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Sample records for ac-drive applications volume

  1. Evaluation of semiconductor devices for Electric and Hybrid Vehicle (EHV) ac-drive applications, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, F. C.; Chen, D. Y.; Jovanovic, M.; Hopkins, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    The results of evaluation of power semiconductor devices for electric hybrid vehicle ac drive applications are summarized. Three types of power devices are evaluated in the effort: high power bipolar or Darlington transistors, power MOSFETs, and asymmetric silicon control rectifiers (ASCR). The Bipolar transistors, including discrete device and Darlington devices, range from 100 A to 400 A and from 400 V to 900 V. These devices are currently used as key switching elements inverters for ac motor drive applications. Power MOSFETs, on the other hand, are much smaller in current rating. For the 400 V device, the current rating is limited to 25 A. For the main drive of an electric vehicle, device paralleling is normally needed to achieve practical power level. For other electric vehicle (EV) related applications such as battery charger circuit, however, MOSFET is advantageous to other devices because of drive circuit simplicity and high frequency capability. Asymmetrical SCR is basically a SCR device and needs commutation circuit for turn off. However, the device poses several advantages, i.e., low conduction drop and low cost.

  2. Evaluation of semiconductor devices for Electric and Hybrid Vehicle (EHV) ac-drive applications, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, F. C.; Chen, D. Y.; Jovanic, M.; Hopkins, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    Test data of switching times characterization of bipolar transistors, of field effect transistor's switching times on-resistance and characterization, comparative data of field effect transistors, and test data of field effect transistor's parallel operation characterization are given. Data is given in the form of graphs.

  3. Development of a computer algorithm for the analysis of variable-frequency AC drives: Case studies included

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kankam, M. David; Benjamin, Owen

    1991-01-01

    The development of computer software for performance prediction and analysis of voltage-fed, variable-frequency AC drives for space power applications is discussed. The AC drives discussed include the pulse width modulated inverter (PWMI), a six-step inverter and the pulse density modulated inverter (PDMI), each individually connected to a wound-rotor induction motor. Various d-q transformation models of the induction motor are incorporated for user-selection of the most applicable model for the intended purpose. Simulation results of selected AC drives correlate satisfactorily with published results. Future additions to the algorithm are indicated. These improvements should enhance the applicability of the computer program to the design and analysis of space power systems.

  4. Power Electronic Transformer based Three-Phase PWM AC Drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Kaushik

    A Transformer is used to provide galvanic isolation and to connect systems at different voltage levels. It is one of the largest and most expensive component in most of the high voltage and high power systems. Its size is inversely proportional to the operating frequency. The central idea behind a power electronic transformer (PET) also known as solid state transformer is to reduce the size of the transformer by increasing the frequency. Power electronic converters are used to change the frequency of operation. Steady reduction in the cost of the semiconductor switches and the advent of advanced magnetic materials with very low loss density and high saturation flux density implies economic viability and feasibility of a design with high power density. Application of PET is in generation of power from renewable energy sources, especially wind and solar. Other important application include grid tied inverters, UPS e.t.c. In this thesis non-resonant, single stage, bi-directional PET is considered. The main objective of this converter is to generate adjustable speed and magnitude pulse width modulated (PWM) ac waveforms from an ac or dc grid with a high frequency ac link. The windings of a high frequency transformer contains leakage inductance. Any switching transition of the power electronic converter connecting the inductive load and the transformer requires commutation of leakage energy. Commutation by passive means results in power loss, decrease in the frequency of operation, distortion in the output voltage waveform, reduction in reliability and power density. In this work a source based partially loss-less commutation of leakage energy has been proposed. This technique also results in partial soft-switching. A series of converters with novel PWM strategies have been proposed to minimize the frequency of leakage inductance commutation. These PETs achieve most of the important features of modern PWM ac drives including 1) Input power factor correction, 2) Common

  5. Instabilities across the isotropic conductivity point in a nematic phenyl benzoate under AC driving.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pramoda; Patil, Shivaram N; Hiremath, Uma S; Krishnamurthy, K S

    2007-08-01

    We characterize the sequence of bifurcations generated by ac fields in a nematic layer held between unidirectionally rubbed ITO electrodes. The material, which possesses a negative dielectric anisotropy epsilona and an inversion temperature for electrical conductivity anisotropy sigmaa, exhibits a monostable tilted alignment near TIN, the isotropic-nematic point. On cooling, an anchoring transition to the homeotropic configuration occurs close to the underlying smectic phase. The field experiments are performed for (i) negative sigmaa and homeotropic alignment, and (ii) weakly positive sigmaa and nearly homeotropic alignment. Under ac driving, the Freedericksz transition is followed by bifurcation into various patterned states. Among them are the striped states that seem to belong to the dielectric regime and localized hybrid instabilities. Very significantly, the patterned instabilities are not excited by dc fields, indicating their possible gradient flexoelectric origin. The Carr-Helfrich mechanism-based theories that take account of flexoelectric terms can explain the observed electroconvective effects only in part. PMID:17616118

  6. Obstacles using amorphous materials for volume applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiessling, Albert; Reininger, Thomas

    2012-10-01

    This contribution is especially focussed on the attempt to use amorphous or nanocrystalline metals in position sensor applications and to describe the difficulties and obstacles encountered in coherence with the development of appropriate industrial high volume series products in conjunction with the related quality requirements. The main motivation to do these investigations was to beat the generally known sensors especially silicon based Hall-sensors as well as AMR- and GMR-sensors - well known from mobile phones and electronic storage devices like hard discs and others - in terms of cost-effectiveness and functionality.

  7. Electrical Capacitance Volume Tomography: Design and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fei; Marashdeh, Qussai; Fan, Liang-Shih; Warsito, Warsito

    2010-01-01

    This article reports recent advances and progress in the field of electrical capacitance volume tomography (ECVT). ECVT, developed from the two-dimensional electrical capacitance tomography (ECT), is a promising non-intrusive imaging technology that can provide real-time three-dimensional images of the sensing domain. Images are reconstructed from capacitance measurements acquired by electrodes placed on the outside boundary of the testing vessel. In this article, a review of progress on capacitance sensor design and applications to multi-phase flows is presented. The sensor shape, electrode configuration, and the number of electrodes that comprise three key elements of three-dimensional capacitance sensors are illustrated. The article also highlights applications of ECVT sensors on vessels of various sizes from 1 to 60 inches with complex geometries. Case studies are used to show the capability and validity of ECVT. The studies provide qualitative and quantitative real-time three-dimensional information of the measuring domain under study. Advantages of ECVT render it a favorable tool to be utilized for industrial applications and fundamental multi-phase flow research. PMID:22294905

  8. Applications of Tethers in Space, Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cron, A. C. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Topics discussed include tethered satellites, tether deployment, satellite systems, science applications, electrodynamic interactions, transportation applications, artificial gravity, constellations, and technology and testing.

  9. Unified Technical Concepts. Application Modules Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    Unified Technical Concepts (UTC) is a modular system for teaching applied physics in two-year postsecondary technician programs. This UTC laboratory textbook, the second of two volumes, consists of 45 learning modules dealing with basic concepts of physics. Addressed in the individual chapters of the guide are the following topics: force…

  10. Applications of Tethers in Space: Workshop Proceedings, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baracat, W. A. (Compiler)

    1986-01-01

    The complete documentation of the workshop including all addresses, panel reports, charts, and summaries are presented. This volume presents all the reports on the fundamentals of applications of tethers in space. These applications include electrodynamic interactions, transportation, gravity utilization, constellations, technology and test, and science applications.

  11. Computer technology -- 1996: Applications and methodology. PVP-Volume 326

    SciTech Connect

    Hulbert, G.M.; Hsu, K.H.; Lee, T.W.; Nicholas, T.

    1996-12-01

    The primary objective of the Computer Technology Committee of the ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Division is to promote interest and technical exchange in the field of computer technology, related to the design and analysis of pressure vessels and piping. The topics included in this volume are: analysis of bolted joints; nonlinear analysis, applications and methodology; finite element analysis and applications; and behavior of materials. Separate abstracts were prepared for 23 of the papers in this volume.

  12. Applications of Tethers in Space, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cron, A. C. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    The tethered satellite system is described including tether fundamentals. Applications of very long tethers in space to a broad spectrum of future space missions are explored. Topics covered include: science, transportation, constellations, artificial gravity, technology and test, and electrodynamic interactions. Recommendations to NASA are included.

  13. Advanced Energetics for Aeronautical Applications. Volume II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, David S.

    2005-01-01

    NASA has identified water vapor emission into the upper atmosphere from commercial transport aircraft, particularly as it relates to the formation of persistent contrails, as a potential environmental problem. Since 1999, MSE has been working with NASA-LaRC to investigate the concept of a transport-size emissionless aircraft fueled with liquid hydrogen combined with other possible breakthrough technologies. The goal of the project is to significantly advance air transportation in the next decade and beyond. The power and propulsion (P/P) system currently being studied would be based on hydrogen fuel cells (HFCs) powering electric motors, which drive fans for propulsion. The liquid water reaction product is retained onboard the aircraft until a flight mission is completed. As of now, NASA-LaRC and MSE have identified P/P system components that, according to the high-level analysis conducted to date, are light enough to make the emissionless aircraft concept feasible. Calculated maximum aircraft ranges (within a maximum weight constraint) and other performance predictions are included in this report. This report also includes current information on advanced energy-related technologies, which are still being researched, as well as breakthrough physics concepts that may be applicable for advanced energetics and aerospace propulsion in the future.

  14. Quality of Life. Volume II: Application to Persons with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schalock, Robert L., Ed.; Siperstein, Gary N., Ed.

    This volume summarizes current policies and programmatic practices that are influencing the quality of life of persons with mental retardation and developmental disabilities. Part 1, "Service Delivery Application," contains: "Using Person-Centered Planning To Address Personal Quality of Life" (John Butterworth and others); "The Aftermath of…

  15. Large-Volume Microfluidic Cell Sorting for Biomedical Applications.

    PubMed

    Warkiani, Majid Ebrahimi; Wu, Lidan; Tay, Andy Kah Ping; Han, Jongyoon

    2015-01-01

    Microfluidic cell-separation technologies have been studied for almost two decades, but the limited throughput has restricted their impact and range of application. Recent advances in microfluidics enable high-throughput cell sorting and separation, and this has led to various novel diagnostic and therapeutic applications that previously had been impossible to implement using microfluidics technologies. In this review, we focus on recent progress made in engineering large-volume microfluidic cell-sorting methods and the new applications enabled by them. PMID:26194427

  16. Transonic Symposium: Theory, Application, and Experiment, volume 1, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foughner, Jerome T., Jr. (Compiler)

    1989-01-01

    In order to assess the state of the art in transonic flow disciplines and to glimpse at future directions, NASA-Langley held a Transonic Symposium. Emphasis was placed on steady, three dimensional external, transonic flow and its simulation, both numerically and experimentally. The symposium included technical sessions on wind tunnel and flight experiments; computational fluid dynamic applications; inviscid methods and grid generation; viscous methods and boundary layer stability; and wind tunnel techniques and wall interference. This, being volume 1, is unclassified.

  17. Application of Control Volume Analysis to Cerebrospinal Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Timothy; Cohen, Benjamin; Anor, Tomer; Madsen, Joseph

    2011-11-01

    Hydrocephalus is among the most common birth defects and may not be prevented nor cured. Afflicted individuals face serious issues, which at present are too complicated and not well enough understood to treat via systematic therapies. This talk outlines the framework and application of a control volume methodology to clinical Phase Contrast MRI data. Specifically, integral control volume analysis utilizes a fundamental, fluid dynamics methodology to quantify intracranial dynamics within a precise, direct, and physically meaningful framework. A chronically shunted, hydrocephalic patient in need of a revision procedure was used as an in vivo case study. Magnetic resonance velocity measurements within the patient's aqueduct were obtained in four biomedical state and were analyzed using the methods presented in this dissertation. Pressure force estimates were obtained, showing distinct differences in amplitude, phase, and waveform shape for different intracranial states within the same individual. Thoughts on the physiological and diagnostic research and development implications/opportunities will be presented.

  18. TeleInViVo: a collaborative volume visualization application.

    PubMed

    Coleman, J; Savchenko, A; Goettsch, A; Wang, K; Bono, P; Littlefield, R; Macedonia, C

    1997-01-01

    Converging technologies in the areas of networks, volume visualization algorithms, and computer performance have made possible the development of a new tool for collaboration, which extends the reach of health professionals, and other consumers of volumetric data around the world. TeleInViVo(tm) is a three-dimensional (3D) collaborative volume visualization tool for medical applications. It extends the capabilities of InViVo(tm), a fast volume visualization tool developed at the Fraunhofer IGD, Darmstadt, Germany [1-3], with efficient and intuitive network collaboration features for remote consultation and new modes of interaction. The software runs on both UNIX and Windows NT platforms. TeleInViVo provides a high degree of interactivity for the medical professional when interacting with the patient data, facilitates explanation and communication between field personnel and medical experts located far from the field, and permits viewing of the data in a multitude of ways designed to support rapid and accurate diagnosis. Current efforts involve architectural enhancements to support multiuser, distributed telemedical scenarios. The application includes the following features: Volume and subvolume data transmission at user specified resolution, Synchronization cues, Integration of Immersion Probe(tm), a 6 degree-of-freedom input device, for ergonomic 3D data exploration, Tools for measuring distances, Tools for planning instrument path, Arbitrary cutting planes in real time, Interactive segmentation tools, Virtual video recorder and playback (cine loops), 3D stereo mode. TeleInViVo is an essential part of the MUSTPAC-1 portable 3D ultrasound system developed by Battelle Pacific Northwest Labs, Richland, WA. PMID:10168908

  19. Remote volume rendering pipeline for mHealth applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutenko, Ievgeniia; Petkov, Kaloian; Papadopoulos, Charilaos; Zhao, Xin; Park, Ji Hwan; Kaufman, Arie; Cha, Ronald

    2014-03-01

    We introduce a novel remote volume rendering pipeline for medical visualization targeted for mHealth (mobile health) applications. The necessity of such a pipeline stems from the large size of the medical imaging data produced by current CT and MRI scanners with respect to the complexity of the volumetric rendering algorithms. For example, the resolution of typical CT Angiography (CTA) data easily reaches 512^3 voxels and can exceed 6 gigabytes in size by spanning over the time domain while capturing a beating heart. This explosion in data size makes data transfers to mobile devices challenging, and even when the transfer problem is resolved the rendering performance of the device still remains a bottleneck. To deal with this issue, we propose a thin-client architecture, where the entirety of the data resides on a remote server where the image is rendered and then streamed to the client mobile device. We utilize the display and interaction capabilities of the mobile device, while performing interactive volume rendering on a server capable of handling large datasets. Specifically, upon user interaction the volume is rendered on the server and encoded into an H.264 video stream. H.264 is ubiquitously hardware accelerated, resulting in faster compression and lower power requirements. The choice of low-latency CPU- and GPU-based encoders is particularly important in enabling the interactive nature of our system. We demonstrate a prototype of our framework using various medical datasets on commodity tablet devices.

  20. Ground Operations Aerospace Language (GOAL). Volume 5: Application Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The Ground Operations Aerospace Language (GOAL) was designed to be used by test oriented personnel to write procedures which would be executed in a test environment. A series of discussions between NASA LV-CAP personnel and IBM resulted in some peripheral tasks which would aid in evaluating the applicability of the language in this environment, and provide enhancement for future applications. The results of these tasks are contained within this volume. The GOAL vocabulary provides a high degree of readability and retainability. To achieve these benefits, however, the procedure writer utilizes words and phrases of considerable length. Brief form study was undertaken to determine a means of relieving this burden. The study resulted in a version of GOAL which enables the writer to develop a dialect suitable to his needs and satisfy the syntax equations. The output of the compiler would continue to provide readability by printing out the standard GOAL language. This task is described.

  1. Application of automated topography focus corrections for volume manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiltshire, Timothy J.; Liegl, Bernhard R.; Hwang, Emily M.; Lucksinger, Mark R.

    2010-03-01

    This work describes the implementation and performance of AGILE focus corrections for advanced photo lithography in volume production as well as advanced development in IBM's 300mm facility. In particular, a logic hierarchy that manages the air gage sub-system corrections to optimize tool productivity while sampling with sufficient frequency to ensure focus accuracy for stable production processes is described. The information reviewed includes: General AGILE implementation approaches; Sample focus correction contours for critical 45nm, 32nm, and 22nm applications; An outline of the IBM Advanced Process Control (APC) logic and system(s) that manage the focus correction sets; Long term, historical focus correction data for stable 45nm processes as well as development stage 32nm processes; Practical issues encountered and possible enhancements to the methodology.

  2. Emerging technologies in medical applications of minimum volume vitrification

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Catalano, Paolo N; Gurkan, Umut Atakan; Khimji, Imran; Demirci, Utkan

    2011-01-01

    Cell/tissue biopreservation has broad public health and socio-economic impact affecting millions of lives. Cryopreservation technologies provide an efficient way to preserve cells and tissues targeting the clinic for applications including reproductive medicine and organ transplantation. Among these technologies, vitrification has displayed significant improvement in post-thaw cell viability and function by eliminating harmful effects of ice crystal formation compared to the traditional slow freezing methods. However, high cryoprotectant agent concentrations are required, which induces toxicity and osmotic stress to cells and tissues. It has been shown that vitrification using small sample volumes (i.e., <1 μl) significantly increases cooling rates and hence reduces the required cryoprotectant agent levels. Recently, emerging nano- and micro-scale technologies have shown potential to manipulate picoliter to nanoliter sample sizes. Therefore, the synergistic integration of nanoscale technologies with cryogenics has the potential to improve biopreservation methods. PMID:21955080

  3. Sensors Applications, Volume 5, Sensors in Household Appliances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tschulena, Guido; Lahrmann, Andreas

    2003-11-01

    A competent and comprehensive survey of current and future sensors applied in electronic household devices. Engineers and scientists will find here reports of an increase in product safety, efficiency and consumer comfort, coupled with a decrease in power consumption and water/wastewater. The book also looks at the customer appeal of advanced "intelligent" appliances, showing the heightened need for comprehensive information on their potentials and limitations. Taken as a whole, this series covers all major fields of application for commercial sensors, as well as their manufacturing techniques and major types. As such the series does not treat bulk sensors, but rather places strong emphasis on microsensors, microsystems and integrated electronic sensor packages. Each of the individual volumes is tailored to the needs and queries of readers from the relevant branch of industry.

  4. Solar concentrator technology development for space based applications, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pintz, A.; Castle, C. H.; Reimer, R. R.

    1992-01-01

    Thermoelectric conversion using a radio-isotope heat source has been used where outer planetary space craft are too far away for absorbing significant solar energy. Solar dynamic power (SDP) conversion is one technology that offers advantages for applications within the inner planet region. Since SDP conversion efficiency can be 2 to 3 times higher than photovoltaic, the collecting surfaces are much reduced in area and therefore lighter. This becomes an advantage in allocating more weight to launched payloads. A second advantage results for low earth orbit applications. The reduced area results in lower drag forces on the spacecraft and requires less reboost propellant to maintain orbit. A third advantage occurs because of the sun-to-shade cycling while in earth orbit. Photovoltaic systems require batteries to store energy for use when in the shade, and battery life for periods of 10 to 15 years is not presently achievable. For these reasons the Solar Dynamics and Thermal Systems Branch at NASA LeRC has funded work in developing SDP systems. The generic SDP system uses a large parabolic solar concentrator to focus solar energy onto a power conversion device. The concentrators are large areas and must therefore be efficient and have low specific weights. Yet these surfaces must be precise and capable of being stowed in a launch vehicle and then deployed and sometimes unfurled in space. There are significant technical challenges in engineering such structures, and considerable investigation has been made to date. This is the second of two volumes reporting on the research done by the Advanced Manufacturing Center at Cleveland State University to assist NASA LeRC in evaluating this technology. This volume includes the appendices of selected data sets, drawings, and procedures. The objective of the grant was to restore the solar concentrator development technology of the 1960s while improving it with advances that have occurred since then. This report summarizes the

  5. Turbine design and application volumes 1, 2, and 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glassman, Arthur J. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    NASA has an interest in turbines related primarily to aeronautics and space applications. Airbreathing turbine engines provide jet and turboshaft propulsion, as well as auxiliary power for aircraft. Propellant-driven turbines provide rocket propulsion and auxiliary power for spacecraft. Closed-cycle turbine engines using inert gases, organic fluids, and metal fluids have been studied for providing long-duration electric power for spacecraft. Other applications of interest for turbine engines include land-vehicle (cars, trucks, buses, trains, etc.) propulsion power and ground-based electrical power. In view of the turbine-system interest and efforts at Lewis Research Center, a course entitled 'Turbine Design and Application' was presented during 1968-69 as part of the In-house Graduate Study Program. The course was somewhat revised and again presented in 1972-73. Various aspects of turbine technology were covered including thermodynamic and fluid-dynamic concepts, fundamental turbine concepts, velocity diagrams, losses, blade aerodynamic design, blade cooling, mechanical design, operation, and performance. The notes written and used for the course have been revised and edited for publication. Such a publication can serve as a foundation for an introductory turbine course, a means for self-study, or a reference for selected topics. Any consistent set of units will satisfy the equations presented. Two commonly used consistent sets of units and constant values are given after the symbol definitions. These are the SI units and the U.S. customary units. A single set of equations covers both sets of units by including all constants required for the U.S. customary units and defining as unity those not required for the SI units. Three volumes are compiled into one.

  6. Solar concentrator technology development for space based applications, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pintz, A.; Castle, C. H.; Reimer, R. R.

    1992-01-01

    Thermoelectric conversion using a radio-isotope heat source has been used where outer planetary space craft are too far away for absorbing significant solar energy. Solar dynamic power (SDP) conversion is one technology that offers advantages for applications within the inner planet region. Since SDP conversion efficiency can be 2 to 3 times higher than photovoltaic, the collecting surfaces are much reduced in area and therefore lighter. This becomes an advantage in allocating more weight to launched payloads. A second advantage results for low earth orbit applications. The reduced area results in lower drag forces on the spacecraft and requires less reboost propellant to maintain orbit. A third advantage occurs because of the sun-to-shade cycling while in earth orbit. Photovoltaic systems require batteries to store energy for use when in the shade, and battery life for periods of 10 to 15 years is not presently achievable. For these reasons the Solar Dynamics and Thermal Systems Branch at NASA LeRC has funded work in developing SDP systems. The generic SDP system uses a large parabolic solar concentrator to focus solar energy onto a power conversion device. The concentrators are large areas and must therefore be efficient and have low specific weights. Yet these surfaces must be precise and capable of being stowed in a launch vehicle and then deployed and sometimes unfurled in space. There are significant technical challenges in engineering such structures, and considerable investigation has been made to date. This is the first of two volumes reporting on the research done by the Advanced Manufacturing Center at Cleveland State University to assist NASA LeRC in evaluating this technology. The objective of the grant was to restore the solar concentrator development technology of the 1960s while improving it with advances that have occurred since then. This report summarizes the work done from January 1989 through December 1991.

  7. EPA RREL'S MOBILE VOLUME REDUCTION UNIT -- APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The volume reduction unit (VRU) is a pilot-scale, mobile soil washing system designed to remove organic contaminants from the soil through particle size separation and solubilization. The VRU removes contaminants by suspending them in a wash solution and by reducing the volume of...

  8. International pressure vessels and piping codes and standards. Volume 1: Current applications; PVP-Volume 313-1

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, K.R.; Asada, Yasuhide; Brown, J.

    1995-12-01

    The topics in this volume include: (1) water hammer and other transient loads: causes and prevention; (2) thermal stratification; (3) fatigue, fracture, and stress intensification factors; (4) leak before break technology: international applications; (5) failure/fracture mechanics; (6) crack growth and fatigue in reactor water; (7) improvement of manufacturing and maintenance technology; and (8) advanced analysis methods and the ASME Code. Separate abstracts were prepared for individual papers in this book.

  9. AC drive system efficiency evaluation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Langley, R.

    1998-12-01

    Industrial and commercial facilities are continually searching for ways to reduce costs while increasing revenues. One way of accomplishing this objective is to reduce energy consumption costs. Industrial and commercial facilities, in their heavy reliance on electric motors, are by far the largest consumers of electric power. In fact, electric motors consume more than fifty percent of all generated electric energy. The use of energy efficient motors and electronic adjustable-speed drives (ASDs) can provide industries with a means for reducing energy costs. Taking advantage of available contracts with incentives for energy conservation, industries can justify the costs for retrofitting old inefficient production lines with state-of-the-art, efficient, process equipment. The use of ASDs for improving process control and increasing process efficiency has been well documented. To this point, however, there are no published research reports or technical papers presenting energy efficiency data for ASDs and ASD/motor systems at load conditions other than rated load conditions. The IEC-1800 standard does call for manufacturers to report the ASD or the ASD/motor system efficiency at rated load and base speed conditions. This report presents energy efficiency test data for two 150-hp ASD/motor combinations. Each test was conducted at multiple load torque and speed setpoints, which includes interpretations and discussions of the test results. The report presents test standards, test procedures, and test data that show how the energy efficiencies of ASD/motor system components relate. 51 figs., 13 tabs.

  10. Data catalog series for space science and applications flight missions. Volume 6: Master index volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horowitz, Richard; Ross, Patricia A.; King, Joseph H.

    1989-01-01

    The main purpose of the data catalog series is to provide descriptive references to data generated by space science flight missions. The data sets described include all of the actual holdings of the Space Science Data Center (NSSDC), all data sets for which direct contact information is available, and some data collections held and serviced by foreign investigators, NASA, and other U.S. government agencies. This volume contains the Master Index. The following spacecraft are included: Mariner, Pioneer, Pioneer Venus, Venera, Viking, Voyager, and Helios. Separate indexes to the planetary and interplanetary missions are also provided.

  11. Applications of texture mapping to volume and flow visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Max, N.; Crawfis, R.; Becker, B.

    1995-05-01

    The authors describe six visualization methods which take advantage of hardware polygon scan conversion, texture mapping, and compositing, to give interactive viewing of 3D scalar fields, and motion for 3D flows. For volume rendering, these are splatting of an optimized 3D reconstruction filter, and tetrahedral cell projection using a texture map to provide the exponential per pixel necessary for accurate opacity calculation. For flows, these are the above tetrahedral projection method for rendering the ``flow volume`` dyed after passing through a dye releasing polygon, ``splatting`` of cycled anisotropic textures to provide flow direction and motion visualization, splatting motion blurred particles to indicate flow velocity, and advecting a texture directly to show the flow motion. All these techniques are tailored to take advantage of existing graphics pipelines to produce interactive visualization tools.

  12. Space shuttle orbiter heat pipe applications. Volume 1: Synopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alario, J. P.; Prager, R. C.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation was made to formulate and evaluate heat pipe applications for the space shuttle orbiter. Of the twenty-seven specific applications which were identified, a joint evaluation resulted in the selection of five of the most promising ones for prototype development. The formulation process is described, along with the applications which evolved. The bulk of the discussion deals with the top five applications: (1) heat pipe augmented cold rail; (2) avionics heat pipe circuit; (3) heat pipe/phase change material modular sink; (4) air-to-heat-pipe heat exchanger; and (5) heat pipe radiator for compartment temperature control. The philosophy, physical design details, and performance data are presented for each concept along with a comparison to the baseline design where applicable. A sixth application, heat pipe space radiator for waste heat rejection, was also recommended for prototype development.

  13. Applications of aerospace technology to petroleum exploration. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1976-01-01

    Participants in the investigation of problem areas in oil exploration are listed and the data acquisition methods used to determine categories to be studied are described. Specific aerospace techniques applicable to the tasks identified are explained and their costs evaluated.

  14. Penetration of minoxidil from ethanol/propylene glycol solutions: effect of application volume and occlusion.

    PubMed

    Tata, S; Flynn, G L; Weiner, N D

    1995-06-01

    We have previously established that the relative concentrations of propylene glycol and ethanol as a binary solvent system have a significant effect on the skin penetration of 2% solutions of minoxidil at 50 microL/cm2. The present work extends these studies and investigates the penetration of minoxidil from the different vehicle combinations as functions of application volume and occlusion. Decreasing the application volume has a variable effect which depends on vehicle composition. Penetration of minoxidil from 100% ethanol solutions decreased linearly with application volume. Generally, irrespective of the volume applied, the penetration of minoxidil increased with increasing ethanol fraction with a maximum penetration at 90% ethanol. Penetration from all the formulations was enhanced upon occluding the skin, with greatest increase evident in solutions with higher volatile fraction. Penetration of minoxidil in vivo showed trends similar to those seen in vitro. PMID:7562405

  15. Update: Applications of Research in Music Education Yearbook. Volume 24

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowman & Littlefield Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Readers of the online journal "Update: Applications of Research in Music Education" who prefer a printed copy of articles most relevant to their work will find them in the new 2005-2006 "Update Yearbook." Now available to everyone interested in the latest music education trends, the Yearbook contains in print the entire online issues for…

  16. Test evaluates high-volume ESP application offshore Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Almazo, S.G.; Riling, G.

    1998-02-16

    An electric submersible pump (ESP) test, although shorter than hoped for, indicated that artificial lift with ESPs had potential for replacing gas-lift operations, offshore Mexico. Petroleos Mexicanos (Pemex) recently preformed this test of a high-volume (10,000 b/d) ESP in the Akal reservoir of the Cantarell field, northeast Marina Region in the Gulf of Mexico. In the Marine Region, gas lift is the main artificial lift method; however, to maintain production on gas lift, sweetened gas requirements for the Akal reservoir would have to increase by about 30 MMscfd. The ESP design was complex because the pump would have to handle 20--40% of free gas at its intake. Installed in September 1996, the ESP had to be pulled from the well in November 1997 because of an electrical short. Actual operating time was about 7 months. The paper describes test objectives, pump environment, pump design, downhole equipment, surface equipment, operating history, production history, and an analysis.

  17. Thermal Storage Applications Workshop. Volume 1: Plenary Session Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The importance of the development of inexpensive and efficient thermal and thermochemical energy storage technology to the solar power program is discussed in a summary of workship discussions held to exchange information and plan for future systems. Topics covered include storage in central power applications such as the 10 MW-e demonstration pilot receiver to be constructed in Barstow, California; storage for small dispersed systems, and problems associated with the development of storage systems for solar power plants interfacing with utility systems.

  18. Aluminum Tailor-Welded Blanks for High Volume Automotive Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hovanski, Yuri; Upadhyay, Piyush; Pilli, Siva Prasad; Carlson, Blair; Carsley, John; Hartfield-Wunsch, Susan; Eisenmenger, Mark

    2014-02-04

    A Design of Experiment based approach is used to systematically investigate relationships between 8 different welding factors (4 related to tool geometry, 4 related to weld process control) and resulting weld properties including strength, elongation and formability in 1.2mm-2mm thick friction stir welding of AA5182-O for TWB application. The factors that result in most significant effects are elucidated. The interactions between several key factors like plunge depth, tool tilt, pin feature and pin length on the overall weld quality is discussed. Appropriate levels of factors that lead to excellent weld properties are also identified.

  19. High Reliability, High Mix, Ultralow Volume Surface Mount Technology for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barela, P.; Bonner, K.; Cornford, S.; Wen, A.

    1995-01-01

    For the past two years, JPL has been working to introduce surface mount technology (SMT) for high reliability space applications. The thrust has centered around four research and development projects, the aim of which is to facilitate the use of SMT for designing, producing, inspecting, and quantifying surface mount printed wiring assemblies for ultralow volume, long life space applications. This paper explores the current approach being pursued at JPL and some of the problems peculiar to applying SMT to spacecraft applications.

  20. Photovoltaic applications definition and photovoltaic system definition study in the agricultural sector. Volume III. Appendixes

    SciTech Connect

    Mengel, R.W.; Nadolski, T.P.; Sparks, D.C.; Young, S.K.; Yingst, A.

    1980-05-01

    The appendices presented in this volume include: (1) description of energy consumption for representative farm operations; (2) design and simulation of ventilation for livestock shelters; (3) irrigation systems and calculations; (4) detailed methodology for selecting multifunction PV system applications; (5) hourly load data for the chosen farm operations; (6) sample linear programming solution output format; (7) life cycle cost calculation; and (8) illustrative monthly load data for applications analysis and equipment data for applications analysis. (WHK)

  1. 3D ultrasound volume stitching using phase symmetry and harris corner detection for orthopaedic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalvi, Rupin; Hacihaliloglu, Ilker; Abugharbieh, Rafeef

    2010-03-01

    Stitching of volumes obtained from three dimensional (3D) ultrasound (US) scanners improves visualization of anatomy in many clinical applications. Fast but accurate volume registration remains the key challenge in this area.We propose a volume stitching method based on efficient registration of 3D US volumes obtained from a tracked US probe. Since the volumes, after adjusting for probe motion, are coarsely registered, we obtain salient correspondence points in the central slices of these volumes. This is done by first removing artifacts in the US slices using intensity invariant local phase image processing and then applying the Harris Corner detection algorithm. Fast sub-volume registration on a small neighborhood around the points then gives fast, accurate 3D registration parameters. The method has been tested on 3D US scans of phantom and real human radius and pelvis bones and a phantom human fetus. The method has also been compared to volumetric registration, as well as feature based registration using 3D-SIFT. Quantitative results show average post-registration error of 0.33mm which is comparable to volumetric registration accuracy (0.31mm) and much better than 3D-SIFT based registration which failed to register the volumes. The proposed method was also much faster than volumetric registration (~4.5 seconds versus 83 seconds).

  2. Reconstruction of 3-dimensional histology volume and its application to study mouse mammary glands.

    PubMed

    Shojaii, Rushin; Bacopulos, Stephanie; Yang, Wenyi; Karavardanyan, Tigran; Spyropoulos, Demetri; Raouf, Afshin; Martel, Anne; Seth, Arun

    2014-07-26

    Histology volume reconstruction facilitates the study of 3D shape and volume change of an organ at the level of macrostructures made up of cells. It can also be used to investigate and validate novel techniques and algorithms in volumetric medical imaging and therapies. Creating 3D high-resolution atlases of different organs(1,2,3) is another application of histology volume reconstruction. This provides a resource for investigating tissue structures and the spatial relationship between various cellular features. We present an image registration approach for histology volume reconstruction, which uses a set of optical blockface images. The reconstructed histology volume represents a reliable shape of the processed specimen with no propagated post-processing registration error. The Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) stained sections of two mouse mammary glands were registered to their corresponding blockface images using boundary points extracted from the edges of the specimen in histology and blockface images. The accuracy of the registration was visually evaluated. The alignment of the macrostructures of the mammary glands was also visually assessed at high resolution. This study delineates the different steps of this image registration pipeline, ranging from excision of the mammary gland through to 3D histology volume reconstruction. While 2D histology images reveal the structural differences between pairs of sections, 3D histology volume provides the ability to visualize the differences in shape and volume of the mammary glands.

  3. Manipulating biological agents and cells in micro-scale volumes for applications in medicine

    PubMed Central

    Tasoglu, Savas; Gurkan, Umut Atakan; Wang, ShuQi

    2013-01-01

    Recent technological advances provide new tools to manipulate cells and biological agents in micro/nano-liter volumes. With precise control over small volumes, the cell microenvironment and other biological agents can be bioengineered; interactions between cells and external stimuli can be monitored; and the fundamental mechanisms such as cancer metastasis and stem cell differentiation can be elucidated. Technological advances based on the principles of electrical, magnetic, chemical, optical, acoustic, and mechanical forces lead to novel applications in point-of-care diagnostics, regenerative medicine, in vitro drug testing, cryopreservation, and cell isolation/purification. In this review, we first focus on the underlying mechanisms of emerging examples for cell manipulation in small volumes targeting applications such as tissue engineering. Then, we illustrate how these mechanisms impact the aforementioned biomedical applications, discuss the associated challenges, and provide perspectives for further development. PMID:23575660

  4. Manipulating biological agents and cells in micro-scale volumes for applications in medicine.

    PubMed

    Tasoglu, Savas; Gurkan, Umut Atakan; Wang, Shuqi; Demirci, Utkan

    2013-07-01

    Recent technological advances provide new tools to manipulate cells and biological agents in micro/nano-liter volumes. With precise control over small volumes, the cell microenvironment and other biological agents can be bioengineered; interactions between cells and external stimuli can be monitored; and the fundamental mechanisms such as cancer metastasis and stem cell differentiation can be elucidated. Technological advances based on the principles of electrical, magnetic, chemical, optical, acoustic, and mechanical forces lead to novel applications in point-of-care diagnostics, regenerative medicine, in vitro drug testing, cryopreservation, and cell isolation/purification. In this review, we first focus on the underlying mechanisms of emerging examples for cell manipulation in small volumes targeting applications such as tissue engineering. Then, we illustrate how these mechanisms impact the aforementioned biomedical applications, discuss the associated challenges, and provide perspectives for further development.

  5. High Volume Fraction Carbon Nanotube Composites for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siochi, E. J.; Kim, J.-W.; Sauti, G.; Cano, R. J.; Wincheski, R. A.; Ratcliffe, J. G.; Czabaj, M.

    2016-01-01

    Reported mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) at the nanoscale suggest their potential to enable significantly lighter structures of interest for space applications. However, their utility depends on the retention of these properties in bulk material formats that permit practical fabrication of large structures. This presentation summarizes recent progress made to produce carbon nanotube composites with specific tensile properties that begin to rival those of carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites. CNT content in these nanocomposites was greater than 70% by weight. Tested nanocomposite specimens were fabricated from kilometers or tens of square meters of CNT, depending on the starting material format. Processing methods to yield these results, and characterization and testing to evaluate the performance of these composites will be discussed. The final objective is the demonstration of a CNT composite overwrapped pressure vessel to be flight tested in the Fall of 2016.

  6. MBE growth of VCSELs for high volume applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jäger, Roland; Riedl, Michael C.

    2011-05-01

    Mass market applications like laser computer mouse or optical data transmission based on vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) chips need a high over all yield including epitaxy, processing, dicing, mounting and testing. One yield limitation for VCSEL structures is the emission wavelength variation of the substrate surface area leading to the fraction on laser chips which are below or above the specification limits. For most 850 nm VCSEL products a resonator wavelength variation of ±2 nm is common. This represents an average resonator thickness variation of much less than 1% which is quite challenging to be fulfilled on the entire processed wafer surface area. A high over all yield is demonstrated on MBE grown VCSEL structures.

  7. Thermal Storage Applications Workshop. Volume 2: Contributed Papers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The solar thermal and the thermal and thermochemical energy storage programs are described as well as the technology requirements for both external (electrical) and internal (thermal, chemical) modes for energy storage in solar power plants. Specific technical issues addressed include thermal storage criteria for solar power plants interfacing with utility systems; optimal dispatch of storage for solar plants in a conventional electric grid; thermal storage/temperature tradeoffs for solar total energy systems; the value of energy storage for direct-replacement solar thermal power plants; systems analysis of storage in specific solar thermal power applications; the value of seasonal storage of solar energy; criteria for selection of the thermal storage system for a 10 MW(2) solar power plant; and the need for specific requirements by storage system development teams.

  8. High Volume Fraction Carbon Nanotube Composites for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siochi, Emilie J.; Kim, Jae-Woo; Sauti, Godfrey; Cano, Roberto J.; Wincheski, Russell A.; Ratcliffe, James G.; Czabaj, Michael; Jensen, Benjamin D.; Wise, Kristopher E.

    2015-01-01

    Reported nanoscale mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) suggest that their use may enable the fabrication of significantly lighter structures for use in space applications. To be useful in the fabrication of large structures, however, their attractive nanoscale properties must be retained as they are scaled up to bulk materials and converted into practically useful forms. Advances in CNT production have significantly increased the quantities available for use in manufacturing processes, but challenges remain with the retention of nanoscale properties in larger assemblies of CNTs. This work summarizes recent progress in producing carbon nanotube composites with tensile properties approaching those of carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites. These advances were achieved in nanocomposites with CNT content of 70% by weight. The processing methods explored to yield these CNT composite properties will be discussed, as will the characterization and test methods that were developed to provide insight into the factors that contribute to the enhanced tensile properties. Technology maturation was guided by parallel advancements in computational modeling tools that aided in the interpretation of experimental data.

  9. Composite materials. Volume 3 - Engineering applications of composites. Volume 4 - Metallic matrix composites. Volume 8 - Structural design and analysis, Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noton, B. R. (Editor); Kreider, K. G.; Chamis, C. C.

    1974-01-01

    This volume discusses a vaety of applications of both low- and high-cost composite materials in a number of selected engineering fields. The text stresses the use of fiber-reinforced composites, along with interesting material systems used in the electrical and nuclear industries. As to technology transfer, a similarity is noted between many of the reasons responsible for the utilization of composites and those problems requiring urgent solution, such as mechanized fabrication processes and design for production. Features topics include road transportation, rail transportation, civil aircraft, space vehicles, builing industry, chemical plants, and appliances and equipment. The laminate orientation code devised by Air Force materials laboratory is included. Individual items are announced in this issue.

  10. Uncooled amorphous silicon IRFPA for high performance and high volume applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pochic, D.; Durand, A.; Tissot, J. L.; Crastes, A.; Vilain, M.; Legras, O.; Tinnes, S.; Minassian, C.; Robert, P.

    2009-09-01

    For more than 10 years now, uncooled sensors have given new opportunities in the IR field of applications by being able to be produce in large volume. Compared to cooled technology, uncooled detectors offer many interesting advantages: high reliability, lower cost ... whereas the performance is high enough for a lot of applications. Thermography, building inspection, enhanced driver vision and military (thermal weapon sight, low altitude UAV sensor) are applications which can be provided with affordable IR focal plane arrays... As uncooled IR sensors are mainly dedicated to these high volume applications, any uncooled IRFPA technology has to be able to provide high performance sensors but also to be producible in large volume at a minimum cost. The high level of accumulated expertise by ULIS and CEA/LETI on uncooled microbolometers made from amorphous silicon layer enables ULIS to develop a full range of IRFPA formats from 160x120 to 1024x768 pixels with 25μm and 17μm pixel-pitch, designed for high end and high volume applications. The detector ROIC designs rely on a simple architecture (detector configuration addressed by a serial link for user defined amplifier gain, windowing capability...) which enables easier systems upgrade and therefore a reduced system development non recurrent cost. The packaging technique depends on the application environment and the production volume in order to fit with the market expectation. Starting from metallic and ceramics package, very advanced new technique is under development in order to reduce uncooled IRFPA production cost. NETD in the range of 30mK (f/1, 300K, 60Hz) as well as operability higher than 99.99%, are routinely achieved with amorphous silicon technology.

  11. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act: Part B permit application. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    Volume one contains the following: Regulatory cross-reference; Hazardous waste permit application part B; Facility description; Waste analysis plan; Facility and process information; Groundwater monitoring; Procedure to prevent hazards; RCRA contingency plan; Personnel training; Closure plans, post-closure plans, and financial requirements; Corrective action for solid waste management units; Other Federal laws; No-migration variance petition; and Certification.

  12. Photovoltaic applications definition and photovoltaic system definition study in the agricultural sector. Volume I. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Mengel, R.W.; Nadolski, T.P.; Sparks, D.C.; Young, S.K.; Yingst, A.

    1980-05-01

    Study results of identification and characterization of agricultural energy demands that can effectively use photovoltaic power systems, conceptual designs and performance analysis for selected applications, and conclusions and recommendations are presented. This volume presents an overview of the project results, the technical work accomplished, and the approach taken to achieve the project objectives. (WHK)

  13. SU-E-T-611: Effective Treatment Volume of the Small Size IORT Applicators

    SciTech Connect

    Krechetov, A.S.; Goer, D.A.

    2014-06-01

    Purpose Mobile electron linear accelerators are gaining more attention recently, providing a lower cost and simpler way to perform intraoperative treatment. However, the simplicity of the treatment process does not eliminate the need for proper attention to the technical aspects of the treatment. One of the potential pitfalls is incorrect selection of the appropriate applicator size to adequately cover the tumor bed to the prescription dose. When treating tumor beds in the pelvis, the largest applicator that fits into the pelvis is usually selected as there is concern about microscopic extension of the disease along the sidewalls of the pelvis. But when treating early stage breast tumors, there is a natural tendency to select an applicator as small as possible so as not to jeopardize cosmesis. Methods This investigation questions how much of the typical breast treatment volume gets adequate exposure and what is the correct strategy in selecting the proper applicator size. Actual data from isodose scans were analyzed. Results We found that typical treatment dose prescriptions can cover as much as 80% and as little as 20% of the nominal treatment volume depending on the applicator size and energy of the beam and whether the dose is prescribed to the 80 or 90% isodose level. Treatment volume is defined as a cylinder with diameter equal to applicator and height equal to the corresponding D80 or D90 depth. Conclusion If mobile linear accelerators are used, there can be significant amount of “cold volume” depending on the applicator size and this should be taken into account when selecting the applicator that is needed. Using too small of an applicator could result in significant under-dosing to the tissue at risk. Long-term clinical data demonstrates that selecting an adequate field size results in good ontological control as well as excellent cosmesis. Intraop Medical Corp was providing facilities and equipment for this research.

  14. Higher-Order, Space-Time Adaptive Finite Volume Methods: Algorithms, Analysis and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Minion, Michael

    2014-04-29

    The four main goals outlined in the proposal for this project were: 1. Investigate the use of higher-order (in space and time) finite-volume methods for fluid flow problems. 2. Explore the embedding of iterative temporal methods within traditional block-structured AMR algorithms. 3. Develop parallel in time methods for ODEs and PDEs. 4. Work collaboratively with the Center for Computational Sciences and Engineering (CCSE) at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab towards incorporating new algorithms within existing DOE application codes.

  15. Draft Title 40 CFR 191 compliance certification application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Volume 4: Appendix BIR Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-31

    This report consists of the waste stream profile for the WIPP transuranic waste baseline inventory at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The following assumptions/modifications were made by the WTWBIR team in developing the LL waste stream profiles: since only current volumes were provided by LL, the final form volumes were assumed to be the same as the current volumes; the WTWBIR team had to assign identification numbers (IDs) to those LL waste streams not given an identifier by the site, the assigned identification numbers are consistent with the site reported numbers; LL Final Waste Form Groups were modified to be consistent with the nomenclature used in the WTWBID, these changes included word and spelling changes, the assigned Final Waste Form Groups are consistent with the information provided by LL; the volumes for the year 1993 were changed from an annual rate of generation (m{sup 3}/year) to a cumulative value (m{sup 3}).

  16. Computing n-dimensional volumes of complexes: Application to constructive entropy bounds

    SciTech Connect

    Beiu, V.; Makaruk, H.E.

    1997-11-01

    The constructive bounds on the needed number-of-bits (entropy) for solving a dichotomy (i.e., classification of a given data-set into two distinct classes) can be represented by the quotient of two multidimensional solid volumes. Exact methods for the calculation of the volume of the solids lead to a tighter lower bound on the needed number-of-bits--than the ones previously known. Establishing such bounds is very important for engineering applications, as they can improve certain constructive neural learning algorithms, while also reducing the area of future VLSI implementations of neural networks. The paper will present an effective method for the exact calculation of the volume of any n-dimensional complex. The method uses a divide-and-conquer approach by: (i) partitioning (i.e., slicing) a complex into simplices; and (ii) computing the volumes of these simplices. The slicing of any complex into a sum of simplices always exists, but it is not unique. This non-uniqueness gives us the freedom to choose that specific partitioning which is convenient for a particular case. It will be shown that this optimal choice is related to the symmetries of the complex, and can significantly reduce the computations involved.

  17. High field volume coil with unbalance current distribution for MRI applications of rodents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrufo, O. R.; Hernández, J.; Rodríguez, A. O.

    2010-12-01

    The development of transceiver volume coils for high field MRI is still a very dynamic field of investigation and development Temnikov has been recently proposed a new volume coil design, similar to the to the gradiometer coil. It is also claimed that it is possible to individually tune it with a single chip capacitor. This motivated the development of a coil prototype based on this idea for whole-body MRI of rodents at 7 Tesla. Electromagnetic simulations of the RF field generated by this coil design were previously performed to study its properties. Electromagnetic simulations were also conducted for a standard birdcage coil with similar dimensions for fare comparison. In all numerical simulations, an unbalanced currents distribution was assumed by applying half the current intensity to designated legs. This coil design operated in the transceiver mode and was linear-driven. The coil size was manufactured to accommodate small rodents. Numerical simulations showed a field uniformity improvement of our coil over the standard birdcage coil. A popular birdcage coil was also constructed to compare their performances. Phantom and rat images were acquired for both volume coils to prove the viability of this coil design for high field MRI applications and standard spin echo pulse sequences Thus, these preliminary results make this coil design a good candidate for MRI and MRS applications of high magnetic fields.

  18. Characterization of volume holographic optical elements recorded in Bayfol HX photopolymer for solar photovoltaic applications.

    PubMed

    Marín-Sáez, Julia; Atencia, Jesús; Chemisana, Daniel; Collados, María-Victoria

    2016-03-21

    Volume Holographic Optical Elements (HOEs) present interesting characteristics for photovoltaic applications as they can select spectrum for concentrating the target bandwidth and avoiding non-desired wavelengths, which can cause the decrease of the performance on the cell, for instance by overheating it. Volume HOEs have been recorded on Bayfol HX photopolymer to test the suitability of this material for solar concentrating photovoltaic systems. The HOEs were recorded at 532 nm and provided a dynamic range, reaching close to 100% efficiency at 800 nm. The diffracted spectrum had a FWHM of 230 nm when illuminating at Bragg angle. These characteristics prove HOEs recorded on Bayfol HX photopolymer are suitable for concentrating solar light onto photovoltaic cells sensitive to that wavelength range. PMID:27136889

  19. Integrated environmental control. Volume 2: application of design strategy. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nold, D.G.; Robie, C.P.; Baus, T.R.

    1986-08-01

    EPRI contracted Stearns Catalytic to develop a design strategy for integrating environmental control system designs with the boiler and fuel in coal-fired power plants, and to apply that design strategy to 12 unique site/coal study cases. The study cases were selected to maximize differences in fuel and site characteristics, and regulations. Volume I presents the design strategy and a results summary. Volume II presents the results of the application of the integrated design strategy to 12 study cases. The results include viable configurations of environmental control components for each study case and an economic and technical analysis of those configurations. The results indicate that the levelized cost for environmental control can vary between 15.5 and 41.4 mills/kWh.

  20. Characterization of volume holographic optical elements recorded in Bayfol HX photopolymer for solar photovoltaic applications.

    PubMed

    Marín-Sáez, Julia; Atencia, Jesús; Chemisana, Daniel; Collados, María-Victoria

    2016-03-21

    Volume Holographic Optical Elements (HOEs) present interesting characteristics for photovoltaic applications as they can select spectrum for concentrating the target bandwidth and avoiding non-desired wavelengths, which can cause the decrease of the performance on the cell, for instance by overheating it. Volume HOEs have been recorded on Bayfol HX photopolymer to test the suitability of this material for solar concentrating photovoltaic systems. The HOEs were recorded at 532 nm and provided a dynamic range, reaching close to 100% efficiency at 800 nm. The diffracted spectrum had a FWHM of 230 nm when illuminating at Bragg angle. These characteristics prove HOEs recorded on Bayfol HX photopolymer are suitable for concentrating solar light onto photovoltaic cells sensitive to that wavelength range.

  1. Application of three-dimensional digital image processing for reconstruction of microstructural volume from serial sections

    SciTech Connect

    Tewari, A.; Gokhale, A.M.

    2000-03-01

    Three-dimensional digital image processing is useful for reconstruction of microstructural volume from a stack of serial sections. Application of this technique is demonstrated via reconstruction of a volume segment of the liquid-phase sintered microstructure of a tungsten heavy alloy processed in the microgravity environment of NASA's space shuttle, Columbia. Ninety serial sections (approximately one micrometer apart) were used for reconstruction of the three-dimensional microstructure. The three-dimensional microstructural reconstruction clearly revealed that the tungsten grains are almost completely connected in three-dimensional space. Both the matrix and the grains are topologically co-continuous, although the alloy was liquid-phase sintered in microgravity. Therefore, absence of gravity did not produced a microstructure consisting of discrete isolated W grains uniformly dispersed in the liquid Ni-Fe alloy matrix at the sintering temperature.

  2. Principles and applications of imaging radar. Manual of remote sensing: Third edition, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, F.M.; Lewis, A.J.

    1998-12-31

    This second volume in the Third Edition of the Manual of Remote Sensing offers a current and comprehensive survey of the theory, methods, and applications of imaging radar for geoscientists, engineers and application scientists interested in the advantages of radar remote sensing. Produced under the auspices of the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, it brings together contributions from experts around the world to discuss the basic principles of imaging radars and trace the research activity--past, present, and future--across the many sciences where radar remote sensing may be applied. This book offers an invaluable snapshot of radar remote sensing technology, including radargrammetry, radar polarimetry and interferometry and its uses. It combines technical and procedural coverage of systems, data interpretation, and other fundamentals with generous coverage of practical applications in agriculture; forestry; soil moisture monitoring; geology; geomorphology and hydrology; oceanography; land use, land cover mapping and archeology.

  3. Horizontal oil well applications and oil recovery assessment. Volume 2: Applications overview, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Deskins, W.G.; McDonald, W.J.; Knoll, R.G.; Springer, S.J.

    1995-03-01

    Horizontal technology has been applied in over 110 formations in the USA. Volume 1 of this study addresses the overall success of horizontal technology, especially in less-publicized formations, i.e., other than the Austin Chalk, Bakken, and Niobrara. Operators in the USA and Canada were surveyed on a formation-by-formation basis by means of a questionnaire. Response data were received describing horizontal well projects in 58 formations in the USA and 88 in Canada. Operators` responses were analyzed for trends in technical and economic success based on lithology (clastics and carbonates) and resource type (light oil, heavy oil, and gas). The potential impact of horizontal technology on reserves was also estimated. A forecast of horizontal drilling activity over the next decade was developed.

  4. High internal free volume compositions for low-k dielectric and other applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swager, Timothy M. (Inventor); Bouffard, Jean (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention provides materials, devices, and methods involving new heterocyclic, shape-persistent monomeric units with internal free volume. In some cases, materials the present invention may comprise monomers, oligomers, or polymers that incorporate a heterocyclic, shape-persistent iptycene. The present invention may provide materials having low dielectric constants and improved stability at high operating temperatures due to the electron-poor character of materials. In addition, compositions of the invention may be easily synthesized and readily modified to suit a particular application.

  5. Packing and deploying Soft Origami to and from cylindrical volumes with application to automotive airbags

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Todd G.; Zimmerman, Trent K.; Fernelius, Janette D.; Magleby, Spencer P.; Howell, Larry L.

    2016-01-01

    Packing soft-sheet materials of approximately zero bending stiffness using Soft Origami (origami patterns applied to soft-sheet materials) into cylindrical volumes and their deployment via mechanisms or internal pressure (inflation) is of interest in fields including automobile airbags, deployable heart stents, inflatable space habitats, and dirigible and parachute packing. This paper explores twofold patterns, the ‘flasher’ and the ‘inverted-cone fold’, for packing soft-sheet materials into cylindrical volumes. Two initial packing methods and mechanisms are examined for each of the flasher and inverted-cone fold patterns. An application to driver’s side automobile airbags is performed, and deployment tests are completed to compare the influence of packing method and origami pattern on deployment performance. Following deployment tests, two additional packing methods for the inverted-cone fold pattern are explored and applied to automobile airbags. It is shown that modifying the packing method (using different methods to impose the same base pattern on the soft-sheet material) can lead to different deployment performance. In total, two origami patterns and six packing methods are examined, and the benefits of using Soft Origami patterns and packing methods are discussed. Soft Origami is presented as a viable method for efficiently packing soft-sheet materials into cylindrical volumes. PMID:27703707

  6. Using n-Dimensional Volumes for Mathematical Applications in Spectral Image Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziemann, Amanda K.

    The ability to detect an object or activity -- such as a military vehicle, construction area, campsite, or vehicle tracks -- is highly important to both military and civilian applications. Sensors that process multi and hyperspectral images provide a medium for performing such tasks. Hyperspectral imaging is a technique for collecting and processing imagery at a large number of visible and non-visible wavelengths. Different materials exhibit different trends in their spectra, which can be used to analyze the image. For an image collected at n different wavelengths, the spectrum of each pixel can be mathematically represented as an n-element vector. The algorithm established in this work, the Simplex Volume Estimation algorithm (SVE), focuses specifically on change detection and large area search. In hyperspectral image analysis, a set of pixels constitutes a data cloud, with each pixel corresponding to a vector endpoint in Euclidean space. The SVE algorithm takes a geometrical approach to image analysis based on the linear mixture model, which describes each pixel in an image collected at n spectral bands as a linear combination of n+1 pure-material component spectra (known as endmembers). Iterative endmember identification is used to construct a volume function, where the Gram matrix is used to calculate the hypervolume of the data at each iteration as the endmembers are considered in Euclidean spaces of increasing dimensionality. Linear algebraic theory substantiates that the volume function accurately characterizes the inherent dimensionality of a set of data, and supports that the volume function provides a tool for identifying the subspace in which the magnitude of the spread of the data is the greatest. A metric is extracted from the volume function, and is used to quantify the relative complexity within a single image or the change in complexity across multiple images. The SVE algorithm was applied to hyperspectral images for the tasks of change detection

  7. 7th International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-07-01

    The proceedings volumes 1 and 2 comprise the papers that were accepted for presentation at the Seventh International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics held at The Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation in Lisbon, during the period of July 11 to 14, 1994. The prime objective of this Seventh Symposium is to provide a forum for the presentation of the most advanced research on laser techniques for flow measurements, and reveal significant results to fluid mechanics. The applications of laser techniques to scientific and engineering fluid flow research is emphasized, but contributions to the theory and practice of laser methods are also considered where they facilitate new improved fluid mechanics research. Attention is focused on laser-Doppler anemometry, particle sizing and other methods for the measurement of velocity and scalars such as particle image velocimetry and laser induced fluorescence.

