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Sample records for ac14 cooperlndgak2005 cooper

  1. Hydrogen sulfide releasing aspirin, ACS14, attenuates high glucose-induced increased methylglyoxal and oxidative stress in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qian; Sparatore, Anna; Del Soldato, Piero; Wu, Lingyun; Desai, Kaushik

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide is a gasotransmitter with vasodilatory and anti-inflammatory properties. Aspirin is an irreversible cyclooxygenase inhibitor anti-inflammatory drug. ACS14 is a novel synthetic hydrogen sulfide releasing aspirin which inhibits cyclooxygenase and has antioxidant effects. Methylglyoxal is a chemically active metabolite of glucose and fructose, and a major precursor of advanced glycation end products formation. Methylglyoxal is harmful when produced in excess. Plasma methylglyoxal levels are significantly elevated in diabetic patients. Our aim was to investigate the effects of ACS14 on methylglyoxal levels in cultured rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells. We used cultured rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells for the study. Methylglyoxal was measured by HPLC after derivatization, and nitrite+nitrate with an assay kit. Western blotting was used to determine NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein expression. Dicholorofluorescein assay was used to measure oxidative stress. ACS14 significantly attenuated elevation of intracellular methylglyoxal levels caused by incubating cultured vascular smooth muscle cells with methylglyoxal (30 µM) and high glucose (25 mM). ACS14, but not aspirin, caused a significant attenuation of increase in nitrite+nitrate levels caused by methylglyoxal or high glucose. ACS14, aspirin, and sodium hydrogen sulfide (NaHS, a hydrogen sulfide donor), all attenuated the increase in oxidative stress caused by methylglyoxal and high glucose in cultured cells. ACS14 prevented the increase in NOX4 expression caused by incubating the cultured VSMCs with MG (30 µM). ACS14, aspirin and NaHS attenuated the increase in iNOS expression caused by high glucose (25 mM). In conclusion, ACS14 has the novel ability to attenuate an increase in methylglyoxal levels which in turn can reduce oxidative stress, decrease the formation of advanced glycation end products and prevent many of the known deleterious effects

  2. Cooperative Poetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwen, Pam

    1989-01-01

    Describes "cooperative poetry," a group poetry-writing exercise combining brainstorming, rehearsing, choral reading, assisted reading, memorization, sequencing, and vocabulary development, as well as providing an opportunity for group cooperation. (MM)

  3. Cooperative Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Cooperative education programs, a nontraditional blending of practice and theory, have become an important feature of current higher education. Some educators estimate that by 1984 half of the higher education institutions in the United States will have developed some form of cooperative education. The Federal government's recent involvement in…

  4. Teacher Cooperatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Beth

    2009-01-01

    Twenty years ago, when the late Albert Shanker endorsed the notion of innovative schools operating outside conventional district bureaucracies, his aim was to put teachers at the helm. Today there are nearly 80 teacher-governed charter schools around the country. Although most are legally constituted as worker cooperatives, they better resemble…

  5. Cooperative Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Robert L.

    Cooperative education involves on-campus instruction and off-campus work experience. These programs can be referred to as work study, field work, or work experience. The student has the advantage of applying his knowledge in a work situation; the college gains financial benefits; and the employer has the opportunity to influence the student to…

  6. Cooperative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Robert E.

    1980-01-01

    Small-group cooperative learning methods have improved achievement, low and high level cognitive learning, race relations and mutual student concern. Most of the research focuses on four approaches: Teams Games Tournament (DeVries), Student Teams Achievement Divisions (Slavin), Jigsaw (Aronson) and Small Group Teaching (Sharan). (Author/CP)

  7. Cooperative pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Michael; Glaser, Steffen J.

    2010-11-01

    We introduce the concept of cooperative (COOP) pulses which are designed to compensate each other's imperfections. In multi-scan experiments, COOP pulses can cancel undesired signal contributions, complementing and generalizing phase cycles. COOP pulses can be efficiently optimized using an extended version of the optimal-control-based gradient ascent pulse engineering (GRAPE) algorithm. The advantage of the COOP approach is experimentally demonstrated for broadband and band-selective pulses.

  8. International cooperation.

    PubMed

    1999-04-01

    As the most densely populated country in the world, China actively conducts international exchanges and cooperation. It takes every opportunity to publicize its family planning policies and practices during international forums. Moreover, the country's State Family Planning Commission has been collaborating with the United Nations Population Fund in implementing health and family planning programs. This program covers public awareness campaigns, technical services, sex education for the youth, and social marketing. For years, China has also been cooperating with WHO in the area of family planning and reproductive health, and has established partnership with the Japanese Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning. In addition, the State Family Planning Commission has worked with the Public Media Center of the US as well as with the Rockefeller Foundation and Ford Foundation in introducing "contraceptive methods by informed choice" and "male participation in family planning" in the rural areas of the country. China has also worked closely with many other developing countries on population issues. In October 1998, China collaborated with the Partners in Population and Development for a reporting mission that was attended by journalists from 11 countries.

  9. Plant cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Dudley, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    The study of plant behaviour will be aided by conceptual approaches and terminology for cooperation, altruism and helping. The plant literature has a rich discussion of helping between species while the animal literature has an extensive and somewhat contentious discussion of within-species helping. Here, I identify and synthesize concepts, terminology and some practical methodology for speaking about helping in plant populations and measuring the costs and benefits. I use Lehmann and Keller's (2006) classification scheme for animal helping and McIntire and Fajardo's (2014) synthesis of facilitation to provide starting points for classifying the mechanisms of how and why organisms help each other. Contextual theory is discussed as a mechanism for understanding and measuring the fitness consequences of helping. I synthesize helping into four categories. The act of helping can be costly to the helper. If the helper gains indirect fitness by helping relatives but loses direct fitness, this is altruism, and it only occurs within species. Helpers can exchange costly help, which is called mutualism when between species, and reciprocation when within a species. The act of helping can directly benefit the helper as well as the recipient, either as an epiphenomenon resulting from behaviours under natural selection for other reasons, or because the helper is creating a mutual benefit, such as satiating predators or supporting a mutualism. Facilitation between species by stress amelioration, creation of novel ecosystems and habitat complexity often meets the definition of epiphenomenon helping. Within species, this kind of helping is called by-product mutualism. If the helping is under selection to create a mutual benefit shared by others, between species this is facilitation with service sharing or access to resources and within species, direct benefits by mutual benefits. These classifications provide a clear starting point for addressing the subject of helping behaviours

  10. Plant cooperation.

    PubMed

    Dudley, Susan A

    2015-01-01

    The study of plant behaviour will be aided by conceptual approaches and terminology for cooperation, altruism and helping. The plant literature has a rich discussion of helping between species while the animal literature has an extensive and somewhat contentious discussion of within-species helping. Here, I identify and synthesize concepts, terminology and some practical methodology for speaking about helping in plant populations and measuring the costs and benefits. I use Lehmann and Keller's (2006) classification scheme for animal helping and McIntire and Fajardo's (2014) synthesis of facilitation to provide starting points for classifying the mechanisms of how and why organisms help each other. Contextual theory is discussed as a mechanism for understanding and measuring the fitness consequences of helping. I synthesize helping into four categories. The act of helping can be costly to the helper. If the helper gains indirect fitness by helping relatives but loses direct fitness, this is altruism, and it only occurs within species. Helpers can exchange costly help, which is called mutualism when between species, and reciprocation when within a species. The act of helping can directly benefit the helper as well as the recipient, either as an epiphenomenon resulting from behaviours under natural selection for other reasons, or because the helper is creating a mutual benefit, such as satiating predators or supporting a mutualism. Facilitation between species by stress amelioration, creation of novel ecosystems and habitat complexity often meets the definition of epiphenomenon helping. Within species, this kind of helping is called by-product mutualism. If the helping is under selection to create a mutual benefit shared by others, between species this is facilitation with service sharing or access to resources and within species, direct benefits by mutual benefits. These classifications provide a clear starting point for addressing the subject of helping behaviours

  11. PREFACE: Cooperative dynamics Cooperative dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gov, Nir

    2011-09-01

    The dynamics within living cells are dominated by non-equilibrium processes that consume chemical energy (usually in the form of ATP, adenosine triphosphate) and convert it into mechanical forces and motion. The mechanisms that allow this conversion process are mostly driven by the components of the cytoskeleton: (i) directed (polar) polymerization of filaments (either actin or microtubules) and (ii) molecular motors. The forces and motions produced by these two components of the cytoskeleton give rise to the formation of cellular shapes, and drive the intracellular transport and organization. It is clear that these systems present a multi-scale challenge, from the physics of the molecular processes to the organization of many interacting units. Understanding the physical nature of these systems will have a large impact on many fundamental problems in biology and break new grounds in the field of non-equilibrium physics. This field of research has seen a rapid development over the last ten years. Activities in this area range from theoretical and experimental work on the underlying fundamental (bio)physics at the single-molecule level, to investigations (in vivo and in vitro) of the dynamics and patterns of macroscopic pieces of 'living matter'. In this special issue we have gathered contributions that span the whole spectrum of length- and complexity-scales in this field. Some of the works demonstrate how active forces self-organize within the polymerizing cytoskeleton, on the level of cooperative cargo transport via motors or due to active fluxes at the cell membrane. On a larger scale, it is shown that polar filaments coupled to molecular motors give rise to a huge variety of surprising dynamics and patterns: spontaneously looping rings of gliding microtubules, and emergent phases of self-organized filaments and motors in different geometries. All of these articles share the common feature of being out-of-equilibrium, driven by metabolism. As demonstrated here

  12. Implementing Cooperative Learning Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Paul R.

    This paper identifies the bases and rationale for the concept of cooperative learning; describes the dynamics of the cooperative learning approach; and proposes methods that college faculty can use to enhance student motivation and learning. Cooperative learning is defined and is reported to have positive effects on student achievement, human…

  13. Advising People about Cooperatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkman, C. H., Jr.; Mohn, Paul O.

    This document provides background and references for educational programs on cooperatives. Seven major topics are covered: Cooperatives Are Distinctive Business Corporations, Types of Cooperatives (such as agricultural, credit, housing, crafts, health, memorial association, fishing, forestry, recreation, labor, buying clubs, consumer, student, and…

  14. Learning to Learn Cooperatively

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Anne Hammond

    2009-01-01

    Cooperative learning, put quite simply, is a type of instruction whereby students work together in small groups to achieve a common goal. Cooperative learning has become increasingly popular as a feature of Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) with benefits that include increased student interest due to the quick pace of cooperative tasks,…

  15. Cooperative Agreements Study Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawton, R. E.; Magruder, D.

    During the 1983 meeting of the Florida Legislature, action was taken to begin a systematic study of the level of cooperation between the Florida public schools K-12 program and the community and junior colleges. The goals and objectives of the Cooperative Agreements Study were to review and compile a list of the cooperative agreements and identify…

  16. Futures for energy cooperatives

    SciTech Connect

    1981-01-01

    A listing of Federal agencies and programs with potential funding for community-scale cooperatives using conservation measures and solar technologies is presented in Section 1. Section 2 presents profiles of existing community energy cooperatives describing their location, history, membership, services, sources of finance and technical assistance. A condensed summary from a recent conference on Energy Cooperatives featuring notes on co-op members' experiences, problems, and opportunities is presented in Section 3. Section 4 lists contacts for additional information. A National Consumer Cooperative Bank Load Application is shown in the appendix.

  17. Synthetic Yeast Cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shou, Wenying; Burton, Justin

    2010-03-01

    Cooperation is wide-spread and has been postulated to drive major transitions in evolution. However, Darwinian selection favors ``cheaters'' that consume benefits without paying a fair cost. How did cooperation evolve against the threat of cheaters? To investigate the evolutionary trajectories of cooperation, we created a genetically tractable system that can be observed as it evolves from inception. The system consists of two engineered yeast strains -- a red-fluorescent strain that requires adenine and releases lysine and a yellow-fluorescent strain that requires lysine and releases adenine. Cells that consume but not supply metabolites would be cheaters. From the properties of two cooperating strains, we calculated and experimentally verified the minimal initial cell densities required for the viability of the cooperative system in the absence of exogenously added adenine and lysine. Strikingly, evolved cooperative systems were viable at 100-fold lower initial cell densities than their ancestors. We are investigating the nature and diversity of pro-cooperation changes, the dynamics of cooperator-cheater cocultures, and the effects of spatial environment on cooperation and cheating.

  18. Educational Cooperatives. PREP-23

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Educational Communication (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC.

    Dr. Larry W. Hughes and Dr. C. M. Achilles of the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, conducted a national survey for the Office of Education on educational cooperatives--studying and reporting on the nature and kind of cooperative endeavors, their organization, governance, financial arrangements, services, and personnel. Their study focused upon…

  19. Making Cooperative Learning Powerful

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Just about everyone loves the "idea" of cooperative learning, children working productively and excitedly in groups, everyone getting along and enthusiastically helping one another learn. This article presents five strategies that teachers can use to get the greatest benefit possible from cooperative learning and ensure that…

  20. Cooperative Science Lesson Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooperative Learning, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Offers several elementary level cooperative science lesson plans. The article includes a recipe for cooperative class learning, instructions for making a compost pile, directions for finding evidence of energy, experiments in math and science using oranges to test density, and discussions of buoyancy using eggs. (SM)

  1. Montana Cooperative Education Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Ron, Ed.

    This revised handbook was developed to help teachers and administrators in Montana conduct cooperative education programs. The handbook is organized in 13 sections. In narrative style, the first 11 sections cover the following topics: introduction to cooperative education, advisory committees, related instruction, coordination of activities,…

  2. Cooperative Vocational Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Adult, Vocational, and Technical Education (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    Cooperative education, said to be a "sleeping giant" in vocational education, received special authorization in Public Law 90 576 and was made a priority in vocational education. This publication summarizes information to assist the states in planning development of cooperative vocational education: definitions, funding sources, program content,…

  3. Evaluating Cooperative Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvir, Howard P.

    This document defines cooperative education as any form of occupational or professional activity that required the cooperation of both school and the labor market. In some cases, this might be the school and industry or business. In this process, evaluation is defined as the improvement of learner success through measurement of program components.…

  4. Cooperative Learning Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Buckley; O'Farrell, Gail

    1990-01-01

    Presents essential characteristics and types of cooperative learning strategies for use in elementary social studies. Outlines exercises for forming teams and building team spirit. Points out such methods promote group interdependence and student responsibility for learning and teaching others. Highlights two cooperative group strategies, Jigsaw…

  5. The cooperative brain.

    PubMed

    Stallen, Mirre; Sanfey, Alan G

    2013-06-01

    Cooperation is essential for the functioning of human societies. To better understand how cooperation both succeeds and fails, recent research in cognitive neuroscience has begun to explore novel paradigms to examine how cooperative mechanisms may be encoded in the brain. By combining functional neuroimaging techniques with simple but realistic tasks adapted from experimental economics, this approach allows for the discrimination and modeling of processes that are important in cooperative behavior. Here, we review evidence demonstrating that many of the processes underlying cooperation overlap with rather fundamental brain mechanisms, such as, for example, those involved in reward, punishment and learning. In addition, we review how social expectations induced by an interactive context and the experience of social emotions may influence cooperation and its associated underlying neural circuitry, and we describe factors that appear important for generating cooperation, such as the provision of incentives. These findings illustrate how cognitive neuroscience can contribute to the development of more accurate, brain-based, models of cooperative decision making.

  6. The cooperative brain.

    PubMed

    Stallen, Mirre; Sanfey, Alan G

    2013-06-01

    Cooperation is essential for the functioning of human societies. To better understand how cooperation both succeeds and fails, recent research in cognitive neuroscience has begun to explore novel paradigms to examine how cooperative mechanisms may be encoded in the brain. By combining functional neuroimaging techniques with simple but realistic tasks adapted from experimental economics, this approach allows for the discrimination and modeling of processes that are important in cooperative behavior. Here, we review evidence demonstrating that many of the processes underlying cooperation overlap with rather fundamental brain mechanisms, such as, for example, those involved in reward, punishment and learning. In addition, we review how social expectations induced by an interactive context and the experience of social emotions may influence cooperation and its associated underlying neural circuitry, and we describe factors that appear important for generating cooperation, such as the provision of incentives. These findings illustrate how cognitive neuroscience can contribute to the development of more accurate, brain-based, models of cooperative decision making. PMID:23300215

  7. Managing Cooperative Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Child Labor Committee, New York, NY.

    This manual presents concepts, tools, and techniques that are useful in the management of cooperative education programs at the state department of education, school district, and secondary school levels. Section I is a general discussion of the management role in cooperative education. In section II focus is on the nature of the internal and…

  8. Readings in Cooperative Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leventhal, Jerome I.

    Twenty-three journal articles on cooperative education were selected in a review of the literature by two Temple University graduate classes in the fall of 1975 and the spring of 1976 for those interested in the role of coordinating cooperative education programs. The journal readings consist of articles on theory/planning (6), implementation…

  9. Helping Children Cooperate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pica, Rae

    2011-01-01

    There are occasions in life when the competitive process is appropriate. But when people consider the relationships in their lives--with friends, family members, coworkers, and the larger community--they realize the value of cooperation. When adults give children the chance to cooperate, to work together toward a solution or a common goal like…

  10. Culture and cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Gächter, Simon; Herrmann, Benedikt; Thöni, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Does the cultural background influence the success with which genetically unrelated individuals cooperate in social dilemma situations? In this paper, we provide an answer by analysing the data of Herrmann et al. (2008a), who studied cooperation and punishment in 16 subject pools from six different world cultures (as classified by Inglehart & Baker (2000)). We use analysis of variance to disentangle the importance of cultural background relative to individual heterogeneity and group-level differences in cooperation. We find that culture has a substantial influence on the extent of cooperation, in addition to individual heterogeneity and group-level differences identified by previous research. The significance of this result is that cultural background has a substantial influence on cooperation in otherwise identical environments. This is particularly true in the presence of punishment opportunities. PMID:20679109

  11. Culture and cooperation.

    PubMed

    Gächter, Simon; Herrmann, Benedikt; Thöni, Christian

    2010-09-12

    Does the cultural background influence the success with which genetically unrelated individuals cooperate in social dilemma situations? In this paper, we provide an answer by analysing the data of Herrmann et al. (2008a), who studied cooperation and punishment in 16 subject pools from six different world cultures (as classified by Inglehart & Baker (2000)). We use analysis of variance to disentangle the importance of cultural background relative to individual heterogeneity and group-level differences in cooperation. We find that culture has a substantial influence on the extent of cooperation, in addition to individual heterogeneity and group-level differences identified by previous research. The significance of this result is that cultural background has a substantial influence on cooperation in otherwise identical environments. This is particularly true in the presence of punishment opportunities.

  12. Persistent cooperators in nature.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinsheng; Guo, Wanlin

    2010-12-21

    The evolution and maintenance of cooperation fascinated researchers for several decades. Recently, theoretical models and experimental evidence show that costly punishment may facilitate cooperation in human societies. The puzzle how the costly punishment behaviour evolves can be solved under voluntary participation. Could the punishers emerge if participation is compulsory? Is the punishment inevitably a selfish behaviour or an altruistic behaviour? The motivations behind punishment are still an enigma. Based on public goods interactions, we present a model in which just a certain portion of the public good is divided equally among all members. The other portion is distributed to contributors when paying a second cost. The contributors who are willing to pay a second cost are called the persistent cooperators (PC), indicating their desire to retrieve the proportion of the payoff derived from their own contributions with persistent efforts. We show that the persistent cooperators can be costly punishers, which may account for the origin of human costly punishment behaviour under compulsory participation. In this sense our models may show theoretically that the original motivation behind punishment is to retrieve deserved payoff from their own contributions, a selfish incentive. But the persistent cooperators can also flourish or dominate the population in other situations. We list many real examples in which contributors are the persistent cooperators, and they benefit. This indicates a simple norm promoting cooperation: contributing more and gaining more.

  13. Globalization and human cooperation.

    PubMed

    Buchan, Nancy R; Grimalda, Gianluca; Wilson, Rick; Brewer, Marilynn; Fatas, Enrique; Foddy, Margaret

    2009-03-17

    Globalization magnifies the problems that affect all people and that require large-scale human cooperation, for example, the overharvesting of natural resources and human-induced global warming. However, what does globalization imply for the cooperation needed to address such global social dilemmas? Two competing hypotheses are offered. One hypothesis is that globalization prompts reactionary movements that reinforce parochial distinctions among people. Large-scale cooperation then focuses on favoring one's own ethnic, racial, or language group. The alternative hypothesis suggests that globalization strengthens cosmopolitan attitudes by weakening the relevance of ethnicity, locality, or nationhood as sources of identification. In essence, globalization, the increasing interconnectedness of people worldwide, broadens the group boundaries within which individuals perceive they belong. We test these hypotheses by measuring globalization at both the country and individual levels and analyzing the relationship between globalization and individual cooperation with distal others in multilevel sequential cooperation experiments in which players can contribute to individual, local, and/or global accounts. Our samples were drawn from the general populations of the United States, Italy, Russia, Argentina, South Africa, and Iran. We find that as country and individual levels of globalization increase, so too does individual cooperation at the global level vis-à-vis the local level. In essence, "globalized" individuals draw broader group boundaries than others, eschewing parochial motivations in favor of cosmopolitan ones. Globalization may thus be fundamental in shaping contemporary large-scale cooperation and may be a positive force toward the provision of global public goods. PMID:19255433

  14. Network modularity promotes cooperation.

    PubMed

    Marcoux, Marianne; Lusseau, David

    2013-05-01

    Cooperation in animals and humans is widely observed even if evolutionary biology theories predict the evolution of selfish individuals. Previous game theory models have shown that cooperation can evolve when the game takes place in a structured population such as a social network because it limits interactions between individuals. Modularity, the natural division of a network into groups, is a key characteristic of all social networks but the influence of this crucial social feature on the evolution of cooperation has never been investigated. Here, we provide novel pieces of evidence that network modularity promotes the evolution of cooperation in 2-person prisoner's dilemma games. By simulating games on social networks of different structures, we show that modularity shapes interactions between individuals favouring the evolution of cooperation. Modularity provides a simple mechanism for the evolution of cooperation without having to invoke complicated mechanisms such as reputation or punishment, or requiring genetic similarity among individuals. Thus, cooperation can evolve over wider social contexts than previously reported.

  15. Globalization and human cooperation.

    PubMed

    Buchan, Nancy R; Grimalda, Gianluca; Wilson, Rick; Brewer, Marilynn; Fatas, Enrique; Foddy, Margaret

    2009-03-17

    Globalization magnifies the problems that affect all people and that require large-scale human cooperation, for example, the overharvesting of natural resources and human-induced global warming. However, what does globalization imply for the cooperation needed to address such global social dilemmas? Two competing hypotheses are offered. One hypothesis is that globalization prompts reactionary movements that reinforce parochial distinctions among people. Large-scale cooperation then focuses on favoring one's own ethnic, racial, or language group. The alternative hypothesis suggests that globalization strengthens cosmopolitan attitudes by weakening the relevance of ethnicity, locality, or nationhood as sources of identification. In essence, globalization, the increasing interconnectedness of people worldwide, broadens the group boundaries within which individuals perceive they belong. We test these hypotheses by measuring globalization at both the country and individual levels and analyzing the relationship between globalization and individual cooperation with distal others in multilevel sequential cooperation experiments in which players can contribute to individual, local, and/or global accounts. Our samples were drawn from the general populations of the United States, Italy, Russia, Argentina, South Africa, and Iran. We find that as country and individual levels of globalization increase, so too does individual cooperation at the global level vis-à-vis the local level. In essence, "globalized" individuals draw broader group boundaries than others, eschewing parochial motivations in favor of cosmopolitan ones. Globalization may thus be fundamental in shaping contemporary large-scale cooperation and may be a positive force toward the provision of global public goods.

  16. Cooperative Learning Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Sandra

    2003-01-01

    Describes the effectiveness of cooperative learning on discipline problems, interdependence between students, and teacher-student interactions. Explains how to group students and introduces a laboratory activity on covalent and ionic bonds. (YDS)

  17. Cooperative processing data bases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasta, Juzar

    1991-01-01

    Cooperative processing for the 1990's using client-server technology is addressed. The main theme is concepts of downsizing from mainframes and minicomputers to workstations on a local area network (LAN). This document is presented in view graph form.

  18. Cooperative Education: Industry Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Geoffrey; McClelland, Alan L.

    1980-01-01

    Contains information from three large chemical companies having a long-standing interest in cooperative education with chemistry students. Questions and answers are provided for specific information regarding DuPont, 3M, and Dow Chemical. (CS)

  19. How Myxobacteria Cooperate.

    PubMed

    Cao, Pengbo; Dey, Arup; Vassallo, Christopher N; Wall, Daniel

    2015-11-20

    Prokaryotes often reside in groups where a high degree of relatedness has allowed the evolution of cooperative behaviors. However, very few bacteria or archaea have made the successful transition from unicellular to obligate multicellular life. A notable exception is the myxobacteria, in which cells cooperate to perform group functions highlighted by fruiting body development, an obligate multicellular function. Like all multicellular organisms, myxobacteria face challenges in how to organize and maintain multicellularity. These challenges include maintaining population homeostasis, carrying out tissue repair and regulating the behavior of non-cooperators. Here, we describe the major cooperative behaviors that myxobacteria use: motility, predation and development. In addition, this review emphasizes recent discoveries in the social behavior of outer membrane exchange, wherein kin share outer membrane contents. Finally, we review evidence that outer membrane exchange may be involved in regulating population homeostasis, thus serving as a social tool for myxobacteria to make the cyclic transitions from unicellular to multicellular states. PMID:26254571

  20. Cooperative Education Abroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowles, Asa S.

    1978-01-01

    Although cooperative education may be uniquely American, other nations place great importance on relating work and education. Types of programs, calendars and schedules are reviewed, and global patterns are described. (Author/LBH)

  1. Cooperative Learning in Statistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Carolyn M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Formal use of cooperative learning techniques proved effective in improving student performance and retention in a freshman level statistics course. Lectures interspersed with group activities proved effective in increasing conceptual understanding and overall class performance. (11 references) (Author)

  2. Cooperating mobile robots

    DOEpatents

    Harrington, John J.; Eskridge, Steven E.; Hurtado, John E.; Byrne, Raymond H.

    2004-02-03

    A miniature mobile robot provides a relatively inexpensive mobile robot. A mobile robot for searching an area provides a way for multiple mobile robots in cooperating teams. A robotic system with a team of mobile robots communicating information among each other provides a way to locate a source in cooperation. A mobile robot with a sensor, a communication system, and a processor, provides a way to execute a strategy for searching an area.

  3. International Cooperation at NASA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawney, Timothy; Feldstein, Karen

    International cooperation is a cornerstone principle of NASA’s activities, especially within the activities of the Science Mission Directorate. Nearly two thirds of the flight missions in which NASA leads or participates involve international cooperation. Numerous ground based activities also rely on international cooperation, whether because of unique expertise, unique geography, or the need for a global response. Going forward, in an era of tighter budgets and a more integrated global perspective, NASA and the rest of the space agencies around the world will be forced to work more closely together, in a broader array of activities than ever before, in order to be able to afford to push the boundaries of space exploration. The goal of this presentation is to provide an overview of NASA’s current international science cooperative activities. It will include a discussion of why NASA conducts international cooperation and look at the mechanisms through which international cooperation can occur at NASA, including peer-to-peer development of relationships. It will also discuss some of the limiting factors of international cooperation, such as export control, and ways in which to manage those constraints. Finally, the presentation would look at some of the present examples where NASA is working to increase international cooperation and improve coordination. Case studies will be used to demonstrate these mechanisms and concepts. For example, NASA continues to participate in international coordination groups such as the International Mars Exploration Working Group (IMEWG) and International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG), but is expanding into new areas as well. NASA is one of the leaders in expanding and improving international coordination in the area of Near-Earth Object detection, characterization, and mitigation. Having participated in the first meetings of such groups as the International Asteroid Warning Network (IAWN) and Space Missions Planning

  4. Cooper Pair Insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valles, James

    One of the recent advances in the field of the Superconductor to Insulator Transition (SIT) has been the discovery and characterization of the Cooper Pair Insulator phase. This bosonic insulator, which consists of localized Cooper pairs, exhibits activated transport and a giant magneto-resistance peak. These features differ markedly from the weakly localized transport that emerges as pairs break at a ``fermionic'' SIT. I will describe how our experiments on films nano-patterned with a nearly triangular array of holes have enabled us to 1) distinguish bosonic insulators from fermionic insulators, 2) show that Cooper pairs, rather than quasi-particles dominate the transport in the Cooper Pair insulator phase, 3) demonstrate that very weak, sub nano-meter thickness inhomogeneities control whether a bosonic or fermionic insulator forms at an SIT and 4) reveal that Cooper pairs disintegrate rather than becoming more tightly bound deep in the localized phase. We have also developed a method, using a magnetic field, to tune flux disorder reversibly in these films. I will present our latest results on the influence of magnetic flux disorder and random gauge fields on phenomena near bosonic SITs. This work was performed in collaboration with M. D. Stewart, Jr., Hung Q. Nguyen, Shawna M. Hollen, Jimmy Joy, Xue Zhang, Gustavo Fernandez, Jeffrey Shainline and Jimmy Xu. It was supported by NSF Grants DMR 1307290 and DMR-0907357.

  5. Cooper Pairs in Insulators?!

    SciTech Connect

    James Valles

    2008-07-23

    Nearly 50 years elapsed between the discovery of superconductivity and the emergence of the microscopic theory describing this zero resistance state. The explanation required a novel phase of matter in which conduction electrons joined in weakly bound pairs and condensed with other pairs into a single quantum state. Surprisingly, this Cooper pair formation has also been invoked to account for recently uncovered high-resistance or insulating phases of matter. To address this possibility, we have used nanotechnology to create an insulating system that we can probe directly for Cooper pairs. I will present the evidence that Cooper pairs exist and dominate the electrical transport in these insulators and I will discuss how these findings provide new insight into superconductor to insulator quantum phase transitions. 

  6. Cooper Pairs in Insulators?!

    ScienceCinema

    James Valles

    2016-07-12

    Nearly 50 years elapsed between the discovery of superconductivity and the emergence of the microscopic theory describing this zero resistance state. The explanation required a novel phase of matter in which conduction electrons joined in weakly bound pairs and condensed with other pairs into a single quantum state. Surprisingly, this Cooper pair formation has also been invoked to account for recently uncovered high-resistance or insulating phases of matter. To address this possibility, we have used nanotechnology to create an insulating system that we can probe directly for Cooper pairs. I will present the evidence that Cooper pairs exist and dominate the electrical transport in these insulators and I will discuss how these findings provide new insight into superconductor to insulator quantum phase transitions. 

  7. Neural basis of conditional cooperation.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Shinsuke; Niki, Kazuhisa; Fujisaki, Syoken; Akiyama, Eizo

    2011-06-01

    Cooperation among genetically unrelated individuals is a fundamental aspect of society, but it has been a longstanding puzzle in biological and social sciences. Recently, theoretical studies in biology and economics showed that conditional cooperation-cooperating only with those who have exhibited cooperative behavior-can spread over a society. Furthermore, experimental studies in psychology demonstrated that people are actually conditional cooperators. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the neural system underlying conditional cooperation by scanning participants during interaction with cooperative, neutral and non-cooperative opponents in prisoner's dilemma games. The results showed that: (i) participants cooperated more frequently with both cooperative and neutral opponents than with non-cooperative opponents; and (ii) a brain area related to cognitive inhibition of pre-potent responses (right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) showed greater activation, especially when participants confronted non-cooperative opponents. Consequently, we suggest that cognitive inhibition of the motivation to cooperate with non-cooperators drives the conditional behavior.

