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Sample records for acacia ferruginea stem

  1. Effect of acetone extract from stem bark of Acacia species (A. dealbata, A. ferruginea and A. leucophloea) on antioxidant enzymes status in hydrogen peroxide-induced HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Sowndhararajan, Kandhasamy; Hong, Sunghyun; Jhoo, Jin-Woo; Kim, Songmun; Chin, Nyuk Ling

    2015-01-01

    Acacia species are multipurpose trees, widely used in the traditional systems of medicine to treat various ailments. The major objective of the present study was to determine the gene expression of enzymatic antioxidants by acetone extract from the stem bark of three Acacia species (Acacia dealbata, Acacia ferruginea and Acacia leucophloea) in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced human hepatoma (HepG2) cells. The expression of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase containing copper–zinc (CuZnSOD)/manganese (MnSOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in HepG2 cells was evaluated by real-time PCR. The results of antioxidant enzyme expression in real-time PCR study revealed that the H2O2 (200 μM) challenged HepG2 cells reduced the expression of enzymes such as SOD, GPx and CAT. However, the cells pre-treated with acetone extracts of all the three Acacia species significantly (P > 0.05) up-regulated the expression of antioxidant enzymes in a concentration dependent manner (25, 50 and 75 μg/mL). In conclusion, the findings of our study demonstrated that the acetone extract of Acacia species effectively inhibited H2O2 mediated oxidative stress and may be useful as a therapeutic agent in preventing oxidative stress mediated diseases. PMID:26586994

  2. Effect of acetone extract from stem bark of Acacia species (A. dealbata, A. ferruginea and A. leucophloea) on antioxidant enzymes status in hydrogen peroxide-induced HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Sowndhararajan, Kandhasamy; Hong, Sunghyun; Jhoo, Jin-Woo; Kim, Songmun; Chin, Nyuk Ling

    2015-11-01

    Acacia species are multipurpose trees, widely used in the traditional systems of medicine to treat various ailments. The major objective of the present study was to determine the gene expression of enzymatic antioxidants by acetone extract from the stem bark of three Acacia species (Acacia dealbata, Acacia ferruginea and Acacia leucophloea) in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced human hepatoma (HepG2) cells. The expression of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase containing copper-zinc (CuZnSOD)/manganese (MnSOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in HepG2 cells was evaluated by real-time PCR. The results of antioxidant enzyme expression in real-time PCR study revealed that the H2O2 (200 μM) challenged HepG2 cells reduced the expression of enzymes such as SOD, GPx and CAT. However, the cells pre-treated with acetone extracts of all the three Acacia species significantly (P > 0.05) up-regulated the expression of antioxidant enzymes in a concentration dependent manner (25, 50 and 75 μg/mL). In conclusion, the findings of our study demonstrated that the acetone extract of Acacia species effectively inhibited H2O2 mediated oxidative stress and may be useful as a therapeutic agent in preventing oxidative stress mediated diseases.

  3. Acacia ferruginea inhibits inflammation by regulating inflammatory iNOS and COX-2.

    PubMed

    Sakthivel, Kunnathur Murugesan; Guruvayoorappan, Chandrasekaran

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation is a local defensive reaction of a host to cellular injury or infection. Prolonged inflammation can contribute to pathogenesis of many disorders. Identification of naturally occurring phytoconstituents that can suppress inflammatory mediators can lead to the discovery of anti-inflammatory therapeutics. Acacia ferruginea is used traditionally to treat numerous ailments including hemorrhage, irritable bowel syndrome and leprosy. The present study evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of A. ferruginea extract against acute (carrageenan) and chronic (formaldehyde) inflammation in Balb/c mice. Pre-treatment with A. ferruginea extract (10 mg/kg BW) for 5 consecutive days via intraperitonial (IP) administration significantly inhibited subsequent induction of paw edema in both models; the effects were comparable to that of the standard drug indomethacin. The results also showed the A. ferruginea extract significantly inhibited nitric oxide (NO) synthesis and iNOS expression (as measured in serum), diminished inflammation in - and neutrophil infiltration to - the paw tissues and led to a reduction in the number of COX-2(+) immunoreative cells (as evidenced by histologic and immunohistochemical analyses) in the paws relative to those in paws of mice that received the irritants only. Further, in vitro studies showed the extract could significantly scavenge free radicals generated as in DPPH and NO radical generating assays. Taken together, the results showed that A. ferruginea extract imparted potent anti-oxidant and -inflammatory effects, in part by maintaining oxidative homeostasis, inhibiting NO synthesis and suppressing iNOS and COX-2 expression and so could potentially be exploited as a potential plant-based medication against inflammatory disorders.

  4. Acacia ferruginea inhibits cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression and urotoxicity by modulating cytokines in mice.

    PubMed

    Sakthivel, K M; Guruvayoorappan, Chandrasekaran

    2015-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CTX), commonly used as an anti-neoplastic drug, can cause adverse side-effects including immunotoxicity and urotoxicity. Increasingly, plants have become sources of therapeutics that can help to restore host immunity to normal. In this study, Acacia ferruginea was assessed for an ability to protect mice against/mitigate CTX-induced toxicity. Co-administration of an extract of A. ferruginea (10 mg/kg BW, IP daily) for 10 consecutive days reduced CTX (25 mg/kg BW, IP daily)-induced toxicity. Apart from improvements in bladder and small intestine morphology, there was marked improvement in anti-oxidant (glutathione) levels in the bladder, suggesting a role for the anti-oxidant in reducing CTX-induced urotoxicity. Moreover, use of the extract significantly increased total leukocyte counts and bone marrow cellularity/α-esterase activity in CTX-treated mice which suggested a protective effect on the hematopoietic system. Co-treatment with the extract also prevented decreases in organ (liver, kidney, spleen, thymus) weight as well as body weight, thereby seemingly lessening the potential impact of CTX on the host immune system. Further, CTX-induced increases in serum aspartate transanimase, alanine transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase were reversed by extract co-treatment, as were alterations in in situ formation/release of interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-2, granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Overall, this study indicated there were some protective effects from use of an extract of A. ferruginea against CTX-induced toxicities, in part through modulation of levels of anti-oxidants and pro-inflammatory cytokines.

  5. Toxicological evaluation of the aqueous stem bark extract of Bridelia ferruginea (Euphorbiaceae) in rodents

    PubMed Central

    Amagon, Kennedy Iliya; Agbo, John; Prasad, Majeti Narasimha Vara

    2015-01-01

    Bridelia ferruginea is a woody shrub that grows in the Savannah or rain forests of Africa and has traditionally been used to treat diabetes, arthritis and boils. Despite all these uses, extensive toxicological evaluation has not been carried out. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the sub-chronic toxicological effects of the stem bark aqueous extract of Bridelia ferruginea in rats. The lethal dose (LD50) was determined using probit analysis and graded doses of the extract (250–4000 mg/kg) were administered to the animals via oral and intraperitoneal routes and observed for mortality, behavioral changes and signs of toxicity. Sub-chronic toxicity study was carried out at doses of 1 000, 2 000 and 4 000 mg/kg administered daily for 60 days. The animals were sacrificed after 60 days. Blood was collected for biochemical (renal and hepatic), hematological, oxidative stress, sperm and histopathological examinations, using standard methods. LD50 of the extract was estimated as >4 000 mg/kg orally; neither significant visible signs of toxicity nor mortality were observed. There were no significant differences in the animals and organ weights, hematological and biochemical parameters in the treated groups compared to the control group. However, a significant increase (p<0.05) in the level of lipid peroxidation and a significant (p<0.05) decrease in sperm count were observed in the treated animals compared with the control group. The stem-bark aqueous extract of Bridelia ferruginea was found to be relatively safe, though it has the potential to cause lipid peroxidation and damage sperm quality and should thus be used with caution. PMID:27486366

  6. Nanoemulsion as a carrier to improve the topical anti-inflammatory activity of stem bark extract of Rapanea ferruginea

    PubMed Central

    Dal Mas, Juarana; Zermiani, Tailyn; Thiesen, Liliani C; Silveira, Joana LM; da Silva, Kathryn ABS; de Souza, Márcia M; Malheiros, Angela; Bresolin, Tania MB; Lucinda-Silva, Ruth M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop nanoemulsion containing soft extract of stem bark of Rapanea ferruginea to improve the topical delivery and anti-inflammatory activity. The extract of R. ferruginea stem bark was incorporated into the oily phase of the nanoemulsion by the method of phase inversion at low energy. The developed nanoemulsion had an average droplet size of 47.88±8.20 nm and a polydispersibility index of 0.228. Uniformity of size, spherical shape of droplet, and absence of clusters were confirmed by transmission electronic microscopy. The zeta potential was −34.7±1.15 mV. The nanoemulsion showed a moderate degree of skin irritation in the agarose overlay assay in vitro. The content of the extract markers, myrsinoic acids A and B, was 54.10±0.08 and 53.03 μg/g in the formulation, respectively. The formulation demonstrated pseudoplastic and thixotropic rheological behavior. In vitro release of chemical markers was controlled by diffusion mechanism. An extract-loaded nanoemulsion showed a topical anti-inflammatory activity in a croton oil-induced edema ear model, with a decrease in tumor necrosis factor release and myeloperoxidase activity. The nanoemulsion was 160% more efficient than the conventional cream containing 0.13% of the extract. The nanoemulsion showed suitable properties as a carrier for topical use of R. ferruginea extract and the approach for improving the topical anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:27660442

  7. Effect of Acacia Gum, NaCl, and Sucrose on Physical Properties of Lotus Stem Starch

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Balmeet Singh

    2014-01-01

    Consumer preferences in east Asian part of the world pave the way for consumption of lotus stem starch (LSS) in preparations such as breakfast meals, fast foods, and traditional confectioneries. The present study envisaged the investigation and optimization of additives, that is, acacia gum, sodium chloride (NaCl), and sucrose, on water absorption (WA), water absorption index (WAI), and water solubility index (WSI) of LSS employing response surface methodology (RSM). Acacia gum resulted in increased water uptake and swelling of starch; however, NaCl reduced the swelling power of starch by making water unavailable to starch and also due to starch-ion electrostatic interaction. Sucrose restricted the water absorption by binding free water and decreased amylose leaching by building bridges with starch chains and thus forming rigid structure. PMID:26904639

  8. Gibberellin is required for the formation of tension wood and stem gravitropism in Acacia mangium seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Nugroho, Widyanto Dwi; Yamagishi, Yusuke; Nakaba, Satoshi; Fukuhara, Shiori; Begum, Shahanara; Marsoem, Sri Nugroho; Ko, Jae-Heung; Jin, Hyun-O; Funada, Ryo

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Angiosperm trees generally form tension wood on the upper sides of leaning stems. The formation of tension wood is an important response to gravitational stimulus. Gibberellin appears to be involved in the differentiation of secondary xylem, but it remains unclear whether gibberellin plays a key role in the formation of tension wood and plant gravitropism. Therefore, a study was designed to investigate the effects of gibberellin and of inhibitors of the synthesis of gibberellin, namely paclobutrazole and uniconazole-P, on the formation of tension wood and negative stem gravitropism in Acacia mangium seedlings. Methods Gibberellic acid (GA3), paclobutrazole and uniconazole-P were applied to seedlings via the soil in which they were growing. Distilled water was applied similarly as a control. Three days after such treatment, seedlings were tilted at an angle of 45° from the vertical, and samples of stems were collected for analysis 2 weeks, 2 months and 6 months after tilting. The effects of treatments on the stem recovery degree (Rº) were analysed as an index of the negative gravitropism of seedlings, together the width of the region of tension wood in the upper part of inclined stems. Key Results It was found that GA3 stimulated the negative gravitropism of tilted seedling stems of A. mangium, while paclobutrazole and uniconazole-P inhibited recovery to vertical growth. Moreover, GA3 stimulated the formation of tension wood in tilted A. mangium seedlings, while paclobutrazole and uniconazole-P strongly suppressed the formation of tension wood, as assessed 2 weeks after tilting. Conclusions The results suggest that gibberellin plays an important role at the initial stages of formation of tension wood and in stem gravitropism in A. mangium seedlings in response to a gravitational stimulus. PMID:22843341

  9. Effects of aqueous extracts of Acacia albida stem bark on Wistar albino rats infected with Trypanosoma evansi.

    PubMed

    Ndidi, Uche Samuel; Umar, Ismaila Alhaji; Mohammed, Aminu; Samuel, Cosmas; Oladeru, Amos Oladiran; Yakubu, Rahinat Nimma

    2015-01-01

    The effect of aqueous extract of Acacia albida stem bark was investigated in Wistar albino rats infected with Trypanosoma evansi. The extract showed highest reduction in parasitemia at the dose of 600 mg/kg body weight (bw). A dose of 300 mg/kg bw improved packed cell volume the most by 14.35%. The group treated with 150 and 600 mg/kg bw of the extract showed significant decrease (P < 0.05) in alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase levels which were lower than those of the group treated with diminazene aceturate. The group treated with 150 mg/kg bw of the extract showed the least urea, albumin and protein level and lowest relative organ weight. There was a significant difference (P < 0.05) in the levels of catalase and Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in liver and kidney of the animals in the infected-untreated group and the extracts-treated groups. The results of this study show that the extracts of A. albida have antitrypanosomal activity against T. evansi infection.

  10. MALDI-TOF MS analysis of condensed tannins with potent antioxidant activity from the leaf, stem bark and root bark of Acacia confusa.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shu-Dong; Zhou, Hai-Chao; Lin, Yi-Ming; Liao, Meng-Meng; Chai, Wei-Ming

    2010-06-15

    The structures of the condensed tannins from leaf, stem bark and root bark of Acacia confusa were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis, and their antioxidant activities were measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The results showed that the condensed tannins from stem bark and root bark include propelargonidin and procyanidin, and the leaf condensed tannins include propelargonidin, procyanidin and prodelphinidin, all with the procyanidin dominating. The condensed tannins had different polymer chain lengths, varying from trimers to undecamers for leaf and root bark and to dodecamers for stem bark. The condensed tannins extracted from the leaf, stem bark and root bark all showed a very good DPPH radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing power.

  11. 21 CFR 172.780 - Acacia (gum arabic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acacia (gum arabic). 172.780 Section 172.780 Food....780 Acacia (gum arabic). The food additive may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Acacia (gum arabic) is the dried gummy exudate from stems and branches of trees...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1330 - Acacia (gum arabic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acacia (gum arabic). 184.1330 Section 184.1330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT... GRAS § 184.1330 Acacia (gum arabic). (a) Acacia (gum arabic) is the dried gummy exudate from stems...

  13. Cu2+ inhibition of gel secretion in the xylem and its potential implications for water uptake of cut Acacia holosericea stems.

    PubMed

    Ratnayake, Kamani; Joyce, Daryl C; Webb, Richard I

    2013-08-01

    Maintaining a high rate of water uptake is crucial for maximum longevity of cut stems. Physiological gel/tylosis formation decreases water transport efficiency in the xylem. The primary mechanism of action for post-harvest Cu(2+) treatments in improving cut flower and foliage longevity has been elusive. The effect of Cu(2+) on wound-induced xylem vessel occlusion was investigated for Acacia holosericea A. Cunn. ex G. Don. Experiments were conducted using a Cu(2+) pulse (5 h, 2.2 mM) and a Cu(2+) vase solution (0.5 mM) vs a deionized water (DIW) control. Development of xylem blockage in the stem-end region 10 mm proximal to the wounded stem surface was examined over 21 days by light and transmission electron microscopy. Xylem vessels of stems stood into DIW were occluded with gels secreted into vessel lumens via pits from surrounding axial parenchyma cells. Gel secretion was initiated within 1-2 days post-wounding and gels were detected in the xylem from day 3. In contrast, Cu(2+) treatments disrupted the surrounding parenchyma cells, thereby inhibiting gel secretion and maintaining the vessel lumens devoid of occlusions. The Cu(2+) treatments significantly improved water uptake by the cut stems as compared to the control.

  14. Hypoglycaemic and biochemical properties of Cnestis ferruginea.

    PubMed

    Adisa, Rahmat A; Choudhary, Mohammed I; Adewoye, Elsie O; Olorunsogo, Olufunso O

    2010-04-03

    Increasing incidences of diabetes in Africa has prompted the search for safe and readily available alternative herbal remedies for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Cnestis ferruginea was extracted with methanol and ethylacetate and the extracts obtained were tested for hypoglycaemic activities in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats and mice. The extracts (250 mg/kg body weight) were administered orally for 10 consecutive days to STZ-induced diabetic rats while a single dose (250 mg/kg body weight) of the extracts were administered to STZ-induced diabetic mice. Fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels were determined in the two groups of animals after extract administration. There was significant reduction in FBG (P< 0.005) by MCF and ECF within 4 hrs of extract administration in a time- dependent manner. Furthermore, administration of MCF and ECF for 10 days significantly lowered FBG in STZ diabetic rats (P<0.005) by 74% and 68%, respectively, whereas, glibenclamide - a standard antidiabetic drug reduced FBG by 60%. The levels of serum creatinine, urea, triglyceride, total cholesterol, total protein and level of lipid peroxidation were also evaluated. The extracts reduced significantly (P<0.005) the elevated levels of serum ALT and AST in diabetic treated rats. Similarly, both extracts significantly lowered (P<0.005) the levels of serum creatinine, urea, total cholesterol, triglyceride and thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS).These results suggest that Cnestis ferruginea leaves contain a highly potent hypoglycaemic principle and could be a potential source for isolation of new orally active antihyperglycaemic compounds for attenuating secondary complications of diabetes such as atherosclerosis, liver and renal dysfunction.

  15. Inhibitive effect of Xylopia ferruginea extract on the corrosion of mild steel in 1M HCl medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raja, Pandian Bothi; Rahim, Afidah Abdul; Osman, Hasnah; Awang, Khalijah

    2011-08-01

    The alkaloid content of the leaves and stem bark of Xylopia ferruginea plant was isolated and tested for its anticorrosion potential on mild steel corrosion in a hydrochloric acid medium by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, potentiodynamic polarization measurement, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infra red (FTIR) analysis. The experimental results reveal the effective anticorrosion potential of the plant extract. The mixed mode of action exhibited by the plant extract is evidenced from the polarization study. SEM images proof the formation of a protective layer over the mild steel surface, and this is supported by the FTIR study. The possible mode of the corrosion inhibition mechanism has also been discussed.

  16. Antioxidant Activity and ROS-Dependent Apoptotic Effect of Scurrula ferruginea (Jack) Danser Methanol Extract in Human Breast Cancer Cell MDA-MB-231

    PubMed Central

    Marvibaigi, Mohsen; Amini, Neda; Supriyanto, Eko; Abdul Majid, Fadzilah Adibah; Kumar Jaganathan, Saravana; Jamil, Shajarahtunnur; Hamzehalipour Almaki, Javad; Nasiri, Rozita

    2016-01-01

    Scurrula ferruginea (Jack) Danser is one of the mistletoe species belonging to Loranthaceae family, which grows on the branches of many deciduous trees in tropical countries. This study evaluated the antioxidant activities of S. ferruginea extracts. The cytotoxic activity of the selected extracts, which showed potent antioxidant activities, and high phenolic and flavonoid contents, were investigated in human breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231) and non-cancer human skin fibroblast cells (HSF-1184). The activities and characteristics varied depending on the different parts of S. ferruginea, solvent polarity, and concentrations of extracts. The stem methanol extract showed the highest amount of both phenolic (273.51 ± 4.84 mg gallic acid/g extract) and flavonoid contents (163.41 ± 4.62 mg catechin/g extract) and strong DPPH• radical scavenging (IC50 = 27.81 μg/mL) and metal chelation activity (IC50 = 80.20 μg/mL). The stem aqueous extract showed the highest ABTS•+ scavenging ability. The stem methanol and aqueous extracts exhibited dose-dependent cytotoxic activity against MDA-MB-231 cells with IC50 of 19.27 and 50.35 μg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, the extracts inhibited the migration and colony formation of MDA-MB-231 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Morphological observations revealed hallmark properties of apoptosis in treated cells. The methanol extract induced an increase in ROS generation and mitochondrial depolarization in MDA-MB-231 cells, suggesting its potent apoptotic activity. The present study demonstrated that the S. ferruginea methanol extract mediated MDA-MB-231 cell growth inhibition via induction of apoptosis which was confirmed by Western blot analysis. It may be a potential anticancer agent; however, its in vivo anticancer activity needs to be investigated. PMID:27410459

  17. Toxic effects of traditional Ethiopian fish poisoning plant Milletia ferruginea (Hochst) seed extract on aquatic macroinvertebrates.

    PubMed

    Karunamoorthi, K; Bishaw, D; Mulat, T

    2009-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the toxic effects of traditional Ethiopian fish poisoning plant Birbira [vernacular name (local native language, Amharic); Milletia ferruginea] seed extract on aquatic macroinvertebrates, Baetidae (Mayflies) and Hydropsychidae (Caddisflies), under laboratory conditions. In Ethiopia, toxic plant; Milletia ferruginea pulverized seeds have been used for fish poisoning since time immemorial. Macroinvertebrates are important biological indicators of alteration in the natural water sources. Milletia ferruginea seed extract was applied at concentrations of 125, 250, 500 1000 and 2000 ppm on Hydropsychididae whereas Baetidae were exposed at various concentrations viz., 31.25, 62.5, 125, 250 & 500 ppm. Milletia ferruginea seeds crude extract of lethal doses (LCso and LC90) required for Baetidae 49.29 mg/l and 172.52 mg/l were respectively and the respective doses (LC50 and LC90) against Hydropsychidae were 679.64 mg/l and 2383.93 mg/l. The present investigation end result demonstrated that Milletia ferruginea seed extracts were extremely toxic to Baetidae than Hydropsychididae. As a result, application of Milletia ferruginea seed extracts into the rivers/streams for fish poisoning possibly leads to contamination and disruption of food chain in the aquatic ecosystem. Therefore, the concerned authorities should launch appropriate awareness campaign among the local inhabitants and fisherman about adverse effect of Birbira seed extracts. Furthermore, providing alternative ecofriendly techniques for fish harvesting may possibly bring constructive out come in the near future.

  18. Final report of the safety assessment of Acacia catechu gum, Acacia concinna fruit extract, Acacia dealbata leaf extract, Acacia dealbata leaf wax, Acacia decurrens extract, Acacia farnesiana extract, Acacia farnesiana flower wax, Acacia farnesiana gum, Acacia senegal extract, Acacia senegal gum, and Acacia senegal gum extract.

    PubMed

    2005-01-01

    These ingredients are derived from various species of the acacia plant. Only material derived from Acacia senegal are in current use according to industry data. The concentration at which these ingredients are reported to be used ranges from 9% in mascara to 0.0001% in tonics, dressings, and other hair-grooming aids. Gum arabic is a technical name for Acacia Senegal Gum. Gum arabic is comprised of various sugars and glucuronic acid residues in a long chain of galactosyl units with branched oligosaccharides. Gum arabic is generally recognized as safe as a direct food additive. Little information is available to characterize the extracts of other Acacia plant parts or material from other species. Acacia Concinna Fruit Extract was generally described as containing saponins, alkaloids, and malic acid with parabens and potassium sorbate added as preservatives. Cosmetic ingredient functions have been reported for Acacia Decurrens Extract (astringent; skin-conditioning agent--occlusive) and Acacia Farnesiana Extract (astringent), but not for the other Acacias included in this review. Toxicity data on gum arabic indicates little or no acute, short-term, or subchronic toxicity. Gum arabic is negative in several genotoxicity assays, is not a reproductive or developmental toxin, and is not carcinogenic when given intraperitoneally or orally. Clinical testing indicated some evidence of skin sensitization with gum arabic. The extensive safety test data on gum arabic supports the safety of Acacia Senegal Gum and Acacia Senegal Gum Extract, and it was concluded that these two ingredients are safe as used in cosmetic formulations. It was not possible, however, to relate the data on gum arabic to the crude Acacias and their extracts from species other than Acacia senegal. Therefore, the available data were considered insufficient to support the safety of Acacia Catechu Gum, Acacia Concinna Fruit Extract, Acacia Dealbata Leaf Extract, Acacia Dealbata Leaf Wax, Acacia Decurrens

  19. Potential biological activity of acacia honey.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Aliyu; Odunola, Oyeronke A; Ibrahim, Mohammed A; Sallau, Abdullahi B; Erukainure, Ochuko L; Aimola, Idown A; Malami, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in functional foods-based research have increasingly become an area of major interest because it affects human health and activities. Functional foods are classes of foods with health promoting and disease preventing properties in addition to multiple nutritional values and of such type is honey. Acacia honey is a type of honey produced by bees (Apis mellifera) fed on Acacia flowers, hence the name. This review focuses on the potential biological activities of Acacia honey which includes quality, antioxidant, immuno-modulatory, antiproliferative and neurological properties at in vitro and in vivo levels. Based on our review, Acacia honey used from various researches is of high purity, contains some bioactive compounds ranging from vitamins, phenolics, flavonoids and fatty acids. It's highly nutritional with strong antioxidant and immuno-modulatory potentials which may therefore be considered a potential candidate for both cancer prevention and treatment. Neurologically, it may be considered as a viable therapeutic agent in the management of Alzheimer's disease.

  20. Inhibitory effects of Olea ferruginea crude leaves extract against some bacterial and fungal pathogen.

    PubMed

    Amin, Adnan; Khan, Muhammad Ayaz; Shah, Swahid; Ahmad, Mushatq; Zafar, Muhammad; Hameed, Abdul

    2013-03-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the inhibitory effects of Olea ferruginea crude leaves extract that are commonly used as remedy to cure infections in the tribal (Khyber Agency) areas of Pakistan against some of bacterial and fungal pathogens. The crude n-hexane fraction was appreciably active against both gram positive and negative microorganisms (MIC ranged from 7.5 to 15 mg/ml) followed by butanol fraction (MIC 15 to 30 mg/ml). Conversely least biological activity was shown by chloroform (30mg/ml) and methanol (15 to 30mg/ml) crude fractions. The MBC observed for all crude fractions was same or 2 times higher when compared with MIC for all crude extract fractions. Likewise all the fractions showed activity against Aspergillus niger and maximum zones of inhibition were shown by the n-hexane fraction (14 ± (0.02), butanol (13 ± (0.02) followed by methanol (9 ± (0.05) and chloroform fractions (7 ± (0.02). These results clearly imitate the antibacterial and antifungal potential of Olea ferruginea and hence we recommend the whole plant for further futuristic studies.

  1. 21 CFR 184.1330 - Acacia (gum arabic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acacia (gum arabic). 184.1330 Section 184.1330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1330 Acacia (gum arabic). (a) Acacia (gum arabic) is the...

  2. 21 CFR 172.780 - Acacia (gum arabic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acacia (gum arabic). 172.780 Section 172.780 Food... Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.780 Acacia (gum arabic). The food additive may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Acacia (gum arabic) is the dried...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1330 - Acacia (gum arabic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acacia (gum arabic). 184.1330 Section 184.1330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1330 Acacia (gum arabic). (a) Acacia (gum arabic)...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1330 - Acacia (gum arabic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acacia (gum arabic). 184.1330 Section 184.1330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1330 Acacia (gum arabic). (a) Acacia (gum arabic)...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1330 - Acacia (gum arabic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acacia (gum arabic). 184.1330 Section 184.1330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1330 Acacia (gum arabic). (a) Acacia (gum arabic)...

  6. 21 CFR 172.780 - Acacia (gum arabic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acacia (gum arabic). 172.780 Section 172.780 Food... Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.780 Acacia (gum arabic). The food additive may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Acacia (gum arabic) is the dried...

  7. 21 CFR 172.780 - Acacia (gum arabic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acacia (gum arabic). 172.780 Section 172.780 Food... Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.780 Acacia (gum arabic). The food additive may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Acacia (gum arabic) is the dried...

  8. 21 CFR 172.780 - Acacia (gum arabic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acacia (gum arabic). 172.780 Section 172.780 Food... Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.780 Acacia (gum arabic). The food additive may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Acacia (gum arabic) is the dried...

  9. Neuroprotective effects of constituents of Eragrostis ferruginea against Aβ-induced toxicity in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Na, Chae Sun; Hong, Seong Su; Choi, Yun-Hyeok; Lee, Yong Ho; Hong, Sun Hee; Lim, Ji-Youn; Kang, Byeong Hoa; Park, So-Young; Lee, Dongho

    2010-07-01

    A new flavonoid, 7-demethylageconyflavone A (1), and five known compounds, tricin (2), ageconyflavone A (3), corylin (4), nectandrin B (5), and 4-ketopinoresinol (6) were isolated from the aerial parts of Eragrostis ferruginea. Their structures were determined using spectroscopic techniques, including 1D- and 2D-NMR. All compounds were tested for the neuroprotective effects against amyloid beta peptide (Abeta) using PC12 cells, a major cause of the pathology of Alzheimer's disease. Tricin (2) was found to have a neuroprotective effect with an ED(50) value of 20.3 microM against Abeta-induced toxicity in PC12 cells. Ageconyflavone A (3), nectandrin B (5) and 4-ketopinoresinol (6) demonstrated moderate neuroprotective effects with ED(50) values of 58.7, 44.1, and 54.8 microM, respectively.

  10. Bridelia ferruginea Produces Antineuroinflammatory Activity through Inhibition of Nuclear Factor-kappa B and p38 MAPK Signalling

    PubMed Central

    Olajide, Olumayokun A.; Aderogba, Mutalib A.; Okorji, Uchechukwu P.; Fiebich, Bernd L.

    2012-01-01

    Bridelia ferruginea is commonly used in traditional African medicine (TAM) for treating various inflammatory conditions. Extracts from the plant have been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory property in a number of in vivo models. In this study the influence of B. ferruginea (BFE) on the production of PGE2, nitrite, and proinflammatory cytokines from LPS-stimulated BV-2 microglia was investigated. The effects of BFE on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein expressions were evaluated in LPS-activated rat primary microglia. The roles of NF-κB and MAPK signalling in the actions of BFE were also investigated. BFE (25–200 μg) inhibited the production of PGE2, nitrite, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNFα), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) as well as COX-2 and iNOS protein expressions in LPS-activated microglial cells. Further studies to elucidate the mechanism of anti-inflammatory action of BFE revealed interference with nuclear translocation of NF-κBp65 through mechanisms involving inhibition of IκB degradation. BFE prevented phosphorylation of p38, but not p42/44 or JNK MAPK. It is suggested that Bridelia ferruginea produces anti-inflammatory action through mechanisms involving p38 MAPK and NF-κB signalling. PMID:23320030

  11. Does the whistling thorn acacia (Acacia drepanolobium) use auditory aposematism to deter mammalian herbivores?

    PubMed

    Lev-Yadun, Simcha

    2016-08-02

    Auditory signaling including aposematism characterizes many terrestrial animals. Auditory aposematism by which certain animals use auditory aposematic signals to fend off enemies is well known for instance in rattlesnakes. Auditory signaling by plants toward animals and other plants is an emerging area of plant biology that still suffers from limited amount of solid data. Here I propose that auditory aposematism operates in the African whistling thorn acacia (Acacia drepanolobium = Vachellia drepanolobium). In this tree, the large and hollow thorn bases whistle when wind blows. This type of aposematism compliments the well-known conspicuous thorn and mutualistic ant based aposematism during day and may operate during night when the conspicuous thorns are invisible.

  12. The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Aix galericulata and Tadorna ferruginea: Bearings on Their Phylogenetic Position in the Anseriformes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Gang; Zhou, Lizhi; Li, Bo; Zhang, Lili

    2014-01-01

    Aix galericulata and Tadorna ferruginea are two Anatidae species representing different taxonomic groups of Anseriformes. We used a PCR-based method to determine the complete mtDNAs of both species, and estimated phylogenetic trees based on the complete mtDNA alignment of these and 14 other Anseriforme species, to clarify Anseriform phylogenetics. Phylogenetic trees were also estimated using a multiple sequence alignment of three mitochondrial genes (Cyt b, ND2, and COI) from 68 typical species in GenBank, to further clarify the phylogenetic relationships of several groups among the Anseriformes. The new mtDNAs are circular molecules, 16,651 bp (Aix galericulata) and 16,639 bp (Tadorna ferruginea) in length, containing the 37 typical genes, with an identical gene order and arrangement as those of other Anseriformes. Comparing the protein-coding genes among the mtDNAs of 16 Anseriforme species, ATG is generally the start codon, TAA is the most frequent stop codon, one of three, TAA, TAG, and T-, commonly observed. All tRNAs could be folded into canonical cloverleaf secondary structures except for tRNASer (AGY) and tRNALeu (CUN), which are missing the "DHU" arm.Phylogenetic relationships demonstrate that Aix galericula and Tadorna ferruginea are in the same group, the Tadorninae lineage, based on our analyses of complete mtDNAs and combined gene data. Molecular phylogenetic analysis suggests the 68 species of Anseriform birds be divided into three families: Anhimidae, Anatidae, and Anseranatidae. The results suggest Anatidae birds be divided into five subfamilies: Anatinae, Tadorninae, Anserinae, Oxyurinae, and Dendrocygninae. Oxyurinae and Dendrocygninae should not belong to Anserinae, but rather represent independent subfamilies. The Anatinae includes species from the tribes Mergini, Somaterini, Anatini, and Aythyini. The Anserinae includes species from the tribes Anserini and Cygnini. PMID:25375111

  13. VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING INTERSECTION OF ACACIA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING INTERSECTION OF ACACIA ROAD WITH BIRCH CIRCLE. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  14. Description of Diorchis thracica n. sp. (Cestoda, Hymenolepididae) from the ruddy shelduck Tadorna ferruginea (Pallas) (Anseriformes, Anatidae) in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Marinova, Margarita H; Georgiev, Boyko B; Vasileva, Gergana P

    2015-07-01

    Diorchis thracica n. sp. (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea, Hymenolepididae) is described from the ruddy shelduck Tadorna ferruginea (Pallas) (Aves, Anseriformes, Anatidae), collected in the vicinities of Radnevo, Stara Zagora Region, Bulgaria. The new species is differentiated from other members of Diorchis Clerc, 1903 by possessing rostellar hooks with length of 36 µm, a thick-walled cirrus-sac with strong longitudinal muscular fibres in its middle part and a copulatory vagina with two sphincters. Main morphological criteria for distinguishing species of the genus Diorchis are discussed.

  15. Early growth performance of full-sib Acacia auriculiformis x Acacia mangium F1 hybrid progenies at three different sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah Aimin, Atirah Abdullah; Abdullah, Mohd Zaki; Muhammad, Norwati; Ratnam, Wickneswari

    2014-09-01

    Field trials of 14 full sib Acacia auriculiformis x Acacia mangium F1 hybrid progenies were evaluated for growth performance at three sites (Bintulu, Mentakab and Segamat). Results indicated that there were significant differences (p> 0.05) for diameter breast height (Dbh) and total height (Ht) among the progenies and different sites. Superior progenies have been identified for future tree selection and improvement.

  16. Patterns of spatial genetic structuring in the endangered limpet Patella ferruginea: implications for the conservation of a Mediterranean endemic.

    PubMed

    Casu, Marco; Rivera-Ingraham, Georgina A; Cossu, Piero; Lai, Tiziana; Sanna, Daria; Dedola, Gian Luca; Sussarellu, Rossana; Sella, Gabriella; Cristo, Benedetto; Curini-Galletti, Marco; García-Gómez, José Carlos; Espinosa, Free

    2011-10-01

    Patella ferruginea Gmelin, 1791 is an endangered marine gastropod endemic to the Western Mediterranean. Its range is restricted to the Sardinian-Corsican region (SCR), North Africa, a few scattered sites in Southern Spain, and Sicily. Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers and three different mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) regions, Cytochrome c Oxidase subunit I, 12S (small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene) and 16S (large-subunit ribosomal RNA gene), were used to investigate the presence of genetic population structuring. The mtDNA sequences showed very low levels of genetic differentiation. Conversely, ISSRs showed the presence of two main genetic groups, corresponding to Spain, North Africa and Sicily and the SCR. The SCR was further split into two subgroups. The ISSR results suggest that, on a regional scale, the genetic structure of P. ferruginea is mainly determined by the restriction of gene flow by dispersal barriers. On a more local scale human harvesting may play a crucial role in population structuring by increasing the effect of genetic drift.

  17. Neotropical mutualism between Acacia and Pseudomyrmex: phylogeny and divergence times.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Acevedo, Sandra; Rico-Arce, Lourdes; Delgado-Salinas, Alfonso; Magallón, Susana; Eguiarte, Luis E

    2010-07-01

    The interaction between Acacia and Pseudomyrmex is a textbook example of mutualism between ants and plants, nevertheless aspects of its evolutionary biology have not been formally explored. In this paper we analyze primarily the phylogenies of both New World Acacia and of their associated species of ants, and the geographic origin of this mutualism. Until now, there has been no molecular analysis of this relationship in terms of its origin and age. We analyzed three chloroplast markers (matK, psaB-rps14, and trnL-trnF) on a total of 70 taxa of legumes from the subfamily Mimosoideae, and two nuclear regions (long-wavelength rhodopsine and wingless) on a total of 43 taxa of ants from subfamily Pseudomyrmecinae. The monophyly of subgenus Acacia and within the New World lineages that of the myrmecophilous Acacia group was established. In addition, our results supported the monophyly of the genus Pseudomyrmex and of the associated acacia-ants P. ferrugineus group. Using Bayesian methods and calibration data, the estimated divergence times for the groups involved in the mutualism are: 5.44+/-1.93 My for the myrmecophilous acacias and 4.58+/-0.82 My for their associated ant species, implying that their relationship originated in Mesoamerica between the late Miocene to the middle Pliocene, with eventual diversification of both groups in Mexico.

  18. Two invasive acacia species secure generalist pollinators in invaded communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montesinos, Daniel; Castro, Sílvia; Rodríguez-Echeverría, Susana

    2016-07-01

    Exotic entomophilous plants need to establish effective pollinator interactions in order to succeed after being introduced into a new community, particularly if they are obligatory outbreeders. By establishing these novel interactions in the new non-native range, invasive plants are hypothesised to drive changes in the composition and functioning of the native pollinator community, with potential impacts on the pollination biology of native co-flowering plants. We used two different sites in Portugal, each invaded by a different acacia species, to assess whether two native Australian trees, Acacia dealbata and Acacia longifolia, were able to recruit pollinators in Portugal, and whether the pollinator community visiting acacia trees differed from the pollinator communities interacting with native co-flowering plants. Our results indicate that in the invaded range of Portugal both acacia species were able to establish novel mutualistic interactions, predominantly with generalist pollinators. For each of the two studied sites, only two other co-occurring native plant species presented partially overlapping phenologies. We observed significant differences in pollinator richness and visitation rates among native and non-native plant species, although the study of β diversity indicated that only the native plant Lithodora fruticosa presented a differentiated set of pollinator species. Acacias experienced a large number of visits by numerous pollinator species, but massive acacia flowering resulted in flower visitation rates frequently lower than those of the native co-flowering species. We conclude that the establishment of mutualisms in Portugal likely contributes to the effective and profuse production of acacia seeds in Portugal. Despite the massive flowering of A. dealbata and A. longifolia, native plant species attained similar or higher visitation rates than acacias.

  19. Chemical composition and allelopathic potential of essential oils obtained from Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. Cultivated in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    El Ayeb-Zakhama, Asma; Sakka-Rouis, Lamia; Bergaoui, Afifa; Flamini, Guido; Ben Jannet, Hichem; Harzallah-Skhiri, Fethia

    2015-04-01

    Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. (Fabaceae), synonym Acacia saligna (Labill.) H. L.Wendl., native to West Australia and naturalized in North Africa and South Europe, was introduced in Tunisia for rangeland rehabilitation, particularly in the semiarid zones. In addition, this evergreen tree represents a potential forage resource, particularly during periods of drought. A. cyanophylla is abundant in Tunisia and some other Mediterranean countries. The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from different plant parts, viz., roots, stems, phyllodes, flowers, and pods (fully mature fruits without seeds), was characterized for the first time here. According to GC-FID and GC/MS analyses, the principal compound in the phyllode and flower oils was dodecanoic acid (4), representing 22.8 and 66.5% of the total oil, respectively. Phenylethyl salicylate (8; 34.9%), heptyl valerate (3; 17.3%), and nonadecane (36%) were the main compounds in the root, stem, and pod oils, respectively. The phyllode and flower oils were very similar, containing almost the same compounds. Nevertheless, the phyllode oil differed from the flower oil for its higher contents of hexahydrofarnesyl acetone (6), linalool (1), pentadecanal, α-terpineol, and benzyl benzoate (5) and its lower content of 4. Principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses separated the five essential oils into four groups, each characterized by its main constituents. Furthermore, the allelopathic activity of each oil was evaluated using lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) as a plant model. The phyllode, flower, and pod oils exhibited a strong allelopathic activity against lettuce.

  20. Mesorhizobium acaciae sp. nov., isolated from root nodules of Acacia melanoxylon R. Br.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ya Jie; Kun, Jun; Chen, Ying Long; Wang, Sheng Kun; Sui, Xin Hua; Kang, Li Hua

    2015-10-01

    Three novel strains, RITF741T, RITF1220 and RITF909, isolated from root nodules of Acacia melanoxylon in Guangdong Province of China, have been previously identified as members of the genus Mesorhizobium, displaying the same 16S rRNA gene RFLP pattern. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the three strains belong to the genus Mesorhizobium and had highest similarity (100.0 %) to Mesorhizobium plurifarium LMG 11892T. Phylogenetic analyses of housekeeping genes recA, atpD and glnII revealed that these strains represented a distinct evolutionary lineage within the genus Mesorhizobium. Strain RITF741T showed >73 % DNA–DNA relatedness with strains RITF1220 and RITF909, but < 60 % DNA–DNA relatedness with the closest type strains of recognized species of the genus Mesorhizobium. They differed from each other and from their closest phylogenetic neighbours by presence/absence of several fatty acids, or by large differences in the relative amounts of particular fatty acids. While showing distinctive features, they were generally able to utilize a wide range of substrates as sole carbon sources based on API 50CH and API 20NE tests. The three strains were able to form nodules with the original host Acacia melanoxylon and other woody legumes such as Acacia aneura, Albizia falcataria and Leucaena leucocephala. In conclusion, these strains represent a novel species belonging to the genus Mesorhizobium based on the data obtained in the present and previous studies, for which the name Mesorhizobium acaciae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is RITF741T ( = CCBAU 101090T = JCM 30534T), the DNA G+C content of which is 64.1 mol% (T m).

  1. Mesorhizobium acaciae sp. nov., isolated from root nodules of Acacia melanoxylon R. Br.

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Ya Jie; Lu, Jun Kun; Chen, Ying Long; Wang, Sheng Kun; Sui, Xin Hua

    2015-01-01

    Three novel strains, RITF741T, RITF1220 and RITF909, isolated from root nodules of Acacia melanoxylon in Guangdong Province of China, have been previously identified as members of the genus Mesorhizobium, displaying the same 16S rRNA gene RFLP pattern. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the three strains belong to the genus Mesorhizobium and had highest similarity (100.0 %) to Mesorhizobium plurifarium LMG 11892T. Phylogenetic analyses of housekeeping genes recA, atpD and glnII revealed that these strains represented a distinct evolutionary lineage within the genus Mesorhizobium. Strain RITF741T showed >73 % DNA–DNA relatedness with strains RITF1220 and RITF909, but < 60 % DNA–DNA relatedness with the closest type strains of recognized species of the genus Mesorhizobium. They differed from each other and from their closest phylogenetic neighbours by presence/absence of several fatty acids, or by large differences in the relative amounts of particular fatty acids. While showing distinctive features, they were generally able to utilize a wide range of substrates as sole carbon sources based on API 50CH and API 20NE tests. The three strains were able to form nodules with the original host Acacia melanoxylon and other woody legumes such as Acacia aneura, Albizia falcataria and Leucaena leucocephala. In conclusion, these strains represent a novel species belonging to the genus Mesorhizobium based on the data obtained in the present and previous studies, for which the name Mesorhizobium acaciae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is RITF741T ( = CCBAU 101090T = JCM 30534T), the DNA G+C content of which is 64.1 mol% (Tm). PMID:26296667

  2. In vitro effect of condensed tannin extract from acacia (Acacia mearnsii) on gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep.

    PubMed

    Minho, Alessandro P; Bueno, Ives Cláudio Da S; Gennari, Solange Maria; Jackson, Frank; Abdalla, Adibe Luiz

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the inhibitory effects of condensed tannin extract from acacia on the feeding of first-stage larvae (L1) of Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus vitrinus and Teladorsagia circumcincta. The experiment was developed such that the inhibition of feeding for each of the nematode species could be evaluated. L1 recovered from fecal samples from a donor with monospecific infection was incubated in several dilutions of acacia extract (AE). The LD50 was determined for the three species of nematodes. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) was added to all dilutions of AE to inactivate the condensed tannins (CT) from acacia and to confirm their effects on L1. The impact of CT on larval feeding inhibition was detected for all the species of nematodes (H. contortus, T. colubriformis and T. circumcincta). There were differences between the aqueouswater control and CT treated groups (P < 0.01). The LD50 values were 0.043, 0.038 and 0.050 (SE = 0.0024), for H. contortus, T. vitrinus and T. circumcincta, respectively. A difference was detected between the AE and AE + PEG treatments (P < 0.01). Analysis of these results suggested that the direct effect of CT on L1 of the nematodes studied could be used as an alternative means for controlling nematodes in sheep.

  3. Salt- and alkaline-tolerance are linked in Acacia.

    PubMed

    Bui, Elisabeth N; Thornhill, Andrew; Miller, Joseph T

    2014-07-01

    Saline or alkaline soils present a strong stress on plants that together may be even more deleterious than alone. Australia's soils are old and contain large, sometimes overlapping, areas of high salt and alkalinity. Acacia and other Australian plant lineages have evolved in this stressful soil environment and present an opportunity to understand the evolution of salt and alkalinity tolerance. We investigate this evolution by predicting the average soil salinity and pH for 503 Acacia species and mapping the response onto a maximum-likelihood phylogeny. We find that salinity and alkalinity tolerance have evolved repeatedly and often together over 25 Ma of the Acacia radiation in Australia. Geographically restricted species are often tolerant of extreme conditions. Distantly related species are sympatric in the most extreme soil environments, suggesting lack of niche saturation. There is strong evidence that many Acacia have distributions affected by salinity and alkalinity and that preference is lineage specific.

  4. Salt- and alkaline-tolerance are linked in Acacia

    PubMed Central

    Bui, Elisabeth N.; Thornhill, Andrew; Miller, Joseph T.

    2014-01-01

    Saline or alkaline soils present a strong stress on plants that together may be even more deleterious than alone. Australia's soils are old and contain large, sometimes overlapping, areas of high salt and alkalinity. Acacia and other Australian plant lineages have evolved in this stressful soil environment and present an opportunity to understand the evolution of salt and alkalinity tolerance. We investigate this evolution by predicting the average soil salinity and pH for 503 Acacia species and mapping the response onto a maximum-likelihood phylogeny. We find that salinity and alkalinity tolerance have evolved repeatedly and often together over 25 Ma of the Acacia radiation in Australia. Geographically restricted species are often tolerant of extreme conditions. Distantly related species are sympatric in the most extreme soil environments, suggesting lack of niche saturation. There is strong evidence that many Acacia have distributions affected by salinity and alkalinity and that preference is lineage specific. PMID:25079493

  5. Propolis with high flavonoid content collected by honey bees from Acacia paradoxa.

    PubMed

    Tran, Van H; Duke, Rujee K; Abu-Mellal, Abdallah; Duke, Colin C

    2012-09-01

    Honey bees, Apis mellifera var ligustica, on Kangaroo Island, Australia, were found to collect propolis from the sticky exudate on the stem shoots and seed pods of an Australian endemic plant, Acacia paradoxa. Extracts of the plant stem shoots and seed pods, the propolis carried on the legs of bees and freshly collected propolis in hives contained major flavonoid components consisting of 2',3',4'-trimethoxychalcone, 2'-hydroxy-3',4'-dimethoxychalcone, 2',4'-dihydroxy-3'-methoxychalcone, 5,7-dihydroxy-2,3-dihydroflavonol 3-acetate (pinobanksin 3-acetate) and 5,7-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-2,3-dihydroflavonol 3-acetate, a substance not previously characterized. HPLC and (1)H NMR analyses of the propolis and plant extracts indicated smaller amounts of other flavonoids. A survey of propolis samples from 47 apiary sites widely distributed on Kangaroo Island showed that 15 samples from 6 sites were largely sourced from A. paradoxa.

  6. STEM?!?!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Jen

    2012-01-01

    The author's son has been an engineer since birth. He never asked "why" as a toddler, it was always "how's it work?" So that he wanted a STEM-based home education was no big surprise. In this article, the author considers what kind of curricula would work best for her complex kid.

  7. Host plant use by competing acacia-ants: mutualists monopolize while parasites share hosts.

    PubMed

    Kautz, Stefanie; Ballhorn, Daniel J; Kroiss, Johannes; Pauls, Steffen U; Moreau, Corrie S; Eilmus, Sascha; Strohm, Erhard; Heil, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Protective ant-plant mutualisms that are exploited by non-defending parasitic ants represent prominent model systems for ecology and evolutionary biology. The mutualist Pseudomyrmex ferrugineus is an obligate plant-ant and fully depends on acacias for nesting space and food. The parasite Pseudomyrmex gracilis facultatively nests on acacias and uses host-derived food rewards but also external food sources. Integrative analyses of genetic microsatellite data, cuticular hydrocarbons and behavioral assays showed that an individual acacia might be inhabited by the workers of several P. gracilis queens, whereas one P. ferrugineus colony monopolizes one or more host trees. Despite these differences in social organization, neither of the species exhibited aggressive behavior among conspecific workers sharing a tree regardless of their relatedness. This lack of aggression corresponds to the high similarity of cuticular hydrocarbon profiles among ants living on the same tree. Host sharing by unrelated colonies, or the presence of several queens in a single colony are discussed as strategies by which parasite colonies could achieve the observed social organization. We argue that in ecological terms, the non-aggressive behavior of non-sibling P. gracilis workers--regardless of the route to achieve this social structure--enables this species to efficiently occupy and exploit a host plant. By contrast, single large and long-lived colonies of the mutualist P. ferrugineus monopolize individual host plants and defend them aggressively against invaders from other trees. Our findings highlight the necessity for using several methods in combination to fully understand how differing life history strategies affect social organization in ants.

  8. Chemical composition and anti-inflammatory activities of the essential oils from Acacia mearnsii de Wild.

    PubMed

    Avoseh, Opeyemi N; Oyedeji, Ope-oluwa O; Aremu, Kayode; Nkeh-Chungag, Benedicta N; Songca, Sandile P; Oluwafemi, Samuel O; Oyedeji, Adebola O

    2015-01-01

    The volatile oils of the leaves and the stem bark of Acacia mearnsii de Wild obtained by hydro-distillation were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 20, 38, 29 and 38 components accounted for 93.8%, 92.1%, 78.5% and 90.9% of the total oils of the fresh, dry leaves and fresh, dry stem bark, respectively. The major components of the oil were octadecyl alcohol (25.5%) and phytol (10.5%); cis-verbenol (29.5%); phytol (10.1%) and phytol (23.4%) for the fresh leaves, dried leaves, fresh stem, dry stem bark, respectively. Oral administration of essential oils at a dose of 2% showed significant (p < 0.05) anti-inflammatory properties in the albumin-induced test model in rats. Oils from the fresh leaves and dry stems inhibited inflammation beyond 4 h post treatment. The potent anti-inflammatory activity of essential oils of A. mearnsii hereby confirmed its traditional use in treating various inflammatory diseases.

  9. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers from the acacia-ant Crematogaster mimosae.

    PubMed

    Rubin, B E; Makarewich, C A; Talaba, A L; Stenzler, L; Bogdanowicz, S M; Lovette, I J

    2009-07-01

    We describe 10 microsatellite loci developed from Crematogaster mimosae, an ant species that nests mutualistically in Acacia drepanolobium trees in east Africa. Polymorphism ranged from 4 to 16 alleles per locus (mean = 7.3). Observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.485 to 0.813 (mean 0.626), and from 0.502 to 0.894 (mean 0.674), respectively. These markers will foster studies of the population structure, colony structure, and reproductive strategies of these ants.

  10. Gibberellin mediates the development of gelatinous fibres in the tension wood of inclined Acacia mangium seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Nugroho, Widyanto Dwi; Nakaba, Satoshi; Yamagishi, Yusuke; Begum, Shahanara; Marsoem, Sri Nugroho; Ko, Jae-Heung; Jin, Hyun-O; Funada, Ryo

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Gibberellin stimulates negative gravitropism and the formation of tension wood in tilted Acacia mangium seedlings, while inhibitors of gibberellin synthesis strongly inhibit the return to vertical growth and suppress the formation of tension wood. To characterize the role of gibberellin in tension wood formation and gravitropism, this study investigated the role of gibberellin in the development of gelatinous fibres and in the changes in anatomical characteristics of woody elements in Acacia mangium seedlings exposed to a gravitational stimulus. Methods Gibberellin, paclobutrazol and uniconazole-P were applied to the soil in which seedlings were growing, using distilled water as the control. Three days after the start of treatment, seedlings were inclined at 45 ° to the vertical and samples were harvested 2 months later. The effects of the treatments on wood fibres, vessel elements and ray parenchyma cells were analysed in tension wood in the upper part of inclined stems and in the opposite wood on the lower side of inclined stems. Key Results Application of paclobutrazol or uniconazole-P inhibited the increase in the thickness of gelatinous layers and prevented the elongation of gelatinous fibres in the tension wood of inclined stems. By contrast, gibberellin stimulated the elongation of these fibres. Application of gibberellin and inhibitors of gibberellin biosynthesis had only minor effects on the anatomical characteristics of vessel and ray parenchyma cells. Conclusions The results suggest that gibberellin is important for the development of gelatinous fibres in the tension wood of A. mangium seedlings and therefore in gravitropism. PMID:24043495

  11. Extracting Features of Acacia Plantation and Natural Forest in the Mountainous Region of Sarawak, Malaysia by ALOS/AVNIR2 Image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadaei, H.; Ishii, R.; Suzuki, R.; Kendawang, J.

    2013-12-01

    The remote sensing technique has provided useful information to detect spatio-temporal changes in the land cover of tropical forests. Land cover characteristics derived from satellite image can be applied to the estimation of ecosystem services and biodiversity over an extensive area, and such land cover information would provide valuable information to global and local people to understand the significance of the tropical ecosystem. This study was conducted in the Acacia plantations and natural forest situated in the mountainous region which has different ecological characteristic from that in flat and low land area in Sarawak, Malaysia. The main objective of this study is to compare extract the characteristic of them by analyzing the ALOS/AVNIR2 images and ground truthing obtained by the forest survey. We implemented a ground-based forest survey at Aacia plantations and natural forest in the mountainous region in Sarawak, Malaysia in June, 2013 and acquired the forest structure data (tree height, diameter at breast height (DBH), crown diameter, tree spacing) and spectral reflectance data at the three sample plots of Acacia plantation that has 10 x 10m area. As for the spectral reflectance data, we measured the spectral reflectance of the end members of forest such as leaves, stems, road surface, and forest floor by the spectro-radiometer. Such forest structure and spectral data were incorporated into the image analysis by support vector machine (SVM) and object-base/texture analysis. Consequently, land covers on the AVNIR2 image were classified into three forest types (natural forest, oil palm plantation and acacia mangium plantation), then the characteristic of each category was examined. We additionally used the tree age data of acacia plantation for the classification. A unique feature was found in vegetation spectral reflectance of Acacia plantations. The curve of the spectral reflectance shows two peaks around 0.3μm and 0.6 - 0.8μm that can be assumed to

  12. 21 CFR 872.3400 - Karaya and sodium borate with or without acacia denture adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Karaya and sodium borate with or without acacia... and sodium borate with or without acacia denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A karaya and sodium borate with or without acacia denture adhesive is a device composed of karaya and sodium borate with...

  13. 21 CFR 872.3400 - Karaya and sodium borate with or without acacia denture adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Karaya and sodium borate with or without acacia... and sodium borate with or without acacia denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A karaya and sodium borate with or without acacia denture adhesive is a device composed of karaya and sodium borate with...

  14. 21 CFR 872.3400 - Karaya and sodium borate with or without acacia denture adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Karaya and sodium borate with or without acacia... and sodium borate with or without acacia denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A karaya and sodium borate with or without acacia denture adhesive is a device composed of karaya and sodium borate with...

  15. 75 FR 24940 - Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Baseline Filing April 29, 2010. Take notice that on April 27, 2010, Acacia Natural Gas Corporation (Acacia) submitted its...

  16. 75 FR 28599 - Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Baseline Filing May 13, 2010. Take notice that on May 11, 2010, Acacia Natural Gas Corporation (Acacia) submitted a corrected...

  17. Characterisation and molecular association of Nigerian and Sudanese Acacia gum exudates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chemical and physicochemical characteristics of gum exudate samples harvested from mature trees of Acacia senegal at two specific locations in Nigeria have been investigated together with gum samples harvested from Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal originating from Sudan. The monosaccharide sugar ...

  18. 77 FR 63311 - Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval Take notice that on October 9, 2012, Acacia Natural Gas Corporation (Acacia) filed a Petition for...

  19. 21 CFR 872.3400 - Karaya and sodium borate with or without acacia denture adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Karaya and sodium borate with or without acacia... and sodium borate with or without acacia denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A karaya and sodium borate with or without acacia denture adhesive is a device composed of karaya and sodium borate with...

  20. 21 CFR 872.3400 - Karaya and sodium borate with or without acacia denture adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Karaya and sodium borate with or without acacia... and sodium borate with or without acacia denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A karaya and sodium borate with or without acacia denture adhesive is a device composed of karaya and sodium borate with...

  1. 75 FR 27334 - Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Baseline Filing May 7, 2010. Take notice that on May 5, 2010, Acacia Natural Gas Corporation (Acacia) submitted a correction to its...

  2. Palaeoclimatic potential of Acacia tortilis in the Eastern Sahara.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagen, Mary; Young, Giles; Andersen, Gidske; Krzywinski, Knut; Goslar, Tomasz

    2014-05-01

    The challenge of deriving useful dendroclimatic information from non-annual ring forming trees cannot be overstated. Here we consider the contribution to be made by combining radioacarbon dating with stable isotope dendroclimatology in the analysis of Sudanese Acacia. Stable carbon isotopic analyses are presented from 14C-dated living Sudanese Acacia tortilis in xeric northern Africa. Stable carbon isotopic ratios were assigned calendar dates based on high-density 14C results. Intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE) changes are calculated over the industrial period.

  3. Effects of Acacia nilotica and Acacia karoo diets on Haemonchus contortus infection in goats.

    PubMed

    Kahiya, C; Mukaratirwa, S; Thamsborg, S M

    2003-07-29

    This study was carried out to determine the effects of Acacia karoo and Acacia nilotica diets on Haemonchus contortus infections in goats. Twenty-four Boer goats of mixed sex (live weight 17-22 kg) were randomly assigned to four treatment groups, namely: A. nilotica (AN) group, A. karoo (AK) group, control infected with H. contortus (HC) group and the non-infected control (NHC) group. Animals in the AN, AK and HC groups were orally infected with a single dose of 3000 HC third stage larvae. The AN and AK groups had dried leaves of AN and AK, respectively, included in their basal diet at a rate of 40% dry matter (DM) while the HC and NHC groups had the basal diet throughout the experiment. All animals received a total feed allowance of 500 g DM per day and Katambora Rhodes grass hay ad libitum for roughage. Parameters measured included faecal egg counts and live weight. At the end of the experiment, three animals from each group were slaughtered and abomasal worm burdens were determined. A significant decrease in the faecal egg counts was recorded in animals in the AK group (P<0.05) relative to those in the AN and HC groups. The worm burdens were reduced by 34% in the AK group (P<0.05) and by 10% in the AN group (non-significant) relative to the infected control group. The study indicates that the difference in the effects of the two forages on HC infections may be related to type and concentration of tannins.