  8. 7th International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, volume 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-07-01

    The proceedings volumes 1 and 2 comprise the papers that were accepted for presentation at the Seventh International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics held at The Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation in Lisbon, during the period of July 11 to 14, 1994. The prime objective of this Seventh Symposium is to provide a forum for the presentation of the most advanced research on laser techniques for flow measurements, and reveal significant results to fluid mechanics. The applications of laser techniques to scientific and engineering fluid flow research is emphasized, but contributions to the theory and practice of laser methods are also considered where they facilitate new improved fluid mechanic research. Attention is focused on laser-Doppler anemometry, particle sizing and other methods for the measurement of velocity and scalars such as particle image velocimetry and laser induced fluorescence.

  9. Photovoltaic applications definition and photovoltaic system definition study in the agricultural sector. Volume II. Technical results

    SciTech Connect

    Mengel, R.W.; Nadolski, T.P.; Sparks, D.C.; Young, S.K.; Yingst, A.

    1980-05-01

    This volume describes the technical results of the study of potential photovoltaic (P/V) applications in US agriculture. The results presented address all technical aspects of the program and include a summary of agricultural energy consumption. The objectives of the technical effort reported have been to: (1) identify and characterize agricultural energy demands that can effectively use P/V power systems; (2) develop effective P/V system designs for the four most promising applications; (3) determine performance and cost-estimates for the designs; and (4) recommend systems for early test and demonstration and critical issues requiring further systems studies. The farms chosen for conceptual design include: (1) poultry layer farm, (2) hog production farm, (3) beef feedlot, and (4) year-round vegetable farm. (WHK)

  10. Development, Verification and Validation of Parallel, Scalable Volume of Fluid CFD Program for Propulsion Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, Jeff; Yang, H. Q.

    2014-01-01

    There are many instances involving liquid/gas interfaces and their dynamics in the design of liquid engine powered rockets such as the Space Launch System (SLS). Some examples of these applications are: Propellant tank draining and slosh, subcritical condition injector analysis for gas generators, preburners and thrust chambers, water deluge mitigation for launch induced environments and even solid rocket motor liquid slag dynamics. Commercially available CFD programs simulating gas/liquid interfaces using the Volume of Fluid approach are currently limited in their parallel scalability. In 2010 for instance, an internal NASA/MSFC review of three commercial tools revealed that parallel scalability was seriously compromised at 8 cpus and no additional speedup was possible after 32 cpus. Other non-interface CFD applications at the time were demonstrating useful parallel scalability up to 4,096 processors or more. Based on this review, NASA/MSFC initiated an effort to implement a Volume of Fluid implementation within the unstructured mesh, pressure-based algorithm CFD program, Loci-STREAM. After verification was achieved by comparing results to the commercial CFD program CFD-Ace+, and validation by direct comparison with data, Loci-STREAM-VoF is now the production CFD tool for propellant slosh force and slosh damping rate simulations at NASA/MSFC. On these applications, good parallel scalability has been demonstrated for problems sizes of tens of millions of cells and thousands of cpu cores. Ongoing efforts are focused on the application of Loci-STREAM-VoF to predict the transient flow patterns of water on the SLS Mobile Launch Platform in order to support the phasing of water for launch environment mitigation so that vehicle determinantal effects are not realized.

  11. Multispectral scanner data applications evaluation. Volume 2: Sensor system study. [thematic mapper for earth resources application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The optimization of a thematic mapper for earth resources application is discussed in terms of cost versus performance. Performance tradeoffs and the cost impact are analyzed. The instrument design and radiometric performance are also described. The feasibility of a radiative cooler design for a scanning spectral radiometer is evaluated along with the charge coupled multiplex operation. Criteria for balancing the cost and complexity of data acquisition instruments against the requirements of the user, and a pushbroom scanner version of the thematic mapper are presented.

  12. In-Swath Spray Deposition Characteristics of a Low Drift Nozzle for Low Volume Aerial Application - Preliminary Results.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CP flat-fan nozzles with selectable tips were evaluated for droplet spectra and coverage using water sensitive papers placed in the spray swath. This study used low application volumes (1, 2, and 3 GPA) at a certain spray application height as measured precisely by laser mounted in the aircraft. No...

  13. Application of Hydrogel in Reconstruction Surgery: Hydrogel/Fat Graft Complex Filler for Volume Reconstruction in Critical Sized Muscle Defects.

    PubMed

    Lui, Y F; Ip, W Y

    2016-01-01

    Autogenic fat graft usually suffers from degeneration and volume shrinkage in volume reconstruction applications. How to maintain graft viability and graft volume is an essential consideration in reconstruction therapies. In this presented investigation, a new fat graft transplantation method was developed aiming to improve long term graft viability and volume reconstruction effect by incorporation of hydrogel. The harvested fat graft is dissociated into small fragments and incorporated into a collagen based hydrogel to form a hydrogel/fat graft complex for volume reconstruction purpose. In vitro results indicate that the collagen based hydrogel can significantly improve the survivability of cells inside isolated graft. In a 6-month investigation on artificial created defect model, this hydrogel/fat graft complex filler has demonstrated the ability of promoting fat pad formation inside the targeted defect area. The newly generated fat pad can cover the whole defect and restore its original dimension in 6-month time point. Compared to simple fat transplantation, this hydrogel/fat graft complex system provides much improvement on long term volume restoration effect against degeneration and volume shrinkage. One notable effect is that there is continuous proliferation of adipose tissue throughout the 6-month period. In summary, the hydrogel/fat graft system presented in this investigation demonstrated a better and more significant effect on volume reconstruction in large sized volume defect than simple fat transplantation. PMID:27446947

  14. Application of Hydrogel in Reconstruction Surgery: Hydrogel/Fat Graft Complex Filler for Volume Reconstruction in Critical Sized Muscle Defects

    PubMed Central

    Ip, W. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Autogenic fat graft usually suffers from degeneration and volume shrinkage in volume reconstruction applications. How to maintain graft viability and graft volume is an essential consideration in reconstruction therapies. In this presented investigation, a new fat graft transplantation method was developed aiming to improve long term graft viability and volume reconstruction effect by incorporation of hydrogel. The harvested fat graft is dissociated into small fragments and incorporated into a collagen based hydrogel to form a hydrogel/fat graft complex for volume reconstruction purpose. In vitro results indicate that the collagen based hydrogel can significantly improve the survivability of cells inside isolated graft. In a 6-month investigation on artificial created defect model, this hydrogel/fat graft complex filler has demonstrated the ability of promoting fat pad formation inside the targeted defect area. The newly generated fat pad can cover the whole defect and restore its original dimension in 6-month time point. Compared to simple fat transplantation, this hydrogel/fat graft complex system provides much improvement on long term volume restoration effect against degeneration and volume shrinkage. One notable effect is that there is continuous proliferation of adipose tissue throughout the 6-month period. In summary, the hydrogel/fat graft system presented in this investigation demonstrated a better and more significant effect on volume reconstruction in large sized volume defect than simple fat transplantation. PMID:27446947

  15. Application of a photogrammetric kinematic model for prediction of lung volumes in adolescents: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There are several ways to measure the respiratory system, among them inductance plethysmography and three-dimensional kinematic analysis, methods of high cost and difficult transportability. The objective of this study was to correlate respiratory volumes obtained by spirometry standard equipment with a biomechanical model photogrammetric analysis of adolescents. Methods We evaluated 50 subjects of both genders, aged between 14 and 17 years old, excluding those with respiratory obstruction or restriction. Stickers with markers, there was a five-point mapping for anatomical modeling and photogrammetry, with each evaluated in supine position, was sought to test the Forced Vital Capacity (FVC). The test was filmed and repeated three times. Images of the films were extracted for the moment of maximum exhalation and inhalation of proof with better breathing. With the use of a commercial software, defined the respiratory volumes to the thorax and abdomen. Results The photogrammetric analysis has found values strongly correlated with the spirometric measurements of FVC (0.812), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 – 0.708), Peak Expiratory Flow (PEF – 0.762) in addition to post test performed Inspiration (IP- 0.816). There was a higher ventilatory mobility for boys than girls for Lower Chest and Lower and Upper Abdomen. It was possible to reach a regression R2 = 0.866 for proof of FVC and R2 = 0.776 for IP with the use of photogrammetry, presenting a standard error of 0.353 and 0.451, respectively. Conclusions Photogrammetry can be used to study thoracoabdominal movements by applying analytical two-dimensional and three-dimensional images acquired using a video camera being, applicable and reproducible. PMID:24571595

  16. Formation of superpower volume discharges and their application for modification of surface of metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasenko, Victor F.; Shulepov, M. A.

    2008-05-01

    The results of experimental investigations of a volume avalanche discharge initiated by an e-beam (VADIEB) and surface layer of Cu and AlBe foils modifications at the plasma action of VADIEB are given. The volume discharge in the air of atmosphere pressure formed in the gap with the cathode having small curvature radius and with high voltage pulses of nanosecond duration and positive and negative polarity. A supershort avalanche electron beam (SAEB) with formation conditions in gases under atmospheric pressure have been investigated. It is proved that the surface layer is cleared of carbon at foil treatment, and atoms of oxygen penetrate into a foil. It is show that the cleaning depth depends on polarity of voltage pulses. At positive polarity of a copper foil electrode the cleaning is observed at the depth over 50 nm, and atoms of oxygen penetrate at the depth up to 25 nm. Plasma of the superpower volume discharge of nanosecond duration with a specific excitation power of hundreds of MW/cm3, and SAEB, and the discharge plasma radiation of various spectral ranges (including UV, VUV and X-ray) has the influence on the anode. The supershort avalanche electronic beam is generated only at negative polarity of a voltage pulse on an electrode with a small radius of curvature. SAEB influence on modifications of the copper foil surface is registered. VADIEB is easily realized in various gases and at various pressures, and, at gas pressure decrease the density of the beam current in helium can achieve 2 kA/cm2. It allows predicting an opportunity of VADIEB application for metal surface modifications in various technological processes, and for surface dielectric modifications at the certain design of the anode.

  17. Multiplexed Volume Bragg Gratings in Narrowand Broad-band Spectral Systems: Analysis and Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingersoll, Gregory B.

    Volume Bragg gratings (VBGs) are important holographic optical elements in many spectral systems. Using multiple volume gratings, whether multiplexed or arranged sequentially, provides advantages to many types of systems in overall efficiency, dispersion performance, flexibility of design, etc. However, the use of multiple gratings---particularly when the gratings are multiplexed in a single holographic optical element (HOE)---is subject to inter-grating coupling effects that ultimately limit system performance. Analyzing these coupling effects requires a more complex mathematical model than the straightforward analysis of a single volume grating. We present a matrix-based algorithm for determining diffraction efficiencies of significant coupled waves in these multiplexed grating holographic optical elements (HOEs). Several carefully constructed experiments with spectrally multiplexed gratings in dichromated gelatin verify our conclusions. Applications of this theory to broad- and narrow-band systems are explored in detailed simulations. Broadband systems include spectrum splitters for diverse-bandgap photovoltaic (PV) cells. Volume Bragg gratings can serve as effective spectrum splitters, but the inherent dispersion of a VBG can be detrimental given a broad-spectrum input. The performance of a holographic spectrum splitter element can be improved by utilizing multiple volume gratings, each operating in a slightly different spectral band. However, care must be taken to avoid inter-grating coupling effects that limit ultimate performance. We explore broadband multi-grating holographic optical elements (HOEs) in sandwiched arrangements where individual single-grating HOEs are placed in series, and in multiplexed arrangements where multiple gratings are recorded in a single HOE. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is used to tailor these systems to the solar spectrum taking into account both efficiency and dispersion. Both multiplexed and sandwiched two-grating systems

  18. Application of Local Discretization Methods in the NASA Finite-Volume General Circulation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, Kao-San; Lin, Shian-Jiann; Rood, Richard B.

    2002-01-01

    We present the basic ideas of the dynamics system of the finite-volume General Circulation Model developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center for climate simulations and other applications in meteorology. The dynamics of this model is designed with emphases on conservative and monotonic transport, where the property of Lagrangian conservation is used to maintain the physical consistency of the computational fluid for long-term simulations. As the model benefits from the noise-free solutions of monotonic finite-volume transport schemes, the property of Lagrangian conservation also partly compensates the accuracy of transport for the diffusion effects due to the treatment of monotonicity. By faithfully maintaining the fundamental laws of physics during the computation, this model is able to achieve sufficient accuracy for the global consistency of climate processes. Because the computing algorithms are based on local memory, this model has the advantage of efficiency in parallel computation with distributed memory. Further research is yet desirable to reduce the diffusion effects of monotonic transport for better accuracy, and to mitigate the limitation due to fast-moving gravity waves for better efficiency.

  19. Seismic hazard analysis application of methodology, results, and sensitivity studies. Volume 4

    SciTech Connect

    Bernreuter, D. L

    1981-08-08

    As part of the Site Specific Spectra Project, this report seeks to identify the sources of and minimize uncertainty in estimates of seismic hazards in the Eastern United States. Findings are being used by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to develop a synthesis among various methods that can be used in evaluating seismic hazard at the various plants in the Eastern United States. In this volume, one of a five-volume series, we discuss the application of the probabilistic approach using expert opinion. The seismic hazard is developed at nine sites in the Central and Northeastern United States, and both individual experts' and synthesis results are obtained. We also discuss and evaluate the ground motion models used to develop the seismic hazard at the various sites, analyzing extensive sensitivity studies to determine the important parameters and the significance of uncertainty in them. Comparisons are made between probabilistic and real spectral for a number of Eastern earthquakes. The uncertainty in the real spectra is examined as a function of the key earthquake source parameters. In our opinion, the single most important conclusion of this study is that the use of expert opinion to supplement the sparse data available on Eastern United States earthquakes is a viable approach for determining estimted seismic hazard in this region of the country. 29 refs., 15 tabs.

  20. Small sample properties of an adaptive filter with application to low volume statistical process control

    SciTech Connect

    Crowder, S.V.; Eshleman, L.

    1998-08-01

    In many manufacturing environments such as the nuclear weapons complex, emphasis has shifted from the regular production and delivery of large orders to infrequent small orders. However, the challenge to maintain the same high quality and reliability standards white building much smaller lot sizes remains. To meet this challenge, specific areas need more attention, including fast and on-target process start-up, low volume statistical process control, process characterization with small experiments, and estimating reliability given few actual performance tests of the product. In this paper the authors address the issue of low volume statistical process control. They investigate an adaptive filtering approach to process monitoring with a relatively short time series of autocorrelated data. The emphasis is on estimation and minimization of mean squared error rather than the traditional hypothesis testing and run length analyses associated with process control charting. The authors develop an adaptive filtering technique that assumes initial process parameters are unknown, and updates the parameters as more data become available. Using simulation techniques, they study the data requirements (the length of a time series of autocorrelated data) necessary to adequately estimate process parameters. They show that far fewer data values are needed than is typically recommended for process control applications. And they demonstrate the techniques with a case study from the nuclear weapons manufacturing complex.

  1. Small Sample Properties of an Adaptive Filter with Application to Low Volume Statistical Process Control

    SciTech Connect

    CROWDER, STEPHEN V.

    1999-09-01

    In many manufacturing environments such as the nuclear weapons complex, emphasis has shifted from the regular production and delivery of large orders to infrequent small orders. However, the challenge to maintain the same high quality and reliability standards while building much smaller lot sizes remains. To meet this challenge, specific areas need more attention, including fast and on-target process start-up, low volume statistical process control, process characterization with small experiments, and estimating reliability given few actual performance tests of the product. In this paper we address the issue of low volume statistical process control. We investigate an adaptive filtering approach to process monitoring with a relatively short time series of autocorrelated data. The emphasis is on estimation and minimization of mean squared error rather than the traditional hypothesis testing and run length analyses associated with process control charting. We develop an adaptive filtering technique that assumes initial process parameters are unknown, and updates the parameters as more data become available. Using simulation techniques, we study the data requirements (the length of a time series of autocorrelated data) necessary to adequately estimate process parameters. We show that far fewer data values are needed than is typically recommended for process control applications. We also demonstrate the techniques with a case study from the nuclear weapons manufacturing complex.

  2. Environmental fate model for ultra-low-volume insecticide applications used for adult mosquito management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schleier, Jerome J.; Peterson, Robert K.D.; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Marshall, Lucy M.; Weaver, David K.; Preftakes, Collin J.

    2012-01-01

    One of the more effective ways of managing high densities of adult mosquitoes that vector human and animal pathogens is ultra-low-volume (ULV) aerosol applications of insecticides. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency uses models that are not validated for ULV insecticide applications and exposure assumptions to perform their human and ecological risk assessments. Currently, there is no validated model that can accurately predict deposition of insecticides applied using ULV technology for adult mosquito management. In addition, little is known about the deposition and drift of small droplets like those used under conditions encountered during ULV applications. The objective of this study was to perform field studies to measure environmental concentrations of insecticides and to develop a validated model to predict the deposition of ULV insecticides. The final regression model was selected by minimizing the Bayesian Information Criterion and its prediction performance was evaluated using k-fold cross validation. Density of the formulation and the density and CMD interaction coefficients were the largest in the model. The results showed that as density of the formulation decreases, deposition increases. The interaction of density and CMD showed that higher density formulations and larger droplets resulted in greater deposition. These results are supported by the aerosol physics literature. A k-fold cross validation demonstrated that the mean square error of the selected regression model is not biased, and the mean square error and mean square prediction error indicated good predictive ability.

  3. Application Level Protocol Development for Library and Information Science Applications. Volume 1: Service Definition. Volume 2: Protocol Specification. Report No. TG.1.5; TG.50.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aagaard, James S.; And Others

    This two-volume document specifies a protocol that was developed using the Reference Model for Open Systems Interconnection (OSI), which provides a framework for communications within a heterogeneous network environment. The protocol implements the features necessary for bibliographic searching, record maintenance, and mail transfer between…

  4. Accurate Automatic Delineation of Heterogeneous Functional Volumes in Positron Emission Tomography for Oncology Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hatt, Mathieu; Cheze le Rest, Catherine; Descourt, Patrice; Dekker, Andre; De Ruysscher, Dirk; Oellers, Michel; Lambin, Philippe; Pradier, Olivier; Visvikis, Dimitris

    2010-05-01

    Purpose: Accurate contouring of positron emission tomography (PET) functional volumes is now considered crucial in image-guided radiotherapy and other oncology applications because the use of functional imaging allows for biological target definition. In addition, the definition of variable uptake regions within the tumor itself may facilitate dose painting for dosimetry optimization. Methods and Materials: Current state-of-the-art algorithms for functional volume segmentation use adaptive thresholding. We developed an approach called fuzzy locally adaptive Bayesian (FLAB), validated on homogeneous objects, and then improved it by allowing the use of up to three tumor classes for the delineation of inhomogeneous tumors (3-FLAB). Simulated and real tumors with histology data containing homogeneous and heterogeneous activity distributions were used to assess the algorithm's accuracy. Results: The new 3-FLAB algorithm is able to extract the overall tumor from the background tissues and delineate variable uptake regions within the tumors, with higher accuracy and robustness compared with adaptive threshold (T{sub bckg}) and fuzzy C-means (FCM). 3-FLAB performed with a mean classification error of less than 9% +- 8% on the simulated tumors, whereas binary-only implementation led to errors of 15% +- 11%. T{sub bckg} and FCM led to mean errors of 20% +- 12% and 17% +- 14%, respectively. 3-FLAB also led to more robust estimation of the maximum diameters of tumors with histology measurements, with <6% standard deviation, whereas binary FLAB, T{sub bckg} and FCM lead to 10%, 12%, and 13%, respectively. Conclusion: These encouraging results warrant further investigation in future studies that will investigate the impact of 3-FLAB in radiotherapy treatment planning, diagnosis, and therapy response evaluation.

  5. Personnel neutron dose assessment upgrade: Volume 2, Field neutron spectrometer for health physics applications

    SciTech Connect

    Brackenbush, L.W.; Reece, W.D.; Miller, S.D.; Endres, G.W.R.; Durham, J.S.; Scherpelz, R.I.; Tomeraasen, P.L.; Stroud, C.M.; Faust, L.G.; Vallario, E.J.

    1988-07-01

    Both the (ICRP) and the (NCPR) have recommended an increase in neutron quality factors and the adoption of effective dose equivalent methods. The series of reports entitled Personnel Neutron Dose Assessment Upgrade (PNL-6620) addresses these changes. Volume 1 in this series of reports (Personnel Neutron Dosimetry Assessment) provided guidance on the characteristics, use, and calibration of personnel neutron dosimeters in order to meet the new recommendations. This report, Volume 2: Field Neutron Spectrometer for Health Physics Applications describes the development of a portable field spectrometer which can be set up for use in a few minutes by a single person. The field spectrometer described herein represents a significant advance in improving the accuracy of neutron dose assessment. It permits an immediate analysis of the energy spectral distribution associated with the radiation from which neutron quality factor can be determined. It is now possible to depart from the use of maximum Q by determining and realistically applying a lower Q based on spectral data. The field spectrometer is made up of two modules: a detector module with built-in electronics and an analysis module with a IBM PC/reg sign/-compatible computer to control the data acquisition and analysis of data in the field. The unit is simple enough to allow the operator to perform spectral measurements with minimal training. The instrument is intended for use in steady-state radiation fields with neutrons energies covering the fission spectrum range. The prototype field spectrometer has been field tested in plutonium processing facilities, and has been proven to operate satisfactorily. The prototype field spectrometer uses a /sup 3/He proportional counter to measure the neutron energy spectrum between 50 keV and 5 MeV and a tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) to measure absorbed neutron dose.

  6. Applications of on-product diffraction-based focus metrology in logic high volume manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noyes, Ben F.; Mokaberi, Babak; Bolton, David; Li, Chen; Palande, Ashwin; Park, Kevin; Noot, Marc; Kea, Marc

    2016-03-01

    The integration of on-product diffraction-based focus (DBF) capability into the majority of immersion lithography layers in leading edge logic manufacturing has enabled new applications targeted towards improving cycle time and yield. A CD-based detection method is the process of record (POR) for excursion detection. The drawback of this method is increased cycle time and limited sampling due to CD-SEM metrology capacity constraints. The DBFbased method allows the addition of focus metrology samples to the existing overlay measurements on the integrated metrology (IM) system. The result enables the addition of measured focus to the SPC system, allowing a faster excursion detection method. For focus targeting, the current method involves using a dedicated focus-exposure matrix (FEM) on all scanners, resulting in lengthy analysis times and uncertainty in the best focus. The DBF method allows the measurement to occur on the IM system, on a regular production wafer, and at the same time as the exposure. This results in a cycle time gain as well as a less subjective determination of best focus. A third application aims to use the novel onproduct focus metrology data in order to apply per-exposure focus corrections to the scanner. These corrections are particularly effective at the edge of the wafer, where systematic layer-dependent effects can be removed using DBFbased scanner feedback. This paper will discuss the development of a methodology to accomplish each of these applications in a high-volume production environment. The new focus metrology method, sampling schemes, feedback mechanisms and analysis methods lead to improved focus control, as well as earlier detection of failures.

  7. Relationship between LIBS Ablation and Pit Volume for Geologic Samples: Applications for in situ Absolute Geochronology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devismes, D.; Cohen, Barbara A.

    2014-01-01

    In planetary sciences, in situ absolute geochronology is a scientific and engineering challenge. Currently, the age of the Martian surface can only be determined by crater density counting. However this method has significant uncertainties and needs to be calibrated with absolute ages. We are developing an instrument to acquire in situ absolute geochronology based on the K-Ar method. The protocol is based on the laser ablation of a rock by hundreds of laser pulses. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) gives the potassium content of the ablated material and a mass spectrometer (quadrupole or ion trap) measures the quantity of 40Ar released. In order to accurately measure the quantity of released 40Ar in cases where Ar is an atmospheric constituent (e.g., Mars), the sample is first put into a chamber under high vacuum. The 40Arquantity, the concentration of K and the estimation of the ablated mass are the parameters needed to give the age of the rocks. The main uncertainties with this method are directly linked to the measures of the mass (typically some µg) and of the concentration of K by LIBS (up to 10%). Because the ablated mass is small compared to the mass of the sample, and because material is redeposited onto the sample after ablation, it is not possible to directly measure the ablated mass. Our current protocol measures the ablated volume and estimates the sample density to calculate ablated mass. The precision and accuracy of this method may be improved by using knowledge of the sample's geologic properties to predict its response to laser ablation, i.e., understanding whether natural samples have a predictable relationship between laser energy deposited and resultant ablation volume. In contrast to most previous studies of laser ablation, theoretical equations are not highly applicable. The reasons are numerous, but the most important are: a) geologic rocks are complex, polymineralic materials; b) the conditions of ablation are unusual (for example

  8. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B permit application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)]. Volume 1, Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    This volume includes the following chapters: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant RCRA A permit application; facility description; waste analysis plan; groundwater monitoring; procedures to prevent hazards; RCRA contingency plan; personnel training; corrective action for solid waste management units; and other Federal laws.

  9. Application of adaptive and neural network computational techniques to Traffic Volume and Classification Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Mead, W.C.; Fisher, H.N.; Jones, R.D.; Bisset, K.R.; Lee, L.A.

    1993-09-01

    We are developing a Traffic Volume and Classification Monitoring (TVCM) system based on adaptive and neural network computational techniques. The value of neutral networks in this application lies in their ability to learn from data and to form a mapping of arbitrary topology. The piezoelectric strip and magnetic loop sensors typically used for TVCM provide signals that are complicated and variable, and that correspond in indirect ways with the desired FWHA 13-class classification system. Further, the wide variety of vehicle configurations adds to the complexity of the classification task. Our goal is to provide a TVCM system featuring high accuracy, adaptability to wide sensor and envirorunental variations, and continuous fault detection. We have instrumented an experimental TVCM site, developed PC-based on-line data acquisition software, collected a large database of vehicles` signals together with accurate ground truth determination, and analyzed the data off-line with a neural net classification system that can distinguish between class 2 (automobiles) and class 3 (utility vehicles) with better than 90% accuracy. The neural network used, called the Connectionist Hyperprism Classification (CHC) network, features simple basis functions; rapid, linear training algorithms for basis function amplitudes and widths; and basis function elimination that enhances network speed and accuracy. Work is in progress to extend the system to other classes, to quantify the system`s adaptability, and to develop automatic fault detection techniques.

  10. The application of waterworks sludge ash to stabilize the volume of cement paste.

    PubMed

    Luo, H L; Kuo, W T; Lin, D F

    2008-01-01

    In order to extend the recycling of waterworks sludge to engineering applications, this paper addresses the influence of nano-SiO2 on incinerated waterworks sludge ash (IWSA) cement paste attacked by sulfate. Tests were performed such as length measurement for volume change, compressive strength, weight loss, and micro-structural testing using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results indicate that when a portion of the cement in the paste was replaced by IWSA, the IWSA diluted the cementitious material C3A, and filled the capillary pores in the hardened paste. Moreover, since IWSA has potential pozzolanic activity, it can chemically react with Ca(OH)2 crystals in the paste and can consequently improve the resistance of the paste to sulfate attack. Test results also show that due to the fully developed pozzolanic effect of IWSA, the major reaction products of sulfate attack, gypsum and ettringite, were clearly reduced. Hence, the expansion rate in length decreased with the increase of IWSA replacement. Furthermore, the addition of nano-SiO2 to IWSA cement paste can also reduce the length expansion rate.

  11. The applicability of frame imaging from a spinning spacecraft. Volume 1: Summary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botticelli, R. A.; Johnson, R. O.; Wallmark, G. N.

    1973-01-01

    A detailed study was made of frame-type imaging systems for use on board a spin stabilized spacecraft for outer planets applications. All types of frame imagers capable of performing this mission were considered, regardless of the current state of the art. Detailed sensor models of these systems were developed at the component level and used in the subsequent analyses. An overall assessment was then made of the various systems based upon results of a worst-case performance analysis, foreseeable technology problems, and the relative reliability and radiation tolerance of the systems. Special attention was directed at restraints imposed by image motion and the limited data transmission and storage capability of the spacecraft. Based upon this overall assessment, the most promising systems were selected and then examined in detail for a specified Jupiter orbiter mission. The relative merits of each selected system were then analyzed, and the system design characteristics were demonstrated using preliminary configurations, block diagrams, and tables of estimated weights, volumes and power consumption.

  12. Lung Volume Reduction After Stereotactic Ablative Radiation Therapy of Lung Tumors: Potential Application to Emphysema

    SciTech Connect

    Binkley, Michael S.; Shrager, Joseph B.; Leung, Ann N.; Popat, Rita; Trakul, Nicholas; Atwood, Todd F.; Chaudhuri, Aadel; Maxim, Peter G.; Diehn, Maximilian; Loo, Billy W.

    2014-09-01

    Purpose: Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) improves dyspnea and other outcomes in selected patients with severe emphysema, but many have excessive surgical risk for LVRS. We analyzed the dose-volume relationship for lobar volume reduction after stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR) of lung tumors, hypothesizing that SABR could achieve therapeutic volume reduction if applied in emphysema. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively identified patients treated from 2007 to 2011 who had SABR for 1 lung tumor, pre-SABR pulmonary function testing, and ≥6 months computed tomographic (CT) imaging follow-up. We contoured the treated lobe and untreated adjacent lobe(s) on CT before and after SABR and calculated their volume changes relative to the contoured total (bilateral) lung volume (TLV). We correlated lobar volume reduction with the volume receiving high biologically effective doses (BED, α/β = 3). Results: 27 patients met the inclusion criteria, with a median CT follow-up time of 14 months. There was no grade ≥3 toxicity. The median volume reduction of the treated lobe was 4.4% of TLV (range, −0.4%-10.8%); the median expansion of the untreated adjacent lobe was 2.6% of TLV (range, −3.9%-11.6%). The volume reduction of the treated lobe was positively correlated with the volume receiving BED ≥60 Gy (r{sup 2}=0.45, P=.0001). This persisted in subgroups determined by high versus low pre-SABR forced expiratory volume in 1 second, treated lobe CT emphysema score, number of fractions, follow-up CT time, central versus peripheral location, and upper versus lower lobe location, with no significant differences in effect size between subgroups. Volume expansion of the untreated adjacent lobe(s) was positively correlated with volume reduction of the treated lobe (r{sup 2}=0.47, P<.0001). Conclusions: We identified a dose-volume response for treated lobe volume reduction and adjacent lobe compensatory expansion after lung tumor SABR, consistent across

  13. Energy-state formulation of lumped volume dynamic equations with application to a simplified free piston Stirling engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniele, C. J.; Lorenzo, C. F.

    1979-01-01

    Lumped volume dynamic equations are derived using an energy-state formulation. This technique requires that kinetic and potential energy state functions be written for the physical system being investigated. To account for losses in the system, a Rayleigh dissipation function is also formed. Using these functions, a Lagrangian is formed and using Lagrange's equation, the equations of motion for the system are derived. The results of the application of this technique to a lumped volume are used to derive a model for the free-piston Stirling engine. The model was simplified and programmed on an analog computer. Results are given comparing the model response with experimental data.

  14. Energy-state formulation of lumped volume dynamic equations with application to a simplified free piston Stirling engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniele, C. J.; Lorenzo, C. F.

    1979-01-01

    Lumped volume dynamic equations are derived using an energy state formulation. This technique requires that kinetic and potential energy state functions be written for the physical system being investigated. To account for losses in the system, a Rayleigh dissipation function is formed. Using these functions, a Lagrangian is formed and using Lagrange's equation, the equations of motion for the system are derived. The results of the application of this technique to a lumped volume are used to derive a model for the free piston Stirling engine. The model was simplified and programmed on an analog computer. Results are given comparing the model response with experimental data.

  15. Assessment of research needs for advanced heterogeneous catalysts for energy applications. Final report: Volume 1, Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, G.A.

    1994-04-01

    This report assesses the direction, technical content, and priority of research needs judged to provide the best chance of yielding new and improved heterogeneous catalysts for energy-related applications over a period of 5--20 years. It addresses issues of energy conservation, alternate fuels and feedstocks, and the economics and applications that could alleviate pollution from energy processes. Recommended goals are defined in 3 major, closely linked research thrusts: catalytic science, environmental protection by catalysis, and industrial catalytic applications. This volume provides a comprehensive executive summary, including research recommendations.

  16. Hydration and blood volume effects on human thermoregulation in the heat: Space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawka, Michael N.; Gonzalez, Richard R.; Pandolf, Kent B.

    1994-01-01

    Astronauts exposed to prolonged weightlessness will experience deconditioning, dehydration, and hypovolemia which all adversely affect thermoregulation. These thermoregulatory problems can be minimized by several countermeasures that manipulate body water and vascular volumes. USARIEM scientists have extensively studied dehydration effects and several possible countermeasures including hyperhydration, plasma and erythrocyte volume expansion. This paper reviews USARIEM research into these areas.

  17. Computing n-Dimensional Volumes of Complexes: Application to Constructive Entropy Bounds

    SciTech Connect

    Beiu, Valeriu; Makaruk, Hanna E.

    1997-12-31

    Constructive bounds on the needed number-of-bits (entropy) for solving a dichotomy problem can be represented by a quotient of two volumes of multidimensional solids. Exact methods for the calculation of these volumes are presented. They lead to a tighter lower bound on the needed number-of-bits than the ones previously known.

  18. Applications of a finite-volume algorithm for incompressible MHD problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vantieghem, S.; Sheyko, A.; Jackson, A.

    2016-02-01

    We present the theory, algorithms and implementation of a parallel finite-volume algorithm for the solution of the incompressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations using unstructured grids that are applicable for a wide variety of geometries. Our method implements a mixed Adams-Bashforth/Crank-Nicolson scheme for the nonlinear terms in the MHD equations and we prove that it is stable independent of the time step. To ensure that the solenoidal condition is met for the magnetic field, we use a method whereby a pseudo-pressure is introduced into the induction equation; since we are concerned with incompressible flows, the resulting Poisson equation for the pseudo-pressure is solved alongside the equivalent Poisson problem for the velocity field. We validate our code in a variety of geometries including periodic boxes, spheres, spherical shells, spheroids and ellipsoids; for the finite geometries we implement the so-called ferromagnetic or pseudo-vacuum boundary conditions appropriate for a surrounding medium with infinite magnetic permeability. This implies that the magnetic field must be purely perpendicular to the boundary. We present a number of comparisons against previous results and against analytical solutions, which verify the code's accuracy. This documents the code's reliability as a prelude to its use in more difficult problems. We finally present a new simple drifting solution for thermal convection in a spherical shell that successfully sustains a magnetic field of simple geometry. By dint of its rapid stabilization from the given initial conditions, we deem it suitable as a benchmark against which other self-consistent dynamo codes can be tested.

  19. Bystander Exposure to Ultra-Low-Volume Insecticide Applications Used for Adult Mosquito Management

    PubMed Central

    Preftakes, Collin J.; Schleier, Jerome J.; Peterson, Robert K. D.

    2011-01-01

    A popular and effective management option for adult mosquitoes is the use of insecticides applied by ultra-low-volume (ULV) equipment. However, there is a paucity of data on human dermal exposure to insecticides applied by this method. The objective of the current study was to estimate dermal exposures to the insecticide active ingredient permethrin using water- (Aqua-Reslin®) and oil-based (Permanone® 30-30) formulations with passive dosimetry. No significant differences in deposition of permethrin were observed between years, distance from the spray source, front or back of the body, or the placement of the patches on the body. However, exposure to Aqua-Reslin was significantly greater than Permanone 30-30 and average concentrations deposited on the body were 4.2 and 2.1 ng/cm2, respectively. The greater deposition of Aqua-Reslin is most likely due to the higher density of the water-based formulation which causes it to settle out faster than the lighter oil-based formulation of Permanone 30-30. The estimated average absorbed dermal exposure for permethrin from Aqua-Reslin and Permanone 30-30 was 0.00009 and 0.00005 mg/kg body weight, respectively. We also found that ground deposition of ULV insecticides can be used as a surrogate for estimating dermal exposure. The estimated exposures support the findings of previous risk assessments that exposure to ULV applications used for mosquito management are below regulatory levels of concern. PMID:21776222

  20. New Technique of AC drive in Tokamak using Permanent Magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matteucci, Jackson; Zolfaghari, Ali

    2013-10-01

    This study investigates a new technique of capturing the rotational energy of alternating permanent magnets in order to inductively drive an alternating current in tokamak devices. The use of rotational motion bypasses many of the pitfalls seen in typical inductive and non-inductive current drives. Three specific designs are presented and assessed in the following criteria: the profile of the current generated, the RMS loop voltage generated as compared to the RMS power required to maintain it, the system's feasibility from an engineering perspective. All of the analysis has been done under ideal E&M conditions using the Maxwell 3D program. Preliminary results indicate that it is possible to produce an over 99% purely toroidal current with a RMS d Φ/dt of over 150 Tm2/s, driven by 20 MW or less of rotational power. The proposed mechanism demonstrates several key advantages including an efficient mechanical drive system, the generation of pure toroidal currents, and the potential for a quasi-steady state fusion reactor. The following quantities are presented for various driving frequencies and magnet strengths: plasma current generated, loop voltage, torque and power required. This project has been supported by DOE Funding under the SULI program.

  1. An AC drive system for a battery driven moped

    SciTech Connect

    Nandi, S.; Saha, S.; Sharon, M.; Sundersingh, V.P.

    1995-12-31

    A petrol driven moped is converted to an electric one by replacing the petrol engine by a three phase 1.5 HR, AC squirrel cage induction motor drive system. The motor voltage rating selected is 200 V to keep the DC boost voltage level to a reasonable value.f the power source used is a high energy density, 24 V, 110 Ah, Ni-Zn battery. A modified indirect current controlled step-up chopper as well as a standard push-pull DC-DC boost converter is studied for the boost scheme. A simple three phase quasi-square wave inverter is designed along with suitable protection for driving the motor. Successful trial test of the system has been conducted at the laboratory.

  2. Price-volume multifractal analysis and its application in Chinese stock markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Ying; Zhuang, Xin-tian; Liu, Zhi-ying

    2012-06-01

    An empirical research on Chinese stock markets is conducted using statistical tools. First, the multifractality of stock price return series, ri(ri=ln(Pt+1)-ln(Pt)) and trading volume variation series, vi(vi=ln(Vt+1)-ln(Vt)) is confirmed using multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis. Furthermore, a multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis between stock price return and trading volume variation in Chinese stock markets is also conducted. It is shown that the cross relationship between them is also found to be multifractal. Second, the cross-correlation between stock price Pi and trading volume Vi is empirically studied using cross-correlation function and detrended cross-correlation analysis. It is found that both Shanghai stock market and Shenzhen stock market show pronounced long-range cross-correlations between stock price and trading volume. Third, a composite index R based on price and trading volume is introduced. Compared with stock price return series ri and trading volume variation series vi, R variation series not only remain the characteristics of original series but also demonstrate the relative correlation between stock price and trading volume. Finally, we analyze the multifractal characteristics of R variation series before and after three financial events in China (namely, Price Limits, Reform of Non-tradable Shares and financial crisis in 2008) in the whole period of sample to study the changes of stock market fluctuation and financial risk. It is found that the empirical results verified the validity of R.

  3. The application of the principle of conserved myocardium volume in guiding automated chamber estimation in mouse cardiac imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garson, Christopher D.; Li, Bing; Hossack, John A.

    2007-03-01

    Active contours have been used in a wide variety of image processing applications due to their ability to effectively distinguish image boundaries with limited user input. In this paper, we consider 3D gradient vector field (GVF) active surfaces and their application in the determination of the volume of the mouse heart left ventricle. The accuracy and efficacy of a 3D active surface is strongly dependent upon the selection of several parameters, corresponding to the tension and rigidity of the active surface and the weight of the GVF. However, selection of these parameters is often subjective and iterative. We observe that the volume of the cardiac muscle is, to a good approximation, conserved through the cardiac cycle. Therefore, we propose using the degree of conservation of heart muscle volume as a metric for assessing optimality of a particular set of active surface parameters. A synthetic dataset consisting of nested ellipsoids of known volume was constructed. The outer ellipsoid contracted over time to imitate a heart cycle, and the inner ellipsoid compensated to maintain constant volume. The segmentation algorithm was also investigated in vivo using B-mode data sets obtained by scanning the hearts of three separate mice. Active surfaces were initialized using a broad range of values for each of the parameters under consideration. Conservation of volume was a useful predictor of the efficacy of the model for the range of values tested for the GVF weighting parameter, though it was less effective at predicting the efficacy of the active surface tension and rigidity parameters.

  4. Feasibility of consistently estimating timber volume through landsat-based remote sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arroyo, Renaldo Josue Salazar

    The Mississippi Institute for Forest Inventory (MIFI) is the only cost-effective large-scale forest inventory system in the United States with sufficient precision for producing reliable volume/weight/biomass estimates for small working circle areas (procurement areas). When forest industry is recruited to Mississippi, proposed working circles may overlap existing boundaries of bordering states leaving a gap of inventory information, and a remote sensing-based system for augmenting missing ground inventory data is desirable. The feasibility of obtaining acceptable cubic foot volume estimates from a Landsat-derived volume estimation model (Wilkinson 2011) was assessed by: 1) an initial study to temporally validate Landsat-derived cubic foot volume outside bark to a pulpwood top estimates in comparison with MIFI ground truth inventory plot estimates at two separate time periods, and 2) re-developing a regression model based on remotely sensed imagery in combination with available MIFI plot data. Initial results failed to confirm the relationships shown in past research between radiance values and volume estimation. The complete lack of influence of radiance values in the model led to a re-assessment of volume estimation schemes. Data outlier trimming manipulation was discovered to lead to false relationships with radiance values reported in past research. Two revised volume estimation models using age, average stand height, and trees per-acre and age and height alone as independent variables were found sufficient to explain variation of volume across the image. These results were used to develop a procedure for other remote sensing technologies that could produce data with sufficient precision for volume estimation where inventory data are sparse or non-existent.

  5. A simple method for the production of large volume 3D macroporous hydrogels for advanced biotechnological, medical and environmental applications

    PubMed Central

    Savina, Irina N.; Ingavle, Ganesh C.; Cundy, Andrew B.; Mikhalovsky, Sergey V.

    2016-01-01

    The development of bulk, three-dimensional (3D), macroporous polymers with high permeability, large surface area and large volume is highly desirable for a range of applications in the biomedical, biotechnological and environmental areas. The experimental techniques currently used are limited to the production of small size and volume cryogel material. In this work we propose a novel, versatile, simple and reproducible method for the synthesis of large volume porous polymer hydrogels by cryogelation. By controlling the freezing process of the reagent/polymer solution, large-scale 3D macroporous gels with wide interconnected pores (up to 200 μm in diameter) and large accessible surface area have been synthesized. For the first time, macroporous gels (of up to 400 ml bulk volume) with controlled porous structure were manufactured, with potential for scale up to much larger gel dimensions. This method can be used for production of novel 3D multi-component macroporous composite materials with a uniform distribution of embedded particles. The proposed method provides better control of freezing conditions and thus overcomes existing drawbacks limiting production of large gel-based devices and matrices. The proposed method could serve as a new design concept for functional 3D macroporous gels and composites preparation for biomedical, biotechnological and environmental applications. PMID:26883390

  6. A simple method for the production of large volume 3D macroporous hydrogels for advanced biotechnological, medical and environmental applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savina, Irina N.; Ingavle, Ganesh C.; Cundy, Andrew B.; Mikhalovsky, Sergey V.

    2016-02-01

    The development of bulk, three-dimensional (3D), macroporous polymers with high permeability, large surface area and large volume is highly desirable for a range of applications in the biomedical, biotechnological and environmental areas. The experimental techniques currently used are limited to the production of small size and volume cryogel material. In this work we propose a novel, versatile, simple and reproducible method for the synthesis of large volume porous polymer hydrogels by cryogelation. By controlling the freezing process of the reagent/polymer solution, large-scale 3D macroporous gels with wide interconnected pores (up to 200 μm in diameter) and large accessible surface area have been synthesized. For the first time, macroporous gels (of up to 400 ml bulk volume) with controlled porous structure were manufactured, with potential for scale up to much larger gel dimensions. This method can be used for production of novel 3D multi-component macroporous composite materials with a uniform distribution of embedded particles. The proposed method provides better control of freezing conditions and thus overcomes existing drawbacks limiting production of large gel-based devices and matrices. The proposed method could serve as a new design concept for functional 3D macroporous gels and composites preparation for biomedical, biotechnological and environmental applications.

  7. Multi-Segment Hemodynamic and Volume Assessment With Impedance Plethysmography: Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Yu-Tsuan E.; Montgomery, Leslie D.; Webbon, Bruce W. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Definition of multi-segmental circulatory and volume changes in the human body provides an understanding of the physiologic responses to various aerospace conditions. We have developed instrumentation and testing procedures at NASA Ames Research Center that may be useful in biomedical research and clinical diagnosis. Specialized two, four, and six channel impedance systems will be described that have been used to measure calf, thigh, thoracic, arm, and cerebral hemodynamic and volume changes during various experimental investigations.

  8. Proceedings of a Workshop on Applications of Tethers in Space, Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The panel conclusions for each of the following panels (science applications; electrodynamic interactions; transportation applications; artificial gravity; constellations; and technology and test) are given.

  9. Mechanics of the occlusive arm cuff and its application as a volume sensor.

    PubMed

    Drzewiecki, G; Bansal, V; Karam, E; Hood, R; Apple, H

    1993-07-01

    Although a common medical instrument, the mechanical function of an occlusive arm cuff has not been fully described in an engineering sense. The occlusive arm cuff is examined here using a mathematical mechanics model and experimental measurements. Cuff stretch was modeled by a nonlinear pressure-volume function. Air compression was represented by Boyle's law. An apparatus was developed to measure pressure due to the air volume pumped into the cuff for fixed arm volume. Data were obtained for two different cuff designs, and reveal a nonlinear cuff pressure-volume relationship that could be represented accurately by the mathematical model. Calibration constants are provided for the two types of occlusive cuff. Thus, the cuff pressure was found to consist of a balance between that produced by stretch of the elastic cuff bladder and that of the compression of the air contained within the bladder. The use of the gas law alone was found to be inadequate to represent the cuff mechanics. When applying the cuff to measure change in arm volume, such as during plethysmography or oscillometry, it cannot be assumed that the cuff sensitivity is constant. More precisely, it was found that the occlusive cuff is a transducer with a volume sensitivity that increases with cuff pressure and volume until it becomes nearly constant at high levels of cuff pressure (150 mmHg). A hypothetical case of a linear elastic artery with constant pulse pressure was used as input to the cuff model to illustrate the change in cuff pressure oscillations that occurs while cuff pressure is released.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8244431

  10. Volume measurement of liquid in a deformed tank - Application to the fuel meter of automobiles

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, K.; Takebayashi, Y.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes how to directly and accurately measure liquid volume in a deformed tank which has gas-leaking pinholes, whose attitude changes and walls vibrate, and in which liquid sloshes. The proposed method is different from conventional methods that use level meters, and makes the measurement possible without setting level detecting devices such as a float in the tank. The method makes use of Boyle's law, and the measurement procedure is as follows: (a) first, the authors determine the volume of gas in the tank by measuring gage pressure increased by compressing the volume of gas in the tank, and (b) next, they find the volume of liquid by subtracting the volume of gas from capacity of the tank. This demonstrates that one standard measurement system can be applied to a variety of tanks with a certain range of volume capacities, whereas conventional methods using level meters require designing and manufacturing different detecting devices depending on the shapes of the tank. Thus, the proposed method can be effectively applied to the accurate measurement of the amount of fuel in automobile tanks which may be deformed and may have different shapes. Here, the authors focus the discussion only on measuring fuel in an automobile tank, but this method can be generally applied to the measurement of the volume of liquid, solid or powder in a tank. The principle of measurement and the procedure for designing an instrument system based on the proposed measurement method is described. The validity of the proposed method was experimentally examined and the observed measurement error was about 1% for a standard 50 liter tank.

  11. Volume fraction dependent magnetic behaviour of ferrofluids for rotating seal applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schinteie, G.; Palade, P.; Vekas, L.; Iacob, N.; Bartha, C.; Kuncser, V.

    2013-10-01

    Ferrofluid samples consisting of magnetite nanoparticles (NPs) coated with oleic acid and dispersed in a non-polar organic solvent have been synthesized by chemical routes. Different volume fractions, φ, of magnetic NPs were considered. The overall structural characterization of NPs has been performed by x-ray diffractometry, with lattice parameters and average coherence lengths evaluated via Rietveld refinements. The magnetic properties of different samples have been analysed by SQUID magnetometry and temperature-dependent Mössbauer spectroscopy and finally explained by adequate magnetic relaxation mechanisms. Zero field cooling-field cooling protocols provided useful information about specific volume fraction dependent magnetic relaxation and de-freezing processes, the lack of the Verwey transition and stronger dipolar interactions at higher volume fractions. Anisotropy energies as obtained by both temperature dependent Mössbauer spectroscopy and magnetometry data are compared and a new procedure for a quantitative characterization of the dipolar interactions is proposed.

  12. Weight and volume estimates for aluminum-air batteries designed for electric vehicle applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.F.

    1980-01-01

    The weights and volumes of reactants, electrolyte, and hardware components are estimated for an aluminum-air battery designed for a 40-kW (peak), 70-kWh aluminum-air battery. Generalized equations are derived which express battery power and energy content as functions of total anode area, aluminum-anode weight, and discharge current density. Equations are also presented which express total battery weight and volume as linear combinations of the variables, anode area and anode weight. The sizing and placement of battery components within the engine compartment of typical five-passenger vehicles is briefly discussed.

  13. Non-Invasive Quantification of Absolute Cerebral Blood Volume During Functional Activation Applicable to the Whole Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Ciris, Pelin Aksit; Qiu, Maolin; Constable, Robert Todd

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Cerebral blood volume (CBV) changes in many diverse pathologic conditions, and in response to functional challenges along with changes in blood flow, blood oxygenation, and the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen. The feasibility of a new method for non-invasive quantification of absolute cerebral blood volume that can be applicable to the whole human brain was investigated. Methods Multi-slice data were acquired at 3 T using a novel inversion recovery echo planar imaging (IR-EPI) pulse sequence with varying contrast weightings and an efficient rotating slice acquisition order, at rest and during visual activation. A biophysical model was used to estimate absolute cerebral blood volume at rest and during activation, and oxygenation during activation, on data from 13 normal human subjects. Results Cerebral blood volume increased by 21.7% from 6.6±0.8 mL/100 mL of brain parenchyma at rest to 8.0±1.3 mL/100 mL of brain parenchyma in the occipital cortex during visual activation, with average blood oxygenation of 84±2.1% during activation, comparing well with literature. Conclusion The method is feasible, and could foster improved understanding of the fundamental physiological relationship between neuronal activity, hemodynamic changes, and metabolism underlying brain activation; complement existing methods for estimating compartmental changes; and potentially find utility in evaluating vascular health. PMID:23475774

  14. Viability Assessment of a Repository at Yucca Mountain. Volume 4: License Application Plan and Costs

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    Volume 4 provides the DOE plan and cost estimate for the remaining work necessary to proceed from completing this VA to submitting an LA to NRC. This work includes preparing an EIS and evaluating the suitability of the site. Both items are necessary components of the documentation required to support a decision in 2001 by the Secretary of Energy on whether or not to recommend that the President approve the site for development as a repository. If the President recommends the site to Congress and the site designation becomes effective, then DOE will submit the LA to NRC in 2002 for authorization to construct the repository. The work described in Volume 4 constitutes the last step in the characterization of the Yucca Mountain site and the design and evaluation of the performance of a repository system in the geologic setting of this site. The plans in this volume for the next 4 years' work are based on the results of the previous 15 years' work, as reported in Volumes 1, 2, and 3 of this VA. Volume 1 summarizes what DOE has learned to date about the Yucca Mountain site. Volume 2 describes the current, reference repository design, several design options that might enhance the performance of the reference design, and several alternative designs that represent substantial departures from the reference design. Volume 2 also summarizes the results of tests of candidate materials for waste packages and for support of the tunnels into which waste would be emplaced. Volume 3 provides the results of the latest performance assessments undertaken to evaluate the performance of the design in the geologic setting of Yucca Mountain. The results described in Volumes 1, 2, and 3 provide the basis for identifying and prioritizing the work described in this volume. DOE believes that the planned work, together with the results of previous work, will be sufficient to support a site suitability evaluation for site recommendation and, if the site is recommended and designated, a

  15. Proceedings of a Workshop on the Applications of Tethers in Space, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Project overview; tether deployment; satellite system description; tether fundamentals; science applications; electrodynamic interactions; transportation; artificial gravity; and constellations; were described.

  16. Licensing an assured isolation facility for low-level radioactive waste. Volume 2: Recommendations on the content and review of an application

    SciTech Connect

    Silverman, D.J.; Bauser, M.A.; Baird, R.D.

    1998-07-01

    This report provides a detailed set of proposed criteria and guidance for the preparation of a license application for an assured isolation facility (AIF). The report is intended to provide a detailed planning basis upon which a prospective applicant may begin pre-licensing discussions with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and initiate development of a license application. The report may also be useful to the NRC or to state regulatory agencies that may be asked to review such an application. Volume 1 of this report provides background information, and describes the licensing approach and methodology. Volume 2 identifies specific information that is recommended for inclusion in a license application.

  17. Finite-volume application of high-order ENO schemes to two-dimensional boundary-value problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casper, Jay

    1991-01-01

    Finite-volume applications of high-order accurate ENO schemes to two-dimensional boundary-value problems are studied. These schemes achieve high-order spatial accuracy, in smooth regions, by a piecewise polynomial approximation of the solution from cell averages. In addition, this spatial operation involves an adaptive stencil algorithm in order to avoid the oscillatory behavior that is associated with interpolation across steep gradients. High-order TVD Runge-Kutta methods are employed for time integration, thus making these schemes best suited for unsteady problems. Fifth- and sixth-order accurate applications are validated through a grid refinement study involving the solutions of scalar hyperbolic equations. A previously proposed extension for the Euler equations of gas dynamics is tested, including its application to solutions of boundary-value problems involving solid walls and curvilinear coordinates.

  18. Aperture size to therapeutic volume relation for a multielement ultrasound system: determination of applicator adequacy for superficial hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Moros, E G; Myerson, R J; Straube, W L

    1993-01-01

    Three-dimensional acoustic and thermal models were developed to simulate superficial hyperthermia treatments using a new multielement planar ultrasonic system. Typical power density and steady-state temperature distributions are presented. A parametric study was performed to determine the relationship between therapeutic volume (volume at and above 42 degrees C) and aperture size (number of active elements). The parameters investigated were: maximum allowable temperature, skin surface temperature, blood perfusion (thermal diffusion length), acoustic absorption, and frequency. Results showed that this device produces well distributed sound beams with lateral dimensions comparable to the aperture size. These simulated results were in agreement with experimental measurements. The simulated temperature distributions were uniform at each depth across the applicator's aperture. The main heating characteristics found were: (1) the therapeutic volume was directly proportional to the aperture size; (2) the lateral dimensions of the therapeutic volume were independent of the parameters studied and remained practically constant with depth for several centimeters, with a very rapid increase near the skin surface and a very rapid fall off at depth; and (3) therapeutic penetration was strongly dependent on maximum allowable temperature, frequency, and acoustic absorption; and weakly dependent on blood perfusion and skin surface temperature. These heating characteristics are new in commercial systems for superficial hyperthermia. Despite the well-distributed beams, it was found that in order to produce adequate hyperthermia with this device the lateral dimensions of tumors must be smaller than the applicator's active aperture and that thermal depth coverage must be monitored during treatments. Guidelines for aperture selection and thermometry strategies are discussed. PMID:8289722

  19. Application of the control volume mixed finite element method to a triangular discretization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naff, R.L.