  8. Social penalty promotes cooperation in a cooperative society.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hiromu; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Why cooperation is well developed in human society is an unsolved question in biological and human sciences. Vast studies in game theory have revealed that in non-cooperative games selfish behavior generally dominates over cooperation and cooperation can be evolved only under very limited conditions. These studies ask the origin of cooperation; whether cooperation can evolve in a group of selfish individuals. In this paper, instead of asking the origin of cooperation, we consider the enhancement of cooperation in a small already cooperative society. We ask whether cooperative behavior is further promoted in a small cooperative society in which social penalty is devised. We analyze hawk-dove game and prisoner's dilemma introducing social penalty. We then expand it for non-cooperative games in general. The results indicate that cooperation is universally favored if penalty is further imposed. We discuss the current result in terms of the moral, laws, rules and regulations in a society, e.g., criminology and traffic violation. PMID:26238521

  9. Social penalty promotes cooperation in a cooperative society.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hiromu; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-08-04

    Why cooperation is well developed in human society is an unsolved question in biological and human sciences. Vast studies in game theory have revealed that in non-cooperative games selfish behavior generally dominates over cooperation and cooperation can be evolved only under very limited conditions. These studies ask the origin of cooperation; whether cooperation can evolve in a group of selfish individuals. In this paper, instead of asking the origin of cooperation, we consider the enhancement of cooperation in a small already cooperative society. We ask whether cooperative behavior is further promoted in a small cooperative society in which social penalty is devised. We analyze hawk-dove game and prisoner's dilemma introducing social penalty. We then expand it for non-cooperative games in general. The results indicate that cooperation is universally favored if penalty is further imposed. We discuss the current result in terms of the moral, laws, rules and regulations in a society, e.g., criminology and traffic violation.

  10. Social penalty promotes cooperation in a cooperative society

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Hiromu; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Why cooperation is well developed in human society is an unsolved question in biological and human sciences. Vast studies in game theory have revealed that in non-cooperative games selfish behavior generally dominates over cooperation and cooperation can be evolved only under very limited conditions. These studies ask the origin of cooperation; whether cooperation can evolve in a group of selfish individuals. In this paper, instead of asking the origin of cooperation, we consider the enhancement of cooperation in a small already cooperative society. We ask whether cooperative behavior is further promoted in a small cooperative society in which social penalty is devised. We analyze hawk-dove game and prisoner’s dilemma introducing social penalty. We then expand it for non-cooperative games in general. The results indicate that cooperation is universally favored if penalty is further imposed. We discuss the current result in terms of the moral, laws, rules and regulations in a society, e.g., criminology and traffic violation. PMID:26238521

  11. The Power of Cooperation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevin, John A.

    2010-01-01

    In "The Power of Cooperation," Tony Nevin tells how the townspeople of Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts, are attempting to replicate a successful alternative-energy project in Samso, Denmark, where thinking about ways to reduce fossil-fuel use "became a kind of sport." Nevin says that thinking and acting locally helps people to identify and pursue…

  12. Cooperative Education. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stauber, Dick T.

    In order to investigate the feasibility of adding a cooperative education option to the curricular offerings of Moraine Park Technical Institute (MPTI), interviews were conducted with randomly selected representatives of 12 industries and 17 employers in the marketing and merchandising businesses located in the MPTI service area. In addition,…

  13. Superpower cooperation often overlooked

    SciTech Connect

    Jamgotch, N. Jr.

    1986-02-01

    At the conclusion of the Geneva summit in November 1985, President Reagan and General Secretary Gorbachev signed an Agreement on Contacts and Exchanges in Scientific, Educational, and Cultural Fields. Since details of the agreements must still be worked out, it remains to be seen whether these statements signal a new era of US-Soviet cooperation. Still, the lack of media or even official attention to these broad areas of agreement repeats a pattern that has contributed to the continuing pervasive hostility and mistrust between the two nations. There are understandable reasons for the tendency to concentrate on conflict and crises rather than cooperation. While a cooperative agreement may be noted by an occasional news story, it is outshone be the more flash newsworthiness of political confrontation. The author points to the considerable successes of past US/USSR wide-ranging agreements, and notes that cooperative activities must be reported and analyzed more fully to counteract distrust and to overcome outmoded ideologies. 6 references.

  14. Cooperative Mobile Sensing Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, R S; Kent, C A; Jones, E D; Cunningham, C T; Armstrong, G W

    2003-02-10

    A cooperative control architecture is presented that allows a fleet of Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) to collect data in a parallel, coordinated and optimal manner. The architecture is designed to react to a set of unpredictable events thereby allowing data collection to continue in an optimal manner.

  15. Combat or Cooperation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, Thomas F.; Copas, Randall L.

    2010-01-01

    The best intentioned efforts of adults are often sabotaged by coercive climates of bullying among peers and conflict with adults. The solution is to create cultures where youth cooperate with authority and treat one another with respect. In this article, the authors stress the task of the staff to create a condition in which students see more…

  16. Predicting Human Cooperation.

    PubMed

    Nay, John J; Vorobeychik, Yevgeniy

    2016-01-01

    The Prisoner's Dilemma has been a subject of extensive research due to its importance in understanding the ever-present tension between individual self-interest and social benefit. A strictly dominant strategy in a Prisoner's Dilemma (defection), when played by both players, is mutually harmful. Repetition of the Prisoner's Dilemma can give rise to cooperation as an equilibrium, but defection is as well, and this ambiguity is difficult to resolve. The numerous behavioral experiments investigating the Prisoner's Dilemma highlight that players often cooperate, but the level of cooperation varies significantly with the specifics of the experimental predicament. We present the first computational model of human behavior in repeated Prisoner's Dilemma games that unifies the diversity of experimental observations in a systematic and quantitatively reliable manner. Our model relies on data we integrated from many experiments, comprising 168,386 individual decisions. The model is composed of two pieces: the first predicts the first-period action using solely the structural game parameters, while the second predicts dynamic actions using both game parameters and history of play. Our model is successful not merely at fitting the data, but in predicting behavior at multiple scales in experimental designs not used for calibration, using only information about the game structure. We demonstrate the power of our approach through a simulation analysis revealing how to best promote human cooperation. PMID:27171417

  17. Predicting Human Cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Nay, John J.; Vorobeychik, Yevgeniy

    2016-01-01

    The Prisoner’s Dilemma has been a subject of extensive research due to its importance in understanding the ever-present tension between individual self-interest and social benefit. A strictly dominant strategy in a Prisoner’s Dilemma (defection), when played by both players, is mutually harmful. Repetition of the Prisoner’s Dilemma can give rise to cooperation as an equilibrium, but defection is as well, and this ambiguity is difficult to resolve. The numerous behavioral experiments investigating the Prisoner’s Dilemma highlight that players often cooperate, but the level of cooperation varies significantly with the specifics of the experimental predicament. We present the first computational model of human behavior in repeated Prisoner’s Dilemma games that unifies the diversity of experimental observations in a systematic and quantitatively reliable manner. Our model relies on data we integrated from many experiments, comprising 168,386 individual decisions. The model is composed of two pieces: the first predicts the first-period action using solely the structural game parameters, while the second predicts dynamic actions using both game parameters and history of play. Our model is successful not merely at fitting the data, but in predicting behavior at multiple scales in experimental designs not used for calibration, using only information about the game structure. We demonstrate the power of our approach through a simulation analysis revealing how to best promote human cooperation. PMID:27171417

  18. Cooperative Learning and Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, G. M.; Kimura, H.

    2013-01-01

    In and out of the classroom, life would be unthinkable without interacting with fellow humans. This book urges more cooperative and group activities in the English language classroom for all the advantages: students use the target language more, help each other with comprehension, receive attention from peers as well as the teacher, are motivated…

  19. International Cooperation in Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willenbrock, F. Karl

    1987-01-01

    Reports on a study by the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) into various relationships in engineering that the United States has with countries that have comparable or superior levels of technology. Discusses competition, cooperation, information flow, symmetry, language and cultural barriers, research opportunities, and professional…

  20. Cooper Egressing 'Faith 7'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Astronaut L. Gordon Cooper is assisted in backing out of his Mecury capsule 'Faith 7' after a 600,000 mile, 22.9 orbit journey around the Earth. He elected to remain in the spacecraft until it was hoisted to the deck of the Kearsarge, as did Astronaut Walter Schirra during the previous mission.

  1. To Cooperate or Not to Cooperate: Why Behavioural Mechanisms Matter

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Mutualistic cooperation often requires multiple individuals to behave in a coordinated fashion. Hence, while the evolutionary stability of mutualistic cooperation poses no particular theoretical difficulty, its evolutionary emergence faces a chicken and egg problem: an individual cannot benefit from cooperating unless other individuals already do so. Here, we use evolutionary robotic simulations to study the consequences of this problem for the evolution of cooperation. In contrast with standard game-theoretic results, we find that the transition from solitary to cooperative strategies is very unlikely, whether interacting individuals are genetically related (cooperation evolves in 20% of all simulations) or unrelated (only 3% of all simulations). We also observe that successful cooperation between individuals requires the evolution of a specific and rather complex behaviour. This behavioural complexity creates a large fitness valley between solitary and cooperative strategies, making the evolutionary transition difficult. These results reveal the need for research on biological mechanisms which may facilitate this transition. PMID:27148874

  2. [Social cooperatives in Italy].

    PubMed

    Villotti, P; Zaniboni, S; Fraccaroli, F

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the role of social cooperatives in Italy as a type of economic, non-profit organization and their role in contributing to the economic and social growth of the country. The purpose of this paper is to learn more about the experience of the Italian social cooperatives in promoting the work integration process of disadvantaged workers, especially those suffering from mental disorders, from a theoretical and an empirical point of view. Social enterprise is the most popular and consolidated legal and organizational model for social enterprises in Italy, introduced by Law 381/91. Developed during the early 1980s, and formally recognized by law in the early 1990s, social cooperatives aim at pursuing the general interest of the community to promote the human needs and social inclusion of citizens. They are orientated towards aims that go beyond the interest of the business owners, the primary beneficiary of their activities is the community, or groups of disadvantaged people. In Italy, Law 381/91 distinguishes between two categories of social cooperatives, those producing goods of social utility, such as culture, welfare and educational services (A-type), and those providing economic activities for the integration of disadvantaged people into employment (B-type). The main purpose of B-type social cooperatives is to integrate disadvantaged people into the open labour market. This goal is reached after a period of training and working experience inside the firm, during which the staff works to improve both the social and professional abilities of disadvantaged people. During the years, B-type social co-ops acquired a particular relevance in the care of people with mental disorders by offering them with job opportunities. Having a job is central in the recovery process of people suffering from mental diseases, meaning that B-type social co-ops in Italy play an important rehabilitative and integrative role for this vulnerable population of workers. The

  3. [Social cooperatives in Italy].

    PubMed

    Villotti, P; Zaniboni, S; Fraccaroli, F

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the role of social cooperatives in Italy as a type of economic, non-profit organization and their role in contributing to the economic and social growth of the country. The purpose of this paper is to learn more about the experience of the Italian social cooperatives in promoting the work integration process of disadvantaged workers, especially those suffering from mental disorders, from a theoretical and an empirical point of view. Social enterprise is the most popular and consolidated legal and organizational model for social enterprises in Italy, introduced by Law 381/91. Developed during the early 1980s, and formally recognized by law in the early 1990s, social cooperatives aim at pursuing the general interest of the community to promote the human needs and social inclusion of citizens. They are orientated towards aims that go beyond the interest of the business owners, the primary beneficiary of their activities is the community, or groups of disadvantaged people. In Italy, Law 381/91 distinguishes between two categories of social cooperatives, those producing goods of social utility, such as culture, welfare and educational services (A-type), and those providing economic activities for the integration of disadvantaged people into employment (B-type). The main purpose of B-type social cooperatives is to integrate disadvantaged people into the open labour market. This goal is reached after a period of training and working experience inside the firm, during which the staff works to improve both the social and professional abilities of disadvantaged people. During the years, B-type social co-ops acquired a particular relevance in the care of people with mental disorders by offering them with job opportunities. Having a job is central in the recovery process of people suffering from mental diseases, meaning that B-type social co-ops in Italy play an important rehabilitative and integrative role for this vulnerable population of workers. The

  4. Neural basis of conditional cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Niki, Kazuhisa; Fujisaki, Syoken; Akiyama, Eizo

    2011-01-01

    Cooperation among genetically unrelated individuals is a fundamental aspect of society, but it has been a longstanding puzzle in biological and social sciences. Recently, theoretical studies in biology and economics showed that conditional cooperation—cooperating only with those who have exhibited cooperative behavior—can spread over a society. Furthermore, experimental studies in psychology demonstrated that people are actually conditional cooperators. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the neural system underlying conditional cooperation by scanning participants during interaction with cooperative, neutral and non-cooperative opponents in prisoner's dilemma games. The results showed that: (i) participants cooperated more frequently with both cooperative and neutral opponents than with non-cooperative opponents; and (ii) a brain area related to cognitive inhibition of pre-potent responses (right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) showed greater activation, especially when participants confronted non-cooperative opponents. Consequently, we suggest that cognitive inhibition of the motivation to cooperate with non-cooperators drives the conditional behavior. PMID:20501484

  5. A Course of Study in Cooperation and Cooperatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjoraker, Walter T., Ed.

    Designed for teachers with limited experience in cooperatives, this course of study was prepared by seminar students for use in high school or adult education programs, and emphasizes the principles of cooperation, the operation and management of cooperatives, and the communication required for their effective functioning. Units requiring a total…

  6. Cooperation and cheating in microbes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gore, Jeff

    2011-03-01

    Understanding the cooperative and competitive dynamics within and between species is a central challenge in evolutionary biology. Microbial model systems represent a unique opportunity to experimentally test fundamental theories regarding the evolution of cooperative behaviors. In this talk I will describe our experiments probing cooperation in microbes. In particular, I will compare the cooperative growth of yeast in sucrose and the cooperative inactivation of antibiotics by bacteria. In both cases we find that cheater strains---which don't contribute to the public welfare---are able to take advantage of the cooperator strains. However, this ability of cheaters to out-compete cooperators occurs only when cheaters are present at low frequency, thus leading to steady-state coexistence. These microbial experiments provide fresh insight into the evolutionary origin of cooperation.

  7. An Odyssey into Cooperative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemke, Thomas L.; Basile, Carole

    1997-01-01

    An experiment using cooperative learning in a introductory pharmacy course in medicinal chemistry revealed general acceptance of the cooperative learning approach by students, and some perceived advantages for both students and teachers. Although quantitative evidence supporting superiority of the cooperative learning approach was not found,…

  8. Cooperative Learning for LEP Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calderon, Margarita

    1989-01-01

    Substantial evidence suggests that students working together in small cooperative groups can master material better than students working on their own, and that cooperative learning structures higher self-esteem and learning motivation. Cooperative learning (CL) has been proposed for use with language minority children, as well as with other…

  9. Enlightening Advantages of Cooperative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faryadi, Qais

    2007-01-01

    This appraisal discusses the notion that cooperative learning enhances learners' emotional and social performance. It also observes the perception that cooperative learning dramatically improves students' academic accomplishment. This review also examines the definition of cooperative learning and attempts to define it through the lens of renowned…

  10. Communication in Cooperative Learning Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalkowski, Page

    This study explores aspects of the hypothesis that communication in cooperative learning groups mediates effects of cooperative learning. The study develops a taxonomy of the cooperative communications of groups of predominantly Anglo and Hispanic elementary school students attending a public school where teachers were being trained to implement…

  11. Cooperative Learning in Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative learning refers to instructional methods in which students work in small groups to help each other learn. Although cooperative learning methods are used for different age groups, they are particularly popular in elementary (primary) schools. This article discusses methods and theoretical perspectives on cooperative learning for the…

  12. Cooperative Learning: Developments in Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillies, Robyn M.

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative learning is widely recognized as a pedagogical practice that promotes socialization and learning among students from kindergarten through to college level and across different subject areas. Cooperative learning involves students working together to achieve common goals or complete group tasks. Interest in cooperative learning has…

  13. International Cooperation: A Positive Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soria, Oscar

    Conditions for developing international university cooperation are identified, along with stages of international cooperation in education. Guidelines to promote cooperation are provided. The dominant focus and new role of universities has become problem-solving and community development, as distinct from the previous institutional-building…

  14. Cooperative transport in nanochannels.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Wolfgang R; Nadler, Walter

    2013-07-01

    Channel transport of different species of particles is viewed usually only in terms of competition and selectivity. In this paper we show that transport of one species may be promoted by the presence of another and that both may even mutually cooperate. We investigate a discretized Markovian model of nanochannel transport via in-channel sites, allowing for the simultaneous transport of several different species of particles; interaction between transported particles is included via the condition of single occupancy on a channel site. By numerically solving the model exactly, particularly an analysis of situations of crowding in the channel is possible and we observe three situations: mutual cooperation, promotion of one species at the cost of the other, and mutual competition. The physical situation has a strong nonequilibrium character as Onsager's relations on coupled flows do not hold.

  15. Cooperative photoredox catalysis.

    PubMed

    Lang, Xianjun; Zhao, Jincai; Chen, Xiaodong

    2016-05-31

    Visible-light photoredox catalysis has been experiencing a renaissance in response to topical interest in renewable energy and green chemistry. The latest progress in this area indicates that cooperation between photoredox catalysis and other domains of catalysis could provide effective results. Thus, we advance the concept of cooperative photoredox catalysis for organic transformations. It is important to note that this concept can bridge the gap between visible-light photoredox catalysis and other types of redox catalysis such as transition-metal catalysis, biocatalysis or electrocatalysis. In doing so, one can take advantage of the best of both worlds in establishing organic synthesis with visible-light-induced redox reaction as a crucial step. PMID:27094803

  16. Squaring cooperative binding circles

    PubMed Central

    Deutman, Alexander B. C.; Monnereau, Cyrille; Moalin, Mohamed; Coumans, Ruud G. E.; Veling, Nico; Coenen, Michiel; Smits, Jan M. M.; de Gelder, René; Elemans, Johannes A. A. W.; Ercolani, Gianfranco; Nolte, Roeland J. M.; Rowan, Alan E.

    2009-01-01

    The cooperative binding effects of viologens and pyridines to a synthetic bivalent porphyrin receptor are used as a model system to study how the magnitudes of these effects relate to the experimentally obtained values. The full thermodynamic and kinetic circles concerning both activation and inhibition of the cage of the receptor for the binding of viologens were measured and evaluated. The results strongly emphasize the apparent character of measured binding and rate constants, in which the fractional saturation of receptors with other guests is linearly expressed in these constants. The presented method can be used as a simple tool to better analyze and comprehend the experimentally observed kinetics and thermodynamics of natural and artificial cooperative systems. PMID:19470643

  17. Cooperation in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guastaferro, A.

    1992-01-01

    The topics from the Technical Interchange Meeting for the NASA Space Exploration Initiative are presented in viewgraph form. The objective is to share a perspective of a cost-effective cooperation management structure of NASA and industry as we move towards the 21st century and the national commitment to continue our exploration in space with humans. Some of the topics covered include a personal background, today's culture, new approaches, congressional oversight, programmatic impact, and recommendations.

  18. Automated Cooperative Trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Curt; Pahle, Joseph; Brown, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    This presentation is an overview of the Automated Cooperative Trajectories project. An introduction to the phenomena of wake vortices is given, along with a summary of past research into the possibility of extracting energy from the wake by flying close parallel trajectories. Challenges and barriers to adoption of civilian automatic wake surfing technology are identified. A hardware-in-the-loop simulation is described that will support future research. Finally, a roadmap for future research and technology transition is proposed.

  19. Cooperativity in Tetrel Bonds.

    PubMed

    Marín-Luna, Marta; Alkorta, Ibon; Elguero, José

    2016-02-01

    A theoretical study of the cooperativity in linear chains of (H3SiCN)n and (H3SiNC)n complexes connected by tetrel bonds has been carried out by means of MP2 and CCSD(T) computational methods. In all cases, a favorable cooperativity is observed, especially in some of the largest linear chains of (H3SiNC)n, where the effect is so large that the SiH3 group is almost equidistant to the two surrounding CN groups and it becomes planar. In addition, the combination of tetrel bonds with other weak interactions (halogen, chalcogen, pnicogen, triel, beryllium, lithium, and hydrogen bond) has been explored using ternary complexes, (H3SiCN)2:XY and (H3SiNC)2:XY. In all cases, positive cooperativity is obtained, especially in the (H3SiNC)2:ClF and (H3SiNC)2:SHF ternary complexes, where, respectively, halogen and chalcogen shared complexes are formed. PMID:26756083

  20. Hydrodynamics of Bacterial Cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petroff, A.; Libchaber, A.

    2012-12-01

    Over the course of the last several decades, the study of microbial communities has identified countless examples of cooperation between microorganisms. Generally—as in the case of quorum sensing—cooperation is coordinated by a chemical signal that diffuses through the community. Less well understood is a second class of cooperation that is mediated through physical interactions between individuals. To better understand how the bacteria use hydrodynamics to manipulate their environment and coordinate their actions, we study the sulfur-oxidizing bacterium Thiovulum majus. These bacteria live in the diffusive boundary layer just above the muddy bottoms of ponds. As buried organic material decays, sulfide diffuses out of the mud. Oxygen from the pond diffuses into the boundary layer from above. These bacteria form communities—called veils— which are able to transport nutrients through the boundary layer faster than diffusion, thereby increasing their metabolic rate. In these communities, bacteria attach to surfaces and swim in place. As millions of bacteria beat their flagella, the community induces a macroscopic fluid flow, which mix the boundary layer. Here we present experimental observations and mathematical models that elucidate the hydrodynamics linking the behavior of an individual bacterium to the collective dynamics of the community. We begin by characterizing the flow of water around an individual bacterium swimming in place. We then discuss the flow of water and nutrients around a small number of individuals. Finally, we present observations and models detailing the macroscopic dynamics of a Thiovulum veil.

  1. 75 FR 10319 - Cooper Tools-Sumter, Cooper Tools Divisions, a Subsidiary of Cooper Industries, Inc., Including...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... published in the Federal Register on September 21, 2006 (71 FR 55216). In order to avoid an overlap in... Employment and Training Administration Cooper Tools--Sumter, Cooper Tools Divisions, a Subsidiary of Cooper... workers of Cooper Tools--Sumter, Cooper Tools Division, a subsidiary of Cooper Industries, Inc.,...

  2. How is human cooperation different?

    PubMed Central

    Melis, Alicia P.; Semmann, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    Although cooperation is a widespread phenomenon in nature, human cooperation exceeds that of all other species with regard to the scale and range of cooperative activities. Here we review and discuss differences between humans and non-humans in the strategies employed to maintain cooperation and control free-riders. We distinguish forms of cooperative behaviour based on their influence on the immediate payoffs of actor and recipient. If the actor has immediate costs and only the recipient obtains immediate benefits, we term this investment. If the behaviour has immediate positive effects for both actor and recipient, we call this a self-serving mutually beneficial behaviour or mutual cooperation. We argue that humans, in contrast to all other species, employ a wider range of enforcement mechanisms, which allow higher levels of cooperation to evolve and stabilize among unrelated individuals and in large groups. We also discuss proximate mechanisms underlying cooperative behaviour and focus on our experimental work with humans and our closest primate relatives. Differences in the proximate mechanisms also seem to contribute to explaining humans' greater ability to cooperate and enforce cooperation. PMID:20679110

  3. Cooperativity in beryllium bonds.

    PubMed

    Alkorta, Ibon; Elguero, José; Yáñez, Manuel; Mó, Otilia

    2014-03-01

    A theoretical study of the beryllium bonded clusters of the (iminomethyl)beryllium hydride and (iminomethyl)beryllium fluoride [HC(BeX)=NH, X = H, F] molecules has been carried out at the B3LYP/6-311++G(3df,2p) level of theory. Linear and cyclic clusters have been characterized up to the decamer. The geometric, energetic, electronic and NMR properties of the clusters clearly indicate positive cooperativity. The evolution of the molecular properties, as the size of the cluster increases, is similar to those reported in polymers held together by hydrogen bonds.

  4. Mir Cooperative Solar Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skor, Mike; Hoffman, Dave J.

    1997-01-01

    The Mir Cooperative Solar Array (MCSA), produced jointly by the United States and Russia, was deployed on the Mir Russian space station on May 25, 1996. The MCSA is a photovoltaic electrical power system that can generate up to 6 kW. The power from the MCSA is needed to extend Mir's lifetime and to support experiments conducted there by visiting U.S. astronauts. The MCSA was brought to Mir via the Space Shuttle Atlantis on the STS-74 mission, launched November 12, 1995. This cooperative venture combined the best technology of both countries: the United States provided high-efficiency, lightweight photovoltaic panel modules, whereas Russia provided the array structure and deployment mechanism. Technology developed in the Space Station Freedom Program, and now being used in the International Space Station, was used to develop MCSA's photovoltaic panel. Performance data obtained from MCSA operation on Mir will help engineers better understand the performance of the photovoltaic panel modules in orbit. This information will be used to more accurately predict the performance of the International Space Station solar arrays. Managed by the NASA Lewis Research Center for NASA's International Space Station Program Office in Houston, Texas, the MCSA Project was completed on time and under budget despite a very aggressive schedule.

  5. Optical Circuitry Cooperative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, H. M.; Gibson, U.; Peyghambarian, N.; Sarid, D.; Stegeman, G.

    1985-01-01

    An Optical Circuitry Cooperative (OCC) has been formed as an NSF cooperative research center in which six or more companies contribute financial support; NSF provides support which declines to zero in five years. Companies benefit from a center by early access to research results, leverage for their research dollars, participation in research selection, and improved relations with faculty and students. The university receives support for a major research program that increases its research capability, provides reasonably stable funding, and opens more opportunities for graduate students. The potential of optical circuitry has been discussed for many years, but the excitement is growing rapidly on the strength of the success of optical fibers for optical transmission, the generation of subpicosecond opitcal pulses, and the development of promising optical logic elements, such as optical bistable devices. And yet, much research remains to be done to discover the best nonlinear optical materials and fabrication techniques. OCC will perform research to provide a data base to allow the development of optical circuitry devices. The areas encompassed by OCC include all-optical logic, picosecond decision-making, guided-wave preprocessors, opti-cal interconnects within computers (both fiber and whole-array imaging), optical storage, and optical computer architecture and devices.

  6. Cooperative nonproliferation activities

    SciTech Connect

    Ystesund, K.; Furaus, J.; Lucero, R.

    1997-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) under DOE sponsorship is engaged in nuclear nonproliferation activities with the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) of Japan. From 1995 to the present SNL and PNC have been participating in a cooperative project to implement and assess the use of remote monitoring to achieve nuclear nonproliferation objectives. Implementation of remote monitoring at the PNC Joyo facility took place during 1996 and continues to date. An International Fellowship began in the Fall of 1995 and has complemented the nonproliferation study. Plans are underway to extend the Fellowship and to upgrade the existing Remote Monitoring System to include another area at the Joyo facility. SNL and PNC are currently exploring the possibility of exchanging experts with the objective of promoting regional confidence building in Northeast Asia, possibly using some of the same remote monitoring technologies. This paper will provide an overview of these activities and report on the status of cooperative nonproliferation activities being conducted by PNC and SNL.

  7. Resource heterogeneity can facilitate cooperation.

    PubMed

    Kun, Ádám; Dieckmann, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    Although social structure is known to promote cooperation, by locally exposing selfish agents to their own deeds, studies to date assumed that all agents have access to the same level of resources. This is clearly unrealistic. Here we find that cooperation can be maintained when some agents have access to more resources than others. Cooperation can then emerge even in populations in which the temptation to defect is so strong that players would act fully selfishly if their resources were distributed uniformly. Resource heterogeneity can thus be crucial for the emergence and maintenance of cooperation. We also show that resource heterogeneity can hinder cooperation once the temptation to defect is significantly lowered. In all cases, the level of cooperation can be maximized by managing resource heterogeneity.

  8. Mechanisms for similarity based cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traulsen, A.

    2008-06-01

    Cooperation based on similarity has been discussed since Richard Dawkins introduced the term “green beard” effect. In these models, individuals cooperate based on an aribtrary signal (or tag) such as the famous green beard. Here, two different models for such tag based cooperation are analysed. As neutral drift is important in both models, a finite population framework is applied. The first model, which we term “cooperative tags” considers a situation in which groups of cooperators are formed by some joint signal. Defectors adopting the signal and exploiting the group can lead to a breakdown of cooperation. In this case, conditions are derived under which the average abundance of the more cooperative strategy exceeds 50%. The second model considers a situation in which individuals start defecting towards others that are not similar to them. This situation is termed “defective tags”. It is shown that in this case, individuals using tags to cooperate exclusively with their own kind dominate over unconditional cooperators.

  9. Diversified Cooperative Training. Diversified Cooperative Health Occupations. Manual of Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Vocational and Adult Education.

    This manual is designed to assist school personnel, employers, parents/guardians, and students in understanding the policies and procedures required to operate effective diversified cooperative training (DCT) and diversified cooperative health occupations (DCHO) programs. Chapter I describes DCT/DCHO programs, their structure, types of program…

  10. Cooperative Cataloging: LC Promotes Cooperation at Asian Materials Seminar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fineberg, Gail

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the Asian Materials Cataloging Seminar that the Library of Congress sponsored to promote the benefits of cooperative cataloging. Highlights include the Program for Cooperative Cataloging (PCC); high-quality, standardized, core-level cataloging records for Asian materials; name authority and subject authority programs; and the CONSER…

  11. Cooperative phenomena in swarms

    SciTech Connect

    Millonas, M.M.

    1992-12-01

    A model of the cooperative behavior of a large number of locally acting organisms is proposed. The space in which the organisms move is discretized, and is modeled by a lattice of nodes, or cells. Each cell has a specified volume, and is connected to other cells in the space in a definite way. Organisms move probabilistically between local cells in this space, but with weights dependent on local morphogenic substances, or morphogens. The morphogens are in turn are effected by the passage of an organism. The evolution of the morphogens, and the corresponding flow of the organisms constitutes the collective behavior of the group. The generic properties of such systems are analyzed, and a number of results are obtained. The model has various types of phase transitions and self-organizing properties controlled both by the level of the noise, and other parameters.

  12. Cooperative phenomena in swarms

    SciTech Connect

    Millonas, M.M.

    1992-01-01

    A model of the cooperative behavior of a large number of locally acting organisms is proposed. The space in which the organisms move is discretized, and is modeled by a lattice of nodes, or cells. Each cell has a specified volume, and is connected to other cells in the space in a definite way. Organisms move probabilistically between local cells in this space, but with weights dependent on local morphogenic substances, or morphogens. The morphogens are in turn are effected by the passage of an organism. The evolution of the morphogens, and the corresponding flow of the organisms constitutes the collective behavior of the group. The generic properties of such systems are analyzed, and a number of results are obtained. The model has various types of phase transitions and self-organizing properties controlled both by the level of the noise, and other parameters.

  13. Cooperative runtime monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallé, Sylvain

    2013-11-01

    Requirements on message-based interactions can be formalised as an interface contract that specifies constraints on the sequence of possible messages that can be exchanged by multiple parties. At runtime, each peer can monitor incoming messages and check that the contract is correctly being followed by their respective senders. We introduce cooperative runtime monitoring, where a recipient 'delegates' its monitoring task to the sender, which is required to provide evidence that the message it sends complies with the contract. In turn, this evidence can be quickly checked by the recipient, which is then guaranteed of the sender's compliance to the contract without doing the monitoring computation by itself. A particular application of this concept is shown on web services, where service providers can monitor and enforce contract compliance of third-party clients at a small cost on the server side, while avoiding to certify or digitally sign them.