  4. Spatial diversity of rocky midlittoral macro-invertebrates associated with the endangered species Patella ferruginea (Mollusca: Gastropoda) of Tunisian coastline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tlig-Zouari, Sabiha; Rabaoui, Lotfi; Fguiri, Hosni; Diawara, Moctar; Ben Hassine, Oum Kalthoum

    2010-04-01

    The present study focuses on horizontal spatial variability of benthic macrofauna associated with Patella ferruginea. Thirty-six samples collected at 12 transects belonging to 4 midlittoral sites along the rocky Tunisian coastline, were examined. A total of 44 species belonging to 5 taxa were found. Multivariate analysis applied on gathered data did not show a horizontal spatial variability at small scale (between transects), but at large scale, between sites as well as sectors. Thus, three groups of communities were identified (GI: Korbous and El Haouaria; GIIa: Zembra Island and GIIb: Kelibia). The distribution of species abundance within these groups revealed that crustaceans were the most abundant taxon, due to the overwhelming dominance of Chthamalus stellatus. This substratum appeared to create favourable micro-habitats for the installation of molluscs including gastropods. Regarding the low diversity index ( H') and evenness ( J), they seemed to reflect a disturbance and a demographic unbalance within these communities. The heterogeneity of substrate surface, created by C. stellatus specimens appeared to be caused by various complex interactions established between the key components of these communities in particular suspension feeders, predators, herbivorous molluscs and macroalgae. Thus, the dynamic status of each of these communities is the result of these complex interactions.

  5. Competition for light and light use efficiency for Acacia mangium and Eucalyptus grandis trees in mono-specific and mixed-species plantations in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Maire, G.; Nouvellon, Y.; Gonçalves, J.; Bouillet, J.; Laclau, J.

    2010-12-01

    Mixed plantations with N-fixing species might be an attractive option for limiting the use of fertilizer in highly productive Eucalyptus plantations. A randomized block design was set up in southern Brazil, including a replacement series and an additive series design, as well as a nitrogen fertilization treatment, and conducted during a full 6 years rotation. The gradient of competition between Eucalyptus and Acacia in this design resulted in very different conditions of growth of Acacia, from totally dominated up to dominant canopies. We used the MAESTRA model to estimate the amount of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (APAR) at tree level. This model requires the description of the scene and distinct structural variables of the two species, and their evolution with time. The competition for light is analysed by comparing the inter-specific values of APAR during a period of 2 years at the end of the rotation. APAR is further compared to the measured increment in stem wood biomass of the tree, and their ratio is an estimation of the light use efficiency for stemwood production at tree-scale. Variability of these LUE are analysed in respect to the species, the size of the tree, and at plot scale (competition level). Stemwood production was 3400, 3900 and 2400 gDM/m2 while APAR was 1640, 2280 and 2900 MJ/y for the pure Eucalyptus, pure Acacia and 50/50 mixed plantation, respectively, for an average LAI of 3.7, 3.3 and 4.5, respectively. Individual LUE for stemwood was estimated at an average value of 1.72 and 1.41 gDM/MJ/tree for Eucalyptus and Acacia, respectively, and at 0.92 and 0.40 gDM/MJ/tree when they were planted in mixed 50/50 plantations. LUE was highly dependant on tree size for both species. At the plot scale, LUE for stemwood were 2.1 gDM/MJ and 1.75 for Eucalyptus and Acacias, respectively, and 0.85 for the mixed 50/50 plantation. These results suggest that the mixed 50/50 plantation, which absorbed a higher amount of light, produce less

  6. Metabolomic profiling and antioxidant activity of some Acacia species

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Farid, I.B.; Sheded, M.G.; Mohamed, E.A.

    2014-01-01

    Metabolomic profiling of different parts (leaves, flowers and pods) of Acacia species (Acacia nilotica, Acacia seyal and Acacia laeta) was evaluated. The multivariate data analyses such as principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were used to differentiate the distribution of plant metabolites among different species or different organs of the same species. A.nilotica was characterized with a high content of saponins and A.seyal was characterized with high contents of proteins, phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanins. A.laeta had a higher content of carbohydrates than A. nilotica and A. seyal. On the basis of these results, total antioxidant capacity, DPPH free radical scavenging activity and reducing power of the methanolic extracts of studied parts were evaluated. A.nilotica and A.seyal extracts showed less inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) compared to A.laeta extracts which means that these two species have the strongest radical scavenging activity whereas A. laeta extracts have the lowest radical scavenging activity. A positive correlation between saponins and flavonoids with total antioxidant capacity and DPPH radical scavenging activity was observed. Based on these results, the potentiality of these plants as antioxidants was discussed. PMID:25313274

  7. Vermicomposting of the leaf litter of acacia (Acacia auriculiformis): possible roles of reactor geometry, polyphenols, and lignin.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, P Sankar; Gajalakshmi, S; Abbasi, S A

    2009-03-01

    Vermicomposting of the pre-composted leaf litter of acacia (Acacia auriculiformis) was studied in reactors of identical volume but with surface area: height ratios varying from 4 to 250. In separate sets of experiments with these reactors, epigeic earthworm species Eudrilus eugeniae and anecic earthworm species Lampito mauritii were employed at densities of 75 and 150 adult animals per litre of reactor volume. The results reveal that greater the surface area: volume ratio of the reactor, higher is the vermicast output in terms of vermicast output per animal; the more densely populated reactors were comparatively under-productive. Even as the vermicast production remained consistently high in all the reactors, there was significant earthworm mortality throughout the course of the experiments and the worms who survived, steadily lost weight with time. A detailed investigation of the possible causes revealed that, whereas the C:N ratio of acacia compost was comparable with that of other substrates; the polyphenols and lignin content were much higher. Studies by other authors on leaf litter consumption by earthworms in natural or man-made forests have indicated that leaf litter rich in polyphenols and lignin are not preferred by most species of earthworm. This may perhaps be the reason for the high rate of mortality and weight loss in earthworms forced to feed upon acacia in the experiments conducted by the authors.

  8. An orb-weaver spider exploits an ant–acacia mutualism for enemy-free space

    PubMed Central

    Styrsky, John D

    2014-01-01

    Exploiters of protection mutualisms are assumed to represent an important threat for the stability of those mutualisms, but empirical evidence for the commonness or relevance of exploiters is limited. Here, I describe results from a manipulative study showing that an orb-weaver spider, Eustala oblonga, inhabits an ant-acacia for protection from predators. This spider is unique in the orb-weaver family in that it associates closely with both a specific host plant and ants. I tested the protective effect of acacia ants on E. oblonga by comparing spider abundance over time on acacias with ants and on acacias from which entire ant colonies were experimentally removed. Both juvenile and adult spider abundance significantly decreased over time on acacias without ants. Concomitantly, the combined abundance of potential spider predators increased over time on acacias without ants. These results suggest that ant protection of the ant-acacia Acacia melanocerus also protects the spiders, thus supporting the hypothesis that E. oblonga exploits the ant–acacia mutualism for enemy-free space. Although E. oblonga takes advantage of the protection services of ants, it likely exacts little to no cost and should not threaten the stability of the ant–acacia mutualism. Indeed, the potential threat of exploiter species to protection mutualisms in general may be limited to species that exploit the material rewards traded in such mutualisms rather than the protection services. PMID:24558583

  9. Ruddy Shelduck Tadorna ferruginea home range and habitat use during the non-breeding season in Assam, India

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Namgail, T.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Sivananinthaperumal, B.; Areendran, G.; Sathiyaselvam, P.; Mundkur, T.; Mccracken, T.; Newman, S.

    2011-01-01

    India is an important non-breeding ground for migratory waterfowl in the Central Asian Flyway. Millions of birds visit wetlands across the country, yet information on their distribution, abundance, and use of resources is rudimentary at best. Limited information suggests that populations of several species of migratory ducks are declining due to encroachment of wetland habitats largely by agriculture and industry. The development of conservation strategies is stymied by a lack of ecological information on these species. We conducted a preliminary assessment of the home range and habitat use of Ruddy Shelduck Tadorna ferruginea in the northeast Indian state of Assam. Seven Ruddy Shelducks were fitted with solar-powered Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite transmitters, and were tracked on a daily basis during the winter of 2009-2010. Locations from all seven were used to describe habitat use, while locations from four were used to quantify their home range, as the other three had too few locations (2 (range = 22-87 km2) and an average home range (95% contour) of 610 km2 (range = 222-1,550 km2). Resource Selection Functions (RSF), used to describe habitat use, showed that the birds frequented riverine wetlands more than expected, occurred on grasslands and shrublands in proportion to their availability, and avoided woods and cropland habitats. The core use areas for three individuals (75%) were on the Brahmaputra River, indicating their preference for riverine habitats. Management and protection of riverine habitats and nearby grasslands may benefit conservation efforts for the Ruddy Shelduck and waterfowl species that share these habitats during the non-breeding season.

  10. Microsatellite primers for the rare shrub Acacia adinophylla (Fabaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Nevill, Paul G.; Wardell-Johnson, Grant

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed for the rare shrub Acacia adinophylla (Fabaceae) to assess genetic diversity and its spatial structuring. Methods and Results: Shotgun sequencing on an Illumina MiSeq produced 6,372,575 reads. Using the QDD pipeline, we designed 60 primer pairs, which were screened using PCR. Seventeen loci were developed, of which 12 loci were identified that were polymorphic, amplified reliably, and could be consistently scored. These loci were then screened for variation in individuals from three populations. The number of alleles observed for these 12 loci ranged from three to 18 and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.13 to 0.85. Conclusions: These markers will enable the quantification of genetic impact of proposed mining activities on the short-range endemic Acacia adinophylla. PMID:27843728

  11. Preparation and characterization of nanocrystalline cellulose from Acacia mangium and its reinforcement potential.

    PubMed

    Jasmani, Latifah; Adnan, Sharmiza

    2017-04-01

    Acacia mangium, a fast growing tree is widely planted in Malaysia. Converting Acacia wood into nanocellulose could create new value added products for forest-based industry. Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) was prepared from Acacia mangium wood pulp via 64wt% sulfuric acid hydrolysis. Prior to acid hydrolysis, Acacia mangium was subjected to pulping followed by bleaching in order to remove non-cellulosic fragments. Acid hydrolysis was carried out on bleached pulp to produce the needle-like NCC with 79% crystallinity and aspect ratio of 26. The resulting NCC was mixed with PVA as a reinforcement material. Incorporation of 2% NCC improved the tensile of the NCC-PVA film by 30%.

  12. Triterpene saponins from the roots of Acacia albida Del. (Mimosaceae).

    PubMed

    Tchoukoua, Abdou; Tabopda, Turibio Kuiate; Uesugi, Shota; Ohno, Misa; Kimura, Ken-Ichi; Kwon, Eunsang; Momma, Hiroyuki; Horo, Ibrahim; Çalişkan, Özgen Alankuş; Shiono, Yoshihito; Ngadjui, Bonaventure Tchaleu

    2017-04-01

    Seven previously undescribed bidesmosidic triterpenoid saponins named albidosides A - G, were isolated from a methanol extract of the roots of Acacia albida. Their structures were elucidated using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry and determined to be bidesmosides of oleanolic acid and of 16α-hydroxyoleanolic acid. Albidosides B - G were assayed for their cytotoxicity against HeLa and HL60 cells using MTT method and microscopic observation.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of monodisperse copper nanoparticles using gum acacia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Chunfa; Cai, Hao; Zhang, Xianglin; Cao, Chuanliang

    2014-03-01

    A simple method was put forward in this paper for preparing colloidal copper nanoparticles in aqueous solutions using copper sulfate, gum acacia and hydrazine hydrate as copper precursor, capping agents and reducing agents, respectively, without any inert gas. The formation of nanosized copper was confirmed by its characteristic surface plasmon absorption peak at 604 nm in UV-vis spectra. The transmission electron microscopic (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) images show that the as-synthesized copper fine spherical particles are distributed uniformly with a narrow distribution from 3 nm to 9 nm. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution transmission electron microscopic (HRTEM) demonstrated that the obtained metallic nanoparticles are single crystalline copper nanoparticles. Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR) spectroscopic data suggested that the copper nanoparticles are coated with gum acacia. The effects of the quantity of gum acacia on the particle size were investigated by the UV-vis spectra and TEM images. The growth process of the nanoparticles was monitored by the UV-vis spectra. The mechanism of the formation copper nanoparticles was discussed. The process raised in this study can be served as an excellent candidate for the preparation of copper nanoparticles in a large scale production.

  14. Mechanical properties of acacia and eucalyptus wood chars

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, M.; Verma, B.B.; Gupta, R.C.

    1999-10-01

    In the present investigation the effects of carbonization conditions (temperature and heating rate) on the mechanical properties (such as crushing and impact strengths and shatter index) of acacia and eucalyptus wood chars have been determined. The crushing and impact strengths of both the acacia and eucalyptus wood chars (made by slow carbonization) decreased with increase of preparation temperature up to 600 C, followed by an increase thereafter. These wood chars showed a continuous increase in shatter index values with carbonization temperature. In contrast to slow carbonization (heating rate 4 C min{sup {minus}1}), rapid carbonization (heating rate 30 C min{sup {minus}1}) yielded chars of lower crushing strengths. Slowly carbonized eucalyptus wood gave chars of superior crushing and impact strengths than those produced from acacia wood under the same carbonization conditions. The crushing and impact strengths of these wood chars, in general, have shown an increase with increase in their apparent density. The crushing strength of cubic-shaped wood char decreased with increase in size.

  15. Ambient has become strained. Identification of Acacia dealbata Link volatiles interfering with germination and early growth of native species.

    PubMed

    Souza-Alonso, Pablo; González, Luís; Cavaleiro, Carlos

    2014-09-01

    Acacia dealbata Link is a widespread invader in Mediterranean type ecosystems, and traits promoting its invasiveness are currently under investigation. Due to the dense atmosphere below its canopy, we hypothesized that volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from flowers, leaves, litter, or a mixture of treatments exert inhibitory effects on the natives Trifolium subterraneum, Lolium multiflorum, Medicago sativa, and also on its own seeds. We reported that VOCs from flowers significantly reduced germination in L. multiflorum and A. dealbata; moreover, root length, stem length, aboveground and belowground biomass were also reduced in all species studied. Volatile organic compounds from flowers and the mixture also increased significantly malondialdehyde content in T. subterraneum and L. multiflorum. The effects of VOCs on antioxidant enzymatic activities were species dependent. Flowers enhanced peroxidase but decreased superoxide dismutase activity in T. subterraneum. In contrast, VOCs released from leaves increased the activity of superoxide dismutase in L. multiflorum. GC/MS analyses revealed 27 VOCs in the volatile fraction from flowers, 12 of which were exclusive to this fraction. Within them, heptadecadiene, n-nonadecane, n-tricosane, and octadecene represent 62% of the fraction. We present evidence that the VOCs released from A. dealbata flowers strongly inhibited germination and seedling growth of selected species, and mainly on its own seedlings. As far as we know, this is the first evidence of phytotoxicity induced by VOCs in invasive species belonging to the Acacia genus.

  16. 78 FR 73434 - Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Acacia (Gum Arabic)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-06

    ... to Food for Human Consumption; Acacia (Gum Arabic) AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... regulations to provide for the expanded safe use of acacia (gum arabic) in foods. This action is in response... ] additive regulations in Sec. 172.780, Acacia (gum arabic) (21 CFR 172.780) to provide for the expanded...

  17. Host Status of Thirteen Acacia Species to Meloidogyne javanica

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Ahmed A. M.; Aref, Ibrahim M.

    2000-01-01

    Thirteen indigenous and exotic Acacia species grown in Saudi Arabia were evaluated for their host status for Meloidogyne javanica in pot tests both in the growth chamber and under outdoor conditions. In both experiments, 21-day-old seedlings were transplanted individually into 15-cm-diam. plastic pots containing a steam-sterilized mixture of equal parts loam and sandy loam. Seedlings were inoculated with 5,000 M. javanica eggs/plant 30 days later. After 120 days, fresh root weight, disease index (1-9 scale), the number of eggs/pot (Pf), eggs/g fresh root, and a reproductive factor (Rf) were determined. Results of both the growth chamber and the outdoor tests were similar. Species were grouped into host suitability categories according to Rf, and they were also grouped into resistance categories based on the sum of gall index, gall size, and percentage of the root system that was galled. Only A. salicina was a poor host and was resistant to M. javanica. Acacia farnisiana, A. gerrardii subsp. negevensis var. najdensis, and A. saligna were excellent hosts and highly susceptible. Both A. nilotica and A. stenophylla were classified as good hosts and highly susceptible, while A. ampliceps, A. ehrenbergiana, A. gerrardii subsp. negevensis var negevensis, A. sclerosperma, A. seyal, A. tortilis, and A. tortilis subsp. spirocarpa were also good hosts but were classified as susceptible rather than highly susceptible. This is the first report on the susceptibility of Acacia species to M. javanica in Saudi Arabia, including some new hosts worldwide. PMID:19271016

  18. Pollen flow in fragmented landscapes maintains genetic diversity following stand-replacing disturbance in a neotropical pioneer tree, Vochysia ferruginea Mart.

    PubMed

    Davies, S J; Cavers, S; Finegan, B; White, A; Breed, M F; Lowe, A J

    2015-08-01

    In forests with gap disturbance regimes, pioneer tree regeneration is typically abundant following stand-replacing disturbances, whether natural or anthropogenic. Differences in pioneer tree density linked to disturbance regime can influence pollinator behaviour and impact on mating patterns and genetic diversity of pioneer populations. Such mating pattern shifts can manifest as higher selfing rates and lower pollen diversity in old growth forest populations. In secondary forest, where more closely related pollen donors occur, an increase in biparental inbreeding is a potential problem. Here, we investigate the consequences of secondary forest colonisation on the mating patterns and genetic diversity of open-pollinated progeny arrays for the long-lived, self-compatible pioneer tree, Vochysia ferruginea, at two Costa Rican sites. Five microsatellite loci were screened across adult and seed cohorts from old growth forest with lower density, secondary forest with higher density, and isolated individual trees in pasture. Progeny from both old growth and secondary forest contexts were predominantly outcrossed (tm=1.00) and experienced low levels of biparental inbreeding (tm-ts=0.00-0.04). In contrast to predictions, our results indicated that the mating patterns of V. ferruginea are relatively robust to density differences between old growth and secondary forest stands. In addition, we observed that pollen-mediated gene flow possibly maintained the genetic diversity of open-pollinated progeny arrays in stands of secondary forest adults. As part of a natural resource management strategy, we suggest that primary forest remnants should be prioritised for conservation to promote restoration of genetic diversity during forest regeneration.

  19. Composting for management and resource recovery of invasive Acacia species.

    PubMed

    Brito, Luis Miguel; Mourão, Isabel; Coutinho, João; Smith, Stephen

    2013-11-01

    The feasibility of commercial-scale composting of waste biomass from the control of invasive Acacia species was investigated. Pile temperatures exceeded 65ºC for several months, indicating that the composting process was effective at pathogen inactivation and seed destruction. Mineralisation of Acacia biomass was described by a two-component, first-order exponential model; the pool sizes for labile and recalcitrant organic matter (OM) were similar and in the approximate ranges: 360-410 g kg(-1) and 350-390 g kg(-1) of initial OM, respectively. Concentrations of conservative nutrients increased proportionally to OM mineralisation, enriching the compost as an agricultural nutrient source. Nitrogen concentrations also increased, but were more dynamic as nitrogen losses were difficult to control, although we suggest that they may be potentially minimised by restricting the turning frequency. The physicochemical characteristics of the stabilised end-product, and the high OM content and low electrical conductivity (<1.2 dS m(-1)), in particular, were suitable for soil improvement or as substrate components.

  20. Biochemical characterization of Acacia schweinfurthii serine proteinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Odei-Addo, Frank; Frost, Carminita; Smith, Nanette; Ogawa, Tomohisa; Muramoto, Koji; Oliva, Maria Luiza Vilela; Gráf, László; Naude, Ryno

    2014-10-01

    One of the many control mechanisms of serine proteinases is their specific inhibition by protein proteinase inhibitors. An extract of Acacia schweinfurthii was screened for potential serine proteinase inhibition. It was successfully purified to homogeneity by precipitating with 80% (v/v) acetone and sequential chromatographic steps, including ion-exchange, affinity purification and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Reducing sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis conditions revealed an inhibitor (ASTI) consisting of two polypeptide chains A and B of approximate molecular weights of 16 and 10 kDa, respectively, and under non-reducing conditions, 26 kDa was observed. The inhibitor was shown to inhibit bovine trypsin (Ki of 3.45 nM) at an approximate molar ratio of inhibitor:trypsin (1:1). The A- and B-chains revealed complete sequences of 140 and 40 amino acid residues, respectively. Sequence similarity (70%) was reported between ASTI A-chain and ACTI A-chain (Acacia confusa) using ClustalW. The B-chain produced a 76% sequence similarity between ASTI and Leucaena leucocephala trypsin inhibitor.

  1. A Novel Strain D5 Isolated from Acacia confusa

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Baoling; Lv, Chengqun; Zhao, Yili; Huang, Rong

    2012-01-01

    We isolated a novel strain D5 from nodules of Acacia confusa. Under strict sterile conditions the strain could successfully nodulate Acacia confusa, A. crassicarpa and A. mangium, with nitrogenase activity ranging from 18.90 to 19.86 nmol·g−1·min−1. In the phylogenetic tree based on a complete 16S rRNA gene sequence, the sequence of strain D5 shared 99% homology with that of four species of genus Pseudomonas. The 685 bp nodA fragment amplified from strain D5 shared 95% homology with the nodA sequence of 9 species of genus Bradyrhizobium, with a genetic distance of 0.01682. The 740 bp nifH gene fragment was amplified from strain D5. This strain D5 nifH gene and Bradyrhizobium spp. formed a branch, showing 98% homology and a genetic distance of 0. The homology between this branch and the Bradyrhizobium spp. DG in another branch was 99%, with a genetic distance of 0.007906. These results indicate that this strain D5 is a new type of nitrogen-fixing bacterium. PMID:23166618

  2. Evaluation of Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Acacia aroma Leaf Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Mattana, C. M.; Cangiano, M. A.; Alcaráz, L. E.; Sosa, A.; Escobar, F.; Sabini, C.; Sabini, L.; Laciar, A. L.

    2014-01-01

    Acacia aroma, native plant from San Luis, Argentina, is commonly used as antiseptic and for healing of wounds. The present study was conducted to investigate the in vitro cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of hot aqueous extract (HAE) and ethanolic extract (EE) of A. aroma. The cytotoxic activity was assayed by neutral red uptake assay on Vero cell. Cell treatment with a range from 100 to 5000 μg/mL of HAE and EE showed that 500 μg/mL and 100 μg/mL were the maximum noncytotoxic concentrations, respectively. The CC50 was 658 μg/mL for EE and 1020 μg/mL for HAE. The genotoxicity was tested by the single-cell gel electrophoresis comet assay. The results obtained in the evaluation of DNA cellular damage exposed to varied concentrations of the HAE showed no significant genotoxic effect at range of 1–20 mg/mL. The EE at 20 mg/mL showed moderate genotoxic effect related to the increase of the DNA percentage contained in tail of the comet; DNA was classified in category 2. At concentrations below 5 mg/mL, the results of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Acacia aroma guarantee the safety at cell and genomic level. However further studies are needed for longer periods including animal models to confirm the findings. PMID:25530999

  3. The evolutionary history and biogeography of Mimosoideae (Leguminosae): an emphasis on African acacias.

    PubMed

    Bouchenak-Khelladi, Yanis; Maurin, Olivier; Hurter, Johan; van der Bank, Michelle

    2010-11-01

    The systematics of Mimosoideae has been in a state of flux, which reflects overall poor knowledge of the evolution and biogeography of this group. Preliminary molecular phylogenetic analyses suggest the tribal system of Mimosoideae needs a complete revision. This has led to the use of new generic names for Acacia sensu lato (s.l. hereafter) following the re-typification of Acacia with an Australian type: (i) Acacia sensu stricto (s.s. hereafter), Vachellia, Senegalia, Acaciella and Mariosousa. This study reconstructs the evolutionary history of Mimosoideae, using the most comprehensive sampling to date, with an emphasis on African species. It aims to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships among the five recognized genera within Acacieae as the precursor to elucidate the paleo-biogeography of mimosoids and their adaptation to open habitats in the Cenozoic. The basal position of Mimoseae lineages with regards to Vachellia and Senegalia+Mariosousa+Acaciella+Ingeae+Acacia s.s. clades is a novel finding. Vachellia (formerly Acacia subgenus Acacia) is found monophyletic. A grade including the remaining Mimoseae lineages is found sister to the Senegalia+Mariosousa+Acaciella+Ingeae+Acacia s.s. clade. The major clades originated in the late Oligocene-early Miocene (∼25mya). The transitions from close to open habitats occurred during the Miocene for at least four mimosoid lineages. These are interpreted as responses to increased seasonality leading to fire climates and drying trends in the Miocene, which allowed the expansion of open habitats, such as savannas, worldwide.

  4. Inhibitory Effects of Sodium Arsenite and Acacia Honey on Acetylcholinesterase in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Odunola, Oyeronke A.; Gbadegesin, Michael A.; Sallau, Abdullahi B.; Ndidi, Uche S.; Ibrahim, Mohammed A.

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of sodium arsenite and Acacia honey on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and electrolytes in the brain and serum of Wistar rats. Male Wistar albino rats in four groups of five rats each were treated with distilled water, sodium arsenite (5 mg/kg body weight), Acacia honey (20% v/v), and sodium arsenite and Acacia honey, daily for one week. The sodium arsenite and Acacia honey significantly (P < 0.05) decreased AChE activity in the brain with the combined treatment being more potent. Furthermore, sodium arsenite and Acacia honey significantly (P < 0.05) decreased AChE activity in the serum. Strong correlation was observed between the sodium and calcium ion levels with acetylcholinesterase activity in the brain and serum. The gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis of Acacia honey revealed the presence of a number of bioactive compounds such as phenolics, sugar derivatives, and fatty acids. These findings suggest that sodium arsenite and/or Acacia honey modulates acetylcholinesterase activities which may be explored in the management of Alzheimer's diseases but this might be counteracted by the hepatotoxicity induced by arsenics. PMID:25821630

  5. Nitrogen uptake by Eucalyptus regnans and Acacia spp. - preferences, resource overlap and energetic costs.

    PubMed

    Pfautsch, Sebastian; Rennenberg, Heinz; Bell, Tina L; Adams, Mark A

    2009-03-01

    In southeastern Australia, the overstory species Eucalyptus regnans F. Muell. commonly grows with either of the two leguminous understory trees, Acacia melanoxylon (R. Br. Ex Ait. f.) or Acacia dealbata (Link.). Our objective was to elucidate interactions between the dominant eucalypt and its companion acacias for nitrogen (N) sources. Use of stable N isotopes as tracers revealed that ammonium was the preferred soil N source for all species, nevertheless, total N uptake varied greatly among species. Studies with double-labeled ((13)C/(15)N) glutamine indicated the uptake of this form of organic N in small amounts by both E. regnans and the Acacia spp. These and other data imply that, in contrast to boreal forests, organic N is not a significant component of N nutrition in mountain ash forests. Field and laboratory studies provided evidence that N(2)-fixation capacity of acacias varies with stand development, with N-fixing species playing an important role in N nutrition during the early but not the mature stages of forest growth. An index of N-uptake efficiency - the amount of oxygen consumed per unit N taken up - was compared across four N sources and three species. Nitrate uptake was the least efficient form of N acquisition, especially compared with ammonium uptake which was up to 30-fold less costly. Efficiency of glutamine uptake was intermediate between that of ammonium and nitrate. Differences in uptake efficiency among N forms were most pronounced for the Acacia spp. and least for E. regnans. We conclude that an overlap in requirements among sympatric Acacia spp. and E. regnans for specific soil N sources can be bypassed because of changes in biochemical strategies of Acacia spp. triggered by increasing soil N concentrations during stand development. Further studies might elucidate whether this is a common feature of complex forest ecosystems, or a specialty of the interaction between eucalypts and acacias.

  6. Inhibition of iron induced lipid peroxidation and antioxidant activity of Indian spices and Acacia in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Amit Singh; Bhatnagar, Deepak

    2010-03-01

    The spices used in the Indian foods such as Star anise (Illicium verum), Bay leaves (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) and Cobra's saffron (Mesua ferrea), and Acacia (Acacia catechu), which have medicinal value, were used as test samples, to find their effect on in vitro lipid peroxidation (LPO). Rat liver post mitochondrial supernatant (PMS) in Tris HCl buffer, pH 7.4 was incubated for 0 and 1 h, with various test extracts in three different oxidant systems. The results show that addition of test samples to FeCl(3) medium at 0 h significantly stop the initiation of the LPO. However, the propagation phase of LPO was inhibited by Cobra's saffron and Acacia and not by Star anise and Bay leaves. The test samples also showed strong reducing power and superoxide radical scavenging activity. Cobra's saffron and Acacia showed the highest antioxidant activity, probably due to the higher polyphenol content as compared to other test samples.

  7. Acacia mangium: Growing and utilization. MPTS monograph series No. 3

    SciTech Connect

    Awang, K.; Taylor, D.

    1993-01-01

    With deforestation in the Asia-Pacific region progressing at the rate of 4.4 million ha per year, many countries have adopted plantation forestry using fast-growing species as a way to sustain the commercial supply of tree products and reduce pressure on natural forests. Acacia mangium (A. mangium) is playing a large role in this development, especially in Indonesia and Malaysia, due to its versatility and its ability to recapture grasslands dominated by the noxious weed, Imperata cylindrica. This monograph consolidates information on A. mangium from published literature, unpublished reports and studies, and observations from those familiar with the species. Priorities for future research are included in each chapter and in the final summary.

  8. Antiproliferative Activity of seco-Oxacassanes from Acacia schaffneri.

    PubMed

    Torres-Valencia, J Martín; Motilva, Virginia; Manríquez-Torres, J Jesús; García-Mauriño, Sofía; López-Lázaro, Miguel; Zbakh, Hanaa; Calderón-Montaño, José M; Gómez-Hurtado, Mario A; Gayosso-De-Lucio, Juan A; Cerda-García-Rojas, Carlos M; Joseph-Nathan, Pedro

    2015-06-01

    This work reports the antiproliferative activity of seco-oxacassanes 1-3, isolated from Acacia schaffneri, against human colon (HT-29), lung (A-549), and melanoma (UACC-62) cancer cell lines, as well as against their non-malignant counterparts CCD-841 CoN, MRC-5, and VH-10, respectively, using the sulforhodamine B test. While compounds 1 and 3 were inactive, 2 presented strong activity with IC50 values between 0.12 and 0.92 μg mL(-1). The cytotoxicity mechanisms of 2 were investigated by cell cycle analysis and through DNA repair pathways, indicating that the compound is capable of arresting the cell cycle in the G0/G1 phase. This effect might be generated through damage to DNA by alkylation. In addition, compound 2 was able to decrease HT-29 migration.

  9. Antigenotoxic activities of crude extracts from Acacia salicina leaves.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Hédi B; Boubaker, Jihed; Bouhlel, Inès; Mahmoud, Amor; Bernillon, Stéphane; Chibani, Jemni B; Ghedira, Kamel; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila

    2007-01-01

    For centuries, plants have been used in traditional medicines and there has been recent interest in the chemopreventive properties of compounds derived from plants. In the present study, we investigated the effects of extracts of Acacia salicina leaves on the genotoxicity of benzo[a]pyrene (B(a)P) and nifuroxazide in the SOS Chromotest. Aqueous, total oligomers flavonoids (TOF)-enriched, petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts were prepared from powdered Acacia leaves, and characterized qualitatively for the presence of tannins, flavonoids, and sterols. All the extracts significantly decreased the genotoxicity induced by 1 microg B(a)P (+S9) and 10 microg nifuroxazide (-S9). The TOF-enriched and methanol extracts decreased the SOS response induced by B(a)P to a greater extent, whereas the TOF-enriched and the ethyl acetate extracts exhibited increased activity against the SOS response produced by nifuroxazide. In addition, the aqueous, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts showed increased activity in scavenging the 1,1-diphenyl- 2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical, while 100-300 microg/ml of all the test extracts were active in inhibiting O2-production in a xanthine/xanthine oxidase system. In contrast, only the petroleum ether extract was effective at inhibiting nitroblue tetrazolium reduction by the superoxide radical in a nonenzymatic O2- -generating system. The present study indicates that extracts of A. salicina leaves are a significant source of compounds with antigenotoxic and antioxidant activity (most likely phenolic compounds and sterols), and thus may be useful for chemoprevention.

  10. Effect of acacia honey on cultured rabbit corneal keratocytes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Acacia honey is a natural product which has proven to have therapeutic effects on skin wound healing, but its potential healing effects in corneal wound healing have not been studied. This study aimed to explore the effects of Acacia honey (AH) on corneal keratocytes morphology, proliferative capacity, cell cycle, gene and protein analyses. Keratocytes from the corneal stroma of six New Zealand white rabbits were isolated and cultured until passage 1. The optimal dose of AH in the basal medium (FD) and medium containing serum (FDS) for keratocytes proliferation was identified using MTT assay. The morphological changes, gene and protein expressions of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), marker for quiescent keratocytes and vimentin, marker for fibroblasts were detected using q-RTPCR and immunocytochemistry respectively. Flowcytometry was performed to evaluate the cell cycle analysis of corneal keratocytes. Results Cultured keratocytes supplemented with AH showed no morphological changes compared to control. Keratocytes cultured in FD and FDS media supplemented with 0.025% AH showed optimal proliferative potential compared with FD and FDS media, respectively. Gene expressions of ADLH and vimentin were increased in keratocytes cultured with AH enriched media. All proteins were expressed in keratocytes cultured in all media in accordance to the gene expression findings. No chromosomal changes were detected in keratocytes in AH enriched media. Conclusion Corneal keratocytes cultured in media supplemented with 0.025% AH showed an increase in proliferative capacity while retaining their morphology, gene and protein expressions with normal cell cycle. The results of the present study show promising role of AH role in accelerating the initial stage of corneal wound healing. PMID:24885607

  11. Anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects of the Acacia tortilis growing in KSA.

    PubMed

    Mohammad Alharbi, Waheeb Dakhelallah; Azmat, Aisha

    2015-03-01

    In different region of Saudi Arabia Acacia tortilis (Fabaceae) is present but still the medicinal properties of Acacia tortilis have not been studied. However, in Zimbabwe different species of Acacia are already used for the treatment of convulsions and dizziness. In the present study, the anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects of the Acacia tortilis, were evaluated by using different paradigms. For extraction, the leaves of acacia were blended with distilled water at 40°C and filtered. Two different doses of the extracts (400 and 800mg/kg) were administered in the mice once orally (p.o.) and after 30 min occurrence of seizures (strychnine at the dose of 1mg/kg, i.m.) were monitored. In the present work, acute toxicity and neurotoxicity of the extracts were also assessed by inducing hypoxic stress. The Acacia tortilis leaves AAq (400 and 800 mg/kg) produced a dose dependent increase in time of onset of seizures (197.8±32.4 and 338.2±40.6 respectively) when compared with its respective control (184.0±13.8sec). The anticonvulsant effect after administration of AAq (800mg/kg: 338.2±40.6 sec) was more pronounced than diazepam (290.6±1.38 sec). The high dose (800mg/kg) of AAq administered orally prolonged the onset of convulsion and latencies for death following hypoxic stress. The present study suggested that Acacia have anticonvulsant property and may probably be affecting the inhibitory mechanism of glycine. It is also concluded that chemical constituent of acacia might act on BZD or 5-HT(1A) receptor and decrease the oxidative brain membrane damage process induced by psychological/hypoxic stress. Further experiments will be required to identify the active molecules (s) and their mechanism (s) of action.

  12. Molecular Cloning and Expression of a New Allergen of Acacia farnesiana (Aca f 2).

    PubMed

    Sepahi, Najmeh; Khodadadi, Ali; Assarehzadegan, Mohammad-Ali; Amini, Akram; Zarinhadideh, Farnoosh; Ali-Sadeghi, Hosein

    2015-08-01

    Inhalation of pollens from different species of Acacia is a common cause of respiratory allergy in tropical areas of the world. Acacia farnesiana is commonly used as street trees in towns and ornamental shade trees in parks and gardens throughout arid and semi-arid regions of Asia. This study aimed to produce and purify the A. farnesiana pollen profilin (Aca f 2) and evaluate its nucleotide sequence homology with profilins of common allergenic plants to predict allergenic cross-reactivity. Thirty-nine patients who were allergic to Acacia pollens were included in the study. Cloning of Acacia profilin-coding sequence was performed by polymerase chain reaction using primers from Acacia pollen RNA. The cDNA of Acacia pollen profilin was then expressed in Escherichia coli using pET-21b(+) vector and purified by metal affinity chromatography. Immunoreactivity of the recombinant Acacia profilin (rAca f 2) was evaluated by specific ELISA, immunoblotting, and inhibition assays. The coding sequence of the Acacia profilin cDNA was recognized as a 399-bp open reading frame encoding 133 amino acid residues. Eighteen patients (18/39, 46.15%) had significant specific IgE levels against Aca f 2. Immunodetection and inhibition assays indicated that purified Aca f 2 might be the same as that in the crude extract. Aca f2, the first allergen from A. farnesiana pollen, was identified as belonging to the family of profilins. The amino acid sequence homology analysis showed high cross-reactivity between Aca f 2 and other profilins from botanically unrelated common allergenic plants.

  13. The importance of Acacia trees for insectivorous bats and arthropods in the Arava desert.

    PubMed

    Hackett, Talya D; Korine, Carmi; Holderied, Marc W

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic habitat modification often has a profound negative impact on the flora and fauna of an ecosystem. In parts of the Middle East, ephemeral rivers (wadis) are characterised by stands of acacia trees. Green, flourishing assemblages of these trees are in decline in several countries, most likely due to human-induced water stress and habitat changes. We examined the importance of healthy acacia stands for bats and their arthropod prey in comparison to other natural and artificial habitats available in the Arava desert of Israel. We assessed bat activity and species richness through acoustic monitoring for entire nights and concurrently collected arthropods using light and pit traps. Dense green stands of acacia trees were the most important natural desert habitat for insectivorous bats. Irrigated gardens and parks in villages and fields of date palms had high arthropod levels but only village sites rivalled acacia trees in bat activity level. We confirmed up to 13 bat species around a single patch of acacia trees; one of the richest sites in any natural desert habitat in Israel. Some bat species utilised artificial sites; others were found almost exclusively in natural habitats. Two rare species (Barbastella leucomelas and Nycteris thebaica) were identified solely around acacia trees. We provide strong evidence that acacia trees are of unique importance to the community of insectivorous desert-dwelling bats, and that the health of the trees is crucial to their value as a foraging resource. Consequently, conservation efforts for acacia habitats, and in particular for the green more densely packed stands of trees, need to increase to protect this vital habitat for an entire community of protected bats.

  14. The Importance of Acacia Trees for Insectivorous Bats and Arthropods in the Arava Desert

    PubMed Central

    Hackett, Talya D.; Korine, Carmi; Holderied, Marc W.

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic habitat modification often has a profound negative impact on the flora and fauna of an ecosystem. In parts of the Middle East, ephemeral rivers (wadis) are characterised by stands of acacia trees. Green, flourishing assemblages of these trees are in decline in several countries, most likely due to human-induced water stress and habitat changes. We examined the importance of healthy acacia stands for bats and their arthropod prey in comparison to other natural and artificial habitats available in the Arava desert of Israel. We assessed bat activity and species richness through acoustic monitoring for entire nights and concurrently collected arthropods using light and pit traps. Dense green stands of acacia trees were the most important natural desert habitat for insectivorous bats. Irrigated gardens and parks in villages and fields of date palms had high arthropod levels but only village sites rivalled acacia trees in bat activity level. We confirmed up to 13 bat species around a single patch of acacia trees; one of the richest sites in any natural desert habitat in Israel. Some bat species utilised artificial sites; others were found almost exclusively in natural habitats. Two rare species (Barbastella leucomelas and Nycteris thebaica) were identified solely around acacia trees. We provide strong evidence that acacia trees are of unique importance to the community of insectivorous desert-dwelling bats, and that the health of the trees is crucial to their value as a foraging resource. Consequently, conservation efforts for acacia habitats, and in particular for the green more densely packed stands of trees, need to increase to protect this vital habitat for an entire community of protected bats. PMID:23441145

  15. Influence of halophytic hosts on their parasites—the case of Plicosepalus acaciae

    PubMed Central

    Veste, Maik; Todt, Henning; Breckle, Siegmar-W.

    2015-01-01

    Halophytes develop various morphological and physiological traits that enable them to grow successfully on saline substrates. Parasitic plants on halophytic hosts may also encounter salt stress. We investigated the mistletoe Plicosepalus acaciae (syn: Loranthus acacia; Loranthaceae), which occurs on 5 halophytic and at least 10 non-halophytic hosts in the Southern Arava Valley (Israel). Plicosepalus acaciae is a common parasite north of Eilat to the Dead Sea area and in the Jordan Valley. Morphological and physiological responses of P. acaciae to salinity were investigated by comparison of plants on halophytic with those on non-halophytic hosts. Ion patterns of different host–parasite associations were determined as was the development of leaf succulence at different growth stages. The leaf water content of P. acaciae increased and leaves developed succulence when growing on halophytic hosts, especially on Tamarix species, where leaf water content was three times higher than that on non-halophytic hosts and the leaf volume increased four to five times. The reason for increased succulence was a higher ion concentration of, and osmotic adjustment with, Na+ and Cl−. Plicosepalus acaciae showed a high morphological and ecophysiological plasticity, enabling it to cope with salt stress, and can be classified as a facultative eu-halophyte, which increases its halo-succulence according to the host. Host–parasite associations are a model system for the investigation of halophytes under different salt stress conditions. PMID:25515726

  16. (+)-Dihydrorobinetin: a marker of vinegar aging in acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia) wood.

    PubMed

    Cerezo, Ana B; Espartero, José L; Winterhalter, Peter; Garcia-Parrilla, M Carmen; Troncoso, Ana M

    2009-10-28

    The use of acacia wood for the aging of vinegars is increasing because the efficient air transfer through the pores permits a good acetification rate. In this study, vinegars aged in acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia) wood barrels were analyzed and found to contain a characteristic compound, which increased during the aging process. This so far unknown compound was isolated by semipreparative LC and structurally identified by NMR spectroscopy. (1)H and (13)C NMR chemical shifts and optical rotation revealed its structure to be (+)-dihydrorobinetin, a dihydroflavonol identified for the first time in vinegars as a marker of aging in this kind of wood. This study also reports for the first time the complete assignment of (13)C NMR data for this compound. Moreover, it revealed a longer contact time with acacia wood results in higher concentrations of (+)-dihydrorobinetin found in vinegars. Another finding was that the vinegars aged with nontoasted acacia chips showed significantly higher concentrations of (+)-dihydrorobinetin than found in vinegars aged with toasted acacia chips (384.8 and 23.5 mg/L, respectively). The in vitro antioxidant activity (DPPH(*) and ORAC assays) of (+)-dihydrorobinetin was also determined. (+)-Dihydrorobinetin is reported here for the first time as a chemical marker of vinegars aged in acacia wood and can be used for authenticity purposes.

  17. Biological activities of some Acacia spp. (Fabaceae) against new clinical isolates identified by ribosomal RNA gene-based phylogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Mahmoud Fawzy; Alrumman, Sulaiman Abdullah; Hesham, Abd El-Latif

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays,most of the pathogenic bacteria become resistant to antibiotics. Therefore,the pharmaceutical properties of the natural plant extracts have become of interest to researchers as alternative antimicrobial agents. In this study,antibacterial activities of extract gained from Acacia etbaica, Acacia laeta, Acacia origena and Acacia pycnantha have been evaluated against isolated pathogenic bacteria (Strains MFM-01, MFM-10 and AH-09) using agar well diffusion methods.The bacterial strains were isolated from infected individuals,and their exact identification was detected on the basis of 16S rRNA gene amplification and sequence determination. Alignment results and the comparison of 16 SrRN A gene sequences of the isolates to 16 SrRN A gene sequences available in Gen Bank data base as well as the phylogenetic analysis confirmed the accurate position of the isolates as Klebsiella oxytoca strain MFM-01, Staphylococcus aureus strain MFM-10 and Klebsiella pneumoniae strain AH-09. Except for cold water, all tested solvents (Chloroform, petroleum ether, methanol, diethyl ether, and acetone) showed variation in their activity against studied bacteria. GC-MS analysis of ethanol extracts showed that four investigated Acacia species have different phyto components. Eight important pharmaceutical components were found in the legume of Acacia etbaica, seven in the legume of Acacia laeta, fifteen in the legume of Acacia origena and nine in the leaves of Acacia pycnantha. A dendrogram was constructed based on chemical composition, revealed that Acacia laeta is more closely related to Acacia etbaica forming on eclade, whereas Acacia origena less similar to other species. Our results demonstrated that, investigated plants and chemical compounds present could be used as promising antibacterial agents.

  18. Pharmacological evidence of neuro-pharmacological activity of Acacia tortilis leaves in mice.

    PubMed

    Alharbi, Waheeb D M; Azmat, Aisha

    2016-08-01

    Acacia tortilis is abundantly present in Saudi Arabia but its neuro-pharmacological activity has not yet been evaluated. In this study, the antidepressant by Forced swim test, Anxiolytic (Light and Dark box) and sedative effects (by using Open Field) of Acacia leaves extract were evaluated in mice. Aqueous extracts of the Acacia tortilis leaves were prepared. Two different doses (400 and 800 mg/kg) of the extracts were administered to the mice orally (p.o.). In exploratory behavior, Acacia leave extract (800 mg/kg) produced a significant reduction (Veh, 91.00 ± 5.26; Acacia 800 mg/kg, 46.33 ± 3.24 p < 0.05) similar to the effect observed with chlorpromazine (CPZ) (Veh, 91.00 ± 5.26; CPZ 1.0 mg/kg, 24.20 ± 3.40 p < 0.05). A dose-dependent significant decrease in immobility time was also observed in mice and this effect was comparable to its positive control (Imipramine). However, In light-dark box test, mice treated with high dose (800 mg/kg/day) spent significant (p < 0.05) time on the light side of the light-dark box similar to positive control DZP. (Veh, 114.40 ± 6.30 s; Acacia 800 mg/kg, 162.2 ± 14.9; DZP 1.0 mg/kg, 184.20 ± 9.24 p < 0.05). The present research propounded that Acacia tortilis leave extract contains some active ingredients with potential anxiolytic activity at low doses and antidepressant and sedative activity at high doses.

  19. Spectroscopic and density functional theory studies of 5,7,3‧,5‧-tetrahydroxyflavanone from the leaves of Olea ferruginea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashmi, Muhammad Ali; Khan, Afsar; Ayub, Khurshid; Farooq, Umar

    2014-07-01

    5,7,3‧,5‧-Tetrahydroxyflavanone (1) was isolated from the leaves of Olea ferruginea and a theoretical model was developed for obtaining the electronic and spectroscopic properties of 1. The geometric and electronic properties were calculated at B3LYP/6-311 G (d, p) level of Density Functional Theory (DFT). The theoretical data was in good agreement with the experimental one. The optimized geometric parameters of compound 1 were calculated for the first time. The theoretical vibrational frequencies of 1 were found to correlate with the experimental IR spectrum after a scaling factor of 0.9811. The UV and NMR spectral data computed theoretically were in good agreement with the experimental data. Electronic properties of the compound i.e., ionization potential (IP), electron affinity (EA), coefficients of HOMO and LUMO were estimated computationally for the first time which can be used to explain its antioxidant as well as other related activities and more active sites on it. The intermolecular interactions and their effects on IR frequencies, electronic and geometric parameters were simulated using water molecule as a model for hydrogen bonding with flavonoid hydroxyl groups.

  20. Termites, vertebrate herbivores, and the fruiting success of Acacia drepanolobium.

    PubMed

    Brody, Alison K; Palmer, Todd M; Fox-Dobbs, Kena; Doak, Dan F

    2010-02-01

    In African savannas, vertebrate herbivores are often identified as key determinants of plant growth, survivorship, and reproduction. However, plant reproduction is likely to be the product of responses to a suite of abiotic and biotic factors, including nutrient availability and interactions with antagonists and mutualists. In a relatively simple system, we examined the role of termites (which act as ecosystem engineers--modifying physical habitat and creating islands of high soil fertility), vertebrate herbivores, and symbiotic ants, on the fruiting success of a dominant plant, Acacia drepanolobium, in East African savannas. Using observational data, large-scale experimental manipulations, and analysis of foliar N, we found that Acacia drepanolobium trees growing at the edge of termite mounds were more likely to reproduce than those growing farther away, in off-mound soils. Although vertebrate herbivores preferentially used termite mounds as demonstrated by dung deposits, long-term exclusion of mammalian grazers did not significantly reduce A. drepanolobium fruit production. Leaf N was significantly greater in trees growing next to mounds than in those growing farther away, and this pattern was unaffected by exclusion of vertebrates. Thus, soil enrichment by termites, rather than through dung and urine deposition by large herbivores, is of primary importance to fruit production near mounds. Across all mound-herbivore treatment combinations, trees that harbored Crematogaster sjostedti were more likely to fruit than those that harbored one of the other three ant species. Although C. sjostedti is less aggressive than the other ants, it tends to inhabit large, old trees near termite mounds which are more likely to fruit than smaller ones. Termites play a key role in generating patches of nutrient-rich habitat important to the reproductive success of A. drepanolobium in East African savannas. Enhanced nutrient acquisition from termite mounds appears to allow plants to

  1. Isolation and characterization of CCoAOMT in interspecific hybrid of Acacia auriculiformis x Acacia mangium--a key gene in lignin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Pang, S L; Ong, S S; Lee, H H; Zamri, Z; Kandasamy, K I; Choong, C Y; Wickneswari, R

    2014-09-05

    This study was directed at the understanding of the function of CCoAOMT isolated from Acacia auriculiformis x Acacia mangium. Full length cDNA of the Acacia hybrid CCoAOMT (AhCCoAOMT) was 1024-bp long, containing 750-bp coding regions, with one major open reading frame of 249 amino acids. On the other hand, full length genomic sequence of the CCoAOMT (AhgflCCoAOMT) was 2548 bp long, containing three introns and four exons with a 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) of 391 bp in length. The 5'UTR of the characterized CCoAOMT gene contains various regulatory elements. Southern analysis revealed that the Acacia hybrid has more than three copies of the CCoAOMT gene. Real-time PCR showed that this gene was expressed in root, inner bark, leaf, flower and seed pod of the Acacia hybrid. Downregulation of the homologous CCoAOMT gene in tobacco by antisense (AS) and intron-containing hairpin (IHP) constructs containing partial AhCCoAOMT led to reduction in lignin content. Expression of the CCoAOMT in AS line (pART-HAS78-03) and IHP line (pART-HIHP78-06) was reduced respectively by 37 and 75% compared to the control, resulting in a decrease in the estimated lignin content by 24 and 56%, respectively. AhCCoAOMT was found to have altered not only S and G units but also total lignin content, which is of economic value to the pulp industry. Subsequent polymorphism analysis of this gene across eight different genetic backgrounds each of A. mangium and A. auriculiformis revealed 47 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in A. auriculiformis CCoAOMT and 30 SNPs in A. mangium CCoAOMT.

  2. New structural features of Acacia tortuosa gum exudate.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Maritza; Beltrán, Olga; Rincón, Fernando; León de Pinto, Gladys; Igartuburu, José Manuel

    2015-09-01

    Acacia tortuosa produces a clear gum, very soluble in water. Previous reports showed that it was constituted by four fractions, one of them an arabinogalactan-protein complex. The elucidation of the A. tortuosa gum structure by the combination of classical chemical methods, size exclusion chromatography and NMR spectroscopy, was the objective of this investigation. The data obtained show that the heteropolysaccharide is an arabinogalactan type II, highly ramified, with lateral chains at C-2 as well as at C-6 of the galactose 3-O residues; mono-O-substituted galactoses were not detected. There are residues of mannose, the arabinose, pyranose predominantly, is terminal and 2-O-linked. The abundance of the 4-O-methyl-α-d-glucuronic acid was not previously reported. The proteic fraction is probably represented by an arabinogalactan-protein complex that binds poorly with β-glucosyl Yariv reagent, and two glycoproteins. The NMR spectra suggest that the carbohydrate links to hydroxyproline through the galactose (galactosylation).

  3. Characterization and Physicochemical Properties of Condensed Tannins from Acacia catechu.

    PubMed

    Duval, Antoine; Avérous, Luc

    2016-03-02

    Condensed tannins from Acacia catechu were carefully studied to determine their chemical structure and physicochemical properties. The combined use of MALDI-TOF-MS and (13)C NMR revealed that catechin and epicatechin are the predominant monomers. Most of the compounds were dimers, as confirmed by size exclusion chromatography measurements. To evaluate their potential as aromatic building block in polymer synthesis, special care was given to the characterization and quantification of the different OH groups. A detailed (31)P NMR analysis showed the predominance of catechin, with a catechin/epicatechin ratio of 4.2:1. Two distinct (1)H NMR measurements confirmed the quantification. The thermal properties were also determined: the tannins showed a high temperature of degradation (ca. 190 °C) and a high glass transition temperature (ca. 140 °C), allowing for thermal processing or chemical reactions at relatively high temperature. A. catechu tannins thus present interesting features to be used as aromatic building blocks in polymer materials.

  4. Polyphenols in red wine aged in acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia) and oak (Quercus petraea) wood barrels.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Miriam; Fernández de Simón, Brígida; Esteruelas, Enrique; Muñoz, Angel Ma; Cadahía, Estrella; Hernández, Ma Teresa; Estrella, Isabel; Martinez, Juana

    2012-06-30

    Polyphenolic composition of two Syrah wines aged during 6 or 12 months in medium toasting acacia and oak 225L barrels was studied by LC-DAD-ESI/MS. A total of 43 nonanthocyanic phenolic compounds were found in all wines, and other 15 compounds only in the wines from acacia barrels. Thus, the nonanthocyanic phenolic profile could be a useful tool to identify the wines aged in acacia barrels. Among all of them the dihydrorobinetin highlights because of its high levels, but also robinetin, 2,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, a tetrahydroxydihydroflavonol, fustin, butin, a trihydroxymethoxydihydroflavonol and 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid were detected at appreciable levels in wines during aging in acacia barrels, and could be used as phenolic markers for authenticity purposes. Although longer contact time with acacia wood mean higher concentrations of phenolic markers found in wines, the identification of these wines will also be easy after short aging times due the high levels reached by these compounds, even after only 2 months of aging.

  5. The soil bacterial communities of South African fynbos riparian ecosystems invaded by Australian Acacia species.

    PubMed

    Slabbert, Etienne; Jacobs, Shayne Martin; Jacobs, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Riparian ecosystem along rivers and streams are characterised by lateral and longitudinal ecological gradients and, as a result, harbour unique biodiversity. Riparian ecosystems in the fynbos of the Western Cape, South Africa, are characterised by seasonal dynamics, with summer droughts followed by high flows during winter. The unique hydrology and geomorphology of riparian ecosystems play an important role in shaping these ecosystems. The riparian vegetation in the Western Cape has, however, largely been degraded due to the invasion of non-indigenous plants, in particular Acacia mearnsii, A. saligna and A. dealbata. This study investigated the effect of hydrology and invasion on the bacterial communities associated with fynbos riparian ecosystems. Bacterial communities were characterised with automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) and 454 16S rDNA pyrosequencing. Chemical and physical properties of soil within sites were also determined and correlated with community data. Sectioning across the lateral zones revealed significant differences in community composition, and the specific bacterial taxa influenced. Results also showed that the bacterial community structure could be linked to Acacia invasion. The presence of invasive Acacia was correlated with specific bacterial phyla. However, high similarity between cleared and pristine sites suggests that the effect of Acacia on the soil bacterial community structure may not be permanent. This study demonstrates how soil bacterial communities are influenced by hydrological gradients associated with riparian ecosystems and the impact of Acacia invasion on these communities.

  6. Therapeutic effect of Acacia nilotica pods extract on streptozotocin induced diabetic nephropathy in rat.

    PubMed

    Omara, Enayat A; Nada, Somaia A; Farrag, Abdel Razik H; Sharaf, Walid M; El-Toumy, Sayed A

    2012-09-15

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of aqueous methanol extract (150 and 300 mg/kg body weight) of Acacia nilotica pods in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats for 60 days, and its biochemical, histopathological and histochemical study in the kidney tissues. Diabetic rats exhibited hyperglycemia, elevated of serum urea and creatinine. Significant increase in lipid peroxidation (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reduced glutathione (GSH) was observed in diabetic kidney. Histopathological examination revealed infiltration of the lymphocytes in the interstitial spaces, glomerular hypertrophy, basement membrane thickening and tubular necrosis with loss of their brush border in some of the proximal convoluted tubules in diabetic rats. Acacia nilotica extract lowered blood glucose levels, restored serum urea and creatinine. In addition, Acacia nilotica extract attenuated the adverse effect of diabetes on LPO, SOD and GSH activity. Treatment with Acacia nilotica was found to almost restore the normal histopathological architecture of kidney of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. However, glomerular size and damaged area showed ameliorative effect after treatment with the extract. In conclusion, the antioxidant and antihyperglycemic properties of Acacia nilotica extract may offer a potential therapeutic source for the treatment of diabetes.

  7. Antiatherosclerotic and Cardioprotective Potential of Acacia senegal Seeds in Diet-Induced Atherosclerosis in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Ram, Heera; Jatwa, Rameshwar; Purohit, Ashok

    2014-01-01

    Acacia senegal L. (Fabaceae) seeds are essential ingredient of “Pachkutta,” a specific Rajasthani traditional food. The present study explored antiatherosclerotic and cardioprotective potential of Acacia senegal seed extract, if any, in hypercholesterolemic diet-induced atherosclerosis in rabbits. Atherosclerosis in rabbits was induced by feeding normal diet supplemented with oral administration of cholesterol (500 mg/kg body weight/day mixed with coconut oil) for 15 days. Circulating total cholesterol (TC), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides, and VLDL-cholesterol (VLDL-C) levels; atherogenic index (AI); cardiac lipid peroxidation (LPO); planimetric studies of aortal wall; and histopathological studies of heart, aorta, kidney, and liver were performed. Apart from reduced atherosclerotic plaques in aorta (6.34 ± 0.72) and increased lumen volume (51.65 ± 3.66), administration with ethanolic extract of Acacia senegal seeds (500 mg/kg/day, p.o.) for 45 days to atherosclerotic rabbits significantly lowered serum TC, LDL-C, triglyceride, and VLDL-C levels and atherogenic index as compared to control. Atherogenic diet-induced cardiac LPO and histopathological abnormalities in aorta wall, heart, kidney, and liver were reverted to normalcy by Acacia senegal seed extract administration. The findings of the present study reveal that Acacia senegal seed extract ameliorated diet-induced atherosclerosis and could be considered as lead in the development of novel therapeutics. PMID:25544897

  8. The Soil Bacterial Communities of South African Fynbos Riparian Ecosystems Invaded by Australian Acacia Species

    PubMed Central

    Slabbert, Etienne; Jacobs, Shayne Martin; Jacobs, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Riparian ecosystem along rivers and streams are characterised by lateral and longitudinal ecological gradients and, as a result, harbour unique biodiversity. Riparian ecosystems in the fynbos of the Western Cape, South Africa, are characterised by seasonal dynamics, with summer droughts followed by high flows during winter. The unique hydrology and geomorphology of riparian ecosystems play an important role in shaping these ecosystems. The riparian vegetation in the Western Cape has, however, largely been degraded due to the invasion of non-indigenous plants, in particular Acacia mearnsii, A. saligna and A. dealbata. This study investigated the effect of hydrology and invasion on the bacterial communities associated with fynbos riparian ecosystems. Bacterial communities were characterised with automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) and 454 16S rDNA pyrosequencing. Chemical and physical properties of soil within sites were also determined and correlated with community data. Sectioning across the lateral zones revealed significant differences in community composition, and the specific bacterial taxa influenced. Results also showed that the bacterial community structure could be linked to Acacia invasion. The presence of invasive Acacia was correlated with specific bacterial phyla. However, high similarity between cleared and pristine sites suggests that the effect of Acacia on the soil bacterial community structure may not be permanent. This study demonstrates how soil bacterial communities are influenced by hydrological gradients associated with riparian ecosystems and the impact of Acacia invasion on these communities. PMID:24475145

  9. Fast-growing acacia as an example of a vegetable source for synthetic liquid fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Paushkin, Ya.M.; Gorlov, E.G.; Alaniya, V.P.