    2012-01-01

    A two-dimensional control volume mixed finite element method is applied to the elliptic equation. Discretization of the computational domain is based in triangular elements. Shape functions and test functions are formulated on the basis of an equilateral reference triangle with unit edges. A pressure support based on the linear interpolation of elemental edge pressures is used in this formulation. Comparisons are made between results from the standard mixed finite element method and this control volume mixed finite element method. Published 2011. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. ?? 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  20. Application of a new discreet form of Gauss' theorem for measuring volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, S. W.; D'Arcy, T. J.; Maxwell, D. J.; Saunders, J. E.; Ruff, C. F.; Chiu, W. S. C.; Sheppard, R. J.

    1996-09-01

    Volume measurements are useful in many branches of science and medicine. They are usually accomplished by acquiring a sequence of cross sectional images through the object using an appropriate scanning modality, for example x-ray computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance (MR) or ultrasound (US). In the cases of CT and MR, a dividing cubes algorithm can be used to describe the surface as a triangle mesh. However, such algorithms are not suitable for US data, especially when the image sequence is multiplanar (as it usually is). This problem may be overcome by manually tracing regions of interest (ROIs) on the registered multiplanar images and connecting the points into a trianglar mesh. In this paper we describe and evaluate a new discreet form of Gauss' theorem which enables the calculation of the volume of any enclosed surface described by a triangular mesh. The volume is calculated by summing the vector product of the centroid, area and normal of each surface triangle. The algorithm was tested on computer-generated objects, US-scanned balloons, livers and kidneys and CT-scanned clay rocks. The results, expressed as the mean percentage difference one standard deviation were , , and % for balloons, livers, kidneys and rocks respectively. The results compare favourably with other volume estimation methods such as planimetry and tetrahedral decomposition.

  1. Volume and Mass Estimation of Three-Phase High Power Transformers for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimnach, Greg L.

    2004-01-01

    Spacecraft historically have had sub-1kW(sub e), electrical requirements for GN&C, science, and communications: Galileo at 600W(sub e), and Cassini at 900W(sub e), for example. Because most missions have had the same order of magnitude power requirements, the Power Distribution Systems (PDS) use existing, space-qualified technology and are DC. As science payload and mission duration requirements increase, however, the required electrical power increases. Subsequently, this requires a change from a passive energy conversion (solar arrays and batteries) to dynamic (alternator, solar dynamic, etc.), because dynamic conversion has higher thermal and conversion efficiencies, has higher power densities, and scales more readily to higher power levels. Furthermore, increased power requirements and physical distribution lengths are best served with high-voltage, multi-phase AC to maintain distribution efficiency and minimize voltage drops. The generated AC-voltage must be stepped-up (or down) to interface with various subsystems or electrical hardware. Part of the trade-space design for AC distribution systems is volume and mass estimation of high-power transformers. The volume and mass are functions of the power rating, operating frequency, the ambient and allowable temperature rise, the types and amount of heat transfer available, the core material and shape, the required flux density in a core, the maximum current density, etc. McLyman has tabulated the performance of a number of transformers cores and derived a "cookbook" methodology to determine the volume of transformers, whereas Schawrze had derived an empirical method to estimate the mass of single-phase transformers. Based on the work of McLyman and Schwarze, it is the intent herein to derive an empirical solution to the volume and mass estimation of three-phase, laminated EI-core power transformers, having radiated and conducted heat transfer mechanisms available. Estimation of the mounting hardware, connectors

  2. PROCEEDINGS: EIGHTH SYMPOSIUM ON THE TRANSFER AND UTILIZATION OF PARTICULATE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY - VOLUME 2. BAGHOUSES AND PARTICULATE CONTROL FOR NEW APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two-volume proceedings describe the latest research and development efforts to improve particulate control devices, while treating traditional concerns of operational cost and compliance. Overall, particulate control remains a key issue in the cost and applicability of furnac...

  3. Study of relationship between volume of distribution and body weight application to amikacin.

    PubMed

    Rughoo, L; Bourguignon, L; Maire, P; Ducher, M

    2014-06-01

    Amikacin use is difficult because of its narrow therapeutic and its pharmacokinetic variability. This variability of amikacin is not well known. To adapt amikacin the physician assumes that there is a linear and continuous relation between the volume of distribution and the body weight. The objective of our study was to evaluate the relationship between the volume of distribution (Vd) and the body weight (BW) using a non parametric statistical analysis of dependence so called Z method. Retrospective pharmacokinetic population study and statistic analysis. 872 patients receiving intravenous amikacin. The volume of distribution was modelled using the Non Parametric Adaptive Grid algorithm (NPAG) for a two-compartment model with intravenous infusion. Z coefficient was performed to evaluate the relationships between Vd and BW. For the 872 patients (mean age of 73 ± 17 years) dispatched as follow 53 % female and 47 % male, the analysis of the statistical relationships by the non parametric Z analysis showed a scattered linkage between Vd and BW. For the whole population, the relationship between Vd and BW was not linear (regression analysis). Z analysis demonstrated that only for 80 % of patients there is a relationship between Vd and BW. For these patients, regression analysis give a significant adjustment of a linear model (r = 0.47, p < 0.001). In the whole studied population there is not a continuous and linear relationship between Vd estimated by NPAG and the BW. These results underline the difficulties to adapt doses of amikacin with only BW information.

  4. A finite volume method solution for the bidomain equations and their application to modelling cardiac ischaemia.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Peter R

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an implementation of the finite volume method with the aim of studying subendocardial ischaemia during the ST segment. In this implementation, based on hexahedral finite volumes, each quadrilateral sub-face is split into two triangles to improve the accuracy of the numerical integration in complex geometries and when fibre rotation is included. The numerical method is validated against previously published solutions obtained from slab and cylindrical models of the left ventricle with subendocardial ischaemia and no fibre rotation. Epicardial potential distributions are then obtained for a half-ellipsoid model of the left ventricle. In this case it is shown that for isotropic cardiac tissue the degree of subendocardial ischaemia does not affect the epicardial potential distribution, which is consistent with previous findings from analytical studies in simpler geometries. The paper also considers the behaviour of various preconditioners for solving numerically the resulting system of algebraic equations resulting from the implementation of the finite volume method. It is observed that each geometry considered has its own optimal preconditioner.

  5. Application of bioelectric impedance methodology and prediction equations to determine the volume of distribution for ethanol.

    PubMed

    York, J L; Hirsch, J A

    1995-01-01

    In large-scale epidemiologic studies of drinking behavior there is a need for simple and reliable estimates of the body water compartment of subjects. This, in turn, provides an estimate of the volume of distribution of ingested ethanol and a better estimate of tissue exposure levels than the use of total body weight as the volume of distribution for alcohol. The volume of distribution for ethanol (total body water, TBW) was estimated in a racially mixed group of 276 alcoholics and 166 nonalcoholics (aged 20-59 years) by means of bioelectric impedance methodology (BIA) and by means of prediction equations based upon age, body weight, and height. Estimations of mean TBW from BIA were found to be only slightly higher (1-4%) than those provided by the prediction equations. TBW values generated from both prediction equations were also highly correlated with TBW values obtained by impedance methodology, with the highest correlations observed in females (particularly black) and in alcoholics (particularly female).

  6. Photovoltaic system criteria documents. Volume 6: Criteria for auditing photovoltaic system applications and experiments. Revision A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, John C.; Billitti, Joseph W.; Tallon, John M.

    1980-09-01

    The criteria is defined for auditing photovoltaic system applications and experiments. The purpose of the audit is twofold: to see if the application is meeting its stated objectives and to measure the application's progress in terms of the National Photovoltaic Program's goals of performance, cost, reliability, safety, and socio-environmental acceptance. The information obtained from an audit will be used to assess the status of an application and to provide the Department of Energy with recommendations on the future conduct of the application. Those aspects are covered of a site audit necessary to produce a systematic method for the gathering of qualitative and quantitative data to measure the success of an application. A sequence of audit events and guidelines for obtaining the required information is presented.

  7. Photovoltaic system criteria documents. Volume 6: Criteria for auditing photovoltaic system applications and experiments. Revision A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, John C.; Billitti, Joseph W.; Tallon, John M.

    1980-01-01

    The criteria is defined for auditing photovoltaic system applications and experiments. The purpose of the audit is twofold: to see if the application is meeting its stated objectives and to measure the application's progress in terms of the National Photovoltaic Program's goals of performance, cost, reliability, safety, and socio-environmental acceptance. The information obtained from an audit will be used to assess the status of an application and to provide the Department of Energy with recommendations on the future conduct of the application. Those aspects are covered of a site audit necessary to produce a systematic method for the gathering of qualitative and quantitative data to measure the success of an application. A sequence of audit events and guidelines for obtaining the required information is presented.

  8. Finite volume schemes optimized for low numerical dispersion and their aeroacoustic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nance, Douglas Vinson

    1997-11-01

    The field of computational aeroacoustics is concerned with the calculation of acoustic fluctuations in an aerodynamic flow field. Moreover, it is desirable to resolve the spectral content and directivity of the aeroacoustic field with high accuracy. For the purposes of the designer, it is preferable to endow a computational fluid dynamics code with some capability for predicting aeroacoustic information. If the prediction algorithm can be written within the current flow solver's structure, the costly acquisition of a new code is not necessary. In an effort to provide designers with this option, a new finite volume methodology is developed in the present work. Three families of upwind, finite volume schemes are developed and demonstrated for a series of aeroacoustics problems. These new low dispersion finite volume schemes are designed to mitigate numerical dispersion and dissipation errors in the computational space while achieving high formal orders of accuracy. Variable extrapolation stands as the framework for these methods. In this case, the cell face variables are interpolated from cell nodes by using a procedure that optimizes the stencil representation of flow field properties in terms of sinusoidal waves. This procedure renders an accurate representation of these properties for a higher range of numerical wavenumbers. In addition, an unsteady, farfield boundary treatment is proposed. This low reflectivity farfield boundary treatment is designed as an integral part of the finite volume discretization procedure. This technique is very robust and causes only minimal reflection at the farfield boundary. The low dispersion finite volume schemes have been applied to a number of aeroacoustics problems. The numerical results are shown and compared either to exact solutions or to the results computed by other schemes. Good agreement with the exact solutions is evident. Results are also shown for the problem of laminar vortex- shedding from a circular cylinder. The

  9. Disentangling the volume effect through intensity-difference spectra: application to laser-induced dissociation of H2+.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pengqian; Sayler, A Max; Carnes, Kevin D; Esry, Brett D; Ben-Itzhak, Itzik

    2005-03-15

    An intensity-difference spectrum method is developed to disentangle the intensity volume effect inherent in focused laser beam interaction with gas-phase matter. This method is applicable to a Gaussian beam of constant axial intensity, which keeps the exact contribution from a predetermined intensity range and eliminates the contributions from lower intensities. We apply this method to the angularly resolved kinetic energy release spectrum of laser-induced dissociation of H2+. The difference spectrum at higher intensities is found to be dominated by the bond-softening process, and the distribution shifts to lower energy and becomes narrower with increasing intensity.

  10. The Environment for Application Software Integration and Execution (EASIE) version 1.0. Volume 1: Executive overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowell, Lawrence F.; Davis, John S.

    1989-01-01

    The Environment for Application Software Integration and Execution (EASIE) provides a methodology and a set of software utility programs to ease the task of coordinating engineering design and analysis codes. EASIE was designed to meet the needs of conceptual design engineers that face the task of integrating many stand-alone engineering analysis programs. Using EASIE, programs are integrated through a relational database management system. Volume 1, Executive Overview, gives an overview of the functions provided by EASIE and describes their use. Three operational design systems based upon the EASIE software are briefly described.

  11. Large-scale synthesis of organophilic zirconia nanoparticles and their application in organic-inorganic nanocomposites for efficient volume holography.

    PubMed

    Garnweitner, Georg; Goldenberg, Leonid M; Sakhno, Oksana V; Antonietti, Markus; Niederberger, Markus; Stumpe, Joachim

    2007-09-01

    We present a multigram scale, one-step nonaqueous synthesis route to monodisperse, highly crystalline ZrO(2) nanoparticles. The nanoparticles can be stabilized in nonpolar solvents via a simple functionalization procedure using only minute amounts of organic stabilizers. Their great potential in materials applications is demonstrated by the fabrication of organic-inorganic nanocomposites that can be selectively photopolymerized to inscribe extremely effective and volume holographic gratings with the highest refractive index contrast (n(1) of up to 0.024) achieved so far.

  12. Manned maneuvering unit mission definition study. Volume 2: Appendices to the MMU applications analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Information used in identifying representative Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU) from the many Automated and Sortie Payloads and orbiter subsystems is presented. Representative missions were selected to represent typical MMU applications across all payloads and orbiter subsystems. Data analysis sheets are provided with other applicable information. Calculations used in defining MMU general performance and control requirements to satisfy eleven space missions are included.

  13. Proceedings of the National Conference on Energy Resource Management. Volume 2: Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brumfield, J. O. (Editor); Schiffman, Y. M. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Subject areas related to the integration of remotely sensed data with geographic information systems for application in energy resource management are covered. The current trends and advances in the application of these systems to a number of energy concerns are addressed.

  14. Design and Evaluation of an Intelligent Remote Tidal Volume Variability Monitoring System in E-Health Applications.

    PubMed

    Fekr, Atena Roshan; Radecka, Katarzyna; Zilic, Zeljko

    2015-09-01

    A reliable long-term monitoring and diagnosis of breath disorders at an early stage provides an improvement of medical act, life expectancy, and quality of life while decreasing the costs of treatment and medical services. Therefore, a real-time unobtrusive monitoring of respiration patterns, as well as breath parameters, is a critical need in medical applications. In this paper, we propose an intelligent system for patient home care, capable of measuring respiration rate and tidal volume variability via a wearable sensing technology. The proposed system is designed particularly for the goal of diagnosis and treatment in patients with pathological breathing, e.g., respiratory complications after surgery or sleep disorders. The complete system was comprised of wearable calibrated accelerometer sensor, Bluetooth low energy, and cloud database. The experiments are conducted with eight subjects and the overall error in respiration rate calculation is obtained 0.29%±0.33% considering SPR-BTA spirometer as the reference. We also introduce a method for tidal volume variability estimation while validated using Pearson correlation. Furthermore, since it is essential to detect the critical events resulted from sudden rise or fall in per breath tidal volume of the patients, we provide a technique to automatically find the accurate threshold values based on each individual breath characteristics. Therefore, the system is able to detect the major changes, precisely by more than 98%, and provide immediate feedback such as sound alarm for round-the-clock respiration monitoring. PMID:26087508

  15. Design and Evaluation of an Intelligent Remote Tidal Volume Variability Monitoring System in E-Health Applications.

    PubMed

    Fekr, Atena Roshan; Radecka, Katarzyna; Zilic, Zeljko

    2015-09-01

    A reliable long-term monitoring and diagnosis of breath disorders at an early stage provides an improvement of medical act, life expectancy, and quality of life while decreasing the costs of treatment and medical services. Therefore, a real-time unobtrusive monitoring of respiration patterns, as well as breath parameters, is a critical need in medical applications. In this paper, we propose an intelligent system for patient home care, capable of measuring respiration rate and tidal volume variability via a wearable sensing technology. The proposed system is designed particularly for the goal of diagnosis and treatment in patients with pathological breathing, e.g., respiratory complications after surgery or sleep disorders. The complete system was comprised of wearable calibrated accelerometer sensor, Bluetooth low energy, and cloud database. The experiments are conducted with eight subjects and the overall error in respiration rate calculation is obtained 0.29%±0.33% considering SPR-BTA spirometer as the reference. We also introduce a method for tidal volume variability estimation while validated using Pearson correlation. Furthermore, since it is essential to detect the critical events resulted from sudden rise or fall in per breath tidal volume of the patients, we provide a technique to automatically find the accurate threshold values based on each individual breath characteristics. Therefore, the system is able to detect the major changes, precisely by more than 98%, and provide immediate feedback such as sound alarm for round-the-clock respiration monitoring.

  16. Tri-color composite volume H-PDLC grating and its application to 3D color autostereoscopic display.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kangni; Zheng, Jihong; Gao, Hui; Lu, Feiyue; Sun, Lijia; Yin, Stuart; Zhuang, Songlin

    2015-11-30

    A tri-color composite volume holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal (H-PDLC) grating and its application to 3-dimensional (3D) color autostereoscopic display are reported in this paper. The composite volume H-PDLC grating consists of three different period volume H-PDLC sub-gratings. The longer period diffracts red light, the medium period diffracts the green light, and the shorter period diffracts the blue light. To record three different period gratings simultaneously, two photoinitiators are employed. The first initiator consists of methylene blue and p-toluenesulfonic acid and the second initiator is composed of Rose Bengal and N-phenyglycine. In this case, the holographic recording medium is sensitive to entire visible wavelengths, including red, green, and blue so that the tri-color composite grating can be written simultaneously by harnessing three different color laser beams. In the experiment, the red beam comes from a He-Ne laser with an output wavelength of 632.8 nm, the green beam comes from a Verdi solid state laser with an output wavelength of 532 nm, and the blue beam comes from a He-Cd laser with an output wavelength of 441.6 nm. The experimental results show that diffraction efficiencies corresponding to red, green, and blue colors are 57%, 75% and 33%, respectively. Although this diffraction efficiency is not perfect, it is high enough to demonstrate the effect of 3D color autostereoscopic display. PMID:26698768

  17. Automated cerebellar segmentation: Validation and application to detect smaller volumes in children prenatally exposed to alcohol☆

    PubMed Central

    Cardenas, Valerie A.; Price, Mathew; Infante, M. Alejandra; Moore, Eileen M.; Mattson, Sarah N.; Riley, Edward P.; Fein, George

    2014-01-01

    Objective To validate an automated cerebellar segmentation method based on active shape and appearance modeling and then segment the cerebellum on images acquired from adolescents with histories of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) and non-exposed controls (NC). Methods Automated segmentations of the total cerebellum, right and left cerebellar hemispheres, and three vermal lobes (anterior, lobules I–V; superior posterior, lobules VI–VII; inferior posterior, lobules VIII–X) were compared to expert manual labelings on 20 subjects, studied twice, that were not used for model training. The method was also used to segment the cerebellum on 11 PAE and 9 NC adolescents. Results The test–retest intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) of the automated method were greater than 0.94 for all cerebellar volume and mid-sagittal vermal area measures, comparable or better than the test–retest ICCs for manual measurement (all ICCs > 0.92). The ICCs computed on all four cerebellar measurements (manual and automated measures on the repeat scans) to compare comparability were above 0.97 for non-vermis parcels, and above 0.89 for vermis parcels. When applied to patients, the automated method detected smaller cerebellar volumes and mid-sagittal areas in the PAE group compared to controls (p < 0.05 for all regions except the superior posterior lobe, consistent with prior studies). Discussion These results demonstrate excellent reliability and validity of automated cerebellar volume and mid-sagittal area measurements, compared to manual measurements. These data also illustrate that this new technology for automatically delineating the cerebellum leads to conclusions regarding the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the cerebellum consistent with prior studies that used labor intensive manual delineation, even with a very small sample. PMID:25061566

  18. [Application possibilities and initial experience with digital volume tomography in hand and wrist imaging].

    PubMed

    Goerke, Sebastian M; Neubauer, J; Zajonc, H; Thiele, J R; Kotter, E; Langer, M; Stark, G B; Lampert, F M

    2015-02-01

    During the last decade, DVT (digital volume tomography) imaging has become a widely used standard technique in head and neck imaging. Lower radiation exposure compared to conventional computed tomography (MDCT) has been described. Recently, DVT has been developed as an extremity scanner and as such represents a new imaging technique for hand surgery. We here describe the first 24 months experience with this new imaging modality in hand and wrist imaging by presenting representative cases and by describing the technical background. Furthermore, the method's advantages and disadvantages are discussed with reference to the given literature.

  19. Application of radar for automotive collision avoidance. Volume 2: Development plan and progress reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichtenberg, Christopher L. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this project was research and development of an automobile collision avoidance radar system. Items within the scope of the one-year effort were to: (1) review previous authors' work in this field; (2) select a suitable radar approach; (3) develop a system design; (4) perform basic analyses and observations pertinent to radar design, performance, and effects; (5) fabricate and collect radar data from a data collection radar; (6) analyze and derive conclusions from the radar data; and (7) make recommendations about the likelihood of success of the investigated radar techniques. The final technical report presenting all conclusions is contained in Volume 1.

  20. Development of an advanced volume'' H sup minus source for neutral beam application

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, K.N.; Anderson, O.A.; Chan, C.F.; Cooper, W.S.; DeVries, G.J.; Hauck, C.A.; Kunkel, W.B.; Kwan, J.W.; Lietzke, A.F.; Purgalis, P.; Wells, R.P. )

    1990-09-01

    Based on recent experimental results made on the large and small multicusp volume H{sup {minus}} sources, a new multicusp source has been designed to generate high-brightness H{sup {minus}} or D{sup {minus}} beams for high duty factor or dc operations. Cesium will be introduced into the source plasma to enhance the H{sup {minus}} output current. Arrangements for reducing the electrons as well as capturing them in the preaccelerator electrodes will be incorporated into the new source geometry.

  1. Application of the QSDC procedure to the formulation of space shuttle design criteria. Volume 2: Applications guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouton, I.; Martin, G. L.

    1972-01-01

    Criteria to determine the probability of aircraft structural failure were established according to the Quantitative Structural Design Criteria by Statistical Methods, the QSDC Procedure. This criteria method was applied to the design of the space shuttle during this contract. An Applications Guide was developed to demonstrate the utilization of the QSDC Procedure, with examples of the application to a hypothetical space shuttle illustrating the application to specific design problems. Discussions of the basic parameters of the QSDC Procedure: the Limit and Omega Conditions, and the strength scatter, have been included. Available data pertinent to the estimation of the strength scatter have also been included.

  2. Integrated Power/Attitude Control System (IPACS) study. Volume 1: Feasibility studies. [application of flywheels for power storage and generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Notti, J. E.; Cormack, A., III; Schmill, W. C.

    1974-01-01

    An Integrated Power/Attitude Control System (IPACS) concept consisting of an array of spinning flywheels, with or without gimbals, capable of performing the dual function of power storage and generation, as well as attitude control has been investigated. This system provides attitude control through momentum storage, and replaces the storage batteries onboard the spacecraft. The results of the investigation are presented in two volumes. The trade-off studies performed to establish the feasibility, cost effectiveness, required level of development, and boundaries of application of IPACS to a wide variety of spacecraft are discussed. The conceptual designs for a free-flying research application module (RAM), and for a tracking and data relay satellite (TDRS) are presented. Results from dynamic analyses and simulations of the IPACS conceptual designs are included.

  3. Optimization of multi-grating volume holographic spectrum splitters for photovoltaic applications.

    PubMed

    Ingersoll, G B; Leger, J R

    2016-07-10

    Recent research has shown that using multiple diverse-bandgap photovoltaic (PV) cells in conjunction with a spectrum splitting optical system can significantly improve PV power generation efficiency. Although volume Bragg gratings (VBGs) can serve as effective spectrum splitters, the inherent dispersion of a VBG can be detrimental given a broad-spectrum input. The performance of a single holographic spectrum splitter element can be improved by utilizing multiple single volume gratings, each operating in a slightly different spectral band. However, care must be taken to avoid inter-grating coupling effects that limit the ultimate performance. This work explores broadband two-grating holographic optical elements (HOEs) in multiplexed (single element) and sandwiched-grating arrangements. Particle swarm optimization is used to tailor these systems to the solar spectrum, taking into account both efficiency and dispersion. Both multiplexed and sandwiched two-grating systems exhibit performance improvements over single-grating solutions, especially when reduced dispersion is required. Under a ±2° constraint on output angular spread from wavelength dispersion, sandwiched-, multiplexed-, and single-grating systems exhibit power conversion efficiencies of 82.1%, 80.9%, and 77.5%, respectively, compared to an ideal bandpass spectrum splitter. Dispersion performance can be further improved by employing more than two VBGs in the spectrum splitter, but efficiency is compromised by additional cross-coupling effects. Multiplexed-grating systems are especially susceptible to these effects, but have the advantage of utilizing only a single HOE. PMID:27409317

  4. Diffusion on a curved surface coupled to diffusion in the volume: Application to cell biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Igor L.; Gao, Fei; Choi, Yung-Sze; Resasco, Diana; Schaff, James C.; Slepchenko, Boris M.

    2007-10-01

    An algorithm is presented for solving a diffusion equation on a curved surface coupled to diffusion in the volume, a problem often arising in cell biology. It applies to pixilated surfaces obtained from experimental images and performs at low computational cost. In the method, the Laplace-Beltrami operator is approximated locally by the Laplacian on the tangential plane and then a finite volume discretization scheme based on a Voronoi decomposition is applied. Convergence studies show that mass conservation built in the discretization scheme and cancellation of sampling error ensure convergence of the solution in space with an order between 1 and 2. The method is applied to a cell-biological problem where a signaling molecule, G-protein Rac, cycles between the cytoplasm and cell membrane thus coupling its diffusion in the membrane to that in the cell interior. Simulations on realistic cell geometry are performed to validate, and determine the accuracy of, a recently proposed simplified quantitative analysis of fluorescence loss in photobleaching. The method is implemented within the Virtual Cell computational framework freely accessible at http://www.vcell.org.

  5. Optimization of multi-grating volume holographic spectrum splitters for photovoltaic applications.

    PubMed

    Ingersoll, G B; Leger, J R

    2016-07-10

    Recent research has shown that using multiple diverse-bandgap photovoltaic (PV) cells in conjunction with a spectrum splitting optical system can significantly improve PV power generation efficiency. Although volume Bragg gratings (VBGs) can serve as effective spectrum splitters, the inherent dispersion of a VBG can be detrimental given a broad-spectrum input. The performance of a single holographic spectrum splitter element can be improved by utilizing multiple single volume gratings, each operating in a slightly different spectral band. However, care must be taken to avoid inter-grating coupling effects that limit the ultimate performance. This work explores broadband two-grating holographic optical elements (HOEs) in multiplexed (single element) and sandwiched-grating arrangements. Particle swarm optimization is used to tailor these systems to the solar spectrum, taking into account both efficiency and dispersion. Both multiplexed and sandwiched two-grating systems exhibit performance improvements over single-grating solutions, especially when reduced dispersion is required. Under a ±2° constraint on output angular spread from wavelength dispersion, sandwiched-, multiplexed-, and single-grating systems exhibit power conversion efficiencies of 82.1%, 80.9%, and 77.5%, respectively, compared to an ideal bandpass spectrum splitter. Dispersion performance can be further improved by employing more than two VBGs in the spectrum splitter, but efficiency is compromised by additional cross-coupling effects. Multiplexed-grating systems are especially susceptible to these effects, but have the advantage of utilizing only a single HOE.

  6. Development of a multicomponent force and moment balance for water tunnel applications, volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarez, Carlos J.; Malcolm, Gerald N.; Kramer, Brian R.; Smith, Brooke C.; Ayers, Bert F.

    1994-12-01

    The principal objective of this research effort was to develop a multicomponent strain gauge balance to measure forces and moments on models tested in flow visualization water tunnels. An internal balance was designed that allows measuring normal and side forces, and pitching, yawing and rolling moments (no axial force). The five-components to applied loads, low interactions between the sections and no hysteresis. Static experiments (which are discussed in this Volume) were conducted in the Eidetics water tunnel with delta wings and a model of the F/A-18. Experiments with the F/A-18 model included a thorough baseline study and investigations of the effect of control surface deflections and of several Forebody Vortex Control (FVC) techniques. Results were compared to wind tunnel data and, in general, the agreement is very satisfactory. The results of the static tests provide confidence that loads can be measured accurately in the water tunnel with a relatively simple multicomponent internal balance. Dynamic experiments were also performed using the balance, and the results are discussed in detail in Volume 2 of this report.

  7. Development of a multicomponent force and moment balance for water tunnel applications, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suarez, Carlos J.; Malcolm, Gerald N.; Kramer, Brian R.; Smith, Brooke C.; Ayers, Bert F.

    1994-01-01

    The principal objective of this research effort was to develop a multicomponent strain gauge balance to measure forces and moments on models tested in flow visualization water tunnels. An internal balance was designed that allows measuring normal and side forces, and pitching, yawing and rolling moments (no axial force). The five-components to applied loads, low interactions between the sections and no hysteresis. Static experiments (which are discussed in this Volume) were conducted in the Eidetics water tunnel with delta wings and a model of the F/A-18. Experiments with the F/A-18 model included a thorough baseline study and investigations of the effect of control surface deflections and of several Forebody Vortex Control (FVC) techniques. Results were compared to wind tunnel data and, in general, the agreement is very satisfactory. The results of the static tests provide confidence that loads can be measured accurately in the water tunnel with a relatively simple multicomponent internal balance. Dynamic experiments were also performed using the balance, and the results are discussed in detail in Volume 2 of this report.

  8. Development of a multicomponent force and moment balance for water tunnel applications, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suarez, Carlos J.; Malcolm, Gerald N.; Kramer, Brian R.; Smith, Brooke C.; Ayers, Bert F.

    1994-01-01

    The principal objective of this research effort was to develop a multicomponent strain gauge balance to measure forces and moments on models tested in flow visualization water tunnels. Static experiments (which are discussed in Volume 1 of this report) were conducted, and the results showed good agreement with wind tunnel data on similar configurations. Dynamic experiments, which are the main topic of this Volume, were also performed using the balance. Delta wing models and two F/A-18 models were utilized in a variety of dynamic tests. This investigation showed that, as expected, the values of the inertial tares are very small due to the low rotating rates required in a low-speed water tunnel and can, therefore, be ignored. Oscillations in pitch, yaw and roll showed hysteresis loops that compared favorably to data from dynamic wind tunnel experiments. Pitch-up and hold maneuvers revealed the long persistence, or time-lags, of some of the force components in response to the motion. Rotary-balance experiments were also successfully performed. The good results obtained in these dynamic experiments bring a whole new dimension to water tunnel testing and emphasize the importance of having the capability to perform simultaneous flow visualization and force/moment measurements during dynamic situations.

  9. Application of Remote Sensing to the Chesapeake Bay Region. Volume 2: Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, W. T. (Editor); Freas, G. W., Jr. (Editor); Hickman, G. D. (Editor); Pemberton, D. A. (Editor); Wilkerson, T. D. (Editor); Adler, I. (Editor); Laurie, V. J. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    A conference was held on the application of remote sensing to the Chesapeake Bay region. Copies of the papers, resource contributions, panel discussions, and reports of the working groups are presented.

  10. Manned maneuvering unit mission definition study. Volume 1: MMU applications analysis and performance requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Applications of Manned Maneuvering Units (MMU'S) to the space shuttle program are identified and described. The applications analyses included studies of the shuttle orbiter, orbiter subsystems, and both Sortie and Automated Payloads. Based on practicable MMU applications, general performance and control requirements for shuttle supporting maneuvering units are defined and compared to units evaluated on Skylab. The results of the MMU applications analyses and the general MMU performance and control requirements are presented. To describe a versatile utility-type maneuvering unit, conceptual designs of MMU support subsystems and ancillary equipment were prepared. Concepts for attaching and securing the MMU crewman to various vehicles, structure configurations, and rescue systems were developed. Concepts for ancillary provisions are reported.

  11. Intersatellite Link (ISL) application to commercial communications satellites. Volume 2: Technical final report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, S. Lee

    1987-01-01

    Intersatellite Link (ISL) applications can improve and expand communication satellite services in a number of ways. As the demand for orbital slots within prime regions of the geostationary arc increases, attention is being focused on ISLs as a method to utilize this resource more efficiently and circumvent saturation. Various GEO-to-GEO applications were determined that provide potential benefits over existing communication systems. A set of criteria was developed to assess the potential applications. Intersatellite link models, network system architectures, and payload configurations were developed. For each of the chosen ISL applications, ISL versus non-ISL satellite systems architectures were derived. Both microwave and optical ISL implementation approaches were evaluated for payload sizing and cost analysis. The technological availability for ISL implementations was assessed. Critical subsystems technology areas were identified, and an estamate of the schedule and cost to advance the technology to the requiered state of readiness was made.

  12. Photovoltaic system criteria documents. Volume 3: Environmental issues and evaluation criteria for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, John C.; Billitti, Joseph W.; Tallon, John M.

    1979-01-01

    The environmental issues and evaluation criteria relating to the suitability of sites proposed for photovoltaic (PV) system deployment are identified. The important issues are defined, briefly discussed and then developed into evaluation criteria. System designers are provided with information on the environmental sensitivity of PV systems in realistic applications, background material which indicates the applicability of the siting issues identified, and evaluation criteria are defined to facilitate the selection of sites that maximize PV system operation.

  13. An overview of artificial intelligence and robotics. Volume 1: Artificial intelligence. Part B: Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gevarter, W. B.

    1983-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) is an emerging technology that has recently attracted considerable attention. Many applications are now under development. This report, Part B of a three part report on AI, presents overviews of the key application areas: Expert Systems, Computer Vision, Natural Language Processing, Speech Interfaces, and Problem Solving and Planning. The basic approaches to such systems, the state-of-the-art, existing systems and future trends and expectations are covered.

  14. Application of a finite volume based method of lines to turbulent forced convection in circular tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Campo, A.; Tebeest, K.; Lacoa, U.; Morales, J.C.

    1996-10-01

    A semianalytic analysis of in-tube turbulent forced convection is performed whose special computational feature is the combination of the method of lines, the finite volume technique, and a radial coordinate transformation. First, a numerical solution of the momentum equation was obtained by a simple Runge-Kutta integration scheme. Second, the energy equation was reformulated into a system of ordinary differential equations of first order. Each equation in the system controls the temperature along a line in a mesh consisting of concentric lines. Reliable analytic solutions for the temperature distribution of fluids in the region of thermal development can be determined for combinations of Reynolds and Prandtl numbers. Predicted results for the distributions of mean bulk temperature and local Nusselt numbers for air, water, and oils compare satisfactorily with the available experimental data.

  15. Capillary plasma jet: A low volume plasma source for life science applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topala, I.; Nagatsu, M.

    2015-02-01

    In this letter, we present results from multispectroscopic analysis of protein films, after exposure to a peculiar plasma source, i.e., the capillary plasma jet. This plasma source is able to generate very small pulsed plasma volumes, in kilohertz range, with characteristic dimensions smaller than 1 mm. This leads to specific microscale generation and transport of all plasma species. Plasma diagnosis was realized using general electrical and optical methods. Depending on power level and exposure duration, this miniature plasma jet can induce controllable modifications to soft matter targets. Detailed discussions on protein film oxidation and chemical etching are supported by results from absorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and microscopy techniques. Further exploitation of principles presented here may consolidate research interests involving plasmas in biotechnologies and plasma medicine, especially in patterning technologies, modified biomolecule arrays, and local chemical functionalization.

  16. Capillary plasma jet: A low volume plasma source for life science applications

    SciTech Connect

    Topala, I. E-mail: tmnagat@ipc.shizuoka.ac.jp; Nagatsu, M. E-mail: tmnagat@ipc.shizuoka.ac.jp

    2015-02-02

    In this letter, we present results from multispectroscopic analysis of protein films, after exposure to a peculiar plasma source, i.e., the capillary plasma jet. This plasma source is able to generate very small pulsed plasma volumes, in kilohertz range, with characteristic dimensions smaller than 1 mm. This leads to specific microscale generation and transport of all plasma species. Plasma diagnosis was realized using general electrical and optical methods. Depending on power level and exposure duration, this miniature plasma jet can induce controllable modifications to soft matter targets. Detailed discussions on protein film oxidation and chemical etching are supported by results from absorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and microscopy techniques. Further exploitation of principles presented here may consolidate research interests involving plasmas in biotechnologies and plasma medicine, especially in patterning technologies, modified biomolecule arrays, and local chemical functionalization.

  17. Analysis of the effects of viscosity, volume, and temperature in photopolymer material for holographic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jinxin; Gleeson, Michael R.; Sheridan, John T.

    2013-05-01

    In recent work carried out, we introduced the developments made to the Non-local Photo-polymerization Driven Diffusion model, and illustrate some of the useful trends, which the model predicts and then analyse their implications on photopolymer improvement. The model was improved in its physicality through the inclusion of viscosity effects (changes in fractional free volume), multiple components and their photo-kinetic and photo-physical behaviour, and free space vacuoles. In this paper, we further explore this model to provide a more rigorous and informed basis for predicting the behaviours of photopolymer materials in both photo-chemical and photo-physical sides. Such improvements include a) the analysis of the effects of viscosity on the refractive index modulation, b) the effects of the introduction of free space holes, e.g. the volumetric changes, and c) an examination of the effects of local temperatures and various concentration ratios to optimise material performance.

  18. Data catalog series for space science and applications flight missions. Volume 4B: Descriptions of data sets from meteorological and terrestrial applications spacecraft and investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Carolyn; Stonesifer, G. Richard

    1989-01-01

    The main purpose of the data catalog series is to provide descriptive references to data generated by space science flight missions. The data sets described include all of the actual holdings of the Space Science Data Center (NSSDC), all data sets for which direct contact information is available, and some data collections held and serviced by foreign investigators, NASA and other U.S. government agencies. This volume contains narrative descriptions of data sets from meteorological and terrestrial applications spacecraft and investigations. The following spacecraft series are included: Mariner, Pioneer, Pioneer Venus, Venera, Viking, Voyager, and Helios. Separate indexes to the planetary and interplanetary missions are also provided.

  19. Data catalog series for space science and applications flight missions. Volume 4A: Descriptions of meteorological and terrestrial applications spacecraft and investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, C. Y. (Editor); Sheu, Y. T. P. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    The National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) provides data from and information about space science and applications flight investigations in support of additional studies beyond those performed as the principal part of any flight mission. The Earth-orbiting spacecraft for investigations of the earth and its atmosphere is discussed. Geodetic tracking data are included in this category. The principal subject areas presented are meteorology and earth resources survey, and the spacecraft selection is made according to those subjects. All experiments on board the spacecraft are described. No attempt is made to reference investigations that are related to the above disciplines, but that are described in other volumes of this series.

  20. Applications of large-volume sampling assemblies for the determination of organochlorines in seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Risebrough, R.W.; Lappe, B.W. de; Ramer, R.

    1995-12-31

    In the 1970s an overly ambitious attempt to construct a global mass balance of PCBs was thwarted by the difficulties in obtaining credible values of their seawater concentrations. Concepts of transfer processes have since shifted from a simplistic one-way passage of PCBs from land to sea to continuous exchanges between and among all local media, including transfer from seawater to the atmosphere, with the net fluxes determined by local chemical potentials. Seawater measurements continue to be critically important. The authors describe the latest in a series of sampling assemblies for the determination of PCBs and other organochlorines in natural waters. Each has used glass fiber filters for the collection of particles and a high-density porous polyurethane foam for extraction from the seawater phase. The latest versions provide for the prevention of channeling around the foam medium, forcing water through the foam, and for the possibility of the analysis of separate modular units to estimate recoveries. Sample volumes have ranged from 100 to 3,600 liters at sites in coastal California and San Francisco Bay, the eastern Pacific, and coastal Catalonia. The latest version (1995) addresses and at least partially corrects the principal deficiencies of earlier versions --, the large volume of solvents and the considerable personnel time required in sample workup. The authors present recovery data for PCBs, other organochlorines, PAHs, and several herbicides. In the eastern Pacific, PCBs were not detected at a sensitivity level in the order of 1 pg/liter; toxaphene and alpha-HCH were the most abundant organochlorines at those sites. They are now somewhat closer to the goal of formulating global mass balance equations and of estimating global inventories of these contaminants.

  1. Assessment of research needs for advanced heterogeneous catalysts for energy applications. Final report: Volume 2, Topic reports

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, G.A.

    1994-04-01

    This report assesses the direction, technical content, and priority of research needs judged to provide the best chance of yielding new and improved heterogeneous catalysts for energy-related applications over the period of 5-20 years. It addresses issues of energy conservation, alternate fuels and feedstocks, and the economics and applications that could alleviate pollution from energy processes. Recommended goals are defined in 3 research thrusts: catalytic science, environmental protection by catalysis, and industrial catalytic applications. This study was conducted by an 11-member panel of experts from industry and academia, including one each from Japan and Europe. This volume first presents an in-depth overview of the role of catalysis in future energy technology in chapter 1; then current catalytic research is critically reviewed and research recommended in 8 topic chapters: catalyst preparation (design and synthesis), catalyst characterization (structure/function), catalyst performance testing, reaction kinetics/reactor design, catalysis for industrial chemicals, catalysis for electrical applications (clean fuels, pollution remediation), catalysis for control of exhaust emissions, and catalysts for liquid transportation fuels from petroleum, coal, residual oil, and biomass.

  2. Reference earth orbital research and applications investigations (blue book). Volume 7: Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The candidate experiment program for manned space stations with specific application to technology disciplines is presented. The five functional program elements are devoted to the development of new technology for application to future generation spacecraft and experiments. The functional program elements are as follows: (1) monitor and trace movement of external contaminants to determine methods for controlling contamination, (2) analysis of fundamentals of fluid systems management, (3) extravehicular activity, (4) advanced spacecraft systems tests, and (5) development of teleoperator system for use with space activities.

  3. Space processing applications payload equipment study. Volume 2A: Experiment requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, A. G.; Anderson, W. T., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    An analysis of the space processing applications payload equipment was conducted. The primary objective was to perform a review and an update of the space processing activity research equipment requirements and specifications that were derived in the first study. The analysis is based on the six major experimental classes of: (1) biological applications, (2) chemical processes in fluids, (3) crystal growth, (4) glass technology, (5) metallurgical processes, and (6) physical processes in fluids. Tables of data are prepared to show the functional requirements for the areas of investigation.

  4. Photovoltaic system criteria documents. Volume 2: Quality assurance criteria for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, John C.; Billitti, Joseph W.; Tallon, John M.

    1979-01-01

    Quality assurance criteria are described for manufacturers and installers of solar photovoltaic tests and applications. Quality oriented activities are outlined to be pursued by the contractor/subcontractor to assure the physical and operational quality of equipment produced is included. In the broad sense, guidelines are provided for establishing a QA organization if none exists. Mainly, criteria is provided to be considered in any PV quality assurance plan selected as appropriate by the responsible Field Center. A framework is established for a systematic approach to ensure that photovoltaic tests and applications are constructed in a timely and cost effective manner.

  5. Methodology for evaluation of multiple power plant cooling system effects. Volume V. Methodology application to prototype: Cayuga Lake. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    The models developed in this project can be used to evaluate impacts on ecosystems due to the operation of multiple power plant cooling systems on a single water body. The models simulate the behavior of ecosystems with added stresses from cooling system operation. The ecosystem is simulated simultaneously with cooling water withdrawal, passage of the water through the plants (with different induced mortality rates) and discharge back to the ecosystem. The equations, rationale for relationships, and user's guide are contained in earlier volumes (I, II, III, IV). This volume illustrates the use of the methodology for Cayuga Lake, New York. The application results show reasonable agreement between specific and generalized state variables. The results from 1-year and 10-year simulations appeared to be reasonable predictions. The additional power plants increased impingement and entrainment and transported nutrients from deeper waters to the photic zone since the intakes were located at lower depths. Increased nutrients in the photic zone resulted in an increase in the overall productivity of Cayuga Lake. As a result of methodology applications, it was tentatively concluded that ecosystem impacts of one or two additional power plants would fall within the natural variability of the lake. The Cayuga Lake application has demonstrated that the methodology is an important tool for assessing the effects of multiple power plants on a single waterbody. It provides a useful approach to combining ecosystem complexity and computing the integrated responses to cooling system operation. Future contributions to methodology development should come from better and more accurate definitions of the ecosystem processes so that mathematical models can be more precise.

  6. Draft Title 40 CFR 191 compliance certification application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-31

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a research and development facility for the demonstration of the permanent isolation of transuranic radioactive wastes in a geologic formation. The facility was constructed in southeastern New Mexico in a manner intended to meet criteria established by the scientific and regulatory community for the safe, long-term disposal of transuranic wastes. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing an application to demonstrate compliance with the requirements outlined in Title 40, Part 191 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) for the permanent disposal of transuranic wastes. As mandated by the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Land Withdrawal Act of 1992, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) must evaluate this compliance application and provide a determination regarding compliance with the requirements within one year of receiving a complete application. Because the WIPP is a very complex program, the DOE has planned to submit the application as a draft in two parts. This strategy will allow for the DOE and the EPA to begin technical discussions on critical WIPP issues before the one-year compliance determination period begins. This report is the first of these two draft submittals.

  7. Best Visual Presentation--Observations from the Award Committee. IR Applications. Volume 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bers, Trudy

    2005-01-01

    In 2003, the Association for Institutional Research (AIR) initiated the Best Visual Presentation (BVP) award to acknowledge the contributions made through new ways of professional communication, in addition to those made through more traditional scholarly formats. The purpose of this "IR Applications" is to provide observations from the BVP Award…

  8. [Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B permit application: Volume 6, Revision 3: Engineering Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    This report is part of revision 3 to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act part B permit application for the WIPP facility. Engineering drawings and details are included on the following: fire protection sprinkler system and fire water collection system; fault analysis and protective device coordination; primary power distribution, area electrical diagrams; paving details; fencing plan; railroad access plan; and access road plans.

  9. [Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B permit application: Volume 6, Revision 3: Engineering Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    This report is part of revision 3 to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act part B permit application for the WIPP facility. Engineering drawings and details are included on the following: fire protection sprinkler system and fire water collection system; fault analysis and protective device coordination; primary power distribution, area electrical diagrams; paving details; fencing plan; railroad access plan; and access road plans.

  10. Modular Modeling System (MMS): Volume 4B, Applications: 1984 code release workshop proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Bartells, P.

    1987-04-01

    These proceedings include formal presentations on the following topics: Overview of MMS Code, The MMS Code Enhancements, MMS-02 Development, MMS validation against plant data and codes, MMS validation against Experimental Data, and Utility Applications. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  11. Fifth Annual Workshop on Space Operations Applications and Research (SOAR 1991), volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishen, Kumar (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    Papers given at the Space Operations and Applications Symposium, host by the NASA Johnson Space Center on July 9-11, 1991 are given. The technical areas covered included intelligent systems, automation and robotics, human factors and life sciences, and environmental interactions.

  12. Study of airborne science experiment management concepts for application to space shuttle. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulholland, D. R.; Reller, J. O., Jr.; Neel, C. B.; Haughney, L. C.

    1973-01-01

    The management concepts and operating procedures are documented as they apply to the planning of shuttle spacelab operations. Areas discussed include: airborne missions; formulation of missions; management procedures; experimenter involvement; experiment development and performance; data handling; safety procedures; and applications to shuttle spacelab planning. Characteristics of the airborne science experience are listed, and references and figures are included.

  13. Application of Shuttle EVA Systems to Payloads. Volume 2: Payload EVA Task Completion Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Candidate payload tasks for EVA application were identified and selected, based on an analysis of four representative space shuttle payloads, and typical EVA scenarios with supporting crew timelines and procedures were developed. The EVA preparations and post EVA operations, as well as the timelines emphasizing concurrent payload support functions, were also summarized.

  14. Assessment of solar options for small power systems applications. Volume III. Analysis of concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Laity, W.W.; Aase, D.T.; Apley, W.J.; Bird, S.P.; Drost, M.K.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Williams, T.A.

    1980-09-01

    A comparative analysis of solar thermal conversion concepts that are potentially suitable for development as small electric power systems (1 to 10 MWe) is given. Seven generic types of collectors, together with associated subsystems for electric power generation, were considered. The collectors can be classified into three categories: (1) two-axis tracking (with compound-curvature reflecting surfaces; (2) one-axis tracking (with single-curvature reflecting suraces; and (3) nontracking (with low-concentration reflecting surfaces). All seven collectors were analyzed in conceptual system configurations with Rankine-cycle engines. In addition, two of the collectors (the Point Focus Central Receiver and the Point Focus Distributed Receiver) were analyzed with Brayton-cycle engines, and the latter of the two also was analyzed with Stirling-cycle engines. This volume describes the systems analyses performed on all the alternative configurations of the seven generic collector concepts and the results obtained. The SOLSTEP computer code used to determine each configuration's system cost and performance is briefly described. The collector and receiver performance calculations used are also presented. The capital investment and related costs that were obtained from the systems studies are presented, and the levelized energy costs are given as a function of capacity factor obtained from the systems studies. Included also are the values of the other attributes used in the concepts' final ranking. The comments, conclusions, and recommendations developed by the PNL study team during the concept characterization and systems analysis tasks of the study are presented. (WHK)

  15. Solar thermal power systems point-focusing thermal and electric applications projects. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marriott, A.

    1980-01-01

    The activities of the Point-Focusing Thermal and Electric Applications (PETEA) project for the fiscal year 1979 are summarized. The main thrust of the PFTEA Project, the small community solar thermal power experiment, was completed. Concept definition studies included a small central receiver approach, a point-focusing distributed receiver system with central power generation, and a point-focusing distributed receiver concept with distributed power generation. The first experiment in the Isolated Application Series was initiated. Planning for the third engineering experiment series, which addresses the industrial market sector, was also initiated. In addition to the experiment-related activities, several contracts to industry were let and studies were conducted to explore the market potential for point-focusing distributed receiver (PFDR) systems. System analysis studies were completed that looked at PFDR technology relative to other small power system technology candidates for the utility market sector.

  16. Application handbook for a Standardized Control Module (SCM) for DC-DC converters, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, F. C.; Mahmoud, M. F.; Yu, Y.

    1980-01-01

    The standardized control module (SCM) was developed for application in the buck, boost and buck/boost DC-DC converters. The SCM used multiple feedback loops to provide improved input line and output load regulation, stable feedback control system, good dynamic transient response and adaptive compensation of the control loop for changes in open loop gain and output filter time constraints. The necessary modeling and analysis tools to aid the design engineer in the application of the SCM to DC-DC Converters were developed. The SCM functional block diagram and the different analysis techniques were examined. The average time domain analysis technique was chosen as the basic analytical tool. The power stage transfer functions were developed for the buck, boost and buck/boost converters. The analog signal and digital signal processor transfer functions were developed for the three DC-DC Converter types using the constant on time, constant off time and constant frequency control laws.

  17. Space Applications of Automation, Robotics and Machine Intelligence Systems (ARAMIS). Volume 1: Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. H.; Minsky, M. L.; Smith, D. B. S.

    1982-01-01

    Potential applications of automation, robotics, and machine intelligence systems (ARAMIS) to space activities, and to their related ground support functions are explored. The specific tasks which will be required by future space projects are identified. ARAMIS options which are candidates for those space project tasks and the relative merits of these options are defined and evaluated. Promising applications of ARAMIS and specific areas for further research are identified. The ARAMIS options defined and researched by the study group span the range from fully human to fully machine, including a number of intermediate options (e.g., humans assisted by computers, and various levels of teleoperation). By including this spectrum, the study searches for the optimum mix of humans and machines for space project tasks.

  18. Evaluation of the Trajectory Operations Applications Software Task (TOAST). Volume 2: Interview transcripts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, Sharon; Martin, Andrea; Bavinger, Bill

    1990-01-01

    The Trajectory Operations Applications Software Task (TOAST) is a software development project whose purpose is to provide trajectory operation pre-mission and real-time support for the Space Shuttle. The purpose of the evaluation was to evaluate TOAST as an Application Manager - to assess current and planned capabilities, compare capabilities to commercially-available off the shelf (COTS) software, and analyze requirements of MCC and Flight Analysis Design System (FADS) for TOAST implementation. As a major part of the data gathering for the evaluation, interviews were conducted with NASA and contractor personnel. Real-time and flight design users, orbit navigation users, the TOAST developers, and management were interviewed. Code reviews and demonstrations were also held. Each of these interviews was videotaped and transcribed as appropriate. Transcripts were edited and are presented chronologically.

  19. Noninvasive Evaluation of Bladder Wall Mechanical Properties as a Function of Filling Volume: Potential Application in Bladder Compliance Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Mynderse, Lance; Husmann, Douglas; Urban, Matthew; Alizad, Azra

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We propose a novel method to monitor bladder wall mechanical properties as a function of filling volume, with the potential application to bladder compliance assessment. The proposed ultrasound bladder vibrometry (UBV) method uses ultrasound to excite and track Lamb waves on the bladder wall from which its mechanical properties are derived by fitting measurements to an analytical model. Of particular interest is the shear modulus of bladder wall at different volumes, which we hypothesize, is similar to measuring the compliance characteristics of the bladder. Materials and Methods Three experimental models were used: 1) an ex vivo porcine model where normal and aberrant (stiffened by formalin) bladders underwent evaluation by UBV; 2) an in vivo study to evaluate the performance of UBV on patients with clinically documented compliant and noncompliant bladders undergoing UDS; and 3) a noninvasive UBV protocol to assess bladder compliance using oral hydration and fractionated voiding on three healthy volunteers. Results The ex vivo studies showed a high correlation between the UBV parameters and direct pressure measurement (R2 = 0.84–0.99). A similar correlation was observed for 2 patients with compliant and noncompliant bladders (R2 = 0.89–0.99) undergoing UDS detrusor pressure-volume measurements. The results of UBV on healthy volunteers, performed without catheterization, were comparable to a compliant bladder patient. Conclusion The utility of UBV as a method to monitor changes in bladder wall mechanical properties is validated by the high correlation with pressure measurements in ex vivo and in vivo patient studies. High correlation UBV and UDS in vivo studies demonstrated the potential of UBV as a bladder compliance assessment tool. Results of studies on healthy volunteers with normal bladders demonstrated that UBV could be performed noninvasively. Further studies on a larger cohort are needed to fully validate the use of UBV as a clinical tool for

  20. Reference earth orbital research and applications investigations (blue book). Volume 4: Earth observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The earth observations capability of the space station and space shuttle program definition is discussed. The stress in the functional program element has been to update the sensor specifications and to shift some of the emphasis from sensors to experiments to be done aboard the facility. The earth observations facility will include provisions for data acquisition, sensor control and display, data analysis, and maintenance and repair. The facility is research and development in nature with a potential for operational applications.

  1. A thermal scale modeling study for Apollo and Apollo applications, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    The development and demonstration of practical thermal scale modeling techniques applicable to systems involving radiation, conduction, and convection with emphasis on cabin atmosphere/cabin wall thermal interface are discussed. The Apollo spacecraft environment is used as the model. Four possible scaling techniques were considered: (1) modified material preservation, (2) temperature preservation, (3) scaling compromises, and Nusselt number preservation. A thermal mathematical model was developed for use with the Nusselt number preservation technique.

  2. Space applications of Automation, Robotics and Machine Intelligence Systems (ARAMIS). Volume 2: Space projects overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. H.; Minsky, M. L.; Smith, D. B. S.

    1982-01-01

    Applications of automation, robotics, and machine intelligence systems (ARAMIS) to space activities, and their related ground support functions are studied so that informed decisions can be made on which aspects of ARAMIS to develop. The space project breakdowns, which are used to identify tasks ('functional elements'), are described. The study method concentrates on the production of a matrix relating space project tasks to pieces of ARAMIS.

  3. Impact Factors for Microinvasion in Patients With Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Possible Application to the Definition of Clinical Tumor Volume

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Minhua; Ji Yuan; Zeng Zhaochong; Tang Zhaoyou; Fan Jia; Zhou Jian; Zeng Mengsu; Bi Aihong; Tan Yunshan

    2010-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the degree of invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) microscopically that will provide a potential application for gross tumor volume to clinical tumor volume (GTV-to-CTV) expansion. Methods and Materials: From January 2002 to January 2006, 149 HCC patients were selected from those who had undergone surgical resection. Pathology slides and clinical data of all patients were reviewed, including platelet counts, serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels, degree of liver cirrhosis, tumor size, capsular status, portal vein invasion, TNM stage, and histologic tumor grade. The distance between the tumor margin (or fibrous capsule) and the invasive lesions was measured by senior pathologists. Results: Of these 149 patients, 79 (53.0%) patients presented with tumor microinvasion between 0.5 and 4 mm. This degree of microinvasion was inversely correlated with lower platelet counts and positively correlated with higher AFP levels, larger tumor sizes, portal vein invasion, and advanced TNM stage. Microinvasion distances less than or equal to 2 mm were found in 96.1% of patients (74/77) with tumor dimensions less than or equal to 5 cm and in 94.5% of patients (85/90) with AFP levels less than 400 mug/l. Conclusions: Based on our study findings, GTV-to-CTV expansions of 4 mm for HCC are required to conceal the gross tumor and any microscopic disease with 100% accuracy. Tumor size and AFP levels are the simplest indicators for determining the GTV-to-CTV distance for HCC.

