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Sample records for acacia cyanophylla lindl

  1. Chemical composition and allelopathic potential of essential oils obtained from Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. Cultivated in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    El Ayeb-Zakhama, Asma; Sakka-Rouis, Lamia; Bergaoui, Afifa; Flamini, Guido; Ben Jannet, Hichem; Harzallah-Skhiri, Fethia

    2015-04-01

    Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. (Fabaceae), synonym Acacia saligna (Labill.) H. L.Wendl., native to West Australia and naturalized in North Africa and South Europe, was introduced in Tunisia for rangeland rehabilitation, particularly in the semiarid zones. In addition, this evergreen tree represents a potential forage resource, particularly during periods of drought. A. cyanophylla is abundant in Tunisia and some other Mediterranean countries. The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from different plant parts, viz., roots, stems, phyllodes, flowers, and pods (fully mature fruits without seeds), was characterized for the first time here. According to GC-FID and GC/MS analyses, the principal compound in the phyllode and flower oils was dodecanoic acid (4), representing 22.8 and 66.5% of the total oil, respectively. Phenylethyl salicylate (8; 34.9%), heptyl valerate (3; 17.3%), and nonadecane (36%) were the main compounds in the root, stem, and pod oils, respectively. The phyllode and flower oils were very similar, containing almost the same compounds. Nevertheless, the phyllode oil differed from the flower oil for its higher contents of hexahydrofarnesyl acetone (6), linalool (1), pentadecanal, α-terpineol, and benzyl benzoate (5) and its lower content of 4. Principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses separated the five essential oils into four groups, each characterized by its main constituents. Furthermore, the allelopathic activity of each oil was evaluated using lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) as a plant model. The phyllode, flower, and pod oils exhibited a strong allelopathic activity against lettuce. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  2. Polar extracts from (Tunisian) Acacia salicina Lindl. Study of the antimicrobial and antigenotoxic activities

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Methanolic, aqueous and Total Oligomer Flavonoids (TOF)-enriched extracts obtained from the leaves of Acacia salicina 'Lindl.' were investigated for antibacterial, antimutagenic and antioxidant activities. Methods The antimicrobial activity was tested on the Gram positive and Gram negative reference bacterial strains. The Mutagenic and antimutagenic activities against direct acting mutagens, methylmethane sulfonate (MMS) and 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine (NOPD), and indirect acting mutagens, 2-aminoanthracene (2-AA) and benzo[a]pyrene (B(a)P) were performed with S. typhimurium TA102 and TA98 assay systems. In addition, the enzymatic and nonenzymatic methods were employed to evaluate the anti-oxidative effects of the tested extracts. Results A significant effect against the Gram positive and Gram negative reference bacterial strains was observed with all the extracts. The mutagenic and antimutagenic studies revealed that all the extracts decreased the mutagenicity induced by B(a)P (7.5 μg/plate), 2-AA (5 μg/plate), MMS (1.3 mg/plate) and NOPD (10 μg/plate). Likewise, all the extracts showed an important free radical scavenging activity towards the superoxide anion generated by the xanthine/xanthine oxidase assay system, as well as high Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC), against the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS)+• radical. TOF-enriched extract exhibited the highest protective effect against free radicals, direct acting-mutagen and metabolically activated S9-dependent mutagens. Conclusions The present study indicates that the extracts from A. salicina leaves are a significant source of compounds with the antimutagenic and antioxidant activities, and this may be useful for developing potential chemopreventive substances. PMID:22490278

  3. Heteromeles arbutifolia (Lindl.) M. Roemer: Christmasberry

    Treesearch

    Susan E. Meyer

    2008-01-01

    The genus Heteromeles has only a single species - H. arbutifolia (Lindl.) M. Roemer, also known as H. salicifolia (K. Presl.) Abrams (Phipps 1992). It is closely related to the large tropical genus Photinia Lindl., to which it has sometimes been referred. Christmasberry, also known as toyon, California holly, and hollywood, is a long-lived shrub or small tree, 2 to 10...

  4. Comparative study of Acacia nilotica exudate gum and acacia gum.

    PubMed

    Bhushette, Pravin R; Annapure, Uday S

    2017-09-01

    Over 900 species of Acacia trees are found on earth, most of them produce gums. Acacia nilotica (Babul tree) is one of the major gum-yielding acacia species found in he Indian subcontinent. A. nilotica gum was collected from Maharashtra, India and characterised for its proximate analysis, physicochemical, functional, rheological and thermal properties. These properties further were compared with commercially available Acacia gum (AG). The sugar composition of the gums indicated the presence of arabinose, galactose, and rhamnose in ANG and AG. FTIR spectrums revealed the typical trend of polysaccharides for both the gums, however, the difference was observed in fingerprint region. The rheological outcomes were derived from flow curve measurements of gums at different concentrations and temperatures. Investigations of the flow curves of both gums revealed the diminutive difference in viscosity profile. The concentration difference in the monosaccharides of polysaccharides and proximate analysis of gums could be the responsible for the difference in rheological and thermal properties of gums. However, ANG shows good resemblance with AG and can be substituted for numerous applications in food and pharmaceutical industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. 21 CFR 184.1330 - Acacia (gum arabic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acacia (gum arabic). 184.1330 Section 184.1330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1330 Acacia (gum arabic). (a) Acacia (gum arabic) is...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1330 - Acacia (gum arabic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acacia (gum arabic). 184.1330 Section 184.1330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1330 Acacia (gum arabic). (a) Acacia (gum arabic) is...

  7. 21 CFR 172.780 - Acacia (gum arabic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acacia (gum arabic). 172.780 Section 172.780 Food... Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.780 Acacia (gum arabic). The food additive may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Acacia (gum arabic) is the dried gummy...

  8. 21 CFR 172.780 - Acacia (gum arabic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acacia (gum arabic). 172.780 Section 172.780 Food... Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.780 Acacia (gum arabic). The food additive may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Acacia (gum arabic) is the dried gummy...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1330 - Acacia (gum arabic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acacia (gum arabic). 184.1330 Section 184.1330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT... GRAS § 184.1330 Acacia (gum arabic). (a) Acacia (gum arabic) is the dried gummy exudate from stems and...

  10. 21 CFR 172.780 - Acacia (gum arabic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acacia (gum arabic). 172.780 Section 172.780 Food....780 Acacia (gum arabic). The food additive may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Acacia (gum arabic) is the dried gummy exudate from stems and branches of trees of...

  11. Symbiotic diversity in the cosmopolitan genus Acacia

    Treesearch

    James K. Leary; Paul W. Singleton; Paul G. Scowcroft; Dulal Borthakur

    2006-01-01

    Acacia is the second largest genus within the Leguminosae, with 1352 species identified. This genus is now known to be polyphyletic and the international scientific community will presumably split Acacia into five new genera. This review examines the diversity of biological nitrogen fixation symbiosis within Acacia as a single genus. Due to its global importance, an...

  12. Gigantol from Dendrobium chrysotoxum Lindl. binds and inhibits aldose reductase gene to exert its anti-cataract activity: an in vitro mechanistic study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ethnopharmacological relevance: Dendrobium. chrysotoxum Lindl is a commonly used species of medicinal Dendrobium which belongs to the family of Orchidaceae, locally known as Shihu or Huangcao. D. chrysotoxum Lindl is widely known for medicinal values in traditional Chinese medicine as it possesses a...

  13. Two invasive acacia species secure generalist pollinators in invaded communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montesinos, Daniel; Castro, Sílvia; Rodríguez-Echeverría, Susana

    2016-07-01

    Exotic entomophilous plants need to establish effective pollinator interactions in order to succeed after being introduced into a new community, particularly if they are obligatory outbreeders. By establishing these novel interactions in the new non-native range, invasive plants are hypothesised to drive changes in the composition and functioning of the native pollinator community, with potential impacts on the pollination biology of native co-flowering plants. We used two different sites in Portugal, each invaded by a different acacia species, to assess whether two native Australian trees, Acacia dealbata and Acacia longifolia, were able to recruit pollinators in Portugal, and whether the pollinator community visiting acacia trees differed from the pollinator communities interacting with native co-flowering plants. Our results indicate that in the invaded range of Portugal both acacia species were able to establish novel mutualistic interactions, predominantly with generalist pollinators. For each of the two studied sites, only two other co-occurring native plant species presented partially overlapping phenologies. We observed significant differences in pollinator richness and visitation rates among native and non-native plant species, although the study of β diversity indicated that only the native plant Lithodora fruticosa presented a differentiated set of pollinator species. Acacias experienced a large number of visits by numerous pollinator species, but massive acacia flowering resulted in flower visitation rates frequently lower than those of the native co-flowering species. We conclude that the establishment of mutualisms in Portugal likely contributes to the effective and profuse production of acacia seeds in Portugal. Despite the massive flowering of A. dealbata and A. longifolia, native plant species attained similar or higher visitation rates than acacias.

  14. Comparison of the in vitro anthelmintic effects of Acacia nilotica and Acacia raddiana

    PubMed Central

    Zabré, Geneviève; Kaboré, Adama; Bayala, Balé; Katiki, Luciana M.; Costa-Júnior, Lívio Martins; Tamboura, Hamidou H.; Belem, Adrien M.G.; Abdalla, Adibe L.; Niderkorn, Vincent; Hoste, Hervé; Louvandini, Helder

    2017-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes are a major threat to small ruminant rearing in the Sahel area, where farmers traditionally use bioactive plants to control these worms, including Acacia nilotica and Acacia raddiana. The main aim of this study was to screen the potential anthelmintic properties of aqueous and acetone extracts of leaves of these two plants based on three in vitro assays: (1) the egg hatch inhibition assay (EHA); (2) the larvae exsheathment inhibition assay (LEIA) using Haemonchus contortus as a model; and (3) an adult mortality test (AMT) applied on Caenorhabditis elegans. For the EHA, only A. raddiana was effective with IC50 = 1.58 mg/mL for aqueous extract, and IC50 = 0.58 mg/mL for acetonic extract. For the LEIA, all extracts inhibited the exsheathment of larvae compared to the controls, and the aqueous extract of A. nilotica was more larvicidal with IC50 = 0.195 mg/mL. In general, all responses to the substances were dose-dependent and were significantly different from the control group (p < 0.05). For the AMT, the extracts of the two Acacia species were effective but A. raddiana showed greater efficacy with 100% mortality at 2.5 mg/mL and LC50 = 0.84 mg/mL (acetonic extract). The addition of polyvinyl polypyrrolidone (PVPP) to the extracts suggested that tannins were responsible for blocking egg eclosion and inducing adult mortality but were not responsible for exsheathment inhibition. These results suggest that the leaves of these Acacia species possess ovicidal and larvicidal activities in vitro against H. contortus, and adulticidal effects against C. elegans. PMID:29173278

  15. Characterisation and molecular association of Nigerian and Sudanese Acacia gum exudates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The chemical and physicochemical characteristics of gum exudate samples harvested from mature trees of Acacia senegal at two specific locations in Nigeria have been investigated together with gum samples harvested from Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal originating from Sudan. The monosaccharide sugar ...

  16. Investigation into nanocellulosics versus acacia reinforced acrylic films

    Treesearch

    Yunqiao Pu; Jianguo Zhang; Thomas Elder; Yulin Deng; Paul Gatenholm; Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2007-01-01

    Three closely related cellulosic acrylic latex films were prepared employing acacia pulp fibers, cellulose whiskers and nonocellulose balls and their respective strength properties were determined. Cellulose whisker reinforced composites had enhanced strength properties compared to the acacia pulp and nanoball composites. AFM analysis indicated that the cellulose...

  17. 75 FR 27334 - Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR10-16-001] Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Baseline Filing May 7, 2010. Take notice that on May 5, 2010, Acacia Natural Gas Corporation (Acacia) submitted a correction to its April 27, 2010, baseline filing of its...

  18. Host Plant Use by Competing Acacia-Ants: Mutualists Monopolize While Parasites Share Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Kautz, Stefanie; Ballhorn, Daniel J.; Kroiss, Johannes; Pauls, Steffen U.; Moreau, Corrie S.; Eilmus, Sascha; Strohm, Erhard; Heil, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Protective ant-plant mutualisms that are exploited by non-defending parasitic ants represent prominent model systems for ecology and evolutionary biology. The mutualist Pseudomyrmex ferrugineus is an obligate plant-ant and fully depends on acacias for nesting space and food. The parasite Pseudomyrmex gracilis facultatively nests on acacias and uses host-derived food rewards but also external food sources. Integrative analyses of genetic microsatellite data, cuticular hydrocarbons and behavioral assays showed that an individual acacia might be inhabited by the workers of several P. gracilis queens, whereas one P. ferrugineus colony monopolizes one or more host trees. Despite these differences in social organization, neither of the species exhibited aggressive behavior among conspecific workers sharing a tree regardless of their relatedness. This lack of aggression corresponds to the high similarity of cuticular hydrocarbon profiles among ants living on the same tree. Host sharing by unrelated colonies, or the presence of several queens in a single colony are discussed as strategies by which parasite colonies could achieve the observed social organization. We argue that in ecological terms, the non-aggressive behavior of non-sibling P. gracilis workers — regardless of the route to achieve this social structure — enables this species to efficiently occupy and exploit a host plant. By contrast, single large and long-lived colonies of the mutualist P. ferrugineus monopolize individual host plants and defend them aggressively against invaders from other trees. Our findings highlight the necessity for using several methods in combination to fully understand how differing life history strategies affect social organization in ants. PMID:22662191

  19. 77 FR 63311 - Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR13-1-000] Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval Take notice that on October 9, 2012, Acacia Natural Gas Corporation (Acacia) filed a Petition for Rate Approval pursuant to 284.123(b)(2) of the...

  20. Gigantol from Dendrobium chrysotoxum Lindl. binds and inhibits aldose reductase gene to exert its anti-cataract activity: An in vitro mechanistic study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jie; Li, Xue; Wan, Wencheng; Yang, Qiaohong; Ma, Weifeng; Chen, Dan; Hu, Jiangmiao; Chen, C-Y Oliver; Wei, Xiaoyong

    2017-02-23

    Dendrobium. chrysotoxum Lindl is a commonly used species of medicinal Dendrobium which belongs to the family of Orchidaceae, locally known as "Shihu" or "Huangcao". D. chrysotoxum Lindl is widely known for medicinal values in traditional Chinese medicine as it possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperglycemic induction, antitumor and antioxidant properties. To characterize the interaction between gigantol extracted from D. chrysotoxum Lindl and the AR gene, and determine gigantol's efficacy against cataractogenesis. Human lens epithelial cells (HLECs) were induced by glucose as the model group. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to assess AR gene expression. Then, the mode of interaction of gigantol with the AR gene was evaluated by UV-visible spectroscopy, atomic force microscope (AFM) and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). The binding constant was determined by UV-visible. Gigantol depressed AR gene expression in HLECs. UV-visible spectra preliminarily indicated that interaction between the AR gene and gigantol may follow the groove mode, with a binding constant of 1.85×10 3 L/mol. Atomic force microscope (AFM) data indicated that gigantol possibly bound to insert AR gene base pairs of the double helix. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) studies further supported these observations. Gigantol extracted from D. chrysotoxum Lindl not only has inhibitory effects on aldose reductase, but also inhibits AR gene expression. These findings provide a more comprehensive theoretical basis for the use of Dendrobium for the treatment of diabetic cataract. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of halophytic hosts on their parasites—the case of Plicosepalus acaciae

    PubMed Central

    Veste, Maik; Todt, Henning; Breckle, Siegmar-W.

    2015-01-01

    Halophytes develop various morphological and physiological traits that enable them to grow successfully on saline substrates. Parasitic plants on halophytic hosts may also encounter salt stress. We investigated the mistletoe Plicosepalus acaciae (syn: Loranthus acacia; Loranthaceae), which occurs on 5 halophytic and at least 10 non-halophytic hosts in the Southern Arava Valley (Israel). Plicosepalus acaciae is a common parasite north of Eilat to the Dead Sea area and in the Jordan Valley. Morphological and physiological responses of P. acaciae to salinity were investigated by comparison of plants on halophytic with those on non-halophytic hosts. Ion patterns of different host–parasite associations were determined as was the development of leaf succulence at different growth stages. The leaf water content of P. acaciae increased and leaves developed succulence when growing on halophytic hosts, especially on Tamarix species, where leaf water content was three times higher than that on non-halophytic hosts and the leaf volume increased four to five times. The reason for increased succulence was a higher ion concentration of, and osmotic adjustment with, Na+ and Cl−. Plicosepalus acaciae showed a high morphological and ecophysiological plasticity, enabling it to cope with salt stress, and can be classified as a facultative eu-halophyte, which increases its halo-succulence according to the host. Host–parasite associations are a model system for the investigation of halophytes under different salt stress conditions. PMID:25515726

  2. 75 FR 28599 - Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... Natural Gas Corporation (Acacia) submitted a corrected baseline filing of its Statement of Operating Conditions for the interruptible transportation services provided under section 311(a)(2) of the Natural Gas... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR10-16-002] Acacia Natural...

  3. 75 FR 24940 - Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ... Natural Gas Corporation (Acacia) submitted its baseline filing of its Statement of Operating Conditions for the interruptible transportation services provided under section 311(a)(2) of the Natural Gas... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR10-16-000] Acacia Natural...

  4. The evolutionary history and biogeography of Mimosoideae (Leguminosae): an emphasis on African acacias.

    PubMed

    Bouchenak-Khelladi, Yanis; Maurin, Olivier; Hurter, Johan; van der Bank, Michelle

    2010-11-01

    The systematics of Mimosoideae has been in a state of flux, which reflects overall poor knowledge of the evolution and biogeography of this group. Preliminary molecular phylogenetic analyses suggest the tribal system of Mimosoideae needs a complete revision. This has led to the use of new generic names for Acacia sensu lato (s.l. hereafter) following the re-typification of Acacia with an Australian type: (i) Acacia sensu stricto (s.s. hereafter), Vachellia, Senegalia, Acaciella and Mariosousa. This study reconstructs the evolutionary history of Mimosoideae, using the most comprehensive sampling to date, with an emphasis on African species. It aims to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships among the five recognized genera within Acacieae as the precursor to elucidate the paleo-biogeography of mimosoids and their adaptation to open habitats in the Cenozoic. The basal position of Mimoseae lineages with regards to Vachellia and Senegalia+Mariosousa+Acaciella+Ingeae+Acacia s.s. clades is a novel finding. Vachellia (formerly Acacia subgenus Acacia) is found monophyletic. A grade including the remaining Mimoseae lineages is found sister to the Senegalia+Mariosousa+Acaciella+Ingeae+Acacia s.s. clade. The major clades originated in the late Oligocene-early Miocene (∼25mya). The transitions from close to open habitats occurred during the Miocene for at least four mimosoid lineages. These are interpreted as responses to increased seasonality leading to fire climates and drying trends in the Miocene, which allowed the expansion of open habitats, such as savannas, worldwide. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Mechanical properties of acacia and eucalyptus wood chars

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kumar, M.; Verma, B.B.; Gupta, R.C.

    1999-10-01

    In the present investigation the effects of carbonization conditions (temperature and heating rate) on the mechanical properties (such as crushing and impact strengths and shatter index) of acacia and eucalyptus wood chars have been determined. The crushing and impact strengths of both the acacia and eucalyptus wood chars (made by slow carbonization) decreased with increase of preparation temperature up to 600 C, followed by an increase thereafter. These wood chars showed a continuous increase in shatter index values with carbonization temperature. In contrast to slow carbonization (heating rate 4 C min{sup {minus}1}), rapid carbonization (heating rate 30 C min{sup {minus}1})more » yielded chars of lower crushing strengths. Slowly carbonized eucalyptus wood gave chars of superior crushing and impact strengths than those produced from acacia wood under the same carbonization conditions. The crushing and impact strengths of these wood chars, in general, have shown an increase with increase in their apparent density. The crushing strength of cubic-shaped wood char decreased with increase in size.« less

  6. The Importance of Acacia Trees for Insectivorous Bats and Arthropods in the Arava Desert

    PubMed Central

    Hackett, Talya D.; Korine, Carmi; Holderied, Marc W.

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic habitat modification often has a profound negative impact on the flora and fauna of an ecosystem. In parts of the Middle East, ephemeral rivers (wadis) are characterised by stands of acacia trees. Green, flourishing assemblages of these trees are in decline in several countries, most likely due to human-induced water stress and habitat changes. We examined the importance of healthy acacia stands for bats and their arthropod prey in comparison to other natural and artificial habitats available in the Arava desert of Israel. We assessed bat activity and species richness through acoustic monitoring for entire nights and concurrently collected arthropods using light and pit traps. Dense green stands of acacia trees were the most important natural desert habitat for insectivorous bats. Irrigated gardens and parks in villages and fields of date palms had high arthropod levels but only village sites rivalled acacia trees in bat activity level. We confirmed up to 13 bat species around a single patch of acacia trees; one of the richest sites in any natural desert habitat in Israel. Some bat species utilised artificial sites; others were found almost exclusively in natural habitats. Two rare species (Barbastella leucomelas and Nycteris thebaica) were identified solely around acacia trees. We provide strong evidence that acacia trees are of unique importance to the community of insectivorous desert-dwelling bats, and that the health of the trees is crucial to their value as a foraging resource. Consequently, conservation efforts for acacia habitats, and in particular for the green more densely packed stands of trees, need to increase to protect this vital habitat for an entire community of protected bats. PMID:23441145

  7. Dendrobium nobile Lindl. alkaloids regulate metabolism gene expression in livers of mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yun-Yan; Xu, Ya-Sha; Wang, Yuan; Wu, Qin; Lu, Yuan-Fu; Liu, Jie; Shi, Jing-Shan

    2017-10-01

    In our previous studies, Dendrobium nobile Lindl. alkaloids (DNLA) has been shown to have glucose-lowering and antihyperlipidaemia effects in diabetic rats, in rats fed with high-fat diets, and in mice challenged with adrenaline. This study aimed to examine the effects of DNLA on the expression of glucose and lipid metabolism genes in livers of mice. Mice were given DNLA at doses of 10-80 mg/kg, po for 8 days, and livers were removed for total RNA and protein isolation to perform real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Dendrobium nobile Lindl. alkaloids increased PGC1α at mRNA and protein levels and increased glucose metabolism gene Glut2 and FoxO1 expression. DNLA also increased the expression of fatty acid β-oxidation genes Acox1 and Cpt1a. The lipid synthesis regulator Srebp1 (sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1) was decreased, while the lipolysis gene ATGL was increased. Interestingly, DNLA increased the expression of antioxidant gene metallothionein-1 and NADPH quinone oxidoreductase-1 (Nqo1) in livers of mice. Western blot on selected proteins confirmed these changes including the increased expression of GLUT4 and PPARα. DNLA has beneficial effects on liver glucose and lipid metabolism gene expressions, and enhances the Nrf2-antioxidant pathway gene expressions, which could play integrated roles in regulating metabolic disorders. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  8. Preparation and physicochemical properties of protein concentrate and isolate produced from Acacia tortilis (Forssk.) Hayne ssp. raddiana.

    PubMed

    Embaby, Hassan E; Swailam, Hesham M; Rayan, Ahmed M

    2018-02-01

    The composition and physicochemical properties of defatted acacia flour (DFAF), acacia protein concentrate (APC) and acacia protein isolate (API) were evaluated. The results indicated that API had lower, ash and fat content, than DFAF and APC. Also, significant difference in protein content was noticed among DFAF, APC and API (37.5, 63.7 and 91.8%, respectively). Acacia protein concentrate and isolates were good sources of essential amino acids except cystine and methionine. The physicochemical and functional properties of acacia protein improved with the processing of acacia into protein concentrate and protein isolate. The results of scanning electron micrographs showed that DFAF had a compact structure; protein concentrate were, flaky, and porous type, and protein isolate had intact flakes morphology.

  9. Nitrogen uptake by Eucalyptus regnans and Acacia spp. - preferences, resource overlap and energetic costs.

    PubMed

    Pfautsch, Sebastian; Rennenberg, Heinz; Bell, Tina L; Adams, Mark A

    2009-03-01

    In southeastern Australia, the overstory species Eucalyptus regnans F. Muell. commonly grows with either of the two leguminous understory trees, Acacia melanoxylon (R. Br. Ex Ait. f.) or Acacia dealbata (Link.). Our objective was to elucidate interactions between the dominant eucalypt and its companion acacias for nitrogen (N) sources. Use of stable N isotopes as tracers revealed that ammonium was the preferred soil N source for all species, nevertheless, total N uptake varied greatly among species. Studies with double-labeled ((13)C/(15)N) glutamine indicated the uptake of this form of organic N in small amounts by both E. regnans and the Acacia spp. These and other data imply that, in contrast to boreal forests, organic N is not a significant component of N nutrition in mountain ash forests. Field and laboratory studies provided evidence that N(2)-fixation capacity of acacias varies with stand development, with N-fixing species playing an important role in N nutrition during the early but not the mature stages of forest growth. An index of N-uptake efficiency - the amount of oxygen consumed per unit N taken up - was compared across four N sources and three species. Nitrate uptake was the least efficient form of N acquisition, especially compared with ammonium uptake which was up to 30-fold less costly. Efficiency of glutamine uptake was intermediate between that of ammonium and nitrate. Differences in uptake efficiency among N forms were most pronounced for the Acacia spp. and least for E. regnans. We conclude that an overlap in requirements among sympatric Acacia spp. and E. regnans for specific soil N sources can be bypassed because of changes in biochemical strategies of Acacia spp. triggered by increasing soil N concentrations during stand development. Further studies might elucidate whether this is a common feature of complex forest ecosystems, or a specialty of the interaction between eucalypts and acacias.

  10. Co-composting of invasive Acacia longifolia with pine bark for horticultural use.

    PubMed

    Brito, Luis Miguel; Mourão, Isabel; Coutinho, João; Smith, Stephen R

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of commercial-scale co-composting of waste biomass from the control of invasive Acacia species with pine bark waste from the lumber industry, in a blend ratio of 60:40 (v:v), was investigated and compared with previous research on the composting of Acacia without additional feedstock, to determine the potential process and end-product quality benefits of co-composting with bark. Pile temperatures rose rapidly to >70 °C and were maintained at >60 °C for several months. Acacia and bark biomass contained a large fraction of mineralizable organic matter (OM) equivalent to approximately 600 g kg(-1) of initial OM. Bark was more recalcitrant to biodegradation compared with Acacia, which degraded at twice the rate of bark. Therefore, incorporating the bark increased the final amount of compost produced compared with composting Acacia residues without bark. The relatively high C/N ratio of the composting matrix (C/N=56) and NH3 volatilization explained the limited increases in NH4+-N content, whereas concentrations of conservative nutrient elements (e.g. P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe) increased in proportion to OM mineralization, enriching the compost as a nutrient source for horticultural use. Nitrogen concentrations also increased to a small extent, but were much more dynamic and losses, probably associated with N volatilization mechanisms, were difficult to actively control. The physicochemical characteristics of the stabilized end-product, such as pH, electrical conductivity and OM content, were improved with the addition of bark to Acacia biomass, and the final compost characteristics were suitable for use for soil improvement and also as horticultural substrate components.

  11. Biological activities of some Acacia spp. (Fabaceae) against new clinical isolates identified by ribosomal RNA gene-based phylogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Mahmoud Fawzy; Alrumman, Sulaiman Abdullah; Hesham, Abd El-Latif

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays,most of the pathogenic bacteria become resistant to antibiotics. Therefore,the pharmaceutical properties of the natural plant extracts have become of interest to researchers as alternative antimicrobial agents. In this study,antibacterial activities of extract gained from Acacia etbaica, Acacia laeta, Acacia origena and Acacia pycnantha have been evaluated against isolated pathogenic bacteria (Strains MFM-01, MFM-10 and AH-09) using agar well diffusion methods.The bacterial strains were isolated from infected individuals,and their exact identification was detected on the basis of 16S rRNA gene amplification and sequence determination. Alignment results and the comparison of 16 SrRN A gene sequences of the isolates to 16 SrRN A gene sequences available in Gen Bank data base as well as the phylogenetic analysis confirmed the accurate position of the isolates as Klebsiella oxytoca strain MFM-01, Staphylococcus aureus strain MFM-10 and Klebsiella pneumoniae strain AH-09. Except for cold water, all tested solvents (Chloroform, petroleum ether, methanol, diethyl ether, and acetone) showed variation in their activity against studied bacteria. GC-MS analysis of ethanol extracts showed that four investigated Acacia species have different phyto components. Eight important pharmaceutical components were found in the legume of Acacia etbaica, seven in the legume of Acacia laeta, fifteen in the legume of Acacia origena and nine in the leaves of Acacia pycnantha. A dendrogram was constructed based on chemical composition, revealed that Acacia laeta is more closely related to Acacia etbaica forming on eclade, whereas Acacia origena less similar to other species. Our results demonstrated that, investigated plants and chemical compounds present could be used as promising antibacterial agents.

  12. Trial production of fuel pellet from Acacia mangium bark waste biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amirta, R.; Anwar, T.; Sudrajat; Yuliansyah; Suwinarti, W.

    2018-04-01

    Fuel pellet is one of the innovation products that can be produced from various sources of biomass such as agricultural residues, forestry and also wood industries including wood bark. Herein this paper, the potential fuel pellet production using Acacia mangium bark that abundant wasted from chip mill industry was studied. Fuel pellet was produced using a modified animal feed pellet press machine equipped with rotating roller-cylinders. The international standards quality of fuel pellet such as ONORM (Austria), SS (Sweden), DIN (Germany), EN (European) and ITEBE (Italy) were used to evaluate the optimum composition of feedstock and additive used. Theresults showed the quality offuel pellet produced were good compared to commercial sawdust pellet. Mixed of Acacia bark (dust) with 10% of tapioca and 20% of glycerol (w/w) was increased the stable form of pellet and the highest heating value to reached 4,383 Kcal/kg (calorific value). Blending of Acacia bark with tapioca and glycerol was positively improved its physical, chemical and combustion properties to met the international standards requirement for export market. Based on this finding, production of fuel pellet from Acacia bark waste biomass was promising to be developed as an alternative substitution of fossil energy in the future.

  13. 21 CFR 872.3400 - Karaya and sodium borate with or without acacia denture adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... denture adhesive. 872.3400 Section 872.3400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... and sodium borate with or without acacia denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A karaya and sodium borate with or without acacia denture adhesive is a device composed of karaya and sodium borate with or...

  14. Electrospray-assisted drying of live probiotics in acacia gum microparticles matrix.

    PubMed

    Zaeim, Davood; Sarabi-Jamab, Mahboobe; Ghorani, Behrouz; Kadkhodaee, Rassoul; Tromp, R Hans

    2018-03-01

    Acacia gum solution was employed as a carrier for electrospray-assisted drying of probiotic cells. To optimize the process, effect of gum concentration, thermal sterilization as a prerequisite for microbial studies, and surfactant addition on physical properties of feed solution was investigated. Increasing gum concentration from 20 to 40 wt.% led to a viscosity increase, whilst surface tension did not change meaningfully and electrical conductivity declined after an increasing trend up to 30 wt.% of the gum. Thermal sterilization increased the viscosity without any significant effect on the conductivity and surface tension. Surfactant addition reduced the surface tension and conductivity but the viscosity increased. Highly uniform particles were formed by electrospray-assisted drying of autoclaved 35 wt.% acacia gum solution containing 1 wt.% Tween 80. Thermal sterilization and surfactant addition improved electrospray-ability of acacia gum solution. Bacterial count showed that more than 96 percent of probiotic cells passed the process viably. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A comparison of the stability of beverage cloud emulsions formulated with different gum acacia- and starch-based emulsifiers.

    PubMed

    Reiner, S J; Reineccius, G A; Peppard, T L

    2010-06-01

    The performance of several hydrocolloids (3 gum acacias, 1 modified gum acacia, and 3 modified starches) in stabilizing beverage emulsions and corresponding model beverages was investigated employing different core materials, emulsifier usage levels, and storage temperatures. Concentrated emulsions were prepared using orange terpenes or Miglyol 812 (comprising medium-chain triglycerides, MCT) weighted 1:1 with ester gum, stored at 25 or 35 degrees C, and analyzed on days 0, 1, and 3. On day 3, model beverages were made from each emulsion, stored at both temperatures, and analyzed weekly for 4 wk. Stability of concentrated emulsions was assessed by measuring mean particle size and by visual observations of ringing; beverage stability was judged similarly and also by loss of turbidity. Particle size measurements showed concentrated emulsions containing gum acacia or modified gum acacia with either core material were stable over 3 d storage at both temperatures whereas those made with modified starches were not, destabilization being faster at 35 degrees C. Beverages based on orange terpenes, in contrast to Miglyol, yielded smaller mean particle sizes, both on manufacture and during storage, regardless of hydrocolloid used. Visual observations of ringing generally supported this finding. Modified gum acacia was evaluated at both recommended and higher usage levels, stability increasing in the latter case. In general, all gum acacia and modified gum acacia emulsifiers were superior in stability to those based on modified starches, at either temperature, for orange terpene-based beverages. In Miglyol-based beverages, similar results were seen, except 1 modified starch performed as well as the gum acacia products.

  16. Delayed colonisation of Acacia by thrips and the timing of host-conservatism and behavioural specialisation.

    PubMed

    McLeish, Michael J; Miller, Joseph T; Mound, Laurence A

    2013-09-09

    Repeated colonisation of novel host-plants is believed to be an essential component of the evolutionary success of phytophagous insects. The relative timing between the origin of an insect lineage and the plant clade they eat or reproduce on is important for understanding how host-range expansion can lead to resource specialisation and speciation. Path and stepping-stone sampling are used in a Bayesian approach to test divergence timing between the origin of Acacia and colonisation by thrips. The evolution of host-plant conservatism and ecological specialisation is discussed. Results indicated very strong support for a model describing the origin of the common ancestor of Acacia thrips subsequent to that of Acacia. A current estimate puts the origin of Acacia at approximately 6 million years before the common ancestor of Acacia thrips, and 15 million years before the origin of a gall-inducing clade. The evolution of host conservatism and resource specialisation resulted in a phylogenetically under-dispersed pattern of host-use by several thrips lineages. Thrips colonised a diversity of Acacia species over a protracted period as Australia experienced aridification. Host conservatism evolved on phenotypically and environmentally suitable host lineages. Ecological specialisation resulted from habitat selection and selection on thrips behavior that promoted primary and secondary host associations. These findings suggest that delayed and repeated colonisation is characterised by cycles of oligo- or poly-phagy. This results in a cumulation of lineages that each evolve host conservatism on different and potentially transient host-related traits, and facilitates both ecological and resource specialisation.

  17. Reproduction of Acacia koa after Fire

    Treesearch

    Paul G. Scowcroft; Hulton B. Wood

    1976-01-01

    The abundance, distribution, growth, and mortality of koa (Acacia koa Gray) seedlings after fires were monitored periodically on two burned areas on Oahu for 2.5 years. On one area, seedling density peaked at 95,300/ha 6 months after the fire; 21 months later it had declined to 18,500/ha. On the other area, peak seedling density occurred at 2 -...

  18. Koa (Acacia koa) ecology and silviculture

    Treesearch

    Patrick J. Baker; Paul G. Scowcroft; John J. Ewel

    2009-01-01

    Koa (Acacia koa) is a tree species endemic to Hawaii that is of immense ecological and economic importance. This species has been mined from local forests for its wood for more than 100 years, and extensive areas of koa-dominated forests have been converted to grazing lands. Today, in recognition of the great importance and value of koa and the...

  19. 21 CFR 172.780 - Acacia (gum arabic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acacia (gum arabic). 172.780 Section 172.780 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION...

  20. 21 CFR 172.780 - Acacia (gum arabic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acacia (gum arabic). 172.780 Section 172.780 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION...

  1. Condensed tannins from acacia mangium bark: Characterization by spot tests and FTIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharudin, Muhammad Azizi; Zakaria, Sarani; Chia, Chin Hua

    2013-11-01

    This paper describes the adaptation and evaluation of one chemical tests for tannins characterization in acacia mangium bark. Acid butanol test developed to identify respectively condensed tannins is described. The two traditional tests used for tannin characterization namely ferric test and vanillin test were also performed and their functional also discussed. Condensed tannins were extracted from acacia mangium bark using water medium in presence of three different concentration basic reagent of NaOH(5%,10% and 15%) and were characterized by FT-IR spectrometry.

  2. Ruminal biohydrogenation as affected by tannins in vitro.

    PubMed

    Vasta, Valentina; Makkar, Harinder P S; Mele, Marcello; Priolo, Alessandro

    2009-07-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the effects of tannins from carob (CT; Ceratonia siliqua), acacia leaves (AT; Acacia cyanophylla) and quebracho (QT; Schinopsis lorentzii) on ruminal biohydrogenation in vitro. The tannins extracted from CT, AT and QT were incubated for 12 h in glass syringes in cow buffered ruminal fluid (BRF) with hay or hay plus concentrate as a substrate. Within each feed, three concentrations of tannins were used (0.0, 0.6 and 1.0 mg/ml BRF). The branched-chain volatile fatty acids, the branched-chain fatty acids and the microbial protein concentration were reduced (P < 0.05) by tannins. In the tannin-containing fermenters, vaccenic acid was accumulated (+23 %, P < 0.01) while stearic acid was reduced ( - 16 %, P < 0.0005). The concentration of total conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers in the BRF was not affected by tannins. The assay on linoleic acid isomerase (LA-I) showed that the enzyme activity (nmol CLA produced/min per mg protein) was unaffected by the inclusion of tannins in the fermenters. However, the CLA produced by LA-I (nmol/ml per min) was lower in the presence of tannins. These results suggest that tannins reduce ruminal biohydrogenation through the inhibition of the activity of ruminal micro-organisms.

  3. Acacia shrubs respond positively to high severity wildfire: Implications for conservation and fuel hazard management.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Christopher E; Price, Owen F; Tasker, Elizabeth M; Denham, Andrew J

    2017-01-01

    High severity wildfires pose threats to human assets, but are also perceived to impact vegetation communities because a small number of species may become dominant immediately after fire. However there are considerable gaps in our knowledge about species-specific responses of plants to different fire severities, and how this influences fuel hazard in the short and long-term. Here we conduct a floristic survey at sites before and two years after a wildfire of unprecedented size and severity in the Warrumbungle National Park (Australia) to explore relationships between post-fire growth of a fire responsive shrub genera (Acacia), total mid-story vegetation cover, fire severity and fuel hazard. We then survey 129 plots surrounding the park to assess relationships between mid-story vegetation cover and time-since-fire. Acacia species richness and cover were 2.3 and 4.3 times greater at plots after than before the fire. However the same common dominant species were present throughout the study. Mid-story vegetation cover was 1.5 times greater after than before the wildfire, and Acacia species contribution to mid-story cover increased from 10 to 40%. Acacia species richness was not affected by fire severity, however strong positive associations were observed between Acacia and total mid-story vegetation cover and severity. Our analysis of mid-story vegetation recovery showed that cover was similarly high between 2 and 30years post-fire, then decreased until 52years. Collectively, our results suggest that Acacia species are extremely resilient to high severity wildfire and drive short to mid-term increases in fuel hazard. Our results are discussed in relation to fire regime management from the twin perspectives of conserving biodiversity and mitigating human losses due to wildfire. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A photographic guide to Acacia koa defects

    Treesearch

    Eini C. Lowell; Janice K. Wiedenbeck; Betsy S. Porterfield

    2013-01-01

    Acacia koa (A. Gray), native to the Hawaiian Islands, has both cultural and economic significance. Koa wood is world-renowned for its extensive use in furniture, tone wood for musical instruments, and other items of cultural importance. Old-growth koa is decreasing in supply, yet dead and dying koa is still being harvested for manufacture of...

  5. Non-protein amino acids in Australian acacia seed: implications for food security and recommended processing methods to reduce djenkolic acid.

    PubMed

    Boughton, Berin A; Reddy, Priyanka; Boland, Martin P; Roessner, Ute; Yates, Peter

    2015-07-15

    Seed of Australian acacia species, Acacia colei, Acacia elecantha, Acacia torulosa, Acacia turmida and Acacia saligna, were analysed for the presence of toxic non-protein amino acids and the levels of essential amino acids. Amines were derivatised with 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate before analysis using liquid chromatography electrospray ionisation triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-QQQ-MS). Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) with optimised transitions and collision energies for each analyte were employed. The known nephrotoxic compound djenkolic acid was found to be present at elevated levels in all species tested. The lowest levels were in A. colei (0.49% w/w) and the highest in A. saligna (1.85% w/w). Observed levels of djenkolic acid are comparable to measured and reported levels found in the djenkol bean. Subsequent testing of seed processing methods showed djenkolic acid levels can be significantly reduced by over 90% by dry roasting at 180 °C rendering the seed safe for human consumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Isolation of Abscisic Acid from Korean Acacia Honey with Anti-Helicobacter pylori Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kim, SeGun; Hong, InPyo; Woo, SoonOk; Jang, HyeRi; Pak, SokCheon; Han, SangMi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is linked to the development of the majority of peptic ulcers and some types of gastric cancers, and its antibiotic resistance is currently found worldwide. Objective: This study is aimed at evaluating the anti-H. pylori activity of Korean acacia honey and isolating the related active components using organic solvents. Material and Methods: The crude acacia honey was extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), and n-butanol. The EtOAc extract was subjected to octadecyl-silica chromatography. The extracts and fractions were then examined for anti-H. pylori activity using the agar well diffusion method. The antimicrobial activity of abscisic acid against H. pylori was investigated by determining the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs), and by performing a time-kill assay. Results: Abscisic acid related to the botanical origins of acacia honey from Korea has been analyzed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography. The MICs and MBCs of abscisic acid were 2.7 ± 1.3 and 6.9 ± 1.9 μg/mL, respectively. The bactericidal activity of abscisic acid (at 10.8 μg/mL corresponding to 4 × MIC) killed the organism within 36–72 h. These results suggest that abscisic acid isolated from Korean acacia honey has antibacterial activity against H. pylori. Conclusion: Abscisic acid isolated from Korean acacia honey can be therapeutic and may be further exploited as a potential lead candidate for the development of treatments for H. pylori-induced infections. SUMMARY The crude acacia honey was extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, EtOAc, and n-butanolThe EtOAc extract yielded eight fractions and four subfractions were subsequently obtained chromatographicallyAbscisic acid was isolated from one subfractionAll the solvent extracts and fractions showed antibacterial activity against H. pyloriAbscisic acid exhibited antibacterial activity against H. pylori

  7. Isolation of Abscisic Acid from Korean Acacia Honey with Anti-Helicobacter pylori Activity.

    PubMed

    Kim, SeGun; Hong, InPyo; Woo, SoonOk; Jang, HyeRi; Pak, SokCheon; Han, SangMi

    2017-07-01

    Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) is linked to the development of the majority of peptic ulcers and some types of gastric cancers, and its antibiotic resistance is currently found worldwide. This study is aimed at evaluating the anti- H. pylori activity of Korean acacia honey and isolating the related active components using organic solvents. The crude acacia honey was extracted with n -hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), and n -butanol. The EtOAc extract was subjected to octadecyl-silica chromatography. The extracts and fractions were then examined for anti- H. pylori activity using the agar well diffusion method. The antimicrobial activity of abscisic acid against H. pylori was investigated by determining the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs), and by performing a time-kill assay. Abscisic acid related to the botanical origins of acacia honey from Korea has been analyzed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography. The MICs and MBCs of abscisic acid were 2.7 ± 1.3 and 6.9 ± 1.9 μg/mL, respectively. The bactericidal activity of abscisic acid (at 10.8 μg/mL corresponding to 4 × MIC) killed the organism within 36-72 h. These results suggest that abscisic acid isolated from Korean acacia honey has antibacterial activity against H. pylori . Abscisic acid isolated from Korean acacia honey can be therapeutic and may be further exploited as a potential lead candidate for the development of treatments for H. pylori -induced infections. The crude acacia honey was extracted with n -hexane, dichloromethane, EtOAc, and n -butanolThe EtOAc extract yielded eight fractions and four subfractions were subsequently obtained chromatographicallyAbscisic acid was isolated from one subfractionAll the solvent extracts and fractions showed antibacterial activity against H. pylori Abscisic acid exhibited antibacterial activity against H. pylori . Abbreviations used: MeOH: Methanol; EtOAc: Ethyl acetate; TSB: Trypticase

  8. Structural Analysis and Immuno-Stimulating Activity of an Acidic Polysaccharide from the Stems of Dendrobium nobile Lindl.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun-Hui; Zuo, Shu-Rong; Luo, Jian-Ping

    2017-04-10

    Dendrobium nobile Lindl., an epiphytic herb distributed in the Southeast Asia, is used as a tonic and antipyretic herbal medicine in China. In this study, a water-soluble acidic heteropolysaccharide, DNP-W4, containing mannose, glucose, galactose, xylose, rhamnose, and galacturonic acid, in the molar ratios of 1.0:4.9:2.5:0.5:1.0:0.9, was obtained from the stems of Dendrobium nobile Lindl. Using methylation analysis, partial acid hydrolysis, pectolyase treatment, NMR, and ESI-MS, the structure of DNP-W4 was elucidated. The obtained data indicated that DNP-W4 was a complex heteropolysaccharide and possessed a backbone composed of (1→4)-linked β-d-Glcp, (1→6)-linked β-d-Glcp, and (1→6)-linked β-d-Galp, with substitutes at O-4/6 of Glcp residues and O-3 of Galp. The branches of DNP-W4 were composed of terminal Manp, (1→6)-linked β-d-Manp, (1→3)-linked β-d-Glcp, β-d-Glcp, β-d-Galp, (1→4)-linked α-d-GalAp, (1→2)-linked α-L-Rhap, and Xylp. DNP-W4 had little immunological activities, but its derivatives had immuno-stimulating activities to some extent.

  9. Improved Mannanase Production from Penicillium occitanis by Fed-Batch Fermentation Using Acacia Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Blibech, Monia; Ellouz Ghorbel, Raoudha; Chaari, Fatma; Dammak, Ilyes; Bhiri, Fatma; Neifar, Mohamed; Ellouz Chaabouni, Semia

    2011-01-01

    By applying a fed-batch strategy, production of Penicillium occitanis mannanases could be almost doubled as compared to a batch cultivation on acacia seeds (76 versus 41 U/mL). Also, a 10-fold increase of enzyme activities was observed from shake flask fermentation to the fed-batch fermentation. These production levels were 3-fold higher than those obtained on coconut meal. The high mannanase production using acacia seeds powder as inducer substrate showed the suitability of this culture process for industrial-scale development. PMID:23724314

  10. Multitasking in a plant-ant interaction: how does Acacia myrtifolia manage both ants and pollinators?

    PubMed

    Martínez-Bauer, Angélica E; Martínez, Gerardo Cerón; Murphy, Daniel J; Burd, Martin

    2015-06-01

    Plant associations with protective ants are widespread among angiosperms, but carry the risk that ants will deter pollinators as well as herbivores. Such conflict, and adaptations to ameliorate or prevent the conflict, have been documented in African and neotropical acacias. Ant-acacia associations occur in Australia, but little is known of their ecology. Moreover, recent phylogenetic evidence indicates that Australian acacias are only distantly related to African and American acacias, providing an intercontinental natural experiment in the management of ant-pollinator conflict. We examined four populations of Acacia myrtifolia over a 400-km environmental gradient in southeastern Australia using ant and pollinator exclusion as well as direct observation of ants and pollinators to assess the potential for ant-pollinator conflict to affect seed set. Native bees were the only group of floral visitors whose visitation rates were a significant predictor of fruiting success, although beetles and wasps may play an important role as "insurance" pollinators. We found no increase in pollinator visitation or fruiting success following ant exclusion, even with large sample sizes and effective exclusion. Because ants are facultative visitors to A. myrtifolia plants, their presence may be insufficient to interfere greatly with floral visitors. It is also likely that the morphological location of extrafloral nectaries tends to draw ants away from reproductive parts, although we commonly observed ants on inflorescences, so the spatial separation is not strict. A. myrtifolia appears to maintain a generalized mutualism over a wide geographic range without the need for elaborate adaptations to resolve ant-pollinator conflict.

  11. Interfacial rheology of surface-active biopolymers: Acacia senegal gum versus hydrophobically modified starch.

    PubMed

    Erni, Philipp; Windhab, Erich J; Gunde, Rok; Graber, Muriel; Pfister, Bruno; Parker, Alan; Fischer, Peter

    2007-11-01

    Acacia gum is a hybrid polyelectrolyte containing both protein and polysaccharide subunits. We study the interfacial rheology of its adsorption layers at the oil/water interface and compare it with adsorbed layers of hydrophobically modified starch, which for economic and political reasons is often used as a substitute for Acacia gum in technological applications. Both the shear and the dilatational rheological responses of the interfaces are considered. In dilatational experiments, the viscoelastic response of the starch derivative is just slightly weaker than that for Acacia gum, whereas we found pronounced differences in shear flow: The interfaces covered with the plant gum flow like a rigid, solidlike material with large storage moduli and a linear viscoelastic regime limited to small shear deformations, above which we observe apparent yielding behavior. In contrast, the films formed by hydrophobically modified starch are predominantly viscous, and the shear moduli are only weakly dependent on the deformation. Concerning their most important technological use as emulsion stabilizers, the dynamic interfacial responses imply not only distinct interfacial dynamics but also different stabilizing mechanisms for these two biopolymers.

  12. Influence of xanthan, guar, CMC and gum acacia on functional properties of water chestnut (Trapa bispinosa) starch.

    PubMed

    Lutfi, Zubala; Nawab, Anjum; Alam, Feroz; Hasnain, Abid; Haider, Syed Zia

    2017-10-01

    This study was performed to determine the effect of xanthan, guar, CMC and gum acacia on functional and pasting properties of starch isolated from water chestnut (Trapa bispinosa). Morphological properties of water chestnut starch with CMC were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The addition of hydrocolloids significantly enhanced the solubility of water chestnut starch (WCS) while reduced swelling power and freeze-thaw stability. The hydrophilic tendency of WCS was increased by xanthan gum; however, with addition of gum acacia it decreased significantly. Starch was modified with guar and gum acacia exhibited highest% syneresis. Guar gum was found to be effective in increasing the clarity of water chestnut starch paste. The addition of CMC significantly reduced the pasting temperature of WCS indicating ease of gelatinization. The setback was accelerated in the presence of xanthan gum but gum acacia delayed this effect during the cooling of the starch paste. Only xanthan gum was found to be effective in increasing breakdown showing good paste stability of WCS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Two-year variations of phenolics, flavonoids and antioxidant contents in acacia honey.

    PubMed

    Moniruzzaman, Mohammed; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Azlan, Siti Amirah Mohd; Gan, Siew Hua

    2013-11-27

    Honey is a good source of several important chemical compounds and antioxidants and is harvested throughout the year. However, no study has determined how their contents change over the years. The aim of the present research was to investigate the changes in the phenolics, flavonoids and antioxidant properties, as well as other physicochemical properties, of Malaysian acacia honey collected during different months during a two year period. The DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) methods were used to determine the total antioxidant activity of the honey samples. Generally, honey samples collected in the beginning and the middle of the year tended to have higher sugar content, which may be attributed to its high acidic nature and low moisture content. There was a gradual increase in the phenolic content of the acacia honey samples collected between September 2010 and December 2010. The honey sample collected at the beginning of the year (January) showed the highest color intensity and was dark amber in color. It also contained the highest concentration of phenolic compounds (341.67 ± 2.94 mg(gallic acid)/kg), the highest flavonoid content (113.06 ± 6.18 mg(catechin)/kg) and the highest percentage of DPPH inhibition and the highest FRAP value, confirming its high antioxidant potential. There was a positive correlation between DPPH and total phenolic content, suggesting that phenolic compounds are the strongest contributing factor to the radical scavenging activity of Malaysian acacia honeys. Overall, our results indicated that there were significant seasonal variations in the antioxidant potentials of honey over the two year period and the time of honey collection affects its physicochemical properties. Therefore, acacia honey from Malaysia should ideally be collected during the dry season, particularly in the months of January, May and June.

  14. Risk assessment, eradication, and biological control: global efforts to limit Australian acacia invasions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, John R.U.; Gairifo, Carla; Gibson, Michelle R.; Arianoutsou, Margarita; Bakar, Baki B.; Baret, Stephane; Celesti-Grapow, Laura; DiTomaso, Joseph M.; Dufour-Dror, Jean-Marc; Kueffer, Christoph; Kull, Christian A.; Hoffman, John H.; Impson, Fiona A.C.; Loope, Lloyd L.; Marchante, Elizabete; Harchante, Helia; Moore, Joslin L.; Murphy, Daniel J.; Tassin, Jacques; Witt, Arne; Zenni, Rafael D.; Richardson, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Aim Many Australian Acacia species have been planted around the world, some are highly valued, some are invasive, and some are both highly valued and invasive. We review global efforts to minimize the risk and limit the impact of invasions in this widely used plant group. Location Global. Methods Using information from literature sources, knowledge and experience of the authors, and the responses from a questionnaire sent to experts around the world, we reviewed: (1) a generalized life cycle of Australian acacias and how to control each life stage, (2) different management approaches and (3) what is required to help limit or prevent invasions. Results Relatively few Australian acacias have been introduced in large numbers, but all species with a long and extensive history of planting have become invasive somewhere. Australian acacias, as a group, have a high risk of becoming invasive and causing significant impacts as determined by existing assessment schemes. Moreover, in most situations, long-lived seed banks mean it is very difficult to control established infestations. Control has focused almost exclusively on widespread invaders, and eradication has rarely been attempted. Classical biological control is being used in South Africa with increasing success. Main conclusions A greater emphasis on pro-active rather than reactive management is required given the difficulties managing established invasions of Australian acacias. Adverse effects of proposed new introductions can be minimized by conducting detailed risk assessments in advance, planning for on-going monitoring and management, and ensuring resources are in place for long-term mitigation. Benign alternatives (e.g. sterile hybrids) could be developed to replace existing utilized taxa. Eradication should be set as a management goal more often to reduce the invasion debt. Introducing classical biological control agents that have a successful track-record in South Africa to other regions and identifying new

  15. Detailed Chemical Composition of Condensed Tannins via Quantitative (31)P NMR and HSQC Analyses: Acacia catechu, Schinopsis balansae, and Acacia mearnsii.

    PubMed

    Crestini, Claudia; Lange, Heiko; Bianchetti, Giulia

    2016-09-23

    The chemical composition of Acacia catechu, Schinopsis balansae, and Acacia mearnsii proanthocyanidins has been determined using a novel analytical approach that rests on the concerted use of quantitative (31)P NMR and two-dimensional heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy. This approach has offered significant detailed information regarding the structure and purity of these complex and often elusive proanthocyanidins. More specifically, rings A, B, and C of their flavan-3-ol units show well-defined and resolved absorbance regions in both the quantitative (31)P NMR and HSQC spectra. By integrating each of these regions in the (31)P NMR spectra, it is possible to identify the oxygenation patterns of the flavan-3-ol units. At the same time it is possible to acquire a fingerprint of the proanthocyanidin sample and evaluate its purity via the HSQC information. This analytical approach is suitable for both the purified natural product proanthocyanidins and their commercial analogues. Overall, this effort demonstrates the power of the concerted use of these two NMR techniques for the structural elucidation of natural products containing labile hydroxy protons and a carbon framework that can be traced out via HSQC.

  16. Mixing of acacia bark and palm shells to increase caloric value of palm shells white charcoal briquette

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurniawan, Edy Wibowo; Amirta, Rudianto; Budiarso, Edy; Arung, Enos Tangke

    2017-06-01

    Indonesia is greatly rich in biomass resources. Acacia bark waste utilization as a source of biomass is still very low, where as 10-20% of the potential of the wood. On the other hand waste palm shells have been partly utilized as boiler fuel oil plant as much as 62.4%, but the rest is still a waste pile or to the hardening of the estate path. This study aims to determine the effect of mixing an acacia bark with palm shells to increase the calorific value of palm shell white charcoal briquettes. The study was conducted by making white charcoal briquettes mixing 7% the acacia bark against of palm shells. As well as white charcoal briquettes control without any acacia bark. Then molds the briquettes in pyrolysis temperature at 600 ° C, 700 ° C and 800 ° C for pyrolysis time within 2 hours, 4 hours, and 6 hours. And the results of briquettes analysis in calorific value. The results showed that the caloric value of palm shell white charcoal briquettes increased from 29691.14 Kcal / kg to 31941.50 Kcal / kg.

  17. Arabinogalactan Proteins From Baobab and Acacia Seeds Influence Innate Immunity of Human Keratinocytes In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Zahid, Abderrakib; Despres, Julie; Benard, Magalie; Nguema-Ona, Eric; Leprince, Jerome; Vaudry, David; Rihouey, Christophe; Vicré-Gibouin, Maité; Driouich, Azeddine; Follet-Gueye, Marie-Laure

    2017-09-01

    Plant derived arabinogalactan proteins (AGP) were repeatedly confirmed as immunologically as well as dermatologically active compounds. However, little is currently known regarding their potential activity toward skin innate immunity. Here, we extracted and purified AGP from acacia (Acacia senegal) and baobab (Adansonia digitata) seeds to investigate their biological effects on the HaCaT keratinocyte cell line in an in vitro system. While AGP from both sources did not exhibit any cytotoxic effect, AGP from acacia seeds enhanced cell viability. Moreover, real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that AGP extracted from both species induced a substantial overexpression of hBD-2, TLR-5, and IL1-α genes. These data suggest that plant AGP, already known to control plant defensive processes, could also modulate skin innate immune responses. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 2558-2568, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Individual based, long term monitoring of acacia trees in hyper arid zone: Integration of a field survey and a remote sensing approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaacson, Sivan; Blumberg, Dan G.; Ginat, Hanan; Shalmon, Benny

    2013-04-01

    Vegetation in hyper arid zones is very sparse as is. Monitoring vegetation changes in hyper arid zones is important because any reduction in the vegetation cover in these areas can lead to a considerable reduction in the carrying capacity of the ecological system. This study focuses on the impact of climate fluctuations on the acacia population in the southern Arava valley, Israel. The period of this survey includes a sequence of dry years with no flashfloods in most of the plots that ended in two years with vast floods. Arid zone acacia trees play a significant role in the desert ecosystem by moderating the extreme environmental conditions including radiation, temperature, humidity and precipitation. The trees also provide nutrients for the desert dwellers. Therefore, acacia trees in arid zones are considered to be `keystone species', because they have major influence over both plants and animal species, i.e., biodiversity. Long term monitoring of the acacia tree population in this area can provide insights into long term impacts of climate fluctuations on ecosystems in arid zones. Since 2000, a continuous yearly based survey on the three species of acacia population in seven different plots is conducted in the southern Arava (established by Shalmon, ecologist of the Israel nature and parks authority). The seven plots representing different ecosystems and hydrological regimes. A yearly based population monitoring enabled us to determine the mortality and recruitment rate of the acacia populations as well as growing rates of individual trees. This survey provides a unique database of the acacia population dynamics during a sequence of dry years that ended in a vast flood event during the winter of 2010. A lack of quantitative, nondestructive methods to estimate and monitor stress status of the acacia trees, led us to integrate remote sensing tools (ground and air-based) along with conventional field measurements in order to develop a long term monitoring of acacia

  19. Tannins from Acacia mearnsii De Wild. Bark: Tannin Determination and Biological Activities.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Sosuke; Yazaki, Yoshikazu

    2018-04-05

    The bark of Acacia mearnsii De Wild. (black wattle) contains significant amounts of water-soluble components acalled "wattle tannin". Following the discovery of its strong antioxidant activity, a wattle tannin dietary supplement has been developed and as part of developing new dietary supplements, a literature search was conducted using the SciFinder data base for " Acacia species and their biological activities". An analysis of the references found indicated that the name of Acacia nilotica had been changed to Vachellia nilotica , even though the name of the genus Acacia originated from its original name. This review briefly describes why and how the name of A. nilotica changed. Tannin has been analyzed using the Stiasny method when the tannin is used to make adhesives and the hide-powder method is used when the tannin is to be used for leather tanning. A simple UV method is also able to be used to estimate the values for both adhesives and leather tanning applications. The tannin content in bark can also be estimated using NIR and NMR. Tannin content estimations using pyrolysis/GC, electrospray mass spectrometry and quantitative 31 P-NMR analyses have also been described. Tannins consists mostly of polyflavanoids and all the compounds isolated have been updated. Antioxidant activities of the tannin relating to anti-tumor properties, the viability of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells and also anti-hypertensive effects have been studied. The antioxidant activity of proanthocyanidins was found to be higher than that of flavan-3-ol monomers. A total of fourteen papers and two patents reported the antimicrobial activities of wattle tannin. Bacteria were more susceptible to the tannins than the fungal strains tested. Several bacteria were inhibited by the extract from A. mearnsii bark. The growth inhibition mechanisms of E. coli were investigated. An interaction between extracts from A. mearnsii bark and antibiotics has also been studied. The extracts from A. mearnsii

  20. Ameliorative Effects of Acacia Honey against Sodium Arsenite-Induced Oxidative Stress in Some Viscera of Male Wistar Albino Rats.

    PubMed

    Aliyu, Muhammad; Ibrahim, Sani; Inuwa, Hajiya M; Sallau, Abdullahi B; Abbas, Olagunju; Aimola, Idowu A; Habila, Nathan; Uche, Ndidi S

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and its development is frequently associated with oxidative stress-induced by carcinogens such as arsenicals. Most foods are basically health-promoting or disease-preventing and a typical example of such type is honey. This study was undertaken to investigate the ameliorative effects of Acacia honey on sodium arsenite-induced oxidative stress in the heart, lung and kidney tissues of male Wistar rats. Male Wistar albino rats divided into four groups of five rats each were administered distilled water, Acacia honey (20%), sodium arsenite (5 mg/kg body weight), Acacia honey, and sodium arsenite daily for one week. They were sacrificed anesthetically using 60 mg/kg sodium pentothal. The tissues were used for the assessment of glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities, protein content and lipid peroxidation. Sodium arsenite significantly (P < 0.05) suppressed the glutathione peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase activities with simultaneous induction of lipid peroxidation. Administration of Acacia honey significantly increased (P < 0.05) glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities with concomitant suppression of lipid peroxidation as evident by the decrease in malondialdehyde level. From the results obtained, Acacia honey mitigates sodium arsenite induced-oxidative stress in male Wistar albino rats, which suggest that it may attenuate oxidative stress implicated in chemical carcinogenesis.

  1. Climate trends in the wood anatomy of Acacia sensu stricto (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae)

    PubMed Central

    Warwick, Nigel W. M.; Hailey, Luke; Clarke, Kerri L.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background and Aims This study investigates the structural diversity of the secondary xylem of 54 species of Acacia from four taxonomic sections collected across five climate regions along a 1200 km E–W transect from sub-tropical [approx. 1400 mm mean annual precipitation (MAP)] to arid (approx. 240 mm MAP) in New South Wales, Australia. Acacia sensu stricto (s.s.) is a critical group for understanding the effect of climate and phylogeny on the functional anatomy of wood. Methods Wood samples were sectioned in transverse, tangential and radial planes for light microscopy and analysis. Key Results The wood usually has thick-walled vessels and fibres, paratracheal parenchyma and uniseriate and biseriate rays, occasionally up to four cells wide. The greater abundance of gelatinous fibres in arid and semi-arid species may have ecological significance. Prismatic crystals in chambered fibres and axial parenchyma increased in abundance in semi-arid and arid species. Whereas vessel diameter showed only a small decrease from the sub-tropical to the arid region, there was a significant 2-fold increase in vessel frequency and a consequent 3-fold decrease in the vulnerability index. Conclusions Although the underlying phylogeny determines the qualitative wood structure, climate has a significant influence on the functional wood anatomy of Acacia s.s., which is an ideal genus to study the effect of these factors. PMID:28334287

  2. Influence of carbonization conditions on the pyrolytic carbon deposition in acacia and eucalyptus wood chars

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kumar, M.; Gupta, R.C.

    1997-04-01

    The amount of deposited pyrolytic carbon (resulting from the cracking of volatile matter) was found to depend on wood species and carbonization conditions, such as temperature and heating rate. Maximum pyrolytic carbon deposition in both the acacia and eucalyptus wood chars has been observed at a carbonization temperature of 800 C. Rapid carbonization (higher heating rate) of wood significantly reduces the amount of deposited pyrolytic carbon in resulting chars. Results also indicate that the amount of deposited pyrolytic carbon in acacia wood char is less than that in eucalyptus wood char.

  3. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition and antioxidant activity of essential oils from Schinus areira L. and Schinus longifolia (Lindl.) Speg.

    PubMed

    Murray, Ana P; Gurovic, Maria S Vela; Rodriguez, Silvana A; Murray, María G; Ferrero, Adriana A

    2009-06-01

    The essential oils of Schinus areira L. and S. longifolia (Lindl.) Speg. (Anacardiaceae) have been studied for their in vitro anti-acetylcholinesterase and antioxidant activities. The chemical composition of the oils obtained by hydrodistillation was determined by GC-MS. Fruit and leaf oils of S. areira were analyzed separately. The essential oil from S. longifolia elicited marked enzymatic inhibition (IC50 = 20.0 +/- 1.0 microg/mL) and showed radical scavenger activity (IC50 = 25.2 +/- 2.4 microg/mL). The essential oil from S. areira leaves was more active than that of the fruits in both bioassays.

  4. Feasibility study of determination of high-fructose syrup content of Acacia honey by terahertz technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wen; Zhang, Yuying; Han, Donghai

    2016-11-01

    The authenticity problem of honey with difficult identification and great economic value highlights the certain limitations of the existing examination methods to distinguish the inauthentic honey. Terahertz technique is sensitive to water and has abundant information about saccharides' intermolecular interactions . This paper is tried to determine high-fructose-syrup content of Acacia honey by terahertz technique combined with chemometric methods. RMSEC and RMSEP of PLS model was 0.0967 and 0.108, respectively, confirming the reliability of the technique. This work shows that it was possible to determine high-fructose-syrup content of Acacia honey by terahertz technique.

  5. Stimulating growth of stagnated Acacia koa by thinning and fertilizing

    Treesearch

    Paul G. Scowcroft; John D. Stein

    1986-01-01

    Building Acacia koa, Hawaii's most marketable native tree, into a viable resource is economically and eco1ogically desirable. But little is known about natural stand development and management of this scarce resource. Therefore, the effect of thinning, fertilizing, or both on short-term growth and survival was studied in a stagnated 12-year-old...

  6. Colloids removal from water resources using natural coagulant: Acacia auriculiformis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, M.; Roslan, A.; Kamarulzaman, M. F. H.; Erat, M. M.

    2017-09-01

    All waters, especially surface waters contain dissolved, suspended particles and/or inorganic matter, as well as several biological organisms, such as bacteria, algae or viruses. This material must be removed because it can affect the water quality that can cause turbidity and colour. The objective of this study is to develop water treatment process from Seri Alam (Johor, Malaysia) lake water resources by using natural coagulant Acacia auriculiformis pods through a jar test experiment. Jar test is designed to show the effectiveness of the water treatment. This process is a laboratory procedure that will simulate coagulation/flocculation with several parameters selected namely contact time, coagulant dosage and agitation speed. The most optimum percentage of colloids removal for each parameter is determined at 0.2 g, 90 min and 80 rpm. FESEM (Field-emission Scanning Electron Microscope) observed the small structures of final floc particles for optimum parameter in this study to show that the colloids coagulated the coagulant. All result showed that the Acacia auriculiformis pods can be a very efficient coagulant in removing colloids from water.

  7. Biological Activities of Extracts from Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.): A Review

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yilong; Zhang, Wenna; Xu, Changjie; Li, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) is a subtropical fruit tree with high medicinal value native to China. Different organs of loquat have been used historically as folk medicines and this has been recorded in Chinese history for thousands of years. Research shows that loquat extracts contain many antioxidants, and different extracts exhibit bioactivity capable of counteracting inflammation, diabetes, cancer, bacterial infection, aging, pain, allergy and other health issues. Bioactive compounds such as phenolics and terpenoids have been isolated and characterized to provide a better understanding of the chemical mechanisms underlying the biological activities of loquat extracts. As the identification of compounds progresses, studies investigating the in vivo metabolism, bioavailability, and structure–activity relationships, as well as potential toxicity of loquat extracts in animal or cell models are receiving more attention. In addition, genetic studies and breeding of loquat germplasms for high contents of health-benefiting compounds may provide new insight for the loquat industry and research. This review is focused on the main medicinal properties reported and the possible pharmaceutically active compounds identified in different loquat extracts. PMID:27929430

  8. Japanese plums (Prunus salicina Lindl.) and phytochemicals--breeding, horticultural practice, postharvest storage, processing and bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Fanning, Kent J; Topp, Bruce; Russell, Dougal; Stanley, Roger; Netzel, Michael

    2014-08-01

    Previous reviews of plum phytochemical content and health benefits have concentrated on the European plum, Prunus domestica L. However, the potential bioactivity of red- and dark red-fleshed Japanese plums, Prunus salicina Lindl., so-called blood plums, appears to warrant a significant increase in exposure, as indicated in a recent review of the whole Prunus genus. Furthermore, Japanese plums are the predominant plum produced on an international basis. In this review the nutrient and phytochemical content, breeding, horticultural practice, postharvest treatment and processing as well as bioactivity (emphasising in vivo studies) of Japanese plum are considered, with a focus on the anthocyanin content that distinguishes the blood plums. © 2014 State of Queensland Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Phylogeny of nodulation genes and symbiotic diversity of Acacia senegal (L.) Willd. and A. seyal (Del.) Mesorhizobium strains from different regions of Senegal.

    PubMed

    Bakhoum, Niokhor; Galiana, Antoine; Le Roux, Christine; Kane, Aboubacry; Duponnois, Robin; Ndoye, Fatou; Fall, Dioumacor; Noba, Kandioura; Sylla, Samba Ndao; Diouf, Diégane

    2015-04-01

    Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal are small, deciduous legume trees, most highly valued for nitrogen fixation and for the production of gum arabic, a commodity of international trade since ancient times. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation by legumes represents the main natural input of atmospheric N2 into ecosystems which may ultimately benefit all organisms. We analyzed the nod and nif symbiotic genes and symbiotic properties of root-nodulating bacteria isolated from A. senegal and A. seyal in Senegal. The symbiotic genes of rhizobial strains from the two Acacia species were closed to those of Mesorhizobium plurifarium and grouped separately in the phylogenetic trees. Phylogeny of rhizobial nitrogen fixation gene nifH was similar to those of nodulation genes (nodA and nodC). All A. senegal rhizobial strains showed identical nodA, nodC, and nifH gene sequences. By contrast, A. seyal rhizobial strains exhibited different symbiotic gene sequences. Efficiency tests demonstrated that inoculation of both Acacia species significantly affected nodulation, total dry weight, acetylene reduction activity (ARA), and specific acetylene reduction activity (SARA) of plants. However, these cross-inoculation tests did not show any specificity of Mesorhizobium strains toward a given Acacia host species in terms of infectivity and efficiency as stated by principal component analysis (PCA). This study demonstrates that large-scale inoculation of A. senegal and A. seyal in the framework of reafforestation programs requires a preliminary step of rhizobial strain selection for both Acacia species.

  10. Extracting Features of Acacia Plantation and Natural Forest in the Mountainous Region of Sarawak, Malaysia by ALOS/AVNIR2 Image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadaei, H.; Ishii, R.; Suzuki, R.; Kendawang, J.