  14. Allostery and cooperativity revisited

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Qiang; Karplus, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Although phenomenlogical models that account for cooperativity in allosteric systems date back to the early and mid-60's (e.g., the KNF and MWC models), there is resurgent interest in the topic due to the recent experimental and computational studies that attempted to reveal, at an atomistic level, how allostery actually works. In this review, using systems for which atomistic simulations have been carried out in our groups as examples, we describe the current understanding of allostery, how the mechanisms go beyond the classical MWC/Pauling-KNF descriptions, and point out that the “new view” of allostery, emphasizing “population shifts,” is, in fact, an “old view.” The presentation offers not only an up-to-date description of allostery from a theoretical/computational perspective, but also helps to resolve several outstanding issues concerning allostery. PMID:18560010

  15. Cooperative Education in Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andy; Flemming, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    Cooperative education is a structured experiential education strategy integrating classroom studies with work place learning. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate how a cooperative education model can be included within an outdoor education undergraduate degree to develop reflective practitioners and to enhance graduate capabilities. Document…

  16. Cooperative Learning in Elementary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadderman, Margaret

    1992-01-01

    Cooperative learning is being recommended as a solution for numerous education problems, from enhancing disadvantaged children's self-esteem to ensuring academic success for all students. Cooperative learning has great potential as a supplement or alternative to traditional teaching methods when students are adequately socialized and motivated.…

  17. Cooperative Learning for Remedial Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiers, Darlene

    1989-01-01

    Offers cooperative learning instructional techniques for teaching the historical novel "The Root Cellar" in a remedial reading classroom. Recommends cooperative learning as a means through which the student can succeed academically while developing interpersonal skills. Suggests that the lesson can be adapted to match the ability level of…

  18. International Cooperation in Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John, Magnus

    This paper addresses some of the general issues of international cooperation within the context of distance education. Examples of the types of international cooperation are introduced in order to explain some of the pitfalls that can occur when coordinating organizations on an international level. Extensive discussion is undertaken concerning…

  19. Cooperative Learning in Communication Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Patricia L.; And Others

    This paper presents 14 cooperative learning lesson plans and related handouts suitable for use in communication courses. The paper begins with 8 handouts that deal with objectives; criteria; differences between the old paradigm and the new paradigm based on cooperative learning; positive interdependences; group differences between cooperative…

  20. Cooperative Education for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, James W.

    1999-01-01

    Cooperative education must move into a new era of radically different, technology-driven environments in which work and study are blurred. Characteristics of a new cooperative education include (1) simultaneous study and work; (2) co-op integrated into courses; (3) faculty as consultants on co-op opportunities; (4) change in financial remuneration…

  1. Peter Cooper, the Workingman's Advocate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alemanne, Nicholas

    1985-01-01

    During the 19th century, America was transformed from an agrarian to an urban-industrial society. America became divided into a nation of rich and poor. Peter Cooper assumed the role of a reformer and became the spokesman for the poor. Cooper's reform efforts and his views on unions are discussed. (RM)

  2. Cooperative processes in image segmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, L. S.

    1982-01-01

    Research into the role of cooperative, or relaxation, processes in image segmentation is surveyed. Cooperative processes can be employed at several levels of the segmentation process as a preprocessing enhancement step, during supervised or unsupervised pixel classification and, finally, for the interpretation of image segments based on segment properties and relations.

  3. Cooperative answers in database systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaasterland, Terry; Godfrey, Parke; Minker, Jack; Novik, Lev

    1993-01-01

    A major concern of researchers who seek to improve human-computer communication involves how to move beyond literal interpretations of queries to a level of responsiveness that takes the user's misconceptions, expectations, desires, and interests into consideration. At Maryland, we are investigating how to better meet a user's needs within the framework of the cooperative answering system of Gal and Minker. We have been exploring how to use semantic information about the database to formulate coherent and informative answers. The work has two main thrusts: (1) the construction of a logic formula which embodies the content of a cooperative answer; and (2) the presentation of the logic formula to the user in a natural language form. The information that is available in a deductive database system for building cooperative answers includes integrity constraints, user constraints, the search tree for answers to the query, and false presuppositions that are present in the query. The basic cooperative answering theory of Gal and Minker forms the foundation of a cooperative answering system that integrates the new construction and presentation methods. This paper provides an overview of the cooperative answering strategies used in the CARMIN cooperative answering system, an ongoing research effort at Maryland. Section 2 gives some useful background definitions. Section 3 describes techniques for collecting cooperative logical formulae. Section 4 discusses which natural language generation techniques are useful for presenting the logic formula in natural language text. Section 5 presents a diagram of the system.

  4. Cooperative Education. Instructor Coordinator's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrow, Shirley

    Designed to provide an introduction to North Lake College's (NLC's) Cooperative Education Program, this manual contains information for the instructor/coordinator regarding the Dallas County Community College District's co-op policies and NLC's operational procedures and forms. First, section 1 defines cooperative education, states NLC's…

  5. Automotive Technician Educational Cooperative Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verbeck, Bill

    1998-01-01

    The Automotive Technician Educational Cooperative (ATEC), the premier applied-technology program at Truckee Meadows Community College (Sparks, Nevada), exemplifies what can be accomplished through leadership, cooperation, and dedication of a qualified faculty committed to designing and implementing a program based on standards. (JOW)

  6. Generation Z, Meet Cooperative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Igel, Charles; Urquhart, Vicki

    2012-01-01

    Today's Generation Z teens need to develop teamwork and social learning skills to be successful in the 21st century workplace. Teachers can help students develop these skills and enhance academic achievement by implementing cooperative learning strategies. Three key principles for successful cooperative learning are discussed. (Contains 1 figure.)

  7. Cooperative Learning and Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veenman, Simon; van Benthum, Niek; Bootsma, Dolly; van Dieren, Jildau; van der Kemp, Nicole

    2002-01-01

    Examined the implementation effects of a course on cooperative learning for Dutch student teachers. Data from surveys, pre- and post-course observations, and comparison of treatment of control groups indicated the course was effective in teaching participants to implement cooperative learning. The course positively affected the engagement rates of…

  8. Cooperation in Diffusive Spatial Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vainstein, Mendeli H.; Silva, Ana T. C.; Arenzon, Jeferson J.

    2007-05-01

    Random diffusion is shown to be an important mechanism on fostering cooperative behavior among simple agents (memoryless, unconditional cooperators or defectors) living on a spatially structured environment. In particular, under the Prisoner's Dilemma framework, when allowing the agents to move with the simple "always-move" rule, we find that cooperative behavior is not only possible but may even be enhanced. In addition, for a broad range of densities, mobile cooperators can more easily invade a population of mobile defectors, when compared with the fully viscous, immobile case. Thus, such simple mobility pattern may have played a fundamental role both in the onset and development of cooperative behavior, paving the way to more complex, individual and group, motility rules.

  9. HUMAN MACHINE COOPERATIVE TELEROBOTICS

    SciTech Connect

    William R. Hamel; Spivey Douglass; Sewoong Kim; Pamela Murray; Yang Shou; Sriram Sridharan; Ge Zhang; Scott Thayer; Rajiv V. Dubey

    2003-06-30

    described as Human Machine Cooperative Telerobotics (HMCTR). The HMCTR combines the telerobot with robotic control techniques to improve the system efficiency and reliability in teleoperation mode. In this topical report, the control strategy, configuration and experimental results of Human Machines Cooperative Telerobotics (HMCTR), which modifies and limits the commands of human operator to follow the predefined constraints in the teleoperation mode, is described. The current implementation is a laboratory-scale system that will be incorporated into an engineering-scale system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the future.

  10. 32 CFR 37.1260 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1260 Cooperative... the cooperative agreement. The term does not include “cooperative research and development...

  11. Laparoscopic endoscopic cooperative surgery.

    PubMed

    Hiki, Naoki; Nunobe, Souya; Matsuda, Tatsuo; Hirasawa, Toshiaki; Yamamoto, Yorimasa; Yamaguchi, Toshiharu

    2015-01-01

    Laparoscopic and endoscopic cooperative surgery (LECS) is a newly developed concept for tumor dissection of the gastrointestinal tract that was first investigated for local resection of gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). The first reported version of LECS for GIST has been named 'classical LECS' to distinguish it from other modified LECS procedures, such as inverted LECS, a combination of laparoscopic and endoscopic approaches to neoplasia with a non-exposure technique (CLEAN-NET), and non-exposed endoscopic wall-inversion surgery (NEWS). These modified LECS procedures were developed for dissection of malignant tumors which may seed tumor cells into the abdominal cavity. While these LECS-related procedures might prevent tumor seeding, their application is limited by several factors, such as tumor size, location and technical difficulty. Currently, classical LECS is a safe and useful procedure for gastric submucosal tumors without mucosal defects, independent of tumor location, such as proximity to the esophagogastric junction or pyloric ring. For future applications of LECS-related procedures for other malignant diseases with mucosal lesions such as GIST with mucosal defects and gastric cancer, some improvements in the techniques are needed.

  12. The Hard Problem of Cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, Kimmo; Strimling, Pontus

    2012-01-01

    Based on individual variation in cooperative inclinations, we define the “hard problem of cooperation” as that of achieving high levels of cooperation in a group of non-cooperative types. Can the hard problem be solved by institutions with monitoring and sanctions? In a laboratory experiment we find that the answer is affirmative if the institution is imposed on the group but negative if development of the institution is left to the group to vote on. In the experiment, participants were divided into groups of either cooperative types or non-cooperative types depending on their behavior in a public goods game. In these homogeneous groups they repeatedly played a public goods game regulated by an institution that incorporated several of the key properties identified by Ostrom: operational rules, monitoring, rewards, punishments, and (in one condition) change of rules. When change of rules was not possible and punishments were set to be high, groups of both types generally abided by operational rules demanding high contributions to the common good, and thereby achieved high levels of payoffs. Under less severe rules, both types of groups did worse but non-cooperative types did worst. Thus, non-cooperative groups profited the most from being governed by an institution demanding high contributions and employing high punishments. Nevertheless, in a condition where change of rules through voting was made possible, development of the institution in this direction was more often voted down in groups of non-cooperative types. We discuss the relevance of the hard problem and fit our results into a bigger picture of institutional and individual determinants of cooperative behavior. PMID:22792282

  13. Cooperation: the foundation of improvement.

    PubMed

    Clemmer, T P; Spuhler, V J; Berwick, D M; Nolan, T W

    1998-06-15

    Cooperation--working together to produce mutual benefit or attain a common purpose--is almost inseparable from the quest for improvement. Although the case for cooperation can be made on ethical grounds, neither the motivation for nor the effects of cooperation need to be interpreted solely in terms of altruism. Cooperation can be a shrewd and pragmatic strategy for accomplishing personal goals in an interdependent system. Earlier papers in this series have explored the conceptual roots of modern approaches to improvement, which lie in systems theory. To improve systems, we must usually attend first and foremost to interactions. Among humans, "better interaction" is almost synonymous with "better cooperation." Physicians have ample opportunities and, indeed, an obligation to cooperate with other physicians in the same or different specialties, with nurses and other clinical workers, with administrators, and with patients and families. Many intellectual disciplines have made cooperation an object of study. These include anthropology; social psychology; genetics; biology; mathematics; game theory; linguistics; operations research; economics; and, of course, moral and rational philosophy. Scientifically grounded methods to enhance cooperation include developing a shared purpose; creating an open, safe environment; including all who share a common purpose and encouraging diverse viewpoints; negotiating agreement; and insisting on fairness and equity in the application of rules. These methods apply at the organizational level and at the level of the individual physician. This paper describes the application of these methods at the organizational level and focuses on one especially successful example of system-level cooperation in a care delivery site where interactions matter a great deal: the modern intensive care unit. PMID:9625663

  14. Exploring Reputation-Based Cooperation:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilone, Daniele; Giardini, Francesca; Paolucci, Mario

    In dyadic models of indirect reciprocity, the receivers' history of giving has a significant impact on the donor's decision. When the interaction involves more than two agents things become more complicated, and in large groups cooperation can hardly emerge. In this work we use a Public Goods Game to investigate whether publicly available reputation scores may support the evolution of cooperation and whether this is affected by the kind of network structure adopted. Moreover, if agents interact on a bipartite graph with partner selection, cooperation can quickly thrive in large groups.

  15. Cooperative robotic sentry vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feddema, John T.; Lewis, Christopher L.; Klarer, Paul; Eisler, G. R.; Caprihan, Rahul

    1999-08-01

    As part of a project for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Sandia National Laboratories' Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center is developing and testing the feasibility of a cooperative team of robotic sentry vehicles to guard a perimeter and to perform a surround task. This paper describes on-going activities in the development of these robotic sentry vehicles. To date, we have developed a robotic perimeter detection system which consists of eight 'Roving All Terrain Lunar Explorer Rovers' (RATLER), a laptop-based base-station, and several Miniature Intrusion Detection Sensors (MIDS). A radio frequency receiver on each of the RATLER vehicles alerts the sentry vehicles of alarms from the hidden MIDS. When an alarm is received, each vehicle decides whether it should investigate the alarm based on the proximity of itself and the other vehicles to the alarm. As one vehicle attends an alarm, the other vehicles adjust their position around the perimeter to better prepare for another alarm. For the surround task, both potential field and A* search path planners have been added to the base-station and vehicles. At the base-station, the operator specifies goal and exclusion regions on a GIS map. The path planner generates vehicles paths that are previewed by the operator. Once the operator has validated the path, the appropriate information is downloaded t the vehicles. For the potential field path planner, the polygons and line segments that represent the obstacles and goals are downloaded to the vehicles, instead of the simulated paths. On board the vehicles, the same potential field path planner generates the path except that it uses the true location of itself and the nearest neighboring vehicle. For the A* path planner, the actual path is downloaded to the vehicles because of limited on-board computational power.

  16. Cooperation Among Theorem Provers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waldinger, Richard J.

    1998-01-01

    This is a final report, which supports NASA's PECSEE (Persistent Cognizant Software Engineering Environment) effort and complements the Kestrel Institute project "Inference System Integration via Logic Morphism". The ultimate purpose of the project is to develop a superior logical inference mechanism by combining the diverse abilities of multiple cooperating theorem provers. In many years of research, a number of powerful theorem-proving systems have arisen with differing capabilities and strengths. Resolution theorem provers (such as Kestrel's KITP or SRI's, SNARK) deal with first-order logic with equality but not the principle of mathematical induction. The Boyer-Moore theorem prover excels at proof by induction but cannot deal with full first-order logic. Both are highly automated but cannot accept user guidance easily. The PVS system (from SRI) in only automatic within decidable theories, but it has well-designed interactive capabilities: furthermore, it includes higher-order logic, not just first-order logic. The NuPRL system from Cornell University and the STeP system from Stanford University have facilities for constructive logic and temporal logic, respectively - both are interactive. It is often suggested - for example, in the anonymous "QED Manifesto"-that we should pool the resources of all these theorem provers into a single system, so that the strengths of one can compensate for the weaknesses of others, and so that effort will not be duplicated. However, there is no straightforward way of doing this, because each system relies on its own language and logic for its success. Thus. SNARK uses ordinary first-order logic with equality, PVS uses higher-order logic. and NuPRL uses constructive logic. The purpose of this project, and the companion project at Kestrel, has been to use the category-theoretic notion of logic morphism to combine systems with different logics and languages. Kestrel's SPECWARE system has been the vehicle for the implementation.

  17. Regional Renewable Energy Cooperatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazendonk, P.; Brown, M. B.; Byrne, J. M.; Harrison, T.; Mueller, R.; Peacock, K.; Usher, J.; Yalamova, R.; Kroebel, R.; Larsen, J.; McNaughton, R.

    2014-12-01

    We are building a multidisciplinary research program linking researchers in agriculture, business, earth science, engineering, humanities and social science. Our goal is to match renewable energy supply and reformed energy demands. The program will be focused on (i) understanding and modifying energy demand, (ii) design and implementation of diverse renewable energy networks. Geomatics technology will be used to map existing energy and waste flows on a neighbourhood, municipal, and regional level. Optimal sites and combinations of sites for solar and wind electrical generation (ridges, rooftops, valley walls) will be identified. Geomatics based site and grid analyses will identify best locations for energy production based on efficient production and connectivity to regional grids and transportation. Design of networks for utilization of waste streams of heat, water, animal and human waste for energy production will be investigated. Agriculture, cities and industry produce many waste streams that are not well utilized. Therefore, establishing a renewable energy resource mapping and planning program for electrical generation, waste heat and energy recovery, biomass collection, and biochar, biodiesel and syngas production is critical to regional energy optimization. Electrical storage and demand management are two priorities that will be investigated. Regional scale cooperatives may use electric vehicle batteries and innovations such as pump storage and concentrated solar molten salt heat storage for steam turbine electrical generation. Energy demand management is poorly explored in Canada and elsewhere - our homes and businesses operate on an unrestricted demand. Simple monitoring and energy demand-ranking software can easily reduce peaks demands and move lower ranked uses to non-peak periods, thereby reducing the grid size needed to meet peak demands. Peak demand strains the current energy grid capacity and often requires demand balancing projects and

  18. [Aware and cooperative reduction].

    PubMed

    Tambone, V; Ghilardi, G

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to address the question of reduction in the scientific method, to evaluate its legitimacy as well as its pro and contra from an epistemological point of view. In the first paragraph we classify some kinds of reductionism, analysing their presuppositions and epistemological status and showing some examples of scientific reduction. The presentation includes a classificatory table that shows some of the different forms of biological reductionism. In the second paragraph we study the epistemology of science starting from its modern beginning: the Vienna Circle, focusing on the meaning of methodological reductionism. What did it mean for science to define itself mainly as method, which effects did this new concept of science have on methodology and what kind of problems did this movement bring about. In the third paragraph we examine the reactions triggered by methodological reductionism, we analyze the theoretical consistency of these answers, trying to offer a balanced view. We show how complexity can be seen as a paradigm of the anti-reductionism effort, and we study its epistemological basis. In the fourth paragraph we outline our operative proposal: the reduction that is both aware and cooperative. We point out the main reasons why science cannot avoid being reductive in some way, and therefore how we need to deal with this feature in order to prevent it to degenerate into reductionism. We show some examples of this new proposal taken from the practical realm and from literature, where it is possible to discern the spirit of this alternative methodology. PMID:22964706

  19. Cooperative strings and glassy interfaces.

    PubMed

    Salez, Thomas; Salez, Justin; Dalnoki-Veress, Kari; Raphaël, Elie; Forrest, James A

    2015-07-01

    We introduce a minimal theory of glass formation based on the ideas of molecular crowding and resultant string-like cooperative rearrangement, and address the effects of free interfaces. In the bulk case, we obtain a scaling expression for the number of particles taking part in cooperative strings, and we recover the Adam-Gibbs description of glassy dynamics. Then, by including thermal dilatation, the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann relation is derived. Moreover, the random and string-like characters of the cooperative rearrangement allow us to predict a temperature-dependent expression for the cooperative length ξ of bulk relaxation. Finally, we explore the influence of sample boundaries when the system size becomes comparable to ξ. The theory is in agreement with measurements of the glass-transition temperature of thin polymer films, and allows quantification of the temperature-dependent thickness hm of the interfacial mobile layer. PMID:26100908

  20. Interorganizational Cooperation: Why and How?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beder, Hal

    1984-01-01

    Describes characteristics of continuing education agencies (resource and organizational insecurity, need for flexibility, autonomy), type of cooperation (cosponsorship, referral, donation, coordination), essential resources (money, learners, staff, information, domain, power), hidden costs (time, dislocation, goal dislocation, goal displacement,…

  1. Cooperative strings and glassy interfaces.

    PubMed

    Salez, Thomas; Salez, Justin; Dalnoki-Veress, Kari; Raphaël, Elie; Forrest, James A

    2015-07-01

    We introduce a minimal theory of glass formation based on the ideas of molecular crowding and resultant string-like cooperative rearrangement, and address the effects of free interfaces. In the bulk case, we obtain a scaling expression for the number of particles taking part in cooperative strings, and we recover the Adam-Gibbs description of glassy dynamics. Then, by including thermal dilatation, the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann relation is derived. Moreover, the random and string-like characters of the cooperative rearrangement allow us to predict a temperature-dependent expression for the cooperative length ξ of bulk relaxation. Finally, we explore the influence of sample boundaries when the system size becomes comparable to ξ. The theory is in agreement with measurements of the glass-transition temperature of thin polymer films, and allows quantification of the temperature-dependent thickness hm of the interfacial mobile layer.

  2. Future Directions in Cooperative Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leventhal, Jerome

    1996-01-01

    Current trends influencing cooperative education include the Workforce Development Act, the school-to-work career paths approach, use of multiple intelligences research in the classroom, and action research to improve program development. (SK)

  3. The Paradoxes of Library Cooperation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Richard M.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Besides the main article by Richard Dougherty, this mini-symposium on library cooperation contains commentaries by Ralph Blasingame, Thomas J. Galvin, Ellsworth Mason, John F. Anderson and Robert S. Ake. (18 references) (NH)

  4. Cooperative binding: a multiple personality.

    PubMed

    Martini, Johannes W R; Diambra, Luis; Habeck, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Cooperative binding has been described in many publications and has been related to or defined by several different properties of the binding behavior of the ligand to the target molecule. In addition to the commonly used Hill coefficient, other characteristics such as a sigmoidal shape of the overall titration curve in a linear plot, a change of ligand affinity of the other binding sites when a site of the target molecule becomes occupied, or complex roots of the binding polynomial have been used to define or to quantify cooperative binding. In this work, we analyze how the different properties are related in the most general model for binding curves based on the grand canonical partition function and present several examples which highlight differences between the cooperativity characterizing properties which are discussed. Our results mainly show that among the presented definitions there are not two which fully coincide. Moreover, this work poses the question whether it can make sense to distinguish between positive and negative cooperativity based on the macroscopic binding isotherm only. This article shall emphasize that scientists who investigate cooperative effects in biological systems could help avoiding misunderstandings by stating clearly which kind of cooperativity they discuss.

  5. How feeling betrayed affects cooperation.

    PubMed

    Ramazi, Pouria; Hessel, Jop; Cao, Ming

    2015-01-01

    For a population of interacting self-interested agents, we study how the average cooperation level is affected by some individuals' feelings of being betrayed and guilt. We quantify these feelings as adjusted payoffs in asymmetric games, where for different emotions, the payoff matrix takes the structure of that of either a prisoner's dilemma or a snowdrift game. Then we analyze the evolution of cooperation in a well-mixed population of agents, each of whom is associated with such a payoff matrix. At each time-step, an agent is randomly chosen from the population to update her strategy based on the myopic best-response update rule. According to the simulations, decreasing the feeling of being betrayed in a portion of agents does not necessarily increase the level of cooperation in the population. However, this resistance of the population against low-betrayal-level agents is effective only up to some extend that is explicitly determined by the payoff matrices and the number of agents associated with these matrices. Two other models are also considered where the betrayal factor of an agent fluctuates as a function of the number of cooperators and defectors that she encounters. Unstable behaviors are observed for the level of cooperation in these cases; however, we show that one can tune the parameters in the function to make the whole population become cooperative or defective. PMID:25922933

  6. Hormonal mechanisms of cooperative behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Marta C.; Bshary, Redouan; Fusani, Leonida; Goymann, Wolfgang; Hau, Michaela; Hirschenhauser, Katharina; Oliveira, Rui F.

    2010-01-01

    Research on the diversity, evolution and stability of cooperative behaviour has generated a considerable body of work. As concepts simplify the real world, theoretical solutions are typically also simple. Real behaviour, in contrast, is often much more diverse. Such diversity, which is increasingly acknowledged to help in stabilizing cooperative outcomes, warrants detailed research about the proximate mechanisms underlying decision-making. Our aim here is to focus on the potential role of neuroendocrine mechanisms on the regulation of the expression of cooperative behaviour in vertebrates. We first provide a brief introduction into the neuroendocrine basis of social behaviour. We then evaluate how hormones may influence known cognitive modules that are involved in decision-making processes that may lead to cooperative behaviour. Based on this evaluation, we will discuss specific examples of how hormones may contribute to the variability of cooperative behaviour at three different levels: (i) within an individual; (ii) between individuals and (iii) between species. We hope that these ideas spur increased research on the behavioural endocrinology of cooperation. PMID:20679116

  7. 10 CFR 745.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperative research. 745.114 Section 745.114 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 745.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research... of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights...

  8. 45 CFR 690.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooperative research. 690.114 Section 690.114... OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 690.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative...

  9. 15 CFR 27.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperative research. 27.114 Section... § 27.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects,...

  10. 16 CFR 1028.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1028.114 Section 1028... § 1028.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects,...

  11. 28 CFR 46.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative research. 46.114 Section 46... Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution...

  12. 32 CFR 219.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative research. 219.114 Section 219.114...) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 219.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are... cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and welfare...

  13. 38 CFR 16.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative research. 16... OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 16.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative...

  14. 32 CFR 219.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cooperative research. 219.114 Section 219.114...) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 219.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are... cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and welfare...

  15. 10 CFR 745.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cooperative research. 745.114 Section 745.114 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 745.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research... of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights...

  16. 15 CFR 27.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cooperative research. 27.114 Section... § 27.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects,...

  17. 15 CFR 27.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cooperative research. 27.114 Section... § 27.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects,...

  18. 16 CFR 1028.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1028.114 Section 1028... § 1028.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects,...

  19. 16 CFR 1028.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1028.114 Section 1028... § 1028.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects,...

  20. 32 CFR 219.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cooperative research. 219.114 Section 219.114...) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 219.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are... cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and welfare...

  1. 38 CFR 16.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cooperative research. 16... OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 16.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative...

  2. 28 CFR 46.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cooperative research. 46.114 Section 46... Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution...

  3. 28 CFR 46.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cooperative research. 46.114 Section 46... Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution...

  4. 32 CFR 219.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cooperative research. 219.114 Section 219.114...) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 219.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are... cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and welfare...

  5. 38 CFR 16.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cooperative research. 16... OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 16.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative...

  6. 45 CFR 690.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cooperative research. 690.114 Section 690.114... OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 690.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative...

  7. 45 CFR 690.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cooperative research. 690.114 Section 690.114... OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 690.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative...

  8. 10 CFR 745.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cooperative research. 745.114 Section 745.114 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 745.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research... of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights...

  9. 10 CFR 745.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cooperative research. 745.114 Section 745.114 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 745.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research... of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights...

  10. 15 CFR 27.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cooperative research. 27.114 Section... § 27.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects,...

  11. 38 CFR 16.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cooperative research. 16... OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 16.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative...

  12. 45 CFR 690.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cooperative research. 690.114 Section 690.114... OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 690.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative...

  13. 28 CFR 46.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cooperative research. 46.114 Section 46... Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution...

  14. 16 CFR 1028.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1028.114 Section 1028... § 1028.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects,...

  15. 38 CFR 16.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cooperative research. 16... OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 16.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative...

  16. 28 CFR 46.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cooperative research. 46.114 Section 46... Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution...

  17. 16 CFR 1028.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1028.114 Section 1028... § 1028.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects,...

  18. 32 CFR 219.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cooperative research. 219.114 Section 219.114...) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 219.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are... cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and welfare...

  19. 10 CFR 745.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooperative research. 745.114 Section 745.114 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 745.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research... of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights...

  20. 15 CFR 27.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooperative research. 27.114 Section... § 27.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects,...

  1. 36 CFR 212.3 - Cooperative work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cooperative work. 212.3... MANAGEMENT Administration of the Forest Transportation System § 212.3 Cooperative work. (a) Cooperative... for expenditure from the appropriation “Cooperative Work, Forest Service.” If a State, county or...

  2. 36 CFR 212.3 - Cooperative work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cooperative work. 212.3... MANAGEMENT Administration of the Forest Transportation System § 212.3 Cooperative work. (a) Cooperative... for expenditure from the appropriation “Cooperative Work, Forest Service.” If a State, county or...

  3. 36 CFR 212.3 - Cooperative work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cooperative work. 212.3... MANAGEMENT Administration of the Forest Transportation System § 212.3 Cooperative work. (a) Cooperative... for expenditure from the appropriation “Cooperative Work, Forest Service.” If a State, county or...

  4. 36 CFR 212.3 - Cooperative work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative work. 212.3... MANAGEMENT Administration of the Forest Transportation System § 212.3 Cooperative work. (a) Cooperative... for expenditure from the appropriation “Cooperative Work, Forest Service.” If a State, county or...

  5. 36 CFR 212.3 - Cooperative work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cooperative work. 212.3... MANAGEMENT Administration of the Forest Transportation System § 212.3 Cooperative work. (a) Cooperative... for expenditure from the appropriation “Cooperative Work, Forest Service.” If a State, county or...

  6. 7 CFR 1000.18 - Cooperative association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooperative association. 1000.18 Section 1000.18... Definitions § 1000.18 Cooperative association. Cooperative association means any cooperative marketing association of producers which the Secretary determines is qualified under the provisions of the...

  7. 7 CFR 1150.119 - Cooperative association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooperative association. 1150.119 Section 1150.119... Order Definitions § 1150.119 Cooperative association. Cooperative association means any cooperative marketing association of producers which is organized under the provisions of the Act of Congress...

  8. 7 CFR 1000.18 - Cooperative association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Cooperative association. 1000.18 Section 1000.18... Definitions § 1000.18 Cooperative association. Cooperative association means any cooperative marketing association of producers which the Secretary determines is qualified under the provisions of the...

  9. 7 CFR 1150.119 - Cooperative association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Cooperative association. 1150.119 Section 1150.119... Order Definitions § 1150.119 Cooperative association. Cooperative association means any cooperative marketing association of producers which is organized under the provisions of the Act of Congress...

  10. Population dynamics of obligate cooperators

    PubMed Central

    Courchamp, F.; Grenfell, B.; Clutton-Brock, T.

    1999-01-01

    Obligate cooperative breeding species demonstrate a high rate of group extinction, which may be due to the existence of a critical number of helpers below which the group cannot subsist. Through a simple model, we study the population dynamics of obligate cooperative breeding species, taking into account the existence of a lower threshold below which the instantaneous growth rate becomes negative. The model successively incorporates (i) a distinction between species that need helpers for reproduction, survival or both, (ii) the existence of a migration rate accounting for dispersal, and (iii) stochastic mortality to simulate the effects of random catastrophic events. Our results suggest that the need for a minimum number of helpers increases the risk of extinction for obligate cooperative breeding species. The constraint imposed by this threshold is higher when helpers are needed for reproduction only or for both reproduction and survival. By driving them below this lower threshold, stochastic mortality of lower amplitude and/or lower frequency than for non-cooperative breeders may be sufficient to cause the extinction of obligate cooperative breeding groups. Migration may have a buffering effect only for groups where immigration is higher than emigration; otherwise (when immigrants from nearby groups are not available) it lowers the difference between actual group size and critical threshold, thereby constituting a higher constraint.

  11. The Globalization of Cooperative Groups.

    PubMed

    Valdivieso, Manuel; Corn, Benjamin W; Dancey, Janet E; Wickerham, D Lawrence; Horvath, L Elise; Perez, Edith A; Urton, Alison; Cronin, Walter M; Field, Erica; Lackey, Evonne; Blanke, Charles D

    2015-10-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI)-supported adult cooperative oncology research groups (now officially Network groups) have a longstanding history of participating in international collaborations throughout the world. Most frequently, the US-based cooperative groups work reciprocally with the Canadian national adult cancer clinical trial group, NCIC CTG (previously the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group). Thus, Canada is the largest contributor to cooperative groups based in the United States, and vice versa. Although international collaborations have many benefits, they are most frequently utilized to enhance patient accrual to large phase III trials originating in the United States or Canada. Within the cooperative group setting, adequate attention has not been given to the study of cancers that are unique to countries outside the United States and Canada, such as those frequently associated with infections in Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Global collaborations are limited by a number of barriers, some of which are unique to the countries involved, while others are related to financial support and to US policies that restrict drug distribution outside the United States. This article serves to detail the cooperative group experience in international research and describe how international collaboration in cancer clinical trials is a promising and important area that requires greater consideration in the future. PMID:26433551

  12. The Globalization of Cooperative Groups.

    PubMed

    Valdivieso, Manuel; Corn, Benjamin W; Dancey, Janet E; Wickerham, D Lawrence; Horvath, L Elise; Perez, Edith A; Urton, Alison; Cronin, Walter M; Field, Erica; Lackey, Evonne; Blanke, Charles D

    2015-10-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI)-supported adult cooperative oncology research groups (now officially Network groups) have a longstanding history of participating in international collaborations throughout the world. Most frequently, the US-based cooperative groups work reciprocally with the Canadian national adult cancer clinical trial group, NCIC CTG (previously the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group). Thus, Canada is the largest contributor to cooperative groups based in the United States, and vice versa. Although international collaborations have many benefits, they are most frequently utilized to enhance patient accrual to large phase III trials originating in the United States or Canada. Within the cooperative group setting, adequate attention has not been given to the study of cancers that are unique to countries outside the United States and Canada, such as those frequently associated with infections in Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Global collaborations are limited by a number of barriers, some of which are unique to the countries involved, while others are related to financial support and to US policies that restrict drug distribution outside the United States. This article serves to detail the cooperative group experience in international research and describe how international collaboration in cancer clinical trials is a promising and important area that requires greater consideration in the future.