  4. Effectiveness of indoor ultra-low volume application of Aqua Reslin® Super during an emergency.

    PubMed

    Ordóñez González, José Genaro; Thirion, Jaime; García Orozco, Abel; Rodríguez, Américo D

    2011-06-01

    Indoor ultra-low volume (ULV) applications of Aqua Reslin Super (Permethrin + s-bioallethrin) were carried out using portable Solo Port 423 sprayers in an urban area of Reforma, Chiapas, Mexico. Sprayers were calibrated to discharge a flow rate of 110 ml/min with a dose range of approximately 0.55 to 0.792 mg Al/m3 space. Entomological evaluation, based on 3 cages per house, each containing 15 sugar-fed, 2-4-day-old Aedes aegypti females and placed in hidden locations in 4 randomly selected houses for 15 min, showed 98.8% to 100% mortality. After the spraying, ovitrap data showed no mosquito adults present 4 days after the applications, and only 1 ovitrap out of 60 positive 8 days after the intervention. This evaluation suggests that indoor ULV application can be useful during emergencies after disasters, during dengue outbreaks, or to prevent mosquito population outbreaks before rainy seasons and, therefore, the onset of dengue transmission in Mexican dengue transmission risk areas. PMID:21805852

  5. Effectiveness of indoor ultra-low volume application of Aqua Reslin® Super during an emergency.

    PubMed

    Ordóñez González, José Genaro; Thirion, Jaime; García Orozco, Abel; Rodríguez, Américo D

    2011-06-01

    Indoor ultra-low volume (ULV) applications of Aqua Reslin Super (Permethrin + s-bioallethrin) were carried out using portable Solo Port 423 sprayers in an urban area of Reforma, Chiapas, Mexico. Sprayers were calibrated to discharge a flow rate of 110 ml/min with a dose range of approximately 0.55 to 0.792 mg Al/m3 space. Entomological evaluation, based on 3 cages per house, each containing 15 sugar-fed, 2-4-day-old Aedes aegypti females and placed in hidden locations in 4 randomly selected houses for 15 min, showed 98.8% to 100% mortality. After the spraying, ovitrap data showed no mosquito adults present 4 days after the applications, and only 1 ovitrap out of 60 positive 8 days after the intervention. This evaluation suggests that indoor ULV application can be useful during emergencies after disasters, during dengue outbreaks, or to prevent mosquito population outbreaks before rainy seasons and, therefore, the onset of dengue transmission in Mexican dengue transmission risk areas.

  6. The Education of Adult Migrant Farmworkers. Volume One: A Resource Base for Administrators And Teachers of Adult Education. Volume Two: Applications for Teachers and Administrators of Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaughter & Associates, Woodland Hills, CA.

    As the result of an extensive survey of the literature, analysis of current state plans for educating migrant farm workers, and site visits to nine programs serving adult farm workers in California, Florida, New York, Pennsylvania, Texas, and Washington, a two-volume final technical report on adult migrant farm worker education is presented. The…

  7. High-volume use of self-cementing spray dry absorber material for structural applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Charles E.

    Spray dry absorber (SDA) material, or spray dryer ash, is a byproduct of energy generation by coal combustion and sulfur emissions controls. Like any resource, it ought to be used to its fullest potential offsetting as many of the negative environmental impacts of coal combustion as possible throughout its lifecycle. Its cementitious and pozzolanic properties suggest it be used to augment or replace another energy and emissions intensive product: Portland cement. There is excellent potential for spray dryer ash to be used beneficially in structural applications, which will offset CO2 emissions due to Portland cement production, divert landfill waste by further utilizing a plentiful coal combustion by-product, and create more durable and sustainable structures. The research into beneficial use applications for SDA material is relatively undeveloped and the material is highly underutilized. This dissertation explored a specific self-cementing spray dryer ash for use as a binder in structural materials. Strength and stiffness properties of hydrated spray dryer ash mortars were improved by chemical activation with Portland cement and reinforcement with polymer fibers from automobile tire recycling. Portland cement at additions of five percent of the cementitious material was found to function effectively as an activating agent for spray dryer ash and had a significant impact on the hardened properties. The recycled polymer fibers improved the ductility and toughness of the material in all cases and increased the compressive strength of weak matrix materials like the pure hydrated ash. The resulting hardened materials exhibited useful properties that were sufficient to suggest that they be used in structural applications such as concrete, masonry block, or as a hydraulic cement binder. While the long-term performance characteristics remain to be investigated, from an embodied-energy and carbon emissions standpoint the material investigated here is far superior to

  8. Traceable micro-CT scaling accuracy phantom for applications requiring exact measurement of distances or volumes

    SciTech Connect

    Waring, C.S.; Bax, J.S.; Samarabandu, A.; Holdsworth, D.W.; Fenster, A.; Lacefield, J.C.

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: Volumetric x-ray microcomputed tomography (CT) can be employed in a variety of quantitative research applications such as image-guided interventions or characterization of medical devices. To ensure the highest geometric fidelity of images for these applications, a phantom and image processing algorithm have been developed to calibrate the scaling accuracy of micro-CT scanners to a traceable standard and provide corrections to image voxel sizing. Methods: The calibration phantom contains six borosilicate beads whose separations have been measured to a traceable standard. An image processing algorithm compares the known separations of the beads to their separations in micro-CT images. A least-squares solution is used to determine linear scaling correction factors along each of the three scanner axes to minimize errors in the bead separations within the images by correcting the image voxel size. The correction factors were applied to images of a similar phantom with beads at different positions to evaluate the ability of the correction factors to reduce errors at points independent of the fiducial locations in the calibration phantom. The calibration phantom was used to evaluate the scaling accuracy of five different micro-CT scanners representing four different scanner models. Results: In two of the five scanners evaluated, the correction factors significantly reduced the mean error in bead separations in the images from 0.17% to 0.05% and from 0.37% to 0.07% of the actual bead separations, respectively. Scanners yielding similar voxel sizes possessed comparable geometric errors after correction using the phantom. Conclusions: Although the magnitude of the corrections is small, such corrections can be important for demanding micro-CT applications. Even if no voxel size correction is required, the phantom provides an easily implemented method to verify the geometric fidelity of micro-CT scanners to a traceable standard of measurement.

  9. Seventh Annual Workshop on Space Operations Applications and Research (SOAR 1993), volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishen, Kumar (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    This document contains papers presented at the Space Operations, Applications and Research Symposium (SOAR) Symposium hosted by NASA/Johnson Space Center (JSC) and cosponsored by NASA/JSC and U.S. Air Force Materiel Command. SOAR included NASA and USAF programmatic overviews, plenary session, panel discussions, panel sessions, and exhibits. It invited technical papers in support of U.S. Army, U.S. Navy, Department of Energy, NASA, and USAF programs in the following areas: robotics and telepresence, automation and intelligent systems, human factors, life support, and space maintenance and servicing. SOAR was concerned with Government-sponsored research and development relevant to aerospace operations.

  10. Sixth Annual Workshop on Space Operations Applications and Research (SOAR 1992), volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishen, Kumar (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    This document contains papers presented at the Space Operations, Applications, and Research Symposium (SOAR) hosted by the U.S. Air Force (USAF) on 4-6 Aug. 1992. The symposium was cosponsored by the Air Force Material Command and by NASA/JSC. Key technical areas covered during the symposium were robotics and telepresence, automation and intelligent systems, human factors, life sciences, and space maintenance and servicing. The SOAR differed from most other conferences in that it was concerned with Government-sponsored research and development relevant to aerospace operations. Symposium proceedings include papers covering various disciplines presented by experts from NASA, the USAF, universities, and industry.

  11. Water recovery and solid waste processing for aerospace and domestic applications. Volume 1: Final report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    A comprehensive study of advanced water recovery and solid waste processing techniques employed in both aerospace and domestic or commercial applications is reported. A systems approach was used to synthesize a prototype system design of an advanced water treatment/waste processing system. Household water use characteristics were studied and modified through the use of low water use devices and a limited amount of water reuse. This modified household system was then used as a baseline system for development of several water treatment waste processing systems employing advanced techniques. A hybrid of these systems was next developed and a preliminary design was generated to define system and hardware functions.

  12. Phase 3 study of selected tether applications in space. Volume 2: Study results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Engineering designs were developed relative to a tethered launch assist from the Shuttle for payloads up to 10,000 kg mass and the tethering of a 15,000 kg science platform from the space station. These designs are used for a cost benefit analysis which assesses the feasibility of using such systems as a practical alternative to what would otherwise be accomplished by conventional means. The term conventional as related to both these applications is intended to apply to the use of some form(s) of chemical propulsion system.

  13. Intersatellite Link (ISL) application to commercial communications satellites. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, S. Lee

    1987-01-01

    Based on a comprehensive evaluation of the fundamental Intersatellite Link (ISL) systems characteristics, potential applications of ISLs to domestic, regional, and global commercial satellite communications were identified, and their cost-effectiveness and other systems benefits quantified wherever possible. Implementation scenarios for the cost-effective communications satellite systems employing ISLs were developed for the first launch in 1993 to 1994 and widespread use of ISLs in the early 2000's. Critical technology requirements for both the microwave (60 GHz) and optical (0.85 micron) ISL implementations were identified, and their technology development programs, including schedule and cost estimates, were derived.

  14. Liquid rocket booster study. Volume 2, book 5, appendix 9: LRB alternate applications and evolutionary growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The analyses performed in assessing the merit of the Liquid Rocket Booster concept for use in alternate applications such as for Shuttle C, for Standalone Expendable Launch Vehicles, and possibly for use with the Air Force's Advanced Launch System are presented. A comparison is also presented of the three LRB candidate designs, namely: (1) the LO2/LH2 pump fed, (2) the LO2/RP-1 pump fed, and (3) the LO2/RP-1 pressure fed propellant systems in terms of evolution along with design and cost factors, and other qualitative considerations. A further description is also presented of the recommended LRB standalone, core-to-orbit launch vehicle concept.

  15. Thirteenth Workshop for Computational Fluid Dynamic Applications in Rocket Propulsion and Launch Vehicle Technology. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. W. (Compiler)

    1996-01-01

    This conference publication includes various abstracts and presentations given at the 13th Workshop for Computational Fluid Dynamic Applications in Rocket Propulsion and Launch Vehicle Technology held at the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center April 25-27 1995. The purpose of the workshop was to discuss experimental and computational fluid dynamic activities in rocket propulsion and launch vehicles. The workshop was an open meeting for government, industry, and academia. A broad number of topics were discussed including computational fluid dynamic methodology, liquid and solid rocket propulsion, turbomachinery, combustion, heat transfer, and grid generation.

  16. Phase 3 study of selected tether applications in space. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    A tethered launch assist from the Shuttle for payloads with up to 10,000 kg mass for the mission model and the tethering of a 15,000 kg science platform for the space station were addressed. Also encompassed was the design and cost analysis for a variable g device that could be placed on the tether and allow ultralow g or other types of experiments to be conducted. Numerous tether applications were examined and their theoretical feasibility and technology requirements were assessed.

  17. Space processing applications payload equipment study. Volume 2D: SPA supplemental power and heat rejection kit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammel, R. L. (Editor); Smith, A. G. (Editor)

    1974-01-01

    The design and application of a supplementary power and heat rejection kit for the Spacelab are discussed. Two subsystems of electric power and thermal control were analyzed to define the requirements for the power and heat rejection kit (PHRK). Twelve exemplary experiments were defined and power timelines were developed. From these timeline, the experiment requirements for sustained power, peak power, and energy were determined. The electrical power subsystem of the PHRK will consist of two fuel cells, oxygen and hydrogen reactant tank assemblies, water storage tanks, plumbing, cabling, and inverters to convert the nominal 28 volt dc fuel cell output to ac power.

  18. Thermal power systems, small power systems application project. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marriott, A. T.

    1979-01-01

    Current small power system technology as applied to power plants up to 10 MWe in size was assessed. Markets for small power systems were characterized and cost goals were established. Candidate power plant system design concepts were selected for evaluation and preliminary performance and cost assessments were made. Economic studies were conducted and breakeven capital costs were determined for leading contenders among the candidate systems. An application study was made of the potential use of small power systems in providing part of the demand for pumping power by the extensive aqueduct system of California, estimated to be 1000 MWe by 1985. Criteria and methodologies were developed for application to the ranking of candidate power plant system design concepts. Experimental power plants concepts of 1 MWe rating were studied leading toward the definition of a power plant configuration for subsequent detail design, construction, testing and evaluation as Engineering Experiment No. 1 (EE No. 1). Site selection criteria and ground rules for the solicitation of EE No. 1 site participation proposals by DOE were developed.

  19. Study of selected tether applications in space, phase 3, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The results of a Phase 3 study of two Selected Tether Applications in Space (STAIS); deorbit of a Shuttle and launch of an Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV), both from the space station using a tether were examined. The study objectives were to: perform a preliminary engineering design, define operational scenarios, develop a common cost model, perform cost benefits analyses, and develop a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS). Key features of the performance analysis were to identify the net increases in effective Shuttle cargo capability if tethers are used to assist in the deorbit of Shuttles and the launching of the OTVs from the space station and to define deployer system designs required to accomplish these tasks. Deployer concepts were designed and discussed. Operational scenarios, including timelines, for both tethered and nontethered Shuttle and OTV operations at the space station were evaluated. A summary discussion of the Selected Tether Applications Cost Model (STACOM) and the results of the cost benefits analysis are presented. Several critical technologies needed to implement tether assisted deployment of payloads are also discussed. Conclusions and recommendations are presented.

  20. Deposition from Ultra-Low Volume Application of Public Health Insecticides in a Hot Desert Environment.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Michael L; Hoel, David F; Farooq, Muhammad; Walker, Todd W

    2015-06-01

    Three insecticides commonly used for mosquito and sand fly control were applied 30 min to 3 h after sunset during June and July 2010, at Camp Buehring, Kuwait, to determine the relative quantity of pesticides to height and distance traveled in a hot desert environment. A BVA dilution oil was used for the control. Oil-based adulticides were sprayed using a truck-mounted Curtis DynaFog Maxi-Pro 4 ultra-low volume (ULV) sprayer. Malathion (Fyfanon ULV, 96% active ingredient [AI]), resmethrin (Scourge 4+12, 4% AI), pyrethrins (ULD BP-300, 3% AI), and BVA Spray 13 (100% refined petroleum distillate) were mixed with Uvitex optical brightener fluorescent dye and applied at 2 speeds on evenings when wind speed was less than 16.1 km/h (10 mph). Collection targets using biodegradable cotton ribbons (1 m×2.5 cm) were later read with a fluorometer to quantify the amount of insecticide deposited on targets set at heights of 15.2, 76.2, and 152.4 cm (6, 30, and 60 in.) and distances of 1.5, 6.1, 15.2, 30.5, 61.0, and 91.4 m (5, 20, 50, 100, 200, and 300 ft). Mean insecticide deposition across all distances was 31% on 76.2-cm targets and 49% on 152.4-cm targets, while 15.2-cm targets typically collected <20% of test spray. Mean ground temperatures were typically within 5°C of air temperatures at 152.4 cm and within 1 to 5°C of air at 15.2 cm or 76.2 cm. Collectively, mean insecticide deposition was 80% at or above 76.2 cm for all insecticides. This finding may explain in part why control of low-flying phlebotomine sand flies with ULV insecticides has been met with less than optimal success by US military forces deployed in the Middle East.

  1. NSSDC Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies for Space and Earth Science Applications, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobler, Ben (Editor); Hariharan, P. C. (Editor); Blasso, L. G. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This report contains copies of nearly all of the technical papers and viewgraphs presented at the NSSDC Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies for Space and Earth Science Application. This conference served as a broad forum for the discussion of a number of important issues in the field of mass storage systems. Topics include the following: magnetic disk and tape technologies; optical disk and tape; software storage and file management systems; and experiences with the use of a large, distributed storage system. The technical presentations describe, among other things, integrated mass storage systems that are expected to be available commercially. Also included is a series of presentations from Federal Government organizations and research institutions covering their mass storage requirements for the 1990's.

  2. Seventh Annual Workshop on Space Operations Applications and Research (SOAR 1993), volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishen, Kumar (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    This document contains papers presented at the Space Operations, Applications and Research Symposium (SOAR) Symposium hosted by NASA/Johnson Space Center (JSC) on August 3-5, 1993, and held at JSC Gilruth Recreation Center. SOAR included NASA and USAF programmatic overview, plenary session, panel discussions, panel sessions, and exhibits. It invited technical papers in support of U.S. Army, U.S. Navy, Department of Energy, NASA, and USAF programs in the following areas: robotics and telepresence, automation and intelligent systems, human factors, life support, and space maintenance and servicing. SOAR was concerned with Government-sponsored research and development relevant to aerospace operations. More than 100 technical papers, 17 exhibits, a plenary session, several panel discussions, and several keynote speeches were included in SOAR '93.

  3. Study of power management technology for orbital multi-100KWe applications. Volume 3: Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mildice, J. W.

    1980-01-01

    Mid to late 1980's power management technology needs to support development of a general purpose space platform, capable of suplying 100 to 250 KWe to a variety of users in low Earth orbit are examined. A typical, shuttle assembled and supplied space platform is illustred, along with a group of payloads which might reasonably be expected to use such a facility. Examination of platform and user power needs yields a set of power requirements used to evaluate power management options for life cycle cost effectivness. The most cost effective ac/dc and dc systems are evaluated, specifically to develop system details which lead to technology goals, including: array and transmission voltages, best frequency for ac power transmission, and advantages and disadvantages of ac and dc systems for this application. System and component requirements are compared with the state-of-the-art to identify areas where technological development is required.

  4. Study of power management technology for orbital multi-100KWe applications. Volume 3: Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mildice, J. W.

    1980-07-01

    Mid to late 1980's power management technology needs to support development of a general purpose space platform, capable of suplying 100 to 250 KWe to a variety of users in low Earth orbit are examined. A typical, shuttle assembled and supplied space platform is illustred, along with a group of payloads which might reasonably be expected to use such a facility. Examination of platform and user power needs yields a set of power requirements used to evaluate power management options for life cycle cost effectivness. The most cost effective ac/dc and dc systems are evaluated, specifically to develop system details which lead to technology goals, including: array and transmission voltages, best frequency for ac power transmission, and advantages and disadvantages of ac and dc systems for this application. System and component requirements are compared with the state-of-the-art to identify areas where technological development is required.

  5. A study of application of remote sensing to river forecasting. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A project is described whose goal was to define, implement and evaluate a pilot demonstration test to show the practicability of applying remotely sensed data to operational river forecasting in gaged or previously ungaged watersheds. A secondary objective was to provide NASA with documentation describing the computer programs that comprise the streamflow forecasting simulation model used. A computer-based simulation model was adapted to a streamflow forecasting application and implemented in an IBM System/360 Model 44 computer, operating in a dedicated mode, with operator interactive control through a Model 2250 keyboard/graphic CRT terminal. The test site whose hydrologic behavior was simulated is a small basin (365 square kilometers) designated Town Creek near Geraldine, Alabama.

  6. NSSDC Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies for Space and Earth Science Applications, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobler, Ben (Editor); Hariharan, P. C. (Editor); Blasso, L. G. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This report contains copies of nearly all of the technical papers and viewgraphs presented at the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies for Space and Earth Science Applications. This conference served as a broad forum for the discussion of a number of important issues in the field of mass storage systems. Topics include magnetic disk and tape technologies, optical disk and tape, software storage and file management systems, and experiences with the use of a large, distributed storage system. The technical presentations describe, among other things, integrated mass storage systems that are expected to be available commercially. Also included is a series of presentations from Federal Government organizations and research institutions covering their mass storage requirements for the 1990s.

  7. LANDSAT follow-on: A report by the applications survey groups. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billingsley, F. C.; Helton, M. R.; Obrien, V. M.

    1976-01-01

    Attempts at operational usage of the LANDSAT imagery by non NASA users are studied with particular emphasis on profitable use of the imagery, as contrasted with investigations concerned with research and development of a technology. An evaluation is given of the functional capabilities of the LANDSAT follow-on and ground systems designs in terms of user requirements and desiderata for data measurements, products, and parameters. Applications survey groups (ASGs) were formed for mineral and petroleum exploration, inland water resources, land inventory, and agriculture. The members were drawn from all segments of the user community: Federal agencies, state and local governments or agencies (or from associations of such constituencies), industry and universities. They were selected so that in aggregate they would be able to adequately assess the state-of-the-art in their technical areas and represent this in the ASG deliberations.

  8. Study of power management technology for orbital multi-100KWe applications. Volume 2: Study results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mildice, J. W.

    1980-01-01

    The preliminary requirements and technology advances required for cost effective space power management systems for multi-100 kilowatt requirements were identified. System requirements were defined by establishing a baseline space platform in the 250 KE KWe range and examining typical user loads and interfaces. The most critical design parameters identified for detailed analysis include: increased distribution voltages and space plasma losses, the choice between ac and dc distribution systems, shuttle servicing effects on reliability, life cycle costs, and frequency impacts to power management system and payload systems for AC transmission. The first choice for a power management system for this kind of application and size range is a hybrid ac/dc combination with the following major features: modular design and construction-sized minimum weight/life cycle cost; high voltage transmission (100 Vac RMS); medium voltage array or = 440 Vdc); resonant inversion; transformer rotary joint; high frequency power transmission line or = 20 KHz); energy storage on array side or rotary joint; fully redundant; and 10 year life with minimal replacement and repair.

  9. PUREX Storage Tunnels dangerous waste permit application. Revision 1, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    The PUREX Storage Tunnels are a mixed waste storage unit consisting of two underground railroad tunnels: Tunnel Number 1 designated 218-E-14 and Tunnel Number 2 designated 218-E-15. The two tunnels are connected by rail to the PUREX Plant and combine to provide storage space for 48 railroad cars (railcars). The PUREX Storage Tunnels provide a long-term storage location for equipment removed from the PUREX Plant. Transfers into the PUREX Storage Tunnels are made on an as-needed basis. Radioactively contaminated equipment is loaded on railcars and remotely transferred by rail into the PUREX Storage Tunnels. Railcars act as both a transport means and a storage platform for equipment placed into the tunnels. This report consists of part A and part B. Part A reports on amounts and locations of the mixed water. Part B permit application consists of the following: Facility Description and General Provisions; Waste Characteristics; Process Information; Groundwater Monitoring; Procedures to Prevent Hazards; Contingency Plan; Personnel Training; Exposure Information Report.

  10. Study of power management technology for orbital multi-100KWe applications. Volume 2: Study results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mildice, J. W.

    1980-07-01

    The preliminary requirements and technology advances required for cost effective space power management systems for multi-100 kilowatt requirements were identified. System requirements were defined by establishing a baseline space platform in the 250 KE KWe range and examining typical user loads and interfaces. The most critical design parameters identified for detailed analysis include: increased distribution voltages and space plasma losses, the choice between ac and dc distribution systems, shuttle servicing effects on reliability, life cycle costs, and frequency impacts to power management system and payload systems for AC transmission. The first choice for a power management system for this kind of application and size range is a hybrid ac/dc combination with the following major features: modular design and construction-sized minimum weight/life cycle cost; high voltage transmission (100 Vac RMS); medium voltage array or = 440 Vdc); resonant inversion; transformer rotary joint; high frequency power transmission line or = 20 KHz); energy storage on array side or rotary joint; fully redundant; and 10 year life with minimal replacement and repair.

  11. Application of radar for automotive collision avoidance. Volume 1: Technical report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichtenberg, C. L. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this project was research and development of an automobile collision avoidance radar system. The major finding was that the application of radar to the automobile collision avoidance problem deserves continued research even though the specific approach investigated in this effort did not perform adequately in its angle measurement capability. Additional findings were that: (1) preliminary performance requirements of a candidate radar system are not unreasonable; (2) the number and severity of traffic accidents could be reduced by using a collision avoidance radar system which observes a fairly wide (at least + or - 10 deg) field of view ahead of the vehicle; (3) the health radiation hazards of a probable radar design are not significant even when a large number of radar-equipped vehicles are considered; (4) effects of inclement weather on radar operation can be accommodated in most cases; (5) the phase monopulse radar technique as implemented demonstrated inferior angle measurement performance which warrants the recommendation of investigating alternative radar techniques; and (6) extended target and multipath effects, which presumably distort the amplitude and phase distribution across the antenna aperture, are responsible for the observed inadequate phase monopulse radar performance.

  12. Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications. Volume 1, Public design report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-24

    This Public Design Report provides, in a single document, available nonproprietary design -information for the ``Innovative Coke Oven Gas Cleaning System for Retrofit Applications`` Demonstration Project at Bethlehem Steel Corporation`s Sparrows Point, Maryland coke oven by-product facilities. This project demonstrates, for the first time in the United States, the feasibility of integrating four commercially available technologies (processes) for cleaning coke oven gas. The four technologies are: Secondary Gas Cooling, Hydrogen Sulfide and Ammonia Removal, Hydrogen Sulfide and Ammonia Recovery, and Ammonia Destruction and Sulfur Recovery. In addition to the design aspects, the history of the project and the role of the US Department of,Energy are briefly discussed. Actual plant capital and projected operating costs are also presented. An overview of the integration (retrofit) of the processes into the existing plant is presented and is followed by detailed non-proprietary descriptions of the four technologies and their overall effect on reducing the emissions of ammonia, sulfur, and other pollutants from coke oven gas. Narrative process descriptions, simplified process flow diagrams, input/output stream data, operating conditions, catalyst and chemical requirements, and utility requirements are given for each unit. Plant startup provisions, environmental considerations and control monitoring, and safety considerations are also addressed for each process.

  13. An analysis for high speed propeller-nacelle aerodynamic performance prediction. Volume 1: Theory and application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egolf, T. Alan; Anderson, Olof L.; Edwards, David E.; Landgrebe, Anton J.

    1988-01-01

    A computer program, the Propeller Nacelle Aerodynamic Performance Prediction Analysis (PANPER), was developed for the prediction and analysis of the performance and airflow of propeller-nacelle configurations operating over a forward speed range inclusive of high speed flight typical of recent propfan designs. A propeller lifting line, wake program was combined with a compressible, viscous center body interaction program, originally developed for diffusers, to compute the propeller-nacelle flow field, blade loading distribution, propeller performance, and the nacelle forebody pressure and viscous drag distributions. The computer analysis is applicable to single and coaxial counterrotating propellers. The blade geometries can include spanwise variations in sweep, droop, taper, thickness, and airfoil section type. In the coaxial mode of operation the analysis can treat both equal and unequal blade number and rotational speeds on the propeller disks. The nacelle portion of the analysis can treat both free air and tunnel wall configurations including wall bleed. The analysis was applied to many different sets of flight conditions using selected aerodynamic modeling options. The influence of different propeller nacelle-tunnel wall configurations was studied. Comparisons with available test data for both single and coaxial propeller configurations are presented along with a discussion of the results.

  14. End-systolic Pressure–Volume Relation, Ejection Fraction, and Heart Failure: Theoretical Aspect and Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Shoucri, Rachad M

    2015-01-01

    A mathematical formalism describing the nonlinear end-systolic pressure–volume relation (ESPVR) is used to derive new indexes that can be used to assess the performance of the heart left ventricle by using the areas under the ESPVR (units of energy), the ordinates of the ESPVR (units of pressure), or from slopes of the curvilinear ESPVR. New relations between the ejection fraction (EF) and the parameters describing the ESPVR give some insight into the problem of heart failure (HF) with normal or preserved ejection fraction. Relations between percentage occurrence of HF and indexes derived from the ESPVR are also discussed. When ratios of pressures are used, calculation can be done in a noninvasive way with the possibility of interesting applications in routine clinical work. Applications to five groups of clinical data are given and discussed (normal group, aortic stenosis, aortic valvular regurgitation, mitral valvular regurgitation, miscellaneous cardiomyopathies). No one index allows a perfect segregation between all clinical groups, it is shown that appropriate use of two indexes (bivariate analysis) can lead to better separation of different clinical groups. PMID:26244035

  15. Finite-volume application of high order ENO schemes to multi-dimensional boundary-value problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casper, Jay; Dorrepaal, J. Mark

    1990-01-01

    The finite volume approach in developing multi-dimensional, high-order accurate essentially non-oscillatory (ENO) schemes is considered. In particular, a two dimensional extension is proposed for the Euler equation of gas dynamics. This requires a spatial reconstruction operator that attains formal high order of accuracy in two dimensions by taking account of cross gradients. Given a set of cell averages in two spatial variables, polynomial interpolation of a two dimensional primitive function is employed in order to extract high-order pointwise values on cell interfaces. These points are appropriately chosen so that correspondingly high-order flux integrals are obtained through each interface by quadrature, at each point having calculated a flux contribution in an upwind fashion. The solution-in-the-small of Riemann's initial value problem (IVP) that is required for this pointwise flux computation is achieved using Roe's approximate Riemann solver. Issues to be considered in this two dimensional extension include the implementation of boundary conditions and application to general curvilinear coordinates. Results of numerical experiments are presented for qualitative and quantitative examination. These results contain the first successful application of ENO schemes to boundary value problems with solid walls.

  16. Evaluation of ultra low volume and thermal fog pesticide applications against Old World Phlebotomine sand fly vectors of Leishmania in Kenya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One component of the Department of Defense (DoD) pest management system is ultra-low volume (ULV) and/or thermal fog aerosol pesticide application. Despite widespread implementations of this and other components of the system, such as use of repellents and permethrin, US military operations in hot-a...

  17. High volume molecular genetic identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms using Genetic Bit Analysis Application to human genetic diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Boyce-Jacino, M.T.; Reynolds, J.; Nikiforov, T.

    1994-09-01

    The most common type of genetic disease-associated mutation is the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). Because most genetic diseases can be caused by multiple SNPs in the same gene, effective routine diagnosis of complex genetic diseases is dependent on a simple and reliable method of interrogating SNP sites. Molecular Tool`s solid phase assay capable of direct genotyping (single base sequencing) of SNP sites, Genetic Bit Analysis (GBA), involves hybridization-capture of a single-stranded PCR product to a sequence-specific, microtiter plate-bound oligonucleotide primer. The captured PCR product then acts as template for single-base extension of the capture primer across the polymorphic site, enabling direct determination of the base composition of the polymorphism through a simple colormetric assay. Genotyping in a high volume, semi-automated, processing system with a current capacity of 100 SNP interrogations per technician per day enables the screening of candidate mutations rapidly and cost-effectively, critically important to comprehensive genetic diagnosis. Using this gel-free technology, we have developed prototype diagnostic tests for CFTR and ApoE polymorphisms which enable direct sequencing of the polymorphic base at each site of interest. Routine clinical diagnosis of genetically complex diseases such as cystic fibrosis is dependent on this combination of robust biochemistry and simple format. Additionally, the ability to transfer the format and biochemistry to any disease gene of interest enables the broad application of this technology to clinical diagnostics, especially for genetically complex diseases.

  18. Study of the validation of the application of Rankine Bottoming Cycle technology to marine diesel engines. Volume 1. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-31

    The application of Rankine Bottoming Cycle (RBC) technology to marine diesel engines in the US commercial maritime industry was evaluated on technical, environmental, and economic bases with emphasis on the energy conservation potential of near-term commercialization of RBC systems. In this volume, the study results are presented followed by a brief summary of the major task results. Among the results and conclusions are the following: the RBC economics are most favorable and indicate a discount rate of return on investment of about 25%; no environmental nor institutional barriers were identified; fuel savings of 50 million barrels by the year 2000 are forecast from implementation of RBC systems in the marine push-tow industry alone; RBC can be retrofitted on existing vessels or installed in new vessels with few technical obstacles; the market potential exists; and the successful completion of a one-year demonstration of the RBC installed in a push-tow boat engaged in normal revenue generating operations is the single most important requirement for RBC commercialization in the marine and other industries. (LCL)

  19. Mars Global Digital Dune Database (MGD3): North polar region (MC-1) distribution, applications, and volume estimates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayward, R.K.

    2011-01-01

    The Mars Global Digital Dune Database (MGD3) now extends from 90??N to 65??S. The recently released north polar portion (MC-1) of MGD3 adds ~844 000km2 of moderate- to large-size dark dunes to the previously released equatorial portion (MC-2 to MC-29) of the database. The database, available in GIS- and tabular-format in USGS Open-File Reports, makes it possible to examine global dune distribution patterns and to compare dunes with other global data sets (e.g. atmospheric models). MGD3 can also be used by researchers to identify areas suitable for more focused studies. The utility of MGD3 is demonstrated through three example applications. First, the uneven geographic distribution of the dunes is discussed and described. Second, dune-derived wind direction and its role as ground truth for atmospheric models is reviewed. Comparisons between dune-derived winds and global and mesoscale atmospheric models suggest that local topography may have an important influence on dune-forming winds. Third, the methods used here to estimate north polar dune volume are presented and these methods and estimates (1130km3 to 3250km3) are compared with those of previous researchers (1158km3 to 15 000km3). In the near future, MGD3 will be extended to include the south polar region. ?? 2011 by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

  20. Technical issues associated with in situ vitrification of the INEL Subsurface Disposal Area. Volume 3, Application of technical issues to the TRU-contaminated pits and trenches

    SciTech Connect

    Stoots, C.M.; Bates, S.O.; Callow, R.A.; Campbell, K.A.; Farnsworth, R.K.; Krisman, G.K.; McKellar, M.G.; Nickelson, D.F.; Slater, C.E.

    1992-07-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) has been identified as an alternative technology for remediation of the acid pit and transuranic pits and trenches (TRU-PTs) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA). However, a number of technical issues must be resolved before ISV can be considered applicable to these waste sites. To assist in the ISV technology evaluation, an ISV Steering Committee was formed to identify, prioritize, and develop closure roadmaps for technical issues lated with ISV application at the SDA. The activities of the ISV Steering Committee are summarized in a three-volume report. Volume I identifies the systematic approach used to identify and prioritize the ISV technical issues and briefly discusses the methodology that will be employed to resolve these issues. Volumes 2 and 3 discuss each technical issue in greater detail and suggest specific closure roadmaps to be used in resolving technical issues associated with ISV at the SDA Acid Pit and TRU-PTS, respectively. The three-volume report is a working document that will be updated as necessary to reflect current evaluation strategy for the ISV technology. This is Volume 3.

  1. Application of ultradisperse magnetic adsorbents for removal of small concentrations of pollutants from large volumes of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nechitailo, Galina S.; Kuznetsov, Anatoli; Kuznetsov, Oleg

    2016-07-01

    with the adsorbed toluidine blue were removed from the solution by magnetic separation. The sorbent was proven to have high sorption capacity and rapid adsorption kinetics for toluidine blue. These experiments demonstrated the validity of the method, where a small concentration of a pollutant was successfully collected from a large volume of water. By varying the ratio of the sorbent/pollutant, it is possible to optimize the sorbent use and the time required to adsorb all pollutant present in the treated water. A variety of magnetically controlled sorbents can be designed and used in this method, from broad-spectrum adsorbing sorbents to sorbents specifically targeting a particular pollutant. These sorbents can be used either individually or as mixtures of sorbents with different properties, depending on the desired purification goals. Simplicity and scalability of this method allow a variety of ecological applications, as well as industrial ones, from process water purification to wastewater treatment.

  2. An Industrial Perspective of CAM/ROB Fuzzy Integrated Postprocessing Implementation for Redundant Robotic Workcells Applicability for Big Volume Prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrés, J.; Gracia, L.; Tornero, J.; García, J. A.; González, F.

    2009-11-01

    The implementation of a postprocessor for the NX™ platform (Siemens Corp.) is described in this paper. It is focused on a milling redundant robotic milling workcell consisting of one KUKA KR 15/2 manipulator (6 rotary joints, KRC2 controller) mounted on a linear axis and synchronized with a rotary table (i.e., two additional joints). For carrying out a milling task, a choice among a set of possible configurations is required, taking into account the ability to avoid singular configurations by using both additional joints. Usually, experience and knowledge of the workman allow an efficient control in these cases, but being it a tedious job. Similarly to this expert knowledge, a stand-alone fuzzy controller has been programmed with Matlab's Fuzzy Logic Toolbox (The MathWorks, Inc.). Two C++ programs complement the translation of the toolpath tracking (expressed in the Cartesian space) from the NX™-CAM module into KRL (KUKA Robot Language). In order to avoid singularities or joint limits, the location of the robot and the workpiece during the execution of the task is fit after an inverse kinematics position analysis and a fuzzy inference (i.e., fuzzy criterion in the Joint Space). Additionally, the applicability of robot arms for the manufacture of big volume prototypes with this technique is proven by means of one case studied. It consists of a big orographic model to simulate floodways, return flows and retention storage of a reservoir in the Mijares river (Puebla de Arenoso, Spain). This article deals with the problem for a constant tool orientation milling process and sets the technological basis for future research at five axis milling operations.

  3. Higher-order conservative interpolation between control-volume meshes: Application to advection and multiphase flow problems with dynamic mesh adaptivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, A.; Pavlidis, D.; Percival, J. R.; Salinas, P.; Xie, Z.; Fang, F.; Pain, C. C.; Muggeridge, A. H.; Jackson, M. D.

    2016-09-01

    A general, higher-order, conservative and bounded interpolation for the dynamic and adaptive meshing of control-volume fields dual to continuous and discontinuous finite element representations is presented. Existing techniques such as node-wise interpolation are not conservative and do not readily generalise to discontinuous fields, whilst conservative methods such as Grandy interpolation are often too diffusive. The new method uses control-volume Galerkin projection to interpolate between control-volume fields. Bounded solutions are ensured by using a post-interpolation diffusive correction. Example applications of the method to interface capturing during advection and also to the modelling of multiphase porous media flow are presented to demonstrate the generality and robustness of the approach.

  4. Relationship Between LIBS Ablation and Pit Volume for Geologic Samples: Applications for the In Situ Absolute Geochronology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devismes, Damien; Cohen, Barbara; Miller, J.-S.; Gillot, P.-Y.; Lefevre, J.-C.; Boukari, C.

    2014-01-01

    These first results demonstrate that LIBS spectra can be an interesting tool to estimate the ablated volume. When the ablated volume is bigger than 9.10(exp 6) cubic micrometers, this method has less than 10% of uncertainties. Far enough to be directly implemented in the KArLE experiment protocol. Nevertheless, depending on the samples and their mean grain size, the difficulty to have homogeneous spectra will increase with the ablated volume. Several K-Ar dating studies based on this approach will be implemented. After that, the results will be shown and discussed.

  5. Technical issues associated with in situ vitrification of the INEL Subsurface Disposal Area. Volume 2, Application of technical issues to the Acid Pit

    SciTech Connect

    Stoots, C.M.; Bates, S.O.; Callow, R.A.; Campbell, K.A.; Farnsworth, R.K.; Gratson, G.K.; McKellar, M.G.; Nickelson, D.F.; Slater, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) has been identified as an alternative technology for remediation of the Acid Pit and Transuranic Pits and Trenches (TRU-PTs) that are present at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA). However, a number of technical issues exist that must be resolved before ISV can be considered applicable to these waste sites. To assist in the ISV technology evaluation, an ISV Steering Committee was formed to identify, prioritize, and develop closure roadmaps for technical issues associated with ISV application at the INEL SDA. The activities of the ISV Steering Committee are summarized in three volumes of this report. Volume 1 identifies the systematic approach used to identify and prioritize the ISV technical issues, and briefly discusses the methodology that will be employed to resolve these issues. This document Volume 2 and Volume 3 discusses each technical issue in greater detail and suggest specific closure roadmaps to be used in resolving technical issues associated with ISV at the SDA Acid Pit and TRU-PTs, respectively.

  6. Application of 3D Scanned Imaging Methodology for Volume, Surface Area, and Envelope Density Evaluation of Densified Biomass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Measurement of surface area, volume, and density is an essential for quantifying, evaluating, and designing the biomass densification, storage, and transport operations. Acquiring accurate and repeated measurements of these parameters for hygroscopic densified biomass are not straightforward and on...

  7. VIPRE (Versatile Internals and Component Program for Reactors; EPRI)-01: A thermal-hydraulic code for reactor cores: Volume 4, Applications: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cuta, J.M.; Stewart, C.W.; Koontz, A.S.; Montgomery, S.D.

    1987-04-01

    VIPRE (Versatile Internals and Component Program for Reactors; EPRI) has been developed for nuclear power utility thermal-hydraulic analysis applications. It is designed to help evaluate nuclear reactor core safety limits including minimum departure from nucleate boiling ratio (MDNBR), critical power ratio (CPR), fuel and clad temperatures, and coolant state in normal operation and assumed accident conditions. This volume (Volume 4: Applications) contains extensive comparisons of VIPRE calculations to experimental data. There are also sensitivity studies and evaluations of code numerical and computational performance. In addition, calculations performed by member utilities using VIPRE for comparisons with transient CHF data, and FSAR plant analyses are presented. Comparisons are also presented of plant thermal-hydraulic calculations with VIPRE and other COBRA codes. These calculations demonstrate the suitability of VIPRE for PWR core thermal-hydraulic analysis.

  8. Application of machine learning methods to describe the effects of conjugated equine estrogens therapy on region-specific brain volumes.

    PubMed

    Casanova, Ramon; Espeland, Mark A; Goveas, Joseph S; Davatzikos, Christos; Gaussoin, Sarah A; Maldjian, Joseph A; Brunner, Robert L; Kuller, Lewis H; Johnson, Karen C; Mysiw, W Jerry; Wagner, Benjamin; Resnick, Susan M

    2011-05-01

    Use of conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) has been linked to smaller regional brain volumes in women aged ≥65 years; however, it is unknown whether this results in a broad-based characteristic pattern of effects. Structural magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess regional volumes of normal tissue and ischemic lesions among 513 women who had been enrolled in a randomized clinical trial of CEE therapy for an average of 6.6 years, beginning at ages 65-80 years. A multivariate pattern analysis, based on a machine learning technique that combined Random Forest and logistic regression with L(1) penalty, was applied to identify patterns among regional volumes associated with therapy and whether patterns discriminate between treatment groups. The multivariate pattern analysis detected smaller regional volumes of normal tissue within the limbic and temporal lobes among women that had been assigned to CEE therapy. Mean decrements ranged as high as 7% in the left entorhinal cortex and 5% in the left perirhinal cortex, which exceeded the effect sizes reported previously in frontal lobe and hippocampus. Overall accuracy of classification based on these patterns, however, was projected to be only 54.5%. Prescription of CEE therapy for an average of 6.6 years is associated with lower regional brain volumes, but it does not induce a characteristic spatial pattern of changes in brain volumes of sufficient magnitude to discriminate users and nonusers.

  9. On the feasibility of a 1 MW inverter in less than a cubic meter volume for vehicle applications

    SciTech Connect

    Podlesak, T.F.; Singh, H.

    1995-12-31

    The Army Tank-Automotive Command (TACOM) which is committed to an All-Electric Tank, commissioned a study of the feasibility of 1 MW inverter in less than a cubic meter volume. TACOM has the constraint of very limited available volume, in that this volume is protected by armor and is thus at a premium. The study strategy was to evaluate a series of general inverter topologies, utilizing various power semiconductors. The first inverter evaluated was a standard, hard switched DC link with Gate Turnoff Thyristors (GTOs) as the power semiconductors. Since four quadrant operation is a requirement, two antiparallel GTOs are required at each of the twelve switches, yielding a total of twenty-four GTOs. Even with the large auxiliaries required by the GTOs, the inverter volume easily meets the specified volume. The next case was a quasi-resonant DC link circuit using Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs). The ratings on the IGBTs surveyed were much less than that of comparable size GTOs, particularly in voltage, resulting in higher operating currents and therefore larger conduction losses, these being approximately twice that of the GTOs. The next case was a similar inverter using advanced MOS Controlled Thyristors (MCTs). These are devices currently under development, to be rated at 3 kV. They have minimal driver and snubber requirements and the least conduction losses, being approximately a third of those calculated for the GTOs. Inverter volume is less than half that associated with baseline GTO inverter. The added complexity of four quadrant operation favors the next topology, the matrix inverter. The often discussed liability of two antiparallel semiconductors at each switch position is negated by a similar need in the DC topologies. The study concludes with an assessment of foreseeable advanced technologies that may favorably impact the reduction of the size of the inverter.

  10. Applicability of ultrasonic testing for the determination of volume fraction of particulates in alumina-reinforced aluminum matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, C.K.; Fang, R.L.; Weng, W.P.; Chuang, T.H.

    1999-10-01

    An ultrasonic testing technique was employed to determine the volume fraction of alumina particulate reinforcement in 6061 aluminum matrix composites. this study was performed on various composites with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nominal volume fractions of 10, 15, and 20%. For comparison, other techniques were employed as well, including the Archimedes method, metallographic image analysis, X-ray diffraction, and acid dissolution. Observations indicated that ultrasonic testing and acid dissolution methods are more reliable than the other techniques, while ultrasonic testing is faster than the acid dissolution method.

  11. Applicability of the theory of volume filling of micropores to adsorption of caprolactam from aqueous solutions with active carbons

    SciTech Connect

    Khodorov, E.I.; Kazakov, V.A.; Semerikova, V.V.; Surinova, S.I.

    1985-06-10

    The absence of a scientifically based method of selecting adsorbents in the extraction of organic substances from waste water and solution which would allow for their multicycle use in adsorption-desorption stages often prevents the introduction of adsorption technology into industrial practice. This paper demonstrates the possibility of calculating the adsorption equilibrium of highly soluble organic compounds with the theory of volume filling of micropores equations in consideration of the activities of the extracted component in the solution and the change in the partial affinity coefficient with the degree of filling of the adsorption volume on the example of extraction of caprolactam from aqueous solutions.

  12. A formula to calculate the standard liver volume in children and its application in pediatric liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Herden, Uta; Wischhusen, Friedel; Heinemann, Axel; Ganschow, Rainer; Grabhorn, Enke; Vettorazzi, Eik; Nashan, Bjoern; Fischer, Lutz

    2013-12-01

    Due to a lack of available size-matched liver grafts from children, most pediatric recipients are transplanted with technical variant grafts from adult donors. Size requirements for these grafts are not well defined, and consequences of mismatched graft sizes in pediatric liver transplantation are not known. Existing formulas for calculation of a standard liver volume are mostly derived from adults disregarding the age-related percentual liver weight changes in children. In this study, we aimed to establish a formula for general use in children to calculate the standard liver volume. In a second step, the formula was applied in pediatric patients undergoing liver transplantation at our institution between 2000 and 2010 (n = 377). Analysis of a large number (n = 388) of autopsy data from children by regression analysis revealed a best fit for two formulas: "Formula 1," children 0 to ≤1 year (n = 246): standard liver volume [ml] = -143.062973 +4.274603051 * body length [cm] + 14.78817631 * body weight [kg]; "Formula 2," children >1 to <16 years (n = 142): standard liver volume [ml] = -20.2472281 + 3.339056437 * body length [cm] + 13.11312561 * body weight [kg]. In comparison with children receiving size-matched organs, we found an elevated risk of liver graft failure in children transplanted with a small-for-size graft, whereas large-for-size organs seem to have no negative impact.

  13. Application of taxonomy theory, Volume 1: Computing a Hopf bifurcation-related segment of the feasibility boundary. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Zaborszky, J.; Venkatasubramanian, V.

    1995-10-01

    Taxonomy Theory is the first precise comprehensive theory for large power system dynamics modeled in any detail. The motivation for this project is to show that it can be used, practically, for analyzing a disturbance that actually occurred on a large system, which affected a sizable portion of the Midwest with supercritical Hopf type oscillations. This event is well documented and studied. The report first summarizes Taxonomy Theory with an engineering flavor. Then various computational approaches are sighted and analyzed for desirability to use with Taxonomy Theory. Then working equations are developed for computing a segment of the feasibility boundary that bounds the region of (operating) parameters throughout which the operating point can be moved without losing stability. Then experimental software incorporating large EPRI software packages PSAPAC is developed. After a summary of the events during the subject disturbance, numerous large scale computations, up to 7600 buses, are reported. These results are reduced into graphical and tabular forms, which then are analyzed and discussed. The report is divided into two volumes. This volume illustrates the use of the Taxonomy Theory for computing the feasibility boundary and presents evidence that the event indeed led to a Hopf type oscillation on the system. Furthermore it proves that the Feasibility Theory can indeed be used for practical computation work with very large systems. Volume 2, a separate volume, will show that the disturbance has led to a supercritical (that is stable oscillation) Hopf bifurcation.

  14. Spatial and temporal single-cell volume estimation by a fluorescence imaging technique with application to astrocytes in primary culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatibi, Siamak; Allansson, Louise; Gustavsson, Tomas; Blomstrand, Fredrik; Hansson, Elisabeth; Olsson, Torsten

    1999-05-01

    Cell volume changes are often associated with important physiological and pathological processes in the cell. These changes may be the means by which the cell interacts with its surrounding. Astroglial cells change their volume and shape under several circumstances that affect the central nervous system. Following an incidence of brain damage, such as a stroke or a traumatic brain injury, one of the first events seen is swelling of the astroglial cells. In order to study this and other similar phenomena, it is desirable to develop technical instrumentation and analysis methods capable of detecting and characterizing dynamic cell shape changes in a quantitative and robust way. We have developed a technique to monitor and to quantify the spatial and temporal volume changes in a single cell in primary culture. The technique is based on two- and three-dimensional fluorescence imaging. The temporal information is obtained from a sequence of microscope images, which are analyzed in real time. The spatial data is collected in a sequence of images from the microscope, which is automatically focused up and down through the specimen. The analysis of spatial data is performed off-line and consists of photobleaching compensation, focus restoration, filtering, segmentation and spatial volume estimation.

  15. New municipal solid waste processing technology reduces volume and provides beneficial reuse applications for soil improvement and dust control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A garbage-processing technology has been developed that shreds, sterilizes, and separates inorganic and organic components of municipal solid waste. The technology not only greatly reduces waste volume, but the non-composted byproduct of this process, Fluff®, has the potential to be utilized as a s...

  16. NASA Historical Data Book. Volume 6; NASA Space Applications, Aeronautics and Space Research and Technology, Tracking and Data Acquisition/Support Operations, Commercial Programs and

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumerman, Judy A.

    2000-01-01

    This sixth volume of the NASA Historical Data Book is a continuation of those earlier efforts. This fundamental reference tool presents information, much of it statistical, documenting the development of several critical areas of NASA responsibility for the period between 1979 and 1988. This volume includes detailed information on the space applications effort, the development and operation of aeronautics and space research and technology programs, tracking and data acquisition/space operations, commercial programs, facilities and installations, personnel, and finances and procurement during this era. Special thanks are owed to the student research assistants who gathered and input much of the tabular material-a particularly tedious undertaking. There are numerous people at NASA associated with historical study, technical information, and the mechanics of publishing who helped in myriad ways in the preparation of this historical data book.

  17. Environmental, health and safety impact analysis of an aluminum-air battery for vehicular applications and impact analysis associated with its overall fuel cycle. Volume 2. Aluminum industry. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gratt, L.B.

    1981-11-30

    This volume considers the environmental, health, and safety effects associated with increased demand on the aluminum industry as a result of the introduction of 10 million aluminum-air-powered electric vehicles in the United States by the year 2000. This volume presents the results of literature searches, industry analysis, supply/demand forecasting, and the possible application of new technologies.

  18. BEDVH--A method for evaluating biologically effective dose volume histograms: Application to eye plaque brachytherapy implants

    SciTech Connect

    Gagne, Nolan L.; Leonard, Kara L.; Huber, Kathryn E.; Mignano, John E.; Duker, Jay S.; Laver, Nora V.; Rivard, Mark J.

    2012-02-15

    Purpose: A method is introduced to examine the influence of implant duration T, radionuclide, and radiobiological parameters on the biologically effective dose (BED) throughout the entire volume of regions of interest for episcleral brachytherapy using available radionuclides. This method is employed to evaluate a particular eye plaque brachytherapy implant in a radiobiological context. Methods: A reference eye geometry and 16 mm COMS eye plaque loaded with {sup 103}Pd, {sup 125}I, or {sup 131}Cs sources were examined with dose distributions accounting for plaque heterogeneities. For a standardized 7 day implant, doses to 90% of the tumor volume ( {sub TUMOR}D{sub 90}) and 10% of the organ at risk volumes ( {sub OAR}D{sub 10}) were calculated. The BED equation from Dale and Jones and published {alpha}/{beta} and {mu} parameters were incorporated with dose volume histograms (DVHs) for various T values such as T = 7 days (i.e., {sub TUMOR} {sup 7}BED{sub 10} and {sub OAR} {sup 7}BED{sub 10}). By calculating BED throughout the volumes, biologically effective dose volume histograms (BEDVHs) were developed for tumor and OARs. Influence of T, radionuclide choice, and radiobiological parameters on {sub TUMOR}BEDVH and {sub OAR}BEDVH were examined. The nominal dose was scaled for shorter implants to achieve biological equivalence. Results: {sub TUMOR}D{sub 90} values were 102, 112, and 110 Gy for {sup 103}Pd, {sup 125}I, and {sup 131}Cs, respectively. Corresponding {sub TUMOR} {sup 7}BED{sub 10} values were 124, 140, and 138 Gy, respectively. As T decreased from 7 to 0.01 days, the isobiologically effective prescription dose decreased by a factor of three. As expected, {sub TUMOR} {sup 7}BEDVH did not significantly change as a function of radionuclide half-life but varied by 10% due to radionuclide dose distribution. Variations in reported radiobiological parameters caused {sub TUMOR} {sup 7}BED{sub 10} to deviate by up to 46%. Over the range of {sub OAR

  19. Evaluation of uncertainties in urban hydrology: application to volumes and pollutant loads in a storage and settling tank.

    PubMed

    Bertrand-Krajewski, J L; Bardin, J P

    2002-01-01

    It is necessary to assess adequately measurement uncertainties of experimental data in urban hydrology in order to draw pertinent and valuable conclusions from measurement results. This paper first gives a brief presentation of the concepts relative to standard uncertainties and to the law of propagation of uncertainties. Then it presents an example of calculation of the uncertainties in some quantities describing the behaviour of the Vénissieux (France) storage and settling tank during one rainfall event. These quantities are the flow rates and the volumes entering into the tank, the inflow and outflow mean concentrations and masses of TSS (Total Suspended Solids), and the TSS removal rate. Variographs are used to account for the autocorrelation of time series data. The results lead to the following relative uncertainties 8% for the total volume, 30% for the inflow concentration, 38% for the outflow concentration, 31% for the inflow mass, 39% for the outflow mass and 138% for the removal rate.

  20. Determining the representative volume element size for three-dimensional microstructural material characterization. Part 2: Application to experimental data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, William M.; Chiu, Wilson K. S.

    2015-05-01

    Improved microstructural imaging and characterization methods have recently opened the door for quantitative evaluation of microstructures of such functional materials as solid oxide fuel cell and battery electrodes and composite gas separation membranes. Accurate quantitative characterization of these structures relies on the concept of a representative volume element (RVE) to provide a sufficiently large sample to be statistically representative of the material. In Part 1 of this work, several models were described to determine the RVE size for several common microstructural properties: volume fraction, particle size, and network contiguity. In this work, extensive synchrotron X-ray nanotomography imaging of a multiphase composite gas separation membrane is used to provide an experimental comparison to the model predictions. Results suggest that the models provide a reasonable estimate of RVE size, and can serve as a starting point for researchers planning imaging and characterization experiments.

  1. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B permit application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)]. Volume 6, Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    This volume contains Appendix D2, engineering design basis reports. Contents include: Design considerations for the waste hoist of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP); A site-specific study of wind and tornado probabilities at the WIPP Site in southeast New Mexico; Seismic evaluation report of underground facilities; and calculations for analysis of wind loads and tornado loads for WHB, seismic calculations, calculations for VOC-10 monitoring system, and for shaft at station A.

  2. An unstructured-grid finite-volume surface wave model (FVCOM-SWAVE): Implementation, validations and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Jianhua; Chen, Changsheng; Beardsley, Robert C.; Perrie, Will; Cowles, Geoffrey W.; Lai, Zhigang

    The structured-grid surface wave model SWAN (Simulating Waves Nearshore) has been converted into an unstructured-grid finite-volume version (hereafter referred to as FVCOM-SWAVE) for use in coastal ocean regions with complex irregular geometry. The implementation is made using the Flux-Corrected Transport (FCT) algorithm in frequency space, the implicit Crank-Nicolson method in directional space and options of explicit or implicit second-order upwind finite-volume schemes in geographic space. FVCOM-SWAVE is validated using four idealized benchmark test problems with emphasis on numerical dispersion, wave-current interactions, wave propagation over a varying-bathymetry shallow water region, and the basic wave grow curves. Results demonstrate that in the rectangular geometric domain, the second-order finite-volume method used in FVCOM-SWAVE has the same accuracy as the third-order finite-difference method used in SWAN. FVCOM-SWAVE was then applied to simulate wind-induced surface waves on the US northeast shelf with a central focus in the Gulf of Maine and New England Shelf. Through improved geometric fitting of the complex irregular coastline, FVCOM-SWAVE was able to robustly capture the spatial and temporal variation of surface waves in both deep and shallow regions along the US northeast coast.

  3. Application of Hollow Fiber Forward Osmosis Membranes for Produced and Process Water Volume Reduction: An Osmotic Concentration Process.