    2013-12-01

    The remote sensing technique has provided useful information to detect spatio-temporal changes in the land cover of tropical forests. Land cover characteristics derived from satellite image can be applied to the estimation of ecosystem services and biodiversity over an extensive area, and such land cover information would provide valuable information to global and local people to understand the significance of the tropical ecosystem. This study was conducted in the Acacia plantations and natural forest situated in the mountainous region which has different ecological characteristic from that in flat and low land area in Sarawak, Malaysia. The main objective of this study is to compare extract the characteristic of them by analyzing the ALOS/AVNIR2 images and ground truthing obtained by the forest survey. We implemented a ground-based forest survey at Aacia plantations and natural forest in the mountainous region in Sarawak, Malaysia in June, 2013 and acquired the forest structure data (tree height, diameter at breast height (DBH), crown diameter, tree spacing) and spectral reflectance data at the three sample plots of Acacia plantation that has 10 x 10m area. As for the spectral reflectance data, we measured the spectral reflectance of the end members of forest such as leaves, stems, road surface, and forest floor by the spectro-radiometer. Such forest structure and spectral data were incorporated into the image analysis by support vector machine (SVM) and object-base/texture analysis. Consequently, land covers on the AVNIR2 image were classified into three forest types (natural forest, oil palm plantation and acacia mangium plantation), then the characteristic of each category was examined. We additionally used the tree age data of acacia plantation for the classification. A unique feature was found in vegetation spectral reflectance of Acacia plantations. The curve of the spectral reflectance shows two peaks around 0.3μm and 0.6 - 0.8μm that can be assumed to

  11. Acacia catechu Ethanolic Seed Extract Triggers Apoptosis of SCC-25 Cells.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, Thangavelu; Ezhilarasan, Devaraj; Nagaich, Upendra; Vijayaragavan, Rajagopal

    2017-10-01

    Acacia catechu Willd ( Fabaceae ), commonly known as catechu, cachou, and black cutch, has been studied for its hepatoprotective, antipyretic, antidiarrheal, hypoglycemic, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, antinociceptive, antimicrobial, free radical scavenging, and antioxidant activities. We evaluated the cytotoxic activity of ethanol extract of A. catechu seed (ACS) against SCC-25 human oral squamous carcinoma cell line. Cytotoxic effect of ACS extract was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, using concentrations of 0.1-1000 μg/mL for 24 h. A. catechu ethanol seed extract was treated SCC-25 cells with 25 and 50 μg/mL. At the end of treatment period, apoptotic marker gene expressions such as caspase 8, 9, Bcl-2, Bax, and cytochrome c were evaluated by semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Morphological changes of ACS treated SCC-25 cells was evaluated by acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) dual staining. Nuclear morphology and DNA fragmentation was evaluated by propidium iodide (PI) staining. A. catechu ethanol seed extract treatment caused cytotoxicity in SCC-25 cells with an IC 50 value of 100 μg/mL. Apoptotic markers caspases 8 and 9, cytochrome c, Bax gene expressions were significantly increased upon ACS extract treatment indicate the apoptosis induction in SCC-25 cells. This treatment also caused significant downregulation of Bcl-2 gene expression. Staining with AO/EB and PI shows membrane blebbing, and nuclear membrane distortion further confirms the apoptosis induction by ACS treatment in SCC-25 cells. The ethanol seed extracts of A. catechu was found to be cytotoxic at lower concentrations and induced apoptosis in human oral squamous carcinoma SCC-25 cells. Acacia catechu ethanolic seed extract contains phytochemicals such as epicatechin, rutin, and quercetin Acacia catechu seed (ACS) extract significantly ( P < 0.001) inhibits the active proliferation of human oral

  12. Impact of Acacia tortilis ssp. raddiana tree on wheat and barley yield in the south of Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noumi, Zouhaier; Abdallah, Fathia; Torre, Franck; Michalet, Richard; Touzard, Blaise; Chaieb, Mohamed

    2011-03-01

    In the past, Acacia tortilis ssp. raddiana (Savi) Brenan colonised thousands of hectares in central and southern Tunisia. Nowadays, the geographical distribution of A. tortilis ssp. raddiana is restricted to the National Park of Bou-Hedma (central Tunisia). The Acacia is of considerable interest for local populations and may be considered as a "foundation species" under arid climate. This study examines the effects of Acacia canopy on soil fertility and cereal productivity. The improvement in soil fertility and microclimate provided by A. tortilis ssp. raddiana is known to facilitate the establishment of new species, but little is known about the interaction between the tree species and the cereals cultivated by local farmers. We studied the effect of A. tortilis ssp. raddiana canopy on the yield of three cereals crops ( Hordeum vulgare L., Triticum sativum L. and Triticum aestivum L.). We seeded 168 plots (15 × 15 m) under the tree canopy and in open areas on four different landform types (glacis, plain, wadis, and jessours) and measured cereal yield over two contrasting years (wet and dry). We found that: (1) precipitation and geomorphology are more important in determining cereal yield than canopy cover, (2) these effects on water availability are species-specific with no effect on the stress-tolerant barley. We finally discuss the potential negative effects of Acacia trees which may have balanced the positive effects found for nutrient in our study.

  13. [Discrimination of Rice Syrup Adulterant of Acacia Honey Based Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan-nan; Chen, Lan-zhen; Xue, Xiao-feng; Wu, Li-ming; Li, Yi; Yang, Juan

    2015-09-01

    At present, the rice syrup as a low price of the sweeteners was often adulterated into acacia honey and the adulterated honeys were sold in honey markets, while there is no suitable and fast method to identify honey adulterated with rice syrup. In this study, Near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) combined with chemometric methods were used to discriminate authenticity of honey. 20 unprocessed acacia honey samples from the different honey producing areas, mixed? with different proportion of rice syrup, were prepared of seven different concentration gradient? including 121 samples. The near infrared spectrum (NIR) instrument and spectrum processing software have been applied in the? spectrum? scanning and data conversion on adulterant samples, respectively. Then it was analyzed by Principal component analysis (PCA) and canonical discriminant analysis methods in order to discriminating adulterated honey. The results showed that after principal components analysis, the first two principal components accounted for 97.23% of total variation, but the regionalism of the score plot of the first two PCs was not obvious, so the canonical discriminant analysis was used to make the further discrimination, all samples had been discriminated correctly, the first two discriminant functions accounted for 91.6% among the six canonical discriminant functions, Then the different concentration of adulterant samples can be discriminated correctly, it illustrate that canonical discriminant analysis method combined with NIR spectroscopy is not only feasible but also practical for rapid and effective discriminate of the rice syrup adulterant of acacia honey.

  14. Applied genetic conservation of Hawaiian Acacia koa: an eco-regional approach

    Treesearch

    Nick Dudley; Tyler Jones; Robert James; Richard Sniezko; Jessica Wright; Christina Liang; Paul F. Gugger; Phil Cannon

    2017-01-01

    Koa (Acacia koa) is a valuable tree species economically, ecologically, and culturally in Hawaii. A vascular wilt disease of koa, caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. koae (FOXY), causes high rates of mortality in field plantings and threatens native koa forests in Hawaii. Producing seeds with genetic resistance to FOXY is vital...

  15. Biomass and nutrient mass of Acacia dealbata and Eucalyptus globulus bioenergy plantations

    Treesearch

    Timothy J. Albaugh; Rafael A. Rubilar; Chris A. Maier; Eduardo A. Acuña; Rachel L. Cook

    2017-01-01

    We quantified biomass and nutrient accumulation of Acacia dealbata Link and Eucalyptus globulus Labill. planted at stem densities of 5000 and 15000 ha-1 in a bioenergy plantation in Chile. We tested the hypotheses that species and stocking will not affect biomass or nutrient accumulation. Species and...

  16. Hemostatic, antibacterial biopolymers from Acacia arabica (Lam.) Willd. and Moringa oleifera (Lam.) as potential wound dressing materials.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Monica; Parwani, Laxmi; Sharma, Vinay; Ganguli, Jhuma; Bhatnagar, Ashish

    2013-10-01

    Acacia arabica and Moringa oleifera are credited with a number of medicinal properties. Traditionally gum of Acacia plant is used in the treatment of skin disorders to soothe skin rashes, soreness, inflammation and burns while Moringa seed extracts are known to have antibacterial activity. In the present study the potential of the polymeric component of aqueous extracts of gum acacia (GA) and the seeds of M. oleifera (MSP) in wound management was evaluated. The results revealed that both biopolymers were hemostatic and hasten blood coagulation. They showed shortening of activated partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time and were non-cytotoxic in nature. Both showed antibacterial activity against organisms known to be involved in wound infections with MIC ranging from 500-600 microg mL(-1) for GA and 300-700 microg mL(-1) for MSP. They were biodegradable and exhibited water absorption capacity in the range of 415 to 935%. The hemostatic character coupled to these properties envisions their potential in preparation of dressings for bleeding and profusely exuding wounds. The biopolymers have been further analysed for their composition by Gas chromatography.

  17. Invasive Australian Acacia seed banks: Size and relationship with stem diameter in the presence of gall-forming biological control agents.

    PubMed

    Strydom, Matthys; Veldtman, Ruan; Ngwenya, Mzabalazo Z; Esler, Karen J

    2017-01-01

    Australian Acacia are invasive in many parts of the world. Despite significant mechanical and biological efforts to control their invasion and spread, soil-stored seed banks prevent their effective and sustained removal. In response South Africa has had a strong focus on employing seed reducing biological control agents to deal with Australian Acacia invasion, a programme that is considered as being successful. To provide a predictive understanding for their management, seed banks of four invasive Australian acacia species (Acacia longifolia, A. mearnsii, A. pycnantha and A. saligna) were studied in the Western Cape of South Africa. Across six to seven sites for each species, seed bank sizes were estimated from dense, monospecific stands by collecting 30 litter and soil samples. Average estimated seed bank size was large (1017 to 17261 seed m-2) as was annual input into the seed bank, suggesting that these seed banks are not residual but are replenished in size annually. A clear relationship between seed bank size and stem diameter was established indicating that mechanical clearing should be conducted shortly after fire-stimulated recruitment events or within old populations when seed banks are small. In dense, monospecific stands seed-feeding biological control agents are not effective in reducing seed bank size.

  18. Optimization of PEG-based extraction of polysaccharides from Dendrobium nobile Lindl. and bioactivity study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Wang, Hongxin; Wang, Peng; Ma, ChaoYang; He, GuoHua; Rahman, Md Ramim Tanver

    2016-11-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a green solvent was employed to extract polysaccharide. The optimal conditions for PEG-based ultrasonic extraction of Dendrobium nobile Lindl. polysaccharide (JCP) were determined by response surface methodology. Under the optimal conditions: extraction temperature of 58.5°C; ultrasound power of 193W, and the concentration of polyethylene glycol-200 (PEG-200) solution of 45%, the highest JCP yield was obtained as 15.23±0.57%, which was close to the predicted yield, 15.57%. UV and FT-IR analysis revealed the general characteristic absorption peaks of both JCP with water extraction (JCP w ) and PEG-200 solvent extraction (JCP p ). Thermal analysis of both JCPs was performed with Thermal Gravimetric Analyzer (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). Antioxidant activities of two polysaccharides were also compared and no significant difference in vitro was obtained. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Precipitation of calcium, magnesium, strontium and barium in tissues of four Acacia species (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae).

    PubMed

    He, Honghua; Bleby, Timothy M; Veneklaas, Erik J; Lambers, Hans; Kuo, John

    2012-01-01

    Precipitation of calcium in plants is common. There are abundant studies on the uptake and content of magnesium, strontium and barium, which have similar chemical properties to calcium, in comparison with those of calcium in plants, but studies on co-precipitation of these elements with calcium in plants are rare. In this study, we compared morphologies, distributional patterns, and elemental compositions of crystals in tissues of four Acacia species grown in the field as well as in the glasshouse. A comparison was also made of field-grown plants and glasshouse-grown plants, and of phyllodes of different ages for each species. Crystals of various morphologies and distributional patterns were observed in the four Acacia species studied. Magnesium, strontium and barium were precipitated together with calcium, mainly in phyllodes of the four Acacia species, and sometimes in branchlets and primary roots. These elements were most likely precipitated in forms of oxalate and sulfate in various tissues, including epidermis, mesophyll, parenchyma, sclerenchyma (fibre cells), pith, pith ray and cortex. In most cases, precipitation of calcium, magnesium, strontium and barium was biologically induced, and elements precipitated differed between soil types, plant species, and tissues within an individual plant; the precipitation was also related to tissue age. Formation of crystals containing these elements might play a role in regulating and detoxifying these elements in plants, and protecting the plants against herbivory.

  20. Precipitation of Calcium, Magnesium, Strontium and Barium in Tissues of Four Acacia Species (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae)

    PubMed Central

    He, Honghua; Bleby, Timothy M.; Veneklaas, Erik J.; Lambers, Hans; Kuo, John

    2012-01-01

    Precipitation of calcium in plants is common. There are abundant studies on the uptake and content of magnesium, strontium and barium, which have similar chemical properties to calcium, in comparison with those of calcium in plants, but studies on co-precipitation of these elements with calcium in plants are rare. In this study, we compared morphologies, distributional patterns, and elemental compositions of crystals in tissues of four Acacia species grown in the field as well as in the glasshouse. A comparison was also made of field-grown plants and glasshouse-grown plants, and of phyllodes of different ages for each species. Crystals of various morphologies and distributional patterns were observed in the four Acacia species studied. Magnesium, strontium and barium were precipitated together with calcium, mainly in phyllodes of the four Acacia species, and sometimes in branchlets and primary roots. These elements were most likely precipitated in forms of oxalate and sulfate in various tissues, including epidermis, mesophyll, parenchyma, sclerenchyma (fibre cells), pith, pith ray and cortex. In most cases, precipitation of calcium, magnesium, strontium and barium was biologically induced, and elements precipitated differed between soil types, plant species, and tissues within an individual plant; the precipitation was also related to tissue age. Formation of crystals containing these elements might play a role in regulating and detoxifying these elements in plants, and protecting the plants against herbivory. PMID:22848528

  1. Sodium alginate and gum acacia hydrogels of ZnO nanoparticles show wound healing effect on fibroblast cells.

    PubMed

    Raguvaran, R; Manuja, Balvinder K; Chopra, Meenu; Thakur, Rajesh; Anand, Taruna; Kalia, Anu; Manuja, Anju

    2017-03-01

    An ideal biomaterial for wound dressing applications should possess antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties without any toxicity to the host cells while providing the maximum healing activity. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) possess antimicrobial activity and enhance wound healing, but the questions regarding their safety arise before application to the biological systems. We synthesized ZnONPs-loaded-sodium alginate-gum acacia hydrogels (SAGA-ZnONPs) by cross linking hydroxyl groups of the polymers sodium alginate and gum acacia with the aldehyde group of gluteradehyde. Here, we report the wound healing properties of sodium alginate/gum acacia/ZnONPs, circumventing the toxicity of ZnONPs simultaneously. We demonstrated the concentration-dependent zones of inhibition in treated cultures of Pseudomonas aerigunosa and Bacillus cereus and biocompatability on peripheral blood mononuclear/fibroblast cells. SAGA-ZnONPs hydrogels showed a healing effect at a low concentration of ZnONPs using sheep fibroblast cells. Our findings suggest that high concentrations of ZnONPs were toxic to cells but SAGA-ZnONPs hydrogels significantly reduced the toxicity and preserved the beneficial antibacterial and healing effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of Acacia trees on soil nutrient levels in arid lands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Boever, Maarten; Gabriels, Donald; Ouessar, Mohamed; Cornelis, Wim

    2014-05-01

    The potential of scattered trees as keystone structures in restoring degraded environments is gaining importance. Scattered trees have strong influence on their abiotic environment, mainly causing changes in microclimate, water budget and soil properties. They often function as 'nursing trees', facilitating the recruitment of other plants. Acacia raddiana is such a keystone species which persists on the edge of the Sahara desert. The study was conducted in a forest-steppe ecosystem in central Tunisia where several reforestation campaigns with Acacia took place. To indentify the impact of those trees on soil nutrients, changes in nutrient levels under scattered trees of three age stages were examined for the upper soil layer (0-10 cm) at five microsites with increasing distance from the trunk. In addition, changes in soil nutrient levels with depth underneath and outside the canopy were determined for the 0-30 cm soil layer. Higher concentrations of organic matter (OM) were found along the gradient from underneath to outside the canopy for large trees compared to medium and small trees, especially at microsites close to the trunk. Levels of soluble K, electrical conductivity (EC), available P, OM, total C and N decreased whereas pH and levels of soluble Mg increased with increasing distance from tree. Levels of soluble Ca and Na remained unchanged along the gradient. At the microsite closest to the trunk a significant decrease in levels of soluble K, EC, OM, available P, total C and N, while a significant increase in pH was found with increasing depth. The concentration of other nutrients remained unchanged or declined not differently underneath compared to outside the canopy with increasing depth. Differences in nutrient levels were largely driven by greater inputs of organic matter under trees. Hence, Acacia trees can affect the productivity and reproduction of understory species with the latter in term an important source of organic matter. This positive feedback

  3. Effect of Acacia Gum, NaCl, and Sucrose on Physical Properties of Lotus Stem Starch

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Balmeet Singh

    2014-01-01

    Consumer preferences in east Asian part of the world pave the way for consumption of lotus stem starch (LSS) in preparations such as breakfast meals, fast foods, and traditional confectioneries. The present study envisaged the investigation and optimization of additives, that is, acacia gum, sodium chloride (NaCl), and sucrose, on water absorption (WA), water absorption index (WAI), and water solubility index (WSI) of LSS employing response surface methodology (RSM). Acacia gum resulted in increased water uptake and swelling of starch; however, NaCl reduced the swelling power of starch by making water unavailable to starch and also due to starch-ion electrostatic interaction. Sucrose restricted the water absorption by binding free water and decreased amylose leaching by building bridges with starch chains and thus forming rigid structure. PMID:26904639

  4. The effect of saturated steam vapor temperature on heat consumption in the process of color modification of acacia wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzurenda, Ladislav

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents the heat consumption on the process of colour modification of acacia timber with measures 30 x 55 x 500 mm in pressure autoclaves AZ 240 using saturated water steam with temperatures from t = 110 to 140 °C following the regimes of colour homogenisation of I., II. and III. degree. The dependance of the heat consumption normative QTFS on the temparature of saturated water steam in the process of colour homogenisation of acacia timber following these regimes describes the equation: QTFS = 1.1122.t -13.903 kWh.m-3.

  5. Analysis of differentially expressed genes and adaptive mechanisms of Prunus triloba Lindl. under alkaline stress.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Wang, Yongqing; Li, Qingtian

    2017-01-01

    Prunus triloba Lindl. is a naturally salt-alkaline-tolerant plant with several unique characteristics, and it can be used as the rootstock of Chinese plum ( Prunus salicina Lindl.) in saline-alkaline soils. To comprehensively investigate the alkaline acclimation mechanisms in P. triloba , a series of analyses were conducted under alkaline stress, including analyses of the kinetics of molecular and physiological changes, and leaf microstructure. To understand the kinetics of molecular changes under short-term alkaline stress, we used Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform to identify alkaline stress-related differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in P. triloba . Approximately 53.0 million high-quality clean reads were generated from 59.6 million raw reads, and a total of 124,786 unigenes were obtained after de novo assembly of P. triloba transcriptome data. After alkaline stress treatment, a total of 8948 unigenes were identified as DEGs. Based on these DEGs, a Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis was conducted, suggesting that 28 genes may play an important role in the early alkaline stress response. In addition, analysis of DEGs with the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) revealed that pathways were significant at different treatment time points. A significant positive correlation was found between the quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) results and the RNA-Seq data for seven alkaline-related genes, confirming the reliability of the RNA-Seq results. Based on physiological analysis of P. triloba in response to long-term alkaline stress, we found that the internal microstructures of the leaves of P. triloba changed to adapt to long-term alkaline stress. Various physiological indexes indicated that the degree of membrane injury increased with increasing duration of alkaline stress, affecting photosynthesis in P. triloba seedlings. This represents the first investigation into the physiology and transcriptome of P. triloba in response to alkaline stress. The results

  6. Operational disease screening program for resistance to wilt in Acacia koa in Hawaii

    Treesearch

    Nick Dudley; Robert James; Richard Sniezko; Phil Cannon; Aileen Yeh; Tyler Jones; Michael Kaufmann

    2012-01-01

    In Hawaii, koa (Acacia koa A. Gray) is a valuable tree species economically, ecologically, and culturally. With significant land use change and declines in sugarcane, pineapple, and cattle production, there is an opportunity and keen interest in utilizing native koa in reforestation and restoration efforts. However, moderate to high mortality rates...

  7. Mapping of invasive Acacia species in Brazilian Mussununga ecosystems using high- resolution IR remote sensing data acquired with an autonomous Unmanned Aerial System (UAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, Jan Rudolf Karl; Zvara, Ondrej; Prinz, Torsten

    2015-04-01

    The biological invasion of Australian Acacia species in natural ecosystems outside Australia has often a negative impact on native and endemic plant species and the related biodiversity. In Brazil, the Atlantic rainforest of Bahia and Espirito Santo forms an associated type of ecosystem, the Mussununga. In our days this biologically diverse ecosystem is negatively affected by the invasion of Acacia mangium and Acacia auriculiformis, both introduced to Brazil by the agroforestry to increase the production of pulp and high grade woods. In order to detect the distribution of Acacia species and to monitor the expansion of this invasion the use of high-resolution imagery data acquired with an autonomous Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) proved to be a very promising approach. In this study, two types of datasets - CIR and RGB - were collected since both types provide different information. In case of CIR imagery attention was paid on spectral signatures related to plants, whereas in case of RGB imagery the focus was on surface characteristics. Orthophoto-mosaics and DSM/DTM for both dataset were extracted. RGB/IHS transformations of the imagery's colour space were utilized, as well as NDVIblue index in case of CIR imagery to discriminate plant associations. Next, two test areas were defined in order validate OBIA rule sets using eCognition software. In case of RGB dataset, a rule set based on elevation distinction between high vegetation (including Acacia) and low vegetation (including soils) was developed. High vegetation was classified using Nearest Neighbour algorithm while working with the CIR dataset. The IHS information was used to mask shadows, soils and low vegetation. Further Nearest Neighbour classification was used for distinction between Acacia and other high vegetation types. Finally an accuracy assessment was performed using a confusion matrix. One can state that the IHS information appeared to be helpful in Acacia detection while the surface elevation

  8. Stripping of Acacia koa bark by rats on Hawaii and Maui

    Treesearch

    Paul G. Scowcroft; Howard F. Sakai

    1984-01-01

    Koa (Acacia koa) is the most valuable native timber species in Hawaii. Bark stripping of young trees by rats, a common but unstudied phenomenon, may affect survival, growth, and quality of koa. Up to 54% of the trees sampled in 4- to 6-year-old stands in the Laupahoehoe and Waiakea areas on Hawaii were wounded by rats; only 5% of trees sampled in a l-year-old stand on...

  9. Fine Structure of Bacteroids in Root Nodules of Vigna sinensis, Acacia longifolia, Viminaria juncea, and Lupinus angustifolius

    PubMed Central

    Dart, P. J.; Mercer, F. V.

    1966-01-01

    Dart, P. J. (University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia), and F. V. Mercer. Fine structure of bacteroids in root nodules of Vigna sinensis, Acacia longifolia, Viminaria juncea, and Lupinus angustifolius. J. Bacteriol. 91:1314–1319.—In nodules of Vigna sinensis, Acacia longifolia, and Viminaria juncea, membrane envelopes enclose groups of bacteroids. The bacteroids often contain inclusion granules and electron-dense bodies, expand little during development, and retain their rod form with a compact, central nucleoid area. The membrane envelope may persist around bacteroids after host cytoplasm breakdown. In nodules of Lupinus angustifolius, the membrane envelopes enclose only one or two bacteroids, which expand noticeably during development and change from their initial rod structure. Images PMID:5929757

  10. Early field performance of Acacia koa seedlings grown under subirrigation and overhead irrigation

    Treesearch

    Anthony S. Davis; Jeremiah R. Pinto; Douglass F. Jacobs

    2011-01-01

    Koa (Acacia koa A. Gray [Fabaceae]) seedlings were grown with subirrigation and overhead irrigation systems in an effort to characterize post-nursery field performance. One year following outplanting, we found no differences in seedling height or survival, but root-collar diameter was significantly larger for subirrigated seedlings. This indicates that koa seedlings,...

  11. Ecophysiological and foliar nitrogen concentration responses of understorey Acacia spp. and Eucalyptus sp. to prescribed burning.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ling; Rao, Xingquan; Lu, Ping; Bai, Shahla Hosseini; Xu, Zhihong; Chen, Xiaoyang; Blumfield, Timothy; Xie, Jun

    2015-07-01

    Eucalyptus spp. is a dominant tree genus in Australia and most Eucalyptus spp. are canopy dominant species. In Australian natural forests, Eucalyptus spp. commonly are associated with understorey legumes which play a crucial role for ecological restoration owing to their nitrogen (N) fixing ability for replenishing the soil N lost after frequent prescribed burning. This study aimed to explore to what extent physiological responses of these species differ 7 and 12 years after last fire. Two most common understorey Acacia spp., Acacia leiocalyx and A. disparrima, as well as one non-leguminous Eucalyptus resinifera, were studied due to their dominance in the forest. Both A. leiocalyx and A. disparrima showed higher carbon (C) assimilation capacity, maximum photosynthetic capacity, and moderate foliar C/N ratio compared with E. resinifera. A. leiocalyx showed various advantages compared to A. disparrima such as higher photosynthetic capacity, adaptation to wider light range and higher foliar total N (TNmass). A. leiocalyx also relied on N2-fixing ability for longer time compared to A. disparrima. The results suggested that the two Acacia spp. were more beneficial to C and N cycles for the post burning ecosystem than the non-N2-fixing species E. resinifera. A. leiocalyx had greater contribution to complementing soil N cycle long after burning compared to A. disparrima.

  12. Analysis of commercial proanthocyanidins. Part 4: solid state (13)C NMR as a tool for in situ analysis of proanthocyanidin tannins, in heartwood and bark of quebracho and acacia, and related species.

    PubMed

    Reid, David G; Bonnet, Susan L; Kemp, Gabre; van der Westhuizen, Jan H

    2013-10-01

    (13)C NMR is an effective method of characterizing proanthocyanidin (PAC) tannins in quebracho (Schinopsis lorentzii) heartwood and black wattle (Acacia mearnsii) bark, before and after commercial extraction. The B-rings of the constituent flavan-3-ols, catechols (quebracho) or pyrogallols (wattle), are recognized in unprocessed source materials by "marker" signals at ca. 118 or 105ppm, respectively. NMR allows the minimum extraction efficiency to be calculated; ca. 30%, and ca. 80%, for quebracho heartwood and black wattle bark, respectively. NMR can also identify PAC tannin (predominantly robinetinidin), and compare tannin content, in bark from other acacia species; tannin content decreases in the order A. mearnsii, Acacia pycnantha (87% of A. mearnsii), Acacia dealbata and Acacia decurrens (each 74%) and Acacia karroo (30%). Heartwood from an underexploited PAC tannin source, Searsia lancea, taxonomically close to quebracho, shows abundant profisetinidin and catechin PACs. NMR offers the advantage of being applicable to source materials in their native state, and has potential applications in optimizing extraction processes, identification of tannin sources, and characterization of tannin content in cultivar yield improvement programmes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Antidepressent Effect of Two New Benzyl Derivatives from Wild Strawberry Fragaria vesca var. nubicola Lindl. ex Hook.f.

    PubMed

    Naz, Sadia; Farooq, Umar; Khan, Ajmal; Khan, Haroon; Karim, Nasiara; Sarwar, Rizwana; Hussain, Javid; Rauf, Abdur

    2017-01-01

    Two new benzyl derivatives were isolated from ethyl acetate fraction of wild strawberry, Fragaria vesca var. nubicola Lindl. ex Hook.f. The structures of these compounds were elucidated to be 5-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenethyl)-7-methoxy-2H-chromen-3-ol ( 1 ) and 5-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenethyl)-4,7-dimethoxy-2H-chromen-3-ol ( 2 ) based on spectroscopic data through IR, UV, 1 H-NMR, 13 C-NMR along with two dimensional (2D) techniques HMBC, HMQC, and COSY. Both compounds 1 and 2 were studied in tail suspension and forced swim tests for antidepressant like effects. A significant dose dependent antidepressant like effect was observed by causing spontaneous anti-immobility at various test doses upon intraperitoneal administration.

  14. Polyploidy can Confer Superiority to West African Acacia senegal (L.) Willd. Trees

    PubMed Central

    Diallo, Adja M.; Nielsen, Lene R.; Kjær, Erik D.; Petersen, Karen K.; Ræbild, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Polyploidy is a common phenomenon in the evolution of angiosperms. It has been suggested that polyploids manage harsh environments better than their diploid relatives but empirical data supporting this hypothesis are scarce, especially for trees. Using microsatellite markers and flow cytometry, we examine the frequency of polyploids and diploids in a progeny trial testing four different populations of Acacia senegal, a species native to sub-Saharan regions of Africa. We compare growth between cytotypes and test whether polyploid seedlings grow better than diploids. Our results show that polyploids coexist with diploids in highly variable proportions among populations in Senegal. Acacia senegal genotypes were predominantly diploid and tetraploid, but triploid, pentaploid, hexaploid, and octaploid forms were also found. We find that polyploids show faster growth than diploids under our test conditions: in an 18 years old field trial, polyploid superiority was estimated to be 17% in trunk diameter and 9% in height while in a growth chamber experiment, polyploids grew 28% taller, but only after being exposed to drought stress. The results suggest that polyploid A. senegal can have an adaptive advantage in some regions of Africa. PMID:27379120

  15. Polyploidy can Confer Superiority to West African Acacia senegal (L.) Willd. Trees.

    PubMed

    Diallo, Adja M; Nielsen, Lene R; Kjær, Erik D; Petersen, Karen K; Ræbild, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Polyploidy is a common phenomenon in the evolution of angiosperms. It has been suggested that polyploids manage harsh environments better than their diploid relatives but empirical data supporting this hypothesis are scarce, especially for trees. Using microsatellite markers and flow cytometry, we examine the frequency of polyploids and diploids in a progeny trial testing four different populations of Acacia senegal, a species native to sub-Saharan regions of Africa. We compare growth between cytotypes and test whether polyploid seedlings grow better than diploids. Our results show that polyploids coexist with diploids in highly variable proportions among populations in Senegal. Acacia senegal genotypes were predominantly diploid and tetraploid, but triploid, pentaploid, hexaploid, and octaploid forms were also found. We find that polyploids show faster growth than diploids under our test conditions: in an 18 years old field trial, polyploid superiority was estimated to be 17% in trunk diameter and 9% in height while in a growth chamber experiment, polyploids grew 28% taller, but only after being exposed to drought stress. The results suggest that polyploid A. senegal can have an adaptive advantage in some regions of Africa.

  16. Impact of the energy crop Jatropha curcas L. on the composition of rhizobial populations nodulating cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) and acacia (Acacia seyal L.).

    PubMed

    Dieng, Amadou; Duponnois, Robin; Floury, Antoine; Laguerre, Gisèle; Ndoye, Ibrahima; Baudoin, Ezékiel

    2015-03-01

    Jatropha curcas, a Euphorbiaceae species that produces many toxicants, is increasingly planted as an agrofuel plant in Senegal. The purpose of this study was to determine whether soil priming induced by J. curcas monoculture could alter the rhizobial populations that nodulate cowpea and acacia, two locally widespread legumes. Soil samples were transferred into a greenhouse from three fields previously cultivated with Jatropha for 1, 2, and 15 years, and the two trap legumes were grown in them. Control soil samples were also taken from adjacent Jatropha-fallow plots. Both legumes tended to develop fewer but larger nodules when grown in Jatropha soils. Nearly all the nifH sequences amplified from nodule DNA were affiliated to the Bradyrhizobium genus. Only sequences from Acacia seyal nodules grown in the most recent Jatropha plantation were related to the Mesorhizobium genus, which was much a more conventional finding on A. seyal than the unexpected Bradyrhizobium genus. Apart from this particular case, only minor differences were found in the respective compositions of Jatropha soil versus control soil rhizobial populations. Lastly, the structure of these rhizobial populations was systematically imbalanced owing to the overwhelming dominance of a very small number of nifH genotypes, some of which were identical across soil types or even sites. Despite these weak and sparse effects on rhizobial diversity, future investigations should focus on the characterization of the nitrogen-fixing abilities of the predominant rhizobial strains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. A green approach to prepare silver nanoparticles loaded gum acacia/poly(acrylate) hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, S K; Kumari, Mamta

    2015-09-01

    In this work, gum acacia (GA)/poly(sodium acrylate) semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (Semi-IPN) have been fabricated via free radical initiated aqueous polymerization of monomer sodium acrylate (SA) in the presence of dissolved Gum acacia (GA), using N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MB) as cross-linker and potassium persulphate (KPS) as initiator. The semi-IPNs, synthesized, were characterized by various techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The dynamic water uptake behavior of semi-IPNs was investigated and the data were interpreted by various kinetic models. The equilibrium swelling data were used to evaluate various network parameters. The semi-IPNs were used as template for the in situ preparation of silver nanoparticles using extract of Syzygium aromaticum (clove). The formation of silver nanoparticles was confirmed by surface plasmon resonance (SPR), XRD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Finally, the antibacterial activity of GA/poly(SA)/silver nanocomposites was tested against E. coli. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Stable isotope ratios and reforestation potential in Acacia koa populations on Hawai'i

    Treesearch

    Shaneka Lawson; Carrie Pike

    2017-01-01

    Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes can be influenced by a multitude of factors including elevation, precipitation rate, season, and temperature. This work examined variability in foliar stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope ratios of koa (Acacia koa) across 17 sites on Hawai'i Island, delineated by elevation and precipitation...

  19. Aboveground biomass equations for 7-year-old Acacia mangium Willd in Botucatu, Brazil

    Treesearch

    Ricardo A. A. Veiga; Maria A. M. Brasil; Carlos M. Carvalho

    2000-01-01

    The biomass of steins, leaves, and branches was determined for 152 sample trees of Acacia mangium Willd were in a 7-year-old experimental plantation in Botucatu, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. After felling, dimensional measurements were taken from each tree. Cross sections were collected in 125 sample trees at ground level (0 percent), 25 percent, 50...

  20. Whole-tree transpiration and water-use partitioning between Eucalyptus nitens and Acacia dealbata weeds in a short-rotation plantation in northeastern Tasmania.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Mark A.; Beadle, Christopher L.

    1998-01-01

    Whole-tree water use in 4- and 8-year-old plantations of Eucalyptus nitens Deane and Maiden (ex Maiden) in the presence and absence of Acacia dealbata Link. weeds was estimated by the heat pulse velocity technique during a six-week summer period. Maximum sap velocities were recorded between 5 and 15 mm under the cambium for both eucalypt and acacia trees, and marked radial and axial variations in sap velocity were observed. The latter source of variation was most pronounced in mixed stands where crowns were asymmetrical. Mean daily sap flux ranged from 1.4 to 103.6 l day(-1) for eucalypts and from < 0.1 to 8.4 l day(-1) for acacias. Stem diameter explained 98% of the variation in sapwood area for E. nitens and 89% for A. dealbata, and was determined to be a suitable parameter for scaling water use from the tree to stand level. Plot transpiration varied from 1.4 to 2.8 mm day(-1) in mixed 8-year-old plots and was 0.85 mm day(-1) in a mixed 4-year-old plot. The degree of A. dealbata infestation was associated with absolute plot water use and regression models predicted that, in the absence of acacia competition, plot water use for the 8-year-old stand would approach 5-6 mm day(-1) during the growing season.

  1. Evaluation of Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Acacia aroma Leaf Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Mattana, C. M.; Cangiano, M. A.; Alcaráz, L. E.; Sosa, A.; Escobar, F.; Sabini, C.; Sabini, L.; Laciar, A. L.

    2014-01-01

    Acacia aroma, native plant from San Luis, Argentina, is commonly used as antiseptic and for healing of wounds. The present study was conducted to investigate the in vitro cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of hot aqueous extract (HAE) and ethanolic extract (EE) of A. aroma. The cytotoxic activity was assayed by neutral red uptake assay on Vero cell. Cell treatment with a range from 100 to 5000 μg/mL of HAE and EE showed that 500 μg/mL and 100 μg/mL were the maximum noncytotoxic concentrations, respectively. The CC50 was 658 μg/mL for EE and 1020 μg/mL for HAE. The genotoxicity was tested by the single-cell gel electrophoresis comet assay. The results obtained in the evaluation of DNA cellular damage exposed to varied concentrations of the HAE showed no significant genotoxic effect at range of 1–20 mg/mL. The EE at 20 mg/mL showed moderate genotoxic effect related to the increase of the DNA percentage contained in tail of the comet; DNA was classified in category 2. At concentrations below 5 mg/mL, the results of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Acacia aroma guarantee the safety at cell and genomic level. However further studies are needed for longer periods including animal models to confirm the findings. PMID:25530999

  2. [Growth effect of eucalyptus-acacia mixed plantation in South China].

    PubMed

    Yang, Zeng-Jiang; Xu, Da-Ping; Chen, Wen-Ping; Huang, Lie-Jian; Li, Shang-Jun; Chen, Yuan

    2009-10-01

    Eucalyptus U6 and Acacia crassicarpa were mixed planted with different ratios and modes to investigate the growth parameters of the two tree species. In the 2-3 years old mixed plantation, the wind-throw of A. crassicarpa decreased markedly with increasing ratio of Eucalyptus U6, the decrement being 26.14% when the Eucalyptus U6/A. crassicarpa ratio was 3 : 1, but the survival rates of Eucalyptus U6 and A. crassicarpa had no significant difference under different planting modes. Mixed planting retarded the A. crassicarpa growth to some extent, with the DBH being 90% of that in pure A. crassicarpa stand. The mixed planting had little effects on the height growth of Eucalyptus U6, but promoted its DBH growth markedly, and the beneficial effect increased with increasing ratio of A. crassicarpa. In the 6 years old 1 : 1 Eucalyptus U6/A. crassicarpa plantation, the Eucalyptus U6 individuals with DBH > 15 cm occupied 32.1%; while in pure Eucalyptus U6 stand, they only accounted for 5.83%. Mixed planting with 2 : 1 Eucalyptus U6/A. crassicarpa could obtain a maximum total biomass of 198.8 m3 x hm(-2), which was 118.8% of the total biomass in pure Eucalyptus U6 stand, or 169.9% of that in pure A. crassicarpa stand. Mixture of Eucalyptus with Acacia would be a good choice to produce Eucalyptus trees with larger DBH.

  3. Competition for light and light use efficiency for Acacia mangium and Eucalyptus grandis trees in mono-specific and mixed-species plantations in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Maire, G.; Nouvellon, Y.; Gonçalves, J.; Bouillet, J.; Laclau, J.

    2010-12-01

    Mixed plantations with N-fixing species might be an attractive option for limiting the use of fertilizer in highly productive Eucalyptus plantations. A randomized block design was set up in southern Brazil, including a replacement series and an additive series design, as well as a nitrogen fertilization treatment, and conducted during a full 6 years rotation. The gradient of competition between Eucalyptus and Acacia in this design resulted in very different conditions of growth of Acacia, from totally dominated up to dominant canopies. We used the MAESTRA model to estimate the amount of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (APAR) at tree level. This model requires the description of the scene and distinct structural variables of the two species, and their evolution with time. The competition for light is analysed by comparing the inter-specific values of APAR during a period of 2 years at the end of the rotation. APAR is further compared to the measured increment in stem wood biomass of the tree, and their ratio is an estimation of the light use efficiency for stemwood production at tree-scale. Variability of these LUE are analysed in respect to the species, the size of the tree, and at plot scale (competition level). Stemwood production was 3400, 3900 and 2400 gDM/m2 while APAR was 1640, 2280 and 2900 MJ/y for the pure Eucalyptus, pure Acacia and 50/50 mixed plantation, respectively, for an average LAI of 3.7, 3.3 and 4.5, respectively. Individual LUE for stemwood was estimated at an average value of 1.72 and 1.41 gDM/MJ/tree for Eucalyptus and Acacia, respectively, and at 0.92 and 0.40 gDM/MJ/tree when they were planted in mixed 50/50 plantations. LUE was highly dependant on tree size for both species. At the plot scale, LUE for stemwood were 2.1 gDM/MJ and 1.75 for Eucalyptus and Acacias, respectively, and 0.85 for the mixed 50/50 plantation. These results suggest that the mixed 50/50 plantation, which absorbed a higher amount of light, produce less

  4. Nursery response of Acacia koa seedlings to container size, irrigation method, and fertilization rate

    Treesearch

    R. Kasten Dumroese; Anthony S. Davis; Douglass F. Jacobs

    2011-01-01

    Planting koa (Acacia koa A. Gray) in Hawai'i, USA aids in restoration of disturbed sites essential to conservation of endemic species. Survival and growth of planted seedlings under vegetative competition typically increases with initial plant size. Increasing container size and fertilizer rate may produce larger seedlings, but high fertilization can lead to...

  5. Cadmium tolerance and phytoremediation potential of acacia (Acacia nilotica L.) under salinity stress.

    PubMed

    Shabir, Rahat; Abbas, Ghulam; Saqib, Muhammad; Shahid, Muhammad; Shah, Ghulam Mustafa; Akram, Muhammad; Niazi, Nabeel Khan; Naeem, Muhammad Asif; Hussain, Munawar; Ashraf, Farah

    2018-06-07

    In this study, we explored the effect of salinity on cadmium (Cd) tolerance and phytoremediation potential of Acacia nilotica. Two-month-old uniform plants of A. nilotica were grown in pots contaminated with various levels of Cd (0, 5, 10, and 15 mg kg -1 ), NaCl (0%, 0.5%, 1.0% (hereafter referred as salinity), and all possible combinations of Cd + salinity for a period of six months. Results showed that shoot and root growth, biomass, tissue water content and chlorophyll (chl a, chl b, and total chl a+b) contents decreased more in response to salinity and combination of Cd + salinity compared to Cd alone. Shoot and root K concentrations significantly decreased with increasing soil Cd levels, whereas Na and Cl concentrations were not affected significantly. Shoot and root Cd concentrations, bioconcentration factor (BCF) and translocation factor (TF) increased with increasing soil Cd and Cd + salinity levels. At low level of salinity (0.5%), shoot and root Cd uptake enhanced, while it decreased at high level of salinity (1.0%). Due to Cd tolerance, high shoot biomass and shoot Cd uptake, this tree species has some potential for phytoremediation of Cd from the metal contaminated saline and nonsaline soils.

  6. Chemical composition and nutritional evaluation of the seeds of Acacia tortilis (Forssk.) Hayne ssp. raddiana.

    PubMed

    Embaby, Hassan E; Rayan, Ahmed M

    2016-06-01

    Chemical composition and nutritional evaluation as well as physicochemical and functional properties of seed flour of Acacia tortilis (Forssk.) Hayne ssp. raddiana were studied. The results indicated that seeds contained 5.30% moisture, 3.99% ash, 9.19% fat, 14.31% fiber, 27.21% protein and 45.30% carbohydrates. Potassium was the predominant element followed by calcium and then phosphorous. Phytic acid, tannins and trypsin inhibitor as antinutrients were detected. The amino acid profile compared well with FAO/WHO recommended pattern except for cystine/methionine, isoleucine, tyrosine/phenylalanine, lysine and threonine. Also, the first limiting amino acid was lysine. Fatty acid composition showed that linoleic acid was the major fatty acid, followed by palmitic, stearic, oleic and arachidic acids. The seed oil showed absorbance in the ultraviolet ranges, thus it can be used as a broad spectrum UV protectant. For physicochemical and functional properties, acacia seeds flour had excellent water holding index, swelling index, foaming capacity and foam stability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Modulatory role of Acacia honey from north-west Nigeria on sodium arsenite-induced clastogenicity and oxidative stress in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Aliyu; Odunola, Oyeronke A; Gbadegesin, Michael A; Adegoke, Ayodeji M; Olugbami, J Olorunjuwon; Uche, Ndidi S

    2015-01-01

    Effect of Acacia honey from north-west Nigeria on sodium arsenite-induced oxidative damage and clastogenicity in male Wistar rats was investigated. Animals were divided into four groups and were treated daily via oral gavage for one week before they were sacrificed. Brain, liver and blood serum were collected for antioxidant and protein assays. Clastogenicity, in vitro antioxidant activity, vitamins and minerals were also evaluated. From the results, co-administration of Acacia honey with sodium arsenite on the animals increased (P < 0.05) glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities with concomitant decrease in malondialdehyde levels and anti-clastogenic effects relative to the group treated with sodium arsenite only. The honey possesses reducing power, high hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity, good amount of vitamins (A, C and E), flavonoids (5.08 ± 0.92 mg QE/100 g) and phenolics (5.40 ± 0.69 mg GAE/100 g). The minerals present include zinc, iron, sodium, magnesium, potassium and calcium. In conclusion, Acacia honey from Nigeria may mitigate oxidative stress and clastogenicity.

  8. Effects of phosphorus fertilization, seed source, and soil type on growth of Acacia koa

    Treesearch

    P. G. Scowcroft; J. A. Silva

    2005-01-01

    The endemic tree Acacia koa is used to reforest abandoned agricuItural lands in Hawaii. Growth may be constrained by soil infertility and toxic concentrations of aluminum (AI) and manganese (Mn) in acidic Oxisols and Ultisols, The effects of phosphorus (P) fertilization at time of planting, soil type, and seed source on koa growth were studied for three years....

  9. Copper and lead bioaccumulation by Acacia retinoides and Eucalyptus torquata in sites contaminated as a consequence of extensive ancient mining activities in Cyprus.

    PubMed

    Pyatt, F B

    2001-09-01

    Aspects of the industrial archaeology of the northwestern part of the island of Cyprus are outlined. Wastes resultant from copper mining activities of approximately two millennia ago continue to exert an important influence on organisms. Detailed chemical analysis of two tree species growing on archaeologically important metalliferous spoil tips has indicated their ability to bioaccumulate heavy metals and sulfur primarily from the substratum; the bioaccumulation and biomagnification of lead and sulfur are particularly marked in both Acacia and Eucalyptus. The concentrations of elements in different parts of the two tree species are discussed and partitioning is noted together with the fact that while the pod of Acacia and the fruit capsule of Eucalyptus may have an enhanced metal loading, the values in the seeds are much reduced; the importance of this is discussed. The seeds of Acacia differ chemically from those of Eucalyptus. The importance of these plants as biomonitors of environmental quality is noted. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  10. Impact of Hurricane Iniki on native Hawaiian Acacia koa forests: damage and two-year recovery

    Treesearch

    Robin A. Harrington; James H. Fownes; Paul G. Scowcroft; Cheryl S. Vann

    1997-01-01

    Damage to Hawaiian Acacia koa forest by Hurricane Iniki was assessed by comparison with our previous measures of stand structure and leaf area index (LAI) at sites along a precipitation/elevation gradient on western Kauai. Reductions in LAI ranged from 29 to 80% and were correlated with pre-hurricane LAI and canopy height. The canopy damage...

  11. Stocktype and grass suppression accelerate the restoration trajectory of Acacia koa in Hawaiian montane ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Jeremy Pinto; Anthony S. Davis; James J. K. Leary; Matthew M. Aghai

    2015-01-01

    Restoring degraded mesic-montane forests represents a major challenge in maintaining functioning ecosystems throughout the tropics. A key example of this lies in Hawai‘i, where restoring native koa (Acacia koa, A. Gray) forests are a top conservation and forestry priority because of the critical habitat and high-value timber products that they provide. Efforts...

  12. Excessive sulphur accumulation and ionic storage behaviour identified in species of Acacia (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae)

    PubMed Central

    Reid, N.; Robson, T. C.; Radcliffe, B.; Verrall, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Thiophores, which are typically desert gypsophytes, accumulate high (2–6 % S dry weight) sulphur concentrations and may possess unique tolerance to environmental stress factors, e.g. sulphate/metal toxicity, drought and salinity. Little is known of the prevalence of the behaviour or the associated physiological aspects. The aim of this study was to (a) determine the prevalence of thiophore behaviour in a group of Australian xerophytes; (b) identify elemental uptake/storage characteristics of these thiophores; and (c) determine whether the behaviour is constitutive or environmental. Methods The elemental composition of soils and the foliage of 11 species (seven genera) at a site in the Tanami Desert (NT, Australia) was compared and 13 additional Acacia species from other locations were examined for elevated calcium and sulphur concentrations and calcium–sulphur mineralization, thought to be particular to thiophores. Key Results Acacia bivenosa DC. and 11 closely related species were identified as thiophores that can accumulate high levels of sulphur (up to 3·2 %) and calcium (up to 6.8 %), but no thiophores were identified in other genera occupying the same habitat. This behaviour was observed in several populations from diverse habitats, from samples collected over three decades. It was also observed that these thiophores featured gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) crystal druses that completely filled cells and vascular systems in their dried phyllode tissues. Conclusions The thiophores studied exhibit a tight coupling between sulphur and calcium uptake and storage, and apparently store these elements as inorganic salts within the cells of their foliage. Thiophore behaviour is a constitutive trait shared by closely related Acacia but is not highly prevalent within, nor exclusive to, xerophytes. Several of the newly identified thiophores occupy coastal or riparian habitats, suggesting that the evolutionary and ecophysiological explanations for this trait

  13. Excessive sulphur accumulation and ionic storage behaviour identified in species of Acacia (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae).

    PubMed

    Reid, N; Robson, T C; Radcliffe, B; Verrall, M

    2016-04-01

    Thiophores, which are typically desert gypsophytes, accumulate high (2-6 % S dry weight) sulphur concentrations and may possess unique tolerance to environmental stress factors, e.g. sulphate/metal toxicity, drought and salinity. Little is known of the prevalence of the behaviour or the associated physiological aspects. The aim of this study was to (a) determine the prevalence of thiophore behaviour in a group of Australian xerophytes; (b) identify elemental uptake/storage characteristics of these thiophores; and (c) determine whether the behaviour is constitutive or environmental. The elemental composition of soils and the foliage of 11 species (seven genera) at a site in the Tanami Desert (NT, Australia) was compared and 13 additional Acacia species from other locations were examined for elevated calcium and sulphur concentrations and calcium-sulphur mineralization, thought to be particular to thiophores. Acacia bivenosa DC. and 11 closely related species were identified as thiophores that can accumulate high levels of sulphur (up to 3·2 %) and calcium (up to 6.8 %), but no thiophores were identified in other genera occupying the same habitat. This behaviour was observed in several populations from diverse habitats, from samples collected over three decades. It was also observed that these thiophores featured gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) crystal druses that completely filled cells and vascular systems in their dried phyllode tissues. The thiophores studied exhibit a tight coupling between sulphur and calcium uptake and storage, and apparently store these elements as inorganic salts within the cells of their foliage. Thiophore behaviour is a constitutive trait shared by closely related Acacia but is not highly prevalent within, nor exclusive to, xerophytes. Several of the newly identified thiophores occupy coastal or riparian habitats, suggesting that the evolutionary and ecophysiological explanations for this trait do not lie solely in adaptation to arid conditions or

  14. Colorimetric Detection Based on Localised Surface Plasmon Resonance Optical Characteristics for the Detection of Hydrogen Peroxide Using Acacia Gum–Stabilised Silver Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Alzahrani, Eman

    2017-01-01

    The use of nanoparticles in sensing is attracting the interest of many researchers. The aim of this work was to fabricate Acacia gum–stabilised silver nanoparticles (SNPs) using green chemistry to use them as a highly sensitive and cost-effective localised surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) colorimeter sensor for the determination of reactive oxygen species, such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Silver nanoparticles were fabricated by the reduction of an inorganic precursor silver nitrate solution (AgNO3) using white sugar as the reducing reagent and Acacia gum as the stabilising reagent and a sonication bath to form uniform silver nanoparticles. The fabricated nanoparticles were characterised by visual observation, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The TEM micrographs of the synthesised nanoparticles showed the presence of spherical nanoparticles with sizes of approximately 10 nm. The EDAX spectrum result confirmed the presence of silver (58%), carbon (30%), and oxygen (12%). Plasmon colorimetric sensing of H2O2 solution was investigated by introducing H2O2 solution into Acacia gum–capped SNP dispersion, and the change in the LSPR band in the UV-Vis region of spectra was monitored. In this study, it was found that the yellow colour of Acacia gum–stabilised SNPs gradually changed to transparent, and moreover, a remarkable change in the LSPR absorbance strength was observed. The calibration curve was linear over 0.1–0.00001 M H2O2, with a correlation estimation (R2) of .953. This was due to the aggregation of SNPs following introduction of the H2O2 solution. Furthermore, the fabricated SNPs were successfully used to detect H2O2 solution in a liquid milk sample, thereby demonstrating the ability of the fabricated SNPs to detect H2O2 solution in liquid milk samples. This

  15. Characterization and emulsifying properties of β-lactoglobulin-gum Acacia Seyal conjugates prepared via the Maillard reaction.

    PubMed

    Bi, Binwei; Yang, Hao; Fang, Yapeng; Nishinari, Katsuyoshi; Phillips, Glyn O

    2017-01-01

    Gum Acacia Seyal (ASY) is less valued than is gum Acacia Senegal, due to its poor emulsifying ability. The present study investigated the Maillard reaction between ASY and β-lactoglobulin (BLG) and its impact on the emulsifying properties of ASY. The reaction products of BLG/ASY mixture (r=1/4), prepared by dry-heating at 60°C and a relative humidity of 79%, as a function of incubation time, were characterized by SDS-PAGE, GPC-MALLS and DSC. The results showed that 12-24h of dry-heating under the given conditions was sufficient for conjugation, meanwhile avoiding the formation of deeply coloured and insoluble melanoidins. More than 64% of the protein was incorporated into ASY, resulting in a two-fold increase in arabinogalactan-protein (AGP) content and 3.5 times increase in weight-average molecular mass of ASY. The conjugation with BLG markedly improved the stability of ASY-stabilized emulsions and their resistance against severe conditions, such as low pH and high saline conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Understory structure in a 23-year-old Acacia koa forest and 2-year growth responses to silvicultural treatments

    Treesearch

    Paul G. Scowcroft; Janis E. Haraguchi; David M. Fujii

    2008-01-01

    Restoration of degraded Acacia koa forests in Hawaii often involves mechanical scarification to stimulate germination of seed buried in the soil and to suppress vegetation that competes with shade intolerant A. koa. Resulting even-age stands are gradually colonized by other plant species, but understory...

  17. Genetic diversity of loquat germplasm (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb) Lindl) assessed by SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Soriano, José Miguel; Romero, Carlos; Vilanova, Santiago; Llácer, Gerardo; Badenes, María Luisa

    2005-02-01

    Genetic relationships among 40 loquat (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb) Lindl) accessions that originated from different countries and that are part of the germplasm collection of the Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias (IVIA) (Valencia, Spain) were evaluated using microsatellites. Thirty primer pairs flanking microsatellites previously identified in Malus x domestica (Borkh.) were assayed. Thirteen of them amplified polymorphic products and unambiguously distinguished 34 genotypes from the 40 accessions analyzed. Six accessions showing identical marker patterns were Spanish local varieties thought to have been derived from 'Algerie' by a mutational process very common in loquat species. A total of 39 alleles were detected in the population studied, with a mean value of 2.4 alleles per locus. The expected and observed heterozygosities were 0.46 and 51% on average, respectively, leading to a negative value of the Wright's fixation index (-0.20). The values of these parameters indicate a smaller degree of genetic diversity in the set of loquat accessions analyzed than in other members of the Rosaceae family. Unweighted pair-group method (UPGMA) cluster analysis, based on Nei's genetic distance, generally grouped genotypes according to their geographic origins and pedigrees. The high number of alleles and the high expected heterozygosity detected with SSR markers developed in Malus x domestica (Borkh.) make them a suitable tool for loquat cultivar identification, confirming microsatellite marker transportability among genera in the Rosaceae family.

  18. The Pollination Mechanism in Trigonidium obtusum Lindl (Orchidaceae: Maxillariinae): Sexual Mimicry and Trap‐flowers

    PubMed Central

    SINGER, RODRIGO B.

    2002-01-01

    The pollination process in Trigonidium obtusum Lindl. (Epidendroideae: Maxillariinae) is documented. The flowers are pollinated by sexually excited drones of Plebeia droryana (Meliponinae). When attempting to copulate either with sepals or petals, these bees slip on the waxy perianth surface and become trapped in the funnel‐like flower tube. Bees trying to escape from the flowers may instead access the space between the column and lip, fixing the pollinarium on their scutellum. Pollinarium‐bearing bees may pollinate the flowers when repeating the above‐mentioned steps, leaving pollinia on the concave stigmatic surface, thus effecting pollination. Recently removed pollinaria are too broad to enter the stigma but they begin to dehydrate and within 40 min of removal are small enough to fit the stigmatic cavity. This mechanism prevents insect‐mediated self‐pollination and promotes cross‐pollination. Preliminary evidence based on experiments with cultivated plants suggests that they are self‐compatible but that fruit set is pollinator‐dependent. The data obtained are discussed in a phylogenetic context. It is suggested that the pseudocopulatory syndrome in Trigonidium could have evolved from rewardless (food advertising) ancestors. Pseudocopulation in the context of the long flowering period of this orchid species (about 7 months) is understandable since the eusocial Plebeia bees produce fertile individuals several times a year. PMID:12099346

  19. The pollination mechanism in Trigonidium obtusum Lindl (Orchidaceae: Maxillariinae): sexual mimicry and trap-flowers.

    PubMed

    Singer, Rodrigo B

    2002-02-01

    The pollination process in Trigonidium obtusum Lindl. (Epidendroideae: Maxillariinae) is documented. The flowers are pollinated by sexually excited drones of Plebeia droryana (Meliponinae). When attempting to copulate either with sepals or petals, these bees slip on the waxy perianth surface and become trapped in the funnel-like flower tube. Bees trying to escape from the flowers may instead access the space between the column and lip, fixing the pollinarium on their scutellum. Pollinarium-bearing bees may pollinate the flowers when repeating the above-mentioned steps, leaving pollinia on the concave stigmatic surface, thus effecting pollination. Recently removed pollinaria are too broad to enter the stigma but they begin to dehydrate and within 40 min of removal are small enough to fit the stigmatic cavity. This mechanism prevents insect-mediated self-pollination and promotes cross-pollination. Preliminary evidence based on experiments with cultivated plants suggests that they are self-compatible but that fruit set is pollinator-dependent. The data obtained are discussed in a phylogenetic context. It is suggested that the pseudocopulatory syndrome in Trigonidium could have evolved from rewardless (food advertising) ancestors. Pseudocopulation in the context of the long flowering period of this orchid species (about 7 months) is understandable since the eusocial Plebeia bees produce fertile individuals several times a year.

  20. Effect of Organic and Conventional Management on Bio-Functional Quality of Thirteen Plum Cultivars (Prunus salicina Lindl.).

    PubMed

    Cuevas, Francisco Julián; Pradas, Inmaculada; Ruiz-Moreno, María José; Arroyo, Francisco Teodoro; Perez-Romero, Luis Felipe; Montenegro, José Carlos; Moreno-Rojas, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    In this study, thirteen Japanese plum cultivars (Prunus salicina Lindl.) grown under conventional and organic conditions were compared to evaluate the influence of the culture system on bioactive compounds. Their organic acids content (malic, citric, tartaric, succinic, shikimic, ascorbic and fumaric acid), total polyphenols, total anthocyanins, total carotenoids and antioxidant capacity (FRAP, ABTS) were evaluated. The study was performed during two consecutive seasons (2012 and 2013) in two experimental orchards located at the IFAPA centre Las Torres-Tomejil (Seville, SW Spain). The culture system affected all the studied parameters except for total carotenoid content. The organic plums had significantly higher polyphenol and anthocyanin concentrations and a greater antioxidant capacity. Additionally, significant differences between cultivars were also found. 'Showtime' and 'Friar' were the cultivars with the highest polyphenol concentration and antioxidant capacity. 'Black Amber' had the highest anthocyanin content and 'Larry Ann' and 'Songold' the highest carotenoid content. 'Sapphire' and 'Black amber' were the cultivars with the highest concentration of ascorbic acid. Our results showed a strong year effect. In conclusion, organic management had an impact on the production of phytochemical compounds in plums.

  1. Ephedra alte (Joint Pine): An Invasive, Problematic Weedy Species in Forestry and Fruit Tree Orchards in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Qasem, Jamal R.

    2012-01-01

    A field survey was carried out to record plant species climbed by Ephedra alte in certain parts of Jordan during 2008–2010. Forty species of shrubs, ornamental, fruit, and forest trees belonging to 24 plant families suffered from the climbing habit of E. alte. Growth of host plants was adversely affected by E. alte growth that extended over their vegetation. In addition to its possible competition for water and nutrients, the extensive growth it forms over host species prevents photosynthesis, smothers growth and makes plants die underneath the extensive cover. However, E. alte did not climb all plant species, indicating a host preference range. Damaged fruit trees included Amygdalus communis, Citrus aurantifolia, Ficus carica, Olea europaea, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Punica granatum. Forestry species that were adversely affected included Acacia cyanophylla, Ceratonia siliqua, Crataegus azarolus, Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus halepensis, Pistacia atlantica, Pistacia palaestina, Quercus coccifera, Quercus infectoria, Retama raetam, Rhamnus palaestina, Rhus tripartita, and Zizyphus spina-christi. Woody ornamentals attacked were Ailanthus altissima, Hedera helix, Jasminum fruticans, Jasminum grandiflorum, Nerium oleander, and Pyracantha coccinea. Results indicated that E. alte is a strong competitive for light and can completely smother plants supporting its growth. A. communis, F. carica, R. palaestina, and C. azarolus were most frequently attacked. PMID:22645486

  2. Acacia mangium: Growing and utilization. MPTS monograph series No. 3

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Awang, K.; Taylor, D.

    With deforestation in the Asia-Pacific region progressing at the rate of 4.4 million ha per year, many countries have adopted plantation forestry using fast-growing species as a way to sustain the commercial supply of tree products and reduce pressure on natural forests. Acacia mangium (A. mangium) is playing a large role in this development, especially in Indonesia and Malaysia, due to its versatility and its ability to recapture grasslands dominated by the noxious weed, Imperata cylindrica. This monograph consolidates information on A. mangium from published literature, unpublished reports and studies, and observations from those familiar with the species. Priorities formore » future research are included in each chapter and in the final summary.« less

  3. Host-driven diversification of gall-inducing Acacia thrips and the aridification of Australia

    PubMed Central

    McLeish, Michael J; Chapman, Thomas W; Schwarz, Michael P

    2007-01-01

    Background Insects that feed on plants contribute greatly to the generation of biodiversity. Hypotheses explaining rate increases in phytophagous insect diversification and mechanisms driving speciation in such specialists remain vexing despite considerable attention. The proliferation of plant-feeding insects and their hosts are expected to broadly parallel one another where climate change over geological timescales imposes consequences for the diversification of flora and fauna via habitat modification. This work uses a phylogenetic approach to investigate the premise that the aridification of Australia, and subsequent expansion and modification of arid-adapted host flora, has implications for the diversification of insects that specialise on them. Results Likelihood ratio tests indicated the possibility of hard molecular polytomies within two co-radiating gall-inducing species complexes specialising on the same set of host species. Significant tree asymmetry is indicated at a branch adjacent to an inferred transition to a Plurinerves ancestral host species. Lineage by time diversification plots indicate gall-thrips that specialise on Plurinerves hosts differentially experienced an explosive period of speciation contemporaneous with climatic cycling during the Quaternary period. Chronological analyses indicated that the approximate age of origin of gall-inducing thrips on Acacia might be as recent as 10 million years ago during the Miocene, as truly arid landscapes first developed in Australia. Conclusion Host-plant diversification and spatial heterogeneity of hosts have increased the potential for specialisation, resource partitioning, and unoccupied ecological niche availability for gall-thrips on Australian Acacia. PMID:17257412

  4. Ectomycorrhizal Communities Associated with the Legume Acacia spirorbis Growing on Contrasted Edaphic Constraints in New Caledonia.

    PubMed

    Houles, Anne; Vincent, Bryan; David, Magali; Ducousso, Marc; Galiana, Antoine; Juillot, Farid; Hannibal, Laure; Carriconde, Fabian; Fritsch, Emmanuel; Jourand, Philippe

    2018-05-01

    This study aims to characterize the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) communities associated with Acacia spirorbis, a legume tree widely spread in New Caledonia that spontaneously grows on contrasted edaphic constraints, i.e. calcareous, ferralitic and volcano-sedimentary soils. Soil geochemical parameters and diversity of ECM communities were assessed in 12 sites representative of the three mains categories of soils. The ectomycorrhizal status of Acacia spirorbis was confirmed in all studied soils, with a fungal community dominated at 92% by Basidiomycota, mostly represented by/tomentella-thelephora (27.6%), /boletus (15.8%), /sebacina (10.5%), /russula-lactarius (10.5%) and /pisolithus-scleroderma (7.9%) lineages. The diversity and the proportion of the ECM lineages were similar for the ferralitic and volcano-sedimentary soils but significantly different for the calcareous soils. These differences in the distribution of the ECM communities were statistically correlated with pH, Ca, P and Al in the calcareous soils and with Co in the ferralitic soils. Altogether, these data suggest a high capacity of A. spirorbis to form ECM symbioses with a large spectrum of fungi regardless the soil categories with contrasted edaphic parameters.

  5. The acacia ants revisited: convergent evolution and biogeographic context in an iconic ant/plant mutualism

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Phylogenetic and biogeographic analyses can enhance our understanding of multispecies interactions by placing the origin and evolution of such interactions in a temporal and geographical context. We use a phylogenomic approach—ultraconserved element sequence capture—to investigate the evolutionary history of an iconic multispecies mutualism: Neotropical acacia ants (Pseudomyrmex ferrugineus group) and their associated Vachellia hostplants. In this system, the ants receive shelter and food from the host plant, and they aggressively defend the plant against herbivores and competing plants. We confirm the existence of two separate lineages of obligate acacia ants that convergently occupied Vachellia and evolved plant-protecting behaviour, from timid ancestors inhabiting dead twigs in rainforest. The more diverse of the two clades is inferred to have arisen in the Late Miocene in northern Mesoamerica, and subsequently expanded its range throughout much of Central America. The other lineage is estimated to have originated in southern Mesoamerica about 3 Myr later, apparently piggy-backing on the pre-existing mutualism. Initiation of the Pseudomyrmex/Vachellia interaction involved a shift in the ants from closed to open habitats, into an environment with more intense plant herbivory. Comparative studies of the two lineages of mutualists should provide insight into the essential features binding this mutualism. PMID:28298350

  6. Size variation of Acacia caven (leguminosae) pods along a climatic gradient in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, J. R.; Armesto, J. J.

    1981-06-01

    A southward tendency of increment in pod-length is shown for 11 populations of Acacia caven (Mol.) Hook et Arn. localized along a climatic gradient of increasing annual rainfall in Chile. This fact would suggest that A. caven populations occurring in the south are in better conditions for reproduction than northern populations, since pod-length is related to the amount of seeds inside the pods. The possible bearing of this southward tendency of increasing seed production upon the expansion of A. caven toward the more humid zones in southern Chile is discussed.

  7. Inoculating Acacia koa with Bradyrhizobium and applying fertilizer in the nursery: effects on nodule formation and seedling growth

    Treesearch

    R. Kasten Dumroese; Douglass F. Jacobs; Anthony S. Davis

    2009-01-01

    Restoration of Acacia koa A. Gray (koa) forests on degraded sites in Hawaii is important for conservation of rare, endemic plants and animals and is often accomplished by planting nursery-grown seedlings. To be successful after outplanting, koa seedlings must access sufficient nutrients from the soil and outcompete other vegetation. Forming symbiotic...

  8. Termites, vertebrate herbivores, and the fruiting success of Acacia drepanolobium.

    PubMed

    Brody, Alison K; Palmer, Todd M; Fox-Dobbs, Kena; Doak, Dan F

    2010-02-01

    In African savannas, vertebrate herbivores are often identified as key determinants of plant growth, survivorship, and reproduction. However, plant reproduction is likely to be the product of responses to a suite of abiotic and biotic factors, including nutrient availability and interactions with antagonists and mutualists. In a relatively simple system, we examined the role of termites (which act as ecosystem engineers--modifying physical habitat and creating islands of high soil fertility), vertebrate herbivores, and symbiotic ants, on the fruiting success of a dominant plant, Acacia drepanolobium, in East African savannas. Using observational data, large-scale experimental manipulations, and analysis of foliar N, we found that Acacia drepanolobium trees growing at the edge of termite mounds were more likely to reproduce than those growing farther away, in off-mound soils. Although vertebrate herbivores preferentially used termite mounds as demonstrated by dung deposits, long-term exclusion of mammalian grazers did not significantly reduce A. drepanolobium fruit production. Leaf N was significantly greater in trees growing next to mounds than in those growing farther away, and this pattern was unaffected by exclusion of vertebrates. Thus, soil enrichment by termites, rather than through dung and urine deposition by large herbivores, is of primary importance to fruit production near mounds. Across all mound-herbivore treatment combinations, trees that harbored Crematogaster sjostedti were more likely to fruit than those that harbored one of the other three ant species. Although C. sjostedti is less aggressive than the other ants, it tends to inhabit large, old trees near termite mounds which are more likely to fruit than smaller ones. Termites play a key role in generating patches of nutrient-rich habitat important to the reproductive success of A. drepanolobium in East African savannas. Enhanced nutrient acquisition from termite mounds appears to allow plants to

  9. Genetic and Genomic Diversity Studies of Acacia Symbionts in Senegal Reveal New Species of Mesorhizobium with a Putative Geographical Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Diouf, Fatou; Diouf, Diegane; Klonowska, Agnieszka; Le Queré, Antoine; Bakhoum, Niokhor; Fall, Dioumacor; Neyra, Marc; Parrinello, Hugues; Diouf, Mayecor; Ndoye, Ibrahima; Moulin, Lionel

    2015-01-01

    Acacia senegal (L) Willd. and Acacia seyal Del. are highly nitrogen-fixing and moderately salt tolerant species. In this study we focused on the genetic and genomic diversity of Acacia mesorhizobia symbionts from diverse origins in Senegal and investigated possible correlations between the genetic diversity of the strains, their soil of origin, and their tolerance to salinity. We first performed a multi-locus sequence analysis on five markers gene fragments on a collection of 47 mesorhizobia strains of A. senegal and A. seyal from 8 localities. Most of the strains (60%) clustered with the M. plurifarium type strain ORS 1032T, while the others form four new clades (MSP1 to MSP4). We sequenced and assembled seven draft genomes: four in the M. plurifarium clade (ORS3356, ORS3365, STM8773 and ORS1032T), one in MSP1 (STM8789), MSP2 (ORS3359) and MSP3 (ORS3324). The average nucleotide identities between these genomes together with the MLSA analysis reveal three new species of Mesorhizobium. A great variability of salt tolerance was found among the strains with a lack of correlation between the genetic diversity of mesorhizobia, their salt tolerance and the soils samples characteristics. A putative geographical pattern of A. senegal symbionts between the dryland north part and the center of Senegal was found, reflecting adaptations to specific local conditions such as the water regime. However, the presence of salt does not seem to be an important structuring factor of Mesorhizobium species. PMID:25658650

  10. Responses to water stress of gas exchange and metabolites in Eucalyptus and Acacia spp.

    PubMed

    Warren, Charles R; Aranda, Ismael; Cano, F Javier

    2011-10-01

    Studies of water stress commonly examine either gas exchange or leaf metabolites, and many fail to quantify the concentration of CO₂ in the chloroplasts (C(c)). We redress these limitations by quantifying C(c) from discrimination against ¹³CO₂ and using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for leaf metabolite profiling. Five Eucalyptus and two Acacia species from semi-arid to mesic habitats were subjected to a 2 month water stress treatment (Ψ(pre-dawn) = -1.7 to -2.3 MPa). Carbohydrates dominated the leaf metabolite profiles of species from dry areas, whereas organic acids dominated the metabolite profiles of species from wet areas. Water stress caused large decreases in photosynthesis and C(c), increases in 17-33 metabolites and decreases in 0-9 metabolites. In most species, fructose, glucose and sucrose made major contributions to osmotic adjustment. In Acacia, significant osmotic adjustment was also caused by increases in pinitol, pipecolic acid and trans-4-hydroxypipecolic acid. There were also increases in low-abundance metabolites (e.g. proline and erythritol), and metabolites that are indicative of stress-induced changes in metabolism [e.g. γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) shunt, photorespiration, phenylpropanoid pathway]. The response of gas exchange to water stress and rewatering is rather consistent among species originating from mesic to semi-arid habitats, and the general response of metabolites to water stress is rather similar, although the specific metabolites involved may vary. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Effect of Organic and Conventional Management on Bio-Functional Quality of Thirteen Plum Cultivars (Prunus salicina Lindl.)

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas, Francisco Julián; Pradas, Inmaculada; Ruiz‐Moreno, María José; Arroyo, Francisco Teodoro; Perez-Romero, Luis Felipe; Montenegro, José Carlos; Moreno‐Rojas, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    In this study, thirteen Japanese plum cultivars (Prunus salicina Lindl.) grown under conventional and organic conditions were compared to evaluate the influence of the culture system on bioactive compounds. Their organic acids content (malic, citric, tartaric, succinic, shikimic, ascorbic and fumaric acid), total polyphenols, total anthocyanins, total carotenoids and antioxidant capacity (FRAP, ABTS) were evaluated. The study was performed during two consecutive seasons (2012 and 2013) in two experimental orchards located at the IFAPA centre Las Torres-Tomejil (Seville, SW Spain). The culture system affected all the studied parameters except for total carotenoid content. The organic plums had significantly higher polyphenol and anthocyanin concentrations and a greater antioxidant capacity. Additionally, significant differences between cultivars were also found. ‘Showtime’ and ‘Friar’ were the cultivars with the highest polyphenol concentration and antioxidant capacity. ‘Black Amber’ had the highest anthocyanin content and ‘Larry Ann’ and ‘Songold’ the highest carotenoid content. ‘Sapphire’ and ‘Black amber’ were the cultivars with the highest concentration of ascorbic acid. Our results showed a strong year effect. In conclusion, organic management had an impact on the production of phytochemical compounds in plums. PMID:26313546

  12. Preparation and characterization of cross-linked excipient of coprocessed xanthan gum-acacia gum as matrix for sustained release tablets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surini, Silvia; Wati, Dina Risma; Syahdi, Rezi Riadhi

    2018-02-01

    Sustained release tablet is solid dosage form which is designed to release drugs slowly in the body. This research was intended to prepare and characterize the cross-linked excipients of co-processed xanthan gum-acacia gum (CL-Co-XGGA) as matrices for sustained release tablets with gliclazide as a model drug. CL-Co-XGGA excipients were cross-linked materials of co-processed excipients of xanthan gum-acacia gum (Co-XGGA) using sodium trimetaphosphate. Co-processed excipients of xanthan gum-acacia gum were prepared in the ratio of each excipient 1:2, 1:1 and 2:1. Co-XGGA and CL-Co-XGGA excipients were characterized physically, chemically and functionally. Then, the sustained release (SR) tablets were formulated by wet granulation method using CL-Co-XGGA excipients as matrices. Also, the dissolution study of the gliclazide SR tablets was carried out in phosphate buffer medium pH 7,4 containing sodium lauryl sulphate 0.2% for 12 hours. The results showed that the degree of substitution (DS) of CL-Co-XGGA 1:2, 1:1, 2:1 excipients were respectively 0.067, 0.082 and 0.08. Besides that, the excipients gel strengths were 14.03, 17.27 and 20,70 gF, respectively. The cross-linked excipients had improved flow properties and swelling capability compared to the Co-XGGA excipients. The results of the gliclazide SR tablets evaluations showed that all tablets were passed all tablet requirements. Moreover, the gliclazide release from SR tablets F1 - F6 revealed the sustained release profile, which was following zero order kinetics (F1, F2, F3, F6) and Higuchi kinetics (F4 and F5). It could be concluded that the obtained CL-Co-XGGA excipients might be used as matrices for sustained release tablets and could retard drug release up to 8 until 32 hours.