  13. The Globalization of Cooperative Groups

    PubMed Central

    Valdivieso, Manuel; Corn, Benjamin W.; Dancey, Janet E.; Wickerham, D. Lawrence; Horvath, L. Elise; Perez, Edith A.; Urton, Alison; Cronin, Walter M.; Field, Erica; Lackey, Evonne; Blanke, Charles D.

    2015-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute-supported adult cooperative oncology research groups (now officially Network groups) have a long-standing history of participating in international collaborations throughout the world. Most frequently, the U.S. based cooperative groups work reciprocally with the Canadian national adult cancer clinical trial group, NCIC CTG (previously the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group). Thus, Canada is the largest contributor to cooperative groups based in the U.S., and vice versa. Although international collaborations have many benefits, they are most frequently utilized to enhance patient accrual to large phase III trials originating in the U.S. or Canada. Within the cooperative group setting, adequate attention has not been given to the study of cancers that are unique to countries outside the U.S. and Canada, such as those frequently associated with infections in Latin America, Asia and Africa. Global collaborations are limited by a number of barriers, some of which are unique to the countries involved, while others are related to financial support and to U.S. policies that restrict drug distribution outside the U.S. This manuscript serves to detail the cooperative group experience in international research and describe how international collaboration in cancer clinical trials is a promising and important area that requires greater consideration in the future. PMID:26433551

  14. Cooperative mission execution and planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flann, Nicholas S.; Saunders, Kevin S.; Pells, Larry

    1998-08-01

    Utilizing multiple cooperating autonomous vehicles to perform tasks enhances robustness and efficiency over the use of a single vehicle. Furthermore, because autonomous vehicles can be controlled precisely and their status known accurately in real time, new types of cooperative behaviors are possible. This paper presents a working system called MEPS that plans and executes missions for multiple autonomous vehicles in large structured environments. Two generic spatial tasks are supported, to sweep an area and to visit a location while activating on-board equipment. Tasks can be entered both initially by the user and dynamically during mission execution by both users and vehicles. Sensor data and task achievement data is shared among the vehicles enabling them to cooperatively adapt to changing environmental, vehicle and tasks conditions. The system has been successfully applied to control ATV and micro-robotic vehicles in precision agriculture and waste-site characterization environments.

  15. Cooperative program for Asian pediatricians.

    PubMed

    Sakakihara, Y; Nakamura, Y

    1993-12-01

    The Cooperative Program for Asian Pediatricians (CPAP) is a non-government organization established in 1989 to promote mutual understanding and friendship among young pediatricians in Asian countries. Unlike other government programs and non-government organizations, CPAP is solely facilitating mutual relationships among young inexperienced pediatricians who would otherwise have no chance to travel overseas. It has been funded by donations from members of the alumni association of the Department of Pediatrics at the University of Tokyo and many private companies and individuals. The Cooperative Program for Asian Pediatricians has so far invited 36 Asian pediatricians from 11 countries. By constructing a human network among Asian pediatricians, it is hoped that CPAP will contribute to making international cooperation in the Asian region easier and smoother.

  16. Fashion, Cooperation, and Social Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Zhigang; Gao, Haoyu; Qu, Xinglong; Yang, Mingmin; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2013-01-01

    Fashion plays such a crucial rule in the evolution of culture and society that it is regarded as a second nature to the human being. Also, its impact on economy is quite nontrivial. On what is fashionable, interestingly, there are two viewpoints that are both extremely widespread but almost opposite: conformists think that what is popular is fashionable, while rebels believe that being different is the essence. Fashion color is fashionable in the first sense, and Lady Gaga in the second. We investigate a model where the population consists of the afore-mentioned two groups of people that are located on social networks (a spatial cellular automata network and small-world networks). This model captures two fundamental kinds of social interactions (coordination and anti-coordination) simultaneously, and also has its own interest to game theory: it is a hybrid model of pure competition and pure cooperation. This is true because when a conformist meets a rebel, they play the zero sum matching pennies game, which is pure competition. When two conformists (rebels) meet, they play the (anti-) coordination game, which is pure cooperation. Simulation shows that simple social interactions greatly promote cooperation: in most cases people can reach an extraordinarily high level of cooperation, through a selfish, myopic, naive, and local interacting dynamic (the best response dynamic). We find that degree of synchronization also plays a critical role, but mostly on the negative side. Four indices, namely cooperation degree, average satisfaction degree, equilibrium ratio and complete ratio, are defined and applied to measure people’s cooperation levels from various angles. Phase transition, as well as emergence of many interesting geographic patterns in the cellular automata network, is also observed. PMID:23382799

  17. Fashion, cooperation, and social interactions.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhigang; Gao, Haoyu; Qu, Xinglong; Yang, Mingmin; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2013-01-01

    Fashion plays such a crucial rule in the evolution of culture and society that it is regarded as a second nature to the human being. Also, its impact on economy is quite nontrivial. On what is fashionable, interestingly, there are two viewpoints that are both extremely widespread but almost opposite: conformists think that what is popular is fashionable, while rebels believe that being different is the essence. Fashion color is fashionable in the first sense, and Lady Gaga in the second. We investigate a model where the population consists of the afore-mentioned two groups of people that are located on social networks (a spatial cellular automata network and small-world networks). This model captures two fundamental kinds of social interactions (coordination and anti-coordination) simultaneously, and also has its own interest to game theory: it is a hybrid model of pure competition and pure cooperation. This is true because when a conformist meets a rebel, they play the zero sum matching pennies game, which is pure competition. When two conformists (rebels) meet, they play the (anti-) coordination game, which is pure cooperation. Simulation shows that simple social interactions greatly promote cooperation: in most cases people can reach an extraordinarily high level of cooperation, through a selfish, myopic, naive, and local interacting dynamic (the best response dynamic). We find that degree of synchronization also plays a critical role, but mostly on the negative side. Four indices, namely cooperation degree, average satisfaction degree, equilibrium ratio and complete ratio, are defined and applied to measure people's cooperation levels from various angles. Phase transition, as well as emergence of many interesting geographic patterns in the cellular automata network, is also observed. PMID:23382799

  18. Fashion, cooperation, and social interactions.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhigang; Gao, Haoyu; Qu, Xinglong; Yang, Mingmin; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2013-01-01

    Fashion plays such a crucial rule in the evolution of culture and society that it is regarded as a second nature to the human being. Also, its impact on economy is quite nontrivial. On what is fashionable, interestingly, there are two viewpoints that are both extremely widespread but almost opposite: conformists think that what is popular is fashionable, while rebels believe that being different is the essence. Fashion color is fashionable in the first sense, and Lady Gaga in the second. We investigate a model where the population consists of the afore-mentioned two groups of people that are located on social networks (a spatial cellular automata network and small-world networks). This model captures two fundamental kinds of social interactions (coordination and anti-coordination) simultaneously, and also has its own interest to game theory: it is a hybrid model of pure competition and pure cooperation. This is true because when a conformist meets a rebel, they play the zero sum matching pennies game, which is pure competition. When two conformists (rebels) meet, they play the (anti-) coordination game, which is pure cooperation. Simulation shows that simple social interactions greatly promote cooperation: in most cases people can reach an extraordinarily high level of cooperation, through a selfish, myopic, naive, and local interacting dynamic (the best response dynamic). We find that degree of synchronization also plays a critical role, but mostly on the negative side. Four indices, namely cooperation degree, average satisfaction degree, equilibrium ratio and complete ratio, are defined and applied to measure people's cooperation levels from various angles. Phase transition, as well as emergence of many interesting geographic patterns in the cellular automata network, is also observed.

  19. Precision Manipulation with Cooperative Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroupe, Ashley; Huntsberger, Terry; Okon, Avi; Aghzarian, Hrand

    2005-01-01

    This work addresses several challenges of cooperative transportThis work addresses several challenges of cooperative transport and precision manipulation. Precision manipulation requires a rigid grasp, which places a hard constraint on the relative rover formation that must be accommodated, even though the rovers cannot directly observe their relative poses. Additionally, rovers must jointly select appropriate actions based on all available sensor information. Lastly, rovers cannot act on independent sensor information, but must fuse information to move jointly; the methods for fusing information must be determined.

  20. Co-Operative Education or Co-Operative Placement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickson, C. R.

    The Co-operative Education Department at Mohawk College is designed to extend the academic learning process into the workplace through on-the-job learning experiences which enhance the students' vocational maturation and personal development, and are integrated with the learning objectives of the program. The department offers paid, supervised…

  1. Bridging the Gap: Teachers Cooperating Together to Implement Cooperative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jolliffe, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative learning (CL), in spite of extensive research and documented benefits, is not widely used in England. A review of the literature shows that it requires a staged and sustained approach to implementation, which has led to a gap between its potential and actual use. The case study cited here provides one example of bridging that gap…

  2. HANDBOOK FOR DIVERSIFIED COOPERATIVE TRAINING. DISTRIBUTIVE, COOPERATIVE, AND BUSINESS EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LOWMAN, C.L.

    THIS HANDBOOK WAS WRITTEN TO AID THE SCHOOL ADMINISTRATOR AND COORDINATOR IN ESTABLISHING AND OPERATING A DIVERSIFIED COOPERATIVE TRAINING (DCT) PROGRAM. THE DCT PROGRAM INVOLVES THE TRAINING OF HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS IN THREE GENERAL OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS--TRADE AND INDUSTRIAL, DISTRIBUTIVE, AND OFFICE OCCUPATIONS. IF SPECIALIZED PROGRAMS IN…

  3. The evolutionary origin of cooperators and defectors.

    PubMed

    Doebeli, Michael; Hauert, Christoph; Killingback, Timothy

    2004-10-29

    Coexistence of cooperators and defectors is common in nature, yet the evolutionary origin of such social diversification is unclear. Many models have been studied on the basis of the assumption that benefits of cooperative acts only accrue to others. Here, we analyze the continuous snowdrift game, in which cooperative investments are costly but yield benefits to others as well as to the cooperator. Adaptive dynamics of investment levels often result in evolutionary diversification from initially uniform populations to a stable state in which cooperators making large investments coexist with defectors who invest very little. Thus, when individuals benefit from their own actions, large asymmetries in cooperative investments can evolve.

  4. Five Rules for the Evolution of Cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, Martin A.

    2006-12-01

    Cooperation is needed for evolution to construct new levels of organization. Genomes, cells, multicellular organisms, social insects, and human society are all based on cooperation. Cooperation means that selfish replicators forgo some of their reproductive potential to help one another. But natural selection implies competition and therefore opposes cooperation unless a specific mechanism is at work. Here I discuss five mechanisms for the evolution of cooperation: kin selection, direct reciprocity, indirect reciprocity, network reciprocity, and group selection. For each mechanism, a simple rule is derived that specifies whether natural selection can lead to cooperation.

  5. Education Cooperation for Tangible Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritzen, Jozef M.

    2003-01-01

    Describes how development cooperation can help achieve developmental education goals, noting the impact of education on cultural, social, and material prosperity in later life, and discussing how quality education is the gateway to participation in society and better wages. The article examines challenges to quality education in developing…

  6. Cooperative Education: Lessons from Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baris-Sanders, Marcia

    1997-01-01

    By using group activities for learning, cooperative student effort for school events, and peer pressure for classroom discipline, Japanese teachers involve and empower their students. While American students feel that classrooms are teachers' sacred ground, Japanese students appropriate them as their rightful community. Instead of stressing…

  7. Building Relationships through Cooperative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullard, Julie; Bullock, Janis R.

    2004-01-01

    Based upon several years of team-teaching intensive early childhood education courses, the authors discuss their experiences of building teacher-learner relationships through cooperative and collaborative learning. After witnessing significant conflict occurring within groups over the years, the authors began to investigate, discuss and integrate…

  8. Cooperative Program (Educable Mentally Retarded).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Div. of Instruction.

    Designed for the educable mentally handicapped youth at the secondary level, the cooperative vocational rehabilitation-special education plan in Mississippi is presented. Objectives, activities, and materials are suggested in the areas of vocational training, arithmetic, language arts, social studies, health and safety, recreation, physical…

  9. Facilitating Inter-District Cooperation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Gene L.

    After an introductory section which points out that the responsibility of small and rural schools is to provide all children with a quality education, and that Boards of Education must decide what is best for all children in the community, the paper briefly describes 16 exemplary programs involving cooperation between school districts. The…

  10. Studying Japan: The Cooperative Way.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilke, Eileen

    1990-01-01

    Designs an elementary level social studies unit with the focus on Japan. Provides sample units of cooperative learning group projects. Suggests integrating mathematics, language arts, economics, fine arts, and science. Lists resources for obtaining more information and materials about Japan. (NL)

  11. Transparency in Cooperative Online Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalsgaard, Christian; Paulsen, Morten Flate

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the following question: What is the potential of social networking within cooperative online education? Social networking does not necessarily involve communication, dialogue, or collaboration. Instead, the authors argue that "transparency" is a unique feature of social networking services. Transparency…

  12. The Rhetorical Arts of Cooperation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahnestock, Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    Human social evolution depends in part on using language persuasively to secure cooperation. Rhetoric emerged in the West over two thousand years ago as a deliberate cultural construction. Though often misunderstood today, rhetoric is fundamental in general education programs that teach students how knowledge is forged in agreement and applied.…

  13. Competitive Cooperation: The Iceberg Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Jerry L.

    Competitive athletes' scores on the Profile of Mood States (POMS) test create an iceberg-like pattern known as the "Iceberg Profile." Their scores for tension, depression, anger, fatigue, and confusion are low while their scores on vigor juts upward creating the "Iceberg Profile." Persons in a cooperative relationship are often competing against…

  14. What Makes Cooperative Learning Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, David W.; Johnson, Roger T.

    This paper gives an introduction to cooperative learning (CL), providing a definition of what it is and is not (pseudo-learning groups, traditional classroom learning groups), discussing basic principles, describing two basic types of CL (formal and informal), and listing the benefits of CL suggested by previous research. In order to understand…

  15. Cooper, Labov, Larry and Charles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winch, Christopher

    1985-01-01

    Research by Labov dealing with everyday speech and its relation to thinking and reasoning is critiqued, and Cooper's detailed criticism of Labov's research is discussed. Researchers should pay attention to actual speech in settings that are natural, rather than using only quantitative abstractions from artificial and restricted verbal encounters.…

  16. Marketing Cooperative Education. A Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosser, John W.; Rea, Peter J.

    This document is a guide for a workshop on marketing college cooperative education programs. The guide takes the reader/workshop participant through the marketing process, from defining needs and resources to planning a marketing campaign, implementing it, and evaluating its success. Samples and sources also are provided. Topics covered in the…

  17. Astronaut Gordon Cooper After Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Astronaut Gordon Cooper leaves the Faith 7 (MA-9) spacecraft after a successful recovery operation. The MA-9 mission, the last flight of the Mercury Project, was launched on May 15, 1963, orbited the Earth 22 times, and lasted for 1-1/2 days.

  18. Interlibrary Cooperation and Resource Sharing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kittel, Dorothy

    Based on fiscal year 1986 annual reports from 48 states, Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands, this report describes interlibrary cooperation and resource sharing activities supported by the Library Services and Construction Act (LSCA), Title III, funds. In response to the 1984 amendment to Title III (which required each state to include in…

  19. Interlibrary Cooperation and Resource Sharing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kittel, Dorothy

    Based on fiscal year 1985 annual reports from 48 states, this report describes interlibrary cooperation and resource-sharing activities supported by Library Services and Construction Act (LSCA), Title III, funds during 1985. A summary of types of activities reported includes the establishment, maintenance, and expansion of communication networks…

  20. Ability Grouping and Cooperative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1994

    This collection of articles is intended to demonstrate that there is solid research to justify both ability grouping and cooperative learning with gifted students and that each approach should be used judiciously to address particular student needs. Introductory material describes the philosophy and program policy of the Center for Talented Youth…

  1. Invitational Education at Cooper Elementary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalec, Ann W.

    2004-01-01

    In the summer of 1998, this author was appointed Principal at Cooper Elementary, one of 21 elementary schools in the Livonia Public Schools' district, the 5th largest district in the state of Michigan. Like many first-year principals, she was full of fresh ideas, lofty goals and endless enthusiasm to inspire students, staff and parents. Her…

  2. Evolution of cooperation without reciprocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riolo, Rick L.; Cohen, Michael D.; Axelrod, Robert

    2001-11-01

    A long-standing problem in biological and social sciences is to understand the conditions required for the emergence and maintenance of cooperation in evolving populations. For many situations, kin selection is an adequate explanation, although kin-recognition may still be a problem. Explanations of cooperation between non-kin include continuing interactions that provide a shadow of the future (that is, the expectation of an ongoing relationship) that can sustain reciprocity, possibly supported by mechanisms to bias interactions such as embedding the agents in a two-dimensional space or other context-preserving networks. Another explanation, indirect reciprocity, applies when benevolence to one agent increases the chance of receiving help from others. Here we use computer simulations to show that cooperation can arise when agents donate to others who are sufficiently similar to themselves in some arbitrary characteristic. Such a characteristic, or `tag', can be a marking, display, or other observable trait. Tag-based donation can lead to the emergence of cooperation among agents who have only rudimentary ability to detect environmental signals and, unlike models of direct or indirect reciprocity, no memory of past encounters is required.

  3. Defectors Can Create Conditions That Rescue Cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Waite, Adam James; Cannistra, Caroline; Shou, Wenying

    2015-01-01

    Cooperation based on the production of costly common goods is observed throughout nature. This is puzzling, as cooperation is vulnerable to exploitation by defectors which enjoy a fitness advantage by consuming the common good without contributing fairly. Depletion of the common good can lead to population collapse and the destruction of cooperation. However, population collapse implies small population size, which, in a structured population, is known to favor cooperation. This happens because small population size increases variability in cooperator frequency across different locations. Since individuals in cooperator-dominated locations (which are most likely cooperators) will grow more than those in defector-dominated locations (which are most likely defectors), cooperators can outgrow defectors globally despite defectors outgrowing cooperators in each location. This raises the possibility that defectors can lead to conditions that sometimes rescue cooperation from defector-induced destruction. We demonstrate multiple mechanisms through which this can occur, using an individual-based approach to model stochastic birth, death, migration, and mutation events. First, during defector-induced population collapse, defectors occasionally go extinct before cooperators by chance, which allows cooperators to grow. Second, empty locations, either preexisting or created by defector-induced population extinction, can favor cooperation because they allow cooperator but not defector migrants to grow. These factors lead to the counterintuitive result that the initial presence of defectors sometimes allows better survival of cooperation compared to when defectors are initially absent. Finally, we find that resource limitation, inducible by defectors, can select for mutations adaptive to resource limitation. When these mutations are initially present at low levels or continuously generated at a moderate rate, they can favor cooperation by further reducing local population size

  4. The evolution of cooperation in asymmetric systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, RuiWu; Shi, Lei

    2010-01-01

    Explaining "Tragedy of the Commons" of evolution of cooperation remains one of the greatest problems for both biology and social science. Asymmetrical interaction, which is one of the most important characteristics of cooperative system, has not been sufficiently considered in the existing models of the evolution of cooperation. Considering the inequality in the number and payoff between the cooperative actors and recipients in cooperation systems, discriminative density-dependent interference competition will occur in limited dispersal systems. Our model and simulation show that the local but not the global stability of a cooperative interaction can be maintained if the utilization of common resource remains unsaturated, which can be achieved by density-dependent restraint or competition among the cooperative actors. More intense density dependent interference competition among the cooperative actors and the ready availability of the common resource, with a higher intrinsic contribution ratio of a cooperative actor to the recipient, will increase the probability of cooperation. The cooperation between the recipient and the cooperative actors can be transformed into conflict and, it oscillates chaotically with variations of the affecting factors under different environmental or ecological conditions. The higher initial relatedness (i.e. similar to kin or reciprocity relatedness), which is equivalent to intrinsic contribution ratio of a cooperative actor to the recipient, can be selected for by penalizing less cooperative or cheating actors but rewarding cooperative individuals in asymmetric systems. The initial relatedness is a pivot but not the aim of evolution of cooperation. This explains well the direct conflict observed in almost all cooperative systems.

  5. Cooperative Planning in Action: The Washington Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gell, Marilyn

    1976-01-01

    Library cooperation in the Metropolitan Washington area is described, along with its problems and successes, and the significant role special libraries can play in an ambitious intertype library cooperative. (Author/PF)

  6. The virtual cooperation platform in enterprise and supplier cooperation models.

    PubMed

    Chang, Che-Wei; Wu, Cheng-Ru; Liao, Chia-Chun

    2010-08-01

    Abstract This study examines the use of the virtual enterprise network supplier supply-chain model of business behavior in creating synergies of cooperation. To explore virtual network behavior, it evaluates 60 samples, taken from of a few supply chains, and 17 items meeting certain behavioral criteria. Such an analysis may help to reduce costs and processing time effectively, as well as promote effective communication. Furthermore, the study of behavior in this electronic setting is a reliable and useful assessment method. PMID:20649447

  7. 34 CFR 84.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative agreement. 84.620 Section 84.620 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 84.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means an award...

  8. 40 CFR 1501.6 - Cooperating agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cooperating agencies. 1501.6 Section 1501.6 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY NEPA AND AGENCY PLANNING § 1501.6 Cooperating agencies. The purpose of this section is to emphasize agency cooperation early in the NEPA...

  9. 49 CFR 11.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooperative research. 11.114 Section 11.114... research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible...

  10. 22 CFR 225.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cooperative research. 225.114 Section 225.114... research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible...

  11. 34 CFR 97.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative research. 97.114 Section 97.114 Education... Protection of Human Subjects (Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) § 97.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more...

  12. 7 CFR 1c.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1c.114 Section 1c.114 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1c.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than...

  13. 22 CFR 225.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cooperative research. 225.114 Section 225.114... research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible...

  14. 45 CFR 46.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cooperative research. 46.114 Section 46.114 Public... HHS Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects § 46.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In...

  15. 49 CFR 11.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cooperative research. 11.114 Section 11.114... research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible...

  16. 49 CFR 11.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cooperative research. 11.114 Section 11.114... research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible...

  17. 22 CFR 225.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cooperative research. 225.114 Section 225.114... research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible...

  18. 40 CFR 26.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cooperative research. 26.114 Section 26... Basic EPA Policy for Protection of Subjects in Human Research Conducted or Supported by EPA § 26.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which...

  19. 49 CFR 11.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cooperative research. 11.114 Section 11.114... research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible...

  20. 40 CFR 26.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cooperative research. 26.114 Section 26... Basic EPA Policy for Protection of Subjects in Human Research Conducted or Supported by EPA § 26.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which...

  1. 34 CFR 97.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cooperative research. 97.114 Section 97.114 Education... Protection of Human Subjects (Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) § 97.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more...

  2. 7 CFR 1c.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1c.114 Section 1c.114 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1c.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than...

  3. 7 CFR 1c.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1c.114 Section 1c.114 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1c.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than...

  4. 34 CFR 97.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cooperative research. 97.114 Section 97.114 Education... Protection of Human Subjects (Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) § 97.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more...

  5. 45 CFR 46.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cooperative research. 46.114 Section 46.114 Public... HHS Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects § 46.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In...

  6. 34 CFR 97.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cooperative research. 97.114 Section 97.114 Education... Protection of Human Subjects (Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) § 97.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more...

  7. 22 CFR 225.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cooperative research. 225.114 Section 225.114... research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible...

  8. 7 CFR 1c.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1c.114 Section 1c.114 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1c.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than...

  9. 40 CFR 26.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cooperative research. 26.114 Section 26... Basic EPA Policy for Protection of Subjects in Human Research Conducted or Supported by EPA § 26.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which...

  10. 45 CFR 46.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cooperative research. 46.114 Section 46.114 Public... HHS Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects § 46.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In...

  11. 14 CFR 1230.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Cooperative research. 1230.114 Section 1230.114 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1230.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this...

  12. 14 CFR 1230.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1230.114 Section 1230.114 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1230.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this...

  13. 14 CFR 1230.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1230.114 Section 1230.114 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1230.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this...

  14. Cooperative Learning and Outdoor/Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Clifford E., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    This newsletter contains 14 items on cooperative learning and outdoor education, with a particular focus on environmental education and ecology. "Cooperative Teaching/Learning Strategies and Objectives in Outdoor/Environmental Education" by Clifford E. Knapp is about cooperative teaching and learning strategies in outdoor education and emphasizes…

  15. 7 CFR 1c.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1c.114 Section 1c.114 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1c.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than...

  16. 34 CFR 97.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cooperative research. 97.114 Section 97.114 Education... Protection of Human Subjects (Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) § 97.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more...

  17. 22 CFR 225.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cooperative research. 225.114 Section 225.114... research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible...

  18. 49 CFR 11.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cooperative research. 11.114 Section 11.114... research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible...

  19. 7 CFR 1.76 - Department cooperation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Department cooperation. 1.76 Section 1.76 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Cooperative Production of Television... Department will check and work with the cooperators to arrange shooting schedules in order to...

  20. 7 CFR 1.76 - Department cooperation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Department cooperation. 1.76 Section 1.76 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Cooperative Production of Television... Department will check and work with the cooperators to arrange shooting schedules in order to...

  1. Preschool-Home Cooperation in Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandberg, Anette; Vuorinen, Tuula

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to bring forth preschool teachers' and parents' views on both established and future forms of cooperation between the preschool and home. The empirical sample is based on both individual and focus-group interviews. Results show that cooperation mainly revolves around the individual child. The form of cooperation that…

  2. 38 CFR 21.4151 - Cooperation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperation. 21.4151... Agencies § 21.4151 Cooperation. (a) The Department of Veterans Affairs and the State approving agencies..., the cooperation of the Department of Veterans Affairs and the State approving agencies is...

  3. 15 CFR 922.187 - Interagency Cooperation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interagency Cooperation. 922.187... Sanctuary § 922.187 Interagency Cooperation. Under section 304(d) of the NMSA, Federal agency actions... cooperation procedures required by other statutes, such as the ESA. The Director will attempt to...

  4. 20 CFR 616.3 - Interstate cooperation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interstate cooperation. 616.3 Section 616.3 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INTERSTATE ARRANGEMENT FOR COMBINING EMPLOYMENT AND WAGES § 616.3 Interstate cooperation. Each State agency will cooperate with...

  5. Activities for Science: Cooperative Learning Lessons (Challenging).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jasmine, Grace; Jasmine, Julia

    This book is designed to help advanced elementary students learn science skills while actively engaged in cooperative activities based on the earth sciences and natural disasters. The first section explains how to make cooperative learning a part of the curriculum and includes an overview, instructions and activities to bring cooperative learning…

  6. Culture, Cooperation, and the General Welfare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berigan, Nick; Irwin, Kyle

    2011-01-01

    Solutions to social dilemmas require cooperation. Given that there are commonly multiple avenues for cooperation, sometimes social dilemmas require coordination of strategies in addition to sufficient cooperation to be successful. This study examines one social dilemma where such coordination is necessary: supporting the general welfare. Using…

  7. 10 CFR 607.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperative agreement. 607.620 Section 607.620 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 607.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means an award...

  8. 7 CFR 611.2 - Cooperative relationships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION OPERATIONS SOIL SURVEYS General § 611.2 Cooperative relationships. (a) Soil surveys on nonfederal lands are carried out cooperatively with State agricultural experiment... setting forth guidelines for actions to be taken by each cooperating party in the performance of...

  9. 7 CFR 611.2 - Cooperative relationships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION OPERATIONS SOIL SURVEYS General § 611.2 Cooperative relationships. (a) Soil surveys on nonfederal lands are carried out cooperatively with State agricultural experiment... setting forth guidelines for actions to be taken by each cooperating party in the performance of...

  10. 7 CFR 611.2 - Cooperative relationships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION OPERATIONS SOIL SURVEYS General § 611.2 Cooperative relationships. (a) Soil surveys on nonfederal lands are carried out cooperatively with State agricultural experiment... setting forth guidelines for actions to be taken by each cooperating party in the performance of...

  11. 7 CFR 611.2 - Cooperative relationships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION OPERATIONS SOIL SURVEYS General § 611.2 Cooperative relationships. (a) Soil surveys on nonfederal lands are carried out cooperatively with State agricultural experiment... setting forth guidelines for actions to be taken by each cooperating party in the performance of...

  12. 7 CFR 611.2 - Cooperative relationships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION OPERATIONS SOIL SURVEYS General § 611.2 Cooperative relationships. (a) Soil surveys on nonfederal lands are carried out cooperatively with State agricultural experiment... setting forth guidelines for actions to be taken by each cooperating party in the performance of...

  13. Keeping a Dream Alive: Cooper Union Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iwan, Irene

    1984-01-01

    Profiles the Cooper Union Library, a private academic library specializing in architecture, art, and engineering that celebrated its 125th anniversary in fall 1984. Highlights include a biographical sketch of the college's founder, Peter Cooper; construction of the building; curriculum changes; library services and materials; and cooperative and…

  14. 7 CFR 1.76 - Department cooperation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Department cooperation. 1.76 Section 1.76 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Cooperative Production of Television Films § 1.76 Department cooperation. When the producer agrees to meet the above stipulations to...

  15. 45 CFR 690.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cooperative research. 690.114 Section 690.114 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 690.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those...

  16. Labor-Management Cooperation: The American Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Irving H.; Weinberg, Edgar

    This book examines the wide range of opportunities, the attendant problems, and the potential benefits of labor-management cooperation. Cooperative arrangements are considered at different economic levels, and 65 cases are discussed. The first of 10 chapters sets up a conceptual framework for the review of American experience in cooperation.…

  17. 14 CFR 1230.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1230.114 Section 1230.114 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1230.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this...

  18. Cooperative Learning and Elementary Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guyton, Edith

    1991-01-01

    Argues that cooperative learning is useful in elementary social studies instruction. Identifies positive interdependence, student interaction, individual accountability for mastering material, and appropriate interpersonal and small group skills as essential elements of cooperative learning. Suggests that cooperative learning can help teach social…

  19. Keys to Cooperative Education Programs. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Child Labor Committee, New York, NY.

    This first volume of a two-volume manual provides a structure for the analysis of the design of cooperative education and the implementation of the design in terms of the 49 key elements of cooperative education. It is intended for use by persons responsible for cooperative education at state and local levels. Volume I contains the introduction…

  20. 1 CFR 8.7 - Agency cooperation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Agency cooperation. 8.7 Section 8.7 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS § 8.7 Agency cooperation. Each agency shall cooperate in keeping publication of...

  1. 1 CFR 8.7 - Agency cooperation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Agency cooperation. 8.7 Section 8.7 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS § 8.7 Agency cooperation. Each agency shall cooperate in keeping publication of...

  2. 1 CFR 8.7 - Agency cooperation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Agency cooperation. 8.7 Section 8.7 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS § 8.7 Agency cooperation. Each agency shall cooperate in keeping publication of...

  3. 40 CFR 26.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Basic EPA Policy for Protection of Subjects in Human Research Conducted or Supported by EPA § 26.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cooperative research. 26.114 Section...

  4. 40 CFR 26.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Basic EPA Policy for Protection of Subjects in Human Research Conducted or Supported by EPA § 26.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative research. 26.114 Section...