    PubMed

    Minier-Matar, Joel; Santos, Ana; Hussain, Altaf; Janson, Arnold; Wang, Rong; Fane, Anthony G; Adham, Samer

    2016-06-01

    Produced and process water (PPW) from oil and gas operations, specifically in Qatar, are disposed of by deep well injection in onshore facilities. Disposing large volumes of PPW may affect deep well formation sustainability highlighting the need for effective PPW management. Forward osmosis (FO) was applied as an "osmotic concentration" process to reduce PPW injection volumes by 50% using brines and seawater as draw solutions (DS). The energy intensive step of restoring the salinity of the DS was eliminated; the diluted DS would be simply discharged to the ocean. Both hollow fiber and flat sheet FO membranes were tested and the former exhibited better flux and rejection; they are the focus of this study. Optimization experiments, conducted using Box-Behnken statistical design, confirmed that temperature and DS concentration had a substantial effect on performance. To validate the concept, a long-term experiment, under optimized conditions, was conducted with PPW as feed and brine from thermal desalination plant as DS which yielded an average flux of 24 L/m(2)h. The results confirmed that low-energy osmotic concentration FO has the potential for full-scale implementation to reduce PPW injection volumes. Pilot testing opportunities are being evaluated to demonstrate the effectiveness of this technology under field conditions.

  4. Application of Hollow Fiber Forward Osmosis Membranes for Produced and Process Water Volume Reduction: An Osmotic Concentration Process.

    PubMed

    Minier-Matar, Joel; Santos, Ana; Hussain, Altaf; Janson, Arnold; Wang, Rong; Fane, Anthony G; Adham, Samer

    2016-06-01

    Produced and process water (PPW) from oil and gas operations, specifically in Qatar, are disposed of by deep well injection in onshore facilities. Disposing large volumes of PPW may affect deep well formation sustainability highlighting the need for effective PPW management. Forward osmosis (FO) was applied as an "osmotic concentration" process to reduce PPW injection volumes by 50% using brines and seawater as draw solutions (DS). The energy intensive step of restoring the salinity of the DS was eliminated; the diluted DS would be simply discharged to the ocean. Both hollow fiber and flat sheet FO membranes were tested and the former exhibited better flux and rejection; they are the focus of this study. Optimization experiments, conducted using Box-Behnken statistical design, confirmed that temperature and DS concentration had a substantial effect on performance. To validate the concept, a long-term experiment, under optimized conditions, was conducted with PPW as feed and brine from thermal desalination plant as DS which yielded an average flux of 24 L/m(2)h. The results confirmed that low-energy osmotic concentration FO has the potential for full-scale implementation to reduce PPW injection volumes. Pilot testing opportunities are being evaluated to demonstrate the effectiveness of this technology under field conditions. PMID:27161935

  5. GASP cloud- and particle-encounter statistics and their application to LFC aircraft studies. Volume 2: Appendixes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jasperson, W. H.; Nastron, G. D.; Davis, R. E.; Holdeman, J. D.

    1984-01-01

    Summary studies are presented for the entire cloud observation archive from the NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP). Studies are also presented for GASP particle-concentration data gathered concurrently with the cloud observations. Cloud encounters are shown on about 15 percent of the data samples overall, but the probability of cloud encounter is shown to vary significantly with altitude, latitude, and distance from the tropopause. Several meteorological circulation features are apparent in the latitudinal distribution of cloud cover, and the cloud-encounter statistics are shown to be consistent with the classical mid-latitude cyclone model. Observations of clouds spaced more closely than 90 minutes are shown to be statistically dependent. The statistics for cloud and particle encounter are utilized to estimate the frequency of cloud encounter on long-range airline routes, and to assess the probability and extent of laminaar flow loss due to cloud or particle encounter by aircraft utilizing laminar flow control (LFC). It is shown that the probability of extended cloud encounter is too low, of itself, to make LFC impractical. This report is presented in two volumes. Volume I contains the narrative, analysis, and conclusions. Volume II contains five supporting appendixes.

  6. Validation of Student and Parent Reported Data on the Basic Grant Application Form. Final Report. Volume VI, Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applied Management Sciences, Inc., Silver Spring, MD.

    Objectives and findings of the Basic Grant Validation Study, which investigated the validity of information provided by applicants to the Basic Educational Opportunity Grant (BEOG) program, are described. Implications of the findings for financial aid application validation are also discussed. Seven separate studies were conducted in order to:…

  7. Proceedings of the Eleventh International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment, volume 2. [application and processing of remotely sensed data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Application and processing of remotely sensed data are discussed. Areas of application include: pollution monitoring, water quality, land use, marine resources, ocean surface properties, and agriculture. Image processing and scene analysis are described along with automated photointerpretation and classification techniques. Data from infrared and multispectral band scanners onboard LANDSAT satellites are emphasized.

  8. Environmental Report 1996, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Harrach, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    This is Volume 2 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) annual Environmental Report 1996, prepared for the US Department of Energy. Volume 2 supports Volume 1 summary data and is essentially a detailed data report that provides individual data points, where applicable. Volume 2 includes information on monitoring of air, air effluents, sewerable water, surface water, ground water, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, environmental radiation, and quality assurance.

  9. High-resolution neutron protein crystallography with radically small crystal volumes: Application of perdeuteration to human aldose reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Hazemann, I.; Dauvergne, M. T.; Blakeley, M. P.; Meilleur, Flora; Haertlein, M.; Van Dorsselaer, A.; Mitschler, A.; Myles, Dean A A; Podjarny, A.

    2005-08-01

    Neutron diffraction data have been collected to 2.2 {angstrom} resolution from a small (0.15 mm{sup 3}) crystal of perdeuterated human aldose reductase (h-AR; MW = 36 kDa) in order to help to determine the protonation state of the enzyme. h-AR belongs to the aldo-keto reductase family and is implicated in diabetic complications. Its ternary complexes (h-AR-coenzyme NADPH-selected inhibitor) provide a good model to study both the enzymatic mechanism and inhibition. Here, the successful production of fully deuterated human aldose reductase [h-AR(D)], subsequent crystallization of the ternary complex h-AR(D)-NADPH-IDD594 and neutron Laue data collection at the LADI instrument at ILL using a crystal volume of just 0.15 mm{sup 3} are reported. Neutron data were recorded to 2 {angstrom} resolution, with subsequent data analysis using data to 2.2 {angstrom}. This is the first fully deuterated enzyme of this size (36 kDa) to be solved by neutron diffraction and represents a milestone in the field, as the crystal volume is at least one order of magnitude smaller than those usually required for other high-resolution neutron structures determined to date. This illustrates the significant increase in the signal-to-noise ratio of data collected from perdeuterated crystals and demonstrates that good-quality neutron data can now be collected from more typical protein crystal volumes. Indeed, the signal-to-noise ratio is then dominated by other sources of instrument background, the nature of which is under investigation. This is important for the design of future instruments, which should take maximum advantage of the reduction in the intrinsic diffraction pattern background from fully deuterated samples.

  10. Are you bleeding? Validation of a machine-learning algorithm for determination of blood volume status: application to remote triage.

    PubMed

    Rickards, Caroline A; Vyas, Nisarg; Ryan, Kathy L; Ward, Kevin R; Andre, David; Hurst, Gennifer M; Barrera, Chelsea R; Convertino, Victor A

    2014-03-01

    Due to limited remote triage monitoring capabilities, combat medics cannot currently distinguish bleeding soldiers from those engaged in combat unless they have physical access to them. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that low-level physiological signals can be used to develop a machine-learning algorithm for tracking changes in central blood volume that will subsequently distinguish central hypovolemia from physical activity. Twenty-four subjects underwent central hypovolemia via lower body negative pressure (LBNP), and a supine-cycle exercise protocol. Exercise workloads were determined by matching heart rate responses from each LBNP level. Heart rate and stroke volume (SV) were measured via Finometer. ECG, heat flux, skin temperature, galvanic skin response, and two-axis acceleration were obtained from an armband (SenseWear Pro2) and used to develop a machine-learning algorithm to predict changes in SV as an index of central blood volume under both conditions. The algorithm SV was retrospectively compared against Finometer SV. A model was developed to determine whether unknown data points could be correctly classified into these two conditions using leave-one-out cross-validation. Algorithm vs. Finometer SV values were strongly correlated for LBNP in individual subjects (mean r = 0.92; range 0.75-0.98), but only moderately correlated for exercise (mean r = 0.50; range -0.23-0.87). From the first level of LBNP/exercise, the machine-learning algorithm was able to distinguish between LBNP and exercise with high accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity (all ≥90%). In conclusion, a machine-learning algorithm developed from low-level physiological signals could reliably distinguish central hypovolemia from exercise, indicating that this device could provide battlefield remote triage capabilities. PMID:24408992

  11. A prospective study of the effects of ultralow volume (ULV) aerial application of malathion on epidemic Plasmodium falciparum malaria. III. Ecologic aspects.

    PubMed

    McLean, R G; Spillane, J T; Miles, J W

    1975-03-01

    The effects of aerial ultralow volume (ULV) malathion on selected species of nontarget animals in Haiti are reported. Mortality of certain groups of insects such as bees, flies, beetles, and butterflies was observed immediately following spray application. Minor fish mortality occurred only in shallow water exposed to direct spray. The brain acetylcholine esterase levels of living fish, tree lizards, birds and bats collected from treated areas were not significantly reduced. No ill or dead animals, besides the few fish, were seen even when maximum exposure occurred. Only minor changes in the feeding behavior of some insectivorous birds were observed. The relative bird density decreased substantially for only one species during the study, and other factors besides treatment were considered to be the reasons for the decline. Aerial applications of ULV malathion at dosages sufficient to dramatically reduce anopheline populations did not significantly affect nontarget vertebrates in this tropical environment.

  12. Preliminary design of a solar central receiver for site-specific repowering application (Saguaro Power Plant). Volume II. Preliminary design. Final report, October 1982-September 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, E.R.

    1983-09-01

    The solar central receiver technology, site, and specific unit for repowering were selected in prior analyses and studies. The objectives of this preliminary design study were to: develop a solar central receiver repowering design for Saguaro that (1) has potential to be economically competitive with fossil fueled plants in near and long term applications, (2) has the greatest chance for completion without further government funding, (3) will further define technical and economic feasibility of a 66 MWe gross size plant that is adequate to meet the requirements for utility and industrial process heat applications, (4) can potentially be constructed and operated within the next five years, and (5) incorporates solar central receiver technology and represents state-of-the-art development. This volume on the preliminary design includes the following sections: executive summary; introduction; changes from advanced conceptual design; preliminary design; system characteristics; economic analysis; and development plan.

  13. Boron-doped diamond heater and its application to large-volume, high-pressure, and high-temperature experiments.

    PubMed

    Shatskiy, Anton; Yamazaki, Daisuke; Morard, Guillaume; Cooray, Titus; Matsuzaki, Takuya; Higo, Yuji; Funakoshi, Ken-ichi; Sumiya, Hitoshi; Ito, Eiji; Katsura, Tomoo

    2009-02-01

    A temperature of 3500 degrees C was generated using a diamond resistance heater in a large-volume Kawai-type high-pressure apparatus. Re and LaCrO(3) have conventionally been used for heaters in high-pressure studies but they cannot generate temperatures higher than 2900 degrees C and make in situ x-ray observations difficult due to their high x-ray absorption. Using a boron-doped diamond heater overcomes these problems and achieves stable temperature generation for pressure over 10 GPa. The heater starting material is a cold-compressed mixture of graphite with boron used to avoid the manufacturing difficulties due to the extreme hardness of diamond. The diamond heater was synthesized in situ from the boron-graphite mixture at temperature of 1600+/-100 degrees C and pressure of 20 GPa. By using the proposed technique, we have employed the diamond heater for high-temperature generation in a large-volume high-pressure apparatus. Achievement of temperatures above 3000 degrees C allows us to measure the melting points of the important constituents in earth's mantle (MgSiO(3), SiO(2), and Al(2)O(3)) and core (Fe and Ni) at extremely high pressures.

  14. Continuation of the compendium of applications technology satellite and communications technology satellite user experiments 1967-1977, volume 2. [bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engler, N. A.; Nash, J. F.; Strange, J. D.

    1978-01-01

    Approximately 453 reports, papers, and articles catalogued into an information retrieval system, covering communications experiments and demonstrations conducted, utilizing the Communications Technology Satellite and the Applications Technology Satellites 1, 3, 5, and 6 are listed.

  15. Novel application of confocal laser scanning microscopy and 3D volume rendering toward improving the resolution of the fossil record of charcoal.

    PubMed

    Belcher, Claire M; Punyasena, Surangi W; Sivaguru, Mayandi

    2013-01-01

    Variations in the abundance of fossil charcoals between rocks and sediments are assumed to reflect changes in fire activity in Earth's past. These variations in fire activity are often considered to be in response to environmental, ecological or climatic changes. The role that fire plays in feedbacks to such changes is becoming increasingly important to understand and highlights the need to create robust estimates of variations in fossil charcoal abundance. The majority of charcoal based fire reconstructions quantify the abundance of charcoal particles and do not consider the changes in the morphology of the individual particles that may have occurred due to fragmentation as part of their transport history. We have developed a novel application of confocal laser scanning microscopy coupled to image processing that enables the 3-dimensional reconstruction of individual charcoal particles. This method is able to measure the volume of both microfossil and mesofossil charcoal particles and allows the abundance of charcoal in a sample to be expressed as total volume of charcoal. The method further measures particle surface area and shape allowing both relationships between different size and shape metrics to be analysed and full consideration of variations in particle size and size sorting between different samples to be studied. We believe application of this new imaging approach could allow significant improvement in our ability to estimate variations in past fire activity using fossil charcoals.

  16. Application of the QSDC procedure to the formulation of space shuttle design criteria. Volume 1: Study effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouton, I.; Martin, G. L.

    1972-01-01

    Criteria to determine the probability of aircraft structural failure were statistically established according to the Quantitative Structural Design Criteria by Statistical Methods, the QSDC procedure. Since an Application Guide is needed to use the QSDC procedure, most of the study was directed to the development of this guide. Most of the considerations followed in the development of the Applications Guide and the Guide itself are reported.

  17. Application of Molecular Interaction Volume Model for Phase Equilibrium of Sn-Based Binary System in Vacuum Distillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Lingxin; Yang, Bin; Xu, Baoqiang; Li, Yifu

    2014-09-01

    Based on the molecular interaction volume model (MIVM), the activities of components of Sn-Sb, Sb-Bi, Sn-Zn, Sn-Cu, and Sn-Ag alloys were predicted. The predicted values are in good agreement with the experimental data, which indicate that the MIVM is of better stability and reliability due to its good physical basis. A significant advantage of the MIVM lies in its ability to predict the thermodynamic properties of liquid alloys using only two parameters. The phase equilibria of Sn-Sb and Sn-Bi alloys were calculated based on the properties of pure components and the activity coefficients, which indicates that Sn-Sb and Sn-Bi alloys can be separated thoroughly by vacuum distillation. This study extends previous investigations and provides an effective and convenient model on which to base refining simulations for Sn-based alloys.

  18. Northeast Artificial Intelligence Consortium (NAIC). Volume 8. Artificial intelligence applications to speech recognition. Final report, Sep 84-Dec 89

    SciTech Connect

    Rhody, H.; Biles, J.

    1990-12-01

    The Northeast Artificial Intelligence Consortium (NAIC) was created by the Air Force Systems Command, Rome Air Development Center, and the Office of Scientific Research. Its purpose was to conduct pertinent research in artificial intelligence and to perform activities ancillary to this research. This report describes progress during the existence of the NAIC of the technical research tasks undertaken at the member universities. The topics covered in general are: versatile expert system for equipment maintenance, distributed AI for communications system control, automatic photointerpretation, time-oriented problem solving, speech understanding systems, knowledge based maintenance, hardware architectures for very large systems, knowledge based reasoning and planning, and a knowledge acquisition, assistance, and explanation system. The specific topic for this volume is the design and implementation of a knowledge-based system to read speech spectrograms.

  19. Low concentration ratio solar array for low Earth orbit multi-100kW application. Volume 2: Drawings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nalbandian, S. J.; French, E. P.

    1982-01-01

    A preliminary design effort directed toward a low concentration ratio photovoltaic array system based on 1984 technology and capable of delivering multi-hundred kilowatts (300 kW to 100 kW range) in low Earth orbit. The array system consists of two or more array modules each capable of delivering between 113 kW to 175 kW using silicon solar cells or gallium arsenide solar cells, respectively. The array module deployed area is 1320 square meters and consists of 4356 pyramidal concentrator elements. The module, when stowed in the Space Shuttle's payload bay, has a stowage volume of a cube with 3.24 meters on a side. The concentrator elements are sized for a geometric concentration ratio (GCR) of six with an aperture area of 0.5 meters x 0.5 meters. Drawings for the preliminary design configuration and for the test hardware that was fabricated for design evaluation and test are provided.

  20. Horizontal oil well applications and oil recovery assessment. Volume 1: Success of horizontal well technology, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Deskins, W.G.; McDonald, W.J.; Knoll, R.G.; Springer, S.J.

    1995-03-01

    Horizontal technology has been applied in over 110 formations in the USA. Volume I of this study addresses the overall success of horizontal technology, especially in less-publicized formations, i.e., other than the Austin Chalk, Bakken, and Niobrara. Operators in the USA. and Canada were surveyed on a formation-by-formation basis by means of a questionnaire. Response data were received describing horizontal well projects in 58 formations in the USA. and 88 in Canada. Operators responses were analyzed for trends in technical and economic success based on lithology (clastics and carbonates) and resource type (light oil, heavy oil, and gas). The potential impact of horizontal technology on reserves was also estimated. A forecast of horizontal drilling activity over the next decade was developed.

  1. Finite Volume schemes on unstructured grids for non-local models: Application to the simulation of heat transport in plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Goudon, Thierry; Parisot, Martin

    2012-10-15

    In the so-called Spitzer-Haerm regime, equations of plasma physics reduce to a nonlinear parabolic equation for the electronic temperature. Coming back to the derivation of this limiting equation through hydrodynamic regime arguments, one is led to construct a hierarchy of models where the heat fluxes are defined through a non-local relation which can be reinterpreted as well by introducing coupled diffusion equations. We address the question of designing numerical methods to simulate these equations. The basic requirement for the scheme is to be asymptotically consistent with the Spitzer-Haerm regime. Furthermore, the constraints of physically realistic simulations make the use of unstructured meshes unavoidable. We develop a Finite Volume scheme, based on Vertex-Based discretization, which reaches these objectives. We discuss on numerical grounds the efficiency of the method, and the ability of the generalized models in capturing relevant phenomena missed by the asymptotic problem.

  2. Representative elementary volume assessment of three-dimensional x-ray microtomography images of heterogeneous materials: Application to limestones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozenbaum, O.; du Roscoat, S. Rolland

    2014-05-01

    Over the last 15 years, x-ray microtomography has become a useful technique to obtain morphological, structural, and topological information on materials. Moreover, these three-dimensional (3D) images can be used as input data to assess certain properties (e.g., permeability) or to simulate phenomena (e.g., transfer properties). In order to capture all the features of interest, high spatial resolution is required. This involves imaging small samples, raising the question of the representativity of the data sets. In this article, we (i) present a methodology to analyze the microstructural properties of complex porous media from 3D images, (ii) assess statistical representative elementary volumes (REVs) for such materials; and (iii) establish criteria to delimit these REVs. In the context of cultural heritage conservation, a statistical study was done on 30 quarry samples for three sorts of stones. We first present the principles of x-ray microtomography experiments and emphasize the care that must be taken in the 3D image segmentation steps. Results show that statistical REVs exist for these media and are reached for the image sizes studied (1300 × 1300 × 1000 voxels) for two characteristics: porosity and chord length distributions. Furthermore, the estimators used (porosity, autocorrelation function, and chord length distributions) are sufficiently sensitive to quantitatively distinguish these three porous media from each other. Lastly, this study puts forward criteria based on the above-mentioned estimators to evaluate the REVs. These criteria avoid having to repeat the statistical study for each new material studied. This is particularly relevant to quantitatively monitor the modifications in materials (weathering, deformation …) or to determine the smallest 3D volume for simulation in order to reduce computing time.

  3. Representative elementary volume assessment of three-dimensional x-ray microtomography images of heterogeneous materials: application to limestones.

    PubMed

    Rozenbaum, O; du Roscoat, S Rolland

    2014-05-01

    Over the last 15 years, x-ray microtomography has become a useful technique to obtain morphological, structural, and topological information on materials. Moreover, these three-dimensional (3D) images can be used as input data to assess certain properties (e.g., permeability) or to simulate phenomena (e.g., transfer properties). In order to capture all the features of interest, high spatial resolution is required. This involves imaging small samples, raising the question of the representativity of the data sets. In this article, we (i) present a methodology to analyze the microstructural properties of complex porous media from 3D images, (ii) assess statistical representative elementary volumes (REVs) for such materials; and (iii) establish criteria to delimit these REVs. In the context of cultural heritage conservation, a statistical study was done on 30 quarry samples for three sorts of stones. We first present the principles of x-ray microtomography experiments and emphasize the care that must be taken in the 3D image segmentation steps. Results show that statistical REVs exist for these media and are reached for the image sizes studied (1300 × 1300 × 1000 voxels) for two characteristics: porosity and chord length distributions. Furthermore, the estimators used (porosity, autocorrelation function, and chord length distributions) are sufficiently sensitive to quantitatively distinguish these three porous media from each other. Lastly, this study puts forward criteria based on the above-mentioned estimators to evaluate the REVs. These criteria avoid having to repeat the statistical study for each new material studied. This is particularly relevant to quantitatively monitor the modifications in materials (weathering, deformation …) or to determine the smallest 3D volume for simulation in order to reduce computing time.

  4. Effectiveness of Ultra-Low Volume Nighttime Applications of an Adulticide against Diurnal Aedes albopictus, a Critical Vector of Dengue and Chikungunya Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Farajollahi, Ary; Healy, Sean P.; Unlu, Isik; Gaugler, Randy; Fonseca, Dina M.

    2012-01-01

    Aedes albopictus, the Asian tiger mosquito, continues expanding its geographic range and involvement in mosquito-borne diseases such as chikungunya and dengue. Vector control programs rarely attempt to suppress this diurnal species with an ultra-low volume (ULV) adulticide because for maximum efficacy applications are conducted at night. During 2009–2011 we performed experimental nighttime applications of a novel adulticide (DUET®) against field populations of Ae. albopictus within an urban site composed of approximately 1,000 parcels (home and yard) in northeastern USA. Dual applications at mid label rate of the adulticide spaced one or two days apart accomplished significantly higher control (85.0±5.4% average reduction) than single full rate applications (73.0±5.4%). Our results demonstrate that nighttime ULV adulticiding is effective in reducing Ae. albopictus abundance and highlight its potential for use as part of integrated pest management programs and during disease epidemics when reducing human illness is of paramount importance. PMID:23145115

  5. Effectiveness of ultra-low volume nighttime applications of an adulticide against diurnal Aedes albopictus, a critical vector of dengue and chikungunya viruses.

    PubMed

    Farajollahi, Ary; Healy, Sean P; Unlu, Isik; Gaugler, Randy; Fonseca, Dina M

    2012-01-01

    Aedes albopictus, the Asian tiger mosquito, continues expanding its geographic range and involvement in mosquito-borne diseases such as chikungunya and dengue. Vector control programs rarely attempt to suppress this diurnal species with an ultra-low volume (ULV) adulticide because for maximum efficacy applications are conducted at night. During 2009-2011 we performed experimental nighttime applications of a novel adulticide (DUET®) against field populations of Ae. albopictus within an urban site composed of approximately 1,000 parcels (home and yard) in northeastern USA. Dual applications at mid label rate of the adulticide spaced one or two days apart accomplished significantly higher control (85.0 ± 5.4% average reduction) than single full rate applications (73.0 ± 5.4%). Our results demonstrate that nighttime ULV adulticiding is effective in reducing Ae. albopictus abundance and highlight its potential for use as part of integrated pest management programs and during disease epidemics when reducing human illness is of paramount importance.

  6. Configuration and design study of manipulator systems applicable to the free flying teleoperator. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tewell, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    A preliminary design of a manipulator system, applicable to a free flying teleoperator spacecraft operating in conjunction with the shuttle or tug, is presented. A new control technique is proposed for application to the manipulator system. This technique, a range/azimuth/elevation rate-rate mode, was selected based upon the results of man-in-the-loop simulations. Several areas are identified in which additional emphasis must be placed prior to the development of the manipulator system. The study results in a manipulator system which will provide an effective method for servicing, maintaining, and repairing satellites to increase their useful life.

  7. Technology and Education: Issues in Administration, Policy and Applications in K12 Schools. (Advances in Educational Administration, Volume 8)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tettegah, Sharon Y., Ed.; Hunter, Richard C, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    In today's society where most students own MP3 players, engage in constant instant messaging and downloading from the Internet, more than ever school administrators and staff should be aware of issues in administration, policy, and applications. This book provides a comprehensive presentation of current policies and practices of technology in…

  8. NASTRAN thermal analyzer: Theory and application including a guide to modeling engineering problems, volume 1. [thermal analyzer manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, H. P.

    1977-01-01

    The NASTRAN Thermal Analyzer Manual describes the fundamental and theoretical treatment of the finite element method, with emphasis on the derivations of the constituent matrices of different elements and solution algorithms. Necessary information and data relating to the practical applications of engineering modeling are included.

  9. Worldwide Intelligent Systems: Approaches to Telecommunications and Network Management. Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications, Volume 24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebowitz, Jay, Ed.; Prerau, David S., Ed.

    This is an international collection of 12 papers addressing artificial intelligence (AI) and knowledge technology applications in telecommunications and network management. It covers the latest and emerging AI technologies as applied to the telecommunications field. The papers are: "The Potential for Knowledge Technology in Telecommunications: A…

  10. Fracture control methods for space vehicles. Volume 2: Assessment of fracture mechanics technology for space shuttle applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehret, R. M.

    1974-01-01

    The concepts explored in a state of the art review of those engineering fracture mechanics considered most applicable to the space shuttle vehicle include fracture toughness, precritical flaw growth, failure mechanisms, inspection methods (including proof test logic), and crack growth predictive analysis techniques.

  11. Gliomas: Application of Cumulative Histogram Analysis of Normalized Cerebral Blood Volume on 3 T MRI to Tumor Grading

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyungjin; Choi, Seung Hong; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Ryoo, Inseon; Kim, Soo Chin; Yeom, Jeong A.; Shin, Hwaseon; Jung, Seung Chai; Lee, A. Leum; Yun, Tae Jin; Park, Chul-Kee; Sohn, Chul-Ho; Park, Sung-Hye

    2013-01-01

    Background Glioma grading assumes significant importance in that low- and high-grade gliomas display different prognoses and are treated with dissimilar therapeutic strategies. The objective of our study was to retrospectively assess the usefulness of a cumulative normalized cerebral blood volume (nCBV) histogram for glioma grading based on 3 T MRI. Methods From February 2010 to April 2012, 63 patients with astrocytic tumors underwent 3 T MRI with dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion-weighted imaging. Regions of interest containing the entire tumor volume were drawn on every section of the co-registered relative CBV (rCBV) maps and T2-weighted images. The percentile values from the cumulative nCBV histograms and the other histogram parameters were correlated with tumor grades. Cochran’s Q test and the McNemar test were used to compare the diagnostic accuracies of the histogram parameters after the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Using the parameter offering the highest diagnostic accuracy, a validation process was performed with an independent test set of nine patients. Results The 99th percentile of the cumulative nCBV histogram (nCBV C99), mean and peak height differed significantly between low- and high-grade gliomas (P = <0.001, 0.014 and <0.001, respectively) and between grade III and IV gliomas (P = <0.001, 0.001 and <0.001, respectively). The diagnostic accuracy of nCBV C99 was significantly higher than that of the mean nCBV (P = 0.016) in distinguishing high- from low-grade gliomas and was comparable to that of the peak height (P = 1.000). Validation using the two cutoff values of nCBV C99 achieved a diagnostic accuracy of 66.7% (6/9) for the separation of all three glioma grades. Conclusion Cumulative histogram analysis of nCBV using 3 T MRI can be a useful method for preoperative glioma grading. The nCBV C99 value is helpful in distinguishing high- from low-grade gliomas and grade IV from III gliomas. PMID:23704910

  12. Intensity targeted radial structure tensor analysis and its application for automated mediastinal lymph node detection from CT volumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Hirohisa; Nimura, Yukitaka; Oda, Masahiro; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Iwano, Shingo; Honma, Hirotoshi; Takabatake, Hirotsugu; Mori, Masaki; Natori, Hiroshi; Mori, Kensaku

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a new blob-like enhancement filter based on Intensity Targeted Radial Structure Tensor (ITRST) analysis to improve mediastinal lymph node detection from chest CT volumes. Blob-like structure enhancement filter based on Radial Structure Tensor (RST) analysis can be utilized for initial detection of lymph node candidate regions. However, some of lymph nodes cannot be detected because RST analysis is influenced by neighboring regions whose intensity is very high or low, such as contrast-enhanced blood vessels and air. To overcome the problem, we propose ITRST analysis that integrate the prior knowledge on detection target intensity into RST analysis. Our lymph node detection method consists of two steps. First, candidate regions are obtained by ITRST analysis. Second, false positives (FPs) are removed by the Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier. We applied the proposed method to 47 cases. Among 19 lymph nodes whose short axis is no less than 10 mm, 100.0 % of them were detected with 247.7 FPs/case by ITRST analysis, while only 80.0 % were detected with 123.0 FPs/case by RST analysis. After the false positive (FP) reduction by SVM, ITRST analysis outperformed RST analysis in lymph node detection performance.

  13. Nanostructural Free-Volume Effects in Humidity-Sensitive MgO-Al2O3 Ceramics for Sensor Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klym, H.; Ingram, A.; Shpotyuk, O.; Hadzaman, I.; Hotra, O.; Kostiv, Yu.

    2016-03-01

    Technologically modified spinel MgO-Al2O3 ceramics were prepared from Al2O3 and 4MgCO3·Mg(OH)2·5H2O powders at sintering temperatures of 1200, 1300, and 1400 °C. Free-volume structural effects in MgO-Al2O3 ceramics and their electrophysical properties were studied using combined x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Hg-porosimetry, and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. It is shown that increasing of sintering temperature from 1200 to 1400 °C results in the transformation of pore size distribution in ceramics from tri- to bi-modal including open macro- and meso(micro)pores with sizes from ten to hundreds nm and nanopores with sizes up to a few nm. Microstructure of these ceramics is improved with the increase of sintering temperature, which results in decreased amount of additional phases located near grain boundaries. These phase extractions serve as specific trapping centers for positrons penetrating the ceramics. The positron trapping and ortho-positronium decaying components are considered in the mathematical treatment of the measured spectra. Classic Tao-Eldrup model is used to draw the correlation between the ortho-positronium lifetime and the size of nanopores, which is complementary to porosimetry data. The studied ceramics with optimal nanoporous structure are highly sensitive to humidity changes in the region of 31-96% with minimal hysteresis in adsorption-desorption cycles.

  14. Environmental report 1995. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Harrach, R.J.; Failor, R.A.; Gallegos, G.M.

    1996-09-01

    This is Volume 2 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) annual Environmental Report 1995. This volume is intended to support summary data from Volume 1 and is essentially a detailed data report that provides additional data points, where applicable. Some summary data are also included in Volume 2, and more detailed accounts are given of sample collection and analytical methods. Volume 2 includes information in eight chapters on monitoring of air, air effluent, sewage, surface water, ground water, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, and environmental radiation, as well as three chapters on ground water protection, compliance self-monitoring and quality assurance.

  15. Photovoltaic system criteria documents. Volume 1: Guidelines for evaluating the management and operations planning of photovoltaic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, John C.; Billitti, Joseph W.; Tallon, John M.

    1979-01-01

    Guidelines are provided to the Field Centers for organization, scheduling, project and cost control, and performance in the areas of project management and operations planning for Photovoltaics Test and Applications. These guidelines may be used in organizing a T and A Project Team for system design/test, site construction and operation, and as the basis for evaluating T and A proposals. The attributes are described for project management and operations planning to be used by the Field Centers. Specifically, all project management and operational issues affecting costs, schedules and performance of photovoltaic systems are addressed. Photovoltaic tests and applications include residential, intermediate load center, central station, and stand-alone systems. The sub-categories of system maturity considered are: Initial System Evaluation Experiments (ISEE); System Readiness Experiments (SRE); and Commercial Readiness Demonstration Projects (CRDP).

  16. Space Applications of Automation, Robotics and Machine Intelligence Systems (ARAMIS). Volume 4: Supplement, Appendix 4.3: Candidate ARAMIS Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. H.; Minsky, M. L.; Smith, D. B. S.

    1982-01-01

    Potential applications of automation, robotics, and machine intelligence systems (ARAMIS) to space activities, and to their related ground support functions, in the years 1985-2000, so that NASA may make informed decisions on which aspects of ARAMIS to develop. The study first identifies the specific tasks which will be required by future space projects. It then defines ARAMIS options which are candidates for those space project tasks, and evaluates the relative merits of these options. Finally, the study identifies promising applications of ARAMIS, and recommends specific areas for further research. The ARAMIS options defined and researched by the study group span the range from fully human to fully machine, including a number of intermediate options (e.g., humans assisted by computers, and various levels of teleoperation). By including this spectrum, the study searches for the optimum mix of humans and machines for space project tasks.

  17. Software design specification. Part 2: Orbital Flight Test (OFT) detailed design specification. Volume 3: Applications. Book 2: System management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The functions performed by the systems management (SM) application software are described along with the design employed to accomplish these functions. The operational sequences (OPS) control segments and the cyclic processes they control are defined. The SM specialist function control (SPEC) segments and the display controlled 'on-demand' processes that are invoked by either an OPS or SPEC control segment as a direct result of an item entry to a display are included. Each processing element in the SM application is described including an input/output table and a structured control flow diagram. The flow through the module and other information pertinent to that process and its interfaces to other processes are included.

  18. Intermediate photovoltaic-system application experiment operational performance report. Volume 1 for Lovington Square Shopping Center Site, Lovington, NM

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    A 100 kWp photovoltaic flat panel system is planned for application in a shopping center to assess problems associated with utility tie-in and to provide utility experience with a photovoltaic system. The project is briefly outlined, and the participants are listed. Relevant weather data and reference operating conditions are given and four operational modes are described. System specifications are given and the solar array, control, protection, and data acquisition and instrumentation subsystems are described. (LEW)

  19. Regional applicability and potential of salt-gradient solar ponds in the United States. Volume 2: Detailed report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, E. I. H.

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of the regional applicability and potential of salt-gradient solar ponds in the United States is provided. The assessment is focused on the general characteristics of twelve defined geographic regions. Natural resources essential to solar ponds are surveyed. Meteorological and hydrogeological conditions affecting pond performance are examined. Potentially favorable pond sites are identified. Regional thermal and electrical energy output from solar ponds is calculated. Selected pond design cases are studied. Five major potential market sectors are evaluated in terms of technical and energy-consumption characteristics, and solar-pond applicability and potential. Relevant pond system data and financial factors are analyzed. Solar-pond energy costs are compared with conventional energy costs. The assessment concludes that, excepting Alaska, ponds are applicable in all regions for at least two market sectors. Total solar pond energy supply potential in the five market sectors examined is estimated to be 8.94 quads/yr by the year 2000, approximately 7.2% of the projected total national energy demand.

  20. Aerial ultra-low-volume application of naled: impact on nontarget imperiled butterfly larvae (Cyclargus thomasi bethunebakeri) and efficacy against adult mosquitoes (Aedes taeniorhynchus).

    PubMed

    Zhong, H; Hribar, L J; Daniels, J C; Feken, M A; Brock, C; Trager, M D

    2010-12-01

    We assessed the exposure and acute toxicity of naled, applied aerially as an ultra-low-volume spray for mosquito control, on late instar larvae of the Miami blue (Cyclargus thomasi bethunebakeri) (Comstock and Huntington 1943) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae), an imperiled South Florida butterfly. We concurrently evaluated the control efficacy against caged adult female salt-marsh mosquitoes (Aedes taeniorhynchus) (Wiedemann 1821) (Diptera: Culicidae). This 3-yr study was conducted in north Key Largo (Monroe County, FL) beginning in 2006. The field trials incorporated 15 sampling stations: nine in the target spray zone, three in the spray drift zone at varying distances from the target zone, and three in the control zone not subjected to naled spray drift. A total of six field spray trials were completed, three at an altitude of 30.5 m (100 feet), and three at 45.7 m (150 feet). For all trials, the ultra-low-volume application of Trumpet EC insecticide (78% naled) at a rate of 54.8 ml/ha (0.75 fl. oz/acre) was effective in killing caged adult mosquitoes in the target zone. Butterfly larvae survival was significantly reduced in the spray zone compared with drift and control zones. Analysis of insecticide residue data revealed that the mortality of the late instar butterfly larvae was a result of exposure to excess residues of naled. Additional research is needed to determine mitigation strategies that can limit exposure of sensitive butterflies to naled while maintaining mosquito control efficacy. PMID:22182563

  1. Proceedings of the thirteenth national conference on artificial intelligence and the eighth innovative applications of artificial intelligence conference. Volume 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    This report contain papers from the Thirteenth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence and the Eighth Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence collected in two volumes. General areas of research for these papers are: interaction; internet agents; multiagent learning; multiagent problem solving; negotiation and coalition; AI in art and entertainment; constraint satisfaction; data consistency; game-tree search; phase transition; search control; search and learning; stochastic search; temporal reasoning; education; information retrieval and natural language processing; knowledge-based systems; knowledge compilation; knowledge representation; belief and belief revision; description logics and probabilities reasoning; knowledge-base and context; nonmonotonic reasoning; reasoning about action; learning; mobile robots; model-based reasoning; natural language; preception; planning; rule-based reasoning and connectionism; uncertainty; robot competition; student abstracts; and case studies.

  2. A novel large-volume Kawai-type apparatus and its application to the synthesis of sintered bodies of nano-polycrystalline diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irifune, Tetsuo; Isobe, Futoshi; Shinmei, Toru

    2014-03-01

    A Kawai-type multianvil apparatus operated in a 60 MN press has been constructed for materials synthesis at high pressure and temperature. After having tested various tungsten carbide anvils and optimization of the cell assembly for this novel apparatus, we are now able to perform synthesis experiments of high-pressure phases at temperatures to ∼2500 °C with relatively large sample volumes of about 2 cm3 in a pressure range up to about 16 GPa. Using this apparatus, synthesis of high-quality rods of sintered nano-polycrystalline diamond with dimensions to 1 cm in both diameter and length has been routinely made, which should be important as new anvil material for high-pressure mineral physics studies, as well as for some industrial applications.

  3. Northeast Artificial Intelligence Consortium (NAIC). Volume 9. A planner system for the application of indications and warning. Final report, Sep 84-Dec 89

    SciTech Connect

    Nirenburg, S.

    1990-12-01

    The Northeast Artificial Intelligence Consortium (NAIC) was created by the Air Force Systems Command, Rome Air Development Center, and the Office of Scientific Research. Its purpose was to conduct pertinent research in artificial intelligence and to perform activities ancillary to this research. This report describes progress during the existence of the NAIC on the technical research tasks undertaken at the member universities. The topics covered in general are: versatile expert system for equipment maintenance, distributed AI for communications system control, automatic photointerpretation, time-oriented problem solving, speech understanding systems, knowledge based maintenance, hardware architectures for very large systems, knowledge based reasoning and planning and a knowledge acquisition, assistance, and explanation system. The specific topic for this volume is the design of a planning system for an Indications and Warning (IW) application.

  4. Applications systems verification and transfer project. Volume 2: Operational applications of satellite snow-cover observations and data-collection systems in the Arizona test site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumann, H. H.

    1981-01-01

    Ground surveys and aerial observations were used to monitor rapidly changing moisture conditions in the Salt-Verde watershed. Repetitive satellite snow cover observations greatly reduce the necessity for routine aerial snow reconnaissance flights over the mountains. High resolution, multispectral imagery provided by LANDSAT satellite series enabled rapid and accurate mapping of snow-cover distributions for small- to medium-sized subwatersheds; however, the imagery provided only one observation every 9 days of about a third of the watershed. Low resolution imagery acquired by the ITOSa dn SMS/GOES meteorological satellite series provides the daily synoptic observation necessary to monitor the rapid changes in snow-covered area in the entire watershed. Short term runoff volumes can be predicted from daily sequential snow cover observations.

  5. A Mathematical Model for Vertical Attitude Takeoff and Landing (VATOL) Aircraft Simulation. Volume 1; Model Description Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortenbaugh, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    A mathematical model of a high performance airplane capable of vertical attitude takeoff and landing (VATOL) was developed. An off line digital simulation program incorporating this model was developed to provide trim conditions and dynamic check runs for the piloted simulation studies and support dynamic analyses of proposed VATOL configuration and flight control concepts. Development details for the various simulation component models and the application of the off line simulation program, Vertical Attitude Take-Off and Landing Simulation (VATLAS), to develop a baseline control system for the Vought SF-121 VATOL airplane concept are described.

  6. Study of the application of advanced technologies to long range transport aircraft. Volume 2: Advanced technology program recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The benefits of the application of advanced technology to future transport aircraft were investigated. The noise reduction goals established by the CARD (Civil Aviation Research and Development) study for the 1981-1985 time period can be satisfied. Reduced terminal area and airway congestion can result from use of advanced on-board systems and operating procedures. The use of advanced structural design concepts can result in greatly reduced gross weight and improved operating economics. The full potential of these benefits can be realized in a 1985 airplane by implementing a research and development program that is funded to an average level of approximately $55 million per year over a ten year period.

  7. An improved approach for flight readiness certification: Methodology for failure risk assessment and application examples, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, N. R.; Ebbeler, D. H.; Newlin, L. E.; Sutharshana, S.; Creager, M.

    1992-01-01

    An improved methodology for quantitatively evaluating failure risk of spaceflight systems to assess flight readiness and identify risk control measures is presented. This methodology, called Probabilistic Failure Assessment (PFA), combines operating experience from tests and flights with engineering analysis to estimate failure risk. The PFA methodology is of particular value when information on which to base an assessment of failure risk, including test experience and knowledge of parameters used in engineering analyses of failure phenomena, is expensive or difficult to acquire. The PFA methodology is a prescribed statistical structure in which engineering analysis models that characterize failure phenomena are used conjointly with uncertainties about analysis parameters and/or modeling accuracy to estimate failure probability distributions for specific failure modes. These distributions can then be modified, by means of statistical procedures of the PFA methodology, to reflect any test or flight experience. Conventional engineering analysis models currently employed for design of failure prediction are used in this methodology. The PFA methodology is described and examples of its application are presented. Conventional approaches to failure risk evaluation for spaceflight systems are discussed, and the rationale for the approach taken in the PFA methodology is presented. The statistical methods, engineering models, and computer software used in fatigue failure mode applications are thoroughly documented.

  8. An improved approach for flight readiness certification: Methodology for failure risk assessment and application examples, volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, N. R.; Ebbeler, D. H.; Newlin, L. E.; Sutharshana, S.; Creager, M.

    1992-06-01

    An improved methodology for quantitatively evaluating failure risk of spaceflight systems to assess flight readiness and identify risk control measures is presented. This methodology, called Probabilistic Failure Assessment (PFA), combines operating experience from tests and flights with engineering analysis to estimate failure risk. The PFA methodology is of particular value when information on which to base an assessment of failure risk, including test experience and knowledge of parameters used in engineering analyses of failure phenomena, is expensive or difficult to acquire. The PFA methodology is a prescribed statistical structure in which engineering analysis models that characterize failure phenomena are used conjointly with uncertainties about analysis parameters and/or modeling accuracy to estimate failure probability distributions for specific failure modes. These distributions can then be modified, by means of statistical procedures of the PFA methodology, to reflect any test or flight experience. Conventional engineering analysis models currently employed for design of failure prediction are used in this methodology. The PFA methodology is described and examples of its application are presented. Conventional approaches to failure risk evaluation for spaceflight systems are discussed, and the rationale for the approach taken in the PFA methodology is presented. The statistical methods, engineering models, and computer software used in fatigue failure mode applications are thoroughly documented.

  9. An improved approach for flight readiness certification: Methodology for failure risk assessment and application examples. Volume 2: Software documentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, N. R.; Ebbeler, D. H.; Newlin, L. E.; Sutharshana, S.; Creager, M.

    1992-06-01

    An improved methodology for quantitatively evaluating failure risk of spaceflight systems to assess flight readiness and identify risk control measures is presented. This methodology, called Probabilistic Failure Assessment (PFA), combines operating experience from tests and flights with engineering analysis to estimate failure risk. The PFA methodology is of particular value when information on which to base an assessment of failure risk, including test experience and knowledge of parameters used in engineering analyses of failure phenomena, is expensive or difficult to acquire. The PFA methodology is a prescribed statistical structure in which engineering analysis models that characterize failure phenomena are used conjointly with uncertainties about analysis parameters and/or modeling accuracy to estimate failure probability distributions for specific failure modes, These distributions can then be modified, by means of statistical procedures of the PFA methodology, to reflect any test or flight experience. Conventional engineering analysis models currently employed for design of failure prediction are used in this methodology. The PFA methodology is described and examples of its application are presented. Conventional approaches to failure risk evaluation for spaceflight systems are discussed, and the rationale for the approach taken in the PFA methodology is presented. The statistical methods, engineering models, and computer software used in fatigue failure mode applications are thoroughly documented.

  10. An improved approach for flight readiness certification: Methodology for failure risk assessment and application examples. Volume 2: Software documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, N. R.; Ebbeler, D. H.; Newlin, L. E.; Sutharshana, S.; Creager, M.

    1992-01-01

    An improved methodology for quantitatively evaluating failure risk of spaceflight systems to assess flight readiness and identify risk control measures is presented. This methodology, called Probabilistic Failure Assessment (PFA), combines operating experience from tests and flights with engineering analysis to estimate failure risk. The PFA methodology is of particular value when information on which to base an assessment of failure risk, including test experience and knowledge of parameters used in engineering analyses of failure phenomena, is expensive or difficult to acquire. The PFA methodology is a prescribed statistical structure in which engineering analysis models that characterize failure phenomena are used conjointly with uncertainties about analysis parameters and/or modeling accuracy to estimate failure probability distributions for specific failure modes, These distributions can then be modified, by means of statistical procedures of the PFA methodology, to reflect any test or flight experience. Conventional engineering analysis models currently employed for design of failure prediction are used in this methodology. The PFA methodology is described and examples of its application are presented. Conventional approaches to failure risk evaluation for spaceflight systems are discussed, and the rationale for the approach taken in the PFA methodology is presented. The statistical methods, engineering models, and computer software used in fatigue failure mode applications are thoroughly documented.

  11. A distribution benefits model for improved information on worldwide crop production. Volume 1: Model structure and application to wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, J.

    1976-01-01

    The improved model is suitable for the study of benefits of worldwide information on a variety of crops. Application to the previously studied case of worldwide wheat production shows that about $108 million per year of distribution benefits to the United States would be achieved by a satellite-based wheat information system meeting the goals of LACIE. The model also indicates that improved information alone will not change world stock levels unless production itself is stabilized. The United States benefits mentioned above are associated with the reduction of price fluctuations within the year and the more effective use of international trade to balance supply and demand. Price fluctuations from year to year would be reduced only if production variability were itself reduced.

  12. Conceptual design of thermal energy storage systems for near term electric utility applications. Volume 1: Screening of concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hausz, W.; Berkowitz, B. J.; Hare, R. C.

    1978-01-01

    Over forty thermal energy storage (TES) concepts gathered from the literature and personal contacts were studied for their suitability for the electric utility application of storing energy off-peak discharge during peak hours. Twelve selections were derived from the concepts for screening; they used as storage media high temperature water (HTW), hot oil, molten salts, and packed beds of solids such as rock. HTW required pressure containment by prestressed cast-iron or concrete vessels, or lined underground cavities. Both steam generation from storage and feedwater heating from storage were studied. Four choices were made for further study during the project. Economic comparison by electric utility standard cost practices, and near-term availability (low technical risk) were principal criteria but suitability for utility use, conservation potential, and environmental hazards were considered.

  13. Rotary-wing aerodynamics. Volume 1: Basic theories of rotor aerodynamics with application to helicopters. [momentum, vortices, and potential theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepniewski, W. Z.

    1979-01-01

    The concept of rotary-wing aircraft in general is defined. The energy effectiveness of helicopters is compared with that of other static thrust generators in hover, as well as with various air and ground vehicles in forward translation. The most important aspects of rotor-blade dynamics and rotor control are reviewed. The simple physicomathematical model of the rotor offered by the momentum theory is introduced and its usefulness and limitations are assessed. The combined blade-element and momentum theory approach, which provides greater accuracy in performance predictions, is described as well as the vortex theory which models a rotor blade by means of a vortex filament or vorticity surface. The application of the velocity and acceleration potential theory to the determination of flow fields around three dimensional, non-rotating bodies as well as to rotor aerodynamic problems is described. Airfoil sections suitable for rotors are also considered.

  14. Technique for integrative energy planning in developing nations with illustrative application to Pakistan. (Volumes I and II)

    SciTech Connect

    Ciliano, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the conceptual definition, development and illustrative application of a new methodology for integrative energy planning in less developed countries (LDCs). The author terms his approach the Integrative Planning Technique (IPT). The IPT provides a direct linkage between sectoral activity levels and targets specified in the overall economic development plan and the energy system physical infrastructure and resource flows upon which they depend. Central concepts within the IPT include (a) the Energy Resource Delivery Network (ERDN), a network representation of the overall energy system from resource extraction through ultimate end-use; and (b) the Resource Coefficient Table (RCT), a computational matrix method which prepares inputs to the ERDN and provides the building block basis for translating policy initiatives relating to new technology penetration, interfuel substitution, and re-directed development targets into corresponding energy requirements associated with policy implementation.

  15. Study of the application of advanced technologies to long-range transport aircraft. Volume 2: Research and development requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lange, R. H.; Sturgeon, R. F.; Adams, W. E.; Bradley, E. S.; Cahill, J. F.; Eudaily, R. R.; Hancock, J. P.; Moore, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    Investigations were conducted to evaluate the relative benefits attainable through the exploitation of advanced technologies and to identify future research and development efforts required to permit the application of selected technologies to transport aircraft entering commercial operation in 1985. Results show that technology advances, particularly in the areas of composite materials, supercritical aerodynamics, and active control systems, will permit the development of long-range, high-payload commercial transports operating at high-subsonic speeds with direct operating costs lower than those of current aircraft. These advanced transports also achieve lower noise levels and lower engine pollutant emissions than current transports. Research and development efforts, including analytical investigations, laboratory test programs, and flight test programs, are required in essentially all technology areas to achieve the potential technology benefits.

  16. The Knowledge-Based Technology Applications Center (KBTAC) seminar series. Volume 1, Introduction to knowledge-based systems

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, W.; Scherer, J.; DeLuke, R.; Wood, R.M.

    1992-12-01

    Knowledge-based systems are a means of capturing and productively and efficiently using utility accumulated knowledge and expertise. The first step in this process is to identify what types of problems and applications can benefit from the use of expert systems. Once potential applications have been identified, it is necessary to involve management in supporting the use and developing of the expert system. To do that, management must be made aware of the costs of benefits associated with the development, routine use and maintenance of these systems. To truly understand how knowledge-based systems differ from conventional programming the manager and potential user needs to become familiar with the concept of symbolic reasoning or programming where knowledge is manipulated, not just data as in conventional programming. Knowledge-based systems use all the information manipulation that is found in conventional programming but adds to that knowledge-based programming. How does a program use knowledge? That is accomplished in a knowledge-based system by the inferencing process. Rules allow reasoning to flow backward from a conclusion or a result to circumstances or a causes. Alternatively, certain data or information can lead to a conclusion or a result. The reader will be lead through this process of symbolic reasoning or programming including the presentation of several examples. The software available to develop expert systems is discussed as is the hardware on which that software is operable. Costs and other features of the hardware are presented in detail. Finally, the many different ways in which KBTAC can assist in developing expert systems is discussed. This assistance ranges from phone calls to assistance at KBTAC`s site or at your utility.

  17. VOLUME CALCULATION OF RATS' ORGANS AND ITS APPLICATION IN THE VALIDATION OF THE VOLUME RELATION BETWEEN THE ABDOMINAL CAVITY AND THE HERNIAL SAC IN INCISIONAL HERNIAS WITH "LOSS OF ABDOMINAL DOMAIN"

    PubMed Central

    de ARAÚJO, Luz Marina Gonçalves; SERIGIOLLE, Leonardo Carvalho; GOMES, Helbert Minuncio Pereira; RODRIGUES, Daren Athiê Boy; LOPES, Carolina Marques; LEME, Pedro Luiz Squilacci

    2014-01-01

    Background The calculation of the volume ratio between the hernia sac and the abdominal cavity of incisional hernias is based on tomographic sections as well as the mathematical formula of the volume of the ellipsoid, which allows determining whether this is a giant hernia or there is a "loss of domain". As the images used are not exact geometric figures, the study of the volume of two solid organs of Wistar rats was performed to validate these calculations. Aim To correlate two methods for determining the volume of the kidney and spleen of rats, comparing a direct method of observation of the volume with the mathematical calculation of this value. Methods The volume of left kidney, geometrically more regular, and spleen, with its peculiar shape, of ten animals was established in cubic centimeters after complete immersion in water with the aid of a beaker graduated in millimeters. These values ​​were compared with those obtained by calculating the same volume with a specific mathematical formula: V = 4/3 × π × (r1 x r2 x r3). Data were compared and statistically analyzed by Student's t test. RESULTS: Although the average volume obtained was higher through the direct method (1.13 cm3 for the left kidney and 0.71 cm3 for the spleen) than the values ​​calculated with the mathematical formula (0.81 cm3 and 0.54 cm3), there were no statistically significant differences between the values ​​found for the two organs (p>0.05). Conclusion There was adequate correlation between the direct calculation of the volume of the kidney and spleen with the result of mathematical calculation of these values ​​in the animals' studies. PMID:25184766

  18. Guidebook for performance assessment parameters used in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant compliance certification application. Volume 2: Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Howarth, S.M.; Martell, M.A.; Weiner, R.; Lattier, C.

    1998-06-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Compliance Certification Application (CCA) Performance Assessment (PA) Parameter Database and its ties to supporting information evolved over the course of two years. When the CCA was submitted to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in October 1996, information such as identification of parameter value or distribution source was documented using processes established by Sandia National Laboratories WIPP Quality Assurance Procedures. Reviewers later requested additional supporting documentation, links to supporting information, and/or clarification for many parameters. This guidebook is designed to document a pathway through the complex parameter process and help delineate flow paths to supporting information for all WIPP CCA parameters. In addition, this report is an aid for understanding how model parameters used in the WIPP CCA were developed and qualified. To trace the source information for a particular parameter, a dual-route system was established. The first route uses information from the Parameter Records package as it existed when the CCA calculations were run. The second route leads from the EPA Parameter Database to additional supporting information.

  19. Small capacity, low cost (Ni-H2) design concept for commercial, military, and higher-volume aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, James R.; Cook, William D.; Smith, Ron

    1991-01-01

    Nickel Hydrogen (Ni/H2) batteries have become the technology of choice for both commercial and defense related satellites in geosynchronous orbits. Their use for low earth orbit (LEO) applications is not as advanced, but seems just as inevitable because of their inherent advantages over nickel cadmium batteries. These include superior energy density, longer cycle life, and better tolerance to over-charge and reversal. Ni/H2 cells have the added advantage in both construction and operation of not presenting the environmental possibility of cadmium pollution. Unfortunately, but necessarily, the design of these cells has been driven to high cost by the sophistication of the satellites and their uses. Now, using most of the same concepts but less costly materials and techniques, a low cost, small cell design was developed. Combined with the concept of the common pressure vessel, this new design promises to be ideal for the small-sat and commercial markets which, increasingly, are calling for large numbers of less expensive satellites.

  20. Guidebook for performance assessment parameters used in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant compliance certification application. Volume 1: Main report

    SciTech Connect

    Howarth, S.M.; Martell, M.A.; Weiner, R.; Lattier, C.

    1998-06-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Compliance Certification Application (CCA) Performance Assessment (PA) Parameter Database and its ties to supporting information evolved over the course of two years. When the CCA was submitted to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in October 1996, information such as identification of parameter value or distribution source was documented using processes established by Sandia National Laboratories WIPP Quality Assurance Procedures. Reviewers later requested additional supporting documentation, links to supporting information, and/or clarification for many parameters. This guidebook is designed to document a pathway through the complex parameter process and help delineate flow paths to supporting information for all WIPP CCA parameters. In addition, this report is an aid for understanding how model parameters used in the WIPP CCA were developed and qualified. To trace the source information for a particular parameter, a dual-route system was established. The first route uses information from the Parameter Records Package as it existed when the CCA calculations were run. The second route leads from the EPA Parameter Database to additional supporting information.

  1. Application potential of energy systems at Navy sites. Volume I. Methodology and results. Final report, March 1978-October 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, S.J.; Jackson, M.D.; Chaump, S.J.