    1987-07-01

    The liquefaction of biomass, employing acacia sawdust, is described. Tests were conducted in a 1-liter vibratory autoclave at 26 vibrations per minute. The solvents used were tetralin, o-xylene, and decalin. The tests were conducted to evaluate the possibility of producing different hydrocarbons from acacia by alternative liquefaction processes (extraction under supercritical conditions or in a hydrogen donor medium). Gas and liquid fractions were comparatively determined for the different solvents and for their different ratios by chromatographic analysis. Optimum weight ratios and temperatures were established. It was concluded that thermal liquefaction of acacia can produce a broad gamut of different hydrocarbons, depending on solvent type and the liquefaction conditions, which can serve as motor fuel components or raw material for petrochemical synthesis.

  10. Molecular mechanism of antiproliferation potential of Acacia honey on NCI-H460 cell line.

    PubMed

    Aliyu, Muhammad; Odunola, Oyeronke A; Farooq, Ahsana D; Rasheed, Huma; Mesaik, Ahmed M; Choudhary, Muhammad I; Channa, Iffat S; Khan, Salman A; Erukainure, Ochuko L

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. We investigated the molecular mechanism of antiproliferation potential of Acacia honey on NCI-H460 cells by cell cycle, viability, cytokines, calcium ion and gene expression analysis. Acacia honey inhibited cells proliferation, arrested G0/G1 phase, stimulated cytokines, calcium ion release as well as suppressed p53 and Bcl-2 expression in a dose-dependent manner. We proposed that the molecular mechanism of the antiproliferation potential of Acacia honey on NCI-H460 cell line is due to cell cycle arrest, stimulation of cytokines and calcium ion as well as downregulation of Bcl-2 and p53 genes.

  11. Top-down determinants of niche structure and adaptation among African Acacias.

    PubMed

    Staver, A Carla; Bond, William J; Cramer, Michael D; Wakeling, Julia L

    2012-07-01

    The role of top-down factors like herbivory and fire in structuring species' niches, even in disturbance-dependent biomes like savanna, remains poorly understood. Interactions between herbivory and fire may set up a potential tradeoff axis, along which unique adaptations contribute to structuring communities and determining species distributions. We examine the role of herbivory and fire in structuring distributions of Acacia saplings in Hluhluwe iMfolozi Park in South Africa, and the relationship of species' niche structure to traits that help them survive herbivory or fire. Results suggest that (1) fire and herbivory form a single trade-off axis, (2) Acacia sapling distributions are constrained by fire and herbivory, and (3) Acacia saplings have adaptations that are structured by the tradeoff axis. Herbivory-adapted species tend to have 'cage'-like architecture, thicker bark, and less starch storage, while fire-adapted species tend to have 'pole'-like architecture, relatively thinner bark, and more starch storage.

  12. Osmoadaptative responses in the rhizobia nodulating Acacia isolated from south-eastern Moroccan Sahara.

    PubMed

    Essendoubi, Mohammed; Brhada, Fatiha; Eljamali, Jamal Eddine; Filali-Maltouf, Abdelkarim; Bonnassie, Sylvie; Georgeault, Sylvie; Blanco, Carlos; Jebbar, Mohamed

    2007-03-01

    Four strains of rhizobia nodulating Acacia were isolated from the Moroccan desert soil by trapping with seedlings of Acacia gummifera and Acacia raddiana, and were studied for their ability to tolerate high salinity and dryness conditions. The strains MDSMC 2, MDSMC 18 and MDSMC 50 were halotolerant (they tolerated up to 1 M NaCl) and they accumulated glutamate and mannosucrose. The synthesis of the latter solute, which is the major endogenous osmolyte, is partially repressed in the presence of glycine betaine. The strain MDSMC 34 was less halotolerant (growth inhibited by a concentration greater than 0.5 M NaCl), and accumulated trehalose (as the main endogenous osmolyte) and glutamate. Rhizobia from the Moroccan desert soil were highly resistant to desiccation and their tolerance to dryness was stimulated by osmotic pretreatment. Thus, the accumulation of mannosucrose or trehalose by desert rhizobia represents both an osmoadaptative response and a part of a desiccation tolerance mechanism.

  13. Arabinogalactan Proteins From Baobab and Acacia Seeds Influence Innate Immunity of Human Keratinocytes In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Zahid, Abderrakib; Despres, Julie; Benard, Magalie; Nguema-Ona, Eric; Leprince, Jerome; Vaudry, David; Rihouey, Christophe; Vicré-Gibouin, Maité; Driouich, Azeddine; Follet-Gueye, Marie-Laure

    2016-10-13

    Plant derived arabinogalactan proteins (AGP) were repeatedly confirmed as immunologically as well as dermatologically active compounds. However, little is currently known regarding their potential activity toward skin innate immunity. Here, we extracted and purified AGP from acacia (Acacia senegal) and baobab (Adansonia digitata) seeds to investigate their biological effects on the HaCaT keratinocyte cell line in an in vitro system. While AGP from both sources did not exhibit any cytotoxic effect, AGP from acacia seeds enhanced cell viability. Moreover, real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that AGP extracted from both species induced a substantial overexpression of hBD-2, TLR-5, and IL1-α genes. These data suggest that plant AGP, already known to control plant defensive processes, could also modulate skin innate immune responses. J. Cell. Physiol. 9999: 1-11, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Low chitinase activity in Acacia myrmecophytes: a potential trade-off between biotic and chemical defences?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heil, M.; Staehelin, Christian; McKey, D.

    We determined chitinase activity in leaves of four myrmecophytic and four non-myrmecophytic leguminous species at the plants' natural growing sites in Mexico. Myrmecophytic plants (or 'ant plants') have obligate mutualisms with ants protecting them against herbivores and pathogenic fungi. Plant chitinases can be considered a reliable measure of plant resistance to pathogenic fungi. The myrmecophytic Acacia species, which were colonised by mutualistic ants, exhibited at least six-fold lower levels of chitinase activity compared with the non-myrmecophytic Acacia farnesiana and three other non-myrmecophytes. Though belonging to different phylogenetic groups, the myrmecophytic Acacia species formed one distinct group in the data set, which was clearly separated from the non-myrmecophytic species. These findings allowed for comparison between two recent hypotheses that attempt to explain low chitinase activity in ant plants. Most probably, chitinases are reduced in myrmecophytic plant species because these are effectively defended indirectly due to their symbiosis with mutualistic ants.

  15. Co-composting of invasive Acacia longifolia with pine bark for horticultural use.

    PubMed

    Brito, Luis Miguel; Mourão, Isabel; Coutinho, João; Smith, Stephen R

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of commercial-scale co-composting of waste biomass from the control of invasive Acacia species with pine bark waste from the lumber industry, in a blend ratio of 60:40 (v:v), was investigated and compared with previous research on the composting of Acacia without additional feedstock, to determine the potential process and end-product quality benefits of co-composting with bark. Pile temperatures rose rapidly to >70 °C and were maintained at >60 °C for several months. Acacia and bark biomass contained a large fraction of mineralizable organic matter (OM) equivalent to approximately 600 g kg(-1) of initial OM. Bark was more recalcitrant to biodegradation compared with Acacia, which degraded at twice the rate of bark. Therefore, incorporating the bark increased the final amount of compost produced compared with composting Acacia residues without bark. The relatively high C/N ratio of the composting matrix (C/N=56) and NH3 volatilization explained the limited increases in NH4+-N content, whereas concentrations of conservative nutrient elements (e.g. P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe) increased in proportion to OM mineralization, enriching the compost as a nutrient source for horticultural use. Nitrogen concentrations also increased to a small extent, but were much more dynamic and losses, probably associated with N volatilization mechanisms, were difficult to actively control. The physicochemical characteristics of the stabilized end-product, such as pH, electrical conductivity and OM content, were improved with the addition of bark to Acacia biomass, and the final compost characteristics were suitable for use for soil improvement and also as horticultural substrate components.

  16. Acacia shrubs respond positively to high severity wildfire: Implications for conservation and fuel hazard management.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Christopher E; Price, Owen F; Tasker, Elizabeth M; Denham, Andrew J

    2017-01-01

    High severity wildfires pose threats to human assets, but are also perceived to impact vegetation communities because a small number of species may become dominant immediately after fire. However there are considerable gaps in our knowledge about species-specific responses of plants to different fire severities, and how this influences fuel hazard in the short and long-term. Here we conduct a floristic survey at sites before and two years after a wildfire of unprecedented size and severity in the Warrumbungle National Park (Australia) to explore relationships between post-fire growth of a fire responsive shrub genera (Acacia), total mid-story vegetation cover, fire severity and fuel hazard. We then survey 129 plots surrounding the park to assess relationships between mid-story vegetation cover and time-since-fire. Acacia species richness and cover were 2.3 and 4.3 times greater at plots after than before the fire. However the same common dominant species were present throughout the study. Mid-story vegetation cover was 1.5 times greater after than before the wildfire, and Acacia species contribution to mid-story cover increased from 10 to 40%. Acacia species richness was not affected by fire severity, however strong positive associations were observed between Acacia and total mid-story vegetation cover and severity. Our analysis of mid-story vegetation recovery showed that cover was similarly high between 2 and 30years post-fire, then decreased until 52years. Collectively, our results suggest that Acacia species are extremely resilient to high severity wildfire and drive short to mid-term increases in fuel hazard. Our results are discussed in relation to fire regime management from the twin perspectives of conserving biodiversity and mitigating human losses due to wildfire.

  17. Delayed colonisation of Acacia by thrips and the timing of host-conservatism and behavioural specialisation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Repeated colonisation of novel host-plants is believed to be an essential component of the evolutionary success of phytophagous insects. The relative timing between the origin of an insect lineage and the plant clade they eat or reproduce on is important for understanding how host-range expansion can lead to resource specialisation and speciation. Path and stepping-stone sampling are used in a Bayesian approach to test divergence timing between the origin of Acacia and colonisation by thrips. The evolution of host-plant conservatism and ecological specialisation is discussed. Results Results indicated very strong support for a model describing the origin of the common ancestor of Acacia thrips subsequent to that of Acacia. A current estimate puts the origin of Acacia at approximately 6 million years before the common ancestor of Acacia thrips, and 15 million years before the origin of a gall-inducing clade. The evolution of host conservatism and resource specialisation resulted in a phylogenetically under-dispersed pattern of host-use by several thrips lineages. Conclusions Thrips colonised a diversity of Acacia species over a protracted period as Australia experienced aridification. Host conservatism evolved on phenotypically and environmentally suitable host lineages. Ecological specialisation resulted from habitat selection and selection on thrips behavior that promoted primary and secondary host associations. These findings suggest that delayed and repeated colonisation is characterised by cycles of oligo- or poly-phagy. This results in a cumulation of lineages that each evolve host conservatism on different and potentially transient host-related traits, and facilitates both ecological and resource specialisation. PMID:24010723

  18. Feasibility study of determination of high-fructose syrup content of Acacia honey by terahertz technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wen; Zhang, Yuying; Han, Donghai

    2016-11-01

    The authenticity problem of honey with difficult identification and great economic value highlights the certain limitations of the existing examination methods to distinguish the inauthentic honey. Terahertz technique is sensitive to water and has abundant information about saccharides' intermolecular interactions . This paper is tried to determine high-fructose-syrup content of Acacia honey by terahertz technique combined with chemometric methods. RMSEC and RMSEP of PLS model was 0.0967 and 0.108, respectively, confirming the reliability of the technique. This work shows that it was possible to determine high-fructose-syrup content of Acacia honey by terahertz technique.

  19. Condensed tannins from acacia mangium bark: Characterization by spot tests and FTIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharudin, Muhammad Azizi; Zakaria, Sarani; Chia, Chin Hua

    2013-11-01

    This paper describes the adaptation and evaluation of one chemical tests for tannins characterization in acacia mangium bark. Acid butanol test developed to identify respectively condensed tannins is described. The two traditional tests used for tannin characterization namely ferric test and vanillin test were also performed and their functional also discussed. Condensed tannins were extracted from acacia mangium bark using water medium in presence of three different concentration basic reagent of NaOH(5%,10% and 15%) and were characterized by FT-IR spectrometry.

  20. Influence of carbonization conditions on the pyrolytic carbon deposition in acacia and eucalyptus wood chars

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, M.; Gupta, R.C.

    1997-04-01

    The amount of deposited pyrolytic carbon (resulting from the cracking of volatile matter) was found to depend on wood species and carbonization conditions, such as temperature and heating rate. Maximum pyrolytic carbon deposition in both the acacia and eucalyptus wood chars has been observed at a carbonization temperature of 800 C. Rapid carbonization (higher heating rate) of wood significantly reduces the amount of deposited pyrolytic carbon in resulting chars. Results also indicate that the amount of deposited pyrolytic carbon in acacia wood char is less than that in eucalyptus wood char.

  1. Improved Mannanase Production from Penicillium occitanis by Fed-Batch Fermentation Using Acacia Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Blibech, Monia; Ellouz Ghorbel, Raoudha; Chaari, Fatma; Dammak, Ilyes; Bhiri, Fatma; Neifar, Mohamed; Ellouz Chaabouni, Semia

    2011-01-01

    By applying a fed-batch strategy, production of Penicillium occitanis mannanases could be almost doubled as compared to a batch cultivation on acacia seeds (76 versus 41 U/mL). Also, a 10-fold increase of enzyme activities was observed from shake flask fermentation to the fed-batch fermentation. These production levels were 3-fold higher than those obtained on coconut meal. The high mannanase production using acacia seeds powder as inducer substrate showed the suitability of this culture process for industrial-scale development. PMID:23724314

  2. Purification of anthocyanins from species of Banksia and Acacia using high-voltage paper electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Asenstorfer, Robert E; Morgan, Anne L; Hayasaka, Yoji; Sedgley, Margaret; Jones, Graham P

    2003-01-01

    A new method has been developed for the isolation and rapid identification of anthocyanins from two floricultural crops based on the use of high-voltage paper electrophoresis with bisulphite buffer. Using this method, anthocyanin pigments were successfully purified as their negatively charged bisulphite-addition compounds from crude extracts of plant tissue. In conjunction with liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry, the method enabled the anthocyanins from the flowers of two Banksia species and the leaves of two Acacia species to be identified. The Banksia flowers contained both cyanidin and peonidin-based pigments, while the Acacia leaves contained cyanidin and delphinidin derivatives.

  3. Toxicological studies of aqueous extract of Acacia nilotica root

    PubMed Central

    Adesokan, Abdulfatai Ayoade; Salawu, Oluwakanyinsola Adeola; Akanji, Musbau Adewunmi

    2015-01-01

    Acacia nilotica is a widely used plant in traditional medical practice in Northern Nigeria and many African countries. The aim of this study was to determine the toxicological effects of a single dose (acute) and of repeated doses (sub-acute) administration of aqueous extract of A. nilotica root in rodents, following our earlier study on antiplasmodial activity. In the acute toxicity test, three groups of Swiss albino mice were orally administered aqueous extract of A. nilotica (50, 300 and 2000 mg/kg body weight) and signs of toxicity were observed daily for 14 days. In the sub-acute toxicity study, four groups of 12 rats (6 male and 6 female) were used. Group 1 received 10 ml/kg b.w distilled water (control), while groups 2, 3 and 4 received 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg b.w of the extract, respectively, for 28 consecutive days by oral gavage. Signs of toxicity/mortality, food and water intake and body weight changes were observed. Biochemical parameters were analysed in both plasma and liver homogenate. In the acute and sub-acute toxicity studies, the extract did not cause mortality. A significant reduction in the activity of lactate dehydrogenase was observed at 250 and 500 mg/kg b.w, while alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activities were significantly higher than control values at 500 mg/kg b.w. The aqueous extract of A. nilotica was found to be safe in single dose administration in mice but repeated administration of doses higher than 250 mg/kg b.w of the extract for 28 days in rats may cause hepatotoxicity. PMID:27486360

  4. Heteroblastic development and shade-avoidance in response to blue and red light signals in Acacia implexa.

    PubMed

    Forster, Michael A; Bonser, Stephen P

    2009-01-01

    Information from blue (400-500 nm) and red (660-730 nm) wavelengths is used by plants to determine proximity of neighbors or actual shading. Plants undergo trait changes in order to out-compete neighbors or accommodate shading. Heteroblasty, the dramatic shift from one leaf type to another during juvenility, can be influenced by the light environment although it is unknown whether cues from blue or red (or both) are driving the developmental process. Seedlings of three populations of Acacia implexa (Mimosaceae) collected from low, medium and high rainfall habitats were grown in a factorial design of high/low blue and red light to determine how light signals affect heteroblasty and patterns of biomass allocation. Low blue light significantly delayed heteroblasty in the low rainfall population and low red light significantly delayed in the low and high rainfall populations. Low blue light increased stem elongation and decreased root biomass whereas low red light induced a strong shade-avoidance response. These results were consistent across populations although the low rainfall population showed greater trait variability in response to red light signals. We conclude that red light conveys a greater information signal than blue light that affects heteroblasty and seedling development in A. implexa.

  5. Synopsis of Poeciloderrhis Stål, 1874, with the description of three new species, and a redescription of the male and female of Poeciloderrhis ferruginea (Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1865) from southeast Brazil (Blattodea, Blaberidae, Epilamprinae)

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso de Oliveira da Silva, Leonardo; Lopes, Sonia Maria

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Poeciloderrhis Stål (1874) was first described without reference to the included species and without morphological details. The genus was described in a key for the American Epilampra, which left only Asian-Australian species in the genus. Roth (1970) was the first to separate Poeciloderrhis from Epilampra with strong morphological characters. In this contribution, three species of Poeciloderrhis are described and a new record from Minas Gerais State is added. The genitalia of the female of Poeciloderrhis ferruginea are described for the first time. The genital plates were removed after dissection of the posterior part of the abdomen of males and females, using traditional dissection techniques. The parts were dissected on slides containing glycerin for examination under the stereoscopic microscope. Habitus images, and images of the pronotum, head and genitals were obtained with the help of a camera coupled to a stereomicroscope. The studied material is stored in glycerin inside microvials, and is deposited in the collection of the Museu Nacional. Three new species, Poeciloderrhis caracensis sp. n., Poeciloderrhis minoris sp. n. and Poeciloderrhis tijucana sp. n. are described and compared with the holotypes of previously described species, together with a redescription of the male and female of Poeciloderrhis ferruginea (Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1865). PMID:26798293

  6. Kinetic release studies of nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate from gum acacia crosslinked hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Aderibigbe, B A; Varaprasad, K; Sadiku, E R; Ray, S S; Mbianda, X Y; Fotsing, M C; Owonubi, S J; Agwuncha, S C

    2015-02-01

    Natural polymer hydrogels are useful for controlling release of drugs. In this study, hydrogels containing gum acacia were synthesized by free-radical polymerization of acrylamide with gum acacia. The effect of gum acacia in the hydrogels on the release mechanism of nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate (BP) was studied at pH 1.2 and 7.4. The hydrogels exhibited high swelling ratios at pH 7.4 and low swelling ratios at pH 1.2. The release study was performed using UV-Visible spectroscopy via complex formation with Fe(III) ions. At pH 1.2, the release profile was found to be anomalous while at pH 7.4, the release kinetic of BP was a perfect zero-order release mechanism. The hydrogels were found to be pH-sensitive and the release profiles of the BP were found to be influenced by the degree of crosslinking of the hydrogel network with gum acacia. The preliminary results suggest that these hydrogels are promising devices for controlled delivery of bisphosphonate to the gastrointestinal region.

  7. Integration of complete chloroplast genome sequences with small amplicon datasets improves phylogenetic resolution in Acacia.

    PubMed

    Williams, Anna V; Miller, Joseph T; Small, Ian; Nevill, Paul G; Boykin, Laura M

    2016-03-01

    Combining whole genome data with previously obtained amplicon sequences has the potential to increase the resolution of phylogenetic analyses, particularly at low taxonomic levels or where recent divergence, rapid speciation or slow genome evolution has resulted in limited sequence variation. However, the integration of these types of data for large scale phylogenetic studies has rarely been investigated. Here we conduct a phylogenetic analysis of the whole chloroplast genome and two nuclear ribosomal loci for 65 Acacia species from across the most recent Acacia phylogeny. We then combine this data with previously generated amplicon sequences (four chloroplast loci and two nuclear ribosomal loci) for 508 Acacia species. We use several phylogenetic methods, including maximum likelihood bootstrapping (with and without constraint) and ExaBayes, in order to determine the success of combining a dataset of 4000bp with one of 189,000bp. The results of our study indicate that the inclusion of whole genome data gave a far better resolved and well supported representation of the phylogenetic relationships within Acacia than using only amplicon sequences, with the greatest support observed when using a whole genome phylogeny as a constraint on the amplicon sequences. Our study therefore provides methods for optimal integration of genomic and amplicon sequences.

  8. Earleaf acacia, a fast growing, brittle exotic weed tree in Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Morton, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    A description is given of Acacia auriculiformis, together with a warning against its use for ornamental landscaping in Florida (a hurricane area). The tree grows very fast, reaching 30-55 ft in 8 years, lacks wind resistance, produces much persistent litter, seeds itself freely and is now a common weed species in Florida. The wood is of value for handicrafts. 3 references.

  9. Effect of toasting intensity at cooperage on phenolic compounds in acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia) heartwood.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Miriam; Fernández de Simón, Brígida; Esteruelas, Enrique; Muñoz, Ángel Ma; Cadahía, Estrella; Hernández, Teresa; Estrella, Isabel; Pinto, Ernani

    2011-04-13

    The phenolic composition of heartwood from Robinia pseudoacacia, commonly known as false acacia, before and after toasting in cooperage was studied by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS/MS. A total of 41 flavonoid and nonflavonoid compounds were identified, some tentatively, and quantified. Seasoned acacia wood showed high concentrations of flavonoid and low levels of nonflavonoid compounds, the main compounds being the dihydroflavonols dihydrorobinetin, fustin, tetrahydroxy, and trihydroxymethoxy dihydroflavonol, the flavonol robinetin, the flavanones robtin and butin, and a leucorobinetinidin, none of which are found in oak wood. The low molecular weight (LMW) phenolic compounds present also differed from those found in oak, since compounds with a β-resorcylic structure, gallic related compounds, protocatechuic aldehyde, and some hydroxycinnamic compounds are included, but only a little gallic and ellagic acid. Toasting changed the chromatographic profiles of extracts spectacularly. Thus, the toasted acacia wood contributed flavonoids and condensed tannins (prorobinetin type) in inverse proportion to toasting intensity, while LMW phenolic compounds were directly proportional to toasting intensity, except for gallic and ellagic acid and related compounds. Even though toasting reduced differences between oak and acacia, particular characteristics of this wood must be taken into account when considering its use in cooperage: the presence of flavonoids and compounds with β-resorcylic structure and the absence of hydrolyzable tannins.

  10. Effect of ethanolic extract of Acacia auriculiformis leaves on learning and memory in rats

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ajitha; Shetty, Manjunath; Parida, Amrita; Adiga, Shalini; Kamath, Shobha; Sowjanya

    2014-01-01

    Background: The effects and benefits of Acacia auriculiformis on health are not well established. This study was planned to evaluate the effect of ethanolic extract of Acacia auriculiformis leaves on learning and memory in rats. Materials and Methods: Learning and memory were evaluated using passive avoidance paradigm and rewarded alternation test (T-maze) after the oral administration of two doses (200mg/kg and 400mg/kg) of ethanolic extract of Acacia auriculiformis with rivastigmine as positive control. Forty eight rats were divided into 4 groups in each study model. Estimation of brain cholinesterase activity was done to substantiate the results of the above mentioned tests. Data was analyzed using one way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey's post-hoc test using GraphPad InStat software, version 3.06. Results: The extract produced a dose-dependent improvement in the memory score namely the step through latency in passive avoidance model (P < 0.001) and the percentage of correct responses in rewarded alternation test (P < 0.05). Dose-dependent inhibition of brain cholinesterase activity (P < 0.001) was also noted. Conclusion: The acetylcholinesterase inhibiting property of Acacia auriculiformis contributes to its memory enhancing potential. Further large scale studies are required to elucidate its benefits on cognitive function. This may offer a promising new option for the treatment of dementia and other cognitive deficits. PMID:25002806

  11. The Anti-fertility Effects of Acacia nilotica in Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lampiao, Fanuel

    2013-01-01

    Background A bulk of contraceptives on the market is women-oriented today. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a medicinal herb, Acacia nilotica on various parameters of male fertility using a rat model. Methods Male Wistar rats (n = 40) were randomly divided in to two groups. One group received Acacia nilotica, while the other acted as controls. Ten animals from each group were sacrificed after 16 weeks. Treatment was withdrawn for the remaining animals for 8 weeks. Blood was collected for hormonal analysis. The testis was removed for histological examination, while epididymal spermatozoa were retrieved for motility and morphological analysis. The data were analyzed using ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc test. A value of p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Sperm motility, progressive motility and sperm concentration significantly decreased in treated animals compared to the controls (p<0.05). Withdrawing the treatment did not restore these parameters (p<0.05). Abnormal sperm morphology significantly increased in both the treated and treatment withdrawn groups when compared to the controls (p<0.05). Testosterone concentrations were significantly lower in the treated group when compared to the controls (p<0.05) and no significant differences were observed between the controls and the treated animals when treatment was withdrawn. Histological observations showed that Acacia nilotica treatment disrupted semeniferous tubule architechture and consequently the spermatogenesis process. Conclusion These results show that Acacia nilotica severely affects sperm morphology, progressive motility and sperm concentration irreversibly in Wistar rats. PMID:23926560

  12. STEM, STEM Education, STEMmania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Mark

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author introduces integrative STEM (science, technology, engineering, and/or mathematics) education and discusses the importance of the program. The notion of integrative STEM education includes approaches that explore teaching and learning between/among any two or more of the STEM subject areas, and/or between a STEM subject…

  13. Multitasking in a plant-ant interaction: how does Acacia myrtifolia manage both ants and pollinators?

    PubMed

    Martínez-Bauer, Angélica E; Martínez, Gerardo Cerón; Murphy, Daniel J; Burd, Martin

    2015-06-01

    Plant associations with protective ants are widespread among angiosperms, but carry the risk that ants will deter pollinators as well as herbivores. Such conflict, and adaptations to ameliorate or prevent the conflict, have been documented in African and neotropical acacias. Ant-acacia associations occur in Australia, but little is known of their ecology. Moreover, recent phylogenetic evidence indicates that Australian acacias are only distantly related to African and American acacias, providing an intercontinental natural experiment in the management of ant-pollinator conflict. We examined four populations of Acacia myrtifolia over a 400-km environmental gradient in southeastern Australia using ant and pollinator exclusion as well as direct observation of ants and pollinators to assess the potential for ant-pollinator conflict to affect seed set. Native bees were the only group of floral visitors whose visitation rates were a significant predictor of fruiting success, although beetles and wasps may play an important role as "insurance" pollinators. We found no increase in pollinator visitation or fruiting success following ant exclusion, even with large sample sizes and effective exclusion. Because ants are facultative visitors to A. myrtifolia plants, their presence may be insufficient to interfere greatly with floral visitors. It is also likely that the morphological location of extrafloral nectaries tends to draw ants away from reproductive parts, although we commonly observed ants on inflorescences, so the spatial separation is not strict. A. myrtifolia appears to maintain a generalized mutualism over a wide geographic range without the need for elaborate adaptations to resolve ant-pollinator conflict.

  14. Cloning and expression of Aca f 1: a new allergen of Acacia farnesiana pollen

    PubMed Central

    Khosravi, Gholam Reza; Morakabati, Payam; Akbari, Bahareh; Dousti, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Acacia farnesiana is the main source of allergenic pollen and one of the most important causes of respiratory allergic disease in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The purpose of this study was to produce a recombinant variety of allergenic Ole e 1-like protein from the pollen of this tree. To predict its allergenic cross-reactivity with other members of the Ole e 1-like protein family of common allergenic plants, the nucleotide sequence homology of the Acacia Ole e 1-like protein was evaluated. Amplification of cDNA strands encoding Acacia Ole e 1-like protein was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequenced. Following expression in Escherichia coli using the pET-21b(+) vector, the recombinant protein was purified using metal-affinity chromatography. IgE-binding competence of purified recombinant Ole e 1- like protein (rAca f 1) was analysed by immunoassay using 25 sera collected from Acacia pollen-sensitised patients. Nucleotide sequencing revealed an open reading frame of 453 bp encoding 150 amino acid residues that belonged to the Ole e 1-like protein family, and 11 patients (44%) had considerable specific IgE levels for the rAca f 1. Immunodetection and inhibition assays indicated that the purified rAca f 1 may be the same as that in the crude extract. Aca f 1, the second allergen from Acacia pollen, was identified as a member of the family of Ole e 1-like protein. A high degree of homology was found among amino acid sequences of Aca f 1 and several allergenic members of Ole e 1-like protein family. PMID:27833445

  15. Cloning and expression of Aca f 1: a new allergen of Acacia farnesiana pollen.

    PubMed

    Khosravi, Gholam Reza; Assarehzadegan, Mohammad-Ali; Morakabati, Payam; Akbari, Bahareh; Dousti, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Acacia farnesiana is the main source of allergenic pollen and one of the most important causes of respiratory allergic disease in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The purpose of this study was to produce a recombinant variety of allergenic Ole e 1-like protein from the pollen of this tree. To predict its allergenic cross-reactivity with other members of the Ole e 1-like protein family of common allergenic plants, the nucleotide sequence homology of the Acacia Ole e 1-like protein was evaluated. Amplification of cDNA strands encoding Acacia Ole e 1-like protein was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequenced. Following expression in Escherichia coli using the pET-21b(+) vector, the recombinant protein was purified using metal-affinity chromatography. IgE-binding competence of purified recombinant Ole e 1- like protein (rAca f 1) was analysed by immunoassay using 25 sera collected from Acacia pollen-sensitised patients. Nucleotide sequencing revealed an open reading frame of 453 bp encoding 150 amino acid residues that belonged to the Ole e 1-like protein family, and 11 patients (44%) had considerable specific IgE levels for the rAca f 1. Immunodetection and inhibition assays indicated that the purified rAca f 1 may be the same as that in the crude extract. Aca f 1, the second allergen from Acacia pollen, was identified as a member of the family of Ole e 1-like protein. A high degree of homology was found among amino acid sequences of Aca f 1 and several allergenic members of Ole e 1-like protein family.

  16. Formulation and Evaluation of Alstonia boonei Stem Bark Powder Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Chime, Salome A.; Ugwuoke, E. C.; Onyishi, I. V.; Brown, S. A.; Onunkwo, G. C.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to formulate Alstonia boonei dried stem bark powder into tablets by wet granulation method using acacia, gelatine and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose as binders at concentrations of 1, 2, 4 and 8% w/w. The phytochemistry of the stem bark of Alstonia boonei was evaluated. The micromeritic properties of the granules prepared were studied. The tablets were evaluated using the necessary official and unofficial tests. The results of the phytochemical analysis showed that alkaloids, tannins, steroids, saponins, glycosides, flavonoids and terpenoids were present while anthroquinones and acidcompounds were absent. Micromeritic studies showed that Alstonia boonei granules had good flowability. The formulated tablets complied with British Pharmacopoeial specification for weight uniformity, hardness (≥5 kgf) and tablet friability (<1%). For disintegration test, tablets formulated with gelatine and acacia at concentrations of 1, 2 and 4% w/w complied with Pharmacopoeial specification. However, tablets formulated with SCMC (1-8% w/w) and 8% w/w of acacia and gelatine failed the disintegration tests (Disintegration time more than 15 min). PMID:24019574

  17. Stem Cells

    MedlinePlus

    Stem cells are cells with the potential to develop into many different types of cells in the body. ... the body. There are two main types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells. Stem ...

  18. Immunochemical Characterization of Acacia Pollen Allergens and Evaluation of Cross-Reactivity Pattern with the Common Allergenic Pollens

    PubMed Central

    Shamsbiranvand, Mohammad-Hosein; Khodadadi, Ali; Assarehzadegan, Mohammad-Ali; Borsi, Seyed Hamid; Amini, Akram

    2014-01-01

    Pollen from the Acacia has been reported as an important source of pollinosis in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The aim of this study was to characterize the IgE binding protein of Acacia farnesiana pollen extract and evaluate cross-reactivity with the most allergenic pollens. In this study, pollen extract was fractionated by SDS-PAGE and the allergenic profile was determined by IgE-immunoblotting and specific ELISA using forty-two Acacia allergic patients. Potential cross-reactivity among Acacia and selected allergenic plants was evaluated with ELISA and immunoblotting inhibition experiments. There were several resolved protein fractions on SDS-PAGE which ranged from 12 to 85 kDa. Several allergenic protein bands with molecular weights approximately between 12 and 85 kDa were recognized by IgE-specific antibodies from Acacia allergic patients in the immunoblot assay. The inhibition by the Prosopis juliflora pollen extract was more than those by other pollen extracts. Moreover, the wheal diameters generated by the Acacia pollen extract were highly correlated with those of P. juliflora pollen extracts. The findings suggest that several proteins such as 15, 23, 45, and 50 kDa proteins could be used as diagnostic and therapeutic reagents for patients allergic to A. farnesiana and P. juliflora. PMID:24949020

  19. Pretreatment of Acacia nilotica Sawdust by Catalytic Delignification and Its Fractal Kinetic Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallick, Abhyuday; Ash, Soumendra Nath; Mahapatra, Debashis Kumar

    2016-04-01

    Alkaline delignification of Acacia nilotica heartwood has been carried out using 10 % Sodium hydroxide and Sodium sulphide as the cooking liquor. Delignification was carried out at 373, 393, 403 and 413 K on Acacia nilotica sawdust of particle-sizes 70, 100 and 120 mesh, for durations ranging from 1 to 3 h. The reactions were carried out in presence and in absence of Ferrous sulphate to determine its catalytic properties in delignification. Maximum delignification achieved was 82.7 %, based on Klason lignin, in 3 h at 413 K for 120 mesh feed. The activation energies for delignification were 20.9275 and 35 kJ/mol, respectively, in presence and in absence of Ferrous sulphate, indicating its significant catalytic effect. A kinetic model for delignification was developed by modification of the Nuclei Growth model. Delignification extent could be predicted from the developed model quite accurately, with R2 values ranging from 0.947 to 0.99.

  20. A co-evolutionary relationship exists between Endoraecium (Pucciniales) and its Acacia hosts in Australia.

    PubMed

    McTaggart, A R; Doungsa-Ard, C; Geering, A D W; Aime, M C; Shivas, R G

    2015-12-01

    Endoraecium is a genus of rust fungi that infects several species of Acacia in Australia, South-East Asia and Hawaii. This study investigated the systematics of Endoraecium from 55 specimens in Australia based on a combined morphological and molecular approach. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted on partitioned datasets of loci from ribosomal and mitochondrial DNA. The recovered molecular phylogeny supported a recently published taxonomy based on morphology and host range that divided Endoraecium digitatum into five species. Spore morphology is synapomorphic and there is evidence Endoraecium co-evolved with its Acacia hosts. The broad host ranges of E. digitatum, E. parvum, E. phyllodiorum and E. violae-faustiae are revised in light of this study, and nine new species of Endoraecium are described from Australia based on host taxonomy, morphology and phylogenetic concordance.

  1. Two-year variations of phenolics, flavonoids and antioxidant contents in acacia honey.

    PubMed

    Moniruzzaman, Mohammed; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Azlan, Siti Amirah Mohd; Gan, Siew Hua

    2013-11-27

    Honey is a good source of several important chemical compounds and antioxidants and is harvested throughout the year. However, no study has determined how their contents change over the years. The aim of the present research was to investigate the changes in the phenolics, flavonoids and antioxidant properties, as well as other physicochemical properties, of Malaysian acacia honey collected during different months during a two year period. The DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) methods were used to determine the total antioxidant activity of the honey samples. Generally, honey samples collected in the beginning and the middle of the year tended to have higher sugar content, which may be attributed to its high acidic nature and low moisture content. There was a gradual increase in the phenolic content of the acacia honey samples collected between September 2010 and December 2010. The honey sample collected at the beginning of the year (January) showed the highest color intensity and was dark amber in color. It also contained the highest concentration of phenolic compounds (341.67 ± 2.94 mg(gallic acid)/kg), the highest flavonoid content (113.06 ± 6.18 mg(catechin)/kg) and the highest percentage of DPPH inhibition and the highest FRAP value, confirming its high antioxidant potential. There was a positive correlation between DPPH and total phenolic content, suggesting that phenolic compounds are the strongest contributing factor to the radical scavenging activity of Malaysian acacia honeys. Overall, our results indicated that there were significant seasonal variations in the antioxidant potentials of honey over the two year period and the time of honey collection affects its physicochemical properties. Therefore, acacia honey from Malaysia should ideally be collected during the dry season, particularly in the months of January, May and June.

  2. A role for indirect facilitation in maintaining diversity in a guild of African acacia ants.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Todd M; Stanton, Maureen L; Young, Truman P; Lemboi, John S; Goheen, Jacob R; Pringle, Robert M

    2013-07-01

    Determining how competing species coexist is essential to understanding patterns of biodiversity. Indirect facilitation, in which a competitively dominant species exerts a positive effect on one competitor by more strongly suppressing a third, shared competitor, is a potentially potent yet understudied mechanism for competitive coexistence. Here we provide evidence for indirect facilitation in a guild of four African Acacia ant species that compete for nesting space on the host plant Acacia drepanolobium, showing that a competitively dominant acacia ant species indirectly creates establishment opportunities for the most subordinate species that may help to maintain diversity. Using long-term observational data and field experiments, we demonstrate that the competitively dominant ant species outcompetes two competitively intermediate species, while tolerating colonies of the subordinate competitor; this creates opportunities for local colonization and establishment of colonies of the subordinate species within the dominant species' territories. Host plants occupied by this subordinate species are then more likely to be colonized by the intermediate species, which in turn are more likely to be displaced by the dominant species. This process has the potential to generate a cyclical succession of ant species on host trees, contributing to stable coexistence within this highly competitive community.

  3. Monitoring Acacia seedlings establishment and survival for a geo-spatial analysis model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaacson, Sivan; Winters, Gidon; Blumberg, Dan G.; Rachmilevitch, shimon; Ephrath, Jhonathan E.

    2016-04-01

    Seedlings are considered the stage most vulnerable to environmental conditions in the life cycle of plants. For plants in general but even more so for desert plants, seedling survival during the first years is crucial to the longevity of the population. Within the study area, Arava valley, southern Israeli Negev desert, flood events have been known to induce germination of seedlings, with only a small percentage (if any) of such seedlings surviving the dry summer. Following the floods of the 2013 winter (Jan-April 2013), we identified a 50 x 50 m section within the Gidron Wadi (Ephemeral river), in which we located and marked some 50 acacia (Acacia tortilis and Acacia raddiana) seedlings. We monitored the seedlings survival, growth and trunk diameter over the period of three years as well as taking periodical thermal and near infra-red (NIR) photographs. In order to better understand the geohydrology conditions we created a digital elevation model of the Wadi segment that includes the seedlings location, using total station theodolite. The survey will enable us to locate and map hotspots in the Wadi, which have high potential for seedling establishment and survival. Understanding the conditions (micro-topographic, radiative, plant competition) effect on seedling germination and establishment, can be translated into a spatial rule set of recruitment probability for population dynamic spatial models.

  4. Ecophysiological and foliar nitrogen concentration responses of understorey Acacia spp. and Eucalyptus sp. to prescribed burning.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ling; Rao, Xingquan; Lu, Ping; Bai, Shahla Hosseini; Xu, Zhihong; Chen, Xiaoyang; Blumfield, Timothy; Xie, Jun

    2015-07-01

    Eucalyptus spp. is a dominant tree genus in Australia and most Eucalyptus spp. are canopy dominant species. In Australian natural forests, Eucalyptus spp. commonly are associated with understorey legumes which play a crucial role for ecological restoration owing to their nitrogen (N) fixing ability for replenishing the soil N lost after frequent prescribed burning. This study aimed to explore to what extent physiological responses of these species differ 7 and 12 years after last fire. Two most common understorey Acacia spp., Acacia leiocalyx and A. disparrima, as well as one non-leguminous Eucalyptus resinifera, were studied due to their dominance in the forest. Both A. leiocalyx and A. disparrima showed higher carbon (C) assimilation capacity, maximum photosynthetic capacity, and moderate foliar C/N ratio compared with E. resinifera. A. leiocalyx showed various advantages compared to A. disparrima such as higher photosynthetic capacity, adaptation to wider light range and higher foliar total N (TNmass). A. leiocalyx also relied on N2-fixing ability for longer time compared to A. disparrima. The results suggested that the two Acacia spp. were more beneficial to C and N cycles for the post burning ecosystem than the non-N2-fixing species E. resinifera. A. leiocalyx had greater contribution to complementing soil N cycle long after burning compared to A. disparrima.

  5. Does aridity influence the morphology, distribution and accumulation of calcium oxalate crystals in Acacia (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae)?

    PubMed

    Brown, Sharon L; Warwick, Nigel W M; Prychid, Christina J

    2013-12-01

    Calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals are a common natural feature of many plant families, including the Leguminosae. The functional role of crystals and the mechanisms that underlie their deposition remain largely unresolved. In several species, the seasonal deposition of crystals has been observed. To gain insight into the effects of rainfall on crystal formation, the morphology, distribution and accumulation of calcium oxalate crystals in phyllodes of the leguminous Acacia sect. Juliflorae (Benth.) C. Moore & Betche from four climate zones along an aridity gradient, was investigated. The shapes of crystals, which include rare Rosanoffian morphologies, were constant between species from different climate zones, implying that morphology was not affected by rainfall. The distribution and accumulation of CaOx crystals, however, did appear to be climate-related. Distribution was primarily governed by vein density, an architectural trait which has evolved in higher plants in response to increasing aridity. Furthermore, crystals were more abundant in acacias from low rainfall areas, and in phyllodes containing high concentrations of calcium, suggesting that both aridity and soil calcium levels play important roles in the precipitation of CaOx. As crystal formation appears to be calcium-induced, we propose that CaOx crystals in Acacia most likely function in bulk calcium regulation.

  6. Precipitation of calcium, magnesium, strontium and barium in tissues of four Acacia species (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae).

    PubMed

    He, Honghua; Bleby, Timothy M; Veneklaas, Erik J; Lambers, Hans; Kuo, John

    2012-01-01

    Precipitation of calcium in plants is common. There are abundant studies on the uptake and content of magnesium, strontium and barium, which have similar chemical properties to calcium, in comparison with those of calcium in plants, but studies on co-precipitation of these elements with calcium in plants are rare. In this study, we compared morphologies, distributional patterns, and elemental compositions of crystals in tissues of four Acacia species grown in the field as well as in the glasshouse. A comparison was also made of field-grown plants and glasshouse-grown plants, and of phyllodes of different ages for each species. Crystals of various morphologies and distributional patterns were observed in the four Acacia species studied. Magnesium, strontium and barium were precipitated together with calcium, mainly in phyllodes of the four Acacia species, and sometimes in branchlets and primary roots. These elements were most likely precipitated in forms of oxalate and sulfate in various tissues, including epidermis, mesophyll, parenchyma, sclerenchyma (fibre cells), pith, pith ray and cortex. In most cases, precipitation of calcium, magnesium, strontium and barium was biologically induced, and elements precipitated differed between soil types, plant species, and tissues within an individual plant; the precipitation was also related to tissue age. Formation of crystals containing these elements might play a role in regulating and detoxifying these elements in plants, and protecting the plants against herbivory.

  7. Minor lipid components of some Acacia species: potential dietary health benefits of the unexploited seeds

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Oilseed samples from four Acacia species ( A. cyclops, A. ligulata, A. salicina and A. cyanophylla) were analyzed in order to evaluate the potential nutritional value of their unexploited seeds. Methods Samples were collected from different Tunisian geographic locations. Seed oils were extracted and carotenoids, tocopherols and sterols were analyzed using chromatographic methods. Results The studied Acacia seeds seem to be quite rich in lipids (from 6% to 12%). All Acacia species contain mainly the xanthophylls zeaxanthin and lutein compounds: from ca. 38 mg.kg-1 of total lipids (A. cyclops) to ca. 113 mg.kg-1 of total lipids (A. cyanophylla). Total tocopherols varied from ca. 221 mg.kg-1 of total lipids (A. cyclops) to ca. 808 mg.kg-1 of total lipids (A. ligulata). Sterols are highly present and their contents ranged between ca. 7 g. kg-1 of total lipids (A. salicina) and 11 g. kg-1 of total lipids (A. cyclops). Conclusion This study highlights that these unexploited seeds might have a potential nutritional value and encourages researchers to more explore and find developments for these plants for healthy purposes. PMID:22577797

  8. [Discrimination of Rice Syrup Adulterant of Acacia Honey Based Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan-nan; Chen, Lan-zhen; Xue, Xiao-feng; Wu, Li-ming; Li, Yi; Yang, Juan

    2015-09-01

    At present, the rice syrup as a low price of the sweeteners was often adulterated into acacia honey and the adulterated honeys were sold in honey markets, while there is no suitable and fast method to identify honey adulterated with rice syrup. In this study, Near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) combined with chemometric methods were used to discriminate authenticity of honey. 20 unprocessed acacia honey samples from the different honey producing areas, mixed? with different proportion of rice syrup, were prepared of seven different concentration gradient? including 121 samples. The near infrared spectrum (NIR) instrument and spectrum processing software have been applied in the? spectrum? scanning and data conversion on adulterant samples, respectively. Then it was analyzed by Principal component analysis (PCA) and canonical discriminant analysis methods in order to discriminating adulterated honey. The results showed that after principal components analysis, the first two principal components accounted for 97.23% of total variation, but the regionalism of the score plot of the first two PCs was not obvious, so the canonical discriminant analysis was used to make the further discrimination, all samples had been discriminated correctly, the first two discriminant functions accounted for 91.6% among the six canonical discriminant functions, Then the different concentration of adulterant samples can be discriminated correctly, it illustrate that canonical discriminant analysis method combined with NIR spectroscopy is not only feasible but also practical for rapid and effective discriminate of the rice syrup adulterant of acacia honey.

  9. Precipitation of Calcium, Magnesium, Strontium and Barium in Tissues of Four Acacia Species (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae)

    PubMed Central

    He, Honghua; Bleby, Timothy M.; Veneklaas, Erik J.; Lambers, Hans; Kuo, John

    2012-01-01

    Precipitation of calcium in plants is common. There are abundant studies on the uptake and content of magnesium, strontium and barium, which have similar chemical properties to calcium, in comparison with those of calcium in plants, but studies on co-precipitation of these elements with calcium in plants are rare. In this study, we compared morphologies, distributional patterns, and elemental compositions of crystals in tissues of four Acacia species grown in the field as well as in the glasshouse. A comparison was also made of field-grown plants and glasshouse-grown plants, and of phyllodes of different ages for each species. Crystals of various morphologies and distributional patterns were observed in the four Acacia species studied. Magnesium, strontium and barium were precipitated together with calcium, mainly in phyllodes of the four Acacia species, and sometimes in branchlets and primary roots. These elements were most likely precipitated in forms of oxalate and sulfate in various tissues, including epidermis, mesophyll, parenchyma, sclerenchyma (fibre cells), pith, pith ray and cortex. In most cases, precipitation of calcium, magnesium, strontium and barium was biologically induced, and elements precipitated differed between soil types, plant species, and tissues within an individual plant; the precipitation was also related to tissue age. Formation of crystals containing these elements might play a role in regulating and detoxifying these elements in plants, and protecting the plants against herbivory. PMID:22848528

  10. Spines as a mechanical defence: the effects of fertiliser treatment on juvenile Acacia tortilis plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gowda, Juan H.; Albrectsen, Benedicte R.; Ball, John P.; Sjöberg, Mikael; Palo, R. Thomas

    2003-04-01

    Using growth of different tissues in Acacia tortilis as a model, we tested current hypotheses on how nutrients affect mechanical plant defence. In a greenhouse experiment we applied a balanced commercial fertiliser (NPK) at three treatment levels to juvenile potted Acacias. As expected, plants increased in size with nutrient addition. More importantly, however, the relative mass of long spines increased significantly more than other structural components (leaves and twigs). This effect is not predicted by current nutrient availability hypotheses, which suggest either equal or proportionally lower investment in mechanical defence with increasing nutrient availability. Our results suggest that investment in spine size is nutrient limited in Acacia tortilis. It is commonly observed that the risk of damage by herbivores is highest on plants growing in nutrient-rich soils. If spines act as an effective form of anti-herbivore protection, then these plants might be expected to increase their production of physical defences (long spines) under such circumstances. Plants growing under higher nutrient conditions might therefore invest more in constitutive defences. These changes in allocation pattern are consistent with the increase in production of long spines, which are also induced by browsing.

  11. Effect of composite yogurt enriched with acacia fiber and Bifidobacterium lactis

    PubMed Central

    Min, Yang Won; Park, Sang Un; Jang, Yeon Sil; Kim, Young-Ho; Rhee, Poong-Lyul; Ko, Seo Hyun; Joo, Nami; Kim, Sun Im; Kim, Cheol-Hyun; Chang, Dong Kyung

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether composite yogurt with acacia dietary fiber and Bifidobacterium lactis (B. lactis) has additive effects in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). METHODS: A total of 130 patients were randomly allocated to consume, twice daily for 8 wk, either the composite yogurt or the control product. The composite yogurt contained acacia dietary fiber and high-dose B. lactis together with two classic yogurt starter cultures. Patients were evaluated using the visual analog scale via a structured questionnaire administered at baseline and after treatment. RESULTS: Improvements in bowel habit satisfaction and overall IBS symptoms from baseline were significantly higher in the test group than in the control group (27.16 vs 15.51, P = 0.010, 64.2 ± 17.0 vs 50.4 ± 20.5, P < 0.001; respectively). In constipation-predominant IBS, improvement in overall IBS symptoms was significantly higher in the test group than in the control group (72.4 ± 18.4 vs 50.0 ± 21.8, P < 0.001). In patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS, improvement in bowel habit satisfaction from baseline was significantly higher in the test group than in the control group (32.90 vs 7.81, P = 0.006). CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that composite yogurt enriched with acacia fiber and B. lactis has greater therapeutic effects in patients with IBS than standard yogurt. PMID:22969230

  12. Detailed Chemical Composition of Condensed Tannins via Quantitative (31)P NMR and HSQC Analyses: Acacia catechu, Schinopsis balansae, and Acacia mearnsii.

    PubMed

    Crestini, Claudia; Lange, Heiko; Bianchetti, Giulia

    2016-09-23

    The chemical composition of Acacia catechu, Schinopsis balansae, and Acacia mearnsii proanthocyanidins has been determined using a novel analytical approach that rests on the concerted use of quantitative (31)P NMR and two-dimensional heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy. This approach has offered significant detailed information regarding the structure and purity of these complex and often elusive proanthocyanidins. More specifically, rings A, B, and C of their flavan-3-ol units show well-defined and resolved absorbance regions in both the quantitative (31)P NMR and HSQC spectra. By integrating each of these regions in the (31)P NMR spectra, it is possible to identify the oxygenation patterns of the flavan-3-ol units. At the same time it is possible to acquire a fingerprint of the proanthocyanidin sample and evaluate its purity via the HSQC information. This analytical approach is suitable for both the purified natural product proanthocyanidins and their commercial analogues. Overall, this effort demonstrates the power of the concerted use of these two NMR techniques for the structural elucidation of natural products containing labile hydroxy protons and a carbon framework that can be traced out via HSQC.

  13. Impact of the energy crop Jatropha curcas L. on the composition of rhizobial populations nodulating cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) and acacia (Acacia seyal L.).

    PubMed

    Dieng, Amadou; Duponnois, Robin; Floury, Antoine; Laguerre, Gisèle; Ndoye, Ibrahima; Baudoin, Ezékiel

    2015-03-01

    Jatropha curcas, a Euphorbiaceae species that produces many toxicants, is increasingly planted as an agrofuel plant in Senegal. The purpose of this study was to determine whether soil priming induced by J. curcas monoculture could alter the rhizobial populations that nodulate cowpea and acacia, two locally widespread legumes. Soil samples were transferred into a greenhouse from three fields previously cultivated with Jatropha for 1, 2, and 15 years, and the two trap legumes were grown in them. Control soil samples were also taken from adjacent Jatropha-fallow plots. Both legumes tended to develop fewer but larger nodules when grown in Jatropha soils. Nearly all the nifH sequences amplified from nodule DNA were affiliated to the Bradyrhizobium genus. Only sequences from Acacia seyal nodules grown in the most recent Jatropha plantation were related to the Mesorhizobium genus, which was much a more conventional finding on A. seyal than the unexpected Bradyrhizobium genus. Apart from this particular case, only minor differences were found in the respective compositions of Jatropha soil versus control soil rhizobial populations. Lastly, the structure of these rhizobial populations was systematically imbalanced owing to the overwhelming dominance of a very small number of nifH genotypes, some of which were identical across soil types or even sites. Despite these weak and sparse effects on rhizobial diversity, future investigations should focus on the characterization of the nitrogen-fixing abilities of the predominant rhizobial strains.

  14. Risk assessment, eradication, and biological control: global efforts to limit Australian acacia invasions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, John R.U.; Gairifo, Carla; Gibson, Michelle R.; Arianoutsou, Margarita; Bakar, Baki B.; Baret, Stephane; Celesti-Grapow, Laura; DiTomaso, Joseph M.; Dufour-Dror, Jean-Marc; Kueffer, Christoph; Kull, Christian A.; Hoffman, John H.; Impson, Fiona A.C.; Loope, Lloyd L.; Marchante, Elizabete; Harchante, Helia; Moore, Joslin L.; Murphy, Daniel J.; Tassin, Jacques; Witt, Arne; Zenni, Rafael D.; Richardson, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Aim Many Australian Acacia species have been planted around the world, some are highly valued, some are invasive, and some are both highly valued and invasive. We review global efforts to minimize the risk and limit the impact of invasions in this widely used plant group. Location Global. Methods Using information from literature sources, knowledge and experience of the authors, and the responses from a questionnaire sent to experts around the world, we reviewed: (1) a generalized life cycle of Australian acacias and how to control each life stage, (2) different management approaches and (3) what is required to help limit or prevent invasions. Results Relatively few Australian acacias have been introduced in large numbers, but all species with a long and extensive history of planting have become invasive somewhere. Australian acacias, as a group, have a high risk of becoming invasive and causing significant impacts as determined by existing assessment schemes. Moreover, in most situations, long-lived seed banks mean it is very difficult to control established infestations. Control has focused almost exclusively on widespread invaders, and eradication has rarely been attempted. Classical biological control is being used in South Africa with increasing success. Main conclusions A greater emphasis on pro-active rather than reactive management is required given the difficulties managing established invasions of Australian acacias. Adverse effects of proposed new introductions can be minimized by conducting detailed risk assessments in advance, planning for on-going monitoring and management, and ensuring resources are in place for long-term mitigation. Benign alternatives (e.g. sterile hybrids) could be developed to replace existing utilized taxa. Eradication should be set as a management goal more often to reduce the invasion debt. Introducing classical biological control agents that have a successful track-record in South Africa to other regions and identifying new

  15. Ameliorative Effects of Acacia Honey against Sodium Arsenite-Induced Oxidative Stress in Some Viscera of Male Wistar Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Aliyu, Muhammad; Ibrahim, Sani; Inuwa, Hajiya M.; Sallau, Abdullahi B.; Abbas, Olagunju; Aimola, Idowu A.; Habila, Nathan; Uche, Ndidi S.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and its development is frequently associated with oxidative stress-induced by carcinogens such as arsenicals. Most foods are basically health-promoting or disease-preventing and a typical example of such type is honey. This study was undertaken to investigate the ameliorative effects of Acacia honey on sodium arsenite-induced oxidative stress in the heart, lung and kidney tissues of male Wistar rats. Male Wistar albino rats divided into four groups of five rats each were administered distilled water, Acacia honey (20%), sodium arsenite (5 mg/kg body weight), Acacia honey, and sodium arsenite daily for one week. They were sacrificed anesthetically using 60 mg/kg sodium pentothal. The tissues were used for the assessment of glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities, protein content and lipid peroxidation. Sodium arsenite significantly (P < 0.05) suppressed the glutathione peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase activities with simultaneous induction of lipid peroxidation. Administration of Acacia honey significantly increased (P < 0.05) glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities with concomitant suppression of lipid peroxidation as evident by the decrease in malondialdehyde level. From the results obtained, Acacia honey mitigates sodium arsenite induced-oxidative stress in male Wistar albino rats, which suggest that it may attenuate oxidative stress implicated in chemical carcinogenesis. PMID:24368942

  16. The conversion of grassland to acacia forest as an effective option for net reduction in greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    de Godoi, Stefânia Guedes; Neufeld, Ângela Denise Hubert; Ibarr, Mariana Alves; Ferreto, Décio Oscar Cardoso; Bayer, Cimélio; Lorentz, Leandro Homrich; Vieira, Frederico Costa Beber

    2016-03-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of forestation with leguminous Acacia mearnsii De Wild in native grasslands on the soil greenhouse (GHG) fluxes and their main driving factors. The experiment was conducted in the Brazilian Pampa over the period of one year in a six-year-old Acacia plantation, evaluating four treatments: Acacia (AM), Acacia with litter periodically removed (A-l), Acacia after harvest (AH) and native grassland (NG) (reference treatment). Air samples were obtained by the static chamber method, and gas concentrations were evaluated by gas chromatography. Soil and climate factors were monitored. The accumulated fluxes of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) were statistically similar between the soils in the AM and NG treatments, which tended to oxidize CH4 (-1445 and -1752 g C-CH4 ha(-1) yr(-1), respectively) and had low emission of N2O (242 and 316 g N-N2O ha(-1) yr(-1)), most likely influenced by the low water-filled pore space and the low content of mineral N in the soil. However, the soil in the AH treatment presented higher emissions of both gases, totaling 1889 g C-CH4 ha(-1) yr(-1) and 1250 g N-N2O ha(-1) yr(-1). Afforestation neither significantly affected the total organic C stocks nor their lability, keeping the C management index for the forested area similar to that in the NG treatment. The conversion from grassland to Acacia forest represents an effective option for mitigating the net reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, which is basically determined by C accumulation in biomass and wood products.

  17. [The Interaction of Oil Microcapsule Wall Materials between Whey Protein and Acacia].