  13. Glucanases and Chitinases as Causal Agents in the Protection of Acacia Extrafloral Nectar from Infestation by Phytopathogens1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    González-Teuber, Marcia; Pozo, María J.; Muck, Alexander; Svatos, Ales; Adame-Álvarez, Rosa M.; Heil, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Nectars are rich in primary metabolites and attract mutualistic animals, which serve as pollinators or as an indirect defense against herbivores. Their chemical composition makes nectars prone to microbial infestation. As protective strategy, floral nectar of ornamental tobacco (Nicotiana langsdorffii × Nicotiana sanderae) contains “nectarins,” proteins producing reactive oxygen species such as hydrogen peroxide. By contrast, pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins were detected in Acacia extrafloral nectar (EFN), which is secreted in the context of defensive ant-plant mutualisms. We investigated whether these PR proteins protect EFN from phytopathogens. Five sympatric species (Acacia cornigera, A. hindsii, A. collinsii, A. farnesiana, and Prosopis juliflora) were compared that differ in their ant-plant mutualism. EFN of myrmecophytes, which are obligate ant-plants that secrete EFN constitutively to nourish specialized ant inhabitants, significantly inhibited the growth of four out of six tested phytopathogenic microorganisms. By contrast, EFN of nonmyrmecophytes, which is secreted only transiently in response to herbivory, did not exhibit a detectable inhibitory activity. Combining two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with nanoflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis confirmed that PR proteins represented over 90% of all proteins in myrmecophyte EFN. The inhibition of microbial growth was exerted by the protein fraction, but not the small metabolites of this EFN, and disappeared when nectar was heated. In-gel assays demonstrated the activity of acidic and basic chitinases in all EFNs, whereas glucanases were detected only in EFN of myrmecophytes. Our results demonstrate that PR proteins causally underlie the protection of Acacia EFN from microorganisms and that acidic and basic glucanases likely represent the most important prerequisite in this defensive function. PMID:20023149

  14. Effect of polyethylene glycol 4000 supplementation on the performance of indigenous Pedi goats fed different levels of Acacia nilotica leaf meal and ad libitum Buffalo grass hay.

    PubMed

    Motubatse, M R; Ng'ambi, J W; Norris, D; Malatje, M M

    2008-04-01

    In a first of two experiments, twenty yearling male Pedi goats weighing 21.3 +/- 0.5 kg live weight were used in a 37-day study in a 2 (levels of PEG 4000) x 2 (levels ofAcacia) Factorial arrangement in a Completely Randomised Design to determine the effect of the level of Acacia nilotica leaf meal supplementation plus 23 g polyethylene glycol 4000 on diet intake and digestibility, and growth rate of Pedi goats fed ad libitum Buffalo grass hay. Acacia nilotica leaf meal contained high amounts of total phenolics (2.04% DM) and low amounts of condensed tannins; both extracted (0.37% DM) and unextracted (1.83% DM). Supplementation with PEG 4000 increased (P < 0.05) crude protein intake as the level of Acacia nilotica leaf meal increased from 80 to 120 g. Similarly, treatment with PEG 4000 improved (P < 0.05) DM, OM and CP digestibilities when compared to 80 g Acacia nilotica leaf meal. Supplementation with PEG 4000 resulted in an increase (P < 0.05) in blood urea concentrations. Polyethylene glycol 4000 has the potential to improve the feeding value of A. nilotica leaf meal and can, therefore, be used in the feeding systems for ruminant animals. The second experiment determined the effect of A. nilotica leaf meal supplementation on in vitro digestibility of the diets similar to the actual ratios of the first experiment. Level of A. nilotica leaf meal supplementation plus 23 g PEG 4000 supplementation improved (P < 0.05) in vitro DM, OM and CP digestibilities where 120 g A. nilotica leaf meal was supplemented. Similarly, 23 g PEG 4000 supplementation also improved (P < 0.05) in vitro CP digestibility where 80 g A. nilotica leaf meal was supplemented. In vivo DM and OM digestibilities were best predicted from in vitro DM and OM digestibilities while in vivo CP was explained by in vitro OM and CP digestibilities. It is, therefore, concluded that in vitro DM and OM digestibilities have good capacity to predict in vivo DM and OM digestibilities while OM and CP

  15. Dendrobium chrysotoxum Lindl. Alleviates Diabetic Retinopathy by Preventing Retinal Inflammation and Tight Junction Protein Decrease

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zengyang; Gong, Chenyuan; Lu, Bin; Yang, Li; Sheng, Yuchen; Ji, Lili; Wang, Zhengtao

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a serious complication of diabetes mellitus. This study aimed to observe the alleviation of the ethanol extract of Dendrobium chrysotoxum Lindl. (DC), a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, on DR and its engaged mechanism. After DC (30 or 300 mg/kg) was orally administrated, the breakdown of blood retinal barrier (BRB) in streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic rats was attenuated by DC. Decreased retinal mRNA expression of tight junction proteins (including occludin and claudin-1) in diabetic rats was also reversed by DC. Western blot analysis and retinal immunofluorescence staining results further confirmed that DC reversed the decreased expression of occludin and claudin-1 proteins in diabetic rats. DC reduced the increased retinal mRNA expressions of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin- (IL-) 6, and IL-1β in diabetic rats. In addition, DC alleviated the increased 1 and phosphorylated p65, IκB, and IκB kinase (IKK) in diabetic rats. DC also reduced the increased serum levels of TNFα, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), IL-6, IL-1β, IL-8, IL-12, IL-2, IL-3, and IL-10 in diabetic rats. Therefore, DC can alleviate DR by inhibiting retinal inflammation and preventing the decrease of tight junction proteins, such as occludin and claudin-1. PMID:25685822

  16. Effects of Gum acacia aqueous extract on the histology of the intestine and enzymes of both the intestine and the pancreas of albino rats treated with Meloxicam

    PubMed Central

    Abd El-Mawla, Ahmed M. A.; Osman, Husam Eldien H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) cause gastrointestinal damage both in the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract, in addition to their undesirable side effects on the pancreas. Meloxicam like all NSAIDs has damaging effects on the gastrointestinal tract including perforations, ulcers and bleeding. Objective: The present work describes the effects of Gum acacia aqueous extract on the histology of intestine and enzymes of both intestine and Pancreas of albino rats treated with Meloxicam. Materials and Methods: This study was performed on four groups of equally weighed male rats, each group included ten animals; the first group was received a diet containing 0.2 mg/kg bw meloxicam per day; the second was given 1gm Gum acacia per day in its diet; the third was given meloxicam followed by gum in the same doses per day; while the fourth group (control rats) was placed on a normal diet and water. All rats were received their diet for a period of 21 days. Results: A considerable protective effect of Gum acacia aqueous extract on the histology of intestine of albino rats treated with meloxicam was recorded. In addition, the study displayed a significant increase (P < 0.001) in the intestinal enzymes; lipase, amylase, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the 1st and 3rd groups animals while these enzymes were significantly decreased (P < 0.001) in the 2nd group when compared with the 4th control group. Conclusion: This study concluded that Gum acacia provides a protection and defense against the harmful effects of meloxicam therapy used as one of the novel anti-Cox-1 and Cox-2 NSAIDs. PMID:21772755

  17. Effects of Gum acacia aqueous extract on the histology of the intestine and enzymes of both the intestine and the pancreas of albino rats treated with Meloxicam.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Mawla, Ahmed M A; Osman, Husam Eldien H

    2011-04-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) cause gastrointestinal damage both in the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract, in addition to their undesirable side effects on the pancreas. Meloxicam like all NSAIDs has damaging effects on the gastrointestinal tract including perforations, ulcers and bleeding. The present work describes the effects of Gum acacia aqueous extract on the histology of intestine and enzymes of both intestine and Pancreas of albino rats treated with Meloxicam. This study was performed on four groups of equally weighed male rats, each group included ten animals; the first group was received a diet containing 0.2 mg/kg bw meloxicam per day; the second was given 1gm Gum acacia per day in its diet; the third was given meloxicam followed by gum in the same doses per day; while the fourth group (control rats) was placed on a normal diet and water. All rats were received their diet for a period of 21 days. A considerable protective effect of Gum acacia aqueous extract on the histology of intestine of albino rats treated with meloxicam was recorded. In addition, the study displayed a significant increase (P < 0.001) in the intestinal enzymes; lipase, amylase, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the 1(st) and 3(rd) groups animals while these enzymes were significantly decreased (P < 0.001) in the 2(nd) group when compared with the 4(th) control group. This study concluded that Gum acacia provides a protection and defense against the harmful effects of meloxicam therapy used as one of the novel anti-Cox-1 and Cox-2 NSAIDs.

  18. Parent tree effects on reestablishment of Acacia koa in abandoned pasture and the influence of initial density on stand development

    Treesearch

    Paul G. Scowcroft

    2012-01-01

    Increasingly private landholders in Hawaii are considering native forest restoration for their lands, and some public agencies have already started such work. Initial efforts have focused on reestablishing Acacia koa to recover alien-grass-dominated sites. This study was done in Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge, Island of Hawaii, to...

  19. Water absorption and method improvement concerning electrical conductivity testing Acacia mangium (Fabaceae) seeds.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Daniel Luiz; Smiderle, Oscar Jose; Paulino, Pollyana Priscila Schuertz; Souza, Aline das Graças

    2016-12-01

    Acacia is an important forest species of rapid growth whose seeds have tegument dormancy. In this work it was intended to characterize water absorption pattern after seed dormancy break, and to determine the amount of water, container size and the need of breaking the tegument dormancy, as to perform electrical conductivity test in small and large seeds of Acacia mangium (Fabaceae). The seeds were collected from 10, 8 and 6 years old trees established in poor yielding-capacity soils on savannah areas of Roraima, Brazil; seeds were classified in six lots concerning to seed size and tree age. Germination tests (50 seeds and four replications per lot) were carried out on germitest® paper maintained on gerbox at 25 °C. Imbibition was verified by seed weighing at different times (0, 2, 5, 8, 12, 16, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 84, 96 and 120 hours). The electrical conductivity test consisted of three experiments, distinguished by the amount of water used and by the container size in which seeds were immersed. Seeds of A. mangium coming from 10 years old trees presented increased germination percent and germination speed than seeds of six-year old trees. Small seeds presented increased in electrical conductivity and water absorption until 120 hours when compared to large seeds. The immersion of seeds of A. mangium in 40 mL of distilled water into 180 mL plastic containers, after dormancy break, it is indicated for the determination of electrical conductivity test. The ratio of electrolytes by seed mass, after 24 hours of immersion in water, turns electrical conductivity test more accurate concerning A. mangium seeds.

  20. Assessment of the effect of condensed (acacia and quebracho) and hydrolysable (chestnut and valonea) tannins on rumen fermentation and methane production in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hassanat, Fadi; Benchaar, Chaouki

    2013-01-01

    Tannins added to animal diets may have a positive effect on energy and protein utilisation in the rumen. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of different sources and concentrations (20, 50, 100, 150 and 200 g kg⁻¹ dry matter (DM)) of condensed (acacia and quebracho) and hydrolysable (chestnut and valonea) tannins on rumen microbial fermentation in vitro. The experiment also included a negative control with no tannins (control) and a positive control with monensin (10 mg L⁻¹). In vitro gas production and total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration decreased as tannin concentration increased. Addition of acacia, chestnut or valonea tannins at ≥ 50 g kg⁻¹ or quebracho tannins at ≥ 100 g kg⁻¹ resulted in a decrease (up to 40%) in methane (CH₄) production compared with the control. Valonea tannins were the only tannin source that reduced (-11%) CH₄ production at 50 g kg⁻¹ without affecting VFA concentration. Tannin treatments reduced ammonia (NH₃) and branched-chain VFA concentrations, indicating a reduction in ruminal protein degradation. Monensin reduced CH₄ production (-37%) and NH₃ concentration (-20%) without affecting total VFA concentration. Supplying acacia, chestnut or valonea tannins at 50 g kg⁻¹ has the potential to reduce CH₄ production and ruminal protein degradation with minimum detrimental effects on efficiency of ruminal fermentation. Copyright © 2012 Crown in the right of Canada. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Chance long-distance or human-mediated dispersal? How Acacia s.l. farnesiana attained its pan-tropical distribution.

    PubMed

    Bell, Karen L; Rangan, Haripriya; Fernandes, Manuel M; Kull, Christian A; Murphy, Daniel J

    2017-04-01

    Acacia s.l. farnesiana , which originates from Mesoamerica, is the most widely distributed Acacia s.l. species across the tropics. It is assumed that the plant was transferred across the Atlantic to southern Europe by Spanish explorers, and then spread across the Old World tropics through a combination of chance long-distance and human-mediated dispersal. Our study uses genetic analysis and information from historical sources to test the relative roles of chance and human-mediated dispersal in its distribution. The results confirm the Mesoamerican origins of the plant and show three patterns of human-mediated dispersal. Samples from Spain showed greater genetic diversity than those from other Old World tropics, suggesting more instances of transatlantic introductions from the Americas to that country than to other parts of Africa and Asia. Individuals from the Philippines matched a population from South Central Mexico and were likely to have been direct, trans-Pacific introductions. Australian samples were genetically unique, indicating that the arrival of the species in the continent was independent of these European colonial activities. This suggests the possibility of pre-European human-mediated dispersal across the Pacific Ocean. These significant findings raise new questions for biogeographic studies that assume chance or transoceanic dispersal for disjunct plant distributions.

  2. Chance long-distance or human-mediated dispersal? How Acacia s.l. farnesiana attained its pan-tropical distribution

    PubMed Central

    Rangan, Haripriya; Fernandes, Manuel M.; Kull, Christian A.; Murphy, Daniel J.

    2017-01-01

    Acacia s.l. farnesiana, which originates from Mesoamerica, is the most widely distributed Acacia s.l. species across the tropics. It is assumed that the plant was transferred across the Atlantic to southern Europe by Spanish explorers, and then spread across the Old World tropics through a combination of chance long-distance and human-mediated dispersal. Our study uses genetic analysis and information from historical sources to test the relative roles of chance and human-mediated dispersal in its distribution. The results confirm the Mesoamerican origins of the plant and show three patterns of human-mediated dispersal. Samples from Spain showed greater genetic diversity than those from other Old World tropics, suggesting more instances of transatlantic introductions from the Americas to that country than to other parts of Africa and Asia. Individuals from the Philippines matched a population from South Central Mexico and were likely to have been direct, trans-Pacific introductions. Australian samples were genetically unique, indicating that the arrival of the species in the continent was independent of these European colonial activities. This suggests the possibility of pre-European human-mediated dispersal across the Pacific Ocean. These significant findings raise new questions for biogeographic studies that assume chance or transoceanic dispersal for disjunct plant distributions. PMID:28484637

  3. Physico-mechanical properties of plywood bonded with ecological adhesives from Acacia mollissima tannins and lignosulfonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhazi, Naima; Oumam, Mina; Sesbou, Abdessadek; Hannache, Hassan; Charrier-El Bouhtoury, Fatima

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this research was to develop ecological adhesives for bonding plywood panels using lignosulfonates, a common waste product of the wood pulp industry, and natural tannin extracted from Moroccan bark of Acacia mollissima using different process. Natural tannin and lignin were used in wood adhesives formulation to substitute resins based on phenol and formaldehyde. To achieve this, the lignosulfonates were glyoxalated to enhance their reactivity and the used tannins obtained by three different extraction methods were compared with commercial mimosa tannin. The proportion of Acacia mollissima tannins and lignosulfonates, the pressing time, the pressing temperature, and the pressure used were studied to improve mechanical properties, and bonding quality of plywood panel. The properties of plywood panels produced with these adhesives were tested in accordance with normative tests. Thus, the tensile strength, and the shear strength were measured. The results showed that the performance of the plywood panels made using biobased tannin adhesives was influenced by physical conditions such as pressure, press temperature as well as by chemical conditions, such as the tannin-lignin ratio. It exhibited excellent mechanical properties comparable to commercially available phenol-formaldehyde plywood adhesives. This study showed that biobased adhesives formulations presented good and higher mechanical performance and no formaldehyde emission. Contribution to the topical issue "Materials for Energy harvesting, conversion and storage II (ICOME 2016)", edited by Jean-Michel Nunzi, Rachid Bennacer and Mohammed El Ganaoui

  4. Passive restoration augments active restoration in deforested landscapes: the role of root suckering adjacent to planted stands of Acacia koa

    Treesearch

    Paul G. Scowcroft; Justin T. Yeh

    2013-01-01

    Active forest restoration in Hawaii’s Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge has produced a network of Acacia koa tree corridors and islands in deforested grasslands. Passive restoration by root suckering has potential to expand tree cover and close gaps between planted stands. This study documents rates of encroachment into grassland, clonal...

  5. Geoecosystem-related dynamics of Acacia populations in the Israeli hyper-arid Arava Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavi, Ilan; Avni, Yoav; Yizhaq, Hezi; Bel, Golan; Ginat, Hanan

    2017-04-01

    Similar to other Middle-Eastern and North-African drylands, Acacia populations across the hyper-arid Arava Valley of Israel have experienced dramatic phonological changes during the last few decades. These changes have been expressed with high mortality rates and low recruitment rates. Species of the Acacia trees across the region include the A. pachyceras, A. raddiana, and A. tortilis. We studied the recruitment and decay rate of seedlings. Data obtained revealed that during a whole year after germination, overall survival rate of seedlings was 2%. Also, data showed that the main impediment to recruitment and survival of seedlings was insufficient access to soil-water, resulting in their mortality due to drying. Another, secondary impediment was imposed by erosional and depositional processes under heavy floods, resulting in the elimination or burial of seedlings. Modeling of results revealed that the drying of seedlings is defined with a constant mortality rate, which fits an exponential decay function. At the same time, seedling mortality due to fluvial processes is defined with a mortality rate that grows with time, which fits a Gaussian decay function. Also, we investigated the effect of latitude, basin size, and microhabitat on vitality of existing trees. Results showed negative effect of latitude on tree mortality, fitting with the generally greater precipitation rates in the northern- than in the southern- Arava Valley. At the same time, no effect on tree mortality was recorded for basin size, proposing that in such extreme drylands, runoff ratio becomes more non-linear with increasing watershed size because of the greater dominance of ephemeral stream transmission losses, as well as due to the partial storm area coverage. Nor did the location in microhabitat across the valley floor affect tree mortality rate, highlighting the bimodal effect of greater access to flood water, potentially increasing survivability of old trees, but at the same time, imposing

  6. Enterocutaneous Fistula: Different Surgical Intervention Techniques for Closure along with Comparative Evaluation of Aluminum Paint, Karaya Gum (Hollister) and Gum Acacia for Peristomal Skin Care

    PubMed Central

    Namrata; Ahmad, Shabi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Gastrointestinal fistulas are serious complications and are associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. In majority of the patients, fistulas are treatable. However, the treatment is very complex and often multiple therapies are required. These highly beneficial treatment options which could shorten fistula closure time also result in considerable hospital cost savings. Aim This study was planned to study aetiology, clinical presentation, morbidity and mortality of enterocutaneous fistula and to evaluate the different surgical intervention techniques for closure of enterocutaneous fistula along with a comparative evaluation of different techniques for management of peristomal skin with special emphasis on aluminum paint, Karaya gum (Hollister) and Gum Acacia. Materials and Methods This prospective observational study was conducted in the Department of Surgery, M.L.N. Medical College, Allahabad and its associated hospital (S.R.N. Hospital, Allahabad) for a period of five years. Results Majority of enterocutaneous fistula were of small bowel and medium output fistulas (500-1000 ml/24hours). Most of the patients were treated with conservative treatment as compared to surgical intervention. Large bowel fistula has maximum spontaneous closure rate compare to small bowel and duodenum. Number of orifice whether single or multiple does not appear to play statistically significant role in spontaneous closure of fistula. Serum Albumin is a significantly important predictor of spontaneous fistula closure and mortality. Surgical management appeared to be the treatment of choice in distal bowel fistula. The application of karaya gum (Hollister kit), Gum Acacia and Aluminum Paint gave similar outcome. Conclusion Postoperative fistulas are the most common aetiology of enterocutaneous fistula and various factors do play role in management. Peristomal skin care done with Karaya Gum, Gum Acacia and Aluminum Paint has almost equal efficiency in management of skin

  7. Growth response of Acacia koa trees to thinning, grass control, and phosphorus fertilization in a secondary forest in Hawai‘i

    Treesearch

    Paul G. Scowcroft; J.B. Friday; Travis Idol; Nicklos Dudley; Janis Haraguchi; Dean Meason

    2007-01-01

    Koa (Acacia koa A. Gray) is an endemic Hawaiian hardwood tree of high ecological, cultural and economic value. Despite its multiple values, research on the silviculture of koa has been minimal until recently because the preferred land-use was pasture for livestock, and logging was done mainly to facilitate and reduce the costs of conversion. This...

  8. Preventive effect of Dendrobium candidum Wall. ex Lindl. on activated carbon-induced constipation in mice

    PubMed Central

    WANG, RUI; SUN, PENG; ZHOU, YALIN; ZHAO, XIN

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Dendrobium candidum Wall. ex Lindl. (D. candidum) on activated carbon-induced constipation in ICR mice. ICR mice were orally administered D. candidum for 9 days. Body weight, defecation status, gastrointestinal (GI) transit and defecation times, in addition to the levels of motilin (MTL), gastrin (Gas), endothelin (ET), somatostatin (SS), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), substance P (SP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in serum were used to evaluate the preventive effects of D. candidum on constipation. The laxative drug bisacodyl acted as a positive control. The time to the first defecation of a black stool for the normal, control, bisacodyl-treated (100 mg/kg), 200 and 400 mg/kg D. candidum-treated mice was 84, 202, 126, 161 and 142 min, respectively. Following the consumption of 200 and 400 mg/kg D. candidum or bisacodyl (100 mg/kg), the GI transit was reduced to 57.7, 74.6 and 90.2%, respectively, of the transit in normal mice. The serum levels of MTL, Gas, ET, AChE, SP and VIP were significantly increased and the serum levels of SS were reduced in the mice treated with D. candidum compared with those in the untreated control mice (P<0.05). These results demonstrate that D. candidum has preventive effects on constipation in mice, and a greater functional activity was observed when a higher concentration was administered. PMID:25574235

  9. DNA barcoding for conservation, seed banking and ecological restoration of Acacia in the Midwest of Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Nevill, Paul G; Wallace, Mark J; Miller, Joseph T; Krauss, Siegfried L

    2013-11-01

    We used DNA barcoding to address an important conservation issue in the Midwest of Western Australia, working on Australia's largest genus of flowering plant. We tested whether or not currently recommended plant DNA barcoding regions (matK and rbcL) were able to discriminate Acacia taxa of varying phylogenetic distances, and ultimately identify an ambiguously labelled seed collection from a mine-site restoration project. Although matK successfully identified the unknown seed as the rare and conservation priority listed A. karina, and was able to resolve six of the eleven study species, this region was difficult to amplify and sequence. In contrast, rbcL was straightforward to recover and align, but could not determine the origin of the seed and only resolved 3 of the 11 species. Other chloroplast regions (rpl32-trnL, psbA-trnH, trnL-F and trnK) had mixed success resolving the studied taxa. In general, species were better resolved in multilocus data sets compared to single-locus data sets. We recommend using the formal barcoding regions supplemented with data from other plastid regions, particularly rpl32-trnL, for barcoding in Acacia. Our study demonstrates the novel use of DNA barcoding for seed identification and illustrates the practical potential of DNA barcoding for the growing discipline of restoration ecology. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Forest growth along a rainfall gradient in Hawaii: Acacia koa stand structure, productivity, foliar nutrients, and water- and nutrient-use efficiencies

    Treesearch

    Robin A. Harrington; James H. Fownes; Frederick C. Meinzer; Paul G. Scowcroft

    1995-01-01

    We tested whether variation in growth of native koa (Acacia koa) forest along a rainfall gradient was attributable to differences in leaf area index (LAI) or to differences in physiological performance per unit of leaf area. Koa stands were studied on western Kauai prior to Hurricane Iniki, and ranged from 500 to 1130 m elevation and from 850 to...

  11. Floral features, pollination biology and breeding system of Chloraea membranacea Lindl. (Orchidaceae: Chloraeinae).

    PubMed

    Sanguinetti, Agustin; Buzatto, Cristiano Roberto; Pedron, Marcelo; Davies, Kevin L; Ferreira, Pedro Maria de Abreu; Maldonado, Sara; Singer, Rodrigo B

    2012-12-01

    The pollination biology of very few Chloraeinae orchids has been studied to date, and most of these studies have focused on breeding systems and fruiting success. Chloraea membranacea Lindl. is one of the few non-Andean species in this group, and the aim of the present contribution is to elucidate the pollination biology, functional floral morphology and breeding system in native populations of this species from Argentina (Buenos Aires) and Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul State). Floral features were examined using light microscopy, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The breeding system was studied by means of controlled pollinations applied to plants, either bagged in the field or cultivated in a glasshouse. Pollination observations were made on natural populations, and pollinator behaviour was recorded by means of photography and video. Both Argentinean and Brazilian plants were very consistent regarding all studied features. Flowers are nectarless but scented and anatomical analysis indicates that the dark, clavate projections on the adaxial labellar surface are osmophores (scent-producing glands). The plants are self-compatible but pollinator-dependent. The fruit-set obtained through cross-pollination and manual self-pollination was almost identical. The main pollinators are male and female Halictidae bees that withdraw the pollinarium when leaving the flower. Remarkably, the bees tend to visit more than one flower per inflorescence, thus promoting self-pollination (geitonogamy). Fruiting success in Brazilian plants reached 60·78 % in 2010 and 46 % in 2011. Some pollinarium-laden female bees were observed transferring pollen from the carried pollinarium to their hind legs. The use of pollen by pollinators is a rare record for Orchidaceae in general. Chloraea membrancea is pollinated by deceit. Together, self-compatibility, pollinarium texture, pollinator abundance and behaviour may account for the observed high fruiting success. It is suggested that

  12. Litter-forager termite mounds enhance the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis between Acacia holosericea A. Cunn. Ex G. Don and Scleroderma dictyosporum isolates.

    PubMed

    Duponnois, Robin; Assikbetse, Komi; Ramanankierana, Heriniaina; Kisa, Marija; Thioulouse, Jean; Lepage, Michel

    2006-05-01

    The hypothesis of the present study was that the termite mounds of Macrotermes subhyalinus (MS) (a litter-forager termite) were inhabited by a specific microflora that could enhance with the ectomycorrhizal fungal development. We tested the effect of this feeding group mound material on (i) the ectomycorrhization symbiosis between Acacia holosericea (an Australian Acacia introduced in the sahelian areas) and two ectomycorrhizal fungal isolates of Scleroderma dictyosporum (IR408 and IR412) in greenhouse conditions, (ii) the functional diversity of soil microflora and (iii) the diversity of fluorescent pseudomonads. The results showed that the termite mound amendment significantly increased the ectomycorrhizal expansion. MS mound amendment and ectomycorrhizal inoculation induced strong modifications of the soil functional microbial diversity by promoting the multiplication of carboxylic acid catabolizing microorganisms. The phylogenetic analysis showed that fluorescent pseudomonads mostly belong to the Pseudomonads monteillii species. One of these, P. monteillii isolate KR9, increased the ectomycorrhizal development between S. dictyosporum IR412 and A. holosericea. The occurrence of MS termite mounds could be involved in the expansion of ectomycorrhizal symbiosis and could be implicated in nutrient flow and local diversity.

  13. Salt tolerance traits increase the invasive success of Acacia longifolia in Portuguese coastal dunes.

    PubMed

    Morais, Maria Cristina; Panuccio, Maria Rosaria; Muscolo, Adele; Freitas, Helena

    2012-06-01

    Salt tolerance of two co-occurring legumes in coastal areas of Portugal, a native species--Ulex europaeus, and an invasive species--Acacia longifolia, was evaluated in relation to plant growth, ion content and antioxidant enzyme activities. Plants were submitted to four concentrations of NaCl (0, 50, 100 and 200 mM) for three months, under controlled conditions. The results showed that NaCl affects the growth of both species in different ways. Salt stress significantly reduced the plant height and the dry weight in Acacia longifolia whereas in U. europaeus the effect was not significant. Under salt stress, the root:shoot ratio (W(R):W(S)) and root mass ratio (W(R):W(RS)) increased as a result of increasing salinity in A. longifolia but the same was not observed in U. europaeus. In addition, salt stress caused a significant accumulation of Na+, especially in U. europaeus, and a decrease in K+ content and K+/Na+ ratio. The activities of antioxidant enzymes were higher in A. longifolia compared to U. europaeus. In A. longifolia, catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) and glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2.) activities increased significantly, while ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11) and peroxidase (POX, EC 1.11.1.7) activities remained unchanged in comparison with the control. In U. europaeus, NaCl concentration significantly reduced APX activity but did not significantly affect CAT, GR and POX activities. Our results suggest that the invasive species copes better with salinity stress in part due to a higher rates of CAT and GR activities and a higher K+/Na+ ratio, which may represent an additional advantage when competing with native species in co-occurring salty habitats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of antiviral activity of Ocimum sanctum and Acacia arabica leaves extracts against H9N2 virus using embryonated chicken egg model.

    PubMed

    Ghoke, S S; Sood, R; Kumar, N; Pateriya, A K; Bhatia, S; Mishra, A; Dixit, R; Singh, V K; Desai, D N; Kulkarni, D D; Dimri, U; Singh, V P

    2018-06-05

    In the view of endemic avian influenza H9N2 infection in poultry, its zoonotic potential and emergence of antiviral resistance, two herbal plants, Ocimum sanctum and Acacia arabica, which are easily available throughout various geographical locations in India were taken up to study their antiviral activity against H9N2 virus. We evaluated antiviral efficacy of three different extracts each from leaves of O. sanctum (crude extract, terpenoid and polyphenol) and A. arabica (crude extract, flavonoid and polyphenol) against H9N2 virus using in ovo model. The antiviral efficacy of different leaves extracts was systematically studied in three experimental protocols viz. virucidal (dose-dependent), therapeutic (time-dependent) and prophylactic (dose-dependent) activity employing in ovo model. The maximum non-toxic concentration of each herbal extracts of O. sanctum and A. arabica in the specific pathogen free embryonated chicken eggs was estimated and their antiviral efficacy was determined in terms of reduction in viral titres, measured by Haemagglutination (HA) and real time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assays. All the extracts of O. sanctum (crude extract, terpenoid and polyphenol) and A. arabica (crude extract, flavonoid and polyphenol) showed significant virucidal activity, however, crude extract ocimum and terpenoid ocimum showed highly significant to significant (p < 0.001-0.01) decrease in virus genome copy numbers with lowest dose tested. Similarly, therapeutic effect was observed in all three extracts of O. sanctum in comparison to the virus control, nevertheless, crude extract ocimum and terpenoid ocimum maintained this effect for longer period of time (up to 72 h post-incubation). None of the leaves extracts of A. arabica had therapeutic effect at 24 and 48 h post-incubation, however, only the crude extract acacia and polyphenol acacia showed delayed therapeutic effect (72 h post-inoculation). Prophylactic

  15. Effect of Acacia karroo Supplementation on Growth, Ultimate pH, Colour and Cooking Losses of Meat from Indigenous Xhosa Lop-eared Goats

    PubMed Central

    Ngambu, S.; Muchenje, V.; Marume, U.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of Acacia karroo supplementation on growth, ultimate pH, colour and cooking losses of meat from indigenous Xhosa lop-eared goats. Eighteen castrated 4-month-old kids were used in the study until slaughter. The kids were subdivided in two treatment groups A. karroo supplemented (AK) and non-supplemented (NS). The supplemented goats were given 200 g per head per d of fresh A. karroo leaves. The kids were slaughtered on d 60 and sample cuttings for meat quality assessment were taken from the Longistimus dorsi muscle. The supplemented kids had higher (p<0.05) growth rates than the non-supplemented ones. The meat from the A. karroo supplemented goats had lower (p<0.05) ultimate pH and cooking loss than the meat from the non-supplemented goats. Acacia karroo supplemented goats produced higher (p<0.05) b* (yellowness) value, but supplementation had no significant effect on L* (lightness) and a* (redness) of the meat. Therefore, A. karroo supplementation improved growth performance and the quality of meat from goats. PMID:25049715

  16. Direct one-pot reductive amination of aldehydes with nitroarenes in a domino fashion: catalysis by gum-acacia-stabilized palladium nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sreedhar, B; Reddy, P Surendra; Devi, D Keerthi

    2009-11-20

    This note describes the direct reductive amination of carbonyl compounds with nitroarenes using gum acacia-palladium nanoparticles, employing molecular hydrogen as the reductant. This methodology is found to be applicable to both aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes and a wide range of nitroarenes. The operational simplicity and the mild reaction conditions add to the value of this method as a practical alternative to the reductive amination of carbonyl compounds.

  17. Can thinning of overstory trees and planting of native tree saplings increase the establishment of native trees in exotic acacia plantations in south china?

    Treesearch

    SF Yuan; H Ren; N Liu; J Wang; QF Guo

    2013-01-01

    Assessing the effect of thinning of overstorey trees and planting of native trees will be helpful to better understand the vegetation restoration. A stand conversion experiment was conducted in a 12-year-old Acacia auriculiformis plantation in 1996. Treatments were thinning and underplanting, underplanting, thinning, and control. Results showed that...

  18. Stable annual pattern of water use by Acacia tortilis in Sahelian Africa.

    PubMed

    Do, Frederic C; Rocheteau, Alain; Diagne, Amadou L; Goudiaby, Venceslas; Granier, André; Lhomme, Jean-Paul

    2008-01-01

    Water use by mature trees of Acacia tortilis (Forsk.) Hayne ssp. raddiana (Savi) Brenan var. raddiana growing in the northern Sahel was continuously recorded over 4 years. Water use was estimated from xylem sap flow measured by transient heat dissipation. Concurrently, cambial growth, canopy phenology, leaf water potential, climatic conditions and soil water availability (SWA) were monitored. In addition to the variation attributable to interannual variation in rainfall, SWA was increased by irrigation during one wet season. The wet season lasted from July to September, and annual rainfall ranged between 146 and 367 mm. The annual amount and pattern of tree water use were stable from year-to-year despite interannual and seasonal variations in SWA in the upper soil layers. Acacia tortilis transpired readily throughout the year, except for one month during the dry season when defoliation was at a maximum. Maximum water use of about 23 l (dm sapwood area)(-2) day(-1) was recorded at the end of the wet season. While trees retained foliage in the dry season, the decline in water use was modest at around 30%. Variation in predawn leaf water potential indicated that the trees were subject to soil water constraint. The rapid depletion of water in the uppermost soil layers after the wet season implies that there was extensive use of water from deep soil layers. The deep soil profile revealed (1) the existence of living roots at 25 m and (2) that the availability of soil water was low (-1.6 MPa) down to the water table at a depth of 31 m. However, transpiration was recorded at a predawn leaf water potential of -2.0 MPa, indicating that the trees used water from both intermediary soil layers and the water table. During the full canopy stage, mean values of whole-tree hydraulic conductance were similar in the wet and dry seasons. We propose that the stability of water use at the seasonal and annual scales resulted from a combination of features, including an extensive rooting

  19. An examination of the feasibility of using time-of-flight based non-destructive evaluation to assess the soundness of standing Acacia koa

    Treesearch

    Jan Wiedenbeck; Eini Lowell

    2011-01-01

    Koa (Acacia koa) trees are native to the islands of Hawaii but occur nowhere else in the world. It is the most important timber species for the manufacture of wood products in Hawaii and one of the most valuable species worldwide. Most koa trees harvested today are standing dead or are already on the ground (relic logs). Lumber recovery in milling...

  20. Genetic Diversity and Domestication Footprints of Chinese Cherry [Cerasus pseudocerasus (Lindl.) G.Don] as Revealed by Nuclear Microsatellites

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Chen, Tao; Wang, Yan; Chen, Qing; Sun, Bo; Luo, Ya; Zhang, Yong; Tang, Haoru; Wang, Xiaorong

    2018-01-01

    Chinese cherry [Cerasus pseudocerasus (Lindl.) G.Don] is a commercially important fruit crop in China, but its structure patterns and domestication history remain imprecise. To address these questions, we estimated the genetic structure and domestication history of Chinese cherry using 19 nuclear microsatellite markers and 650 representative accessions (including 118 Cerasus relatives) selected throughout their natural eco-geographical distributions. Our structure analyses detected no genetic contribution from Cerasus relatives to the evolution history of Chinese cherry. A separate genetic structure was detected in wild Chinese cherries and rough geographical structures were observed in cultivated Chinese cherries. One wild (wild Chinese cherry, WC) and two cultivated (cultivated Chinese cherry, CC1 and CC2) genetic clusters were defined. Our approximate Bayesian computation analyses supported an independent domestication history with two domestication events for CC1 and CC2, happening about 3900 and 2200 years ago, respectively. Moderate loss of genetic diversity, over 1000-year domestication bottlenecks and divergent domestication in fruit traits were also detected in cultivated Chinese cherries, which is highly correlated to long-term clonal propagation and different domestication trends and preferences. Our study is the first to comprehensively and systematically investigate the structure patterns and domestication history for Chinese cherry, providing important references for revealing the evolution and domestication history of perennial woody fruit trees. PMID:29535750

  1. Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Fingerprinting for Identification of Acacia Gum in Microsamples from Works of Art.

    PubMed

    Granzotto, Clara; Sutherland, Ken

    2017-03-07

    This paper reports an improved method for the identification of Acacia gum in cultural heritage samples using matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) after enzymatic digestion of the polysaccharide component. The analytical strategy was optimized using a reference Acacia gum (gum arabic, sp. A. senegal) and provided an unambiguous MS profile of the gum, characterized by specific and recognized oligosaccharides, from as little as 0.1 μg of material. The enhanced experimental approach with reduced detection limit was successfully applied to the analysis of naturally aged (∼80 year) gum arabic samples, pure and mixed with lead white pigment, and allowed the detection of gum arabic in samples from a late painting (1949/1954) by Georges Braque in the collection of the Art Institute of Chicago. This first application of the technique to characterize microsamples from a painting, in conjunction with analyses by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), provided important insights into Braque's unusual mixed paint media that are also helpful to inform appropriate conservation treatments for his works. The robustness of the analytical strategy due to the reproducibility of the gum MS profile, even in the presence of other organic and inorganic components, together with the minimal sample size required, demonstrate the value of this new MALDI-TOF MS method as an analytical tool for the identification of gum arabic in microsamples from museum artifacts.

  2. Controlled release of Doxycycline from gum acacia/poly(sodium acrylate) microparticles for oral drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, S K; Jadaun, Mamta; Bajpai, M; Jyotishi, Pooja; Shah, Farhan Ferooz; Tiwari, Seema

    2017-11-01

    In the present work, Doxycycline loaded gum acacia (GA)/poly(sodium acrylate) (SA) hydrogels were prepared for the oral drug delivery of model drug Doxycycline. The hydrogels were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Zeta potential. The dynamic release of Doxycycline was investigated in the physiological fluids at 37°C. Various kinetic models such as Power function model, Schott model and Higuchi model were applied to interpret the release data. Schott model was found to be most fitted. The Doxycycline loaded hydrogels were tested for their antibacterial action against E. coli. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Performance of slow rate systems for treatment of domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Tzanakakis, V E; Paranychianakis, N V; Angelakis, A N

    2007-01-01

    The performance of slow rate (SR) systems in terms of treatment efficiency, environmental and health risks, and land sustainability was investigated over a three-year period in a rural community close to Iraklio, Greece. Four plant species (Acacia cyanophylla, Eucalyptus camandulensis, Populus nigra and Arundo donax) were used in order to investigate the role of vegetation in the treatment of wastewater and in biomass production. Wastewater effluent was pre-treated in a septic tank before its application to land. Applied hydraulic loading rates were based on crop water requirements which were determined separately for each plant species. The evaluation of treatment performance was accomplished by measuring COD, TKN, NH3-N, NO3-N, total and reactive P, TC and FC in soil solution samples taken at different depths (15, 30 and 60 cm). SR systems showed great potential for COD, TKN and NH4-N removal which reached 89, 90 and 94%, respectively at a depth of 15 cm. An outstanding removal was also observed for TC and FC which reached 99.99%. The concentration of both P and NO3-N in soil solution increased with the passage of time, but it was lower in winter. Despite the differences in the application rates among the SR systems planted with different plant species, the treatment efficiency was not affected. Moreover, increasing the soil depth from 15 to 60 cm had no effect on the treatment efficiency of the SR systems.

  4. Floral features, pollination biology and breeding system of Chloraea membranacea Lindl. (Orchidaceae: Chloraeinae)

    PubMed Central

    Sanguinetti, Agustin; Buzatto, Cristiano Roberto; Pedron, Marcelo; Davies, Kevin L.; Ferreira, Pedro Maria de Abreu; Maldonado, Sara; Singer, Rodrigo B.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims The pollination biology of very few Chloraeinae orchids has been studied to date, and most of these studies have focused on breeding systems and fruiting success. Chloraea membranacea Lindl. is one of the few non-Andean species in this group, and the aim of the present contribution is to elucidate the pollination biology, functional floral morphology and breeding system in native populations of this species from Argentina (Buenos Aires) and Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul State). Methods Floral features were examined using light microscopy, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The breeding system was studied by means of controlled pollinations applied to plants, either bagged in the field or cultivated in a glasshouse. Pollination observations were made on natural populations, and pollinator behaviour was recorded by means of photography and video. Key Results Both Argentinean and Brazilian plants were very consistent regarding all studied features. Flowers are nectarless but scented and anatomical analysis indicates that the dark, clavate projections on the adaxial labellar surface are osmophores (scent-producing glands). The plants are self-compatible but pollinator-dependent. The fruit-set obtained through cross-pollination and manual self-pollination was almost identical. The main pollinators are male and female Halictidae bees that withdraw the pollinarium when leaving the flower. Remarkably, the bees tend to visit more than one flower per inflorescence, thus promoting self-pollination (geitonogamy). Fruiting success in Brazilian plants reached 60·78 % in 2010 and 46 % in 2011. Some pollinarium-laden female bees were observed transferring pollen from the carried pollinarium to their hind legs. The use of pollen by pollinators is a rare record for Orchidaceae in general. Conclusions Chloraea membrancea is pollinated by deceit. Together, self-compatibility, pollinarium texture, pollinator abundance and behaviour may account for the

  5. Anti-Hypertensive Effects of Acacia Polyphenol in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ikarashi, Nobutomo; Toda, Takahiro; Hatakeyama, Yusuke; Kusunoki, Yoshiki; Kon, Risako; Mizukami, Nanaho; Kaneko, Miho; Ogawa, Sosuke; Sugiyama, Kiyoshi

    2018-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that acacia polyphenol (AP) exerts strong anti-obesity, anti-diabetic, and anti-atopic dermatitis effects. In the present study, we investigated the anti-hypertensive effects of AP. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) with hypertension and control Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) were used. WKY and SHR were fed AP-containing food or AP-free food (control group) ad libitum for 4 weeks, and their blood pressures were measured. After AP administration, both systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly lower in the SHR group than in the control group. There were no differences in the systolic or diastolic blood pressure of WKY between the AP group and the control group. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase expression, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in SHR kidneys were not altered by AP administration. Blood SOD activity in SHR was significantly higher in the AP group than in the control group. AP exerts anti-hypertensive effects on hypertension but has almost no effect on normal blood pressure. The anti-hypertensive effects of AP may be related to the anti-oxidative effects of increased blood SOD activity. PMID:29494506

  6. The effect of acacia gum and a water-soluble dietary fiber mixture on blood lipids in humans.

    PubMed

    Jensen, C D; Spiller, G A; Gates, J E; Miller, A F; Whittam, J H

    1993-04-01

    Water-soluble dietary fibers (WSDF) are generally thought to lower cholesterol. This study compared the cholesterol-lowering effects of a medium viscosity WSDF mixture (psyllium, pectin, guar gum and locust bean gum) with an equal amount of WSDF from acacia gum, which has a lower viscosity. Hypercholesterolemic males (n = 13) and females (n = 16) were randomly assigned to one of two WSDF treatments provided in a low-calorie powder form for mixing into beverages (< 4 kcal/serving). Subjects were instructed to mix powders into their usual beverages and to consume them three times daily (5 g WSDF/serving) for 4 weeks while consuming their typical fat-modified diets. Exercise and body weights were also held constant. The WSDF mixture yielded a 10% decrease in plasma total cholesterol (from 251 +/- 20 to 225 +/- 19 mg/dL; p < 0.01), and a 14% reduction in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (from 167 +/- 14 to 144 +/- 14 mg/dL; p < 0.001). No significant changes in plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol or triglycerides were observed. In contrast, the acacia gum-treated group showed no change in any plasma lipid parameters. The WSDF treatments did not produce significant changes in mean dietary intakes within or between treatment groups. These data support previous findings that a diet rich in select WSDF can be a useful cholesterol-lowering adjunct to a fat-modified diet, but that caution should be exercised in ascribing cholesterol-lowering efficacy to dietary fibers based solely on their WSDF classification. Finally, WSDF viscosity is a potential cholesterol-lowering factor to be explored further.

  7. Start Codon Targeted (SCoT) marker reveals genetic diversity of Dendrobium nobile Lindl., an endangered medicinal orchid species.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Paromik; Kumaria, Suman; Kumar, Shrawan; Tandon, Pramod

    2013-10-15

    Genetic variability in the wild genotypes of Dendrobium nobile Lindl. collected from different parts of Northeast India, was analyzed using a Start Codon Targeted (SCoT) marker system. A total of sixty individuals comprising of six natural populations were investigated for the existing natural genetic diversity. One hundred and thirty two (132) amplicons were produced by SCoT marker generating 96.21% polymorphism. The PIC value of the SCoT marker system was 0.78 and the Rp values of the primers ranged between 4.43 and 7.50. The percentage of polymorphic loci (Pp) ranging from 25% to 56.82%, Nei's gene diversity (h) from 0.08 to 0.15 with mean Nei's gene diversity of 0.28, and Shannon's information index (I) values ranging from 0.13 to 0.24 with an average value of 0.43 were recorded. The gene flow value (0.37) and the diversity among populations (0.57) demonstrated higher genetic variation among the populations. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed 43.37% of variation within the populations, whereas 56.63% variation was recorded among the populations. Cluster analysis also reveals high genetic variation among the genotypes. Present investigation suggests the effectiveness of SCoT marker system to estimate the genetic diversity of D. nobile and that it can be seen as a preliminary point for future research on the population and evolutionary genetics of this endangered orchid species of medicinal importance. © 2013.

  8. Shifts in the bacterial community composition along deep soil profiles in monospecific and mixed stands of Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia mangium.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Arthur Prudêncio de Araujo; Andrade, Pedro Avelino Maia de; Bini, Daniel; Durrer, Ademir; Robin, Agnès; Bouillet, Jean Pierre; Andreote, Fernando Dini; Cardoso, Elke Jurandy Bran Nogueira

    2017-01-01

    Our knowledge of the rhizosphere bacterial communities in deep soils and the role of Eucalyptus and Acacia on the structure of these communities remains very limited. In this study, we targeted the bacterial community along a depth profile (0 to 800 cm) and compared community structure in monospecific or mixed plantations of Acacia mangium and Eucalyptus grandis. We applied quantitative PCR (qPCR) and sequence the V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene to characterize composition of bacterial communities. We identified a decrease in bacterial abundance with soil depth, and differences in community patterns between monospecific and mixed cultivations. Sequence analysis indicated a prevalent effect of soil depth on bacterial communities in the mixed plant cultivation system, and a remarkable differentiation of bacterial communities in areas solely cultivated with Eucalyptus. The groups most influenced by soil depth were Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria (more frequent in samples between 0 and 300 cm). The predominant bacterial groups differentially displayed in the monospecific stands of Eucalyptus were Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. Our results suggest that the addition of an N2-fixing tree in a monospecific cultivation system modulates bacterial community composition even at a great depth. We conclude that co-cultivation systems may represent a key strategy to improve soil resources and to establish more sustainable cultivation of Eucalyptus in Brazil.

  9. Shifts in the bacterial community composition along deep soil profiles in monospecific and mixed stands of Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia mangium

    PubMed Central

    de Andrade, Pedro Avelino Maia; Bini, Daniel; Durrer, Ademir; Robin, Agnès; Bouillet, Jean Pierre; Andreote, Fernando Dini; Cardoso, Elke Jurandy Bran Nogueira

    2017-01-01

    Our knowledge of the rhizosphere bacterial communities in deep soils and the role of Eucalyptus and Acacia on the structure of these communities remains very limited. In this study, we targeted the bacterial community along a depth profile (0 to 800 cm) and compared community structure in monospecific or mixed plantations of Acacia mangium and Eucalyptus grandis. We applied quantitative PCR (qPCR) and sequence the V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene to characterize composition of bacterial communities. We identified a decrease in bacterial abundance with soil depth, and differences in community patterns between monospecific and mixed cultivations. Sequence analysis indicated a prevalent effect of soil depth on bacterial communities in the mixed plant cultivation system, and a remarkable differentiation of bacterial communities in areas solely cultivated with Eucalyptus. The groups most influenced by soil depth were Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria (more frequent in samples between 0 and 300 cm). The predominant bacterial groups differentially displayed in the monospecific stands of Eucalyptus were Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. Our results suggest that the addition of an N2-fixing tree in a monospecific cultivation system modulates bacterial community composition even at a great depth. We conclude that co-cultivation systems may represent a key strategy to improve soil resources and to establish more sustainable cultivation of Eucalyptus in Brazil. PMID:28686690

  10. Anti-Obesity and Anti-Diabetic Effects of Acacia Polyphenol in Obese Diabetic KKAy Mice Fed High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Ikarashi, Nobutomo; Toda, Takahiro; Okaniwa, Takehiro; Ito, Kiyomi; Ochiai, Wataru; Sugiyama, Kiyoshi

    2011-01-01

    Acacia polyphenol (AP) extracted from the bark of the black wattle tree (Acacia meansii) is rich in unique catechin-like flavan-3-ols, such as robinetinidol and fisetinidol. The present study investigated the anti-obesity/anti-diabetic effects of AP using obese diabetic KKAy mice. KKAy mice received either normal diet, high-fat diet or high-fat diet with additional AP for 7 weeks. After the end of administration, body weight, plasma glucose and insulin were measured. Furthermore, mRNA and protein expression of obesity/diabetic suppression-related genes were measured in skeletal muscle, liver and white adipose tissue. As a result, compared to the high-fat diet group, increases in body weight, plasma glucose and insulin were significantly suppressed for AP groups. Furthermore, compared to the high-fat diet group, mRNA expression of energy expenditure-related genes (PPARα, PPARδ, CPT1, ACO and UCP3) was significantly higher for AP groups in skeletal muscle. Protein expressions of CPT1, ACO and UCP3 for AP groups were also significantly higher when compared to the high-fat diet group. Moreover, AP lowered the expression of fat acid synthesis-related genes (SREBP-1c, ACC and FAS) in the liver. AP also increased mRNA expression of adiponectin and decreased expression of TNF-α in white adipose tissue. In conclusion, the anti-obesity actions of AP are considered attributable to increased expression of energy expenditure-related genes in skeletal muscle, and decreased fatty acid synthesis and fat intake in the liver. These results suggest that AP is expected to be a useful plant extract for alleviating metabolic syndrome. PMID:21799697

  11. Nutritional benefits of Crematogaster mimosae ants and Acacia drepanolobium gum for patas monkeys and vervets in Laikipia, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Isbell, Lynne A; Rothman, Jessica M; Young, Peter J; Rudolph, Kathleen

    2013-02-01

    Patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) are midsized primates that feed extensively on the gum of Acacia drepanolobium and the ants are housed in swollen thorns of this Acacia. Their diet resembles that expected more of smaller bodied primates. Patas monkeys are also more like smaller bodied primates in reproducing at high rates. We sought to better understand the convergence of patas monkeys with smaller bodied primates by comparing their feeding behavior on ants and gum with that of closely related, sympatric vervets (Chlorocebus pygerythrus), and analyzing the nutrient content of the gum of A. drepanolobium and of Crematogaster mimosae, the most common ant species eaten by patas monkeys in Laikipia, Kenya. All occurrences of feeding and moving during focal animal sampling revealed that 1) patas monkeys seek A. drepanolobium gum but vervets avoid it; 2) both species open swollen thorns most often in the morning when antsare less active; 3) patas monkeys continually feed onswollen thorns and gum while moving quickly throughout the day, whereas vervets reduce their consumption of these items and their travel rate at mid-day, and; 4) vervets eat young swollen thorns at a higher rate than patas monkeys. Patas monkeys are able to spend little time acquiring substantial amounts of energy, protein, and minerals from A. drepanolobium gum and C. mimosae ants each day. These findings, when coupled with evidence of causes of infant and adult female mortality, suggest that reproductive success of female patas monkeys is more immediately affected by illness, disease, interactions between adults and infants, and access to water than by food. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Characterization of the multiple resistance traits of somatic hybrids between Solanum cardiophyllum Lindl. and two commercial potato cultivars.

    PubMed

    Thieme, Ramona; Rakosy-Tican, Elena; Nachtigall, Marion; Schubert, Jörg; Hammann, Thilo; Antonova, Olga; Gavrilenko, Tatjana; Heimbach, Udo; Thieme, Thomas

    2010-10-01

    Interspecific somatic hybrids between commercial cultivars of potato Solanum tuberosum L. Agave and Delikat and the wild diploid species Solanum cardiophyllum Lindl. (cph) were produced by protoplast electrofusion. The hybrid nature of the regenerated plants was confirmed by flow cytometry, simple sequence repeat (SSR), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), microsatellite-anchored fragment length polymorphism (MFLP) markers and morphological analysis. Somatic hybrids were assessed for their resistance to Colorado potato beetle (CPB) using a laboratory bioassay, to Potato virus Y (PVY) by mechanical inoculation and field trials, and foliage blight in a greenhouse and by field trials. Twenty-four and 26 somatic hybrids of cph + cv. Agave or cph + cv. Delikat, respectively, showed no symptoms of infection with PVY, of which 3 and 12, respectively, were also resistant to foliage blight. One hybrid of cph + Agave performed best in CPB and PVY resistance tests. Of the somatic hybrids that were evaluated for their morphology and tuber yield in the field for 3 years, four did not differ significantly in tuber yield from the parental and standard cultivars. Progeny of hybrids was obtained by pollinating them with pollen from a cultivar, selfing or cross-pollination. The results confirm that protoplast electrofusion can be used to transfer the CPB, PVY and late blight resistance of cph into somatic hybrids. These resistant somatic hybrids can be used in pre-breeding studies, molecular characterization and for increasing the genetic diversity available for potato breeding by marker-assisted combinatorial introgression into the potato gene pool.

  13. In-Vitro, Anti-Bacterial Activities of Aqueous Extracts of Acacia catechu (L.F.)Willd, Castanea sativa, Ephedra sinica stapf and shilajita mumiyo Against Gram Positive and Gram Negative Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Dashtdar, Mehrab; Dashtdar, Mohammad Reza; Dashtdar, Babak; shirazi, Mohammad khabaz; Khan, Saeed Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Evaluations of the in-vitro anti-bacterial activities of aqueous extracts of Acacia catechu (L.F.)Willd, Castanea sativa, Ephedra sinica stapf and Shilajita mumiyo against gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumonia) and gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) are reasonable since these ethnomedicinal plants have been used in Persian folk medicine for treating skin diseases, venereal diseases, respiratory problems and nervous disorders for ages. Methods: The well diffusion method (KB testing) with a concentration of 250 μg/disc was used for evaluating the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC). Maximum synergistic effects of different combinations of components were also observed. Results: A particular combination of Acacia catechu (L.F.) Willd, Castanea sativa, Ephedra sinica stapf and shilajita mumiyo extracts possesses an outstanding anti-bacterial activity. It's inhibiting effect on microorganisms is significant when compared to the control group (P< 0.05). Staphylococcus aureus was the most sensitive microorganism. The highest antibacterial activity against gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumonia) or gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Proteus mirabilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) was exerted by formula number 2 (Table1). Conclusion: The results reveal the presence of antibacterial activities of Acacia catechu, Castanea sativa husk, Ephedra sp. and Mumiyo against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Synergistic effects in a combined formula, especially in formula number 2 (ASLANⓇ) can lead to potential sources of new antiseptic agents for treatment of acute or chronic skin ulcers. These results considering the significant antibacterial effect of the present formulation, support ethno-pharmacological uses against diarrheal and venereal diseases and demonstrate use of these plants to treat

  14. First report of the root-rot pathogen, Armillaria gallica, on koa (Acacia koa) and 'Ohi'a lehua (Metrosideros polymorpha) on the island of Kaua'i, Hawai'i

    Treesearch

    M. -S. Kim; N. R. Fonseca; R. D. Hauff; P. G. Cannon; John Hanna; Ned Klopfenstein

    2017-01-01

    Koa (Acacia koa) and 'ohi'a lehua (Metrosideros polymorpha) are the two most dominant native tree species in Hawai‘i. Their populations are continuously decreasing, primarily because of forest disease (Dudley et al. 2007; Keith et al. 2015) and other biotic disturbances. In April 2015, Armillaria rhizomorphs were collected from woody hosts on the...

  15. Dendrobium nobile Lindl alkaloid, a novel autophagy inducer, protects against axonal degeneration induced by Aβ25-35 in hippocampus neurons in vitro.

    PubMed

    Li, Li-Sheng; Lu, Yan-Liu; Nie, Jing; Xu, Yun-Yan; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Wen-Jin; Gong, Qi-Hai; Lu, Yuan-Fu; Lu, Yang; Shi, Jing-Shan

    2017-04-01

    Axonal degeneration is a pathological symbol in the early stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD), which can be triggered by amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide deposition. Growing evidence indicates that deficit of autophagy eventually leads to the axonal degeneration. Our previous studies have shown that Dendrobium nobile Lindl alkaloid (DNLA) had protective effect on neuron impairment in vivo and in vitro; however, the underlying mechanisms is still unclear. We exposed cultured hippocampus neurons to Aβ 25-35 to investigate the effect of DNLA in vitro. Axonal degeneration was evaluated by immunofluorescence staining and MTT assay. Neurons overexpressing GFP-LC3B were used to measure the formation of autophagosome. Autophagosome-lysosome fusion, the lysosomal pH, and cathepsin activity were assessed to reflect autophagy process. Proteins of interest were analyzed by Western blot. DNLA pretreatment significantly inhibited axonal degeneration induced by Aβ 25-35 peptide in vitro. Further studies revealed DNLA treatment increased autophagic flux through promoting formation and degradation of autophagosome in hippocampus neurons. Moreover, enhancement of autophagic flux was responsible for the protective effects of DNLA on axonal degeneration. DNLA prevents Aβ 25-35 -induced axonal degeneration via activation of autophagy process and could be a novel therapeutic target. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Response of native soil microbial functions to the controlled mycorrhization of an exotic tree legume, Acacia holosericea in a Sahelian ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Bilgo, Ablasse; Sangare, Sheikh K; Thioulouse, Jean; Prin, Yves; Hien, Victor; Galiana, Antoine; Baudoin, Ezekeil; Hafidi, Mohamed; Bâ, Amadou M; Duponnois, Robin

    2012-04-01

    Fifty years of overexploitation have disturbed most forests within Sahelian areas. Exotic fast growing trees (i.e., Australian Acacia species) have subsequently been introduced for soil improvement and fuelwood production purposes. Additionally, rhizobial or mycorrhizal symbioses have sometimes been favored by means of controlled inoculations to increase the performance of these exotic trees in such arid and semiarid zones. Large-scale anthropogenic introduction of exotic plants could also threaten the native biodiversity and ecosystem resilience. We carried out an experimental reforestation in Burkina Faso in order to study the effects of Acacia holosericea mycorrhizal inoculation on the soil nutrient content, microbial soil functionalities and mycorrhizal soil potential. Treatments consisted of uninoculated A. holosericea, preplanting fertilizer application and arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation with Glomus intraradices. Our results showed that (i) arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) inoculation and prefertilizer application significantly improved A. holosericea growth after 4 years of plantation and (ii) the introduction of A. holosericea trees significantly modified soil microbial functions. The results clearly showed that the use of exotic tree legume species should be directly responsible for important changes in soil microbiota with great disturbances in essential functions driven by microbial communities (e.g., catabolic diversity and C cycling, phosphatase activity and P availability). They also highlighted the importance of AM symbiosis in the functioning of soils and forest plantation performances. The AM effect on soil functions was significantly correlated with the enhanced mycorrhizal soil potential recorded in the AM inoculation treatment. © Springer-Verlag 2011

  17. Positive and negative effects of grass, cattle, and wild herbivores on Acacia saplings in an East African savanna.

    PubMed

    Riginos, Corinna; Young, Truman P

    2007-10-01

    Plant-plant interactions can be a complex mixture of positive and negative interactions, with the net outcome depending on abiotic and community contexts. In savanna systems, the effects of large herbivores on tree-grass interactions have rarely been studied experimentally, though these herbivores are major players in these systems. In African savannas, trees often become more abundant under heavy cattle grazing but less abundant in wildlife preserves. Woody encroachment where cattle have replaced wild herbivores may be caused by a shift in the competitive balance between trees and grasses. Here we report the results of an experiment designed to quantify the positive, negative, and net effects of grasses, wild herbivores, and cattle on Acacia saplings in a Kenyan savanna. Acacia drepanolobium saplings under four long-term herbivore regimes (wild herbivores, cattle, cattle + wild herbivores, and no large herbivores) were cleared of surrounding grass or left with the surrounding grass intact. After two years, grass-removal saplings exhibited 86% more browse damage than control saplings, suggesting that grass benefited saplings by protecting them from herbivory. However, the negative effect of grass on saplings was far greater; grass-removal trees accrued more than twice the total stem length of control trees. Where wild herbivores were present, saplings were browsed more and produced more new stem growth. Thus, the net effect of wild herbivores was positive, possibly due to the indirect effects of lower competitor tree density in areas accessible to elephants. Additionally, colonization of saplings by symbiotic ants tracked growth patterns, and colonized saplings experienced lower rates of browse damage. These results suggest that savanna tree growth and woody encroachment cannot be predicted by grass cover or herbivore type alone. Rather, tree growth appears to depend on a variety of factors that may be acting together or antagonistically at different stages of the

  18. Quinonoid constituents as contact sensitisers in Australian blackwood (Acacia melanoxylon RBR).

    PubMed Central

    Hausen, B M; Schmalle, H

    1981-01-01

    Australian blackwood (Acacia melanoxylon RBR) is a valuable commercial timber that since 1925 has been incriminated as being injurious to health. In addition to toxic effects numerous cases of allergic contact dermatitis and bronchial asthma have been observed in woodworkers. Several constituents have been identified in recent years, but none of them could be considered as aetiological factors. Sensitizing experiments performed with blackwood heartwood extracts corroborated the described sensitising properties. Chemical studies showed the occurrence of two or possibly three quinones that produced positive skin responses in the sensitised guinea pigs. The main contact allergens were isolated and identified by x-ray analysis. The first, a yellow quinone, was identified as 2,6-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone while the second, a red quinone, has the structure of 6-methoxy-2-methyl-3,5-dihydrobenzofurano-4,7-dion and was named acamelin. Whereas 2, 6-dimethoxy-p-benzoquinone is already known from natural sources, acamelin is new and belongs to the rate group of naturally occurring furanoquinones. Though the obtained sensitising capacity of A melanoxylon RBR in respect of its quinones is not high, it should be considered as a possible source of allergic contact dermatitis, especially as greater amounts of Australian blackwood may enter European countries in the near future. PMID:7236533

  19. Phylogeography of Chinese cherry (Prunus pseudocerasus Lindl.) inferred from chloroplast and nuclear DNA: insights into evolutionary patterns and demographic history.

    PubMed

    Chen, T; Chen, Q; Luo, Y; Huang, Z-L; Zhang, J; Tang, H-R; Pan, D-M; Wang, X-R

    2015-07-01

    Chinese cherry (Prunus pseudocerasus Lindl.) is a commercially valuable fruit crop in China. In order to obtain new insights into its evolutionary history and provide valuable recommendations for resource conservation, phylogeographic patterns of 26 natural populations (305 total individuals) from six geographic regions were analyzed using chloroplast and nuclear DNA fragments. Low levels of haplotype and nucleotide diversity were found in these populations, especially in landrace populations. It is likely that a combined effect of botanical characteristics impact the effective population size, such as inbreeding mating system, long life span, as well as vegetative reproduction. In addition, strong bottleneck effect caused by domestication, together with founder effect after dispersal and subsequent demographic expansion, might also accelerate the reduction of the genetic variation in landrace populations. Interestingly, populations from Longmen Mountain (LMM) and Daliangshan Mountain (DLSM) exhibited relatively higher levels of genetic diversity, inferring the two historical genetic diversity centers of the species. Moreover, moderate population subdivision was also detected by both chloroplast DNA (GST = 0.215; NST = 0.256) and nuclear DNA (GST = 0.146; NST = 0.342), respectively. We inferred that the episodes of efficient gene flow through seed dispersal, together with features of long generation cycle and inbreeding mating system, were likely the main contributors causing the observed phylogeographic patterns. Finally, factors that led to the present demographic patterns of populations from these regions and taxonomic varieties were also discussed. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  20. Effect of management (organic vs conventional) on volatile profiles of six plum cultivars (Prunus salicina Lindl.). A chemometric approach for varietal classification and determination of potential markers.

    PubMed

    Cuevas, F J; Moreno-Rojas, J M; Arroyo, F; Daza, A; Ruiz-Moreno, M J

    2016-05-15

    The volatile profiles of six plum cultivars ('Laetitia', 'Primetime', 'Sapphire', 'Showtime', 'Songold' and 'Souvenir') produced under two management systems (conventional and organic) and harvested in two consecutive years were obtained by HS-SPME-GC-MS. Twenty-five metabolites were determined, five of which (pentanal, (E)-2-heptenal, 1-octanol, eucalyptol and 2-pentylfuran) are reported for the first time in Prunus salicina Lindl. Hexanal stood out as a major volatile compound affected by the management system. In addition, partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) achieved an effective classification of genotypes based on their volatile profiles. A high classification accuracy model was obtained with a sensitivity of 97.9% and a specificity of 99.6%. Furthermore, the application of a dual criterion, based on a method of variable selection, VIP (variable importance in projection) and the results of a univariate analysis (ANOVA), allowed the identification of potential volatile markers in 'Primetime', 'Showtime' and 'Souvenir' genotypes (cultivars not characterised to date). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Molecular characterization and functional analysis of chalcone synthase from Syringa oblata Lindl. in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Dou, Ying; Wang, Rui; Guan, Xuelian; Hu, Zenghui; Zheng, Jian

    2017-11-30

    The flower color of Syringa oblata Lindl., which is often modulated by the flavonoid content, varies and is an important ornamental feature. Chalcone synthase (CHS) catalyzes the first key step in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway. However, little is known about the role of S. oblata CHS (SoCHS) in flavonoid biosynthesis in this species. Here, we isolate and analyze the cDNA (SoCHS1) that encodes CHS in S. oblata. We also sought to analyzed the molecular characteristics and function of flavonoid metabolism by SoCHS1. We successfully isolated the CHS-encoding genomic DNA (gDNA) in S. oblata (SoCHS1), and the gene structural analysis indicated it had no intron. The opening reading frame (ORF) sequence of SoCHS1 was 1170bp long and encoded a 389-amino acid polypeptide. Multiple sequence alignment revealed that both the conserved CHS active site residues and CHS signature sequence were in the deduced amino acid sequence of SoCHS1. Crystallographic analysis revealed that the protein structure of SoCHS1 is highly similar to that of FnCHS1 in Freesia hybrida. The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) performed to detect the SoCHS1 transcript expression levels in flowers, and other tissues revealed the expression was significantly correlated with anthocyanin accumulation during flower development. The ectopic expression results of Nicotiana tabacum showed that SoCHS1 overexpression in transgenic tobacco changed the flower color from pale pink to pink. In conclusion, these results suggest that SoCHS1 plays an essential role in flavonoid biosynthesis in S. oblata, and could be used to modify flavonoid components in other plant species. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. High-throughput prediction of Acacia and eucalypt lignin syringyl/guaiacyl content using FT-Raman spectroscopy and partial least squares modeling

    DOE PAGES

    Lupoi, Jason S.; Healey, Adam; Singh, Seema; ...

    2015-01-16

    High-throughput techniques are necessary to efficiently screen potential lignocellulosic feedstocks for the production of renewable fuels, chemicals, and bio-based materials, thereby reducing experimental time and expense while supplanting tedious, destructive methods. The ratio of lignin syringyl (S) to guaiacyl (G) monomers has been routinely quantified as a way to probe biomass recalcitrance. Mid-infrared and Raman spectroscopy have been demonstrated to produce robust partial least squares models for the prediction of lignin S/G ratios in a diverse group of Acacia and eucalypt trees. The most accurate Raman model has now been used to predict the S/G ratio from 269 unknown Acaciamore » and eucalypt feedstocks. This study demonstrates the application of a partial least squares model composed of Raman spectral data and lignin S/G ratios measured using pyrolysis/molecular beam mass spectrometry (pyMBMS) for the prediction of S/G ratios in an unknown data set. The predicted S/G ratios calculated by the model were averaged according to plant species, and the means were not found to differ from the pyMBMS ratios when evaluating the mean values of each method within the 95 % confidence interval. Pairwise comparisons within each data set were employed to assess statistical differences between each biomass species. While some pairwise appraisals failed to differentiate between species, Acacias, in both data sets, clearly display significant differences in their S/G composition which distinguish them from eucalypts. In conclusion, this research shows the power of using Raman spectroscopy to supplant tedious, destructive methods for the evaluation of the lignin S/G ratio of diverse plant biomass materials.« less

  3. Decomposition of lignin and holocellulose on Acacia mangium leaves and twigs by six fungal isolates from nature.

    PubMed

    Djarwanto; Tachibana, S

    2010-06-15

    This research was conducted in the aim of preventing wild fire through reducing potential energy source to become in situ fertilizer. To prevent forest fires by reducing wood waste using lignocellulose-degrading fungi, six fungal isolates were tested for lignin and cellulose-degrading activity with Acacia mangium leaves and twigs over a period of 1 to 3 months. The fungi degraded 8.9-27.1% of the lignin and 14-31% of the holocellulose. The degradation rate varied depending on the fungal species. An increase in incubation time tended to decrease the amounts of holocellulose and lignin. However, the hot water soluble tended to increase following a longer incubation period. From the results obtained here, more time was needed to degrade lignin rather than other components in the sample.

  4. Chemical composition and anti-inflammatory activities of the essential oils from Acacia mearnsii de Wild.

    PubMed

    Avoseh, Opeyemi N; Oyedeji, Ope-oluwa O; Aremu, Kayode; Nkeh-Chungag, Benedicta N; Songca, Sandile P; Oluwafemi, Samuel O; Oyedeji, Adebola O

    2015-01-01

    The volatile oils of the leaves and the stem bark of Acacia mearnsii de Wild obtained by hydro-distillation were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 20, 38, 29 and 38 components accounted for 93.8%, 92.1%, 78.5% and 90.9% of the total oils of the fresh, dry leaves and fresh, dry stem bark, respectively. The major components of the oil were octadecyl alcohol (25.5%) and phytol (10.5%); cis-verbenol (29.5%); phytol (10.1%) and phytol (23.4%) for the fresh leaves, dried leaves, fresh stem, dry stem bark, respectively. Oral administration of essential oils at a dose of 2% showed significant (p < 0.05) anti-inflammatory properties in the albumin-induced test model in rats. Oils from the fresh leaves and dry stems inhibited inflammation beyond 4 h post treatment. The potent anti-inflammatory activity of essential oils of A. mearnsii hereby confirmed its traditional use in treating various inflammatory diseases.