    1980-01-01

    Application of renewable and nonrenewable energy conversion technologies are forecast for the Navy's ten largest industrial locations and four smaller locations. Data are obtained from an optimization model that determines the least, life-cycle cost energy supply system for an industrial location. Optimal solutions were composed of integrated combinations of energy conversion technologies. Besides being more cost-effective than status quo systems fired exclusively on fuel oil, the optimal integrated systems displace a significant percentage of fuel oil. Energy conversion technologies that participate in the optimal supply systems for large Naval industrial locations include fluidized-bed coal combustion, cogeneration, oil-fired systems, with smaller contributions from refuse derived fuel systems. Oil-fired systems participate only in a peaking capacity wherever coal combustion is permitted. Otherwise, the status quo systems are forecasted to prevail. Renewable energy conversion systems were not competitive in plant-size configurations at nine of the ten large Naval industrial locations studied, Pearl Harbor being the exception.

  2. Quantum volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabov, V. A.

    2015-08-01

    Quantum systems in a mechanical embedding, the breathing mode of a small particles, optomechanical system, etc. are far not the full list of examples in which the volume exhibits quantum behavior. Traditional consideration suggests strain in small systems as a result of a collective movement of particles, rather than the dynamics of the volume as an independent variable. The aim of this work is to show that some problem here might be essentially simplified by introducing periodic boundary conditions. At this case, the volume is considered as the independent dynamical variable driven by the internal pressure. For this purpose, the concept of quantum volume based on Schrödinger’s equation in 𝕋3 manifold is proposed. It is used to explore several 1D model systems: An ensemble of free particles under external pressure, quantum manometer and a quantum breathing mode. In particular, the influence of the pressure of free particle on quantum oscillator is determined. It is shown also that correction to the spectrum of the breathing mode due to internal degrees of freedom is determined by the off-diagonal matrix elements of the quantum stress. The new treatment not using the “force” theorem is proposed for the quantum stress tensor. In the general case of flexible quantum 3D dynamics, quantum deformations of different type might be introduced similarly to monopole mode.

  3. Volume rendering for neurosurgical planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noordmans, Herke J.; Rutten, G. J. M.; Willems, Peter W. A.; van Veelen, C. W. M.; van Rijen, P. C.; Viergever, Max A.

    2001-01-01

    A volume rendering library is presented to interactively analyze volume data from modalities like CT, MR, PET, SPECT< and fMRI for the planning of nuerosurgical procedures. Current applications are logging of Penfield procedures, fMRI visualization, blood vessel visualization and interactive localization of EEG electrodes implanted in the subdural space of a patient with epilepsy.

  4. RCRA Part B Permit Application for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory - Volume 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Pamela R. Cunningham

    1992-07-01

    This section of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) Part B permit application describes the waste characteristics Of the transuranic (TRU) mixed wastes at the RWMC waste management units to be permitted: the Intermediate-Level Transuranic Storage Facility (ILTSF) and the Waste Storage Facility (WSF). The ILTSF is used to store radioactive remote-handled (RH) wastes. The WSF will be used to store radioactive contact-handled (CH) wastes. The Transuranic Storage Area (TSA) was established at the RWMC to provide interim storage of TRU waste. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A defines TRU waste as waste contaminated with alpha-emitting transuranium radionuclides with half-lives greater than 20 years in concentrations greater than 100 nanocuries per gram (nCi/g) o f waste material. The TSA serves generators both on and off the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The ILTSF is located at the TSA, and the WSF will be located there also. Most of the wastes managed at the TSA are mixed wastes, which are radioactive wastes regulated under the Atomic Energy Act (AEA) that also contain hazardous materials regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Idaho Hazardous Waste Management Regulations. These wastes include TRU mixed wastes and some low-level mixed wastes. Accordingly, the TSA is subject to the permitting requirements of RCRA and the Idaho Administrative Procedures Act (IDAPA). Prior to 1982, DOE orders defined TRU wastes as having transuranium radionuclides in concentrations greater than 10 nCi/g, The low-level mixed wastes managed at the TSA are those wastes with 10 to 100 nCi/g of TRU radionuclides that prior to 1982 were considered TRU waste.

  5. Space applications of Automation, Robotics and Machine Intelligence Systems (ARAMIS). Volume 4: Application of ARAMIS capabilities to space project functional elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. H.; Minsky, M. L.; Smith, D. B. S.

    1982-01-01

    Applications of automation, robotics, and machine intelligence systems (ARAMIS) to space activities and their related ground support functions are studied, so that informed decisions can be made on which aspects of ARAMIS to develop. The specific tasks which will be required by future space project tasks are identified and the relative merits of these options are evaluated. The ARAMIS options defined and researched span the range from fully human to fully machine, including a number of intermediate options (e.g., humans assisted by computers, and various levels of teleoperation). By including this spectrum, the study searches for the optimum mix of humans and machines for space project tasks.

  6. Application of the Price-Volume Approach in Cases of Innovative Drugs Where Value-Based Pricing is Inadequate: Description of Real Experiences in Italy.

    PubMed

    Messori, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    Several cases of expensive drugs designed for large patient populations (e.g. sofosbuvir) have raised a complex question in terms of drug pricing. Even assuming value-based pricing, the treatment with these drugs of all eligible patients would have an immense budgetary impact, which is unsustainable also for the richest countries. This raises the need to reduce the prices of these agents in comparison with those suggested by the value-based approach and to devise new pricing methods that can achieve this goal. The present study discusses in detail the following two methods: (i) The approach based on setting nation-wide budget thresholds for individual innovative agents in which a fixed proportion of the historical pharmaceutical expenditure represents the maximum budget attributable to an innovative treatment; (ii) The approach based on nation-wide price-volume agreements in which drug prices are progressively reduced as more patients receive the treatment. The first approach has been developed in the USA by the Institute for Clinical and Economic Review and has been applied to PCSK9 inhibitors (alirocumab and evolocumab). The second approach has been designed for the Italian market and has found a systematic application to manage the price of ranibizumab, sofosbuvir, and PCSK9 inhibitors. While, in the past, price-volume agreements have been applied only on an empirical basis (i.e. in the absence of any quantitative theoretical rule), more recently some explicit mathematical models have been described. The performance of these models is now being evaluated on the basis of the real-world experiences conducted in some European countries, especially Italy. PMID:27216427

  7. Application of the Price-Volume Approach in Cases of Innovative Drugs Where Value-Based Pricing is Inadequate: Description of Real Experiences in Italy.

    PubMed

    Messori, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    Several cases of expensive drugs designed for large patient populations (e.g. sofosbuvir) have raised a complex question in terms of drug pricing. Even assuming value-based pricing, the treatment with these drugs of all eligible patients would have an immense budgetary impact, which is unsustainable also for the richest countries. This raises the need to reduce the prices of these agents in comparison with those suggested by the value-based approach and to devise new pricing methods that can achieve this goal. The present study discusses in detail the following two methods: (i) The approach based on setting nation-wide budget thresholds for individual innovative agents in which a fixed proportion of the historical pharmaceutical expenditure represents the maximum budget attributable to an innovative treatment; (ii) The approach based on nation-wide price-volume agreements in which drug prices are progressively reduced as more patients receive the treatment. The first approach has been developed in the USA by the Institute for Clinical and Economic Review and has been applied to PCSK9 inhibitors (alirocumab and evolocumab). The second approach has been designed for the Italian market and has found a systematic application to manage the price of ranibizumab, sofosbuvir, and PCSK9 inhibitors. While, in the past, price-volume agreements have been applied only on an empirical basis (i.e. in the absence of any quantitative theoretical rule), more recently some explicit mathematical models have been described. The performance of these models is now being evaluated on the basis of the real-world experiences conducted in some European countries, especially Italy.

  8. Minimizing the impact of the mosquito adulticide naled on honey bees, Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae): aerial ultra-low-volume application using a high-pressure nozzle system.

    PubMed

    Zhong, He; Latham, Mark; Payne, Steve; Brock, Cate

    2004-02-01

    The impact of the mosquito adulticide naled on honey bees, Apis mellifera L., was evaluated by exposing test beehives to nighttime aerial ultra-low-volume (ULV) applications using a high-pressure nozzle system. The tests were conducted during routine mosquito control missions at Manatee County, Florida, in summer 2000. Two treatment sites were sprayed a total of four times over a 10-wk period. Honey bees, which clustered outside of the hive entrances, were subjected to naled exposure during these mosquito control sprays. The highest average naled ground deposition was 2,688 microg/m2 at the Port Manatee site, which resulted in statistically significant bee mortality (118) compared with the controls. At the Terra Ceia Road site, an intermediate level of naled deposition was found (1,435 microg/m2). For this spray mission, the range of dead bees per hive at Terra Ceia was 2 to 9 before spraying and 5 to 36 after naled application. Means of all other naled ground depositions were < 850 microl/m2. We concluded that substantial bee mortality (> 100 dead bees) resulted when naled residue levels were > 2,000 kg/m2 and honey bees were clustered outside of the hive entrances during mosquito adulticide applications. Compared with the flat-fan nozzle systems currently used by most of Florida's mosquito control programs, the high-pressure nozzle system used in this experiment substantially reduced environmental insecticide contamination and lead to decreased bee mortality. Statistical analysis also showed that average honey yield at the end of the season was not significantly reduced for those hives that were exposed to the insecticide. PMID:14998120

  9. Kondo physics in the single-electron transistor with ac driving

    SciTech Connect

    Nordlander, Peter; Wingreen, Ned S.; Meir, Yigal; Langreth, David C.

    2000-01-15

    Using a time-dependent Anderson Hamiltonian, a quantum dot with an ac voltage applied to a nearby gate is investigated. A rich dependence of the linear response conductance on the external frequency and driving amplitude is demonstrated. At low frequencies a sufficiently strong ac potential produces sidebands of the Kondo peak in the spectral density of the dot, and a slow, roughly logarithmic decrease in conductance over several decades of frequency. At intermediate frequencies, the conductance of the dot displays an oscillatory behavior due to the appearance of Kondo resonances of the satellites of the dot level. At high frequencies, the conductance of the dot can vary rapidly due to the interplay between photon-assisted tunneling and the Kondo resonance. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  10. Applications systems verification and transfer project. Volume 7: Cost/benefit analysis for the ASVT on operational applications of satellite snow-cover observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castruccio, P.; Loats, H.; Lloyd, D.; Newman, P.

    1981-01-01

    The results of the OASSO ASVT's were used to estimate the benefits accruing from the added information available from satellite snowcover area measurement. Estimates of the improvement in runoff prediction due to addition of SATSCAM were made by the Colorado ASVT personnel. The improvement estimate is 6-10%. Data were applied to subregions covering the Western States snow area amended by information from the ASVT and other watershed experts to exclude areas which are not impacted by snowmelt runoff. Benefit models were developed for irrigation and hydroenergy uses. The benefit/cost ratio is 72:1. Since only two major benefit contributors were used and since the forecast improvement estimate does not take into account future satellite capabilities these estimates are considered to be conservative. The large magnitude of the benefit/cost ratio supports the utility and applicability of SATSCAM.

  11. Efficacy of aerial ultra-low volume applications of two novel water-based formulations of unsynergized pyrethroids against riceland mosquitoes in Greece.

    PubMed

    Chaskopoulou, Alexandra; Latham, Mark D; Pereira, Roberto M; Connelly, Roxanne; Bonds, Jane A S; Koehler, Philip G

    2011-12-01

    We assessed the efficacy of ultra-low volume aerial adulticiding with 2 new water-based, unsynergized formulations of Aqua-K-Othrin (2% deltamethrin) and Pesguard S102 (10% d-phenothrin) against the riceland mosquitoes of Greece. A helicopter with Global Positioning System (GPS) navigation, real-time weather recording, and spray dispersal modeling (AgDISP) was utilized to accurately treat the experimental blocks by adjusting spray line positions to changing meteorological conditions. Two application rates were applied per formulation that corresponded to 0.75 and 1.00 g AI/ha of deltamethrin and 7.50 and 10.00 g AI/ha of d-phenothrin. The mosquitoes used for the trials were the main nuisance species found in rice field areas of Thessaloniki, which were primarily Aedes caspius, followed by Culex modestus and Anopheles sacharovi. Overall mean mortality of caged mosquitoes was 69.2% and 64.8% for deltamethrin and d-phenothrin, respectively. Mean population decrease in wild mosquito populations within the treatment areas was 76.5% and 78% for deltamethrin and d-phenothrin, respectively. The AgDISP dispersal model, coupled with GPS navigation and real-time weather recording, enabled accurate placement of the spray cloud such that the majority of the treatment area received sufficiently high droplet densities to result in uniform caged-mosquito mortality across all sampling sites.

  12. A model of the transmission of dengue fever with an evaluation of the impact of ultra-low volume (ULV) insecticide applications on dengue epidemics.

    PubMed

    Newton, E A; Reiter, P

    1992-12-01

    We have developed a deterministic susceptible, exposed, infectious, resistant or removed (SEIR) model of dengue fever transmission that enables us to explore the behavior of an epidemic, and to experiment with vector control practices. Populations of both host and vector are divided into compartments representing disease status (susceptible, exposed, infectious, and, for humans, resistant), and the flow between compartments is described by differential equations. Examination of the equilibrium points leads to a formulation of the basic reproduction rate (Z0) of the disease. With a base set of parameters, Z0 = 1.9 and the model realistically reproduces epidemic transmission in an immunologically naive population. Control of adult mosquitoes by ultra-low volume (ULV) aerosols is simulated by an abrupt decrease in vector densities, followed by gradual recovery of the vector population. The model indicates that ULV has little impact on disease incidence, even when multiple applications are made, although the peak of the epidemic may be delayed. Decreasing the carrying capacity of the environment for mosquitoes, and thus the basic reproduction rate of the disease, by source reduction or other means, is more effective in reducing transmission.

  13. The Funding of Social Knowledge Production and Application: A Survey of Federal Agencies. Study Project on Social Research and Development, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Mark A.

    This survey is volume two of a six-volume report on the organization and management of social research and development throughout the U.S. government. The main body of the work contains a summary of spending for social research and development for each department of the federal government and the independent agencies. Agencies included are:…

  14. 40 CFR 86.1826-01 - Assigned deterioration factors for small volume manufacturers and small volume test groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... small volume manufacturers and small volume test groups. 86.1826-01 Section 86.1826-01 Protection of... Vehicles § 86.1826-01 Assigned deterioration factors for small volume manufacturers and small volume test groups. (a) Applicability. This program is an option available to small volume manufacturers...

  15. VOLUMNECT: measuring volumes with Kinect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintino Ferreira, Beatriz; Griné, Miguel; Gameiro, Duarte; Costeira, João. Paulo; Sousa Santos, Beatriz

    2014-03-01

    This article presents a solution to volume measurement object packing using 3D cameras (such as the Microsoft KinectTM). We target application scenarios, such as warehouses or distribution and logistics companies, where it is important to promptly compute package volumes, yet high accuracy is not pivotal. Our application auto- matically detects cuboid objects using the depth camera data and computes their volume and sorting it allowing space optimization. The proposed methodology applies to a point cloud simple computer vision and image processing methods, as connected components, morphological operations and Harris corner detector, producing encouraging results, namely an accuracy in volume measurement of 8mm. Aspects that can be further improved are identified; nevertheless, the current solution is already promising turning out to be cost effective for the envisaged scenarios.

  16. Data catalog series for space science and applications flight missions. Volume 5A: Descriptions of astronomy, astrophysics, and solar physics spacecraft and investigations. Volume 5B: Descriptions of data sets from astronomy, astrophysics, and solar physics spacecraft and investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Sang J. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The main purpose of the data catalog series is to provide descriptive references to data generated by space science flight missions. The data sets described include all of the actual holdings of the Space Science Data Center (NSSDC), all data sets for which direct contact information is available, and some data collections held and serviced by foreign investigators, NASA and other U.S. government agencies. This volume contains narrative descriptions of data sets of astronomy, astrophysics, solar physics spacecraft and investigations. The following spacecraft series are included: Mariner, Pioneer, Pioneer Venus, Venera, Viking, Voyager, and Helios. Separate indexes to the planetary and interplanetary missions are also provided.

  17. Preliminary design of a solar central receiver for a site-specific repowering application (Saguaro Power Plant). Volume III. Specifications. Final report, October 1982-September 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, E.R.

    1983-09-01

    This volume on specifications for the Saguaro Power Plant includes the following: subsystem interface definition document; solar collector subsystem specification; receiver specification; thermal energy storage specification; solar steam generator specification; and master control system specification.

  18. Apodized Volume Bragg Gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhov, Sergiy

    2015-03-01

    Reflective and transmissive volume Bragg grating (VBGs) are widely used in high power laser applications because of their large operational aperture and robustness. They are fabricated in photosensitive material through holographic recording of uniform interference pattern of two overlapping coherent waves obtained by splitting a flat-top shaped laser beam. The following thermal treatment produces permanent refractive index modulation (RIM). Reflective VBGs have fringes parallel to operational anti-reflective coated surfaces and they demonstrate narrow reflection bandwidth. Transmissive VBGs are cut with fringes perpendicular to surfaces and they are characterized by narrow angular selectivity. Uniform RIM causes secondary lobes in corresponding reflection and transmission spectra due to sharp boundary conditions for volume Bragg diffraction. We propose to create apodization of RIM by recording two interference patterns with slightly different parameters in the same volume which would create slow varying moire envelope of amplitude of RIM. Cutting the specimen at zeros of moire envelope with one sine semi-period thickness will produce VBGs apodized at sides which will reduce parasitic secondary lobes in spectra. In reflection geometry, two patterns of the same orientation with slightly different periods are required for apodization along Bragg wave vector. In transmission case, recording of the same interference patterns with small mutual rotation angle provides apodization in direction perpendicular to Bragg wave vector. Modeling results show significant improvement in selective properties of VBGs with such moire apodization.

  19. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Volume-controlled buckling of thin elastic shells: application to crusts formed on evaporating partially wetted droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, D. A.

    2006-10-01

    Motivated by observing the buckling of glassy crusts formed on evaporating droplets of polymer and colloid solutions, we numerically model the deformation and buckling of spherical elastic caps controlled by varying the volume between the shell and the substrate. This volume constraint mimics the incompressibility of the unevaporated solvent. Discontinuous buckling is found to occur for sufficiently thin and/or large contact angle shells, and robustly takes the form of a single circular region near the boundary that 'snaps' to an inverted shape, in contrast to the externally pressurized shells case. Scaling theory for shallow shells is shown to approximate well the critical buckling volume, the subsequent enlargement of the inverted region and the contact line force.

  20. Volumetric measurement of tank volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, Richard T. (Inventor); Vanbuskirk, Paul D. (Inventor); Weber, William F. (Inventor); Froebel, Richard C. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A method is disclosed for determining the volume of compressible gas in a system including incompressible substances in a zero-gravity environment consisting of measuring the change in pressure (delta P) for a known volume change rate (delta V/delta t) in the polytrophic region between isothermal and adiabatic conditions. The measurements are utilized in an idealized formula for determining the change in isothermal pressure (delta P sub iso) for the gas. From the isothermal pressure change (delta iso) the gas volume is obtained. The method is also applicable to determination of gas volume by utilizing work (W) in the compression process. In a passive system, the relationship of specific densities can be obtained.

  1. Manual of Documentation Practices Applicable to Defence-Aerospace Scientific and Technical Information. Volume III: Sections 7--Information Retrieval; 8--Dissemination Practices; 9--Microform Systems and Reprography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuler, S. C., Ed.

    The third of four volumes in a series describing the basic documentation practices involved in the initial setting up and subsequent operation of an information-library organization to provide defense-aerospace scientific and technical information services, this manual consists of three sections. "Information Retrieval," by Tom Norton, provides a…

  2. Targeting Cydia pomonella (L.)(Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Adults with Low Volume Applications of Insecticides Alone and in Combination with Sex Pheromone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies examined the effectiveness of adding insecticides to low volume sprays of a microencapsulated (MEC) sex pheromone to manage codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L). The activities of fifteen insecticides against the adult stage were first evaluated with a plastic cup assay. In general, moth longev...

  3. [Applications of multi-micro-volume pressure-assisted derivatization reaction device for analysis of polar heterocyclic aromatic amines by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yiru; Chen, Fangxiang; Shi, Yamei; Tan, Connieal; Chen, Xi

    2013-01-01

    A multi-micro-volume pressure-assisted derivatization reaction device has been designed and made for the silylation derivatization of polar heterocyclic aromatic amines by N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl )-N-methyl-trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA) with 1% catalyst tert-butyldimethylchlorosilane (TBDMCS) at a high temperature. The tert-butyldimethylsilyl derivatives then could be automatically analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Using the pressure-assisted device, the silylation reaction may occur at a temperature higher than the boiling points of the reagents, and several micro-volume samples can be simultaneously pretreated in the same device to shorten the sample-preparation time and to improve the repeatability. The derivatization conditions including the headspace volume of the vial, the evaporative surface area of the reagent, derivatization temperature and time have been discussed for the use of the pressure-assisted device. The experimental results proved that the device is an effective way for the simultaneous derivatization of several micro-volume samples at a high temperature. Compared with a common device, the derivative amounts were obviously increased when using the pressure-assisted device at 90 degrees C. Quantitative derivatization can be achieved even at 150 degrees C while there was no common device could be applied at such a high temperature due to the heavy losses of reagents by evaporation. However, no obviously higher reaction speed has been observed in such a circumstance with a higher temperature and a higher pressure using the pressure-assisted device. PMID:23667982

  4. Ambient isobaric heat capacities, C(p,m), for ionic solids and liquids: an application of volume-based thermodynamics (VBT).

    PubMed

    Glasser, Leslie; Jenkins, H Donald Brooke

    2011-09-01

    Thermodynamic properties, such as standard entropy, among others, have been shown to correlate well with formula volume, V(m), thus permitting prediction of these properties on the basis of chemical formula and density alone, with no structural detail required. We have termed these procedures "volume-based thermodynamics" (VBT). We here extend these studies to ambient isobaric heat capacities, C(p,m), of a wide range of materials. We show that heat capacity is strongly linearly correlated with formula volume for large sets of minerals, for ionic solids in general, and for ionic liquids and that the results demonstrate that the Neumann-Kopp rule (additivity of heat capacity contributions per atom) is widely valid for ionic materials, but the smaller heat capacity contribution per unit volume for ionic liquids is noted and discussed. Using these correlations, it is possible to predict values of ambient (298 K) heat capacities quite simply. We also show that the heat capacity contribution of water molecules of crystallization is remarkably constant, at 41.3 ± 4.7 J K(-1) (mol of water)(-1), so that the heat capacities of various hydrates may be reliably estimated from the values of their chemical formula neighbors. This result complements similar observations that we have reported for other thermodynamic differences of hydrates. PMID:21812409

  5. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act: Part B, Permit application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)]. Volume 1, Revison 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    This report contains information related to the permit application for the WIPP facility. Information is presented on solid waste management; personnel safety; emergency plans; site characterization; applicable regulations; decommissioning; and ground water monitoring requirements.

  6. A method to estimate the fractional fat volume within a ROI of a breast biopsy for WAXS applications: Animal tissue evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Robert Y.; McDonald, Nancy Laamanen, Curtis; LeClair, Robert J.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To develop a method to estimate the mean fractional volume of fat (ν{sup ¯}{sub fat}) within a region of interest (ROI) of a tissue sample for wide-angle x-ray scatter (WAXS) applications. A scatter signal from the ROI was obtained and use of ν{sup ¯}{sub fat} in a WAXS fat subtraction model provided a way to estimate the differential linear scattering coefficient μ{sub s} of the remaining fatless tissue. Methods: The efficacy of the method was tested using animal tissue from a local butcher shop. Formalin fixed samples, 5 mm in diameter 4 mm thick, were prepared. The two main tissue types were fat and meat (fibrous). Pure as well as composite samples consisting of a mixture of the two tissue types were analyzed. For the latter samples, ν{sub fat} for the tissue columns of interest were extracted from corresponding pixels in CCD digital x-ray images using a calibration curve. The means ν{sup ¯}{sub fat} were then calculated for use in a WAXS fat subtraction model. For the WAXS measurements, the samples were interrogated with a 2.7 mm diameter 50 kV beam and the 6° scattered photons were detected with a CdTe detector subtending a solid angle of 7.75 × 10{sup −5} sr. Using the scatter spectrum, an estimate of the incident spectrum, and a scatter model, μ{sub s} was determined for the tissue in the ROI. For the composite samples, a WAXS fat subtraction model was used to estimate the μ{sub s} of the fibrous tissue in the ROI. This signal was compared to μ{sub s} of fibrous tissue obtained using a pure fibrous sample. Results: For chicken and beef composites, ν{sup ¯}{sub fat}=0.33±0.05 and 0.32 ± 0.05, respectively. The subtractions of these fat components from the WAXS composite signals provided estimates of μ{sub s} for chicken and beef fibrous tissue. The differences between the estimates and μ{sub s} of fibrous obtained with a pure sample were calculated as a function of the momentum transfer x. A t-test showed that the mean of the

  7. Validation of Student and Parent Reported Data on the Basic Grant Application Form. Final Report. Volume III, Internal Revenue Service Comparison Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuchak, JoAnn

    Application forms for the Basic Educational Opportunity Grant (BEOG) Program for 1974-1975 were compared to Internal Revenue Service (IRA) tax forms to determine the scope of applicants' misreporting and to identify categories of applicants who tend to misreport. A total of 70,063 tax forms and BEOG records from eligible and ineligible applicants…

  8. Earth Observations Division version of the Laboratory for Applications of Remote Sensing System (EOD-LARSYS) user guide for the IBM 370/148. Volume 2: User reference manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aucoin, P. J.; Stewart, J.; Mckay, M. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    This document presents instructions for analysts who use the EOD-LARSYS as programmed on the Purdue University IBM 370/148 (recently replaced by the IBM 3031) computer. It presents sample applications, control cards, and error messages for all processors in the system and gives detailed descriptions of the mathematical procedures and information needed to execute the system and obtain the desired output. EOD-LARSYS is the JSC version of an integrated batch system for analysis of multispectral scanner imagery data. The data included is designed for use with the as built documentation (volume 3) and the program listings (volume 4). The system is operational from remote terminals at Johnson Space Center under the virtual machine/conversational monitor system environment.

  9. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L., Ed.; Chapman, Kenneth, Ed.

    This volume contains chapters 26-31 for the American Chemical Society (ACS) "Modern Chemical Technology" (ChemTeC) instructional material intended to prepare chemical technologists. Chapter 26 reviews oxidation and reduction, including applications in titrations with potassium permanganate and iodometry. Coordination compounds are described in the…

  10. Study of the validation of the application of Rankine Bottoming Cycle technology to marine diesel engines. Volume 2. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-31

    This volume presents a discussion of the various tasks of this study, the results of which were summarized in Volume 1. An evaluation of Rankine Bottoming Cycle (RBC) systems and inland waterways push-tow boats led to the selection of a RBC system and a vessel size which were used for the preliminary design and subsequent evaluations. The preliminary design considered various ways to transmit the RBC power to the vessel propulsion system and several ways to cool the RBC condenser. RBC system component designs, control system design, installation analyses and system performance analyses over several duty cycles were carried out. System assessments were performed in three areas: (1) economics; (2) environmental, safety and institutional impact; and (3) operational reliability and maintenance. The market potential for the marine RBC was evaluated, including market definition, potential market penetration, and potential fuel savings for three market penetration scenarios. A program plan was prepared for the Rankine Bottoming Cycle Marine Demonstration Program.

  11. Design and development of Stirling engines for stationary power generation applications in the 500 to 3000 horsepower range. Volume 2. Program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available,

    1980-09-15

    A plan for implementing the proposed state-of-the-art design described in Volume I has been developed. The main objective of the project is to demonstrate a large coal-fired Stirling engine and thus shorten the lead time to commercialization. The demonstration engine will be based on the concepts developed in the first phase of this program, as detailed in Volume I of this report. Thus the proposed program plan is based on the U-4 engine concept fired by a fluidized bed combustor with a two-stage gravity-assisted heat pipe. The plan is divided into five phases and an ongoing supporting technology program. Phase I, Conceptual Design, has been completed. The remaining phases are: Preliminary Design; Final Design; Fabrication; and Testing and Demonstration. The primary target is to begin testing the large coal-fired engine by the fifth year (1985) after the start of Preliminary Design.

  12. On the influence of local fluctuations in volume fraction of constituents on the effective properties of nonlinear composites. Application to porous materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gărăjeu, M.; Suquet, P.

    2007-04-01

    Composite materials often exhibit local fluctuations in the volume fraction of their individual constituents. This paper studies the influence of such small fluctuations on the effective properties of composites. A general asymptotic expansion of these properties in terms of powers of the amplitude of the fluctuations is given first. Then, this general result is applied to porous materials. As is well-known, the effective yield surface of ductile voided materials is accurately described by Gurson's criterion. Suitable extensions for viscoplastic solids have also been proposed. The question addressed in the present study pertains to nonuniform distributions of voids in a typical volume element or in other words to the presence of matrix-rich and pore-rich zones in the material. It is shown numerically and analytically that such deviations from a uniform distribution result in a weakening of the macroscopic carrying capacity of the material.

  13. Temporal behavior of peripheral organ distribution volume in mammillary systems. II. Application to background correction in separate glomerular filtration rate estimation in man

    SciTech Connect

    Decostre, P.L.; Salmon, Y. )

    1990-10-01

    An original approach to background subtraction is presented for 99mTc-DTPA separate glomerular filtration rate (SGFR) estimation in man. The method is based on the properties of the peripheral organ distribution volume (PODV) in mammillary systems. These PODV properties allow easy separation of the components of the renogram, i.e., interstitial fluid, plasma and renal activities. The proposed algorithm takes advantage of the linear time dependence of the kidney distribution volume, during the renal uptake phase, to correct for the plasma residual activity, which always remains after classical background correction. Theoretically, the ratio between kidney uptake and SGFR should be identical for both left and right kidneys, even for very asymmetrical kidney functions. This is best verified when the proposed plasma residual activity correction is applied.

  14. Estimation of gonad volume, fecundity, and reproductive stage of shovelnose sturgeon using sonography and endoscopy with application to the endangered pallid sturgeon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bryan, J.L.; Wildhaber, M.L.; Papoulias, D.M.; DeLonay, A.J.; Tillitt, D.E.; Annis, M.L.

    2007-01-01

    Most species of sturgeon are declining in the Mississippi River Basin of North America including pallid (Scaphirhynchus albus F. and R.) and shovelnose sturgeons (S. platorynchus R.). Understanding the reproductive cycle of sturgeon in the Mississippi River Basin is important in evaluating the status and viability of sturgeon populations. We used non-invasive, non-lethal methods for examining internal reproductive organs of shovelnose and pallid sturgeon. We used an ultrasound to measure egg diameter, fecundity, and gonad volume; endoscope was used to visually examine the gonad. We found the ultrasound to accurately measure the gonad volume, but it underestimated egg diameter by 52%. After correcting for the measurement error, the ultrasound accurately measured the gonad volume but it was higher than the true gonad volume for stages I and II. The ultrasound underestimated the fecundity of shovelnose sturgeon by 5%. The ultrasound fecundity was lower than the true fecundity for stage III and during August. Using the endoscope, we viewed seven different egg color categories. Using a model selection procedure, the presence of four egg categories correctly predicted the reproductive stage ± one reproductive stage of shovelnose sturgeon 95% of the time. For pallid sturgeon, the ultrasound overestimated the density of eggs by 49% and the endoscope was able to view eggs in 50% of the pallid sturgeon. Individually, the ultrasound and endoscope can be used to assess certain reproductive characteristics in sturgeon. The use of both methods at the same time can be complementary depending on the parameter measured. These methods can be used to track gonad characteristics, including measuring Gonadosomatic Index in individuals and/or populations through time, which can be very useful when associating gonad characteristics with environmental spawning triggers or with repeated examinations of individual fish throughout the reproductive cycle.

  15. Estimation of gonad volume, fecundity, and reproductive stage of shovelnose sturgeon using sonography and endoscopy with application to the endangered pallid sturgeon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bryan, J.L.; Wildhaber, M.L.; Papoulias, D.M.; DeLonay, A.J.; Tillitt, D.E.; Annis, M.L.

    2007-01-01

    Most species of sturgeon are declining in the Mississippi River Basin of North America including pallid (Scaphirhynchus albus F. and R.) and shovelnose sturgeons (S. platorynchus R.). Understanding the reproductive cycle of sturgeon in the Mississippi River Basin is important in evaluating the status and viability of sturgeon populations. We used non-invasive, non-lethal methods for examining internal reproductive organs of shovelnose and pallid sturgeon. We used an ultrasound to measure egg diameter, fecundity, and gonad volume; endoscope was used to visually examine the gonad. We found the ultrasound to accurately measure the gonad volume, but it underestimated egg diameter by 52%. After correcting for the measurement error, the ultrasound accurately measured the gonad volume but it was higher than the true gonad volume for stages I and II. The ultrasound underestimated the fecundity of shovelnose sturgeon by 5%. The ultrasound fecundity was lower than the true fecundity for stage III and during August. Using the endoscope, we viewed seven different egg color categories. Using a model selection procedure, the presence of four egg categories correctly predicted the reproductive stage ?? one reproductive stage of shovelnose sturgeon 95% of the time. For pallid sturgeon, the ultrasound overestimated the density of eggs by 49% and the endoscope was able to view eggs in 50% of the pallid sturgeon. Individually, the ultrasound and endoscope can be used to assess certain reproductive characteristics in sturgeon. The use of both methods at the same time can be complementary depending on the parameter measured. These methods can be used to track gonad characteristics, including measuring Gonadosomatic Index in individuals and/or populations through time, which can be very useful when associating gonad characteristics with environmental spawning triggers or with repeated examinations of individual fish throughout the reproductive cycle. ?? 2007 Blackwell Verlag.

  16. Eleventh annual Department of Energy low-level waste management conference. Volume 3: Waste characterization, waste reduction and minimization, prototype licensing application

    SciTech Connect

    1989-11-01

    Thirteen papers are presented in volume 3. The seven papers on waste characterization discuss sampling, analysis, and certification techniques for low-level radioactive wastes. Three papers discuss US DOE waste minimization policies and regulations, Y-12 Plant`s reduction of chlorinated solvents, and C-14 removal from spent resins. The last three papers discuss the licensing studies for earth-mounded concrete bunkers for LLW disposal. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  17. A Descriptive Study of the Temporal Patterns of Volume and Contents Change in Human Acute Burn Edema: Application in Evidence-Based Intervention and Research Design.

    PubMed

    Edgar, Dale W; Fear, Mark; Wood, Fiona M

    2016-01-01

    Edema after burn contributes significantly to burn wound depth conversion. In humans after burn injury, there is a lack of detailed understanding of the contents and temporal changes in volume of acute tissue edema. The novel findings of these studies relate to the collection of edema fluid after partial-thickness burn injury. Edema volume peaks on day 1 after burn without formal fluid resuscitation. The studies indicated that the peak was on day 2 for a resuscitated burn. In contrast, animal studies suggest that the peak of edema occurs by or before day 1 after injury. The findings confirm the pitfalls of evidence derived from animal models and assuming direct transference to humans. Postburn edema was demonstrated to be a high-protein fluid (ie, ≥10 g/L) for the duration of the inflammatory period. The presence of high-protein edema presents greater challenges to clinicians developing novel treatment options. The rate of volume change over time tapered to insignificant levels after day 4 following burn. Greater than 98% of the edema contents was fluid. However, the size of particulate matter did not preclude it passing through patent lymphatic collectors. The results indicate a necessity for urgent postburn intervention, which should incorporate the active stimulation of the lymphatic system to improve efficacy of edema removal.

  18. High-precision absolute (true) density measurements on hygroscopic powders by gas pycnometry: application to determining effects of formulation and process on free volume of lyophilized products.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Takayuki; Wang, Bingquan Stuart; Pikal, Michael J

    2011-07-01

    As density (free volume) of the amorphous solids should be related to mobility and stability, an attempt was made to develop a simple, sensitive, and reproducible method to evaluate free volume via high-precision gas pycnometry density measurements, and to apply this methodology to study the variation of free volume with formulation and thermal history (i.e., annealing). Annealed samples were prepared either by heating the product after freeze drying (postannealing) or drying at higher temperature in secondary drying than normal (in-process annealing). Density was measured using a gas pycnometer. We find that the key to high-precision density measurements is isolation of the instrument from atmospheric moisture; accordingly, all operations were carried out in a dry box. With suitable care, densities of amorphous freeze-dried products can be measured with a precision of better than 0.5% in a series of independent but nominally identical samples. Density decreased with increasing molecular weight of dextran, but density of proteins was independent of molecular weight. Small but significant increases in density upon annealing were observed for several formulations. Thus, we conclude that accurate density measurements may be made by carefully controlling residual moisture. Density may be a useful parameter to predict long-term stability.

  19. A Descriptive Study of the Temporal Patterns of Volume and Contents Change in Human Acute Burn Edema: Application in Evidence-Based Intervention and Research Design.

    PubMed

    Edgar, Dale W; Fear, Mark; Wood, Fiona M

    2016-01-01

    Edema after burn contributes significantly to burn wound depth conversion. In humans after burn injury, there is a lack of detailed understanding of the contents and temporal changes in volume of acute tissue edema. The novel findings of these studies relate to the collection of edema fluid after partial-thickness burn injury. Edema volume peaks on day 1 after burn without formal fluid resuscitation. The studies indicated that the peak was on day 2 for a resuscitated burn. In contrast, animal studies suggest that the peak of edema occurs by or before day 1 after injury. The findings confirm the pitfalls of evidence derived from animal models and assuming direct transference to humans. Postburn edema was demonstrated to be a high-protein fluid (ie, ≥10 g/L) for the duration of the inflammatory period. The presence of high-protein edema presents greater challenges to clinicians developing novel treatment options. The rate of volume change over time tapered to insignificant levels after day 4 following burn. Greater than 98% of the edema contents was fluid. However, the size of particulate matter did not preclude it passing through patent lymphatic collectors. The results indicate a necessity for urgent postburn intervention, which should incorporate the active stimulation of the lymphatic system to improve efficacy of edema removal. PMID:27322367

  20. Fatigue and fracture -- 1996: Volume 1. PVP-Volume 323

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, H.S.; Bhandari, S.; Jones, D.; Rahman, S.; Wilkowski, G.; Yoon, K.K.

    1996-12-01

    Fracture mechanics and fatigue evaluations are an important part of the structural integrity analyses to assure safe operation of pressure vessels and piping components during their service life. The papers presented in this volume illustrate the application of fatigue and fracture mechanics techniques to assess the structural integrity of a wide variety of Pressure Vessels and Piping components. The papers are organized in five sections: (1) fatigue and fracture: piping and components; (2) fatigue and fracture: environmental cracking; (3) leak-before-break analyses; (4) fatigue testing and analyses; and (5) probabilistic fracture mechanics analyses in pressure boundary components. Separate abstracts were prepared for most of the papers in this volume.

  1. LANDSAT-4 Science Characterization Early Results. Volume 4: Applications. [agriculture, soils land use, geology, hydrology, wetlands, water quality, biomass identification, and snow mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, J. L. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    The excellent quality of TM data allows researchers to proceed directly with applications analyses, without spending a significant amount of time applying various corrections to the data. The early results derived of TM data are discussed for the following applications: agriculture, land cover/land use, soils, geology, hydrology, wetlands biomass, water quality, and snow.

  2. Liposome technology. Volume I: Preparation of liposomes

    SciTech Connect

    Gregoriadis, G.

    1984-01-01

    These three volumes cover liposome technology in pharmacology and medicine. Contributors emphasize methodology used in their own laboratories, and include a brief introduction, coverage of relevant literature, applications and critical evaluations for the methods they describe. Volume I examine methods for the preparation of liposomes and auxiliary techniques.

  3. High Sensitivity RT-qPCR Assay of Nonlabeled siRNA in Small Blood Volume for Pharmacokinetic Studies: Application to Survivin siRNA.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Bertrand Z; Lu, Ze; Wientjes, Guillaume M; Au, Jessie L-S

    2015-11-01

    RNAi therapeutics provide an opportunity to correct faulty genes, and several RNAi have entered clinical evaluation. The existing quantification methods typically use radioactivity- or fluorescence-labeled RNAi, require large blood volumes, and/or have a limited dynamic detection range. We established a quantitative reverse transcriptase real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assay to measure RNAi; the model analyte was survivin siRNA (siSurvivin). A second siRNA was used as the internal standard. The three major steps were (a) extraction of the two siRNAs from blood or water, (b) synthesis of their cDNA by poly-A extension, and (c) qPCR of cDNA. Standard curves were established. Utility of the assay was demonstrated in a pharmacokinetic study where all 12 samples for the blood concentration-time profile were obtained from a single mouse given an intravenous dose of 1 nmole siSurvivin (prepared as lipoplex with pegylated cationic liposomes). The RT-qPCR assay was sensitive (lower detection limit of 100 fM) and had a 5 × 107-fold dynamic range and low sample volume requirement (10 μL). The 16-point standard curves constructed using whole blood samples were linear (R (2) > 0.98). The intraday and interday variations for the slopes were ≤6%, although the variations for accuracy and precision at individual concentrations were substantially higher (58-145%). Standard curves prepared with water in place of blood showed similar results (<6% difference), indicating water may be used when blood is not available. The current RT-qPCR assay enabled the measurement of nonlabeled siRNA in small volume of blood samples. PMID:26286676

  4. Application of time-lapse seismic shear wave inversion to characterize the stimulated rock volume in the Niobrara and Codell Reservoirs, Wattenberg Field, CO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Staci K.

    Advances in horizontal drilling and completions in shale reservoirs have allowed operators to extract hydrocarbons within low permeability reservoirs that were once impossible to access. The integration of time-lapse multicomponent seismic data with engineering technology aids in the characterization of these reservoirs through monitoring. This thesis investigates the fast and slow shear wave components of a time-lapse, nine-component seismic survey to determine the stimulated volume in the Niobrara and Codell reservoir intervals. The time-lapse post-stack inversions of the shear wave datasets provide insight into how the shear impedance is affected by hydraulic fracturing through the work of cross-equalized seismic shear impedances and shear wave splitting. The study area is the Wishbone Section within Wattenberg Field, CO, which is owned and operated by Anadarko Petroleum Corporation and contains eleven horizontal wells that vary in spacing and completion methods. Shear seismic data sets were acquired over this section before and after hydraulic stimulation. The time-lapse shear seismic inversions show an increase in fast shear wave velocity and a decrease in slow shear velocity after stimulation. The sensitivity of both the fast and slow shear seismic to stimulation correlates with the net pressure trends at each stage. Borehole image log interpretations are compared to the inversions to analyze the affect that a complex fracture network has on induced anisotropy. The stimulated volume for the Niobrara and Codell reservoir intervals are now more accurately defined. Time-lapse shear seismic is the only technology that is able to define the stimulated rock volume and reveal areas that are not being accessed by the wells currently drilled. These areas are now detected within the Wishbone section, and may be candidates for future re-completion.

  5. Fatigue and fracture -- 1996: Volume 2. PVP-Volume 324

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, K.K.; Bhandari, S.; Bloom, J.M.; Mehta, H.; Wilkowski, G.

    1996-12-01

    Fatigue and fracture mechanics are very important topics in addressing aging and maintenance aspects of power plants where pressure vessels and piping technologies are applied most. The papers contained in this volume deal primarily with fracture mechanics. This volume has four sections. The section on basic fracture covers new areas of fracture mechanics. There is also a section on material fracture toughness, a section on failure assessment diagram method user experience with four application-type papers, and finally a section on vessels, which contains a large number of papers on subjects such as the master curve method, the shallow flaw, the local approach, Alloy 600 cracking issue, and validation of the fracture mechanics method by large experiments. Separate abstracts were prepared for 30 papers in this volume.

  6. Data Catalog Series for Space Science and Applications Flight Missions. Volume 2B; Descriptions of Data Sets from Geostationary and High-Altitude Scientific Spacecraft and Investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schofield, Norman J. (Editor); Parthasarathy, R. (Editor); Hills, H. Kent (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The main purpose of the data catalog series is to provide descriptive references to data generated by space science flight missions. The data sets described include all of the actual holdings of the Space Science Data Center (NSSDC), all data sets for which direct contact information is available, and some data collections held and serviced by foreign investigators, NASA and other U.S. government agencies. This volume contains narrative descriptions of data sets from geostationary and high altitude scientific spacecraft and investigations. The following spacecraft series are included: Mariner, Pioneer, Pioneer Venus, Venera, Viking, Voyager, and Helios. Separate indexes to the planetary and interplanetary missions are also provided.

  7. Predicting natural-convection-dominated phase change problems by control volume unstructured triangular grid: Applications to the melting of pure metal

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Z.C.; Liou, J.H.

    1998-02-20

    Control volume methods have recently been developed for fluid flow and heat transfer on unstructured meshes. In this study, the authors extend these methods to implement the solution of natural-convection-dominated melting of gallium by a fixed-grid method. A simple, robust, and reliable explicit numerical method (MAC method) is applied for an unstructured triangular grid. This investigation also applies the implicit SIMPLER method for an unstructured triangular grid. Results obtained from the unstructured triangular grid correlate well with the structured mesh computations and experimental data. Also, the feasibility of applying the triangular grid to complex geometric problems is demonstrated by calculating two different triangular domains.

  8. Data catalog series for space science and applications flight missions. Volume 1B: Descriptions of data sets from planetary and heliocentric spacecraft and investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horowitz, Richard (Compiler); Jackson, John E. (Compiler); Cameron, Winifred S. (Compiler)

    1987-01-01

    The main purpose of the data catalog series is to provide descriptive references to data generated by space science flight missions. The data sets described include all of the actual holdings of the Space Science Data Center (NSSDC), all data sets for which direct contact information is available, and some data collections held and serviced by foreign investigators, NASA and other U.S. government agencies. This volume contains narrative descriptions of planetary and heliocentric spacecraft and associated experiments. The following spacecraft series are included: Mariner, Pioneer, Pioneer Venus, Venera, Viking, Voyager, and Helios. Separate indexes to the planetary and interplanetary missions are also provided.

  9. Data catalog series for space science and applications flight missions. Volume 3B: Descriptions of data sets from low- and medium-altitude scientific spacecraft and investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, John E. (Editor); Horowitz, Richard (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    The main purpose of the data catalog series is to provide descriptive references to data generated by space science flight missions. The data sets described include all of the actual holdings of the Space Science Data Center (NSSDC), all data sets for which direct contact information is available, and some data collections held and serviced by foreign investigators, NASA and other U.S. government agencies. This volume contains narrative descriptions of data sets from low and medium altitude scientific spacecraft and investigations. The following spacecraft series are included: Mariner, Pioneer, Pioneer Venus, Venera, Viking, Voyager, and Helios. Separate indexes to the planetary and interplanetary missions are also provided.

  10. Incorporating surface indicators of reservoir permeability into reservoir volume calculations: Application to the Colli Albani caldera and the Central Italy Geothermal Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordano, Guido; De Benedetti, Arnaldo Angelo; Bonamico, Andrea; Ramazzotti, Paolo; Mattei, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    The Quaternary Roman Volcanic Province extends for over 200 km along the Tyrrhenian margin of the Italian peninsula and is composed of several caldera complexes with significant associated geothermal potential. In spite of the massive programs of explorations conducted by the then state-owned ENEL and AGIP companies between the 1970s and 1990s, and the identification of several high enthalpy fields, this resource remains so far unexploited, although it occurs right below the densely populated metropolitan area of Roma capital city. The main reason for this failure is that deep geothermal reservoirs are associated with fractured rocks, the secondary permeability of which has been difficult to predict making the identification of the most productive volumes of the reservoirs and the localisation of productive wells uncertain. As a consequence, almost half of the many exploration deep bore-holes drilled in the area reached a dry target. This work reviews available data and re-assesses the geothermal potential of caldera-related systems in Central Italy, by analysing in detail the case of the Colli Albani caldera system, the closest to Roma capital city. A GIS based approach identifies the most promising reservoir volumes for geothermal exploitation and uses an improved volume method approach for the evaluation of geothermal potential. The approach is based on a three dimensional matrix of georeferenced spatial data; the A axis accounts for the modelling of the depth of the top of the reservoirs based on geophysical and direct data; the B axis accounts for the thermal modelling of the crust (i.e. T with depth) based on measured thermal gradients. Both A and B data are necessary but not sufficient to identify rock volumes actually permeated by geothermal fluids in fractured reservoirs. We discuss the implementation of a C axis that evaluates all surface data indicating permeability in the reservoir and actual geothermal fluid circulation. We consider datasets on: i

  11. Data catalog series for space science and applications flight missions. Volume 1A: Descriptions of planetary and heliocentric spacecraft and investigations, second edition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, Winifred Sawtell (Editor); Vostreys, Robert W. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The main purpose of the data catalog series is to provide descriptive references to data generated by space science flight missions. The data sets described include all of the actual holdings of the Space Science Data Center (NSSDC), all data sets for which direct contact information is available, and some data collections held and serviced by foreign investigators, NASA and other U.S. government agencies. This volume contains narrative descriptions of planetary and heliocentric spacecraft and associated experiments. The following spacecraft series are included: Mariner, Pioneer, Pioneer Venus, Venera, Viking, Voyager, and Helios. Separate indexes to the planetary and interplanetary missions are also included.

  12. AAAIC '86 - Aerospace Applications of Artificial Intelligence; Proceedings of the Second Annual Conference, Dayton, OH, Oct. 14-17, 1986. Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    The present conference on aerospace applications of emerging AI technologies considers topics in spacecraft systems, man/machine interfaces, image analysis and recognition, aircrew aids, personnel training, design automation, command/control/communications applications, AI-based manufacturing and planning, and speculations on AI development trends. Attention is given to AI-based satellite and Space Station autonomy, problems met in the integration of AI into crew systems, AI in diagnostics, real-time pilot-in-the-loop AI, principles of parallel programming, design automation software tools, mission-planning problems, biologically motivated AI, architecture-based machine intelligence, and AI in aerospace factory applications.

  13. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B permit application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)]. Volume 7: Revision 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    This permit application (Vol. 7) for the WIPP facility contains appendices related to the following information: Ground water protection; personnel; solid waste management; and memorandums concerning environmental protection standards.

  14. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B Permit Application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)]. Chapter D, Appendix D1 (conclusion): Volume 3, Revision 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    This report, Part B (Vol. 3) of the permit application for the WIPP facility, contains information related to the site characterization of the facility, including geology, design, rock salt evaluations, maps, drawings, and shaft excavations. (CBS)

  15. Age estimation from canine volumes.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Danilo; Gaudio, Daniel; Guercini, Nicola; Cipriani, Filippo; Gibelli, Daniele; Caputi, Sergio; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2015-08-01

    Techniques for estimation of biological age are constantly evolving and are finding daily application in the forensic radiology field in cases concerning the estimation of the chronological age of a corpse in order to reconstruct the biological profile, or of a living subject, for example in cases of immigration of people without identity papers from a civil registry. The deposition of teeth secondary dentine and consequent decrease of pulp chamber in size are well known as aging phenomena, and they have been applied to the forensic context by the development of age estimation procedures, such as Kvaal-Solheim and Cameriere methods. The present study takes into consideration canines pulp chamber volume related to the entire teeth volume, with the aim of proposing new regression formulae for age estimation using 91 cone beam computerized scans and a freeware open-source software, in order to permit affordable reproducibility of volumes calculation.

  16. Diesel organic Rankine bottoming cycle powerplant program: Volume II. Industrial waste heat applications. Final report. [Using Fluorinol-85 as working fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-10-01

    Several industrial processes and facilities were evaluated as possible sites to demonstrate the application of an Organic Rankine Cycle system (ORCS) using Fluorinol-85 as the working fluid to effect industrial waste-heat recovery. The economic applications for ORCS's using Fluorinol as the working fluid are in situations where the temperature of the waste-heat stream is between 400/sup 0/ and 1000/sup 0/F. A literature review indicated that the greatest potential and economic advantage for an industrial application for the recovery of waste heat by means of an ORCS using Fluorinol as the working fluid is from the exhausts of high-temperature furnaces and boilers for six major industry categories. Together they expend 80% of the US annual energy consumption in the industrial sector. From these categories, four potential applications were selected, specific information about plant characteristics was obtained, and detailed performance predictions were carried out for an ORC waste-heat recovery system operating in these plants. In addition, the performance of the existing demonstration system hardware was predicted for two recommended applications, the petroleum refinery and the steel mill, utilizing only a portion of the available exhaust gas flow. Only nominal modifications would be required to make the existing hardware suitable for a demonstration program for either of these recommended applications.

  17. An effective rate equation approach to reaction kinetics in small volumes: Theory and application to biochemical reactions in nonequilibrium steady-state conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grima, R.

    2010-07-01

    Chemical master equations provide a mathematical description of stochastic reaction kinetics in well-mixed conditions. They are a valid description over length scales that are larger than the reactive mean free path and thus describe kinetics in compartments of mesoscopic and macroscopic dimensions. The trajectories of the stochastic chemical processes described by the master equation can be ensemble-averaged to obtain the average number density of chemical species, i.e., the true concentration, at any spatial scale of interest. For macroscopic volumes, the true concentration is very well approximated by the solution of the corresponding deterministic and macroscopic rate equations, i.e., the macroscopic concentration. However, this equivalence breaks down for mesoscopic volumes. These deviations are particularly significant for open systems and cannot be calculated via the Fokker-Planck or linear-noise approximations of the master equation. We utilize the system-size expansion including terms of the order of Ω-1/2 to derive a set of differential equations whose solution approximates the true concentration as given by the master equation. These equations are valid in any open or closed chemical reaction network and at both the mesoscopic and macroscopic scales. In the limit of large volumes, the effective mesoscopic rate equations become precisely equal to the conventional macroscopic rate equations. We compare the three formalisms of effective mesoscopic rate equations, conventional rate equations, and chemical master equations by applying them to several biochemical reaction systems (homodimeric and heterodimeric protein-protein interactions, series of sequential enzyme reactions, and positive feedback loops) in nonequilibrium steady-state conditions. In all cases, we find that the effective mesoscopic rate equations can predict very well the true concentration of a chemical species. This provides a useful method by which one can quickly determine the regions of

  18. An effective rate equation approach to reaction kinetics in small volumes: theory and application to biochemical reactions in nonequilibrium steady-state conditions.

    PubMed

    Grima, R

    2010-07-21

    Chemical master equations provide a mathematical description of stochastic reaction kinetics in well-mixed conditions. They are a valid description over length scales that are larger than the reactive mean free path and thus describe kinetics in compartments of mesoscopic and macroscopic dimensions. The trajectories of the stochastic chemical processes described by the master equation can be ensemble-averaged to obtain the average number density of chemical species, i.e., the true concentration, at any spatial scale of interest. For macroscopic volumes, the true concentration is very well approximated by the solution of the corresponding deterministic and macroscopic rate equations, i.e., the macroscopic concentration. However, this equivalence breaks down for mesoscopic volumes. These deviations are particularly significant for open systems and cannot be calculated via the Fokker-Planck or linear-noise approximations of the master equation. We utilize the system-size expansion including terms of the order of Omega(-1/2) to derive a set of differential equations whose solution approximates the true concentration as given by the master equation. These equations are valid in any open or closed chemical reaction network and at both the mesoscopic and macroscopic scales. In the limit of large volumes, the effective mesoscopic rate equations become precisely equal to the conventional macroscopic rate equations. We compare the three formalisms of effective mesoscopic rate equations, conventional rate equations, and chemical master equations by applying them to several biochemical reaction systems (homodimeric and heterodimeric protein-protein interactions, series of sequential enzyme reactions, and positive feedback loops) in nonequilibrium steady-state conditions. In all cases, we find that the effective mesoscopic rate equations can predict very well the true concentration of a chemical species. This provides a useful method by which one can quickly determine the

  19. Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting. Volume 3, Primary system integrity; Aging research, products and applications; Structural and seismic engineering; Seismology and geology: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Monteleone, S.

    1994-04-01

    This three-volume report contains 90 papers out of the 102 that were presented at the Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, during the week of October 25-27, 1993. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Germany, Japan, Russia, Switzerland, Taiwan, and United Kingdom. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting. Selected papers were indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  20. Rapid determination of the equivalence volume in potentiometric acid-base titrations to a preset pH-I Theory and applications.

    PubMed

    Ivaska, A

    1974-06-01

    A new approach to shorten the time needed for an acid-base titration has been made. The method developed is based on the equation for acid-base titrations derived by Ingman and Still. The equation is transformed into such a form that only one titration point is needed to calculate the equivalence volume when the titration is carried out to a preset pH which can be chosen according to the experimental conditions. The method is used for titration of acetic acid, log K(H)(HA) = 4.65, hydroxylammonium ion, log K(H)(HA) approximately 6.2, and boric acid, log K(H)(HA) approximately 9.1, with an error of 0.1-0.5%. In titration of hydrogen ascorbate ion, log K(H)(HA) approximately 11.3, the error obtained was about 0.3-2%.

  1. Isolating cells from female/male blood mixtures using florescence in situ hybridization combined with low volume PCR and its application in forensic science.