    PubMed

    Shi, Yan; Li, Ru-yi; Wang, Hui; Li, Qian; Li, De-jun; Tu, Zong-cai

    2015-03-01

    The interaction between whey protein and acacia which were used as wall material was studied on the formation of the oils microcapsules by the FTIR Spectroscopy and Computer Aided Analysis. The results indicated that whey protein changed obviously in amide A and amide I by high pressured homogenization and spray-drying. The amide A moved from 3 406.5 cm(-1) to 3 425.4 cm(-1) which was possibly due to covalent cross-linking between whey protein and acacia. Furthermore the amide I moved from 1 648.6 cm(-1) to 1 654.7 cm(-1) for intramolecular hydrogen bonding of protein had been weaken. After Gaussian fitting on amide I , it was found that the content of secondary structure of α-helix content and β-folding in whey protein reduced from 19.55% to 17.50% and from 30.59% to 25.63%, respectively. This suggests that protein intramolecular hydrogen bonding force was abated, resulting in abating the rigid structure of the protein molecules and enhancing of the toughness structure. The protein molecules showed some flexibility. The result of SDS-PAGE electrophoresis showed that whey protein--gum Arabic complexes produced covalent products in larger molecular weight. During the spray-drying process, covalent cross-linking produced between whey protein and gum Arabic which improved emulsifying activity of the complex whey protein and gum Arabic produced covalent cross-linking and improved the complex emulsifying activity. Observing the surface structure of the fish oil microcapsule by SEM, the compound of whey protein and acacia as wall material was proved better toughness, less micropore, and more compact structure.

  18. Excessive sulphur accumulation and ionic storage behaviour identified in species of Acacia (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae)

    PubMed Central

    Reid, N.; Robson, T. C.; Radcliffe, B.; Verrall, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Thiophores, which are typically desert gypsophytes, accumulate high (2–6 % S dry weight) sulphur concentrations and may possess unique tolerance to environmental stress factors, e.g. sulphate/metal toxicity, drought and salinity. Little is known of the prevalence of the behaviour or the associated physiological aspects. The aim of this study was to (a) determine the prevalence of thiophore behaviour in a group of Australian xerophytes; (b) identify elemental uptake/storage characteristics of these thiophores; and (c) determine whether the behaviour is constitutive or environmental. Methods The elemental composition of soils and the foliage of 11 species (seven genera) at a site in the Tanami Desert (NT, Australia) was compared and 13 additional Acacia species from other locations were examined for elevated calcium and sulphur concentrations and calcium–sulphur mineralization, thought to be particular to thiophores. Key Results Acacia bivenosa DC. and 11 closely related species were identified as thiophores that can accumulate high levels of sulphur (up to 3·2 %) and calcium (up to 6.8 %), but no thiophores were identified in other genera occupying the same habitat. This behaviour was observed in several populations from diverse habitats, from samples collected over three decades. It was also observed that these thiophores featured gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) crystal druses that completely filled cells and vascular systems in their dried phyllode tissues. Conclusions The thiophores studied exhibit a tight coupling between sulphur and calcium uptake and storage, and apparently store these elements as inorganic salts within the cells of their foliage. Thiophore behaviour is a constitutive trait shared by closely related Acacia but is not highly prevalent within, nor exclusive to, xerophytes. Several of the newly identified thiophores occupy coastal or riparian habitats, suggesting that the evolutionary and ecophysiological explanations for this trait

  19. Effect of cold water extracts of Acacia modesta Wall. and Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn. on Tribolium castaneum and Lemna minor.

    PubMed

    Nazeefullah, Sayed; Dastagir, Ghulam; Ahmad, Bashir

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to introduce an alternative way for insects control through biodegradable plants materials. The different cold water extracts dilutions of Acacia modesta and Glycyrrhiza glabra were tested against Tribolium castaneum. The extracts dilutions of both plants caused mortality of the Tribolium castaneum. ANOVA revealed that dilutions and plants were highly significant. The interaction between plants and dilutions was also significant at P < 0.05. Phytotoxic activity showed that dilutions of Acacia modesta and Glycyrrhiza glabra extracts significantly inhibited the growth of Lemna minor. ANOVA showed that dilutions of both plants extracts were significant at P < 0.05.

  20. Incidences and severity of vascular wilt in Acacia mangium plantations in Sabah, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maid, Mandy; Ratnam, Wickneswari

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the incidences and severity of vascular wilt disease associated with dieback in stands of commercial Acacia mangium plantations. The study revealed that the prevalence of the symptoms is high between 50 to 60% in two plantations, where it is found scattered in the plots that were surveyed. The incidence of the disease in each plot is low between 0 to 6%. The disease symptoms were more often found where the symptom syndrome in a chronic (level 3) or critical state (level 4). This suggests that the causal pathogen has the ability to penetrate into the tissues of the plants and only display symptoms at the latest stage.

  1. Two new unusual monoterpene acid glycosides from Acacia cyclops with potential cytotoxic activity.

    PubMed

    Jelassi, Amira; Zardi-Bergaoui, Afifa; Ben Nejma, Aymen; Belaiba, Meriam; Bouajila, Jalloul; Ben Jannet, Hichem

    2014-08-15

    A phytochemical investigation of the Tunisian plant Acacia cyclops pods led to the isolation of two new monoterpenoid glycosides, which have been designated Cyclopside 1 and Cyclopside 2. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic procedures including IR, MS and 2D-NMR. The cytotoxic effect of the isolates was also evaluated in vitro against the human breast cancer (MCF-7) and ovarian cancer (OVAR) cell lines. Results showed that the highest cytotoxic activity (90.88%) was against MCF-7 cell line and was exhibited by the Cyclopside 1 at the concentration of 50 μg/mL.

  2. Analysis of commercial proanthocyanidins. Part 3: the chemical composition of wattle (Acacia mearnsii) bark extract.

    PubMed

    Venter, Pieter B; Senekal, Nadine D; Kemp, Gabré; Amra-Jordaan, Maryam; Khan, Pir; Bonnet, Susan L; van der Westhuizen, Jan H

    2012-11-01

    Wattle (Acacia mearnsii) bark extract is an important renewable industrial source of natural polymers for leather tanning and adhesive manufacturing. The wattle bark proanthocyanidin oligomers have 5-deoxy extender units that render the interflavanyl bonds resistant to acid catalysed hydrolysis and their composition cannot be determined via conventional thiolysis. We combined established phyto- and synthetic chemistry perspectives with an electrospray mass spectrometry investigation to establish that the flavan-3-ol based oligomers consist of a starter unit which is either catechin or gallocatechin, angularly bonded to fisetinidol or predominantly robinetinidol extender units.

  3. Size variation of Acacia caven (leguminosae) pods along a climatic gradient in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, J. R.; Armesto, J. J.

    1981-06-01

    A southward tendency of increment in pod-length is shown for 11 populations of Acacia caven (Mol.) Hook et Arn. localized along a climatic gradient of increasing annual rainfall in Chile. This fact would suggest that A. caven populations occurring in the south are in better conditions for reproduction than northern populations, since pod-length is related to the amount of seeds inside the pods. The possible bearing of this southward tendency of increasing seed production upon the expansion of A. caven toward the more humid zones in southern Chile is discussed.

  4. Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial applications of zinc oxide nanoparticles loaded gum acacia/poly(SA) hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, S K; Jadaun, Mamta; Tiwari, Seema

    2016-11-20

    In this work, zinc oxide nanoparticles were synthesized in-situ within the gum acacia/poly (acrylate) hydrogel network using hydrothermal approach. The synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles were characterized by Surface plasmon resonance (SPR), X-Ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The water absorption behavior of ZnO/GA/poly(SA) hydrogels was investigated in the phosphate buffer saline (PBS) of pH 7.4 at 37°C. The water uptake data were analyzed with the help of various kinetic models. Finally, the antimicrobial action of nanocomposites was studied using E. coli as model bacteria.

  5. Fire disturbance disrupts an acacia ant-plant mutualism in favor of a subordinate ant species.

    PubMed

    Sensenig, Ryan L; Kimuyu, Duncan K; Ruiz Guajardo, Juan Carlos; Veblen, Kari E; Riginos, Corinna; Young, Truman P

    2017-03-08

    Although disturbance theory has been recognized as a useful framework in examining the stability of ant-plant mutualisms, very few studies have examined the effects of fire disturbance on these mutualisms. In myrmecophyte-dominated savannas, fire and herbivory are key drivers that could influence ant-plant mutualisms by causing complete colony mortality and/or decreasing colony size, which potentially could alter dominance hierarchies if subordinate species are more fire resilient. We used a large-scale, replicated fire experiment to examine long-term effects of fire on acacia-ant community composition. To determine if fire shifted ant occupancy from a competitive dominant to a subordinate ant species we surveyed the acacia-ant community in 6-7-year-old burn sites and examined how the spatial scale of these burns influenced ant community responses. We then used two short-term fire experiments to explore possible mechanisms for the shifts in community patterns observed. Because survival of ant colonies is largely dependent on their ability to detect and escape an approaching fire, we first tested the evacuation response of all four ant species when exposed to smoke (fire signal). Then to better understand how fire and its interaction with large mammal herbivory affect the density of ants per tree, we quantified ant worker density in small prescribed burns within herbivore exclusion plots. We found clear evidence suggesting that fire disturbance favored the subordinate ant Crematogaster nigriceps more than the dominant and strong mutualist ant C. mimosae, whereby C. nigriceps: 1) was the only species to occupy a greater proportion of trees in 6-7 year old burn sites compared to unburned sites, 2) had higher burn/unburn tree ratios with increasing burn size; and 3) evacuated significantly faster than C. mimosae in the presence of smoke. Fire and herbivory had opposite effects on ant density per meter of branch for both C. nigriceps and C. mimosae, with fire decreasing

  6. Antioxidant, Anti-inflammatory, and Chemoprotective Properties of Acacia catechu Heartwood Extracts.

    PubMed

    Stohs, Sidney J; Bagchi, Debasis

    2015-06-01

    Aqueous extracts of Acacia catechu heartwood are rich source of catechin and epicatechin (gallic acid derivatives), with smaller amounts of flavonoids. Extracts have also been prepared with ethyl acetate, ethanol, and methanol, and the properties of these extracts have been studied and are reviewed. Potent antioxidant activity has been well established in both in vitro and in vivo studies. This antioxidant activity is believed to be responsible for the anti-inflammatory, tissue protectant, antineoplastic, and analgesic activities that have been demonstrated and clearly established in animal and cell culture systems. Furthermore, antihyperglycemic, antidiarrheal, antinociceptive, and antipyretic activities have been demonstrated in animal studies. No adverse effects have been observed in animal or human studies or in cell culture systems. In spite of the fact that Acacia products have been used for many years and the general safety of catechins and epicatechins is well documented, few human studies have ever been conducted on the efficacy or safety of A. catechu heartwood extracts. Several studies have shown that a two-ingredient combination product containing A. catechu extract exhibited no adverse effects when administered daily for up to 12 weeks while exhibiting significant anti-inflammatory activity in subjects with osteoarthritis of the knee. There is a need for additional human clinical studies with regard to efficacy and safety.

  7. Chemical composition and nutritional evaluation of the seeds of Acacia tortilis (Forssk.) Hayne ssp. raddiana.

    PubMed

    Embaby, Hassan E; Rayan, Ahmed M

    2016-06-01

    Chemical composition and nutritional evaluation as well as physicochemical and functional properties of seed flour of Acacia tortilis (Forssk.) Hayne ssp. raddiana were studied. The results indicated that seeds contained 5.30% moisture, 3.99% ash, 9.19% fat, 14.31% fiber, 27.21% protein and 45.30% carbohydrates. Potassium was the predominant element followed by calcium and then phosphorous. Phytic acid, tannins and trypsin inhibitor as antinutrients were detected. The amino acid profile compared well with FAO/WHO recommended pattern except for cystine/methionine, isoleucine, tyrosine/phenylalanine, lysine and threonine. Also, the first limiting amino acid was lysine. Fatty acid composition showed that linoleic acid was the major fatty acid, followed by palmitic, stearic, oleic and arachidic acids. The seed oil showed absorbance in the ultraviolet ranges, thus it can be used as a broad spectrum UV protectant. For physicochemical and functional properties, acacia seeds flour had excellent water holding index, swelling index, foaming capacity and foam stability.

  8. Revegetation of lagoon ash using the legume species Acacia auriculiformis and Leucaena leucocephala.

    PubMed

    Cheung, K C; Wong, J P; Zhang, Z Q; Wong, J W; Wong, M H

    2000-07-01

    A greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate the potential use of two legume species, Acacia auriculiformis and Leucaena leucocephala for growth on ameliorated lagoon ash with or without nitrogen (N(2))-fixing bacteria inoculation. Even though amendments of 30% (w/w) vermiculite or with sewage sludge compost were added to improve the chemical and physical limitations of lagoon ash, significant suppressions in biomass and plant nutrient content were found with ameliorated lagoon ash in comparison to an agricultural soil. The high proportion of clay-sized (<53 microm) ash particles limited root growth. In addition, heavy metal toxicity was a possible factor contributing to poor seedling growth. Higher plant productivity resulted from the sewage sludge compost-amended lagoon ash than with vermiculite due to a greater contribution of plant nutrients in the compost. Nodulation was inhibited in ameliorated lagoon ash but not in agricultural soil. High pH and electrical conductivity and elevated toxic metals may be important parameters that limit bacterial activity. Both species showed potential to establish on amended lagoon ash, with Acacia auriculiformis being the best adapted.

  9. Diversity of nitrogen fixing bacteria associated to the new Caledonian ubiquitous tree Acacia spirorbis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grangeteau, C.; Ducousso, M.; Jourand, P.; Lebrun, M.; Klonowska, A.; Fritsch, E.; Juillot, F.; Acherar, S.

    2012-04-01

    The New Caledonian endemic tree species Acacia spirorbis is able to grow and to present invasive traits on a wide range of soils (e.g.: ultramafic, calcareous coral, siliceous, aluminium enriched) in a large range of pH. Acacia spirorbis is also adapted to poly-metallic toxicity, especially Ni, to an unbalanced Ca/Mg ratio in strong favour of Mg and to poor N, P and K availability. The goal of this study was to improve our knowledge concerning the influence of bacterial symbionts on A. spirorbis adaptation to different soil conditions. Firstly, bacterial symbiots were isolated from field collected nodules or nodules obtained by trapping method and characterized by phylogenetic analysis of housekeeping genes (recA, dnaK and glnII) and symbiotic genes (nodA and nifH). A strong preference of A. spirorbis for different species of Bradyrhizobium has been noted ; Rhizobium species has been isolated only from nodules collected from a plantation located out of its natural area of distribution. A selection of representative rhizobial strains isolated from diverse soils was tested to compare their symbiotic efficiency with A. spirorbis in nursery conditions. Results are presented in function of soils diversity and in perspective of A. spirorbis adaptation to extremely diverse and adverse soil conditions.

  10. Foliar endophytic fungi as potential protectors from pathogens in myrmecophytic Acacia plants

    PubMed Central

    González-Teuber, Marcia; Jiménez-Alemán, Guillermo H; Boland, Wilhelm

    2014-01-01

    In defensive ant-plant interactions myrmecophytic plants express reduced chemical defense in their leaves to protect themselves from pathogens, and it seems that mutualistic partners are required to make up for this lack of defensive function. Previously, we reported that mutualistic ants confer plants of Acacia hindsii protection from pathogens, and that the protection is given by the ant-associated bacteria. Here, we examined whether foliar endophytic fungi may potentially act as a new partner, in addition to mutualistic ants and their bacteria inhabitants, involved in the protection from pathogens in myrmecophytic Acacia plants. Fungal endophytes were isolated from the asymptomatic leaves of A. hindsii plants for further molecular identification of 18S rRNA gene. Inhibitory effects of fungal endophytes were tested against Pseudomonas plant pathogens. Our findings support a potential role of fungal endophytes in pathogen the protection mechanisms against pathogens in myrmecophytic plants and provide the evidence of novel fungal endophytes capable of biosynthesizing bioactive metabolites. PMID:26843901

  11. Growth and nitrogen acquisition strategies of Acacia senegal seedlings under exponential phosphorus additions.

    PubMed

    Isaac, M E; Harmand, J M; Drevon, J J

    2011-05-15

    There remains conflicting evidence on the relationship between P supply and biological N(2)-fixation rates, particularly N(2)-fixing plant adaptive strategies under P limitation. This is important, as edaphic conditions inherent to many economically and ecologically important semi-arid leguminous tree species, such as Acacia senegal, are P deficient. Our research objective was to verify N acquisition strategies under phosphorus limitations using isotopic techniques. Acacia senegal var. senegal was cultivated in sand culture with three levels of exponentially supplied phosphorus [low (200 μmol of P seedling(-1) over 12 weeks), mid (400 μmol) and high (600 μmol)] to achieve steady-state nutrition over the growth period. Uniform additions of N were also supplied. Plant growth and nutrition were evaluated. Seedlings exhibited significantly greater total biomass under high P supply compared to low P supply. Both P and N content significantly increased with increasing P supply. Similarly, N derived from solution increased with elevated P availability. However, both the number of nodules and the N derived from atmosphere, determined by the (15)N natural abundance method, did not increase along the P gradient. Phosphorus stimulated growth and increased mineral N uptake from solution without affecting the amount of N derived from the atmosphere. We conclude that, under non-limiting N conditions, A. senegal N acquisition strategies change with P supply, with less reliance on N(2)-fixation when the rhizosphere achieves a sufficient N uptake zone.

  12. Polyploidy can Confer Superiority to West African Acacia senegal (L.) Willd. Trees

    PubMed Central

    Diallo, Adja M.; Nielsen, Lene R.; Kjær, Erik D.; Petersen, Karen K.; Ræbild, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Polyploidy is a common phenomenon in the evolution of angiosperms. It has been suggested that polyploids manage harsh environments better than their diploid relatives but empirical data supporting this hypothesis are scarce, especially for trees. Using microsatellite markers and flow cytometry, we examine the frequency of polyploids and diploids in a progeny trial testing four different populations of Acacia senegal, a species native to sub-Saharan regions of Africa. We compare growth between cytotypes and test whether polyploid seedlings grow better than diploids. Our results show that polyploids coexist with diploids in highly variable proportions among populations in Senegal. Acacia senegal genotypes were predominantly diploid and tetraploid, but triploid, pentaploid, hexaploid, and octaploid forms were also found. We find that polyploids show faster growth than diploids under our test conditions: in an 18 years old field trial, polyploid superiority was estimated to be 17% in trunk diameter and 9% in height while in a growth chamber experiment, polyploids grew 28% taller, but only after being exposed to drought stress. The results suggest that polyploid A. senegal can have an adaptive advantage in some regions of Africa. PMID:27379120

  13. Responses to water stress of gas exchange and metabolites in Eucalyptus and Acacia spp.

    PubMed

    Warren, Charles R; Aranda, Ismael; Cano, F Javier

    2011-10-01

    Studies of water stress commonly examine either gas exchange or leaf metabolites, and many fail to quantify the concentration of CO₂ in the chloroplasts (C(c)). We redress these limitations by quantifying C(c) from discrimination against ¹³CO₂ and using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for leaf metabolite profiling. Five Eucalyptus and two Acacia species from semi-arid to mesic habitats were subjected to a 2 month water stress treatment (Ψ(pre-dawn) = -1.7 to -2.3 MPa). Carbohydrates dominated the leaf metabolite profiles of species from dry areas, whereas organic acids dominated the metabolite profiles of species from wet areas. Water stress caused large decreases in photosynthesis and C(c), increases in 17-33 metabolites and decreases in 0-9 metabolites. In most species, fructose, glucose and sucrose made major contributions to osmotic adjustment. In Acacia, significant osmotic adjustment was also caused by increases in pinitol, pipecolic acid and trans-4-hydroxypipecolic acid. There were also increases in low-abundance metabolites (e.g. proline and erythritol), and metabolites that are indicative of stress-induced changes in metabolism [e.g. γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) shunt, photorespiration, phenylpropanoid pathway]. The response of gas exchange to water stress and rewatering is rather consistent among species originating from mesic to semi-arid habitats, and the general response of metabolites to water stress is rather similar, although the specific metabolites involved may vary.

  14. Host-driven diversification of gall-inducing Acacia thrips and the aridification of Australia

    PubMed Central

    McLeish, Michael J; Chapman, Thomas W; Schwarz, Michael P

    2007-01-01

    Background Insects that feed on plants contribute greatly to the generation of biodiversity. Hypotheses explaining rate increases in phytophagous insect diversification and mechanisms driving speciation in such specialists remain vexing despite considerable attention. The proliferation of plant-feeding insects and their hosts are expected to broadly parallel one another where climate change over geological timescales imposes consequences for the diversification of flora and fauna via habitat modification. This work uses a phylogenetic approach to investigate the premise that the aridification of Australia, and subsequent expansion and modification of arid-adapted host flora, has implications for the diversification of insects that specialise on them. Results Likelihood ratio tests indicated the possibility of hard molecular polytomies within two co-radiating gall-inducing species complexes specialising on the same set of host species. Significant tree asymmetry is indicated at a branch adjacent to an inferred transition to a Plurinerves ancestral host species. Lineage by time diversification plots indicate gall-thrips that specialise on Plurinerves hosts differentially experienced an explosive period of speciation contemporaneous with climatic cycling during the Quaternary period. Chronological analyses indicated that the approximate age of origin of gall-inducing thrips on Acacia might be as recent as 10 million years ago during the Miocene, as truly arid landscapes first developed in Australia. Conclusion Host-plant diversification and spatial heterogeneity of hosts have increased the potential for specialisation, resource partitioning, and unoccupied ecological niche availability for gall-thrips on Australian Acacia. PMID:17257412

  15. Evolutionary history shapes patterns of mutualistic benefit in Acacia-rhizobial interactions.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Luke G; Zee, Peter C; Bever, James D; Miller, Joseph T; Thrall, Peter H

    2016-07-01

    The ecological and evolutionary factors that drive the emergence and maintenance of variation in mutualistic benefit (i.e., the benefits provided by one partner to another) in mutualistic symbioses are not well understood. In this study, we evaluated the role that host and symbiont phylogeny might play in determining patterns of mutualistic benefit for interactions among nine species of Acacia and 31 strains of nitrogen-fixing rhizobial bacteria. Using phylogenetic comparative methods we compared patterns of variation in mutualistic benefit (host response to inoculation) to rhizobial phylogenies constructed from housekeeping and symbiosis genes; and a multigene host phylogeny. We found widespread genotype-by-genotype variation in patterns of plant growth. A relatively large component of this variation (21-28%) was strongly influenced by the interacting evolutionary histories of both partners, such that phylogenetically similar host species had similar growth responses when inoculated with phylogenetically similar rhizobia. We also found a relatively large nonphylogenetic effect for the average mutualistic benefit provided by rhizobia to plants, such that phylogenetic relatedness did not predict the overall benefit provided by rhizobia across all hosts. We conclude that phylogenetic relatedness should frequently predict patterns of mutualistic benefit in acacia-rhizobial mutualistic interactions; but that some mutualistic traits also evolve independently of the phylogenies.

  16. Polyploidy can Confer Superiority to West African Acacia senegal (L.) Willd. Trees.

    PubMed

    Diallo, Adja M; Nielsen, Lene R; Kjær, Erik D; Petersen, Karen K; Ræbild, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Polyploidy is a common phenomenon in the evolution of angiosperms. It has been suggested that polyploids manage harsh environments better than their diploid relatives but empirical data supporting this hypothesis are scarce, especially for trees. Using microsatellite markers and flow cytometry, we examine the frequency of polyploids and diploids in a progeny trial testing four different populations of Acacia senegal, a species native to sub-Saharan regions of Africa. We compare growth between cytotypes and test whether polyploid seedlings grow better than diploids. Our results show that polyploids coexist with diploids in highly variable proportions among populations in Senegal. Acacia senegal genotypes were predominantly diploid and tetraploid, but triploid, pentaploid, hexaploid, and octaploid forms were also found. We find that polyploids show faster growth than diploids under our test conditions: in an 18 years old field trial, polyploid superiority was estimated to be 17% in trunk diameter and 9% in height while in a growth chamber experiment, polyploids grew 28% taller, but only after being exposed to drought stress. The results suggest that polyploid A. senegal can have an adaptive advantage in some regions of Africa.

  17. Microsatellite primers for vulnerable and thriving Acacia (Fabaceae) species from Australia’s arid zone1

    PubMed Central

    Forrest, Cairo N.; Roberts, David G.; Denham, Andrew J.; Ayre, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed for the common arid Australian shrub Acacia ligulata (Fabaceae) and the threatened overstory trees A. melvillei and A. pendula. Methods and Results: DNA sequence data generated by 454 sequencing were used to identify microsatellite nucleotide repeat motifs. Including previously developed primer sets, we report on the development of 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci for each species. Six of these were novel for A. melvillei and A. ligulata, and five were novel for A. pendula, while five more each were transferred from primers developed for related species (A. carneorum and A. loderi). We found three to 17 alleles per locus for each species, with high multilocus genotypic diversity within each of two A. ligulata and A. pendula stands, and one A. melvillei population. A second A. melvillei stand appeared to be monoclonal. Conclusions: These markers will allow assessment of population genetics, mating systems, and connectedness of populations of these and possibly other arid-zone acacias. PMID:25909043

  18. A green approach to prepare silver nanoparticles loaded gum acacia/poly(acrylate) hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, S K; Kumari, Mamta

    2015-09-01

    In this work, gum acacia (GA)/poly(sodium acrylate) semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (Semi-IPN) have been fabricated via free radical initiated aqueous polymerization of monomer sodium acrylate (SA) in the presence of dissolved Gum acacia (GA), using N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MB) as cross-linker and potassium persulphate (KPS) as initiator. The semi-IPNs, synthesized, were characterized by various techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The dynamic water uptake behavior of semi-IPNs was investigated and the data were interpreted by various kinetic models. The equilibrium swelling data were used to evaluate various network parameters. The semi-IPNs were used as template for the in situ preparation of silver nanoparticles using extract of Syzygium aromaticum (clove). The formation of silver nanoparticles was confirmed by surface plasmon resonance (SPR), XRD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Finally, the antibacterial activity of GA/poly(SA)/silver nanocomposites was tested against E. coli.

  19. Extracts from Acacia catechu suppress HIV-1 replication by inhibiting the activities of the viral protease and Tat

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Acacia catechu (Mimosa family) stem bark extracts have been used traditionally as a dietary supplement as well as a folk medicine given its reported anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, anti-microbial and anti-tumor activities. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-HIV-1 activity of the extracts from stem bark of A. catechu. Methods The aqueous and 50% ethanolic extracts of A. catechu stem bark were prepared and 50% ethanolic extract was further fractioned by successively partitioning with petroleum ether, chloroform and n-butanol. All the extracts and fractions were evaluated for cytotoxicity and anti-HIV-1 activity using different in vitro assays. The active n-butanol fraction was evaluated for its inhibition against HIV-1 reverse transcriptase, integrase, protease, pro-viral genome integration and viral Tat protein mediated transactivation. The effect of n-butanol fraction on the induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines secretion in Vk2/E6E7 cells and transepithelial resistance in Caco-2 and HEC-1A cells was investigated. Results The aqueous and 50% ethanolic extracts of A. catechu showed IC50 values of 1.8 ± 0.18 μg/ml and 3.6 ± 0.31 μg/ml, respectively in cell-free virus based assay using TZM-bl cells and HIV-1NL4.3 (X-4 tropic). In the above assay, n-butanol fraction exhibited anti-HIV-1 activity with an IC50 of 1.7 ± 0.12 μg/ml. The n-butanol fraction showed a dose-dependent inhibition against HIV-1NL4.3 infection of the peripheral blood lymphocytes and against HIV-1BaL(R-5-tropic) as well as two different primary viral isolates of HIV-1 infection of TZM-bl cells. The n-butanol fraction demonstrates a potent inhibitory activity against the viral protease (IC50 = 12.9 μg/ml), but not reverse transcriptase or integrase. Further, in Alu-PCR no effect on viral integration was observed. The n-butanol fraction interfered with the Tat-mediated Long Terminal Repeat transactivation in

  20. The Complete Sequence of the Acacia ligulata Chloroplast Genome Reveals a Highly Divergent clpP1 Gene.

    PubMed

    Williams, Anna V; Boykin, Laura M; Howell, Katharine A; Nevill, Paul G; Small, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Legumes are a highly diverse angiosperm family that include many agriculturally important species. To date, 21 complete chloroplast genomes have been sequenced from legume crops confined to the Papilionoideae subfamily. Here we report the first chloroplast genome from the Mimosoideae, Acacia ligulata, and compare it to the previously sequenced legume genomes. The A. ligulata chloroplast genome is 174,233 bp in size, comprising inverted repeats of 38,225 bp and single-copy regions of 92,798 bp and 4,985 bp [corrected]. Acacia ligulata lacks the inversion present in many of the Papilionoideae, but is not otherwise significantly different in terms of gene and repeat content. The key feature is its highly divergent clpP1 gene, normally considered essential in chloroplast genomes. In A. ligulata, although transcribed and spliced, it probably encodes a catalytically inactive protein. This study provides a significant resource for further genetic research into Acacia and the Mimosoideae. The divergent clpP1 gene suggests that Acacia will provide an interesting source of information on the evolution and functional diversity of the chloroplast Clp protease complex.

  1. The Tracing of VOC Composition of Acacia Honey During Ripening Stages by Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Vyviurska, Olga; Chlebo, Róbert; Pysarevska, Solomiya; Špánik, Ivan

    2016-10-01

    In this study, VOC profiles of acacia flowers and honey samples at different processing stages and related comb wax samples were studied using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry. It was found that some monoterpene compounds like α-pinene, myrcene, cis-β-ocimene, and 4-terpineol were common for acacia flower and all acacia honey samples, and the presence of verbenone and ocimene was first established in acacia honey. The most enriched VOC profile was obtained for raw honey before cell capping, where the final composition of lactones was achieved. On the contrary, number of alcohols, esters, and variety of terpenes, as well as their concentration in the honey samples decrease through ripening processes. Strained honey was characterized by the absence of camphor, α-bisabolol, and 3-carene, while isophorone and hexanoic acid were identified only in this type of honey. The composition of final VOC profile of honey was also influenced by the age of comb wax. The additional aromatic and lactone compounds, e.g., phenol, 1-phenylethanol, δ-hexalactone, and γ-heptalactone were observed for honey maturated in old dark comb wax.

  2. Draft Genome Sequences of Four Bacillus thermoamylovorans Strains Isolated from Milk and Acacia Gum, a Food Ingredient.

    PubMed

    Krawczyk, Antonina O; Berendsen, Erwin M; Eijlander, Robyn T; de Jong, Anne; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H J; Kuipers, Oscar P

    2015-03-26

    The thermophilic bacterium Bacillus thermoamylovorans produces highly heat-resistant spores that can contaminate food products, leading to their spoilage. Here, we present the whole-genome sequences of four B. thermoamylovorans strains, isolated from milk and acacia gum.

  3. Antibacterial Activities and Possible Modes of Action of Acacia nilotica (L.) Del. against Multidrug-Resistant Escherichia coli and Salmonella.

    PubMed

    Sadiq, Muhammad Bilal; Tarning, Joel; Aye Cho, Tay Zar; Anal, Anil Kumar

    2017-01-14

    Medicinal plants are frequently used for the treatment of various infectious diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity and mode of action of Acacia nilotica and the antibiogram patterns of foodborne and clinical strains of Escherichia coli and Salmonella. The mechanism of action of acacia extracts against E. coli and Salmonella was elucidated by observing morphological damages including cell integrity and cell membrane permeability, as well as changes in cell structures and growth patterns in kill-time experiments. The clinical isolates of E. coli and Salmonella were found resistant to more of the tested antibiotics, compared to food isolates. Minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of acacia leaf extracts were in the ranges of 1.56-3.12 mg/mL and 3.12-6.25 mg/mL, respectively, whereas pods and bark extracts showed somewhat higher values of 3.12-6.25 mg/mL and 6.25-12.5 mg/mL, respectively, against all tested pathogens. The release of electrolytes and essential cellular constituents (proteins and nucleic acids) indicated that acacia extracts damaged the cellular membrane of the pathogens. These changes corresponded to simultaneous reduction in the growth of viable bacteria. This study indicates that A. nilotica can be a potential source of new antimicrobials, effective against antibiotic-resistant strains of pathogens.

  4. Draft Genome Sequences of Four Bacillus thermoamylovorans Strains Isolated from Milk and Acacia Gum, a Food Ingredient

    PubMed Central

    Krawczyk, Antonina O.; Berendsen, Erwin M.; Eijlander, Robyn T.; de Jong, Anne; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H. J.

    2015-01-01

    The thermophilic bacterium Bacillus thermoamylovorans produces highly heat-resistant spores that can contaminate food products, leading to their spoilage. Here, we present the whole-genome sequences of four B. thermoamylovorans strains, isolated from milk and acacia gum. PMID:25814599

  5. Impact of Acacia tortilis ssp. raddiana tree on wheat and barley yield in the south of Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noumi, Zouhaier; Abdallah, Fathia; Torre, Franck; Michalet, Richard; Touzard, Blaise; Chaieb, Mohamed

    2011-03-01

    In the past, Acacia tortilis ssp. raddiana (Savi) Brenan colonised thousands of hectares in central and southern Tunisia. Nowadays, the geographical distribution of A. tortilis ssp. raddiana is restricted to the National Park of Bou-Hedma (central Tunisia). The Acacia is of considerable interest for local populations and may be considered as a "foundation species" under arid climate. This study examines the effects of Acacia canopy on soil fertility and cereal productivity. The improvement in soil fertility and microclimate provided by A. tortilis ssp. raddiana is known to facilitate the establishment of new species, but little is known about the interaction between the tree species and the cereals cultivated by local farmers. We studied the effect of A. tortilis ssp. raddiana canopy on the yield of three cereals crops ( Hordeum vulgare L., Triticum sativum L. and Triticum aestivum L.). We seeded 168 plots (15 × 15 m) under the tree canopy and in open areas on four different landform types (glacis, plain, wadis, and jessours) and measured cereal yield over two contrasting years (wet and dry). We found that: (1) precipitation and geomorphology are more important in determining cereal yield than canopy cover, (2) these effects on water availability are species-specific with no effect on the stress-tolerant barley. We finally discuss the potential negative effects of Acacia trees which may have balanced the positive effects found for nutrient in our study.

  6. The Complete Sequence of the Acacia ligulata Chloroplast Genome Reveals a Highly Divergent clpP1 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Anna V.; Boykin, Laura M.; Howell, Katharine A.; Nevill, Paul G.; Small, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Legumes are a highly diverse angiosperm family that include many agriculturally important species. To date, 21 complete chloroplast genomes have been sequenced from legume crops confined to the Papilionoideae subfamily. Here we report the first chloroplast genome from the Mimosoideae, Acacia ligulata, and compare it to the previously sequenced legume genomes. The A. ligulata chloroplast genome is 158,724 bp in size, comprising inverted repeats of 25,925 bp and single-copy regions of 88,576 bp and 18,298 bp. Acacia ligulata lacks the inversion present in many of the Papilionoideae, but is not otherwise significantly different in terms of gene and repeat content. The key feature is its highly divergent clpP1 gene, normally considered essential in chloroplast genomes. In A. ligulata, although transcribed and spliced, it probably encodes a catalytically inactive protein. This study provides a significant resource for further genetic research into Acacia and the Mimosoideae. The divergent clpP1 gene suggests that Acacia will provide an interesting source of information on the evolution and functional diversity of the chloroplast Clp protease complex. PMID:25955637

  7. Influence of Acacia trees on soil nutrient levels in arid lands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Boever, Maarten; Gabriels, Donald; Ouessar, Mohamed; Cornelis, Wim

    2014-05-01

    The potential of scattered trees as keystone structures in restoring degraded environments is gaining importance. Scattered trees have strong influence on their abiotic environment, mainly causing changes in microclimate, water budget and soil properties. They often function as 'nursing trees', facilitating the recruitment of other plants. Acacia raddiana is such a keystone species which persists on the edge of the Sahara desert. The study was conducted in a forest-steppe ecosystem in central Tunisia where several reforestation campaigns with Acacia took place. To indentify the impact of those trees on soil nutrients, changes in nutrient levels under scattered trees of three age stages were examined for the upper soil layer (0-10 cm) at five microsites with increasing distance from the trunk. In addition, changes in soil nutrient levels with depth underneath and outside the canopy were determined for the 0-30 cm soil layer. Higher concentrations of organic matter (OM) were found along the gradient from underneath to outside the canopy for large trees compared to medium and small trees, especially at microsites close to the trunk. Levels of soluble K, electrical conductivity (EC), available P, OM, total C and N decreased whereas pH and levels of soluble Mg increased with increasing distance from tree. Levels of soluble Ca and Na remained unchanged along the gradient. At the microsite closest to the trunk a significant decrease in levels of soluble K, EC, OM, available P, total C and N, while a significant increase in pH was found with increasing depth. The concentration of other nutrients remained unchanged or declined not differently underneath compared to outside the canopy with increasing depth. Differences in nutrient levels were largely driven by greater inputs of organic matter under trees. Hence, Acacia trees can affect the productivity and reproduction of understory species with the latter in term an important source of organic matter. This positive feedback

  8. Types of Stem Cells

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stem Cell Glossary Search Toggle Nav Types of Stem Cells Stem cells are the foundation from which all ... Learn About Stem Cells > Types of Stem Cells Stem cells Stem cells are the foundation for every organ ...

  9. Comparative analysis of some essential amino acids and available lysine in Acacia colei and A. tumida seeds using chemical methods and an amino acid analyzer.

    PubMed

    Falade, Olumuyiwa S; Adewusi, Steve R A

    2013-01-01

    Methionine, cysteine, tryptophan, and available lysine were determined in Acacia colei and A. tumida seeds and some cereals using chemical methods, and the results were compared to those obtained using an amino acid analyzer. Ba(OH)2 hydrolysis gave the best result of the three methods of hydrolysis (acid, base, and enzyme) tried. Oxidized methionine, cysteine, and tryptophan were not detected, but S-carboxyethylcysteine was estimated as cysteine by the chemical methods, thus overestimating cysteine's content in Acacia seeds. Tryptophan and methionine were higher in cereals than in Acacia seeds, while the level of cysteine and available lysine was higher in Acacia seeds than in cereals. These results agreed with values obtained using the amino acid analyzer and could therefore be used in low budget laboratories.

  10. Evaluation of antioxidant activities of the edible and medicinal Acacia albida organs related to phenolic compounds.

    PubMed

    Karoune, Samira; Falleh, Hanen; Kechebar, Mohamed Seif Allah; Halis, Youcef; Mkadmini, Khaoula; Belhamra, Mohamed; Rahmoune, Chaabane; Ksouri, Riadh

    2015-01-01

    This study compared phenolic contents and antioxidant activity in different organs of Acacia albida (leaves and bark) and focuses on identification of phenolic compounds of leaves by HPLC-DAD. The analysed organs exhibited differences in total polyphenol contents (100 and 59.5 mg GAE g(-1) DW). Phenolic contents of leaves were two times higher than those in bark. Ethanolic extracts exhibited good antioxidant activities with IC50 = 26 μg mL(-1) for DPPH and EC50 = 50 μg mL(-1) for FRAP. Identification by HPLC-DAD revealed the presence of nine phenolic compounds known for their high antioxidant activity. The results suggested that this species can be used as source of natural antioxidants.

  11. Biosynthesis, characterization and antibacterial studies of silver nanoparticles using pods extract of Acacia auriculiformis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nalawade, Pradnya; Mukherjee, Poulomi; Kapoor, Sudhir

    2014-08-01

    The present study reports an environmental friendly method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using an aqueous extract of Acacia auriculiformis that acts as reducing agent as well as capping agent. The obtained NPs were characterized by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and showed a sharp surface plasmon absorption band at ∼400 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed nanoparticles were capped with plant compounds. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that the particles were spherical in nature with diameter ranging from 20 to 150 nm depending on the pH of the solution. The as-synthesized Ag NPs showed antibacterial activity against both Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria with more efficacy against Gram negative bacteria.

  12. Structural changes in soil communities after triclopyr application in soils invaded by Acacia dealbata Link.

    PubMed

    Souza-Alonso, Pablo; Guisande, Alejandra; González, Luís

    2015-01-01

    Triclopyr is a commonly used herbicide in the control of woody plants and can exhibit toxic effects to soil microorganisms. However, the impact on soils invaded by plant exotics has not yet been addressed. Here, we present the results of an 18-month field study conducted to evaluate the impact of triclopyr on the structure of fungal and bacterial communities in soils invaded by Acacia dealbata Link, through the use of denature gradient gel electrophoresis. After triclopyr application, analyses of bacterial fingerprints suggested a change in the structure of the soil bacterial community, whereas the structure of the soil fungal community remained unaltered. Bacterial density and F:B ratio values changed across the year but were not altered due to herbicide spraying. On the contrary, fungal diversity was increased in plots sprayed with triclopyr 5 months after the first application. Richness and diversity (H') of both bacteria and fungi were not modified after triclopyr application.

  13. Free radical scavenging activity and reducing power of Acacia nilotica wood lignin.

    PubMed

    Aadil, Keshaw Ram; Barapatre, Anand; Sahu, Sudha; Jha, Harit; Tiwary, Bhupendra Nath

    2014-06-01

    Nine different fractions of lignin extracted by alkali, hot water and organosolv methods from Acacia wood powder were assessed for antioxidants activity. Results indicated that methanolic lignin fraction had highest polyphenol content of 393.30±9.2μg/ml (GAE). The oraganosolv lignin with total phenols and phenolic hydroxyl group content exhibited significant antioxidant activity as compared to other lignin fractions. Antioxidant properties of acetone fractions revealed a high antiradical scavenging activity (<90%) with a simultaneous high ferric and molybdate ion reducing capacity. The influence of extraction methods on functional groups of lignin fractions was confirmed by analytical methods and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. Whereas the phenolic content showed strong correlation with reducing capacity, the antiradical activity was moderately correlated with phenolic content. A high phenolic hydroxyl groups content of organosolv lignin fractions provides evidence for the presence of active therapeutic antioxidant compounds for their testing as potential value added products for cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries.

  14. Flavonoid glycosides from the aerial parts of Acacia pennata in Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Kim, Anna; Choi, Janggyoo; Htwe, Khin Myo; Chin, Young-Won; Kim, Jinwoong; Yoon, Kee Dong

    2015-10-01

    Phytochemical investigations of the aerial parts of Acacia pennata (Mimosaceae) from Myanmar led to the isolation of five flavonoid glycosides and six known compounds. The new compounds were identified as (2R,3S)-3,5,7-trihdyroxyflavan-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, (2S)-5,7-dihydroxyflavan-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside-(4α → 8)-epiafzelechin-3-O-gallate, (2R)-4',7-dihydroxyflavan-(4α → 8)-(2R,3S)-3,5,7-trihdyroxyflavan-3″-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, 5,7-dihydroxyflavone 6-C-β-boivinopyranosyl-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, and 5,7-dihydroxyflavone 7-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-8-C-β-boivinopyranoside based on interpretation of spectroscopic data.

  15. Antibacterial Activity of Extracts of Acacia Aroma Against Methicillin-Resistant And Methicillin-Sensitive Staphylococcus

    PubMed Central

    Mattana, C.M.; Satorres, S.E.; Sosa, A.; Fusco, M.; Alcará, L.E.

    2010-01-01

    Antibacterial activity of organic and aqueous extracts of Acacia aroma was evaluated against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis. Inhibition of bacterial growth was determined using agar diffusion and bioautographic methods. Among all assayed organic extracts only ethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts presented highest activities against all tested Staphylococcus strains with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 2.5 to 10 mg/ml and from 2.5 to 5 mg/ml respectively. The aqueous extracts show little antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus strains. The bioautography assay demonstrated well-defined growth inhibition zones against S. aureus in correspondence with flavonoids and saponins. A. aroma would be an interesting topic for further study and possibly for an alternative treatment for skin infections. PMID:24031532

  16. Synthesis and characterization of gum acacia inspired silica hybrid xerogels for mercury(II) adsorption.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vandana; Singh, Somit Kumar

    2011-04-01

    In a sol-gel process, gum acacia inspired silica xerogels have been synthesized from tetraethylorthosilicate. Besides showing photoluminescence under ultraviolet excitation, the hybrid xerogels were very efficient in capturing mercury(II) from synthetic solution. To synthesize the optimum sample (in terms of Hg(II) uptake), different ratios of H(2)O:TEOS:EtOH were taken at fixed GA and catalyst concentrations where 4:1:1 ratio was found to be most favorable. Calcination in air further enhanced the mercury binding capacity of this sample. Optimum sample (H4) was obtained on calcination of the gel at 600°C. The hybrids have been structurally characterized using Infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, thermo gravimetric analysis, photoluminescence spectroscopy and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis. In a preliminary batch adsorption experiment, H4 was evaluated to be highly efficient in the removal Hg(II) from synthetic aqueous solution.

  17. Effects of acacia honey on wound healing in various rat models.

    PubMed

    Iftikhar, F; Arshad, M; Rasheed, F; Amraiz, D; Anwar, P; Gulfraz, M

    2010-04-01

    Honey is a traditional remedy for the treatment of infected wounds, and is becoming more important as microbial resistance to conventional therapeutic agents increases. A study was conducted to assess the wound-healing activity of Acacia honey using incision, excision, burn and dead-space wound models in rats. Different formulations of honey were used and rats were treated topically as well as orally. Both the higher and lower doses of honey produced a significant effect on healing (p < 0.05). The area of epithelization was found to increase, followed by an increase in wound contraction, skin-breaking strength, tissue granulation. The hydroxyproline content also increased in the rats treated with higher doses of honey compared to control, indicating an increase in collagen formation.

  18. The impact of Acacia saligna invasion on Italian coastal dune EC habitats.

    PubMed

    Del Vecchio, Silvia; Acosta, Alicia; Stanisci, Angela

    2013-07-01

    Alien species can represent a threat to several ecosystems because they can alter species relationships and ecosystem function. In Italy, Acacia saligna is a major invader and it forms dense stands in coastal environments. We analyze the impact of A. saligna in Italian Mediterranean dune systems. We randomly sampled coastal dune vegetation and investigated its floristic composition with ordination techniques. We compared species richness in invaded and non-invaded plots with rarefaction curves and analyzed the frequency of focal and ruderal species. A. saligna invaded Mediterranean scrub (habitats 2250* and 2260) and coastal Pinus dune wood (habitat 2270*) and it is particularly prevalent in sunny areas of habitat 2270*. We observed an increase in ruderal species and a decrease in focal species in the invaded plots of habitat 2270*. We suggest that more open and disturbed areas are more prone to A. saligna invasion.

  19. Phylogenetic measures of biodiversity and neo- and paleo-endemism in Australian Acacia.

    PubMed

    Mishler, Brent D; Knerr, Nunzio; González-Orozco, Carlos E; Thornhill, Andrew H; Laffan, Shawn W; Miller, Joseph T

    2014-07-18

    Understanding spatial patterns of biodiversity is critical for conservation planning, particularly given rapid habitat loss and human-induced climatic change. Diversity and endemism are typically assessed by comparing species ranges across regions. However, investigation of patterns of species diversity alone misses out on the full richness of patterns that can be inferred using a phylogenetic approach. Here, using Australian Acacia as an example, we show that the application of phylogenetic methods, particularly two new measures, relative phylogenetic diversity and relative phylogenetic endemism, greatly enhances our knowledge of biodiversity across both space and time. We found that areas of high species richness and species endemism are not necessarily areas of high phylogenetic diversity or phylogenetic endemism. We propose a new method called categorical analysis of neo- and paleo-endemism (CANAPE) that allows, for the first time, a clear, quantitative distinction between centres of neo- and paleo-endemism, useful to the conservation decision-making process.

  20. Dark aerobic methane emission associated to leaf factors of two Acacia and five Eucalyptus species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Makoto; Watanabe, Yoko; Kim, Yong Suk; Koike, Takayoshi

    2012-07-01

    We sought the biological factors determining variations in the methane emission rates from leaves of different plant species under aerobic conditions. Accordingly, we studied relations between the methane emission rate and leaf traits of two Acacia and five Eucalyptus species. We grew seedlings of each species in a glasshouse and measured the methane emission rate of the detached leaves under dark conditions at 30 °C. At the same time we measured the leaf mass per area (LMA), water content, and concentrations of carbon and nitrogen. There was no correlation between the leaf nitrogen concentration and the methane emission rate. This is consistent with previous findings that enzymatic processes do not influence methane emission. We found a significant negative correlation between LMA and the methane emission rate. Our results suggest that leaf structure is primarily responsible for differences in the rates of aerobic methane emission from leaves of different species.

  1. Salt tolerance traits increase the invasive success of Acacia longifolia in Portuguese coastal dunes.

    PubMed

    Morais, Maria Cristina; Panuccio, Maria Rosaria; Muscolo, Adele; Freitas, Helena

    2012-06-01

    Salt tolerance of two co-occurring legumes in coastal areas of Portugal, a native species--Ulex europaeus, and an invasive species--Acacia longifolia, was evaluated in relation to plant growth, ion content and antioxidant enzyme activities. Plants were submitted to four concentrations of NaCl (0, 50, 100 and 200 mM) for three months, under controlled conditions. The results showed that NaCl affects the growth of both species in different ways. Salt stress significantly reduced the plant height and the dry weight in Acacia longifolia whereas in U. europaeus the effect was not significant. Under salt stress, the root:shoot ratio (W(R):W(S)) and root mass ratio (W(R):W(RS)) increased as a result of increasing salinity in A. longifolia but the same was not observed in U. europaeus. In addition, salt stress caused a significant accumulation of Na+, especially in U. europaeus, and a decrease in K+ content and K+/Na+ ratio. The activities of antioxidant enzymes were higher in A. longifolia compared to U. europaeus. In A. longifolia, catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) and glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2.) activities increased significantly, while ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11) and peroxidase (POX, EC 1.11.1.7) activities remained unchanged in comparison with the control. In U. europaeus, NaCl concentration significantly reduced APX activity but did not significantly affect CAT, GR and POX activities. Our results suggest that the invasive species copes better with salinity stress in part due to a higher rates of CAT and GR activities and a higher K+/Na+ ratio, which may represent an additional advantage when competing with native species in co-occurring salty habitats.

  2. Carbon dioxide emissions from an Acacia plantation on peatland in Sumatra, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jauhiainen, J.; Hooijer, A.; Page, S. E.

    2011-08-01

    Peat surface CO2 emission, groundwater table depth and peat temperature were monitored for two years along transects in an Acacia plantation on thick tropical peat (>4 m) in Sumatra, Indonesia. A total of 2300 emission measurements were taken at 144 locations. The autotrophic root respiration component of the CO2 emission was separated from heterotrophic emissions caused by peat oxidation in three ways: (i) by comparing CO2 emissions within and beyond the tree rooting zone, (ii) by comparing CO2 emissions with and without peat trenching (i.e. cutting any roots remaining in the peat beyond the tree rooting zone), and (iii) by comparing CO2 emissions before and after Acacia tree harvesting. On average, the contribution of root respiration to daytime CO2 emission is 21 % along transects in mature tree stands. At locations 0.5 m from trees this is up to 80 % of the total emissions, but it is negligible at locations more than 1.3 m away. This means that CO2 emission measurements well away from trees are free of any root respiration contribution and thus represent only peat oxidation emission. We find daytime mean annual CO2 emission from peat oxidation alone of 94 t ha-1 yr-1 at a mean water table depth of 0.8 m, and a minimum emission value of 80 t ha-1 yr-1 after correction for the effect of diurnal temperature fluctuations, which resulted in a 14.5 % reduction of the daytime emission. There is a positive correlation between mean long-term water table depths and peat oxidation CO2 emission. However, no such relation is found for instantaneous emission/water table depth within transects and it is clear that factors other than water table depth also affect peat oxidation and total CO2 emissions. The increase in the temperature of the surface peat due to plantation development may explain over 50 % of peat oxidation emissions.

  3. Phylogeny of nodulation genes and symbiotic diversity of Acacia senegal (L.) Willd. and A. seyal (Del.) Mesorhizobium strains from different regions of Senegal.

    PubMed

    Bakhoum, Niokhor; Galiana, Antoine; Le Roux, Christine; Kane, Aboubacry; Duponnois, Robin; Ndoye, Fatou; Fall, Dioumacor; Noba, Kandioura; Sylla, Samba Ndao; Diouf, Diégane

    2015-04-01

    Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal are small, deciduous legume trees, most highly valued for nitrogen fixation and for the production of gum arabic, a commodity of international trade since ancient times. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation by legumes represents the main natural input of atmospheric N2 into ecosystems which may ultimately benefit all organisms. We analyzed the nod and nif symbiotic genes and symbiotic properties of root-nodulating bacteria isolated from A. senegal and A. seyal in Senegal. The symbiotic genes of rhizobial strains from the two Acacia species were closed to those of Mesorhizobium plurifarium and grouped separately in the phylogenetic trees. Phylogeny of rhizobial nitrogen fixation gene nifH was similar to those of nodulation genes (nodA and nodC). All A. senegal rhizobial strains showed identical nodA, nodC, and nifH gene sequences. By contrast, A. seyal rhizobial strains exhibited different symbiotic gene sequences. Efficiency tests demonstrated that inoculation of both Acacia species significantly affected nodulation, total dry weight, acetylene reduction activity (ARA), and specific acetylene reduction activity (SARA) of plants. However, these cross-inoculation tests did not show any specificity of Mesorhizobium strains toward a given Acacia host species in terms of infectivity and efficiency as stated by principal component analysis (PCA). This study demonstrates that large-scale inoculation of A. senegal and A. seyal in the framework of reafforestation programs requires a preliminary step of rhizobial strain selection for both Acacia species.

  4. Non-protein amino acids in Australian acacia seed: implications for food security and recommended processing methods to reduce djenkolic acid.

    PubMed

    Boughton, Berin A; Reddy, Priyanka; Boland, Martin P; Roessner, Ute; Yates, Peter

    2015-07-15

    Seed of Australian acacia species, Acacia colei, Acacia elecantha, Acacia torulosa, Acacia turmida and Acacia saligna, were analysed for the presence of toxic non-protein amino acids and the levels of essential amino acids. Amines were derivatised with 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate before analysis using liquid chromatography electrospray ionisation triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-QQQ-MS). Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) with optimised transitions and collision energies for each analyte were employed. The known nephrotoxic compound djenkolic acid was found to be present at elevated levels in all species tested. The lowest levels were in A. colei (0.49% w/w) and the highest in A. saligna (1.85% w/w). Observed levels of djenkolic acid are comparable to measured and reported levels found in the djenkol bean. Subsequent testing of seed processing methods showed djenkolic acid levels can be significantly reduced by over 90% by dry roasting at 180 °C rendering the seed safe for human consumption.

  5. Stem cells.

    PubMed

    Behr, Björn; Ko, Sae Hee; Wong, Victor W; Gurtner, Geoffrey C; Longaker, Michael T

    2010-10-01

    Stem cells are self-renewing cells capable of differentiating into multiple cell lines and are classified according to their origin and their ability to differentiate. Enormous potential exists in use of stem cells for regenerative medicine. To produce effective stem cell-based treatments for a range of diseases, an improved understanding of stem cell biology and better control over stem cell fate are necessary. In addition, the barriers to clinical translation, such as potential oncologic properties of stem cells, need to be addressed. With renewed government support and continued refinement of current stem cell methodologies, the future of stem cell research is exciting and promises to provide novel reconstructive options for patients and surgeons limited by traditional paradigms.

  6. Effect of feeding Neem (Azadirachta indica) and Acacia (Acacia senegal) tree foliage on nutritional and carcass parameters in short-eared Somali goats.

    PubMed

    Hailemariam, Samson; Urge, Mengistu; Menkir, Sissay

    2016-02-01

    The study was conducted to determine the effects of dried foliage of Acacia senegal and Neem (Azadirachta indica) tree supplementations on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, growth, and carcass parameters in short-eared Somali goats. Twenty male intact short-eared Somali goat yearlings with an average live weight of 16.2 ± 1.08 (Mean ± SD) were assigned to four treatment groups, which comprised a basal diet of hay alone (T1) and supplementation with the tree foliages. Supplements consisted Neem tree (T2), A. senegal (T3) and the mixture of the two (1:1 ratio; T4) dried foliages. The crude protein (CP) content of Neem tree foliage, A. senegal, and their mixture were 16.92, 17.5 and 17.01 % of dry matter (DM), respectively. Total DM intake and digestibility of DM and organic matter were significantly (P < 0.001) higher for the supplemented groups. CP digestibility was significantly higher (P < 0.01) for goats supplemented with Neem tree (72 %) and A. senegal (67 %). The final body weights were higher (P < 0.05) for the goats supplemented with A. Senegal. An average daily body weight (BW) gain was higher (P < 0.01) in supplemented groups. The hot carcass weight was higher in the group supplemented with A. senegal (8.3 kg) among the supplemented groups, all of which are higher than the control (4.9 kg). It is concluded that the supplementation with tree foliage, especially with A. senegal tree foliage, on grass hay encouraged a better utilization of nutrients and animal performance as compared to goats fed on a basal diet of grass hay only.

  7. STEM Sell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantic, Zorica

    2007-01-01

    Between 1994 and 2003, employment in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) fields grew by a remarkable 23 percent, compared with 17 percent in non-STEM fields, according to federal data. The Bureau of Labor Statistics predicts continued strong growth in STEM job openings through 2014, with emphasis on life sciences, environmental…

  8. A review of the Pseudomyrmex ferrugineus and Pseudomyrmex goeldii species groups: acacia-ants and relatives (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Ward, Philip S

    2017-02-06

    The Pseudomyrmex ferrugineus group contains the Mesoamerican acacia-ants, an assemblage of species that inhabit and protect swollen-thorn acacias (Vachellia spp.). Recent phylogenetic studies have confirmed the existence of two generalist (dead twig-inhabiting) species that are embedded within the P. ferrugineus group. They are described here as P. evitus sp. nov. (occurring from Mexico to Costa Rica) and P. feralis sp. nov. (Guatemala). The morphological definition of the P. ferrugineus group is revised to incorporate additional variability in the worker and queen castes. The previous diagnosis of the males, based largely on features of the genitalia, requires little revision. Closely related to the P. ferrugineus group is a clade of five predominantly South American species, here designated and diagnosed as the P. goeldii group. The five species, P. goeldii (Forel), P. laevifrons Ward, P. micans sp. nov., P. obtusus sp. nov., and P. parvulus sp. nov., are characterized and illustrated. P. laevifrons and P. micans are closely related and difficult to distinguish, possibly reflecting incomplete isolation. Keys are provided for the identification of the species in both groups.

  9. Characterization of rhizobia isolated from Albizia spp. in comparison with microsymbionts of Acacia spp. and Leucaena leucocephala grown in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng Qin; Wang, En Tao; Zhang, Yong Fa; Chen, Wen Xin

    2006-09-01

    This is the first systematic study of rhizobia associated with Albizia trees. The analyses of PCR-RFLP and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes, SDS-PAGE of whole-cell proteins and clustering of phenotypic characters grouped the 31 rhizobial strains isolated from Albizia into eight putative species within the genera Bradyrhizobium, Mesorhizobium and Rhizobium. Among these eight rhizobial species, five were unique to Albizia and the remaining three were shared with Acacia and Leucaena, two legume trees coexisting with Albizia in China. These results indicated that Albizia species nodulate with a wide range of rhizobial species and had preference of microsymbionts different from Acacia and Leucaena. The definition of four novel groups, Mesorhizobium sp., Rhizobium sp. I, Rhizobium sp. II and "R. giardinii", indicates that further studies with enlarged rhizobial population are necessary to better understand the diversity and to clarify the taxonomic relationships of Albizia-associated rhizobia.

  10. Fine Structure of Bacteroids in Root Nodules of Vigna sinensis, Acacia longifolia, Viminaria juncea, and Lupinus angustifolius

    PubMed Central

    Dart, P. J.; Mercer, F. V.