  5. Effects of Gelam and Acacia honey acute administration on some biochemical parameters of Sprague Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Since ancient times, honey has been used for medicinal purposes in many cultures; it is one of the oldest and most enduring substances used in wound management. Scientific evidence for its efficacy is widely studied, but systemic safety studies are still lacking. It is essential to study the impact of consumption of honey on the health and proper development of the consumer. Therefore, the present study was designed to observe the effects of acute administration (14 days) of Gelam honey (GH), a wild harvesting honey and Acacia honey (AH), a beekeeping honey, on male and female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Methods An acute oral study was performed following OECD test guideline 423, with minor modifications. In the study, GH, AH and sucrose (S) were administered at 2000 mg/kg body weight. Animals were observed for the next 14 days. Gross pathology was performed at the end of the study. Animals were observed for mortality, morbidity, body weight changes, feed and water intake. Clinical biochemistry, gross pathology, relative organ weight and histopathological examination were performed. Results Rats fed with honey did not exhibit any abnormal signs or deaths. Results showed a decrease in weight gain and energy efficiency, but significantly increased in total food intake and total calories in female rats fed with GH, compared to control (p < 0.05). Nevertheless, a significant increase in body weight was observed in male rats in all honey-treated groups. Male rats fed with AH significantly decreased in total food intake, total calories and energy efficiency. Both male and female rats fed with GH displayed a significant decrease in triglycerides compared to control group. Hepatic and renal function levels were within acceptable range. The gross necropsy analysis did not reveal changes in any of the organs examined. Conclusions Our results suggest that acute consumption of GH and AH at 2000 mg/kg body weight of male and female SD rats has some discrepancy

  6. Effects of Gelam and Acacia honey acute administration on some biochemical parameters of Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Samat, Suhana; Nor, Nor Azmi Md; Nor Hussein, Fuzina; Ismail, Wan Iryani Wan

    2014-05-04

    Since ancient times, honey has been used for medicinal purposes in many cultures; it is one of the oldest and most enduring substances used in wound management. Scientific evidence for its efficacy is widely studied, but systemic safety studies are still lacking. It is essential to study the impact of consumption of honey on the health and proper development of the consumer. Therefore, the present study was designed to observe the effects of acute administration (14 days) of Gelam honey (GH), a wild harvesting honey and Acacia honey (AH), a beekeeping honey, on male and female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. An acute oral study was performed following OECD test guideline 423, with minor modifications. In the study, GH, AH and sucrose (S) were administered at 2000 mg/kg body weight. Animals were observed for the next 14 days. Gross pathology was performed at the end of the study. Animals were observed for mortality, morbidity, body weight changes, feed and water intake. Clinical biochemistry, gross pathology, relative organ weight and histopathological examination were performed. Rats fed with honey did not exhibit any abnormal signs or deaths. Results showed a decrease in weight gain and energy efficiency, but significantly increased in total food intake and total calories in female rats fed with GH, compared to control (p<0.05). Nevertheless, a significant increase in body weight was observed in male rats in all honey-treated groups. Male rats fed with AH significantly decreased in total food intake, total calories and energy efficiency. Both male and female rats fed with GH displayed a significant decrease in triglycerides compared to control group. Hepatic and renal function levels were within acceptable range. The gross necropsy analysis did not reveal changes in any of the organs examined. Our results suggest that acute consumption of GH and AH at 2000 mg/kg body weight of male and female SD rats has some discrepancy effects on biochemical parameters but in line

  7. Isolation of a latent polyphenol oxidase from loquat fruit (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.): kinetic characterization and comparison with the active form.

    PubMed

    Sellés-Marchart, Susana; Casado-Vela, Juan; Bru-Martínez, Roque

    2006-02-15

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) has been extracted from both soluble and particulate fractions of loquat fruit (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl. cv. Algerie). The soluble PPO (20% of total activity) was partially purified 3.3-fold after ammonium sulfate fractionation being in its active state. The particulate PPO fraction (80% of total activity) was purified to homogeneity in a latent form being activable by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The enzyme was purified 40.0-fold with a total yield of 15.3% after extraction by phase partitioning in Triton X-114 followed by three chromatographic steps. The molecular weight was estimated to be about 59.2 and 61.2 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and gel filtration chromatography, respectively, indicating that latent PPO is a monomer. Latent PPO catalyzed the oxidation of chlorogenic acid (CA) at a rate 50-fold faster than that of 4-tert-butylcatechol (TBC) but the soluble active counterpart only twice. Both PPOs exhibited similar Km values for TBC but Km for CA was 5-fold higher for the latent than for the active soluble PPO. Other kinetic characteristics, including sensitivity to inhibitors, substrate specificity, thermal stability, temperature, and pH profiles, were quite different between both PPOs. These results provide strong evidences that the soluble active and the particulate latent are different forms of PPO in loquat fruit flesh. The results suggest that the major PPO form for the oxidation of CA, leading to enzymatic browning under physiological conditions, is the latent one.

  8. Acacia nilotica (Babool) leaf extract mediated size-controlled rapid synthesis of gold nanoparticles and study of its catalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumdar, Rakhi; Bag, Braja Gopal; Maity, Nabasmita

    2013-09-01

    The leaf extract of Acacia nilotica (Babool) is rich in different types of plant secondary metabolites such as flavanoids, tannins, triterpenoids, saponines, etc. We have demonstrated the use of the leaf extract for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles in water at room temperature under very mild conditions. The synthesis of the gold nanoparticles was complete in several minutes, and no extra stabilizing or capping agents were necessary. The size of the nanoparticles could be controlled by varying the concentration of the leaf extract. The gold nanoparticles were characterized by HRTEM, surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction studies. The synthesized gold nanoparticles have been used as an efficient catalyst for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol in water at room temperature.

  9. Triterpenoids from Acacia ataxacantha DC: antimicrobial and antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Amoussa, Abdou Madjid O; Lagnika, Latifou; Bourjot, Mélanie; Vonthron-Senecheau, Cathérine; Sanni, Ambaliou

    2016-08-12

    Acacia ataxacantha is a medicinal specie used extensively in traditional medicine of Benin republic to treat infectious diseases. Our previous study showed interesting antibacterial and antifungal activities against six strains of bacteria and six strains of fungi. The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of compounds isolated from A. ataxacantha. Chromatographic and spectroscopic methods were used to isolate and identify three compounds (1-3) from the bark of A. ataxacantha. Phytochemical investigation of A. ataxacantha (Fabaceae) led to the isolation of three triterpenoids (1-3). The structure of isolated compounds was established by differents spectroscopic methods such as UV, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, 2D NMR and Mass. All isolated compounds were tested for antimicrobial activity using agar disc-diffusion and microdilution methods. The radical scavenging activity of isolated compounds was assessed using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. Phytochemical investigation led to the isolation and identification of lupeol (1), betulinic acid (2) and betulinic acid-3-trans-caffeate (3). Moderate antimicrobial activity was obtained with compound 3 against methicillin-resitant Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus feacalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with MIC value of 25 μg/ml and Staphylococcus aureus (MIC of 50 μg/ml). Compounds 3 was more active against Staphylococcus epidermidis and Candida albicans with a MIC value of 12.5 μg/ml in boths cases. Compounds 3 had also interesting antioxidant activity with an IC50 of 3.57 μg/ml compared to quercetin (1.04 μg/ml). The overall results of this study provide evidence that the compound 3, isolated from A. ataxacantha, exhibit antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and yeast, especially against C. albicans.

  10. Elaiophore Structure and Oil Secretion in Flowers of Oncidium trulliferum Lindl. and Ornithophora radicans (Rchb.f.) Garay & Pabst (Oncidiinae: Orchidaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Stpiczyńska, Malgorzata; Davies, Kevin L.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Many orchid flowers have glands called elaiophores and these reward pollinating insects with oil. In contrast to other reward-producing structures such as nectaries, the anatomy of the elaiophore and the process of oil secretion have not been extensively studied. In this paper, elaiophore structure is described for two members of Oncidiinae, Oncidium trulliferum Lindl. and Ornithophora radicans (Rchb.f.) Garay & Pabst. Methods Elaiophores of both species were examined using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Key Results and Conclusions In flowers of Oncidium trulliferum and Ornithophora radicans, oil is secreted by morphologically distinct elaiophores associated with the labellar callus. However, in O. trulliferum, elaiophores also occur on the lateral lobes of the labellum. In both these species, the epithelial elaiophores are composed of a single layer of palisade-like epidermal cells and a distinct subepithelial layer. Secretory elaiophore cells may contain numerous, starchless plastids, mitochondria and smooth endoplasmic reticulum profiles. In O. trulliferum, the cytoplasm contains myelin-like figures but these are absent from O. radicans. In the former species, cavities occur in the cell wall and these presumably facilitate the passage of oil onto the elaiophore surface. In O. radicans, the accumulation of oil between the outer tangential wall and the cuticle causes the latter to become distended. Since it is probable that the full discharge of oil from the elaiophores of O. radicans occurs only when the cuticle is ruptured by a visiting insect, this may contribute towards pollinator specificity. The structure of the elaiophore in these species resembles both that found in previously investigated species of Oncidiinae and that of certain members of the Malpighiaceae. PMID:18056056

  11. Hypoglycemic effects of Acacia nilotica in type II diabetes: a research proposal.

    PubMed

    Roozbeh, Nasibeh; Darvish, Leili; Abdi, Fatemeh

    2017-07-26

    Diabetes mellitus is a common metabolic disorder throughout the world which can negatively affect the function of various body organs. Due to their availability and few side effects, herbal medicines have been proposed as suitable alternatives in the management of diabetes. Previous studies have confirmed the anti diabetic properties of Acacia nilotica. The hypoglycemic effects of this plant have been attributed to its role in stimulating the islets of Langerhans to produce more insulin. The present paper describes a systematic review protocol for the assessment of the hypoglycemic effects of A. nilotica. Randomized and non-randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials, performed during 1999-2016 will be included. The outcomes will be measured through FBS, GCT, GTT, and OGTT in all of studies and in addition to these tests, will be measured 2HPP and HbA1c level in human study. Well-known databases will be searched for selected key terms A. nilotica, type II diabetes and hypoglycemia. The quality assessment of the selected papers will be evaluated based on SYRCLE and Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. We believe that our findings will provide details about difficulties researchers face during the design of protocols or implementation of scientific studies. Ultimately, the publication of our findings will facilitate the development of effective treatment strategies to promote the health of people with type II DM. PROSPERO registration CRD42016053141.

  12. Nitrogen metabolism of sheep and goats consuming Acacia brevispica and Sesbania sesban

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodward, A.; Reed, J.D.

    1997-01-01

    We described the effects of two East African browses, Acacia brevispica and Sesbania sesban, on nitrogen metabolism of sheep and goats. The A. brevispica had a substantial amount of proanthocyanidins (condensed tannins); S. sesban did not. The browses were fed at three levels in combination with vetch (Vicia dasycarpa) and teff straw (Eragrostis abyssinica). Fecal N, N balance, and plasma urea N (PUN) were estimated with intact animals. Ruminal ammonia (RuA) and VFA concentrations were estimated with ruminally fistulated animals. Urinary N loss, PUN, RuA, and VFA concentrations were higher for S. sesban diets than for A. brevispica diets. Fecal N was highest with diets including A. brevispica due to high levels of fecal neutral-detergent insoluble N. Nitrogen retention was highest for diets including S. sesban. Nitrogen retention was adequate for A. brevispica diets because low urinary N compensated for high fecal N. Four hypotheses describe possible effects of tannins on N metabolism: 1) escape of protein from the rumen to the lower tract; 2) increased microbial yield; 3) increase in N-containing endogenous products; and 4) protein made indigestible in tannin-protein complexes. The effect of tannins in A. brevispica on N metabolism can best be described by the formation of indigestible tannin-protein complexes, although increased production of endogenous products is also possible.

  13. Monosaccharide composition of acidic gum exudates from Indian Acacia tortilis ssp. raddiana (Savi) Brenan.

    PubMed

    Lakhera, Ajeet Kumar; Kumar, Vineet

    2017-01-01

    Acacia tortilis ssp. raddiana (Savi) Brenan commonly known as Israeli Babool has contributed immensely for sand dunes management in Indian desert leading to wind erosion control and increased biological productivity. The species is extensively used in traditional medicine system for a number of therapeutic applications and as nutraceutical. The polysaccharide was isolated in 43.6% yield from gum exudates. The monosaccharides, L-arabinose, D-galactose D-glucose, L-rhamnose and D-mannose were determined in molar ratio of 78.1%, 18.64%, 0.60%, 1.71% and 0.74% respectively. The molar ratio of uronic acids was studied using diverse spectrophotometric methods and compared with GLC. The content of D-galacturonic acid and D-glucuronic was determined as 3.88% and 4.35% respectively by GLC. The results were compared with the spectrophotometric methods. The results using DMP as chromogenic reagent are closer to that obtained by GLC. Structural analysis of the polysaccharide may provide scientific basis for nutraceutical, pharmaceutical and biological applications of gum exudates from A. tortilis, which is extensively planted in India. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Acacia gum as modifier of thermal stability, solubility and emulsifying properties of α-lactalbumin.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Fabíola Cristina; Dos Reis Coimbra, Jane Sélia; de Oliveira, Eduardo Basílio; Rodrigues, Marina Quadrio Raposo Branco; Sabioni, Rachel Campos; de Souza, Bartolomeu Warlene Silva; Santos, Igor José Boggione

    2015-03-30

    Protein-polysaccharide conjugates often display improved techno-functional properties when compared to their individual involved biomolecules. α-Lactalbumin:acacia gum (α-la:AG) conjugates were prepared via Maillard reaction by the dry-heating method. Conjugate formation was confirmed using results of absorbance, o-phthalaldehyde test, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and size exclusion chromatography. Techno-functional properties (emulsifying characteristics, solubility, and thermal stability) were evaluated for α-la, α-la/AG mixtures and α-la:AG conjugates. Conjugate thermal stability was improved compared to pure α-la treated at the same conditions of conjugate formation. Response surface methodology was used to establish models to predict solubility and emulsifying activity as functions of the salt concentration, pH and reaction time. α-la:AG conjugate solubility is affected in a complex manner by the three factors analyzed. Emulsifying activity index (EAI) of α-la is significantly affected by pH, while the α-la:AG EAI is affected by the three analyzed factors. Both solubility and EAI are maximized with pH 8.0, NaCl concentration of 0.3 mol L(-1) and two days of Maillard reaction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Acacia catechu ethanolic bark extract induces apoptosis in human oral squamous carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, Thangavelu; Ezhilarasan, Devaraj; Vijayaragavan, Rajagopal; Bhullar, Sukhwinder Kaur; Rajendran, Ramasamy

    2017-01-01

    Oral cancer is in approximately 30% of all cancers in India. This study was conducted to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of ethanolic extract of Acacia catechu bark (ACB) against human squamous cell carcinoma cell line-25 (SCC-25). Cytotoxic effect of ACB extract was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium Bromide assay. A. catechu extract was treated SCC-25 cells with 25 and 50 μg/mL for 24 h. Apoptosis markers such as caspases-8 and 9, bcl-2, bax, and cytochrome c (Cyt-c) were done by RT-PCR. Morphological changes of ACB treated cells were evaluated using acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) dual staining. Nuclear morphology and DNA fragmentation were evaluated using propidium iodide (PI) staining. Further, cell cycle analysis was performed using flow cytometry. A. catechu treatment caused cytotoxicity in SCC-25 cells with an IC 50 of 52.09 μg/mL. Apoptotic marker gene expressions were significantly increased on ACB treatment. Staining with AO/EB and PI shows membrane blebbing and nuclear membrane distortion, respectively, and it confirms the apoptosis induction in SCC-25 cells. These results suggest that ACB extract can be used as a modulating agent in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of Acacia gum-Fe0Np-silica nanocomposite: an efficient Fenton-like catalyst for the degradation of Remazol Brilliant Violet dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Vandana; Singh, Jadveer; Srivastava, Preeti

    2018-04-01

    Acacia gum-Fe0Np-silica nanocomposite (GFS1) has been crafted through sol-gel technique using a two-step process that involved the reduction of iron salt to zerovalent iron nanoparticles (Fe0Nps) followed by their impregnation within Acacia gum-silica matrix. GFS1 was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques. GFS1 is decorated with Fe0Nps of 5 nm average size. The VSM study revealed that GFS1 has ferromagnetic nature. GFS1 was used as a heterogeneous Fenton-like catalyst for the degradation of azo dyes using Remazol Brilliant Violet (RBV) dye as a model dye. In first 5 min of operation, > 86% dye degradation was achieved and 94% dye (from 100 mg L-1 dye solution) was successfully degraded in 50 min. The dye degradation followed pseudo-first-order kinetics. The GFS1 performed efficiently well over the wide range of dye concentrations (25-200 mg L-1). The catalyst was reused for eight repeated cycles where 12.5% dye degradation was possible even in the eighth cycle. The catalyst behaved fairly well for the degradation of Metanil Yellow (MY) and Orange G (OG) dyes also. Under the optimum conditions of RBV dye degradation, Metanil Yellow (MY) and Orange G (OG) dyes were degraded to the extent of 97 and 26.3%, respectively.

  17. Removal of 4-nitrophenol from aqueous solution by adsorption onto activated carbon prepared from Acacia glauca sawdust.

    PubMed

    Dhorabe, Prashant T; Lataye, Dilip H; Ingole, Ramakant S

    2016-01-01

    The present paper deals with a complete batch adsorption study of 4-nitrophenol (4NP) from aqueous solution onto activated carbon prepared from Acacia glauca sawdust (AGAC). The surface area of the adsorbent determined by methylene blue method is found to be 311.20 m(2)/g. The optimum dose of adsorbent was found to be 2 g/l with 4NP uptake of 25.93 mg/g. The equilibrium time was found to be 30 minutes with the percentage removal of 96.40 at the initial concentration of 50 ppm. The maximum removal of 98.94% was found to be at pH of 6. The equilibrium and kinetic study revealed that the Radke-Prausnitz isotherm and pseudo second order kinetics model fitted the respective data well. In the thermodynamic study, the negative value of Gibbs free energy change (-26.38 kJ/mol at 30°C) and enthalpy change (-6.12 kJ/mol) showed the spontaneous and exothermic nature of the adsorption process.

  18. Combustion and kinetic parameters estimation of torrefied pine, acacia and Miscanthus giganteus using experimental and modelling techniques.

    PubMed

    Wilk, Małgorzata; Magdziarz, Aneta; Gajek, Marcin; Zajemska, Monika; Jayaraman, Kandasamy; Gokalp, Iskender

    2017-11-01

    A novel approach, linking both experiments and modelling, was applied to obtain a better understanding of combustion characteristics of torrefied biomass. Therefore, Pine, Acacia and Miscanthus giganteus have been investigated under 260°C, 1h residence time and argon atmosphere. A higher heating value and carbon content corresponding to a higher fixed carbon, lower volatile matter, moisture content, and ratio O/C were obtained for all torrefied biomass. TGA analysis was used in order to proceed with the kinetics study and Chemkin calculations. The kinetics analysis demonstrated that the torrefaction process led to a decrease in Ea compared to raw biomass. The average Ea of pine using the KAS method changed from 169.42 to 122.88kJ/mol. The changes in gaseous products of combustion were calculated by Chemkin, which corresponded with the TGA results. The general conclusion based on these investigations is that torrefaction improves the physical and chemical properties of biomass. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Quercus dilatata Lindl. ex Royle ameliorates BPA induced hepatotoxicity in Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Kazmi, Syeda Tayyaba Batool; Majid, Muhammad; Maryam, Sonia; Rahat, Aymen; Ahmed, Madiha; Khan, Muhammad Rashid; Haq, Ihsan Ul

    2018-06-01

    Quercus dilatata Lindl. ex Royle was evaluated for in vitro polyphenol content and antioxidant potential as well as in vivo protective role against bisphenol A (BPA) induced hepatotoxicity. The distilled water-acetone (QDDAE) and methanol-ethyl acetate (QDMEtE) extracts were standardized and administered in high (300 mg/kg body weight (BW) and low (150 mg/kg BW) doses to Sprague Dawley rats, injected with BPA (25 mg/kg BW). Silymarin (50 mg/kg BW) was used as positive control. Subsequently, blood and liver homogenates were collected after four weeks of treatment, and the defensive effects of both extracts against oxidative damage and genotoxicity were assessed via hematological and biochemical investigations, determination of endogenous expression of enzymes as well as levels of free radicals and comet assay. Between the two extracts, maximum phenolics (213 ± 0.15 μg gallic acid equivalent/mg dry extract (DE) and flavonoids (55.6 ± 0.16 μg quercetin equivalent/mg DE) content, DPPH scavenging activity (IC 50 : 8.1 ± 0.5 μg/ml), antioxidant capacity (53.7 ± 0.98 μg ascorbic acid equivalent (AAE)/mg DE) and reducing potential (228.4 ± 2.4 μg AAE/mg DE) were observed in QDMEtE. In in vivo analysis, a dose dependent hepatoprotective activity was exhibited by both the extracts. QDDAE demonstrated maximum reduction in levels of alanine transaminase (49.77 ± 3.83 U/l), thiobarbituric acid reactant substances (33.46 ± 0.70 nM/min/mg protein), hydrogen peroxide (18.08 ± 0.01 ng/mg tissue) and nitrite (55.64 ± 1.79 μM/ml), along with decline in erythrocyte sedimentation rate (4.13 ± 0.072 mm/h), histopathological injuries and DNA damage in BPA intoxicated rats as compared with QDMEtE. Likewise, QDDAE also significantly restored activity levels of endogenous antioxidants, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (POD) and GSH with values of 6.46 ± 0.15

  20. Fir dwarf mistletoe (FIDL).

    Treesearch

    Gregory M. Filip; Jerome S. Beatty; Robert L. Mathiasen

    2000-01-01

    Fir dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium abietinum Engelmann ex Munz) is a common and damaging parasite of white fir (Abies concolor (Gord. & Glend.) Lindl. ex Hildebr.), grand fir (Abies grandis (Dougl. ex D. Don) Lindl.), and California red fir (A. magnifica A. Murr.) in the western...

  1. Neem gum as a binder in a formulated paracetamol tablet with reference to Acacia gum BP.

    PubMed

    Ogunjimi, Abayomi Tolulope; Alebiowu, Gbenga

    2014-04-01

    This study determined the physical, compressional, and binding properties of neem gum (NMG) obtained from the trunk of Azadirachta indica (A Juss) in a paracetamol tablet formulation in comparison with official Acacia gum BP (ACA). The physical and flow properties were evaluated using density parameters: porosity, Carr's index, Hausner's ratio, and flow rate. Compressional properties were analyzed using Heckel and Kawakita equations. The tensile strength, brittle fracture index, and crushing strength-friability/disintegration time ratio were used to evaluate the mechanical properties of paracetamol tablets while the drug release properties of the tablets were assessed using disintegration time and dissolution times. Tablet formulations containing NMG exhibited faster onset and higher amount of plastic deformation during compression than those containing ACA. Neem gum produced paracetamol tablets with lower mechanical strength; however, the tendency of the tablets to cap or laminate was lower when compared to those containing ACA. Inclusion of NMG improved the balance between binding and disintegration properties of paracetamol tablets produced than those containing ACA. Neem gum produced paracetamol tablets with lower disintegration and dissolution times than those containing ACA.

  2. Conflict resolution in an ant-plant interaction: Acacia constricta traits reduce ant costs to reproduction.

    PubMed

    Nicklen, E Fleur; Wagner, Diane

    2006-05-01

    Many plant species attract ants onto their foliage with food rewards or nesting space. However, ants can interfere with plant reproduction when they visit flowers. This study tests whether Acacia constricta separates visiting ant species temporally or spatially from newly opened inflorescences and pollinators. The diurnal activity patterns of ants and A. constricta pollinators peaked at different times of day, and the activity of pollinators followed the daily dehiscence of A. constricta inflorescences. In addition to being largely temporally separated, ants rarely visited open inflorescences. A floral ant repellent contributes to the spatial separation of ants and inflorescences. In a field experiment, ants of four species were given equal access to inflorescences in different developmental stages. On average, the frequency with which ants made initial, antennal contact with the floral stages did not differ, but ants significantly avoided secondary contact with newly opened inflorescences relative to buds and old inflorescences, and old inflorescences relative to buds. Ants also avoided contact with pollen alone, indicating that pollen is at least one source of the repellent. The results suggest A. constricta has effectively resolved the potential conflict between visiting ants and plant reproduction.

  3. [Litter decomposition and nutrient release in Acacia mangium plantations established on degraded soils of Colombia].

    PubMed

    Castellanos-Barliza, Jeiner; León Peláez, Juan Diego

    2011-03-01

    Several factors control the decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems such as humidity, temperature, quality of litter and microbial activity. We investigated the effects of rainfall and soil plowing prior to the establishment of Acacia mangium plantations, using the litterbag technique, during a six month period, in forests plantations in Bajo Cauca region, Colombia. The annual decomposition constants (k) of simple exponential model, oscillated between 1.24 and 1.80, meanwhile k1 y k2 decomposition constants of double exponential model were 0.88-1.81 and 0.58-7.01. At the end of the study, the mean residual dry matter (RDM) was 47% of the initial value for the three sites. We found a slow N, Ca and Mg release pattern from the A. mangium leaf litter, meanwhile, phosphorus (P) showed a dominant immobilization phase, suggesting its low availability in soils. Chemical leaf litter quality parameters (e.g. N and P concentrations, C/N, N/P ratios and phenols content) showed an important influence on decomposition rates. The results of this study indicated that rainfall plays an important role on the decomposition process, but not soil plowing.

  4. Salinization of the soil solution decreases the further accumulation of salt in the root zone of the halophyte Atriplex nummularia Lindl. growing above shallow saline groundwater.

    PubMed

    Alharby, Hesham F; Colmer, Timothy D; Barrett-Lennard, Edward G

    2018-01-01

    Water use by plants in landscapes with shallow saline groundwater may lead to the accumulation of salt in the root zone. We examined the accumulation of Na + and Cl - around the roots of the halophyte Atriplex nummularia Lindl. and the impacts of this increasing salinity for stomatal conductance, water use and growth. Plants were grown in columns filled with a sand-clay mixture and connected at the bottom to reservoirs containing 20, 200 or 400 mM NaCl. At 21 d, Na + and Cl - concentrations in the soil solution were affected by the salinity of the groundwater, height above the water table and the root fresh mass density at various soil depths (P < 0.001). However, by day 35, the groundwater salinity and height above the water table remained significant factors, but the root fresh mass density was no longer significant. Regression of data from the 200 and 400 mM NaCl treatments showed that the rate of Na + accumulation in the soil increased until the Na + concentration reached ~250 mM within the root zone; subsequent decreases in accumulation were associated with decreases in stomatal conductance. Salinization of the soil solution therefore had a feedback effect on further salinization within the root zone. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Microencapsulation of vitamin e from palm fatty acid distillate with galactomannan and gum acacia using spray drying method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarigan, J. Br.; Kaban, J.; Zulmi, R.

    2018-02-01

    Vitamin E from palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) has been encapsulated using spray drying method with gum acacia (GA) and mixed of galactomannan from Arenga pinnata (GAP) with GA as encapsulating agent. Composite films with thickness vary from 0.542 - 0.779 mm were prepared by incorporating vitamin E onto matrix of GA (7 g) with various concentration of GAP (0.1; 0.2; 0.3 and 0.4 g). The film obtained from 0.2 g GAP and 1.3 g vitamin E showed better compatibility and have viscosity similar with standard (ISO 9001:2008 and ISO 22000:2005). That composition was used for spray drying method rendering micro-particle size 11 µm and the particle had spherical shape. Although the increment of GAP decreasing moisture content and the particle size from 16 µm to 11 µm, the yield of microcapsule, encapsulation efficiency, the amount of vitamin E absorbed and oxidation stability of vitamin E were increased.

  6. Evaluation of mosquito larvicidal activity of fruit extracts of Acacia auriculiformis against the Japanese encephalitis vector Culex vishnui.

    PubMed

    Barik, Mousumi; Rawani, Anjali; Laskar, Subrata; Chandra, Goutam

    2018-02-19

    The larvicidal potentiality of crude and ethyl acetate extracts of fruits of Acacia auriculiformis was investigated against all the larval instars of JE vector Culex vishnui. The crude extracts showed good results against all the larval instars with highest mortality at 0.09%. Highest mortality was found at 300 ppm of ethyl acetate extract. Lowest LC 50 value was obtained at 72 h for third instar larvae. Non target organisms tested, showed no to very less mortality to ethyl acetate solvent extract. Presence of N-H stretching, a C=O stretching, C=C and C-N stretching vibrations of secondary amide or amine group were confirmed from IR analysis. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of three compounds namely Ethane 2-chloro-1,1-dimethoxy, Acetic acid, 1-methyl ether ester and [4-[1-[3,5-Dimethyl-4[(trimethylsilyl)oxy)phenyl]-1,3-dimethylbutyl)-2,6dimethylphenoxy)(trimethyl) silane, responsible for mosquito larval death.

  7. Dendrobium candidum Wall. ex Lindl. attenuates CCl4-induced hepatic damage in imprinting control region mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Gui-Jie; Sun, Peng; Wang, Qiang; Qian, Yu; Zhu, Kai; Zhao, Xin

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the preventive effect of the traditional Chinese medicine, Dendrobium candidum Wall ex Lindl. ( D. candidum ), on CCl 4 -induced hepatic damage in mice. The CCl 4 -induced hepatic damage mice were treated with D. candidum, and the serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) were determined. In addition, serum cytokine levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-12, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interferon (IFN)-γ were analyzed with kits, while liver tissues were analyzed using hematoxylin and eosin staining and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Furthermore, the contents of D. candidum were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). D. candidum was demonstrated to successfully prevent hepatic damage in mice. The serum levels of AST, ALT and LDH were significantly decreased when the mice were treated with 200 and 400 mg/kg D. candidum, as compared with the control mice (P<0.05). The lowest enzymatic activities were exhibited in the 400 mg/kg D. candidum group, which produced similar results to the positive control drug, silymarin. In addition, in the 400 mg/kg D. candidum group, the highest levels of TG and TC were observed among the treated groups. D. candidum -treated groups also demonstrated reduced levels of the serum proinflammatory cytokines, IL-6, IL-12, TNF-α and IFN-γ. The sections of liver tissue examined during histopathology in the high concentration 400 mg/kg D. candidum group recovered well from CCl 4 damage; however, the sections in the 200 mg/kg D. candidum group revealed necrosis to a more serious degree. RT-PCR analysis was conducted on inflammation-associated genes, including nuclear factor (NF)-κB, IκB-α, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, in the livers of the mice. The 400 mg/kg D. candidum group demonstrated significantly

  8. Purification of a PHA-like chitin-binding protein from Acacia farnesiana seeds: a time-dependent oligomerization protein.

    PubMed

    Santi-Gadelha, T; Rocha, B A M; Oliveira, C C; Aragão, K S; Marinho, E S; Gadelha, C A A; Toyama, M H; Pinto, V P T; Nagano, C S; Delatorre, P; Martins, J L; Galvani, F R; Sampaio, A H; Debray, H; Cavada, B S

    2008-07-01

    A lectin-like protein from the seeds of Acacia farnesiana was isolated from the albumin fraction, characterized, and sequenced by tandem mass spectrometry. The albumin fraction was extracted with 0.5 M NaCl, and the lectin-like protein of A. farnesiana (AFAL) was purified by ion-exchange chromatography (Mono-Q) followed by chromatofocusing. AFAL agglutinated rabbit erythrocytes and did not agglutinate human ABO erythrocytes either native or treated with proteolytic enzymes. In sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis under reducing and nonreducing conditions, AFAL separated into two bands with a subunit molecular mass of 35 and 50 kDa. The homogeneity of purified protein was confirmed by chromatofocusing with a pI = 4.0 +/- 0.5. Molecular exclusion chromatography confirmed time-dependent oligomerization in AFAL, in accordance with mass spectrometry analysis, which confers an alteration in AFAL affinity for chitin. The protein sequence was obtained by a liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight experiment and showed that AFAL has 68% and 63% sequence similarity with lectins of Phaseolus vulgaris and Dolichos biflorus, respectively.

  9. Structural, textural and morphological characteristics of tannins from Acacia mearnsii encapsulated using sol-gel methods: Applications as antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Cristiane; Vargas, Álvaro; Fronza, Ney; Dos Santos, João Henrique Zimnoch

    2017-03-01

    Tannins from Acacia mearnsii were encapsulated using four different sol-gel methods acid (SGAR), basic (SGBR), silicate (SGSR) and non-hydrolytic (SGNHR) routes. The hybrid materials were analyzed using a set of techniques to characterize their structure, texture and morphology. The antimicrobial performance of the encapsulated materials was evaluated against different microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus niger and Candida sp.). The data showed that the encapsulation route significantly affects the characteristics of the resulting hybrid materials. Better functional performances were obtained using the silicate route, which produced mesoporous materials with a small surface area (0.96m 2 g -1 ) and small particle size (<1nm). These characteristics promoted the gradual release of tannins in an aqueous medium and improved their interactions with microorganisms. Furthermore, the process demonstrated the preservation of tannins after synthesis and increased antimicrobial activity (via a controlled tannin release), as demonstrated by the moderate activity against filamentous fungi and yeast. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. The Exotic Legume Tree Species Acacia holosericea Alters Microbial Soil Functionalities and the Structure of the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Community▿

    PubMed Central

    Remigi, P.; Faye, A.; Kane, A.; Deruaz, M.; Thioulouse, J.; Cissoko, M.; Prin, Y.; Galiana, A.; Dreyfus, B.; Duponnois, R.

    2008-01-01

    The response of microbial functional diversity as well as its resistance to stress or disturbances caused by the introduction of an exotic tree species, Acacia holosericea, ectomycorrhized or not with Pisolithus albus, was examined. The results show that this ectomycorrhizal fungus promotes drastically the growth of this fast-growing tree species in field conditions after 7 years of plantation. Compared to the crop soil surrounding the A. holosericea plantation, this exotic tree species, associated or not with the ectomycorrhizal symbiont, induced strong modifications in soil microbial functionalities (assessed by measuring the patterns of in situ catabolic potential of microbial communities) and reduced soil resistance in response to increasing stress or disturbance (salinity, temperature, and freeze-thaw and wet-dry cycles). In addition, A. holosericea strongly modified the structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus communities. These results show clearly that exotic plants may be responsible for important changes in soil microbiota affecting the structure and functions of microbial communities. PMID:18203858

  11. Using hyperspectral imaging to determine germination of native Australian plant seeds.

    PubMed

    Nansen, Christian; Zhao, Genpin; Dakin, Nicole; Zhao, Chunhui; Turner, Shane R

    2015-04-01

    We investigated the ability to accurately and non-destructively determine the germination of three native Australian tree species, Acacia cowleana Tate (Fabaceae), Banksia prionotes L.F. (Proteaceae), and Corymbia calophylla (Lindl.) K.D. Hill & L.A.S. Johnson (Myrtaceae) based on hyperspectral imaging data. While similar studies have been conducted on agricultural and horticultural seeds, we are unaware of any published studies involving reflectance-based assessments of the germination of tree seeds. Hyperspectral imaging data (110 narrow spectral bands from 423.6nm to 878.9nm) were acquired of individual seeds after 0, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 30, and 50days of standardized rapid ageing. At each time point, seeds were subjected to hyperspectral imaging to obtain reflectance profiles from individual seeds. A standard germination test was performed, and we predicted that loss of germination was associated with a significant change in seed coat reflectance profiles. Forward linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was used to select the 10 spectral bands with the highest contribution to classifications of the three species. In all species, germination decreased from over 90% to below 20% in about 10-30days of experimental ageing. P50 values (equal to 50% germination) for each species were 19.3 (A. cowleana), 7.0 (B. prionotes) and 22.9 (C. calophylla) days. Based on independent validation of classifications of hyperspectral imaging data, we found that germination of Acacia and Corymbia seeds could be classified with over 85% accuracy, while it was about 80% for Banksia seeds. The selected spectral bands in each LDA-based classification were located near known pigment peaks involved in photosynthesis and/or near spectral bands used in published indices to predict chlorophyll or nitrogen content in leaves. The results suggested that seed germination may be successfully classified (predicted) based on reflectance in narrow spectral bands associated with the primary metabolism

  12. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Acacia leucophloea extract and their antibacterial activity

    PubMed Central

    Murugan, Kasi; Senthilkumar, Balakrishnan; Senbagam, Duraisamy; Al-Sohaibani, Saleh

    2014-01-01

    The immense potential of nanobiotechnology makes it an intensely researched field in modern medicine. Green nanomaterial synthesis techniques for medicinal applications are desired because of their biocompatibility and lack of toxic byproducts. We report the toxic byproducts free phytosynthesis of stable silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using the bark extract of the traditional medicinal plant Acacia leucophloea (Fabaceae). Visual observation, ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to characterize the synthesized AgNPs. The visible yellow-brown color formation and surface plasmon resonance at 440 nm indicates the biosynthesis of AgNP. The TEM images show polydisperse, mostly spherical AgNP particles of 17–29 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed that primary amines, aldehyde/ketone, aromatic, azo, and nitro compounds of the A. leucophloea extract may participate in the bioreduction and capping of the formed AgNPs. X-ray diffraction confirmed the crystallinity of the AgNPs. The in vitro agar well diffusion method confirmed the potential antibacterial activity of the plant extract and synthesized AgNPs against the common bacterial pathogens Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 737), Bacillus cereus (MTCC 1272), Listeria monocytogenes (MTCC 657), and Shigella flexneri (MTCC 1475). This research combines the inherent antimicrobial activity of silver metals with the A. leucophloea extract, yielding antibacterial activity-enhanced AgNPs. This new biomimetic approach using traditional medicinal plant (A. leucophloea) barks to synthesize biocompatible antibacterial AgNPs could easily be scaled up for additional biomedical applications. These polydisperse AgNPs green-synthesized via A. leucophloea bark extract can readily be used in many applications not requiring high uniformity in particle size or shape. PMID:24876776

  13. Antioxidant and antigenotoxic activities in Acacia salicina extracts and its protective role against DNA strand scission induced by hydroxyl radical.

    PubMed

    Chatti, Ines Bouhlel; Boubaker, Jihed; Skandrani, Ines; Bhouri, Wissem; Ghedira, Kamel; Chekir Ghedira, Leila

    2011-08-01

    The antioxidant potency of Acacia salicina extracts was investigated. Total antioxidant capacity was determined using an ABTS(+) assay. Superoxide radical scavenging was measured using riboflavin-light-nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) assay. In addition, the content of phenols, total flavonoids and sterols were measured in the tested extracts. The petroleum ether exhibited a potent scavenging activity toward ABTS radical cations. Whereas, chloroform extract showed the highest activity against superoxides radicals and was also able to protect pKS plasmid DNA against hydroxyl radicals induced DNA damages. The antimutagenicity of these extracts was assayed using the Ames assay against Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and S. typhimurium TA 1535 tester strains at different concentrations. These extracts decreased significantly the mutagenecity induced by sodium azide (SA) and 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine (NOP). The antioxidant and antimutagenecity activities exhibited by A. salicina depended on the chemical composition of the tested extracts. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Gum acacia mitigates genetic damage in adenine-induced chronic renal failure in rats.

    PubMed

    Ali, B H; Al Balushi, K; Al-Husseini, I; Mandel, P; Nemmar, A; Schupp, N; Ribeiro, D A

    2015-12-01

    Subjects with chronic renal failure (CRF) exhibit oxidative genome damage, which may predispose to carcinogenesis, and Gum acacia (GumA) ameliorates this condition in humans and animals. We evaluated here renal DNA damage and urinary excretion of four nucleic acid oxidation adducts namely 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoGua), 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), 8-oxoguanosine (8-oxoGuo) and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanisone (8-OHdg) in rats with adenine (ADE)-induced CRF with and without GumA treatment. Twenty-four rats were divided into four equal groups and treated for 4 weeks. The first group was given normal food and water (control). The second group was given normal food and GumA (15% w/v) in drinking water. The third group was fed powder diet containing adenine (ADE) (0·75% w/w in feed). The fourth group was fed like in the third group, plus GumA in drinking water (15%, w/v). ADE feeding induced CRF (as measured by several physiological, biochemical and histological indices) and also caused a significant genetic damage and significant decreases in urinary 8-oxo Gua and 8-oxoGuo, but not in the other nucleic acids. However, concomitant GumA treatment reduced the level of genetic damage in kidney cells as detected by Comet assay and significantly reversed the effect of adenine on urinary 8-oxoGuo. Treatment with GumA is able to mitigate genetic damage in renal tissues of rats with ADE-induced CRF. © 2015 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  15. MALDI-TOF MS analysis of condensed tannins with potent antioxidant activity from the leaf, stem bark and root bark of Acacia confusa.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shu-Dong; Zhou, Hai-Chao; Lin, Yi-Ming; Liao, Meng-Meng; Chai, Wei-Ming

    2010-06-15

    The structures of the condensed tannins from leaf, stem bark and root bark of Acacia confusa were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis, and their antioxidant activities were measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The results showed that the condensed tannins from stem bark and root bark include propelargonidin and procyanidin, and the leaf condensed tannins include propelargonidin, procyanidin and prodelphinidin, all with the procyanidin dominating. The condensed tannins had different polymer chain lengths, varying from trimers to undecamers for leaf and root bark and to dodecamers for stem bark. The condensed tannins extracted from the leaf, stem bark and root bark all showed a very good DPPH radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing power.

  16. Turning over a new 'leaf': multiple functional significances of leaves versus phyllodes in Hawaiian Acacia koa.

    PubMed

    Pasquet-Kok, Jessica; Creese, Christine; Sack, Lawren

    2010-12-01

    Hawaiian endemic tree Acacia koa is a model for heteroblasty with bipinnately compound leaves and phyllodes. Previous studies suggested three hypotheses for their functional differentiation: an advantage of leaves for early growth or shade tolerance, and an advantage of phyllodes for drought tolerance. We tested the ability of these hypotheses to explain differences between leaf types for potted plants in 104 physiological and morphological traits, including gas exchange, structure and composition, hydraulic conductance, and responses to varying light, intercellular CO(2) , vapour pressure deficit (VPD) and drought. Leaf types were similar in numerous traits including stomatal pore area per leaf area, leaf area-based gas exchange rates and cuticular conductance. Each hypothesis was directly supported by key differences in function. Leaves had higher mass-based gas exchange rates, while the water storage tissue in phyllodes contributed to greater capacitance per area; phyllodes also showed stronger stomatal closure at high VPD, and higher maximum hydraulic conductance per area, with stronger decline during desiccation and recovery with rehydration. While no single hypothesis completely explained the differences between leaf types, together the three hypotheses explained 91% of differences. These findings indicate that the heteroblasty confers multiple benefits, realized across different developmental stages and environmental contexts. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Ultrastructure and pollen morphology of Bromeliaceae species from the Atlantic Rainforest in Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Vanessa J D; Ribeiro, Ester M; Luizi-Ponzo, Andrea P; Faria, Ana Paula G

    2016-01-01

    Pollen grain morphology of Bromeliaceae species collected in areas of the Atlantic Rainforest of southeastern Brazil was studied. The following species were analyzed: Aechmea bambusoides L.B.Sm. & Reitz, A. nudicaulis (L.) Griseb., A. ramosa Mart. ex Schult.f., Ananas bracteatus (Lindl.) Schult.f., Billbergia distachia (Vell.) Mez, B. euphemiae E. Morren, B. horrida Regel, B. zebrina (Herb.) Lindl., Portea petropolitana (Wawra) Mez, Pitcairnia flammea Lindl., Quesnelia indecora Mez, Tillandsia polystachia (L.) L., T. stricta Sol., T. gardneri Lindl., T. geminiflora Brongn. and Vriesea grandiflora Leme. Light and scanning electron microscopy were used and the species were grouped into three pollen types, organized according to aperture characteristics: Type I - pantoporate pollen grains observed in P. petropolitana, Type II - 2-porate pollen grains, observed in the genera Ananas, Aechmea and Quesnelia, and Type III - 1-colpate pollen grains, observed in the genera Billbergia, Pitcairnia, Tillandsia and Vriesea. Pollen data led to the construction of an identification key. The results showed that the species analyzed can be distinguished using mainly aperture features and exine ornamentation, and that these characteristics may assist in taxonomic studies of the family.

  18. Genotyping by Sequencing for SNP-Based Linkage Analysis and Identification of QTLs Linked to Fruit Quality Traits in Japanese Plum (Prunus salicina Lindl.).

    PubMed

    Salazar, Juan A; Pacheco, Igor; Shinya, Paulina; Zapata, Patricio; Silva, Claudia; Aradhya, Mallikarjuna; Velasco, Dianne; Ruiz, David; Martínez-Gómez, Pedro; Infante, Rodrigo

    2017-01-01

    Marker-assisted selection (MAS) in stone fruit ( Prunus species) breeding is currently difficult to achieve due to the polygenic nature of the most relevant agronomic traits linked to fruit quality. Genotyping by sequencing (GBS), however, provides a large quantity of useful data suitable for fine mapping using Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) from a reference genome. In this study, GBS was used to genotype 272 seedlings of three F1 Japanese plum ( Prunus salicina Lindl) progenies derived from crossing "98-99" (as a common female parent) with "Angeleno," "September King," and "September Queen" as male parents. Raw sequences were aligned to the Peach genome v1, and 42,909 filtered SNPs were obtained after sequence alignment. In addition, 153 seedlings from the "98-99" × "Angeleno" cross were used to develop a genetic map for each parent. A total of 981 SNPs were mapped (479 for "98-99" and 502 for "Angeleno"), covering a genetic distance of 688.8 and 647.03 cM, respectively. Fifty five seedlings from this progeny were phenotyped for different fruit quality traits including ripening time, fruit weight, fruit shape, chlorophyll index, skin color, flesh color, over color, firmness, and soluble solids content in the years 2015 and 2016. Linkage-based QTL analysis allowed the identification of genomic regions significantly associated with ripening time (LG4 of both parents and both phenotyping years), fruit skin color (LG3 and LG4 of both parents and both years), chlorophyll degradation index (LG3 of both parents in 2015) and fruit weight (LG7 of both parents in 2016). These results represent a promising situation for GBS in the identification of SNP variants associated to fruit quality traits, potentially applicable in breeding programs through MAS, in a highly heterozygous crop species such as Japanese plum.

  19. Isolation, characterization and mode of antimicrobial action against Vibrio cholerae of methyl gallate isolated from Acacia farnesiana.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, E; Heredia, N; Camacho-Corona, M Del R; García, S

    2013-12-01

    The antimicrobial activity of Acacia farnesiana against Vibrio cholerae has been demonstrated; however, no information regarding its active compound or its mechanism of action has been documented. The active compound was isolated from A. farnesiana by bioassay-guided fractionation and identified as methyl gallate by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques ((1) H NMR and (13) C NMR). The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of methyl gallate and its effect on membrane integrity, cytoplasmic pH, membrane potential, ATP synthesis and gene expression of cholera toxin (ctx) from V. cholerae were determined. The MBC of methyl gallate ranged from 30 ± 1 to 50 ± 1 μg ml(-1) . Methyl gallate affected cell membrane integrity, causing a decrease in cytoplasmic pH (pHin , from 7·3 to <3·0), and membrane hyperpolarization, and ATP was no longer produced by the treated cells. However, methyl gallate did not affect ctx gene expression. Methyl gallate is a major antimicrobial compound from A. farnesiana that disturbs the membrane activity of V. cholerae. The effects of methyl gallate validate several traditional antimicrobial uses of A. farnesiana, and it is an attractive alternative to control V. cholerae. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Pharmacological Assessment of the Medicinal Potential of Acacia mearnsii De Wild.: Antimicrobial and Toxicity Activities

    PubMed Central

    Olajuyigbe, Olufunmiso O.; Afolayan, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    Acacia mearnsii De Wild. (Fabaceae) is a medicinal plant used in the treatment of microbial infections in South Africa without scientific validation of its bioactivity and toxicity. The antimicrobial activity of the crude acetone extract was evaluated by both agar diffusion and macrobroth dilution methods while its cytotoxicity effect was assessed with brine shrimp lethality assay. The study showed that both bacterial and fungal isolates were highly inhibited by the crude extract. The MIC values for the gram-positive bacteria (78.1–312.5) μg/mL, gram-negative bacteria (39.1–625) μg/mL and fungal isolates (625–5000) μg/mL differ significantly. The bacteria were more susceptible than the fungal strains tested. The antibiosis determination showed that the extract was more (75%) bactericidal than bacteriostatic (25%) and more fungicidal (66.67%) than fungistatic (33.33%). The cytotoxic activity of the extract was observed between 31.25 μg/mL and 500 μg/mL and the LC50 value (112.36 μg/mL) indicates that the extract was nontoxic in the brine shrimp lethality assay (LC50 > 100 μg/mL). These results support the use of A. mearnsii in traditional medicine for treatment of microbial infections. The extract exhibiting significant broad spectrum antimicrobial activity and nontoxic effects has potential to yield active antimicrobial compounds. PMID:22605976

  1. In vitro protection of biological macromolecules against oxidative stress and in vivo toxicity evaluation of Acacia nilotica (L.) and ethyl gallate in rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recently, enormous research has been focused on natural bioactive compounds possessing potential antioxidant and anticancer properties using cell lines and animal models. Acacia nilotica (L.) is widely distributed in Asia, Africa, Australia and Kenya. The plant is traditionally used to treat mouth, ear and bone cancer. However, reports on Acacia nilotica (L.) Wild. Ex. Delile subsp. indica (Benth.) Brenan regarding its toxicity profile is limited. Hence in this study, we investigated the antioxidant capacity and acute toxicity of ethyl gallate, a phenolic antioxidant present in the A. nilotica (L.) leaf extract. Methods The antioxidant activity of ethyl gallate against Fenton’s system (Fe3+/H2O2/ascorbic acid) generated oxidative damage to pBR322 DNA and BSA was investigated. We also studied the interaction of ethyl gallate to CT-DNA by wave scan and FTIR analysis. The amount of ethyl gallate present in the A. nilotica (L.) leaf extract was calculated using HPLC and represented in gram equivalence of ethyl gallate. The acute toxicity profile of ethyl gallate in the A. nilotica (L.) leaf extract was analyzed in albino Wistar rats. Measurement of liver and kidney function markers, total proteins and glucose were determined in the serum. Statistical analysis was done using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) tool version 16.0. Results Ethyl gallate was found to be effective at 100 μg/mL concentration by inhibiting the free radical mediated damage to BSA and pBR322 DNA. We also found that the interaction of ethyl gallate and A. nilotica (L.) leaf extract to CT-DNA occurs through intercalation. One gram of A. nilotica (L.) leaf extract was found to be equivalent to 20 mg of ethyl gallate through HPLC analysis. Based on the acute toxicity results, A. nilotica (L.) leaf extract and ethyl gallate as well was found to be non-toxic and safe. Conclusions Results revealed no mortality or abnormal biochemical changes in vivo and the protective effect

  2. Polyphenols isolated from Acacia mearnsii bark with anti-inflammatory and carbolytic enzyme inhibitory activities.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Jia; Grace, Mary H; Esposito, Debora; Komarnytsky, Slavko; Wang, Fei; Lila, Mary Ann

    2017-11-01

    The present study was designed to characterize the polyphenols isolated from Acacia mearnsii bark crude extract (B) and fractions (B1-B7) obtained by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) and evaluate their anti-inflammatory and carbolytic enzymes (α-glucosidase and α-amylase) inhibitory activities. Fractions B4, B5, B6, B7 (total phenolics 850.3, 983.0, 843.9, and 572.5 mg·g -1 , respectively; proanthocyanidins 75.7, 90.5, 95.0, and 44.8 mg·g -1 , respectively) showed significant activities against reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO) production, and expression of pro-inflammatory genes interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. All the extracts suppressed α-glucosidase and α-amylase activities, two primary enzymes responsible for carbohydrate digestion. A. mearnsii bark samples possessed significantly stronger inhibitory effects against α-glucosidase enzyme (IC 50 of 0.4-1.4 μg·mL -1 ) than the pharmaceutical acarbose (IC 50 141.8 μg·mL -1 ). B6 and B7 (IC 50 17.6 and 11.7 μg·mL -1 , respectively) exhibited α-amylase inhibitory activity as efficacious as acarbose (IC 50 15.4 μg·mL -1 ). Moreover, B extract, at 25 µg·mL -1 , significantly decreased the non-mitochondrial oxidative burst that is often associated with inflammatory response in human monocytic macrophages. Copyright © 2017 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Topical treatment of major omphalocoele: Acacia nilotica versus povidone-iodine: A randomised controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Eltayeb, Almoutaz A.; Mostafa, Mahmoud M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Conservative management for major omphalocoele with topical agents as escharotics therapy is well established in practice. Different agents have been used in the past, including mercurochrome and alcohol, proved later to be unsafe. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the application of Acacia nilotica paste compared to povidone-iodine solution as a primary non-surgical treatment of major omphalocoele. Patients and Methods: A double-blind, randomised study was conducted on 24 cases of major omphalocoele where they were randomly divided into two equal groups; Group A treated with topical application of A. nilotica paste and Group B treated with topical application of povidone-iodine solution. Cases with gastroschisis, ruptured major omphalocoele or minor omphalocoele were excluded from the study. The evaluating parameters were size of the fascial defect in cm, period of mechanical ventilation if needed, time required for full oral feeding tolerance, duration of hospital stay and any short- or long-term complications. Results: There was no statistical significant difference between both groups regarding their gestational or post-natal age, weight and the mean umbilical port defect. Patients from Group A tolerated full oral feeding earlier and had shorter total hospital stay duration than those from Group B, but without a statistical significant difference (P = 0.347 and 0.242, respectively). The overall mortality rate was 33.3% without a statistical significant difference between both groups (P = 0.667). Conclusions: Application of A. nilotica is a safe and effective treatment of major omphalocoele as it was associated with rapid full enteral feeding tolerance, short duration of hospital stay and low mortality rate. PMID:26712288

  4. In vitro evaluation of antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of lignin fractions extracted from Acacia nilotica.

    PubMed

    Barapatre, Anand; Meena, Avtar Singh; Mekala, Sowmya; Das, Amitava; Jha, Harit

    2016-05-01

    Lignin is one of the most important phytomacromolecule with diverse therapeutic properties such as anticancer, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and immune-stimulatory. The present study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant, free radical scavenging and anti-proliferative/cytotoxic activities of eleven different lignin fractions, extracted from the wood of Acacia nilotica by pressurized solvent extraction (PSE) and successive solvent extraction (SSE) methods. Results indicate that the PSE fractions have high polyphenolic content and reducing power. However, the antioxidant efficiency examined by DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assay was higher in SSE fractions. All lignin fractions revealed a significant ability to scavenge nitric oxide, hydroxyl and superoxide radicals. The extracted lignin fractions display high ferric ion reducing capacity and also possess excellent antioxidant potential in the hydrophobic (linoleic acid) system. Fractions extracted by polar solvent has the highest iron (Fe(2+)) chelating activity as compared to other factions, indicating their effect on the redox cycling of iron. Four lignin fractions depicted higher cytotoxic potential (IC50: 2-15 μg/mL) towards breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) but were ineffective (IC50: ≥ 100 μg/mL) against normal primary human hepatic stellate cells (HHSteCs). These findings suggest that the lignin extracts of A. nilotica wood has a remarkable potential to prevent disease caused by the overproduction of radicals and also seem to be a promising candidate as natural antioxidant and anti-cancer agents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The potential carbon benefit of reforesting Hawai‘i Island non-native grasslands with endemic Acacia koa trees

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Selmants, Paul; Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Koch, Nicholas; Friday, James B.; Ohara, Rebekah Dickens; Friday, James B.

    2016-01-01

    Large areas of forest in the tropics have been cleared and converted to pastureland. Hawai‘i Island is no exception, with over 100,000 ha of historically forested land now dominated by non-native grasses. Passive forest restoration has been unsuccessful because these grasslands tend to persist even after grazers have been removed, yet active outplanting of native tree species can be cost-prohibitive at the landscape scale. It is therefore essential to seek co-benefits of forest restoration to defray costs, such as accredited carbon offsets from increased carbon sequestration. We developed a reforestation scenario for non-native grasslands on Hawai‘i Island by outplanting endemic koa (Acacia koa) trees paid for with carbon offsets via the California Cap and Trade Program. This scenario entails reforesting 53,531 ha of non-native grassland at 2500 ha y-1 over 22 years. We estimated planting costs at \\$6,178 ha-1, a total cost of approximately \\$331,000,000. We used the Land Use and Carbon Simulator (LUCAS) model to estimate island-wide ecosystem carbon sequestration with and without koa reforestation using 100 Monte Carlo simulations per year over a 60-year period. Income from carbon offsets was set at \\$13.57 per ton of CO2 equivalent, the current California Cap and Trade Program carbon market price.

  6. Stem gravitropism and tension wood formation in Acacia mangium seedlings inclined at various angles.

    PubMed

    Nugroho, Widyanto Dwi; Nakaba, Satoshi; Yamagishi, Yusuke; Begum, Shahanara; Rahman, Md Hasnat; Kudo, Kayo; Marsoem, Sri Nugroho; Funada, Ryo

    2018-05-03

    In response to a gravitational stimulus, angiosperm trees generally form tension wood on the upper sides of leaning stems in order to reorientate the stems in the vertical direction. It is unclear whether the angle of inclination from the vertical affects tension wood formation. This study was designed to investigate negative gravitropism, tension wood formation and growth eccentricity in Acacia mangium seedlings inclined at different angles. Uniform seedlings of A. mangium were artificially inclined at 30°, 45°, 60° and 90° from the vertical and harvested, with non-inclined controls, 3 months later. We analysed the effects of the angle of inclination on the stem recovery angle, the anatomical features of tension wood and radial growth. Smaller inclination angles were associated with earlier stem recovery while stems subjected to greater inclination returned to the vertical direction after a longer delay. However, in terms of the speed of negative gravitopism towards the vertical, stems subjected to greater inclination moved more rapidly toward the vertical. There was no significant difference in terms of growth eccentricity among seedlings inclined at different angles. The 30°-inclined seedlings formed the narrowest region of tension wood but there were no significant differences among seedlings inclined at 45°, 60° and 90°. The 90°-inclined seedlings formed thicker gelatinous layers than those in 30°-, 45°- and 60°-inclined seedlings. Our results suggest that the angle of inclination of the stem influences negative gravitropism, the width of the tension wood region and the thickness of gelatinous layers. Larger amounts of gelatinous fibres and thicker gelatinous layers might generate the higher tensile stress required for the higher speed of stem-recovery movement in A. mangium seedlings.

  7. Analysis of genetic population structure in Acacia caven (Leguminosae, Mimosoideae), comparing one exploratory and two Bayesian-model-based methods

    PubMed Central

    Pometti, Carolina L.; Bessega, Cecilia F.; Saidman, Beatriz O.; Vilardi, Juan C.

    2014-01-01

    Bayesian clustering as implemented in STRUCTURE or GENELAND software is widely used to form genetic groups of populations or individuals. On the other hand, in order to satisfy the need for less computer-intensive approaches, multivariate analyses are specifically devoted to extracting information from large datasets. In this paper, we report the use of a dataset of AFLP markers belonging to 15 sampling sites of Acacia caven for studying the genetic structure and comparing the consistency of three methods: STRUCTURE, GENELAND and DAPC. Of these methods, DAPC was the fastest one and showed accuracy in inferring the K number of populations (K = 12 using the find.clusters option and K = 15 with a priori information of populations). GENELAND in turn, provides information on the area of membership probabilities for individuals or populations in the space, when coordinates are specified (K = 12). STRUCTURE also inferred the number of K populations and the membership probabilities of individuals based on ancestry, presenting the result K = 11 without prior information of populations and K = 15 using the LOCPRIOR option. Finally, in this work all three methods showed high consistency in estimating the population structure, inferring similar numbers of populations and the membership probabilities of individuals to each group, with a high correlation between each other. PMID:24688293

  8. Analysis of genetic population structure in Acacia caven (Leguminosae, Mimosoideae), comparing one exploratory and two Bayesian-model-based methods.

    PubMed

    Pometti, Carolina L; Bessega, Cecilia F; Saidman, Beatriz O; Vilardi, Juan C

    2014-03-01

    Bayesian clustering as implemented in STRUCTURE or GENELAND software is widely used to form genetic groups of populations or individuals. On the other hand, in order to satisfy the need for less computer-intensive approaches, multivariate analyses are specifically devoted to extracting information from large datasets. In this paper, we report the use of a dataset of AFLP markers belonging to 15 sampling sites of Acacia caven for studying the genetic structure and comparing the consistency of three methods: STRUCTURE, GENELAND and DAPC. Of these methods, DAPC was the fastest one and showed accuracy in inferring the K number of populations (K = 12 using the find.clusters option and K = 15 with a priori information of populations). GENELAND in turn, provides information on the area of membership probabilities for individuals or populations in the space, when coordinates are specified (K = 12). STRUCTURE also inferred the number of K populations and the membership probabilities of individuals based on ancestry, presenting the result K = 11 without prior information of populations and K = 15 using the LOCPRIOR option. Finally, in this work all three methods showed high consistency in estimating the population structure, inferring similar numbers of populations and the membership probabilities of individuals to each group, with a high correlation between each other.

  9. Longevity and growth of Acacia tortilis; insights from 14C content and anatomy of wood

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Gidske L; Krzywinski, Knut

    2007-01-01

    Background Acacia tortilis is a keystone species across arid ecosystems in Africa and the Middle East. Yet, its life-history, longevity and growth are poorly known, and consequently ongoing changes in tree populations cannot be managed in an appropriate manner. In other arid areas parenchymatic bands marking growth zones in the wood have made dendrochronological studies possible. The possibilities for using pre- and post-bomb 14C content in wood samples along with the presence of narrow marginal parenchymatic bands in the wood is therefore tested to gain further insight into the age, growth and growth conditions of A. tortilis in the hyper-arid Eastern Desert of Egypt. Results Based on age scenarios and the Gompertz growth equation, the age of trees studied seems to be from 200 up to 650 years. Annual radial growth estimated from calibrated dates based on the post-bomb 14C content of samples is up to 2.4 mm, but varies both spatially and temporally. Parenchymatic bands are not formed regularly. The correlation in band pattern among trees is poor, both among and within sites. Conclusion The post-bomb 14C content of A. tortilis wood gives valuable information on tree growth and is required to assess the age scenario approach applied here. This approach indicates high longevities and slow growth of trees. Special management measures should therefore be taken at sites where the trend in tree population size is negative. The possibilities for dendrochronological studies based on A. tortilis from the Eastern Desert are poor. However, marginal parenchymatic bands can give insight into fine scale variation in growth conditions and the past management of trees. PMID:17573964

  10. Silver nanoparticle (AgNPs) doped gum acacia-gelatin-silica nanohybrid: an effective support for diastase immobilization.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vandana; Ahmed, Shakeel

    2012-03-01

    An effective carrier matrix for diastase alpha amylase immobilization has been fabricated by gum acacia-gelatin dual templated polymerization of tetramethoxysilane. Silver nanoparticle (AgNp) doping to this hybrid could significantly enhance the shelf life of the impregnated enzyme while retaining its full bio-catalytic activity. The doped nanohybrid has been characterized as a thermally stable porous material which also showed multipeak photoluminescence under UV excitation. The immobilized diastase alpha amylase has been used to optimize the conditions for soluble starch hydrolysis in comparison to the free enzyme. The optimum pH for both immobilized and free enzyme hydrolysis was found to be same (pH=5), indicating that the immobilization made no major change in enzyme conformation. The immobilized enzyme showed good performance in wide temperature range (from 303 to 323 K), 323 K being the optimum value. The kinetic parameters for the immobilized, (K(m)=10.30 mg/mL, V(max)=4.36 μmol mL(-1)min(-1)) and free enzyme (K(m)=8.85 mg/mL, V(max)=2.81 μmol mL(-1)min(-1)) indicated that the immobilization improved the overall stability and catalytic property of the enzyme. The immobilized enzyme remained usable for repeated cycles and did not lose its activity even after 30 days storage at 40°C, while identically synthesized and stored silver undoped hybrid lost its ~31% activity in 48 h. Present study revealed the hybrids to be potentially useful for biomedical and optical applications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Does Acacia dealbata express shade tolerance in Mediterranean forest ecosystems of South America?

    PubMed Central

    Aguilera, Narciso; Sanhueza, Carolina; Guedes, Lubia M; Becerra, José; Carrasco, Sebastián; Hernández, Víctor

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of Acacia dealbata Link (Fabaceae) in its non-native range is associated with disturbed areas. However, the possibility that it can penetrate the native forest during the invasion process cannot be ruled out. This statement is supported by the fact that this species has been experimentally established successfully under the canopy of native forest. Nonetheless, it is unknown whether A. dealbata can express shade tolerance traits to help increase its invasive potential. We investigated the shade tolerance of A. dealbata under the canopy of two native forests and one non-native for three consecutive years, as well as its early growth and photosynthetic performance at low light intensities (9, 30, and 70 μmol m−2sec−1) under controlled conditions. We found many A. dealbata plants surviving and growing under the canopy of native and non-native forests. The number of plants of this invasive species remained almost constant under the canopy of native forests during the years of study. However, the largest number of A. dealbata plants was found under the canopy of non-native forest. In every case, the distribution pattern varied with a highest density of plants in forest edges decreasing progressively toward the inside. Germination and early growth of A. dealbata were slow but successful at three low light intensities tested under controlled conditions. For all tested light regimes, we observed that in this species, most of the energy was dissipated by photochemical processes, in accordance with the high photosynthetic rates that this plant showed, despite the really low light intensities under which it was grown. Our study reveals that A. dealbata expressed shade tolerance traits under the canopy of native and non-native forests. This behavior is supported by the efficient photosynthetic performance that A. dealbata showed at low light intensities. Therefore, these results suggest that Mediterranean forest ecosystems of South America can become

  12. Induction of Osmoregulation and Modulation of Salt Stress in Acacia gerrardii Benth. by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Bacillus subtilis (BERA 71)

    PubMed Central

    Hashem, Abeer; Alqarawi, A. A.; Al-Huqail, A. A.; Shah, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    The role of soil microbiota in plant stress management, though speculated a lot, is still far from being completely understood. We conducted a greenhouse experiment to examine synergistic impact of plant growth promoting rhizobacterium, Bacillus subtilis (BERA 71), and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) (Claroideoglomus etunicatum; Rhizophagus intraradices; and Funneliformis mosseae) to induce acquired systemic resistance in Talh tree (Acacia gerrardii Benth.) against adverse impact of salt stress. Compared to the control, the BERA 71 treatment significantly enhanced root colonization intensity by AMF, in both presence and absence of salt. We also found positive synergistic interaction between B. subtilis and AMF vis-a-vis improvement in the nutritional value in terms of increase in total lipids, phenols, and fiber content. The AMF and BERA 71 inoculated plants showed increased content of osmoprotectants such as glycine, betaine, and proline, though lipid peroxidation was reduced probably as a mechanism of salt tolerance. Furthermore, the application of bioinoculants to Talh tree turned out to be potentially beneficial in ameliorating the deleterious impact of salinity on plant metabolism, probably by modulating the osmoregulatory system (glycine betaine, proline, and phenols) and antioxidant enzymes system (SOD, CAT, POD, GR, APX, DHAR, MDAHR, and GSNOR). PMID:27597969

  13. Assessing nitrogen fixation in mixed- and single-species plantations of Eucalyptus globulus and Acacia mearnsii.

    PubMed

    Forrester, David I; Schortemeyer, Marcus; Stock, William D; Bauhus, Jürgen; Khanna, Partap K; Cowie, Annette L

    2007-09-01

    Mixtures of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. and Acacia mearnsii de Wildeman are twice as productive as E. globulus monocultures growing on the same site in East Gippsland, Victoria, Australia, possibly because of increased nitrogen (N) availability owing to N(2) fixation by A. mearnsii. To investigate whether N(2) fixation by A. mearnsii could account for the mixed-species growth responses, we assessed N(2) fixation by the accretion method and the (15)N natural abundance method. Nitrogen gained by E. globulus and A. mearnsii mixtures and monocultures was calculated by the accretion method with plant and soil samples collected 10 years after plantation establishment. Nitrogen in biomass and soil confirmed that A. mearnsii influenced N dynamics. Assuming that the differences in soil, forest floor litter and biomass N of plots containing A. mearnsii compared with E. globulus monocultures were due to N(2) fixation, the 10-year annual mean rates of N(2) fixation were 38 and 86 kg ha(-1) year(-1) in 1:1 mixtures and A. mearnsii monocultures, respectively. Nitrogen fixation by A. mearnsii could not be quantified on the basis of the natural abundance of (15)N because such factors as mycorrhization type and fractionation of N isotopes during N cycling within the plant confounded the effect of the N source on the N isotopic signature of plants. This study shows that A. mearnsii fixed significant quantities of N(2) when mixed with E. globulus. A decline in delta(15)N values of E. globulus and A. mearnsii with time, from 2 to 10 years, is further evidence that N(2) was fixed and cycled through the stands. The increased aboveground biomass production of E. globulus trees in mixtures when compared with monocultures can be attributed to increases in N availability.

  14. ARCAS (ACACIA Regional Climate-data Access System) -- a Web Access System for Climate Model Data Access, Visualization and Comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakkarinen, C.; Brown, D.; Callahan, J.; hankin, S.; de Koningh, M.; Middleton-Link, D.; Wigley, T.

    2001-05-01

    A Web-based access system to climate model output data sets for intercomparison and analysis has been produced, using the NOAA-PMEL developed Live Access Server software as host server and Ferret as the data serving and visualization engine. Called ARCAS ("ACACIA Regional Climate-data Access System"), and publicly accessible at http://dataserver.ucar.edu/arcas, the site currently serves climate model outputs from runs of the NCAR Climate System Model for the 21st century, for Business as Usual and Stabilization of Greenhouse Gas Emission scenarios. Users can select, download, and graphically display single variables or comparisons of two variables from either or both of the CSM model runs, averaged for monthly, seasonal, or annual time resolutions. The time length of the averaging period, and the geographical domain for download and display, are fully selectable by the user. A variety of arithmetic operations on the data variables can be computed "on-the-fly", as defined by the user. Expansions of the user-selectable options for defining analysis options, and for accessing other DOD-compatible ("Distributed Ocean Data System-compatible") data sets, residing at locations other than the NCAR hardware server on which ARCAS operates, are planned for this year. These expansions are designed to allow users quick and easy-to-operate web-based access to the largest possible selection of climate model output data sets available throughout the world.

  15. Differing Courses of Genetic Evolution of Bradyrhizobium Inoculants as Revealed by Long-Term Molecular Tracing in Acacia mangium Plantations

    PubMed Central

    Perrineau, M. M.; Le Roux, C.; Galiana, A.; Faye, A.; Duponnois, R.; Goh, D.; Prin, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Introducing nitrogen-fixing bacteria as an inoculum in association with legume crops is a common practice in agriculture. However, the question of the evolution of these introduced microorganisms remains crucial, both in terms of microbial ecology and agronomy. We explored this question by analyzing the genetic and symbiotic evolution of two Bradyrhizobium strains inoculated on Acacia mangium in Malaysia and Senegal 15 and 5 years, respectively, after their introduction. Based on typing of several loci, we showed that these two strains, although closely related and originally sampled in Australia, evolved differently. One strain was recovered in soil with the same five loci as the original isolate, whereas the symbiotic cluster of the other strain was detected with no trace of the three housekeeping genes of the original inoculum. Moreover, the nitrogen fixation efficiency was variable among these isolates (either recombinant or not), with significantly high, low, or similar efficiencies compared to the two original strains and no significant difference between recombinant and nonrecombinant isolates. These data suggested that 15 years after their introduction, nitrogen-fixing bacteria remain in the soil but that closely related inoculant strains may not evolve in the same way, either genetically or symbiotically. In a context of increasing agronomical use of microbial inoculants (for biological control, nitrogen fixation, or plant growth promotion), this result feeds the debate on the consequences associated with such practices. PMID:25002434

  16. Spatial genetic structure within populations and management implications of the South American species Acacia aroma (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Pometti, Carolina; Bessega, Cecilia; Cialdella, Ana; Ewens, Mauricio; Saidman, Beatriz; Vilardi, Juan

    2018-01-01

    The identification of factors that structure intraspecific diversity is of particular interest for biological conservation and restoration ecology. All rangelands in Argentina are currently experiencing some form of deterioration or desertification. Acacia aroma is a multipurpose species widely distributed throughout this country. In this study, we used the AFLP technique to study genetic diversity, population genetic structure, and fine-scale spatial genetic structure in 170 individuals belonging to 6 natural Argentinean populations. With 401 loci, the mean heterozygosity (HE = 0.2) and the mean percentage of polymorphic loci (PPL = 62.1%) coefficients indicated that the genetic variation is relatively high in A. aroma. The analysis with STRUCTURE showed that the number of clusters (K) was 3. With Geneland analysis, the number of clusters was K = 4, sharing the same grouping as STRUCTURE but dividing one population into two groups. When studying SGS, significant structure was detected in 3 of 6 populations. The neighbourhood size in these populations ranged from 15.2 to 64.3 individuals. The estimated gene dispersal distance depended on the effective population density and disturbance level and ranged from 45 to 864 m. The combined results suggest that a sampling strategy, which aims to maintain a considerable part of the variability contained in natural populations sampled here, would include at least 3 units defined by the clusters analyses that exhibit particular genetic properties. Moreover, the current SGS analysis suggests that within the wider management units/provinces, seed collection from A. aroma should target trees separated by a minimum distance of 50 m but preferably 150 m to reduce genetic relatedness among seeds from different trees.