  5. 42 CFR 411.23 - Beneficiary's cooperation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Beneficiary's cooperation. 411.23 Section 411.23... Medicare Payment: General Provisions § 411.23 Beneficiary's cooperation. (a) If CMS takes action to recover conditional payments, the beneficiary must cooperate in the action. (b) If CMS's recovery action...

  6. 76 FR 34692 - Inside Passage Electric Cooperative

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Inside Passage Electric Cooperative Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2011, and supplemented on May 18, 2011, the Inside Passage Electric Cooperative filed an application.... Applicant Contact: Mr. Peter A. Bibb, Operations Manager, Inside Passage Electric Cooperative, P.O....

  7. Report: National Conference on Cooperative Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Occupational and Adult Education (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    The conference report on cooperative vocational education contains four main sections. The first, background papers, contains three papers: Education in a Changing Society, Carl H. Madden; A Prospectus for Cooperative Vocational Education, William F. Pierce; and Critical Issues in Cooperative Vocational Education, Robert M. Worthington. The second…

  8. Co-Operative Language Learning: What's News?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Ted

    This discussion of cooperative second language learning describes the approach in terms of response to three questions: WHO? WHAT? and WHY? The first section "WHO: Major Directors and Actors," chronicles the evolution of cooperative learning in general and cooperative language learning in particular, citing some specific methods and the…

  9. Cooperation in defence against a predator.

    PubMed

    Garay, József

    2009-03-01

    The origin and the evolutionary stability of cooperation between unrelated individuals is one of the key problems of evolutionary biology. In this paper, a cooperative defence game against a predator is introduced which is based on Hamilton's selfish herd theory and Eshel's survival game models. Cooperation is altruistic in the sense that the individual, which is not the target of the predator, helps the members of the group attacked by the predator and during defensive action the helper individual may also die in any attack. In order to decrease the long term predation risk, this individual has to carry out a high risk action. Here I show that this kind of cooperative behaviour can evolve in small groups. The reason for the emergence of cooperation is that if the predator does not kill a mate of a cooperative individual, then the survival probability of the cooperative individual will increase in two cases. If the mate is non-cooperative, then-according to the dilution effect, the predator confusion effect and the higher predator vigilance-the survival probability of the cooperative individual increases. The second case is when the mate is cooperative, because a cooperative individual has a further gain, the active help in defence during further predator attacks. Thus, if an individual can increase the survival rate of its mates (no matter whether the mate is cooperative or not), then its own predation risk will decrease.

  10. 28 CFR 83.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative agreement. 83.620 Section 83.620 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENT-WIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Definitions § 83.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means...

  11. 7 CFR 1220.107 - Cooperator organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cooperator organization. 1220.107 Section 1220.107... CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.107 Cooperator organization. The term Cooperator Organization means the American Soybean Association, or any successor...

  12. 7 CFR 1220.107 - Cooperator organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cooperator organization. 1220.107 Section 1220.107... CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.107 Cooperator organization. The term Cooperator Organization means the American Soybean Association, or any successor...

  13. 7 CFR 1220.107 - Cooperator organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cooperator organization. 1220.107 Section 1220.107... CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.107 Cooperator organization. The term Cooperator Organization means the American Soybean Association, or any successor...

  14. 7 CFR 1220.107 - Cooperator organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperator organization. 1220.107 Section 1220.107... CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.107 Cooperator organization. The term Cooperator Organization means the American Soybean Association, or any successor...

  15. 7 CFR 1220.107 - Cooperator organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooperator organization. 1220.107 Section 1220.107... CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.107 Cooperator organization. The term Cooperator Organization means the American Soybean Association, or any successor...

  16. 7 CFR 1.76 - Department cooperation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Department cooperation. 1.76 Section 1.76 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Cooperative Production of Television Films § 1.76 Department cooperation. When the producer agrees to meet the above stipulations to...

  17. 42 CFR 411.23 - Beneficiary's cooperation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Beneficiary's cooperation. 411.23 Section 411.23... Medicare Payment: General Provisions § 411.23 Beneficiary's cooperation. (a) If CMS takes action to recover conditional payments, the beneficiary must cooperate in the action. (b) If CMS's recovery action...

  18. 7 CFR 1.76 - Department cooperation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Department cooperation. 1.76 Section 1.76 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Cooperative Production of Television Films § 1.76 Department cooperation. When the producer agrees to meet the above stipulations to...

  19. 1 CFR 8.7 - Agency cooperation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Agency cooperation. 8.7 Section 8.7 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS § 8.7 Agency cooperation. Each agency shall cooperate in keeping publication of...

  20. 1 CFR 8.7 - Agency cooperation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agency cooperation. 8.7 Section 8.7 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS § 8.7 Agency cooperation. Each agency shall cooperate in keeping publication of...

  1. 29 CFR 1607.8 - Cooperative studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cooperative studies. 1607.8 Section 1607.8 Labor... EMPLOYEE SELECTION PROCEDURES (1978) General Principles § 1607.8 Cooperative studies. A. Encouragement of cooperative studies. The agencies issuing these guidelines encourage employers, labor organizations,...

  2. 29 CFR 1607.8 - Cooperative studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative studies. 1607.8 Section 1607.8 Labor... EMPLOYEE SELECTION PROCEDURES (1978) General Principles § 1607.8 Cooperative studies. A. Encouragement of cooperative studies. The agencies issuing these guidelines encourage employers, labor organizations,...

  3. 29 CFR 1607.8 - Cooperative studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cooperative studies. 1607.8 Section 1607.8 Labor... EMPLOYEE SELECTION PROCEDURES (1978) General Principles § 1607.8 Cooperative studies. A. Encouragement of cooperative studies. The agencies issuing these guidelines encourage employers, labor organizations,...

  4. 29 CFR 1607.8 - Cooperative studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cooperative studies. 1607.8 Section 1607.8 Labor... EMPLOYEE SELECTION PROCEDURES (1978) General Principles § 1607.8 Cooperative studies. A. Encouragement of cooperative studies. The agencies issuing these guidelines encourage employers, labor organizations,...

  5. 29 CFR 1607.8 - Cooperative studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cooperative studies. 1607.8 Section 1607.8 Labor... EMPLOYEE SELECTION PROCEDURES (1978) General Principles § 1607.8 Cooperative studies. A. Encouragement of cooperative studies. The agencies issuing these guidelines encourage employers, labor organizations,...

  6. Cooperative Game Theoretic Models for Decision-Making in Contexts of Library Cooperation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Robert M.

    2003-01-01

    Presents a brief summary of Cooperative Economic Game Theory, followed by a summary of specific measures identified by Nash, Shapley, and Harsanyi. Reviews contexts in which negotiation and cooperation among libraries is of special economic importance, and for two of these contexts-cooperative acquisitions and cooperative automation-illustrates…

  7. Brain theory and cooperative computation.

    PubMed

    Arbib, M A

    1985-01-01

    "Top-down" brain theory, based upon functional analysis of cognitive processes in terms of interacting schemas, is distinguished from "bottom-up" brain theory based on analysis of the dynamics of neural nets. "Cooperative computation" is proposed as the style of interaction of neural subsystems at various levels. Perceptual schemas are introduced as the building blocks for the representation of the perceived environment, and motor schemas serve as control systems to be coordinated into programs for the control of movement. A cooperative computation view of the design of machine vision systems is exemplified both by an algorithm for computing optic flow which offers interesting insights into the evolution of hierarchical neural structures, and by an analysis of knowledge representation for machine interpretation of visual scenes. The interaction between top-down analysis and detailed neural modelling is illustrated by the study of visuomotor coordination in frogs and toads.

  8. Cooperative epidemics on multiplex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azimi-Tafreshi, N.

    2016-04-01

    The spread of one disease, in some cases, can stimulate the spreading of another infectious disease. Here, we treat analytically a symmetric coinfection model for spreading of two diseases on a two-layer multiplex network. We allow layer overlapping, but we assume that each layer is random and locally loopless. Infection with one of the diseases increases the probability of getting infected with the other. Using the generating function method, we calculate exactly the fraction of individuals infected with both diseases (so-called coinfected clusters) in the stationary state, as well as the epidemic spreading thresholds and the phase diagram of the model. With increasing cooperation, we observe a tricritical point and the type of transition changes from continuous to hybrid. Finally, we compare the coinfected clusters in the case of cooperating diseases with the so-called "viable" clusters in networks with dependencies.

  9. Flux Quantization Without Cooper Pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadin, Alan

    2013-03-01

    It is universally accepted that the superconducting flux quantum h/2e requires the existence of a phase-coherent macroscopic wave function of Cooper pairs, each with charge 2e. On the contrary, we assert that flux quantization can be better understood in terms of single-electron quantum states, localized on the scale of the coherence length and organized into a real-space phase-antiphase structure. This packing configuration is consistent with the Pauli exclusion principle for single-electron states, maintains long-range phase coherence, and is compatible with much of the BCS formalism. This also accounts for h/2e in the Josephson effect, without Cooper pairs. Experimental evidence for this alternative picture may be found in deviations from h/2e in loops and devices much smaller than the coherence length. A similar phase-antiphase structure may also account for superfluids, without the need for boson condensation.

  10. Punishment and cooperation in nature.

    PubMed

    Raihani, Nichola J; Thornton, Alex; Bshary, Redouan

    2012-05-01

    Humans use punishment to promote cooperation in laboratory experiments but evidence that punishment plays a similar role in non-human animals is comparatively rare. In this article, we examine why this may be the case by reviewing evidence from both laboratory experiments on humans and ecologically relevant studies on non-human animals. Generally, punishment appears to be most probable if players differ in strength or strategic options. Although these conditions are common in nature, punishment (unlike other forms of aggression) involves immediate payoff reductions to both punisher and target, with net benefits to punishers contingent on cheats behaving more cooperatively in future interactions. In many cases, aggression yielding immediate benefits may suffice to deter cheats and might explain the relative scarcity of punishment in nature. PMID:22284810

  11. Assessment of a cooperative workstation.

    PubMed Central

    Beuscart, R. J.; Molenda, S.; Souf, N.; Foucher, C.; Beuscart-Zephir, M. C.

    1996-01-01

    Groupware and new Information Technologies have now made it possible for people in different places to work together in synchronous cooperation. Very often, designers of this new type of software are not provided with a model of the common workspace, which is prejudicial to software development and its acceptance by potential users. The authors take the example of a task of medical co-diagnosis, using a multi-media communication workstation. Synchronous cooperative work is made possible by using local ETHERNET or public ISDN Networks. A detailed ergonomic task analysis studies the cognitive functioning of the physicians involved, compares their behaviour in the normal and the mediatized situations, and leads to an interpretation of the likely causes for success or failure of CSCW tools. PMID:8947764

  12. Shame and honour drive cooperation.

    PubMed

    Jacquet, Jennifer; Hauert, Christoph; Traulsen, Arne; Milinski, Manfred

    2011-12-23

    Can the threat of being shamed or the prospect of being honoured lead to greater cooperation? We test this hypothesis with anonymous six-player public goods experiments, an experimental paradigm used to investigate problems related to overusing common resources. We instructed the players that the two individuals who were least generous after 10 rounds would be exposed to the group. As the natural antithesis, we also test the effects of honour by revealing the identities of the two players who were most generous. The non-monetary, reputational effects induced by shame and honour each led to approximately 50 per cent higher donations to the public good when compared with the control, demonstrating that both shame and honour can drive cooperation and can help alleviate the tragedy of the commons. PMID:21632623

  13. Rural electric cooperatives IRP survey

    SciTech Connect

    Garrick, C.

    1995-11-01

    This report summarizes the integrated resource planning (IRP) practices of US rural electric cooperatives and the IRP policies which influence these practices. It was prepared by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and its subcontractor Garrick and Associates to assist the US Department of Energy (DOE) in satisfying the reporting requirements of Title 1, Subtitle B, Section 111(e)(3) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct), which states: (e) Report--Not later than 2 years after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Secretary (of the US Department of Energy) shall transmit a report to the President and to the Congress containing--(the findings from several surveys and evaluations, including:); (3) a survey of practices and policies under which electric cooperatives prepare IRPs, submit such plans to REA, and the extent to which such integrated resource planning is reflected in rates charged to customers.

  14. NASA/University Technology Cooperation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    NASA is extensively engaged in cooperative technology development efforts with the nation's research universities. An example of NASA/university cooperation is the work of the Space Technology Center at the University of Kansas (KU) and the KU Center for Research, Inc. (CRINC). Directed by Professor Bill G. Barr, the Space Technology Center is one of 27 interdisciplinary centers established as part of a NASA plan to set up a network of advanced facilities across the nation. Since 1981 CRINC has been involved in a technology transfer program supported by the NASA Technology Utilization Division and by industry. The objective of the technology transfer program is to encourage industrial innovation through utilization of NASA technology through improved industry/university cooperation. At KU, research is conducted by the Industrial Innovation Laboratory and the Computer Integrated Manufacturing Laboratory which utilize graduate students in engineering and computer science as research assistants. A new project of the Space Technology Center is one designed to advance NASA objectives in "augmented telerobotics." A telerobot is programmed to respond to commands from a human operator, or to mimic the movements of its human operator. The project is being conducted under the guidance of Langley Research Center.

  15. Cooperative Transmembrane Penetration of Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haizhen; Ji, Qiuju; Huang, Changjin; Zhang, Sulin; Yuan, Bing; Yang, Kai; Ma, Yu-qiang

    2015-01-01

    Physical penetration of lipid bilayer membranes presents an alternative pathway for cellular delivery of nanoparticles (NPs) besides endocytosis. NPs delivered through this pathway could reach the cytoplasm, thereby opening the possibility of organelle-specific targeting. Herein we perform dissipative particle dynamics simulations to elucidate the transmembrane penetration mechanisms of multiple NPs. Our simulations demonstrate that NPs’ translocation proceeds in a cooperative manner, where the interplay of the quantity and surface chemistry of the NPs regulates the translocation efficiency. For NPs with hydrophilic surfaces, the increase of particle quantity facilitates penetration, while for NPs with partly or totally hydrophobic surfaces, the opposite highly possibly holds. Moreover, a set of interesting cooperative ways, such as aggregation, aggregation-dispersion, and aggregation-dispersion-reaggregation of the NPs, are observed during the penetration process. We find that the penetration behaviors of multiple NPs are mostly dominated by the changes of the NP-membrane force components in the membrane plane direction, in addition to that in the penetration direction, suggesting a different interaction mechanism between the multiple NPs and the membrane compared with the one-NP case. These results provide a fundamental understanding in the underlying mechanisms of cooperative penetration of NPs, and shed light on the NP-based drug and gene delivery. PMID:26013284

  16. Cooperation and age structure in spatial games.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen; Wang, Zhen; Zhu, Xiaodan; Arenzon, Jeferson J

    2012-01-01

    We study the evolution of cooperation in evolutionary spatial games when the payoff correlates with the increasing age of players (the level of correlation is set through a single parameter, α). The demographic heterogeneous age distribution, directly affecting the outcome of the game, is thus shown to be responsible for enhancing the cooperative behavior in the population. In particular, moderate values of α allow cooperators not only to survive but to outcompete defectors, even when the temptation to defect is large and the ageless, standard α=0 model does not sustain cooperation. The interplay between age structure and noise is also considered, and we obtain the conditions for optimal levels of cooperation.

  17. Benevolent Characteristics Promote Cooperative Behaviour among Humans

    PubMed Central

    Mylona, Kalliopi; Niblo, Graham A.

    2014-01-01

    Cooperation is fundamental to the evolution of human society. We regularly observe cooperative behaviour in everyday life and in controlled experiments with anonymous people, even though standard economic models predict that they should deviate from the collective interest and act so as to maximise their own individual payoff. However, there is typically heterogeneity across subjects: some may cooperate, while others may not. Since individual factors promoting cooperation could be used by institutions to indirectly prime cooperation, this heterogeneity raises the important question of who these cooperators are. We have conducted a series of experiments to study whether benevolence, defined as a unilateral act of paying a cost to increase the welfare of someone else beyond one's own, is related to cooperation in a subsequent one-shot anonymous Prisoner's dilemma. Contrary to the predictions of the widely used inequity aversion models, we find that benevolence does exist and a large majority of people behave this way. We also find benevolence to be correlated with cooperative behaviour. Finally, we show a causal link between benevolence and cooperation: priming people to think positively about benevolent behaviour makes them significantly more cooperative than priming them to think malevolently. Thus benevolent people exist and cooperate more. PMID:25140707

  18. Between-group competition and human cooperation.

    PubMed

    Puurtinen, Mikael; Mappes, Tapio

    2009-01-22

    A distinctive feature of human behaviour is the widespread occurrence of cooperation among unrelated individuals. Explaining the maintenance of costly within-group cooperation is a challenge because the incentive to free ride on the efforts of other group members is expected to lead to decay of cooperation. However, the costs of cooperation can be diminished or overcome when there is competition at a higher level of organizational hierarchy. Here we show that competition between groups resolves the paradigmatic 'public goods' social dilemma and increases within-group cooperation and overall productivity. Further, group competition intensifies the moral emotions of anger and guilt associated with violations of the cooperative norm. The results suggest an important role for group conflict in the evolution of human cooperation and moral emotions.

  19. Evolution of Cooperation in Public Goods Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Cheng-Yi; Zhang, Juan-Juan; Wang, Yi-Ling; Wang, Jin-Song

    2011-10-01

    We investigate the evolution of cooperation with evolutionary public goods games based on finite populations, where four pure strategies: cooperators, defectors, punishers and loners who are unwilling to participate are considered. By adopting approximate best response dynamics, we show that the magnitude of rationality not only quantitatively explains the experiment results in [Nature (London) 425 (2003) 390], but also it will heavily influence the evolution of cooperation. Compared with previous results of infinite populations, which result in two equilibriums, we show that there merely exists a special equilibrium and the relevant high value of bounded rationality will sustain cooperation. In addition, we characterize that loner's payoff plays an active role in the maintenance of cooperation, which will only be warranted for the low and moderate values of loner's payoff. It thus indicates the effects of rationality and loner's payoff will influence the cooperation. Finally, we highlight the important result that the introduction of voluntary participation and punishment will facilitate cooperation greatly.

  20. Evolution of cooperation among mobile agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhuo; Gao, Jianxi; Cai, Yunze; Xu, Xiaoming

    2011-05-01

    We study the effects of mobility on the evolution of cooperation among mobile players, which imitate collective motion of biological flocks and interact with neighbors within a prescribed radius R. Adopting the the prisoner’s dilemma game and the snowdrift game as metaphors, we find that cooperation can be maintained and even enhanced for low velocities and small payoff parameters, when compared with the case that all agents do not move. But such enhancement of cooperation is largely determined by the value of R, and for modest values of R, there is an optimal value of velocity to induce the maximum cooperation level. Besides, we find that intermediate values of R or initial population densities are most favorable for cooperation, when the velocity is fixed. Depending on the payoff parameters, the system can reach an absorbing state of cooperation when the snowdrift game is played. Our findings may help understanding the relations between individual mobility and cooperative behavior in social systems.

  1. To cooperate or to defect? Altruism and reputation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kułakowski, Krzysztof; Gawroński, Przemysław

    2009-09-01

    The basic difficulty in cooperation theory is to justify the cooperation. Here we propose a new approach, where players are driven by their altruism to cooperate or not. The probability of cooperation depends also on the co-player’s reputation. We find that players with positive altruism cooperate and meet cooperation. In this approach, payoffs are not relevant.

  2. Cooperative IASCC Research (CIR) Program

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, J.L.

    1998-03-01

    Irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) describes intergranular environmental cracking of material exposed to ionizing radiation. The implications of IASCC are significant, both in terms of repair and outage costs as well as the potential for cracking in components that may be extremely difficult to repair or replace. Significant advancements have been made in the understanding of IASCC. However, it is clear that major unknowns persist and must be understood and quantified before the life of a reactor component at risk from IASCC can be predicted or significantly extended. Although individual organizations are continuing to effectively address IASCC, it became apparent that a more direct form of cooperation would be more timely and efficient in addressing the technical issues. Thus in 1995 EPRI formed the Cooperative IASCC Research (CIR) Program. This is a cooperative, jointly funded effort with participants from eight countries providing financial support and technical oversight. The efforts of the CIR Program are directed at the highest priority questions in the areas of material susceptibility, water chemistry and material stress. Major research areas of the Program are: (1) evaluation of IASCC mechanisms, (2) development of methodology for predicting IASCC, and (3) quantification of irradiation effects on metallurgy, mechanics and electrochemistry. Studies to evaluate various IASCC mechanisms include work to better understand the possible roles of radiation-induced segregation (RIS), radiation microstructure, bulk and localized deformation effects, overall effects on strength and ductility, hydrogen and helium effects, and others. Experiments are being conducted to isolate individual effects and determine the relative importance of each in the overall IASCC mechanism. Screening tests will be followed by detailed testing to identify the contribution of each effect over a range of conditions. The paper describes the completed and ongoing work being

  3. International cooperation in water resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, J.R.; Beall, R.M.; Giusti, E.V.

    1979-01-01

    Advancements in hydrology proceeded slowly until the late 1800's when new ventures created a surge of interest and accomplishment. Progress waned again until the middle 20th century when an International Hydrological Decade was conceived, eventually receiving wide multinational support from governmental agencies and nongovernmental institutions. Organized by UNESCO, the Decade program was launched January 1, 1965. Participation included 107 nations, six United Nations agencies, and more than a dozen international scientific organizations. The initial program emphasized scientific research, and international cooperation; the second half of the Decade, emphasized technical assistance and technology transfer, largerly through education, training and demonstration. The success of the Decade led to the establishment of the International Hydrological Program, again under the aegis of UNESCO, to continue the work of the Decade indefinitely. The five major program activities, now involving about 90 countries and several international organizations, include: the scientific program, the promotion of education and training, the enhancement of information exchange, support of technical assistance, and the enlargement of regional cooperation. A significant amount of activity related to hydrological data networks and forecasting is carried on in an Operational Hydrology Programme by the WMO, chiefly through its Commission for Hydrology. Other international governmental organizations with a strong interest in water include the UN, the UN Development Programme, the FAO, the WHO, the International Atomic Energy Agency, the UN Environment Programme, the International Standardization Organization, and developmental institutions such as the World Bank. The specialized interests of researchers outside of the governmental structure, are met through association in various scientific and technical organizations which are world wide in scope and membership. Notwithstanding a sometimes

  4. Cheating and punishment in cooperative animal societies.

    PubMed

    Riehl, Christina; Frederickson, Megan E

    2016-02-01

    Cheaters-genotypes that gain a selective advantage by taking the benefits of the social contributions of others while avoiding the costs of cooperating-are thought to pose a major threat to the evolutionary stability of cooperative societies. In order for cheaters to undermine cooperation, cheating must be an adaptive strategy: cheaters must have higher fitness than cooperators, and their behaviour must reduce the fitness of their cooperative partners. It is frequently suggested that cheating is not adaptive because cooperators have evolved mechanisms to punish these behaviours, thereby reducing the fitness of selfish individuals. However, a simpler hypothesis is that such societies arise precisely because cooperative strategies have been favoured over selfish ones-hence, behaviours that have been interpreted as 'cheating' may not actually result in increased fitness, even when they go unpunished. Here, we review the empirical evidence for cheating behaviours in animal societies, including cooperatively breeding vertebrates and social insects, and we ask whether such behaviours are primarily limited by punishment. Our review suggests that both cheating and punishment are probably rarer than often supposed. Uncooperative individuals typically have lower, not higher, fitness than cooperators; and when evidence suggests that cheating may be adaptive, it is often limited by frequency-dependent selection rather than by punishment. When apparently punitive behaviours do occur, it remains an open question whether they evolved in order to limit cheating, or whether they arose before the evolution of cooperation.

  5. Cooperating attackers in neural cryptography.

    PubMed

    Shacham, Lanir N; Klein, Einat; Mislovaty, Rachel; Kanter, Ido; Kinzel, Wolfgang

    2004-06-01

    A successful attack strategy in neural cryptography is presented. The neural cryptosystem, based on synchronization of neural networks by mutual learning, has been recently shown to be secure under different attack strategies. The success of the advanced attacker presented here, called the "majority-flipping attacker," does not decay with the parameters of the model. This attacker's outstanding success is due to its using a group of attackers which cooperate throughout the synchronization process, unlike any other attack strategy known. An analytical description of this attack is also presented, and fits the results of simulations.

  6. Cooperative Program In Space Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, David

    2003-01-01

    The mission of this activity, know as the Cooperative Program in Space Sciences (CPSS), is to conduct space science research and leading-edge instrumentation and technology development, enable research by the space sciences communities, and to expedite the effective dissemination of space science research, technology, data, and information to the educational community and the general public. To fulfill this mission, USRA recruits and maintains a staff of scientific researchers, operates a series of guest investigator facilities, organizes scientific meetings and workshops, and encourages various interactions with students and university faculty members.

  7. Education and Synthetic Work-Life Earnings Estimates. American Community Survey Reports. ACS-14

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julian, Tiffany; Kominski, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between education and earnings is a long-analyzed topic of study. Generally, there is a strong belief that achievement of higher levels of education is a well established path to better jobs and better earnings. This report provides one view of the economic value of educational attainment by producing an estimate of the amount of…

  8. Rashba Splitting of Cooper Pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shekhter, R. I.; Entin-Wohlman, O.; Jonson, M.; Aharony, A.

    2016-05-01

    We investigate theoretically the properties of a weak link between two superconducting leads, which has the form of a nonsuperconducting nanowire with a strong Rashba spin-orbit coupling caused by an electric field. In the Coulomb-blockade regime of single-electron tunneling, we find that such a weak link acts as a "spin splitter" of the spin states of Cooper pairs tunneling through the link, to an extent that depends on the direction of the electric field. We show that the Josephson current is sensitive to interference between the resulting two transmission channels, one where the spins of both members of a Cooper pair are preserved and one where they are both flipped. As a result, the current is a periodic function of the strength of the spin-orbit interaction and of the bending angle of the nanowire (when mechanically bent); an identical effect appears due to strain-induced spin-orbit coupling. In contrast, no spin-orbit induced interference effect can influence the current through a single weak link connecting two normal metals.

  9. Noise from implantable Cooper cable.

    PubMed

    Carrington, V; Zhou, L; Donaldson, N

    2005-09-01

    Cooper cable is made for implanted devices, usually for connection to stimulating electrodes. An experiment has been performed to see whether these cables would be satisfactory for recording electroneurogram (ENG) signals from cuffs. Four cables were subjected to continuous flexion at 2 Hz while submerged in saline. The cables were connected to a low-noise amplifier, and the noise was measured using a spectrum analyser. These cables had not fractured after 184 million flexions, and the noise in the neural band (500-5000 Hz) had not increased owing to age. Noise in the ENG band increased by less than 3 dB owing to the motion. A fifth, worn cable did fail during the experiment, the conductors becoming exposed to the saline, but this was only apparent by extra noise when the cable was in motion. After 184 million flexions, the four cables were given a more severe test: instead of being connected to the amplifier reference node, two of the four cores of each cable were connected to 18V batteries. Two of the cables were then noisier, but only when in motion, presumably because of leakage between cores. Cooper cables are excellent for transmitting neural signals alone; transmission in one cable of neural signals and power supplies should be avoided if possible. PMID:16411634

  10. Rashba Splitting of Cooper Pairs.

    PubMed

    Shekhter, R I; Entin-Wohlman, O; Jonson, M; Aharony, A

    2016-05-27

    We investigate theoretically the properties of a weak link between two superconducting leads, which has the form of a nonsuperconducting nanowire with a strong Rashba spin-orbit coupling caused by an electric field. In the Coulomb-blockade regime of single-electron tunneling, we find that such a weak link acts as a "spin splitter" of the spin states of Cooper pairs tunneling through the link, to an extent that depends on the direction of the electric field. We show that the Josephson current is sensitive to interference between the resulting two transmission channels, one where the spins of both members of a Cooper pair are preserved and one where they are both flipped. As a result, the current is a periodic function of the strength of the spin-orbit interaction and of the bending angle of the nanowire (when mechanically bent); an identical effect appears due to strain-induced spin-orbit coupling. In contrast, no spin-orbit induced interference effect can influence the current through a single weak link connecting two normal metals. PMID:27284669

  11. The cultural transmission of cooperative norms.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xinyue; Liu, Yan; Ho, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative behavior depends on cultural environment, so what happens when people move from to a new culture governed by a new norm? The dynamics of culture-induced cooperation has not been well understood. We expose lab participants to a sequence of different subject pools while playing a constrained Trust Game. We find prior exposure to different subject pools does in fact influence cooperative behavior; first impressions matter-the primacy effect plays a stronger role than the recency effect; and selfish first impressions matter more than cooperative first impressions-observing selfish behavior by others had a longer-lasting and greater influence on behaviors than observing cooperative behavior by others. Moreover, three consecutive exposures to cooperative environments were needed to neutralize one exposure to a selfish environment.

  12. The cultural transmission of cooperative norms

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xinyue; Liu, Yan; Ho, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative behavior depends on cultural environment, so what happens when people move from to a new culture governed by a new norm? The dynamics of culture-induced cooperation has not been well understood. We expose lab participants to a sequence of different subject pools while playing a constrained Trust Game. We find prior exposure to different subject pools does in fact influence cooperative behavior; first impressions matter—the primacy effect plays a stronger role than the recency effect; and selfish first impressions matter more than cooperative first impressions—observing selfish behavior by others had a longer-lasting and greater influence on behaviors than observing cooperative behavior by others. Moreover, three consecutive exposures to cooperative environments were needed to neutralize one exposure to a selfish environment. PMID:26578993

  13. Evolution of cooperation on spatially embedded networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buesser, Pierre; Tomassini, Marco

    2012-12-01

    In this work we study the behavior of classical two-person, two-strategies evolutionary games on networks embedded in a Euclidean two-dimensional space with different kinds of degree distributions and topologies going from regular to random and to scale-free ones. Using several imitative microscopic dynamics, we study the evolution of global cooperation on the above network classes and find that specific topologies having a hierarchical structure and an inhomogeneous degree distribution, such as Apollonian and grid-based networks, are very conducive to cooperation. Spatial scale-free networks are still good for cooperation but to a lesser degree. Both classes of networks enhance average cooperation in all games with respect to standard random geometric graphs and regular grids by shifting the boundaries between cooperative and defective regions. These findings might be useful in the design of interaction structures that maintain cooperation when the agents are constrained to live in physical two-dimensional space.

  14. Evolution of cooperation on spatially embedded networks.

    PubMed

    Buesser, Pierre; Tomassini, Marco

    2012-12-01

    In this work we study the behavior of classical two-person, two-strategies evolutionary games on networks embedded in a Euclidean two-dimensional space with different kinds of degree distributions and topologies going from regular to random and to scale-free ones. Using several imitative microscopic dynamics, we study the evolution of global cooperation on the above network classes and find that specific topologies having a hierarchical structure and an inhomogeneous degree distribution, such as Apollonian and grid-based networks, are very conducive to cooperation. Spatial scale-free networks are still good for cooperation but to a lesser degree. Both classes of networks enhance average cooperation in all games with respect to standard random geometric graphs and regular grids by shifting the boundaries between cooperative and defective regions. These findings might be useful in the design of interaction structures that maintain cooperation when the agents are constrained to live in physical two-dimensional space. PMID:23368004

  15. The cultural transmission of cooperative norms.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xinyue; Liu, Yan; Ho, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative behavior depends on cultural environment, so what happens when people move from to a new culture governed by a new norm? The dynamics of culture-induced cooperation has not been well understood. We expose lab participants to a sequence of different subject pools while playing a constrained Trust Game. We find prior exposure to different subject pools does in fact influence cooperative behavior; first impressions matter-the primacy effect plays a stronger role than the recency effect; and selfish first impressions matter more than cooperative first impressions-observing selfish behavior by others had a longer-lasting and greater influence on behaviors than observing cooperative behavior by others. Moreover, three consecutive exposures to cooperative environments were needed to neutralize one exposure to a selfish environment. PMID:26578993

  16. Non-cooperative game theory in biology and cooperative reasoning in humans.

    PubMed

    Kabalak, Alihan; Smirnova, Elena; Jost, Jürgen

    2015-06-01

    The readiness for spontaneous cooperation together with the assumptions that others share this cooperativity has been identified as a fundamental feature that distinguishes humans from other animals, including the great apes. At the same time, cooperativity presents an evolutionary puzzle because non-cooperators do better in a group of cooperators. We develop here an analysis of the process leading to cooperation in terms of rationality concepts, game theory and epistemic logic. We are, however, not attempting to reconstruct the actual evolutionary process. We rather want to provide the logical structure underlying cooperation in order to understand why cooperation is possible and what kind of reasoning and beliefs would lead to cooperative decision-making. Game theory depends on an underlying common belief in non-cooperative rationality of the players, and cooperativity similarly can utilize a common belief in cooperative rationality as its basis. We suggest a weaker concept of rational decision-making in games that encompasses both types of decision-making. We build this up in stages, starting from simple optimization, then using anticipation of the reaction of others, to finally arrive at reflexive and cooperative reasoning. While each stage is more difficult than the preceding, importantly, we also identify a reduction of complexity achieved by the consistent application of higher stage reasoning.