    1966-01-01

    Dart, P. J. (University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia), and F. V. Mercer. Fine structure of bacteroids in root nodules of Vigna sinensis, Acacia longifolia, Viminaria juncea, and Lupinus angustifolius. J. Bacteriol. 91:1314–1319.—In nodules of Vigna sinensis, Acacia longifolia, and Viminaria juncea, membrane envelopes enclose groups of bacteroids. The bacteroids often contain inclusion granules and electron-dense bodies, expand little during development, and retain their rod form with a compact, central nucleoid area. The membrane envelope may persist around bacteroids after host cytoplasm breakdown. In nodules of Lupinus angustifolius, the membrane envelopes enclose only one or two bacteroids, which expand noticeably during development and change from their initial rod structure. Images PMID:5929757

  11. Polyphenolic compounds as chemical markers of wine ageing in contact with cherry, chestnut, false acacia, ash and oak wood.

    PubMed

    Fernández de Simón, B; Sanz, M; Cadahía, E; Martínez, J; Esteruelas, E; Muñoz, A M

    2014-01-15

    The nonanthocyanic phenolic composition of four red wines, one white, and one rosé aged using barrels and chips of cherry, chestnut, false acacia, ash and oak wood was studied by LC-DAD-ESI/MS, to identify the phenolic compounds that woods other than oak contribute to wines, and if some of them can be used as chemical markers of ageing with them. A total of 68 nonanthocyanic phenolic compounds were identified, 15 found only in wines aged with acacia wood, 6 with cherry wood, and 1 with chestnut wood. Thus, the nonanthocyanic phenolic profile could be a useful tool to identify wines aged in contact with these woods. In addition, some differences in the nonanthocyanic phenolic composition of wines were detected related to both the levels of compounds provided by each wood species and the different evolution of flavonols and flavanols in wines during ageing in barrels or in contact with chips.

  12. Volatile compounds and sensorial characterisation of red wine aged in cherry, chestnut, false acacia, ash and oak wood barrels.

    PubMed

    Fernández de Simón, B; Martínez, J; Sanz, M; Cadahía, E; Esteruelas, E; Muñoz, A M

    2014-03-15

    The wood-related volatile profile of wines aged in cherry, acacia, ash, chestnut and oak wood barrels was studied by GC-MS, and could be a useful tool to identify the wood specie used. Thus, 2,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde in wines aged in acacia barrels, and ethyl-2-benzoate in cherry barrels could be used as chemical markers of these wood species, for authenticity purposes. Also, the quantitative differences obtained in the volatile profiles allow a good classification of all wines regarding wood species of barrels, during all aging time, and they contributed with different intensities to aromatic and gustative characteristics of aged wines. Wines aged in oak were the best valuated during all aging time, but the differences were not always significant. The lowest scores were assigned to wines aged in cherry barrels from 6 months of aging, so this wood could be more suitable in short aging times.

  13. Individual based, long term monitoring of acacia trees in hyper arid zone: Integration of a field survey and a remote sensing approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaacson, Sivan; Blumberg, Dan G.; Ginat, Hanan; Shalmon, Benny

    2013-04-01

    Vegetation in hyper arid zones is very sparse as is. Monitoring vegetation changes in hyper arid zones is important because any reduction in the vegetation cover in these areas can lead to a considerable reduction in the carrying capacity of the ecological system. This study focuses on the impact of climate fluctuations on the acacia population in the southern Arava valley, Israel. The period of this survey includes a sequence of dry years with no flashfloods in most of the plots that ended in two years with vast floods. Arid zone acacia trees play a significant role in the desert ecosystem by moderating the extreme environmental conditions including radiation, temperature, humidity and precipitation. The trees also provide nutrients for the desert dwellers. Therefore, acacia trees in arid zones are considered to be `keystone species', because they have major influence over both plants and animal species, i.e., biodiversity. Long term monitoring of the acacia tree population in this area can provide insights into long term impacts of climate fluctuations on ecosystems in arid zones. Since 2000, a continuous yearly based survey on the three species of acacia population in seven different plots is conducted in the southern Arava (established by Shalmon, ecologist of the Israel nature and parks authority). The seven plots representing different ecosystems and hydrological regimes. A yearly based population monitoring enabled us to determine the mortality and recruitment rate of the acacia populations as well as growing rates of individual trees. This survey provides a unique database of the acacia population dynamics during a sequence of dry years that ended in a vast flood event during the winter of 2010. A lack of quantitative, nondestructive methods to estimate and monitor stress status of the acacia trees, led us to integrate remote sensing tools (ground and air-based) along with conventional field measurements in order to develop a long term monitoring of acacia

  14. Volatile compounds in acacia, chestnut, cherry, ash, and oak woods, with a view to their use in cooperage.

    PubMed

    de Simón, Brígida Fernández; Esteruelas, Enrique; Muñoz, Angel M; Cadahía, Estrella; Sanz, Miriam

    2009-04-22

    Extracts of wood from acacia, European ash, American ash, chestnut, cherry, and three oak species (Quercus pyrenaica, Quercus alba and Quercus petraea) before and after toasting in cooperage were studied by GC-MS. 110 compounds were detected, and 97 of them were identified. In general, all studied woods showed more lignin derivatives than lipid and carbohydrate derivatives, with a higher variety of compounds detected and abundance of them. The toasting led to an increase in the concentrations of most of these compounds, and this increase is especially important in acacia, chestnut and ash woods. The cis and trans isomers of beta-methyl-gamma-octalactone and isobutyrovanillone were only detected in oak wood, 3,4-dimethoxyphenol and 2,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde only in acacia wood, and p-anisaldehyde and benzylsalicylate only in cherry wood, before and after toasting, and these compounds could be considered chemical markers for each one of these woods. Moreover, each wood has a characteristic volatile composition, from a quantitative point of view, and therefore we can expect a characteristic sensorial profile. The oak wood turned out to be the most balanced, since although it provides a lot of volatile compounds to the aroma and flavor of aged wine, it can do so without masking their primary and secondary aroma. On the whole, toasted acacia and chestnut woods showed a very high richness of studied compounds, as lignin as lipid and carbohydrate derivatives, while cherry and ash were much richer than toasted oak wood in lignin derivatives, but much poorer in lipid and carbohydrate derivatives.

  15. Hemostatic, antibacterial biopolymers from Acacia arabica (Lam.) Willd. and Moringa oleifera (Lam.) as potential wound dressing materials.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Monica; Parwani, Laxmi; Sharma, Vinay; Ganguli, Jhuma; Bhatnagar, Ashish

    2013-10-01

    Acacia arabica and Moringa oleifera are credited with a number of medicinal properties. Traditionally gum of Acacia plant is used in the treatment of skin disorders to soothe skin rashes, soreness, inflammation and burns while Moringa seed extracts are known to have antibacterial activity. In the present study the potential of the polymeric component of aqueous extracts of gum acacia (GA) and the seeds of M. oleifera (MSP) in wound management was evaluated. The results revealed that both biopolymers were hemostatic and hasten blood coagulation. They showed shortening of activated partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time and were non-cytotoxic in nature. Both showed antibacterial activity against organisms known to be involved in wound infections with MIC ranging from 500-600 microg mL(-1) for GA and 300-700 microg mL(-1) for MSP. They were biodegradable and exhibited water absorption capacity in the range of 415 to 935%. The hemostatic character coupled to these properties envisions their potential in preparation of dressings for bleeding and profusely exuding wounds. The biopolymers have been further analysed for their composition by Gas chromatography.

  16. Genetic and genomic diversity studies of Acacia symbionts in Senegal reveal new species of Mesorhizobium with a putative geographical pattern.

    PubMed

    Diouf, Fatou; Diouf, Diegane; Klonowska, Agnieszka; Le Queré, Antoine; Bakhoum, Niokhor; Fall, Dioumacor; Neyra, Marc; Parrinello, Hugues; Diouf, Mayecor; Ndoye, Ibrahima; Moulin, Lionel

    2015-01-01

    Acacia senegal (L) Willd. and Acacia seyal Del. are highly nitrogen-fixing and moderately salt tolerant species. In this study we focused on the genetic and genomic diversity of Acacia mesorhizobia symbionts from diverse origins in Senegal and investigated possible correlations between the genetic diversity of the strains, their soil of origin, and their tolerance to salinity. We first performed a multi-locus sequence analysis on five markers gene fragments on a collection of 47 mesorhizobia strains of A. senegal and A. seyal from 8 localities. Most of the strains (60%) clustered with the M. plurifarium type strain ORS 1032T, while the others form four new clades (MSP1 to MSP4). We sequenced and assembled seven draft genomes: four in the M. plurifarium clade (ORS3356, ORS3365, STM8773 and ORS1032T), one in MSP1 (STM8789), MSP2 (ORS3359) and MSP3 (ORS3324). The average nucleotide identities between these genomes together with the MLSA analysis reveal three new species of Mesorhizobium. A great variability of salt tolerance was found among the strains with a lack of correlation between the genetic diversity of mesorhizobia, their salt tolerance and the soils samples characteristics. A putative geographical pattern of A. senegal symbionts between the dryland north part and the center of Senegal was found, reflecting adaptations to specific local conditions such as the water regime. However, the presence of salt does not seem to be an important structuring factor of Mesorhizobium species.

  17. Genetic and Genomic Diversity Studies of Acacia Symbionts in Senegal Reveal New Species of Mesorhizobium with a Putative Geographical Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Diouf, Fatou; Diouf, Diegane; Klonowska, Agnieszka; Le Queré, Antoine; Bakhoum, Niokhor; Fall, Dioumacor; Neyra, Marc; Parrinello, Hugues; Diouf, Mayecor; Ndoye, Ibrahima; Moulin, Lionel

    2015-01-01

    Acacia senegal (L) Willd. and Acacia seyal Del. are highly nitrogen-fixing and moderately salt tolerant species. In this study we focused on the genetic and genomic diversity of Acacia mesorhizobia symbionts from diverse origins in Senegal and investigated possible correlations between the genetic diversity of the strains, their soil of origin, and their tolerance to salinity. We first performed a multi-locus sequence analysis on five markers gene fragments on a collection of 47 mesorhizobia strains of A. senegal and A. seyal from 8 localities. Most of the strains (60%) clustered with the M. plurifarium type strain ORS 1032T, while the others form four new clades (MSP1 to MSP4). We sequenced and assembled seven draft genomes: four in the M. plurifarium clade (ORS3356, ORS3365, STM8773 and ORS1032T), one in MSP1 (STM8789), MSP2 (ORS3359) and MSP3 (ORS3324). The average nucleotide identities between these genomes together with the MLSA analysis reveal three new species of Mesorhizobium. A great variability of salt tolerance was found among the strains with a lack of correlation between the genetic diversity of mesorhizobia, their salt tolerance and the soils samples characteristics. A putative geographical pattern of A. senegal symbionts between the dryland north part and the center of Senegal was found, reflecting adaptations to specific local conditions such as the water regime. However, the presence of salt does not seem to be an important structuring factor of Mesorhizobium species. PMID:25658650

  18. Mediterranean savanna of Acacia caven (Mol) is still a sink of CO2 in spite of severe hydrological drought conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravo-Martínez, F.; Meza, F. J.

    2012-12-01

    An eddy covariance tower was set up to monitor net ecosystem exchange (NEE) on a mediterranean shrubland of Acacia caven (Mol) in October 2010. This ecosystem (commonly referred as "espinal") is one of the most abundant land covers of Chile's central valley (2.000.000 ha). The last two years (2010-2011) were characterized by the occurrence of a severe drought (rainfall deficit 56%) and a small increase in temperature evaluated using a climatic change index (Peterson, 2005). We also detected a strong reduction in vegetation index during this period (evaluated using MODIS imagery). The historical analysis of the enhanced vegetation index (EVI) and leaf area index (LAI) showed that water status of the acacia savanna were at a minimum during this period (record of 14 years of data). The annual balance of NEE of 2011 was -54gC m-2 y-1, which means that the espinal is a sink of atmospheric CO2 notwithstanding the many stressors on photosynthesis. Monthly analysis of NEE shows the strong dependence of ecosystem fluxes on phenological state. Maximum rates of assimilation are a consequence of grassland activity, whereas secondary picks during the year (late spring and early autumn) are attributed to the semideciduos leaf of A. caven. Climatic conditions during the study season, confirm the tremendous plasticity of Acacia caven and its role as a colonizer of degraded sclerophyll forest because it adaptation to water and thermal stress.

  19. Sodium alginate and gum acacia hydrogels of ZnO nanoparticles show wound healing effect on fibroblast cells.

    PubMed

    Raguvaran, R; Manuja, Balvinder K; Chopra, Meenu; Thakur, Rajesh; Anand, Taruna; Kalia, Anu; Manuja, Anju

    2017-03-01

    An ideal biomaterial for wound dressing applications should possess antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties without any toxicity to the host cells while providing the maximum healing activity. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) possess antimicrobial activity and enhance wound healing, but the questions regarding their safety arise before application to the biological systems. We synthesized ZnONPs-loaded-sodium alginate-gum acacia hydrogels (SAGA-ZnONPs) by cross linking hydroxyl groups of the polymers sodium alginate and gum acacia with the aldehyde group of gluteradehyde. Here, we report the wound healing properties of sodium alginate/gum acacia/ZnONPs, circumventing the toxicity of ZnONPs simultaneously. We demonstrated the concentration-dependent zones of inhibition in treated cultures of Pseudomonas aerigunosa and Bacillus cereus and biocompatability on peripheral blood mononuclear/fibroblast cells. SAGA-ZnONPs hydrogels showed a healing effect at a low concentration of ZnONPs using sheep fibroblast cells. Our findings suggest that high concentrations of ZnONPs were toxic to cells but SAGA-ZnONPs hydrogels significantly reduced the toxicity and preserved the beneficial antibacterial and healing effect.

  20. Carbon dioxide emissions from an Acacia plantation on peatland in Sumatra, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jauhiainen, J.; Hooijer, A.; Page, S. E.

    2012-02-01

    Peat surface CO2 emission, groundwater table depth and peat temperature were monitored for two years along transects in an Acacia plantation on thick tropical peat (>4 m) in Sumatra, Indonesia. A total of 2300 emission measurements were taken at 144 locations, over a 2 year period. The autotrophic root respiration component of CO2 emission was separated from heterotrophic emission caused by peat oxidation in three ways: (i) by comparing CO2 emissions within and beyond the tree rooting zone, (ii) by comparing CO2 emissions with and without peat trenching (i.e. cutting any roots remaining in the peat beyond the tree rooting zone), and (iii) by comparing CO2 emissions before and after Acacia tree harvesting. On average, the contribution of autotrophic respiration to daytime CO2 emission was 21% along transects in mature tree stands. At locations 0.5 m from trees this was up to 80% of the total emissions, but it was negligible at locations more than 1.3 m away. This means that CO2 emission measurements well away from trees were free of any autotrophic respiration contribution and thus represent only heterotrophic emissions. We found daytime mean annual CO2 emission from peat oxidation alone of 94 t ha-1 y-1 at a mean water table depth of 0.8 m, and a minimum emission value of 80 t ha-1 y-1 after correction for the effect of diurnal temperature fluctuations, which may result in a 14.5% reduction of the daytime emission. There is a positive correlation between mean long-term water table depth and peat oxidation CO2 emission. However, no such relation is found for instantaneous emission/water table depth within transects and it is clear that factors other than water table depth also affect peat oxidation and total CO2 emissions. The increase in the temperature of the surface peat due to plantation establishment may explain over 50% of peat oxidation emissions. Our study sets a standard for greenhouse gas flux studies from tropical peatlands under different forms of

  1. Effects of Gelam and Acacia honey acute administration on some biochemical parameters of Sprague Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Since ancient times, honey has been used for medicinal purposes in many cultures; it is one of the oldest and most enduring substances used in wound management. Scientific evidence for its efficacy is widely studied, but systemic safety studies are still lacking. It is essential to study the impact of consumption of honey on the health and proper development of the consumer. Therefore, the present study was designed to observe the effects of acute administration (14 days) of Gelam honey (GH), a wild harvesting honey and Acacia honey (AH), a beekeeping honey, on male and female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Methods An acute oral study was performed following OECD test guideline 423, with minor modifications. In the study, GH, AH and sucrose (S) were administered at 2000 mg/kg body weight. Animals were observed for the next 14 days. Gross pathology was performed at the end of the study. Animals were observed for mortality, morbidity, body weight changes, feed and water intake. Clinical biochemistry, gross pathology, relative organ weight and histopathological examination were performed. Results Rats fed with honey did not exhibit any abnormal signs or deaths. Results showed a decrease in weight gain and energy efficiency, but significantly increased in total food intake and total calories in female rats fed with GH, compared to control (p < 0.05). Nevertheless, a significant increase in body weight was observed in male rats in all honey-treated groups. Male rats fed with AH significantly decreased in total food intake, total calories and energy efficiency. Both male and female rats fed with GH displayed a significant decrease in triglycerides compared to control group. Hepatic and renal function levels were within acceptable range. The gross necropsy analysis did not reveal changes in any of the organs examined. Conclusions Our results suggest that acute consumption of GH and AH at 2000 mg/kg body weight of male and female SD rats has some discrepancy

  2. In vitro evaluation of antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of lignin fractions extracted from Acacia nilotica.

    PubMed

    Barapatre, Anand; Meena, Avtar Singh; Mekala, Sowmya; Das, Amitava; Jha, Harit

    2016-05-01

    Lignin is one of the most important phytomacromolecule with diverse therapeutic properties such as anticancer, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and immune-stimulatory. The present study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant, free radical scavenging and anti-proliferative/cytotoxic activities of eleven different lignin fractions, extracted from the wood of Acacia nilotica by pressurized solvent extraction (PSE) and successive solvent extraction (SSE) methods. Results indicate that the PSE fractions have high polyphenolic content and reducing power. However, the antioxidant efficiency examined by DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assay was higher in SSE fractions. All lignin fractions revealed a significant ability to scavenge nitric oxide, hydroxyl and superoxide radicals. The extracted lignin fractions display high ferric ion reducing capacity and also possess excellent antioxidant potential in the hydrophobic (linoleic acid) system. Fractions extracted by polar solvent has the highest iron (Fe(2+)) chelating activity as compared to other factions, indicating their effect on the redox cycling of iron. Four lignin fractions depicted higher cytotoxic potential (IC50: 2-15 μg/mL) towards breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) but were ineffective (IC50: ≥ 100 μg/mL) against normal primary human hepatic stellate cells (HHSteCs). These findings suggest that the lignin extracts of A. nilotica wood has a remarkable potential to prevent disease caused by the overproduction of radicals and also seem to be a promising candidate as natural antioxidant and anti-cancer agents.

  3. Phytochemical Characterization and Anti-inflammatory Properties of Acacia mearnsii Leaves.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Jia; Graceb, Mary H; Esposito, Debora; Wang, Fei; Lila, Mary Ann

    2016-05-01

    This study was performed to investigate potential bioactive secondary metabolites from the leaves of Acacia mearnsii, a forest waste product in China. The polyphenol constituents and bioactivity of crude extract (L) and semi purified fractions (L1-L4) were examined. The L and L1-L4 showed qualitative and quantitative differences in their phenolic content, antioxidant activities and the activities against inflammation-related genes such as the inducible forms of COX-2, iNOS, and the pro-inflammatory IL in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. All the fractions depressed reactive oxygen species (ROS) in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells, and (except L2) inhibited the release of nitric oxide (NO). Fractions L3 and L4 significantly inhibited the mRNA expression levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β, COX-2, iNOS, and IL-6. In addition, L4 (1.8 g obtained from 5 g crude leaves extract) which contained 646.6 mg/g gallic acid equivalent total phenolic content and consisted of primarily proanthocyanidins (12.6 mg/g as procyanidin B2 equivalent by the DMAC assay) showed the best activity in all the assays. Results indicate that A. mearnsii leaves, a forest waste product, could be a valuable natural source of anti-inflammatory and functional components related to human health.

  4. Relatedness defies biogeography: the tale of two island endemics (Acacia heterophylla and A. koa).

    PubMed

    Le Roux, Johannes J; Strasberg, Dominique; Rouget, Mathieu; Morden, Clifford W; Koordom, Megan; Richardson, David M

    2014-10-01

    Despite the normally strong link between geographic proximity and relatedness of recently diverged taxa, truly puzzling biogeographic anomalies to this expectation exist in nature. Using a dated phylogeny, population genetic structure and estimates of ecological niche overlap, we tested the hypothesis that two geographically very disjunct, but morphologically very similar, island endemics (Acacia heterophylla from Réunion Island and A. koa from the Hawaiian archipelago) are the result of dispersal between these two island groups, rather than independent colonization events from Australia followed by convergent evolution. Our genetic results indicated that A. heterophylla renders A. koa paraphyletic and that the former colonized the Mascarene archipelago directly from the Hawaiian Islands ≤ 1.4 million yr ago. This colonization sequence was corroborated by similar ecological niches between the two island taxa, but not between A. melanoxylon from Australia (a sister, and presumed ancestral, taxon to A. koa and A. heterophylla) and Hawaiian A. koa. It is widely accepted that the long-distance dispersal of plants occurs more frequently than previously thought. Here, however, we document one of the most exceptional examples of such dispersal. Despite c. 18 000 km separating A. heterophylla and A. koa, these two island endemics from two different oceans probably represent a single taxon as a result of recent extreme long-distance dispersal.

  5. In vitro antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of biomodified lignin from Acacia nilotica wood.

    PubMed

    Barapatre, Anand; Aadil, Keshaw Ram; Tiwary, Bhupendra Nath; Jha, Harit

    2015-04-01

    The antioxidant and antidiabetic activity of biomodified alkali lignin extracted from a deciduous plant Acacia nilotica, was evaluated in vitro. The extracted alkali lignin was subjected to microbial biotransformation by ligninolytic fungus Aspergillus flavus and Emericella nidulans. These modifications were done under varying concentration of carbon to nitrogen sources. The structural feature of the lignin samples were compared by FTIR, functional group analysis and (13)C solid state NMR. All lignin samples were tested for antioxidant efficiency, reducing power and H2O2 scavenging power. Modifications in all lignin samples showed correlation with their antioxidant scavenging activity and reducing power. Antidiabetic properties were evaluated in terms of in vitro glucose movement inhibition and α-amylase inhibition assay. Modified samples exhibited increased glucose binding efficiency as demonstrated by the decreased glucose diffusion (55.5-76.3%) and 1.16-1.18-fold enhanced α-amylase inhibition in comparison to their control samples. The results obtained demonstrate that the structure and functional modifications in lignin significantly affects its bioefficacy in term of antioxidant and antidiabetic activities.

  6. Ground level photosynthetically active radiation dynamics in stands of Acacia mearnsii De Wild.

    PubMed

    Péllico Netto, Sylvio; Sanquetta, Carlos R; Caron, Braulio O; Behling, Alexandre; Simon, Augusto A; Corte, Ana Paula D; Bamberg, Rogério

    2015-09-01

    The objective is to study the dynamics of photosynthetic radiation reaching the soil surface in stands of Acacia mearnsii De Wild and its influence on height growth in stands. This fact gives rise to the formulation of the following hypothesis for this study: "The reduction of the incidence of light inside the stand of black wattle will cause the inflection point in its height growth when this reaches 4 to 5 m in height, i.e. when the stand is between 2 and 3 years of age". The study was conducted in stands in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, where diameters at breast height, total height and photosynthetically active radiation available at ground level were measured. The frequency tended to be more intense when the age of the stands increases. It was evident that a reduction of light incidence inside the forest occurred, caused by canopy closure. Consequently, closed canopy propitiated the competition of plants. This has affected the conditions for growth in diameter and height of this species, reason why it becomes possible to conceive the occurrence of an inflection point in the growth of these two variables, confirming the formulated hypothesis.

  7. Elevated CO[sub 2] amplifies expression of genetic variability in Acacia smallii

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, E.A.; Miyanishi, K.; Kleb, H. Univ. of Guelph, Ontario Univ. of Regina )

    1993-06-01

    Seedlings of Acacia smallii grown at three CO[sub 2] concentrations in environmentally controlled greenhouses exhibited much greater variability in growth rates and plant size in elevated CO[sub 2] than in current ambient CO[sub 2] (around 350 ppm) during a 90 day growth period prior to winter quiescence. Elongation of the central axis and the number of branches per plant were markedly stimulated by elevated CO[sub 2]. Number of branches and the total lengths and growth rates of shoots were closely related. Plant length (branches included) after 90 days at 1000 ppm averaged 6.3 m with a range from 3.3 to 13.2 m and at 350 ppm averaged 1.6 m with a range from 1.0 to 1.9 m. Length and growth rate averages and variability ranges for plants grown at 700 ppm CO[sub 2] were intermediate. These results implicate genetic variability as an important consideration in developing conceptual models of how natural selection will operate in native vegetation as CO[sub 2] concentrations rise and suggest new kinds of experiments that should be conducted to evaluate the effects of changing CO[sub 2] on vegetation composition and structure.

  8. Hydrogen peroxide sensing and cytotoxicity activity of Acacia lignin stabilized silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Aadil, Keshaw Ram; Barapatre, Anand; Meena, Avtar Singh; Jha, Harit

    2016-01-01

    The study is aimed at detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) using Acacia lignin mediated silver nanoparticles (AGNPs). The synthesis of AGNPs was achieved at conditions optimized as, 3 ml of 0.02% lignin and 1mM silver nitrate incubated for 30 min at 80°C and pH 9. Initial screening of AGNPs was performed by measuring the surface plasmon resonance peak at 410-430 nm using UV-vis spectrophotometer. Transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction and particle size analysis confirmed the spherical shaped face centered cubic structure and 10-50 nm size of AGNPs. The infrared spectroscopy study further revealed that the active functional groups present in lignin were responsible for the reduction of silver ions (Ag(+)) to metallic silver (Ag(0)). Lignin stabilized silver nanoparticles showed good sensitivity and a linear response over wide concentrations of H2O2 (10(-1) to 10(-6)M). Further, the in vitrocytotoxicity activity of the lignin mediated AGNPs (5-500 μg/ml) demonstrated toxicity effects in MCF-7 and A375 cell lines. Thus, lignin stabilized silver nanoparticles based optical sensor for H2O2 could be potentially applied in the determination of reactive oxygen species and toxic chemicals which further expands the importance of lignin stabilized silver nanoparticles.

  9. Tolerance, arsenic uptake, and oxidative stress in Acacia farnesiana under arsenate-stress.

    PubMed

    Alcantara-Martinez, Nemi; Guizar, Sandra; Rivera-Cabrera, Fernando; Anicacio-Acevedo, Blanca E; Buendia-Gonzalez, Leticia; Volke-Sepulveda, Tania

    2016-01-01

    Acacia farnesiana is a shrub widely distributed in soils heavily polluted with arsenic in Mexico. However, the mechanisms by which this species tolerates the phytotoxic effects of arsenic are unknown. This study aimed to investigate the tolerance and bioaccumulation of As by A. farnesiana seedlings exposed to high doses of arsenate (AsV) and the role of peroxidases (POX) and glutathione S-transferases (GST) in alleviating As-stress. For that, long-period tests were performed in vitro under different AsV treatments. A. farnesiana showed a remarkable tolerance to AsV, achieving a half-inhibitory concentration (IC50) of about 2.8 mM. Bioaccumulation reached about 940 and 4380 mg As·kg(-1) of dry weight in shoots and roots, respectively, exposed for 60 days to 0.58 mM AsV. Seedlings exposed to such conditions registered a growth delay during the first 15 days, when the fastest As uptake rate (117 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) occurred, coinciding with both the highest rate of lipid peroxidation and the strongest up-regulation of enzyme activities. GST activity showed a strong correlation with the As bioaccumulated, suggesting its role in imparting AsV tolerance. This study demonstrated that besides tolerance to AsV, A. farnesiana bioaccumulates considerable amounts of As, suggesting that it may be useful for phytostabilization purposes.

  10. Dynamics of component carbon fluxes in a semi-arid Acacia woodland, central Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleverly, James; Boulain, Nicolas; Villalobos-Vega, Randol; Grant, Nicole; Faux, Ralph; Wood, Cameron; Cook, Peter G.; Yu, Qiang; Leigh, Andrea; Eamus, Derek

    2013-07-01

    Vast areas in the interior of Australia are exposed to regular but infrequent periods of heavy rainfall, interspersed with long periods at high temperatures, but little is known of the carbon budget of these remote areas or how they respond to extreme precipitation. In this study, we applied three methods to partition net ecosystem photosynthesis into gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (Re) during two years of contrasting rainfall. The first year was wet (>250 mm above average rainfall), while little precipitation fell during the second year (>100 mm below average). During the first year of study, rates of GPP were large (793 g C m-2 yr-1) in this semi-arid Mulga (Acacia aneura) and grass savanna due to complementary photosynthetic responses by the canopy and C4 understorey to cycles of heavy rainfall. Patterns in GPP during the summer and autumn matched those in leaf area index (LAI), photosynthetic activity, and autotrophic respiration. During the dry year, small but positive photosynthetic uptake by Mulga contributed to the neutral carbon budget (GPP / Re = 1.06 ± 0.03). Small rates of photosynthesis by evergreen Mulga when dry were supported by storage of soil moisture above a relatively shallow hardpan. Little soil organic matter (1.1%) was available to support heterotrophic respiration (Rh) without input of fresh substrate. The two largest sources of Re in this study were autotrophic respiration by the seasonal understorey and Rh through decomposition of fresh organic matter supplied by the senescent understorey.

  11. Antioxidant and anti-quorum sensing activities of green pod of Acacia nilotica L.

    PubMed

    Singh, Brahma N; Singh, B R; Singh, R L; Prakash, D; Sarma, B K; Singh, H B

    2009-04-01

    The antioxidant and anti-quorum sensing activities of eight extracts were studied in green pods of Acacia nilotica. The specific phenolic compositions and their quantifications were performed by HPLC and MS/MS, which showed that the HEF (pH 4) was higher in gallic acid, ellagic acid, epicatechin, rutin, and GTs. In order to find antioxidant potential of various extracts, their activities were studied for TPC, AOA, FRSA, RP, inhibition of LPO, FIC activity, HO* and O(2)(-) scavenging activities. Among them HEF (pH 4) has shown potent antioxidant activity. HEF (pH 4) was also found effective in protecting plasmid DNA and HAS protein oxidation induced by HO*. Pre-treatment of HEF (pH 4) at 75 and 150 mg/kg body weight for 6 days caused a significant increase in the levels of CAT and SOD and decrease in the level of MDA content in liver, lungs, kidneys and blood when compared to CCl(4)-intoxicated rats. Eventually, the extracts were also screened for anti-QS activity. Of these extracts two showed QS inhibition: HEF (pH 4) and HCE. The results obtained strongly indicate that green pod of A. nilotica are important source of natural antioxidants.

  12. [New method of near infrared spectra analysis for the content of acid soluble lignin of Acacia].

    PubMed

    Liu, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    The near infrared spectra analysis model of the content of the acid soluble lignin and the model of the content of the Klason lignin were built by the iterative method separately at first. The results show that the prediction effect of the content of the Klason lignin is obviously better than that of the acid soluble lignin. Different from usual methods of building near infrared spectra analysis model, the approximate linear relation between the contents of the acid soluble lignin and the contents of the Klason lignin was used. Combined with the near infrared spectroscopy data of multi-wavelength, twenty sub models of prediction of the content of the acid soluble lignin were built with the help of the Klason lignin content whose prediction effect is better than that of the acid soluble lignin. By calculating the weighted mean value of the prediction values of these sub models, the new prediction value of the content of the acid soluble lignin of each acacia specimen was obtained at last. The prediction error of the new model is obviously less than that of the model built by the iterative method. It is possible that the method of modeling in the paper can be used to some chemical component contents when the predictions of them by usual methods are not very effective, and the effects of the near infrared spectra analysis of them will be improved.

  13. In vitro larvicidal effect of a hydroalcoholic extract from Acacia cochliacantha leaf against ruminant parasitic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Olmedo-Juárez, Agustín; Rojo-Rubio, Rolando; Zamilpa, Alejandro; Mendoza de Gives, Pedro; Arece-García, Javier; López-Arellano, María Eugenia; von Son-de Fernex, Elke

    2017-04-08

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro lethal effect of a hydroalcoholic extract (HAE) from Acacia cochliacantha leaf against three gastrointestinal nematodes species (Haemonchus contortus, H. placei and Cooperia punctata) of domestic ruminants. The HAE was assessed using five concentrations: 100, 125, 175, 150 and 200 mg/ml; 0.5% Ivermectin was used as a positive control and distilled water, as negative control. The data were normalized using the square root and analysed with a completely randomized design through ANOVA analysis using the general lineal model (GLM) of the SAS program. The HAE tannin content was determined through spectrophotometry (UV-visible) and the other major phenols, were identified by chromatographic processes. The results showed an in vitro larvicidal activity of the HAE against the three assessed nematode species with all assessed concentrations. A clear HAE increased concentration dependence effect was observed. The highest activity of the HAE was obtained at the highest concentration (close to 100%, P < 0.05). This result was similar to the one obtained with Ivermectin. On the other hand, the chemical analysis of HAE showed the presence of tannins, caffeoyls and coumaroyl derivates and quercetin as the main compounds. The results suggest that the HAE from this plant species possess in vitro anthelmintic properties. The identified compounds in this study would good candidates for further in vivo researches.

  14. [Comparison of phylogeny analysis methods for rhizobia asolated from Albizia spp., Acacia spp. and Leucaena leucocephala].

    PubMed

    Wang, Fengqin; Zhang, Yongfa; Liu, Jie; Song, Andong; Liu, Quanjun; Chen, Wenxin

    2008-01-01

    Multilocus house-keeping gene sequence analysis is a hotspot of taxonomy and phylogeny of prokaryotes. In this research, we used atpD and gln II gene sequences to analyze the phylogeny of nine rhizobia strains of Albizia spp., Acacia spp. and Leucaena leucocephala and compared the results to that of 16S rDNA. The phylogenetic relationships based on the sequence analysis of these three genes were congruent at the genera level. CCBAU43060 and CCBAU 61139 were located in the branch of Rhizobium-Agrobacterium. CCBAU51471, CCBAU35220, CCBAU51276 and CCBAU61158 belonged to the genera of Mesorhizobium. CCBAU35234, CCBAU61178 and CCBAU35085 were assigned to Bradyrhizobium. Differences were found for some strains, for example CCBAU 61158, CCBAU43060, CCBAU61178, at the species level. Insertion fragment and mosaic gene were also found in some isolates. These results indicated that there was recombination between species in the same genera. It is reliable to determine the taxonomy status at genera levels based on the sequence analysis of 16S rDNA. If the relationships between strains belonging to the same genera were studied using the phylogeny methods, researches should be carried out with more than one house-keeping genes.

  15. [Regeneration of Acacia glauca and Leucaena leucacephala plantations in Yuanmou dry and hot valley].

    PubMed

    Ma, Jiangming; Li, Kun; Zhang, Changshun

    2006-08-01

    An investigation on the seed yield, seed dispersal pattern, seed density, and the numbers of seedlings and saplings was conducted at the sampling sites of Acacia glauca and Leucaena leucacephala plantations. The factors affecting the natural regeneration and tree adaptability of A. glauca and L. leucacephala were analyzed, and their regeneration status was evaluated by gray relational analysis. The results showed that the seed yield of A. glauca with the same age was 566 grains per tree, while that of L. leucacephala was 1 199 grains per tree. The mean seed yield of individual tree, whether A. glauca or L. leucacephala, was higher in mixed forest than in pure forest, and that of naturally regenerated L. leucacephala forest was between those of A. glauca and L. leucacephala plantations. With the increasing distance to mother tree, A. glauca had a smaller decrement of seed density than L. leucacephala. The seed dispersal distance of A. glauca was 110 m, while that of L. leucacephala was 90 m. The gray relational coefficient of A. glauca plantation, L. leucacephala plantation, and naturally regenerated L. leucacephala forest was 0.7269, 0.6000 and 0.6000, respectively, indicating that A. glauca plantation had a better regeneration status.

  16. Effects of large mammalian herbivores and ant symbionts on condensed tannins of Acacia drepanolobium in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Ward, David; Young, Truman P

    2002-05-01

    Condensed tannins have been considered to be important inducible defenses against mammalian herbivory. We tested for differences in condensed tannin defenses in Acacia drepanolobium in Kenya over two years among different large mammalian herbivore treatments [total exclusion, antelope only, and megaherbivore (elephants and giraffes) + antelope] and with four different ant symbiont species on the trees. We predicted that (1) condensed tannin concentrations would be lowest in the mammal treatment with the lowest level of herbivory (total exclusion), (2) trees occupied by mutualist ants that protect the trees most aggressively would have lower levels of tannins, and (3) if chemical defense production is costly, there would be a trade-off between tannin concentrations, growth, and mechanical defenses. Mean tannin concentrations increased from total exclusion treatments to wildlife-only treatments to megaherbivore + antelope treatments. In 1997, condensed tannin concentrations were significantly lower in trees occupied by the ant Crematogaster nigriceps, the only ant species that actively removed axillary buds. Contrary to our prediction, trees occupied by ant species that protect the trees more aggressively against mammalian herbivores did not have lower overall levels of condensed tannins. There was no consistent evidence of a trade-off between tannin concentrations and growth rate, but there was a positive correlation between mean thorn length and mean tannin concentrations across species of ant inhabitants and across herbivore treatments in 1997. Contrary to our expectation, trees had higher tannin concentrations in the upper parts of the canopy where there is little herbivory by mammals.

  17. Acacia honey and chrysin reduce proliferation of melanoma cells through alterations in cell cycle progression.

    PubMed

    Pichichero, Elena; Cicconi, Rosella; Mattei, Maurizio; Muzi, Marco Gallinella; Canini, Antonella

    2010-10-01

    Honey has long been used in medicine for different purposes. Only recently, however, its antioxidant property and preventive effects against different diseases, such as cancer, have been highlighted. Chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone) is a natural flavone commonly found in acacia honey. It has previously been shown to be an anti-tumor agent. In this study, we investigated the antiproliferative role of honey or chrysin on human (A375) and murine (B16-F1) melanoma cell lines. The results of the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and the trypan blue exclusion test showed that both the tested compounds were able to induce an antiproliferative effect on melanoma cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that cytotoxicity induced by honey or chrysin was mediated by G(0)/G(1) cell cycle arrest and induction of hyperploid progression. Our results suggest that the anti-proliferative effects of honey are due mainly to the presence of chrysin. Chrysin may therefore be considered a potential candidate for both cancer prevention and treatment. Further investigation is needed to validate the contribution of chrysin in tumor therapy in vivo.

  18. Turning over a new 'leaf': multiple functional significances of leaves versus phyllodes in Hawaiian Acacia koa.

    PubMed

    Pasquet-Kok, Jessica; Creese, Christine; Sack, Lawren

    2010-12-01

    Hawaiian endemic tree Acacia koa is a model for heteroblasty with bipinnately compound leaves and phyllodes. Previous studies suggested three hypotheses for their functional differentiation: an advantage of leaves for early growth or shade tolerance, and an advantage of phyllodes for drought tolerance. We tested the ability of these hypotheses to explain differences between leaf types for potted plants in 104 physiological and morphological traits, including gas exchange, structure and composition, hydraulic conductance, and responses to varying light, intercellular CO(2) , vapour pressure deficit (VPD) and drought. Leaf types were similar in numerous traits including stomatal pore area per leaf area, leaf area-based gas exchange rates and cuticular conductance. Each hypothesis was directly supported by key differences in function. Leaves had higher mass-based gas exchange rates, while the water storage tissue in phyllodes contributed to greater capacitance per area; phyllodes also showed stronger stomatal closure at high VPD, and higher maximum hydraulic conductance per area, with stronger decline during desiccation and recovery with rehydration. While no single hypothesis completely explained the differences between leaf types, together the three hypotheses explained 91% of differences. These findings indicate that the heteroblasty confers multiple benefits, realized across different developmental stages and environmental contexts.

  19. Development of 23 polymorphic microsatellite loci in invasive silver wattle, Acacia dealbata (Fabaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Guillemaud, Thomas; Broadhurst, Linda; Legoff, Isabelle; Henery, Martin; Blin, Aurélie; Ducatillion, Catherine; Ferrando, Nathalie; Malausa, Thibaut

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed for silver wattle, Acacia dealbata (Fabaceae), which is both an ornamental and an invasive weed species. It is native to southeastern Australia and invasive in Europe, Africa, Asia, and the Americas. Methods and Results: The pyrosequencing of a microsatellite-enriched genomic DNA library of A. dealbata produced 33,290 sequences and allowed the isolation of 201 loci with a minimum of seven repeats of microsatellite motifs. Amplification tests led to the setup of two multiplex PCR mixes allowing the amplification of 21 loci. The polymorphism of these markers was evaluated on a sample of 32 individuals collected in southeastern Australia. The number of alleles and the expected heterozygosity varied between two and 11, and between 0.11 and 0.88, respectively. Conclusions: The level of polymorphism of this set of 23 microsatellites is large enough to provide valuable information on the genetic structure and the invasion history of A. dealbata. PMID:25995979

  20. The balance between facilitation and competition in mixtures of Eucalyptus and Acacia changes as stands develop.

    PubMed

    Forrester, David I; Vanclay, Jerome K; Forrester, Robert I

    2011-05-01

    The balance between facilitation and competition is likely to change with age due to the dynamic nature of nutrient, water and carbon cycles, and light availability during stand development. These processes have received attention in harsh, arid, semiarid and alpine ecosystems but are rarely examined in more productive communities, in mixed-species forest ecosystems or in long-term experiments spanning more than a decade. The aim of this study was to examine how inter- and intraspecific interactions between Eucalyptus globulus Labill. mixed with Acacia mearnsii de Wildeman trees changed with age and productivity in a field experiment in temperate south-eastern Australia. Spatially explicit neighbourhood indices were calculated to quantify tree interactions and used to develop growth models to examine how the tree interactions changed with time and stand productivity. Interspecific influences were usually less negative than intraspecific influences, and their difference increased with time for E. globulus and decreased with time for A. mearnsii. As a result, the growth advantages of being in a mixture increased with time for E. globulus and decreased with time for A. mearnsii. The growth advantage of being in a mixture also decreased for E. globulus with increasing stand productivity, showing that spatial as well as temporal dynamics in resource availability influenced the magnitude and direction of plant interactions.

  1. Acacia gum as modifier of thermal stability, solubility and emulsifying properties of α-lactalbumin.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Fabíola Cristina; Dos Reis Coimbra, Jane Sélia; de Oliveira, Eduardo Basílio; Rodrigues, Marina Quadrio Raposo Branco; Sabioni, Rachel Campos; de Souza, Bartolomeu Warlene Silva; Santos, Igor José Boggione

    2015-03-30

    Protein-polysaccharide conjugates often display improved techno-functional properties when compared to their individual involved biomolecules. α-Lactalbumin:acacia gum (α-la:AG) conjugates were prepared via Maillard reaction by the dry-heating method. Conjugate formation was confirmed using results of absorbance, o-phthalaldehyde test, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and size exclusion chromatography. Techno-functional properties (emulsifying characteristics, solubility, and thermal stability) were evaluated for α-la, α-la/AG mixtures and α-la:AG conjugates. Conjugate thermal stability was improved compared to pure α-la treated at the same conditions of conjugate formation. Response surface methodology was used to establish models to predict solubility and emulsifying activity as functions of the salt concentration, pH and reaction time. α-la:AG conjugate solubility is affected in a complex manner by the three factors analyzed. Emulsifying activity index (EAI) of α-la is significantly affected by pH, while the α-la:AG EAI is affected by the three analyzed factors. Both solubility and EAI are maximized with pH 8.0, NaCl concentration of 0.3 mol L(-1) and two days of Maillard reaction.

  2. Antioxidant and anti-acetylcholinesterase activities of extracts and secondary metabolites from Acacia cyanophylla

    PubMed Central

    Ghribia, Lotfi; Ghouilaa, Hatem; Omrib, Amel; Besbesb, Malek; Janneta, Hichem Ben

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the antioxidant potential and anti-acetycholinesterase activity of compounds and extracts from Acacia cyanophylla (A. cyanophylla). Methods Three polyphenolic compounds were isolated from ethyl acetate extract of A. cyanophylla flowers. They have been identified as isosalipurposide 1, quercetin 2 and naringenin 3. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR experiments as well as ES-MS. The prepared extracts and the isolated compounds 1-3 were tested for their antioxidant activity using 1′-1′-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) scavenging assays and reducing power. They have been also investigated for inhibitory effect against acetylcholinesterase using the microplate assay. Results In the DPPH test, the EtOAc extract of flowers exhibited the highest antioxidant effect (67.26 µg/mL). Isosalipurposide 1 showed a significant antiradical power against DPPH (81.9 µg/mL). All extracts showed a dose-dependent acetylcholinesterase inhibition. In terms of the IC50 value, the butanolic extract (16.03 µg/mL) was the most potent sample. Isosalipurposide 1 was found to be active against AChE with an IC50 value of 52.04 µg/mL. Conclusions The results demonstrated the important antioxidant and anti-acetylcholinesterase activity of pure compounds and extracts from A. cyanophylla. PMID:25183120

  3. The concentration of ascorbic acid and glutathione in 13 provenances of Acacia melanoxylon.

    PubMed

    Wujeska-Klause, Agnieszka; Bossinger, Gerd; Tausz, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Climate change can negatively affect sensitive tree species, affecting their acclimation and adaptation strategies. A common garden experiment provides an opportunity to test whether responses of trees from different provenances are genetically driven and if this response is related to factors at the site of origin. We hypothesized that antioxidative defence systems and leaf mass area ofAcacia melanoxylonR. Br. samples collected from different provenances will vary depending on local rainfall. Thirteen provenances ofA. melanoxylonoriginating from different rainfall habitats (500-2000 mm) were grown for 5 years in a common garden. For 2 years, phyllode samples were collected during winter and summer, for measurements of leaf mass area and concentrations of glutathione and ascorbic acid. Leaf mass area varied between seasons, years and provenances ofA. melanoxylon, and an increase was associated with decreasing rainfall at the site of origin. Ascorbic acid and glutathione concentrations varied between seasons, years (i.e., environmental factors) and among provenances ofA. melanoxylon In general, glutathione and ascorbic acid concentrations were higher in winter compared with summer. Ascorbic acid and glutathione were different among provenances, but this was not associated with rainfall at the site of origin.

  4. Bradyrhizobium ganzhouense sp. nov., an effective symbiotic bacterium isolated from Acacia melanoxylon R. Br. nodules

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jun Kun; Dou, Ya Jing; Zhu, Ya Jie; Wang, Sheng Kun; Sui, Xin Hua

    2014-01-01

    Three slow-growing rhizobial strains, designated RITF806T, RITF807 and RITF211, isolated from root nodules of Acacia melanoxylon grown in Ganzhou city, Jiangxi Province, China, had been previously defined, based on amplified 16S rRNA gene restriction analysis, as a novel group within the genus Bradyrhizobium. To clarify their taxonomic position, these strains were further analysed and compared with reference strains of related bacteria using a polyphasic approach. According to 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolates formed a group that was closely related to ‘Bradyrhizobium rifense’ CTAW71, with a similarity value of 99.9 %. In phylogenetic analyses of the housekeeping and symbiotic gene sequences, the three strains formed a distinct lineage within the genus Bradyrhizobium, which was consistent with the results of DNA–DNA hybridization. In analyses of cellular fatty acids and phenotypic features, some differences were found between the novel group and related species of the genus Bradyrhizobium, indicating that these three strains constituted a novel group distinct from any recognized species of the genus Bradyrhizobium. Based on the data obtained in this study, we conclude that our strains represent a novel species of the genus Bradyrhizobium, for which the name Bradyrhizobium ganzhouense sp. nov. is proposed, with RITF806T ( = CCBAU 101088T = JCM 19881T) as the type strain. The DNA G+C content of strain RITF806T is 64.6 mol% (Tm). PMID:24585376

  5. Antimalarial activity of fractions of aqueous extract of Acacia nilotica root

    PubMed Central

    Alli, Lukman Adewale; Adesokan, Abdulfatai Ayoade; Salawu, Adeola Oluwakanyinsola

    2016-01-01

    Background: The problem of resistance of malarial parasites to available antimalarial drugs makes the development of new drugs imperative, with natural plant products providing an alternative source for discovering new drugs. Aim: To evaluate the antimalarial activity of eluted fractions of Acacia nilotica root extract and determine the phytochemicals responsible for its antimalarial activity. Materials and Methods: The extract was eluted successively in gradients of solvent mixture (hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol) in multiples of 100 ml, and each fraction was collected separately. Eluates that showed similar thin layer chromatographic profiles and Rf values were combined to produce 4 main fractions (F-1, F-2, F-3, and F-4), which were tested separately for antimalarial activity using the curative test. Changes in body weight, temperature, and packed cell volume (PCV) were also recorded. Results: Fraction F-1 of A. nilotica at 50 and 100 mg/kg b/w produced significant and dose-dependent reduction in parasite count in Plasmodium berghei infected mice compared to the control, and also significantly increased the survival time of the mice compared to the control group. This fraction also ameliorated the malaria-induced anemia by improving PCV in treated mice. Conclusion: Antimalarial activity of extract of A. nilotica root is probably localized in the F-1 fraction of the extract, which was found to be rich in alkaloids and phenolics. Further study will provide information on the chemical properties of the active metabolites in this fraction. PMID:27104040

  6. Monosaccharide composition of acidic gum exudates from Indian Acacia tortilis ssp. raddiana (Savi) Brenan.

    PubMed

    Lakhera, Ajeet Kumar; Kumar, Vineet

    2017-01-01

    Acacia tortilis ssp. raddiana (Savi) Brenan commonly known as Israeli Babool has contributed immensely for sand dunes management in Indian desert leading to wind erosion control and increased biological productivity. The species is extensively used in traditional medicine system for a number of therapeutic applications and as nutraceutical. The polysaccharide was isolated in 43.6% yield from gum exudates. The monosaccharides, L-arabinose, D-galactose D-glucose, L-rhamnose and D-mannose were determined in molar ratio of 78.1%, 18.64%, 0.60%, 1.71% and 0.74% respectively. The molar ratio of uronic acids was studied using diverse spectrophotometric methods and compared with GLC. The content of D-galacturonic acid and D-glucuronic was determined as 3.88% and 4.35% respectively by GLC. The results were compared with the spectrophotometric methods. The results using DMP as chromogenic reagent are closer to that obtained by GLC. Structural analysis of the polysaccharide may provide scientific basis for nutraceutical, pharmaceutical and biological applications of gum exudates from A. tortilis, which is extensively planted in India.

  7. Pharmacodynamic studies on the isolated active fraction of Acacia farnesiana (L.) willd

    PubMed Central

    Kingsley, Bino; Kayarohanam, Saminathan; Brindha, Pemaiah; Subramoniam, Appian

    2014-01-01

    Background: Acacia farnesiana is a medicinal plant that grows throughout tropical parts of Indian subcontinent, particularly in sandy soils of river beds in Northern India. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the anti-hyperglycemic activity of the extracts using glucose tolerance test. Isolation of an active fraction (AF) from the active extract (water extract) using alcohol precipitation and to get insight to the mechanism of action of the AF of A. farnesiana. Materials and Methods: Glucose uptake by isolated rat diaphragm of the AF was performed. Further the effect of release of Insulin from isolated and cultured pancreatic β-cell was determined. Besides, effect of oral administration of the AF was compared with that of intraperitonial administration. The effect of AF on serum glucose levels in orally glucose loaded rats was compared with that of intraperitoneal glucose loaded rats. Results: The water extract significantly lowered the blood glucose level. When precipitated with alcohol, the activity was found in the soluble fraction. Glucose uptake in the isolated rat hemidiaphragm, was increased by the AF at 40 μg/ml concentration, the AF did not significantly influence insulin release from cultured islets. The AF was found to be effective in orally glucose loaded in contrast to intraperitonial route. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that this plant is promising for further studies leading to the development of valuable medicine for diabetes. PMID:24991104

  8. Analysis of miRNAs and Their Targets during Adventitious Shoot Organogenesis of Acacia crassicarpa

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Lingyu; Wang, Xiaoyu; Zheng, Fei; Wang, Weixuan; Liang, Di; Yang, Hailun; Jin, Yi; Xie, Xiangming

    2014-01-01

    Organogenesis is an important process for plant regeneration by tissue or cell mass differentiation to regenerate a complete plant. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an essential role in regulating plant development by mediating target genes at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels, but the diversity of miRNAs and their potential roles in organogenesis of Acacia crassicarpa have rarely been investigated. In this study, approximately 10 million sequence reads were obtained from a small RNA library, from which 189 conserved miRNAs from 57 miRNA families, and 7 novel miRNAs from 5 families, were identified from A. crassicarpa organogenetic tissues. Target prediction for these miRNAs yielded 237 potentially unique genes, of which 207 received target Gene Ontology annotations. On the basis of a bioinformatic analysis, one novel and 13 conserved miRNAs were selected to investigate their possible roles in A. crassicarpa organogenesis by qRT-PCR. The stage-specific expression patterns of the miRNAs provided information on their possible regulatory functions, including shoot bud formation, modulated function after transfer of the culture to light, and regulatory roles during induction of organogenesis. This study is the first to investigate miRNAs associated with A. crassicarpa organogenesis. The results provide a foundation for further characterization of miRNA expression profiles and roles in the regulation of diverse physiological pathways during adventitious shoot organogenesis of A. crassicarpa. PMID:24718555

  9. Tree sap flow and stand transpiration of two Acacia mangium plantations in Sabah, Borneo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cienciala, E.; Kučera, J.; Malmer, A.

    2000-09-01

    Water use of Acacia mangium trees grown in plantations was measured by a heat balance method in two stands that largely differed in tree density. Tree sap flow was closely coupled to climatic drivers and responded with minimal time delay. Using no time shift, sap flow rate could be tightly fitted to a simple equation that combined a parabolic response to radiation and an inverse linear response to air humidity. On the contrary, the analysis of canopy conductance showed no meaningful response to either individual or combined microclimatic variables. No indication of water deficit was observed, though the measurement period was during the dry period of the year. The measurements indicate a minimal diurnal use of water stored in plant tissues. The difference in tree water use from the two studied stands was effectively scaled by tree sapwood area. Canopy transpiration of the densest stand reached in average 3.9 mm d -1 compared with 2.7 mm d -1 for the stand representing the average conditions in the catchment.

  10. Preliminary phytochemical and elemental analysis of aqueous and fractionated pod extracts of Acacia nilotica (Thorn mimosa)

    PubMed Central

    Auwal, Mohammed Shaibu; Saka, Sanni; Mairiga, Ismail Alhaji; Sanda, Kyari Abba; Shuaibu, Abdullahi; Ibrahim, Amina

    2014-01-01

    Acacia nilotica (Thorn mimosa) is used locally for various medicinal purposes by traditionalists and herbalists in northeastern Nigeria. Plants products have been used since ancient times in the management of various conditions. The bark of A. nilotica has been reported to be used traditionally to manage diabetes, dysentery, leprosy, ulcers, cancers, tumor of the eye, ear and testicles, induration of liver and spleen and also in treatment of various condylomas. The objective of this study is to determine the phytochemical and elemental constituents of the extracts of A. nilotica pods. Flame emission and atomic absorption spectrometry were also used to determine the presence or absence of micro- and macro-elements in the extracts. Phytochemical analysis of the aqueous, ethyl acetate and N-butanol fractionated portions of the pod extracts of A. nilotica revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, flavonoids, carbohydrate, whereas carbohydrates and tannins were the only constituent in the residue portion. Anthraquinones, alkaloids, terpene and steroids were not present in the extracts. The elemental screening revealed the presence of iron, potassium, manganese, zinc, calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, sodium, cadmium and copper. Lead, arsenic and molybdenum were not detected in the pod. PMID:25568701

  11. In Vitro Anticancer Activities of Anogeissus latifolia, Terminalia bellerica, Acacia catechu and Moringa oleiferna Indian Plants.

    PubMed

    Diab, Kawthar A E; Guru, Santosh Kumar; Bhushan, Shashi; Saxena, Ajit K

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate in vitro anti-proliferative potential of extracts from four Indian medicinal plants, namely Anogeissus latifolia, Terminalia bellerica, Acacia catechu and Moringa oleiferna. Their cytotoxicity was tested in nine human cancer cell lines, including cancers of lung (A549), prostate (PC-3), breast (T47D and MCF-7), colon (HCT-16 and Colo-205) and leukemia (THP-1, HL-60 and K562) by using SRB and MTT assays. The findings showed that the selected plant extracts inhibited the cell proliferation of nine human cancer cell lines in a concentration dependent manner. The extracts inhibited cell viability of leukemia HL-60 and K562 cells by blocking G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. Interestingly, A. catechu extract at 100 μg/mL induced G2/M arrest in K562 cells. DNA fragmentation analysis displayed the appearance of a smear pattern of cell necrosis upon agarose gel electrophoresis after incubation of HL-60 cells with these extracts for 24 h.

  12. Investigation of antibacterial efficacy of Acacia nilotica against salivary mutans streptococci: a randomized control trial.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Devanand; Gupta, Rajendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    This double-blind, randomized control trial sought to evaluate the clinical effects of 3 mouthrinses against salivary mutans streptococci (MS). Ninety high-caries risk volunteers were randomly assigned to 3 groups, each group using a selected mouthrinse BID for 30 days. Subjects in Group 1 rinsed with 10 ml of 50% Acacia nilotica, Group 2 subjects rinsed with 10 ml of 0.2% chlorhexidine (active control), and subjects in Group 3 rinsed with saline water (passive control). Unstimulated saliva samples were collected at baseline, 30, and 60 days. MS were cultured on mitis salivarius bacitracin agar, and colony counts were obtained. The margin of error was fixed at 5%. ANOVA and post hoc least significant difference tests were performed. There were significant decreases in the MS colony count in the A. nilotica and chlorhexidine groups at 30 days (85% and 83%, respectively) and at 60 days (65% and 63%, respectively) (P < 0.0001). The antibacterial action of A. nilotica against MS was similar to that of chlorhexidine.

  13. STEM Education

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yu; Fang, Michael; Shauman, Kimberlee

    2015-01-01

    Improving science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education, especially for traditionally disadvantaged groups, is widely recognized as pivotal to the U.S.’s long-term economic growth and security. In this article, we review and discuss current research on STEM education in the U.S., drawing on recent research in sociology and related fields. The reviewed literature shows that different social factors affect the two major components of STEM education attainment: (1) attainment of education in general, and (2) attainment of STEM education relative to non-STEM education conditional on educational attainment. Cognitive and social psychological characteristics matter for both major components, as do structural influences at the neighborhood, school, and broader cultural levels. However, while commonly used measures of socioeconomic status (SES) predict the attainment of general education, social psychological factors are more important influences on participation and achievement in STEM versus non-STEM education. Domestically, disparities by family SES, race, and gender persist in STEM education. Internationally, American students lag behind those in some countries with less economic resources. Explanations for group disparities within the U.S. and the mediocre international ranking of US student performance require more research, a task that is best accomplished through interdisciplinary approaches. PMID:26778893

  14. STEM Education.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yu; Fang, Michael; Shauman, Kimberlee

    2015-08-01

    Improving science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education, especially for traditionally disadvantaged groups, is widely recognized as pivotal to the U.S.'s long-term economic growth and security. In this article, we review and discuss current research on STEM education in the U.S., drawing on recent research in sociology and related fields. The reviewed literature shows that different social factors affect the two major components of STEM education attainment: (1) attainment of education in general, and (2) attainment of STEM education relative to non-STEM education conditional on educational attainment. Cognitive and social psychological characteristics matter for both major components, as do structural influences at the neighborhood, school, and broader cultural levels. However, while commonly used measures of socioeconomic status (SES) predict the attainment of general education, social psychological factors are more important influences on participation and achievement in STEM versus non-STEM education. Domestically, disparities by family SES, race, and gender persist in STEM education. Internationally, American students lag behind those in some countries with less economic resources. Explanations for group disparities within the U.S. and the mediocre international ranking of US student performance require more research, a task that is best accomplished through interdisciplinary approaches.