  17. Spatial genetic structure within populations and management implications of the South American species Acacia aroma (Fabaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Bessega, Cecilia; Cialdella, Ana; Ewens, Mauricio; Saidman, Beatriz; Vilardi, Juan

    2018-01-01

    The identification of factors that structure intraspecific diversity is of particular interest for biological conservation and restoration ecology. All rangelands in Argentina are currently experiencing some form of deterioration or desertification. Acacia aroma is a multipurpose species widely distributed throughout this country. In this study, we used the AFLP technique to study genetic diversity, population genetic structure, and fine-scale spatial genetic structure in 170 individuals belonging to 6 natural Argentinean populations. With 401 loci, the mean heterozygosity (HE = 0.2) and the mean percentage of polymorphic loci (PPL = 62.1%) coefficients indicated that the genetic variation is relatively high in A. aroma. The analysis with STRUCTURE showed that the number of clusters (K) was 3. With Geneland analysis, the number of clusters was K = 4, sharing the same grouping as STRUCTURE but dividing one population into two groups. When studying SGS, significant structure was detected in 3 of 6 populations. The neighbourhood size in these populations ranged from 15.2 to 64.3 individuals. The estimated gene dispersal distance depended on the effective population density and disturbance level and ranged from 45 to 864 m. The combined results suggest that a sampling strategy, which aims to maintain a considerable part of the variability contained in natural populations sampled here, would include at least 3 units defined by the clusters analyses that exhibit particular genetic properties. Moreover, the current SGS analysis suggests that within the wider management units/provinces, seed collection from A. aroma should target trees separated by a minimum distance of 50 m but preferably 150 m to reduce genetic relatedness among seeds from different trees. PMID:29389969

  18. A medicinal extract of Scutellaria baicalensis and Acacia catechu acts as a dual inhibitor of cyclooxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase to reduce inflammation.

    PubMed

    Burnett, B P; Jia, Q; Zhao, Y; Levy, R M

    2007-09-01

    A mixed extract containing two naturally occurring flavonoids, baicalin from Scutellaria baicalensis and catechin from Acacia catechu, was tested for cyclooxygenase (COX) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) inhibition via enzyme, cellular, and in vivo models. The 50% inhibitory concentration for inhibition of both ovine COX-1 and COX-2 peroxidase enzyme activities was 15 microg/mL, while the mixed extract showed a value for potato 5-LOX enzyme activity of 25 microg/mL. Prostaglandin E2 generation was inhibited by the mixed extract in human osteosarcoma cells expressing COX-2, while leukotriene production was inhibited in both human cell lines, immortalized THP-1 monocyte and HT-29 colorectal adenocarcinoma. In an arachidonic acid-induced mouse ear swelling model, the extract decreased edema in a dose-dependent manner. When arachidonic acid was injected directly into the intra-articular space of mouse ankle joints, the mixed extract abated the swelling and restored function in a rotary drum walking model. These results suggest that this natural, flavonoid mixture acts via "dual inhibition" of COX and LOX enzymes to reduce production of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids and attenuate edema in an in vivo model of inflammation.

  19. Applying landscape genomic tools to forest management and restoration of Hawaiian koa (Acacia koa) in a changing environment.

    PubMed

    Gugger, Paul F; Liang, Christina T; Sork, Victoria L; Hodgskiss, Paul; Wright, Jessica W

    2018-02-01

    Identifying and quantifying the importance of environmental variables in structuring population genetic variation can help inform management decisions for conservation, restoration, or reforestation purposes, in both current and future environmental conditions. Landscape genomics offers a powerful approach for understanding the environmental factors that currently associate with genetic variation, and given those associations, where populations may be most vulnerable under future environmental change. Here, we applied genotyping by sequencing to generate over 11,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms from 311 trees and then used nonlinear, multivariate environmental association methods to examine spatial genetic structure and its association with environmental variation in an ecologically and economically important tree species endemic to Hawaii, Acacia koa . Admixture and principal components analyses showed that trees from different islands are genetically distinct in general, with the exception of some genotypes that match other islands, likely as the result of recent translocations. Gradient forest and generalized dissimilarity models both revealed a strong association between genetic structure and mean annual rainfall. Utilizing a model for projected future climate on the island of Hawaii, we show that predicted changes in rainfall patterns may result in genetic offset, such that trees no longer may be genetically matched to their environment. These findings indicate that knowledge of current and future rainfall gradients can provide valuable information for the conservation of existing populations and also help refine seed transfer guidelines for reforestation or replanting of koa throughout the state.

  20. In vitro antioxidant and antimalarial activities of leaves, pods and bark extracts of Acacia nilotica (L.) Del.

    PubMed

    Sadiq, Muhammad Bilal; Tharaphan, Pattamon; Chotivanich, Kesinee; Tarning, Joel; Anal, Anil Kumar

    2017-07-18

    The emergence of drug resistant malaria is threatening our ability to treat and control malaria in the Southeast Asian region. There is an urgent need to develop novel and chemically diverse antimalarial drugs. This study aimed at evaluating the antimalarial and antioxidant potentials of Acacia nilotica plant extracts. The antioxidant activities of leaves, pods and bark extracts were determined by standard antioxidant assays; reducing power capacity, % lipid peroxidation inhibition and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay. The antimalarial activities of plant extracts against Plasmodium falciparum parasites were determined by the 48 h schizont maturation inhibition assay. Further confirmation of schizonticide activity of extracts was made by extending the incubation period up to 96 h after removing the plant extract residues from parasites culture. Inhibition assays were analyzed by dose-response modelling. In all antioxidant assays, leaves of A. nilotica showed higher antioxidant activity than pods and bark. Antimalarial IC 50 values of leaves, pods and bark extracts were 1.29, 4.16 and 4.28 μg/ml respectively, in the 48 h maturation assay. The IC 50 values determined for leaves, pods and bark extracts were 3.72, 5.41 and 5.32 μg/ml respectively, after 96 h of incubation. All extracts inhibited the development of mature schizont, indicating schizonticide activity against P. falciparum. A. nilotica extracts showed promising antimalarial and antioxidant effects. However, further investigation is needed to isolate and identify the active components responsible for the antimalarial and antioxidant effects.

  1. Removal of fluoride by thermally activated carbon prepared from neem (Azadirachta indica) and kikar (Acacia arabica) leaves.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunil; Gupta, Asha; Yadav, J P

    2008-03-01

    The present investigation deals with fluoride removal from aqueous solution by thermally activated neem (Azadirachta indica) leaves carbon (ANC) and thermally activated kikar (Acacia arabica) leaves carbon (AKC) adsorbents. In this study neem leaves carbon and kikar leaves carbon prepared by heating the leaves at 400 degrees C in electric furnace was found to be useful for the removal of fluoride. The adsorbents of 0.3 mm and 1.0 mm sizes of neem and kikar leaves carbon was prepared by standard sieve. Batch experiments done to see the fluoride removal properties from synthetic solution of 5 ppm to study the influence of pH, adsorbent dose and contact time on adsorption efficiency The optimum pH was found to be 6 for both adsorbents. The optimum dose was found to be 0.5g/100 ml forANC (activated neem leaves carbon) and 0.7g/100 ml forAKC (activated kikar leaves carbon). The optimum time was found to be one hour for both the adsorbent. It was also found that adsorbent size of 0.3 mm was more efficient than the 1.0 mm size. The adsorption process obeyed Freundlich adsorption isotherm. The straight line of log (qe-q) vs time at ambient temperature indicated the validity of langergren equation consequently first order nature of the process involved in the present study. Results indicate that besides intraparticle diffusion there maybe other processes controlling the rate which may be operating simultaneously. All optimized conditions were applied for removal of fluoride from four natural water samples.

  2. Cu2+ inhibition of gel secretion in the xylem and its potential implications for water uptake of cut Acacia holosericea stems.

    PubMed

    Ratnayake, Kamani; Joyce, Daryl C; Webb, Richard I

    2013-08-01

    Maintaining a high rate of water uptake is crucial for maximum longevity of cut stems. Physiological gel/tylosis formation decreases water transport efficiency in the xylem. The primary mechanism of action for post-harvest Cu(2+) treatments in improving cut flower and foliage longevity has been elusive. The effect of Cu(2+) on wound-induced xylem vessel occlusion was investigated for Acacia holosericea A. Cunn. ex G. Don. Experiments were conducted using a Cu(2+) pulse (5 h, 2.2 mM) and a Cu(2+) vase solution (0.5 mM) vs a deionized water (DIW) control. Development of xylem blockage in the stem-end region 10 mm proximal to the wounded stem surface was examined over 21 days by light and transmission electron microscopy. Xylem vessels of stems stood into DIW were occluded with gels secreted into vessel lumens via pits from surrounding axial parenchyma cells. Gel secretion was initiated within 1-2 days post-wounding and gels were detected in the xylem from day 3. In contrast, Cu(2+) treatments disrupted the surrounding parenchyma cells, thereby inhibiting gel secretion and maintaining the vessel lumens devoid of occlusions. The Cu(2+) treatments significantly improved water uptake by the cut stems as compared to the control. © 2013 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  3. Wood-boring beetles associated with Acacia xanthophloea in Nairobi and Machakos Counties, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Kirubi Thungu, Duncan; Wangu, Lucy; Kimani, Rachael

    2018-01-01

    Naivasha thorn tree, Acacia xanthophloea, is grown for foliage, timber, shade and rehabilitation of soils in areas with high water tables in Kenya. Its production is threatened by insect pests, which cause major losses. Very little is documented on wood-boring beetles which cause considerable economic damage to lumber used in a variety of applications, and little is known about their natural enemies in Kenya. We conducted the study to evaluate the occurrence of wood-boring beetles on A. xanthophloea in two different regions of Kenya. Infested wood samples of A. xanthophloea with fresh exit holes were collected from three sites in Kenyatta University (KU), Nairobi and Mitaboni in Machakos, Kenya. The samples were placed in clear plastic buckets and kept at ambient temperatures 23±2°C, 65±10% relative humidity and 12L: 12D in a laboratory where they were observed daily for adult emergence. Adult beetles were collected every three days for identification and data recording. The experiment was replicated four times and data collected twice a week for 6 months. Data on abundance was subjected to analysis of variance using SAS software. A total of 5,850 and 4,691 beetles were collected where 2,187 and 3,097 were Bostrichidae, accounting for 37% and 66% in KU and Mitaboni, respectively. A total of 12 bostrichid species was identified, including Sinoxylon ruficorne, S. doliolum, Xylion adustus, Xyloperthodes nitidipennis, Xyloperthella picea, Xylopsocus castanoptera, Lyctus brunneus, Heterbostrychus brunneus, Xylopsocus sp., and Dinoderus gabonicus. The most abundant species in KU was Xylion adustus with 1,915 beetles accounting for 88.4%, and Sinoxylon ruficorne in Mitaboni with 1,050 beetles accounting for 33.9% of the total. Sinoxylon ruficorne was only recorded in Mitaboni while only 2 specimens of D. gabonicus were found in KU. The mean number of exit holes on A. xanthophloea differed significantly between sites, which corresponded approximately to the amount of

  4. Wood-boring beetles associated with Acacia xanthophloea in Nairobi and Machakos Counties, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kahuthia-Gathu, Ruth; Kirubi Thungu, Duncan; Wangu, Lucy; Kimani, Rachael

    2018-01-01

    Naivasha thorn tree, Acacia xanthophloea, is grown for foliage, timber, shade and rehabilitation of soils in areas with high water tables in Kenya. Its production is threatened by insect pests, which cause major losses. Very little is documented on wood-boring beetles which cause considerable economic damage to lumber used in a variety of applications, and little is known about their natural enemies in Kenya. We conducted the study to evaluate the occurrence of wood-boring beetles on A. xanthophloea in two different regions of Kenya. Infested wood samples of A. xanthophloea with fresh exit holes were collected from three sites in Kenyatta University (KU), Nairobi and Mitaboni in Machakos, Kenya. The samples were placed in clear plastic buckets and kept at ambient temperatures 23±2°C, 65±10% relative humidity and 12L: 12D in a laboratory where they were observed daily for adult emergence. Adult beetles were collected every three days for identification and data recording. The experiment was replicated four times and data collected twice a week for 6 months. Data on abundance was subjected to analysis of variance using SAS software. A total of 5,850 and 4,691 beetles were collected where 2,187 and 3,097 were Bostrichidae, accounting for 37% and 66% in KU and Mitaboni, respectively. A total of 12 bostrichid species was identified, including Sinoxylon ruficorne, S. doliolum, Xylion adustus, Xyloperthodes nitidipennis, Xyloperthella picea, Xylopsocus castanoptera, Lyctus brunneus, Heterbostrychus brunneus, Xylopsocus sp., and Dinoderus gabonicus. The most abundant species in KU was Xylion adustus with 1,915 beetles accounting for 88.4%, and Sinoxylon ruficorne in Mitaboni with 1,050 beetles accounting for 33.9% of the total. Sinoxylon ruficorne was only recorded in Mitaboni while only 2 specimens of D. gabonicus were found in KU. The mean number of exit holes on A. xanthophloea differed significantly between sites, which corresponded approximately to the amount of

  5. Gibberellin is required for the formation of tension wood and stem gravitropism in Acacia mangium seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Nugroho, Widyanto Dwi; Yamagishi, Yusuke; Nakaba, Satoshi; Fukuhara, Shiori; Begum, Shahanara; Marsoem, Sri Nugroho; Ko, Jae-Heung; Jin, Hyun-O; Funada, Ryo

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Angiosperm trees generally form tension wood on the upper sides of leaning stems. The formation of tension wood is an important response to gravitational stimulus. Gibberellin appears to be involved in the differentiation of secondary xylem, but it remains unclear whether gibberellin plays a key role in the formation of tension wood and plant gravitropism. Therefore, a study was designed to investigate the effects of gibberellin and of inhibitors of the synthesis of gibberellin, namely paclobutrazole and uniconazole-P, on the formation of tension wood and negative stem gravitropism in Acacia mangium seedlings. Methods Gibberellic acid (GA3), paclobutrazole and uniconazole-P were applied to seedlings via the soil in which they were growing. Distilled water was applied similarly as a control. Three days after such treatment, seedlings were tilted at an angle of 45° from the vertical, and samples of stems were collected for analysis 2 weeks, 2 months and 6 months after tilting. The effects of treatments on the stem recovery degree (Rº) were analysed as an index of the negative gravitropism of seedlings, together the width of the region of tension wood in the upper part of inclined stems. Key Results It was found that GA3 stimulated the negative gravitropism of tilted seedling stems of A. mangium, while paclobutrazole and uniconazole-P inhibited recovery to vertical growth. Moreover, GA3 stimulated the formation of tension wood in tilted A. mangium seedlings, while paclobutrazole and uniconazole-P strongly suppressed the formation of tension wood, as assessed 2 weeks after tilting. Conclusions The results suggest that gibberellin plays an important role at the initial stages of formation of tension wood and in stem gravitropism in A. mangium seedlings in response to a gravitational stimulus. PMID:22843341

  6. Gibberellin is required for the formation of tension wood and stem gravitropism in Acacia mangium seedlings.

    PubMed

    Nugroho, Widyanto Dwi; Yamagishi, Yusuke; Nakaba, Satoshi; Fukuhara, Shiori; Begum, Shahanara; Marsoem, Sri Nugroho; Ko, Jae-Heung; Jin, Hyun-O; Funada, Ryo

    2012-09-01

    Angiosperm trees generally form tension wood on the upper sides of leaning stems. The formation of tension wood is an important response to gravitational stimulus. Gibberellin appears to be involved in the differentiation of secondary xylem, but it remains unclear whether gibberellin plays a key role in the formation of tension wood and plant gravitropism. Therefore, a study was designed to investigate the effects of gibberellin and of inhibitors of the synthesis of gibberellin, namely paclobutrazole and uniconazole-P, on the formation of tension wood and negative stem gravitropism in Acacia mangium seedlings. Gibberellic acid (GA(3)), paclobutrazole and uniconazole-P were applied to seedlings via the soil in which they were growing. Distilled water was applied similarly as a control. Three days after such treatment, seedlings were tilted at an angle of 45° from the vertical, and samples of stems were collected for analysis 2 weeks, 2 months and 6 months after tilting. The effects of treatments on the stem recovery degree (Rº) were analysed as an index of the negative gravitropism of seedlings, together the width of the region of tension wood in the upper part of inclined stems. It was found that GA(3) stimulated the negative gravitropism of tilted seedling stems of A. mangium, while paclobutrazole and uniconazole-P inhibited recovery to vertical growth. Moreover, GA(3) stimulated the formation of tension wood in tilted A. mangium seedlings, while paclobutrazole and uniconazole-P strongly suppressed the formation of tension wood, as assessed 2 weeks after tilting. The results suggest that gibberellin plays an important role at the initial stages of formation of tension wood and in stem gravitropism in A. mangium seedlings in response to a gravitational stimulus.

  7. Differing courses of genetic evolution of Bradyrhizobium inoculants as revealed by long-term molecular tracing in Acacia mangium plantations.

    PubMed

    Perrineau, M M; Le Roux, C; Galiana, A; Faye, A; Duponnois, R; Goh, D; Prin, Y; Béna, G

    2014-09-01

    Introducing nitrogen-fixing bacteria as an inoculum in association with legume crops is a common practice in agriculture. However, the question of the evolution of these introduced microorganisms remains crucial, both in terms of microbial ecology and agronomy. We explored this question by analyzing the genetic and symbiotic evolution of two Bradyrhizobium strains inoculated on Acacia mangium in Malaysia and Senegal 15 and 5 years, respectively, after their introduction. Based on typing of several loci, we showed that these two strains, although closely related and originally sampled in Australia, evolved differently. One strain was recovered in soil with the same five loci as the original isolate, whereas the symbiotic cluster of the other strain was detected with no trace of the three housekeeping genes of the original inoculum. Moreover, the nitrogen fixation efficiency was variable among these isolates (either recombinant or not), with significantly high, low, or similar efficiencies compared to the two original strains and no significant difference between recombinant and nonrecombinant isolates. These data suggested that 15 years after their introduction, nitrogen-fixing bacteria remain in the soil but that closely related inoculant strains may not evolve in the same way, either genetically or symbiotically. In a context of increasing agronomical use of microbial inoculants (for biological control, nitrogen fixation, or plant growth promotion), this result feeds the debate on the consequences associated with such practices. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Butyrate modulates TGF-beta1 generation and function: potential renal benefit for Acacia(sen) SUPERGUM (gum arabic)?

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, N; Riley, S; Fraser, D; Al-Assaf, S; Ishimura, E; Wolever, T; Phillips, G O; Phillips, A O

    2006-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that high fibre supplementation of dietary intake may have health benefits in renal disease related to alterations in circulating levels of short-chain fatty acids. The aim of the study was to examine the hypothesis that dietary manipulation may increase serum butyrate and thus have potential beneficial effects in renal disease. We examined the effect of dietary supplementation with a gum arabic sample of standardized molecular characteristics, Acacia(sen) SUPERGUM EM2 (SUPERGUM), on systemic levels of butyrate in normal human subjects. In an in vitro study, we also examined the potential role of butyrate in modifying the generation of the profibrotic cytokine transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta1) by renal epithelial cells. Following 8 weeks of dietary supplementation with 25 g/day of SUPERGUM, there was a two-fold increase in serum butyrate (n=7, P=0.03). In vitro work demonstrated that exposure of renal epithelial cells to elevated concentrations of butyrate suppressed both basal and stimulated TGF-beta1 synthesis. The action of butyrate was mediated by suppression of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathway. In addition, butyrate exposures reduced the response of renal epithelial cells to TGF-beta1 as assessed by luciferase activity of a TGF-beta-responsive reporter construct. Attenuation of TGF-beta1 signalling was associated with reduced phosphorylation of Smad 3 and decreased trafficking of TGF-beta1 receptors into signalling, non-lipid raft-associated membrane fractions. In conclusion, the data demonstrate that dietary supplementation with SUPERGU increased serum butyrate, which at least in vitro has beneficial effects on renal pro-fibrotic cytokine generation.

  9. Evaluation of Gentamicin and Lidocaine Release Profile from Gum Acacia-crosslinked-poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate)-carbopol Based Hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Singh, Baljit; Dhiman, Abhishek

    2017-01-01

    No doubt, the prevention of infection is an indispensable aspect of the wound management, but, simultaneous wound pain relief is also required. Therefore, herein this article, incorporation of antibiotic agent 'gentamicin' and pain relieving agent 'lidocaine' into hydrogel wound dressings, prepared by using acacia gum, carbopol and poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate) polymers, has been carried out. The hydrogels were evaluated as a drug carrier for model drugs gentamicin and lidocaine. Synthesis of hydrogel wound dressing was carried out by free radical polymerization technique. The drug loading was carried out by swelling equilibrium method and gel strength of hydrogels was measured by a texture analyzer. Porous microstructure of the hydrogel was observed in cryo-SEM images. The hydrogel showed mesh size 37.29 nm, cross-link density 2.19× 10-5 mol/cm3, molecular weight between two cross-links 60.25× 10-3 g/mol and gel strength 0.625±0.112 N in simulated wound fluid. It is concluded that the pH of swelling medium has influenced the network structure of hydrogel i.e., molecular weight of the polymer chain between two neighboring cross links, crosslink density and the corresponding mesh size. A good correlation was established between gel strength and network parameters. Cryo-SEM images showed porous morphology of hydrogels. These hydrogels were found to be biodegradable and antimicrobial in nature. Drug release occurred through Fickian diffusion mechanism and release profile was best fitted in first order model. Overall it is concluded that modification in GA has led to formation of a porous hydrogels for wound dressing applications. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. The Interaction between Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Endophytic Bacteria Enhances Plant Growth of Acacia gerrardii under Salt Stress

    PubMed Central

    Hashem, Abeer; Abd_Allah, Elsayed F.; Alqarawi, Abdulaziz A.; Al-Huqail, Asma A.; Wirth, Stephan; Egamberdieva, Dilfuza

    2016-01-01

    Microbes living symbiotically in plant tissues mutually cooperate with each other by providing nutrients for proliferation of the partner organism and have a beneficial effect on plant growth. However, few studies thus far have examined the interactive effect of endophytic bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in hostile conditions and their potential to improve plant stress tolerance. In this study, we investigated how the synergistic interactions of endophytic bacteria and AMF affect plant growth, nodulation, nutrient acquisition and stress tolerance of Acacia gerrardii under salt stress. Plant growth varied between the treatments with both single inoculants and was higher in plants inoculated with the endophytic B. subtilis strain than with AMF. Co-inoculated A. gerrardii had a significantly greater shoot and root dry weight, nodule number, and leghemoglobin content than those inoculated with AMF or B. subtilis alone under salt stress. The endophytic B. subtilis could alleviate the adverse effect of salt on AMF colonization. The differences in nitrate and nitrite reductase and nitrogenase activities between uninoculated plants and those inoculated with AMF and B. subtilis together under stress were significant. Both inoculation treatments, either B. subtilis alone or combined with AMF, enhanced the N, P, K, Mg, and Ca contents and phosphatase activities in salt-stressed A. gerrardii tissues and reduced Na and Cl concentration, thereby protecting salt-stressed plants from ionic and osmotic stress-induced changes. In conclusion, our results indicate that endophytic bacteria and AMF contribute to a tripartite mutualistic symbiosis in A. gerrardii and are coordinately involved in the plant adaptation to salt stress tolerance. PMID:27486442

  11. Salt tolerances of some mainland tree species select as through nursery screening.

    PubMed

    Miah, Md Abdul Quddus

    2013-09-15

    A study of salt tolerance was carried out on germination, survival and height growth performance of important mesophytic species such as Acacia auriculiformis, Acacia hybrid, Artocarpus heterophyllus, Albizia procera, Albizia lebbeck, Acacia nilotica, Achras sapota, Casuarina equisetifolaia, Emblica officinalis, Leucaena leucocephala, Samania saman, Swetenia macrophylla, Terminalia arjuna, Tamarindus indica, Terminalia bellirica and Thespesia populnea in nursery stage using fresh water and salt (NaCl) solutions of 10, 15 and 20 ppm. Effect of salt on germination, survival performance and height growth performance were examined in this condition. Based on the observation, salt tolerance of these species has been determined Acacia auriculiformis, Acacia hybrid, Achras sapota, Casuarina equisetifolia, Leucaena leucocephala and Tamarindus indica has showed the best capacity to perform in different salinity conditions. Acacia nilotica, Emblica officinalis, Thespesia populnea has performed better. Albizia procera, Samania saman and Terminalia bellirica, germination and height performance showed good but when salinity increases survivability were decreases.

  12. Shrub biomass production following simulated herbivory: A test of the compensatory growth hypothesis

    Treesearch

    Terri B. Teaschner; Timothy E. Fulbright

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to test the hypotheses that 1) simulated herbivory stimulates increased biomass production in spiny hackberry (Celtis pallida), but decreases biomass production in blackbrush acacia (Acacia rigidula) compared to unbrowsed plants and 2) thorn density and length increase in blackbrush acacia to a...

  13. Genetic diversity of symbiotic Bradyrhizobium elkanii populations recovered from inoculated and non-inoculated Acacia mangium field trials in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Perrineau, M M; Le Roux, C; de Faria, S M; de Carvalho Balieiro, F; Galiana, A; Prin, Y; Béna, G

    2011-07-01

    Acacia mangium is a legume tree native to Australasia. Since the eighties, it has been introduced into many tropical countries, especially in a context of industrial plantations. Many field trials have been set up to test the effects of controlled inoculation with selected symbiotic bacteria versus natural colonization with indigenous strains. In the introduction areas, A. mangium trees spontaneously nodulate with local and often ineffective bacteria. When inoculated, the persistence of inoculants and possible genetic recombination with local strains remain to be explored. The aim of this study was to describe the genetic diversity of bacteria spontaneously nodulating A. mangium in Brazil and to evaluate the persistence of selected strains used as inoculants. Three different sites, several hundred kilometers apart, were studied, with inoculated and non-inoculated plots in two of them. Seventy-nine strains were isolated from nodules and sequenced on three housekeeping genes (glnII, dnaK and recA) and one symbiotic gene (nodA). All but one of the strains belonged to the Bradyrhizobium elkanii species. A single case of housekeeping gene transfer was detected among the 79 strains, suggesting an extremely low rate of recombination within B. elkanii, whereas the nodulation gene nodA was found to be frequently transferred. The fate of the inoculant strains varied depending on the site, with a complete disappearance in one case, and persistence in another. We compared our results with the sister species Bradyrhizobium japonicum, both in terms of population genetics and inoculant strain destiny. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Seed viability of five wild Saudi Arabian species by germination and X-ray tests.

    PubMed

    Al-Hammad, B A; Al-Ammari, B S

    2017-09-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the usefulness of the germination vs. the X-ray test in determining the initial viability of seeds of five wild species ( Moringa peregrina , Abrus precatorius , Arthrocnemum macrostachyum , Acacia ehrenbergiana and Acacia tortilis ) from Saudi Arabia. Usually several days were required to determine the viability of all five species via germination tests. However, X-ray test will give immediate results on filled/viable seeds. Seeds of all species, except Acacia ehrenbergiana and Acacia tortilis showed high viability in both germination (96-72% at 25/15 °C, 94-70% at 35/25 °C) and X-ray (100-80%) test. Furthermore, there was a general agreement between the germination (19%, 14% at 25/15 °C and 17% and 12% at 35/25 °C) and X-ray (8%, 4%) tests in which seed viability of Acacia ehrenbergiana and Acacia tortilis was very low due to insect damaged embryo as shown in X-ray analysis. Seeds of Abruspreca torius have physical dormancy, which was broken by scarification in concentrated sulfuric acid (10 min), and they exhibited high viability in both the germination (83% at 25/15 °C and 81% at 35/25 °C) and X-ray (96%) tests. Most of the nongerminated seeds of the five species except those of Acacia ehrenbergiana and Acacia tortilis , were alive as judged by the tetrazolium test (TZ). Thus, for the five species examined, the X-ray test was proved to be a good and rapid predictor of seed viability.

  15. The exploitation of an ant-defended host plant by a shelter-building herbivore.

    PubMed

    Eubanks, Micky D; Nesci, Kimberly A; Petersen, Mette K; Liu, Zhiwei; Sanchez, Horacio Bonfil

    1997-02-01

    Larvae of a Polyhymno species (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) feed on the ant-defended acacia, Acacia cornigera, in the tropical lowlands of Veracruz, Mexico. Polyhymno larvae construct sealed shelters by silking together the pinna or pinnules of acacia leaves. Although larval density and larval survival are higher on acacias not occupied by ants, shelters serve as a partial refuge from the ant Pseudomyrmex ferruginea (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), which defends A. cornigera plants; thus, shelters provide Polyhymno larvae access to an ant-defended host plant. P. ferruginea ants act as the primary antiherbivore defense of A. cornigera plants, which lack the chemical and mechanical defenses of non-ant-defended acacias. Thus, defeating the ant defense of A. cornigera provides Polyhymno larvae access to an otherwise poorly defended host plant. Damage caused by Polyhymno larval feeding reaches levels which can kill A. cornigera plants.

  16. Antimutagenic, antigenotoxic and antioxidant activities of Acacia salicina extracts (ASE) and modulation of cell gene expression by H2O2 and ASE treatment.

    PubMed

    Bouhlel, Ines; Valenti, Kita; Kilani, Soumaya; Skandrani, Ines; Ben Sghaier, Mohamed; Mariotte, Anne-Marie; Dijoux-Franca, Marie-Genevieve; Ghedira, Kamel; Hininger-Favier, Isabelle; Laporte, François; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila

    2008-08-01

    The total oligomers flavonoids (TOF), chloroform, petroleum ether and aqueous extracts from Acacia salicina, were investigated for the antioxidative, cytotoxic, antimutagenic and antigenotoxic activities. The viability of K562 cells were affected by all extracts after 48 h exposure. Our results showed that A. salicina extracts have antigenotoxic and/or antimutagenic activities. TOF and chloroform extracts exhibit antioxidant properties, expressed by the capacity of these extracts to inhibit xanthine oxidase activity. To further explore the mechanism of action of A. salicina extracts, we characterized expression profiles of genes involved in antioxidant protection and DNA repair in the human lymphoblastic cell line K562 exposed to H2O2. Transcription of several genes related to the thioredoxin antioxidant system and to the DNA base-excision repair pathway was up-regulated after incubation with chloroform, TOF and petroleum ether extracts. Moreover genes involved in the nucleotide-excision repair pathway and genes coding for catalase and Mn-superoxide-dismutase, two important antioxidant enzymes, were induced after incubation with the chloroform extract. Taken together, these observations provide evidence that the chloroform and TOF extracts of A. salicina leaves contain bioactive compounds that are able to protect cells against the consequences of an oxidative stress.

  17. Effects of excluding goat herbivory on Acacia tortilis woodland around pastoralist settlements in northwest Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oba, Gufu

    1998-08-01

    Browsing by goats is considered to cause poor tree regeneration and reduced tree growth around settlements throughout the arid zones of sub-Saharan Africa. This study investigated whether excluding goats from Acacia tortilis woodlands increased tree regeneration, current season's shoot growth rates and browse production over a period of 52 months between 1986 and 1990. The study also investigated the effects of climatic variability on tree growth and browse production. Excluding goat herbivory provided no advantage over continuous browsing for juvenile A. tortilis. Trees on the unbrowsed and on browsed transects increased by 22.2 (standard error [SE] ± 0.53) cm·yr -1 and 25.0 (SE ± 0.58) cm·yr -1, respectively. Fewer but longer shoots were produced by trees on the unbrowsed transects, while trees on the browsed transects invested more in shorter shoots. Net total browse production was lower on unbrowsed (1.73 [standard deviation (SD) ± 4.3] t·ha -1·yr -1) than on the browsed (3.03 [SD ± 3.6] t·ha -1 ·yr -1) transects. Biomass production on unbrowsed and browsed transects was closely correlated with rainfall and presumably soil moisture during wet seasons. Relative growth rates (RGR) of current season's shoots in the two treatments did not differ, implying goat herbivory at moderate stocking density (i.e. 13.0 tropical livestock units [TLU]·km -2) stimulated shoot growth. RGR remained positive except on the browsed transects during 1990, a dry year. Goat browsing pressure was moderate. Total biomass loss on unbrowsed transects was 15.5 %·yr -1 compared with 27.7 %·yr -1 on the browsed transects. These findings do not support the notion that goats always destroy young trees around settlements. Goat herbivory at moderate intensity stimulated shoot productivity. However, the results should not be used to generalize all conditions throughout sub-Saharan Africa, let alone the arid zones of northern Kenya. Rather, there is a need to emphasize individual case

  18. Relative tolerance of a range of Australian native plant species and lettuce to copper, zinc, cadmium, and lead.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Dane T; Ming, Hui; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2010-10-01

    The tolerance of wild flora to heavy-metal exposure has received very little research. In this study, the tolerance of four native tree species, four native grass species, and lettuce to copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) was investigated in a root-elongation study using Petri dishes. The results of these studies show a diverse range of responses to Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb amongst the tested plant species. Toxicity among metals decreased in the following order: Cd ~ Cu > Pb > Zn. Metal concentrations resulting in a 50% reduction in growth (EC(50)) varied considerably, ranging from (microM) 30 (Dichanthium sericeum) to >2000 (Acacia spp.) for Cu; from 260 (Lactuca sativa) to 2000 (Acacia spp.) for Zn; from 27 (L. sativa) to 940 (Acacia holosericea) for Cd; and from 180 (L. sativa) to >1000 (Acacia spp.) for Pb. Sensitive native plant species identified included D. sericeum, Casuarina cunninghamiana, and Austrodanthonia caespitosa. However, L. sativa (lettuce) was also among the most sensitive to all four metals. Acacia species showed a high tolerance to metal exposure, suggesting that the Acacia genus shows potential for use in contaminated-site revegetation.

  19. Silvics of Giant Sequoia

    Treesearch

    C. Phillip Weatherspoon

    1986-01-01

    Ecological relationships-including habitat and life history---of giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum [Lindl.] Buchholz) in natural stands are summarized. Such silvical information provides an important foundation for sound management of the species.

  20. Assessment of Acacia Koa Forest Health across Environmental Gradients in Hawai‘i Using Fine Resolution Remote Sensing and GIS

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Rodolfo Martinez; Idol, Travis; Friday, James B.

    2011-01-01

    Koa (Acacia koa) forests are found across broad environmental gradients in the Hawai‘ian Islands. Previous studies have identified koa forest health problems and dieback at the plot level, but landscape level patterns remain unstudied. The availability of high-resolution satellite images from the new GeoEye1 satellite offers the opportunity to conduct landscape-level assessments of forest health. The goal of this study was to develop integrated remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) methodologies to characterize the health of koa forests and model the spatial distribution and variability of koa forest dieback patterns across an elevation range of 600–1,000 m asl in the island of Kaua‘i, which correspond to gradients of temperature and rainfall ranging from 17–20 °C mean annual temperature and 750–1,500 mm mean annual precipitation. GeoEye1 satellite imagery of koa stands was analyzed using supervised classification techniques based on the analysis of 0.5-m pixel multispectral bands. There was clear differentiation of native koa forest from areas dominated by introduced tree species and differentiation of healthy koa stands from those exhibiting dieback symptoms. The area ratio of healthy koa to koa dieback corresponded linearly to changes in temperature across the environmental gradient, with koa dieback at higher relative abundance in warmer areas. A landscape-scale map of healthy koa forest and dieback distribution demonstrated both the general trend with elevation and the small-scale heterogeneity that exists within particular elevations. The application of these classification techniques with fine spatial resolution imagery can improve the accuracy of koa forest inventory and mapping across the islands of Hawai‘i. Such findings should also improve ecological restoration, conservation and silviculture of this important native tree species. PMID:22163920

  1. Assessment of Acacia koa forest health across environmental gradients in Hawai'i using fine resolution remote sensing and GIS.

    PubMed

    Morales, Rodolfo Martinez; Idol, Travis; Friday, James B

    2011-01-01

    Koa (Acacia koa) forests are found across broad environmental gradients in the Hawai'ian Islands. Previous studies have identified koa forest health problems and dieback at the plot level, but landscape level patterns remain unstudied. The availability of high-resolution satellite images from the new GeoEye1 satellite offers the opportunity to conduct landscape-level assessments of forest health. The goal of this study was to develop integrated remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) methodologies to characterize the health of koa forests and model the spatial distribution and variability of koa forest dieback patterns across an elevation range of 600-1,000 m asl in the island of Kaua'i, which correspond to gradients of temperature and rainfall ranging from 17-20 °C mean annual temperature and 750-1,500 mm mean annual precipitation. GeoEye1 satellite imagery of koa stands was analyzed using supervised classification techniques based on the analysis of 0.5-m pixel multispectral bands. There was clear differentiation of native koa forest from areas dominated by introduced tree species and differentiation of healthy koa stands from those exhibiting dieback symptoms. The area ratio of healthy koa to koa dieback corresponded linearly to changes in temperature across the environmental gradient, with koa dieback at higher relative abundance in warmer areas. A landscape-scale map of healthy koa forest and dieback distribution demonstrated both the general trend with elevation and the small-scale heterogeneity that exists within particular elevations. The application of these classification techniques with fine spatial resolution imagery can improve the accuracy of koa forest inventory and mapping across the islands of Hawai'i. Such findings should also improve ecological restoration, conservation and silviculture of this important native tree species.

  2. Contain or eradicate? Optimizing the management goal for Australian acacia invasions in the face of uncertainty

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, J.L.; Runge, M.C.; Webber, B.L.; Wilson, J.R.U.

    2011-01-01

    Aim To identify whether eradication or containment is expected to be the most cost-effective management goal for an isolated invasive population when knowledge about the current extent is uncertain. Location Global and South Africa. Methods We developed a decision analysis framework to analyse the best management goal for an invasive species population (eradication, containment or take no action) when knowledge about the current extent is uncertain. We used value of information analysis to identify when investment in learning about the extent will improve this decision-making and tested the sensitivity of the conclusions to different parameters (e.g. spread rate, maximum extent, and management efficacy and cost). The model was applied to Acacia paradoxa DC, an Australian shrub with an estimated invasive extent of 310ha on Table Mountain, South Africa. Results Under the parameters used, attempting eradication is cost-effective for infestations of up to 777ha. However, if the invasion extent is poorly known, then attempting eradication is only cost-effective for infestations estimated as 296ha or smaller. The value of learning is greatest (maximum of 8% saving) when infestation extent is poorly known and if it is close to the maximum extent for which attempting eradication is optimal. The optimal management action is most sensitive to the probability that the action succeeds (which depends on the extent), with the discount rate and cost of management also important, but spread rate less so. Over a 20-year time-horizon, attempting to eradicate A. paradoxa from South Africa is predicted to cost on average ZAR 8 million if the extent is known, and if our current estimate is poor, ZAR 33.6 million as opposed to ZAR 32.8 million for attempting containment. Main conclusions Our framework evaluates the cost-effectiveness of attempting eradication or containment of an invasive population that takes uncertainty in population extent into account. We show that incorporating

  3. Recovery of symbiotic nitrogen fixing acacia rhizobia from Merzouga Desert sand dunes in South East Morocco--Identification of a probable new species of Ensifer adapted to stressed environments.

    PubMed

    Sakrouhi, Ilham; Belfquih, Meryem; Sbabou, Laïla; Moulin, Patricia; Bena, Gilles; Filali-Maltouf, Abdelkarim; Le Quéré, Antoine

    2016-03-01

    Bacteria capable of nodulating Acacia tortilis and A. gummifera could be recovered from sand dunes collected in the Moroccan Merzouga desert. The trapping approach enabled the recovery of 17 desert rhizobia that all clustered within the Ensifer (Sinorhizobium) genus. Four isolates of the dominant genotype comprising 15 strains as well as 2 divergent strains were further characterized by MLSA. Phylogenetic analyzes indicated that the dominant genetic type was belonging to a new and yet undefined species within the Ensifer genus. Interestingly, housekeeping gene phylogenies showed that this possibly new species is also present in another desert but in India. Phylogenetic analyses of nifH and nodC sequences showed high sequence conservation among the Moroccan strains belonging to the dominant genotype but high divergence with sequences from Indian isolates suggesting acquisition of symbiotic genes through Horizontal Gene Transfer. These desert rhizobia were capable of growing in media containing high salt concentrations, under high pH and most of the strains showed growth at 45°C. Only recovered from desert type of Biome, yet, this new taxon appears particularly adapted to such harsh environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. About the Las Acacias, Trelew and Vassouras Magnetic Observatories Monitoring the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly Region Response to an Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gianibelli, J. C.; Quaglino, N. M.

    2007-05-01

    The South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly (SAMA) Region presents evolutive characteristics very important as were observed by a variety of satelital sensors. Important Magnetic Observatories with digital record monitor the effects of the Sun-Earth interaction, such as San Juan de Puerto Rico (SJG), Kourou (KOU), Vassouras (VSS), Las Acacias (LAS), Trelew (TRW), Vernadsky (AIA), Hermanus (HER) and Huancayo (HUA). In the present work we present the features registered during the geomagnetic storm in January 21, 2005, produced by a geoeffective Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) whose Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejection (ICME) was detected by the instrumental onboard the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) Sonde. We analize how the Magnetic Total Intensity records at VSS, TRW and LAS Observatories shows the effect of the entering particles to ionospherical dephts producing a field enhancement following the first Interplanetary Shock (IP) arrival of the ICME. This process manifest in the digital record as an increment over the magnetospheric Ring Current field effect and superinpossed effects over the Antarctic Auroral Electrojet. The analysis and comparison of the records demonstrate that the Ring Current effects are important in SJG and KOU but not in VSS, LAS and TRW observatories, concluding that SAMA region shows a enhancement of the ionospherical currents oposed to those generated at magnetospheric heighs. Moreover in TRW, 5 hours after the ICME shock arrival, shows the effect of the Antarctic Auroral Electrojet counteracting to fields generated by the Ring Current.

  5. A Combination of Scutellaria Baicalensis and Acacia Catechu Extracts for Short-Term Symptomatic Relief of Joint Discomfort Associated with Osteoarthritis of the Knee

    PubMed Central

    Ormsbee, Lauren T.; Elam, Marcus L.; Campbell, Sara C.; Rahnama, Nader; Payton, Mark E.; Brummel-Smith, Ken; Daggy, Bruce P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The extracts of Scutellaria baicalensis and Acacia catechu have been shown in previous studies to alleviate joint discomfort, reduce stiffness, and improve mobility by reducing the production of proinflammatory molecules over long periods of supplementation. The acute effects of intake of these extracts have not yet been investigated. Thus, we carried out a 1 week clinical trial to examine the extent to which UP446—a natural proprietary blend of S. baicalensis and A. catechu (UP446)—decreases knee joint pain, mobility, and biomarkers of inflammation in comparison to naproxen. Seventy-nine men and women (40–90 years old) diagnosed as having mild to moderate osteoarthritis (OA) consumed either 500 mg/day of the UP446 supplement or 440 mg/day of naproxen for 1 week in a double-blind randomized control trial. Pain, knee range of motion (ROM), and overall physical activity were evaluated at the start and at the end of treatment. Fasting blood was collected to determine serum interleukins 1β and 6, tumor necrosis factor-α, C-reactive protein, and hyaluronic acid. The UP446 group experienced a significant decrease in perceived pain (P=.009) time dependently. Stiffness was significantly reduced by both treatments (P=.002 UP446, P=.008 naproxen). Significant increases in mean ROM over time (P=.04) were found in the UP446 group. These findings suggest that UP446 is effective in reducing the physical symptoms associated with knee OA. PMID:24611484

  6. Natural biopolymer for preservation of microorganisms during sampling and storage.

    PubMed

    Sorokulova, Iryna; Watt, James; Olsen, Eric; Globa, Ludmila; Moore, Timothy; Barbaree, James; Vodyanoy, Vitaly

    2012-01-01

    Stability of microbial cultures during sampling and storage is a vital issue in various fields of medicine, biotechnology, food science, and forensics. We have developed a unique bacterial preservation process involving a non-toxic, water-soluble acacia gum polymer that eliminates the need for refrigerated storage of samples. The main goal of this study is to characterize the efficacy of acacia gum polymer for preservation of pathogenic bacteria (Bacillus anthracis and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus-MRSA) on different materials, used for swabbing and filtration: cotton, wool, polyester, rayon, charcoal cloth, and Whatman paper. Acacia gum polymer used for preservation of two pathogens has been shown to significantly protect bacteria during dehydration and storage in all tested samples at the range of temperatures (5-45°C for MRSA and 40-90°C for B. anthracis). Our results showed higher recovery as well as higher viability during the storage of both bacteria in all materials with acacia gum. Addition of acacia gum polymer to swabbing materials or filters will increase efficacy of sample collection and identification of pathogenic bacteria from locations such as hospitals or the environment. Proposed approach can also be used for long-term storage of culture collections, since acacia gum contributes to viability and stability of bacterial cultures. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Positive versus negative environmental impacts of tree encroachment in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grellier, Séraphine; Ward, David; Janeau, Jean-Louis; Podwojewski, Pascal; Lorentz, Simon; Abbadie, Luc; Valentin, Christian; Barot, Sébastien

    2013-11-01

    Woody plant encroachment in grasslands is a worldwide phenomenon. Despite many studies, the consequences of woody plant encroachment on sub-canopy vegetation and soil properties are still unclear. To better understand the impacts of trees on grassland properties we examined the following questions using a mountainous sub-tropical grassland of South Africa encroached by an indigenous tree, Acacia sieberiana as a case study: (1) Do trees increase sub-canopy herbaceous diversity, quality and biomass and soil nitrogen content? (2) Do large trees have a stronger effect than medium-sized trees on grass and soil properties? (3) Does the impact of trees change with the presence of livestock and position of trees in a catena? We studied grass and non-graminoid species diversity and biomass, grass quality and soil properties during the wet season of 2009. Nitrogen in grass leaves, soil cation exchange capacity and calcium and magnesium ion concentrations in the soil increased under tall Acacia versus open areas. Medium-sized Acacia decreased the gross energy content, digestibility and neutral detergent fibre of grasses but increased the species richness of non-graminoids. Tall and medium Acacia trees were associated with the presence of Senecio inaequidens, an indigenous species that is toxic to horses and cattle. The presence of livestock resulted in a decrease in herbaceous root biomass and an increase in soil carbon and leaf biomass of grass under Acacia. Tree position in the catena did not modify the impact of trees on the herbaceous layer and soil properties. For management of livestock we recommend retaining tall Acacia trees and partially removing medium-sized Acacia trees because the latter had negative effects on grass quality.

  8. Native and domestic browsers and grazers reduce fuels, fire temperatures, and acacia ant mortality in an African savanna.

    PubMed

    Kimuyu, Duncan M; Sensenig, Ryan L; Riginos, Corinna; Veblen, Kari E; Young, Truman P

    2014-06-01

    Despite the importance of fire and herbivory in structuring savanna systems, few replicated experiments have examined the interactive effects of herbivory and fire on plant dynamics. In addition, the effects of fire on associated ant-tree mutualisms have been largely unexplored. We carried out small controlled burns in each of 18 herbivore treatment plots of the Kenya Long-term Exclosure Experiment (KLEE), where experimentally excluding elephants has resulted in 42% greater tree densities. The KLEE design includes six different herbivore treatments that allowed us to examine how different combinations of megaherbivore wildlife, mesoherbivore wildlife, and cattle affect fire temperatures and subsequent loss of ant symbionts from Acacia trees. Before burning, we quantified herbaceous fuel loads and plant community composition. We tagged all trees, measured their height and basal diameter, and identified the resident ant species on each. We recorded weather conditions during the burns and used ceramic tiles painted with fire-sensitive paints to estimate fire temperatures at different heights and in different microsites (under vs. between trees). Across all treatments, fire temperatures were highest at 0-50 cm off the ground and hotter in the grass under trees than in the grassy areas between trees. Plots with more trees burned hotter than plots with fewer trees, perhaps because of greater fine woody debris. Plots grazed by wildlife and by cattle prior to burning had lower herbaceous fuel loads and experienced lower burn temperatures than ungrazed plots. Many trees lost their ant colonies during the burns. Ant survivorship differed by ant species and at the plot level was positively associated with previous herbivory (and lower fire temperatures). Across all treatments, ant colonies on taller trees were more likely to survive, but even some of the tallest trees lost their ant colonies. Our study marks a significant step in understanding the mechanisms that underlie the

  9. Screening of antibacterial potentials of some medicinal plants from Melghat forest in India.

    PubMed

    Tambekar, D H; Khante, B S; Chandak, B R; Titare, A S; Boralkar, S S; Aghadte, S N

    2009-05-07

    Cyperus rotundus, Caesalpinia bonducella, Tinospora cordifolia, Gardenia gummifera, Ailanthus excelsa, Acacia arabica, Embelia ribes and Ventilago maderspatana from Melghat forest were screened for their antibacterial potential against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Salmonella typhi, Shigella flexneri, Salmonella paratyphi, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter aerogenes by disc diffusion method. Out of these medicinal plants Caesalpinia bonducella, Gardenia gummifera and Acacia arabica showed remarkable antibacterial potential. The phytochemical analysis had showed the presence of Cardiac glycosides in all extracts (aqueous, acetone, ethanol and methanol) of Acacia arabica, Gardenia gummifera and ethanol, methanol extracts of Caesalpinia bonducella. Flavonoids were present in Gardenia gummifera, Ailanthus excelsa and acetone, methanol extracts of Acacia Arabica. Tannins and phenolic were present in Cyperus rotundus, Embelia ribes, and organic extracts of Ventilago maderspatana.

  10. Pollen-pistil interactions in North American and Chinese Cypripedium L. (Orchidaceae)

    Treesearch

    Retha Edens-Meier; Nan Vance; Yi-Bo Luo; Peng Li; Eric Westhus; Peter Bernhardt

    2010-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopy is used to compare frequencies of pollen tube penetration in in situ populations of Cypripedium bardolphianumW.W. Smith et Farrer, Cypripedium flavum W.W. Smith, Cypripedium montanum Dougl. ex Lindl., Cypripedium parviflorum Salisbury var. pubescens...

  11. 26-week repeated oral dose toxicity study of UP446, a combination of defined extracts of Scutellaria baicalensis and Acacia catechu, in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Yimam, Mesfin; Lee, Young Chul; Jia, Qi

    2016-07-01

    The needs for relatively safe botanical alternatives to relieve symptoms associated to arthritis have continued to grow in parallel with the ageing population. UP446, a standardized bioflavonoid composition from the roots of Scutellaria baicalensis and the heartwoods of Acacia catechu, has been used as over the counter joint care dietary supplements and a prescription medical food. Significant safety data have been documented in rodents and human for this composition. Here we evaluated the potential adverse effects of orally administered UP446 in beagle dogs following a 26-week repeated oral dose toxicity study. UP446 at doses of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day were administered orally to beagle dogs for 26 weeks. A 4-week recovery group from the high dose (1000 mg/kg) and vehicle treated groups were included. No morbidity or mortality was observed for the duration of the study. No significant differences between groups in body weights, food consumption, ophthalmological examinations, electrocardiograms, urinalysis, hematology, clinical chemistry, organ weights, gross pathology and histopathology were documented. Emesis, loose feces and diarrhea were noted in both genders at the 1000 mg/kg treatment groups. These clinical signs were considered to be reversible as they were not evident in the recovery period. In conclusion, the no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) of UP446 was considered to be 500 mg/kg/day both in male and female beagle dogs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Acacia Changes Microbial Indicators and Increases C and N in Soil Organic Fractions in Intercropped Eucalyptus Plantations.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Arthur P A; Zagatto, Maurício R G; Brandani, Carolina B; Mescolotti, Denise de Lourdes; Cotta, Simone R; Gonçalves, José L M; Cardoso, Elke J B N

    2018-01-01

    Intercropping forest plantations of Eucalyptus with nitrogen-fixing trees can increase soil N inputs and stimulate soil organic matter (OM) cycling. However, microbial indicators and their correlation in specific fractions of soil OM are unclear in the tropical sandy soils. Here, we examined the microbial indicators associated with C and N in the soil resulting from pure and intercropped Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia mangium plantations. We hypothesized that introduction of A. mangium in a Eucalyptus plantation promotes changes in microbial indicators and increases C and N concentrations on labile fractions of the soil OM, when compared to pure eucalyptus plantations. We determined the microbial and enzymatic activity, and the potential for C degradation by the soil microbial community. Additionally, we evaluated soil OM fractions and litter parameters. Soil (0-20 cm) and litter samples were collected at 27 and 39 months after planting from the following treatments: pure E. grandis (E) and A. mangium (A) plantations, pure E. grandis plantations with N fertilizer (E+N) and an E. grandis , and A. mangium intercropped plantations (E+A). The results showed that intercropped plantations (E+A) increase 3, 45, and 70% microbial biomass C as compared to A, E+N, and E, at 27 months after planting. The metabolic quotient ( q CO 2 ) showed a tendency toward stressful values in pure E. grandis plantations and a strong correlation with dehydrogenase activity. A and E+A treatments also exhibited the highest organic fractions (OF) and C and N contents. A canonical redundancy analysis revealed positive correlations between microbial indicators of soil and litter attributes, and a strong effect of C and N variables in differentiating A and E+A from E and E+N treatments. The results suggested that a significant role of A. mangium enhance the dynamics of soil microbial indicators which help in the accumulation of C and N in soil OF in intercropped E. grandis plantations. Our results

  13. Acacia Changes Microbial Indicators and Increases C and N in Soil Organic Fractions in Intercropped Eucalyptus Plantations

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Arthur P. A.; Zagatto, Maurício R. G.; Brandani, Carolina B.; Mescolotti, Denise de Lourdes; Cotta, Simone R.; Gonçalves, José L. M.; Cardoso, Elke J. B. N.

    2018-01-01

    Intercropping forest plantations of Eucalyptus with nitrogen-fixing trees can increase soil N inputs and stimulate soil organic matter (OM) cycling. However, microbial indicators and their correlation in specific fractions of soil OM are unclear in the tropical sandy soils. Here, we examined the microbial indicators associated with C and N in the soil resulting from pure and intercropped Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia mangium plantations. We hypothesized that introduction of A. mangium in a Eucalyptus plantation promotes changes in microbial indicators and increases C and N concentrations on labile fractions of the soil OM, when compared to pure eucalyptus plantations. We determined the microbial and enzymatic activity, and the potential for C degradation by the soil microbial community. Additionally, we evaluated soil OM fractions and litter parameters. Soil (0–20 cm) and litter samples were collected at 27 and 39 months after planting from the following treatments: pure E. grandis (E) and A. mangium (A) plantations, pure E. grandis plantations with N fertilizer (E+N) and an E. grandis, and A. mangium intercropped plantations (E+A). The results showed that intercropped plantations (E+A) increase 3, 45, and 70% microbial biomass C as compared to A, E+N, and E, at 27 months after planting. The metabolic quotient (qCO2) showed a tendency toward stressful values in pure E. grandis plantations and a strong correlation with dehydrogenase activity. A and E+A treatments also exhibited the highest organic fractions (OF) and C and N contents. A canonical redundancy analysis revealed positive correlations between microbial indicators of soil and litter attributes, and a strong effect of C and N variables in differentiating A and E+A from E and E+N treatments. The results suggested that a significant role of A. mangium enhance the dynamics of soil microbial indicators which help in the accumulation of C and N in soil OF in intercropped E. grandis plantations. Our results are

  14. Hybridization of a Rocky Mountain fir (Abies concolor) and a Mexican fir (Abies religiosa).

    Treesearch

    J.B. St. Clair; W.B. Critchfield

    1988-01-01

    Interspecific crosses of Abies religiosa (HBK.) Schlecht. & Cham. (oyamel) with Abies concolor (Gord. & Glend.) Lindle. ex Hildebr. var. concolor (white fir) and Abies magnifica A. Murr. (California red fir) were undertaken to explore the relationships between these species. The...

  15. Dieback of Acacia koa in Hawaii: Ecological and pathological characteristics of affected stands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, R.C.; Gardner, D.E.; Daehler, C.C.; Meinzer, F.C.

    2002-01-01

    Koa (Acacia koa) is an endemic Hawaiian tree that serves as a keystone species in the upper elevation forests of all the main islands. In the Mauna Loa Strip area of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, mature koa stands are suffering from an unexplained dieback that has increased in severity since it was first noticed approximately 25 years ago. The dieback is often evident in patches, and generally spreads within stands in a radial fashion from a localized infection center. Entire crowns of affected trees become wilted, with foliage gradually progressing from an apparent healthy to a completely chlorotic condition. Although most trees die soon after the onset of symptoms, some trees are able to survive crown death by producing epicormic shoots on the lower portions of the trunk. Previously published studies reported that a vascular wilt fungus (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. koae) was associated with koa seeds and the rhizosphere of healthy and dieback-affected koa stands. The purpose of this study was to characterize the stand structure, soil conditions, and physiological condition of dieback-affected trees, and to assess the possible role of F. oxysporum f. sp. koae in the current dieback stands. This fungus was isolated from branches of symptomatic koa in dieback-affected stands and roots from healthy and dieback-affected stands. Possible differences in the pathogenicity and virulence of F. oxysporum f. sp. koae isolates obtained from the roots of healthy koa in unaffected stands and those from branches of dieback-affected koa were determined by greenhouse inoculations of koa seedlings. Healthy koa saplings in stands unaffected by dieback were also inoculated to determine if disease symptoms could be induced by inoculation of injured roots in the field. Both branch and root isolates were pathogenic; with the percent mortality of inoculated seedlings ranging from 30 to 60% for all isolates. Disease severity between branch and root isolates was not significantly different

  16. Legume-rhizobium symbiotic promiscuity and effectiveness do not affect plant invasiveness.

    PubMed

    Keet, Jan-Hendrik; Ellis, Allan G; Hui, Cang; Le Roux, Johannes J

    2017-06-01

    The ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen is thought to play an important role in the invasion success of legumes. Interactions between legumes and nitrogen-fixing bacteria (rhizobia) span a continuum of specialization, and promiscuous legumes are thought to have higher chances of forming effective symbioses in novel ranges. Using Australian Acacia species in South Africa, it was hypothesized that widespread and highly invasive species will be more generalist in their rhizobial symbiotic requirements and more effective in fixing atmospheric nitrogen compared with localized and less invasive species. To test these hypotheses, eight localized and 11 widespread acacias were examined using next-generation sequencing data for the nodulation gene, nodC , to compare the identity, species richness, diversity and compositional similarity of rhizobia associated with these acacias. Stable isotope analysis was also used to determine levels of nitrogen obtained from the atmosphere via symbiotic nitrogen fixation. No differences were found in richness, diversity and community composition between localized and widespread acacias. Similarly, widespread and localized acacias did not differ in their ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen. However, for some species by site comparisons, significant differences in δ15N isotopic signatures were found, indicating differential symbiotic effectiveness between these species at specific localities. Overall, the results support recent findings that root nodule rhizobial diversity and community composition do not differ between acacias that vary in their invasiveness. Differential invasiveness of acacias in South Africa is probably linked to attributes such as differences in propagule pressure, reasons for (e.g. forestry vs. ornamental) and extent of, plantings in the country. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  17. A pilot experiment of forest fertilization during an outbreak of the western spruce budworm in northeastern Oregon.

    Treesearch

    R.R. Mason; B.E. Wickman; H.G. Paul; T.R. Torgersen

    1998-01-01

    Mixed-conifer stands of grand fir (Abies grandis (Dougl. ex D. Don) Lindl.), Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (Beissn.) Franco), and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) were fertilized with nitrogen and combination treatments of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium...

  18. Hybridization of a Rocky Mountain fir (Abies concolor) and a Mexican fir (Abies religiosa)

    Treesearch

    J. B. St. Clair; W. B. Critchfield

    1988-01-01

    Interspecific crosses of Abies religiosa (HBK.) Schlecht. & Cham, (oyamel) with Abies concolor (Gord. & Glend.) Lindl. ex Hildebr. var. concolor (white fir) and Abies magnifica A. Murr. (California red fir) were undertaken to explore the relationships between these species. The cross...

  19. Characterization of thirteen microsatellite loci from the Ghanian antimalarial plant Cryptolepis sanguinolenta

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cryptolepis sanguinolenta (Lindl.) Schlechter (Periplocaceae) is an herbaceous plant used in traditional medicine to treat malaria and populations of the species are diminishing due to overharvesting and lack of conservation. Co-dominant microsatellite markers that can be used to characterize geneti...

  20. In vitro antibacterial and time-kill assessment of crude methanolic stem bark extract of Acacia mearnsii de wild against bacteria in shigellosis.

    PubMed

    Olajuyigbe, Olufunmiso Olusola; Afolayan, Anthony Jide

    2012-02-21

    Shigellosis is an important cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality among young children and old people for which treatment with antimicrobial agents is limited. Hence, the need for curative potentials obtainable from medicinal plants becomes inevitable. This study was carried out to assess the antibacterial potentials of crude methanolic extract of the stem bark of Acacia mearnsii against some selected bacteria of clinical importance in shigellosis. The bacteria were inhibited by the extract to produce concentration dependent inhibition zones. The extract exhibited a varied degree of antibacterial activity against all the tested isolates. The MIC values for Gram negative (0.0391-0.3125) mg/mL and those of Gram positive bacteria (0.0781-0.625) mg/mL indicated that the Gram negative bacteria were more inhibited by the extract than the Gram positive bacteria. Average log reduction in viable cell count in time-kill assay ranged between -2.456 Log₁₀ to 2.230 Log₁₀ cfu/mL after 4 h of interaction, and between -2.921 Log₁₀ and 1.447 Log₁₀ cfu/mL after 8 h interaction in 1× MIC and 2× MIC of the extract. The study provided scientific justification for the use of the crude methanolic extract from the stem bark of A. mearnsii in shigellosis. The degree of the antibacterial activity indicated that the crude extract is a potential source of bioactive compounds that could be useful for the development of new antimicrobial agents capable of decreasing the burden of drug resistance and cost of management of diseases of clinical and public health importance in South Africa.

  1. Mechanistic Insight into Salt Tolerance of Acacia auriculiformis: The Importance of Ion Selectivity, Osmoprotection, Tissue Tolerance, and Na+ Exclusion

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Md. M.; Rahman, Md. A.; Miah, Md. G.; Saha, Satya R.; Karim, M. A.; Mostofa, Mohammad G.

    2017-01-01

    Salinity, one of the major environmental constraints, threatens soil health and consequently agricultural productivity worldwide. Acacia auriculiformis, being a halophyte, offers diverse benefits against soil salinity; however, the defense mechanisms underlying salt-tolerant capacity in A. auriculiformis are still elusive. In this study, we aimed to elucidate mechanisms regulating the adaptability of the multi-purpose perennial species A. auriculiformis to salt stress. The growth, ion homeostasis, osmoprotection, tissue tolerance and Na+ exclusion, and anatomical adjustments of A. auriculiformis grown in varied doses of seawater for 90 and 150 days were assessed. Results showed that diluted seawater caused notable reductions in the level of growth-related parameters, relative water content, stomatal conductance, photosynthetic pigments, proteins, and carbohydrates in dose- and time-dependent manners. However, the percent reduction of these parameters did not exceed 50% of those of control plants. Na+ contents in phyllodes and roots increased with increasing levels of salinity, whereas K+ contents and K+/Na+ ratio decreased significantly in comparison with control plants. A. auriculiformis retained more Na+ in the roots and maintained higher levels of K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+, and K+/Na+ ratio in phyllodes than roots through ion selective capacity. The contents of proline, total free amino acids, total sugars and reducing sugars significantly accumulated together with the levels of malondialdehyde and electrolyte leakage in the phyllodes, particularly at day 150th of salt treatment. Anatomical investigations revealed various anatomical changes in the tissues of phyllodes, stems and roots by salt stress, such as increase in the size of spongy parenchyma of phyllodes, endodermal thickness of stems and roots, and the diameter of root vascular bundle, relative to control counterparts. Furthermore, the estimated values for Na+ exclusion and tissue tolerance index suggested that

  2. Cation and anion leaching and growth of Acacia saligna in bauxite residue sand amended with residue mud, poultry manure and phosphogypsum.

    PubMed

    Jones, B E H; Haynes, R J; Phillips, I R

    2012-03-01

    To examine (1) the effect of organic (poultry manure) and inorganic (residue mud and phosphogypsum) amendments on nutrient leaching losses from residue sand and (2) whether amendments improve the growth of plants in residue sand. Leaching columns were established using residue sand. The phosphogypsum-treated surface layer (0-15 cm) was amended with poultry manure and/or bauxite residue mud and the subsurface layer (15-45 cm) was either left untreated or amended with phosphogypsum. Much of the Na⁺, K⁺, Cl⁻ and SO₄²⁻ was lost during the first four leachings. Additions of phosphogypsum to both surface and subsurface layers resulted in partial neutralization of soluble alkalinity. Mean pH of leachates ranged from 8.0 to 8.4, the major cation leached was Na⁺ and the major balancing anion was SO₄²⁻ . Where gypsum was not applied to the subsurface, mean pH of leachates was 10.0-10.9, the main cation leached was still Na⁺ and the main balancing anions were a combination of SO₄²⁻ and HCO₃⁻/CO₃²⁻. At the end of the experiment, concentrations of exchangeable Na⁺ in the subsurface layers were similar regardless of whether gypsum had been applied to that layer or not. Yields of Acacia saligna were promoted by additions of poultry manure to the surface layer but unaffected by gypsum incorporation into the subsurface layer. Lack of reaction of phosphogypsum with the subsurface layer is unlikely to be a major factor limiting revegetation of residue sand since in the absence of phosphogypsum the excess Na⁺ leaches with the residual alkalinity (HCO₃⁻/CO₃²⁻) rather than SO₄²⁻.

  3. Air pollution effects on giant sequoia ecosystems.

    Treesearch

    P.R. Miller; Nancy Grulke; K.W. Stolte

    1994-01-01

    Giant sequoia [Sequoiadendron giganteum (Lindl.) Buchholz] groves are found entirely within the Sierra Nevada mixed-conifer type. Several of its companion tree species, mainly ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) and Jeffrey pine (P. jeffreyi Grev. & Balf.), show foliar injury after...

  4. Response of different white fir geographic provenances to Trichosporium symbioticum inoculation in California

    Treesearch

    William J. Otrosina; Stanley J. Zarnoch

    2012-01-01

    We inoculated the fir engraver (Scolytus ventralis LeConte) associated fungus Trichosporium symbioticum Wright onto 56 white fir (Abies concolor (Gordon & Glend.) Lindl. ex Hildebr.) trees planted in a common garden study near Camino, California, that represented five geographic provenances of this species....

  5. Production of Pharmaceuticals from Papaver Cultivars In Vitro

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A methodology to clonally proliferate Iranian poppy (Papaver bracteatum Lindl.) and opium poppy (P. somniferum L.) shoots is presented employing an in vitro hydroponics system (i.e., automated plant culture system (APCS)). Temperature had a profound effect on growth and alkaloid production after 8-...

  6. Composition of Prangos pabularia essential oil, indentification of an unknown compound from the oil and its insecticidal activity against yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The essential oil of air dried fruits of Prangos pabularia Lindl (Apiaceae) was obtained by hydrodistillation and its chemical profile was identified using GC-FID and GC-MS. Bicyclogermacrene (21%), (Z)-'-ocimene (19%), '-humulene (8%), '-pinene (8%) and spathulenol (6%) were the main constituents o...

  7. Rooting cuttings from douglas-fir, white-fir, and California red fir christmas trees

    Treesearch

    C. M. Blankensop; R. Z. Callaham

    1960-01-01

    Christmas tree growers in California have asked geneticists to help improve the characteristics of the - wild species they are cultivating. The preferred Christmas trees of California are Shasta red fir (Abies magnifica A. Murr.), white fir (A. concolor (Gord. & Glend.) Lindl.), and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga...

  8. Humidity-regulated dormancy onset in the Fabaceae: a conceptual model and its ecological implications for the Australian wattle Acacia saligna

    PubMed Central

    Tozer, Mark G.; Ooi, Mark K. J.

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims Seed dormancy enhances fitness by preventing seeds from germinating when the probability of seedling survival and recruitment is low. The onset of physical dormancy is sensitive to humidity during ripening; however, the implications of this mechanism for seed bank dynamics have not been quantified. This study proposes a model that describes how humidity-regulated dormancy onset may control the accumulation of a dormant seed bank, and seed experiments are conducted to calibrate the model for an Australian Fabaceae, Acacia saligna. The model is used to investigate the impact of climate on seed dormancy and to forecast the ecological implications of human-induced climate change. Methods The relationship between relative humidity and dormancy onset was quantified under laboratory conditions by exposing freshly matured non-dormant seeds to constant humidity levels for fixed durations. The model was field-calibrated by measuring the response of seeds exposed to naturally fluctuating humidity. The model was applied to 3-hourly records of humidity spanning the period 1972–2007 in order to estimate both temporal variability in dormancy and spatial variability attributable to climatic differences among populations. Climate change models were used to project future changes in dormancy onset. Key Results A sigmoidal relationship exists between dormancy and humidity under both laboratory and field conditions. Seeds ripened under field conditions became dormant following very short exposure to low humidity (<20 %). Prolonged exposure at higher humidity did not increase dormancy significantly. It is predicted that populations growing in a temperate climate produce 33–55 % fewer dormant seeds than those in a Mediterranean climate; however, dormancy in temperate populations is predicted to increase as a result of climate change. Conclusions Humidity-regulated dormancy onset may explain observed variation in physical dormancy. The model offers a systematic

  9. Management of Giant Sequoia in the national forests of the Sierra Nevada, California

    Treesearch

    Robert R. Rogers

    1986-01-01

    The Forest Service avoided positive management activities within giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum [Lindl.] Buchholz) groves after heavy early logging on private lands caused adverse public reaction. However, since 1975 timber sales and prescribed burning have been conducted to encourage giant sequoia regeneration and increase tree vigor....

  10. Velvet lupine (Lupinus leucophyllis) population cycles with climate

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Velvet lupine (Lupinus leucophyllis Dougl. ex Lindl) contains the teratogenic alkaloid anagyrine that causes a crooked calf syndrome when a cow ingests lupine between the 40-100 day of gestation. An outbreak of crooked calves occurred in the Scabland region of eastern Washington in 1997 following t...

  11. Differential susceptibility of white fir provenances to balsam twig aphid

    Treesearch

    George T. Ferrell

    1989-01-01

    Susceptibility of Oregon, California, Nevada, Utah, and Arizona provenances of white fir (Abies concolor [Gord. & Glend.] Lindl.) to crown injury caused by balsam twig aphid (Mindarus abietinus Koch.) was assessed in an experimental plantation in the central Sierra Nevada in California. Bud phenology was observed to explore...

  12. Weather and tree growth associated with white fir mortality caused by fir engraver and roundheaded fir borer

    Treesearch

    George T. Ferrell; Ralph C. Hall

    1975-01-01

    White fir (Abides concolor [Cord. & Glend.] Lindl.) stands in Western North America periodically suffer extensive tree mortality caused by outbreaks of the fir engraver bark beetle (Scolytus ventralis Lec.). The cambial zone of the boles infested by S. ventralis is also colonized by the roundheaded fir borer...

  13. Abundances of apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella, across different areas in central Washington, with special reference to black-fruited hawthorns

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh), has infested native black-fruited hawthorn (mostly Crataegus douglasii Lindl.) in central Washington since at least 2003, but little is known about the fly’s ecology in hawthorns there. The main objective here was to determine adult and larval abu...

  14. Population dynamics of dwarf mistletoe on young true firs in the central Sierra Nevada, California

    Treesearch

    Robert E Scharpf; J. R. Jr. Parmeter

    1982-01-01

    Young red firs (Abies magnifica A. Murr.) and white firs (A. concolor [Gord. & Glend.] Lindl. ex Hildebr.) on the Stanislaus National Forest, California, were inoculated with seeds of dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium abietinum) for 5 successive years. Only 3 to 4 percent of about 7000 seeds placed on branches...

  15. Wood of Giant Sequoia: properties and unique characteristics

    Treesearch

    Douglas D. Piirto

    1986-01-01

    Wood properties of giant sequoia (Sequoia gigantea [Lindl.] Decne.) were compared with those for other coniferous tree species. Wood properties such as specific gravity, various mechanical properties, extractive content, and decay resistance of young-growth giant sequoia are comparable to or more favorable than those of coast redwood (...

  16. Management of Giant Sequoia at Blodgett Forest Research Station

    Treesearch

    Robert C. Heald

    1986-01-01

    Researchers at Blodgett Forest Research Station, University of California, are studying giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum [Lindl.] Buchholz) growth under both even-age and selection management in relationship to the presence of several shrub species and five native conifers. The sequoias are also being studied under several types of site...

  17. Management of Giant Sequoia on Mountain Home Demonstration State Forest

    Treesearch

    Norman J. Benson

    1986-01-01

    Established in 1946, the Mountain Home Demonstration State Forest, Tulare County, California, is managed by the California Department of Forestry. It is a multiple-use forest with recreation as its primary focus, although timber management has always played an important role. Giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum [Lindl. ] Buchholz) occurs in...

  18. Cattle preference for forage kochia, crested wheatgrass, and velvet lupine

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alkaloids in velvet lupine (Lupinus leucophyllis Dougl. ex Lindl) cause a crooked calf syndrome if the dam consumes the plant between day 40 to 100 of gestation. In spring calving operations, this coincides with late summer when annual grasses are mature and senescent in the Scabland Region of east...