  17. Reduction of foraging work and cooperative breeding.

    PubMed

    Toyoizumi, Hiroshi; Field, Jeremy

    2014-06-01

    Using simple stochastic models, we discuss how cooperative breeders, especially wasps and bees, can improve their productivity by reducing foraging work. In a harsh environment, where foraging is the main cause of mortality, such breeders achieve greater productivity by reducing their foraging effort below full capacity, and they may thrive by adopting cooperative breeding. This could prevent the population extinction of cooperative breeders under conditions where a population of lone breeders cannot be maintained.

  18. The social structure of cooperation and punishment.

    PubMed

    Gintis, Herbert; Fehr, Ernst

    2012-02-01

    The standard theories of cooperation in humans, which depend on repeated interaction and reputation effects among self-regarding agents, are inadequate. Strong reciprocity, a predisposition to participate in costly cooperation and the punishment, fosters cooperation where self-regarding behaviors fail. The effectiveness of socially coordinated punishment depends on individual motivations to participate, which are based on strong reciprocity motives. The relative infrequency of high-cost punishment is a result of the ubiquity of strong reciprocity, not its absence.

  19. Partner Choice in Raven (Corvus corax) Cooperation.

    PubMed

    Asakawa-Haas, Kenji; Schiestl, Martina; Bugnyar, Thomas; Massen, Jorg J M

    2016-01-01

    Although social animals frequently make decisions about when or with whom to cooperate, little is known about the underlying mechanisms of partner choice. Most previous studies compared different dyads' performances, though did not allow an actual choice among partners. We tested eleven ravens, Corvus corax, in triads, giving them first the choice to cooperate with either a highly familiar or a rather unfamiliar partner and, second, with either a friend or a non-friend using a cooperative string-pulling task. In either test, the ravens had a second choice and could cooperate with the other partner, given that this one had not pulled the string in the meantime. We show that during the experiments, these partner ravens indeed learn to wait and inhibit pulling, respectively. Moreover, the results of these two experiments show that ravens' preferences for a specific cooperation partner are not based on familiarity. In contrast, the ravens did show a preference based on relationship quality, as they did choose to cooperate significantly more with friends than with non-friends and they were also more proficient when cooperating with a friend. In order to further identify the proximate mechanism of this preference, we designed an open-choice experiment for the whole group where all birds were free to cooperate on two separate apparatuses. This set-up allowed us to distinguish between preferences for close proximity and preferences to cooperate. The results revealed that friends preferred staying close to each other, but did not necessarily cooperate with one another, suggesting that tolerance of proximity and not relationship quality as a whole may be the driving force behind partner choice in raven cooperation. Consequently, we stress the importance of experiments that allow such titrations and, suggest that these results have important implications for the interpretations of cooperation studies that did not include open partner choice.

  20. Partner Choice in Raven (Corvus corax) Cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Asakawa-Haas, Kenji; Schiestl, Martina; Bugnyar, Thomas; Massen, Jorg J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Although social animals frequently make decisions about when or with whom to cooperate, little is known about the underlying mechanisms of partner choice. Most previous studies compared different dyads’ performances, though did not allow an actual choice among partners. We tested eleven ravens, Corvus corax, in triads, giving them first the choice to cooperate with either a highly familiar or a rather unfamiliar partner and, second, with either a friend or a non-friend using a cooperative string-pulling task. In either test, the ravens had a second choice and could cooperate with the other partner, given that this one had not pulled the string in the meantime. We show that during the experiments, these partner ravens indeed learn to wait and inhibit pulling, respectively. Moreover, the results of these two experiments show that ravens’ preferences for a specific cooperation partner are not based on familiarity. In contrast, the ravens did show a preference based on relationship quality, as they did choose to cooperate significantly more with friends than with non-friends and they were also more proficient when cooperating with a friend. In order to further identify the proximate mechanism of this preference, we designed an open-choice experiment for the whole group where all birds were free to cooperate on two separate apparatuses. This set-up allowed us to distinguish between preferences for close proximity and preferences to cooperate. The results revealed that friends preferred staying close to each other, but did not necessarily cooperate with one another, suggesting that tolerance of proximity and not relationship quality as a whole may be the driving force behind partner choice in raven cooperation. Consequently, we stress the importance of experiments that allow such titrations and, suggest that these results have important implications for the interpretations of cooperation studies that did not include open partner choice. PMID:27286247

  1. Hierarchy is Detrimental for Human Cooperation.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Katherine A; Acheson, Daniel J; Hernández, Penélope; Sánchez, Angel

    2015-01-01

    Studies of animal behavior consistently demonstrate that the social environment impacts cooperation, yet the effect of social dynamics has been largely excluded from studies of human cooperation. Here, we introduce a novel approach inspired by nonhuman primate research to address how social hierarchies impact human cooperation. Participants competed to earn hierarchy positions and then could cooperate with another individual in the hierarchy by investing in a common effort. Cooperation was achieved if the combined investments exceeded a threshold, and the higher ranked individual distributed the spoils unless control was contested by the partner. Compared to a condition lacking hierarchy, cooperation declined in the presence of a hierarchy due to a decrease in investment by lower ranked individuals. Furthermore, hierarchy was detrimental to cooperation regardless of whether it was earned or arbitrary. These findings mirror results from nonhuman primates and demonstrate that hierarchies are detrimental to cooperation. However, these results deviate from nonhuman primate findings by demonstrating that human behavior is responsive to changing hierarchical structures and suggests partnership dynamics that may improve cooperation. This work introduces a controlled way to investigate the social influences on human behavior, and demonstrates the evolutionary continuity of human behavior with other primate species. PMID:26692287

  2. Collapse of cooperation in evolving games

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Alexander J.; Plotkin, Joshua B.

    2014-01-01

    Game theory provides a quantitative framework for analyzing the behavior of rational agents. The Iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma in particular has become a standard model for studying cooperation and cheating, with cooperation often emerging as a robust outcome in evolving populations. Here we extend evolutionary game theory by allowing players’ payoffs as well as their strategies to evolve in response to selection on heritable mutations. In nature, many organisms engage in mutually beneficial interactions and individuals may seek to change the ratio of risk to reward for cooperation by altering the resources they commit to cooperative interactions. To study this, we construct a general framework for the coevolution of strategies and payoffs in arbitrary iterated games. We show that, when there is a tradeoff between the benefits and costs of cooperation, coevolution often leads to a dramatic loss of cooperation in the Iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma. The collapse of cooperation is so extreme that the average payoff in a population can decline even as the potential reward for mutual cooperation increases. Depending upon the form of tradeoffs, evolution may even move away from the Iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma game altogether. Our work offers a new perspective on the Prisoner’s Dilemma and its predictions for cooperation in natural populations; and it provides a general framework to understand the coevolution of strategies and payoffs in iterated interactions. PMID:25422421

  3. Cooperation and assortativity with dynamic partner updating.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Suri, Siddharth; Watts, Duncan J

    2012-09-01

    The natural tendency for humans to make and break relationships is thought to facilitate the emergence of cooperation. In particular, allowing conditional cooperators to choose with whom they interact is believed to reinforce the rewards accruing to mutual cooperation while simultaneously excluding defectors. Here we report on a series of human subjects experiments in which groups of 24 participants played an iterated prisoner's dilemma game where, critically, they were also allowed to propose and delete links to players of their own choosing at some variable rate. Over a wide variety of parameter settings and initial conditions, we found that dynamic partner updating significantly increased the level of cooperation, the average payoffs to players, and the assortativity between cooperators. Even relatively slow update rates were sufficient to produce large effects, while subsequent increases to the update rate had progressively smaller, but still positive, effects. For standard prisoner's dilemma payoffs, we also found that assortativity resulted predominantly from cooperators avoiding defectors, not by severing ties with defecting partners, and that cooperation correspondingly suffered. Finally, by modifying the payoffs to satisfy two novel conditions, we found that cooperators did punish defectors by severing ties, leading to higher levels of cooperation that persisted for longer.

  4. Collapse of cooperation in evolving games.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Alexander J; Plotkin, Joshua B

    2014-12-01

    Game theory provides a quantitative framework for analyzing the behavior of rational agents. The Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma in particular has become a standard model for studying cooperation and cheating, with cooperation often emerging as a robust outcome in evolving populations. Here we extend evolutionary game theory by allowing players' payoffs as well as their strategies to evolve in response to selection on heritable mutations. In nature, many organisms engage in mutually beneficial interactions and individuals may seek to change the ratio of risk to reward for cooperation by altering the resources they commit to cooperative interactions. To study this, we construct a general framework for the coevolution of strategies and payoffs in arbitrary iterated games. We show that, when there is a tradeoff between the benefits and costs of cooperation, coevolution often leads to a dramatic loss of cooperation in the Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma. The collapse of cooperation is so extreme that the average payoff in a population can decline even as the potential reward for mutual cooperation increases. Depending upon the form of tradeoffs, evolution may even move away from the Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma game altogether. Our work offers a new perspective on the Prisoner's Dilemma and its predictions for cooperation in natural populations; and it provides a general framework to understand the coevolution of strategies and payoffs in iterated interactions.

  5. Cooperative Dimensions of a Digitization Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adaryukov, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    After a brief overview of the digitization activities at Florida Atlantic University Libraries, this article describes one project in detail, concentrating on various types of cooperation it reflects.

  6. Do avian cooperative breeders live longer?

    PubMed Central

    Beauchamp, Guy

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative breeding is not common in birds but intriguingly over-represented in several families, suggesting that predisposing factors, similar ecological constraints or a combination of the two facilitate the evolution of this breeding strategy. The life-history hypothesis proposes that cooperative breeding is facilitated by high annual survival, which increases the local population and leads to a shortage of breeding opportunities. Clutch size in cooperative breeders is also expected to be smaller. An earlier comparative analysis in a small sample of birds supported the hypothesis but this conclusion has been controversial. Here, I extend the analysis to a larger, worldwide sample and take into account potential confounding factors that may affect estimates of a slow pace of life and clutch size. In a sample of 81 species pairs consisting of closely related cooperative and non-cooperative breeders, I did not find an association between maximum longevity and cooperative breeding, controlling for diet, body mass and sampling effort. However, in a smaller sample of 37 pairs, adult annual survival was indeed higher in the cooperative breeders, controlling for body mass. There was no association between clutch size and cooperative breeding in a sample of 93 pairs. The results support the facilitating effect of high annual survival on the evolution of cooperative breeding in birds but the effect on clutch size remains elusive. PMID:24898375

  7. Cooperation and assortativity with dynamic partner updating.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Suri, Siddharth; Watts, Duncan J

    2012-09-01

    The natural tendency for humans to make and break relationships is thought to facilitate the emergence of cooperation. In particular, allowing conditional cooperators to choose with whom they interact is believed to reinforce the rewards accruing to mutual cooperation while simultaneously excluding defectors. Here we report on a series of human subjects experiments in which groups of 24 participants played an iterated prisoner's dilemma game where, critically, they were also allowed to propose and delete links to players of their own choosing at some variable rate. Over a wide variety of parameter settings and initial conditions, we found that dynamic partner updating significantly increased the level of cooperation, the average payoffs to players, and the assortativity between cooperators. Even relatively slow update rates were sufficient to produce large effects, while subsequent increases to the update rate had progressively smaller, but still positive, effects. For standard prisoner's dilemma payoffs, we also found that assortativity resulted predominantly from cooperators avoiding defectors, not by severing ties with defecting partners, and that cooperation correspondingly suffered. Finally, by modifying the payoffs to satisfy two novel conditions, we found that cooperators did punish defectors by severing ties, leading to higher levels of cooperation that persisted for longer. PMID:22904193

  8. Social Environment Shapes the Speed of Cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Nishi, Akihiro; Christakis, Nicholas A.; Evans, Anthony M.; O’Malley, A. James; Rand, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Are cooperative decisions typically made more quickly or slowly than non-cooperative decisions? While this question has attracted considerable attention in recent years, most research has focused on one-shot interactions. Yet it is repeated interactions that characterize most important real-world social interactions. In repeated interactions, the cooperativeness of one’s interaction partners (the “social environment”) should affect the speed of cooperation. Specifically, we propose that reciprocal decisions (choices that mirror behavior observed in the social environment), rather than cooperative decisions per se, occur more quickly. We test this hypothesis by examining four independent decision time datasets with a total of 2,088 subjects making 55,968 decisions. We show that reciprocal decisions are consistently faster than non-reciprocal decisions: cooperation is faster than defection in cooperative environments, while defection is faster than cooperation in non-cooperative environments. These differences are further enhanced by subjects’ previous behavior – reciprocal decisions are faster when they are consistent with the subject’s previous choices. Finally, mediation analyses of a fifth dataset suggest that the speed of reciprocal decisions is explained, in part, by feelings of conflict – reciprocal decisions are less conflicted than non-reciprocal decisions, and less decision conflict appears to lead to shorter decision times. PMID:27435940

  9. Collapse of cooperation in evolving games.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Alexander J; Plotkin, Joshua B

    2014-12-01

    Game theory provides a quantitative framework for analyzing the behavior of rational agents. The Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma in particular has become a standard model for studying cooperation and cheating, with cooperation often emerging as a robust outcome in evolving populations. Here we extend evolutionary game theory by allowing players' payoffs as well as their strategies to evolve in response to selection on heritable mutations. In nature, many organisms engage in mutually beneficial interactions and individuals may seek to change the ratio of risk to reward for cooperation by altering the resources they commit to cooperative interactions. To study this, we construct a general framework for the coevolution of strategies and payoffs in arbitrary iterated games. We show that, when there is a tradeoff between the benefits and costs of cooperation, coevolution often leads to a dramatic loss of cooperation in the Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma. The collapse of cooperation is so extreme that the average payoff in a population can decline even as the potential reward for mutual cooperation increases. Depending upon the form of tradeoffs, evolution may even move away from the Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma game altogether. Our work offers a new perspective on the Prisoner's Dilemma and its predictions for cooperation in natural populations; and it provides a general framework to understand the coevolution of strategies and payoffs in iterated interactions. PMID:25422421

  10. Fluctuation driven fixation of cooperative behavior.

    PubMed

    Houchmandzadeh, Bahram

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative behaviors are defined as the production of common goods benefitting all members of the community at the producer's cost. They could seem to be in contradiction with natural selection, as non-cooperators have an increased fitness compared to cooperators. Understanding the emergence of cooperation has necessitated the development of concepts and models (inclusive fitness, multilevel selection, etc.) attributing deterministic advantages to this behavior. In contrast to these models, we show here that cooperative behaviors can emerge by taking into account only the stochastic nature of evolutionary dynamics: when cooperative behaviors increase the population size, they also increase the genetic drift against non-cooperators. Using the Wright-Fisher models of population genetics, we compute exactly this increased genetic drift and its consequences on the fixation probability of both types of individuals. This computation leads to a simple criterion: cooperative behavior dominates when the relative increase in population size caused by cooperators is higher than the selection pressure against them. This is a purely stochastic effect with no deterministic interpretation.

  11. 75 FR 31431 - East Texas Electric Cooperative, Inc. (Cooperative); Notice Soliciting Comments and Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission East Texas Electric Cooperative, Inc. (Cooperative); Notice Soliciting... the following hydroelectric application has been filed with the Commission and is available for...

  12. Patterns for Cooperation; a Report of the Manchester Interlibrary Cooperative (MILC), an Intertype Library Cooperative in Manchester, New Hampshire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamovich, Shirley Gray

    The Manchester Interlibrary Cooperative (MILC) is a city-wide organization of 18 school, public, and special libraries located in Manchester, New Hampshire. The New Hampshire State Library is a member and serves as a consultant to the project. Its base of operation is the Manchester City Library. The original intent of the cooperative was to show…

  13. Cooperation and Defection in Ghetto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kułakowski, Krzysztof

    We consider ghetto as a community of people ruled against their will by an external power. Members of the community feel that their laws are broken. However, attempts to leave ghetto makes their situation worse. We discuss the relation of the ghetto inhabitants to the ruling power in context of their needs, organized according to the Maslow hierarchy. Decisions how to satisfy successive needs are undertaken in cooperation with or defection the ruling power. This issue allows to construct the tree of decisions and to adopt the pruning technique from the game theory. Dynamics of decisions can be described within the formalism of fundamental equations. The result is that the strategy of defection is stabilized by the estimated payoff.

  14. One-dimensional Cooper pairing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, R.; Fortes, M.; de Llano, M.; Solís, M. A.

    2011-09-01

    We study electron pairing in a one-dimensional (1D) fermion gas at zero temperature under zero- and finite-range, attractive, two-body interactions. The binding energy of Cooper pairs (CPs) with zero total or center-of-mass momentum (CMM) increases with attraction strength and decreases with interaction range for fixed strength. The excitation energy of 1D CPs with nonzero CMM display novel, unique properties. It satisfies a dispersion relation with two branches: a phonon-like linear excitation for small CP CMM; this is followed by roton-like quadratic excitation minimum for CMM greater than twice the Fermi wavenumber, but only above a minimum threshold attraction strength. The expected quadratic-in-CMM dispersion in vacuo when the Fermi wavenumber is set to zero is recovered for any coupling. This paper completes a three-part exploration initiated in 2D and continued in 3D.

  15. Cooperation of catalysts and templates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, D. H.; Kanavarioti, A.; Nibley, C. W.; Macklin, J. W.

    1986-01-01

    In order to understand how self-reproducing molecules could have originated on the primitive Earth or extraterrestrial bodies, it would be useful to find laboratory models of simple molecules which are able to carry out processes of catalysis and templating. Furthermore, it may be anticipated that systems in which several components are acting cooperatively to catalyze each other's synthesis will have different behavior with respect to natural selection than those of purely replicating systems. As the major focus of this work, laboratory models are devised to study the influence of short peptide catalysts on template reactions which produce oligonucleotides or additional peptides. Such catalysts could have been the earliest protoenzymes of selective advantage produced by replicating oligonucleotides. Since this is a complex problem, simpler systems are also studied which embody only one aspect at a time, such as peptide formation with and without a template, peptide catalysis of nontemplated peptide synthesis, and model reactions for replication of the type pioneered by Orgel.

  16. Shape matters: Lifecycle of cooperative patches promotes cooperation in bulky populations

    PubMed Central

    Misevic, Dusan; Frénoy, Antoine; Lindner, Ariel B; Taddei, François

    2015-01-01

    Natural cooperative systems take many forms, ranging from one-dimensional cyanobacteria arrays to fractal-like biofilms. We use in silico experimental systems to study a previously overlooked factor in the evolution of cooperation, physical shape of the population. We compare the emergence and maintenance of cooperation in populations of digital organisms that inhabit bulky (100 × 100 cells) or slender (4 × 2500) toroidal grids. Although more isolated subpopulations of secretors in a slender population could be expected to favor cooperation, we find the opposite: secretion evolves to higher levels in bulky populations. We identify the mechanistic explanation for the shape effect by analyzing the lifecycle and dynamics of cooperator patches, from their emergence and growth, to invasion by noncooperators and extinction. Because they are constrained by the population shape, the cooperator patches expand less in slender than in bulky populations, leading to fewer cooperators, less public good secretion, and generally lower cooperation. The patch dynamics and mechanisms of shape effect are robust across several digital cooperation systems and independent of the underlying basis for cooperation (public good secretion or a cooperation game). Our results urge for a greater consideration of population shape in the study of the evolution of cooperation across experimental and modeling systems. PMID:25639379

  17. Reasons to Co-Operate: Co-Operative Solutions for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The NASUWT's landmark agreement with the Schools Co-operative Society has provided a new spur to co-operation, collaboration and collegiality in schools. Against a background of rapid and radical changes to the education landscape, co-operative schools are viewed by many as a means to maintaining public service ethos and values in education.…

  18. 76 FR 39901 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ...--Cooperative Research Group on Development of a Predictive Model for Corrosion-Fatigue of Materials in Sour Environment Notice is hereby given that, on May 17, 2011, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the National Cooperative...-- Cooperative Research Group on Development of a Predictive Model for Corrosion-Fatigue of Materials in...

  19. 77 FR 47882 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Cooperative Research Group on Clean Diesel VI Notice is hereby given that, on July 16, 2012, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the National Cooperative...

  20. Third-party punishment increases cooperation in children through (misaligned) expectations and conditional cooperation.

    PubMed

    Lergetporer, Philipp; Angerer, Silvia; Glätzle-Rützler, Daniela; Sutter, Matthias

    2014-05-13

    The human ability to establish cooperation, even in large groups of genetically unrelated strangers, depends upon the enforcement of cooperation norms. Third-party punishment is one important factor to explain high levels of cooperation among humans, although it is still somewhat disputed whether other animal species also use this mechanism for promoting cooperation. We study the effectiveness of third-party punishment to increase children's cooperative behavior in a large-scale cooperation game. Based on an experiment with 1,120 children, aged 7 to 11 y, we find that the threat of third-party punishment more than doubles cooperation rates, despite the fact that children are rarely willing to execute costly punishment. We can show that the higher cooperation levels with third-party punishment are driven by two components. First, cooperation is a rational (expected payoff-maximizing) response to incorrect beliefs about the punishment behavior of third parties. Second, cooperation is a conditionally cooperative reaction to correct beliefs that third party punishment will increase a partner's level of cooperation.

  1. 7 CFR 989.115 - Independent handler, major cooperative marketing association handler, and small cooperative...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... association handler, and small cooperative marketing association handler. 989.115 Section 989.115 Agriculture... marketing association handler, and small cooperative marketing association handler. (a) Independent handler means any handler who is not a cooperative marketing association of producers. (b) Major...

  2. Third-party punishment increases cooperation in children through (misaligned) expectations and conditional cooperation.

    PubMed

    Lergetporer, Philipp; Angerer, Silvia; Glätzle-Rützler, Daniela; Sutter, Matthias

    2014-05-13

    The human ability to establish cooperation, even in large groups of genetically unrelated strangers, depends upon the enforcement of cooperation norms. Third-party punishment is one important factor to explain high levels of cooperation among humans, although it is still somewhat disputed whether other animal species also use this mechanism for promoting cooperation. We study the effectiveness of third-party punishment to increase children's cooperative behavior in a large-scale cooperation game. Based on an experiment with 1,120 children, aged 7 to 11 y, we find that the threat of third-party punishment more than doubles cooperation rates, despite the fact that children are rarely willing to execute costly punishment. We can show that the higher cooperation levels with third-party punishment are driven by two components. First, cooperation is a rational (expected payoff-maximizing) response to incorrect beliefs about the punishment behavior of third parties. Second, cooperation is a conditionally cooperative reaction to correct beliefs that third party punishment will increase a partner's level of cooperation. PMID:24778231

  3. Third-party punishment increases cooperation in children through (misaligned) expectations and conditional cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Lergetporer, Philipp; Angerer, Silvia; Glätzle-Rützler, Daniela; Sutter, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    The human ability to establish cooperation, even in large groups of genetically unrelated strangers, depends upon the enforcement of cooperation norms. Third-party punishment is one important factor to explain high levels of cooperation among humans, although it is still somewhat disputed whether other animal species also use this mechanism for promoting cooperation. We study the effectiveness of third-party punishment to increase children’s cooperative behavior in a large-scale cooperation game. Based on an experiment with 1,120 children, aged 7 to 11 y, we find that the threat of third-party punishment more than doubles cooperation rates, despite the fact that children are rarely willing to execute costly punishment. We can show that the higher cooperation levels with third-party punishment are driven by two components. First, cooperation is a rational (expected payoff-maximizing) response to incorrect beliefs about the punishment behavior of third parties. Second, cooperation is a conditionally cooperative reaction to correct beliefs that third party punishment will increase a partner’s level of cooperation. PMID:24778231

  4. Controlling Herds of Cooperative Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quadrelli, Marco B.

    2006-01-01

    A document poses, and suggests a program of research for answering, questions of how to achieve autonomous operation of herds of cooperative robots to be used in exploration and/or colonization of remote planets. In a typical scenario, a flock of mobile sensory robots would be deployed in a previously unexplored region, one of the robots would be designated the leader, and the leader would issue commands to move the robots to different locations or aim sensors at different targets to maximize scientific return. It would be necessary to provide for this hierarchical, cooperative behavior even in the face of such unpredictable factors as terrain obstacles. A potential-fields approach is proposed as a theoretical basis for developing methods of autonomous command and guidance of a herd. A survival-of-the-fittest approach is suggested as a theoretical basis for selection, mutation, and adaptation of a description of (1) the body, joints, sensors, actuators, and control computer of each robot, and (2) the connectivity of each robot with the rest of the herd, such that the herd could be regarded as consisting of a set of artificial creatures that evolve to adapt to a previously unknown environment. A distributed simulation environment has been developed to test the proposed approaches in the Titan environment. One blimp guides three surface sondes via a potential field approach. The results of the simulation demonstrate that the method used for control is feasible, even if significant uncertainty exists in the dynamics and environmental models, and that the control architecture provides the autonomy needed to enable surface science data collection.

  5. 40 CFR 26.1114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative research. 26.1114 Section... SUBJECTS Basic Ethical Requirements for Third-Party Human Research for Pesticides Involving Intentional Exposure of Non-pregnant, Non-nursing Adults § 26.1114 Cooperative research. In complying with this...

  6. 21 CFR 56.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cooperative research. 56.114 Section 56.114 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARDS IRB Functions and Operations § 56.114 Cooperative research. In complying with...

  7. Working Together: Case Studies in Cooperative Preservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Condict Gaye

    This report examines regional and/or state cooperative preservation programs and related activities. The major part of the report is given over to case studies that present a synopsis of the key structural and program elements of cooperative preservation initiatives. These case studies include the: Office of Library and Archival Materials…

  8. Construction of Trust Judgments within Cooperative Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evin, Agathe; Sève, Carole; Saury, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: One of the aims of physical education (PE) is to develop social skills such as cooperation, teamwork, and mutual helping among students. Cooperation is a broad research topic, implicating several disciplines in the human sciences (e.g. psychology, sociology, linguistics, philosophy). It is also an important topic in various domains…

  9. 21 CFR 56.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cooperative research. 56.114 Section 56.114 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARDS IRB Functions and Operations § 56.114 Cooperative research. In complying with...

  10. 21 CFR 56.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cooperative research. 56.114 Section 56.114 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARDS IRB Functions and Operations § 56.114 Cooperative research. In complying with...

  11. 21 CFR 56.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cooperative research. 56.114 Section 56.114 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARDS IRB Functions and Operations § 56.114 Cooperative research. In complying with...

  12. Legal Considerations in Cooperative Education Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Donald C.

    The laws, regulations, and rulings that are common to all cooperative education programs and that frequently present problems to coordinators, faculty, administrators, and employers are briefly explained. The objective is to provide coordinators of cooperative programs in education, business, industry, and government with a discussion of the…

  13. 21 CFR 56.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cooperative research. 56.114 Section 56.114 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARDS IRB Functions and Operations § 56.114 Cooperative research. In complying with...

  14. 31 CFR 20.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative agreement. 20.620 Section 20.620 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 20.620 Cooperative...

  15. The Co-Operative: Good with Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coates, Max

    2015-01-01

    The article is a summary of a small-scale research project which considers the formation of Co-operative Trust Schools. This was carried out in 2013 at a time when the number of schools becoming Academies and Trust Schools through the Co-operative College was burgeoning. Through questionnaire, interview, documentary analysis and exploration of…

  16. Astronaut Gordon Cooper smiles for recovery crew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Astronaut L. Gordon Cooper Jr., has a smile for the recovery crew of the U.S.S. Kearsarge, after he is on board from a successful 22 orbit mission of the earth in his spacecraft 'Faith 7'. Cooper is still sitting in his capsule, with his helmet off.

  17. Cooperation, clumping and the evolution of multicellularity

    PubMed Central

    Biernaskie, Jay M.; West, Stuart A.

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of multicellular organisms represents one of the major evolutionary transitions in the history of life. A potential advantage of forming multicellular clumps is that it provides an efficiency benefit to pre-existing cooperation, such as the production of extracellular ‘public goods’. However, this is complicated by the fact that cooperation could jointly evolve with clumping, and clumping could have multiple consequences for the evolution of cooperation. We model the evolution of clumping and a cooperative public good, showing that (i) when considered separately, both clumping and public goods production gradually increase with increasing genetic relatedness; (ii) in contrast, when the traits evolve jointly, a small increase in relatedness can lead to a major shift in evolutionary outcome—from a non-clumping state with low public goods production to a cooperative clumping state with high values of both traits; (iii) high relatedness makes it easier to get to the cooperative clumping state and (iv) clumping can be inhibited when it increases the number of cells that the benefits of cooperation must be shared with, but promoted when it increases relatedness between those cells. Overall, our results suggest that public goods sharing can facilitate the formation of well-integrated cooperative clumps as a first step in the evolution of multicellularity. PMID:26246549

  18. Vasopressin increases human risky cooperative behavior.

    PubMed

    Brunnlieb, Claudia; Nave, Gideon; Camerer, Colin F; Schosser, Stephan; Vogt, Bodo; Münte, Thomas F; Heldmann, Marcus

    2016-02-23

    The history of humankind is an epic of cooperation, which is ubiquitous across societies and increasing in scale. Much human cooperation occurs where it is risky to cooperate for mutual benefit because successful cooperation depends on a sufficient level of cooperation by others. Here we show that arginine vasopressin (AVP), a neuropeptide that mediates complex mammalian social behaviors such as pair bonding, social recognition and aggression causally increases humans' willingness to engage in risky, mutually beneficial cooperation. In two double-blind experiments, male participants received either AVP or placebo intranasally and made decisions with financial consequences in the "Stag hunt" cooperation game. AVP increases humans' willingness to cooperate. That increase is not due to an increase in the general willingness to bear risks or to altruistically help others. Using functional brain imaging, we show that, when subjects make the risky Stag choice, AVP down-regulates the BOLD signal in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), a risk-integration region, and increases the left dlPFC functional connectivity with the ventral pallidum, an AVP receptor-rich region previously associated with AVP-mediated social reward processing in mammals. These findings show a previously unidentified causal role for AVP in social approach behavior in humans, as established by animal research. PMID:26858433

  19. Vasopressin increases human risky cooperative behavior

    PubMed Central

    Brunnlieb, Claudia; Nave, Gideon; Camerer, Colin F.; Schosser, Stephan; Vogt, Bodo; Münte, Thomas F.; Heldmann, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    The history of humankind is an epic of cooperation, which is ubiquitous across societies and increasing in scale. Much human cooperation occurs where it is risky to cooperate for mutual benefit because successful cooperation depends on a sufficient level of cooperation by others. Here we show that arginine vasopressin (AVP), a neuropeptide that mediates complex mammalian social behaviors such as pair bonding, social recognition and aggression causally increases humans’ willingness to engage in risky, mutually beneficial cooperation. In two double-blind experiments, male participants received either AVP or placebo intranasally and made decisions with financial consequences in the “Stag hunt” cooperation game. AVP increases humans’ willingness to cooperate. That increase is not due to an increase in the general willingness to bear risks or to altruistically help others. Using functional brain imaging, we show that, when subjects make the risky Stag choice, AVP down-regulates the BOLD signal in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), a risk-integration region, and increases the left dlPFC functional connectivity with the ventral pallidum, an AVP receptor-rich region previously associated with AVP-mediated social reward processing in mammals. These findings show a previously unidentified causal role for AVP in social approach behavior in humans, as established by animal research. PMID:26858433

  20. Role of Cooperative Learning in Comprehensive Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, D. Kim

    1989-01-01

    Cooperative learning arrangements for students with learning disabilities are discussed. Cooperative learning appears to be as effective as teacher-led instruction because it replicates natural learning contexts, enhances self-efficacy, provides level-appropriate information processing models, and addresses the specific needs of such students.…

  1. Conscious Cooperation with the Individuating Adult Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spear, Stephen B.