    PubMed

    Feng, Lei; Li, Cai-Xia; Han, Jun-Ping; Xu, Cheng; Hu, Lan

    2015-11-01

    To obtain single-source short tandem repeat (STR) profiles in trace female/male blood mixture samples, we combined florescence in situ hybridization (FISH), laser microdissection, and low volume PCR (LV-PCR) to isolate male/female cells and improve sensitivity. The results showed that isolation of as few as 10 leukocytes was sufficient to yield full STR profiles in fresh female or male blood samples for 32 independent tests with a low additional alleles rate (3.91%) and drop-out alleles rate (5.01%). Moreover, this procedure was tested in two fresh blood mixture series at three ratios (1:5, 1:10, and 1:20), two mock female/male blood mixture casework samples, and one practical casework sample. Male and female STR profiles were successfully detected in all of these samples, showing that this procedure could be used in forensic casework in the future.

  2. Application of large volume injection GC-MS to analysis of organic compounds in the extracts and leachates of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    Korenkova, Eva; Slobodnik, Jaroslav

    2006-07-01

    Organic solvent and water extracts of fly ash from a Milan (Italy) municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) were analyzed by large volume injection-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (LVI-GC-MS) with programmable temperature vaporizer (PTV). Using injection volumes of 10-100 {mu}l, typically over a hundred compounds were detected in organic solvent extracts and ca. 35% of them could be tentatively identified from their electron impact ionization mass spectra. A protocol for the determination of the maximum amount of a potential environmental pollutant available for leaching (availability test) was developed for four selected target compounds: pentachlorobenzene (PeCB), hexachlorobenzene (HxCB), o-terphenyl (o-TPH) and m-terphenyl (m-TPH). Key parameters, extraction time and liquid-to-solid ratio (L/S), were studied in more detail. Recoveries of PeCB, HxCB and o-TPH spiked into the fly ash samples at two concentration levels ranged from 38% to 53% for freshly spiked and from 14% to 40% for 40-day aged fly ash. Recoveries of m-TPH were 8% to 11% from freshly spiked and less than 3% from aged spiked fly ash. The native amounts in Milan MSWI fly ash, determined in an interlaboratory exercise using the developed protocol, were 31 ng/g PeCB, 34 ng/g HxCB, 72 ng/g o-TPH and 4.4 ng/g m-TPH. A separate methodology was developed for the determination of compounds extracted from fly ash by water (leaching test). Following 8-h sonication at L/S 20, the leached amounts of PeCB, HxCB and o-TPH were 1.1, 3.1 and 6.0 ng/g fly ash, respectively.

  3. Ultra-trace plutonium determination in small volume seawater by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with application to Fukushima seawater samples.

    PubMed

    Bu, Wenting; Zheng, Jian; Guo, Qiuju; Aono, Tatsuo; Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo; Tazoe, Hirofumi; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2014-04-11

    Long-term monitoring of Pu isotopes in seawater is required for assessing Pu contamination in the marine environment from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. In this study, we established an accurate and precise analytical method based on anion-exchange chromatography and SF-ICP-MS. This method was able to determine Pu isotopes in seawater samples with small volumes (20-60L). The U decontamination factor was 3×10(7)-1×10(8), which provided sufficient removal of interfering U from the seawater samples. The estimated limits of detection for (239)Pu and (240)Pu were 0.11fgmL(-1) and 0.08fgmL(-1), respectively, which corresponded to 0.01mBqm(-3) for (239)Pu and 0.03mBqm(-3) for (240)Pu when a 20L volume of seawater was measured. We achieved good precision (2.9%) and accuracy (0.8%) for measurement of the (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratio in the standard Pu solution with a (239)Pu concentration of 11fgmL(-1) and (240)Pu concentration of 2.7fgmL(-1). Seawater reference materials were used for the method validation and both the (239+240)Pu activities and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios agreed well with the expected values. Surface and bottom seawater samples collected off Fukushima in the western North Pacific since March 2011 were analyzed. Our results suggested that there was no significant variation of the Pu distribution in seawater in the investigated areas compared to the distribution before the accident.

  4. Development and application of a volume penalization immersed boundary method for the computation of blood flow and shear stresses in cerebral vessels and aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Mikhal, Julia; Geurts, Bernard J

    2013-12-01

    A volume-penalizing immersed boundary method is presented for the simulation of laminar incompressible flow inside geometrically complex blood vessels in the human brain. We concentrate on cerebral aneurysms and compute flow in curved brain vessels with and without spherical aneurysm cavities attached. We approximate blood as an incompressible Newtonian fluid and simulate the flow with the use of a skew-symmetric finite-volume discretization and explicit time-stepping. A key element of the immersed boundary method is the so-called masking function. This is a binary function with which we identify at any location in the domain whether it is 'solid' or 'fluid', allowing to represent objects immersed in a Cartesian grid. We compare three definitions of the masking function for geometries that are non-aligned with the grid. In each case a 'staircase' representation is used in which a grid cell is either 'solid' or 'fluid'. Reliable findings are obtained with our immersed boundary method, even at fairly coarse meshes with about 16 grid cells across a velocity profile. The validation of the immersed boundary method is provided on the basis of classical Poiseuille flow in a cylindrical pipe. We obtain first order convergence for the velocity and the shear stress, reflecting the fact that in our approach the solid-fluid interface is localized with an accuracy on the order of a grid cell. Simulations for curved vessels and aneurysms are done for different flow regimes, characterized by different values of the Reynolds number (Re). The validation is performed for laminar flow at Re = 250, while the flow in more complex geometries is studied at Re = 100 and Re = 250, as suggested by physiological conditions pertaining to flow of blood in the circle of Willis.

  5. Investigation of storage system designs and techniques for optimizing energy conservation in integrated utility systems. Volume 2: (Application of energy storage to IUS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The applicability of energy storage devices to any energy system depends on the performance and cost characteristics of the larger basic system. A comparative assessment of energy storage alternatives for application to IUS which addresses the systems aspects of the overall installation is described. Factors considered include: (1) descriptions of the two no-storage IUS baselines utilized as yardsticks for comparison throughout the study; (2) discussions of the assessment criteria and the selection framework employed; (3) a summary of the rationale utilized in selecting water storage as the primary energy storage candidate for near term application to IUS; (4) discussion of the integration aspects of water storage systems; and (5) an assessment of IUS with water storage in alternative climates.

  6. Application of artificial intelligence in the marine industry: problem definition and analysis. Final report. Volume 2. Technical report. Report for October 1985-February 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Dillingham, J.T.; Perakis, A.N.

    1987-02-25

    The problem of how to best apply state-of-the-art computer technology, especially using the tools of Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems (AI/ES) to assist in the solution of several important marine operations problems is addressed. An introduction to AI and ES technology is first presented, including an overview and history, a review of recommended readings, a discussion of when a problem is an appropriate candidate for AI/ES application, available strategies, architectures and ES development tools, and estimates of their associated costs. A cost/benefit analysis of several potential applications in marine operations is conducted. Two of these applications, namely that of optimal container stowage and ship monitoring are examined in detail. Descriptions and formulations of these problems are presented, and estimates of expected monetary benefits are given. Some existing hardware and software tools which are presently in use, or which are now available, are described.

  7. High-volume centers.

    PubMed

    Vespa, P; Diringer, Michael N

    2011-09-01

    Outcome from trauma, surgery, and a variety of other medical conditions has been shown to be positively affected by providing treatment at facilities experiencing a high volume of patients with those conditions. An electronic literature search was made to identify English-language articles available through March 2011, addressing the effect of patient treatment volume on outcome for patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Limited data were identified, with 16 citations included in the current review. Over 60% of hospitals fall into the lowest case-volume quartile. Outcome is influenced by patient volume, with better outcome occurring in high-volume centers treating >60 cases per year. Patients treated at low-volume hospitals are less likely to experience definitive treatment. Furthermore, transfer to high-volume centers may be inadequately arranged. Several factors may influence the better outcome at high-volume centers, including the availability of neurointensivists and interventional neuroradiologists. PMID:21792754

  8. Numerical simulation of dynamics of brushless dc motors for aerospace and other applications. Volume 2: User's guide to computer EMA model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demerdash, N. A. O.; Nehl, T. W.

    1979-01-01

    A description and user's guide of the computer program developed to simulate the dynamics of an electromechanical actuator for aerospace applications are presented. The effects of the stator phase currents on the permanent magnets of the rotor are examined. The voltage and current waveforms present in the power conditioner network during the motoring, regenerative braking, and plugging modes of operation are presented and discussed.

  9. Application of artificial intelligence in the marine industry: problem definition and analysis. Final report. Volume 1. Executive summary. Report for October 1985-February 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Dillingham, J.T.; Perakis, A.N.

    1987-02-25

    The problem of how to best apply state-of-the-art computer technology, especially using the tools of Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems (AI/ES) to assist in the solution of several important marine operations problems is addressed. An introduction to AI and ES technology is first presented, including an overview and history, a review of recommended readings, a discussion of when a problem is an appropriate candidate for AI/ES application, available strategies, architectures and ES development tools, and estimates of their associated costs. A cost/benefit analysis of several potential applications in marine operations is conducted. Two of these applications, namely that of optimal container stowage and ship monitoring are examined in detail. Descriptions and formulations of these problems are presented, and estimates of expected monetary benefits are given. Some existing hardware and software tools which are presently in use, or which are now available, are described. Use of these tools for the above applications may improve the overall efficiency and the economic benefits of fleet operations.

  10. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project. ACT/Control/Guidance System study. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The integrated application of active controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport is reported. Supplementary technical data on the following topics are included: (1) 1990's avionics technology assessment; (2) function criticality assessment; (3) flight deck system for total control and functional features list; (4) criticality and reliability assessment of units; (5) crew procedural function task analysis; and (6) recommendations for simulation mechanization.

  11. Navajo History. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yazzie, Ethelou, Ed.

    This volume, an account of the prerecorded history of the Navajos, is the first of a series of two volumes. (Volume 2 will take up recorded history.) From the knowledge of verbal literature supplied by Navajos themselves, this composite was completed to help alleviate the lack of materials on Navajo culture. Consensus, the authors point out, was…

  12. Variable volume maser techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhardt, V. S.

    1977-01-01

    The frequency stability of hydrogen masers in variable volume storage bulbs is discussed in terms of wall shift. Variable volume devices discussed include: Brenner flexible bulb, Debely device, and the concertina hydrogen maser. A flexible cone variable volume element outside the cavity is described.

  13. Volcanic sulfur dioxide index and volcanic explosivity index inferred from eruptive volume of volcanoes in Jeju Island, Korea: application to volcanic hazard mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Bokyun; Yun, Sung-Hyo

    2016-04-01

    Jeju Island located in the southwestern part of Korea Peninsula is a volcanic island composed of lavaflows, pyroclasts, and around 450 monogenetic volcanoes. The volcanic activity of the island commenced with phreatomagmatic eruptions under subaqueous condition ca. 1.8-2.0 Ma and lasted until ca. 1,000 year BP. For evaluating volcanic activity of the most recently erupted volcanoes with reported age, volcanic explosivity index (VEI) and volcanic sulfur dioxide index (VSI) of three volcanoes (Ilchulbong tuff cone, Songaksan tuff ring, and Biyangdo scoria cone) are inferred from their eruptive volumes. The quantity of eruptive materials such as tuff, lavaflow, scoria, and so on, is calculated using a model developed in Auckland Volcanic Field which has similar volcanic setting to the island. The eruptive volumes of them are 11,911,534 m3, 24,987,557 m3, and 9,652,025 m3, which correspond to VEI of 3, 3, and 2, respectively. According to the correlation between VEI and VSI, the average quantity of SO2 emission during an eruption with VEI of 3 is 2-8 × 103 kiloton considering that the island was formed under intraplate tectonic setting. Jeju Island was regarded as an extinct volcano, however, several studies have recently reported some volcanic eruption ages within 10,000 year BP owing to the development in age dating technique. Thus, the island is a dormant volcano potentially implying high probability to erupt again in the future. The volcanoes might have explosive eruptions (vulcanian to plinian) with the possibility that SO2 emitted by the eruption reaches stratosphere causing climate change due to backscattering incoming solar radiation, increase in cloud reflectivity, etc. Consequently, recommencement of volcanic eruption in the island is able to result in serious volcanic hazard and this study provides fundamental and important data for volcanic hazard mitigation of East Asia as well as the island. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS: This research was supported by a grant [MPSS

  14. Liquid crystals for optical non-display applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavrentovich, Oleg D.

    2012-10-01

    Liquid crystals (LCs) demonstrate a number of unusual physical properties and effects that so far has been explored mainly for LC display (LCD) applications. This presentation discusses aspects of LCs that lead to the new opportunities in non-LCD applications, such as biosensors, micro- and opto-fluidics, switchable metamaterials. A LC is a unique medium for colloidal particles as it responds to the presence of inclusions by altering the orientation of LC molecules and thus the optic axis. The effect can be used in real-time sensing of microbes, as the molecular reorientation is easily detectable by optical means. Symmetry breaking associated with director distortions around inclusions in LCs enables a new mechanism of nonlinear electrophoresis. In the liquid-crystal enabled electrophoresis (LCEEP), the velocity of particle grows with the square of the applied field. The feature allows one to use an AC driving, to create steady flows and to move uncharged particle. The trajectory of particle is not necessarily parallel to the electric field and can be controlled by the director configuration. A gradient electric field can be used to align metallic nanorods into ordered LC-like birefringent structures with spatially varying refractive index; the latter represents a switchable medium for transformation optics.

  15. Incorporation of texture-based features in optimal graph-theoretic approach with application to the 3D segmentation of intraretinal surfaces in SD-OCT volumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antony, Bhavna J.; Abràmoff, Michael D.; Sonka, Milan; Kwon, Young H.; Garvin, Mona K.

    2012-02-01

    While efficient graph-theoretic approaches exist for the optimal (with respect to a cost function) and simultaneous segmentation of multiple surfaces within volumetric medical images, the appropriate design of cost functions remains an important challenge. Previously proposed methods have used simple cost functions or optimized a combination of the same, but little has been done to design cost functions using learned features from a training set, in a less biased fashion. Here, we present a method to design cost functions for the simultaneous segmentation of multiple surfaces using the graph-theoretic approach. Classified texture features were used to create probability maps, which were incorporated into the graph-search approach. The efficiency of such an approach was tested on 10 optic nerve head centered optical coherence tomography (OCT) volumes obtained from 10 subjects that presented with glaucoma. The mean unsigned border position error was computed with respect to the average of manual tracings from two independent observers and compared to our previously reported results. A significant improvement was noted in the overall means which reduced from 9.25 +/- 4.03μm to 6.73 +/- 2.45μm (p < 0.01) and is also comparable with the inter-observer variability of 8.85 +/- 3.85μm.

  16. Adaptive finite volume methods with well-balanced Riemann solvers for modeling floods in rugged terrain: Application to the Malpasset dam-break flood (France, 1959)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    George, D.L.

    2011-01-01

    The simulation of advancing flood waves over rugged topography, by solving the shallow-water equations with well-balanced high-resolution finite volume methods and block-structured dynamic adaptive mesh refinement (AMR), is described and validated in this paper. The efficiency of block-structured AMR makes large-scale problems tractable, and allows the use of accurate and stable methods developed for solving general hyperbolic problems on quadrilateral grids. Features indicative of flooding in rugged terrain, such as advancing wet-dry fronts and non-stationary steady states due to balanced source terms from variable topography, present unique challenges and require modifications such as special Riemann solvers. A well-balanced Riemann solver for inundation and general (non-stationary) flow over topography is tested in this context. The difficulties of modeling floods in rugged terrain, and the rationale for and efficacy of using AMR and well-balanced methods, are presented. The algorithms are validated by simulating the Malpasset dam-break flood (France, 1959), which has served as a benchmark problem previously. Historical field data, laboratory model data and other numerical simulation results (computed on static fitted meshes) are shown for comparison. The methods are implemented in GEOCLAW, a subset of the open-source CLAWPACK software. All the software is freely available at. Published in 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Low concentration ratio solar array for low Earth orbit multi-100 kW application. Volume 1: Design, analysis and development tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A preliminary design effort directed toward a low concentration ratio photovoltaic array system capable of delivering multihundred kilowatts (300 kW to 1000 kW range) in low earth orbit is described. The array system consists of two or more array modules each capable of delivering between 113 kW to 175 kW using silicon solar cells or gallium arsenide solar cells, respectively. The array module deployed area is 1320 square meters and consists of 4356 pyramidal concentrator elements. The module, when stowed in the Space Shuttle's payload bay, has a stowage volume of a cube with 3.24 meters on a side. The concentrator elements are sized for a geometric concentration ratio (GCR) of six with an aperture area of .25 sq. m. The structural analysis and design trades leading to the baseline design are discussed. It describes the configuration, as well as optical, thermal and electrical performance analyses that support the design and overall performance estimates for the array are described.

  18. Realtime or Delayed Tele-Echography Using (A) a Robotic Arm, ISDN or Satellite Lines, (B) a Volumic Echographic Capture Mode and Internet (Application to Abdomen and Fetus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbeille, Ph.; Cloppet, F.; Boucher, A.; Capri, A.; Vincent, N.

    2008-06-01

    Objective: to test (a) the tele-echography in realtime based on the use of a robotic arm, (b) the delayed tele echography using a volumic echographic capture and delayed processing. Method: A dedicated robotic arm (ESTELE) holding a real ultrasound probe is remotely controlled from the expert site with a fictive probe, and reproduces on the real probe all the movements of the expert hand. A dedicated motorized probe holder (TILTER) was used for tilting a 2D probe from -45 to +45°. Results: During fetal robotized Tele-echography (n=50) the expert was able to visualize and measure the fetal structures in 95% of the cases, while during abdomen echography (n=87) the expert visualized the main organs and lesions in 87% of the cases. The mean duration of the robotized tele echography session for one patient was 20+/-10 min. The delayed echography using the TILTER was tested on 40 patients. The organs were adequately visualized in 85% of the cases after 3 capture per organ. The average time from the first capture until the diagnostic was delivered was 40+/-10 minutes. Conclusion: Realtime or delayed Tele-echography provide similar information as direct examination in at least 85% of the cases. No false diagnostic was reported.

  19. Parts, Materials, and Processes Experience Summary. Volume 1; [Catalog of ALERT and Other Information on Basic Design, Reliability, Quality and Applications Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The ALERT program, a system for communicating common problems with parts, materials, and processes, is condensed and catalogued. Expanded information on selected topics is provided by relating the problem area (failure) to the cause, the investigations and findings, the suggestions for avoidance (inspections, screening tests, proper part applications), and failure analysis procedures. The basic objective of ALERT is the avoidance of the recurrence of parts, materials, and processed problems, thus improving the reliability of equipment produced for and used by the government.

  20. Application of an equilibrium-based model for diffusion barrier charcoal canisters in a small volume non-steady state radon chamber.

    PubMed

    Lehnert, A L; Thompson, K H; Kearfott, K J

    2011-02-01

    Radon in indoor air is often measured using activated charcoal in canisters. These are generally calibrated using large, humidity- and temperature-controlled radon chambers capable of maintaining a constant radon concentration over several days. Reliable and reproducible chambers are expensive and may be difficult to create and maintain. This study characterizes a small radon chamber in which Rn gas is allowed to build up over a period of several days for use in charcoal canister calibration and educational demonstrations, as well as various radon experiments using charcoal canisters. Predictive models have been developed that accurately describe radon gas kinetics in the charcoal canisters. Three models are available for kinetics in the small chamber with and without radon-adsorbing charcoal canisters. Presented here are both theoretical and semi-empirical applications of this equilibrium-based model of radon adsorption as applied to canisters in the small chamber. Several charcoal canister experiments in the small chamber with an equilibrium-based model of radon adsorption applied are reported. Results show that it is necessary to include a continuous radon monitor in the chamber during canister exposures, as the radon removal rate is highly variable. Furthermore, the presence of the canisters significantly decreases the amount of radon in the small chamber, especially when several canisters are present. It was found that canister response in the small chamber is largely consistent with the equilibrium-based model for both applications, with average errors of 1% for the theoretical application and -4% for the semi-empirical approach.

  1. Application of Bistatic TanDEM-X Interferometry to Measure Lava Flow Volume and Lava Extrusion Rates During the 2012-13 Tolbachik, Kamchatka Fissure Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubanek, J.; Westerhaus, M.; Heck, B.

    2015-12-01

    Aerial imaging methods are a well approved source for mapping lava flows during eruptions and can serve as a base to assess the eruption dynamics and to determine the affected area. However, clouds and smoke often hinder optical systems like the Earth Observation Advanced Land Imager (EO-1-ALI, operated by NASA) to map lava flows properly, which hence affects its reliability. Furthermore, the amount of lava that is extruded during an eruption cannot be determined from optical images - however, it can significantly contribute to assess the accompanying hazard and risk. One way to monitor active lava flows is to quantify the topographic changes over time while using up-to-date high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs). Whereas photogrammetric methods still fail when clouds and fume obstruct the sight, innovative radar satellite missions have the potential to generate high-resolution DEMs at any time. The innovative bistatic TanDEM-X (TerraSAR-X Add-on for Digital Elevation Measurements) satellite mission enables for the first time generating high-resolution DEMs from synthetic aperture radar satellite data repeatedly with reasonable costs and high resolution. The satellite mission consists of the two nearly identical satellites TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X that build a large synthetic aperture radar interferometer with adaptable across- and along-track baselines aiming to generate topographic information globally. In the present study, we apply the TanDEM-X data to study the lava flows that were emplaced during the 2012-13 Tolbachik, Kamchatka fissure eruption. The eruption was composed of very fluid lava flows that effused along a northeast-southwest trending fissure. We used about fifteen bistatic data pairs to generate DEMs prior to, during, and after the eruption. The differencing of the DEMs enables mapping the lava flow field at different times. This allows measuring the extruded volume and to derive the changes in lava extrusion over time.

  2. Preliminary application of dynamic pulmonary xenon-133 single-photon emission tomography in the evaluation of patients with pulmonary emphysema for thoracoscopic lung volume reduction surgery.

    PubMed

    Suga, K; Nishigauchi, K; Matsunaga, N; Matsumoto, T; Kume, N; Sugi, K; Esato, K

    1998-04-01

    Dynamic pulmonary xenon-133 single-photon emission tomography (SPET) with three-dimensional (3D) displays was preliminarily applied to select resection targets for thoracoscopic lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) and to assess regional ventilatory changes following surgery. Dynamic SPET was performed using a triple-detector SPET system in 14 patients with pulmonary emphysema before and after LVRS. After reconstructing colour-illuminated, surface-rendered 3D images of equilibrium (EQ) and 3-min washout (WO3), a single 3D fusion display was created from these two different time-course image sets, in which the 3D WO3 image indicating 133Xe retention was visible through the overlying 3D EQ image delineating lung contours. Volumetric extent of retention on this display was quantified by a 133Xe retention index, defined as the ratio (%) of total pixel numbers of segmented 3-min WO data to those of EQ data. 133Xe SPET and appropriately thresholded 3D displays efficiently localized a total of 36 retention sites; 19 (52.7%) of these sites were not localized by CT because they were within the widely or homogeneously spreading non-bullous emphysematous lung tissues. The 3D displays enhanced the perception of anatomical configurations and the extent of 133Xe retention compared with multislice tomograms. Postoperatively, 3D fusion display visualized the details of regional changes in retention, and changes in the retention index on the 3D display with a standardized threshold correlated well with changes in 133Xe clearance time (T1/2) and %FEV1 (r = 0.881 and 0. 856, respectively; P<0.0001). This preliminary study indicates that 133Xe SPET and appropriately thresholded, topographic 3D displays are of potential use in selecting resection targets for LVRS, and in evaluating the treatment effects on regional ventilation.

  3. (BARS) -- Bibliographic Retrieval System Sandia Shock Compression (SSC) database Shock Physics Index (SPHINX) database. Volume 1: UNIX version query guide customized application for INGRES

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, W.; von Laven, G.M.; Parker, T.

    1993-09-01

    The Bibliographic Retrieval System (BARS) is a data base management system specially designed to retrieve bibliographic references. Two databases are available, (i) the Sandia Shock Compression (SSC) database which contains over 5700 references to the literature related to stress waves in solids and their applications, and (ii) the Shock Physics Index (SPHINX) which includes over 8000 further references to stress waves in solids, material properties at intermediate and low rates, ballistic and hypervelocity impact, and explosive or shock fabrication methods. There is some overlap in the information in the two data bases.

  4. High altitude chemically reacting gas particle mixtures. Volume 3: Computer code user's and applications manual. [rocket nozzle and orbital plume flow fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. D.

    1984-01-01

    A users manual for the RAMP2 computer code is provided. The RAMP2 code can be used to model the dominant phenomena which affect the prediction of liquid and solid rocket nozzle and orbital plume flow fields. The general structure and operation of RAMP2 are discussed. A user input/output guide for the modified TRAN72 computer code and the RAMP2F code is given. The application and use of the BLIMPJ module are considered. Sample problems involving the space shuttle main engine and motor are included.

  5. An improved approach for flight readiness certification: Probabilistic models for flaw propagation and turbine blade failure. Volume 1: Methodology and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, N. R.; Ebbeler, D. H.; Newlin, L. E.; Sutharshana, S.; Creager, M.

    1992-01-01

    An improved methodology for quantitatively evaluating failure risk of spaceflight systems to assess flight readiness and identify risk control measures is presented. This methodology, called Probabilistic Failure Assessment (PFA), combines operating experience from tests and flights with analytical modeling of failure phenomena to estimate failure risk. The PFA methodology is of particular value when information on which to base an assessment of failure risk, including test experience and knowledge of parameters used in analytical modeling, is expensive or difficult to acquire. The PFA methodology is a prescribed statistical structure in which analytical models that characterize failure phenomena are used conjointly with uncertainties about analysis parameters and/or modeling accuracy to estimate failure probability distributions for specific failure modes. These distributions can then be modified, by means of statistical procedures of the PFA methodology, to reflect any test or flight experience. State-of-the-art analytical models currently employed for designs failure prediction, or performance analysis are used in this methodology. The rationale for the statistical approach taken in the PFA methodology is discussed, the PFA methodology is described, and examples of its application to structural failure modes are presented. The engineering models and computer software used in fatigue crack growth and fatigue crack initiation applications are thoroughly documented.

  6. Evaluation of coated columbium alloy heat shields for space shuttle thermal protection system application. Volume 2, phase 2: Subsize heat shield and small size TPS evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, W. E.

    1973-01-01

    Initially a trade study was conducted of seven heat shield configurations. These were evaluated for structural reliability, fabricability, weight, inspectability, and refurbishability. Two concepts, a tee-stiffened and an open corrugation, were selected as offering the most potential for system success. Fourteen subsize heat shields of a full scale section were fabricated from C-129Y and Cb-752 and silicide coated with R-512E. These subsize panels were subjected to a simulated flight profile representing temperature, local surface pressures, and applied pressure differential loads. All corrugated panels of both alloys sustained 100 cycles without structural or coating failure. All Cb-752/R-512E panels performed well with one panel being successfully repaired after 66 cycles and completing 100 cycles. As a result of this evaluating the Cb-752/R-512E system was selected for hardware application during the subsequent phases. In addition, the tee-stiffened configuration was selected for further development and application in Phase III. This selection was based on an overall assessment of relative weight, cost, and structural performance of the tee-stiffened and open corrugation TPS.

  7. An improved approach for flight readiness certification: Methodology for failure risk assessment and application examples. Volume 3: Structure and listing of programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, N. R.; Ebbeler, D. H.; Newlin, L. E.; Sutharshana, S.; Creager, M.

    1992-01-01

    An improved methodology for quantitatively evaluating failure risk of spaceflight systems to assess flight readiness and identify risk control measures is presented. This methodology, called Probabilistic Failure Assessment (PFA), combines operating experience from tests and flights with engineering analysis to estimate failure risk. The PFA methodology is of particular value when information on which to base an assessment of failure risk, including test experience and knowledge of parameters used in engineering analyses of failure phenomena, is expensive or difficult to acquire. The PFA methodology is a prescribed statistical structure in which engineering analysis models that characterize failure phenomena are used conjointly with uncertainties about analysis parameters and/or modeling accuracy to estimate failure probability distributions for specific failure modes. These distributions can then be modified, by means of statistical procedures of the PFA methodology, to reflect any test or flight experience. Conventional engineering analysis models currently employed for design of failure prediction are used in this methodology. The PFA methodology is described and examples of its application are presented. Conventional approaches to failure risk evaluation for spaceflight systems are discussed, and the rationale for the approach taken in the PFA methodology is presented. The statistical methods, engineering models, and computer software used in fatigue failure mode applications are thoroughly documented.

  8. Development and application of optimal design capability for coal gasification systems - Task 1 (Volume 1, 2 and 3). Topical report, July 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is a process for the post-combustion removal of NO{sub x} from the flue gas of fossil-fuel-fired power plants. SCR is capable of NO{sub x} reduction efficiencies of up to 80 or 90 percent. SCR technology has been applied for treatment of flue gases from a variety of emission sources, including natural gas- and oil-fired gas turbines, process steam boilers in refineries, and coal-fired power plants. SCR applications to coal-fired power plants have occurred in Japan and Germany. Full-scale SCR systems have not been applied to coal-fired power plants in the U.S., although there have been small-scale demonstration projects. SCR has become increasingly widely applied in the U.S. to natural-gas fired gas turbine combined cycle systems. In the remainder of this section, we review the applicability of SCR, as well as the need for post-combustion NO{sub x} control, for several power generation systems.

  9. An improved approach for flight readiness certification: Methodology for failure risk assessment and application examples. Volume 3: Structure and listing of programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, N. R.; Ebbeler, D. H.; Newlin, L. E.; Sutharshana, S.; Creager, M.

    1992-06-01

    An improved methodology for quantitatively evaluating failure risk of spaceflight systems to assess flight readiness and identify risk control measures is presented. This methodology, called Probabilistic Failure Assessment (PFA), combines operating experience from tests and flights with engineering analysis to estimate failure risk. The PFA methodology is of particular value when information on which to base an assessment of failure risk, including test experience and knowledge of parameters used in engineering analyses of failure phenomena, is expensive or difficult to acquire. The PFA methodology is a prescribed statistical structure in which engineering analysis models that characterize failure phenomena are used conjointly with uncertainties about analysis parameters and/or modeling accuracy to estimate failure probability distributions for specific failure modes. These distributions can then be modified, by means of statistical procedures of the PFA methodology, to reflect any test or flight experience. Conventional engineering analysis models currently employed for design of failure prediction are used in this methodology. The PFA methodology is described and examples of its application are presented. Conventional approaches to failure risk evaluation for spaceflight systems are discussed, and the rationale for the approach taken in the PFA methodology is presented. The statistical methods, engineering models, and computer software used in fatigue failure mode applications are thoroughly documented.

  10. The volume change during solidification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rittich, M.

    1985-01-01

    The liquid-solid phase transformation of solidifying metallic melts is accompanied by a volume change Delta-Vm. This volume change produces a gravity-independent microscopic flow near the solidification front. In a ground-based laboratory, solidification processes are also affected by convection due to temperature and concentration gradients. A quantitative evaluation of the effects of these flows on the formation of structure requires reproducible values of Delta-Vm. Alloys with Delta-Vm = 0 would be best suited for such an evaluation, while alloys with a constant value for Delta-Vm are still usable. Another requirement is related to a solidus-liquidus interval which is as small as possible. One-phase alloys, which would be particularly well suited, could not be found. For these reasons, alloys which solidify in two phases, as for example eutectics, have been considered, taking into account the Al-Ge system. Attention is given to the volume change at the melting point, the measurement of this change, the volume change at solidification, and applications to terrestrial technology.

  11. A plan for application system verification tests: The value of improved meteorological information, volume 1. [economic consequences of improved meteorological information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The framework within which the Applications Systems Verification Tests (ASVTs) are performed and the economic consequences of improved meteorological information demonstrated is described. This framework considers the impact of improved information on decision processes, the data needs to demonstrate the economic impact of the improved information, the data availability, the methodology for determining and analyzing the collected data and demonstrating the economic impact of the improved information, and the possible methods of data collection. Three ASVTs are considered and program outlines and plans are developed for performing experiments to demonstrate the economic consequences of improved meteorological information. The ASVTs are concerned with the citrus crop in Florida, the cotton crop in Mississippi and a group of diverse crops in Oregon. The program outlines and plans include schedules, manpower estimates and funding requirements.

  12. Draft Title 40 CFR 191 compliance certification application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Volume 9: Appendices RM, SCR, SER, SUM, WRAC

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-31

    The Rock Mechanics Program is important to the establishment of a radioactive waste repository in salt because rock mechanics deals with the prediction of creep closure and eventual encapsulation of the waste. The intent of this paper is to give the current status of the program. This program consists of three major modeling efforts: continuum creep, fracture, and the disturbed rock zone. These models, together with laboratory material parameters, plastic flow potentials, initial and boundary input data, and other peripheral information forms the predictive technology. The extent to which the predictive technology is validated against in situ test data adds certainty to the method. Application of the technology is through simulations of the test results, design, or performance using numerical codes. In summary, the predictive capabilities are technically sound and reasonable. The current status of the program is that which would be advanced for compliance.

  13. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project. ACT/Control/Guidance System study, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The active control technology (ACT) control/guidance system task of the integrated application of active controls (IAAC) technology project within the NASA energy efficient transport program was documented. The air traffic environment of navigation and air traffic control systems and procedures were extrapolated. An approach to listing flight functions which will be performed by systems and crew of an ACT configured airplane of the 1990s, and a determination of function criticalities to safety of flight, are the basis of candidate integrated ACT/Control/Guidance System architecture. The system mechanizes five active control functions: pitch augmented stability, angle of attack limiting, lateral/directional augmented stability, gust load alleviation, and maneuver load control. The scope and requirements of a program for simulating the integrated ACT avionics and flight deck system, with pilot in the loop, are defined, system and crew interface elements are simulated, and mechanization is recommended. Relationships between system design and crew roles and procedures are evaluated.

  14. Automatic volume calibration system

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, A.J.; Aaron, C.C.

    1985-05-06

    The Automatic Volume Calibration System presently consists of three independent volume-measurement subsystems and can possibly be expanded to five subsystems. When completed, the system will manually or automatically perform the sequence of valve-control and data-acquisition operations required to measure given volumes. An LSI-11 minicomputer controls the vacuum and pressure sources and controls solenoid control valves to open and close various volumes. The input data are obtained from numerous displacement, temperature, and pressure sensors read by the LSI-11. The LSI-11 calculates the unknown volume from the data acquired during the sequence of valve operations. The results, based on the Ideal Gas Law, also provide information for feedback and control. This paper describes the volume calibration system, its subsystems, and the integration of the various instrumentation used in the system's design and development. 11 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Advanced vehicle systems assessment. Volume 2: Subsystems assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, K.

    1985-01-01

    Volume 2 (Subsystems Assessment) is part of a five-volume report entitled Advanced Vehicle Systems Assessment. Volume 2 presents the projected performance capabilities and cost characteristics of applicable subsystems, considering an additional decade of development. Subsystems of interest include energy storage and conversion devices as well as the necessary powertrain components and vehicle subsystems. Volume 2 also includes updated battery information based on the assessment of an independent battery review board (with the aid of subcontractor reports on advanced battery characteristics).

  16. Front Matter: Volume 8454

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SPIE, Proceedings of

    2012-05-01

    This PDF file contains the front matter associated with SPIE Proceedings Volume 8454, including the Title Page, Copyright information, Table of Contents, Introduction, and Conference Committee listing.

  17. Precision volume measurement system.

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Erin E.; Shugard, Andrew D.

    2004-11-01

    A new precision volume measurement system based on a Kansas City Plant (KCP) design was built to support the volume measurement needs of the Gas Transfer Systems (GTS) department at Sandia National Labs (SNL) in California. An engineering study was undertaken to verify or refute KCP's claims of 0.5% accuracy. The study assesses the accuracy and precision of the system. The system uses the ideal gas law and precise pressure measurements (of low-pressure helium) in a temperature and computer controlled environment to ratio a known volume to an unknown volume.

  18. Waste minimization handbook, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Boing, L.E.; Coffey, M.J.

    1995-12-01

    This technical guide presents various methods used by industry to minimize low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated during decommissioning and decontamination (D and D) activities. Such activities generate significant amounts of LLW during their operations. Waste minimization refers to any measure, procedure, or technique that reduces the amount of waste generated during a specific operation or project. Preventive waste minimization techniques implemented when a project is initiated can significantly reduce waste. Techniques implemented during decontamination activities reduce the cost of decommissioning. The application of waste minimization techniques is not limited to D and D activities; it is also useful during any phase of a facility`s life cycle. This compendium will be supplemented with a second volume of abstracts of hundreds of papers related to minimizing low-level nuclear waste. This second volume is expected to be released in late 1996.

  19. Evaluation of the applicability of nonlinear programming algorithms to a typical commercial process flow-sheeting simulator (Volumes I and II)

    SciTech Connect

    Richard, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    An efficient methodology for using commercial flowsheeting programs with advanced mathematical programming algorithms was developed for the optimization of operating plants. The methodology was demonstrated and validated using ChemShare Corporation's DESIGN/2000 simulation of the Freeport Chemical Company's plant for sulfuric acid manufacture and three nonlinear programming techniques: successive linear programming, successive quadratic programming, and the generalized reduced-gradient method. The application of this methodology begins with the development of a feasible base-case simulation. Partial derivatives of the economic model and constraint equations are computed using fully converged simulations. This information is used to formulate an optimization problem that can be solved with the NLP algorithms giving improved values of the economic model. A line search is constructed through the point found from the nonlinear programming algorithm to find the best feasible point to repeat the procedure. The procedure is repeated using the ChemShare simulation program and the NLP code until convergence criteria are met. This method was applied to three flowsheeting problems; a plant-scale-contact sulfuric acid process model, a packed-bed-reactor design model, and an adiabatic-flash problem.

  20. Design and development of Stirling engines for stationary power generation applications in the 500 to 3000 horsepower range. Volume 1. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available,

    1980-09-15

    This project was Phase I of a multiphased program for the design and development of Stirling engines for stationary power generation applications in the 500 to 3000 horsepower range. Phase I comprised the conceptual design and associated cost estimates of a stationary Stirling engine capable of being fueled by a variety of heat sources, with emphasis on coal firing, followed by the preparation of a plan for implementing the design, fabrication and testing of a demonstration engine by 1985. The development and evaluation of conceptual designs have been separated into two broad categories: the A designs which represent the present state-of-the-art and which are demonstrable by 1985 with minimum technical risk; and the B designs which involve advanced technology and therefore would require significant research and development prior to demonstration and commercialization, but which may ultimately offer advantages in terms of lower cost, better performance, or higher reliability. The majority of the effort in Phase I was devoted to the A designs.

  1. Finite volume hydromechanical simulation in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordbotten, Jan Martin

    2014-05-01

    Cell-centered finite volume methods are prevailing in numerical simulation of flow in porous media. However, due to the lack of cell-centered finite volume methods for mechanics, coupled flow and deformation is usually treated either by coupled finite-volume-finite element discretizations, or within a finite element setting. The former approach is unfavorable as it introduces two separate grid structures, while the latter approach loses the advantages of finite volume methods for the flow equation. Recently, we proposed a cell-centered finite volume method for elasticity. Herein, we explore the applicability of this novel method to provide a compatible finite volume discretization for coupled hydromechanic flows in porous media. We detail in particular the issue of coupling terms, and show how this is naturally handled. Furthermore, we observe how the cell-centered finite volume framework naturally allows for modeling fractured and fracturing porous media through internal boundary conditions. We support the discussion with a set of numerical examples: the convergence properties of the coupled scheme are first investigated; second, we illustrate the practical applicability of the method both for fractured and heterogeneous media.

  2. Finite volume hydromechanical simulation in porous media

    PubMed Central

    Nordbotten, Jan Martin

    2014-01-01

    Cell-centered finite volume methods are prevailing in numerical simulation of flow in porous media. However, due to the lack of cell-centered finite volume methods for mechanics, coupled flow and deformation is usually treated either by coupled finite-volume-finite element discretizations, or within a finite element setting. The former approach is unfavorable as it introduces two separate grid structures, while the latter approach loses the advantages of finite volume methods for the flow equation. Recently, we proposed a cell-centered finite volume method for elasticity. Herein, we explore the applicability of this novel method to provide a compatible finite volume discretization for coupled hydromechanic flows in porous media. We detail in particular the issue of coupling terms, and show how this is naturally handled. Furthermore, we observe how the cell-centered finite volume framework naturally allows for modeling fractured and fracturing porous media through internal boundary conditions. We support the discussion with a set of numerical examples: the convergence properties of the coupled scheme are first investigated; second, we illustrate the practical applicability of the method both for fractured and heterogeneous media. PMID:25574061

  3. In situ and on-site bioremediation. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Alleman, B.C.; Leeson, A.

    1997-11-01

    Collected in Volume 2 are articles on the bioremediation of media contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), PCBs and chlorinated aromatics, explosives and nitroaromatics, pesticides and herbicides, and other recalcitrant compounds. The technologies discussed include intrinsic remediation/natural attenuation, fungal technologies, application of surfactants, composting, and landfarming. This volume also contains articles on field methods and process monitoring to support bioremediation applications.

  4. Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Arthur M.

    1986-07-01

    Economic incentives have spurred numerous applications of genetically engineered organisms in manufacture of pharmaceuticals and industrial chemicals. These successes, involving a variety of methods of genetic manipulation, have dispelled early fears that genetic engineering could not be handled safely, even in the laboratory. Consequently, the potential for applications in the wider environment without physical containment is being considered for agriculture, mining, pollution control, and pest control. These proposed applications range from modest extensions of current plant breeding techniques for new disease-resistant species to radical combinations of organisms (for example, nitrogen-fixing corn plants). These applications raise concerns about potential ecological impacts (see chapter 5), largely because of adverse experiences with both deliberate and inadvertent introductions of nonindigenous species.

  5. Stereometric body volume measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herron, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    The following studies are reported: (1) effects of extended space flight on body form of Skylab astronauts using biostereometrics; (2) comparison of body volume determinations using hydrostatic weighing and biostereometrics; and (3) training of technicians in biostereometric principles and procedures.

  6. Free volume under shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiti, Moumita; Vinutha, H. A.; Sastry, Srikanth; Heussinger, Claus

    2015-10-01

    Using an athermal quasistatic simulation protocol, we study the distribution of free volumes in sheared hard-particle packings close to, but below, the random-close packing threshold. We show that under shear, and independent of volume fraction, the free volumes develop features similar to close-packed systems — particles self-organize in a manner as to mimick the isotropically jammed state. We compare athermally sheared packings with thermalized packings and show that thermalization leads to an erasure of these structural features. The temporal evolution in particular the opening-up and the closing of free-volume patches is associated with the single-particle dynamics, showing a crossover from ballistic to diffusive behavior.

  7. Free volume under shear.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Moumita; Vinutha, H A; Sastry, Srikanth; Heussinger, Claus

    2015-10-14

    Using an athermal quasistatic simulation protocol, we study the distribution of free volumes in sheared hard-particle packings close to, but below, the random-close packing threshold. We show that under shear, and independent of volume fraction, the free volumes develop features similar to close-packed systems - particles self-organize in a manner as to mimick the isotropically jammed state. We compare athermally sheared packings with thermalized packings and show that thermalization leads to an erasure of these structural features. The temporal evolution in particular the opening-up and the closing of free-volume patches is associated with the single-particle dynamics, showing a crossover from ballistic to diffusive behavior.

  8. Environmental chemistry: Volume A

    SciTech Connect

    Yen, T.F.

    1999-08-01

    This is an extensive introduction to environmental chemistry for engineering and chemical professionals. The contents of Volume A include a brief review of basic chemistry prior to coverage of litho, atmo, hydro, pedo, and biospheres.

  9. [Innovation in gynaecological brachytherapy: new technologies, pulse dose-rate brachytherapy, image, definition of new volumes of interest and their impact on dosimetry: application in a clinical research programme "STIC"].

    PubMed

    Haie-Meder, C; Peiffert, D

    2006-11-01

    Brachytherapy plays a fundamental role in the therapeutic approach of patients with stage I-IV cervical carcinoma. Technical modalities have evolved during the last decades: stepping source technology, imaging modalities development, specially IMN, treatment planning system integrating 3D images. Images from CT-Scan and MRI have contributed to a better knowledge of tumoral extension and critical organs. CT and/or MRI compatible applicators allow a sectional image based approach with a better definition of tumour volume compared to traditional approaches. The introduction of 3D image based approach for GTV and CTV requires new definitions and a common language. In 2000, a working group within GEC-ESTRO was created to support 3D image based 3D treatment planning approach in cervix cancer BT. The task was to determine a common terminology enabling various groups to use a common language. Recommendations were described and proposed based on clinical experience and dosimetric concepts of different institutions. Two CTVs were described en relation to the risk for recurrence: high-risk CTV and intermediate risk CTV. In order to better define the role of such definitions and their potential impact on the complication incidence in patients with cervical cancer, a special French programme was developed. The aim of this programme is to study the incidence of the severe 2-year complication rate in two comparable patient populations: one population is treated using PDR brachytherapy with CT-Scan or MRI with the applicators in place allowing a 3D dosimetry with optimization, the second population is treated using standard X-rays radiographs without any delineation of the target nor optimisation. Each population arm includes 425 patients. A medicoeconomic assessment is performed, allowing a real cost of the most sophisticated approach compared to a historical dosimetric system.

  10. Advanced space system concepts and their orbital support needs (1980 - 2000). Volume 4: Detailed data. Part 2: Program plans and common support needs (a study of the commonality of space vehicle applications to future national needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bekey, I.; Mayer, H. L.; Wolfe, M. G.

    1976-01-01

    The methodology of alternate world future scenarios is utilized for selecting a plausible, though not advocated, set of future scenarios each of which results in a program plan appropriate for the respective environment. Each such program plan gives rise to different building block and technology requirements, which are analyzed for common need between the NASA and the DoD for each of the alternate world scenarios. An essentially invariant set of system, building block, and technology development plans is presented at the conclusion, intended to allow protection of most of the options for system concepts regardless of what the actual future world environment turns out to be. Thus, building block and technology needs are derived which support: (1) each specific world scenario; (2) all the world scenarios identified in this study; or (3) generalized scenarios applicable to almost any future environment. The output included in this volume consists of the building blocks, i.e.: transportation vehicles, orbital support vehicles, and orbital support facilities; the technology required to support the program plans; identification of their features which could support the DoD and NASA in common; and a complete discussion of the planning methodology.

  11. Geomagnetism. Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    The latest attempt to summarise the wealth of knowledge now available on geomagnetic phenomena has resulted in this multi-volume treatise, with contributions and reviews from many scientists. The first volume in the series contains a thorough review of all existing information on measuring the Earth's magnetic field, both on land and at sea, and includes a comparative analysis of the techniques available for this purpose.

  12. Precision volume measuring system

    SciTech Connect

    Klevgard, P.A.

    1984-11-01

    An engineering study was undertaken to calibrate and certify a precision volume measurement system that uses the ideal gas law and precise pressure measurements (of low-pressure helium) to ratio a known to an unknown volume. The constant-temperature, computer-controlled system was tested for thermodynamic instabilities, for precision (0.01%), and for bias (0.01%). Ratio scaling was used to optimize the quartz crystal pressure transducer calibration.

  13. Solar cell array design handbook, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauschenbach, H. S.

    1976-01-01

    Twelve chapters discuss the following: historical developments, the environment and its effects, solar cells, solar cell filters and covers, solar cell and other electrical interconnections, blocking and shunt diodes, substrates and deployment mechanisms, material properties, design synthesis and optimization, design analysis, procurement, production and cost aspects, evaluation and test, orbital performance, and illustrative design examples. A comprehensive index permits rapid locating of desired topics. The handbook consists of two volumes: Volume 1 is of an expository nature while Volume 2 contains detailed design data in an appendix-like fashion. Volume 2 includes solar cell performance data, applicable unit conversion factors and physical constants, and mechanical, electrical, thermal optical, magnetic, and outgassing material properties. Extensive references are provided.

  14. Drishti: a volume exploration and presentation tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limaye, Ajay

    2012-10-01

    Among several rendering techniques for volumetric data, direct volume rendering is a powerful visualization tool for a wide variety of applications. This paper describes the major features of hardware based volume exploration and presentation tool - Drishti. The word, Drishti, stands for vision or insight in Sanskrit, an ancient Indian language. Drishti is a cross-platform open-source volume rendering system that delivers high quality, state of the art renderings. The features in Drishti include, though not limited to, production quality rendering, volume sculpting, multi-resolution zooming, transfer function blending, profile generation, measurement tools, mesh generation, stereo/anaglyph/crosseye renderings. Ultimately, Drishti provides an intuitive and powerful interface for choreographing animations.

  15. Gravimetric gas determinations for volume calibrations

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, P.W.

    1991-01-01

    Gravimetric measurement of gases is one of the methods available for calibrating gas volumes. By inputting a known quantity of gas and measuring the resulting pressure and temperature, the system volume can be calculated using gas law principles. Historically, this method has been less accurate due to the difficulty in the mass determination. This difficulty comes from several sources. Two examples are the large tare weight of the gas container relative to the weight of gas and the external volume of the gas container relative to the standards. The application of a gravimetric gas determination to tank volume calibrations at the Savannah River Site is discussed. Mass determinations on a 25,000 gram gas container were such that a 1500 gram quantity of gas was routinely determined to within {plus minus}0.2 gram at the 99% confidence level. The weighing design and the methods used to address the difficulties of the mass determination are detailed.

  16. The GPS Space Service Volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, F. H.; Moreau, M. C.; Dahle-Melsaether, M. E.; Petrofski, W. P.; Stanton, B. J.; Thomason, S.; Harris, G. A.; Sena, R. P.; Temple, L. Parker, III

    2006-01-01

    Prior to the advent of artificial satellites, the concept of navigating in space and the desire to understand and validate the laws of planetary and satellite motion dates back centuries. At the initiation of orbital flight in 1957, space navigation was dominated by inertial and groundbased tracking methods, underpinned by the laws of planetary motion. It was early in the 1980s that GPS was first explored as a system useful for refining the position, velocity, and timing (PVT) of other spacecraft equipped with GPS receivers. As a result, an entirely new GPS utility was developed beyond its original purpose of providing PVT services for land, maritime, and air applications. Spacecraft both above and below the GPS constellation now receive the GPS signals, including the signals that spill over the limb of the Earth. The use of radionavigation satellite services for space navigation in High Earth Orbits is in fact a capability unique to GPS. Support to GPS space applications is being studied and planned as an important improvement to GPS. This paper discusses the formalization of PVT services in space as part of an overall GPS improvement effort. It describes the GPS Space Service Volume (SSV) and compares it to the Terrestrial Service Volume (TSV). It also discusses SSV coverage with the current GPS constellation, coverage characteristics as a function of altitude, expected power levels, and coverage figures of merit.

  17. Multi-volume visualization for interactive therapy planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Liangshou; Amin, Viren R.; Ryken, Timothy; Long, Tao; Hagge, Mathew J.; Bryden, Mark

    2007-03-01

    During the past decade, various volume visualization techniques have been developed for different purposes, and many of them, such as direct volume rendering, maximum intensity projection and non-photorealistic rendering, have been implemented on consumer graphics hardware for real time visualization. However, effective multi-volume visualization, a way to establish the visual connections between two or more types of data, has not been adequately addressed even though it has wide applications in medical imaging and numerical simulation based on 3D physical model. In this paper, we aim to develop an effective GPU-based system for multi-volume visualization which is able to reveal both the connections and distinctions among multiple volume data. To address the main challenge for multi-volume visualization on how to establish the visual correspondences while maintaining the distinctive information among multiple volumes, a multi-level distinction mechanism is developed including 2D transfer function, mixed rendering modes, and volume clipping. Taking advantage of the fast hardware-supported processing capabilities, the system is implemented based on the GPU programming. Several advanced volume rendering techniques based on segmented volume are also implemented. The resulting visualization is a highly interactive image fusion system with high quality image and three-level volume distinction. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our system with a case study in which the heat effect on brain tumor, represented as a temperature volume resulting from high intensity focused ultrasound beam exposure over time, is visualized in the context of a MRI head volume.

  18. Turbine Design and Application, Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glassman, A. J. (Editor)

    1975-01-01

    Turbine technology concepts for thermodynamic and fluid dynamics are presented along with velocity diagrams, losses, mechanical design, operation and performance. Designs discussed include: supersonic turbines, radial-inflow turbines, and turbine cooling.

  19. IR Activities. IR Applications, Volume 12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Stephen; Gerek, Mary Louise

    2007-01-01

    Institutional research is the sum total of all activities directed at describing the full spectrum of functions (educational, administrative, and support) occurring within a college or university. Institutional research activities examine those functions in their broadest definitions, and embrace data collection and analytical strategies in…

  20. Applications of remote sensing, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landgrebe, D. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The overall spectral response of the strata measured by a mean vector and covariance matrix for each stratum did not show differences among the LACIE phase 3 strata using the machine clustering procedures. This was expected since the large strata gave rise to broad normal distributions with a great deal of overlap. The static stratification of Kansas contains strata which are small in size. The distributions for these strata are not as broad as those based on the LACIE phase 3 partitions, but there is still some confusion since strata from different categories are not spectrally distinct.

  1. Applications of remote sensing, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landgrebe, D. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Of the four change detection techniques (post classification comparison, delta data, spectral/temporal, and layered spectral temporal), the post classification comparison was selected for further development. This was based upon test performances of the four change detection method, straightforwardness of the procedures, and the output products desired. A standardized modified, supervised classification procedure for analyzing the Texas coastal zone data was compiled. This procedure was developed in order that all quadrangles in the study are would be classified using similar analysis techniques to allow for meaningful comparisons and evaluations of the classifications.

  2. Applications of remote sensing, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landgrebe, D. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ECHO successfully exploits the redundancy of states characteristics of sampled imagery of ground scenes to achieve better classification accuracy, reduce the number of classifications required, and reduce the variability of classification results. The information required to produce ECHO classifications are cell size, cell homogeneity, cell-to-field annexation parameters, input data, and a class conditional marginal density statistics deck.

  3. NASA Propulsion Engineering Research Center, Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is the second volume in the 1994 annual report for the NASA Propulsion Engineering Research Center's Sixth Annual Symposium. This conference covered: (1) Combustors and Nozzles; (2) Turbomachinery Aero- and Hydro-dynamics; (3) On-board Propulsion systems; (4) Advanced Propulsion Applications; (5) Vaporization and Combustion; (6) Heat Transfer and Fluid Mechanics; and (7) Atomization and Sprays.

  4. Mathematics and Sports. Mathematical World. Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadovskii, L. E.; Sadovskii, A. L.

    This volume contains some examples of mathematical applications in sports. Sports discussed include tennis, figure skating, gymnastics, track and field, soccer, skiing, hockey, and swimming. Problems and situations are posed and answers with thorough explanations are provided. Chapters include: (1) Mathematics and Sports; (2) What Is Applied…

  5. First CLIPS Conference Proceedings, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The topics of volume 2 of First CLIPS Conference are associated with following applications: quality control; intelligent data bases and networks; Space Station Freedom; Space Shuttle and satellite; user interface; artificial neural systems and fuzzy logic; parallel and distributed processing; enchancements to CLIPS; aerospace; simulation and defense; advisory systems and tutors; and intelligent control.

  6. Practical Nursing, Volume I. Health Occupations Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Helen W.; And Others

    This curriculum guide provides teachers with up-to-date information and skill-related applications needed by the practical nurse. The volume contains three sections and 24 instructional units: Personal Vocational Relationships (6 units), Nutrition (3 units), and Basic Nursing Principles and Applied Skills (15 units covering such topics as…

  7. Volume MLS ray casting.

    PubMed

    Ledergerber, Christian; Guennebaud, Gaël; Meyer, Miriah; Bächer, Moritz; Pfister, Hanspeter

    2008-01-01

    The method of Moving Least Squares (MLS) is a popular framework for reconstructing continuous functions from scattered data due to its rich mathematical properties and well-understood theoretical foundations. This paper applies MLS to volume rendering, providing a unified mathematical framework for ray casting of scalar data stored over regular as well as irregular grids. We use the MLS reconstruction to render smooth isosurfaces and to compute accurate derivatives for high-quality shading effects. We also present a novel, adaptive preintegration scheme to improve the efficiency of the ray casting algorithm by reducing the overall number of function evaluations, and an efficient implementation of our framework exploiting modern graphics hardware. The resulting system enables high-quality volume integration and shaded isosurface rendering for regular and irregular volume data.

