 11TH AND 12TH GRADE STUDENTS, THIS CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR THE OCCUPATIONAL CLUSTER IN ELECTRO-MECHANICAL INSTALLATION AND REPAIR WAS DEVELOPED BY PARTICIPATING TEACHERS FROM RESULTS OF THE RESEARCH PROCEDURES DESCRIBED IN VOLUME I (VT 004 162). THE COURSE DESCRIPTIONS, NEED FOR THE COURSE, COURSE OBJECTIVES, PROCEDURES, AND…

  12. Manual of Documentation Practices Applicable to Defence-Aerospace Scientific and Technical Information. Volume IV: Sections 10--Security Storage and Control; 11--Organisation and Management; 12--Networks and External Sources of Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuler, S. C., Ed.

    The last of four volumes in a series describing the basic documentation practices involved in the initial setting up and subsequent operation of an information-library organization to provide defense-aerospace scientific and technical information services, this manual consists of three sections. In "Security Storage and Control," Michael…

  13. Membranes with artificial free-volume for biofuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Petzetakis, Nikos; Doherty, Cara M.; Thornton, Aaron W.; Chen, X. Chelsea; Cotanda, Pepa; Hill, Anita J.; Balsara, Nitash P.

    2015-06-24

    Free-volume of polymers governs transport of penetrants through polymeric films. Control over free-volume is thus important for the development of better membranes for a wide variety of applications such as gas separations, pharmaceutical purifications and energy storage. To date, methodologies used to create materials with different amounts of free-volume are based primarily on chemical synthesis of new polymers. Here we report a simple methodology for generating free-volume based on the self-assembly of polyethylene-b-polydimethylsiloxane-b-polyethylene triblock copolymers. Here, we have used this method to fabricate a series of membranes with identical compositions but with different amounts of free-volume. We use the term artificial free-volume to refer to the additional free-volume created by self-assembly. The effect of artificial free-volume on selective transport through the membranes was tested using butanol/water and ethanol/water mixtures due to their importance in biofuel production. Moreover, we found that the introduction of artificial free-volume improves both alcohol permeability and selectivity.

  14. Membranes with artificial free-volume for biofuel production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petzetakis, Nikos; Doherty, Cara M.; Thornton, Aaron W.; Chen, X. Chelsea; Cotanda, Pepa; Hill, Anita J.; Balsara, Nitash P.

    2015-06-01

    Free-volume of polymers governs transport of penetrants through polymeric films. Control over free-volume is thus important for the development of better membranes for a wide variety of applications such as gas separations, pharmaceutical purifications and energy storage. To date, methodologies used to create materials with different amounts of free-volume are based primarily on chemical synthesis of new polymers. Here we report a simple methodology for generating free-volume based on the self-assembly of polyethylene-b-polydimethylsiloxane-b-polyethylene triblock copolymers. We have used this method to fabricate a series of membranes with identical compositions but with different amounts of free-volume. We use the term artificial free-volume to refer to the additional free-volume created by self-assembly. The effect of artificial free-volume on selective transport through the membranes was tested using butanol/water and ethanol/water mixtures due to their importance in biofuel production. We found that the introduction of artificial free-volume improves both alcohol permeability and selectivity.

  15. Membranes with artificial free-volume for biofuel production

    DOE PAGES

    Petzetakis, Nikos; Doherty, Cara M.; Thornton, Aaron W.; ...

    2015-06-24

    Free-volume of polymers governs transport of penetrants through polymeric films. Control over free-volume is thus important for the development of better membranes for a wide variety of applications such as gas separations, pharmaceutical purifications and energy storage. To date, methodologies used to create materials with different amounts of free-volume are based primarily on chemical synthesis of new polymers. Here we report a simple methodology for generating free-volume based on the self-assembly of polyethylene-b-polydimethylsiloxane-b-polyethylene triblock copolymers. Here, we have used this method to fabricate a series of membranes with identical compositions but with different amounts of free-volume. We use the termmore » artificial free-volume to refer to the additional free-volume created by self-assembly. The effect of artificial free-volume on selective transport through the membranes was tested using butanol/water and ethanol/water mixtures due to their importance in biofuel production. Moreover, we found that the introduction of artificial free-volume improves both alcohol permeability and selectivity.« less

  16. Membranes with artificial free-volume for biofuel production

    PubMed Central

    Petzetakis, Nikos; Doherty, Cara M.; Thornton, Aaron W.; Chen, X. Chelsea; Cotanda, Pepa; Hill, Anita J.; Balsara, Nitash P.