    2014-01-01

    Fundamental to the process of Jungian individuation is the integration of ego consciousness and unconsciousness. For this to occur, the ego must be willing to consciously cooperate with the unconscious, acknowledging and nonjudgmentally accepting the imaginal communications that flow from it. The ego's decision to cooperate with the unconscious is…

  2. Benefits of Cooperative Learning in Weblog Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jenny; Fang, Yuehchiu

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the benefits of cooperative learning in weblog networks, focusing particularly on learning outcomes in college writing curriculum integrated with computer-mediated learning tool-weblog. The first section addressed the advantages of using weblogs in cooperative learning structure on teaching and learning.…

  3. Uncalculating cooperation is used to signal trustworthiness

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Jillian J.; Hoffman, Moshe; Nowak, Martin A.; Rand, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Humans frequently cooperate without carefully weighing the costs and benefits. As a result, people may wind up cooperating when it is not worthwhile to do so. Why risk making costly mistakes? Here, we present experimental evidence that reputation concerns provide an answer: people cooperate in an uncalculating way to signal their trustworthiness to observers. We present two economic game experiments in which uncalculating versus calculating decision-making is operationalized by either a subject’s choice of whether to reveal the precise costs of cooperating (Exp. 1) or the time a subject spends considering these costs (Exp. 2). In both experiments, we find that participants are more likely to engage in uncalculating cooperation when their decision-making process is observable to others. Furthermore, we confirm that people who engage in uncalculating cooperation are perceived as, and actually are, more trustworthy than people who cooperate in a calculating way. Taken together, these data provide the first empirical evidence, to our knowledge, that uncalculating cooperation is used to signal trustworthiness, and is not merely an efficient decision-making strategy that reduces cognitive costs. Our results thus help to explain a range of puzzling behaviors, such as extreme altruism, the use of ethical principles, and romantic love. PMID:27439873

  4. Uncalculating cooperation is used to signal trustworthiness.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Jillian J; Hoffman, Moshe; Nowak, Martin A; Rand, David G

    2016-08-01

    Humans frequently cooperate without carefully weighing the costs and benefits. As a result, people may wind up cooperating when it is not worthwhile to do so. Why risk making costly mistakes? Here, we present experimental evidence that reputation concerns provide an answer: people cooperate in an uncalculating way to signal their trustworthiness to observers. We present two economic game experiments in which uncalculating versus calculating decision-making is operationalized by either a subject's choice of whether to reveal the precise costs of cooperating (Exp. 1) or the time a subject spends considering these costs (Exp. 2). In both experiments, we find that participants are more likely to engage in uncalculating cooperation when their decision-making process is observable to others. Furthermore, we confirm that people who engage in uncalculating cooperation are perceived as, and actually are, more trustworthy than people who cooperate in a calculating way. Taken together, these data provide the first empirical evidence, to our knowledge, that uncalculating cooperation is used to signal trustworthiness, and is not merely an efficient decision-making strategy that reduces cognitive costs. Our results thus help to explain a range of puzzling behaviors, such as extreme altruism, the use of ethical principles, and romantic love. PMID:27439873

  5. 40 CFR 1501.6 - Cooperating agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... environmental issue, which should be addressed in the statement may be a cooperating agency upon request of the... 1501.6 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY NEPA AND AGENCY PLANNING § 1501.6... earliest possible time. (2) Use the environmental analysis and proposals of cooperating agencies...

  6. 40 CFR 1501.6 - Cooperating agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... environmental issue, which should be addressed in the statement may be a cooperating agency upon request of the... 1501.6 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY NEPA AND AGENCY PLANNING § 1501.6... earliest possible time. (2) Use the environmental analysis and proposals of cooperating agencies...

  7. 40 CFR 1501.6 - Cooperating agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... environmental issue, which should be addressed in the statement may be a cooperating agency upon request of the... 1501.6 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY NEPA AND AGENCY PLANNING § 1501.6... earliest possible time. (2) Use the environmental analysis and proposals of cooperating agencies...

  8. 40 CFR 1501.6 - Cooperating agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... environmental issue, which should be addressed in the statement may be a cooperating agency upon request of the... 1501.6 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY NEPA AND AGENCY PLANNING § 1501.6... earliest possible time. (2) Use the environmental analysis and proposals of cooperating agencies...

  9. Experience of Cooperative Learning in Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maceiras, Rocio; Cancela, Angeles; Urrejola, Santiago; Sanchez, Angel

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work is to share the authors' experience towards a different mode of teaching/learning method. Cooperative learning (Jigsaw) was employed on the University of Vigo's fourth-year engineering students. The results of the experience show that cooperative learning is quite a viable alternative to the classical way of lecturing at…

  10. Cooperative Learning versus Competition: Which Is Better?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Most educators advocate cooperative learning in the curriculum. Heterogeneous grouping is also recommended so that students with mixed achievement levels work in a committee setting. Cooperative endeavors stress democracy as a way of life, according to many educators, as compared to competition in the classroom. This paper examines the philosophy…

  11. Cooperative Games and Children's Positive Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finlinson, Abbie Reynolds; Austin, Ann M. Berghout; Pfister, Roxane

    2000-01-01

    Examined impact of cooperative and competitive games on 4-year-olds' behavior over 6 weeks. Found that more positive behaviors were observed during cooperative games than competitive games, and more negative behaviors were observed during competitive games, but only during the first week of competitive games. Found that teachers' warmth and…

  12. 40 CFR 52.1579 - Intergovernmental cooperation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intergovernmental cooperation. 52.1579 Section 52.1579 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Intergovernmental cooperation. (a) The requirements of subpart M of this chapter are not met since the plan does...

  13. 28 CFR 41.6 - Interagency cooperation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interagency cooperation. 41.6 Section 41.6 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPLEMENTATION OF EXECUTIVE ORDER 12250... Interagency cooperation. (a) Where each of a substantial number of recipients is receiving assistance...

  14. 24 CFR 574.420 - Cooperation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cooperation. 574.420 Section 574.420 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... Grantees and Project Sponsors § 574.420 Cooperation. (a) The grantee shall agree, and shall ensure...

  15. 45 CFR 90.33 - Interagency cooperation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interagency cooperation. 90.33 Section 90.33 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE... Responsibilities of the Federal Agencies? § 90.33 Interagency cooperation. Where two or more agencies...

  16. 10 CFR 1021.342 - Interagency cooperation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Implementing Procedures § 1021.342 Interagency cooperation. For DOE programs that involve another Federal agency or agencies in related decisions subject to NEPA, DOE will comply with the requirements of 40 CFR... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interagency cooperation. 1021.342 Section 1021.342...

  17. 36 CFR 805.6 - Interagency cooperation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interagency cooperation. 805.6 Section 805.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ADVISORY COUNCIL ON HISTORIC PRESERVATION PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 805.6 Interagency cooperation....

  18. 40 CFR 52.2433 - Intergovernmental cooperation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intergovernmental cooperation. 52.2433 Section 52.2433 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Intergovernmental cooperation. (a) The requirements of Subpart M of this chapter are not met because the plan...

  19. 40 CFR 52.2032 - Intergovernmental cooperation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intergovernmental cooperation. 52.2032 Section 52.2032 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Intergovernmental cooperation. (a) The requirements of subpart M of this chapter are not met because the plan...

  20. Jigsaw Cooperative Learning: Acid-Base Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarhan, Leman; Sesen, Burcin Acar

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on investigating the effectiveness of jigsaw cooperative learning instruction on first-year undergraduates' understanding of acid-base theories. Undergraduates' opinions about jigsaw cooperative learning instruction were also investigated. The participants of this study were 38 first-year undergraduates in chemistry education…

  1. Cooperation under indirect reciprocity and imitative trust.

    PubMed

    Saavedra, Serguei; Smith, David; Reed-Tsochas, Felix

    2010-10-27

    Indirect reciprocity, a key concept in behavioral experiments and evolutionary game theory, provides a mechanism that allows reciprocal altruism to emerge in a population of self-regarding individuals even when repeated interactions between pairs of actors are unlikely. Recent empirical evidence show that humans typically follow complex assessment strategies involving both reciprocity and social imitation when making cooperative decisions. However, currently, we have no systematic understanding of how imitation, a mechanism that may also generate negative effects via a process of cumulative advantage, affects cooperation when repeated interactions are unlikely or information about a recipient's reputation is unavailable. Here we extend existing evolutionary models, which use an image score for reputation to track how individuals cooperate by contributing resources, by introducing a new imitative-trust score, which tracks whether actors have been the recipients of cooperation in the past. We show that imitative trust can co-exist with indirect reciprocity mechanisms up to a threshold and then cooperation reverses -revealing the elusive nature of cooperation. Moreover, we find that when information about a recipient's reputation is limited, trusting the action of third parties towards her (i.e. imitating) does favor a higher collective cooperation compared to random-trusting and share-alike mechanisms. We believe these results shed new light on the factors favoring social imitation as an adaptive mechanism in populations of cooperating social actors.

  2. Using Cooperative Learning Structures in Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyson, Ben; Grineski, Steve

    2001-01-01

    Research has determined that cooperative learning has positive effects in physical education. This article presents five important components of cooperative learning to help physical educators maximize learning (team formation, positive interdependence, individual accountability, positive social interaction, and group processing), describing five…

  3. 16 CFR 307.10 - Cooperative advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperative advertising. 307.10 Section 307... REGULATIONS UNDER THE COMPREHENSIVE SMOKELESS TOBACCO HEALTH EDUCATION ACT OF 1986 Advertising Disclosures § 307.10 Cooperative advertising. The Act prohibits any manufacturer, packager, or importer of...

  4. 27 CFR 6.52 - Cooperative advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cooperative advertising. 6..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Paying for Advertising, Display Or Distribution Service § 6.52 Cooperative advertising. An arrangement in which an industry member...

  5. Effective Communication between Preservice and Cooperating Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawley, Ji Ji; Moore, Jenifer; Smajic, Almir

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews research on communication between preservice and cooperating teachers during a teacher internship. The research reveals that poor communication between preservice teachers and cooperating teachers can cause barriers to planning lessons, feedback, and teaching experiences. Additionally, research indicates that…

  6. Vasopressin increases human risky cooperative behavior.

    PubMed

    Brunnlieb, Claudia; Nave, Gideon; Camerer, Colin F; Schosser, Stephan; Vogt, Bodo; Münte, Thomas F; Heldmann, Marcus

    2016-02-23

    The history of humankind is an epic of cooperation, which is ubiquitous across societies and increasing in scale. Much human cooperation occurs where it is risky to cooperate for mutual benefit because successful cooperation depends on a sufficient level of cooperation by others. Here we show that arginine vasopressin (AVP), a neuropeptide that mediates complex mammalian social behaviors such as pair bonding, social recognition and aggression causally increases humans' willingness to engage in risky, mutually beneficial cooperation. In two double-blind experiments, male participants received either AVP or placebo intranasally and made decisions with financial consequences in the "Stag hunt" cooperation game. AVP increases humans' willingness to cooperate. That increase is not due to an increase in the general willingness to bear risks or to altruistically help others. Using functional brain imaging, we show that, when subjects make the risky Stag choice, AVP down-regulates the BOLD signal in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), a risk-integration region, and increases the left dlPFC functional connectivity with the ventral pallidum, an AVP receptor-rich region previously associated with AVP-mediated social reward processing in mammals. These findings show a previously unidentified causal role for AVP in social approach behavior in humans, as established by animal research.

  7. The Academic Controversy Technique: Towards Cooperative Debates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, George M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce and explain a cooperative learning technique, Academic Controversy (Johnson, Johnson, & Smith, 1996), also known as Cooperative Controversy, Structured Controversy and Structured Academic Controversy, that has potential for use in education and other areas, and has support in both research and theory.…

  8. 49 CFR 37.57 - Required cooperation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Required cooperation. 37.57 Section 37.57 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Transportation Facilities § 37.57 Required cooperation. An owner or person in control of...

  9. Women and International Intellectual Co-Operation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Joyce

    2012-01-01

    The article explores ways in which intellectual co-operation at the League of Nations [SDN] provided a space for the engagement of culturally elite women in intellectual co-operation circles in Geneva, Paris and a range of national contexts stretching across Europe, Latin America and Asia. It discusses the language of the "international mind" and…

  10. Recent Initiatives in Labor-Management Cooperation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Productivity and Quality of Working Life, Washington, DC.

    This report draws on a series of conferences held to develop guides for labor-management cooperation at the plant level. These included six recent initiatives conferences held in cooperation with State University Institutes of Industrial Relations and the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service (FMCS) and a seventh sponsored by the Commission…

  11. Cooperation, clumping and the evolution of multicellularity.

    PubMed

    Biernaskie, Jay M; West, Stuart A

    2015-08-22

    The evolution of multicellular organisms represents one of the major evolutionary transitions in the history of life. A potential advantage of forming multicellular clumps is that it provides an efficiency benefit to pre-existing cooperation, such as the production of extracellular 'public goods'. However, this is complicated by the fact that cooperation could jointly evolve with clumping, and clumping could have multiple consequences for the evolution of cooperation. We model the evolution of clumping and a cooperative public good, showing that (i) when considered separately, both clumping and public goods production gradually increase with increasing genetic relatedness; (ii) in contrast, when the traits evolve jointly, a small increase in relatedness can lead to a major shift in evolutionary outcome—from a non-clumping state with low public goods production to a cooperative clumping state with high values of both traits; (iii) high relatedness makes it easier to get to the cooperative clumping state and (iv) clumping can be inhibited when it increases the number of cells that the benefits of cooperation must be shared with, but promoted when it increases relatedness between those cells. Overall, our results suggest that public goods sharing can facilitate the formation of well-integrated cooperative clumps as a first step in the evolution of multicellularity.

  12. 27 CFR 6.52 - Cooperative advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cooperative advertising. 6..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Paying for Advertising, Display Or Distribution Service § 6.52 Cooperative advertising. An arrangement in which an industry member...

  13. Collaborative Practices in Bilingual Cooperative Learning Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gumperaz, John J.; Cook-Gumperaz, Jenny; Szymanski, Margaret H.

    In cooperative learning environments, small groups of students work together to accomplish specific pedagogical tasks, and teachers act as facilitators. One highly significant characteristic of cooperative learning that has received little consideration so far is the shift in the participation frame that takes place when students are left alone to…

  14. Cooperative Principle in Oral English Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Mai

    2009-01-01

    The Cooperative Principle by American linguist Grice is one of the major principles guiding people's communication. Observing the Cooperative Principle will be helpful for people to improve the flexibility and accuracy of language communication. The ultimate aim of spoken English teaching is to develop students' communicative competence.…

  15. Educational Cooperation: An Examination of Fourteen Consortia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lepchenske, George L.

    The development of consortia and cooperative educational services in higher education in response to financial pressures and social and governmental influences is examined. Consortia or cooperatives may be multi-channeled efforts, with each member struggling to advance its own self-interest at the cost of united goals and efforts, or thriving…

  16. 40 CFR 1508.5 - Cooperating agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the human environment. The selection and responsibilities of a cooperating agency are described in... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cooperating agency. 1508.5 Section 1508.5 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX §...

  17. 40 CFR 1508.5 - Cooperating agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the human environment. The selection and responsibilities of a cooperating agency are described in... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperating agency. 1508.5 Section 1508.5 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX §...

  18. 40 CFR 1508.5 - Cooperating agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the human environment. The selection and responsibilities of a cooperating agency are described in... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cooperating agency. 1508.5 Section 1508.5 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX §...

  19. 40 CFR 1508.5 - Cooperating agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the human environment. The selection and responsibilities of a cooperating agency are described in... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cooperating agency. 1508.5 Section 1508.5 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX §...

  20. 13 CFR 147.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperative agreement. 147.620 Section 147.620 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 147.620 Cooperative agreement....

  1. The Worker's Cooperative = Cooperativas de Trabajadores Duenos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Mayra Lee

    Written in Spanish and English (on facing pages), this manual is a practical guide for those interested in forming a worker-owned cooperative. It includes examples based on the personal experience of teaching about cooperativism and worker-owned cooperatives to a group of construction workers with diverse levels of education; vocabulary and…

  2. 1 CFR 15.1 - Cooperation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Cooperation. 15.1 Section 15.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PREPARATION, TRANSMITTAL, AND PROCESSING OF DOCUMENTS SERVICES TO FEDERAL AGENCIES General § 15.1 Cooperation. The Director of the Federal...

  3. 1 CFR 15.1 - Cooperation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Cooperation. 15.1 Section 15.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PREPARATION, TRANSMITTAL, AND PROCESSING OF DOCUMENTS SERVICES TO FEDERAL AGENCIES General § 15.1 Cooperation. The Director of the Federal...

  4. 1 CFR 15.1 - Cooperation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cooperation. 15.1 Section 15.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PREPARATION, TRANSMITTAL, AND PROCESSING OF DOCUMENTS SERVICES TO FEDERAL AGENCIES General § 15.1 Cooperation. The Director of the Federal...

  5. 45 CFR 46.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cooperative research. 46.114 Section 46.114 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic HHS Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects § 46.114 Cooperative research....

  6. 45 CFR 46.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooperative research. 46.114 Section 46.114 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic HHS Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects § 46.114 Cooperative research....

  7. Grouping and Achievement in Cooperative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baer, John

    2003-01-01

    Colleges typically group students homogeneously in classes by means of both admission requirements and course prerequisites, but when professors form cooperative learning groups within classes they generally use heterogeneous grouping. Authors compared heterogeneously and homogeneously grouped cooperative learning groups in six paired classes,…

  8. 43 CFR 418.32 - Cooperative programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooperative programs. 418.32 Section 418.32 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Management and Conservation § 418.32 Cooperative programs. (a) The Bureau and the District will...

  9. Using Cooperative Structures to Promote Deep Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millis, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    The author explores concrete ways to help students learn more and have fun doing it while they support each other's learning. The article specifically shows the relationships between cooperative learning and deep learning. Readers will become familiar with the tenets of cooperative learning and its power to enhance learning--even more so when…

  10. Interinstitutional Cooperation at the Departmental Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grupe, Fritz H.

    Interinstitutional cooperation is becoming more and more evident today as colleges and universities seek new ways to expand facilities, offer innovation, and strengthen departments. In this booklet, 91 different types of cooperative arrangements have been selected from different disciplinary areas to illustrate the kinds of progress that can be…

  11. Cooperative Activities in Young Children and Chimpanzees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warneken, Felix; Chen, Frances; Tomasello, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Human children 18-24 months of age and 3 young chimpanzees interacted in 4 cooperative activities with a human adult partner. The human children successfully participated in cooperative problem-solving activities and social games, whereas the chimpanzees were uninterested in the social games. As an experimental manipulation, in each task the adult…

  12. 45 CFR 630.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cooperative agreement. 630.620 Section 630.620 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION... carrying out the activity contemplated by the award. The term does not include cooperative research...

  13. Standardized Curriculum for Business Cooperative Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized curricula are provided for two courses for the secondary vocational education program in Mississippi: business cooperative education I and II. The 10 units in business cooperative education I are as follows: orientation; keyboarding and skill building; leadership development; personnel development; human relations; business…

  14. 33 CFR 117.713 - Cooper River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cooper River. 117.713 Section 117.713 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.713 Cooper River. (a) The drawspans for...

  15. 33 CFR 117.925 - Cooper River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cooper River. 117.925 Section 117.925 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina § 117.925 Cooper River. The draw of the...

  16. 33 CFR 117.925 - Cooper River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cooper River. 117.925 Section 117.925 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina § 117.925 Cooper River. The draw of the...

  17. 33 CFR 117.925 - Cooper River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cooper River. 117.925 Section 117.925 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina § 117.925 Cooper River. The draw of the...

  18. 33 CFR 117.713 - Cooper River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cooper River. 117.713 Section 117.713 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.713 Cooper River. (a) The drawspans for...

  19. 33 CFR 117.925 - Cooper River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cooper River. 117.925 Section 117.925 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina § 117.925 Cooper River. The draw of the...

  20. 33 CFR 117.713 - Cooper River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cooper River. 117.713 Section 117.713 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.713 Cooper River. (a) The drawspans for...

  1. 33 CFR 117.713 - Cooper River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cooper River. 117.713 Section 117.713 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.713 Cooper River. (a) The drawspans for...

  2. 7 CFR 1131.18 - Cooperative association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Cooperative association. 1131.18 Section 1131.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1131.18 Cooperative association. See § 1000.18....

  3. 7 CFR 1005.18 - Cooperative association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooperative association. 1005.18 Section 1005.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1005.18 Cooperative association. See § 1000.18....

  4. 7 CFR 1001.18 - Cooperative association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Cooperative association. 1001.18 Section 1001.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1001.18 Cooperative association. See § 1000.18....

  5. 7 CFR 1030.18 - Cooperative association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooperative association. 1030.18 Section 1030.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1030.18 Cooperative association. See § 1000.18....

  6. 7 CFR 1006.18 - Cooperative association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooperative association. 1006.18 Section 1006.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1006.18 Cooperative association. See § 1000.18....

  7. 7 CFR 1131.18 - Cooperative association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooperative association. 1131.18 Section 1131.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1131.18 Cooperative association. See § 1000.18....

  8. 7 CFR 1126.18 - Cooperative association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Cooperative association. 1126.18 Section 1126.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1126.18 Cooperative association. See § 1000.18....

  9. 7 CFR 1006.18 - Cooperative association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Cooperative association. 1006.18 Section 1006.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1006.18 Cooperative association. See § 1000.18....

  10. 7 CFR 1033.18 - Cooperative association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Cooperative association. 1033.18 Section 1033.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1033.18 Cooperative association. See § 1000.18....

  11. 7 CFR 1005.18 - Cooperative association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Cooperative association. 1005.18 Section 1005.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1005.18 Cooperative association. See § 1000.18....

  12. 7 CFR 1124.18 - Cooperative association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooperative association. 1124.18 Section 1124.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.18 Cooperative association. See § 1000.18....

  13. 7 CFR 1126.18 - Cooperative association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooperative association. 1126.18 Section 1126.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1126.18 Cooperative association. See § 1000.18....

  14. 7 CFR 1032.18 - Cooperative association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooperative association. 1032.18 Section 1032.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1032.18 Cooperative association. See § 1000.18....

  15. 7 CFR 1032.18 - Cooperative association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Cooperative association. 1032.18 Section 1032.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1032.18 Cooperative association. See § 1000.18....

  16. 7 CFR 1007.18 - Cooperative association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Cooperative association. 1007.18 Section 1007.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1007.18 Cooperative association. See § 1000.18....

  17. 7 CFR 1030.18 - Cooperative association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Cooperative association. 1030.18 Section 1030.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1030.18 Cooperative association. See § 1000.18....

  18. 7 CFR 1033.18 - Cooperative association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooperative association. 1033.18 Section 1033.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1033.18 Cooperative association. See § 1000.18....

  19. 7 CFR 1124.18 - Cooperative association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Cooperative association. 1124.18 Section 1124.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.18 Cooperative association. See § 1000.18....

  20. 7 CFR 1001.18 - Cooperative association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooperative association. 1001.18 Section 1001.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1001.18 Cooperative association. See § 1000.18....

  1. 7 CFR 1007.18 - Cooperative association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooperative association. 1007.18 Section 1007.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1007.18 Cooperative association. See § 1000.18....

  2. Pooling Resources: A Science Teaching Cooperative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattheis, Floyd E.; Byrd, J. William

    1981-01-01

    Describes the Eastern North Carolina Teaching Resource Cooperative (COOP), a group of secondary schools working with East Carolina University to improve science education in a rural environment. Provides examples of cooperative activities such as teacher workshops, visiting scientist programs, student workshops, film festival, culture center, and…

  3. Getting-Started Strategies and Cooperative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, John J.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Offers several strategies for implementing cooperative learning in the classroom. Suggests sample exercises including (1) a scavenger hunt; (2) a reaction wheel; (3) cooperative brainstorming and classification; (4) a "pair of pairs" exercise; and (5) a three-step interview. Explains that the examples are starting points that have been used in…

  4. 50 CFR 81.3 - Cooperative Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM CONSERVATION OF ENDANGERED AND THREATENED SPECIES OF FISH, WILDLIFE, AND PLANTS-COOPERATION WITH THE STATES § 81.3 Cooperative Agreement....

  5. 50 CFR 81.3 - Cooperative Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE AND SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM CONSERVATION OF ENDANGERED AND THREATENED SPECIES OF FISH, WILDLIFE, AND PLANTS-COOPERATION WITH THE STATES § 81.3 Cooperative Agreement....

  6. 50 CFR 81.3 - Cooperative Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM CONSERVATION OF ENDANGERED AND THREATENED SPECIES OF FISH, WILDLIFE, AND PLANTS-COOPERATION WITH THE STATES § 81.3 Cooperative Agreement....

  7. Early Identification of Ineffective Cooperative Learning Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiung, C .M.; Luo, L. F.; Chung, H. C.

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative learning has many pedagogical benefits. However, if the cooperative learning teams become ineffective, these benefits are lost. Accordingly, this study developed a computer-aided assessment method for identifying ineffective teams at their early stage of dysfunction by using the Mahalanobis distance metric to examine the difference…

  8. Making Co-Operative Ideas Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Phil

    2013-01-01

    Reddish Vale Technology College was the first co-operative trust in England. The democratic and co-operative nature of the experiment mean that students have gained a greater voice in the organisation of the school. As a result, new social enterprises, environmental interventions, connections with the community and with the wider co-operative…

  9. 33 CFR 117.925 - Cooper River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooper River. 117.925 Section 117.925 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina § 117.925 Cooper River. The draw of the...

  10. 33 CFR 117.713 - Cooper River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooper River. 117.713 Section 117.713 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.713 Cooper River. (a) The drawspans for...

  11. 1 CFR 15.1 - Cooperation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooperation. 15.1 Section 15.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PREPARATION, TRANSMITTAL, AND PROCESSING OF DOCUMENTS SERVICES TO FEDERAL AGENCIES General § 15.1 Cooperation. The Director of the Federal...

  12. 1 CFR 15.1 - Cooperation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperation. 15.1 Section 15.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PREPARATION, TRANSMITTAL, AND PROCESSING OF DOCUMENTS SERVICES TO FEDERAL AGENCIES General § 15.1 Cooperation. The Director of the Federal...

  13. 14 CFR 1267.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperative agreement. 1267.620 Section 1267.620 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GOVERNMENTWIDE... activity contemplated by the award. The term does not include cooperative research and...

  14. Personality, Organizational Culture, and Cooperation: Evidence from a Business Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatman, Jennifer A.; Barsade, Sigal G.

    1995-01-01

    Explored personal and situational sources of cooperation. Assessed MBA students' disposition to cooperate and randomly assigned them to simulated organizations emphasizing either collectivistic or individualistic cultural values. Coworkers rated cooperative subjects in collectivistic cultures as most cooperative. Cooperative people were most…

  15. The Cooperative Groups: past and future.

    PubMed

    Comis, R L

    1998-01-01

    The Cooperative Group system of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) has been in existence since the 1950s and has evolved to comprise 11 groups, the membership of which includes universities, Community Clinical Oncology Programs, and Cooperative Group Outreach Programs. The Cooperative Groups serve as models for cancer clinical trials throughout the world. However, in today's changing healthcare environment in the USA the Cooperative Groups need to adjust how they operate to ensure the continuation of their leadership role in cancer clinical trials. Government funds, the main source of support for the Cooperative Groups' activities, are shrinking and currently funding is only 50% of the recommended level. If the Cooperative Groups are to remain at the forefront, adjustments must be made in several areas: the Cooperative Groups need to provide an efficient and rapid scientific and legal mechanism to execute large phase III studies of the increasingly important portfolio of compounds being developed by industry more effectively. Industry has come to rely on contract research organizations for expedited testing of their products due to perceived inefficiency in these areas in the Cooperative Group mechanism. The Cooperative Groups are uniquely situated to provide in-depth evaluation of the newest therapies for regulatory agencies and interested health insurers, as well as provide health outcomes data, which are now much sought after by the healthcare industry. Managed care is shaping medical practice, including cancer care, throughout the USA. Finally, the Cooperative Groups need to foster greater international cooperation to speed technology transfers. The leaders of the Cooperative Groups are discussing new approaches to address these deficiencies, while complementing the existing NCI structure and recognizing the independence of each group. The objectives of these new approaches would be: to establish a structure whereby better contracts with industry for

  16. Inequity aversion and the evolution of cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Asrar; Karlapalem, Kamalakar

    2014-02-01

    Evolution of cooperation is a widely studied problem in biology, social science, economics, and artificial intelligence. Most of the existing approaches that explain cooperation rely on some notion of direct or indirect reciprocity. These reciprocity based models assume agents recognize their partner and know their previous interactions, which requires advanced cognitive abilities. In this paper we are interested in developing a model that produces cooperation without requiring any explicit memory of previous game plays. Our model is based on the notion of inequity aversion, a concept introduced within behavioral economics, whereby individuals care about payoff equality in outcomes. Here we explore the effect of using income inequality to guide partner selection and interaction. We study our model by considering both the well-mixed and the spatially structured population and present the conditions under which cooperation becomes dominant. Our results support the hypothesis that inequity aversion promotes cooperative relationship among nonkin.

  17. Inequity aversion and the evolution of cooperation.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Asrar; Karlapalem, Kamalakar

    2014-02-01

    Evolution of cooperation is a widely studied problem in biology, social science, economics, and artificial intelligence. Most of the existing approaches that explain cooperation rely on some notion of direct or indirect reciprocity. These reciprocity based models assume agents recognize their partner and know their previous interactions, which requires advanced cognitive abilities. In this paper we are interested in developing a model that produces cooperation without requiring any explicit memory of previous game plays. Our model is based on the notion of inequity aversion, a concept introduced within behavioral economics, whereby individuals care about payoff equality in outcomes. Here we explore the effect of using income inequality to guide partner selection and interaction. We study our model by considering both the well-mixed and the spatially structured population and present the conditions under which cooperation becomes dominant. Our results support the hypothesis that inequity aversion promotes cooperative relationship among nonkin.

  18. Costly punishment does not always increase cooperation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jia-Jia; Zhang, Bo-Yu; Zhou, Zhen-Xing; He, Qiao-Qiao; Zheng, Xiu-Deng; Cressman, Ross; Tao, Yi

    2009-10-13

    In a pairwise interaction, an individual who uses costly punishment must pay a cost in order that the opponent incurs a cost. It has been argued that individuals will behave more cooperatively if they know that their opponent has the option of using costly punishment. We examined this hypothesis by conducting two repeated two-player Prisoner's Dilemma experiments, that differed in their payoffs associated to cooperation, with university students from Beijing as participants. In these experiments, the level of cooperation either stayed the same or actually decreased when compared with the control experiments in which costly punishment was not an option. We argue that this result is likely due to differences in cultural attitudes to cooperation and punishment based on similar experiments with university students from Boston that found cooperation did increase with costly punishment.