  19. Influence of forest management and previous herbivory on cattle diets

    Treesearch

    Kenric J. Walburger; Timothy DelCurto; Martin Vavra

    2007-01-01

    Grazing cattle and timber harvest are common practices associated with forested rangelands. Therefore, the objective was to document the effects of timber harvest and herbivory on nutritional quality and botanical composition of steer diets in grand fir (Abies grandis [Dougl. ex D. Don] Lindl.) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa...

  20. Response of thinned White fir stands to fertilization with nitrogen plus sulphur.

    Treesearch

    P.H. Cochran

    1991-01-01

    A single application of 200 pounds nitrogen (N) plus 33 pounds of sulphur (S) per acre to white fir (Abies concolor (Gord. & Glen.) Lindl.) increased periodic annual increments of basal area and volume by 1.7 ft2acre-1year-1 and 43 to 68 ft3acre

  1. Mammoth lakes revisited—50 years after a Douglas-fir tussock moth outbreak.

    Treesearch

    Boyd E. Wickman; G. Lynn Starr

    1990-01-01

    For five decades after an outbreak of Douglas-fir tussock moth (Orgyia pseudotsugata (McDunnough)), radial growth of defoliated white fir trees (Abies concolor (Gord. & Glend.) Lindl.), was significantly greater than that of nondefoliated host trees nearby. The increased growth probably was due to the thinning effect of...

  2. Acacia nilotica leave extract and glyburide: comparison of fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, beta-thromboglubulin levels and platelet aggregation in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Asad, Munnaza; Munir, Tahir Ahmad; Afzal, Nasir

    2011-03-01

    To evaluate the hypoglycaemic and anti-platelet aggregation effect of aqueous methanol extract of Acacia Nilotica (AN) leaves compared with glyburide on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Diabetes mellitus was induced in 90 out of 120 albino rats by administering 50 mg/kg body weight (b.w) streptozotocin and was confirmed by measuring fasting blood glucose level >200 mg/dL on 4th post-induction day. The rats were equally divided into 4 groups, A (normal control), B (diabetic control), C (diabetic rats treated with AN extract) and group D (diabetic rats treated with glyburide). The rats of group C and D were given 300 mg/kg b.w AN extract and 900 microgm/kg b.w glyburide respectively for 3 weeks. Blood glucose was measured by glucometer, platelet aggregation by Dia-Med method and insulin and beta-thromboglobulin by ELISA technique. A significant increase (p<0.05) in fasting blood glucose, beta-thromboglobulin and platelet aggregation and a significant decrease (p<0.05) in insulin levels was observed in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats than the normal controls. The rats treated with AN extract and glyburide showed a significant decrease (p<0.05) in fasting blood glucose and increase (p<0.05) in insulin levels than the diabetic control rats. However, the levels in both the treatment groups remained significantly different than the normal controls. A significant decrease (p<0.05) in beta-thromboglobulin levels was seen in diabetic rats treated with glyburide than the diabetic control rats and diabetic rats treated with AN extract. AN leaves extract result into hypoglycaemic and anti-platelet aggregation activity in diabetic rats as that of glyburide.

  3. Inhibition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammatory response by polysaccharide fractions of Khaya grandifoliola (C.D.C.) stem bark, Cryptolepis sanguinolenta (Lindl.) Schltr and Cymbopogon citratus Stapf leaves in raw 264.7 macrophages and U87 glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Mediesse, Francine Kengne; Boudjeko, Thaddée; Hasitha, Anantharaju; Gangadhar, Matharasala; Mbacham, Wilfred Fon; Yogeeswari, Perumal

    2018-03-12

    Khaya grandifoliola (C.D.C.) stem bark, Cymbopogon citratus (Stapf) and Cryptolepis sanguinolenta (Lindl.) Schltr leaves are used in Cameroonian traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Several studies have been performed on the biological activities of secondary metabolites extracted from these plants. However, to the best of our knowledge, the anti-neuro inflammatory and protective roles of the polysaccharides of these three plants have not yet been elucidated. This study aimed at investigating potential use of K. grandifoliola, C. sanguinolenta and C. citratus polysaccharides in the prevention of chronic inflammation. Firstly, the composition of polysaccharide fractions isolated from K. grandifoliola stem bark (KGF), C. sanguinolenta (CSF) and C. citratus (CCF) leaves was assessed. Secondly, the cytotoxicity was evaluated on Raw 264.7 macrophages and U87-MG glioblastoma cell lines by the MTT assay. This was followed by the in vitro evaluation of the ability of KGF, CSF and CCF to inhibit lipopolysaccharides (LPS) induced overproduction of various pro-inflammatory mediators (NO, ROS and IL1β, TNFα, IL6, NF-kB cytokines). This was done in Raw 264.7 and U87-MG cells. Finally, the in vitro protective effect of KGF, CSF and CCF against LPS-induced toxicity in the U87-MG cells was evaluated. CCF was shown to mostly contain sugar and no polyphenol while KGP and CSP contained very few amounts of these metabolites (≤ 2%). The three polysaccharide fractions were non-toxic up to 100 μg.mL - 1 . All the polysaccharides at 10 μg/mL inhibited NO production, but only KGF and CCF at 12.5 μg/mL down-regulated LPS-induced ROS overproduction. Finally, 100 μg/mL LPS reduced 50% of U87 cell viability, and pre-treatment with the three polysaccharides significantly increased the proliferation. These results suggest that the polysaccharides of K. grandifoliola, C. citratus and C. sanguinolenta could be beneficial in preventing

  4. Growth, biomass production and photosynthesis of Cenchrus ciliaris L. under Acacia tortilis (Forssk.) Hayne based silvopastoral systems in semi arid tropics.

    PubMed

    Mishra, A K; Tiwari, H S; Bhatt, R K

    2010-11-01

    The growth, biomass production and photosynthesis of Cenchrus ciliaris was studied under the canopies of 17 yr old Acacia tortilis trees in semi arid tropical environment. On an average the full grown canopy of A. tortilis at the spacing of 4 x 4 m allowed 55% of total Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) which in turn increased Relative Humidity (RH) and reduced under canopy temperature to -1.75 degrees C over the open air temperature. C. ciliaris attained higher height under the shade of A. tortilis. The tiller production and leaf area index decreased marginally under the shade of tree canopies as compared to the open grown grasses. C. ciliaris accumulated higher chlorophyll a and b under the shade of tree canopies indicating its shade adaptation potential. The assimilatory functions such as rate of photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance, photosynthetic water use efficiency (PN/TR) and carboxylation efficiency (PN/CINT) decreased under the tree canopies due to low availability of PAR. The total biomass production in term of fresh and dry weight decreased under the tree canopies. On average of 2 yr C. ciliaris had produced 12.78 t ha(-1) green and 3.72 -t ha(-1) dry biomass under the tree canopies of A. tortilis. The dry matter yield reduced to 38% under the tree canopies over the open grown grasses. The A. tortilis + C. ciliaris maintained higher soil moisture, organic carbon content and available N P K for sustainable biomass production for the longer period. The higher accumulation of crude protein, starch, sugar and nitrogen in leaves and stem of C. ciliaris indicates that this grass species also maintained its quality under A. tortilis based silvopastoral system. The photosynthesis and dry matter accumulation are closely associated with available PAR indicating that for sustainable production of this grass species in the silvopasture systems for longer period about 55% or more PAR is required.

  5. Physicochemical, functional and rheological investigation of Soymida febrifuga exudate gum.

    PubMed

    Bhushette, Pravin R; Annapure, Uday S

    2018-05-01

    Acacia gum is a well-known and most used exudate gum. High solubility with low viscosity is one of the best property of this gum. Many studies were conducted to find out a substitute for acacia gum but very few gum had shown properties as good as acacia gum. The exudates collected from Soymida febrifuga also shows high solubility with low viscosity as acacia gum. Purified Soymida febrifuga gum (SFG) was characterised for physicochemical, functional, rheological and thermal properties. The FTIR spectra of SFG revealed a typical trend of polysaccharides. The monosaccharide composition of the gums indicated the presence arabinose, galactose, and ribose. Element composition of SFG shows resemblance with AG. However, the molecular weight of SFG is less than the AG. The rheological outcome was derived from flow curve measurements of gum at different concentrations and temperatures. Alikeness was observed in Viscosity profile of both the gums. SFG shows semblance with AG and can be use in food and pharmaceutical industry. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Local ecological knowledge concerning the invasion of Amerindian lands in the northern Brazilian Amazon by Acacia mangium (Willd.).

    PubMed

    Souza, Arlene Oliveira; Chaves, Maria do Perpétuo Socorro Rodrigues; Barbosa, Reinaldo Imbrozio; Clement, Charles Roland

    2018-05-03

    Invasive plants can impact biodiversity as well as the lives of native human populations. Natural ecosystems represent sources of natural resources essential for the subsistence and socio-cultural continuity of these social groups. Approximately 30,000 ha of Acacia mangium were planted for commercial purposes in savanna areas surrounding indigenous lands in Roraima State, Brazil, at the end of the 1990s. We examined the local ecological knowledge of indigenous Wapichana and Macuxi Amerindians, members of the Arawak and Carib linguistic families, respectively, concerning A. mangium Willdenow (Fabaceae) in a savanna ecosystem ("Lavrado") to attempt to understand its propagation beyond the limits of the commercial plantations and contribute to mitigating its impacts on socio-ecological systems. The present study was undertaken in the Moskow, São Domingos, and Malacacheta communities in the Moskow and Malacacheta Indigenous Lands (ILs) in the Serra da Lua region of Roraima State, in the northern Brazilian Amazon region. Interviews were conducted with a total of 94 indigenous individuals of both sexes, with ages between 18 and 76, and low levels of formal schooling, with an average time of permanence in the area of 21 years; some still spoke only their native languages. The interviews focused on their ecological knowledge of the invasive, non-native A. mangium and their uses of it. The informants affirmed that A. mangium negatively impacted the local fauna and flora, making their subsistence more difficult and altering their daily routines. Among the problems cited were alterations of water quality (71.3%), negative impacts on crops (60.6%), negative impacts on the equilibrium of the local fauna (52.1%), increased farm labor requirements (41.5%), and restriction of access to indigenous lands (23.4%). There were no significant differences between the opinions of men and women, nor between community leaders and nonleaders. Most of the interviewees (89%) felt that A

  7. Genetic variation and early performance of Giant Sequoia in plantations

    Treesearch

    W. J. Libby

    1986-01-01

    Giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum [Lindl.] Buchholz) is genetically less variable than expected; furthermore, it is less variable and its populations are less structured than are several associated or related conifers. Giant sequoia seedlings from open-pollinated seeds of isolated trees or from small outlier groves do not survive and grow as...

  8. Abies concolor growth responses to vegetation changes following shrub removal, northern Sierra Nevada, California

    Treesearch

    Steven R. Sparks

    1993-01-01

    Conifer productivity in western North America is often severely inhibited by competing vegetation. Abies concolor [Gord. and Glendl.] Lindl. (white fir) is an important species over much of this area, yet little information is available on response of A. concolor to vegetation management treatments. We revisited two sites in the...

  9. Management of Giant Sequoia in the national parks of the Sierra Nevada, California

    Treesearch

    David J. Parsons; H. Thomas Nichols

    1986-01-01

    Management of giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum,/i> [Lindl.] Buchholz) in Sequoia, Kings Canyon, and Yosemite National Parks focuses on the need for maintaining and, where necessary, restoring natural ecosystem processes. Such a program includes restoration of natural fire regimes, mitigation of impacts from visitor use, support for basic research and...

  10. An amphetamine isomer whose efficacy and safety in humans has never been studied, β-methylphenylethylamine (BMPEA), is found in multiple dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Pieter A; Bloszies, Clayton; Yee, Caleb; Gerona, Roy

    2016-01-01

    The amphetamine isomer β-methylphenylethylamine (BMPEA) was first synthesized in the early 1930s, but its efficacy and safety in humans has not been studied. Recently, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) detected BMPEA in dietary supplements labelled as containing Acacia rigidula. Over a year after the FDA reported its findings, we analyzed Acacia rigidula dietary supplements to determine if BMPEA had been removed. Supplements were analyzed using liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Diluted methanolic extract from each supplement was run three times and each data set obtained was analyzed using Agilent MassHunter Qualitative Analysis. The presence of BMPEA was confirmed by accurate mass, retention time and mass spectra match against a reference standard. Quantification of BMPEA was determined using an eight-point calibration curve of spiked standard to a matrix blank. Twenty-one brands of Acacia rigidula supplements were analyzed. More than half (11/21; 52.4%) of the Acacia rigidula supplement brands contained BMPEA. The stimulant was present at quantities such that consumers following recommended maximum daily servings would consume a maximum of 93.7 mg of BMPEA per day. Consumers of Acacia rigidula supplements may be exposed to pharmacological dosages of an amphetamine isomer that lacks evidence of safety in humans. The FDA should immediately warn consumers about BMPEA and take aggressive enforcement action to eliminate BMPEA in dietary supplements. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Diseases and insects of Giant Sequoia

    Treesearch

    Jr. Parmeter

    1986-01-01

    Giant sequoias (Sequoiadendron giganteum [Lindl.] Buchholz) are susceptible to a number of diseases and insects at each state of development from seeds to overmature trees. We presently have little more than a catalog of occurrences. The impacts and the management implications of disease and insect losses have scarcely been investigated or evaluated...

  12. Recommendations from the Sierra Club for managing Giant Sequoia

    Treesearch

    Joseph Fontaine

    1986-01-01

    The giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum [Lindl.] Buchholz) groves in their natural setting are one of the outstanding scenic features of the southern Sierra Nevada. These groves where they have survived should be man-aged to protect their natural values and to restore former natural conditions wherever possible. Groves that are essentially intact...

  13. Decay losses associated with wounds in commercially thinned true fir stands in northern California.

    Treesearch

    Paul E. Aho; Gary Fiddler; Gregory M. Filip

    1989-01-01

    A total of 562 white firs (Abies concolor (Gord. & Glend.) Lindl. ex Hildebr.) and red firs (A. magnifica A. Murr.) with logging wounds were felled, dissected, and analyzed for infection and decay in 28 commercially thinned stands on the Klamath and Tahoe National Forests in California. On the Klamath National Forest, decay...

  14. Diameter and height growth of suppressed grand fir saplings after overstory removal.

    Treesearch

    K.W. Seidel

    1980-01-01

    The 2- and 5-year diameter and height growth of suppressed grand fir (Abies grandis (Dougl. ex D. Don) Lindl.) advance reproduction was measured in central Oregon after the overstory was removed. Multiple regression analyses were used to predict growth response as a function of individual tree variables. The resulting equations, although highly...

  15. Bedrock type significantly affects individual tree mortality for various conifers in the inland Northwest, U.S.A

    Treesearch

    James A. Moore; David A Hamilton; Yu Xiao; John Byrne

    2004-01-01

    Individual tree mortality models for western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don), Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco), grand fir (Abies grandis (Dougl. ex D. Don) Lindl.), western redcedar (Thuja plicata Donn ex. D. Don), western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.), and western larch (Larix occidentalis Nutt.) were developed using data...

  16. Growth and yield of Giant Sequoia

    Treesearch

    David J. Dulitz

    1986-01-01

    Very little information exists concerning growth and yield of giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum [Lindl.] Buchholz). For old-growth trees, diameter growth is the single factor adding increment since maximum height has been obtained. Diameter growth averages 0.04 inches per year in normal old-growth trees but will fluctuate with changes in the...

  17. Growth of White fir after Douglas-fir tussock moth outbreaks: long-term records in the Sierra Nevada.

    Treesearch

    Boyd E. Wickman

    1986-01-01

    Radial growth of white fir trees, Abies concolor (Gord. and Glend.) Lindl. ex Hildebr., defoliated almost 30 years ago by Douglas-fir tussock moth, Orgyia pseudotsugata (McDunnough), in the central Sierra Nevada was compared with 22 years of growth prior to the outbreak. There was little difference in growth between the two...

  18. Stem volume losses in grand firs topkilled by western spruce budworm in Idaho

    Treesearch

    George T. Ferrell; Robert F. Scharpf

    1982-01-01

    Mature grand firs (Abies grandis [Dougl. ex D. Don] Lindl.) were sampled in two stands, one cutover and one virgin, in the Little Salmon River drainage in west-central Idaho, to estimate stem volume losses associated with topkilling. Damage to the stands resulted from three outbreaks of western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis...

  19. Evolution and history of Giant Sequoia

    Treesearch

    H. Thomas Harvey

    1986-01-01

    Ancient ancestors of the giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum [Lindl.] Buchholz) were widespread throughout much of the Northern Hemisphere during the late Mesozoic Period. Climatic conditions changed, forcing the more recent ancestors of present giant sequoia into the southwestern United States. The native range is now restricted to the west slope of the Sierra...

  20. Livelihood benefits and costs from an invasive alien tree (Acacia dealbata) to rural communities in the Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ngorima, A; Shackleton, C M

    2018-05-31

    The negative effects of invasive alien species (IAS) are increasingly invoked to justify widespread and usually top-down approaches for their management or eradication. However, very little of the research or discourse is based on investigating local perceptions, uses and struggles with IAS, and how their presence influences and changes local livelihoods. The objective of this study was to assess the perceptions and livelihood uses of Acacia dealbata by local communities at three localities in the montane grasslands of the Eastern Cape, South Africa, using a combination of random household interviews, focus group discussions and participatory tools. We calculated direct-use values for each product and household (based on quantity used and local prices) and disaggregated these by gender of the household head and wealth quartiles. The results revealed the dualistic role of A. dealbata in local livelihoods. On the one hand, A. dealbata was widely used for firewood (100% of households), tools (77%) and construction timber (73%), with limited use for traditional medicines and forage. The cumulative value of approximately ZAR 2870 (±US$224) per household per year (across all households) represents considerable cash saving to households, most of whom are quite poor by national and international measures. On the other hand, the increasing extent of A. dealbata (93% said it was increasing) exacerbates local household vulnerability though reported reductions in cultivated areas, crop yields and forage production, and allegedly higher risks of crime. This quandary is well encapsulated by the considerable majority of respondents (84%) not wanting higher extents and densities of A. dealbata, but an equally high majority not wanting its total removal from local landscapes. Most respondents disliked A. dealbata in fields, close to homesteads or along primary access routes, and were more tolerant of it away from such sites. Institutional and use dynamics have varied over several

  1. Humidity-regulated dormancy onset in the Fabaceae: a conceptual model and its ecological implications for the Australian wattle Acacia saligna.

    PubMed

    Tozer, Mark G; Ooi, Mark K J

    2014-09-01

    Seed dormancy enhances fitness by preventing seeds from germinating when the probability of seedling survival and recruitment is low. The onset of physical dormancy is sensitive to humidity during ripening; however, the implications of this mechanism for seed bank dynamics have not been quantified. This study proposes a model that describes how humidity-regulated dormancy onset may control the accumulation of a dormant seed bank, and seed experiments are conducted to calibrate the model for an Australian Fabaceae, Acacia saligna. The model is used to investigate the impact of climate on seed dormancy and to forecast the ecological implications of human-induced climate change. The relationship between relative humidity and dormancy onset was quantified under laboratory conditions by exposing freshly matured non-dormant seeds to constant humidity levels for fixed durations. The model was field-calibrated by measuring the response of seeds exposed to naturally fluctuating humidity. The model was applied to 3-hourly records of humidity spanning the period 1972-2007 in order to estimate both temporal variability in dormancy and spatial variability attributable to climatic differences among populations. Climate change models were used to project future changes in dormancy onset. A sigmoidal relationship exists between dormancy and humidity under both laboratory and field conditions. Seeds ripened under field conditions became dormant following very short exposure to low humidity (<20 %). Prolonged exposure at higher humidity did not increase dormancy significantly. It is predicted that populations growing in a temperate climate produce 33-55 % fewer dormant seeds than those in a Mediterranean climate; however, dormancy in temperate populations is predicted to increase as a result of climate change. Humidity-regulated dormancy onset may explain observed variation in physical dormancy. The model offers a systematic approach to modelling this variation in population studies

  2. [Seasonal differences in the leaf hydraulic conductance of mature Acacia mangium in response to its leaf water use and photosynthesis].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ping; Sun, Gu-Chou; Ni, Guang-Yan; Zeng, Xiao-Ping

    2013-01-01

    In this study, measurements were made on the leaf water potential (psi1), stomatal conductance (g(s)), transpiration rate, leaf area index, and sapwood area of mature Acacia mangium, aimed to understand the relationships of the leaf hydraulic conductance (K1) with the leaf water use and photosynthetic characteristics of the A. mangium in wet season (May) and dry season (November). The ratio of sapwood area to leaf area (A(sp)/A(cl)) of the larger trees with an average height of 20 m and a diameter at breast height (DBH) of 0.26 m was 8.5% higher than that of the smaller trees with an average height of 14.5 m and a DBH of 0.19 m, suggesting that the larger trees had a higher water flux in their leaf xylem, which facilitated the water use of canopy leaf. The analysis on the vulnerability curve of the xylem showed that when the K1 decreased by 50%, the psi1 in wet season and dry season was -1.41 and -1.55 MPa, respectively, and the vulnerability of the xylem cavitation was higher in dry season than in wet season. The K1 peak value in wet season and dry season was 5.5 and 4.5 mmol x m(-2) x s(-1) x MPa(-1), and the maximum transpiration rate (T(r max)) was 3.6 and 1.8 mmol x m(-2) x s(-1), respectively. Both the K1 and T(r max), were obviously higher in wet season than in dry season. Within a day, the K1 and T(r), fluctuated many times, reflecting the reciprocated cycle of the xylem cavitation and refilling. The leaf stomatal closure occurred when the K1 declined over 50% or the psi1 reached -1.6 MPa. The g(s) would be maintained at a high level till the K1 declined over 50%. The correlation between the hydraulic conductance and photosynthetic rate was more significant in dry season than in wet season. The loss of leaf hydraulic conductance induced by seasonal change could be the causes of the decrease of T(r) and CO2 gas exchange.

  3. In vivo antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles produced via a green chemistry synthesis using Acacia rigidula as a reducing and capping agent.

    PubMed

    Escárcega-González, Carlos Enrique; Garza-Cervantes, J A; Vázquez-Rodríguez, A; Montelongo-Peralta, Liliana Zulem; Treviño-González, M T; Díaz Barriga Castro, E; Saucedo-Salazar, E M; Chávez Morales, R M; Regalado Soto, D I; Treviño González, F M; Carrazco Rosales, J L; Cruz, Rocío Villalobos; Morones-Ramírez, José Rubén

    2018-01-01

    One of the main issues in the medical field and clinical practice is the development of novel and effective treatments against infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria. One avenue that has been approached to develop effective antimicrobials is the use of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs), since they have been found to exhibit an efficient and wide spectrum of antimicrobial properties. Among the main drawbacks of using Ag-NPs are their potential cytotoxicity against eukaryotic cells and the latent environmental toxicity of their synthesis methods. Therefore, diverse green synthesis methods, which involve the use of environmentally friendly plant extracts as reductive and capping agents, have become attractive to synthesize Ag-NPs that exhibit antimicrobial effects against resistant bacteria at concentrations below toxicity thresholds for eukaryotic cells. In this study, we report a green one-pot synthesis method that uses Acacia rigidula extract as a reducing and capping agent, to produce Ag-NPs with applications as therapeutic agents to treat infections in vivo. The Ag-NPs were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM, selected area electron diffraction, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible, and Fourier transform infrared. We show that Ag-NPs are spherical with a narrow size distribution. The Ag-NPs show antimicrobial activities in vitro against Gram-negative ( Escherichia coli , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and a clinical multidrug-resistant strain of P. aeruginosa ) and Gram-positive ( Bacillus subtilis ) bacteria. Moreover, antimicrobial effects of the Ag-NPs, against a resistant P. aeruginosa clinical strain, were tested in a murine skin infection model. The results demonstrate that the Ag-NPs reported in this work are capable of eradicating pathogenic resistant bacteria in an infection in vivo. In addition, skin, liver, and kidney damage profiles were monitored in the murine infection model, and the

  4. In vivo antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles produced via a green chemistry synthesis using Acacia rigidula as a reducing and capping agent

    PubMed Central

    Escárcega-González, Carlos Enrique; Garza-Cervantes, JA; Vázquez-Rodríguez, A; Montelongo-Peralta, Liliana Zulem; Treviño-González, MT; Díaz Barriga Castro, E; Saucedo-Salazar, EM; Chávez Morales, RM; Regalado Soto, DI; Treviño González, FM; Carrazco Rosales, JL; Cruz, Rocío Villalobos; Morones-Ramírez, José Rubén

    2018-01-01

    Introduction One of the main issues in the medical field and clinical practice is the development of novel and effective treatments against infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria. One avenue that has been approached to develop effective antimicrobials is the use of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs), since they have been found to exhibit an efficient and wide spectrum of antimicrobial properties. Among the main drawbacks of using Ag-NPs are their potential cytotoxicity against eukaryotic cells and the latent environmental toxicity of their synthesis methods. Therefore, diverse green synthesis methods, which involve the use of environmentally friendly plant extracts as reductive and capping agents, have become attractive to synthesize Ag-NPs that exhibit antimicrobial effects against resistant bacteria at concentrations below toxicity thresholds for eukaryotic cells. Purpose In this study, we report a green one-pot synthesis method that uses Acacia rigidula extract as a reducing and capping agent, to produce Ag-NPs with applications as therapeutic agents to treat infections in vivo. Materials and methods The Ag-NPs were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM, selected area electron diffraction, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, ultraviolet–visible, and Fourier transform infrared. Results We show that Ag-NPs are spherical with a narrow size distribution. The Ag-NPs show antimicrobial activities in vitro against Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and a clinical multidrug-resistant strain of P. aeruginosa) and Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis) bacteria. Moreover, antimicrobial effects of the Ag-NPs, against a resistant P. aeruginosa clinical strain, were tested in a murine skin infection model. The results demonstrate that the Ag-NPs reported in this work are capable of eradicating pathogenic resistant bacteria in an infection in vivo. In addition, skin, liver, and kidney damage profiles were

  5. Predicting mortality for five California conifers following wildfire

    Treesearch

    Sharon M. Hood; Sheri L. Smith; Daniel R. Cluck

    2010-01-01

    Fire injury was characterized and survival monitored for 5677 trees >25cm DBH from five wildfires in California that occurred between 2000 and 2004. Logistic regression models for predicting the probability of mortality 5-years after fire were developed for incense cedar (Calocedrus decurrens (Torr.) Florin), white fir (Abies concolor (Gord. & Glend.) Lindl. ex...

  6. Proceedings of the workshop on management of giant sequoia; May 24-25, 1985; Reedley, California

    Treesearch

    C. Phillip Weatherspoon; Y. Robert Iwamoto; Douglas D. Piirto

    1986-01-01

    Giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum [Lindl.] Buchholz) has long been noted for its size and beauty. It is widely planted as an ornamental and increasingly is being utilized for timber production. The workshop was the first ever designed to bring together the state-of-knowledge on giant sequoia and its management. Presentations covered its history...

  7. Language Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverberg, Ruth P.; Kottkamp, Robert B.

    2006-01-01

    In 1993, a Special Interest Group, "Teaching in Educational Administration" (TEA/SIG), was born at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association as a result of work of the Division A (Administration) Task Force on Teaching and Learning in Educational Administration and the particular efforts of Jane Lindle and Paul Bredeson.…

  8. Predicting susceptibility of white fir during a drought-associated outbreak of the fir engraver, Scolytus centralis, in California

    Treesearch

    G.T. Ferrell; W.J. Otrosina; C.J. DeMars

    1994-01-01

    Phenotypic traits were compared with a vigor (growth efficiency) index for accuracy in predicting susceptibility of white fir, Abies concolor (Gord. & Glend.) Lindl., during a drought-associated outbreak of the fir engraver, Scolytus centralis LeC., in the central Sierra Nevada at Lake Tahoe, California.Predictor variables were estimated for 633 firs in six forest...

  9. Silvical characteristics of white fir

    Treesearch

    David C. Maul

    1958-01-01

    White fir (Abies concolor Gord. and Glend.) Lindl.) is an economically important native tree in western United States and parts of Mexico. In the United States it is widely distributed in the Rocky Mountain and Pacific Coast regions, extending from New Mexico and Wyoming, westward to Oregon and California. It attains best development in California...

  10. Plio-Pleistocene history and phylogeography of Acacia senegal in dry woodlands and savannahs of sub-Saharan tropical Africa: evidence of early colonisation and recent range expansion

    PubMed Central

    Odee, D W; Telford, A; Wilson, J; Gaye, A; Cavers, S

    2012-01-01

    Drylands are extensive across sub-Saharan Africa, socio-economically and ecologically important yet highly sensitive to environmental changes. Evolutionary history, as revealed by contemporary intraspecific genetic variation, can provide valuable insight into how species have responded to past environmental and population changes and guide strategies to promote resilience to future changes. The gum arabic tree (Acacia senegal) is an arid-adapted, morphologically diverse species native to the sub-Saharan drylands. We used variation in nuclear sequences (internal transcribed spacer (ITS)) and two types of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) markers (PCR-RFLP, cpSSR) to study the phylogeography of the species with 293 individuals from 66 populations sampled across its natural range. cpDNA data showed high regional and rangewide haplotypic diversity (hT(cpSSR)=0.903–0.948) and population differentiation (GST(RFLP)=0.700–0.782) with a phylogeographic pattern that indicated extensive historical gene flow via seed dispersal. Haplotypes were not restricted to any of the four varieties, but showed significant geographic structure (GST(cpSSR)=0.392; RST=0.673; RST>RST (permuted)), with the major division separating East and Southern Africa populations from those in West and Central Africa. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS data indicated a more recent origin for the clade including West and Central African haplotypes, suggesting range expansion in this region, possibly during the Holocene humid period. In conjunction with paleobotanical evidence, our data suggest dispersal to West Africa, and across to the Arabian Peninsula and Indian subcontinent, from source populations located in the East African region during climate oscillations of the Plio-Pleistocene. PMID:22929152

  11. Remote Sensing Field Guide - Desert

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    rcatching on fire. Caution is advised against thorns on acacia trees, spikey Spinifex n•shes, and several different types of venomous snakes, as well as...e.g., mesquite, many acacias, Spinifex . DESERT PROCESSES WORKING GROUP PATTERN INDICATOR SHFET - DESERT DUNES PHOTOS: GROUND VEGETATION MOUNDS LOCATION...deliberate burning of natural vegetation is done episodically by the abo- rginal inhabitants. They burn the mature vegetation (primarily Spinifex ), which is

  12. A ponderosa pine-grand fir spacing study in central Oregon: results after 10 years.

    Treesearch

    K.W. Seidel

    1985-01-01

    The 10-year growth response from an initial spacing study established in a ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl, ex Laws.) and grand fir (Abies grandis (Dougl. ex D. Don) Lindl.) plantation was measured in central Oregon. The study was designed to compare the growth rates of pure pine, pure fir, and a 50-percent mixture of...

  13. Differential susceptibility of white fir provenances to the fir engraver and its fungal symbiont in northern California

    Treesearch

    G.T. Ferrell; W.J. Otrosina

    1996-01-01

    The fir engraver, Scolytus ventralis LeC., attacks white fir, Abies concolor (Gord. and Glend.) Lindl., and other true firs, Abies spp., in western North America. The biology, attack behavior, and ecology of this bark beetle were recently summarized by Berryman and Ferrell (1988). During the summer flight season, the attacking beetles bore into the cambial zone of...

  14. Estimating decay in 40- to 90-year-old grand fir stands in the Clearwater region of northern Idaho.

    Treesearch

    Gregory M. Filip; John W. Schwandt; Susan K. Hagle

    1990-01-01

    The fir decay equation for Oregon and Washington was used to predict stem decay in 12 grand fir (Abies grandis (Dougl. ex D. Don) Lindl.) stands in the Clearwater region of northern Idaho. These 12 stands represented a range in geographic and stand characteristic variation. All 12 observed decay percentages were within their associated 95-percent...

  15. Coming Home: A Prospective Study of Family Reintegration Following Deployment to a War Zone

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    disclose deployment- and combat- related experiences, and postdeployment relationship distress served as concurrent interpersonal correlates of... interpersonal risk factors were medium to large in their effect sizes. Airmen’s willingness to disclose deployment- and combat- related experiences, and...employment to interpersonal relation - ships (Katz, Cojucar, Davenport, Pedram, & Lindl, 2010)—areas reflecting psychosocial functioning as opposed to

  16. Evolution and ecology meet molecular genetics: adaptive phenotypic plasticity in two isolated Negev desert populations of Acacia raddiana at either end of a rainfall gradient

    PubMed Central

    Ward, David; Shrestha, Madan K.; Golan-Goldhirsh, Avi

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims The ecological, evolutionary and genetic bases of population differentiation in a variable environment are often related to the selection pressures that plants experience. We compared differences in several growth- and defence-related traits in two isolated populations of Acacia raddiana trees from sites at either end of an extreme environmental gradient in the Negev desert. Methods We used random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) to determine the molecular differences between populations. We grew plants under two levels of water, three levels of nutrients and three levels of herbivory to test for phenotypic plasticity and adaptive phenotypic plasticity. Key Results The RAPD analyses showed that these populations are highly genetically differentiated. Phenotypic plasticity in various morphological traits in A. raddiana was related to patterns of population genetic differentiation between the two study sites. Although we did not test for maternal effects in these long-lived trees, significant genotype × environment (G × E) interactions in some of these traits indicated that such plasticity may be adaptive. Conclusions The main selection pressure in this desert environment, perhaps unsurprisingly, is water. Increased water availability resulted in greater growth in the southern population, which normally receives far less rain than the northern population. Even under the conditions that we defined as low water and/or nutrients, the performance of the seedlings from the southern population was significantly better, perhaps reflecting selection for these traits. Consistent with previous studies of this genus, there was no evidence of trade-offs between physical and chemical defences and plant growth parameters in this study. Rather, there appeared to be positive correlations between plant size and defence parameters. The great variation in several traits in both populations may result in a diverse potential for responding to selection pressures in

  17. Extensive long-distance pollen dispersal and highly outcrossed mating in historically small and disjunct populations of Acacia woodmaniorum (Fabaceae), a rare banded iron formation endemic.

    PubMed

    Millar, Melissa A; Coates, David J; Byrne, Margaret

    2014-10-01

    Understanding patterns of pollen dispersal and variation in mating systems provides insights into the evolutionary potential of plant species and how historically rare species with small disjunct populations persist over long time frames. This study aims to quantify the role of pollen dispersal and the mating system in maintaining contemporary levels of connectivity and facilitating persistence of small populations of the historically rare Acacia woodmaniorum. Progeny arrays of A. woodmaniorum were genotyped with nine polymorphic microsatellite markers. A low number of fathers contributed to seed within single pods; therefore, sampling to remove bias of correlated paternity was implemented for further analysis. Pollen immigration and mating system parameters were then assessed in eight populations of varying size and degree of isolation. Pollen immigration into small disjunct populations was extensive (mean minimum estimate 40 % and mean maximum estimate 57 % of progeny) and dispersal occurred over large distances (≤1870m). Pollen immigration resulted in large effective population sizes and was sufficient to ensure adaptive and inbreeding connectivity in small disjunct populations. High outcrossing (mean tm = 0·975) and a lack of apparent inbreeding suggested that a self-incompatibility mechanism is operating. Population parameters, including size and degree of geographic disjunction, were not useful predictors of pollen dispersal or components of the mating system. Extensive long-distance pollen dispersal and a highly outcrossed mating system are likely to play a key role in maintaining genetic diversity and limiting negative genetic effects of inbreeding and drift in small disjunct populations of A. woodmaniorum. It is proposed that maintenance of genetic connectivity through habitat and pollinator conservation will be a key factor in the persistence of this and other historically rare species with similar extensive long-distance pollen dispersal and highly

  18. Impact of rhizobial inoculation on Acacia senegal (L.) Willd. growth in greenhouse and soil functioning in relation to seed provenance and soil origin.

    PubMed

    Bakhoum, Niokhor; Ndoye, Fatou; Kane, Aboubacry; Assigbetse, Komi; Fall, Dioumacor; Sylla, Samba Ndao; Noba, Kandioura; Diouf, Diégane

    2012-07-01

    Rhizobial inoculation has a positive impact on plants growth; however, there is little information about its effect on soil microbial communities and their activity in the rhizosphere. It was therefore necessary to test the effect of inoculation of Acacia senegal (L.) Willd. seedlings with selected rhizobia on plant growth, structure and diversity of soil bacterial communities and soil functioning in relation to plant provenance and soil origin. In order to carry out this experiment, three A. senegal seeds provenance from Kenya, Niger, and Senegal were inoculated with selected rhizobial strains. They have been further grown during 4 months in greenhouse conditions in two non-disinfected soils, Dahra and Goudiry coming respectively from arid and semi-arid areas. The principal component analysis (ACP) showed an inoculation effect on plant growth, rhizospheric bacterial diversity and soil functioning. However, the performances of the rhizobial strains varied in relation to the seed provenance and the soil origin. The selected rhizobial strains, the A. senegal provenance and the soil origin have modified the structure and the diversity of soil bacterial communities as measured by principal component analysis/denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analyses. It is interesting to note that bacterial communities of Dahra soil were highly structured according to A. senegal provenance, whereas they were structured in relation to rhizobial inoculation in Goudiry soil. Besides, the impact of inoculation on soil microbial activities measured by fluorescein diacetate analyses varied in relation to plant provenance and soil origin. Nevertheless, total microbial activity was about two times higher in Goudiry, arid soil than in Dahra, semi-arid soil. Our results suggest that the rhizobial inoculation is a suitable tool for improving plants growth and soil fertility. Yet, the impact is dependent on inoculants, plant provenance and soil origin. It will, therefore, be crucial to

  19. Detecting hierarchical levels of connectivity in a population of Acacia tortilis at the northern edge of the species' global distribution: Combining classical population genetics and network analyses.

    PubMed

    Rodger, Yael S; Greenbaum, Gili; Silver, Micha; Bar-David, Shirli; Winters, Gidon

    2018-01-01

    Genetic diversity and structure of populations at the edge of the species' spatial distribution are important for potential adaptation to environmental changes and consequently, for the long-term survival of the species. Here, we combined classical population genetic methods with newly developed network analyses to gain complementary insights into the genetic structure and diversity of Acacia tortilis, a keystone desert tree, at the northern edge of its global distribution, where the population is under threat from climatic, ecological, and anthropogenic changes. We sampled A. tortilis from 14 sites along the Dead Sea region and the Arava Valley in Israel and in Jordan. In addition, we obtained samples from Egypt and Sudan, the hypothesized origin of the species. Samples from all sites were genotyped using six polymorphic microsatellite loci.Our results indicate a significant genetic structure in A. tortilis along the Arava Valley. This was detected at different hierarchical levels-from the basic unit of the subpopulation, corresponding to groups of trees within ephemeral rivers (wadis), to groups of subpopulations (communities) that are genetically more connected relative to others. The latter structure mostly corresponds to the partition of the major drainage basins in the area. Network analyses, combined with classical methods, allowed for the identification of key A. tortilis subpopulations in this region, characterized by their relatively high level of genetic diversity and centrality in maintaining gene flow in the population. Characterizing such key subpopulations may enable conservation managers to focus their efforts on certain subpopulations that might be particularly important for the population's long-term persistence, thus contributing to species conservation within its peripheral range.

  20. Heart Rots of Red and White Firs

    Treesearch

    J.W. Kimmey; H.H. Jr. Bynum

    1961-01-01

    Heart rots, caused by fungi that attack the heartwood of living trees, are responsible for the greatest volume loss sustained by California red fir (Abies magnifica A. Murr.) and white fir (A. concolor (Gord. and Glend.) Lindl.). These two firs comprise 25 percent of the commercial timber of California. More than 13 percent of the volume in these firs is useless cull...

  1. Lumber recovery from young-growth red and white fir in northern California.

    Treesearch

    W.Y. Pong

    1982-01-01

    Lumber recovery data from 1,106 logs from 341 young-growth white fir (Abies concolor (Gord. & Glend.) Lindl. ex Hildebr.) and red fir (A. magnifica A. Murr) trees are presented. All logs were processed through a quad-band headsaw. Nominal 2x4's and 2x6's made up over 93 percent of the lumber volume; nearly 70...

  2. Assessing the susceptibility of white fir to the fir engraver, Scolytus ventralis Lec. (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), using fungal inoculation

    Treesearch

    G.T. Ferrell; W.J. Otrosina; C.J. DeMars

    1993-01-01

    A method of assessing susceptibility of white fir, Abies concolor (Gord. and Glend.) Lindl., by fungal inoculation was tested during an outbreak of the fir engraver beetle, Scolytus ventralis LeC., at Lake Tahoe, California, in 1987 through 1989.A total of 592 firs growing in six forest stands containing trees infested by the beetle were inoculated with the mutualistic...

  3. Chemical and mineralogical conversion of Andisols following invasion by bracken fern

    Treesearch

    J. L. Johnson-Maynard; P. A. McDaniel; D. E. Ferguson; A. L. Falen

    1997-01-01

    Andisols support ≈ 200 000 ha of mid-elevation grand fir (Abies grandis [Dougl. ex D.Don] Lindl.) forests in the Pacific Northwest region that are characterized by little or no natural conifer regeneration following removal of the forest canopy. Previous work suggests that the properties of these Andisols have been altered as a result of the establishment of...

  4. Effect of Inoculation of Acacia senegal mature trees with Mycorrhiza and Rhizobia on soil properties and microbial community structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assigbetsé, K.; Ciss, I.; Bakhoum, N.; Dieng, L.

    2012-04-01

    Inoculation of legume plants with symbiotic microorganisms is widely used to improve their development and productivity. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of inoculation of Acacia senegal mature trees with rhizobium (Sinorhizobium) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (G. mosseae, G. fasciculatum, G. intraradices) either singly or in combination, on soil properties, activity and the genetic structure of soil microbial communities. The experiment set up in Southern Senegal consisted of 4 randomized blocks of A. senegal mature trees with 4 treatments including inoculated trees with Rhizobium (R), mycorrhizal fungus (M) and with Rhizobium+mycorhizal fungus (RM) and non-inoculated control (CON). Soil were sampled 2 years after the inoculation. Soil pH, C and N and available P contents were measured. The microbial abundance and activity were measured in terms of microbial biomass C (MBC) and basal soil respiration. The community structure of the total bacterial, diazotrophic and denitrifying communities was assessed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rDNA, nifH and nirK genes respectively. Inoculations with symbiont under field conditions have increased soil pH. The C and N contents were enhanced in the dual-inoculated treatments (RM). The mycorrhized treatment have displayed the lowest available P contents while RM and R treatments exhibited higher contents rates. The microbial biomass C rates were higher in treatments co-inoculated with AM fungi and Rhizobium than in those inoculated singly with AM fungi or Rhizobium strains. The basal soil respiration were positively correlated to MBC, and the highest rates were found in the co-inoculated treatments. Fingerprints of 16S rDNA gene exhibited similar patterns between inoculated treatments and the control showing that the inoculation of mature trees have not impacted the total bacterial community structure. In contrast, the inoculated treatments have displayed individually different

  5. Cryopreservation of protocorm-like bodies of the hybrid orchid Bratonia (Miltonia flavescens × Brassia longissima).

    PubMed

    Popova, Elena; Bukhov, Nikolai; Popov, Alexandr; Kim, Haeng-Hoon

    2010-01-01

    In this study, cryopreservation of Bratonia (Miltonia flavescens (Lindl.) Lindl. × Brassia longissima (Reichb.) Nash), a hybrid tropical orchid, was achieved using protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) multiplied in vitro. Cryopreservation was performed using a vitrification protocol including pretreatment of PLBs with a loading solution (LS, 2.0 M glycerol + 0.4 M sucrose) for 15 min followed by treatment with modified PVS2 vitrification solution (containing PEG instead of ethylene glycol) for 1 h. Increasing benzyladenine (BA) concentration in the recovery medium to 5.0 or 10.0 mg l⁻¹ during the initial 3 weeks after rewarming provided 20.4 % post-cryopreservation regrowth. By contrast, preliminary culture of PLBs with abscisic acid (ABA) and high sucrose concentrations (up to 0.3 M) as well as addition of reduced glutathione during the preculture, loading and post-culture steps were not beneficial. Forty to 45 plants were regenerated from each PLB which withstood cryopreservation. No morphological differences were observed between plants regenerated from cryopreserved and untreated PLBs. Investigations into the functional activity of photosystems I and II in PLBs suggest that electron transport was retained in the reaction centers of both photosystems shortly after cryopreservation.

  6. A randomized, prospective, comparison study of a mixture of acacia fiber, psyllium fiber, and fructose vs polyethylene glycol 3350 with electrolytes for the treatment of chronic functional constipation in childhood.

    PubMed

    Quitadamo, Paolo; Coccorullo, Paola; Giannetti, Eleonora; Romano, Claudio; Chiaro, Andrea; Campanozzi, Angelo; Poli, Emanuela; Cucchiara, Salvatore; Di Nardo, Giovanni; Staiano, Annamaria

    2012-10-01

    To compare the effectiveness of a mixture of acacia fiber, psyllium fiber, and fructose (AFPFF) with polyethylene glycol 3350 combined with electrolytes (PEG+E) in the treatment of children with chronic functional constipation (CFC); and to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of AFPFF in the treatment of children with CFC. This was a randomized, open label, prospective, controlled, parallel-group study involving 100 children (M/F: 38/62; mean age ± SD: 6.5 ± 2.7 years) who were diagnosed with CFC according to the Rome III Criteria. Children were randomly divided into 2 groups: 50 children received AFPFF (16.8 g daily) and 50 children received PEG+E (0.5 g/kg daily) for 8 weeks. Primary outcome measures were frequency of bowel movements, stool consistency, fecal incontinence, and improvement of other associated gastrointestinal symptoms. Safety was assessed with evaluation of clinical adverse effects and growth measurements. Compliance rates were 72% for AFPFF and 96% for PEG+E. A significant improvement of constipation was seen in both groups. After 8 weeks, 77.8% of children treated with AFPFF and 83% of children treated with PEG+E had improved (P = .788). Neither PEG+E nor AFPFF caused any clinically significant side effects during the entire course of the study period. In this randomized study, we did not find any significant difference between the efficacy of AFPFF and PEG+E in the treatment of children with CFC. Both medications were proved to be safe for CFC treatment, but PEG+E was better accepted by children. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of Selected Immunomodulatory Glycoproteins as an Adjunct to Cancer Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Sekhon, Bhagwant Kaur; Li, Yiming; Devi, Parimala B.; Nammi, Srinivas; Fan, Kei

    2016-01-01

    Polysaccharopeptide (PSP), from Coriolus versicolor, has been used widely as an adjuvant to chemotherapy with demonstrated anti-tumor and broad immunomodulating effects. While PSP’s mechanism of action still remains unknown, its enhanced immunomodulatory potential with acacia gum is of great interest. Acacia gum, which also contains polysaccharides and glycoproteins, has been demonstrated to be immunopotentiating. To elucidate whether PSP directly activates T-cell-dependent B-cell responses in vivo, we used a well-established hapten carrier system (Nitrophenyl-chicken gamma globulin (NP-CGG)). 6-week C57BL/6 male mice were immunised with 50 μg of NP25-CGG alum precipitate intraperitoneally. Mice were gavaged daily with 50mg/kg PSP in a vehicle containing acacia gum and sacrificed at days 0, 4, 7, 10, 14 and 21. ELISA was used to measure the total and relative hapten-specific anti-NP IgA, IgM and IgG titre levels compared to the controls. It was found that PSP, combined with acacia gum, significantly increased total IgG titre levels at day 4 (P< 0.05), decreased IgM titre levels at days 4 and 21 (P< 0.05) with no alterations observed in the IgA or IgE titre levels at any of the time points measured. Our results suggest that while PSP combined with acacia gum appears to exert weak immunological effects through specific T-cell dependent B-cell responses, they are likely to be broad and non-specific which supports the current literature on PSP. We report for the first time the application of a well-established hapten-carrier system that can be used to characterise and delineate specific T-cell dependent B-cell responses of potential immunomodulatory glycoprotein-based herbal medicines combinations in vivo. PMID:26799072

  8. Effects of Alien Plants on Ecosystem Structure and Functioning and Implications for Restoration: Insights from Three Degraded Sites in South African Fynbos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaertner, Mirijam; Richardson, David M.; Privett, Sean D. J.

    2011-07-01

    We investigated the type and extent of degradation at three sites on the Agulhas Plain, South Africa: an old field dominated by the alien grass Pennisetum clandestinum Pers . (kikuyu), an abandoned Eucalyptus plantation, and a natural fynbos community invaded by nitrogen fixing—Australian Acacia species. These forms of degradation are representative of many areas in the region. By identifying the nature and degree of ecosystem degradation we aimed to determine appropriate strategies for restoration in this biodiversity hotspot. Vegetation surveys were conducted at degraded sites and carefully selected reference sites. Soil-stored propagule seed banks and macro- and micro-soil nutrients were determined. Species richness, diversity and native cover under Eucalyptus were extremely low compared to the reference site and alterations of the soil nutrients were the most severe. The cover of indigenous species under Acacia did not differ significantly from that in reference sites, but species richness was lower under Acacia and soils were considerably enriched. Native species richness was much lower in the kikuyu site, but soil nutrient status was similar to the reference site. Removal of the alien species alone may be sufficient to re-initiate ecosystem recovery at the kikuyu site, whereas active restoration is required to restore functioning ecosystems dominated by native species in the Acacia thicket and the Eucalyptus plantation. To restore native plant communities we suggest burning, mulching with sawdust and sowing of native species.

  9. Fungal Planet description sheets: 625-715.

    PubMed

    Crous, P W; Wingfield, M J; Burgess, T I; Carnegie, A J; Hardy, G E St J; Smith, D; Summerell, B A; Cano-Lira, J F; Guarro, J; Houbraken, J; Lombard, L; Martín, M P; Sandoval-Denis, M; Alexandrova, A V; Barnes, C W; Baseia, I G; Bezerra, J D P; Guarnaccia, V; May, T W; Hernández-Restrepo, M; Stchigel, A M; Miller, A N; Ordoñez, M E; Abreu, V P; Accioly, T; Agnello, C; Agustin Colmán, A; Albuquerque, C C; Alfredo, D S; Alvarado, P; Araújo-Magalhães, G R; Arauzo, S; Atkinson, T; Barili, A; Barreto, R W; Bezerra, J L; Cabral, T S; Camello Rodríguez, F; Cruz, R H S F; Daniëls, P P; da Silva, B D B; de Almeida, D A C; de Carvalho Júnior, A A; Decock, C A; Delgat, L; Denman, S; Dimitrov, R A; Edwards, J; Fedosova, A G; Ferreira, R J; Firmino, A L; Flores, J A; García, D; Gené, J; Giraldo, A; Góis, J S; Gomes, A A M; Gonçalves, C M; Gouliamova, D E; Groenewald, M; Guéorguiev, B V; Guevara-Suarez, M; Gusmão, L F P; Hosaka, K; Hubka, V; Huhndorf, S M; Jadan, M; Jurjević, Ž; Kraak, B; Kučera, V; Kumar, T K A; Kušan, I; Lacerda, S R; Lamlertthon, S; Lisboa, W S; Loizides, M; Luangsa-Ard, J J; Lysková, P; Mac Cormack, W P; Macedo, D M; Machado, A R; Malysheva, E F; Marinho, P; Matočec, N; Meijer, M; Mešić, A; Mongkolsamrit, S; Moreira, K A; Morozova, O V; Nair, K U; Nakamura, N; Noisripoom, W; Olariaga, I; Oliveira, R J V; Paiva, L M; Pawar, P; Pereira, O L; Peterson, S W; Prieto, M; Rodríguez-Andrade, E; Rojo De Blas, C; Roy, M; Santos, E S; Sharma, R; Silva, G A; Souza-Motta, C M; Takeuchi-Kaneko, Y; Tanaka, C; Thakur, A; Smith, M Th; Tkalčec, Z; Valenzuela-Lopez, N; van der Kleij, P; Verbeken, A; Viana, M G; Wang, X W; Groenewald, J Z

    2017-12-01

    Novel species of fungi described in this study include those from various countries as follows: Antarctica : Cadophora antarctica from soil. Australia : Alfaria dandenongensis on Cyperaceae , Amphosoma persooniae on Persoonia sp., Anungitea nullicana on Eucalyptus sp . , Bagadiella eucalypti on Eucalyptus globulus , Castanediella eucalyptigena on Eucalyptus sp., Cercospora dianellicola on Dianella sp., Cladoriella kinglakensis on Eucalyptus regnans , Cladoriella xanthorrhoeae (incl. Cladoriellaceae fam. nov. and Cladoriellales ord. nov.) on Xanthorrhoea sp., Cochlearomyces eucalypti (incl. Cochlearomyces gen. nov. and Cochlearomycetaceae fam. nov.) on Eucalyptus obliqua , Codinaea lambertiae on Lambertia formosa , Diaporthe obtusifoliae on Acacia obtusifolia , Didymella acaciae on Acacia melanoxylon , Dothidea eucalypti on Eucalyptus dalrympleana , Fitzroyomyces cyperi (incl. Fitzroyomyces gen. nov.) on Cyperaceae , Murramarangomyces corymbiae (incl. Murramarangomyces gen. nov., Murramarangomycetaceae fam. nov. and Murramarangomycetales ord. nov.) on Corymbia maculata , Neoanungitea eucalypti (incl. Neoanungitea gen. nov.) on Eucalyptus obliqua , Neoconiothyrium persooniae (incl. Neoconiothyrium gen. nov.) on Persoonia laurina subsp. laurina , Neocrinula lambertiae (incl. Neocrinulaceae fam. nov.) on Lambertia sp., Ochroconis podocarpi on Podocarpus grayae , Paraphysalospora eucalypti (incl. Paraphysalospora gen. nov.) on Eucalyptus sieberi , Pararamichloridium livistonae (incl. Pararamichloridium gen. nov., Pararamichloridiaceae fam. nov. and Pararamichloridiales ord. nov.) on Livistona sp., Pestalotiopsis dianellae on Dianella sp., Phaeosphaeria gahniae on Gahnia aspera , Phlogicylindrium tereticornis on Eucalyptus tereticornis , Pleopassalora acaciae on Acacia obliquinervia , Pseudodactylaria xanthorrhoeae (incl. Pseudodactylaria gen. nov., Pseudodactylariaceae fam. nov. and Pseudodactylariales ord. nov.) on Xanthorrhoea sp., Pseudosporidesmium lambertiae (incl

  10. Fungal Planet description sheets: 469-557.

    PubMed

    Crous, P W; Wingfield, M J; Burgess, T I; Hardy, G E St J; Crane, C; Barrett, S; Cano-Lira, J F; Le Roux, J J; Thangavel, R; Guarro, J; Stchigel, A M; Martín, M P; Alfredo, D S; Barber, P A; Barreto, R W; Baseia, I G; Cano-Canals, J; Cheewangkoon, R; Ferreira, R J; Gené, J; Lechat, C; Moreno, G; Roets, F; Shivas, R G; Sousa, J O; Tan, Y P; Wiederhold, N P; Abell, S E; Accioly, T; Albizu, J L; Alves, J L; Antoniolli, Z I; Aplin, N; Araújo, J; Arzanlou, M; Bezerra, J D P; Bouchara, J-P; Carlavilla, J R; Castillo, A; Castroagudín, V L; Ceresini, P C; Claridge, G F; Coelho, G; Coimbra, V R M; Costa, L A; da Cunha, K C; da Silva, S S; Daniel, R; de Beer, Z W; Dueñas, M; Edwards, J; Enwistle, P; Fiuza, P O; Fournier, J; García, D; Gibertoni, T B; Giraud, S; Guevara-Suarez, M; Gusmão, L F P; Haituk, S; Heykoop, M; Hirooka, Y; Hofmann, T A; Houbraken, J; Hughes, D P; Kautmanová, I; Koppel, O; Koukol, O; Larsson, E; Latha, K P D; Lee, D H; Lisboa, D O; Lisboa, W S; López-Villalba, Á; Maciel, J L N; Manimohan, P; Manjón, J L; Marincowitz, S; Marney, T S; Meijer, M; Miller, A N; Olariaga, I; Paiva, L M; Piepenbring, M; Poveda-Molero, J C; Raj, K N A; Raja, H A; Rougeron, A; Salcedo, I; Samadi, R; Santos, T A B; Scarlett, K; Seifert, K A; Shuttleworth, L A; Silva, G A; Silva, M; Siqueira, J P Z; Souza-Motta, C M; Stephenson, S L; Sutton, D A; Tamakeaw, N; Telleria, M T; Valenzuela-Lopez, N; Viljoen, A; Visagie, C M; Vizzini, A; Wartchow, F; Wingfield, B D; Yurchenko, E; Zamora, J C; Groenewald, J Z

    2016-12-01

    Novel species of fungi described in this study include those from various countries as follows: Australia : Apiognomonia lasiopetali on Lasiopetalum sp., Blastacervulus eucalyptorum on Eucalyptus adesmophloia , Bullanockia australis (incl. Bullanockia gen. nov.) on Kingia australis , Caliciopsis eucalypti on Eucalyptus marginata , Celerioriella petrophiles on Petrophile teretifolia , Coleophoma xanthosiae on Xanthosia rotundifolia , Coniothyrium hakeae on Hakea sp., Diatrypella banksiae on Banksia formosa , Disculoides corymbiae on Corymbia calophylla , Elsinoë eelemani on Melaleuca alternifolia , Elsinoë eucalyptigena on Eucalyptus kingsmillii , Elsinoë preissianae on Eucalyptus preissiana , Eucasphaeria rustici on Eucalyptus creta , Hyweljonesia queenslandica (incl. Hyweljonesia gen. nov.) on the cocoon of an unidentified microlepidoptera, Mycodiella eucalypti (incl. Mycodiella gen. nov.) on Eucalyptus diversicolor , Myrtapenidiella sporadicae on Eucalyptus sporadica , Neocrinula xanthorrhoeae (incl. Neocrinula gen. nov.) on Xanthorrhoea sp., Ophiocordyceps nooreniae on dead ant, Phaeosphaeriopsis agavacearum on Agave sp., Phlogicylindrium mokarei on Eucalyptus sp., Phyllosticta acaciigena on Acacia suaveolens , Pleurophoma acaciae on Acacia glaucoptera , Pyrenochaeta hakeae on Hakea sp., Readeriella lehmannii on Eucalyptus lehmannii , Saccharata banksiae on Banksia grandis , Saccharata daviesiae on Daviesia pachyphylla , Saccharata eucalyptorum on Eucalyptus bigalerita , Saccharata hakeae on Hakea baxteri , Saccharata hakeicola on Hakea victoria , Saccharata lambertiae on Lambertia ericifolia , Saccharata petrophiles on Petrophile sp., Saccharata petrophilicola on Petrophile fastigiata , Sphaerellopsis hakeae on Hakea sp., and Teichospora kingiae on Kingia australis. Brazil : Adautomilanezia caesalpiniae (incl . Adautomilanezia gen. nov.) on Caesalpina echinata , Arthrophiala arthrospora (incl. Arthrophiala gen. nov.) on Sagittaria montevidensis , Diaporthe

  11. Effect of polyethylene glycol 4000 supplementation on the performance of yearling male Pedi goats fed dietary mixture levels of Acacia karroo leaf meal and Setaria verticillata grass hay.

    PubMed

    Brown, David; Ng'ambi, Jones W

    2017-06-01

    Eighteen yearling male Pedi goats weighing 21.7 ± 3.1 kg were used in a 42-day trial in a 2 (Acacia karroo leaf meal levels) × 3 (levels of PEG 4000) factorial arrangement in a completely randomized design to determine PEG 4000 supplementation levels for optimal productivity of indigenous Pedi goats fed different mixture levels of A. karroo leaf meal and Setaria verticillata (L.) P.Beauv. grass hay. Each goat was supplemented with 0, 23 or 30 g of PEG 4000 per day in addition to dietary mixture of A. karroo and S. verticillata hay. Polyethylene glycol 4000 supplementation had no effect (P > 0.05) on nutrient intake of goats. However, a diet × PEG (P < 0.05) was observed for intake of all nutrients studied. Dry matter, OM, NDF and ADF intakes per goat were optimized at PEG 4000 supplementation levels of 19.62, 19.62, 19.61 and 19.53 g/goat/day, respectively, for diets containing 20% A. karroo leaf meal. Polyethylene glycol 4000 supplementation had no effect (P > 0.05) on the apparent digestibility of all nutrients. The dietary inclusion level of A. karroo leaf meal at 20% improved (P < 0.05) DM, OM, CP, NDF and ADF digestibility of goats. Crude protein digestibility was optimized at a PEG 4000 supplementation level of 15.78 g/goat/day. Dietary mixture level and PEG 4000 supplementation had no effect (P > 0.05) on final weights of Pedi goats. Similar results were observed for blood urea and glucose concentrations of yearling male Pedi goats. However, daily body weight gain was higher (P < 0.05) in goats fed 50% A. karroo leaf meal than those on 20% inclusion level. Polyethylene glycol 4000 has potential to improve the feeding value of tanninifeorus A. karroo leaf meal.

  12. Physicochemical and antioxidant properties of Malaysian honeys produced by Apis cerana, Apis dorsata and Apis mellifera.

    PubMed

    Moniruzzaman, Mohammed; Khalil, Md Ibrahim; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Gan, Siew Hua

    2013-02-23

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of Malaysian monofloral honey samples-acacia, pineapple and borneo honey-and compare them with tualang honey. Acacia and pineapple honey are produced by Apis mellifera bees while borneo and tualang honey are produced by Apis cerana and Apis dorsata bees, respectively. The physical parameters of honey, such as pH, moisture content, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), color intensity, total sugar and apparent sucrose content, were measured. Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) was measured using high performance liquid chromatography, and a number of biochemical and antioxidant tests were performed to determine the antioxidant properties of the honey samples. Acacia honey was the most acidic (pH 3.53), whereas pineapple honey had the lowest moisture content (14.86%), indicating that both types of honey can resist microbial spoilage more effectively when compared to tualang honey (pH 3.80 and 17.53% moisture content). Acacia honey contained the highest EC (0.76 mS/cm), whereas borneo honey had the highest (377 ppm) TDS. The mean HMF content in Malaysian honey was 35.98 mg/kg. Tualang honey, which is amber color, had the highest color intensity (544.33 mAU). Acacia honey is the sweetest, and contained the highest concentration of total sugar, reducing sugar and apparent sucrose. Tualang honey had the highest concentration of phenolic compounds (352.73 ± 0.81 mg galic acid/kg), flavonoids (65.65 ± 0.74 mg catechin/kg), DPPH (59.89%), FRAP values (576.91 ± 0.64 μM Fe (II)/100 g) and protein content (4.83 ± 0.02 g/kg) as well as the lowest AEAC values (244.10 ± 5.24 mg/kg), indicating its strong antioxidant properties. Proline, an important amino acid that is present in honey was also measured in the present study and it was found at the highest concentration in pineapple honey. Several strong correlations were found among the biochemical and antioxidant

  13. Physicochemical and antioxidant properties of Malaysian honeys produced by Apis cerana, Apis dorsata and Apis mellifera

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of Malaysian monofloral honey samples—acacia, pineapple and borneo honey—and compare them with tualang honey. Acacia and pineapple honey are produced by Apis mellifera bees while borneo and tualang honey are produced by Apis cerana and Apis dorsata bees, respectively. Methods The physical parameters of honey, such as pH, moisture content, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), color intensity, total sugar and apparent sucrose content, were measured. Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) was measured using high performance liquid chromatography, and a number of biochemical and antioxidant tests were performed to determine the antioxidant properties of the honey samples. Results Acacia honey was the most acidic (pH 3.53), whereas pineapple honey had the lowest moisture content (14.86%), indicating that both types of honey can resist microbial spoilage more effectively when compared to tualang honey (pH 3.80 and 17.53% moisture content). Acacia honey contained the highest EC (0.76 mS/cm), whereas borneo honey had the highest (377 ppm) TDS. The mean HMF content in Malaysian honey was 35.98 mg/kg. Tualang honey, which is amber color, had the highest color intensity (544.33 mAU). Acacia honey is the sweetest, and contained the highest concentration of total sugar, reducing sugar and apparent sucrose. Tualang honey had the highest concentration of phenolic compounds (352.73 ± 0.81 mg galic acid/kg), flavonoids (65.65 ± 0.74 mg catechin/kg), DPPH (59.89%), FRAP values (576.91 ± 0.64 μM Fe (II)/100 g) and protein content (4.83 ± 0.02 g/kg) as well as the lowest AEAC values (244.10 ± 5.24 mg/kg), indicating its strong antioxidant properties. Proline, an important amino acid that is present in honey was also measured in the present study and it was found at the highest concentration in pineapple honey. Several strong correlations were found among the

  14. Laboratory and Airborne BRDF Analysis of Vegetation Leaves and Soil Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgiev, Georgi T.; Gatebe, Charles K.; Butler, James J.; King, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory-based Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) analysis of vegetation leaves, soil, and leaf litter samples is presented. The leaf litter and soil samples, numbered 1 and 2, were obtained from a site located in the savanna biome of South Africa (Skukuza: 25.0degS, 31.5degE). A third soil sample, number 3, was obtained from Etosha Pan, Namibia (19.20degS, 15.93degE, alt. 1100 m). In addition, BRDF of local fresh and dry leaves from tulip tree (Liriodendron tulipifera) and acacia tree (Acacia greggii) were studied. It is shown how the BRDF depends on the incident and scatter angles, sample size (i.e. crushed versus whole leaf,) soil samples fraction size, sample status (i.e. fresh versus dry leaves), vegetation species (poplar versus acacia), and vegetation s biochemical composition. As a demonstration of the application of the results of this study, airborne BRDF measurements acquired with NASA's Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) over the same general site where the soil and leaf litter samples were obtained are compared to the laboratory results. Good agreement between laboratory and airborne measured BRDF is reported.

  15. Plant Guide: Royal penstemon: Penstemon speciosus Douglas ex Lindl

    Treesearch

    Derek Tilley; Dan Ogle; Loren St. John; Nancy Shaw

    2009-01-01

    Royal penstemon is chiefly used as a forb component for wildlife habitat enhancement projects and restoration efforts. Its showy flowers attract numerous pollinators and other insects which provide a food source for birds and other vertebrates. This species is also commonly used in xeriscaping and other low-water-use landscaping. It is also suited for roadsides and...

  16. Plant guide: Sharpleaf penstemon: Penstemon acuminatus Douglas ex Lindl.

    Treesearch

    Loren St. John; Dan Ogle; Nancy L. Shaw

    2009-01-01

    Sharpleaf penstemon is primarily used as a forb component for wildlife habitat enhancement and restoration efforts. Its showy flowers attract numerous pollinators and other insects that provide a food source for birds and other vertebrates. This species is used in xeriscaping and other low-wateruse landscaping. It is suited for roadside and other beautification...

  17. Plant guide: Hotrock penstemon: Penstemon deustus Douglas ex Lindl

    Treesearch

    Loren St. John; Dan Ogle; Nancy Shaw

    2009-01-01

    Hotrock penstemon is chiefly used as a forb component for wildlife habitat enhancement and restoration efforts. Its showy flowers attract numerous pollinators and other insects which provide a food source for birds and other vertebrates. This species is also commonly used in xeriscaping and other low-water-use landscaping. It is suited for roadside and other...

  18. Pseudopollen in Eria Lindl. Section Mycaranthes Rchb.f. (Orchidaceae)

    PubMed Central

    DAVIES, K. L.; TURNER, M. P.

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Pseudopollen is a whitish, mealy material produced upon the labella of a number of orchid species as labellar hairs either become detached or fragment. Since individual hair cells are rich in protein and starch, it has long been speculated that pseudopollen functions as a reward for visiting insects. Although some 90 years have passed since Beck first described pseudopollen for a small number of Eria spp. currently assigned to section Mycaranthes Rchb.f., we still know little about the character of pseudopollen in this taxon. The use of SEM and histochemistry would re-address this deficit in our knowledge whereas comparison of pseudopollen in Eria (S.E. Asia), Maxillaria (tropical and sub-tropical America), Polystachya (largely tropical Africa and Madagascar) and Dendrobium unicum (Thailand and Laos) would perhaps help us to understand better how this feature may have arisen and evolved on a number of different continents. • Methods Pseudopollen morphology is described using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Hairs were tested for starch, lipid and protein using IKI, Sudan III and the xanthoproteic test, respectively. • Key Results and Conclusions The labellar hairs of all eight representatives of section Mycaranthes examined are identical. They are unicellular, clavate with a narrow ‘stalk’ and contain both protein and starch but no detectable lipid droplets. The protein is distributed throughout the cytoplasm and the starch is confined to amyloplasts. The hairs become detached from the labellar surface and bear raised cuticular ridges and flaky deposits that are presumed to be wax. In that they are unicellular and appear to bear wax distally, the labellar hairs are significantly different from those observed for other orchid species. Comparative morphology indicates that they evolved independently in response to pollinator pressures similar to those experienced by other unrelated pseudopollen-forming orchids on other continents. PMID:15451721

  19. Pseudopollen in Eria Lindl. section Mycaranthes Rchb.f. (Orchidaceae).

    PubMed

    Davies, K L; Turner, M P

    2004-11-01

    Pseudopollen is a whitish, mealy material produced upon the labella of a number of orchid species as labellar hairs either become detached or fragment. Since individual hair cells are rich in protein and starch, it has long been speculated that pseudopollen functions as a reward for visiting insects. Although some 90 years have passed since Beck first described pseudopollen for a small number of Eria spp. currently assigned to section Mycaranthes Rchb.f., we still know little about the character of pseudopollen in this taxon. The use of SEM and histochemistry would re-address this deficit in our knowledge whereas comparison of pseudopollen in Eria (S.E. Asia), Maxillaria (tropical and sub-tropical America), Polystachya (largely tropical Africa and Madagascar) and Dendrobium unicum (Thailand and Laos) would perhaps help us to understand better how this feature may have arisen and evolved on a number of different continents. Pseudopollen morphology is described using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Hairs were tested for starch, lipid and protein using IKI, Sudan III and the xanthoproteic test, respectively. The labellar hairs of all eight representatives of section Mycaranthes examined are identical. They are unicellular, clavate with a narrow 'stalk' and contain both protein and starch but no detectable lipid droplets. The protein is distributed throughout the cytoplasm and the starch is confined to amyloplasts. The hairs become detached from the labellar surface and bear raised cuticular ridges and flaky deposits that are presumed to be wax. In that they are unicellular and appear to bear wax distally, the labellar hairs are significantly different from those observed for other orchid species. Comparative morphology indicates that they evolved independently in response to pollinator pressures similar to those experienced by other unrelated pseudopollen-forming orchids on other continents.

  20. Sexual mimicry in Mormolyca ringens (Lindl.) Schltr. (Orchidaceae: Maxillariinae).

    PubMed

    Singer, Rodrigo B; Flach, Adriana; Koehler, Samantha; Marsaioli, Anita J; Amaral, Maria do Carmo E

    2004-06-01

    Pollination through sexual mimicry, also known as pseudocopulation, has been suggested to occur in some genera of the Neotropical orchid subtribe Maxillariinae. However, it has been demonstrated so far only for Trigonidium obtusum. This study reports and illustrates pollination through sexual mimicry in Mormolyca ringens. A total of 70 h were dedicated to the observation of flowers and pollinator behaviour, which was photographically recorded. Flower features involved in pollinator attraction were studied using a stereomicroscope and by SEM analyses. Preliminary observations on the plant breeding system were made by manually self-pollinating flowers. The chemical composition of the fragrance volatiles was determined by GC/MS analysis. The flower features of M. ringens parallel those of other pseudocopulatory flowers. The labellum shape and indument are reminiscent of an insect. Sexually excited drones of Nannotrigona testaceicornis and Scaptotrigona sp. (both in the Apidae: Meliponini) attempt copulation with the labellum and pollinate the flower in the process. In both bee species, the pollinarium is attached to the scutellum. Pollinator behaviour may promote some degree of self-pollination, but preliminary observations indicate that M. ringens flowers are self-incompatible. Flowers are produced all the year round, which ties in with the production of bee males several times a year. The phylogenetic relationships of M. ringens are discussed and a number of morphological and phenological features supporting them are reported. It is expected that further research could bring to light whether other Maxillariinae species are also pollinated through sexual mimicry. When a definitive and robust phylogeny of this subtribe is available, it should be possible to determine how many times pseudocopulation evolved and its possible evolutionary history.