    2015-01-01

    Free-volume of polymers governs transport of penetrants through polymeric films. Control over free-volume is thus important for the development of better membranes for a wide variety of applications such as gas separations, pharmaceutical purifications and energy storage. To date, methodologies used to create materials with different amounts of free-volume are based primarily on chemical synthesis of new polymers. Here we report a simple methodology for generating free-volume based on the self-assembly of polyethylene-b-polydimethylsiloxane-b-polyethylene triblock copolymers. We have used this method to fabricate a series of membranes with identical compositions but with different amounts of free-volume. We use the term artificial free-volume to refer to the additional free-volume created by self-assembly. The effect of artificial free-volume on selective transport through the membranes was tested using butanol/water and ethanol/water mixtures due to their importance in biofuel production. We found that the introduction of artificial free-volume improves both alcohol permeability and selectivity. PMID:26104672

  17. Validation of Student and Parent Report Data on the Basic Grant Application Form. Final Report. Volume II, Estimated Income: CRT Look-Up Study, Individual Case Follow-Up Study, IRS Sample Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novalis, Carol

    The use of estimated income to analyze financial need of applicants to the Basic Educational Opportunity Grant (BEOG) program was investigated. Attention was focused on: how well applicants estimate their income; reasons for errors in estimation, and whether applicants supplying income tax returns supply true versions. For 1,547 eligible BEOG…

  18. Mining volume measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyman, Joseph Saul (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    In a shaft with a curved or straight primary segment and smaller off-shooting segments, at least one standing wave is generated in the primary segment. The shaft has either an open end or a closed end and approximates a cylindrical waveguide. A frequency of a standing wave that represents the fundamental mode characteristic of the primary segment can be measured. Alternatively, a frequency differential between two successive harmonic modes that are characteristic of the primary segment can be measured. In either event, the measured frequency or frequency differential is characteristic of the length and thus the volume of the shaft based on length times the bore area.

  19. External bulb variable volume maser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhardt, V. S.; Cervenka, P. O. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A maser functioning as a frequency standard stable to one part in 10 to the 14th power includes a variable volume, constant surface area storage bulb having a fixed volume portion located in a resonant cavity from which the frequency standard is derived. A variable volume portion of the bulb, exterior to the resonant cavity, has a maximum volume on the same order of magnitude as the fixed volume bulb portion. The cavity has a length to radius ratio of at least 3:1 so that the operation is attained without the need for a feedback loop. A baffle plate, between the fixed and variable volume bulb portions, includes apertures for enabling hydrogen atoms to pass between the two bulb portions and is an electromagnetic shield that prevents coupling of the electromagnetic field of the cavity into the variable volume bulb portion.

  20. Finite Volume Methods: Foundation and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Timothy; Ohlberger, Mario

    2003-01-01

    Finite volume methods are a class of discretization schemes that have proven highly successful in approximating the solution of a wide variety of conservation law systems. They are extensively used in fluid mechanics, porous media flow, meteorology, electromagnetics, models of biological processes, semi-conductor device simulation and many other engineering areas governed by conservative systems that can be written in integral control volume form. This article reviews elements of the foundation and analysis of modern finite volume methods. The primary advantages of these methods are numerical robustness through the obtention of discrete maximum (minimum) principles, applicability on very general unstructured meshes, and the intrinsic local conservation properties of the resulting schemes. Throughout this article, specific attention is given to scalar nonlinear hyperbolic conservation laws and the development of high order accurate schemes for discretizing them. A key tool in the design and analysis of finite volume schemes suitable for non-oscillatory discontinuity capturing is discrete maximum principle analysis. A number of building blocks used in the development of numerical schemes possessing local discrete maximum principles are reviewed in one and several space dimensions, e.g. monotone fluxes, E-fluxes, TVD discretization, non-oscillatory reconstruction, slope limiters, positive coefficient schemes, etc. When available, theoretical results concerning a priori and a posteriori error estimates are given. Further advanced topics are then considered such as high order time integration, discretization of diffusion terms and the extension to systems of nonlinear conservation laws.