  19. Cost minimization by helpers in cooperative vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Russell, A F; Sharpe, L L; Brotherton, P N M; Clutton-Brock, T H

    2003-03-18

    When parents invest heavily in reproduction they commonly suffer significant energetic costs. Parents reduce the long-term fitness implications of these costs through increased foraging and reduced reproductive investment in the future. Similar behavioral modifications might be expected among helpers in societies of cooperative vertebrates, in which helping is associated with energetic costs. By using multivariate analyses and experiments, we show that in cooperative meerkats, Suricata suricatta, helping is associated with substantial short-term growth costs but limited long-term fitness costs. This association forms because individual contributions to cooperation are initially condition dependent, and, because when helpers invest heavily in cooperation, they increase their foraging rate during the subsequent nonbreeding period and reduce their level of cooperative investment in the subsequent reproductive period. These results provide a unique demonstration that despite significant short-term costs, helpers, like breeders, are able to reduce the fitness consequences of these costs through behavioral modifications.

  20. Cost minimization by helpers in cooperative vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Russell, A F; Sharpe, L L; Brotherton, P N M; Clutton-Brock, T H

    2003-03-18

    When parents invest heavily in reproduction they commonly suffer significant energetic costs. Parents reduce the long-term fitness implications of these costs through increased foraging and reduced reproductive investment in the future. Similar behavioral modifications might be expected among helpers in societies of cooperative vertebrates, in which helping is associated with energetic costs. By using multivariate analyses and experiments, we show that in cooperative meerkats, Suricata suricatta, helping is associated with substantial short-term growth costs but limited long-term fitness costs. This association forms because individual contributions to cooperation are initially condition dependent, and, because when helpers invest heavily in cooperation, they increase their foraging rate during the subsequent nonbreeding period and reduce their level of cooperative investment in the subsequent reproductive period. These results provide a unique demonstration that despite significant short-term costs, helpers, like breeders, are able to reduce the fitness consequences of these costs through behavioral modifications. PMID:12629209

  1. Cooperative games: a way to modify aggressive and cooperative behaviors in young children.

    PubMed Central

    Bay-Hinitz, A K; Peterson, R F; Quilitch, H R

    1994-01-01

    We investigated the effects of competitive and cooperative games on aggressive and cooperative behaviors of 70 children (4 to 5 years old) from four classes in three preschools. The experimental design included both multiple baseline and reversal components. Behaviors were measured during game conditions and in subsequent free-play periods. Results showed that cooperative behavior increased and aggression decreased during cooperative games; conversely, competitive games were followed by increases in aggressive behavior and decreases in cooperative behavior. Similar effects were also found during free-play periods. PMID:7928788

  2. Risk is relative: risk aversion yields cooperation rather than defection in cooperation-friendly environments.

    PubMed

    Glöckner, Andreas; Hilbig, Benjamin E

    2012-06-01

    Previous findings concerning the relation of risk aversion and cooperation in repeated prisoner's dilemma games have been inconclusive. We hypothesized that this was due to an interaction between personality and environment. Specifically, we argued that in cooperation-friendly environments--given certain beliefs--defection is more risky than cooperation. The main reason for this is that, in such a situation, defection potentially yields outcomes of higher variance (and vice versa, for cooperation-unfriendly environments). In line with this hypothesis, we showed, in two experiments and a reanalysis of a study by Fudenberg, Rand, and Dreber (American Economic Review, in press), that the degree of cooperation increases with dispositional risk aversion in cooperation-friendly environments, but not in cooperation-unfriendly environments. We also found similar person-situation interactions for neuroticism and extraversion.

  3. 7 CFR 4285.2 - Cooperative agreement purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS Federal-State Research on... agency to: (a) Conduct marketing research related to agricultural cooperatives. (b) Assist...

  4. 7 CFR 4285.2 - Cooperative agreement purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS Federal-State Research on... agency to: (a) Conduct marketing research related to agricultural cooperatives. (b) Assist...

  5. NASA/State Education Cooperation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    NASA is cooperating with state departments of education in a number of special education programs. An example is Maryland Summer Centers for Gifted and Talented Students sponsored by the Maryland State Department of Education. Some 2,600 students participated in the 1990 program. One of the 12 centers is the Center for Space Science and Technology at Goddard Space Flight Center, which provides instruction to students of the 9-12 grade level. This center is operated by a three organization partnership that includes the Maryland State Department of Education, the University of Maryland and Goddard Space Flight Center, which hosts the instructional program and provides volunteer scientists and engineers as instructors. Typical two-week space intern program includes panel discussions, lectures, tours, field trips and hands-on activity focusing on various space science topics. Senior high students benefit from a one-to-one mentor relationship with a volunteer scientist or engineer. Another example was the Paducah (Kentucky) NASA Community Involvement Project, a joint educational effort of Langley and Lewis Research Centers, Marshall Space Flight Center, the Kentucky Department of Education, the City of Paducah and Paducah Independent Schools. It was a 16 day exposition/symposium featuring seminars on space subjects.

  6. Cooperative model of bacterial sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yu; Duke, Thomas

    1998-11-01

    Bacterial chemotaxis is controlled by the signaling of a cluster of receptors. A cooperative model is presented, in which coupling between neighboring receptor dimers enhances the sensitivity with which stimuli can be detected, without diminishing the range of chemoeffector concentration over which chemotaxis can operate. Individual receptor dimers have two stable conformational states: one active, one inactive. Noise gives rise to a distribution between these states, with the probability influenced by ligand binding, and also by the conformational states of adjacent receptor dimers. The two-state model is solved, based on an equivalence with the Ising model in a randomly distributed magnetic field. The model has only two effective parameters, and unifies a number of experimental findings. According to the value of the parameter comparing coupling and noise, the signal can be arbitrarily sensitive to changes in the fraction of receptor dimers to which the ligand is bound. The counteracting effect of a change of methylation level is mapped to an induced field in the Ising model. By returning the activity to the prestimulus level, this adapts the receptor cluster to a new ambient concentration of chemoeffector, and ensures that a sensitive response can be maintained over a wide range of concentrations.

  7. Extensive fitness and human cooperation.

    PubMed

    van Hateren, J H

    2015-12-01

    Evolution depends on the fitness of organisms, the expected rate of reproducing. Directly getting offspring is the most basic form of fitness, but fitness can also be increased indirectly by helping genetically related individuals (such as kin) to increase their fitness. The combined effect is known as inclusive fitness. Here it is argued that a further elaboration of fitness has evolved, particularly in humans. It is called extensive fitness and it incorporates producing organisms that are merely similar in phenotype. The evolvability of this mechanism is illustrated by computations on a simple model combining heredity and behaviour. Phenotypes are driven into the direction of high fitness through a mechanism that involves an internal estimate of fitness, implicitly made within the organism itself. This mechanism has recently been conjectured to be responsible for producing agency and goals. In the model, inclusive and extensive fitness are both implemented by letting fitness increase nonlinearly with the size of subpopulations of similar heredity (for the indirect part of inclusive fitness) and of similar phenotype (for the phenotypic part of extensive fitness). Populations implementing extensive fitness outcompete populations implementing mere inclusive fitness. This occurs because groups with similar phenotype tend to be larger than groups with similar heredity, and fitness increases more when groups are larger. Extensive fitness has two components, a direct component where individuals compete in inducing others to become like them and an indirect component where individuals cooperate and help others who are already similar to them.

  8. Cooperative distributed architecture for mashups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Haj Hassan, Osama Mohammad; Ramaswamy, Lakshmish; Hamad, Fadi; Abu Taleb, Anas

    2014-05-01

    Since the advent of Web 2.0, personalised applications such as mashups have become widely popular. Mashups enable end-users to fetch data from distributed data sources, and refine it based on their personal needs. This high degree of personalisation that mashups offer comes at the expense of performance and scalability. These scalability challenges are exacerbated by the centralised architectures of current mashup platforms. In this paper, we address the performance and scalability issues by designing CoMaP - a distributed mashup platform. CoMaP's architecture comprises of several cooperative mashup processing nodes distributed over the Internet upon which mashups can, fully or partially, be executed. CoMaP incorporates a dynamic and efficient scheme for deploying mashups on the processing nodes. Our scheme considers a number of parameters such as variations in link delays and bandwidths, and loads on mashup processing nodes. CoMaP includes effective and low-cost mechanisms for balancing loads on the processing nodes as well for handling node failures. Furthermore, we propose novel techniques that leverage keyword synonyms, ontologies and caching to enhance end-user experience. This paper reports several experiments to comprehensively study CoMaP's performance. The results demonstrate CoMaP's benefits as a scalable distributed mashup platform.

  9. Assortment of encounters and evolution of cooperativeness.

    PubMed

    Eshel, I; Cavalli-Sforza, L L

    1982-02-01

    The method of evolutionary stable strategies (ESS), in its current form, is confronted with a difficulty when it tries to explain how some social behaviors initiate their evolution. We show that this difficulty may be removed by changing the assumption made tacitly in game theory (and in ESS) of randomness of meetings or encounters. In reality, such randomness seems to be rare in nature. Family, population and social structure, customs, and habits impose various types of deviation from randomness. Introducing nonrandomness of meeting in a way formally similar to assortative mating, we show that the bar to initial increase of inherited cooperative or altruistic behaviors can be removed, provided there is sufficient assortment of meetings. Family structure may cause contacts predominantly between certain types of relatives, and one can reconstruct some results of classical kin selection in terms of evolutionary stable strategy with assortative meetings. Neighbor effects and group selection might be similarly treated. Assortment need not be a passive consequence of population and social structure, but it can also be actively pursued. Behaviors favoring the choice of cooperative companions will have the effect of favoring the evolution of cooperativeness. It can be shown that discrimination in the choice of companions, especially if combined with assortment, can favor the development of cooperativeness, making initial increase of cooperative behavior possible even at levels of assortment passively imposed which would not be adequate, per se, to guarantee the increase of cooperativeness. It is possible that, in some cases, cooperativeness and behavior favoring some type of assortment are coselected.

  10. Expanding NASA Science Cooperation with New Partners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Marc; Bress, Kent

    Expanding NASA Science Cooperation with New Partners When NASA was created in 1958, it was given a goal of "cooperation by the United States with other nations and groups of nations in work done pursuant to this Act and in the peaceful application of the results." As science has become increasingly globalized during the past 50 years, NASA and its many partners in space and Earth science research have benefited enormously from pooling ideas, skills, and resources for joint undertakings. The discoveries made have powerfully advanced public awareness of science and its importance all over the world. Today, the U.S. Administra-tion is encouraging NASA to expand its cooperation with new and emerging partners. NASA space and Earth science cooperation is founded on scientist-to-scientist research collaboration. Space missions are very costly and technically challenging, but there are many other important areas for international cooperation. Areas ripe for expansion with new partners include space data sharing, scientist-to-scientist collaborative research, international research program plan-ning and coordination, Earth applications for societal benefit, ground-based measurements for Earth system science, and education and public outreach. This presentation lays out NASA's general principles for international science cooperation, briefly describes each of these opportu-nity areas, and suggests avenues for initiating new cooperative relationships.

  11. Population Fluctuation Promotes Cooperation in Networks

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Steve; Knowles, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    We consider the problem of explaining the emergence and evolution of cooperation in dynamic network-structured populations. Building on seminal work by Poncela et al., which shows how cooperation (in one-shot prisoner’s dilemma) is supported in growing populations by an evolutionary preferential attachment (EPA) model, we investigate the effect of fluctuations in the population size. We find that a fluctuating model – based on repeated population growth and truncation – is more robust than Poncela et al.’s in that cooperation flourishes for a wider variety of initial conditions. In terms of both the temptation to defect, and the types of strategies present in the founder network, the fluctuating population is found to lead more securely to cooperation. Further, we find that this model will also support the emergence of cooperation from pre-existing non-cooperative random networks. This model, like Poncela et al.’s, does not require agents to have memory, recognition of other agents, or other cognitive abilities, and so may suggest a more general explanation of the emergence of cooperation in early evolutionary transitions, than mechanisms such as kin selection, direct and indirect reciprocity. PMID:26061705

  12. Cooperative inference: Features, objects, and collections.

    PubMed

    Searcy, Sophia Ray; Shafto, Patrick

    2016-10-01

    Cooperation plays a central role in theories of development, learning, cultural evolution, and education. We argue that existing models of learning from cooperative informants have fundamental limitations that prevent them from explaining how cooperation benefits learning. First, existing models are shown to be computationally intractable, suggesting that they cannot apply to realistic learning problems. Second, existing models assume a priori agreement about which concepts are favored in learning, which leads to a conundrum: Learning fails without precise agreement on bias yet there is no single rational choice. We introduce cooperative inference, a novel framework for cooperation in concept learning, which resolves these limitations. Cooperative inference generalizes the notion of cooperation used in previous models from omission of labeled objects to the omission values of features, labels for objects, and labels for collections of objects. The result is an approach that is computationally tractable, does not require a priori agreement about biases, applies to both Boolean and first-order concepts, and begins to approximate the richness of real-world concept learning problems. We conclude by discussing relations to and implications for existing theories of cognition, cognitive development, and cultural evolution. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27379575

  13. Love or fear: can punishment promote cooperation?

    PubMed

    Kroupa, Sebestian

    2014-01-01

    Cooperation is a paradox: Why should one perform a costly behavior only to increase the fitness of another? Human societies, in which individuals cooperate with genetically unrelated individuals on a considerably larger scale than most mammals do, are especially puzzling in this regard. Recently, the threat of punishment has been given substantial attention as one of the mechanisms that could help sustain human cooperation in such situations. Nevertheless, using punishment to explain cooperation only leads to further questions: Why spend precious resources to penalize free-riders, especially if others can avoid this investment and cheaters can punish you back? Here, it is argued that current evidence supports punishment as an efficient means for the maintenance of cooperation, and that the gravity of proposed limitations of punishment for maintaining cooperation may have been overestimated in previous studies due to the features of experimental design. Most notably, the importance of factors as characteristic of human societies as reputation and language has been greatly neglected. Ironically, it was largely the combination of the two that enabled humans to shape costly punishment into numerous low-cost and less detrimental strategies that clearly can promote human cooperation. PMID:25627084

  14. Individual variation behind the evolution of cooperation.

    PubMed

    Barta, Zoltán

    2016-02-01

    Life on Earth has two remarkable properties. The first is variation: even apart from the vast number of extant species, there are considerable differences between individuals within a single species. The second property is cooperation. It is surprising that until recently the interactions between these two properties have rarely been addressed from an evolutionary point of view. Here, I concentrate on how inter-individual differences influence the evolution of cooperation. First, I deal with cases where individuality is maintained by random processes like mutation or phenotypic noise. Second, I examine when differences in state cause differences in behaviour. Finally, I investigate the effects of individual role specialization. Variation can be important in several ways. Increased random variation can change the expectation about cooperativeness of future partners, altering behaviour in a current relationship. Differences in state may serve as a book-keeping mechanism that is necessary for the evolution of reciprocity. If the cost of cooperation can depend on state then strategic regulation of state makes it possible to coerce partners to cooperate. If conditions force individuals to specialize, cooperation becomes more valuable. My review of theoretical models suggests that variation plays an important role in the evolution of cooperation.

  15. Evolution of global cooperation driven by risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Jinming; Wu, Bin; Wang, Long

    2012-05-01

    Globalization facilitates our communication with each other, while it magnifies problems such as overharvesting of natural resources and human-induced climate change. Thus people all over the world are involved in a global social dilemma which calls for worldwide cooperation to reduce the risks of these extreme events and disasters. A collective target (threshold) is required to prevent such events. Everyone may lose their wealth once their total individual contributions fail to reach the threshold. To this end, we establish a model of threshold public goods games in a group-structured population and investigate its evolutionary process. We study multilevel public goods games with defectors, local cooperators, and global cooperators and are primarily concerned with how the global cooperative behavior evolves. We find that, compared with the standard public goods games, the strategy of global cooperation accounts for a bigger proportion in the stationary distribution of threshold public goods games. On the other hand, the fixation time of the global cooperation strategy is greatly shortened with increase of the probability of disaster striking. Therefore, global risks induced by the threshold can effectively promote global cooperation in environmental investment and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.

  16. Evolution of global cooperation driven by risks.

    PubMed

    Du, Jinming; Wu, Bin; Wang, Long

    2012-05-01

    Globalization facilitates our communication with each other, while it magnifies problems such as overharvesting of natural resources and human-induced climate change. Thus people all over the world are involved in a global social dilemma which calls for worldwide cooperation to reduce the risks of these extreme events and disasters. A collective target (threshold) is required to prevent such events. Everyone may lose their wealth once their total individual contributions fail to reach the threshold. To this end, we establish a model of threshold public goods games in a group-structured population and investigate its evolutionary process. We study multilevel public goods games with defectors, local cooperators, and global cooperators and are primarily concerned with how the global cooperative behavior evolves. We find that, compared with the standard public goods games, the strategy of global cooperation accounts for a bigger proportion in the stationary distribution of threshold public goods games. On the other hand, the fixation time of the global cooperation strategy is greatly shortened with increase of the probability of disaster striking. Therefore, global risks induced by the threshold can effectively promote global cooperation in environmental investment and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.

  17. Similarity-based cooperation and spatial segregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traulsen, Arne; Claussen, Jens Christian

    2004-10-01

    We analyze a cooperative game, where the cooperative act is not based on the previous behavior of the coplayer, but on the similarity between the players. This system has been studied in a mean-field description recently [A. Traulsen and H. G. Schuster, Phys. Rev. E 68, 046129 (2003)]. Here, the spatial extension to a two-dimensional lattice is studied, where each player interacts with eight players in a Moore neighborhood. The system shows a strong segregation independent of parameters. The introduction of a local conversion mechanism towards tolerance allows for four-state cycles and the emergence of spiral waves in the spatial game. In the case of asymmetric costs of cooperation a rich variety of complex behavior is observed depending on both cooperation costs. Finally, we study the stabilization of a cooperative fixed point of a forecast rule in the symmetric game, which corresponds to cooperation across segregation borders. This fixed point becomes unstable for high cooperation costs, but can be stabilized by a linear feedback mechanism.

  18. Love or fear: can punishment promote cooperation?

    PubMed

    Kroupa, Sebestian

    2014-01-01

    Cooperation is a paradox: Why should one perform a costly behavior only to increase the fitness of another? Human societies, in which individuals cooperate with genetically unrelated individuals on a considerably larger scale than most mammals do, are especially puzzling in this regard. Recently, the threat of punishment has been given substantial attention as one of the mechanisms that could help sustain human cooperation in such situations. Nevertheless, using punishment to explain cooperation only leads to further questions: Why spend precious resources to penalize free-riders, especially if others can avoid this investment and cheaters can punish you back? Here, it is argued that current evidence supports punishment as an efficient means for the maintenance of cooperation, and that the gravity of proposed limitations of punishment for maintaining cooperation may have been overestimated in previous studies due to the features of experimental design. Most notably, the importance of factors as characteristic of human societies as reputation and language has been greatly neglected. Ironically, it was largely the combination of the two that enabled humans to shape costly punishment into numerous low-cost and less detrimental strategies that clearly can promote human cooperation.

  19. Cooperation and the fate of microbial societies.

    PubMed

    Allen, Benjamin; Nowak, Martin A

    2013-01-01

    Microorganisms have been cooperating with each other for billions of years: by sharing resources, communicating with each other, and joining together to form biofilms and other large structures. These cooperative behaviors benefit the colony as a whole; however, they may be costly to the individuals performing them. This raises the question of how such cooperation can arise from natural selection. Mathematical modeling is one important avenue for exploring this question. Evolutionary experiments are another, providing us with an opportunity to see evolutionary dynamics in action and allowing us to test predictions arising from mathematical models. A new study in this issue of PLOS Biology investigates the evolution of a cooperative resource-sharing behavior in yeast. Examining the competition between cooperating and "cheating" strains of yeast, the authors find that, depending on the initial mix of strains, this yeast society either evolves toward a stable coexistence or collapses for lack of cooperation. Using a simple mathematical model, they show how these dynamics arise from eco-evolutionary feedback, where changes in the frequencies of strains are coupled with changes in population size. This study and others illustrate the combined power of modeling and experiment to elucidate the origins of cooperation and other fundamental questions in evolutionary biology. PMID:23637573

  20. Human cooperation in groups: variation begets variation

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Pieter van den; Molleman, Lucas; Junikka, Jaakko; Puurtinen, Mikael; Weissing, Franz J.

    2015-01-01

    Many experiments on human cooperation have revealed that individuals differ systematically in their tendency to cooperate with others. It has also been shown that individuals condition their behaviour on the overall cooperation level of their peers. Yet, little is known about how individuals respond to heterogeneity in cooperativeness in their neighbourhood. Here, we present an experimental study investigating whether and how people respond to heterogeneous behaviour in a public goods game. We find that a large majority of subjects does respond to heterogeneity in their group, but they respond in quite different ways. Most subjects contribute less to the public good when the contributions of their peers are more heterogeneous, but a substantial fraction of individuals consistently contributes more in this case. In addition, we find that individuals that respond positively to heterogeneity have a higher general cooperation tendency. The finding that social responsiveness occurs in different forms and is correlated with cooperativeness may have important implications for the outcome of cooperative interactions. PMID:26531770

  1. Evolution of density-dependent cooperation.

    PubMed

    Seppänen, Anne; Parvinen, Kalle

    2014-12-01

    Cooperation is surprisingly common in life despite of its vulnerability to selfish cheating, i.e. defecting. Defectors do not contribute to common resources but take the advantage of cooperators' investments. Therefore, the emergence and maintenance of cooperation have been considered irrational phenomena. In this study, we focus on plastic, quantitative cooperation behaviour, especially on its evolution. We assume that individuals are capable to sense the population density in their neighbourhood and adjust their real-valued investments on public goods based on that information. The ecological setting is described with stochastic demographic events, e.g. birth and death, occurring at individual level. Individuals form small populations, which further constitute a structured metapopulation. For evolutionary investigations, we apply the adaptive dynamics framework. The cost of cooperative investment is incorporated into the model in two ways, by decreasing the birth rate or by increasing the death rate. In the first case, density-dependent cooperation evolves to be a decreasing function of population size as expected. In the latter case, however, the density-dependent cooperative investment can have a qualitatively different form as it may evolve to be highest in intermediate-sized populations. Indeed, we emphasize that some details in modelling may have a significant impact on the results obtained.

  2. Evolution of cooperation by generalized reciprocity

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Thomas; Rutte, Claudia; Killingback, Timothy; Taborsky, Michael; Bonhoeffer, Sebastian

    2005-01-01

    The evolution of cooperation by direct reciprocity requires that individuals recognize their present partner and remember the outcome of their last encounter with that specific partner. Direct reciprocity thus requires advanced cognitive abilities. Here, we demonstrate that if individuals repeatedly interact within small groups with different partners in a two person Prisoner's Dilemma, cooperation can emerge and also be maintained in the absence of such cognitive capabilities. It is sufficient for an individual to base their decision of whether or not to cooperate on the outcome of their last encounter—even if it was with a different partner. PMID:16024372

  3. Evolution of cooperation in multiplex networks.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús; Reinares, Irene; Arenas, Alex; Floría, Luis Mario

    2012-01-01

    We study evolutionary game dynamics on structured populations in which individuals take part in several layers of networks of interactions simultaneously. This multiplex of interdependent networks accounts for the different kind of social ties each individual has. By coupling the evolutionary dynamics of a Prisoner's Dilemma game in each of the networks, we show that the resilience of cooperative behaviors for extremely large values of the temptation to defect is enhanced by the multiplex structure. Furthermore, this resilience is intrinsically related to a non-trivial organization of cooperation across the network layers, thus providing a new way out for cooperation to survive in structured populations.

  4. Cooperation and discord in global climate policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keohane, Robert O.; Victor, David G.

    2016-06-01

    Effective mitigation of climate change will require deep international cooperation, which is much more difficult to organize than the shallow coordination observed so far. Assessing the prospects for effective joint action on climate change requires an understanding of both the structure of the climate change problem and national preferences for policy action. Preferences have become clearer in light of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Conference of the Parties in December 2015. Although deep cooperation remains elusive, many partial efforts could build confidence and lead to larger cuts in emissions. This strategy of decentralized policy coordination will not solve the climate problem, but it could lead incrementally to deeper cooperation.

  5. Foundations of Cooperation in Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Kristina R.; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2008-01-01

    Observations and experiments show that human adults preferentially share resources with close relations, with people who have shared with them (reciprocity), and with people who have shared with others (indirect reciprocity). These tendencies are consistent with evolutionary theory but could also reflect the shaping effects of experience or instruction in complex, cooperative and competitive societies. Here we report evidence for these three tendencies in 3.5 year old children, despite their limited experience with complex cooperative networks. Three pillars of mature cooperative behavior therefore appear to have roots extending deep into human development. PMID:18226808

  6. International University Co-operation: Summary Record of a Working Party on International University Co-operation. Papers-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Association of Universities, Paris (France).

    This report delineates areas, patterns, effects, and purposes of international university cooperation. Areas of international university cooperation encompass teaching and study, research, university administration and organization. Patterns of cooperation include the basic principles of governing agreements, methods for full university…

  7. Cooperation and the common good.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Rufus A; Rodrigues, António M M

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we draw the attention of biologists to a result from the economic literature, which suggests that when individuals are engaged in a communal activity of benefit to all, selection may favour cooperative sharing of resources even among non-relatives. Provided that group members all invest some resources in the public good, they should refrain from conflict over the division of these resources. The reason is that, given diminishing returns on investment in public and private goods, claiming (or ceding) a greater share of total resources only leads to the actor (or its competitors) investing more in the public good, such that the marginal costs and benefits of investment remain in balance. This cancels out any individual benefits of resource competition. We illustrate how this idea may be applied in the context of biparental care, using a sequential game in which parents first compete with one another over resources, and then choose how to allocate the resources they each obtain to care of their joint young (public good) versus their own survival and future reproductive success (private good). We show that when the two parents both invest in care to some extent, they should refrain from any conflict over the division of resources. The same effect can also support asymmetric outcomes in which one parent competes for resources and invests in care, whereas the other does not invest but refrains from competition. The fact that the caring parent gains higher fitness pay-offs at these equilibria suggests that abandoning a partner is not always to the latter's detriment, when the potential for resource competition is taken into account, but may instead be of benefit to the 'abandoned' mate. PMID:26729926

  8. A neural basis for social cooperation.

    PubMed

    Rilling, James; Gutman, David; Zeh, Thorsten; Pagnoni, Giuseppe; Berns, Gregory; Kilts, Clinton

    2002-07-18

    Cooperation based on reciprocal altruism has evolved in only a small number of species, yet it constitutes the core behavioral principle of human social life. The iterated Prisoner's Dilemma Game has been used to model this form of cooperation. We used fMRI to scan 36 women as they played an iterated Prisoner's Dilemma Game with another woman to investigate the neurobiological basis of cooperative social behavior. Mutual cooperation was associated with consistent activation in brain areas that have been linked with reward processing: nucleus accumbens, the caudate nucleus, ventromedial frontal/orbitofrontal cortex, and rostral anterior cingulate cortex. We propose that activation of this neural network positively reinforces reciprocal altruism, thereby motivating subjects to resist the temptation to selfishly accept but not reciprocate favors.

  9. 40 CFR 26.1114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SUBJECTS Basic Ethical Requirements for Third-Party Human Research for Pesticides Involving Intentional Exposure of Non-pregnant, Non-nursing Adults § 26.1114 Cooperative research. In complying with this...

  10. 40 CFR 26.1114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SUBJECTS Basic Ethical Requirements for Third-Party Human Research for Pesticides Involving Intentional Exposure of Non-pregnant, Non-nursing Adults § 26.1114 Cooperative research. In complying with this...

  11. 40 CFR 26.1114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SUBJECTS Basic Ethical Requirements for Third-Party Human Research for Pesticides Involving Intentional Exposure of Non-pregnant, Non-nursing Adults § 26.1114 Cooperative research. In complying with this...

  12. 40 CFR 26.1114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SUBJECTS Basic Ethical Requirements for Third-Party Human Research for Pesticides Involving Intentional Exposure of Non-pregnant, Non-nursing Adults § 26.1114 Cooperative research. In complying with this...

  13. NCI’s Cooperative Human Tissue Network

    Cancer.gov

    Quality biospecimens are a foundational resource for cancer research. One of NCI’s longest running biospecimen programs is the Cooperative Human Tissue Network, a resource mainly for basic discovery and early translational research.

  14. Selection of Cooperation in Spatially Structured Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hyunmo; Ghim, Cheol-Min

    The social dilemma games give rise to an emergence of cooperation in which altruistic individuals survive the natural selection at higher rate than random chance. We try to extend our understanding of this spatial reciprocity by including the impact of degree-degree correlation on the propensity toward prosocial behaviour in an otherwise well-mixed population. In a stochastic death-birth process with weak selection, we find that the disassortative degree mixing, or negative correlation between the degrees of neighbouring nodes significantly promotes the fixation of cooperators whereas the assortative mixing acts to suppress it. This is consistent with the fact that the spatial heterogeneity weakens the average tendency of a population to cooperate, which we describe in a unified scheme of the effective isothermality in coarse-grained networks. We also discuss the individual-level incentives that indirectly foster restructuring the social networks toward the more cooperative topologies.

  15. Cooperative synchronized assemblies enhance orientation discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Samonds, Jason M.; Allison, John D.; Brown, Heather A.; Bonds, A. B.

    2004-01-01

    There is no clear link between the broad tuning of single neurons and the fine behavioral capabilities of orientation discrimination. We recorded from populations of cells in the cat visual cortex (area 17) to examine whether the joint activity of cells can support finer discrimination than found in individual responses. Analysis of joint firing yields a substantial advantage (i.e., cooperation) in fine-angle discrimination. This cooperation increases to more considerable levels as the population of an assembly is increased. The cooperation in a population of six cells provides encoding of orientation with an information advantage that is at least 2-fold in terms of requiring either fewer cells or less time than independent coding. This cooperation suggests that correlated or synchronized activity can increase information. PMID:15096595

  16. Cooperation: close friends and common enemies.

    PubMed

    Crespi, Bernard

    2006-06-01

    The Prisoner's dilemma game has been a key conceptual tool for analyzing social behavior for over 50 years. A recent study shows how the spatial scale of competition in this game critically determines when cooperation can emerge.

  17. Costly advertising and the evolution of cooperation.

    PubMed

    Brede, Markus

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I investigate the co-evolution of fast and slow strategy spread and game strategies in populations of spatially distributed agents engaged in a one off evolutionary dilemma game. Agents are characterized by a pair of traits, a game strategy (cooperate or defect) and a binary 'advertising' strategy (advertise or don't advertise). Advertising, which comes at a cost [Formula: see text], allows investment into faster propagation of the agents' traits to adjacent individuals. Importantly, game strategy and advertising strategy are subject to the same evolutionary mechanism. Via analytical reasoning and numerical simulations I demonstrate that a range of advertising costs exists, such that the prevalence of cooperation is significantly enhanced through co-evolution. Linking costly replication to the success of cooperators exposes a novel co-evolutionary mechanism that might contribute towards a better understanding of the origins of cooperation-supporting heterogeneity in agent populations. PMID:23861752

  18. Psychologist and Teacher: Cooperation or Conflict?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaCrosse, E. Robert, Jr.

    1970-01-01

    Urges cooperation between nursery school teachers who prefer the intuitive approach to education and research psychologists who emphasize the need for using scientific methodology in studying children and their development. (DR)

  19. Mark Twain, Fenimore Cooper, and Batman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crick, Robert Alan

    1992-01-01

    Describes how Mark Twain's essay "Fenimore Cooper's Literary Offenses" helped students to get interested in writing and inspired them to write a similar essay critiquing the movie "Batman." Provides excerpts from students' essays. (PRA)

  20. Document Delivery: The AGRIS Cooperative Solution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samaha, E. K.

    1987-01-01

    The difficulties encountered in developing nations in obtaining access to primary documents in the area of agriculture are outlined, and a proposed cooperative solution through an exchange coupon scheme is described. (Author/CLB)