  15. Enough is enough: the effects of symbiotic ant abundance on herbivory, growth, and reproduction in an African acacia.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Todd M; Brody, Alison K

    2013-03-01

    Understanding how cooperative interactions evolve and persist remains a central challenge in biology. Many mutualisms are thought to be maintained by "partner fidelity feedback," in which each partner bases their investment on the benefits they receive. Yet, we know little about how benefits change as mutualists vary their investment, which is critical to understanding the balance between mutualism and antagonism in any given partnership. Using an obligate ant-plant mutualism, we manipulated the density of symbiotic acacia ants (Crematogaster mimosae) and examined how the costs and benefits to Acacia drepanolobium trees scaled with ant abundance. Benefits of ants to plants saturated with increasing ant abundance for protection from branch browsing by elephants and attack by branch galling midges, while varying linearly for protection from cerambycid beetles. In addition, the risk of catastrophic whole-tree herbivory by elephants was highest for trees with very low ant abundance. However, there was no relationship between ant abundance and herbivory by leaf-feeding invertebrates, nor by vertebrate browsers such as giraffe, steinbuck, and Grant's gazelle. Ant abundance did not significantly influence rates of branch growth on acacias, but there was a significant negative relationship between ant abundance and the number of fruits produced by host plants, suggesting that maintaining high-density ant colonies is costly. Because benefits to plants largely saturated with increasing colony size, while costs to plant reproduction increased, we suggest that ant colonies may achieve abundances that are higher than optimal for host plants. Our results highlight the conflicts of interest inherent in many mutualisms, and demonstrate the value of examining the shape of curves relating costs and benefits within these globally important interactions.

  16. Nontargeted GC-MS approach for volatile profile of toasting in cherry, chestnut, false acacia, and ash wood.

    PubMed

    Fernández de Simón, Brígida; Sanz, Miriam; Cadahía, Estrella; Esteruelas, Enrique; Muñoz, Angel María

    2014-05-01

    By using a nontargeted GC-MS approach, 153 individual volatile compounds were found in extracts from untoasted, light toasted and medium-toasted cherry, chestnut, false acacia, as well as European and American ash wood, used in cooperage for aging wines, spirits and other beverages. In all wood types, the toasting provoked a progressive increase in carbohydrate derivatives, lactones and lignin constituents, along with a variety of other components, thus increasing the quantitative differences among species with the toasting intensity. The qualitative differences in the volatile profiles allow for identifying woods from cherry (being p-anisylalcohol, p-anisylaldehyde, p-anisylacetone, methyl benzoate and benzyl salicylate detected only in this wood), chestnut (cis and trans whisky lactone) and false acacia (resorcinol, 3,4-dimethoxyphenol, 2,4-dihydroxy benzaldehyde, 2,4-dihydroxyacetophenone, 2,4-dihydroxypropiophenone and 2,4-dihydroxy-3-methoxyacetophenone), but not those from ash, because of the fact that all compounds present in this wood are detected in at least one other. However, the quantitative differences can be clearly used to identify toasted ash wood, with tyrosol being most prominent, but 2-furanmethanol, 3- and 4-ethylcyclotene, α-methylcrotonolactone, solerone, catechol, 3-methylcatechol and 3-hydroxybenzaldehyde as well. Regarding oak wood, its qualitative volatile profile could be enough to distinguish it from cherry and acacia woods, and the quantitative differences from chestnut (vanillyl ethyl ether, isoacetovanillone, butirovanillone, 1-(5-methyl-2-furyl)-2-propanone and 4-hydroxy-5,6-dihydro-(2H)-pyran-2-one) and ash toasted woods.

  17. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Acacia leucophloea extract and their antibacterial activity

    PubMed Central

    Murugan, Kasi; Senthilkumar, Balakrishnan; Senbagam, Duraisamy; Al-Sohaibani, Saleh

    2014-01-01

    The immense potential of nanobiotechnology makes it an intensely researched field in modern medicine. Green nanomaterial synthesis techniques for medicinal applications are desired because of their biocompatibility and lack of toxic byproducts. We report the toxic byproducts free phytosynthesis of stable silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using the bark extract of the traditional medicinal plant Acacia leucophloea (Fabaceae). Visual observation, ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to characterize the synthesized AgNPs. The visible yellow-brown color formation and surface plasmon resonance at 440 nm indicates the biosynthesis of AgNP. The TEM images show polydisperse, mostly spherical AgNP particles of 17–29 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed that primary amines, aldehyde/ketone, aromatic, azo, and nitro compounds of the A. leucophloea extract may participate in the bioreduction and capping of the formed AgNPs. X-ray diffraction confirmed the crystallinity of the AgNPs. The in vitro agar well diffusion method confirmed the potential antibacterial activity of the plant extract and synthesized AgNPs against the common bacterial pathogens Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 737), Bacillus cereus (MTCC 1272), Listeria monocytogenes (MTCC 657), and Shigella flexneri (MTCC 1475). This research combines the inherent antimicrobial activity of silver metals with the A. leucophloea extract, yielding antibacterial activity-enhanced AgNPs. This new biomimetic approach using traditional medicinal plant (A. leucophloea) barks to synthesize biocompatible antibacterial AgNPs could easily be scaled up for additional biomedical applications. These polydisperse AgNPs green-synthesized via A. leucophloea bark extract can readily be used in many applications not requiring high uniformity in particle size or shape. PMID:24876776

  18. In vitro propagation of Acacia mangium and A. mangium × A. auriculiformis.

    PubMed

    Monteuuis, Olivier; Galiana, Antoine; Goh, Doreen

    2013-01-01

    Acacia mangium and A. mangium × A. auriculiformis hybrids have gained an increasing interest in reafforestation programs under the humid tropical conditions, mainly for pulpwood production. This is due to their impressive growth on acid and degraded soils, as well as their capability to restore soil fertility thanks to their natural nitrogen-fixing ability. It is crucial to develop efficient methods for improving the genetic quality and the mass production of the planting stocks of these species. In this regard, in vitro micropropagation is well suited to overcome the limitations of more conventional techniques for mass propagating vegetatively selected juvenile, mature, or even transgenic genotypes. Micropropagation of A. mangium either from seeds or from explants collected from outdoors is initiated on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with 4.4 μM BA. Microshoot cultures produced by axillary budding are further developed and maintained by regular subcultures every 60 days onto fresh MS culture medium added with 2.2 μM BA + 0.1 μM NAA. This procedure enhances the organogenic capacity for shoot multiplication by axillary budding, with average multiplication rates of 3-5 every 2 months, as well as for adventitious rooting. The rooting is initiated on Schenk and Hildebrandt culture medium containing 4 μM IAA. The maintenance of shoot cultures in total darkness for 3 weeks increases the rooting rates reaching more than 70%. The hybrid A. mangium × A. auriculiformis genotypes are subcultured at 2-month intervals with an average multiplication rate of 3 and rooting rates of 95-100% on a half-strength MS basal medium containing 1.1 μM NAA. The rooted microshoots are transferred to ex vitro controlled conditions for acclimatization and further growth, prior to transfer to the field, or use as stock plants for cost-effective and true-to-type mass production by rooted cuttings.

  19. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Acacia leucophloea extract and their antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Murugan, Kasi; Senthilkumar, Balakrishnan; Senbagam, Duraisamy; Al-Sohaibani, Saleh

    2014-01-01

    The immense potential of nanobiotechnology makes it an intensely researched field in modern medicine. Green nanomaterial synthesis techniques for medicinal applications are desired because of their biocompatibility and lack of toxic byproducts. We report the toxic byproducts free phytosynthesis of stable silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using the bark extract of the traditional medicinal plant Acacia leucophloea (Fabaceae). Visual observation, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to characterize the synthesized AgNPs. The visible yellow-brown color formation and surface plasmon resonance at 440 nm indicates the biosynthesis of AgNP. The TEM images show polydisperse, mostly spherical AgNP particles of 17-29 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed that primary amines, aldehyde/ketone, aromatic, azo, and nitro compounds of the A. leucophloea extract may participate in the bioreduction and capping of the formed AgNPs. X-ray diffraction confirmed the crystallinity of the AgNPs. The in vitro agar well diffusion method confirmed the potential antibacterial activity of the plant extract and synthesized AgNPs against the common bacterial pathogens Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 737), Bacillus cereus (MTCC 1272), Listeria monocytogenes (MTCC 657), and Shigella flexneri (MTCC 1475). This research combines the inherent antimicrobial activity of silver metals with the A. leucophloea extract, yielding antibacterial activity-enhanced AgNPs. This new biomimetic approach using traditional medicinal plant (A. leucophloea) barks to synthesize biocompatible antibacterial AgNPs could easily be scaled up for additional biomedical applications. These polydisperse AgNPs green-synthesized via A. leucophloea bark extract can readily be used in many applications not requiring high uniformity in particle size or shape.

  20. Rangewide ploidy variation and evolution in Acacia senegal: a north–south divide?

    PubMed Central

    Odee, David W.; Wilson, Julia; Omondi, Stephen; Perry, Annika; Cavers, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of rangewide variation in DNA content and ploidy level may be valuable in understanding the evolutionary history of a species. Recent studies of Acacia senegal report diploids and occasional tetraploids in the Sudano-Sahelian region of sub-Saharan Africa, but nothing is known about the overall extent of DNA ploidy variation within the species. In this study, we determine the DNA content and ploidy level of A. senegal across its native range, and explore whether the variation is related to its evolutionary and colonization history. We used propidium iodide flow cytometry (FCM) to estimate DNA content (2C value) and infer ploidy in 157 individuals from 54 populations on various tissues, using seeds, fresh leaves, dried leaves and twigs and herbarium specimens. The mean 2C DNA (pg ± s.d.) contents detected were 1.47 ± 0.09, 2.12 ± 0.02, 2.89 ± 0.12, and a single individual with 4.51 pg, corresponding to a polyploid series of diploid, triploid, tetraploid and hexaploid individuals. Diploids were confirmed by chromosome counts (2n = 2x = 26). Most populations (90.7 %) were of single ploidy level, while mixed ploidy populations (9.3 %) comprising mostly diploids (2x+3x, 2x+4x and 2x+6x) were restricted to the Sudano-Sahelian and Indian subcontinent regions, its northern range. The species is predominantly diploid, and no mixed ploidy populations were detected in east and southern Africa, its southern range. The geographic pattern of ploidy variation in conjunction with existing phylogeographic and phylogenetic data of the species suggests that polyploids have occurred multiple times in its evolutionary and recent colonization history, including contemporary ecological timescales. The successful use of external tissues of dried twigs in FCM is new, and presents the opportunity to study numerous other dryland woody species. PMID:25680798

  1. Polar extracts from (Tunisian) Acacia salicina Lindl. Study of the antimicrobial and antigenotoxic activities

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Methanolic, aqueous and Total Oligomer Flavonoids (TOF)-enriched extracts obtained from the leaves of Acacia salicina 'Lindl.' were investigated for antibacterial, antimutagenic and antioxidant activities. Methods The antimicrobial activity was tested on the Gram positive and Gram negative reference bacterial strains. The Mutagenic and antimutagenic activities against direct acting mutagens, methylmethane sulfonate (MMS) and 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine (NOPD), and indirect acting mutagens, 2-aminoanthracene (2-AA) and benzo[a]pyrene (B(a)P) were performed with S. typhimurium TA102 and TA98 assay systems. In addition, the enzymatic and nonenzymatic methods were employed to evaluate the anti-oxidative effects of the tested extracts. Results A significant effect against the Gram positive and Gram negative reference bacterial strains was observed with all the extracts. The mutagenic and antimutagenic studies revealed that all the extracts decreased the mutagenicity induced by B(a)P (7.5 μg/plate), 2-AA (5 μg/plate), MMS (1.3 mg/plate) and NOPD (10 μg/plate). Likewise, all the extracts showed an important free radical scavenging activity towards the superoxide anion generated by the xanthine/xanthine oxidase assay system, as well as high Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC), against the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS)+• radical. TOF-enriched extract exhibited the highest protective effect against free radicals, direct acting-mutagen and metabolically activated S9-dependent mutagens. Conclusions The present study indicates that the extracts from A. salicina leaves are a significant source of compounds with the antimutagenic and antioxidant activities, and this may be useful for developing potential chemopreventive substances. PMID:22490278

  2. Morphologies and elemental compositions of calcium crystals in phyllodes and branchlets of Acacia robeorum (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae)

    PubMed Central

    He, Honghua; Bleby, Timothy M.; Veneklaas, Erik J.; Lambers, Hans; Kuo, John

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Formation of calcium oxalate crystals is common in the plant kingdom, but biogenic formation of calcium sulfate crystals in plants is rare. We investigated the morphologies and elemental compositions of crystals found in phyllodes and branchlets of Acacia robeorum, a desert shrub of north-western Australia. Methods Morphologies of crystals in phyllodes and branchlets of A. robeorum were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and elemental compositions of the crystals were identified by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Distributional patterns of the crystals were studied using optical microscopy together with SEM. Key Results According to the elemental compositions, the crystals were classified into three groups: (1) calcium oxalate; (2) calcium sulfate, which is a possible mixture of calcium sulfate and calcium oxalate with calcium sulfate being the major component; and (3) calcium sulfate · magnesium oxalate, presumably mixtures of calcium sulfate, calcium oxalate, magnesium oxalate and silica. The crystals were of various morphologies, including prisms, raphides, styloids, druses, crystal sand, spheres and clusters. Both calcium oxalate and calcium sulfate crystals were observed in almost all tissues, including mesophyll, parenchyma, sclerenchyma (fibre cells), pith, pith ray and cortex; calcium sulfate · magnesium oxalate crystals were only found in mesophyll and parenchyma cells in phyllodes. Conclusions The formation of most crystals was biologically induced, as confirmed by studying the crystals formed in the phyllodes from seedlings grown in a glasshouse. The crystals may have functions in removing excess calcium, magnesium and sulfur, protecting the plants against herbivory, and detoxifying aluminium and heavy metals. PMID:22294477

  3. Topical treatment of major omphalocoele: Acacia nilotica versus povidone-iodine: A randomised controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Eltayeb, Almoutaz A.; Mostafa, Mahmoud M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Conservative management for major omphalocoele with topical agents as escharotics therapy is well established in practice. Different agents have been used in the past, including mercurochrome and alcohol, proved later to be unsafe. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the application of Acacia nilotica paste compared to povidone-iodine solution as a primary non-surgical treatment of major omphalocoele. Patients and Methods: A double-blind, randomised study was conducted on 24 cases of major omphalocoele where they were randomly divided into two equal groups; Group A treated with topical application of A. nilotica paste and Group B treated with topical application of povidone-iodine solution. Cases with gastroschisis, ruptured major omphalocoele or minor omphalocoele were excluded from the study. The evaluating parameters were size of the fascial defect in cm, period of mechanical ventilation if needed, time required for full oral feeding tolerance, duration of hospital stay and any short- or long-term complications. Results: There was no statistical significant difference between both groups regarding their gestational or post-natal age, weight and the mean umbilical port defect. Patients from Group A tolerated full oral feeding earlier and had shorter total hospital stay duration than those from Group B, but without a statistical significant difference (P = 0.347 and 0.242, respectively). The overall mortality rate was 33.3% without a statistical significant difference between both groups (P = 0.667). Conclusions: Application of A. nilotica is a safe and effective treatment of major omphalocoele as it was associated with rapid full enteral feeding tolerance, short duration of hospital stay and low mortality rate. PMID:26712288

  4. Does Swimming Exercise Affect Experimental Chronic Kidney Disease in Rats Treated with Gum Acacia?

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Badreldin H.; Al-Salam, Suhail; Al Za'abi, Mohammed; Al Balushi, Khalid A.; Ramkumar, Aishwarya; Waly, Mostafa I.; Yasin, Javid; Adham, Sirin A.; Nemmar, Abderrahim

    2014-01-01

    Different modes of exercise are reported to be beneficial in subjects with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Similar benefits have also been ascribed to the dietary supplement gum acacia (GA). Using several physiological, biochemical, immunological, and histopathological measurements, we assessed the effect of swimming exercise (SE) on adenine –induced CKD, and tested whether SE would influence the salutary action of GA in rats with CKD. Eight groups of rats were used, the first four of which were fed normal chow for 5 weeks, feed mixed with adenine (0.25% w/w) to induce CKD, GA in the drinking water (15% w/v), or were given adenine plus GA, as above. Another four groups were similarly treated, but were subjected to SE during the experimental period, while the first four groups remained sedentary. The pre-SE program lasted for four days (before the start of the experimental treatments), during which the rats were made to swim for 5 to 10 min, and then gradually extended to 20 min per day. Thereafter, the rats in the 5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th groups started to receive their respective treatments, and were subjected to SE three days a week for 45 min each. Adenine induced the typical signs of CKD as confirmed by histopathology, and the other measurements, and GA significantly ameliorated all these signs. SE did not affect the salutary action of GA on renal histology, but it partially improved some of the above biochemical and physiological analytes, suggesting that addition of this mode of exercise to GA supplementation may improve further the benefits of GA supplementation. PMID:25048380

  5. Hepatoprotective and Antiviral Efficacy of Acacia mellifera Leaves Fractions against Hepatitis B Virus

    PubMed Central

    Arbab, Ahmed H.; Parvez, Mohammad K.; Al-Dosari, Mohammed S.; Al-Rehaily, Adnan J.; Al-Sohaibani, Mohammed; Zaroug, Elwaleed E.; AlSaid, Mansour S.; Rafatullah, Syed

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the hepatoprotective and anti-HBV efficacy of Acacia mellifera (AM) leaves extracts. The crude ethanolic-extract, including organic and aqueous fractions, were tested for cytotoxicity on HepG2 and HepG2.2.15 cells (IC50 = 684 μg/mL). Of these, the ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions showed the most promising, dose-dependent hepatoprotection in DCFH-toxicated cells at 48 h. In CCl4-injured rats, oral administration of AM ethanol extract (250 and 500 mg/kg·bw) for three weeks significantly normalized the sera aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, cholesterol, triglycerides, and lipoprotein levels and elevated tissue nonprotein sulphydryl and total protein. The histopathology of dissected livers also revealed that AM cured the tissue lesions. The phytochemical screening of the fractions showed presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, sterols, and saponins. Further, anti-HBV potential of the fractions was evaluated on HepG2.2.15 cells. Of these, the n-butanol and aqueous fractions exhibited the best inhibitory effects on HBsAg and HBeAg expressions in dose- and time-dependent manner. Taken together, while the ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions exhibited the most promising antioxidant/hepatoprotective and anti-HBV activity, respectively, the n-butanol partition showed both activities. Therefore, the therapeutic potential of AM extracts warrants further isolation of the active principle(s) and its phytochemical as well as biological studies. PMID:25950002

  6. DNA barcoding for conservation, seed banking and ecological restoration of Acacia in the Midwest of Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Nevill, Paul G; Wallace, Mark J; Miller, Joseph T; Krauss, Siegfried L

    2013-11-01

    We used DNA barcoding to address an important conservation issue in the Midwest of Western Australia, working on Australia's largest genus of flowering plant. We tested whether or not currently recommended plant DNA barcoding regions (matK and rbcL) were able to discriminate Acacia taxa of varying phylogenetic distances, and ultimately identify an ambiguously labelled seed collection from a mine-site restoration project. Although matK successfully identified the unknown seed as the rare and conservation priority listed A. karina, and was able to resolve six of the eleven study species, this region was difficult to amplify and sequence. In contrast, rbcL was straightforward to recover and align, but could not determine the origin of the seed and only resolved 3 of the 11 species. Other chloroplast regions (rpl32-trnL, psbA-trnH, trnL-F and trnK) had mixed success resolving the studied taxa. In general, species were better resolved in multilocus data sets compared to single-locus data sets. We recommend using the formal barcoding regions supplemented with data from other plastid regions, particularly rpl32-trnL, for barcoding in Acacia. Our study demonstrates the novel use of DNA barcoding for seed identification and illustrates the practical potential of DNA barcoding for the growing discipline of restoration ecology.

  7. Characterization and emulsifying properties of β-lactoglobulin-gum Acacia Seyal conjugates prepared via the Maillard reaction.

    PubMed

    Bi, Binwei; Yang, Hao; Fang, Yapeng; Nishinari, Katsuyoshi; Phillips, Glyn O

    2017-01-01

    Gum Acacia Seyal (ASY) is less valued than is gum Acacia Senegal, due to its poor emulsifying ability. The present study investigated the Maillard reaction between ASY and β-lactoglobulin (BLG) and its impact on the emulsifying properties of ASY. The reaction products of BLG/ASY mixture (r=1/4), prepared by dry-heating at 60°C and a relative humidity of 79%, as a function of incubation time, were characterized by SDS-PAGE, GPC-MALLS and DSC. The results showed that 12-24h of dry-heating under the given conditions was sufficient for conjugation, meanwhile avoiding the formation of deeply coloured and insoluble melanoidins. More than 64% of the protein was incorporated into ASY, resulting in a two-fold increase in arabinogalactan-protein (AGP) content and 3.5 times increase in weight-average molecular mass of ASY. The conjugation with BLG markedly improved the stability of ASY-stabilized emulsions and their resistance against severe conditions, such as low pH and high saline conditions.

  8. Characterization and symbiotic importance of acidic extracellular polysaccharides of Rhizobium sp. strain GRH2 isolated from acacia nodules.

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Lara, I M; Orgambide, G; Dazzo, F B; Olivares, J; Toro, N

    1993-01-01

    Rhizobium sp. wild-type strain GRH2 was originally isolated from root nodules of the leguminous tree Acacia cyanophylla and has a broad host range which includes herbaceous legumes, e.g., Trifolium spp. We examined the extracellular exopolysaccharides (EPSs) produced by strain GRH2 and found three independent glycosidic structures: a high-molecular-weight acidic heteropolysaccharide which is very similar to the acidic EPS produced by Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar trifolii ANU843, a low-molecular-weight native heterooligosaccharide resembling a dimer of the repeat unit of the high-molecular-weight EPS, and low-molecular-weight neutral beta (1,2)-glucans. A Tn5 insertion mutant derivative of GRH2 (exo-57) that fails to form acidic heteropolysaccharides was obtained. This Exo- mutant formed nitrogen-fixing nodules on Acacia plants but infected a smaller proportion of cells in the central zone of the nodules than did wild-type GRH2. In addition, the exo-57 mutant failed to nodulate several herbaceous legume hosts that are nodulated by wild-type strain GRH2. Images PMID:8491702

  9. Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Fingerprinting for Identification of Acacia Gum in Microsamples from Works of Art.

    PubMed

    Granzotto, Clara; Sutherland, Ken

    2017-03-07

    This paper reports an improved method for the identification of Acacia gum in cultural heritage samples using matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) after enzymatic digestion of the polysaccharide component. The analytical strategy was optimized using a reference Acacia gum (gum arabic, sp. A. senegal) and provided an unambiguous MS profile of the gum, characterized by specific and recognized oligosaccharides, from as little as 0.1 μg of material. The enhanced experimental approach with reduced detection limit was successfully applied to the analysis of naturally aged (∼80 year) gum arabic samples, pure and mixed with lead white pigment, and allowed the detection of gum arabic in samples from a late painting (1949/1954) by Georges Braque in the collection of the Art Institute of Chicago. This first application of the technique to characterize microsamples from a painting, in conjunction with analyses by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), provided important insights into Braque's unusual mixed paint media that are also helpful to inform appropriate conservation treatments for his works. The robustness of the analytical strategy due to the reproducibility of the gum MS profile, even in the presence of other organic and inorganic components, together with the minimal sample size required, demonstrate the value of this new MALDI-TOF MS method as an analytical tool for the identification of gum arabic in microsamples from museum artifacts.

  10. Contrasting Influences of Geographic Range and Distribution of Populations on Patterns of Genetic Diversity in Two Sympatric Pilbara Acacias

    PubMed Central

    Levy, E.; Byrne, M.; Coates, D. J.; Macdonald, B. M.; McArthur, S.; van Leeuwen, S.

    2016-01-01

    The influence of geographic range on species persistence has long been of interest and there is a need for a better understanding of the genetic consequences for species with restricted distributions, particularly with the increasing rate of global species extinctions. However, the genetic effects of restricted range are often confounded by the impacts of population distribution. We compared chloroplast and nuclear genetic diversity and differentiation in two acacias, the restricted, patchily distributed Acacia atkinsiana and the widespread, semi-continuously distributed A. ancistrocarpa. Lower intra-population diversity and higher differentiation between populations were seen in A. atkinsiana compared to its widespread congener, A. ancistrocarpa. There was little evidence of geographical influences on population genetic structure in A. ancistrocarpa whereas A. atkinsiana exhibited nuclear genetic structure with isolation by distance, differentiation of near-coastal populations from those in the ranges, and differentiation of peripheral populations from those in the centre of the distribution. These results are consistent with expectations of the effect of geographic range and population distribution on genetic diversity, but indicate that distribution of populations rather than geographic range has influenced the observed genetic structure. The contrasting patterns observed here demonstrate that conservation approaches for species management and ecological restoration need to consider the distribution of populations in geographically restricted species. PMID:27768703

  11. Argentinean native wood species: Physical and mechanical characterization of some Prosopis species and Acacia aroma (Leguminosae; Mimosoideae).

    PubMed

    Pometti, Carolina L; Pizzo, Benedetto; Brunetti, Michele; Macchioni, Nicola; Ewens, Mauricio; Saidman, Beatriz O

    2009-03-01

    One of the problems in marketing the wood of Prosopis and Acacia is the lack of standardization of its qualities. The aim of this paper was to obtain a preliminary detection of some properties of the wood of four species of the genus Prosopis and one species from Acacia grown in Argentina. To accomplish this objective, the content of extractives and some physical and mechanical characteristics were analyzed. The density rho(12) of all the species indicates that these woods range from heavy to very heavy (>or=0.69g/cm(3)). The total volumetric shrinkage values are low, less than 10%, for all species. The parallel compression strength and the shear strength for all the species indicate a very resistant wood (>or=46.93MPa and >or=18.35MPa, respectively). Brinell hardness was higher than 5kg/mm(2) in all cases. The species with less content of extractives is P. ruscifolia (approximately 9% of anhydrous mass) whereas A. aroma was the one with the greatest content (approximately 25% of anhydrous mass in the heartwood).

  12. Impact of an exotic N2-fixing Acacia on composition and N status of a native Mediterranean community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellmann, Christine; Sutter, Rabea; Rascher, Katherine G.; Máguas, Cristina; Correia, Otilia; Werner, Christiane

    2011-01-01

    Nitrogen fixing plant species are among the most invasive species worldwide. However, field studies directly estimating the differential effect of native versus invasive exotic N2-fixing plants on plant communities are lacking. The exotic leguminous shrub Acacia longifolia invades coastal dunes across Portugal often co-existing with the native N2-fixer Stauracanthus spectabilis. Moreover, this co-existence with native species is possible due to a relatively low cover of Acacia species particularly in the south of Portugal where drought is intense. In this study we compare the impact of two different legume species (native and exotic) on the nitrogen status of a protected Mediterranean dune system. We document how presence of the exotic invader A. longifolia impacted community structure, soil properties and the foliar nitrogen concentrations and growth rates of native species. A. longifolia invaded areas had decreased biodiversity, fewer seedlings and altered soil properties (e.g., increased soil organic matter, NO3- and NH4+). A. longifolia presence was also associated with significant increases in foliar nitrogen content and δ15N of the endemic shrub Corema album while presence of the native legume Stauracanthus spectabilis had no discernible impact on C. album. Furthermore, a strong correlation between increased foliar nitrogen and enhanced growth rates in C. album indicate a facilitative effect of A. longifolia on this native shrub. We posit that the combination of nitrogen fixation, a rapid growth rate and production of a thick litter layer result in a very substantial impact of the invader in invaded ecosystems.

  13. Studies on Antimicrobial and Immunomodulatory Effects of Hot Aqueous Extract of Acacia nilotica L. Leaves against Common Veterinary Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Arvind Kumar; Kumar, Amit; Yadav, Sharad Kumar; Rahal, Anu

    2014-01-01

    Acacia nilotica is a plant species that is almost ubiquitously found in different parts of the world. Various preparations of it have been advocated in folk medicine for the treatment of tuberculosis, leprosy, smallpox, dysentery, cough, ophthalmia, toothache, skin cancer as astringent, antispasmodic, and aphrodisiac since immemorial times. The present study investigates the antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and immunomodulatory potential of hot aqueous extract (HAE) of Acacia nilotica leaves. On dry matter basis, the filtered HAE had a good extraction ratio (33.46%) and was found to have carbohydrates, glycosides, phytosterols, phenolic compounds, saponins, and flavonoids as major constituents. HAE produced dose dependent zone of inhibition against Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, E. coli, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus uberis and fungal pathogens Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus fumigates; however, no antiviral activity was recorded against IBR virus. HAE of A. nilotica revealed both proliferative and inhibitory effects on the rat splenocytes and IL-10 release depending on the dose. Detailed studies involving wide spectrum of bacterial, fungal, and viral species are required to prove or know the exact status of each constituents of the plant extract. PMID:24804150

  14. Acacia koa forest classification and productivity assessment across environmental gradients in Hawaii using fine resolution remotely sensed imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez Morales, R.; Idol, T.; Chen, Q.

    2009-05-01

    Koa (Acacia koa) is an important native tree species in Hawaii economically and ecologically. Different Acacia koa (koa) forest types are found across the elevation and rainfall gradients typical of the Hawaiian Islands. The purpose of this study was to develop methodologies to differentiate these forests and to assess indices and indicators of forest productivity across these gradients using fine resolution remotely sensed imagery. IKONOS satellite imagery was analyzed using advanced statistical modeling and compared to field measurements of productivity indices. The calculation of several vegetation indices that are commonly used in vegetation studies, allowed classification of various koa forest types into micro-regions in wet and dry locations across elevation gradients ranging from 300-850 m. Vegetation indices and image texture parameters strongly related to tree height, N, P and specific leaf area and less strongly with leaf area index and basal area across gradient sites. This allowed development of statistical models that can be used in the assessment of koa forest productivity indices at landscape and regional scales. This will also allow for the application of specific forest management strategies suitable to the environmental conditions and plant requirements for optimal tree growth in each micro-region.

  15. Genetic connectivity and diversity in inselberg populations of Acacia woodmaniorum, a rare endemic of the Yilgarn Craton banded iron formations

    PubMed Central

    Millar, M A; Coates, D J; Byrne, M

    2013-01-01

    Historically rare plant species with disjunct population distributions and small population sizes might be expected to show significant genetic structure and low levels of genetic diversity because of the effects of inbreeding and genetic drift. Across the globe, terrestrial inselbergs are habitat for rich, often rare and endemic flora and are valuable systems for investigating evolutionary processes that shape patterns of genetic structure and levels of genetic diversity at the landscape scale. We assessed genetic structure and levels of genetic diversity across the range of the historically rare inselberg endemic Acacia woodmaniorum. Phylogeographic and genetic structure indicates that connectivity is not sufficient to produce a panmictic population across the limited geographic range of the species. However, historical levels of gene flow are sufficient to maintain a high degree of adaptive connectivity across the landscape. Genetic diversity indicates gene flow is sufficient to largely counteract any negative genetic effects of inbreeding and random genetic drift in even the most disjunct or smallest populations. Phylogeographic and genetic structure, a signal of isolation by distance and a lack of evidence of recent genetic bottlenecks suggest long-term stability of contemporary population distributions and population sizes. There is some evidence that genetic connectivity among disjunct outcrops may be facilitated by the occasional long distance dispersal of Acacia polyads carried by insect pollinators moved by prevailing winds. PMID:23860233

  16. Development of a Model for Estimation of Acacia Senegal Tree Biomass Using Allometry and Aster Satellite Imagery at Ennuhud, West Kordofan State, Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elamin, Hatim; Elnour Adam, Hassan; Csaplovics, Elmar

    The current paper deals with the development of a biomass model for Acacia senegal trees by applying allometric equations for ground data combined with ASTER satellite data sets. The current study is conducted around Ennuhud area which is located in Ennuhud locality in West Kordofan State, Sudan. Primary data are obtained by application of random sampling around Ennuhud town where Acacia senegal tree species is abundant. Ten sample units are taken. Each unit contains five sample plots (15x15 m), one in the centre and the others in the four directions 100 m away from the centre forming a total of 50 sample plots. The tree coordinates, diameter/diameters (diameter at breast height ≥ 5 cm), height and crown diameters will be recorded. Sensor data were acquired from ASTER remote sensing satellite (29.03.2007 & 26.01.2011) and integrated with the in-situ data. The expected findings allow for the calculation of the mean diameter of trees. The tree above ground biomass (TAGB), tree below ground biomass (TBGB) and the tree total biomass (TTB) of Acacia senegal are computed consequently. Remotely sensed data are integrated with the ground data for creating the data base for calculating the correlation of the relationship between the two methods of data collection. The application of allometric equations is useful as a non-destructive method for biomass estimation by the application of remote sensing is recommended for biomass modelling over large areas. Keywords: Biomass model, Acacia senegal tree, remote sensing, Ennuhud, North Kordofan

  17. Interaction between ungulates and bruchid beetles and its effect on Acacia trees: modeling the costs and benefits of seed dispersal to plant demography.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Javier; Wiegand, Kerstin; Ward, David

    2011-09-01

    Integrative studies of plant-animal interactions that incorporate the multiple effects of interactions are important for discerning the importance of each factor within the population dynamics of a plant species. The low regeneration capacity of many Acacia species in arid savannas is a consequence of a combination of reduction in seed dispersal and high seed predation. Here we studied how ungulates (acting as both seed dispersers and herbivores) and bruchid beetles (post-dispersal seed predators) modulate the population dynamics of A. raddiana, a keystone species in the Middle East. We developed two simulation models of plant demography: the first included seed ingestion by ungulates and seed predation by bruchids, whereas the second model additionally incorporated herbivory by ungulates. We also included the interacting effects of seed removal and body mass, because larger ungulates destroy proportionally fewer seeds and enhance seed germination. Simulations showed that the negative effect of seed predation on acacia population size was compensated for by the positive effect of seed ingestion at 50 and 30% seed removal under scenarios with and without herbivory, respectively. Smaller ungulates (e.g., <35 kg) must necessarily remove tenfold more seeds than larger ungulates (e.g., >250 kg) to compensate for the negative effect of seed predation. Seedling proportion increased with seed removal in the model with herbivory. Managing and restoring acacia seed dispersers is key to conserving acacia populations, because low-to-medium seed removal could quickly restore their regeneration capacity.

  18. Effect of feeding Acacia nilotica pod meal on hematobiochemical profile and fecal egg count in goats

    PubMed Central

    Paswan, Jitendra Kumar; Kumar, Kaushalendra; Kumar, Sanjay; Chandramoni; Kumar, Abhishek; Kumar, Deepak; Kumar, Ajit

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study was conducted to observe the effect of feeding Acacia nilotica pod meal on hematobiochemical profile and gastrointestinal parasitic load in growing goats. Materials and Methods: To experiment was conducted for a period of 3-month on 24 male goats (3½ month old, average body weight [BW] 6.50±1.50 kg), distributed into four groups of six animals each. The experimental animals were fed graded level of A. nilotica pod meal (0%, 10%, 20% and 30%) mixed in concentrate mixture equivalent to tannin concentration of 0%, 1.91%, 3.82% and 5.73% in the total mixed ration I, II, III and IV, respectively, but ad libitum measured quantity of green sorghum fodder (Sorghum bicolor) feeding. The blood samples were collected from experimental goats during the feeding experiment for the examination of different hematological indices and serum biochemical profile to know the overall health status of animals and standard method was followed to analyze the samples. Fecal sample was collected directly from the anus of goats by inserting middle finger and kept the samples in labeled polythene bag. Further fresh sample was processed and examined by McMaster Technique for eggs per gram and oocysts per gram. It gives accurate information regarding severity of infection. Results: The feeding of babul pod meal did not address significant changes about the hematological parameters among various treatment groups. The lymphocyte count was significantly higher (p=0.07) in T3 group as compared to control and increase with increase in level of babul pod meal in the diet. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) level was 4.86 and 6.59% lower in T1 and T2 group as compared to control and inversely proportional with level of supplement in ration. The decrease in BUN reflected good dietary protein metabolism happened in animals supplemented with babul pod meal. Serum creatinine level was significantly lower (p<0.01) in T2 group as compared to control. The creatinine level was 20.17% lower in T2 group

  19. Acacia senegal gum exudate offers protection against cyclophosphamide-induced urinary bladder cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Al-Yahya, Abdulaziz A; Al-Majed, Abdulhakeem A; Gado, Ali M; Daba, Mohammad H; Al-Shabanah, Othman A; El-Azab, Adel S

    2009-01-01

    Cylophosphamide (CYCL) is a strong anticancer and immunosuppressive agent but its urotoxicity presents one of the major toxic effects that limit its wide usage particularly in high dose regimens. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate Acacia Senegal gum exudate, Gum Arabic (GA), for its possible role as a natural, nontoxic agent against CYCL-induced urotoxicity. Male Swiss albino rats were exposed to CYCL (150 mg/kg BW, once i.p) with or without GA oral supplementation (7.5 g/kg/day for 6 days) through drinking water. Glutathione (GSH), Malondialdehyde (MDA) and Nitric oxide (NO) bladder contents were assessed. Responsiveness of the bladder rings to acetylcholine (ACh) in vitro, microscopic and macroscopic features are also investigated. CYCL produced pronounced harmful effects on bladder urothelial lining with significant increases in (MDA) and NO levels in the tissue homogenates. Bladder-GSH content is dropped by over 60% following CYCL injection. Bladder contractility, as measured by its responsiveness to ACh, recorded a marked reduction. The isolated bladders exhibited such macroscopic changes as severe edema, inflammation and extravasation. The bladder weight increased as well. Histological changes were evident in the form of severe congestion, petechial hemorrhage and chronic inflammatory reaction in the lamina propria accompanied with desquamated epithelia. GA, a potential protective agent, produced an almost complete reversal of NO induction, lipid peroxidation or cellular GSH bladder contents in the GA + CYCL-treated group. Likewise, bladder inflammation and edema were reduced. Bladder rings showed a remarkable recovery in their responsiveness to ACh. Bladder histological examination showed a near normal configuration and structural integrity, with a significant reduction in inflammation and disappearance of focal erosions. These remarkable effects of GA may be attributed to its ability to neutralize acrolein, the reactive metabolite of CYCL and/or the

  20. Contain or eradicate? Optimizing the management goal for Australian acacia invasions in the face of uncertainty

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, J.L.; Runge, M.C.; Webber, B.L.; Wilson, J.R.U.

    2011-01-01

    Aim To identify whether eradication or containment is expected to be the most cost-effective management goal for an isolated invasive population when knowledge about the current extent is uncertain. Location Global and South Africa. Methods We developed a decision analysis framework to analyse the best management goal for an invasive species population (eradication, containment or take no action) when knowledge about the current extent is uncertain. We used value of information analysis to identify when investment in learning about the extent will improve this decision-making and tested the sensitivity of the conclusions to different parameters (e.g. spread rate, maximum extent, and management efficacy and cost). The model was applied to Acacia paradoxa DC, an Australian shrub with an estimated invasive extent of 310ha on Table Mountain, South Africa. Results Under the parameters used, attempting eradication is cost-effective for infestations of up to 777ha. However, if the invasion extent is poorly known, then attempting eradication is only cost-effective for infestations estimated as 296ha or smaller. The value of learning is greatest (maximum of 8% saving) when infestation extent is poorly known and if it is close to the maximum extent for which attempting eradication is optimal. The optimal management action is most sensitive to the probability that the action succeeds (which depends on the extent), with the discount rate and cost of management also important, but spread rate less so. Over a 20-year time-horizon, attempting to eradicate A. paradoxa from South Africa is predicted to cost on average ZAR 8 million if the extent is known, and if our current estimate is poor, ZAR 33.6 million as opposed to ZAR 32.8 million for attempting containment. Main conclusions Our framework evaluates the cost-effectiveness of attempting eradication or containment of an invasive population that takes uncertainty in population extent into account. We show that incorporating

  1. Does Acacia dealbata express shade tolerance in Mediterranean forest ecosystems of South America?

    PubMed Central

    Aguilera, Narciso; Sanhueza, Carolina; Guedes, Lubia M; Becerra, José; Carrasco, Sebastián; Hernández, Víctor

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of Acacia dealbata Link (Fabaceae) in its non-native range is associated with disturbed areas. However, the possibility that it can penetrate the native forest during the invasion process cannot be ruled out. This statement is supported by the fact that this species has been experimentally established successfully under the canopy of native forest. Nonetheless, it is unknown whether A. dealbata can express shade tolerance traits to help increase its invasive potential. We investigated the shade tolerance of A. dealbata under the canopy of two native forests and one non-native for three consecutive years, as well as its early growth and photosynthetic performance at low light intensities (9, 30, and 70 μmol m−2sec−1) under controlled conditions. We found many A. dealbata plants surviving and growing under the canopy of native and non-native forests. The number of plants of this invasive species remained almost constant under the canopy of native forests during the years of study. However, the largest number of A. dealbata plants was found under the canopy of non-native forest. In every case, the distribution pattern varied with a highest density of plants in forest edges decreasing progressively toward the inside. Germination and early growth of A. dealbata were slow but successful at three low light intensities tested under controlled conditions. For all tested light regimes, we observed that in this species, most of the energy was dissipated by photochemical processes, in accordance with the high photosynthetic rates that this plant showed, despite the really low light intensities under which it was grown. Our study reveals that A. dealbata expressed shade tolerance traits under the canopy of native and non-native forests. This behavior is supported by the efficient photosynthetic performance that A. dealbata showed at low light intensities. Therefore, these results suggest that Mediterranean forest ecosystems of South America can become

  2. Modelling stomatal conductance in Acacia caven: A two way approach to understand vapor fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raab, N.; Meza, F. J.

    2012-12-01

    Evapotranspiration fluxes from semi arid ecosystems show a strong interannual variability and dependence on water availability. Usually this variable is regarded as very small but at local scale could substantially affect water balance at basin level. Climate Change scenarios for these regions are a source of concern as they project an increase in temperature, leading to a greater atmospheric water demand. In addition, precipitation is expected to decrease, increasing pressure for this kind of ecosystems. At a plant level, a rise on the actual atmospheric CO2 concentration is expected to improve photosynthetic performance and water use efficiency. However, as stomatal conductance is the main pathway for water vapor flux, from the leaf to the atmosphere, and CO2 entrance to the substomatal cavity, a larger control of the stomatal opening, due to a severe water control lost from the plant, could lead to shortages in net assimilation, jeopardizing the behavior of Semi Arid ecosystems as natural carbon sinks. Stoma is also one of the main lock of the soil-plant-water continuum, thus finally controlling the rate of soil water depletion. Its modeling presents a key role in determining future groundwater availability and net ecosystem exchange. There are several approaches for stomatal conductance modeling, from mechanistic models, based on the physiological functioning of the stomata, to empirical models where the stomatal behavior is correlated with environmental conditions. We modeled stomatal conductance for a Chilean typical Mediterranean Savannanh, dominated by Acacia caven, comparing two different empirical approaches. We used a Shuttleworth and Wallace model for sparse canopies combined with an inversion of the Penman-Monteith equation. This model allowed us to link stomatal conductance to evapotranspiration. The second approach was based on a multiplicative model for stomatal conductance based on environmental limitation, following Jarvis's model

  3. Effects of excluding goat herbivory on Acacia tortilis woodland around pastoralist settlements in northwest Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oba, Gufu

    1998-08-01

    Browsing by goats is considered to cause poor tree regeneration and reduced tree growth around settlements throughout the arid zones of sub-Saharan Africa. This study investigated whether excluding goats from Acacia tortilis woodlands increased tree regeneration, current season's shoot growth rates and browse production over a period of 52 months between 1986 and 1990. The study also investigated the effects of climatic variability on tree growth and browse production. Excluding goat herbivory provided no advantage over continuous browsing for juvenile A. tortilis. Trees on the unbrowsed and on browsed transects increased by 22.2 (standard error [SE] ± 0.53) cm·yr -1 and 25.0 (SE ± 0.58) cm·yr -1, respectively. Fewer but longer shoots were produced by trees on the unbrowsed transects, while trees on the browsed transects invested more in shorter shoots. Net total browse production was lower on unbrowsed (1.73 [standard deviation (SD) ± 4.3] t·ha -1·yr -1) than on the browsed (3.03 [SD ± 3.6] t·ha -1 ·yr -1) transects. Biomass production on unbrowsed and browsed transects was closely correlated with rainfall and presumably soil moisture during wet seasons. Relative growth rates (RGR) of current season's shoots in the two treatments did not differ, implying goat herbivory at moderate stocking density (i.e. 13.0 tropical livestock units [TLU]·km -2) stimulated shoot growth. RGR remained positive except on the browsed transects during 1990, a dry year. Goat browsing pressure was moderate. Total biomass loss on unbrowsed transects was 15.5 %·yr -1 compared with 27.7 %·yr -1 on the browsed transects. These findings do not support the notion that goats always destroy young trees around settlements. Goat herbivory at moderate intensity stimulated shoot productivity. However, the results should not be used to generalize all conditions throughout sub-Saharan Africa, let alone the arid zones of northern Kenya. Rather, there is a need to emphasize individual case

  4. Does Acacia dealbata express shade tolerance in Mediterranean forest ecosystems of South America?

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Narciso; Sanhueza, Carolina; Guedes, Lubia M; Becerra, José; Carrasco, Sebastián; Hernández, Víctor

    2015-08-01

    The distribution of Acacia dealbata Link (Fabaceae) in its non-native range is associated with disturbed areas. However, the possibility that it can penetrate the native forest during the invasion process cannot be ruled out. This statement is supported by the fact that this species has been experimentally established successfully under the canopy of native forest. Nonetheless, it is unknown whether A. dealbata can express shade tolerance traits to help increase its invasive potential. We investigated the shade tolerance of A. dealbata under the canopy of two native forests and one non-native for three consecutive years, as well as its early growth and photosynthetic performance at low light intensities (9, 30, and 70 μmol m(-2)sec(-1)) under controlled conditions. We found many A. dealbata plants surviving and growing under the canopy of native and non-native forests. The number of plants of this invasive species remained almost constant under the canopy of native forests during the years of study. However, the largest number of A. dealbata plants was found under the canopy of non-native forest. In every case, the distribution pattern varied with a highest density of plants in forest edges decreasing progressively toward the inside. Germination and early growth of A. dealbata were slow but successful at three low light intensities tested under controlled conditions. For all tested light regimes, we observed that in this species, most of the energy was dissipated by photochemical processes, in accordance with the high photosynthetic rates that this plant showed, despite the really low light intensities under which it was grown. Our study reveals that A. dealbata expressed shade tolerance traits under the canopy of native and non-native forests. This behavior is supported by the efficient photosynthetic performance that A. dealbata showed at low light intensities. Therefore, these results suggest that Mediterranean forest ecosystems of South America can become

  5. Mapping of invasive Acacia species in Brazilian Mussununga ecosystems using high- resolution IR remote sensing data acquired with an autonomous Unmanned Aerial System (UAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, Jan Rudolf Karl; Zvara, Ondrej; Prinz, Torsten

    2015-04-01

    The biological invasion of Australian Acacia species in natural ecosystems outside Australia has often a negative impact on native and endemic plant species and the related biodiversity. In Brazil, the Atlantic rainforest of Bahia and Espirito Santo forms an associated type of ecosystem, the Mussununga. In our days this biologically diverse ecosystem is negatively affected by the invasion of Acacia mangium and Acacia auriculiformis, both introduced to Brazil by the agroforestry to increase the production of pulp and high grade woods. In order to detect the distribution of Acacia species and to monitor the expansion of this invasion the use of high-resolution imagery data acquired with an autonomous Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) proved to be a very promising approach. In this study, two types of datasets - CIR and RGB - were collected since both types provide different information. In case of CIR imagery attention was paid on spectral signatures related to plants, whereas in case of RGB imagery the focus was on surface characteristics. Orthophoto-mosaics and DSM/DTM for both dataset were extracted. RGB/IHS transformations of the imagery's colour space were utilized, as well as NDVIblue index in case of CIR imagery to discriminate plant associations. Next, two test areas were defined in order validate OBIA rule sets using eCognition software. In case of RGB dataset, a rule set based on elevation distinction between high vegetation (including Acacia) and low vegetation (including soils) was developed. High vegetation was classified using Nearest Neighbour algorithm while working with the CIR dataset. The IHS information was used to mask shadows, soils and low vegetation. Further Nearest Neighbour classification was used for distinction between Acacia and other high vegetation types. Finally an accuracy assessment was performed using a confusion matrix. One can state that the IHS information appeared to be helpful in Acacia detection while the surface elevation

  6. Exclusive rewards in mutualisms: ant proteases and plant protease inhibitors create a lock-key system to protect Acacia food bodies from exploitation.

    PubMed

    Orona-Tamayo, Domancar; Wielsch, Natalie; Blanco-Labra, Alejandro; Svatos, Ales; Farías-Rodríguez, Rodolfo; Heil, Martin

    2013-08-01

    Myrmecophytic Acacia species produce food bodies (FBs) to nourish ants of the Pseudomyrmex ferrugineus group, with which they live in an obligate mutualism. We investigated how the FBs are protected from exploiting nonmutualists. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of the FB proteomes and consecutive protein sequencing indicated the presence of several Kunitz-type protease inhibitors (PIs). PIs extracted from Acacia FBs were biologically active, as they effectively reduced the trypsin-like and elastase-like proteolytic activity in the guts of seed-feeding beetles (Prostephanus truncatus and Zabrotes subfasciatus), which were used as nonadapted herbivores representing potential exploiters. By contrast, the legitimate mutualistic consumers maintained high proteolytic activity dominated by chymotrypsin 1, which was insensitive to the FB PIs. Larvae of an exploiter ant (Pseudomyrmex gracilis) taken from Acacia hosts exhibited lower overall proteolytic activity than the mutualists. The proteases of this exploiter exhibited mainly elastase-like and to a lower degree chymotrypsin 1-like activity. We conclude that the mutualist ants possess specifically those proteases that are least sensitive to the PIs in their specific food source, whereas the congeneric exploiter ant appears partly, but not completely, adapted to consume Acacia FBs. By contrast, any consumption of the FBs by nonadapted exploiters would effectively inhibit their digestive capacities. We suggest that the term 'exclusive rewards' can be used to describe situations similar to the one that has evolved in myrmecophytic Acacia species, which reward mutualists with FBs but safeguard the reward from exploitation by generalists by making the FBs difficult for the nonadapted consumer to use.

  7. Stem Cell Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tips Info Center Research Topics Federal Policy Glossary Stem Cell Information General Information Clinical Trials Funding Information Current ... Basics » Stem Cell Basics I. Back to top Stem Cell Basics I. Introduction: What are stem cells, and ...

  8. STEM Thinking!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeve, Edward M.

    2015-01-01

    Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) is a term seen almost daily in the news. In 2009, President Obama launched the Educate to Innovate initiative to move American students from the middle to the top of the pack in science and math achievement over the next decade (The White House, n.d.). Learning about the attributes of STEM…

  9. Why STEM?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitts, Charles R.

    2016-01-01

    The International Technology and Engineering Educators Association (ITEEA) defines STEM as a new transdisciplinary subject in schools that integrates the disciplines of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics into a single course of study. There are three major problems with this definition: There is no consensus in support of the ITEEA…

  10. Structural, textural and morphological characteristics of tannins from Acacia mearnsii encapsulated using sol-gel methods: Applications as antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Cristiane; Vargas, Álvaro; Fronza, Ney; Dos Santos, João Henrique Zimnoch

    2017-03-01

    Tannins from Acacia mearnsii were encapsulated using four different sol-gel methods acid (SGAR), basic (SGBR), silicate (SGSR) and non-hydrolytic (SGNHR) routes. The hybrid materials were analyzed using a set of techniques to characterize their structure, texture and morphology. The antimicrobial performance of the encapsulated materials was evaluated against different microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus niger and Candida sp.). The data showed that the encapsulation route significantly affects the characteristics of the resulting hybrid materials. Better functional performances were obtained using the silicate route, which produced mesoporous materials with a small surface area (0.96m(2)g(-1)) and small particle size (<1nm). These characteristics promoted the gradual release of tannins in an aqueous medium and improved their interactions with microorganisms. Furthermore, the process demonstrated the preservation of tannins after synthesis and increased antimicrobial activity (via a controlled tannin release), as demonstrated by the moderate activity against filamentous fungi and yeast.

  11. Acacia nilotica (Babool) leaf extract mediated size-controlled rapid synthesis of gold nanoparticles and study of its catalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumdar, Rakhi; Bag, Braja Gopal; Maity, Nabasmita

    2013-09-01

    The leaf extract of Acacia nilotica (Babool) is rich in different types of plant secondary metabolites such as flavanoids, tannins, triterpenoids, saponines, etc. We have demonstrated the use of the leaf extract for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles in water at room temperature under very mild conditions. The synthesis of the gold nanoparticles was complete in several minutes, and no extra stabilizing or capping agents were necessary. The size of the nanoparticles could be controlled by varying the concentration of the leaf extract. The gold nanoparticles were characterized by HRTEM, surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction studies. The synthesized gold nanoparticles have been used as an efficient catalyst for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol in water at room temperature.

  12. Exploiting unique germplasm resources of leguminous trees: Prosopis, leucaena and acacia. Final report, August 31, 1982-August 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Felker, P.

    1992-01-01

    In Haiti, and other semiarid regions of the world, the need for fuelwood and forage is critical. The report summarizes research conducted over a ten year period on developing replicable plantations of leguminous trees in semiarid lands, especially in areas near seawater salinity levels. Research included greenhouse and laboratory work followed by field trials in Haiti and focused on two species: Prosopis and Leucaena. (Acacia is mentioned in the report's title but not in the report itself.) Results were as follows. (1) Greenhouse experiments identified leaf diagnostic criteria indicating mineral nutrient deficiencies in field trees. It also established the importance of micronutrients, especially zinc, in permitting growth in high pH (9.0) soils.

  13. Decomposition of lignin and holocellulose on Acacia mangium leaves and twigs by six fungal isolates from nature.

    PubMed

    Djarwanto; Tachibana, S

    2010-06-15

    This research was conducted in the aim of preventing wild fire through reducing potential energy source to become in situ fertilizer. To prevent forest fires by reducing wood waste using lignocellulose-degrading fungi, six fungal isolates were tested for lignin and cellulose-degrading activity with Acacia mangium leaves and twigs over a period of 1 to 3 months. The fungi degraded 8.9-27.1% of the lignin and 14-31% of the holocellulose. The degradation rate varied depending on the fungal species. An increase in incubation time tended to decrease the amounts of holocellulose and lignin. However, the hot water soluble tended to increase following a longer incubation period. From the results obtained here, more time was needed to degrade lignin rather than other components in the sample.

  14. Evaluation of gentamicin and lidocaine release profile from gum acacia-crosslinked-poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate)-carbopol based hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Singh, Baljit; Dhiman, Abhishek

    2017-01-27

    In this manuscript an attempt has been made to incorporate both, antibiotic agent 'gentamicin' and pain relieving agent 'lidocaine' into the gum acacia-poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate)-carbopol based hydrogel for wound dressing application. Drug release, gel strength, network parameter, antimicrobial activity and biodegradation properties of hydrogel have been evaluated. Porous microstructure of the hydrogel was observed in cryo-SEM images. The hydrogel showed mesh size 37.29 nm, cross-link density 2.19× 10-5 mol/cm3, molecular weight between two cross-links 60.25× 10-3 g/mol and gel strength 0.625±0.112 N in simulated wound fluid. The hydrogels were evaluated as a drug carrier for model drugs gentamicin and lidocaine. The release of these drugs occurred through Fickian diffusion mechanism and release profile of the drugs was best fitted in first order kinetic model.

  15. Understanding the stability of silver nanoparticles bio-fabricated using Acacia arabica (Babool gum) and its hostile effect on microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakur, Mukeshchand; Pandey, Sunil; Mewada, Ashmi; Shah, Ritu; Oza, Goldie; Sharon, Madhuri

    2013-05-01

    We report green synthesis of stable silver nanoparticles (SNPs) from Acacia arabica gum and its anti-bacterial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. UV-Vis spectral analysis of synthesized SNPs showed maximum peak at 462 nm initially and 435 nm after 24 h. Using Transmission Electron microscopy (TEM), the average size of synthesised SNPs was found to be ˜35 nm. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Selective area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern confirmed the crystalline nature of SNPs. Percentage conversion of Ag+ ions into Ag° was calculated using ICP-AES and was found to be 94%. By calculating flocculation parameter, we could see that these SNPs are extremely stable under the influence of very high NaCl concentration up to 4.16 M. These stable SNPs can be used in various industrial and medical applications.

  16. The exotic legume tree species Acacia holosericea alters microbial soil functionalities and the structure of the arbuscular mycorrhizal community.

    PubMed

    Remigi, P; Faye, A; Kane, A; Deruaz, M; Thioulouse, J; Cissoko, M; Prin, Y; Galiana, A; Dreyfus, B; Duponnois, R

    2008-03-01

    The response of microbial functional diversity as well as its resistance to stress or disturbances caused by the introduction of an exotic tree species, Acacia holosericea, ectomycorrhized or not with Pisolithus albus, was examined. The results show that this ectomycorrhizal fungus promotes drastically the growth of this fast-growing tree species in field conditions after 7 years of plantation. Compared to the crop soil surrounding the A. holosericea plantation, this exotic tree species, associated or not with the ectomycorrhizal symbiont, induced strong modifications in soil microbial functionalities (assessed by measuring the patterns of in situ catabolic potential of microbial communities) and reduced soil resistance in response to increasing stress or disturbance (salinity, temperature, and freeze-thaw and wet-dry cycles). In addition, A. holosericea strongly modified the structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus communities. These results show clearly that exotic plants may be responsible for important changes in soil microbiota affecting the structure and functions of microbial communities.

  17. Free radical scavenging activity from leaves of Acacia nilotica (L.) Wild. ex Delile, an Indian medicinal tree.

    PubMed

    Kalaivani, T; Mathew, Lazar

    2010-01-01

    The present study compares the two extraction methods and evaluates the free radical scavenging activity of Acacia nilotica. Results indicated that the sequential extraction method was effective in concentrating the active principles in the ethanol extract as compared to the maceration method in DPPH assay. Based on the results, free radical scavenging property of the extracts obtained from sequential extraction method was analyzed in different assays to find out the possible antioxidant mechanism. Our results indicate that ethanol extract rich in phenolic and flavonoid contents had potent antioxidant activity and were significant in comparison with all the positive controls used in this study. The possible antioxidant mechanism of the ethanol extract can be due to its hydrogen or electron donating and direct free radical scavenging properties. Hence, the ethanol extract represents a source of potential antioxidants that could be used in pharmaceutical and food preparations.

  18. Dieback of Acacia koa in Hawaii: Ecological and pathological characteristics of affected stands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, R.C.; Gardner, D.E.; Daehler, C.C.; Meinzer, F.C.