  1. Termites create spatial structure and govern ecosystem function by affecting N2 fixation in an East African savanna.

    PubMed

    Fox-Dobbs, Kena; Doak, Daniel F; Brody, Alison K; Palmer, Todd M

    2010-05-01

    The mechanisms by which even the clearest of keystone or dominant species exert community-wide effects are only partially understood in most ecosystems. This is especially true when a species or guild influences community-wide interactions via changes in the abiotic landscape. Using stable isotope analyses, we show that subterranean termites in an East African savanna strongly influence a key ecosystem process: atmospheric nitrogen fixation by a monodominant tree species and its bacterial symbionts. Specifically, we applied the 15N natural abundance method in combination with other biogeochemical analyses to assess levels of nitrogen fixation by Acacia drepanolobium and its effects on co-occurring grasses and forbs in areas near and far from mounds and where ungulates were or were not excluded. We find that termites exert far stronger effects than do herbivores on nitrogen fixation. The percentage of nitrogen derived from fixation in Acacia drepanolobium trees is higher (55-80%) away from mounds vs. near mounds (40-50%). Mound soils have higher levels of plant available nitrogen, and Acacia drepanolobium may preferentially utilize soil-based nitrogen sources in lieu of fixed nitrogen when these sources are readily available near termite mounds. At the scale of the landscape, our models predict that termite/soil derived nitrogen sources influence >50% of the Acacia drepanolobium trees in our system. Further, the spatial extent of these effects combine with the spacing of termite mounds to create highly regular patterning in nitrogen fixation rates, resulting in marked habitat heterogeneity in an otherwise uniform landscape. In summary, we show that termite-associated effects on nitrogen processes are not only stronger than those of more apparent large herbivores in the same system, but also occur in a highly regular spatial pattern, potentially adding to their importance as drivers of community and ecosystem structure.

  2. Application of the photoacoustic method to the measurement of acetylene reduction by nitrogenase enzyme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schramm, D. U.; Sthel, M. S.; Carneiro, L. O.; Franco, A. A.; Campos, A. C.; Vargas, H.

    2005-06-01

    Nitrogenase is an enzyme responsible for the reduction of the atmospheric N2 into NH4^+, which represents the key entry point of the molecular nitrogen into the biogeochemical cycle of nitrogen. This enzyme is present in the rhizobial bacteroids, which are symbionts in a Leguminosae plant (Acacia Holosericea), and also reduces acetylene into ethylene at the same rate as the nitrogen reduction. Therefore, a CO2 Laser Photoacoustic system was used for detecting and monitoring the ethylene emission by the nitrogenase activity, in the rhizobial symbionts in Acacia Holosericea, when they are confined in test tubes with acetylene at two different volumes (0.1 and 0.5 ml). Ethylene concentrations are also determined in the ppm range.

  3. Mimosoid legume plastome evolution: IR expansion, tandem repeat expansions, and accelerated rate of evolution in clpP.

    PubMed

    Dugas, Diana V; Hernandez, David; Koenen, Erik J M; Schwarz, Erika; Straub, Shannon; Hughes, Colin E; Jansen, Robert K; Nageswara-Rao, Madhugiri; Staats, Martijn; Trujillo, Joshua T; Hajrah, Nahid H; Alharbi, Njud S; Al-Malki, Abdulrahman L; Sabir, Jamal S M; Bailey, C Donovan

    2015-11-23

    The Leguminosae has emerged as a model for studying angiosperm plastome evolution because of its striking diversity of structural rearrangements and sequence variation. However, most of what is known about legume plastomes comes from few genera representing a subset of lineages in subfamily Papilionoideae. We investigate plastome evolution in subfamily Mimosoideae based on two newly sequenced plastomes (Inga and Leucaena) and two recently published plastomes (Acacia and Prosopis), and discuss the results in the context of other legume and rosid plastid genomes. Mimosoid plastomes have a typical angiosperm gene content and general organization as well as a generally slow rate of protein coding gene evolution, but they are the largest known among legumes. The increased length results from tandem repeat expansions and an unusual 13 kb IR-SSC boundary shift in Acacia and Inga. Mimosoid plastomes harbor additional interesting features, including loss of clpP intron1 in Inga, accelerated rates of evolution in clpP for Acacia and Inga, and dN/dS ratios consistent with neutral and positive selection for several genes. These new plastomes and results provide important resources for legume comparative genomics, plant breeding, and plastid genetic engineering, while shedding further light on the complexity of plastome evolution in legumes and angiosperms.

  4. Sub-Chronic Safety Evaluation of Ayurvedic Immunostimulant Formulation ‘Immuforte’ in Rats in Reverse Pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Dhumal, Rohit; Patil, Prakash; Selkar, Nilakash; Chawda, Mukesh; Vahlia, Mahesh; Vanage, Geeta

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The present study was undertaken to determine target organ safety of “Immuforte” to establish relationship between dose or exposure and response and also to identify potential parameters for monitoring adverse effects of “Immuforte” in clinical studies, if any. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 males and 40 females were randomly assigned to the four groups, namely group I (vehicle control; gum acacia), group II (120 mg/kg BW of Immuforte in gum acacia), group III (360 mg/kg BW of Immuforte in gum acacia), and group IV (600 mg/kg BW of Immuforte in gum acacia) consisting of 10 males and 10 females in each group. Additionally, a recovery group (600 mg/kg BW of Immuforte in gum acacia) containing 5 males and 5 females was included. Results: The results showed significant decrease in percent lymphocyte count of high and mid dose groups as compared to control group. The percent neutrophil counts in all the three treated groups of male and female rats were found to be significantly higher than that of control group (P < 0.05). In females MCV values in low dose and mid dose were significantly higher as compared to control (P < 0.05). The males from low dose group showed significant decrease in total serum protein, globulin, electrolytes, direct bilirubin, creatinine levels, whereas in mid dose group along with albumin, globulin. A significant decrease in AST and cholesterol was observed. In females, significant decrease was observed in total protein and globulin of low dose and mid dose of Immuforte-treated rats (P < 0.05). Though few hematological and biochemical parameters were different from control group, no does related response was observed and further, all these values were comparable with historical control data of the colony. Terminal body weight, organ weight, gross, and histopathology did not reveal any toxicity-related any adverse effects. Heavy metal analysis of the blood samples collected from terminally sacrificed animals did not show

  5. Simulation of Ground-Water Flow in the Middle Rio Grande Basin Between Cochiti and San Acacia, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McAda, Douglas P.; Barroll, Peggy

    2002-01-01

    This report describes a three-dimensional, finite difference, ground-water-flow model of the Santa Fe Group aquifer system within the Middle Rio Grande Basin between Cochiti and San Acacia, New Mexico. The aquifer system is composed of the Santa Fe Group of middle Tertiary to Quaternary age and post-Santa Fe Group valley and basin-fill deposits of Quaternary age. Population increases in the basin since the 1940's have caused dramatic increases in ground-water withdrawals from the aquifer system, resulting in large ground-water-level declines. Because the Rio Grande is hydraulically connected to the aquifer system, these ground-water withdrawals have also decreased flow in the Rio Grande. Concern about water resources in the basin led to the development of a research plan for the basin focused on the hydrologic interaction of ground water and surface water (McAda, D.P., 1996, Plan of study to quantify the hydrologic relation between the Rio Grande and the Santa Fe Group aquifer system near Albuquerque, central New Mexico: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 96-4006, 58 p.). A multiyear research effort followed, funded and conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey and other agencies (Bartolino, J.R., and Cole, J.C., 2002, Ground-water resources of the Middle Rio Grande Basin, New Mexico: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1222, 132 p.). The modeling work described in this report incorporates the results of much of this work and is the culmination of this multiyear study. The purpose of the model is (1) to integrate the components of the ground-water-flow system, including the hydrologic interaction between the surface-water systems in the basin, to better understand the geohydrology of the basin and (2) to provide a tool to help water managers plan for and administer the use of basin water resources. The aquifer system is represented by nine model layers extending from the water table to the pre-Santa Fe Group basement rocks, as much as 9,000 feet

  6. Expression profile of small RNAs in Acacia mangium secondary xylem tissue with contrasting lignin content - potential regulatory sequences in monolignol biosynthetic pathway

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    epigenetic silencing. Differential expression of the small RNAs between secondary xylem tissues with contrasting lignin content suggests that a cascade of miRNAs play an interconnected role in regulating the lignin biosynthetic pathway in Acacia species. Conclusions Our study critically demonstrated the roles of small RNAs during secondary wall formation. Comparison of the expression pattern of small RNAs between secondary xylem tissues with contrasting lignin content strongly indicated that small RNAs play a key regulatory role during lignin biosynthesis. Our analyses suggest an evolutionary mechanism for miRNA targets on the basis of the length of their 5’ and 3’ UTRs and their cellular roles. The results obtained can be used to better understand the roles of small RNAs during lignin biosynthesis and for the development of gene constructs for silencing of specific genes involved in monolignol biosynthesis with minimal effect on plant fitness and viability. For the first time, small RNAs were proven to play an important regulatory role during lignin biosynthesis in A. mangium. PMID:22369296

  7. Expression profile of small RNAs in Acacia mangium secondary xylem tissue with contrasting lignin content - potential regulatory sequences in monolignol biosynthetic pathway.

    PubMed

    Ong, Seong Siang; Wickneswari, Ratnam

    2011-11-30

    . Differential expression of the small RNAs between secondary xylem tissues with contrasting lignin content suggests that a cascade of miRNAs play an interconnected role in regulating the lignin biosynthetic pathway in Acacia species. Our study critically demonstrated the roles of small RNAs during secondary wall formation. Comparison of the expression pattern of small RNAs between secondary xylem tissues with contrasting lignin content strongly indicated that small RNAs play a key regulatory role during lignin biosynthesis. Our analyses suggest an evolutionary mechanism for miRNA targets on the basis of the length of their 5' and 3' UTRs and their cellular roles. The results obtained can be used to better understand the roles of small RNAs during lignin biosynthesis and for the development of gene constructs for silencing of specific genes involved in monolignol biosynthesis with minimal effect on plant fitness and viability. For the first time, small RNAs were proven to play an important regulatory role during lignin biosynthesis in A. mangium.

  8. Total Phenolics and Total Flavonoids in Selected Indian Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Sulaiman, C. T.; Balachandran, Indira

    2012-01-01

    Plant phenolics and flavonoids have a powerful biological activity, which outlines the necessity of their determination. The phenolics and flavonoids content of 20 medicinal plants were determined in the present investigation. The phenolic content was determined by using Folin-Ciocalteu assay. The total flavonoids were measured spectrophotometrically by using the aluminium chloride colorimetric assay. The results showed that the family Mimosaceae is the richest source of phenolics, (Acacia nilotica: 80.63 mg gallic acid equivalents, Acacia catechu 78.12 mg gallic acid equivalents, Albizia lebbeck 66.23 mg gallic acid equivalents). The highest total flavonoid content was revealed in Senna tora which belongs to the family Caesalpiniaceae. The present study also shows the ratio of flavonoids to the phenolics in each sample for their specificity. PMID:23439764

  9. Total phenolics and total flavonoids in selected Indian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, C T; Balachandran, Indira

    2012-05-01

    Plant phenolics and flavonoids have a powerful biological activity, which outlines the necessity of their determination. The phenolics and flavonoids content of 20 medicinal plants were determined in the present investigation. The phenolic content was determined by using Folin-Ciocalteu assay. The total flavonoids were measured spectrophotometrically by using the aluminium chloride colorimetric assay. The results showed that the family Mimosaceae is the richest source of phenolics, (Acacia nilotica: 80.63 mg gallic acid equivalents, Acacia catechu 78.12 mg gallic acid equivalents, Albizia lebbeck 66.23 mg gallic acid equivalents). The highest total flavonoid content was revealed in Senna tora which belongs to the family Caesalpiniaceae. The present study also shows the ratio of flavonoids to the phenolics in each sample for their specificity.

  10. Stemflow variation in Mexico's northeastern forest communities: Its contribution to soil moisture content and aquifer recharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Návar, José

    2011-09-01

    SummaryStemflow hydro-ecological importance was measured in trees and assessed in Mexico's northeast forest stands by answering three basic questions: (a) what are the intra and inter-specific stemflow variations; (b) is the stemflow coefficient constant from tree level to stand scales? and (c) what is the stemflow area and wetted soil volume in individual trees and the stemflow volume discharged at the stand scale in two plant communities of northeastern Mexico? Gross rainfall and stemflow flux measurements were conducted on 78 trees of semi-arid, sub-tropical (31 Diospyros texana; 14 Acacia rigidula; four Bumelia celastrina; five Condalia hookeri; three Cordia bioissieri; three Pithecellobium pallens) and temperate forest communities (six Pinus pseudostrobus Lindl. and 12 Quercus spp.). Stemflow was extrapolated from individual trees to the stand scale using 98 inventory plots (1600 m 2 ha -1 each) placed in oak-pine forests and 37 quadrats (5 m × 5 m each) distributed across the Tamaulipan thornscrub forest range. Stemflow infiltration flux and infiltration area measurements assessed the wetted soil volume. Daily measurements were conducted from May of 1997 to November of 1998. Results showed that stemflow coefficients varied between plant communities since they averaged (confidence intervals, α = 0.05) 2.49% (0.57), 0.30% (0.09), and 0.77% (0.27) of the bulk precipitation for Tamaulipan thornscrub, pine, and oak forests, respectively. Intra-specific stemflow variations could not be identified in Tamaulipan although in temperate tree species. Basal diameter explained intra-specific stemflow variation in both plant communities. Stemflow increased threefold since it accounted for by 6.38% and 2.19% of the total bulk rainfall for Tamaulipan thornscrub quadrats and temperate oak-pine inventory plots, respectively. Small shrubs growing underneath large trees, in combination with the presence of small-diameter trees that recorded the largest stemflow coefficients

  11. Southern California trial plantings of Eucalyptus

    Treesearch

    Paul W. Moore

    1983-01-01

    A trial planting to compare the biomass production of 9 tree species was established in May 1979. Species compared were Acacia melanoxylon, Casuarina cunninghamiana, Casuarina equisitifolia, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. dalrympleana, E...

  12. Fungal Planet description sheets: 320-370.

    PubMed

    Crous, P W; Wingfield, M J; Guarro, J; Hernández-Restrepo, M; Sutton, D A; Acharya, K; Barber, P A; Boekhout, T; Dimitrov, R A; Dueñas, M; Dutta, A K; Gené, J; Gouliamova, D E; Groenewald, M; Lombard, L; Morozova, O V; Sarkar, J; Smith, M Th; Stchigel, A M; Wiederhold, N P; Alexandrova, A V; Antelmi, I; Armengol, J; Barnes, I; Cano-Lira, J F; Castañeda Ruiz, R F; Contu, M; Courtecuisse, Pr R; da Silveira, A L; Decock, C A; de Goes, A; Edathodu, J; Ercole, E; Firmino, A C; Fourie, A; Fournier, J; Furtado, E L; Geering, A D W; Gershenzon, J; Giraldo, A; Gramaje, D; Hammerbacher, A; He, X-L; Haryadi, D; Khemmuk, W; Kovalenko, A E; Krawczynski, R; Laich, F; Lechat, C; Lopes, U P; Madrid, H; Malysheva, E F; Marín-Felix, Y; Martín, M P; Mostert, L; Nigro, F; Pereira, O L; Picillo, B; Pinho, D B; Popov, E S; Rodas Peláez, C A; Rooney-Latham, S; Sandoval-Denis, M; Shivas, R G; Silva, V; Stoilova-Disheva, M M; Telleria, M T; Ullah, C; Unsicker, S B; van der Merwe, N A; Vizzini, A; Wagner, H-G; Wong, P T W; Wood, A R; Groenewald, J Z

    2015-06-01

    Novel species of fungi described in the present study include the following from Malaysia: Castanediella eucalypti from Eucalyptus pellita, Codinaea acacia from Acacia mangium, Emarcea eucalyptigena from Eucalyptus brassiana, Myrtapenidiella eucalyptorum from Eucalyptus pellita, Pilidiella eucalyptigena from Eucalyptus brassiana and Strelitziana malaysiana from Acacia mangium. Furthermore, Stachybotrys sansevieriicola is described from Sansevieria ehrenbergii (Tanzania), Phacidium grevilleae from Grevillea robusta (Uganda), Graphium jumulu from Adansonia gregorii and Ophiostoma eucalyptigena from Eucalyptus marginata (Australia), Pleurophoma ossicola from bone and Plectosphaerella populi from Populus nigra (Germany), Colletotrichum neosansevieriae from Sansevieria trifasciata, Elsinoë othonnae from Othonna quinquedentata and Zeloasperisporium cliviae (Zeloasperisporiaceae fam. nov.) from Clivia sp. (South Africa), Neodevriesia pakbiae, Phaeophleospora hymenocallidis and Phaeophleospora hymenocallidicola on leaves of a fern (Thailand), Melanconium elaeidicola from Elaeis guineensis (Indonesia), Hormonema viticola from Vitis vinifera (Canary Islands), Chlorophyllum pseudoglobossum from a grassland (India), Triadelphia disseminata from an immunocompromised patient (Saudi Arabia), Colletotrichum abscissum from Citrus (Brazil), Polyschema sclerotigenum and Phialemonium limoniforme from human patients (USA), Cadophora vitícola from Vitis vinifera (Spain), Entoloma flavovelutinum and Bolbitius aurantiorugosus from soil (Vietnam), Rhizopogon granuloflavus from soil (Cape Verde Islands), Tulasnella eremophila from Euphorbia officinarum subsp. echinus (Morocco), Verrucostoma martinicensis from Danaea elliptica (French West Indies), Metschnikowia colchici from Colchicum autumnale (Bulgaria), Thelebolus microcarpus from soil (Argentina) and Ceratocystis adelpha from Theobroma cacao (Ecuador). Myrmecridium iridis (Myrmecridiales ord. nov., Myrmecridiaceae fam. nov.) is also

  13. Phenolic content, antioxidant potential and Aedes aegyptii ecological friend larvicidal activity of some selected Egyptian plants.

    PubMed

    El-Hela, Atef A; Abdel-Hady, Nevein M; Dawoud, Gouda T M; Hamed, Abdo M; Morsy, Tosson A

    2013-04-01

    Polyphenols constitute a distinct group of natural compounds of medicinal importance exhibiting wide range of physiological activities as antioxidant, immunestimulant, antitumor and antiparasitic. Yellow fever and dengue fever are mosquito-borne infectious diseases transmitted by Aedes aegyptii, the presence of yellow fever in Sudan and dengue fever in Saudi Arabia are threats to Egypt with the reemerging of Ae. aegyptii in Southern Egypt, larvae control is feasible than flying adults. This work was conducted targeting estimation of the relative levels of total phenolic content, antioxidant potential and larvicidal activity of 110 selected Egyptian plants. The highest total phenolic contents were estimated in aqueous extracts of Coronilla scorpioides L., Forsskaolea tenacissima L., Crataegus sinaica Boiss., Pistacia khinjuk Boiss. and Loranthus acacia Benth.; they were 916.70 +/- 4.80, 813.70 +/- 4.16, 744.90 +/- 4.93, 549.00 +/- 3.93& 460.80 +/- 4.02 mg% while those of methanol extracts were estimated in Coronilla scorpioides, Forsskaolea tenacissima, Crataegus sinaica, Loranthus acacia and Pistacia khinjuk, they were 915.60-4.86, 664.60 +/- 4.16, 659.30 +/- 4.80, 590.80 +/- 4.49 & 588.00 +/- 3.85 mg% respectively. Investigation of the antioxidant potentials revealed that the most potent plants were Co-ronilla scorpioides, Forsskaolea tenacissima, Crataegus sinaica, Pistacia khinjuk and Loranthus acacia with calculated values of 454.80 +/- 4.83, 418.4 +/- 4.16, 399.10 +/- 4.90, 342.5 +/- 2.72 & 239.7 +/- 2.91% for aqueous extracts and 452.9 +/- 4.94, 389.6 +/- 4.6, 378.48 +/- 3.84, 352.3 +/- 3.06 & 346.5 +/- 2.98% for methanol extracts respectively while screening of larvicidal activity proved that Coronilla scorpioides, Forsskaolea tenacissima, Crataegus sinaica, Pistacia khinjuk and Loranthus acacia exhibited highest potency calculated as 22.53 +/- 2.01, 23.85 +/- 2.07, 28.17 +/- 2.06, 31.60 +/- 2.93 & 39.73 +/- 4.58 mg% aqueous extracts and 18.53 +/- 1.95, 18

  14. Risk and pathway assessment for the introduction of exotic insects and pathogens that could affect Hawai'i's native forests

    Treesearch

    Gregg A. DeNitto; Philip Cannon; Andris Eglitis; Jessie A. Glaeser; Helen Maffei; Sheri Smith

    2015-01-01

    The unmitigated risk potential of the introduction of exotic insects and pathogens to Hawai'i was evaluated for its impact on native plants, specifically Acacia koa, Cibotium spp., Dicranopteris linearis, Diospyros sandwicensis, Dodonaea viscosa, ...

  15. Development of microsatellite markers from loquat, Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.

    PubMed

    Gisbert, A D; Lopez-Capuz, I; Soriano, J M; Llacer, G; Romero, C; Badenes, M L

    2009-05-01

    Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) is a minor fruit which has become an interesting alternative into the European fruit industry. This interest resulted in a loquat germplasm collection established at the Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias, Valencia, Spain. Currently, it is the main reservoir of this species outside Asia. We developed and characterized the first 21 polymorphic microsatellite loci from a CT/AG-enriched loquat genomic library. The observed heterozygosity ranged between 0.20 and 1.00, expected heterozygosity ranged between 0.17 and 0.81, three markers were multilocus and eight loci departed significantly from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. These markers will facilitate diversity and genetic studies into the species. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Past and present vegetation ecology of Laetoli, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Peter; Bamford, Marion

    2008-01-01

    We are attempting to set up a new protocol for palaeoecological reconstruction in relation to the fossil hominin site Laetoli, Tanzania. This is based on the premise that habitat variability in the past was at least as great as at present; that this variability at the landscape level is a function of variations in geology, soils, and topography rather than climate; and that vegetation type at the landscape level can be reconstructed from these environmental variables. Measurable variation in climate in tropical Africa today occurs over distances of at least 100 km, so that ranges of habitat variation within the limited area of Laetoli today can be reconstructed in relation to soils and topography, and the effects of climate changes are then estimated in relation to these other factors. In order to document the modern vegetation, we have made voucher collections of plants in the Laetoli region, recorded distributions of plants by habitat, climate, soil, and topography, and mapped the vegetation distributions. Results show that areas of low relief have soils with impeded drainage and dense Acacia drepanolobium woodland, having low canopies when disturbed by human action, higher when not; shallow brown soils on volcanic lavas have four woodland associations, two dominated by Acacia species, two by Combretum-Albizia species; shallow volcanic soils to the east have a woodland association with Croton-Dombeya-Albizia species; elevated land to the east on volcanic soils has two associations of montane-edge species, one with Croton-Celtis-Lepidotrichilia, and the other with Acacia lahai; the eastern highlands above 2,750 m have montane forest; seasonal water channels flowing from east to west have three Acacia riverine woodland associations; three deep valleys to the north of the area have dense riverine woodland with Celtis, Albizia, Euclea, Combretum, Acacia spp.; emergence of springs at Endulen feed a perennial stream with closed gallery forest with Ficus

  17. Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Three-Bedroom Duplex Type 4, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, Cedar Drive and Elm Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  18. Comparative anatomy of the nectary spur in selected species of Aeridinae (Orchidaceae).

    PubMed

    Stpiczyńska, Małgorzata; Davies, Kevin L; Kamińska, Magdalena

    2011-03-01

    To date, the structure of the nectary spur of Aeridinae has not been studied in detail, and data relating to the nectaries of ornithophilous orchids remain scarce. The present paper compares the structural organization of the floral nectary in a range of Aeridinae species, including both entomophilous and ornithophilous taxa. Nectary spurs of Ascocentrum ampullaceum (Roxb.) Schltr. var. aurantiacum Pradhan, A. curvifolium (Lindl.) Schltr., A. garayi Christenson, Papilionanthe vandarum (Rchb.f.) Garay, Schoenorchis gemmata (Lindl.) J.J. Sm., Sedirea japonica (Rchb.f.) Garay & H.R. Sweet and Stereochilus dalatensis (Guillaumin) Garay were examined by means of light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The diverse anatomy of the nectary is described for a range of Aeridinae species. All species of Ascocentrum investigated displayed features characteristic of ornithophilous taxa. They have weakly zygomorphic, scentless, red or orange flowers, display diurnal anthesis, possess cryptic anther caps and produce nectar that is secluded in a relatively massive nectary spur. Unicellular, secretory hairs line the lumen at the middle part of the spur. Generally, however, with the exception of Papilionanthe vandarum, the nectary spurs of all entomophilous species studied here (Schoenorchis gemmata, Sedirea japonica, Stereochilus dalatensis) lack secretory trichomes. Moreover, collenchymatous secretory tissue, present only in the nectary spur of Asiatic Ascocentrum species, closely resembles that found in nectaries of certain Neotropical species that are hummingbird-pollinated and assigned to subtribes Maxillariinae Benth., Laeliinae Benth. and Oncidiinae Benth. This similarity in anatomical organization of the nectary, regardless of geographical distribution and phylogeny, indicates convergence.

  19. Comparative anatomy of the nectary spur in selected species of Aeridinae (Orchidaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Stpiczyńska, Małgorzata; Davies, Kevin L.; Kamińska, Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims To date, the structure of the nectary spur of Aeridinae has not been studied in detail, and data relating to the nectaries of ornithophilous orchids remain scarce. The present paper compares the structural organization of the floral nectary in a range of Aeridinae species, including both entomophilous and ornithophilous taxa. Methods Nectary spurs of Ascocentrum ampullaceum (Roxb.) Schltr. var. aurantiacum Pradhan, A. curvifolium (Lindl.) Schltr., A. garayi Christenson, Papilionanthe vandarum (Rchb.f.) Garay, Schoenorchis gemmata (Lindl.) J.J. Sm., Sedirea japonica (Rchb.f.) Garay & H.R. Sweet and Stereochilus dalatensis (Guillaumin) Garay were examined by means of light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Key Results and Conclusions The diverse anatomy of the nectary is described for a range of Aeridinae species. All species of Ascocentrum investigated displayed features characteristic of ornithophilous taxa. They have weakly zygomorphic, scentless, red or orange flowers, display diurnal anthesis, possess cryptic anther caps and produce nectar that is secluded in a relatively massive nectary spur. Unicellular, secretory hairs line the lumen at the middle part of the spur. Generally, however, with the exception of Papilionanthe vandarum, the nectary spurs of all entomophilous species studied here (Schoenorchis gemmata, Sedirea japonica, Stereochilus dalatensis) lack secretory trichomes. Moreover, collenchymatous secretory tissue, present only in the nectary spur of Asiatic Ascocentrum species, closely resembles that found in nectaries of certain Neotropical species that are hummingbird-pollinated and assigned to subtribes Maxillariinae Benth., Laeliinae Benth. and Oncidiinae Benth. This similarity in anatomical organization of the nectary, regardless of geographical distribution and phylogeny, indicates convergence. PMID:21183455

  20. Ethnobotanical survey of herbal tea plants from the traditional markets in Chaoshan, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Dong-Lin; Zheng, Xi-Long; Duan, Lei; Deng, Shuang-Wen; Ye, Wen; Wang, Ai-Hua; Xing, Fu-Wu

    2017-06-09

    Herbal tea, which refers to "cooling tea", "cool beverage", or "liáng chá" in China, includes a range of drinks with heat-clearing and detoxification qualities. Herbal tea plants are great contributive to the health and prosperity of Chaoshan people. The aim of the study was to document herbal tea plant species used and commercialized as "liáng chá" in Chaoshan area, to facilitate the use and development of herbal tea enterprises, and to promote the further development of national herbal tea. Information and data were obtained from all 83 stall holders in 12 traditional markets, semi-structured informant interviews were carried out individually with the stall holders, 10 questions were asked. In this study, 186 species of herbal tea plants belonging to 65 families and 156 genera were indicated by 83 stall holders, with Asteraceae being the most prevalent family with 22 species. Herbs are main sources of herbal tea plants in Chaoshan area, with whole plants (97 species) being the most used parts. Herbal drinks are mostly consumed for heat-clearing and detoxification, and a large number of plant species were reported to treat coughs, colds, dysentery, dampness and sore throats. The most cited species were Hedyotis corymbosa (L.) Lam. (47 times mentioned), Hedyotis diffusa Willd. (46), Plantago asiatica L. (43), Houttuynia cordata Thunb (42), Centella asiatica (L.) Urban (36), Desmodium styracifolium (Osbeck) Merr. (35) and Morus alba L. (31), and 5 protected species were recorded in the list of the nationally protected species of China: Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo, Dendrobium nobile Lindl., Anoectochilus formosanus Hayata, Bulbophyllum odoratissimum (J. E. Smith) Lindl. and Pholidota chinensis Lindl. The selling price of most fresh herbal tea plants in the market varied from¥10-16/kg, with the profit margin of sales ranging from 12.5% to 20%. The consumption of herbal tea for one family costs about ¥3-5/day. Chaoshan herbal teas, prepared by diverse

  1. [Description of the last instar larva and pupa of Cryptophlebia cortesi Clarke (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)].

    PubMed

    Vargas, Héctor A

    2006-01-01

    A description of the last instar larva and pupa of Cryptophlebia cortesi Clarke, based on specimens collected on yaro, Acacia macracantha Bonpl & Humb ex Willd. (Fabaceae), in the Chaca valley, Primera Región, Chile, is presented.

  2. Propagation and conservation of native forest genetic resources of medicinal use by means of in vitro and ex vitro techniques.

    PubMed

    Sharry, Sandra; Adema, Marina; Basiglio Cordal, María A; Villarreal, Blanca; Nikoloff, Noelia; Briones, Valentina; Abedini, Walter

    2011-07-01

    In Argentina, there are numerous native species which are an important source of natural products and which are traditionally used in medicinal applications. Some of these species are going through an intense extraction process in their natural habitat which may affect their genetic diversity. The aim of this study was to establish vegetative propagation systems for three native forestal species of medicinal interest. This will allow the rapid obtainment of plants to preserve the germplasm. This study included the following species which are widely used in folk medicine and its applications: Erythrina crista-galli or "seibo" (astringent, used for its cicatrizant properties and for bronchiolitic problems); Acacia caven or "espinillo" (antirheumatic, digestive, diuretic and with cicatrizant properties) and Salix humboldtiana or "sauce criollo" (antipyretic, sedative, antispasmodic, astringent). The methodology included the micropropagation of seibo, macro and micropropagation of Salix humboldtiana and the somatic embryogenesis of Acacia caven. The protocol for seibo regeneration was adjusted from nodal sections of seedlings which were obtained from seeds germinated in vitro. The macropropagation through rooted cuttings of "sauce criollo" was achieved and complete plants of this same species were obtained through both direct and indirect organogenesis using in vitro cultures. The somatic embryogenesis for Acacia caven was optimized and this led to obtain a high percentage of embryos in different stages of development. We are able to support the conservation of native forest resources of medicinal use by means of vegetative propagation techniques.

  3. Intercropped Silviculture Systems, a Key to Achieving Soil Fungal Community Management in Eucalyptus Plantations

    PubMed Central

    Rachid, Caio T. C. C.; Balieiro, Fabiano C.; Fonseca, Eduardo S.; Peixoto, Raquel Silva; Chaer, Guilherme M.; Tiedje, James M.; Rosado, Alexandre S.

    2015-01-01

    Fungi are ubiquitous and important contributors to soil nutrient cycling, playing a vital role in C, N and P turnover, with many fungi having direct beneficial relationships with plants. However, the factors that modulate the soil fungal community are poorly understood. We studied the degree to which the composition of tree species affected the soil fungal community structure and diversity by pyrosequencing the 28S rRNA gene in soil DNA. We were also interested in whether intercropping (mixed plantation of two plant species) could be used to select fungal species. More than 50,000 high quality sequences were analyzed from three treatments: monoculture of Eucalyptus; monoculture of Acacia mangium; and a mixed plantation with both species sampled 2 and 3 years after planting. We found that the plant type had a major effect on the soil fungal community structure, with 75% of the sequences from the Eucalyptus soil belonging to Basidiomycota and 19% to Ascomycota, and the Acacia soil having a sequence distribution of 28% and 62%, respectively. The intercropping of Acacia mangium in a Eucalyptus plantation significantly increased the number of fungal genera and the diversity indices and introduced or increased the frequency of several genera that were not found in the monoculture cultivation samples. Our results suggest that management of soil fungi is possible by manipulating the composition of the plant community, and intercropped systems can be a means to achieve that. PMID:25706388

  4. Intercropped silviculture systems, a key to achieving soil fungal community management in eucalyptus plantations.

    PubMed

    Rachid, Caio T C C; Balieiro, Fabiano C; Fonseca, Eduardo S; Peixoto, Raquel Silva; Chaer, Guilherme M; Tiedje, James M; Rosado, Alexandre S

    2015-01-01

    Fungi are ubiquitous and important contributors to soil nutrient cycling, playing a vital role in C, N and P turnover, with many fungi having direct beneficial relationships with plants. However, the factors that modulate the soil fungal community are poorly understood. We studied the degree to which the composition of tree species affected the soil fungal community structure and diversity by pyrosequencing the 28S rRNA gene in soil DNA. We were also interested in whether intercropping (mixed plantation of two plant species) could be used to select fungal species. More than 50,000 high quality sequences were analyzed from three treatments: monoculture of Eucalyptus; monoculture of Acacia mangium; and a mixed plantation with both species sampled 2 and 3 years after planting. We found that the plant type had a major effect on the soil fungal community structure, with 75% of the sequences from the Eucalyptus soil belonging to Basidiomycota and 19% to Ascomycota, and the Acacia soil having a sequence distribution of 28% and 62%, respectively. The intercropping of Acacia mangium in a Eucalyptus plantation significantly increased the number of fungal genera and the diversity indices and introduced or increased the frequency of several genera that were not found in the monoculture cultivation samples. Our results suggest that management of soil fungi is possible by manipulating the composition of the plant community, and intercropped systems can be a means to achieve that.

  5. Intercropped silviculture systems, a key to achieving soil fungal community management in eucalyptus plantations

    DOE PAGES

    Caio T.C.C. Rachid; Balieiro, Fabiano C.; Fonseca, Eduardo S.; ...

    2015-02-23

    Fungi are ubiquitous and important contributors to soil nutrient cycling, playing a vital role in C, N and P turnover, with many fungi having direct beneficial relationships with plants. However, the factors that modulate the soil fungal community are poorly understood. We studied the degree to which the composition of tree species affected the soil fungal community structure and diversity by pyrosequencing the 28S rRNA gene in soil DNA. We were also interested in whether intercropping (mixed plantation of two plant species) could be used to select fungal species. More than 50,000 high quality sequences were analyzed from three treatments:more » monoculture of Eucalyptus; monoculture of Acacia mangium; and a mixed plantation with both species sampled 2 and 3 years after planting. We found that the plant type had a major effect on the soil fungal community structure, with 75% of the sequences from the Eucalyptus soil belonging to Basidiomycota and 19% to Ascomycota, and the Acacia soil having a sequence distribution of 28% and 62%, respectively. The intercropping of Acacia mangium in a Eucalyptus plantation significantly increased the number of fungal genera and the diversity indices and introduced or increased the frequency of several genera that were not found in the monoculture cultivation samples. Our results suggest that management of soil fungi is possible by manipulating the composition of the plant community, and intercropped systems can be a means to achieve that.« less

  6. Emergy and Eco-exergy Evaluation of Four Forest Restoration Modes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four different forest restoration modes (Acacia mangium plantation, mixed-native species plantation, conifer plantation and Eucalyptus plantation) were evaluated using Energy System Theory and the emergy synthesis method. In addition, the eco-exergies of the four forest restorati...

  7. The potential of energy farming in the southeastern California desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lew, V.

    1980-04-01

    The use of energy forms to provide future sources of energy for California is considered. Marginal desert lands in southeastern California are proposed for the siting of energy farms using acacia, eucalyptus, euphorbia, guayule, jojoba, mesquite, or tamarisk.

  8. Biochemical and immunological studies on eight pollen types from South Assam, India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Dhruba; Dutta, B K; Singh, A B

    2009-12-01

    A total of 65 pollen types were identified from two years atmospheric pollen survey in the environmental conditions of South Assam. Out of them, eight pollen types viz., Acacia auriculiformis, Amaranthus spinosus, Cassia alata, Cleome gynandra, Cocos nucifera, Imperata cylindrica, Ricinus communis and Trewia nudiflora, were selected for biochemical studies on the basis of their dominance in the study sites. Among the sample extract tested, Ricinus communis was found to contain the highest amount of soluble protein, free amino acid and total carbohydrate, per gram of dry weight followed by Imperata cylindrica and Cassia alata. Maximum numbers of protein polypeptide bands were detected in the sample extract of Cassia alata by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis method followed by Acacia auriculiformis, Imperata cylindrica and Cocos nucifera. IgE binding protein fractions were maximum in Cassia alata and minimum in Trewia nudiflora.

  9. Effect of Gum Arabic (Acacia Senegal) supplementation on visceral adiposity index (VAI) and blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus as indicators of cardiovascular disease (CVD): a randomized and placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Babiker, Rasha; Elmusharaf, Khalifa; Keogh, Michael B; Saeed, Amal M

    2018-03-20

    There is a strong association between cardiometabolic risk and adipose tissue dysfunction with great consequences on type 2 diabetic patients. Visceral Adiposity Index (VAI) is an indirect clinical marker of adipose tissue dysfunction. Gum Arabic (GA) is a safe dietary fiber, an exudate of Acacia Senegal. Gum Arabic had shown lipid lowering effect in both humans and animals. The aim of this trial was to determine the effect of GA supplementation on anthropometric obesity marker, Visceral Adiposity Index (VAI) and blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This randomized, double blinded, placebo controlled trial recruited a total of 91 type 2 diabetic patients (73 females, 18 males), age (mean ± SD) 50.09 ± 9.3 years on hypoglycemic agents and were randomly assigned into two groups, either to consume 30 g of GA or 5 g of placebo daily for 3 months. Anthropometric obesity markers were measured and indices were calculated. Blood pressure was measured and high density lipoprotein (HDL) and triglycerides (TG) were determined in fasting blood samples at the start and end of the study period. After intervention, Gum Arabic decreased BMI and VAI significantly (P < 0.05) in GA group by 2 and 23.7% respectively. Body adiposity index significantly decreased by 3.9% in GA group while there were no significant changes in waist circumference or waist-to-hip ratio (WHR). Systolic blood pressure significantly decreased by 7.6% in GA group and by 2.7% in placebo group from baseline with no significant changes in diastolic blood pressure in the two groups. Gum Arabic consumption at a dose of 30 g/d for 3 months may play an effective role in preventing weight gain and modulating adipose tissue dysfunction in type 2 diabetic patients, although no effect has been shown in waist-to-hip ratio. The trial had been registered as prospective interventional clinical trials in the Pan African Clinical Trial Registry (PACTR) PACTR201403000785219 , on 7th

  10. Equations for predicting biomass of six introduced tree species, island of Hawaii

    Treesearch

    Thomas H. Schukrt; Robert F. Strand; Thomas G. Cole; Katharine E. McDuffie

    1988-01-01

    Regression equations to predict total and stem-only above-ground dry biomass for six species (Acacia melanoxylon, Albizio falcataria, Eucalyptus globulus, E. grandis, E. robusta, and E. urophylla) were developed by felling and measuring 2- to 6-year-old...

  11. VIEW OF DATE DRIVE, SHOWING ROYAL PALMS ALONG THE STREET. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF DATE DRIVE, SHOWING ROYAL PALMS ALONG THE STREET. VIEW FACING EAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  12. Emergy and Evaluating Ecosystem Services in a Sumatran Peat Swamp, Indonesia. Chapter 13

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this article is to document preliminary investigations into valuing peat swamp ecosystem function and services in Indonesia and to compare these values with the current development alternative, Acacia pulp wood plantation, using the emergy methodology. The Zamrud N...

  13. 77 FR 12818 - Intent To Prepare a Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Rio Grande...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ..., floodplain development, water quality, ecological resources, endangered species, wildlife refuge objectives, social welfare, human safety, cultural resources, and aesthetic qualities. Development and implementation... risk management study along the Rio Grande from San Acacia downstream to San Marcial in Socorro County...

  14. Litter dynamics in two Sierran mixed conifer forests. II. Nutrient release in decomposing leaf litter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.

    1988-01-01

    The factors influencing leaf litter decomposition and nutrient release patterns were investigated for 3.6 years in two mixed conifer forests in the southern Sierra Nevada of California. The giant sequoia–fir forest was dominated by giant sequoia (Sequoiadendrongiganteum (Lindl.) Buchh.), white fir (Abiesconcolor Lindl. & Gord.), and sugar pine (Pinuslambertiana Dougl.). The fir–pine forest was dominated by white fir, sugar pine, and incense cedar (Calocedrusdecurrens (Torr.) Florin). Initial concentrations of nutrients and percent lignin, cellulose, and acid detergent fiber vary considerably in freshly abscised leaf litter of the studied species. Giant sequoia had the highest concentration of lignin (20.3%) and the lowest concentration of nitrogen (0.52%), while incense cedar had the lowest concentration of lignin (9.6%) and second lowest concentration of nitrogen (0.63%). Long-term (3.6 years) foliage decomposition rates were best correlated with initial lignin/N (r2 = 0.94, p r2 = 0.92, p r2 = 0.80, p < 0.05). Patterns of nutrient release were highly variable. Giant sequoia immobilized N and P, incense cedar immobilized N and to a lesser extent P, while sugar pine immobilized Ca. Strong linear or negative exponential relationships existed between initial concentrations of N, P, K, and Ca and percent original mass remaining of those nutrients after 3.6 years. This suggests efficient retention of these nutrients in the litter layer of these ecosystems. Nitrogen concentrations steadily increase in decomposing leaf litter, effectively reducing the C/N ratios from an initial range of 68–96 to 27–45 after 3.6 years.

  15. 77 FR 25151 - Notice of Availability for the Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed San Acacia to Bosque del Apache... prepared a draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) on the findings of a flood risk...: Previously, an environmental impact statement (1992) and a supplement (1977) were published regarding this...

  16. In vitro seed germination and rootstock establishing for micrografting of Theobroma cacao L

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Micrografting has been successfully implemented in several plant species of Acacia, Citrus, Eucalyptus, Havea, Malus, Olea, Opuntia, Prunus and other genera. This technique is employed for plant rejuvenation, true-to-type propagation, genetic improvement, recovery of virus-free plants, testing of po...

  17. Eco-exergy and emergy based self-organization of three forest plantations in lower subtropical China

    EPA Science Inventory

    The bio-thermodynamic structures of a mixed native species plantation, a conifer plantation and an Acacia mangium plantation in Southern China were quantified over a period of 15 years based on eco-exergy methods. The efficiencies of structural development and maintenance were qu...

  18. Susceptibility of some native plant species from Hawaii to Phytophthora ramorum

    Treesearch

    Paul Reeser; Everett Hansen; Wendy Sutton; Jennifer Davidson; Jennifer Parke

    2008-01-01

    The remaining native flora of Hawaii are under continuing pressure from habitat loss and exotic, invasive organisms, including animals, plants, and pathogens. In order to assess the risk to P. ramorum, we inoculated seedlings of Metrosideros polymorpha (ohia), Vaccinium calycinum (ohelo), Acacia koa...

  19. VIEW FROM EAST SIDE OF ELM DRIVE/BIRCH CIRCLE BLOCK, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM EAST SIDE OF ELM DRIVE/BIRCH CIRCLE BLOCK, SHOWING SLOPING TOPOGRAPHY. VIEW FACING WEST. - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  20. Space Weather Impact on Pipeline in La Plata City, Argentine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gianibelli, J. C.; Dovico, R. O.; Peirtti, R. O.; Pretel, R. O.; Garcia, R. E.; Quaglino, N. M.

    2007-05-01

    In the Sun-Earth connection, some of the most important characteristic events involved are the Coronal Mass Ejections (CME) and the high speed particle streams events coming from the Coronal Holes at the Sun. These interplanetary events produce effects on space and ground-based technology. In the present work, the geomagnetic storm recorded at Las Acacias Digital Magnetic Observatory (LAS, Lat.:-35º.0; Long.: 302º.3) produced by a particle stream from a solar coronal hole and their relationship with the induction effects caused on a pipeline in the shore of La Plata city, Argentine. The result shows an increase of the induced current correlated with the registered geomagnetic storm. Also, the magnetically calm days are analized. It is concluded that the amplitude of induced current intensity verifies a logarithmic relation with the amplitude of total magnetic intensity recorded in Las Acacias Observatory.

  1. Induction of "pore" formation in plant cell membranes by toluene.

    PubMed

    Lerner, H R; Ben-Bassat, D; Reinhold, L; Poljakoff-Mayber, A

    1978-02-01

    Treatment with aqueous toluene-ethanol has been shown to induce "pore" formation in plant cell membranes. The evidence is as follows: [List: see text]While the principal experimental material was roots of Atriplex nummularia Lindl., the fact that similar results were also observed with leaves of Pisum sativum L. and with the alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa Chik. suggests that the phenomenon is general.Although the phenomenon of pore induction is qualitatively similar to that in microorganisms, the pores induced appear to be smaller. It is proposed that induced leakage could be the basis for the development of simple and rapid methods for plant biochemical studies.

  2. Induction of “Pore” Formation in Plant Cell Membranes by Toluene 1

    PubMed Central

    Lerner, Henri R.; Ben-Bassat, David; Reinhold, Leonora; Poljakoff-Mayber, Alexandra

    1978-01-01

    Treatment with aqueous toluene-ethanol has been shown to induce “pore” formation in plant cell membranes. The evidence is as follows: [List: see text] While the principal experimental material was roots of Atriplex nummularia Lindl., the fact that similar results were also observed with leaves of Pisum sativum L. and with the alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa Chik. suggests that the phenomenon is general. Although the phenomenon of pore induction is qualitatively similar to that in microorganisms, the pores induced appear to be smaller. It is proposed that induced leakage could be the basis for the development of simple and rapid methods for plant biochemical studies. PMID:16660262

  3. Quantum Cascade Laser Master-Oscillator Power-Amplifier with 1.5-W Output Power at 300 K

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-25

    327·333 (2008). 7", L. Diehl, C. Pfliigl, M. F. Witinski, P. Wang, T. J. Tague Jr., and F. Capasso, "Fouriertraosfonn ’pcc_ uti1izing mid- infrared ...8217 W. W. Bewley. J. R. Lindle, C. L. Canedy. J. A. Nolde, D. C. Lunobcc.I. "urgallman, and J. R. Meyer, "Broad-stripe, single-mode. mid-IR interband ...AB8PA DATE: cR5 YrU-t 1/ CASE # h k ftGW-& 611’-O!J6tJ IS. M. Troccoli, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso,D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cha, "Mid- infrared 0 .. -7.4 pm

  4. Extraction and Characterization of Boswellia Serrata Gum as Pharmaceutical Excipient.

    PubMed

    Panta, Sumedha; Malviya, Rishabha; Sharma, Pramod

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript deals with the purification and characterization of Boswellia serrata gum as a suspending agent. The Boswellia serrata gum was purchased as crude material, purified and further characterized in terms of organoleptic properties and further micromeritic studies were carried out to characterize the polymer as a pharmaceutical excipient. The suspending properties of the polymer were also evaluated. The results showed that the extracted gum possesses optimum organoleptic as well as micromeritic and suspending properties. To characterize Boswellia serrata gum as a natural excipient. Boswellia serrata gum, paracetamol, distilled water. The results showed that the extracted gum possesses optimum organoleptic as well as micromeritic and suspending properties. It is concluded from the research work that the gum extracted from Boswellia serrata shows the presence of carbohydrates after chemical tests. All the organoleptic properties evaluated were found to be acceptable. The pH was found to be slightly acidic. Swelling Index reveals that the gum swells well in water. Total ash value was within the limits. The values of angle of repose and Carr's Index of powdered gum powder showed that the flow property was good. IR spectra confirmed the presence of alcohol, amines, ketones, anhydrides and aromatic rings. The suspending properties of Boswellia serrata gum were found to be higher as compared to gum acacia while the flow rate of Boswellia serrata gum (1% suspension) was less than gum acacia (1% suspension). The viscosity measurement of both Boswellia serrata gum suspension and gum acacia suspension showed approximately similar results.

  5. Is invasion success of Australian trees mediated by their native biogeography, phylogenetic history, or both?

    PubMed

    Miller, Joseph T; Hui, Cang; Thornhill, Andrew; Gallien, Laure; Le Roux, Johannes J; Richardson, David M

    2016-12-30

    For a plant species to become invasive it has to progress along the introduction-naturalization-invasion (INI) continuum which reflects the joint direction of niche breadth. Identification of traits that correlate with and drive species invasiveness along the continuum is a major focus of invasion biology. If invasiveness is underlain by heritable traits, and if such traits are phylogenetically conserved, then we would expect non-native species with different introduction status (i.e. position along the INI continuum) to show phylogenetic signal. This study uses two clades that contain a large number of invasive tree species from the genera Acacia and Eucalyptus to test whether geographic distribution and a novel phylogenetic conservation method can predict which species have been introduced, became naturalized, and invasive. Our results suggest that no underlying phylogenetic signal underlie the introduction status for both groups of trees, except for introduced acacias. The more invasive acacia clade contains invasive species that have smoother geographic distributions and are more marginal in the phylogenetic network. The less invasive eucalyptus group contains invasive species that are more clustered geographically, more centrally located in the phylogenetic network and have phylogenetic distances between invasive and non-invasive species that are trending toward the mean pairwise distance. This suggests that highly invasive groups may be identified because they have invasive species with smoother and faster expanding native distributions and are located more to the edges of phylogenetic networks than less invasive groups. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  6. Biogeochemical sampling in the Mahd Adh Dhahab District, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ebens, Richard J.; Shacklette, Hansford T.; Worl, Ronald G.

    1983-01-01

    A biogeochemical reconnaissance of the Mahd adh Dhahab district, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, confirms the ability of deep-rooted Acacia trees to reflect bedrock concentrations of some trace elements. The analytical values for lead, zinc, selenium, and cadmium in ash of tree branches are significantly higher in samples from areas of known mineralization (13 sites) than in samples from areas of no known mineralization (12 sites). Geometric mean concentrations of these elements in the two areas (mineralized; nonmineralized), quoted as parts per million in ash, are lead (122; 28), zinc (713; 443), selenium (1.2; 0.6), and cadmium (1.4; 0.5). The range of molybdenum values in ash from the two areas is similar, but a cluster of four sites in an area classified as nonmineralized corresponds to an area where the U.S. Geological Survey reported anomalous molybdenum values in rock in 1965. Results for other elements were either equivocal (mercury, tellurium, silver) or showed no correspondence to the two areas. Mean values for barium, manganese, potassium, and sodium are significantly higher in areas of no known mineralization, but we conclude that this reflects a difference in country rock major-element chemistry rather than the effect of ore-forming processes. The pattern of trace-metal values in Acacia ash is present whether the sampled tree grows on bedrock, on talus, or on residual or modern alluvium. This fact suggests that the trace-element chemistry of the trees reflects bedrock geochemistry and implies that Acacia biogeochemistry could be applied as a prospecting tool in areas where bedrock is not well exposed.

  7. EMERGY SYNTHESIS OF AN AGRO-FOREST RESTORATION SYSTEM IN LOWER SUBTROPICAL CHINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The low subtropical zone is the most populated and seriously degraded area in China; therefore, highly efficient restoration of degraded lands is the key to sustainable development of this region. An agro-forest restoration mode consisting of an Acacia mangium forest, a Citrus re...

  8. Correction: Seeing the "Big" Picture: Big Data Methods for Exploring Relationships Between Usage, Language, and Outcome in Internet Intervention Data.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Jordan; Crutchley, Patrick; Zilca, Ran D; Schwartz, H Andrew; Smith, Laura K; Cobb, Angela M; Parks, Acacia C

    2017-12-19

    [This corrects the article DOI: 10.2196/jmir.5725.]. ©Jordan Carpenter, Patrick Crutchley, Ran D Zilca, H Andrew Schwartz, Laura K Smith, Angela M Cobb, Acacia C Parks. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 19.12.2017.

  9. VIEW OF DATE DRIVE, SHOWING DATE PALMS. NOTE TRELLIS ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF DATE DRIVE, SHOWING DATE PALMS. NOTE TRELLIS ON TYPE 11 FACILITY, FACILITY 808. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  10. Microsatellite markers isolated from a polyploid saltbush, Atriplex nummularia Lindl. (Chenopodiaceae).

    PubMed

    Byrne, Margaret; Hankinson, Margaret; Sampson, Jane F; Stankowski, Sean

    2008-11-01

    Atriplex nummularia is a polyploid Australian saltbush which has been identified as a suitable species for use in the rehabilitation of agricultural land affected by salinity. We isolated 12 polymorphic loci for a preliminary assessment of genetic variability and structure within the species as a basis for a breeding programme. Preliminary screening of loci in 40 individuals from two populations revealed multibanded genotypes consisting of up to seven alleles in a single individual, with up to 29 alleles observed at a single locus. The multibanded patterns are consistent with the polyploid status of this species. © 2008 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2008 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. In vitro regeneration and ploidy level analysis of Eulophia ochreata Lindl.

    PubMed

    Shriram, Varsha; Nanekar, Vikas; Kumar, Vinay; Kavi Kishor, P B

    2014-11-01

    Various parameters including explant-type, medium compositions, use of phytohormones and additives were optimized for direct and indirect regeneration of E. ochreata, a medicinal orchid under threat. Protocorm-like-bodies (PLBs) proved to be the best explants for shoot initiation, proliferation and callus induction. Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium containing 2.5 mg L(-1) 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), 1.0 mg L(-1) kinetin (Kin) and additives (adenine sulfate, arginine, citric acid, 30 mg L(-1) each and 50 mg L(-1) ascorbic acid) was optimal for shoot multiplication (12.1 shoots and 7.1 PLBs per explant with synchronized growth), which also produced callus. Shoot number was further increased with three successive subcultures on same media and approximately 40 shoots per explant were achieved after 3 cycles of 30 days each. Additives and casein hydrolysate (CH) showed advantageous effects on indirect shoot regeneration via protocorm-derived callus. Optimum indirect regeneration was achieved on MS containing additives, 500 mg L(-1) CH, 2.5 mg L(-1) BAP and 1.0 mg L(-1) Kin with 30 PLBs and 6 shoots per callus mass (approximately 5 mm size). The shoots were rooted (70% frequency) on one by fourth-MS medium containing 2.0 mg L(-1) indole-3-butyric acid, 200 mg L(-1) activated charcoal and additives. The rooted plantlets were hardened and transferred to greenhouse with 63% survival rate. Flow-cytometry based DNA content analysis revealed that the ploidy levels were maintained in in vitro regenerated plants. This is the first report for in vitro plant regeneration in E. ochreata.

  12. Predicting volumes in four Hawaii hardwoods...first multivariate equations developed

    Treesearch

    David A. Sharpnack

    1966-01-01

    Multivariate regression equations were developed for predicting board-foot (Int. 1/ 4-inch log rule ) and cubic-foot volumes in each 8.15-foot section of trees of four Hawaii hardwood species. The species are koa (Acacia koa), ohia (Metrosideros polymorpha), robusta eucalyptus (Eucalyptus robusta), and...

  13. New species of Ashmeadiella Cockerell (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) from Mexico

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two new species of bees from Mexico are described and illustrated here: Ashmeadiella (Ashmeadiella) danuncia n. sp. and A. (A.) mandibularis n. sp. These species are most frequently found visiting flowers of Cactaceae, although they have also been collected on flowers of Acacia, Prosopis, Lopezia, D...

  14. Moderating night radiative cooling reduces frost damage to Metrosideros polymorpha seedlings used for forest restoration in Hawaii

    Treesearch

    Paul G. Scowcroft; Frederick C. Meinzer; Guillermo Goldstein; Peter J. Melcher; Jack Jeffrey

    2000-01-01

    Winter frosts caused by radiative cooling were hypothesized to limit successful reintroduction of Hawaiian plants other than Acacia koa to alien-dominated grasslands above 1700 m elevation. We determined, in the laboratory, the temperature at which irreversible tissue damage occurred to Metrosideros polymorpha leaves. We also...

  15. Mass and nutrient dynamics of decaying litter from Passiflora mollissima and selected native species in a Hawaiian montane rain forest

    Treesearch

    Paul G. Scowcroft

    1997-01-01

    The structure and functioning of Acacia koa-Metrosideros polymorpha forests between 1200 and 1800 m elevation on the island of Hawaii are being threatened by Passiflora mollissima, an aggressive introduced liana from South America. This study was done to evaluate the short-term decomposition dynamics of...

  16. Flow behavior characteristics of ice cream mix made with buffalo milk and various stabilizers.

    PubMed

    Minhas, Kuldip S; Sidhu, Jiwan S; Mudahar, Gurmail S; Singh, A K

    2002-01-01

    Ice cream made with buffalo milk, using optimum levels of various stabilizers of plant origin, was evaluated for its flow behavior characteristics, with the objective of producing an acceptable quality product. The minimum variation in the viscosity of mix was observed at three rates of shear (348.88, 523.33 and 1046.66 S(-1)) for all ice cream mixes. The flow behavior index (n) of all the mixes having optimum levels of various stabilizers was observed to be less than 1; indicating their pseudoplastic nature. Consistency coefficient (m) of sodium alginate was found to be 1.19; highest among all the stabilizers, followed by gelatin (1.17), karaya (1.08), guar gum (0.75), acacia gum (0.70), ghatti gum (0.36), and the control (0.29). The consistency coefficient (m) signifies the apparent viscosity of the pseudoplastic fluid. The viscosity of the mixes having various stabilizers (optimum levels) was found to be in descending order: Sodium alginate, gelatin, karaya, guar gum, acacia, ghatti and control.

  17. Determination of the floral origin of some Romanian honeys on the basis of physical and biochemical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cimpoiu, Claudia; Hosu, Anamaria; Miclaus, Vasile; Puscas, Anitta

    The aim of this study was to determine the physical and biochemical properties of some Romanian honeys in order to discriminate between their floral origins. The evaluated properties were total phenolic content, total protein content, total free amino acids content, color intensity (ABS450), pH, ash content, antioxidant activity. Twenty-six commercial honeys from six types of flowers (acacia, sunflower, forest, polyfloral, lime and Sea Buckthorn) were investigated. All samples showed considerable variations with reference to their properties. The properties values were in the range of approved limits (according to EU legislation). The total phenolic, total protein and total free amino acids contents and color intensity varied considerably. Similarly, forest honey had the highest antioxidant activity while the lowest was found in acacia honey. Correlation between the floral origin of honeys and the physical and biochemical properties, respectively, was observed. Moreover, this study demonstrates remarkable variation in DPPH scavenging activity and content of total phenols in honey, depending on its botanic source.

  18. Dung, diet, and the paleoenvironment of the extinct shrub-ox ( Euceratherium collinum) on the Colorado Plateau, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kropf, Manny; Mead, Jim I.; Scott Anderson, R.

    2007-01-01

    Fossil remains of Euceratherium collinum (extinct shrub-ox) have been found throughout North America, including the Grand Canyon. Recent finds from the Escalante River Basin in southern Utah further extend the animal's range into the heart of the Colorado Plateau. E. collinum teeth and a metapodial condyle (foot bone) have been recovered in association with large distinctively shaped dung pellets, a morphology similar to a 'Hershey's Kiss' (HK), from a late Pleistocene dung layer in Bechan Cave. HK dung pellets have also been recovered from other alcoves in the Escalante River Basin including Willow and Fortymile canyons. Detailed analyses of the HK pellets confirmed them to be E. collinum and indicate a browser-type diet dominated (> 95%) by trees and shrubs: Artemisia tridentata (big sagebrush), Acacia sp. (acacia), Quercus (oak), and Chrysothamnus (rabbit brush). The retrieval of spring and fall pollen suggests E. collinum was a year-round resident in the Escalante River Basin.

  19. 21 CFR 184.1330 - Acacia (gum arabic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) of this chapter; formulation aid, § 170.3(o)(14) of this chapter; stabilizer and thickener, § 170.3(o... and thickener, § 170.3(o)(28) of this chapter; surface-finishing agent, § 170.3(o)(30) of this chapter... chapter; stabilizer and thickener, § 170.3(o)(28) of this chapter. Fats and oils, § 170.3(n)(12) of this...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1330 - Acacia (gum arabic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....3(o)(14) of this chapter; stabilizer and thickener, § 170.3(o)(28) of this chapter. Gelatins...; formulation aid, § 170.3(o)(14) of this chapter; stabilizer and thickener, § 170.3(o)(28) of this chapter... chapter 12.4 Formulation aid, § 170.3(o)(14) of this chapter; stabilizer and thickener, § 170.3(o)(28) of...

  1. BEDROOM 1 SHOWING THE OPENING IN THE EXTERIOR WALL FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BEDROOM 1 SHOWING THE OPENING IN THE EXTERIOR WALL FOR AN AIR CONDITIONER. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Three-Bedroom Duplex Type 3, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  2. Site preparation affects survival, growth of koa on degraded montane forest land

    Treesearch

    Paul G. Scowcroft; Kenneth T. Adee

    1991-01-01

    Banana poka vines (Possifloro mollisrimo) and kikuyu pass (Pennirerurn clondestinum) can limit koa(Acacia koa) reforestation in Hawaii. Performance of planted koa seedlings was studied in relation to type of site preparation: broadcast spraying of Roundup herbicide at three rates (2.02, 4.05, and 6.07 kg...

  3. Litter dynamics in two Sierran mixed conifer forests. I. Litterfall and decomposition rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.

    1988-01-01

    Litterfall was measured for 4 years and leaf litter decomposition rates were studied for 3.6 years in two mixed conifer forest (giant sequoia-fir and fir-pine) in the southern Sierra Nevada of California. The giant sequoia-fir forest (GS site) was dominated by giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum (Lindl.) Buchh.), white fir (Abies concolor Lindl. & Gord.), and sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana Dougl.). The fir-pine forest (FP site) was dominated by white fir, sugar pine, and incense cedar (Calocedrus decurrens (Torr.) Florin). Litterfall, including large woody debris -1•year-1 compared with 4355 kg•ha-1•year-1 at the FP site (3.4:1). In the GS site, leaf litter decomposition after 3.6 years was slowest for giant sequoia (28.2% mass loss), followed by sugar pine (34.3%) and white fie (45.1%). In the FP site, mass loss was slowest for sugar pine (40.0%), followed by white fir (45.1%), while incense cedar showed the greatest mass loss (56.9%) after 3.6 years. High litterfall rates of large woody debris (i.e., 2.5-15.2 cm diameter) and slow rates of leaf litter decomposition in the giant sequoia-fir forest type may result in higher litter accumulation rates than in the fir-pine type. Leaf litter times to 95% decay for the GS and FP sites were 30 and 27 years, respectively, if the initial 0.7-year period (a short period of rapid mass decay) was ignored in the calculation. A mass balance approach for total litterfall (<15.2 cm diameter) decomposition yielded lower decay constants than did the litterbag study and therefore longer times to 95% decay (57 years for the GS site and 62 years for the FP site).

  4. Labellar Micromorphology of Bifrenariinae Dressler (Orchidaceae)

    PubMed Central

    DAVIES, K. L.; STPICZYŃSKA, M.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims The two closely related subtribes Bifrenariinae Dressler and Maxillariinae Benth. are easily distinguished on morphological grounds. Recently, however, molecular techniques have supported the inclusion of Bifrenariinae within a more broadly defined Maxillariinae. The present paper describes the diverse labellar micromorphology found amongst representatives of Bifrenariinae (Bifrenaria Lindl., Rudolfiella Hoehne, Teuscheria Garay and Xylobium Lindl.) and compares it with that found in Maxillaria Pabst & Dungs and Mormolyca Fenzl (Maxillariinae). • Methods The labella of 35 specimens representing 22 species of Bifrenariinae were examined by means of light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy and their micromorphology compared with that of Maxillaria sensu stricto and Mormolyca spp. The labellar epidermis of representatives of Bifrenaria, Xylobium and Mormolyca was tested for protein, starch and lipids in order to ascertain whether this tissue is involved in the rewarding of pollinators. • Key Results and Conclusions The labella of Bifrenaria spp. and Mormolyca spp. are densely pubescent but those of Xylobium, Teuscheria and Rudolfiella are generally papillose. However, whereas the trichomes of Bifrenaria and Mormolyca are unicellular, those found in the other three genera are multicellular. Hitherto, no unicellular trichomes have been described for Maxillaria, although the labella of a number of species secrete a viscid substance or bear moniliform, pseudopollen-producing hairs. Moniliform hairs and secretory material also occur in certain species of Xylobium and Teuscheria and these genera, together with Maxillaria, are thought to be pollinated by stingless bees (Meliponini). Differences in the labellar micromorphology of Bifrenaria and Mormolyca are perhaps related to Euglossine- and/ or bumble bee-mediated pollination and pseudocopulation, respectively. Although Xylobium and Teuscheria share a number of labellar features with

  5. Initial growth of leguminous trees and shrubs in a cut gold mined area in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Dias, L.E.; Campello, E.F.C.; Ribeiro, E.S. Jr.

    In an opencast gold mining in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, leguminous trees and shrubs were used to revegetate an acid cut mined area. the substrate was high in pyrite content (3%) and received 50 cm of covered material in two layers: (1) insulating layer of 20 cm where clay or a mining refuse (MR) was used to prevent the pyrite oxidation, and (2) an upper layer with 30 cm formed by topsoil or topsoil + urban compost (3:1 v/v). After the application of the cover materials, planting holes were manually made spaced by 1 x 1 m. Each hole receivedmore » limestone (100 g), rock phosphate (150 g), potassium chloride (45 g) and cattle manure (2 L). Fifteen leguminous species were planted an each plot (15 x 8 m), spaced by 1.0 x 1.0 m (one specie per row). Sixteen months after the planting the plants were evaluated and the results showed an effect of substrate on the plants survival, height, and diameter. The use of clay as insulating layer was better than mining refuse and the plants did not respond to the addition of urban compost to the topsoil. Among the evaluated species, Thephrosia sinapau, Erytrina verna, Dipterix alata and Stryphnodenadrum guyanensis showed a mortality rate of 100% after 16 months while Sesbania marginata, Acacaia holosericea, Mimosa pellita, Acacia crassicarpa, Acacia mangium and Acacia angustissima exhibited more adaptation capacity to the acid substrate. Analyses from the substrate showed higher exchangeable acidity (Al{sup 3+}) for the plots receiving MR as insulating layer. This study has applications for the acid mine drainage from coal mines of Brazil.« less

  6. Structural and Functional Characterization of a Novel Family GH115 4-O-Methyl-α-Glucuronidase with Specificity for Decorated Arabinogalactans.

    PubMed

    Aalbers, Friso; Turkenburg, Johan P; Davies, Gideon J; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; Lammerts van Bueren, Alicia

    2015-12-04

    Glycoside hydrolases are clustered into families based on amino acid sequence similarities, and belonging to a particular family can infer biological activity of an enzyme. Family GH115 contains α-glucuronidases where several members have been shown to hydrolyze terminal α-1,2-linked glucuronic acid and 4-O-methylated glucuronic acid from the plant cell wall polysaccharide glucuronoxylan. Other GH115 enzymes show no activity on glucuronoxylan, and therefore, it has been proposed that family GH115 may be a poly-specific family. In this study, we reveal that a putative periplasmic GH115 from the human gut symbiont Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, BtGH115A, hydrolyzes terminal 4-O-methyl-glucuronic acid residues from decorated arabinogalactan isolated from acacia tree. The three-dimensional structure of BtGH115A reveals that BtGH115A has the same domain architecture as the other structurally characterized member of this family, BoAgu115A; however the position of the C-terminal module is altered with respect to each individual enzyme. Phylogenetic analysis of GH115 amino sequences divides the family into distinct clades that may distinguish different substrate specificities. Finally, we show that BtGH115A α-glucuronidase activity is necessary for the sequential digestion of branched galactans from acacia gum by a galactan-β-1,3-galactosidase from family GH43; however, while B. thetaiotaomicron grows on larch wood arabinogalactan, the bacterium is not able to metabolize acacia gum arabinogalactan, suggesting that BtGH115A is involved in degradation of arabinogalactan fragments liberated by other microbial species in the gastrointestinal tract. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Gut Balance, a synbiotic supplement, increases fecal Lactobacillus paracasei but has little effect on immunity in healthy physically active individuals

    PubMed Central

    West, Nicholas P.; Pyne, David B.; Cripps, Allan; Christophersen, Claus T.; Conlon, Michael A.; Fricker, Peter A.

    2012-01-01

    Synbiotic supplements, which contain multiple functional ingredients, may enhance the immune system more than the use of individual ingredients alone. A double blind active controlled parallel trial over a 21 day exercise training period was conducted to evaluate the effect of Gut BalanceTM, which contains Lactobacillus paracasei subsp paracasei (L. casei 431®), Bifidobacterium animalis ssp lactis (BB-12®), Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA-5®), Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LGG®), two prebiotics (raftiline and raftilose) and bovine whey derived lactoferrin and immunoglobulins with acacia gum on fecal microbiota, short chain fatty acids (SCFA), gut permeability, salivary lactoferrin and serum cytokines. All subjects randomized were included in the analysis. There was a 9-fold (1.2-fold to 64-fold; 95% confidence intervals p = 0.03) greater increase in fecal L. paracasei numbers with Gut BalanceTM compared with acacia gum supplementation. Gut BalanceTM was associated with a 50% (-12% to 72%; p = 0.02) smaller increase in the concentration of serum IL-16 in comparison to acacia gum from pre- to post-study. No substantial effects of either supplement were evident in fecal SCFA concentrations, measures of mucosal immunity or GI permeability. Clinical studies are now required to determine whether Gut BalanceTM may exert beneficial GI health effects by increasing the recovery of fecal L. paracasei. Both supplements had little effect on immunity. Twenty-two healthy physically active male subjects (mean age = 33.9 ± 6.5 y) were randomly allocated to either daily prebiotic or synbiotic supplementation for 21 day. Saliva, blood, urine and fecal samples were collected pre-, mid- and post-intervention. Participants recorded patterns of physical activity on a self-reported questionnaire. PMID:22572834

  8. A Specialist Herbivore Uses Chemical Camouflage to Overcome the Defenses of an Ant-Plant Mutualism

    PubMed Central

    Whitehead, Susan R.; Reid, Ellen; Sapp, Joseph; Poveda, Katja; Royer, Anne M.; Posto, Amanda L.; Kessler, André

    2014-01-01

    Many plants and ants engage in mutualisms where plants provide food and shelter to the ants in exchange for protection against herbivores and competitors. Although several species of herbivores thwart ant defenses and extract resources from the plants, the mechanisms that allow these herbivores to avoid attack are poorly understood. The specialist insect herbivore, Piezogaster reclusus (Hemiptera: Coreidae), feeds on Neotropical bull-horn acacias (Vachellia collinsii) despite the presence of Pseudomyrmex spinicola ants that nest in and aggressively defend the trees. We tested three hypotheses for how P. reclusus feeds on V. collinsii while avoiding ant attack: (1) chemical camouflage via cuticular surface compounds, (2) chemical deterrence via metathoracic defense glands, and (3) behavioral traits that reduce ant detection or attack. Our results showed that compounds from both P. reclusus cuticles and metathoracic glands reduce the number of ant attacks, but only cuticular compounds appear to be essential in allowing P. reclusus to feed on bull-horn acacia trees undisturbed. In addition, we found that ant attack rates to P. reclusus increased significantly when individuals were transferred between P. spinicola ant colonies. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that chemical mimicry of colony-specific ant or host plant odors plays a key role in allowing P. reclusus to circumvent ant defenses and gain access to important resources, including food and possibly enemy-free space. This interaction between ants, acacias, and their herbivores provides an excellent example of the ability of herbivores to adapt to ant defenses of plants and suggests that herbivores may play an important role in the evolution and maintenance of mutualisms. PMID:25047551

  9. The diversity of beetle assemblages in different habitat types in Sabah, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chung, A Y; Eggleton, P; Speight, M R; Hammond, P M; Chey, V K

    2000-12-01

    The diversity of beetle assemblages in different habitat types (primary forest, logged forest, acacia plantation and oil palm plantation) in Sabah, Malaysia was investigated using three different methods based on habitat levels (Winkler sampling, flight-interception-trapping and mist-blowing). The overall diversity was extremely high, with 1711 species recorded from only 8028 individuals and 81 families (115 family and subfamily groups). Different degrees of environmental changes had varying effects on the beetle species richness and abundance, with oil palm plantation assemblage being most severely affected, followed by acacia plantation and then logged forest. A few species became numerically dominant in the oil palm plantation. In terms of beetle species composition, the acacia fauna showed much similarity with the logged forest fauna, and the oil palm fauna was very different from the rest. The effects of environmental variables (number of plant species, sapling and tree densities, amount of leaf litter, ground cover, canopy cover, soil pH and compaction) on the beetle assemblage were also investigated. Leaf litter correlated with species richness, abundance and composition of subterranean beetles. Plant species richness, tree and sapling densities correlated with species richness, abundance and composition of understorey beetles while ground cover correlated only with the species richness and abundance of these beetles. Canopy cover correlated only with arboreal beetles. In trophic structure, predators represented more than 40% of the species and individuals. Environmental changes affected the trophic structure with proportionally more herbivores (abundance) but fewer predators (species richness and abundance) in the oil palm plantation. Biodiversity, conservation and practical aspects of pest management were also highlighted in this study.

  10. Effects of landfill gas on subtropical woody plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, G. Y. S.; Wong, M. H.; Whitton, B. A.