  8. Aperiodic Volume Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerke, Tim D.

    Presented in this thesis is an investigation into aperiodic volume optical devices. The three main topics of research and discussion are the aperiodic volume optical devices that we call computer-generated volume holograms (CGVH), defects within periodic 3D photonic crystals, and non-periodic, but ordered 3D quasicrystals. The first of these devices, CGVHs, are designed and investigated numerically and experimentally. We study the performance of multi-layered amplitude computer-generated volume holograms in terms of efficiency and angular/frequency selectivity. Simulation results show that such aperiodic devices can increase diffraction efficiency relative to periodic amplitude volume holograms while maintaining angular and wavelength selectivity. CGVHs are also designed as voxelated volumes using a new projection optimization algorithm. They are investigated using a volumetric diffraction simulation and a standard 3D beam propagation technique as well as experimentally. Both simulation and experiment verify that the structures function according to their design. These represent the first diffractive structures that have the capacity for generating arbitrary transmission and reflection wave fronts and that provide the ability for multiplexing arbitrary functionality given different illumination conditions. Also investigated and discussed in this thesis are 3D photonic crystals and quasicrystals. We demonstrate that these devices can be fabricated using a femtosecond laser direct writing system that is particularly appropriate for fabrication of such arbitrary 3D structures. We also show that these devices can provide 3D partial bandgaps which could become complete bandgaps if fabricated using high index materials or by coating lower index materials with high index metals. Our fabrication method is particularly suited to the fabrication of engineered defects within the periodic or quasi-periodic systems. We demonstrate the potential for fabricating defects within

  9. Live ultrasound volume reconstruction using scout scanning

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Amelie; Lasso, Andras; Ungi, Tamas; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Ultrasound-guided interventions often necessitate scanning of deep-seated anatomical structures that may be hard to visualize. Visualization can be improved using reconstructed 3D ultrasound volumes. High-resolution 3D reconstruction of a large area during clinical interventions is challenging if the region of interest is unknown. We propose a two-stage scanning method allowing the user to perform quick low-resolution scouting followed by high-resolution live volume reconstruction. METHODS Scout scanning is accomplished by stacking 2D tracked ultrasound images into a low-resolution volume. Then, within a region of interest defined in the scout scan, live volume reconstruction can be performed by continuous scanning until sufficient image density is achieved. We implemented the workflow as a module of the open-source 3D Slicer application, within the SlicerIGT extension and building on the PLUS toolkit. RESULTS Scout scanning is performed in a few seconds using 3 mm spacing to allow region of interest definition. Live reconstruction parameters are set to provide good image quality (0.5 mm spacing, hole filling enabled) and feedback is given during live scanning by regularly updated display of the reconstructed volume. DISCUSSION Use of scout scanning may allow the physician to identify anatomical structures. Subsequent live volume reconstruction in a region of interest may assist in procedures such as targeting needle interventions or estimating brain shift during surgery. PMID:26005249

  10. Live ultrasound volume reconstruction using scout scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Amelie; Lasso, Andras; Ungi, Tamas; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2015-03-01

    Ultrasound-guided interventions often necessitate scanning of deep-seated anatomical structures that may be hard to visualize. Visualization can be improved using reconstructed 3D ultrasound volumes. High-resolution 3D reconstruction of a large area during clinical interventions is challenging if the region of interest is unknown. We propose a two-stage scanning method allowing the user to perform quick low-resolution scouting followed by high-resolution live volume reconstruction. Scout scanning is accomplished by stacking 2D tracked ultrasound images into a low-resolution volume. Then, within a region of interest defined in the scout scan, live volume reconstruction can be performed by continuous scanning until sufficient image density is achieved. We implemented the workflow as a module of the open-source 3D Slicer application, within the SlicerIGT extension and building on the PLUS toolkit. Scout scanning is performed in a few seconds using 3 mm spacing to allow region of interest definition. Live reconstruction parameters are set to provide good image quality (0.5 mm spacing, hole filling enabled) and feedback is given during live scanning by regularly updated display of the reconstructed volume. Use of scout scanning may allow the physician to identify anatomical structures. Subsequent live volume reconstruction in a region of interest may assist in procedures such as targeting needle interventions or estimating brain shift during surgery.

  11. Deafness Annual, Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Arthur G., Ed.

    Presented is the second of two volumes on deafness which contains 12 papers and a review of programs or grants sponsored by the federal government and other groups. Larry Stewart identifies the deaf in "A Truly Silent Minority". In the "Seven-Faces of Deafness", G. Loyd tells what deafness means to seven people. E. Mindel maintains that parents…

  12. Children's Literature. Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Francelia, Ed.; Brockman, Bennett A., Ed.

    This volume applies critical literary standards to the field of children's literature in a long-range effort to improve its quality and teaching. Contributors and editors represent international scholarship in all of the humanities, as well as in the specific area of children's literature. Articles span topics from European children's literature…

  13. Liter - Metric Volume.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sisk, Diane

    This autoinstructional program, developed as part of a general science course, is offered for students in the middle schools. Mathematics of fractions and decimals is considered to be prerequisite knowledge. The behavioral objectives are directed toward mastery of determining volumes of solid objects using the water displacement method as well as…

  14. Strategic Plan. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to present the strategic plan and associated organizational structure that the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) will utilize to achieve the defined mission and objectives provided by NASA. Much of the information regarding the background and establishment of the NSBRI by NASA has been provided in other documentation and will not be repeated in this Strategic Plan. This Strategic Plan is presented in two volumes. Volume I (this volume) begins with an Introduction (Section 2) that provides the Institute's NASA-defined mission and objectives, and the organizational structure adopted to implement these through three Strategic Programs: Countermeasure Research; Education, Training and Outreach; and Cooperative Research and Development. These programs are described in Sections 3 to 5. Each program is presented in a similar way, using four subsections: Goals and Objectives; Current Strategies; Gaps and Modifications; and Resource Requirements. Section 6 provides the administrative infrastructure and total budget required to implement the Strategic Programs and assures that they form a single cohesive plan. This plan will ensure continued success of the Institute for the next five years. Volume II of the Strategic Plan provides an in-depth analysis of the current and future strategic programs of the 12 current NSBRI teams, including their goals, objectives, mutual interactions and schedules.

  15. Introduction to the Volume.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emihovich, Catherine; Schroder, Barbara; Panofsky, Carolyn P.

    1999-01-01

    Introduces a volume that examines the issue of critical thinking and whether or not it is culturally specific, discussing recent research on the subject. The papers focus on critical thinking and culture, historical consciousness and critical thinking, critical thinking as cultural-historical practice, culture and the development of critical…

  16. Volunteer Voice. Volume IX.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volunteer Voice, 1992

    1992-01-01

    This document consists of the three volume IX issues of "Volunteer Voice," a newsletter of the Tacoma Community House Training Project. The first issue consists of one teacher's personal account of English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) teaching and includes the following: an annotated list of ESL text books, a list of activities resources,…

  17. Volume measuring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oele, J. S.

    1975-01-01

    Chamber is designed to be airtight; it includes face mask for person to breathe outside air so that he does not disturb chamber environment. Chamber includes piston to vary air volume inside. Also included are two microphone transducers which record pressure information inside chamber.

  18. Leadership Abstracts, Volume 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milliron, Mark D., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    The abstracts in this series provide brief discussions of issues related to leadership, administration, professional development, technology, and education in community colleges. Volume 10 for 1997 contains the following 12 abstracts: (1) "On Community College Renewal" (Nathan L. Hodges and Mark D. Milliron); (2) "The Community College Niche in a…

  19. Cerebrospinal fluid volume measurements in hydrocephalic rats.

    PubMed

    Basati, Sukhraaj; Desai, Bhargav; Alaraj, Ali; Charbel, Fady; Linninger, Andreas

    2012-10-01

    Object Experimental data about the evolution of intracranial volume and pressure in cases of hydrocephalus are limited due to the lack of available monitoring techniques. In this study, the authors validate intracranial CSF volume measurements within the lateral ventricle, while simultaneously using impedance sensors and pressure transducers in hydrocephalic animals. Methods A volume sensor was fabricated and connected to a catheter that was used as a shunt to withdraw CSF. In vitro bench-top calibration experiments were created to provide data for the animal experiments and to validate the sensors. To validate the measurement technique in a physiological system, hydrocephalus was induced in weanling rats by kaolin injection into the cisterna magna. At 28 days after induction, the sensor was implanted into the lateral ventricles. After sealing the skull using dental cement, an acute CSF drainage/infusion protocol consisting of 4 sequential phases was performed with a pump. Implant location was confirmed via radiography using intraventricular iohexol contrast administration. Results Controlled CSF shunting in vivo with hydrocephalic rats resulted in precise and accurate sensor measurements (r = 0.98). Shunting resulted in a 17.3% maximum measurement error between measured volume and actual volume as assessed by a Bland-Altman plot. A secondary outcome confirmed that both ventricular volume and intracranial pressure decreased during CSF shunting and increased during infusion. Ventricular enlargement consistent with successful hydrocephalus induction was confirmed using imaging, as well as postmortem. These results indicate that volume monitoring is feasible for clinical cases of hydrocephalus. Conclusions This work marks a departure from traditional shunting systems currently used to treat hydrocephalus. The overall clinical application is to provide alternative monitoring and treatment options for patients. Future work includes development and testing of a chronic

  20. Health Occupations Education. Units of Instruction. Teacher's Guide. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East Texas State Univ., Commerce. Occupational Curriculum Lab.

    This manual is the first part of a two-volume teacher's guide to a series of instructional units for use in health occupations education programs in Texas. Covered in the 10 units included in this volume are the following topics: taking and recording vital signs; job applications and interviews; grooming and personal hygiene; health careers;…

  1. Determination of gas volume trapped in a closed fluid system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, W. F.; Jolley, J. E.

    1971-01-01

    Technique involves extracting known volume of fluid and measuring system before and after extraction, volume of entrapped gas is then computed. Formula derived from ideal gas laws is basis of this method. Technique is applicable to thermodynamic cycles and hydraulic systems.

  2. Liposome technology. Volume III: Targeted drug delivery and biological interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Gregoriadis, G.

    1984-01-01

    These three volumes cover liposome technology in pharmacology and medicine. Contributors emphasize methodology used in their own laboratories, and include a brief introduction, coverage of relevant literature, applications and critical evaluations for the methods they describe. In Volume III, the growing variety of techniques yielding targeted liposomes and approaches of studying liposomal behavior both in vitro and in vivo are discussed.

  3. Estimation of feline renal volume using computed tomography and ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Tyson, Reid; Logsdon, Stacy A; Werre, Stephen R; Daniel, Gregory B

    2013-01-01

    Renal volume estimation is an important parameter for clinical evaluation of kidneys and research applications. A time efficient, repeatable, and accurate method for volume estimation is required. The purpose of this study was to describe the accuracy of ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) for estimating feline renal volume. Standardized ultrasound and CT scans were acquired for kidneys of 12 cadaver cats, in situ. Ultrasound and CT multiplanar reconstructions were used to record renal length measurements that were then used to calculate volume using the prolate ellipsoid formula for volume estimation. In addition, CT studies were reconstructed at 1 mm, 5 mm, and 1 cm, and transferred to a workstation where the renal volume was calculated using the voxel count method (hand drawn regions of interest). The reference standard kidney volume was then determined ex vivo using water displacement with the Archimedes' principle. Ultrasound measurement of renal length accounted for approximately 87% of the variability in renal volume for the study population. The prolate ellipsoid formula exhibited proportional bias and underestimated renal volume by a median of 18.9%. Computed tomography volume estimates using the voxel count method with hand-traced regions of interest provided the most accurate results, with increasing accuracy for smaller voxel sizes in grossly normal kidneys (-10.1 to 0.6%). Findings from this study supported the use of CT and the voxel count method for estimating feline renal volume in future clinical and research studies. PMID:23278991

  4. Variable volume calibration apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Hallman, R.L. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus is provided for determining the volume of a closed chamber. The apparatus includes a body having a cylindrical cavity therein including a threaded rear portion and a closed front end, and a piston having a threaded portion which mates with threaded rear portion of the cavity and which reciprocates in the cavity. A gas-impermeable seal, which is carried by the piston in one embodiment, forms a closed chamber in the front end of the cavity. A linear-movement indicator, attached to the rear end of the piston, measures the reciprocating movement of the piston in the cavity, while a pressure sensing device, connected to the front end of the cavity, determines the pressure in the closed system. In use, a vessel, having a volume enclosing experimental materials, is also connected to the front end of the cavity, and pressure and piston movement measurements are made which enable calculation of a volume change in the vessels. The design and operation of this instrument are presented. 7 figs.

  5. Volume of a laser-induced microjet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamoto, Sennosuke; Hayasaka, Keisuke; Noguchi, Yuto; Tagawa, Yoshiyuki

    2015-11-01

    Needle-free injection systems are of great importance for medical treatments. In spite of their great potential, these systems are not commonly used. One of the common problems is strong pain caused by diffusion shape of the jet. To solve this problem, the usage of a high-speed highly-focused microjet as needle-free injection system is expected. It is thus crucial to control important indicators such as ejected volume of the jet for its safe application. We conduct experiments to reveal which parameter influences mostly the ejected volume. In the experiments, we use a glass tube of an inner diameter of 500 micro-meter, which is filled with the liquid. One end is connected to a syringe and the other end is opened. Radiating the pulse laser instantaneously vapors the liquid, followed by the generation of a shockwave. We find that the maximum volume of a laser-induced bubble is approximately proportional to the ejected volume. It is also found that the occurrence of cavitation does not affect the ejected volume while it changes the jet velocity.

  6. New constitutive equation for the volume viscosity in fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuckerwar, Allan J.; Ash, Robert L.

    1994-01-01

    The traditional volume viscosity, Stokes' hypothesis, and acoustical relaxation are reviewed. The lossy Navier-Stokes Equation is applied to periodic (acoustic) flow, and it is shown that the traditional volume viscosity leads to a result which contradicts that describing acoustical relaxation. It is demonstrated that the addition of a second volume viscosity term to the constitutive equation, to account for pressure relaxation, resolves the conflict, and leads to a direct correspondence between the volume viscosity parameters and the acoustical relaxation parameters. The representation of volume viscosity is formulated for the case of multiple relaxations, as occur in air. Finally, an application of the new constitutive equation to a simple convective compressible flow, namely a linearly accelerating flow, demonstrates the impact of volume viscosity upon the flow and the physical conditions for which it is important.

  7. Parallel unstructured volume rendering in ParaView

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreland, Kenneth; Avila, Lisa; Fisk, Lee Ann

    2007-01-01

    ParaView is a popular open-source general-purpose scientific visualization application. One of the many visualization tools available within ParaView is the volume rendering of unstructured meshes. Volume rendering is a technique that renders a mesh as a translucent solid, thereby allowing the user to see every point in three-dimensional space simultaneously. Because volume rendering is computationally intensive, ParaView now employs a unique parallel rendering algorithm to speed the processes. The parallel rendering algorithm is very flexible. It works equally well for both volumes and surfaces, and can properly render the intersection of a volume and opaque polygonal surfaces. The parallel rendering algorithm can also render images for tiled displays. In this paper, we explore the implementation of parallel unstructured volume rendering in ParaView.

  8. Multispectral scanner data applications evaluation. Volume 1: User applications study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, F. J.; Erickson, J. D.; Nalepka, R. F.; Weber, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    A six-month systems study of earth resource surveys from satellites was conducted and is reported. SKYLAB S-192 multispectral scanner (MSS) data were used as a baseline to aid in evaluating the characteristics of future systems using satellite MSS sensors. The study took the viewpoint that overall system (sensor and processing) characteristics and parameter values should be determined largely by user requirements for automatic information extraction performance in quasi-operational earth resources surveys, the other major factor being hardware limitations imposed by state-of-the-art technology and cost. The objective was to use actual aircraft and spacecraft MSS data to outline parametrically the trade-offs between user performance requirements and hardware performance and limitations so as to allow subsequent evaluation of compromises which must be made in deciding what system(s) to build.

  9. Comment on 'volume of magma accumulation or withdrawal estimated from surface uplift or subsidence, with application to the 1960 collapse of Kilauea volcano' by P.T. Delaney and D.F. McTigue

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Daniel J.; Sigmundsson, F.; Delaney, P.T.

    2000-01-01

    In volcanoes that store a significant quantity of magma within a subsurface summit reservoir, such as Kilauea, bulk compression of stored magma is an important mode of deformation. Accumulation of magma is also accompanied by crustal deformation, usually manifested at the surface as uplift. These two modes of deformation - bulk compression of resident magma and deformation of the volcanic edifice - act in concert to accommodate the volume of newly added magma. During deflation, the processes reverse and reservoir magma undergoes bulk decompression, the chamber contracts, and the ground surface subsides. Because magma compression plays a role in creating subsurface volume of accommodate magma, magma budget estimates that are derived from surface uplift observations without consideration of magma compression will underestimate actual magma volume changes.

  10. Environmental report 1994. Volume No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Rath, K.S.; Harrach, R.J.; Gallegos, G.M.; Failor, R.A.; Christofferson, E.

    1995-09-01

    This volume 2 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) annual Environmental Report 1994 is a detailed data report that provides individual data points, where applicable, along with some summary data and more detailed accounts of sample collection and analytical methods. Six chapters have information on monitoring of air, surface water, groundwater, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuffs, and environmental radiation; two other chapters cover compliance sel-monitoring and quality assurance.

  11. Cost optimization in low volume VLSI circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, K. B., Jr.; Kerns, D. V., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The relationship of integrated circuit (IC) cost to electronic system cost is developed using models for integrated circuit cost which are based on design/fabrication approach. Emphasis is on understanding the relationship between cost and volume for custom circuits suitable for NASA applications. In this report, reliability is a major consideration in the models developed. Results are given for several typical IC designs using off the shelf, full custom, and semicustom IC's with single and double level metallization.

  12. Dental anatomy portrayed with microscopic volume investigations.

    PubMed

    Baumann, M A; Schwebel, T; Kriete, A

    1993-01-01

    The clinical treatment of the root canal of teeth--called endodontics--assumes a precise idea of the spatial arrangement of the anatomy of teeth and their inner structure. By using computer-assisted data acquisition from filmed sequences of histologic serial sections and a special kind of magnetic resonance microscope--the Stray Field Imaging (STRAFI)--volume investigations were carried out using special functions of a newly developed 3D software. Possible applications and future perspectives are discussed.

  13. REFLECTION AND REFRACTION, VOLUME 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KLAUS, DAVID J.; AND OTHERS

    THIS VOLUME 2 OF A TWO-VOLUME SET PROVIDES AUTOINSTRUCTION IN PHYSICS. THE UNITS COVERED IN THIS VOLUME ARE (1) REFLECTION OF LIGHT, (2) PHOTOMETRY, (3) POLARIZATION, (4) REFRACTION OF LIGHT, (5) SNELL'S LAW, (6) LENSES, FOCUS, AND FOCAL POINTS, (7) IMAGE FORMATION, AND (8) ABERRATIONS, THE EYE, AND MAGNIFICATION. THE INTRODUCTION AND UNITS ON…

  14. Calculus Students' Understanding of Volume

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorko, Allison; Speer, Natasha M.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have documented difficulties that elementary school students have in understanding volume. Despite its importance in higher mathematics, we know little about college students' understanding of volume. This study investigated calculus students' understanding of volume. Clinical interview transcripts and written responses to volume…

  15. New volume and inverse volume operators for loop quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jinsong; Ma, Yongge

    2016-08-01

    A new alternative volume operator is constructed for loop quantum gravity by using the so-called cotriad operators as building blocks. It is shown that the new volume operator shares the same qualitative properties with the standard volume operator. Moreover, a new alternative inverse volume operator is also constructed in the light of the construction of the alternative volume operator, which is possessed of the same qualitative properties as those of the alternative volume operator. The new inverse volume operator can be employed to construct the Hamiltonian operator of matter fields, which may lead to an anomaly-free on-shell quantum constraint algebra without any special restriction on the regularization procedure for gravity coupled to matter fields.

  16. Transparent volume imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wixson, Steve E.

    1990-07-01

    Transparent Volume Imaging began with the stereo xray in 1895 and ended for most investigators when radiation safety concerns eliminated the second view. Today, similiar images can be generated by the computer without safety hazards providing improved perception and new means of image quantification. A volumetric workstation is under development based on an operational prototype. The workstation consists of multiple symbolic and numeric processors, binocular stereo color display generator with large image memory and liquid crystal shutter, voice input and output, a 3D pointer that uses projection lenses so that structures in 3 space can be touched directly, 3D hard copy using vectograph and lenticular printing, and presentation facilities using stereo 35mm slide and stereo video tape projection. Volumetric software includes a volume window manager, Mayo Clinic's Analyze program and our Digital Stereo Microscope (DSM) algorithms. The DSM uses stereo xray-like projections, rapidly oscillating motion and focal depth cues such that detail can be studied in the spatial context of the entire set of data. Focal depth cues are generated with a lens and apeture algorithm that generates a plane of sharp focus, and multiple stereo pairs each with a different plane of sharp focus are generated and stored in the large memory for interactive selection using a physical or symbolic depth selector. More recent work is studying non-linear focussing. Psychophysical studies are underway to understand how people perce ive images on a volumetric display and how accurately 3 dimensional structures can be quantitated from these displays.

  17. Radiobioassays. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Ashkar, F.S.

    1983-01-01

    This book presents the papers on radioimmunoassay. Topics considered include principles and application, instrumentation, radioimmunoassay data management, radiobioassay economics, laboratory management, thyroid evaluation, clinical and laboratory evaluation of adrenal dysfunction, parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, and human reproduction functions.

  18. Disc Volume Reduction with Percutaneous Nucleoplasty in an Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Kasch, Richard; Mensel, Birger; Schmidt, Florian; Ruetten, Sebastian; Barz, Thomas; Froehlich, Susanne; Seipel, Rebecca; Merk, Harry R.; Kayser, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    Study Design We assessed volume following nucleoplasty disc decompression in lower lumbar spines from cadaveric pigs using 7.1Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Purpose To investigate coblation-induced volume reductions as a possible mechanism underlying nucleoplasty. Methods We assessed volume following nucleoplastic disc decompression in pig spines using 7.1-Tesla MRI. Volumetry was performed in lumbar discs of 21 postmortem pigs. A preoperative image data set was obtained, volume was determined, and either disc decompression or placebo therapy was performed in a randomized manner. Group 1 (nucleoplasty group) was treated according to the usual nucleoplasty protocol with coblation current applied to 6 channels for 10 seconds each in an application field of 360°; in group 2 (placebo group) the same procedure was performed but without coblation current. After the procedure, a second data set was generated and volumes calculated and matched with the preoperative measurements in a blinded manner. To analyze the effectiveness of nucleoplasty, volumes between treatment and placebo groups were compared. Results The average preoperative nucleus volume was 0.994 ml (SD: 0.298 ml). In the nucleoplasty group (n = 21) volume was reduced by an average of 0.087 ml (SD: 0.110 ml) or 7.14%. In the placebo group (n = 21) volume was increased by an average of 0.075 ml (SD: 0.075 ml) or 8.94%. The average nucleoplasty-induced volume reduction was 0.162 ml (SD: 0.124 ml) or 16.08%. Volume reduction in lumbar discs was significant in favor of the nucleoplasty group (p<0.0001). Conclusions Our study demonstrates that nucleoplasty has a volume-reducing effect on the lumbar nucleus pulposus in an animal model. Furthermore, we show the volume reduction to be a coblation effect of nucleoplasty in porcine discs. PMID:23209677

  19. Manual of Documentation Practices Applicable to Defence-Aerospace Scientific and Technical Information. Volume IV: Sections 10--Security Storage and Control; 11--Organisation and Management; 12--Networks and External Sources of Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuler, S. C., Ed.

    The last of four volumes in a series describing the basic documentation practices involved in the initial setting up and subsequent operation of an information-library organization to provide defense-aerospace scientific and technical information services, this manual consists of three sections. In "Security Storage and Control," Michael Sims…

  20. THE PREPARATION OF CURRICULUM MATERIALS AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF TEACHERS FOR AN EXPERIMENTAL APPLICATION OF THE CLUSTER CONCEPT OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AT THE SECONDARY SCHOOL LEVEL. VOLUME II, INSTRUCTIONAL PLANS FOR THE CONSTRUCTION CLUSTER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MALEY, DONALD

    DESIGNED FOR USE WITH 11TH AND 12TH GRADE STUDENTS, THIS CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR THE OCCUPATIONAL CLUSTER IN CONSTRUCTION WAS DEVELOPED BY PARTICIPATING TEACHERS FROM RESULTS OF THE RESEARCH PROCEDURES DESCRIBED IN VOLUME I (VT 004 162). THE COURSE DESCRIPTION, NEED FOR THE COURSE, COURSE OBJECTIVES, PROCEDURE, AND INSTRUCTIONAL PLAN ARE DISCUSSED…

  1. THE PREPARATION OF CURRICULUM MATERIALS AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF TEACHERS FOR AN EXPERIMENTAL APPLICATION OF THE CLUSTER CONCEPT OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AT THE SECONDARY SCHOOL LEVEL. VOLUME IV, INSTRUCTIONAL PLANS FOR THE ELECTRO-MECHANICAL CLUSTER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MALEY, DONALD

    DESIGNED FOR USE WITH 11TH AND 12TH GRADE STUDENTS, THIS CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR THE OCCUPATIONAL CLUSTER IN ELECTRO-MECHANICAL INSTALLATION AND REPAIR WAS DEVELOPED BY PARTICIPATING TEACHERS FROM RESULTS OF THE RESEARCH PROCEDURES DESCRIBED IN VOLUME I (VT 004 162). THE COURSE DESCRIPTIONS, NEED FOR THE COURSE, COURSE OBJECTIVES, PROCEDURES, AND…

  2. Automatic, accurate, and reproducible segmentation of the brain and cerebro-spinal fluid in T1-weighted volume MRI scans and its application to serial cerebral and intracranial volumetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemieux, Louis

    2001-07-01

    A new fully automatic algorithm for the segmentation of the brain and cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) from T1-weighted volume MRI scans of the head was specifically developed in the context of serial intra-cranial volumetry. The method is an extension of a previously published brain extraction algorithm. The brain mask is used as a basis for CSF segmentation based on morphological operations, automatic histogram analysis and thresholding. Brain segmentation is then obtained by iterative tracking of the brain-CSF interface. Grey matter (GM), white matter (WM) and CSF volumes are calculated based on a model of intensity probability distribution that includes partial volume effects. Accuracy was assessed using a digital phantom scan. Reproducibility was assessed by segmenting pairs of scans from 20 normal subjects scanned 8 months apart and 11 patients with epilepsy scanned 3.5 years apart. Segmentation accuracy as measured by overlap was 98% for the brain and 96% for the intra-cranial tissues. The volume errors were: total brain (TBV): -1.0%, intra-cranial (ICV):0.1%, CSF: +4.8%. For repeated scans, matching resulted in improved reproducibility. In the controls, the coefficient of reliability (CR) was 1.5% for the TVB and 1.0% for the ICV. In the patients, the Cr for the ICV was 1.2%.

  3. THE PREPARATION OF CURRICULUM MATERIALS AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF TEACHERS FOR AN EXPERIMENTAL APPLICATION OF THE CLUSTER CONCEPT OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AT THE SECONDARY SCHOOL LEVEL. VOLUME III, INSTRUCTIONAL PLANS FOR THE METAL FORMING AND FABRICATION CLUSTER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MALEY, DONALD

    DESIGNED FOR USE WITH 11TH AND 12TH GRADE STUDENTS, THIS CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR THE OCCUPATIONAL CLUSTER IN METAL FORMING AND FABRICATION WAS DEVELOPED BY PARTICIPATING TEACHERS FROM RESULTS OF THE RESEARCH PROCEDURES DESCRIBED IN VOLUME I (VT 004 162). THE COURSE DESCRIPTION, NEED FOR THE COURSE, COURSE OBJECTIVES, PROCEDURES AND INSTRUCTIONAL PLAN…

  4. 40 CFR 86.098-14 - Small-volume manufacturers certification procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Small-volume manufacturers...-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.098-14 Small-volume... emission tests (as applicable) (including canister working capacity, canister bed volume, and...

  5. 40 CFR 86.098-14 - Small-volume manufacturers certification procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Small-volume manufacturers...-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.098-14 Small-volume... emission tests (as applicable) (including canister working capacity, canister bed volume, and...

  6. 40 CFR 86.098-14 - Small-volume manufacturers certification procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Small-volume manufacturers...-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.098-14 Small-volume... emission tests (as applicable) (including canister working capacity, canister bed volume, and...

  7. 39 CFR 3010.24 - Treatment of volume associated with negotiated service agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Treatment of volume associated with negotiated... volume associated with negotiated service agreements. (a) Mail volumes sent at rates under negotiated... general applicability (e.g., because unique rate categories are created for a mailer), the...

  8. 39 CFR 3010.24 - Treatment of volume associated with negotiated service agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Treatment of volume associated with negotiated... volume associated with negotiated service agreements. (a) Mail volumes sent at rates under negotiated... general applicability (e.g., because unique rate categories are created for a mailer), the...

  9. 39 CFR 3010.24 - Treatment of volume associated with negotiated service agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Treatment of volume associated with negotiated... volume associated with negotiated service agreements. (a) Mail volumes sent at rates under negotiated... general applicability (e.g., because unique rate categories are created for a mailer), the...

  10. 40 CFR 86.098-14 - Small-volume manufacturers certification procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Small-volume manufacturers...-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.098-14 Small-volume... emission tests (as applicable) (including canister working capacity, canister bed volume, and...

  11. 40 CFR 86.098-14 - Small-volume manufacturers certification procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Small-volume manufacturers...-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.098-14 Small-volume... emission tests (as applicable) (including canister working capacity, canister bed volume, and...

  12. 39 CFR 3010.24 - Treatment of volume associated with negotiated service agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Treatment of volume associated with negotiated... volume associated with negotiated service agreements. (a) Mail volumes sent at rates under negotiated... general applicability (e.g., because unique rate categories are created for a mailer), the...

  13. Variable-volume turbocharger

    SciTech Connect

    Nakazawa, N.; Matsura, Y.; Takemoto, T.; Kohketsu, S.

    1988-01-19

    A variable-volume turbocharger device is described comprising a turbine housing having at least first and second exhaust gas passages divided by a partition wall provided in the housing. The first exhaust gas passage has a large flow characteristic and the second exhaust gas passage has a small flow characteristic. A first valve means operable to open and shut the first exhaust gas passage, and a second valve means operative to open and shut the second exhaust gas passage independently from the first valve means, each of the valve means having a valve member which cooperates with a valve seat to open and shut the corresponding exhaust gas passage, the valve members being arranged so as to open toward the upstream side of the flowing direction of exhaust gas with respect to the valve seats.

  14. Soot Volume Fraction Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, Paul S.; Ku, Jerry C.

    1994-01-01

    A new technique is described for the full-field determination of soot volume fractions via laser extinction measurements. This technique differs from previously reported point-wise methods in that a two-dimensional array (i.e., image) of data is acquired simultaneously. In this fashion, the net data rate is increased, allowing the study of time-dependent phenomena and the investigation of spatial and temporal correlations. A telecentric imaging configuration is employed to provide depth-invariant magnification and to permit the specification of the collection angle for scattered light. To improve the threshold measurement sensitivity, a method is employed to suppress undesirable coherent imaging effects. A discussion of the tomographic inversion process is provided, including the results obtained from numerical simulation. Results obtained with this method from an ethylene diffusion flame are shown to be in close agreement with those previously obtained by sequential point-wise interrogation.

  15. Assessing the optimal liquid volume to be sprayed on isolated olive trees according to their canopy volumes.

    PubMed

    Miranda-Fuentes, A; Llorens, J; Rodríguez-Lizana, A; Cuenca, A; Gil, E; Blanco-Roldán, G L; Gil-Ribes, J A

    2016-10-15

    The application of pesticides to traditional and intensive olive orchards in Southern Spain has led to environmental problems. More specifically, the lack of an accurate, useful criterion to regulate the spray volume in relation to canopy characteristics has led to spray drift and runoff, which are threats to local ecosystems. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal relationship between canopy volume and the spray application volume, called specific spray volume, CV, through laboratory and field trials. In the laboratory trial, 6 specific spray volumes (0.05, 0.08, 0.10, 0.12, 0.15, and 0.20Lm(-3)) were tested in a specially designed structure containing small, live olive trees in order to simulate an intensive plantation system. The model aimed to evaluate the coverage of pesticide application on water sensitive paper (WSP) collectors. In the field trial, the three laboratory specific spray volumes that gave the best coverage values were tested on live, intensively managed trees, whose crown volume was manually measured. Food dye E-102 was used to determine the spray deposition on artificial targets (10×10cm absorbent paper pieces), and WSP was used to evaluate spray coverage. The spray penetration and deposit homogeneity inside the canopy were also evaluated. Weather conditions during the field trial were monitored with a weather station. The results of the laboratory trial showed that the three best specific spray volumes were 0.08, 0.10, and 0.12Lm(-3), resulting in mean coverage values of approximately 30%. The ANOVA of the field trial results showed that the 0.12Lm(-3) was the optimal specific spray volume for isolated olive trees. This specific spray volume gave the highest mean deposits, the best efficiency (as measured by the greatest normalized deposit), the most favourable penetration and homogeneity, and the highest coverage values. PMID:27300563

  16. Assessing the optimal liquid volume to be sprayed on isolated olive trees according to their canopy volumes.

    PubMed

    Miranda-Fuentes, A; Llorens, J; Rodríguez-Lizana, A; Cuenca, A; Gil, E; Blanco-Roldán, G L; Gil-Ribes, J A

    2016-10-15

    The application of pesticides to traditional and intensive olive orchards in Southern Spain has led to environmental problems. More specifically, the lack of an accurate, useful criterion to regulate the spray volume in relation to canopy characteristics has led to spray drift and runoff, which are threats to local ecosystems. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal relationship between canopy volume and the spray application volume, called specific spray volume, CV, through laboratory and field trials. In the laboratory trial, 6 specific spray volumes (0.05, 0.08, 0.10, 0.12, 0.15, and 0.20Lm(-3)) were tested in a specially designed structure containing small, live olive trees in order to simulate an intensive plantation system. The model aimed to evaluate the coverage of pesticide application on water sensitive paper (WSP) collectors. In the field trial, the three laboratory specific spray volumes that gave the best coverage values were tested on live, intensively managed trees, whose crown volume was manually measured. Food dye E-102 was used to determine the spray deposition on artificial targets (10×10cm absorbent paper pieces), and WSP was used to evaluate spray coverage. The spray penetration and deposit homogeneity inside the canopy were also evaluated. Weather conditions during the field trial were monitored with a weather station. The results of the laboratory trial showed that the three best specific spray volumes were 0.08, 0.10, and 0.12Lm(-3), resulting in mean coverage values of approximately 30%. The ANOVA of the field trial results showed that the 0.12Lm(-3) was the optimal specific spray volume for isolated olive trees. This specific spray volume gave the highest mean deposits, the best efficiency (as measured by the greatest normalized deposit), the most favourable penetration and homogeneity, and the highest coverage values.

  17. Membranes with artificial free-volume for biofuel production

    PubMed Central

    Petzetakis, Nikos; Doherty, Cara M.; Thornton, Aaron W.; Chen, X. Chelsea; Cotanda, Pepa; Hill, Anita J.; Balsara, Nitash P.

    2015-01-01

    Free-volume of polymers governs transport of penetrants through polymeric films. Control over free-volume is thus important for the development of better membranes for a wide variety of applications such as gas separations, pharmaceutical purifications and energy storage. To date, methodologies used to create materials with different amounts of free-volume are based primarily on chemical synthesis of new polymers. Here we report a simple methodology for generating free-volume based on the self-assembly of polyethylene-b-polydimethylsiloxane-b-polyethylene triblock copolymers. We have used this method to fabricate a series of membranes with identical compositions but with different amounts of free-volume. We use the term artificial free-volume to refer to the additional free-volume created by self-assembly. The effect of artificial free-volume on selective transport through the membranes was tested using butanol/water and ethanol/water mixtures due to their importance in biofuel production. We found that the introduction of artificial free-volume improves both alcohol permeability and selectivity. PMID:26104672

  18. Membranes with artificial free-volume for biofuel production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petzetakis, Nikos; Doherty, Cara M.; Thornton, Aaron W.; Chen, X. Chelsea; Cotanda, Pepa; Hill, Anita J.; Balsara, Nitash P.

    2015-06-01

    Free-volume of polymers governs transport of penetrants through polymeric films. Control over free-volume is thus important for the development of better membranes for a wide variety of applications such as gas separations, pharmaceutical purifications and energy storage. To date, methodologies used to create materials with different amounts of free-volume are based primarily on chemical synthesis of new polymers. Here we report a simple methodology for generating free-volume based on the self-assembly of polyethylene-b-polydimethylsiloxane-b-polyethylene triblock copolymers. We have used this method to fabricate a series of membranes with identical compositions but with different amounts of free-volume. We use the term artificial free-volume to refer to the additional free-volume created by self-assembly. The effect of artificial free-volume on selective transport through the membranes was tested using butanol/water and ethanol/water mixtures due to their importance in biofuel production. We found that the introduction of artificial free-volume improves both alcohol permeability and selectivity.

  19. Membranes with artificial free-volume for biofuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Petzetakis, Nikos; Doherty, Cara M.; Thornton, Aaron W.; Chen, X. Chelsea; Cotanda, Pepa; Hill, Anita J.; Balsara, Nitash P.

    2015-06-24

    Free-volume of polymers governs transport of penetrants through polymeric films. Control over free-volume is thus important for the development of better membranes for a wide variety of applications such as gas separations, pharmaceutical purifications and energy storage. To date, methodologies used to create materials with different amounts of free-volume are based primarily on chemical synthesis of new polymers. Here we report a simple methodology for generating free-volume based on the self-assembly of polyethylene-b-polydimethylsiloxane-b-polyethylene triblock copolymers. Here, we have used this method to fabricate a series of membranes with identical compositions but with different amounts of free-volume. We use the term artificial free-volume to refer to the additional free-volume created by self-assembly. The effect of artificial free-volume on selective transport through the membranes was tested using butanol/water and ethanol/water mixtures due to their importance in biofuel production. Moreover, we found that the introduction of artificial free-volume improves both alcohol permeability and selectivity.

  20. Membranes with artificial free-volume for biofuel production

    DOE PAGES

    Petzetakis, Nikos; Doherty, Cara M.; Thornton, Aaron W.; Chen, X. Chelsea; Cotanda, Pepa; Hill, Anita J.; Balsara, Nitash P.

    2015-06-24

    Free-volume of polymers governs transport of penetrants through polymeric films. Control over free-volume is thus important for the development of better membranes for a wide variety of applications such as gas separations, pharmaceutical purifications and energy storage. To date, methodologies used to create materials with different amounts of free-volume are based primarily on chemical synthesis of new polymers. Here we report a simple methodology for generating free-volume based on the self-assembly of polyethylene-b-polydimethylsiloxane-b-polyethylene triblock copolymers. Here, we have used this method to fabricate a series of membranes with identical compositions but with different amounts of free-volume. We use the termmore » artificial free-volume to refer to the additional free-volume created by self-assembly. The effect of artificial free-volume on selective transport through the membranes was tested using butanol/water and ethanol/water mixtures due to their importance in biofuel production. Moreover, we found that the introduction of artificial free-volume improves both alcohol permeability and selectivity.« less

  1. Finite Volume Methods: Foundation and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Timothy; Ohlberger, Mario

    2003-01-01

    Finite volume methods are a class of discretization schemes that have proven highly successful in approximating the solution of a wide variety of conservation law systems. They are extensively used in fluid mechanics, porous media flow, meteorology, electromagnetics, models of biological processes, semi-conductor device simulation and many other engineering areas governed by conservative systems that can be written in integral control volume form. This article reviews elements of the foundation and analysis of modern finite volume methods. The primary advantages of these methods are numerical robustness through the obtention of discrete maximum (minimum) principles, applicability on very general unstructured meshes, and the intrinsic local conservation properties of the resulting schemes. Throughout this article, specific attention is given to scalar nonlinear hyperbolic conservation laws and the development of high order accurate schemes for discretizing them. A key tool in the design and analysis of finite volume schemes suitable for non-oscillatory discontinuity capturing is discrete maximum principle analysis. A number of building blocks used in the development of numerical schemes possessing local discrete maximum principles are reviewed in one and several space dimensions, e.g. monotone fluxes, E-fluxes, TVD discretization, non-oscillatory reconstruction, slope limiters, positive coefficient schemes, etc. When available, theoretical results concerning a priori and a posteriori error estimates are given. Further advanced topics are then considered such as high order time integration, discretization of diffusion terms and the extension to systems of nonlinear conservation laws.

  2. Information architecture. Volume 4: Vision

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    The Vision document marks the transition from definition to implementation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Information Architecture Program. A description of the possibilities for the future, supported by actual experience with a process model and tool set, points toward implementation options. The directions for future information technology investments are discussed. Practical examples of how technology answers the business and information needs of the organization through coordinated and meshed data, applications, and technology architectures are related. This document is the fourth and final volume in the planned series for defining and exhibiting the DOE information architecture. The targeted scope of this document includes DOE Program Offices, field sites, contractor-operated facilities, and laboratories. This document paints a picture of how, over the next 7 years, technology may be implemented, dramatically improving the ways business is conducted at DOE. While technology is mentioned throughout this document, the vision is not about technology. The vision concerns the transition afforded by technology and the process steps to be completed to ensure alignment with business needs. This goal can be met if those directing the changing business and mission-support processes understand the capabilities afforded by architectural processes.

  3. Environmental, health and safety impact analysis of an aluminum-air battery for vehicular applications and impact analysis associated with its overall fuel cycle. Volume 1. Battery and fuel cycle. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gratt, L.B.

    1981-11-30

    This volume considers the potential environmental, health, and safety concerns of the aluminum-air battery and its overall fuel cycle. It quantifies the consumption of natural resources and the generation of environmental residuals due to the battery's fuel cycle. A comparison of the air emissions of the aluminum-air battery vehicle to an internal combustion engine vehicle is presented. Methods of mitigating potentially adverse impacts are examined along with the areas requiring further environmental, health and safety research.

  4. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B Permit Application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)]. Volume 2, Chapter C, Appendix C1--Chapter C, Appendix C3 (beginning), Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    This volume contains appendices for the following: Rocky Flats Plant and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory waste process information; TRUPACT-II content codes (TRUCON); TRUPACT-II chemical list; chemical compatibility analysis for Rocky Flats Plant waste forms; chemical compatibility analysis for waste forms across all sites; TRU mixed waste characterization database; hazardous constituents of Rocky Flats Transuranic waste; summary of waste components in TRU waste sampling program at INEL; TRU waste sampling program; and waste analysis data.

  5. Photomedicine. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-hur, E.; Rosenthal, I.

    1987-01-01

    This book is divided into the following chapters: The Phthalocyanines: Sensitizers with Potential for Photodynamic Therapy of Cancer. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine. Lasers in Opthalmology. The Carbon Dioxide Laser in Orthopedic Surgery. Diagnostic Uses of Light. Sources and Measurements of Optical Radiation for Medical Applications. Safety Measures in Optical Radiation Treatment.

  6. Hypertools in image and volume visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Bossart, P.L.

    1996-06-17

    This paper describes our experience in image and volume visualization at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. After an introduction on visualization issues, we present a new software approach to the analysis and visualization of images and volumes. The efficiency of the visualization process is improved by letting the user combine small and reusable applications by the means of a machine-independent interpreted language such as Tcl/Tk. These hypertools can communicate with each other over a network, which has a direct impact on the design of graphical interfaces. We first describe the implementation of a flexible gray-scale image widget that can handle large data sets, provides complete control of the color palette and allows for manual and semi-interactive segmentation. This visualization tool can be embedded in a data-flow image processing environment to assess the quality of acquisition, preprocessing and filtering of raw data. This approach combines the simplicity of visual programming with the power of a high-level interpreted language. We show how hypertools can be used in surface and volume rendering and how they increase the interaction efficiency by performing complex or tedious tasks automatically. One biomedical application is presented.

  7. Heliophysics 3 Volume Set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrijver, Carolus J.; Siscoe, George L.

    2010-11-01

    Volume 1: Preface; 1. Prologue Carolus J. Schrijver and George L. Siscoe; 2. Introduction to heliophysics Thomas J. Bogdan; 3. Creation and destruction of magnetic field Matthias Rempel; 4. Magnetic field topology Dana W. Longcope; 5. Magnetic reconnection Terry G. Forbes; 6. Structures of the magnetic field Mark B. Moldwin, George L. Siscoe and Carolus J. Schrijver; 7. Turbulence in space plasmas Charles W. Smith; 8. The solar atmosphere Viggo H. Hansteen; 9. Stellar winds and magnetic fields Viggo H. Hansteen; 10. Fundamentals of planetary magnetospheres Vytenis M. Vasyliūnas; 11. Solar-wind magnetosphere coupling: an MHD perspective Frank R. Toffoletto and George L. Siscoe; 12. On the ionosphere and chromosphere Tim Fuller-Rowell and Carolus J. Schrijver; 13. Comparative planetary environments Frances Bagenal; Bibliography; Index. Volume 2: Preface; 1. Perspective on heliophysics George L. Siscoe and Carolus J. Schrijver; 2. Introduction to space storms and radiation Sten Odenwald; 3. In-situ detection of energetic particles George Gloeckler; 4. Radiative signatures of energetic particles Tim Bastian; 5. Observations of solar and stellar eruptions, flares, and jets Hugh Hudson; 6. Models of coronal mass ejections and flares Terry Forbes; 7. Shocks in heliophysics Merav Opher; 8. Particle acceleration in shocks Dietmar Krauss-Varban; 9. Energetic particle transport Joe Giacalone; 10. Energy conversion in planetary magnetospheres Vytenis Vasyliūnas; 11. Energization of trapped particles Janet Green; 12. Flares, CMEs, and atmospheric responses Tim Fuller-Rowell and Stanley C. Solomon; 13. Energetic particles and manned spaceflight 358 Stephen Guetersloh and Neal Zapp; 14. Energetic particles and technology Alan Tribble; Appendix I. Authors and editors; List of illustrations; List of tables; Bibliography; Index. Volume 3: Preface; 1. Interconnectedness in heliophysics Carolus J. Schrijver and George L. Siscoe; 2. Long-term evolution of magnetic activity of Sun

  8. The Occupational Thesaurus: Volume 1 and Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teal, Everett A.

    Presented in two volumes, the job guide handbook can be used by high school and college counselors, students, recruiters for business and industry, and parents in determining areas of employment which are compatible with a student's or potential employee's interests, abilities, and preparation. Volume 1 lists job areas for students majoring in…

  9. Healthy People 2010: Conference Edition, Volume I [and] Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC.

    This document contains the two volumes of the Conference Edition of Healthy People 2010, a comprehensive, nationwide health promotion and disease prevention agenda. The first section of Volume I, "Healthy People 2010: Understanding and Improving Health," includes "Introduction,""Leading Health Indicators," and "Bibliography. The second section,…

  10. Volume to value.

    PubMed

    Leaver, William B

    2013-01-01

    Traditional fee-for-service medicine has put physicians on an unsustainable treadmill of volume that escalates healthcare costs regardless of the quality of care they provide. This article shares the experience of UnityPoint Health (formerly Iowa Health System) in designing and implementing patient-centered, physician-led, coordinated care as a building block for transforming the delivery system. Keys to the effort's success include aligning physicians, hospitals, and home care delivery in terms of organizational goals and having the ability to gather, analyze, and share data to manage population health. On April 16, 2013, Iowa Health System became UnityPoint Health, dedicated to transforming the delivery of care through a coordinated system that offers regional, organized systems of care in most of our markets in Iowa and Illinois. These capabilities allowed the system to enter into value-based accountable care organization contracts that cover more than 220,000 lives. The transition ultimately will lead to population health-driven approaches in which compensation will be based on the management of specific populations or chronic diseases over a specified period. As increased value from care coordination becomes clear, the external environment will demand this better system, and patients will expect it. PMID:23858985

  11. Cordoba Durchmusterung, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The 'Cordoba Durchmusterung' (CD) is a visual survey of southern stars in the declination zones -22 to -89 deg, carried out as an extension to the 'Bonner Durchmusterung' (BD) catalogs of Argelander and Schoenfeld. This volume covers the declination range -22 deg through -30 deg. The survey was performed using techniques similar to those used for the BD; i.e., the stars were cataloged by allowing the telescope to drift along the mean declination of each zone and recording the positions and magnitudes of stars crossing the transit line of the field. The goal of the survey was to obtain a position and estimated visual magnitude for every star down to 10.0 magnitude inclusive, but the faint limit was confirmed from comparisons with other catalogs, to be somewhat below 10. The positions are given to 0.1 s in right ascension and 0.1 min in declination for the equinox 1875. The positional uncertainties quoted in the original publications are plus or minus 0.42 s and plus or minus 0.23 min for zones -22 deg to -32 deg. A list of all corrections made to the original data as a result of published corrigenda is presented. No other corrections or changes were incorporated into the original data, e.g., from more modern positions and magnitudes or comparison with the 'Cape Photographic Durchmusterung'.

  12. Cordoba Durchmusterung, volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The 'Cordoba Durchmusterung' (CD) is a visual survey of southern stars in the declination zones -22 to -89 deg, carried out as an extension to the 'Bonner Durchmusterung' (BD) catalogs of Argelander and Schoenfeld. This volume covers the declination range -40 deg through -49 deg. The survey was performed using techniques similar to those used for the BD; i.e., the stars were cataloged by allowing the telescope to drift along the mean declination of each zone and recording the positions and magnitudes of stars crossing the transit line of the field. The goal of the survey was to obtain a position and estimated visual magnitude for every star down to 10.0 magnitude inclusive, but the faint limit was confirmed from comparisons with other catalogs, to be somewhat below 10. The positions are given to 0.1 s in right ascension and 0.1 min in declination for the equinox 1875. The positional uncertainties quoted in the original publications are plus or minus 0.42 sec and plus or minus 0.23 min for zones -22 deg to -32 deg. A list of all corrections made to the original data as a result of published corrigenda is presented. No other corrections or changes were incorporated into the original data, e.g., from more modern positions and magnitudes or comparison with the 'Cape Photographic Durchmusterung'.

  13. Volume-weighted measure for eternal inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winitzki, Sergei

    2008-08-01

    I propose a new volume-weighted probability measure for cosmological “multiverse” scenarios involving eternal inflation. The “reheating-volume (RV) cutoff” calculates the distribution of observable quantities on a portion of the reheating hypersurface that is conditioned to be finite. The RV measure is gauge-invariant, does not suffer from the “youngness paradox,” and is independent of initial conditions at the beginning of inflation. In slow-roll inflationary models with a scalar inflaton, the RV-regulated probability distributions can be obtained by solving nonlinear diffusion equations. I discuss possible applications of the new measure to “landscape” scenarios with bubble nucleation. As an illustration, I compute the predictions of the RV measure in a simple toy landscape.

  14. Enzyme Reactions in Nanoporous, Picoliter Volume Containers

    SciTech Connect

    Siuti, Piro; Retterer, Scott T; Choi, Chang Kyoung; Doktycz, Mitchel John

    2012-01-01

    Advancements in nanoscale fabrication allow creation of small volume reaction containers that can facilitate the screening and characterization of enzymes. A porous, ~19 pL volume vessel has been used in this work to carry out enzyme reactions under varying substrate concentrations. Glucose oxidase and horseradish peroxidase can be contained in these structures and diffusively fed with a solution containing glucose and the fluorogenic substrate Amplex Red through the engineered nanoscale pore structure. Fluorescent microscopy was used to monitor the reaction, which was carried out under microfluidic control. Kinetic characteristics of the enzyme were evaluated and compared with results from conventional scale reactions. These picoliter, nanoporous containers can facilitate quick determination of enzyme kinetics in microfluidic systems without the requirement of surface tethering and can be used for applications in drug discovery, clinical diagnostics and high-throughput screening.

  15. The Theory of Sound 2 Volume Set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strutt Baron Rayleigh, John William

    2011-08-01

    Volume 1: Preface; 1. Sound due to vibrations; 2. Composition of harmonic motions of like period; 3. Systems with one degree of freedom; 4. Generalized co-ordinates; 5. Cases in which the three functions, T, F, V are simultaneously reducible to sums of squares; 6. Law of extension of a string; 7. Classification of the vibrations of bars; 8. Potential energy of bending; 9. Tension of a membrane; 10. Vibrations of plates. Volume 2: 11. Aerial vibrations; 12. Vibrations in tubes; 13. Aerial vibrations in a rectangular chamber; 14. Arbitrary initial disturbance in an unlimited atmosphere; 15. Secondary waves due to a variation in the medium; 16. Theory of resonators; 17. Applications of Laplace's functions to acoustical problems; 18. Problem of a spherical layer of air; 19. Fluid friction; Appendix.

  16. Radcalc for Windows. Volume 2: Technical manual

    SciTech Connect

    Green, J.R.

    1995-09-27

    Radcalc for Windows is a user-friendly menu-driven Windows-compatible software program with applications in the transportation of radioactive materials. It calculates the radiolytic generation of hydrogen gas in the matrix of low-level and high-level radioactive waste using NRC-accepted methodology. It computes the quantity of a radionuclide and its associated products for a given period of time. In addition, the code categorizes shipment quantities as radioactive, Type A or Type B, limited quantity, low specific activity, highway route controlled, and fissile excepted using DOT definitions and methodologies, as outlined in 49 CFR Subchapter C. The code has undergone extensive testing and validation. Volume I is a User`s Guide, and Volume II is the Technical Manual for Radcalc for Windows

  17. Volume-weighted measure for eternal inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Winitzki, Sergei

    2008-08-15

    I propose a new volume-weighted probability measure for cosmological 'multiverse' scenarios involving eternal inflation. The 'reheating-volume (RV) cutoff' calculates the distribution of observable quantities on a portion of the reheating hypersurface that is conditioned to be finite. The RV measure is gauge-invariant, does not suffer from the 'youngness paradox', and is independent of initial conditions at the beginning of inflation. In slow-roll inflationary models with a scalar inflaton, the RV-regulated probability distributions can be obtained by solving nonlinear diffusion equations. I discuss possible applications of the new measure to 'landscape' scenarios with bubble nucleation. As an illustration, I compute the predictions of the RV measure in a simple toy landscape.

  18. Dose and volume specification for reporting intracavitary therapy in gynecology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This report deals with the problem of dose and volume specification for the intracavitary treatment of cervix carcinoma. However, the concepts developed are designed to be applicable to other types of intracavitary applications, such as the uterus, etc., but some of the numerical values and definitions may need to be modified according to the type of application. Three different systems are presented for the treatment of cervix carcinoma. They are: the Stockholm system, the Paris system, and the Manchester system.

  19. Quantum Mechanics, Volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen-Tannoudji, Claude; Diu, Bernard; Laloe, Frank

    1986-06-01

    Beginning students of quantum mechanics frequently experience difficulties separating essential underlying principles from the specific examples to which these principles have been historically applied. Nobel-Prize-winner Claude Cohen-Tannoudji and his colleagues have written this book to eliminate precisely these difficulties. Fourteen chapters provide a clarity of organization, careful attention to pedagogical details, and a wealth of topics and examples which make this work a textbook as well as a timeless reference, allowing to tailor courses to meet students' specific needs. Each chapter starts with a clear exposition of the problem which is then treated, and logically develops the physical and mathematical concept. These chapters emphasize the underlying principles of the material, undiluted by extensive references to applications and practical examples which are put into complementary sections. The book begins with a qualitative introduction to quantum mechanical ideas using simple optical analogies and continues with a systematic and thorough presentation of the mathematical tools and postulates of quantum mechanics as well as a discussion of their physical content. Applications follow, starting with the simplest ones like e.g. the harmonic oscillator, and becoming gradually more complicated (the hydrogen atom, approximation methods, etc.). The complementary sections each expand this basic knowledge, supplying a wide range of applications and related topics as well as detailed expositions of a large number of special problems and more advanced topics, integrated as an essential portion of the text.

  20. Absorbed fractions for electrons in ellipsoidal volumes.

    PubMed

    Amato, E; Lizio, D; Baldari, S

    2011-01-21

    We applied a Monte Carlo simulation in Geant4 in order to calculate the absorbed fractions for monoenergetic electrons in the energy interval between 10 keV and 2 MeV, uniformly distributed in ellipsoids made from soft tissue. For each volume, we simulated a spherical shape, four oblate and four prolate ellipsoids, and one scalene shape. For each energy and for every geometrical configuration, an analytical relationship between the absorbed fraction and a 'generalized radius' was found, and the dependence of the fit parameters from electron energy is discussed and fitted by proper parametric functions. With the proposed formulation, the absorbed fraction for electrons in the 10-2000 keV energy range can be calculated for all volumes and for every ellipsoidal shape of practical interest. This method can be directly applied to evaluation of the absorbed fraction from the radionuclide emission of monoenergetic electrons, such as Auger or conversion electrons. The average deposited energy per disintegration in the case of extended beta spectra can be evaluated through integration. Two examples of application to a pure beta emitter such as (90)Y and to (131)I, whose emission include monoenergetic and beta electrons plus gamma photons, are presented. This approach represent a generalization of our previous studies, allowing a comprehensive treatment of absorbed fractions from electron and photon sources uniformly distributed in ellipsoidal volumes of any ellipticity and volume, in the whole range of practical interest for internal dosimetry in nuclear medicine applications, as well as in radiological protection estimations of doses from an internal contamination.