    2002-01-01

    Koa (Acacia koa) is an endemic Hawaiian tree that serves as a keystone species in the upper elevation forests of all the main islands. In the Mauna Loa Strip area of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, mature koa stands are suffering from an unexplained dieback that has increased in severity since it was first noticed approximately 25 years ago. The dieback is often evident in patches, and generally spreads within stands in a radial fashion from a localized infection center. Entire crowns of affected trees become wilted, with foliage gradually progressing from an apparent healthy to a completely chlorotic condition. Although most trees die soon after the onset of symptoms, some trees are able to survive crown death by producing epicormic shoots on the lower portions of the trunk. Previously published studies reported that a vascular wilt fungus (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. koae) was associated with koa seeds and the rhizosphere of healthy and dieback-affected koa stands. The purpose of this study was to characterize the stand structure, soil conditions, and physiological condition of dieback-affected trees, and to assess the possible role of F. oxysporum f. sp. koae in the current dieback stands. This fungus was isolated from branches of symptomatic koa in dieback-affected stands and roots from healthy and dieback-affected stands. Possible differences in the pathogenicity and virulence of F. oxysporum f. sp. koae isolates obtained from the roots of healthy koa in unaffected stands and those from branches of dieback-affected koa were determined by greenhouse inoculations of koa seedlings. Healthy koa saplings in stands unaffected by dieback were also inoculated to determine if disease symptoms could be induced by inoculation of injured roots in the field. Both branch and root isolates were pathogenic; with the percent mortality of inoculated seedlings ranging from 30 to 60% for all isolates. Disease severity between branch and root isolates was not significantly different

  19. A preliminary assessment of the potential of using an acacia--biochar system for spent mine site rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Reverchon, Frédérique; Yang, Hong; Ho, Thian Yuan; Yan, Guijun; Wang, Jian; Xu, Zhihong; Chen, Chengrong; Zhang, Dongke

    2015-02-01

    Mining activities result in extensive soil degradation by removing the top soil, disturbing soil structure and altering microbial communities. Rehabilitation of spent mine sites through revegetation thus requires proper soil amendments. In this study, a pot trial was conducted to investigate the effects of a jarrah biochar on the growth and nutrient status of a native legume, Acacia tetragonophylla, grown in a mixture of topsoil and mine rejects. Two biochar application rates (37 and 74 t ha(-1)) and two types of biochar, namely nutrient-enriched and non-enriched, were tested. We measured the soil pH and electrical conductivity, the carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) contents and C and N isotope composition (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) of soil and plants, the foliar phosphorus content and the growth and leaf biomass of the plants. Whilst no significant effect of biochar was observed on plant growth, biochar amendment affected soil properties and plant nutritional status. The highest rate of biochar application increased soil pH, C content and C/N ratio, and decreased soil δ(13)C. Biochar application also enhanced photosynthetic N use efficiency, as showed by the increase in foliar C/N ratio, and biological N fixation rates, as indicated by foliar δ(15)N. These positive effects were not observed when biochar was nutrient-enriched due to the associated increase in soil N. Revegetation of mine sites with acacia in combination with biochar amendment constitutes a plausible alternative to the wide use of N fertiliser through the supply of additional N to the system, even though other nutrients may be required in order to enhance plant early growth.

  20. Nutritional benefits of Crematogaster mimosae ants and Acacia drepanolobium gum for patas monkeys and vervets in Laikipia, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Isbell, Lynne A; Rothman, Jessica M; Young, Peter J; Rudolph, Kathleen

    2013-02-01

    Patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) are midsized primates that feed extensively on the gum of Acacia drepanolobium and the ants are housed in swollen thorns of this Acacia. Their diet resembles that expected more of smaller bodied primates. Patas monkeys are also more like smaller bodied primates in reproducing at high rates. We sought to better understand the convergence of patas monkeys with smaller bodied primates by comparing their feeding behavior on ants and gum with that of closely related, sympatric vervets (Chlorocebus pygerythrus), and analyzing the nutrient content of the gum of A. drepanolobium and of Crematogaster mimosae, the most common ant species eaten by patas monkeys in Laikipia, Kenya. All occurrences of feeding and moving during focal animal sampling revealed that 1) patas monkeys seek A. drepanolobium gum but vervets avoid it; 2) both species open swollen thorns most often in the morning when antsare less active; 3) patas monkeys continually feed onswollen thorns and gum while moving quickly throughout the day, whereas vervets reduce their consumption of these items and their travel rate at mid-day, and; 4) vervets eat young swollen thorns at a higher rate than patas monkeys. Patas monkeys are able to spend little time acquiring substantial amounts of energy, protein, and minerals from A. drepanolobium gum and C. mimosae ants each day. These findings, when coupled with evidence of causes of infant and adult female mortality, suggest that reproductive success of female patas monkeys is more immediately affected by illness, disease, interactions between adults and infants, and access to water than by food.

  1. The breeding systems of diploid and neoautotetraploid clones of Acacia mangium Willd. in a synthetic sympatric population in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Griffin, A R; Vuong, T D; Vaillancourt, R E; Harbard, J L; Harwood, C E; Nghiem, C Q; Thinh, H H

    2012-12-01

    Colchicine-induced neoautotetraploid genotypes of Acacia mangium were cloned and planted in mixture with a set of diploid clones in an orchard in southern Vietnam. Following good general flowering, open-pollinated seed was collected from trees of both cytotypes and microsatellite markers were used to determine the breeding system as characterised by the proportion of outcrosses in young seedling progeny. As predicted from the literature, the progeny of diploid clones were predominantly outcrossed (t(m) = 0.97). In contrast, the progeny of the tetraploid clones were almost entirely selfs (t(m) = 0.02; 3 of 161 seedlings assayed were tetraploid outcrosses and there were no triploids). Segregation at loci heterozygous in the tetraploid mothers followed expected ratios, indicating sexual reproduction rather than apomixis. Post-zygotic factors are primarily responsible for divergence of the breeding systems. Commonly, less than 1 % of Acacia flowers mature as a pod, and after mixed pollination, diploid outcrossed seed normally develops at the expense of selfs. Selfs of the tetraploid trees appear to express less genetic load and have a higher probability of maturing. However, this does not fully explain the observed deficiency of outcross tetraploid progeny. Presumably, there are cytogenetic reasons which remain to be investigated. In nature, selfing would increase the probability of establishment of neotetraploids irrespective of cytotype frequency in the population. Breeders need to review their open-pollinated breeding and seed production strategies. It remains to be seen whether this is an ephemeral problem, with strong fertility selection restoring potential for outcrossing over generations.

  2. Seed viability and germination success of Acacia tortilis along land-use and aridity gradients in the Eastern Sahara.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Gidske Leknæs; Krzywinski, Knut; Gjessing, Håkon K; Pierce, Richard Holton

    2016-01-01

    Our study focuses on the keystone species Acacia tortilis and is the first to investigate the effect of domestic ungulates and aridity on seed viability and germination over an extensive part of the Eastern Sahara. Bruchids infest its seeds and reduce their viability and germination, but ingestion by ruminant herbivores diminishes infestation levels and enhances/promotes seed viability and germination. The degree of these effects seems to be correlated with animal body mass. Significantly reduced numbers of wild ruminant ungulates have increased the potential importance of domestic animals and pastoral nomadism for the functionality of arid North African and Middle Eastern ecosystems. We sampled seeds (16,543) from A. tortilis in eight areas in three regions with different aridity and land use. We tested the effect of geography and sampling context on seed infestation using random effects logistic regressions. We did a randomized and balanced germination experiment including 1193 seeds, treated with different manure. Germination time and rates across geography, sampling context, and infestation status were analyzed using time-to-event analyses, Kaplan-Meier curves and proportional hazards Cox regressions. Bruchid infestation is very high (80%), and the effects of context are significant. Neither partial infestation nor adding manure had a positive effect on germination. There is a strong indication that intact, uningested seeds from acacia populations in the extremely arid Western Desert germinate more slowly and have a higher fraction of hard seeds than in the Eastern Desert and the Red Sea Hills. For ingested seeds in the pastoralist areas we find that intact seeds from goat dung germinate significantly better than those from camel dung. This is contrary to the expected body-mass effect. There is no effect of site or variation in tribal management.

  3. Development of high-throughput SNP-based genotyping in Acacia auriculiformis x A. mangium hybrids using short-read transcriptome data

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Next Generation Sequencing has provided comprehensive, affordable and high-throughput DNA sequences for Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) discovery in Acacia auriculiformis and Acacia mangium. Like other non-model species, SNP detection and genotyping in Acacia are challenging due to lack of genome sequences. The main objective of this study is to develop the first high-throughput SNP genotyping assay for linkage map construction of A. auriculiformis x A. mangium hybrids. Results We identified a total of 37,786 putative SNPs by aligning short read transcriptome data from four parents of two Acacia hybrid mapping populations using Bowtie against 7,839 de novo transcriptome contigs. Given a set of 10 validated SNPs from two lignin genes, our in silico SNP detection approach is highly accurate (100%) compared to the traditional in vitro approach (44%). Further validation of 96 SNPs using Illumina GoldenGate Assay gave an overall assay success rate of 89.6% and conversion rate of 37.5%. We explored possible factors lowering assay success rate by predicting exon-intron boundaries and paralogous genes of Acacia contigs using Medicago truncatula genome as reference. This assessment revealed that presence of exon-intron boundary is the main cause (50%) of assay failure. Subsequent SNPs filtering and improved assay design resulted in assay success and conversion rate of 92.4% and 57.4%, respectively based on 768 SNPs genotyping. Analysis of clustering patterns revealed that 27.6% of the assays were not reproducible and flanking sequence might play a role in determining cluster compression. In addition, we identified a total of 258 and 319 polymorphic SNPs in A. auriculiformis and A. mangium natural germplasms, respectively. Conclusion We have successfully discovered a large number of SNP markers in A. auriculiformis x A. mangium hybrids using next generation transcriptome sequencing. By using a reference genome from the most closely related species, we

  4. Analysis of commercial proanthocyanidins. Part 4: solid state (13)C NMR as a tool for in situ analysis of proanthocyanidin tannins, in heartwood and bark of quebracho and acacia, and related species.

    PubMed

    Reid, David G; Bonnet, Susan L; Kemp, Gabre; van der Westhuizen, Jan H

    2013-10-01

    (13)C NMR is an effective method of characterizing proanthocyanidin (PAC) tannins in quebracho (Schinopsis lorentzii) heartwood and black wattle (Acacia mearnsii) bark, before and after commercial extraction. The B-rings of the constituent flavan-3-ols, catechols (quebracho) or pyrogallols (wattle), are recognized in unprocessed source materials by "marker" signals at ca. 118 or 105ppm, respectively. NMR allows the minimum extraction efficiency to be calculated; ca. 30%, and ca. 80%, for quebracho heartwood and black wattle bark, respectively. NMR can also identify PAC tannin (predominantly robinetinidin), and compare tannin content, in bark from other acacia species; tannin content decreases in the order A. mearnsii, Acacia pycnantha (87% of A. mearnsii), Acacia dealbata and Acacia decurrens (each 74%) and Acacia karroo (30%). Heartwood from an underexploited PAC tannin source, Searsia lancea, taxonomically close to quebracho, shows abundant profisetinidin and catechin PACs. NMR offers the advantage of being applicable to source materials in their native state, and has potential applications in optimizing extraction processes, identification of tannin sources, and characterization of tannin content in cultivar yield improvement programmes.

  5. Secondary stem anatomy and uses of four drought-deciduous species of a tropical dry forest in México.

    PubMed

    Isaias, Alejandra Quintanar; Velázquez Núñez, Mariana; Solares Arenas, Fortunato; de la Paz Pérez Olvera, Carmen; Torre-Blanco, Alfonso

    2005-01-01

    Wood and bark anatomy and histochemistry of Acacia bilimekii Humb. & Bonpl., Acacia cochliacantha Mcbride, Conzatia nultiflora (Rob) Stand. and Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. are described from stem samples collected in a tropical dry forest (Morelos, Mexico). Enzyme activities were tested in tangential, radial and transverse cuts of fresh material. Histochemistry and stem anatomy were studied on similar cuts previously softened in a solution of water-glicerol-PEG. Our results show that the anatomical patterns of bark and wood, as well as the histochemical patterns and specific gravity, are influenced by water accessibility and climate; these patterns could guarantee mechanical and anti-infection strategies to support extreme conditions. Enzyme cytochemistry reveals biochemical activities probably related to lipid utilization routes for the lignification processes and for synthesis of extractives; these results suggest that the formation and maturation of woody tissue is very active at the beginning of the rainy season. These species are widely used by the local population. Traditional uses include firewood, dead and live fences, fodder, construction, supporting stakes, handcrafts, farming tools, extraction of tanning products, and medicine. There is no relationship between use and abundance. Alternative uses are proposed according to a density index.

  6. Enterocutaneous Fistula: Different Surgical Intervention Techniques for Closure along with Comparative Evaluation of Aluminum Paint, Karaya Gum (Hollister) and Gum Acacia for Peristomal Skin Care

    PubMed Central

    Namrata; Ahmad, Shabi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Gastrointestinal fistulas are serious complications and are associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. In majority of the patients, fistulas are treatable. However, the treatment is very complex and often multiple therapies are required. These highly beneficial treatment options which could shorten fistula closure time also result in considerable hospital cost savings. Aim This study was planned to study aetiology, clinical presentation, morbidity and mortality of enterocutaneous fistula and to evaluate the different surgical intervention techniques for closure of enterocutaneous fistula along with a comparative evaluation of different techniques for management of peristomal skin with special emphasis on aluminum paint, Karaya gum (Hollister) and Gum Acacia. Materials and Methods This prospective observational study was conducted in the Department of Surgery, M.L.N. Medical College, Allahabad and its associated hospital (S.R.N. Hospital, Allahabad) for a period of five years. Results Majority of enterocutaneous fistula were of small bowel and medium output fistulas (500-1000 ml/24hours). Most of the patients were treated with conservative treatment as compared to surgical intervention. Large bowel fistula has maximum spontaneous closure rate compare to small bowel and duodenum. Number of orifice whether single or multiple does not appear to play statistically significant role in spontaneous closure of fistula. Serum Albumin is a significantly important predictor of spontaneous fistula closure and mortality. Surgical management appeared to be the treatment of choice in distal bowel fistula. The application of karaya gum (Hollister kit), Gum Acacia and Aluminum Paint gave similar outcome. Conclusion Postoperative fistulas are the most common aetiology of enterocutaneous fistula and various factors do play role in management. Peristomal skin care done with Karaya Gum, Gum Acacia and Aluminum Paint has almost equal efficiency in management of skin

  7. Modulatory role of Acacia honey from north-west Nigeria on sodium arsenite-induced clastogenicity and oxidative stress in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Aliyu; Odunola, Oyeronke A; Gbadegesin, Michael A; Adegoke, Ayodeji M; Olugbami, J Olorunjuwon; Uche, Ndidi S

    2015-01-01

    Effect of Acacia honey from north-west Nigeria on sodium arsenite-induced oxidative damage and clastogenicity in male Wistar rats was investigated. Animals were divided into four groups and were treated daily via oral gavage for one week before they were sacrificed. Brain, liver and blood serum were collected for antioxidant and protein assays. Clastogenicity, in vitro antioxidant activity, vitamins and minerals were also evaluated. From the results, co-administration of Acacia honey with sodium arsenite on the animals increased (P < 0.05) glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities with concomitant decrease in malondialdehyde levels and anti-clastogenic effects relative to the group treated with sodium arsenite only. The honey possesses reducing power, high hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity, good amount of vitamins (A, C and E), flavonoids (5.08 ± 0.92 mg QE/100 g) and phenolics (5.40 ± 0.69 mg GAE/100 g). The minerals present include zinc, iron, sodium, magnesium, potassium and calcium. In conclusion, Acacia honey from Nigeria may mitigate oxidative stress and clastogenicity.

  8. In vitro effects of aqueous seeds extract of Acacia cyanophylla on the opsonized zymosan-induced superoxide anions production by rat polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed

    El Abbouyi, Ahmed; Toumi, Mina; El Hachimi, Youssef; Jossang, Akino

    2004-03-01

    In vitro studies were carried out in rat pleural polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) activated by opsonized zymosan (OZ) to investigate the effects of aqueous extract from Acacia cyanophylla seeds on superoxide anions generation. PMNs were collected, after induction of an acute inflammatory reaction, by injection in the rat pleural cavity, of a suspension of calcium pyrophosphate (CaPP) crystals (pleurisy with CaPP) or serum (pleurisy with serum). The results obtained indicate that Acacia cyanophylla aqueous seeds extract had, in vitro, a significant stimulatory effect, in a dose dependent manner, on the PMN superoxide anions generation. It also corrected the diminution of superoxide anions production induced by diclofenac pre-treated PMNs. It could be concluded from the results of this study that the stimulatory properties of Acacia cyanophylla seeds aqueous extract may at least be due to the presence of polyphenols such tannins and/or lignins. Further investigations are needed to determine clearly the mechanisms mediating the generation of superoxide radicals in this phenomenon.

  9. Stem Cell Sciences plc.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Sebnem

    2006-09-01

    Stem Cell Sciences' core objective is to develop safe and effective stem cell-based therapies for currently incurable diseases. In order to achieve this goal, Stem Cell Sciences recognizes the need for multiple technologies and a globally integrated stem cell initiative. The key challenges for the successful application of stem cells in the clinic is the need for a reproducible supply of pure, fully characterized stem cells that have been grown in suitable conditions for use in the clinic.

  10. Stem Cell Information: Glossary

    MedlinePlus

    ... cells (skeletal stem cells) Cell-based therapies Cell culture Cell division Chromosome Clone Cloning Cord blood stem cells Culture medium Differentiation Directed differentiation DNA Ectoderm Embryo Embryoid ...

  11. Feed intake and growth performance of growing pigs fed on Acacia tortilis leaf meal treated with polyethylene glycol.

    PubMed

    Hlatini, Vuyisa Andries; Khanyile, Mbongeni; Zindove, Titus Jairus; Chimonyo, Michael

    2016-03-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the response in feed intake and performance of pigs fed on incremental levels of polyethylene glycol (PEG). Forty-eighty male F1 hybrid pigs were randomly allotted to six diets containing 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 g/kg of PEG, respectively. Acacia tortilis leaf meal was included at a rate of 150 g/kg. Each diet was offered ad libitum to eight pigs in individual pens. Average daily feed intake (ADFI), scaled feed intake (SFI), average daily gain (ADG), and gain to feed ratio (G:F) were determined weekly. The ADG showed a linear response to PEG (p < 0.01). The linear regression equation was y = 0.0061x + 0.6052 (R(2) = 0.64). There was a quadratic response to PEG on ADFI, and SFI (p < 0.01) and G:F (p > 0.05). The regression equations and R(2) values were as follows: ADFI y = 0.0008x(2) - 00086x + 1.2339 (R(2) = 0.96), SFI y = 0.0147x(2) - 0.2349x + 40.096 (R(2) = 0.95), and G:F ratio y = 0.0002x(2) - 0.0017x + 0.5168 (R(2) = 0.56). The ADFI, SFI, and ADG increased as weeks of feeding progressed (p < 0.01), but the G:F ratio decreased as weeks increased. It can be concluded that the relationship between PEG inclusion and performance of growing pigs fed on A. tortilis is exponential, rather than linear. The economic benefit of using PEG depend on cost of labor, availability of Acacia, costs of harvesting together with processing, and acceptability of the pork.

  12. Effect of polyethylene glycol 4000 supplementation on the performance of indigenous Pedi goats fed different levels of Acacia nilotica leaf meal and ad libitum Buffalo grass hay.

    PubMed

    Motubatse, M R; Ng'ambi, J W; Norris, D; Malatje, M M

    2008-04-01

    In a first of two experiments, twenty yearling male Pedi goats weighing 21.3 +/- 0.5 kg live weight were used in a 37-day study in a 2 (levels of PEG 4000) x 2 (levels ofAcacia) Factorial arrangement in a Completely Randomised Design to determine the effect of the level of Acacia nilotica leaf meal supplementation plus 23 g polyethylene glycol 4000 on diet intake and digestibility, and growth rate of Pedi goats fed ad libitum Buffalo grass hay. Acacia nilotica leaf meal contained high amounts of total phenolics (2.04% DM) and low amounts of condensed tannins; both extracted (0.37% DM) and unextracted (1.83% DM). Supplementation with PEG 4000 increased (P < 0.05) crude protein intake as the level of Acacia nilotica leaf meal increased from 80 to 120 g. Similarly, treatment with PEG 4000 improved (P < 0.05) DM, OM and CP digestibilities when compared to 80 g Acacia nilotica leaf meal. Supplementation with PEG 4000 resulted in an increase (P < 0.05) in blood urea concentrations. Polyethylene glycol 4000 has the potential to improve the feeding value of A. nilotica leaf meal and can, therefore, be used in the feeding systems for ruminant animals. The second experiment determined the effect of A. nilotica leaf meal supplementation on in vitro digestibility of the diets similar to the actual ratios of the first experiment. Level of A. nilotica leaf meal supplementation plus 23 g PEG 4000 supplementation improved (P < 0.05) in vitro DM, OM and CP digestibilities where 120 g A. nilotica leaf meal was supplemented. Similarly, 23 g PEG 4000 supplementation also improved (P < 0.05) in vitro CP digestibility where 80 g A. nilotica leaf meal was supplemented. In vivo DM and OM digestibilities were best predicted from in vitro DM and OM digestibilities while in vivo CP was explained by in vitro OM and CP digestibilities. It is, therefore, concluded that in vitro DM and OM digestibilities have good capacity to predict in vivo DM and OM digestibilities while OM and CP

  13. Screening of antimutagenicity via antioxidant activity in different extracts from the leaves of Acacia salicina from the center of Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Bouhlel, Ines; Mansour, Hedi Ben; Limem, Ilef; Sghaier, Mohamed Ben; Mahmoud, Amor; Chibani, Jemni Ben; Ghedira, Kamel; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila

    2007-01-01

    The effect of extracts obtained from Acacia salicina on genotoxicity and SOS response induced by Benzo(a)pyrene (B[a]P) as well as nifuroxazide was investigated in a bacterial assay system, i.e., the SOS chromotest with Escherichia coli PQ37. Preparations obtained from the leaves of A. salicina exhibited no genotoxicity either with or without the external S9 activation mixture. However, all extracts significantly decreased the genotoxicity induced by (B[a]P) and nifuroxazide. Ethyl acetate, methanol and TOF extracts exhibited the highest inhibition level of the SOS response induced by the direct mutagen nifuroxazide. Whereas, aqueous, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts displayed the greatest level of protection towards the indirect mutagen, (B[a]P), induced response. In addition to their antigenotoxic activity, TOF, aqueous, methanol and chloroform extracts showed an important free radical scavenging activity towards the 1,1-diphenyl 2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical. These extracts showed IC(50) value of 36, 73, 65, and 87μg/ml respectively. Taken together, our finding showed that A. salicina exhibits significant antioxidant and antigenotoxic activities.

  14. Growth inhibition and apoptosis in cancer cells induced by polyphenolic compounds of Acacia hydaspica: Involvement of multiple signal transduction pathways.

    PubMed

    Afsar, Tayyaba; Trembley, Janeen H; Salomon, Christine E; Razak, Suhail; Khan, Muhammad Rashid; Ahmed, Khalil

    2016-03-15

    Acacia hydaspica R. Parker is known for its medicinal uses in multiple ailments. In this study, we performed bioassay-guided fractionation of cytotoxic compounds from A. hydaspica and investigated their effects on growth and signaling activity in prostate and breast cancer cell lines. Four active polyphenolic compounds were identified as 7-O-galloyl catechin (GC), catechin (C), methyl gallate (MG), and catechin-3-O-gallate (CG). The four compounds inhibited prostate cancer PC-3 cell growth in a dose-dependent manner, whereas CG and MG inhibited breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cell growth. All tested compounds inhibited cell survival and colony growth in both cell lines, and there was evidence of chromatin condensation, cell shrinkage and apoptotic bodies. Further, acridine orange, ethidium bromide, propidium iodide and DAPI staining demonstrated that cell death occurred partly via apoptosis in both PC-3 and MDA-MB-231 cells. In PC-3 cells treatment repressed the expression of anti-apoptotic molecules Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and survivin, coupled with down-regulation of signaling pathways AKT, NFκB, ERK1/2 and JAK/STAT. In MDA-MB-231 cells, treatment induced reduction of CK2α, Bcl-xL, survivin and xIAP protein expression along with suppression of NFκB, JAK/STAT and PI3K pathways. Our findings suggest that certain polyphenolic compounds derived from A. hydaspica may be promising chemopreventive/therapeutic candidates against cancer.

  15. Comparison of dilute acid and sulfite pretreatments on Acacia confusa for biofuel application and the influence of its extractives.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Ting-Feng; Chang, Mao-Ju; Chang, Wan-Jung

    2014-11-05

    Chemical components of lignocellulosic biomass may impede biofuel processing efficiency. To understand whether the heartwood of Acacia confusa is suitable for biofuel application, extractive-free heartwood of A. confusa was subjected to dilute acid (DA) or sulfite pretreatments. Sugar recoveries were used to evaluate the performance of different pretreatments. Cell wall properties, such as 4-O-alkylated lignin structures, S/G ratios, and xylan contents, of the pretreated samples showed significant correlations with the enzymatic saccharification of glucan. The 4% bisulfite-pretreated samples produced higher total sugar recoveries than DA-treated samples. The highest total sugar recoveries from DA and sulfite pretreatment were 52.0% (170 °C for 20 min) and 65.3% (4% NaHSO3 and 1% H2SO4), respectively. The results also demonstrated that the existence of extractives in the heartwood of A. confusa hindered the sugar recoveries from both the pretreatments and enzymatic saccharification. Total sugar recoveries were reduced 11.7-17.7% in heartwood samples with extractives.

  16. Structure-Activity Relationships of Antimicrobial Gallic Acid Derivatives from Pomegranate and Acacia Fruit Extracts against Potato Bacterial Wilt Pathogen.

    PubMed

    Farag, Mohamed A; Al-Mahdy, Dalia A; Salah El Dine, Riham; Fahmy, Sherifa; Yassin, Aymen; Porzel, Andrea; Brandt, Wolfgang

    2015-06-01

    Bacterial wilts of potato, tomato, pepper, and or eggplant caused by Ralstonia solanacearum are among the most serious plant diseases worldwide. In this study, the issue of developing bactericidal agents from natural sources against R. solanacearum derived from plant extracts was addressed. Extracts prepared from 25 plant species with antiseptic relevance in Egyptian folk medicine were screened for their antimicrobial properties against the potato pathogen R. solancearum by using the disc-zone inhibition assay and microtitre plate dilution method. Plants exhibiting notable antimicrobial activities against the tested pathogen include extracts from Acacia arabica and Punica granatum. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of A. arabica and P. granatum resulted in the isolation of bioactive compounds 3,5-dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzoic acid and gallic acid, in addition to epicatechin. All isolates displayed significant antimicrobial activities against R. solanacearum (MIC values 0.5-9 mg/ml), with 3,5-dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzoic acid being the most effective one with a MIC value of 0.47 mg/ml. We further performed a structure-activity relationship (SAR) study for the inhibition of R. solanacearum growth by ten natural, structurally related benzoic acids.

  17. Differing courses of genetic evolution of Bradyrhizobium inoculants as revealed by long-term molecular tracing in Acacia mangium plantations.

    PubMed

    Perrineau, M M; Le Roux, C; Galiana, A; Faye, A; Duponnois, R; Goh, D; Prin, Y; Béna, G

    2014-09-01

    Introducing nitrogen-fixing bacteria as an inoculum in association with legume crops is a common practice in agriculture. However, the question of the evolution of these introduced microorganisms remains crucial, both in terms of microbial ecology and agronomy. We explored this question by analyzing the genetic and symbiotic evolution of two Bradyrhizobium strains inoculated on Acacia mangium in Malaysia and Senegal 15 and 5 years, respectively, after their introduction. Based on typing of several loci, we showed that these two strains, although closely related and originally sampled in Australia, evolved differently. One strain was recovered in soil with the same five loci as the original isolate, whereas the symbiotic cluster of the other strain was detected with no trace of the three housekeeping genes of the original inoculum. Moreover, the nitrogen fixation efficiency was variable among these isolates (either recombinant or not), with significantly high, low, or similar efficiencies compared to the two original strains and no significant difference between recombinant and nonrecombinant isolates. These data suggested that 15 years after their introduction, nitrogen-fixing bacteria remain in the soil but that closely related inoculant strains may not evolve in the same way, either genetically or symbiotically. In a context of increasing agronomical use of microbial inoculants (for biological control, nitrogen fixation, or plant growth promotion), this result feeds the debate on the consequences associated with such practices.

  18. Stability assessment of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) oil-in-water beverage emulsion formulated with acacia and xanthan gums.

    PubMed

    Nikbakht Nasrabadi, Maryam; Goli, Sayed Amir Hossein; Nasirpour, Ali

    2016-05-15

    The development of a conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) oil-in-water beverage emulsion containing acacia gum (AG) and xanthan gum (XG) was investigated. D-optimal design and response surface method was used and 10% w/w AG, 3.5% w/w CLA and 0.3% w/w XG was introduced as the optimum formula. Afterward the effect of storage time on the physicochemical properties of selected formulation including specific gravity, turbidity, viscosity, average droplet size, span, size index, creaming index, oxidation measurements and stability in its diluted form, were determined. Findings revealed that the size of oil droplets increased after six weeks and resulted in instability of the emulsion concentrate. Peroxide value increased until 21 days and then decreased dramatically, whereas TBA and Totox values began to increase after this time. Turbidity loss rate was low demonstrating the good stability of the diluted emulsion. The results revealed that it is possible to produce a stable CLA oil-in-water emulsion for using in beverages.

  19. Removal of 4-nitrophenol from aqueous solution by adsorption onto activated carbon prepared from Acacia glauca sawdust.

    PubMed

    Dhorabe, Prashant T; Lataye, Dilip H; Ingole, Ramakant S

    2016-01-01

    The present paper deals with a complete batch adsorption study of 4-nitrophenol (4NP) from aqueous solution onto activated carbon prepared from Acacia glauca sawdust (AGAC). The surface area of the adsorbent determined by methylene blue method is found to be 311.20 m(2)/g. The optimum dose of adsorbent was found to be 2 g/l with 4NP uptake of 25.93 mg/g. The equilibrium time was found to be 30 minutes with the percentage removal of 96.40 at the initial concentration of 50 ppm. The maximum removal of 98.94% was found to be at pH of 6. The equilibrium and kinetic study revealed that the Radke-Prausnitz isotherm and pseudo second order kinetics model fitted the respective data well. In the thermodynamic study, the negative value of Gibbs free energy change (-26.38 kJ/mol at 30°C) and enthalpy change (-6.12 kJ/mol) showed the spontaneous and exothermic nature of the adsorption process.

  20. Study of the protective effects of Katha (Heartwood Extract of Acacia catechu) in liver damage induced by iron overload.

    PubMed

    Hazra, Bibhabasu; Sarkar, Rhitajit; Ghate, Nikhil Baban; Chaudhuri, Dipankar; Mandal, Nripendranath

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the ameliorating effect of 70% methanol extract of Acacia catechu heartwood, or Katha (ACME) on liver injury induced by iron overload. Iron overload in mice was caused by intraperitoneal administration of 100 mg/kg iron-dextran. ACME was administered orally for 21 days, starting from the day after the first iron-dextran injection. The biochemical markers of hepatic damage and liver iron, protein carbonyl, and hydroxyproline contents were measured in response to the oral administration of ACME. Apart from those, the release of iron from ferritin by ACME was further assessed to determine the efficiency of ACME as an iron-chelating drug. Treatment with different doses of ACME (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight) showed dose-dependent reductions in liver iron, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, liver fibrosis, serum enzymes, and ferritin. The antioxidant enzymes levels were enhanced and the reductive release of ferritin iron increased significantly with gradually increasing concentrations of ACME. These results indicate that ACME has a potent hepatoprotective action against hepatic damage induced by iron overload in mice, probably by ameliorating the antioxidant defense activities and reductively releasing ferritin iron.

  1. Analysis of genetic population structure in Acacia caven (Leguminosae, Mimosoideae), comparing one exploratory and two Bayesian-model-based methods.

    PubMed

    Pometti, Carolina L; Bessega, Cecilia F; Saidman, Beatriz O; Vilardi, Juan C

    2014-03-01

    Bayesian clustering as implemented in STRUCTURE or GENELAND software is widely used to form genetic groups of populations or individuals. On the other hand, in order to satisfy the need for less computer-intensive approaches, multivariate analyses are specifically devoted to extracting information from large datasets. In this paper, we report the use of a dataset of AFLP markers belonging to 15 sampling sites of Acacia caven for studying the genetic structure and comparing the consistency of three methods: STRUCTURE, GENELAND and DAPC. Of these methods, DAPC was the fastest one and showed accuracy in inferring the K number of populations (K = 12 using the find.clusters option and K = 15 with a priori information of populations). GENELAND in turn, provides information on the area of membership probabilities for individuals or populations in the space, when coordinates are specified (K = 12). STRUCTURE also inferred the number of K populations and the membership probabilities of individuals based on ancestry, presenting the result K = 11 without prior information of populations and K = 15 using the LOCPRIOR option. Finally, in this work all three methods showed high consistency in estimating the population structure, inferring similar numbers of populations and the membership probabilities of individuals to each group, with a high correlation between each other.

  2. Analysis of genetic population structure in Acacia caven (Leguminosae, Mimosoideae), comparing one exploratory and two Bayesian-model-based methods

    PubMed Central

    Pometti, Carolina L.; Bessega, Cecilia F.; Saidman, Beatriz O.; Vilardi, Juan C.

    2014-01-01

    Bayesian clustering as implemented in STRUCTURE or GENELAND software is widely used to form genetic groups of populations or individuals. On the other hand, in order to satisfy the need for less computer-intensive approaches, multivariate analyses are specifically devoted to extracting information from large datasets. In this paper, we report the use of a dataset of AFLP markers belonging to 15 sampling sites of Acacia caven for studying the genetic structure and comparing the consistency of three methods: STRUCTURE, GENELAND and DAPC. Of these methods, DAPC was the fastest one and showed accuracy in inferring the K number of populations (K = 12 using the find.clusters option and K = 15 with a priori information of populations). GENELAND in turn, provides information on the area of membership probabilities for individuals or populations in the space, when coordinates are specified (K = 12). STRUCTURE also inferred the number of K populations and the membership probabilities of individuals based on ancestry, presenting the result K = 11 without prior information of populations and K = 15 using the LOCPRIOR option. Finally, in this work all three methods showed high consistency in estimating the population structure, inferring similar numbers of populations and the membership probabilities of individuals to each group, with a high correlation between each other. PMID:24688293

  3. ARCAS (ACACIA Regional Climate-data Access System) -- a Web Access System for Climate Model Data Access, Visualization and Comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakkarinen, C.; Brown, D.; Callahan, J.; hankin, S.; de Koningh, M.; Middleton-Link, D.; Wigley, T.

    2001-05-01

    A Web-based access system to climate model output data sets for intercomparison and analysis has been produced, using the NOAA-PMEL developed Live Access Server software as host server and Ferret as the data serving and visualization engine. Called ARCAS ("ACACIA Regional Climate-data Access System"), and publicly accessible at http://dataserver.ucar.edu/arcas, the site currently serves climate model outputs from runs of the NCAR Climate System Model for the 21st century, for Business as Usual and Stabilization of Greenhouse Gas Emission scenarios. Users can select, download, and graphically display single variables or comparisons of two variables from either or both of the CSM model runs, averaged for monthly, seasonal, or annual time resolutions. The time length of the averaging period, and the geographical domain for download and display, are fully selectable by the user. A variety of arithmetic operations on the data variables can be computed "on-the-fly", as defined by the user. Expansions of the user-selectable options for defining analysis options, and for accessing other DOD-compatible ("Distributed Ocean Data System-compatible") data sets, residing at locations other than the NCAR hardware server on which ARCAS operates, are planned for this year. These expansions are designed to allow users quick and easy-to-operate web-based access to the largest possible selection of climate model output data sets available throughout the world.

  4. Bioactivity-guided Separation of the Active Compounds in Acacia pennata Responsible for the Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Lomarat, Pattamapan; Chancharunee, Sirirat; Anantachoke, Natthinee; Kitphati, Worawan; Sripha, Kittisak; Bunyapraphatsara, Nuntavan

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the health benefits of plants used in Thai food, specifically Acacia pennata Willd., in Alzheimer's prevention. A. pennata twigs strongly inhibited β-amyloid aggregation. Bioactivity-guided separation of the active fractions yielded six known compounds, tetracosane (1), 1-(heptyloxy)-octadecane (2), methyl tridecanoate (3), arborinone (4), confertamide A (5) and 4-hydroxy-1-methyl-pyrrolidin-2-carboxylic acid (6). The structures were determined by spectroscopic analysis. Biological testing revealed that tetracosane (1) was the most potent inhibitor of β-amyloid aggregation, followed by 1-(heptyloxy)-octadecane (2) with IC50 values of 0.4 and 12.3 μM. Methyl tridecanoate (3), arborinone (4) and 4-hydroxy-1-methyl-pyrrolidin-2-carboxylic acid (6) moderately inhibited β-amyloid aggregation. In addition, tetracosane (1) and methyl tridecanoate (3) weakly inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE). These results suggested that the effect of A. pennata on Alzheimer's disease was likely due to the inhibition of β-amyloid aggregation. Thus A. pennata may be beneficial for Alzheimer's prevention.

  5. Antidiabetic Activity of Acacia tortilis (Forsk.) Hayne ssp. raddiana Polysaccharide on Streptozotocin-Nicotinamide Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kumar Bhateja, Pradeep; Singh, Randhir

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the antidiabetic activity of aqueous extract of Acacia tortilis polysaccharide (AEATP) from gum exudates and its role in comorbidities associated with diabetes in STZ-nicotinamide induced diabetic rats. Male albino Wistar rats were divided into control, diabetic control, glimepiride treated (10 mg/kg), and diabetic rats treated with 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg dose of AEATP groups and fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, VLDL, HDL, SGOT, and SGPT levels were measured. STZ significantly increased fasting blood glucose level, glycated hemoglobin, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, VLDL, SGOT, and SGPT levels, whereas HDL level was reduced as compared to control group. After 7 days of administration, 500 and 1000 mg/kg dose of AEATP showed significant reduction (P < 0.05) in fasting blood glucose level compared to diabetic control. AEATP has also reduced total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, VLDL, SGOT, and SGPT levels and improved HDL level as compared to diabetic control group. Our study is the first to report the normalization of fasting blood glucose level, lipid profile, and liver enzyme in AEATP treated diabetic rats. Thus, it can be concluded that AEATP may have potentials for the treatment of T2DM and its comorbidities. PMID:25121104

  6. Growth inhibition and apoptosis in cancer cells induced by polyphenolic compounds of Acacia hydaspica: Involvement of multiple signal transduction pathways

    PubMed Central

    Afsar, Tayyaba; Trembley, Janeen H.; Salomon, Christine E.; Razak, Suhail; Khan, Muhammad Rashid; Ahmed, Khalil

    2016-01-01

    Acacia hydaspica R. Parker is known for its medicinal uses in multiple ailments. In this study, we performed bioassay-guided fractionation of cytotoxic compounds from A. hydaspica and investigated their effects on growth and signaling activity in prostate and breast cancer cell lines. Four active polyphenolic compounds were identified as 7-O-galloyl catechin (GC), catechin (C), methyl gallate (MG), and catechin-3-O-gallate (CG). The four compounds inhibited prostate cancer PC-3 cell growth in a dose-dependent manner, whereas CG and MG inhibited breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cell growth. All tested compounds inhibited cell survival and colony growth in both cell lines, and there was evidence of chromatin condensation, cell shrinkage and apoptotic bodies. Further, acridine orange, ethidium bromide, propidium iodide and DAPI staining demonstrated that cell death occurred partly via apoptosis in both PC-3 and MDA-MB-231 cells. In PC-3 cells treatment repressed the expression of anti-apoptotic molecules Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and survivin, coupled with down-regulation of signaling pathways AKT, NFκB, ERK1/2 and JAK/STAT. In MDA-MB-231 cells, treatment induced reduction of CK2α, Bcl-xL, survivin and xIAP protein expression along with suppression of NFκB, JAK/STAT and PI3K pathways. Our findings suggest that certain polyphenolic compounds derived from A. hydaspica may be promising chemopreventive/therapeutic candidates against cancer. PMID:26975752

  7. Differing Courses of Genetic Evolution of Bradyrhizobium Inoculants as Revealed by Long-Term Molecular Tracing in Acacia mangium Plantations

    PubMed Central

    Perrineau, M. M.; Le Roux, C.; Galiana, A.; Faye, A.; Duponnois, R.; Goh, D.; Prin, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Introducing nitrogen-fixing bacteria as an inoculum in association with legume crops is a common practice in agriculture. However, the question of the evolution of these introduced microorganisms remains crucial, both in terms of microbial ecology and agronomy. We explored this question by analyzing the genetic and symbiotic evolution of two Bradyrhizobium strains inoculated on Acacia mangium in Malaysia and Senegal 15 and 5 years, respectively, after their introduction. Based on typing of several loci, we showed that these two strains, although closely related and originally sampled in Australia, evolved differently. One strain was recovered in soil with the same five loci as the original isolate, whereas the symbiotic cluster of the other strain was detected with no trace of the three housekeeping genes of the original inoculum. Moreover, the nitrogen fixation efficiency was variable among these isolates (either recombinant or not), with significantly high, low, or similar efficiencies compared to the two original strains and no significant difference between recombinant and nonrecombinant isolates. These data suggested that 15 years after their introduction, nitrogen-fixing bacteria remain in the soil but that closely related inoculant strains may not evolve in the same way, either genetically or symbiotically. In a context of increasing agronomical use of microbial inoculants (for biological control, nitrogen fixation, or plant growth promotion), this result feeds the debate on the consequences associated with such practices. PMID:25002434

  8. Rotatable stem and lock

    DOEpatents

    Deveney, Joseph E.; Sanderson, Stephen N.

    1984-01-01

    A valve stem and lock include a housing surrounding a valve stem, a solenoid affixed to an interior wall of the housing, an armature affixed to the valve stem and a locking device for coupling the armature to the housing body. When the solenoid is energized, the solenoid moves away from the housing body, permitting rotation of the valve stem.

  9. Rotatable stem and lock

    DOEpatents

    Deveney, J.E.; Sanderson, S.N.

    1981-10-27

    A valve stem and lock is disclosed which includes a housing surrounding a valve stem, a solenoid affixed to an interior wall of the housing, an armature affixed to the valve stem and a locking device for coupling the armature to the housing body. When the solenoid is energized, the solenoid moves away from the housing body, permitting rotation of the valve stem.

  10. [Pancreatic cancer stem cell].

    PubMed

    Hamada, Shin; Masamune, Atsushi; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2015-05-01

    Prognosis of pancreatic cancer remains dismal due to the resistance against conventional therapies. Metastasis and massive invasion toward surrounding organs hamper radical resection. Small part of entire cancer cells reveal resistance against chemotherapy or radiotherapy, increased tumorigenicity and migratory phenotype. These cells are called as cancer stem cells, as a counter part of normal stem cells. In pancreatic cancer, several cancer stem cell markers have been identified, which enabled detailed characterization of pancreatic cancer stem cells. Recent researches clarified that conventional chemotherapy itself could increase cancer cells with stem cell-phenotype, suggesting the necessity of cancer stem cell-targeting therapy. Based on these observations, pancreatic cancer stem cell-targeting therapies have been tested, which effectively eliminated cancer stem cell fraction and attenuated cancer progression in experimental models. Clinical efficacy of these therapies need to be evaluated, and cancer stem cell-targeting therapy will contribute to improve the prognosis of pancreatic cancer.

  11. High-throughput prediction of Acacia and eucalypt lignin syringyl/guaiacyl content using FT-Raman spectroscopy and partial least squares modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Lupoi, Jason S.; Healey, Adam; Singh, Seema; Sykes, Robert; Davis, Mark; Lee, David J.; Shepherd, Merv; Simmons, Blake A.; Henry, Robert J.

    2015-01-16

    High-throughput techniques are necessary to efficiently screen potential lignocellulosic feedstocks for the production of renewable fuels, chemicals, and bio-based materials, thereby reducing experimental time and expense while supplanting tedious, destructive methods. The ratio of lignin syringyl (S) to guaiacyl (G) monomers has been routinely quantified as a way to probe biomass recalcitrance. Mid-infrared and Raman spectroscopy have been demonstrated to produce robust partial least squares models for the prediction of lignin S/G ratios in a diverse group of Acacia and eucalypt trees. The most accurate Raman model has now been used to predict the S/G ratio from 269 unknown Acacia and eucalypt feedstocks. This study demonstrates the application of a partial least squares model composed of Raman spectral data and lignin S/G ratios measured using pyrolysis/molecular beam mass spectrometry (pyMBMS) for the prediction of S/G ratios in an unknown data set. The predicted S/G ratios calculated by the model were averaged according to plant species, and the means were not found to differ from the pyMBMS ratios when evaluating the mean values of each method within the 95 % confidence interval. Pairwise comparisons within each data set were employed to assess statistical differences between each biomass species. While some pairwise appraisals failed to differentiate between species, Acacias, in both data sets, clearly display significant differences in their S/G composition which distinguish them from eucalypts. In conclusion, this research shows the power of using Raman spectroscopy to supplant tedious, destructive methods for the evaluation of the lignin S/G ratio of diverse plant biomass materials.

  12. Glucanases and Chitinases as Causal Agents in the Protection of Acacia Extrafloral Nectar from Infestation by Phytopathogens1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    González-Teuber, Marcia; Pozo, María J.; Muck, Alexander; Svatos, Ales; Adame-Álvarez, Rosa M.; Heil, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Nectars are rich in primary metabolites and attract mutualistic animals, which serve as pollinators or as an indirect defense against herbivores. Their chemical composition makes nectars prone to microbial infestation. As protective strategy, floral nectar of ornamental tobacco (Nicotiana langsdorffii × Nicotiana sanderae) contains “nectarins,” proteins producing reactive oxygen species such as hydrogen peroxide. By contrast, pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins were detected in Acacia extrafloral nectar (EFN), which is secreted in the context of defensive ant-plant mutualisms. We investigated whether these PR proteins protect EFN from phytopathogens. Five sympatric species (Acacia cornigera, A. hindsii, A. collinsii, A. farnesiana, and Prosopis juliflora) were compared that differ in their ant-plant mutualism. EFN of myrmecophytes, which are obligate ant-plants that secrete EFN constitutively to nourish specialized ant inhabitants, significantly inhibited the growth of four out of six tested phytopathogenic microorganisms. By contrast, EFN of nonmyrmecophytes, which is secreted only transiently in response to herbivory, did not exhibit a detectable inhibitory activity. Combining two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with nanoflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis confirmed that PR proteins represented over 90% of all proteins in myrmecophyte EFN. The inhibition of microbial growth was exerted by the protein fraction, but not the small metabolites of this EFN, and disappeared when nectar was heated. In-gel assays demonstrated the activity of acidic and basic chitinases in all EFNs, whereas glucanases were detected only in EFN of myrmecophytes. Our results demonstrate that PR proteins causally underlie the protection of Acacia EFN from microorganisms and that acidic and basic glucanases likely represent the most important prerequisite in this defensive function. PMID:20023149

  13. Comparative study of microflora in Rhizospheric soils of Argania spinosa and Acacia raddiana of the arid zone from Oued El Ma (Tindouf)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tissouras, Fatiha; Habib, Semira; Missoum, Malika; Louacini, Braim Kamel

    2016-04-01

    Desert soils occupy a large area in Algeria (80Moreover, exploitation of the Saharan soil microorganisms has several interests and especially in maintaining the ecological equilibrium of ecosystems. Unfortunately, few of microbiological studies have been conducted so far about the Saharan soil Algerian, with the exception of some work done on the desert soils in the region of Beni Ounif. This work falls within the framework of Project CNEPRU F02320100009. The study focuses on an evaluation of the main germs rhizosphere soils from Argania spinosa and Acacia raddiana of the region of Oued El-ma (wilaya of Tindouf), located in southwest Algeria, followed by physicochemical analysis of some parameters (soil texture, pH, moisture content, organic matter). The results reveal that both rhizosphere soils have a sandy silt texture of alkali pH, with very low water content slightly different. Organic material of the rate varies from 0.2 to 1The type of vegetation influences positively the quantity and the dynamics of microbial population. Indeed, the two soils have an interesting microbial diversity, with densities of azotobacters, fungi, aerobic bacteria and actinomycetes are very high, followed germs ammonifiants, nitrifying and denitrifying. In the presence of Argania spinosa the microbial growth is most important (6.53 × 107 germs /g soil), compared with Acacia raddiana (3.13 × 107 germs /g). This shows the stimulating effect of the vegetation on the increase in the rate of these microorganisms in the soil. Well as the strong Fitness of adaptation the microbial biomass to drought. Keywords: Argania spinoza; Acacia raddiana; rhizospheric soil; microbiology evaluation.

  14. Productivity and carbon allocation in pure and mixed-species plantations of Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia mangium in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouvellon, Y.; Laclau, J.; Epron, D.; Le Maire, G.; Gonçalves, J.; Bouillet, J.

    2010-12-01

    Nitrogen fertilizer inputs are required in fast growing eucalypt plantations to meet tree requirements, and to compensate for the large nitrogen outputs associated with wood exportation at the end of the short rotations. Due to the economic and potential environmental cost of fertilizers, mixed-species plantations (MSP) with N-fixing species (NFS) such as Acacia sp. might be an attractive option to improve the long-term soil N (and possibly soil carbon) status. In such MSP, increases in N availability may influence the productivity and C partitioning of the non-N fixing species. To investigate the effects of NFS on nutrient cycling, wood production, C sequestration, and soil fertility, a randomized block design including monocultures of Eucalyptus grandis (100%E) and Acacia mangium (100%A), and mixtures of these species (50%E:50%A) was set up in southern Brazil. Our specific goals in the present study were to compare the production and C allocation patterns of these plantations, during the two last years of the 6-yr rotation. We hypothesized that 1) a large part of the differences in wood production between monospecific stands would be explained by differences in C allocation; and 2) the C allocation patterns of each species would be strongly modified in mixed- species plantations compared to mono-specific plantations due to inter-specific interactions and shifts in soil N status. Biomass increase (growth, G) in the different plant compartments was assessed by means of inventories and allometric relationships. Total aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP), and the productivity of each aboveground plant compartment were estimated from measurements of G and litterfall (L) (ANPP=G+L). Total belowground C allocations (TBCA) were estimated using a mass-balance approach as soil CO2 efflux C minus the C input from aboveground litter plus changes in the C stored in roots, in the forest floor litter layer, and in soil. Over this first rotation, mixing NFS with eucalypt

  15. Long and short-term spatial processes analysis of an acacia tree population using a single aerial photograph with near infra-red band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaacson, Sivan; Blumberg, Dan G.; Rachmilevitch, Shimon; Ephrath, Jhonathan E.

    2014-05-01

    Hyper-arid zones are characterized by highly sparse vegetation cover. Monitoring vegetation dynamics in hyper-arid zones is important because any reduction in the vegetation cover in these areas can lead to a considerable reduction in the carrying capacity of the ecological system. Remote sensing expands the spatial and temporal database and is thus a powerful tool for long-term monitoring in arid zones, where access is limited and long-term ground data are rarely available. The main goal of this research was to study both the long-term and short-term spatial processes affecting the acacia population, by using information from a single, three bands color infrared (CIR) aerial photograph (green, red and near infrared). CIR images enable us to obtain information about photosynthetically active biomass by using vegetation indices such as NDVI. A map of individual acacia trees that was extracted from a CIR aerial photograph of Wadi Ktora allowed us to examine the distribution pattern of the trees size and foliage health status (NDVI). Tree size distribution was used as an indicator of long-term (decades) geo-hydrologic spatial processes effecting the acacia population. The tree health status distribution was used as an indicator for short-term (months to a few years) geo-hydrologic spatial processes, such as the paths of recent flashfloods events. Comparison of the tree size distribution and NDVI values distribution enabled us to differentiate between long-term and short-term processes that brought the population to its present state. The spatial analysis revealed that both the tree size and NDVI distribution patterns were significantly clustered, suggesting that the processes responsible for tree size and tree health status do have a spatial expression. Furthermore, each of the attributes has a different distribution and unique clustering location. We suggest that the lack of spatial correlation between tree size and health status is a result of spatial

  16. Long-term effects of drenches with condensed tannins from Acacia mearnsii on goats naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes.

    PubMed

    Costa-Júnior, Livio M; Costa, Jailson S; Lôbo, Ítala C P D; Soares, Alexandra M S; Abdala, Adibe L; Chaves, Daniel P; Batista, Zulmira S; Louvandini, Helder

    2014-10-15

    In this study, the long-term effects of exposure to a drench containing condensed tannins (CTs) from Acacia mearnsii on gastrointestinal nematodes in goats were investigated. Male cross-bred Anglo-Nubian goat kids between 3 and 5 months of age were dewormed at the beginning of the experiment. The goat kids were divided into one group that received weekly 24 g oral doses of A. mearnsii bark extract dissolved in water containing 16.7% CTs (GCT group, n = 8) and a second group that did not receive CTs (GC group, n = 8). All of the animals were kept in an Andropogon gayanus pasture and grazed with a herd of 100 naturally infected adult goats. Each animal was supplemented daily with 200 g of a concentrated mixture containing 18% crude protein. Fecal egg counts (FECs) were performed weekly for 192 days, and weight measurements and blood collections were done at two-week intervals in this period. The packed cell volume of the blood was calculated, and the plasma was used to determine the total protein, albumin, and glucose concentrations. After 192 days, the animals were slaughtered and the carcasses evaluated, with nematodes harvested for identification and counting. The FECs of the animals treated with CTs from A. mearnsii (GCT group) remained lower than the FECs of the control group animals for the majority of the first half of the experimental period. An observed increase in the FECs for both groups coincided with increased rainfall in the region where the experiment was conducted. The worm burden, scrotal circumference, carcass weight, leg circumference, carcass size and blood analysis were not significantly different between the groups. The packed cell volume (PCV) was constant in all of the animals throughout the experiment. In conclusion, repeated and prolonged treatment of goats with CTs from A. mearnsii helped to maintain low FECs in a period of low challenge but did not reduce nematode infections in the goats.

  17. Determination of selected biogenic amines in Acacia rigidula plant materials and dietary supplements using LC-MS/MS methods.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Rahul S; Grundel, Erich; Fardin-Kia, Ali Reza; Rader, Jeanne I

    2014-01-01

    Extracts of Acacia rigidula leaves are used in weight-loss products sold in vitamin shops and over the internet with little or no published data about their potential biological effects. In our chemical investigations on authenticated A. rigidula plant material, we established a rapid and sensitive LC-MS/MS method for the quantitative determination of several phenethylamine, tyramine and tryptamine derivatives. Stable isotopically labeled compounds were used as internal standards for quantitative analysis. We found total calculated contents of 6 biogenic amines in A. rigidula leaf of 18.6 and 32.9μg/g. The content of selected amines in 21 dietary supplements labeled as containing A. rigidula was determined by a second LC-MS/MS method. Our study revealed significant differences in the amine profiles of authenticated plant materials and dietary supplements. β-Methylphenethylamine, a non-natural compound, was found in 9 of the 21 dietary supplement products. β-Methylphenethylamine was found at levels of 960-60,500μg/g while phenethylamine was found at levels of 710-171,620μg/g. β-Methylphenethylamine is a positional isomer of amphetamine and our results showed that it can be misidentified as amphetamine during LC-MS analysis. An independent GC-MS analysis was used to confirm the presence of β-methylphenethylamine and the absence of amphetamine in dietary supplements labeled as containing A. rigidula. This study demonstrates that confirmations by independent analytical methods are essential to verify findings of unusual or unexpected compounds in dietary supplements.

  18. The critical role of ants in the extensive dispersal of Acacia seeds revealed by genetic parentage assignment.

    PubMed

    Pascov, Caitlin M; Nevill, Paul G; Elliott, Carole P; Majer, Jonathan D; Anthony, Janet M; Krauss, Siegfried L

    2015-12-01

    Ants are prominent seed dispersal agents in many ecosystems, and dispersal distances are small in comparison with vertebrate dispersal agents. However, the distance and distribution of ant-mediated dispersal in arid/semi-arid environments remains poorly explored. We used microsatellite markers and parentage assignment to quantify the distance and distribution of dispersed seeds of Acacia karina, retrieved from the middens of Iridomyrmex agilis and Melophorus turneri perthensis. From parentage assignment, we could not distinguish the maternal from each parent pair assigned to each seed, so we applied two approaches to estimate dispersal distances, one conservative (CONS), where the parent closest to the ant midden was considered to be maternal, and the second where both parents were deemed equally likely (EL) to be maternal, and used both distances. Parentage was assigned to 124 seeds from eight middens. Maximum seed dispersal distances detected were 417 m (CONS) and 423 m (EL), more than double the estimated global maximum. Mean seed dispersal distances of 40 m (±5.8 SE) (CONS) and 79 m (±6.4 SE) (EL) exceeded the published global average of 2.24 m (±7.19 SD) by at least one order of magnitude. For both approaches and both ant species, seed dispersal was predominantly (44-84% of all seeds) within 50 m from the maternal source, with fewer dispersal events at longer distances. Ants in this semi-arid environment have demonstrated a greater capacity to disperse seeds than estimated elsewhere, which highlights their important role in this system, and suggests significant novel ecological and evolutionary consequences for myrmecochorous species in arid/semi-arid Australia.

  19. Modeling the spatial impact of an invasive N2-fixing Acacia by means of isotopic and optical measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellmann, Christine; Große-Stoltenberg, André; Máguas, Cristina; Oldeland, Jens; Rascher, Katherine G.; Thiele, Jan; Werner, Christiane

    2014-05-01

    Invasions by exotic plant species are known to seriously alter biogeochemical cycles and ecosystem functioning of the systems they invade, with nitrogen fixing species being among the most problematic invaders. However, explicitly quantifying such alterations remains challenging, as methods are lacking to capture the spatial scale of impact. Here, we present a spatially explicit approach allowing to quantify the impact of an N2-fixing invasive species, Acacia longifolia, on a native Portuguese dune system by means of stable isotope analyses. 15N isotopic signatures (δ15N) differed strongly between the native system (δ15N c. -10 o) and atmospherically derived N in A. longifolia (δ15N c. 0 o). Thus, N sources for a native, non-fixing plant, Corema album, could be readily distinguished. Using georeferenced δ15N values of C. album, we could accurately map N introduced by A. longifolia on a spatial scale. N input exceeded the canopy of the N2 fixer by far and reached up to 8 m into the uninvaded vegetation. The area altered by invasion was c. 3.5 fold larger than the area covered by the invader's canopy. Our results highlight that spatially explicit measurements of sensitive ecological tracers like stable isotopic signatures, i.e. isoscapes, provide a valuable means to quantify alterations of biogeochemical cycles within plant communities. Moreover, linking stable isotopes with optical measurements and remote sensing can be a powerful tool to upscale such information from leaf- to larger spatial scales. Here we show that foliar δ15N signatures can be accurately modeled using leaf reflectance spectra. This approach opens promising future perspectives in ecosystem monitoring based on the potential use of hyperspectral aerial and satellite imagery.

  20. Physio-biochemical and morphological characters of halophyte legume shrub, Acacia ampliceps seedlings in response to salt stress under greenhouse

    PubMed Central

    Theerawitaya, Cattarin; Tisarum, Rujira; Samphumphuang, Thapanee; Singh, Harminder P.; Suriyan Cha-Um; Kirdmanee, Chalermpol; Takabe, Teruhiro

    2015-01-01

    Acacia ampliceps (salt wattle), a leguminous shrub, has been introduced in salt-affected areas in the northeast of Thailand for the remediation of saline soils. However, the defense mechanisms underlying salt tolerance A. ampliceps are unknown. We investigated various physio-biochemical and morphological attributes of A. ampliceps in response to varying levels of salt treatment (200–600 mM NaCl). Seedlings of A. ampliceps (25 ± 2 cm in plant height) raised from seeds were treated with 200 mM (mild stress), 400 and 600 mM (extreme stress) of salt treatment (NaCl) under greenhouse conditions. Na+ and Ca2+ contents in the leaf tissues increased significantly under salt treatment, whereas K+ content declined in salt-stressed plants. Free proline and soluble sugar contents in plants grown under extreme salt stress (600 mM NaCl) for 9 days significantly increased by 28.7 (53.33 μmol g–1 FW) and 3.2 (42.11 mg g–1 DW) folds, respectively over the control, thereby playing a major role as osmotic adjustment. Na+ enrichment in the phyllode tissues of salt-stressed seedlings positively related to total chlorophyll (TC) degradation (R2 = 0.72). Photosynthetic pigments and chlorophyll fluorescence in salt-stressed plants increased under mild salt stress (200 mM NaCl). However, these declined under high levels of salinity (400–600 mM NaCl), consequently resulting in a reduced net photosynthetic rate (R2 = 0.81) and plant dry weight (R2 = 0.91). The study concludes that A. ampliceps has an osmotic adjustment and Na+ compartmentation as effective salt defense mechanisms, and thus it could be an excellent species to grow in salt-affected soils. PMID:26379678

  1. Native and domestic browsers and grazers reduce fuels, fire temperatures, and acacia ant mortality in an African savanna.