    1991-05-01

    An account is given of the influence of landfill gas on tree growth in the field at Gin Drinkers' Bay (GDB) landfill, Hong Kong, and in the laboratory. Ten species ( Acacia confusa, Albizzia lebbek, Aporusa chinensis, Bombax malabaricum, Castanopsis fissa, Liquidambar formosana, Litsea glutinosa, Machilus breviflora, Pinus elliottii, and Tristania conferta), belonging to eight families, were transplanted to two sites, one with a high concentration of landfill gas in the cover soil (high-gas site, HGS) and the other with a relatively low concentration of gas (low-gas site, LGS). Apart from the gaseous composition, the general soil properties were similar. A strong negative correlation between tree growth and landfill gas concentration was observed. A laboratory study using the simulated landfill gas to fumigate seedlings of the above species showed that the adventitious root growth of Aporusa chinensis, Bombax malabaricum, Machilus breviflora, and Tristania confera was stimulated by the gas, with shallow root systems being induced. Acacia confusa, Albizzia lebbek, and Litsea glutinosa were gas-tolerant, while root growth of Castanopsis fissa, Liquidambar formosana, and Pinus elliottii was inhibited. In most cases, shoot growth was not affected, exceptions being Bombax malabaricum, Liquidambar formosana, and Tristania conferta, where stunted growth and/or reduced foliation was observed. A very high CO2 concentration in cover soil limits the depth of the root system. Trees with a shallow root system become very susceptible to water stress. The effects of low O2 concentration in soil are less important than the effects of high CO2 concentration. Acacia confusa, Albizzia lebbek, and Tristania conferta are suited for growth on subtropical completed landfills mainly due to their gas tolerance and/or drought tolerance.

  11. A specialist herbivore uses chemical camouflage to overcome the defenses of an ant-plant mutualism.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Susan R; Reid, Ellen; Sapp, Joseph; Poveda, Katja; Royer, Anne M; Posto, Amanda L; Kessler, André

    2014-01-01

    Many plants and ants engage in mutualisms where plants provide food and shelter to the ants in exchange for protection against herbivores and competitors. Although several species of herbivores thwart ant defenses and extract resources from the plants, the mechanisms that allow these herbivores to avoid attack are poorly understood. The specialist insect herbivore, Piezogaster reclusus (Hemiptera: Coreidae), feeds on Neotropical bull-horn acacias (Vachellia collinsii) despite the presence of Pseudomyrmex spinicola ants that nest in and aggressively defend the trees. We tested three hypotheses for how P. reclusus feeds on V. collinsii while avoiding ant attack: (1) chemical camouflage via cuticular surface compounds, (2) chemical deterrence via metathoracic defense glands, and (3) behavioral traits that reduce ant detection or attack. Our results showed that compounds from both P. reclusus cuticles and metathoracic glands reduce the number of ant attacks, but only cuticular compounds appear to be essential in allowing P. reclusus to feed on bull-horn acacia trees undisturbed. In addition, we found that ant attack rates to P. reclusus increased significantly when individuals were transferred between P. spinicola ant colonies. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that chemical mimicry of colony-specific ant or host plant odors plays a key role in allowing P. reclusus to circumvent ant defenses and gain access to important resources, including food and possibly enemy-free space. This interaction between ants, acacias, and their herbivores provides an excellent example of the ability of herbivores to adapt to ant defenses of plants and suggests that herbivores may play an important role in the evolution and maintenance of mutualisms.

  12. Induced parthenogenesis by gamma-irradiated pollen in loquat for haploid production.

    PubMed

    Blasco, Manuel; Badenes, María Luisa; Del Mar Naval, María

    2016-09-01

    Successful haploid induction in loquat ( Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.) through in situ-induced parthenogenesis with gamma-ray irradiated pollen has been achieved. Female flowers of cultivar 'Algerie' were pollinated using pollen of cultivars 'Changhong-3', 'Cox' and 'Saval Brasil' irradiated with two doses of gamma rays, 150 and 300 Gy. The fruits were harvested 90, 105 and 120 days after pollination (dap). Four haploid plants were obtained from 'Algerie' pollinated with 300-Gy-treated pollen of 'Saval Brasil' from fruits harvested 105 dap. Haploidy was confirmed by flow cytometry and chromosome count. The haploids showed a very weak development compared to the diploid plants. This result suggests that irradiated pollen can be used to obtain parthenogenetic haploids.

  13. OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTHEAST CORNER UNIT A. NOTE THE ADDED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTHEAST CORNER UNIT A. NOTE THE ADDED OPENING WITH AIR CONDITIONER. VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Two-Bedroom Duplex Type 1, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  14. Carbon pools in an arid shrubland in Chile under natural and afforested conditions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Arid and semiarid regions comprise 41% of the continental area of Chile, but no estimates of carbon (C) pools have been reported for these areas. This study quantified the C pools of biomass, litter, and soil for natural compared to afforested (two-year-old Acacia saligna (Labill.) H.L. Wendl.) sit...

  15. Desert Southwest Community Tree Guide: Benefits, Costs and Strategic Planting

    Treesearch

    Greg McPherson; J.R. Simpson; P.J. Peper; S.E. Maco; Q. Xiao; E. Mulrean

    2004-01-01

    This report quantifies benefits and costs for typical large-, medium-, small-stature, deciduous trees (Fraxinus uhdei, Prosopis chilensis, Acacia farnesiana), as well as a conifer (Pinus halapensis). The analysis assumed that trees were planted in a residential yard site or a public (street/park) site, a 40-year time frame, and...

  16. Poor stem form as a potential limitation to private investment in koa plantation forestry in Hawaii

    Treesearch

    Paul G. Scowcroft; James B. Friday; Janis Haraguchi; Travis Idol; Nicklos S. Dudley

    2010-01-01

    Providing economic incentives to landholders is an effective way of promoting sustainable forest management, conservation and restoration. In Hawaii, the main native hardwood species with commercial value is Acacia koa (koa), but lack of successful examples of koa plantation forestry hinders private investment. Financial models, which have been offered to encourage...

  17. 21 CFR 582.7330 - Gum arabic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gum arabic. 582.7330 Section 582.7330 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Stabilizers § 582.7330 Gum arabic. (a) Product. Acacia (gum arabic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as...

  18. 21 CFR 582.7330 - Gum arabic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gum arabic. 582.7330 Section 582.7330 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Stabilizers § 582.7330 Gum arabic. (a) Product. Acacia (gum arabic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as...

  19. 21 CFR 582.7330 - Gum arabic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gum arabic. 582.7330 Section 582.7330 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Stabilizers § 582.7330 Gum arabic. (a) Product. Acacia (gum arabic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as...

  20. Reforestation and topography affect montane soil properties, nitrogen pools, and nitrogen transformations in Hawaii

    Treesearch

    Paul G. Scowcroft; Janis E. Haraguchi; Nguyen V. Hue

    2004-01-01

    Land use changes, such as deforestation and reforestation, modify not only the organisms inhabiting affected areas, but also above-and belowground environments. Topography further influences local vegetation and environment. Effects of topography and re-establishment of N-fixing koa (Acacia koa A. Gray) trees in +100-yr-old montane grassland on...

  1. Molecular genetic characterization of the koa-wilt pathogen (Fusarium oxysporum): Application of molecular genetic tools toward improving koa restoration in Hawai'i

    Treesearch

    Mee-Sook Kim; Jane E. Stewart; Nicklos Dudley; John Dobbs; Tyler Jones; Phil G. Cannon; Robert L. James; Kas Dumroese; Ned B. Klopfenstein

    2015-01-01

    Several forest diseases are causing serious threats to the native Hawaiian forest. Among them, koawilt disease (caused by Fusarium oxysporum) is damaging to native populations of koa (Acacia koa), and it also hinders koa restoration/reforestation. Because F. oxysporum likely represents a complex of species with distinct pathogenic activities, more detailed...

  2. VIEW OF DATE DRIVE, FROM INTERSECTION WITH BIRCH CIRCLE, WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF DATE DRIVE, FROM INTERSECTION WITH BIRCH CIRCLE, WITH FACILITY 809 ON LEFT, 816 ON RIGHT. NOTE THE MANY DATE PALMS. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  3. Moisture barrier properties of xylan composite films

    Treesearch

    Amit Saxena; Thomas J. Elder; Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2011-01-01

    Moisture barrier properties of films based on xylan reinforced with several cellulosic resources including nanocrystalline cellulose, acacia bleached kraft pulp fibers and softwood kraft fibers have been evaluated. Measurements of water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) were performed by a modification of the wet cup method described by ASTM E 96-95, indicating that...

  4. Fungal Planet description sheets: 400-468.

    PubMed

    Crous, P W; Wingfield, M J; Richardson, D M; Le Roux, J J; Strasberg, D; Edwards, J; Roets, F; Hubka, V; Taylor, P W J; Heykoop, M; Martín, M P; Moreno, G; Sutton, D A; Wiederhold, N P; Barnes, C W; Carlavilla, J R; Gené, J; Giraldo, A; Guarnaccia, V; Guarro, J; Hernández-Restrepo, M; Kolařík, M; Manjón, J L; Pascoe, I G; Popov, E S; Sandoval-Denis, M; Woudenberg, J H C; Acharya, K; Alexandrova, A V; Alvarado, P; Barbosa, R N; Baseia, I G; Blanchette, R A; Boekhout, T; Burgess, T I; Cano-Lira, J F; Čmoková, A; Dimitrov, R A; Dyakov, M Yu; Dueñas, M; Dutta, A K; Esteve-Raventós, F; Fedosova, A G; Fournier, J; Gamboa, P; Gouliamova, D E; Grebenc, T; Groenewald, M; Hanse, B; Hardy, G E St J; Held, B W; Jurjević, Ž; Kaewgrajang, T; Latha, K P D; Lombard, L; Luangsa-Ard, J J; Lysková, P; Mallátová, N; Manimohan, P; Miller, A N; Mirabolfathy, M; Morozova, O V; Obodai, M; Oliveira, N T; Ordóñez, M E; Otto, E C; Paloi, S; Peterson, S W; Phosri, C; Roux, J; Salazar, W A; Sánchez, A; Sarria, G A; Shin, H-D; Silva, B D B; Silva, G A; Smith, M Th; Souza-Motta, C M; Stchigel, A M; Stoilova-Disheva, M M; Sulzbacher, M A; Telleria, M T; Toapanta, C; Traba, J M; Valenzuela-Lopez, N; Watling, R; Groenewald, J Z

    2016-06-01

    Novel species of fungi described in the present study include the following from Australia: Vermiculariopsiella eucalypti, Mulderomyces natalis (incl. Mulderomyces gen. nov.), Fusicladium paraamoenum, Neotrimmatostroma paraexcentricum, and Pseudophloeospora eucalyptorum on leaves of Eucalyptus spp., Anungitea grevilleae (on leaves of Grevillea sp.), Pyrenochaeta acaciae (on leaves of Acacia sp.), and Brunneocarpos banksiae (incl. Brunneocarpos gen. nov.) on cones of Banksia attenuata. Novel foliicolous taxa from South Africa include Neosulcatispora strelitziae (on Strelitzia nicolai), Colletotrichum ledebouriae (on Ledebouria floridunda), Cylindrosympodioides brabejum (incl. Cylindrosympodioides gen. nov.) on Brabejum stellatifolium, Sclerostagonospora ericae (on Erica sp.), Setophoma cyperi (on Cyperus sphaerocephala), and Phaeosphaeria breonadiae (on Breonadia microcephala). Novelties described from Robben Island (South Africa) include Wojnowiciella cissampeli and Diaporthe cissampeli (both on Cissampelos capensis), Phaeotheca salicorniae (on Salicornia meyeriana), Paracylindrocarpon aloicola (incl. Paracylindrocarpon gen. nov.) on Aloe sp., and Libertasomyces myopori (incl. Libertasomyces gen. nov.) on Myoporum serratum. Several novelties are recorded from La Réunion (France), namely Phaeosphaeriopsis agapanthi (on Agapanthus sp.), Roussoella solani (on Solanum mauritianum), Vermiculariopsiella acaciae (on Acacia heterophylla), Dothiorella acacicola (on Acacia mearnsii), Chalara clidemiae (on Clidemia hirta), Cytospora tibouchinae (on Tibouchina semidecandra), Diaporthe ocoteae (on Ocotea obtusata), Castanediella eucalypticola, Phaeophleospora eucalypticola and Fusicladium eucalypticola (on Eucalyptus robusta), Lareunionomyces syzygii (incl. Lareunionomyces gen. nov.) and Parawiesneriomyces syzygii (incl. Parawiesneriomyces gen. nov.) on leaves of Syzygium jambos. Novel taxa from the USA include Meristemomyces arctostaphylos (on Arctostaphylos patula

  5. Flavonoids, Phenolics, and Antioxidant Capacity in the Flower of Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Chunhua; Sun, Chongde; Chen, Kunsong; Li, Xian

    2011-01-01

    Flavonoids and phenolics are abundant in loquat flowers. Methanol had the highest extraction efficiency among five solvents, followed by ethanol. Considering the safety and residue, ethanol is better as extraction solvent. The average content of flavonoids and phenolics of loquat flower of five cultivars were 1.59 ± 0.24 and 7.86 ± 0.87 mg/g DW, respectively, when using ethanol as extraction solvent. The contents of both bioactive components in flowers at different developmental stages and in the various flower tissues clearly differed, with the highest flavonoids and phenolics content in flowers of stage 3 (flower fully open) and petal, respectively. The antioxidant capacity was measured using FRAP, DPPH, and ABTS methods. The values of ABTS method was highest, followed by DPPH, the lowest was FRAP, when using vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity (VCEAC) as unit. Correlation analysis showed that the ABTS method showed the highest correlation coefficients with flavonoids and phenolics, i.e., 0.886 and 0.973, respectively. PMID:21686159

  6. General unknown screening, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of Dendrobium macrostachyum Lindl.

    PubMed

    Sukumaran, Nimisha Pulikkal; Yadav, R Hiranmai

    2016-01-01

    D. macrostachyum is an epiphytic orchid abundant in Southern India and is reported for pain relief in folklore. The objective of the present study was to determine in vitro free radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory activity of D. macrostachyum and to perform LCMS based metabolic profiling of the plant. Sequential stem and leaf extracts were assessed for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity by in vitro methods. The antioxidant activity determined by assays based on the decolourization of the radical monocation of DPPH, ABTS and reducing power. Total amount of phenolics for quantitative analysis of antioxidative components was estimated. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using protein denaturation assay, membrane stabilization assay and proteinase inhibitory activity. Methanolic extract of plant was subjected to LCMS. The stem ethanolic extracts exhibited significant IC50 value of 10.21, 31.54 and 142.97 μg/ml respectively for DPPH, ABTS radical scavenging and reducing power activity. The ethanol and water extract was highly effective as albumin denaturation inhibitors (IC50 = 114.13 and 135.818 μg/ml respectively) and proteinase inhibitors (IC50 = 72.49 and 129.681 μg/ml respectively). Membrane stabilization was also noticeably inhibited by the stem ethanolic extract among other extracts (IC50 = 89.33 μg/ml) but comparatively lower to aspirin standard (IC50 = 83.926 μg/ml). The highest total phenol content was exhibited by ethanolic stem and leaf extracts respectively at 20 and 16 mg of gallic acid equivalents of dry extract. On LCMS analysis 20 constituents were identified and it included chemotaxonomic marker for Dendrobium species. The results showed a relatively high concentration of phenolics, high scavenger activity and high anti-inflammatory activity of the stem extract compared to the leaf extract. The results indicate that the plant can be a potential source of bioactive compounds.

  7. General unknown screening, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of Dendrobium macrostachyum Lindl.

    PubMed Central

    Sukumaran, Nimisha Pulikkal; Yadav, R. Hiranmai

    2016-01-01

    Context: D. macrostachyum is an epiphytic orchid abundant in Southern India and is reported for pain relief in folklore. Aims: The objective of the present study was to determine in vitro free radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory activity of D. macrostachyum and to perform LCMS based metabolic profiling of the plant. Settings and Design: Sequential stem and leaf extracts were assessed for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity by in vitro methods. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activity determined by assays based on the decolourization of the radical monocation of DPPH, ABTS and reducing power. Total amount of phenolics for quantitative analysis of antioxidative components was estimated. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using protein denaturation assay, membrane stabilization assay and proteinase inhibitory activity. Methanolic extract of plant was subjected to LCMS. Results: The stem ethanolic extracts exhibited significant IC50 value of 10.21, 31.54 and 142.97 μg/ml respectively for DPPH, ABTS radical scavenging and reducing power activity. The ethanol and water extract was highly effective as albumin denaturation inhibitors (IC50 = 114.13 and 135.818 μg/ml respectively) and proteinase inhibitors (IC50 = 72.49 and 129.681 μg/ml respectively). Membrane stabilization was also noticeably inhibited by the stem ethanolic extract among other extracts (IC50 = 89.33 μg/ml) but comparatively lower to aspirin standard (IC50 = 83.926 μg/ml). The highest total phenol content was exhibited by ethanolic stem and leaf extracts respectively at 20 and 16 mg of gallic acid equivalents of dry extract. On LCMS analysis 20 constituents were identified and it included chemotaxonomic marker for Dendrobium species. Conclusions: The results showed a relatively high concentration of phenolics, high scavenger activity and high anti-inflammatory activity of the stem extract compared to the leaf extract. The results indicate that the plant can be a potential source of bioactive compounds. PMID:27621524

  8. Ethylene biosynthesis and perception during ripening of loquat fruit (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.).

    PubMed

    Alos, E; Martinez-Fuentes, A; Reig, C; Mesejo, C; Rodrigo, M J; Agustí, M; Zacarías, L

    2017-03-01

    In order to gain insights into the controversial ripening behavior of loquat fruits, in the present study we have analyzed the expression of three genes related to ethylene biosynthesis (ACS1, ACO1 and ACO2), two ethylene receptors (ERS1a and ERS1b), one signal transduction component (CTR1) and one transcription factor (EIL1) in peel and pulp of loquat fruit during natural ripening and also in fruits treated with ethylene (10μLL -1 ) and 1-MCP (10μLL -1 ), an ethylene action inhibitor. In fruits attached to or detached from the tree, a slight increase in ethylene production was detected at the yellow stage, but the respiration rate declined progressively during ripening. Accumulation of transcripts of ethylene biosynthetic genes did not correlate with changes in ethylene production, since the maximum accumulation of ACS1 and ACO1 mRNA was detected in fully coloured fruits. Expression of ethylene receptor and signaling genes followed a different pattern in peel and pulp tissues. After fruit detachment and incubation at 20°C for up to 6days, ACS1 mRNA slightly increased, ACO1 experienced a substantial increment and ACO2 declined. In the peel, these changes were advanced by exogenous ethylene and partially inhibited by 1-MCP. In the pulp, 1-MCP repressed most of the changes in the expression of biosynthetic genes, while ethylene had almost no effects. Expression of ethylene perception and signaling genes was barely affected by ethylene or 1-MCP. Collectively, a differential transcriptional regulation of ethylene biosynthetic genes operates in peel and pulp, and support the notion of non-climacteric ripening in loquat fruits. Ethylene action, however, appears to be required to sustain or maintain the expression of specific genes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  9. Chemical characterisation of PM10 emissions from combustion in a closed stove of common woods grown in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, C.; Alves, C.; Pio, C.; Rzaca, M.; Schmidl, C.; Puxbaum, H.

    2009-04-01

    A series of source tests were conducted to determine the wood elemental composition, combustion gases and the chemical constitution of PM10 emissions from the closed stove combustion of four species of woods grown in Portugal: Eucalyptus globulos, Pinus pinaster, Quercus suber and Acacia longifolia. The burning tests were made in a closed stove with a dilution source sampler. To ascertain the combustion phase and conditions, continuous emission monitors measured O2, CO2, CO, NO, hydrocarbons, temperature and pressure, during each burning cycle. Woodsmoke samples have been collected and analysed to estimate the contribution of plant debris and biomass smoke to atmospheric aerosols. At this stage of work, cellulose, anhydrosugars and humic-like substances (HULIS) have been measured. Cellulose was determined photometrically after its conversion to D-Glucose. The determination of levoglucosan and other anhydrosugars, including mannosan and galactosan, was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. HULIS determination was made with a total organic carbon analyser and an infrared non dispersive detector, after the isolation of substances. Cellulose was present in PM10 at mass fractions (w/w) of 0.13%, 0.13%, 0.05% and 0.08% for Eucalyptus globulos, Pinus pinaster, Quercus suber and Acacia longifolia, respectively. Levoglucosan was the major anhydrosugar present in the samples, representing mass fractions of 14.71%, 3.80%, 6.78% and 1.91%, concerning the above mentioned wood species, respectively. The levoglucosan-to-mannosan ratio, usually used to evaluate the proportion of hardwood or softwood smoke in PM10, gave average values of 34.9 (Eucalyptus globulos), 3.40 (Pinus pinaster), 24.8 (Quercus suber) and 10.4 (Acacia longifolia). HULIS were present at mass fractions of 2.35%, 2.99%, 1.52% and 1.72% for the four wood species listed in the same order as before.

  10. From seed production to seedling establishment: Important steps in an invasive process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreras, Ana Elisa; Galetto, Leonardo

    2010-03-01

    It is widely accepted that exotic invasive species are one of the most important ecological and economic problems. Reproductive and establishment traits are considered key features of a population expansion process, but few works have studied many of these simultaneously. This work examines how large the differences are in reproductive and establishment traits between two Fabaceae, the exotic invasive, Gleditsia triacanthos and the native, Acacia aroma. Gleditsia is a serious leguminous woody invader in various parts of the world and Acacia is a common native tree of Argentina. Both species have similar dispersal mechanisms and their reproductive phenology overlaps. We chose 17 plants of each species in a continuous forest of the Chaco Serrano Forest of Córdoba, Argentina. In each plant we measured fruit production, fruit removal (exclusion experiments), seed predation (pre- and post-dispersal), seed germination, seed bank (on each focal tree, three sampling periods during the year), and density of seedlings (around focal individuals and randomly in the study site). Gleditsia presented some traits that could favour the invasion process, such as a higher number of seeds per plant, percentage of scarified seed germination and density of seedlings around the focal individuals, than Acacia. On the other hand, Gleditsia presented a higher percentage of seed predation. The seed bank was persistent in both species and no differences were observed in fruit removal. This work highlights the importance of simultaneously studying reproductive and establishment variables involved in the spreading of an exotic invasive species. It also gives important insight into the variables to be considered when planning management strategies. The results are discussed from the perspective of some remarkable hypotheses on invasive species and may contribute to rethinking some aspects of the theory on invasive species.

  11. Seeds Use Temperature Cues to Ensure Germination under Nurse-plant Shade in Xeric Kalahari Savannah

    PubMed Central

    Kos, Martijn; Poschlod, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims In arid environments many plant species are found associated with the canopies of woody perennials. Favourable conditions for establishment under canopies are likely to be associated with shade, but under canopies shade is distributed patchily and differs in quality. Diurnal temperature fluctuations and maximum temperatures could be reliable indicators of safe sites. Here, an examination is made as to whether canopy-associated species use temperature cues to germinate in shade patches, rather than matrix areas between trees. Methods The study was carried out in arid southern Kalahari savannah (Republic of South Africa). Perennial and annual species associated with Acacia erioloba trees and matrix species were germinated at temperature regimes resembling shaded and unshaded conditions. Soil temperature was measured in the field. Key Results Germination of all fleshy-fruited perennial acacia-associated species and two annual acacia-associated species was inhibited by the temperature regime resembling unshaded conditions compared with at least one of the regimes resembling shaded conditions. Inhibition in perennials decreased with seed mass, probably reflecting that smaller seedlings are more vulnerable to drought. Germination of matrix species was not inhibited by the unshaded temperature regime and in several cases it increased germination compared with shaded temperature regimes or constant temperature. Using phylogenetically independent contrasts a significant positive relationship was found between canopy association and the germination at shade temperatures relative to unshaded temperatures. Conclusions The data support the hypothesis that canopy species have developed mechanisms to prevent germination in open sun conditions. The results and data from the literature show that inhibition of germination at temperature regimes characteristic of open sun conditions can be found in fleshy-fruited species of widely divergent taxonomic groups. It is

  12. Natural abundance (δ¹⁵N) indicates shifts in nitrogen relations of woody taxa along a savanna-woodland continental rainfall gradient.

    PubMed

    Soper, Fiona M; Richards, Anna E; Siddique, Ilyas; Aidar, Marcos P M; Cook, Garry D; Hutley, Lindsay B; Robinson, Nicole; Schmidt, Susanne

    2015-05-01

    Water and nitrogen (N) interact to influence soil N cycling and plant N acquisition. We studied indices of soil N availability and acquisition by woody plant taxa with distinct nutritional specialisations along a north Australian rainfall gradient from monsoonal savanna (1,600-1,300 mm annual rainfall) to semi-arid woodland (600-250 mm). Aridity resulted in increased 'openness' of N cycling, indicated by increasing δ(15)N(soil) and nitrate:ammonium ratios, as plant communities transitioned from N to water limitation. In this context, we tested the hypothesis that δ(15)N(root) xylem sap provides a more direct measure of plant N acquisition than δ(15)N(foliage). We found highly variable offsets between δ(15)N(foliage) and δ(15)N(root) xylem sap, both between taxa at a single site (1.3-3.4 ‰) and within taxa across sites (0.8-3.4 ‰). As a result, δ(15)N(foliage) overlapped between N-fixing Acacia and non-fixing Eucalyptus/Corymbia and could not be used to reliably identify biological N fixation (BNF). However, Acacia δ(15)N(root) xylem sap indicated a decline in BNF with aridity corroborated by absence of root nodules and increasing xylem sap nitrate concentrations and consistent with shifting resource limitation. Acacia dominance at arid sites may be attributed to flexibility in N acquisition rather than BNF capacity. δ(15)N(root) xylem sap showed no evidence of shifting N acquisition in non-mycorrhizal Hakea/Grevillea and indicated only minor shifts in Eucalyptus/Corymbia consistent with enrichment of δ(15)N(soil) and/or decreasing mycorrhizal colonisation with aridity. We propose that δ(15)N(root) xylem sap is a more direct indicator of N source than δ(15)N(foliage), with calibration required before it could be applied to quantify BNF.

  13. Wood Quality of Old-Growth Koa Logs and Lumber

    Treesearch

    Janice K. Wiedenbeck; Eini Lowell

    2017-01-01

    Acacia koa trees are ecologically, economically, and culturally significant to the Hawaiian Islands. Koa wood is one of the most valuable species in the world and sale of koa products represents a majority of all the Hawaiian wood products sold by Hawaiian retailers. Today, there is concern in Hawaii among foresters, forest landowners and managers...

  14. Disturbance during logging stimulates regeneration of koa

    Treesearch

    Paul G. Scowcroft; Robert E. Nelson

    1976-01-01

    The abundance and distribution of Acacia koa regeneration after logging were studied on a 500-acre (202-ha) tract of koa forest heavily infested with Passiflora mollissima vines on the island of Hawaii. Koa seedling density was about three times greater in disturbed areas than in undisturbed ones. Most of the koa seedlings in...

  15. Lignin staining ...a limited success in identifying koa growth rings

    Treesearch

    Herbert L. Wick

    1970-01-01

    Among the lignin stains tested in trying to identify growth rings in koa (Acacia koa Gray), phloroglucinol was the most effective. The light colored sapwood of mature trees stained readily, with growth rings apparent. But staining failed to emphasize rings in the dark colored heartwood. Growth rings were not apparent on samples from young fast...

  16. Growth and refoliation of koa trees infested by the koa moth, Scotorythra Paludicola (Lepidoptera: Geometridae)

    Treesearch

    John D. Stein; Paul G. Scowcroft

    1984-01-01

    Since the early 1900s, four major infestations of the koa moth, Scotorythra paludicola (Butler), have defoliated koa (Acacia koa Gray) stands on the island of Maui. After trees on 7564 ha of the Makawao Forest Reserve were damaged in 1977, a study was begun to determine growth and refoliation response of completely defoliated...

  17. Contribution of botanical origin and sugar composition of honeys on the crystallization phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Escuredo, Olga; Dobre, Irina; Fernández-González, María; Seijo, M Carmen

    2014-04-15

    The present work provides information regarding the statistical relationships among the palynological characteristics, sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose, melezitose and maltose), moisture content and sugar ratios (F+G, F/G and G/W) of 136 different honey types (including bramble, chestnut, eucalyptus, heather, acacia, lime, rape, sunflower and honeydew). Results of the statistical analyses (multiple comparison Bonferroni test, Spearman rank correlations and principal components) revealed the valuable significance of the botanical origin on the sugar ratios (F+G, F/G and G/W). Brassica napus and Helianthus annuus pollen were the variables situated near F+G and G/W ratio, while Castanea sativa, Rubus and Eucalyptus pollen were located further away, as shown in the principal component analysis. The F/G ratio of sunflower, rape and lime honeys were lower than those found for the chestnut, eucalyptus, heather, acacia and honeydew honeys (>1.4). A lower value F/G ratio and lower water content were related with a faster crystallization in the honey. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Differentiation of Wines Treated with Wood Chips Based on Their Phenolic Content, Volatile Composition, and Sensory Parameters.

    PubMed

    Kyraleou, Maria; Kallithraka, Stamatina; Chira, Kleopatra; Tzanakouli, Eleni; Ligas, Ioannis; Kotseridis, Yorgos

    2015-12-01

    The effects of both wood chips addition and contact time on phenolic content, volatile composition, color parameters, and organoleptic character of red wine made by a native Greek variety (Agiorgitiko) were evaluated. For this purpose, chips from American, French, Slavonia oak, and Acacia were added in the wine after fermentation. A mixture consisting of 50% French and 50% Americal oak chips was also evaluated. In an attempt to categorize wine samples, various chemical parameters of wines and sensory parameters were studied after 1, 2, and 3 mo of contact time with chips. The results showed that regardless of the type of wood chips added in the wines, it was possible to differentiate the samples according to the contact time based on their phenolic composition and color parameters. In addition, wood-extracted volatile compounds seem to be the critical parameter that could separate the samples according to the wood type. The wines that were in contact with Acacia and Slavonia chips could be separated from the rest mainly due to their distinct sensory characters. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Influence of Honey on the Suppression of Human Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) Peroxidation (In vitro)

    PubMed Central

    Abd El-Hady, Faten K.

    2009-01-01

    The antioxidant activity of four honey samples from different floral sources (Acacia, Coriander, Sider and Palm) were evaluated with three different assays; DPPH free radical scavenging assay, superoxide anion generated in xanthine–xanthine oxidase (XOD) system and low density lipoprotein (LDL) peroxidation assay. The dark Palm and Sider honeys had the highest antioxidant activity in the DPPH assay. But all the honey samples exhibited more or less the same highly significant antioxidant activity within the concentration of 1mg honey/1 ml in XOD system and LDL peroxidation assays. The chemical composition of these samples was investigated by GC/MS and HPLC analysis, 11 compounds being new to honey. The GC/MS revealed the presence of 90 compounds, mainly aliphatic acids (37 compounds), which represent 54.73, 8.72, 22.87 and 64.10% and phenolic acids (15 compound) 2.3, 1.02, 2.07 and 11.68% for Acacia, Coriander, Sider and Palm honeys. In HPLC analysis, 19 flavonoids were identified. Coriander and Sider honeys were characterized by the presence of large amounts of flavonoids. PMID:18955249

  20. Phytoremediation potential of chromium-containing tannery effluent-contaminated soil by native Indian timber-yielding tree species.

    PubMed

    Manikandan, Muthu; Kannan, Vijayaraghavan; Mahalingam, Kanimozhi; Vimala, A; Chun, Sechul

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-six native Indian tree species that are used for the enhanced tree cover program of the forest department (Government of Tamilnadu, India) were screened for phytoremediation of tannery effluent-contaminated soil containing high chromium content. Out of 26 tree species tested, 10 timber-yielding tree species were selected for further phytoremediation monitoring. After a series of treatments with tannery effluent sludge, the chromium content was measured in the plant parts. The saplings of Acacia auriculiformis, Azadirachta indica, Albizzia lebbeck, Dalbergia sisso, and Thespesia populnea were identified as efficient bioaccumulators of chromium from Cr-contaminated soil. Acacia auriculiformis accumulates higher amounts of Cr in both the root and stem. Dalbergia sisso and T. populnea were found to accumulate higher quantity of Cr in the roots, whereas A. indica, A. richardiana, and A. lebbeck accumulate Cr in their stem. The stress response of the plant species was assessed by quantifying the antioxidative enzymes such as catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, and DHAR. Activity of all the enzymes was observed to gradually increase following treatment with tannery effluent sludge.

  1. Before they are gone - improving gazelle protection using wildlife forensic genetics.

    PubMed

    Hadas, Lia; Hermon, Dalia; Bar-Gal, Gila Kahila

    2016-09-01

    Throughout their habitats gazelles (genus Gazella) face immediate threats due to anthropogenic effects and natural environmental changes. Excessive poaching plays a major role in their populations decline. Three unique populations of gazelles currently live in Israel: mountain gazelle (Gazella gazella), Dorcas gazelle (Gazella Dorcas) and acacia gazelle (Gazella arabica acacia). Ongoing habitat degradation and constant pressure from illegal hunting has caused a continuous decrease in the last 10 years, stressing the need for drastic measures to prevent species extinction. Wildlife forensic science assists enforcement agencies in the escalating arms race against poachers. Wildlife forensic genetic tests being implemented in our laboratory offer both species and individual identification, which rely on two mitochondrial genes (12S rRNA and 16S rRNA) and nine nuclear Short Tandem Repeats (STR), respectively. The current study, presents a poaching case in which mitochondrial DNA-based species identification revealed the presence of mountain gazelle DNA on the seized items. Subsequently, STR markers linked the suspect to more than one gazelle, increasing the severity of the criminal charges. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Relationships between stem diameter, sapwood area, leaf area and transpiration in a young mountain ash forest.

    PubMed

    Vertessy, R A; Benyon, R G; O'Sullivan, S K; Gribben, P R

    1995-09-01

    We examined relationships between stem diameter, sapwood area, leaf area and transpiration in a 15-year-old mountain ash (Eucalyptus regnans F. Muell.) forest containing silver wattle (Acacia dealbata Link.) as a suppressed overstory species and mountain hickory (Acacia frigescens J.H. Willis) as an understory species. Stem diameter explained 93% of the variation in leaf area, 96% of the variation in sapwood area and 88% of the variation in mean daily spring transpiration in 19 mountain ash trees. In seven silver wattle trees, stem diameter explained 87% of the variation in sapwood area but was a poor predictor of the other variables. When transpiration measurements from individual trees were scaled up to a plot basis, using stem diameter values for 164 mountain ash trees and 124 silver wattle trees, mean daily spring transpiration rates of the two species were 2.3 and 0.6 mm day(-1), respectively. The leaf area index of the plot was estimated directly by destructive sampling, and indirectly with an LAI-2000 plant canopy analyzer and by hemispherical canopy photography. All three methods gave similar results.

  3. Influence of Honey on the Suppression of Human Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) Peroxidation (In vitro).

    PubMed

    Hegazi, Ahmed G; Abd El-Hady, Faten K

    2009-03-01

    The antioxidant activity of four honey samples from different floral sources (Acacia, Coriander, Sider and Palm) were evaluated with three different assays; DPPH free radical scavenging assay, superoxide anion generated in xanthine-xanthine oxidase (XOD) system and low density lipoprotein (LDL) peroxidation assay. The dark Palm and Sider honeys had the highest antioxidant activity in the DPPH assay. But all the honey samples exhibited more or less the same highly significant antioxidant activity within the concentration of 1mg honey/1 ml in XOD system and LDL peroxidation assays. The chemical composition of these samples was investigated by GC/MS and HPLC analysis, 11 compounds being new to honey. The GC/MS revealed the presence of 90 compounds, mainly aliphatic acids (37 compounds), which represent 54.73, 8.72, 22.87 and 64.10% and phenolic acids (15 compound) 2.3, 1.02, 2.07 and 11.68% for Acacia, Coriander, Sider and Palm honeys. In HPLC analysis, 19 flavonoids were identified. Coriander and Sider honeys were characterized by the presence of large amounts of flavonoids.

  4. Determination of the floral origin of some Romanian honeys on the basis of physical and biochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Cimpoiu, Claudia; Hosu, Anamaria; Miclaus, Vasile; Puscas, Anitta

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the physical and biochemical properties of some Romanian honeys in order to discriminate between their floral origins. The evaluated properties were total phenolic content, total protein content, total free amino acids content, color intensity (ABS(450)), pH, ash content, antioxidant activity. Twenty-six commercial honeys from six types of flowers (acacia, sunflower, forest, polyfloral, lime and Sea Buckthorn) were investigated. All samples showed considerable variations with reference to their properties. The properties values were in the range of approved limits (according to EU legislation). The total phenolic, total protein and total free amino acids contents and color intensity varied considerably. Similarly, forest honey had the highest antioxidant activity while the lowest was found in acacia honey. Correlation between the floral origin of honeys and the physical and biochemical properties, respectively, was observed. Moreover, this study demonstrates remarkable variation in DPPH scavenging activity and content of total phenols in honey, depending on its botanic source. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of fertilization on phosphorus pools in the volcanic soil of a managed tropical forest

    Treesearch

    Dean F. Meason; Travis W. Idol; J.B. Friday; Paul G. Scowcroft

    2009-01-01

    Acacia koa forests benefit from phosphorus fertilisation, but it is unknown if fertilisation is a short or long term effect on P availability. Past research suggests that P cycling in soils with high P sorption capacity, such as Andisols, was through organic pathways. We studied leaf P and soil P fractions in a tropical forest Andisol for 3 years...

  6. 21 CFR 169.179 - Vanilla powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vanilla powder. 169.179 Section 169.179 Food and... § 169.179 Vanilla powder. (a) Vanilla powder is a mixture of ground vanilla beans or vanilla oleoresin...) Dried corn sirup. (6) Gum acacia. Vanilla powder may contain one or any mixture of two or more of the...

  7. 21 CFR 169.179 - Vanilla powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vanilla powder. 169.179 Section 169.179 Food and... § 169.179 Vanilla powder. (a) Vanilla powder is a mixture of ground vanilla beans or vanilla oleoresin...) Dried corn sirup. (6) Gum acacia. Vanilla powder may contain one or any mixture of two or more of the...

  8. 21 CFR 169.179 - Vanilla powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vanilla powder. 169.179 Section 169.179 Food and... § 169.179 Vanilla powder. (a) Vanilla powder is a mixture of ground vanilla beans or vanilla oleoresin...) Dried corn sirup. (6) Gum acacia. Vanilla powder may contain one or any mixture of two or more of the...

  9. 21 CFR 169.179 - Vanilla powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vanilla powder. 169.179 Section 169.179 Food and... § 169.179 Vanilla powder. (a) Vanilla powder is a mixture of ground vanilla beans or vanilla oleoresin...) Dried corn sirup. (6) Gum acacia. Vanilla powder may contain one or any mixture of two or more of the...

  10. 21 CFR 169.179 - Vanilla powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vanilla powder. 169.179 Section 169.179 Food and... § 169.179 Vanilla powder. (a) Vanilla powder is a mixture of ground vanilla beans or vanilla oleoresin...) Dried corn sirup. (6) Gum acacia. Vanilla powder may contain one or any mixture of two or more of the...

  11. Induced parthenogenesis by gamma-irradiated pollen in loquat for haploid production

    PubMed Central

    Blasco, Manuel; Badenes, María Luisa; del Mar Naval, María

    2016-01-01

    Successful haploid induction in loquat (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.) through in situ-induced parthenogenesis with gamma-ray irradiated pollen has been achieved. Female flowers of cultivar ‘Algerie’ were pollinated using pollen of cultivars ‘Changhong-3’, ‘Cox’ and ‘Saval Brasil’ irradiated with two doses of gamma rays, 150 and 300 Gy. The fruits were harvested 90, 105 and 120 days after pollination (dap). Four haploid plants were obtained from ‘Algerie’ pollinated with 300-Gy-treated pollen of ‘Saval Brasil’ from fruits harvested 105 dap. Haploidy was confirmed by flow cytometry and chromosome count. The haploids showed a very weak development compared to the diploid plants. This result suggests that irradiated pollen can be used to obtain parthenogenetic haploids. PMID:27795686

  12. Targeted Quantification of Isoforms of a Thylakoid-Bound Protein: MRM Method Development.

    PubMed

    Bru-Martínez, Roque; Martínez-Márquez, Ascensión; Morante-Carriel, Jaime; Sellés-Marchart, Susana; Martínez-Esteso, María José; Pineda-Lucas, José Luis; Luque, Ignacio

    2018-01-01

    Targeted mass spectrometric methods such as selected/multiple reaction monitoring (SRM/MRM) have found intense application in protein detection and quantification which competes with classical immunoaffinity techniques. It provides a universal procedure to develop a fast, highly specific, sensitive, accurate, and cheap methodology for targeted detection and quantification of proteins based on the direct analysis of their surrogate peptides typically generated by tryptic digestion. This methodology can be advantageously applied in the field of plant proteomics and particularly for non-model species since immunoreagents are scarcely available. Here, we describe the issues to take into consideration in order to develop a MRM method to detect and quantify isoforms of the thylakoid-bound protein polyphenol oxidase from the non-model and database underrepresented species Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.

  13. Picrotoxane sesquiterpenoids from the stems of Dendrobium nobile and their absolute configurations and angiogenesis effect.

    PubMed

    Meng, Chun-Wang; He, Yu-Lin; Peng, Cheng; Ding, Xing-Jie; Guo, Li; Xiong, Liang

    2017-09-01

    Five picrotoxane sesquiterpenoids belonging to the unusual dendrobine-type (1 and 4) and the picrotoxinin-type (2, 3, and 5) were isolated from the stems of Dendrobium nobile Lindl. Their structures were established by spectroscopic analyses and physical properties. Compound 1 was a new dendrobine analogue. Although the planar structure of 2 and 3 had been reported, their absolute configurations were first determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and circular dichroism. Compound 2 exhibited angiogenesis effect against sunitinib-induced damage on intersegmental blood vessels in Tg (flk1: EGFP) and Tg (fli1: nEGFP) transgenic zebrafish at concentrations of 3.13, 6.25, 12.50, and 25.00μM. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Plasma barodiffusion in inertial-confinement-fusion implosions: application to observed yield anomalies in thermonuclear fuel mixtures.

    PubMed

    Amendt, Peter; Landen, O L; Robey, H F; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D

    2010-09-10

    The observation of large, self-generated electric fields (≥10(9)  V/m) in imploding capsules using proton radiography has been reported [C. K. Li, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 225001 (2008)]. A model of pressure gradient-driven diffusion in a plasma with self-generated electric fields is developed and applied to reported neutron yield deficits for equimolar D3He [J. R. Rygg, Phys. Plasmas 13, 052702 (2006)] and (DT)3He [H. W. Herrmann, Phys. Plasmas 16, 056312 (2009)] fuel mixtures and Ar-doped deuterium fuels [J. D. Lindl, Phys. Plasmas 11, 339 (2004)]. The observed anomalies are explained as a mild loss of deuterium nuclei near capsule center arising from shock-driven diffusion in the high-field limit.

  15. Phenology of Acacia koa on Mauna Loa, Hawaii

    Treesearch

    Ronald M. Lanner

    1965-01-01

    Flowering of koa was strongly seasonal on the Mauna Loa Strip. At 4,000 feet heavy flowering began in early December and lasted until early March. At 6,700 feet it extended from early March until mid-May. Heaviest flower losses occurred during anthesis, and were due to wind, rain, and possibly the dropping of unpollinated heads. Large insects were important as...

  16. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE LIVING ROOM SHOWING THE FLOOR TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF THE LIVING ROOM SHOWING THE FLOOR TO CEILING WINDOWS. NOTE THE OPENING IN THE RIGHT SIDE WALL FOR AN AIR CONDITIONER. VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Three-Bedroom Duplex Type 3, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  17. Drowning out the protection racket: partner manipulation or drought can strengthen ant-plant mutualism.

    PubMed

    Denison, R Ford

    2014-07-01

    Two recent reports discuss interactions between plants and ants that defend them from herbivores. Acacia trees provide their ant bodyguards with a diet that reduces their ability to benefit from alternate hosts. Provisioning of ants by Cordia trees during drought may buy insurance against extreme defoliation events, not just average-year benefits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Consumer preference study of characteristics of Hawaiian koa wood bowls

    Treesearch

    Eini C Lowell; Katherine Wilson; Jan Wiedenbeck; Catherine Chan; J. B. Friday; Nicole Evans

    2017-01-01

    Koa (Acacia koa A. Gray), a species endemic to the Hawaiian Islands, has ecological, cultural, and economic significance. Its wood is prized globally but today, most woodworkers only use koa wood from dead and dying old-growth trees. The general perception of wood from young-growth koa is that it lacks the color and figure of old-growth wood and is...

  19. [Last instar larva, pupa and a new distribution record of Periploca otrebla Vargas (Lepidoptera: Cosmopterigidae)].

    PubMed

    Vargas, Héctor A

    2007-01-01

    A description and figures of the last instar larva and pupa of Periploca otrebla Vargas are presented, based on specimens collected on Acacia macracantha (Fabaceae) in the type locality, Azapa valley, Arica Province, northern Chile. The Chaca valley, Arica Province, northern Chile, is mentioned as a new locality for the geographic distribution of P. otrebla, previously known only from the type locality.

  20. DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Morton, J.F.

    A description is given of Acacia auriculiformis, together with a warning against its use for ornamental landscaping in Florida (a hurricane area). The tree grows very fast, reaching 30-55 ft in 8 years, lacks wind resistance, produces much persistent litter, seeds itself freely and is now a common weed species in Florida. The wood is of value for handicrafts. 3 references.

  1. Ethnopharmacological documentation of medicinal plants used for hypertension among the local communities of DIR Lower, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Latif; Semotiuk, Andrew; Zafar, Muhammad; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Sultana, Shazia; Liu, Quan-Ru; Zada, Muhammad Pukhtoon; Ul Abidin, Sheikh Zain; Yaseen, Ghulam

    2015-12-04

    Local communities of the Dir Lower district in Northwest Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan rely on botanical anti-hypertensive preparations. Insights into the traditional uses of local flora can direct investigation into phytochemical screening. This ethnobotanical study aims to identify plant species and recipes used by the local people for the treatment of hypertension in the district of Dir Lower. Inquiries and interviews were carried out from November 2012 to December 2013 from local herbalist and indigenous communities including village elders. A total of 46 plant species (43 genera and 29 botanical families) used by local people of study area to treat hypertension. Family Lamiaceae dominated with the highest percentage 15.21% (7 species). With respect to growth form, herbs constituted (63.05%), shrubs (30.43%) and trees (6.52%). Leaves (37.25%) were the most frequently used part in herbal preparations. The major mode of preparation was decoction (46.66%) and almost all recipes were orally administered. Use values (UV) revealed that the most preferred species for the treatment of hypertension by the indigenous community are Paeonia emodi Wall. ex Royle., followed by Sarcococca saligna (D. Don) Muell. Arg., Fumaria indica (Hausskn.) Pugsley and Teucrium stocksianum Boiss. Amongst the 46 medicinal plants, antihypertensive activity of 16 plants included Artemisia vulgiris L., Artemisia annua L., Sisymbrium brassiciforme C. A. Mey., T. stocksianum Boiss, Cichorium intybus L., Rosa brunonii Lindl., Chenopodium botrys L., Olea ferruginea Royle, Cotoneaster acuminatus Lindl, S. saligna (D. Don) Muell. Arg., Viola canescens Wall. ex Roxb, P. emodi Wall. ex Royle, Asparagus gracilis Royle, Maytenus royleanus (Wall. ex Lawson), Allium jacquemontii Kunth and Onosma hispidum Wall has not been reported previously in the scientific literature. Dir lower is a rich and biodiverse area of medicinal plant. The large number of plant species used for hypertension in this area shows

  2. Comparative histology of floral elaiophores in the orchids Rudolfiella picta (Schltr.) Hoehne (Maxillariinae sensu lato) and Oncidium ornithorhynchum H.B.K. (Oncidiinae sensu lato)

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Kevin L.; Stpiczyńska, Malgorzata

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Floral elaiophores, although widespread amongst orchids, have not previously been described for Maxillariinae sensu lato. Here, two claims that epithelial, floral elaiophores occur in the genus Rudolfiella Hoehne (Bifrenaria clade) are investigated. Presumed elaiophores were compared with those of Oncidiinae Benth. and the floral, resin-secreting tissues of Rhetinantha M.A. Blanco and Heterotaxis Lindl., both genera formerly assigned to Maxillaria Ruiz & Pav. (Maxillariinae sensu stricto). Methods Putative, floral elaiophore tissue of Rudolfiella picta (Schltr.) Hoehne and floral elaiophores of Oncidium ornithorhynchum H.B.K. were examined by means of light microscopy, histochemistry, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Key Results and Conclusions Floral, epithelial elaiophores are present in Rudolfiella picta, indicating, for the first time, that oil secretion occurs amongst members of the Bifrenaria clade (Maxillariinae sensu lato). However, whereas the elaiophore of R. picta is borne upon the labellar callus, the elaiophores of O. ornithorhynchum occur on the lateral lobes of the labellum. In both species, the elaiophore comprises a single layer of palisade secretory cells and parenchymatous, subsecretory tissue. Cell wall cavities are absent from both and there is no evidence of cuticular distension in response to oil accumulation between the outer tangential wall and the overlying cuticle in R. picta. Distension of the cuticle, however, occurs in O. ornithorhynchum. Secretory cells of R. picta contain characteristic, spherical or oval plastids with abundant plastoglobuli and these more closely resemble plastids found in labellar, secretory cells of representatives of Rhetinantha (formerly Maxillaria acuminata Lindl. alliance) than elaiophore plastids of Oncidiinae. In Rhetinantha, such plastids are involved in the synthesis of resin-like material or wax. Despite these differences, the elaiophore anatomy of

  3. Comparative histology of floral elaiophores in the orchids Rudolfiella picta (Schltr.) Hoehne (Maxillariinae sensu lato) and Oncidium ornithorhynchum H.B.K. (Oncidiinae sensu lato).

    PubMed

    Davies, Kevin L; Stpiczyńska, Malgorzata

    2009-08-01

    Floral elaiophores, although widespread amongst orchids, have not previously been described for Maxillariinae sensu lato. Here, two claims that epithelial, floral elaiophores occur in the genus Rudolfiella Hoehne (Bifrenaria clade) are investigated. Presumed elaiophores were compared with those of Oncidiinae Benth. and the floral, resin-secreting tissues of Rhetinantha M.A. Blanco and Heterotaxis Lindl., both genera formerly assigned to Maxillaria Ruiz & Pav. (Maxillariinae sensu stricto). Putative, floral elaiophore tissue of Rudolfiella picta (Schltr.) Hoehne and floral elaiophores of Oncidium ornithorhynchum H.B.K. were examined by means of light microscopy, histochemistry, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Floral, epithelial elaiophores are present in Rudolfiella picta, indicating, for the first time, that oil secretion occurs amongst members of the Bifrenaria clade (Maxillariinae sensu lato). However, whereas the elaiophore of R. picta is borne upon the labellar callus, the elaiophores of O. ornithorhynchum occur on the lateral lobes of the labellum. In both species, the elaiophore comprises a single layer of palisade secretory cells and parenchymatous, subsecretory tissue. Cell wall cavities are absent from both and there is no evidence of cuticular distension in response to oil accumulation between the outer tangential wall and the overlying cuticle in R. picta. Distension of the cuticle, however, occurs in O. ornithorhynchum. Secretory cells of R. picta contain characteristic, spherical or oval plastids with abundant plastoglobuli and these more closely resemble plastids found in labellar, secretory cells of representatives of Rhetinantha (formerly Maxillaria acuminata Lindl. alliance) than elaiophore plastids of Oncidiinae. In Rhetinantha, such plastids are involved in the synthesis of resin-like material or wax. Despite these differences, the elaiophore anatomy of both R. picta (Bifrenaria clade) and O. ornithorhynchum

  4. Four-Week Consumption of Malaysian Honey Reduces Excess Weight Gain and Improves Obesity-Related Parameters in High Fat Diet Induced Obese Rats.

    PubMed

    Samat, Suhana; Kanyan Enchang, Francis; Nor Hussein, Fuzina; Wan Ismail, Wan Iryani

    2017-01-01

    Many studies revealed the potential of honey consumption in controlling obesity. However, no study has been conducted using Malaysian honey. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of two local Malaysian honey types: Gelam and Acacia honey in reducing excess weight gain and other parameters related to obesity. The quality of both honey types was determined through physicochemical analysis and contents of phenolic and flavonoid. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were induced to become obese using high fat diet (HFD) prior to introduction with/without honey or orlistat for four weeks. Significant reductions in excess weight gain and adiposity index were observed in rats fed with Gelam honey compared to HFD rats. Moreover, levels of plasma glucose, triglycerides, and cholesterol, plasma leptin and resistin, liver enzymes, renal function test, and relative organ weight in Gelam and Acacia honey treated groups were reduced significantly when compared to rats fed with HFD only. Similar results were also displayed in rats treated with orlistat, but with hepatotoxicity effects. In conclusion, consumption of honey can be used to control obesity by regulating lipid metabolism and appears to be more effective than orlistat.

  5. Four-Week Consumption of Malaysian Honey Reduces Excess Weight Gain and Improves Obesity-Related Parameters in High Fat Diet Induced Obese Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kanyan Enchang, Francis; Nor Hussein, Fuzina

    2017-01-01

    Many studies revealed the potential of honey consumption in controlling obesity. However, no study has been conducted using Malaysian honey. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of two local Malaysian honey types: Gelam and Acacia honey in reducing excess weight gain and other parameters related to obesity. The quality of both honey types was determined through physicochemical analysis and contents of phenolic and flavonoid. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were induced to become obese using high fat diet (HFD) prior to introduction with/without honey or orlistat for four weeks. Significant reductions in excess weight gain and adiposity index were observed in rats fed with Gelam honey compared to HFD rats. Moreover, levels of plasma glucose, triglycerides, and cholesterol, plasma leptin and resistin, liver enzymes, renal function test, and relative organ weight in Gelam and Acacia honey treated groups were reduced significantly when compared to rats fed with HFD only. Similar results were also displayed in rats treated with orlistat, but with hepatotoxicity effects. In conclusion, consumption of honey can be used to control obesity by regulating lipid metabolism and appears to be more effective than orlistat. PMID:28246535

  6. Studies on gum of Moringa oleifera for its emulsifying properties.

    PubMed

    Panda, Dibya Sundar

    2014-04-01

    Emulsion has been a form of presenting water insoluble substances for a long period of time. Now a day, it has been a way of presenting various intravenous additives and diagnostic agents in X-ray examinations. Various substances can be used as emulsifying agent, which can be operationally defined as a stabilizer of the droplets formed of the internal phase. Gum from Moringa oleifera was evaluated for its emulsifying properties. Castor oil emulsions 30 percent (o/w), containing 2 to 4% Moringa oleifera gum was prepared. Emulsions containing equivalent concentration of acacia were also prepared for comparison. All the emulsions prepared were stored at room temperature and studied for stability at various time intervals for 8 weeks. The prepared emulsions were evaluated for creaming rate, globule size and rate of coalescence. 23 factorial design was chosen to investigate the effects of centrifugation, pH, temperature changes and electrolytes on the creaming rate and globule size. The results of the investigations show that the gum of Moringa oleifera possesses better emulsifying properties as compared to gum acacia. Gum of Moringa oleifera could be used in pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical preparation.

  7. Determination of the botanical origin of honey by front-face synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lenhardt, Lea; Zeković, Ivana; Dramićanin, Tatjana; Dramićanin, Miroslav D; Bro, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    Front-face synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy combined with chemometrics is used to classify honey samples according to their botanical origin. Synchronous fluorescence spectra of three monofloral (linden, sunflower, and acacia), polyfloral (meadow mix), and fake (fake acacia and linden) honey types (109 samples) were collected in an excitation range of 240-500 nm for synchronous wavelength intervals of 30-300 nm. Chemometric analysis of the gathered data included principal component analysis and partial least squares discriminant analysis. Mean cross-validated classification errors of 0.2 and 4.8% were found for a model that accounts only for monofloral samples and for a model that includes both the monofloral and polyfloral groups, respectively. The results demonstrate that single synchronous fluorescence spectra of different honeys differ significantly because of their distinct physical and chemical characteristics and provide sufficient data for the clear differentiation among honey groups. The spectra of fake honey samples showed pronounced differences from those of genuine honey, and these samples are easily recognized on the basis of their synchronous fluorescence spectra. The study demonstrated that this method is a valuable and promising technique for honey authentication.

  8. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of rosmarinic acid isolated from Thunbergia laurifolia Lindl.

    PubMed

    Boonyarikpunchai, Wanvisa; Sukrong, Suchada; Towiwat, Pasarapa

    2014-09-01

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) was isolated from an ethanolic extract of Thunbergia laurifolia leaves. The antinociceptive activity of RA was assessed in mice using hot-plate, acetic acid-induced writhing, and formalin tests. The anti-inflammatory effects of RA were determined in two mouse models of carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet-induced granuloma formation. Orally administered RA (50, 100, and 150 mg/kg) showed significant (p<0.001) antinociceptive activity in the hot-plate test and this effect was reversed by naloxone. RA at doses of 50 and 100mg/kg significantly reduced acetic acid-induced writhing by 52% (p<0.01) and 85% (p<0.001), respectively, and RA at 100mg/kg also caused significant inhibition of formalin-induced pain in the early and late phases (p<0.01 and p<0.001, respectively). RA at 100mg/kg significantly suppressed carrageenan-induced paw edema at 3, 4, 5 and 6h after carrageenan injection (p<0.01, p<0.05 p<0.01, and p<0.05, respectively) and showed significant activity against PGE2-induced paw edema. RA at 100mg/kg also inhibited cotton pellet-induced granuloma formation in mice. Taken together, these results demonstrate that RA possesses both central and peripheral antinociceptive activities and has anti-inflammatory effects against acute and chronic inflammation. While further evaluation regarding the safety profile of RA is needed, these data may provide a basis for the rational use of RA and T. laurifolia for treatment of pain and inflammatory disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A review of laser-plasma interaction physics of indirect-drive fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkwood, R. K.; Moody, J. D.; Kline, J.; Dewald, E.; Glenzer, S.; Divol, L.; Michel, P.; Hinkel, D.; Berger, R.; Williams, E.; Milovich, J.; Yin, L.; Rose, H.; MacGowan, B.; Landen, O.; Rosen, M.; Lindl, J.

    2013-10-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) has been designed, constructed and has recently begun operation to investigate the ignition of nuclear fusion with a laser with up to 1.8 MJ of energy per pulse. The concept for fusion ignition on the NIF, as first proposed in 1990, was based on an indirectly driven spherical capsule of fuel in a high-Z hohlraum cavity filled with low-Z gas (Lindl et al 2004 Phys. Plasmas 11 339). The incident laser energy is converted to x-rays with keV energy on the hohlraums interior wall. The x-rays then impinge on the surface of the capsule, imploding it and producing the fuel conditions needed for ignition. It was recognized at the inception that this approach would potentially be susceptible to scattering of the incident light by the plasma created in the gas and the ablated material in the hohlraum interior. Prior to initial NIF operations, expectations for laser-plasma interaction (LPI) in ignition-scale experiments were based on experimentally benchmarked simulations and models of the plasma effects that had been carried out as part of the original proposal for NIF and expanded during the 13-year design and construction period. The studies developed the understanding of the stimulated Brillouin scatter, stimulated Raman scatter and filamentation that can be driven by the intense beams. These processes produce scatter primarily in both the forward and backward direction, and by both individual beams and collective interaction of multiple beams. Processes such as hot electron production and plasma formation and transport were also studied. The understanding of the processes so developed was the basis for the design and planning of the recent experiments in the ignition campaign at NIF, and not only indicated that the plasma instabilities could be controlled to maximize coupling, but predicted that, for the first time, they would be beneficial in controlling drive symmetry. The understanding is also now a critical component in the

  10. AmeriFlux US-Whs Walnut Gulch Lucky Hills Shrub

    DOE Data Explorer

    Scott, Russ [United States Department of Agriculture

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Whs Walnut Gulch Lucky Hills Shrub. Site Description - A semiarid Chihuahuan Desert shrubland located in the USDA-ARS Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed (WGEW) surrounding the town of Tombstone, AZ. The site vegetation is comprised of a diverse stand of mainly Chihuahuan desert shrub species like acacia constricta, larrea tridentata, and florensia cernua.

  11. Antibacterial activity of selected Malaysian honey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Antibacterial activity of honey is mainly dependent on a combination of its peroxide activity and non-peroxide components. This study aims to investigate antibacterial activity of five varieties of Malaysian honey (three monofloral; acacia, gelam and pineapple, and two polyfloral; kelulut and tualang) against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Methods Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) were performed for semi-quantitative evaluation. Agar well diffusion assay was used to investigate peroxide and non-peroxide activities of honey. Results The results showed that gelam honey possessed lowest MIC value against S. aureus with 5% (w/v) MIC and MBC of 6.25% (w/v). Highest MIC values were shown by pineapple honey against E. coli and P. aeruginosa as well as acacia honey against E. coli with 25% (w/v) MIC and 50% (w/v) MBC values. Agar inhibition assay showed kelulut honey to possess highest total antibacterial activity against S. aureus with 26.49 equivalent phenol concentrations (EPC) and non-peroxide activity of 25.74 EPC. Lowest antibacterial activity was observed in acacia honey against E. coli with total activity of 7.85 EPC and non-peroxide activity of 7.59 EPC. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) between the total antibacterial activities and non-peroxide activities of Malaysian honey. The intraspecific correlation between MIC and EPC of E. coli (r = -0.8559) was high while that between MIC and EPC of P. aeruginosa was observed to be moderate (r = -0.6469). S. aureus recorded a smaller correlation towards the opposite direction (r = 0.5045). In contrast, B.cereus showed a very low intraspecific correlation between MIC and EPC (r = -0.1482). Conclusions Malaysian honey, namely gelam, kelulut and tualang, have high antibacterial potency derived from total and non-peroxide activities, which implies that both peroxide and other

  12. Good neighbors make good defenses: associational refuges reduce defense investment in African savanna plants.

    PubMed

    Coverdale, Tyler C; Goheen, Jacob R; Palmer, Todd M; Pringle, Robert M

    2018-06-25

    Intraspecific variation in plant defense phenotype is common and has wide-ranging ecological consequences. Yet prevailing theories of plant defense allocation, which primarily account for interspecific differences in defense phenotype, often fail to predict intraspecific patterns. Furthermore, although individual variation in defense phenotype is often attributed to ecological interactions, few general mechanisms have been proposed to explain the ubiquity of variable defense phenotype within species. Here, we show experimentally that associational refuges and induced resistance interact to create predictable intraspecific variation in defense phenotype in African savanna plants. Physically defended species from four families (Acanthaceae, Asparagaceae, Cactaceae, and Solanaceae) growing in close association with spinescent Acacia trees had 39-78% fewer spines and thorns than did isolated conspecifics. For a subset of these species, we used a series of manipulative experiments to show that this variability is maintained primarily by a reduction in induced responses among individuals that seldom experience mammalian herbivory, whether due to association with Acacia trees or to experimental herbivore exclusion. Unassociated plants incurred 4- to 16-fold more browsing damage than did associated individuals and increased spine density by 16-38% within one month following simulated browsing. In contrast, experimental clipping induced no net change in spine density among plants growing beneath Acacia canopies or inside long-term herbivore exclosures. Associated and unassociated individuals produced similar numbers of flowers and seeds, but seedling recruitment and survival were vastly greater in refuge habitats, suggesting a net fitness benefit of association. We conclude that plant-plant associations consistently decrease defense investment in this system by reducing both the frequency of herbivory and the intensity of induced responses, and that inducible responses

  13. Polyphenolic profile as a useful tool to identify the wood used in wine aging.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Miriam; Fernández de Simón, Brígida; Cadahía, Estrella; Esteruelas, Enrique; Muñoz, Angel Ma; Hernández, Ma Teresa; Estrella, Isabel

    2012-06-30

    Although oak wood is the main material used in cooperage, other species are being considered as possible sources of wood for the production of wines and their derived products. In this work we have compared the phenolic composition of acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia), chestnut (Castanea sativa), cherry (Prunus avium) and ash (Fraxinus excelsior and F. americana) heartwoods, by using HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS/MS (some of these data have been showed in previous paper), as well as the changes that toasting intensity at cooperage produce in each polyphenolic profile. Before toasting, each wood shows a different and specific polyphenolic profile, with both qualitative and quantitative differences among them. Toasting notably changed these profiles, in general, proportionally to toasting intensity and led to a minor differentiation among species in toasted woods, although we also found phenolic markers in toasted woods. Thus, methyl syringate, benzoic acid, methyl vanillate, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, 3,4,5-trimethylphenol and p-coumaric acid, condensed tannins of the procyanidin type, and the flavonoids naringenin, aromadendrin, isosakuranetin and taxifolin will be a good tool to identify cherry wood. In acacia wood the chemical markers will be the aldehydes gallic and β-resorcylic and two not fully identified hydroxycinnamic compounds, condensed tannins of the prorobinetin type, and when using untoasted wood, dihydrorobinetin, and in toasted acacia wood, robinetin. In untoasted ash wood, the presence of secoiridoids, phenylethanoid glycosides, or di and oligolignols will be a good tool, especially oleuropein, ligstroside and olivil, together verbascoside and isoverbascoside in F. excelsior, and oleoside in F. americana. In toasted ash wood, tyrosol, syringaresinol, cyclolovil, verbascoside and olivil, could be used to identify the botanical origin. In addition, in ash wood, seasoned and toasted, neither hydrolysable nor condensed tannins were detected. Lastly, in chestnut wood, gallic

  14. Nitrogen and phosphorus economy of a legume tree-cereal intercropping system under controlled conditions.

    PubMed

    Isaac, M E; Hinsinger, P; Harmand, J M

    2012-09-15

    Considerable amounts of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilizers have been mis-used in agroecosystems, with profound alteration to the biogeochemical cycles of these two major nutrients. To reduce excess fertilizer use, plant-mediated nutrient supply through N(2)-fixation, transfer of fixed N and mobilization of soil P may be important processes for the nutrient economy of low-input tree-based intercropping systems. In this study, we quantified plant performance, P acquisition and belowground N transfer from the N(2)-fixing tree to the cereal crop under varying root contact intensity and P supplies. We cultivated Acacia senegal var senegal in pot-culture containing 90% sand and 10% vermiculite under 3 levels of exponentially supplied P. Acacia plants were then intercropped with durum wheat (Triticum turgidum durum) in the same pots with variable levels of adsorbed P or transplanted and intercropped with durum wheat in rhizoboxes excluding direct root contact on P-poor red Mediterranean soils. In pot-culture, wheat biomass and P content increased in relation to the P gradient. Strong isotopic evidence of belowground N transfer, based on the isotopic signature (δ(15)N) of tree foliage and wheat shoots, was systematically found under high P in pot-culture, with an average N transfer value of 14.0% of wheat total N after 21 days of contact between the two species. In the rhizoboxes, we observed limitations on growth and P uptake of intercropped wheat due to competitive effects on soil resources and minimal evidence of belowground N transfer of N from acacia to wheat. In this intercrop, specifically in pot-culture, facilitation for N transfer from the legume tree to the crop showed to be effective especially when crop N uptake was increased (or stimulated) as occurred under high P conditions and when competition was low. Understanding these processes is important to the nutrient economy and appropriate management of legume-based agroforestry systems. Copyright

  15. Citizen Science and Open Data: a Model for Invasive Alien Plant Species in Kenya's Northern Rangelands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amirazodi, S.; Griffin, R.; Flores Cordova, A. I.; Ouko, E.; Omondi, S.; Mugo, R. M.; Farah, H.; Flores Cordova, A. I.; Adams, E. C.

    2017-12-01

    Invasive species in African savannas pose great threat to the native biodiversity and changes ecosystem functioning. In the forest sector, for instance Acacia species are important sources of fuel-wood, yet at the same time they have increased strain on water resources and shrunken forage spaces for both livestock and wildlife. In recently infested regions, invasive species can progress through the stages of introduction, establishment and dispersal to a full range. Currently there is much worldwide interest in predicting distributions of invasive species, and several organizations are faced with questions of whether and how to tackle such environmental challenges, or how to interpret predictions from the science community. Conservation practioners require mapped estimates of where species could persist in a given region, and this is associated to information about the biotope - i.e. the geographic location of the species' niche. The process of collecting species distribution data for identifying the potential distribution of the invasive species in the invaded ranges has become a challenge both in terms of resource and time allocation. This study highlights innovative approaches in crowdsourcing validation data in mapping and modelling invasive species (Acacia reficiens and Cactus) through involvement of the local communities. The general approach was to model the distribution of A. reficiens and Cactus (Opuntia Spp) using occurrence records from native range, then project the model into new regions to assess susceptibility to invasion using climatic and topographic environmental variables. The models performed better than random prediction (P < 0.05). The average testing omission rate varied from 11.3% to 14% for the two species. The average test AUC values for Acacia reficiens (0.97 ± 0.01) and Cactus (Opuntia Spp) (0.96 ± 0.02) were high showing the fitted models had high discriminative ability to differentiate suitable environments for invasive plant species

  16. Antibacterial activity of selected Malaysian honey.

    PubMed

    Zainol, Mohd Izwan; Mohd Yusoff, Kamaruddin; Mohd Yusof, Mohd Yasim

    2013-06-10

    Antibacterial activity of honey is mainly dependent on a combination of its peroxide activity and non-peroxide components. This study aims to investigate antibacterial activity of five varieties of Malaysian honey (three monofloral; acacia, gelam and pineapple, and two polyfloral; kelulut and tualang) against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) were performed for semi-quantitative evaluation. Agar well diffusion assay was used to investigate peroxide and non-peroxide activities of honey. The results showed that gelam honey possessed lowest MIC value against S. aureus with 5% (w/v) MIC and MBC of 6.25% (w/v). Highest MIC values were shown by pineapple honey against E. coli and P. aeruginosa as well as acacia honey against E. coli with 25% (w/v) MIC and 50% (w/v) MBC values. Agar inhibition assay showed kelulut honey to possess highest total antibacterial activity against S. aureus with 26.49 equivalent phenol concentrations (EPC) and non-peroxide activity of 25.74 EPC. Lowest antibacterial activity was observed in acacia honey against E. coli with total activity of 7.85 EPC and non-peroxide activity of 7.59 EPC. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) between the total antibacterial activities and non-peroxide activities of Malaysian honey. The intraspecific correlation between MIC and EPC of E. coli (r = -0.8559) was high while that between MIC and EPC of P. aeruginosa was observed to be moderate (r = -0.6469). S. aureus recorded a smaller correlation towards the opposite direction (r = 0.5045). In contrast, B.cereus showed a very low intraspecific correlation between MIC and EPC (r = -0.1482). Malaysian honey, namely gelam, kelulut and tualang, have high antibacterial potency derived from total and non-peroxide activities, which implies that both peroxide and other constituents are mutually important as contributing factors

  17. Talisman-Saber 2009 Remote Sensing Experiment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-30

    approximately 0.1 km2 Foster Botanical Garden to obtain spectra of vegetation indigenous to Oahu and from several specialty gardens, spectra of plants ...A-4 Table 1. Plant species studied at Foster Botanical Garden on November 19, 2008. Scientific Name Common Name Remarks Acacia koa Koa Endemic...Job’s tear Common along streams and ditches in Hawaii. Colocasia esculenta taro Native to tropical Polynesia and southeastern Asia. Cordia sebestena

  18. Southeast Asia Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-22

    yielding.14,140 tons of nuts , mostly for export. Furthermore, the province planted nearly 1,000 new hectares of rubber while exploiting 6,000 hectares...and sesame. The areas under pineapple, banana, cashew , onion, and garlic will also be expanded. Piq, duck and goose raising has been developed in...acacia auriculiformis), etc. The water-craving area of Thuan Hai Province can accomodate fir trees, cam xe (sylia dolabriform is), cashew , and

  19. The relative importance of fluid and kinetic frequency shifts of an electron plasma wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winjum, B. J.; Fahlen, J.; Mori, W. B.

    2007-10-01

    The total nonlinear frequency shift of a plasma wave including both fluid and kinetic effects is estimated when the phase velocity of the wave is much less than the speed of light. Using a waterbag or fluid model, the nonlinear frequency shift due to harmonic generation is calculated for an arbitrary shift in the wavenumber. In the limit where the wavenumber does not shift, the result is in agreement with previously published work [R. L. Dewar and J. Lindl, Phys. Fluids 15, 820 (1972); T. P. Coffey, Phys. Fluids 14, 1402 (1971)]. This shift is compared to the kinetic shift of Morales and O'Neil [G. J. Morales and T. M. O'Neil, Phys. Rev. Lett. 28, 417 (1972)] for wave amplitudes and values of kλD of interest to Raman backscatter of a laser driver in inertial confinement fusion.

  20. Stocking guidelines for the endemic Hawaiian hardwood, Acacia koa

    Treesearch

    P. J. Baker; P. G. Scowcroft

    2005-01-01

    Stocking relationships are an important tool for foresters because they provide a means for evaluating how effectively the trees in a stand use available growing space. While stocking guidelines are not available for many tropical tree species, readily obtained measurements of stem and crown diameters can be used to develop preliminary stocking guidelines for most tree...