    PubMed

    Kimuyu, Duncan M; Sensenig, Ryan L; Riginos, Corinna; Veblen, Kari E; Young, Truman P

    2014-06-01

    Despite the importance of fire and herbivory in structuring savanna systems, few replicated experiments have examined the interactive effects of herbivory and fire on plant dynamics. In addition, the effects of fire on associated ant-tree mutualisms have been largely unexplored. We carried out small controlled burns in each of 18 herbivore treatment plots of the Kenya Long-term Exclosure Experiment (KLEE), where experimentally excluding elephants has resulted in 42% greater tree densities. The KLEE design includes six different herbivore treatments that allowed us to examine how different combinations of megaherbivore wildlife, mesoherbivore wildlife, and cattle affect fire temperatures and subsequent loss of ant symbionts from Acacia trees. Before burning, we quantified herbaceous fuel loads and plant community composition. We tagged all trees, measured their height and basal diameter, and identified the resident ant species on each. We recorded weather conditions during the burns and used ceramic tiles painted with fire-sensitive paints to estimate fire temperatures at different heights and in different microsites (under vs. between trees). Across all treatments, fire temperatures were highest at 0-50 cm off the ground and hotter in the grass under trees than in the grassy areas between trees. Plots with more trees burned hotter than plots with fewer trees, perhaps because of greater fine woody debris. Plots grazed by wildlife and by cattle prior to burning had lower herbaceous fuel loads and experienced lower burn temperatures than ungrazed plots. Many trees lost their ant colonies during the burns. Ant survivorship differed by ant species and at the plot level was positively associated with previous herbivory (and lower fire temperatures). Across all treatments, ant colonies on taller trees were more likely to survive, but even some of the tallest trees lost their ant colonies. Our study marks a significant step in understanding the mechanisms that underlie the

  2. The Interaction between Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Endophytic Bacteria Enhances Plant Growth of Acacia gerrardii under Salt Stress

    PubMed Central

    Hashem, Abeer; Abd_Allah, Elsayed F.; Alqarawi, Abdulaziz A.; Al-Huqail, Asma A.; Wirth, Stephan; Egamberdieva, Dilfuza

    2016-01-01

    Microbes living symbiotically in plant tissues mutually cooperate with each other by providing nutrients for proliferation of the partner organism and have a beneficial effect on plant growth. However, few studies thus far have examined the interactive effect of endophytic bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in hostile conditions and their potential to improve plant stress tolerance. In this study, we investigated how the synergistic interactions of endophytic bacteria and AMF affect plant growth, nodulation, nutrient acquisition and stress tolerance of Acacia gerrardii under salt stress. Plant growth varied between the treatments with both single inoculants and was higher in plants inoculated with the endophytic B. subtilis strain than with AMF. Co-inoculated A. gerrardii had a significantly greater shoot and root dry weight, nodule number, and leghemoglobin content than those inoculated with AMF or B. subtilis alone under salt stress. The endophytic B. subtilis could alleviate the adverse effect of salt on AMF colonization. The differences in nitrate and nitrite reductase and nitrogenase activities between uninoculated plants and those inoculated with AMF and B. subtilis together under stress were significant. Both inoculation treatments, either B. subtilis alone or combined with AMF, enhanced the N, P, K, Mg, and Ca contents and phosphatase activities in salt-stressed A. gerrardii tissues and reduced Na and Cl concentration, thereby protecting salt-stressed plants from ionic and osmotic stress-induced changes. In conclusion, our results indicate that endophytic bacteria and AMF contribute to a tripartite mutualistic symbiosis in A. gerrardii and are coordinately involved in the plant adaptation to salt stress tolerance. PMID:27486442

  3. A Switch in Keystone Seed-Dispersing Ant Genera between Two Elevations for a Myrmecochorous Plant, Acacia terminalis.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Fiona J; Auld, Tony D; Ramp, Daniel; Kingsford, Richard T

    2016-01-01

    The dispersal capacity of plant species that rely on animals to disperse their seeds (biotic dispersal) can alter with changes to the populations of their keystone dispersal vectors. Knowledge on how biotic dispersal systems vary across landscapes allows better understanding of factors driving plant persistence. Myrmecochory, seed dispersal by ants, is a common method of biotic dispersal for many plant species throughout the world. We tested if the seed dispersal system of Acacia terminalis (Fabaceae), a known myrmecochore, differed between two elevations in the Greater Blue Mountains World Heritage Area, in southeastern Australia. We compared ant assemblages, seed removal rates of ants and other vertebrates (bird and mammal) and the dominant seed-dispersing ant genera. At low elevations (c. 200 m a.s.l) seed removal was predominantly by ants, however, at high elevation sites (c. 700 m a.s.l) vertebrate seed dispersers or seed predators were present, removing over 60% of seeds from experimental depots when ants were excluded. We found a switch in the keystone seed-dispersing ant genera from Rhytidoponera at low elevations sites to Aphaenogaster at high elevation sites. This resulted in more seeds being removed faster at low elevation sites compared to high elevation sites, however long-term seed removal rates were equal between elevations. Differences in the keystone seed removalist, and the addition of an alternate dispersal vector or seed predator at high elevations, will result in different dispersal and establishment patterns for A. terminalis at different elevations. These differences in dispersal concur with other global studies that report myrmecochorous dispersal systems alter with elevation.

  4. Physio-biochemical and morphological characters of halophyte legume shrub, Acacia ampliceps seedlings in response to salt stress under greenhouse.

    PubMed

    Theerawitaya, Cattarin; Tisarum, Rujira; Samphumphuang, Thapanee; Singh, Harminder P; Suriyan Cha-Um; Kirdmanee, Chalermpol; Takabe, Teruhiro

    2015-01-01

    Acacia ampliceps (salt wattle), a leguminous shrub, has been introduced in salt-affected areas in the northeast of Thailand for the remediation of saline soils. However, the defense mechanisms underlying salt tolerance A. ampliceps are unknown. We investigated various physio-biochemical and morphological attributes of A. ampliceps in response to varying levels of salt treatment (200-600 mM NaCl). Seedlings of A. ampliceps (25 ± 2 cm in plant height) raised from seeds were treated with 200 mM (mild stress), 400 and 600 mM (extreme stress) of salt treatment (NaCl) under greenhouse conditions. Na(+) and Ca(2+) contents in the leaf tissues increased significantly under salt treatment, whereas K(+) content declined in salt-stressed plants. Free proline and soluble sugar contents in plants grown under extreme salt stress (600 mM NaCl) for 9 days significantly increased by 28.7 (53.33 μmol g(-1) FW) and 3.2 (42.11 mg g(-1) DW) folds, respectively over the control, thereby playing a major role as osmotic adjustment. Na(+) enrichment in the phyllode tissues of salt-stressed seedlings positively related to total chlorophyll (TC) degradation (R (2) = 0.72). Photosynthetic pigments and chlorophyll fluorescence in salt-stressed plants increased under mild salt stress (200 mM NaCl). However, these declined under high levels of salinity (400-600 mM NaCl), consequently resulting in a reduced net photosynthetic rate (R (2) = 0.81) and plant dry weight (R (2) = 0.91). The study concludes that A. ampliceps has an osmotic adjustment and Na(+) compartmentation as effective salt defense mechanisms, and thus it could be an excellent species to grow in salt-affected soils.

  5. A Switch in Keystone Seed-Dispersing Ant Genera between Two Elevations for a Myrmecochorous Plant, Acacia terminalis

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Fiona J.; Auld, Tony D.; Ramp, Daniel; Kingsford, Richard T.

    2016-01-01

    The dispersal capacity of plant species that rely on animals to disperse their seeds (biotic dispersal) can alter with changes to the populations of their keystone dispersal vectors. Knowledge on how biotic dispersal systems vary across landscapes allows better understanding of factors driving plant persistence. Myrmecochory, seed dispersal by ants, is a common method of biotic dispersal for many plant species throughout the world. We tested if the seed dispersal system of Acacia terminalis (Fabaceae), a known myrmecochore, differed between two elevations in the Greater Blue Mountains World Heritage Area, in southeastern Australia. We compared ant assemblages, seed removal rates of ants and other vertebrates (bird and mammal) and the dominant seed-dispersing ant genera. At low elevations (c. 200 m a.s.l) seed removal was predominantly by ants, however, at high elevation sites (c. 700 m a.s.l) vertebrate seed dispersers or seed predators were present, removing over 60% of seeds from experimental depots when ants were excluded. We found a switch in the keystone seed-dispersing ant genera from Rhytidoponera at low elevations sites to Aphaenogaster at high elevation sites. This resulted in more seeds being removed faster at low elevation sites compared to high elevation sites, however long-term seed removal rates were equal between elevations. Differences in the keystone seed removalist, and the addition of an alternate dispersal vector or seed predator at high elevations, will result in different dispersal and establishment patterns for A. terminalis at different elevations. These differences in dispersal concur with other global studies that report myrmecochorous dispersal systems alter with elevation. PMID:27310262

  6. The Interaction between Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Endophytic Bacteria Enhances Plant Growth of Acacia gerrardii under Salt Stress.

    PubMed

    Hashem, Abeer; Abd Allah, Elsayed F; Alqarawi, Abdulaziz A; Al-Huqail, Asma A; Wirth, Stephan; Egamberdieva, Dilfuza

    2016-01-01

    Microbes living symbiotically in plant tissues mutually cooperate with each other by providing nutrients for proliferation of the partner organism and have a beneficial effect on plant growth. However, few studies thus far have examined the interactive effect of endophytic bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in hostile conditions and their potential to improve plant stress tolerance. In this study, we investigated how the synergistic interactions of endophytic bacteria and AMF affect plant growth, nodulation, nutrient acquisition and stress tolerance of Acacia gerrardii under salt stress. Plant growth varied between the treatments with both single inoculants and was higher in plants inoculated with the endophytic B. subtilis strain than with AMF. Co-inoculated A. gerrardii had a significantly greater shoot and root dry weight, nodule number, and leghemoglobin content than those inoculated with AMF or B. subtilis alone under salt stress. The endophytic B. subtilis could alleviate the adverse effect of salt on AMF colonization. The differences in nitrate and nitrite reductase and nitrogenase activities between uninoculated plants and those inoculated with AMF and B. subtilis together under stress were significant. Both inoculation treatments, either B. subtilis alone or combined with AMF, enhanced the N, P, K, Mg, and Ca contents and phosphatase activities in salt-stressed A. gerrardii tissues and reduced Na and Cl concentration, thereby protecting salt-stressed plants from ionic and osmotic stress-induced changes. In conclusion, our results indicate that endophytic bacteria and AMF contribute to a tripartite mutualistic symbiosis in A. gerrardii and are coordinately involved in the plant adaptation to salt stress tolerance.

  7. Effect of acacia polyphenol on glucose homeostasis in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance: A randomized multicenter feeding trial

    PubMed Central

    OGAWA, SOSUKE; MATSUMAE, TOMOYUKI; KATAOKA, TAKESHI; YAZAKI, YOSHIKAZU; YAMAGUCHI, HIDEYO

    2013-01-01

    Numerous in vitro and animal studies, as well as clinical trials have indicated that plant-derived polyphenols exert beneficial effects on glucose intolerance or type 2 diabetes. This clinical study aimed to investigate the effects of acacia polyphenol (AP) on glucose and insulin responses to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in non-diabetic subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in a total of 34 enrolled subjects. The subjects were randomly assigned to the AP-containing dietary supplement (AP supplement; in a daily dose of 250 mg as AP; n=17) or placebo (n=17) and the intervention was continued for 8 weeks. Prior to the start of the intervention (baseline) and after 4 and 8 weeks of intervention, plasma glucose and insulin were measured during a two-hour OGTT. Compared with the baseline, plasma glucose and insulin levels at 90 and/or 120 min, as well as the total area under the curve values during the OGTT (AUC0→2h) for glucose and insulin, were significantly reduced in the AP group, but not in the placebo group after intervention for 8 weeks. The decline from baseline in plasma glucose and insulin at 90 or 120 min of the OGTT for the AP group was significantly greater compared with that of the placebo group after 8 weeks of intervention. No AP supplement-related adverse side-effects nor any abnormal changes in routine laboratory tests and anthropometric parameters were observed throughout the study period. The AP supplement may have the potential to improve glucose homeostasis in subjects with IGT. PMID:23837032

  8. Silver nanoparticle (AgNPs) doped gum acacia-gelatin-silica nanohybrid: an effective support for diastase immobilization.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vandana; Ahmed, Shakeel

    2012-03-01

    An effective carrier matrix for diastase alpha amylase immobilization has been fabricated by gum acacia-gelatin dual templated polymerization of tetramethoxysilane. Silver nanoparticle (AgNp) doping to this hybrid could significantly enhance the shelf life of the impregnated enzyme while retaining its full bio-catalytic activity. The doped nanohybrid has been characterized as a thermally stable porous material which also showed multipeak photoluminescence under UV excitation. The immobilized diastase alpha amylase has been used to optimize the conditions for soluble starch hydrolysis in comparison to the free enzyme. The optimum pH for both immobilized and free enzyme hydrolysis was found to be same (pH=5), indicating that the immobilization made no major change in enzyme conformation. The immobilized enzyme showed good performance in wide temperature range (from 303 to 323 K), 323 K being the optimum value. The kinetic parameters for the immobilized, (K(m)=10.30 mg/mL, V(max)=4.36 μmol mL(-1)min(-1)) and free enzyme (K(m)=8.85 mg/mL, V(max)=2.81 μmol mL(-1)min(-1)) indicated that the immobilization improved the overall stability and catalytic property of the enzyme. The immobilized enzyme remained usable for repeated cycles and did not lose its activity even after 30 days storage at 40°C, while identically synthesized and stored silver undoped hybrid lost its ~31% activity in 48 h. Present study revealed the hybrids to be potentially useful for biomedical and optical applications.

  9. Influence of First-Line Antibiotics on the Antibacterial Activities of Acetone Stem Bark Extract of Acacia mearnsii De Wild. against Drug-Resistant Bacterial Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Olajuyigbe, Olufunmiso O.; Coopoosamy, Roger M.

    2014-01-01

    Background. This study was aimed at evaluating the antibacterial activity of the acetone extract of A. mearnsii and its interactions with antibiotics against some resistant bacterial strains. Methods. The antibacterial susceptibility testing was determined by agar diffusion and macrobroth dilution methods while the checkerboard method was used for the determination of synergy between the antibiotics and the extract. Results. The results showed that the susceptibility of the different bacterial isolates was concentration dependent for the extract and the different antibiotics. With the exception of S. marcescens, the inhibition zones of the extract produced by 20 mg/mL ranged between 18 and 32 mm. While metronidazole did not inhibit any of the bacterial isolates, all the antibiotics and their combinations, except for ciprofloxacin and its combination, did not inhibit Enterococcus faecalis. The antibacterial combinations were more of being antagonistic than of being synergistic in the agar diffusion assay. From the macrobroth dilution, the extract and the antibiotics exerted a varied degree of inhibitory effect on the test organisms. The MIC values of the acetone extract which are in mg/mL are lower than those of the different antibiotics which are in μg/mL. From the checkerboard assay, the antibacterial combinations showed varied degrees of interactions including synergism, additive, indifference, and antagonism interactions. While antagonistic and additive interactions were 14.44%, indifference interaction was 22.22% and synergistic interaction was 37.78% of the antibacterial combinations against the test isolates. While the additivity/indifference interactions indicated no interactions, the antagonistic interaction may be considered as a negative interaction that could result in toxicity and suboptimal bioactivity. Conclusion. The synergistic effects of the herbal-drug combinations may be harnessed for the discovery and development of more rational evidence-based drug combinations with optimized efficiency in the prevention of multidrug resistance and therapy of multifactorial diseases. PMID:25101132

  10. Stem Cell Transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... transplant is a procedure that infuses healthy blood stem cells into your body to replace your damaged or ... A bone marrow transplant is also called a stem cell transplant. A bone marrow transplant may be necessary ...

  11. STEM Club Participation and STEM Schooling Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfried, Michael A.; Williams, Darryl N.

    2013-01-01

    To develop a more robust understanding of the relationship between non-formal, school-based STEM activities and students' success and persistence in STEM fields, this study evaluates how math club participation influences math GPA and how science club participation influences science GPA. Additionally, this study evaluates how math or science club…

  12. Understanding STEM: Current Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ryan; Brown, Joshua; Reardon, Kristin; Merrill, Chris

    2011-01-01

    In many ways, the push for STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) education appears to have grown from a concern for the low number of future professionals to fill STEM jobs and careers and economic and educational competitiveness. The proponents of STEM education believe that by increasing math and science requirements in…

  13. Densitometric validation and analysis of biomarker β-amyrin in different Acacia species (leaves) grown in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia by high performance thin-layer chromatography.

    PubMed

    Alam, Perwez; Alajmi, Mohamed Fahad; Siddiqui, Nasir Ali; Al-Rehaily, Adnan Jathlan; Alharbi, Hattan; Basudan, Omer Ahmed; Hussain, Afzal

    2015-07-01

    Biomarker β-amyrin was analyzed in the leaves of four different Acacia species (A. salicina, A. loreta, A. hamulosa and A. tortilis) grown in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia by a validated HPTLC method. The chromatography was performed on glass-backed silica gel 60 F254 HPTLC plates using solvents toluene: methanol (9:1, v/v) as mobile phase. The developed TLC plate was derivatized with anisaldehyde and scanned at 520 nm. A sharp peak of β-amyrin was found at Rf=0.58±0.01. The r2 and the linear regression equation for β-amyrin was found to be 0.991 and 19.913X+107.803, respectively in the concentration range of 100-800 ng. The percentage of β-amyrin was found to be maximum 2.70% w/w in A. tortilis, 1.85% w/w in A. loreta and 1.80% w/w in A. hamulosa while it was totally absent in A. salicina. This study conceives maiden reporting of quantification of β-amyrin in four different species of Acacia by validated HPTLC method. The developed method for the analysis of β-amyrin was proved to be reproducible by statistical analysis hence it can be employed for further analysis of β-amyrin in plasma, other biological fluids and in finished products available in the market.

  14. Biobleaching of Acacia kraft pulp with extracellular enzymes secreted by Irpex lacteus KB-1.1 and Lentinus tigrinus LP-7 using low-cost media.

    PubMed

    Afrida, Sitompul; Tamai, Yutaka; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Osaki, Mitsuru

    2014-08-01

    The white-rot fungi Irpex lacteus KB-1.1 and Lentinus tigrinus LP-7 have been shown in previous studies to have high biobleaching activity in vivo. The aim of this study was to investigate the activities and stabilities of extracellular enzymes, prepared from I. lacteus and L. tigrinus culture grown in three types of economical media of agricultural and forestry wastes, for biobleaching of Acacia oxygen-delignified kraft pulp using kappa number reduction as an indicator of delignification. After 3 days of incubation, the extracellular enzymes preparations from I. lacteus and L. tigrinus cultures in media of Acacia mangium wood powder supplemented with rice bran and addition 1 % glucose (WRBG), resulted in significant decrease of 4.4 and 6.7 %, respectively. A slightly higher kappa number reduction (7.4 %) was achieved with the combine extracellular enzymes from I. lacteus and L. tigrinus. One of the strategies for reducing the cost of enzyme production for treatment processes in the pulp and paper industry is the utilization of agricultural and forestry waste. Thus, WRBG has potential as a culture medium for producing stable lignolytic enzymes simply and economically.

  15. Litter-forager termite mounds enhance the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis between Acacia holosericea A. Cunn. Ex G. Don and Scleroderma dictyosporum isolates.

    PubMed

    Duponnois, Robin; Assikbetse, Komi; Ramanankierana, Heriniaina; Kisa, Marija; Thioulouse, Jean; Lepage, Michel

    2006-05-01

    The hypothesis of the present study was that the termite mounds of Macrotermes subhyalinus (MS) (a litter-forager termite) were inhabited by a specific microflora that could enhance with the ectomycorrhizal fungal development. We tested the effect of this feeding group mound material on (i) the ectomycorrhization symbiosis between Acacia holosericea (an Australian Acacia introduced in the sahelian areas) and two ectomycorrhizal fungal isolates of Scleroderma dictyosporum (IR408 and IR412) in greenhouse conditions, (ii) the functional diversity of soil microflora and (iii) the diversity of fluorescent pseudomonads. The results showed that the termite mound amendment significantly increased the ectomycorrhizal expansion. MS mound amendment and ectomycorrhizal inoculation induced strong modifications of the soil functional microbial diversity by promoting the multiplication of carboxylic acid catabolizing microorganisms. The phylogenetic analysis showed that fluorescent pseudomonads mostly belong to the Pseudomonads monteillii species. One of these, P. monteillii isolate KR9, increased the ectomycorrhizal development between S. dictyosporum IR412 and A. holosericea. The occurrence of MS termite mounds could be involved in the expansion of ectomycorrhizal symbiosis and could be implicated in nutrient flow and local diversity.

  16. The effects of seed quality and pipecolic and djenkolic acids on bruchid beetle infestation in water deficit-stressed Acacia trees.

    PubMed

    Or, K; Ward, D

    2004-11-01

    Acacia trees in the Negev desert and the Arava valley of Israel are suffering high levels of mortality due to water stress. Additionally, recruitment is negatively affected by bruchid beetles. We hypothesized that water-stressed trees would be less able to produce secondary defense compounds, such as the nonprotein amino acids, pipecolic acid and djenkolic acid, in their seeds to decrease seed herbivory. We further hypothesized that the high seed infestation reported is due to increased fitness of beetles infesting trees that are in a poor physiological state. Contrary to our prediction, pipecolic acid concentration was higher in water-stressed Acacia raddiana trees. We found that infestation rates and beetle fitness were higher in trees in a poor physiological state, despite the higher levels of pipecolic acid in these trees. There was a significant positive correlation between infestation level and the amounts of djenkolic acid in the seeds, indicating that the beetles may have found a means of utilizing djenkolic acid for their own benefit.

  17. Effect of Acacia karroo Supplementation on Growth, Ultimate pH, Colour and Cooking Losses of Meat from Indigenous Xhosa Lop-eared Goats

    PubMed Central

    Ngambu, S.; Muchenje, V.; Marume, U.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of Acacia karroo supplementation on growth, ultimate pH, colour and cooking losses of meat from indigenous Xhosa lop-eared goats. Eighteen castrated 4-month-old kids were used in the study until slaughter. The kids were subdivided in two treatment groups A. karroo supplemented (AK) and non-supplemented (NS). The supplemented goats were given 200 g per head per d of fresh A. karroo leaves. The kids were slaughtered on d 60 and sample cuttings for meat quality assessment were taken from the Longistimus dorsi muscle. The supplemented kids had higher (p<0.05) growth rates than the non-supplemented ones. The meat from the A. karroo supplemented goats had lower (p<0.05) ultimate pH and cooking loss than the meat from the non-supplemented goats. Acacia karroo supplemented goats produced higher (p<0.05) b* (yellowness) value, but supplementation had no significant effect on L* (lightness) and a* (redness) of the meat. Therefore, A. karroo supplementation improved growth performance and the quality of meat from goats. PMID:25049715

  18. Nail stem cells.

    PubMed

    Sellheyer, Klaus

    2013-03-01

    Our knowledge on stem cells of the hair follicle has increased exponentially after the bulge was characterized as the stem cell niche two decades ago. In contrast, little is known about stem cells in the nail unit. Whereas hair follicles are plentiful and easy to access, the human body has only twenty nails and they are rarely biopsied. Therefore, examining fetal material offers unique advantages. In the following mini-review, our current knowledge on nail stem cells is summarized and analogies to the hair follicle stem cells are drawn.

  19. Heterogeneity of terrestrial bromeliad colonies and regeneration of Acacia praecox (Fabaceae) in a humid-subtropical-Chaco forest, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Barberis, Ignacio M; Lewis, Juan Pablo

    2005-01-01

    In several tropical and subtropical forests, plants of the understorey act as an ecological filter that differentially affects woody species regeneration. In convex sectors of the Schinopsis balansae (Anacardiaceae) forests of the Southeastern Chaco there are dense colonies of terrestrial bromeliads. These may influence forest regeneration by intercepting rain water and propagules in their tanks. Within colonies, the spatial distribution of bromeliads is clumped because their clonal growth leaves numerous internal gaps. In this study we describe the internal heterogeneity of three bromeliad colonies (plots) and analyze how this heterogeneity affects Acacia praecox regeneration (i.e. seedling recruitment and survival). In January 1996, we randomly placed three transects with 150 contiguous quadrats of 100 cm(2) in each plot. For each quadrat we recorded the type of floor cover (i.e. bromeliads, herbs, litter, or bare soil) and the presence of A. praecox seeds or seedlings. In July 1996 we relocated the transects and recorded seedling survival. Bromeliad colonies showed a high internal heterogeneity. Almost half of the 450 quadrats were covered by two terrestrial bromeliads. Aechmea distichantha was recorded in 81% of all quadrats with bromeliads, and Bromelia serra in the others. All quadrats with bromeliads were covered by litter. Half of them were occupied by the bases of bromeliads and the others were covered by their leaves. In contrast, where bromeliads were not present, soil surface was covered by litter in 83% and by herbaceous vegetation in 11% of the quadrats; very few quadrats were covered by bare soil. In January 1996, we recorded 127 seeds and 176 seedlings of A. praecox. Seed and seedling densities of A. praecox were similar in quadrats with and without bromeliads, but variability in seedling density of A. praecox was higher within than among plots. Seed density was higher in quadrats covered by bromeliad leaves than inside the tanks. Seedling survival

  20. Germination of Acacia harpophylla (Brigalow) seeds in relation to soil water potential: implications for rehabilitation of a threatened ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Kailichova, Yolana; Baumgartl, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Initial soil water conditions play a critical role when seeding is the primary approach to revegetate post-mining areas. In some semi-arid climates, such as the Brigalow Belt Bioregion in eastern Australia, extensive areas are affected by open-cut mining. Together with erratic rainfall patterns and clayey soils, the Brigalow Belt denotes a unique biome which is representative of other water-limited ecosystems worldwide. Apart from other environmental stressors, germination is governed by the water potential of the surrounding soil material. While previous studies have confirmed the high tolerance of Brigalow (Acacia harpophylla) seeds to a broad range of temperature and salinity, the question of how soil water potential triggers seed germination remains. In this study, we used three replicates of 50 seeds of Brigalow to investigate germination in relation to water potential as an environmental stressor. Solutions of Polyethylene Glycol (PEG 6000) were applied to expose seeds to nine osmotic water potentials ranging from soil water saturation (0 MPa) and field capacity (−.01 to −.03 MPa) to the permanent wilting point (−1.5 MPa). We measured germinability (number of germinated seeds relative to total number of seeds per lot) and mean germination time (mean time required for maximum germination of a seed lot) to quantify germination. Based on the empirical data of the germination we estimated the parameters of the hydrotime model which simulates timing and success of seed emergence. Our findings indicate that Brigalow seeds are remarkably tolerant to water stress, with germination being observed at a water potential as low as −1.5 MPa. Likewise, the average base water potential of a seed population (hydrotime model) was very low and ranged between −1.533 and −1.451 MPa. In general, Brigalow seeds germinate opportunistically over a broad range of abiotic conditions related to temperature, salinity, and water availability. Direct seeding and germination

  1. Effect of Inoculation of Acacia senegal mature trees with Mycorrhiza and Rhizobia on soil properties and microbial community structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assigbetsé, K.; Ciss, I.; Bakhoum, N.; Dieng, L.

    2012-04-01

    Inoculation of legume plants with symbiotic microorganisms is widely used to improve their development and productivity. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of inoculation of Acacia senegal mature trees with rhizobium (Sinorhizobium) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (G. mosseae, G. fasciculatum, G. intraradices) either singly or in combination, on soil properties, activity and the genetic structure of soil microbial communities. The experiment set up in Southern Senegal consisted of 4 randomized blocks of A. senegal mature trees with 4 treatments including inoculated trees with Rhizobium (R), mycorrhizal fungus (M) and with Rhizobium+mycorhizal fungus (RM) and non-inoculated control (CON). Soil were sampled 2 years after the inoculation. Soil pH, C and N and available P contents were measured. The microbial abundance and activity were measured in terms of microbial biomass C (MBC) and basal soil respiration. The community structure of the total bacterial, diazotrophic and denitrifying communities was assessed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rDNA, nifH and nirK genes respectively. Inoculations with symbiont under field conditions have increased soil pH. The C and N contents were enhanced in the dual-inoculated treatments (RM). The mycorrhized treatment have displayed the lowest available P contents while RM and R treatments exhibited higher contents rates. The microbial biomass C rates were higher in treatments co-inoculated with AM fungi and Rhizobium than in those inoculated singly with AM fungi or Rhizobium strains. The basal soil respiration were positively correlated to MBC, and the highest rates were found in the co-inoculated treatments. Fingerprints of 16S rDNA gene exhibited similar patterns between inoculated treatments and the control showing that the inoculation of mature trees have not impacted the total bacterial community structure. In contrast, the inoculated treatments have displayed individually different

  2. Human usage in the native range may determine future genetic structure of an invasion: insights from Acacia pycnantha

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The influence of introduction history and post-introduction dynamics on genetic diversity and structure has been a major research focus in invasion biology. However, genetic diversity and structure in the invasive range can also be affected by human-mediated processes in the native range prior to species introductions, an aspect often neglected in invasion biology. Here we aim to trace the native provenance of the invasive tree Acacia pycnantha by comparing the genetic diversity and structure between populations in the native Australian range and the invasive range in South Africa. This approach also allowed us to explore how human actions altered genetic structure before and after the introduction of A. pycnantha into South Africa. We hypothesized that extensive movement and replanting in A. pycnantha’s Australian range prior to its introduction to South Africa might result in highly admixed genotypes in the introduced range, comparable genetic diversity in both ranges, and therefore preclude an accurate determination of native provenance(s) of invasive populations. Results In the native range Bayesian assignment tests identified three genetic clusters with substantial admixture and could not clearly differentiate previously identified genetic entities, corroborating admixture as a result of replantings within Australia. Assignment tests that included invasive populations from South Africa indicated similar levels of admixture compared to Australian populations and a lack of genetic structure. Invasive populations of A. pycnantha in South Africa are as genetically diverse as native populations, and could not be assigned to particular native range regions. Conclusions Our results indicate that the genetic structure of A. pycnantha in Australia has been greatly altered through various planting initiatives. Specifically, there is little geographic structure and high levels of admixture. While numerous introduction history scenarios may explain the levels

  3. Elucidating the native sources of an invasive tree species, Acacia pycnantha, reveals unexpected native range diversity and structure

    PubMed Central

    Ndlovu, Joice; Richardson, David M.; Wilson, John R. U.; O'Leary, Martin; Le Roux, Johannes J.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Understanding the introduction history of invasive plant species is important for their management and identifying effective host-specific biological control agents. However, uncertain taxonomy, intra- and interspecific hybridization, and cryptic speciation may obscure introduction histories, making it difficult to identify native regions to explore for host-specific agents. The overall aim of this study was to identify the native source populations of Acacia pycnantha, a tree native to south-eastern Australia and invasive in South Africa, Western Australia and Portugal. Using a phylogeographical approach also allowed an exploration of the historical processes that have shaped the genetic structure of A. pycnantha in its native range. Methods Nuclear (nDNA) and plastid DNA sequence data were used in network and tree-building analyses to reconstruct phylogeographical relationships between native and invasive A. pycnantha populations. In addition, mismatch distributions, relative rates and Bayesian analyses were used to infer recent demographic processes and timing of events in Australia that led to population structure and diversification. Key Results The plastid network indicated that Australian populations of A. pycnantha are geographically structured into two informally recognized lineages, the wetland and dryland forms, whereas the nuclear phylogeny showed little geographical structure between these two forms. Moreover, the dryland form of A. pycnantha showed close genetic similarity to the wetland form based on nDNA sequence data. Hybrid zones may explain these findings, supported here by incongruent phylogenetic placement of some of these taxa between nuclear and plastid genealogies. Conclusions It is hypothesized that habitat fragmentation due to cycles of aridity inter-dispersed with periods of abundant rainfall during the Pleistocene (approx. 100 kya) probably gave rise to native dryland and wetland forms of A. pycnantha. Although the

  4. Production and carbon allocation in monocultures and mixed-species plantations of Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia mangium in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nouvellon, Yann; Laclau, Jean-Paul; Epron, Daniel; Le Maire, Guerric; Bonnefond, Jean-Marc; Gonçalves, José Leonardo M; Bouillet, Jean-Pierre

    2012-06-01

    Introducing nitrogen-fixing tree species in fast-growing eucalypt plantations has the potential to improve soil nitrogen availability compared with eucalypt monocultures. Whether or not the changes in soil nutrient status and stand structure will lead to mixtures that out-yield monocultures depends on the balance between positive interactions and the negative effects of interspecific competition, and on their effect on carbon (C) uptake and partitioning. We used a C budget approach to quantify growth, C uptake and C partitioning in monocultures of Eucalyptus grandis (W. Hill ex Maiden) and Acacia mangium (Willd.) (treatments E100 and A100, respectively), and in a mixture at the same stocking density with the two species at a proportion of 1 : 1 (treatment MS). Allometric relationships established over the whole rotation, and measurements of soil CO(2) efflux and aboveground litterfall for ages 4-6 years after planting were used to estimate aboveground net primary production (ANPP), total belowground carbon flux (TBCF) and gross primary production (GPP). We tested the hypotheses that (i) species differences for wood production between E. grandis and A. mangium monocultures were partly explained by different C partitioning strategies, and (ii) the observed lower wood production in the mixture compared with eucalypt monoculture was mostly explained by a lower partitioning aboveground. At the end of the rotation, total aboveground biomass was lowest in A100 (10.5 kg DM m(-2)), intermediate in MS (12.2 kg DM m(-2)) and highest in E100 (13.9 kg DM m(-2)). The results did not support our first hypothesis of contrasting C partitioning strategies between E. grandis and A. mangium monocultures: the 21% lower growth (ΔB(w)) in A100 compared with E100 was almost entirely explained by a 23% lower GPP, with little or no species difference in ratios such as TBCF/GPP, ANPP/TBCF, ΔB(w)/ANPP and ΔB(w)/GPP. In contrast, the 28% lower ΔB(w) in MS than in E100 was explained both by

  5. Liver cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Sell, Stewart; Leffert, Hyam L

    2008-06-10

    In an effort to review the evidence that liver cancer stem cells exist, two fundamental questions must be addressed. First, do hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) arise from liver stem cells? Second, do HCCs contain cells that possess properties of cancer stem cells? For many years the finding of preneoplastic nodules in the liver during experimental induction of HCCs by chemicals was interpreted to support the hypothesis that HCC arose by dedifferentiation of mature liver cells. More recently, recognition of the role of small oval cells in the carcinogenic process led to a new hypothesis that HCC arises by maturation arrest of liver stem cells. Analysis of the cells in HCC supports the presence of cells with stem-cell properties (ie, immortality, transplantability, and resistance to therapy). However, definitive markers for these putative cancer stem cells have not yet been found and a liver cancer stem cell has not been isolated.

  6. Plant stem cell niches.

    PubMed

    Aichinger, Ernst; Kornet, Noortje; Friedrich, Thomas; Laux, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Multicellular organisms possess pluripotent stem cells to form new organs, replenish the daily loss of cells, or regenerate organs after injury. Stem cells are maintained in specific environments, the stem cell niches, that provide signals to block differentiation. In plants, stem cell niches are situated in the shoot, root, and vascular meristems-self-perpetuating units of organ formation. Plants' lifelong activity-which, as in the case of trees, can extend over more than a thousand years-requires that a robust regulatory network keep the balance between pluripotent stem cells and differentiating descendants. In this review, we focus on current models in plant stem cell research elaborated during the past two decades, mainly in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We address the roles of mobile signals on transcriptional modules involved in balancing cell fates. In addition, we discuss shared features of and differences between the distinct stem cell niches of Arabidopsis.

  7. Investigating Preservice STEM Teacher Conceptions of STEM Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radloff, Jeff; Guzey, Selcen

    2016-01-01

    Surrounding the national emphasis on improving STEM education, effective STEM educators are required. Connected, yet often overlooked, is the need for effective preservice STEM teaching instruction for incoming educators. At a basic level, preservice STEM teacher education should include STEM content, pedagogy, and conceptualization. However, the…

  8. Global Collaborative STEM Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meabh Kelly, Susan; Smith, Walter

    2016-04-01

    Global Collaborative STEM Education, as the name suggests, simultaneously supports two sets of knowledge and skills. The first set is STEM -- science, technology, engineering and math. The other set of content knowledge and skills is that of global collaboration. Successful global partnerships require awareness of one's own culture, the biases embedded within that culture, as well as developing awareness of the collaborators' culture. Workforce skills fostered include open-mindedness, perseverance when faced with obstacles, and resourceful use of technological "bridges" to facilitate and sustain communication. In respect for the 2016 GIFT Workshop focus, Global Collaborative STEM Education projects dedicated to astronomy research will be presented. The projects represent different benchmarks within the Global Collaborative STEM Education continuum, culminating in an astronomy research experience that fully reflects how the global STEM workforce collaborates. To facilitate wider engagement in Global Collaborative STEM Education, project summaries, classroom resources and contact information for established international collaborative astronomy research projects will be disseminated.

  9. Stress and stem cells.

    PubMed

    Tower, John

    2012-01-01

    The unique properties and functions of stem cells make them particularly susceptible to stresses and also lead to their regulation by stress. Stem cell division must respond to the demand to replenish cells during normal tissue turnover as well as in response to damage. Oxidative stress, mechanical stress, growth factors, and cytokines signal stem cell division and differentiation. Many of the conserved pathways regulating stem cell self-renewal and differentiation are also stress-response pathways. The long life span and division potential of stem cells create a propensity for transformation (cancer) and specific stress responses such as apoptosis and senescence act as antitumor mechanisms. Quiescence regulated by CDK inhibitors and a hypoxic niche regulated by FOXO transcription factor function to reduce stress for several types of stem cells to facilitate long-term maintenance. Aging is a particularly relevant stress for stem cells, because repeated demands on stem cell function over the life span can have cumulative cell-autonomous effects including epigenetic dysregulation, mutations, and telomere erosion. In addition, aging of the organism impairs function of the stem cell niche and systemic signals, including chronic inflammation and oxidative stress.

  10. Assessment of isorhamnetin 3-O-neohesperidoside from Acacia salicina: protective effects toward oxidation damage and genotoxicity induced by aflatoxin B1 and nifuroxazide.

    PubMed

    Bouhlel, Ines; Limem, Ilef; Skandrani, Ines; Nefatti, Aicha; Ghedira, Kamel; Dijoux-Franca, Marie-Genevieve; Leila, Chekir-Ghedira

    2010-08-01

    Antioxidant activity of isorhamnetin 3-O-neohesperidoside, isolated from the leaves of Acacia salicina, was determined by the ability of this compound to inhibit xanthine oxidase activity and to scavenge the free radical 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS(.-)) diammonium salt. Antigenotoxic activity was assessed using the SOS chromotest assay. This compound has the ability to scavenge the ABTS(.+) radical by a hydrogen donating mechanism. We also envisaged the study of the antioxidant effect of this compound by the enzymatic xanthine/xanthine oxidase (X/XOD) assay. Results indicated that isorhamnetin 3-O-neohesperidoside was a potent inhibitor of xanthine oxidase and superoxide anion scavengers. Moreover, this compound induced an inhibitory activity against nifuroxazide and aflatoxine B1 (AFB1) induced genotoxicity. Taken together, these observations provide evidence that isorhamnetin 3-O-neohesperidoside isolated from the leaves of A. salicina is able to protect cells against the consequences of oxidative stress.

  11. Persistent pods of the tree Acacia caven: a natural refuge for diverse insects including Bruchid beetles and the parasitoids Trichogrammatidae, Pteromalidae and Eulophidae.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Rousse, D

    2006-01-01

    The persistent pods of the tree, Acacia caven that do not fall from the tree provide opportunities for the appearance of a diverse group of insects the following season. Such pods collected during the spring of 1999 in Chile were indehiscent with highly sclerified pod walls. In contrast, persistent pods collected in Uruguay after a wet winter and spring (2002) were partially dehiscent, inducing the deterioration of the woody pods, and consequently exposing the seeds. These persistent pods are a natural refuge for insect species, namely two bruchid beetles (Pseudopachymeria spinipes, Stator furcatus), one scolytidae (Dendroctonus sp), lepidopterous larvae, ant colonies (Camponotus sp), one species of oophagous parasitoid (Uscana espinae group senex), the gregarious larval-pupae parasitoid Monoksa dorsiplana (Pteromalidae) and two species of Horismenus spp. (Eulophidae). The patriline of M. dorsiplana is frequently formed by 1 son + 7 daughters.

  12. Durability of five native Argentine wood species of the genera Prosopis and Acacia decayed by rot fungi and its relationship with extractive content.

    PubMed

    Pometti, Carolina L; Palanti, Sabrina; Pizzo, Benedetto; Charpentier, Jean-Paul; Boizot, Nathalie; Resio, Claudio; Saidman, Beatriz O

    2010-09-01

    The natural durability of four Argentinean species of Prosopis and one of Acacia was evaluated in laboratory tests, according to European standards, using three brown rot and one white rot fungi. These tests were complemented by assessing the wood chemical composition. All the species were from moderately slightly durable to very durable (classes 4-1), and in all cases the heartwood was the most resistant to fungal attack. Chemical extractives content (organic, aqueous, tannic and phenolic) was higher in the heartwood. However, species durability was not related to extractive contents nor with wood density. Instead, it is possible that extractives could contribute to natural durability in different ways, including the effects related to the antioxidant properties of some of them.

  13. A new phenolic derivative with soluble epoxide hydrolase and nuclear factor-kappaB inhibitory activity from the aqueous extract of Acacia catechu.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ya Nan; Li, Wei; Song, Seok Bean; Yan, Xi Tao; Zhao, Yan; Jo, A Reum; Kang, Jong Seong; Young Ho, Kim

    2016-09-01

    One novel phenolic compound, (4S,5R)-4-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-5-(3-oxobutyl)dihydrofuran-2(3H)-one (1), as well as 12 known compounds (2-13) was obtained from the aqueous extract of Acacia catechu and their chemical structures were determined by spectroscopic analysis. Compounds 8 and 9 exhibited significant soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitory activities with IC50 values of 26.6 ± 0.5 and 24.4 ± 5.6 μM, respectively. Compounds 7-10 showed significant inhibitory effects on TNFα-induced nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) transcriptional activity in a dose-dependent manner, with IC50 values ranging from 11.15 to 19.45 μM.

  14. [Seedlings growth and survival of five Acacia (Fabaceae) species that coexists in neotropical semi-arid forests of Argentina, under different light and water availability conditions].

    PubMed

    Venier, Paula; Cabido, Marcelo; Mangeaud, Arnaldo; Funes, Guillermo

    2013-06-01

    Seedlings growth and survival of five Acacia (Fabaceae) species that coexists in neotropical semi-arid forests of Argentina, under different light and water availability conditions. Seedling establishment is one of the most risky stages of plants, especially in arid and semiarid regions, where low water availability and high solar radiation influence its emergence, development and survival. In seasonally dry xerophytic forests occurring in North-Western Córdoba, central Argentina, five neotropical species of Acacia co-exist: A. aroma, A. caven, A. atramentaria, A. gilliesii and A. praecox. With the aim to evaluate growth variables and survival of these five species seedlings, in response to water stress and different light availability conditions, a greenhouse experiment was undertaken from March to June of 2010. Although small differences were found between species (F = 5.66, p = 0.001), all of them showed high percentages of seedling survival in response to different light and water treatments, suggesting that seedlings would be tolerant to water stress and could be established both in light and shade. On the other hand, although all species showed an increase in growth in light conditions and without water stress, we have found some trends towards a greater growth in the seedlings ofA. aroma, A. caven and A. atramentaria when compared to those of A. praecox and A. gilliessi in most of the variables considered (F = 41.9, p < 0.0001; F = 7.06, p < 0.0001; F = 53.59, p < 0.0001). This pattern was confirmed through a cluster analysis that classified the species in two main groups. These results, together with others already reported, would indicate a regenerative niche differentiation that might be favoring the regional coexistence of these five species in semiarid forests in central Argentina.

  15. High-throughput prediction of Acacia and eucalypt lignin syringyl/guaiacyl content using FT-Raman spectroscopy and partial least squares modeling

    DOE PAGES

    Lupoi, Jason S.; Healey, Adam; Singh, Seema; ...

    2015-01-16

    High-throughput techniques are necessary to efficiently screen potential lignocellulosic feedstocks for the production of renewable fuels, chemicals, and bio-based materials, thereby reducing experimental time and expense while supplanting tedious, destructive methods. The ratio of lignin syringyl (S) to guaiacyl (G) monomers has been routinely quantified as a way to probe biomass recalcitrance. Mid-infrared and Raman spectroscopy have been demonstrated to produce robust partial least squares models for the prediction of lignin S/G ratios in a diverse group of Acacia and eucalypt trees. The most accurate Raman model has now been used to predict the S/G ratio from 269 unknown Acaciamore » and eucalypt feedstocks. This study demonstrates the application of a partial least squares model composed of Raman spectral data and lignin S/G ratios measured using pyrolysis/molecular beam mass spectrometry (pyMBMS) for the prediction of S/G ratios in an unknown data set. The predicted S/G ratios calculated by the model were averaged according to plant species, and the means were not found to differ from the pyMBMS ratios when evaluating the mean values of each method within the 95 % confidence interval. Pairwise comparisons within each data set were employed to assess statistical differences between each biomass species. While some pairwise appraisals failed to differentiate between species, Acacias, in both data sets, clearly display significant differences in their S/G composition which distinguish them from eucalypts. In conclusion, this research shows the power of using Raman spectroscopy to supplant tedious, destructive methods for the evaluation of the lignin S/G ratio of diverse plant biomass materials.« less

  16. Stem Cell Transplants (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Stem Cell Transplants KidsHealth > For Teens > Stem Cell Transplants Print ... Does it Take to Recover? Coping What Are Stem Cells? As you probably remember from biology class, every ...

  17. Stem Cell Transplants (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Stem Cell Transplants KidsHealth > For Teens > Stem Cell Transplants A ... Does it Take to Recover? Coping What Are Stem Cells? As you probably remember from biology class, every ...

  18. Investigating Preservice STEM Teacher Conceptions of STEM Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radloff, Jeff; Guzey, Selcen

    2016-10-01

    Surrounding the national emphasis on improving STEM education, effective STEM educators are required. Connected, yet often overlooked, is the need for effective preservice STEM teaching instruction for incoming educators. At a basic level, preservice STEM teacher education should include STEM content, pedagogy, and conceptualization. However, the literature suggests no leading conception of STEM education, and little is known about how preservice STEM teachers are conceptualizing STEM education. In order to explore preservice STEM teacher conceptions of STEM education, preservice teachers at a large, Midwestern research university were given an open-ended survey eliciting both textual and visual responses. Here, we report and discuss the results of employing this instrument in relation with the current STEM conceptualization literature.

  19. Myeloproliferative neoplasm stem cells.

    PubMed

    Mead, Adam J; Mullally, Ann

    2017-03-23

    Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) arise in the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) compartment as a result of the acquisition of somatic mutations in a single HSC that provides a selective advantage to mutant HSC over normal HSC and promotes myeloid differentiation to engender a myeloproliferative phenotype. This population of somatically mutated HSC, which initiates and sustains MPNs, is termed MPN stem cells. In >95% of cases, mutations that drive the development of an MPN phenotype occur in a mutually exclusive manner in 1 of 3 genes: JAK2, CALR, or MPL The thrombopoietin receptor, MPL, is the key cytokine receptor in MPN development, and these mutations all activate MPL-JAK-STAT signaling in MPN stem cells. Despite common biological features, MPNs display diverse disease phenotypes as a result of both constitutional and acquired factors that influence MPN stem cells, and likely also as a result of heterogeneity in the HSC in which MPN-initiating mutations arise. As the MPN clone expands, it exerts cell-extrinsic effects on components of the bone marrow niche that can favor the survival and expansion of MPN stem cells over normal HSC, further sustaining and driving malignant hematopoiesis. Although developed as targeted therapies for MPNs, current JAK2 inhibitors do not preferentially target MPN stem cells, and as a result, rarely induce molecular remissions in MPN patients. As the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the clonal dominance of MPN stem cells advances, this will help facilitate the development of therapies that preferentially target MPN stem cells over normal HSC.

  20. Learn About Stem Cells

    MedlinePlus

    ... develops and ages, the number and type of stem cells changes. Totipotent cells are no longer present after dividing into the cells that generate the placenta and umbilical cord. Pluripotent cells ... organs and tissues. The stem cells that stay in your body throughout your ...

  1. Designing for STEM Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berland, Leema K.

    2013-01-01

    We are increasingly seeing an emphasis on STEM integration in high school classrooms such that students will learn and apply relevant math and science content while simultaneously developing engineering habits of mind. However, research in both science education and engineering education suggests that this goal of truly integrating STEM is rife…

  2. STEM School Discourse Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tofel-Grehl, Colby; Callahan, Carolyn M.

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of discursive practices in science classrooms within STEM schools may provide meaningful information about the nature of these classrooms and, potentially, their uniqueness. Full descriptions of current practice can serve as a foundation for exploring the differences in instructional norms within STEM specialized schools and across…

  3. Teaching STEM by Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billiar, Kristen; Hubelbank, Jeanne; Oliva, Thomas; Camesano, Terri

    2014-01-01

    Developing innovative science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) curricula that elicit student excitement for learning is a continuous challenge for K-12 STEM teachers. Generating these lessons while meeting conflicting pedagogical objectives and constraints of time, content, and cost from various parties is truly a challenging task…

  4. Making STEM Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stump, Sheryl L.; Bryan, Joel A.; McConnell, Tom J.

    2016-01-01

    Integrated approaches to education in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), especially those set in the context of real-world situations, can motivate and deepen students' learning of the STEM subjects (National Academy of Engineering and National Research Council 2014). This article describes two integrated investigations used…

  5. Colorectal cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Salama, Paul; Platell, Cameron

    2009-10-01

    Somatic stem cells reside at the base of the crypts throughout the colonic mucosa. These cells are essential for the normal regeneration of the colonic epithelium. The stem cells reside within a special 'niche' comprised of intestinal sub-epithelial myofibroblasts that tightly control their function. It has been postulated that mutations within these adult colonic stem cells may induce neoplastic changes. Such cells can then dissociate from the epithelium and travel into the mesenchyme and thus form invasive cancers. This theory is based on the observation that within a colon cancer, less than 1% of the neoplastic cells have the ability to regenerate the tumour. It is this group of cells that exhibits characteristics of colonic stem cells. Although anti-neoplastic agents can induce remissions by inhibiting cell division, the stem cells appear to be remarkably resistant to both standard chemotherapy and radiotherapy. These stem cells may therefore persist after treatment and form the nucleus for cancer recurrence. Hence, future treatment modalities should focus specifically on controlling the cancer stem cells. In this review, we discuss the biology of normal and malignant colonic stem cells.

  6. Bringing STEM to Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkeihiser, Mike; Ray, Dori

    2013-01-01

    The interdisciplinary approach that science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) projects inspire in both teachers and students "brings to light a larger picture that promotes real-world scientific applications, which has in turn been shown to increase undergraduate persistence in STEM." The high school students have been…

  7. STEM Careers Ambassadors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Denise

    2011-01-01

    This article is designed to help teachers feel more confident in their work with STEM Ambassadors to further enhance enrichment activities. Skills shortages in Science, Technology, Engineering, Maths (STEM) and the Built Environment are well documented, and will continue to be an issue whether people are in a period of recession or recovery. The…

  8. Lock For Valve Stem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, Richard K.; Guirguis, Kamal S.

    1991-01-01

    Simple, cheap device locks valve stem so its setting cannot be changed by unauthorized people. Device covers valve stem; cover locked in place with standard padlock. Valve lock made of PVC pipe and packing band. Shears, drill or punch, and forming rod only tools needed.

  9. Expanding STEM Education | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Editor’s note: This article is written as a reflection on experiential STEM education by a student who completed her Werner H. Kirsten internship in June 2015. Here, she advocates for incorporating hands-on experience into STEM curricula. If the only way for high school students to learn science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) is through textbooks, then count me out. But how then do you get students to learn STEM outside of the classroom? The focus of this article is to advocate for high school STEM education through experiential learning. Tom Freston, one of the founders and the chief executive officer (CEO) of MTV Productions, said in an interview in Men’s Journal that “innovation is taking two things that already exist and...

  10. Intraoperative Stem Cell Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Mónica Beato; Cabral, Joaquim M.S.; Karp, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells hold significant promise for regeneration of tissue defects and disease-modifying therapies. Although numerous promising stem cell approaches are advancing in clinical trials, intraoperative stem cell therapies offer more immediate hope by integrating an autologous cell source with a well-established surgical intervention in a single procedure. Herein, the major developments in intraoperative stem cell approaches, from in vivo models to clinical studies, are reviewed, and the potential regenerative mechanisms and the roles of different cell populations in the regeneration process are discussed. Although intraoperative stem cell therapies have been shown to be safe and effective for several indications, there are still critical challenges to be tackled prior to adoption into the standard surgical armamentarium. PMID:22809140

  11. [On plant stem cells and animal stem cells].

    PubMed

    You, Yun; Jiang, Chao; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2014-01-01

    A comparison of plant and animal stem cells can highlight core aspects of stem-cell biology. In both kingdoms, stem cells are defined by their clonogenic properties and are maintained by intercellular signals. The signaling molecules are different in plants and animals stem cell niches, but the roles of argonaute and polycomb group proteins suggest that there are some molecular similarities.

  12. Nuclear receptor regulation of stemness and stem cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Yangsik

    2009-01-01

    Stem cells include a diverse number of toti-, pluri-, and multi-potent cells that play important roles in cellular genesis and differentiation, tissue development, and organogenesis. Genetic regulation involving various transcription factors results in the self-renewal and differentiation properties of stem cells. The nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily is composed of 48 ligand-activated transcription factors involved in diverse physiological functions such as metabolism, development, and reproduction. Increasing evidence shows that certain NRs function in regulating stemness or differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells and tissue-specific adult stem cells. Here, we review the role of the NR superfamily in various aspects of stem cell biology, including their regulation of stemness, forward- and trans-differentiation events; reprogramming of terminally differentiated cells; and interspecies differences. These studies provide insights into the therapeutic potential of the NR superfamily in stem cell therapy and in treating stem cell-associated diseases (e.g., cancer stem cell). PMID:19696553

  13. Simulation of Ground-Water Flow in the Middle Rio Grande Basin Between Cochiti and San Acacia, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McAda, Douglas P.; Barroll, Peggy

    2002-01-01

    This report describes a three-dimensional, finite difference, ground-water-flow model of the Santa Fe Group aquifer system within the Middle Rio Grande Basin between Cochiti and San Acacia, New Mexico. The aquifer system is composed of the Santa Fe Group of middle Tertiary to Quaternary age and post-Santa Fe Group valley and basin-fill deposits of Quaternary age. Population increases in the basin since the 1940's have caused dramatic increases in ground-water withdrawals from the aquifer system, resulting in large ground-water-level declines. Because the Rio Grande is hydraulically connected to the aquifer system, these ground-water withdrawals have also decreased flow in the Rio Grande. Concern about water resources in the basin led to the development of a research plan for the basin focused on the hydrologic interaction of ground water and surface water (McAda, D.P., 1996, Plan of study to quantify the hydrologic relation between the Rio Grande and the Santa Fe Group aquifer system near Albuquerque, central New Mexico: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 96-4006, 58 p.). A multiyear research effort followed, funded and conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey and other agencies (Bartolino, J.R., and Cole, J.C., 2002, Ground-water resources of the Middle Rio Grande Basin, New Mexico: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1222, 132 p.). The modeling work described in this report incorporates the results of much of this work and is the culmination of this multiyear study. The purpose of the model is (1) to integrate the components of the ground-water-flow system, including the hydrologic interaction between the surface-water systems in the basin, to better understand the geohydrology of the basin and (2) to provide a tool to help water managers plan for and administer the use of basin water resources. The aquifer system is represented by nine model layers extending from the water table to the pre-Santa Fe Group basement rocks, as much as 9,000 feet

  14. Innovation and STEM Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Julia Link

    2015-01-01

    How do schools with a focus on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fit in with state goals to increase innovation and to boost the economy? This article briefly discusses how educators can encourage creativity and innovation.

  15. Hematopoietic Stem Cells Therapies.

    PubMed

    Chivu-Economescu, Mihaela; Rubach, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Stem cell-based therapies are recognized as a new way to treat various diseases and injuries, with a wide range of health benefits. The goal is to heal or replace diseased or destroyed organs or body parts with healthy new cells provided by stem cell transplantation. The current practical form of stem cell therapy is the hematopoietic stem cells transplant applied for the treatment of hematological disorders. There are over 2100 clinical studies in progress concerning hematopoietic stem cell therapies. All of them are using hematopoietic stem cells to treat various diseases like: cancers, leukemia, lymphoma, cardiac failure, neural disorders, auto-immune diseases, immunodeficiency, metabolic or genetic disorders. Several challenges are to be addressed prior to developing and applying large scale cell therapies: 1) to explain and control the mechanisms of differentiation and development toward a specific cell type needed to treat the disease, 2) to obtain a sufficient number of desired cell type for transplantation, 3) to overcome the immune rejection and 4) to show that transplanted cells fulfill their normal functions in vivo after transplants.

  16. In vitro protection of biological macromolecules against oxidative stress and in vivo toxicity evaluation of Acacia nilotica (L.) and ethyl gallate in rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recently, enormous research has been focused on natural bioactive compounds possessing potential antioxidant and anticancer properties using cell lines and animal models. Acacia nilotica (L.) is widely distributed in Asia, Africa, Australia and Kenya. The plant is traditionally used to treat mouth, ear and bone cancer. However, reports on Acacia nilotica (L.) Wild. Ex. Delile subsp. indica (Benth.) Brenan regarding its toxicity profile is limited. Hence in this study, we investigated the antioxidant capacity and acute toxicity of ethyl gallate, a phenolic antioxidant present in the A. nilotica (L.) leaf extract. Methods The antioxidant activity of ethyl gallate against Fenton’s system (Fe3+/H2O2/ascorbic acid) generated oxidative damage to pBR322 DNA and BSA was investigated. We also studied the interaction of ethyl gallate to CT-DNA by wave scan and FTIR analysis. The amount of ethyl gallate present in the A. nilotica (L.) leaf extract was calculated using HPLC and represented in gram equivalence of ethyl gallate. The acute toxicity profile of ethyl gallate in the A. nilotica (L.) leaf extract was analyzed in albino Wistar rats. Measurement of liver and kidney function markers, total proteins and glucose were determined in the serum. Statistical analysis was done using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) tool version 16.0. Results Ethyl gallate was found to be effective at 100 μg/mL concentration by inhibiting the free radical mediated damage to BSA and pBR322 DNA. We also found that the interaction of ethyl gallate and A. nilotica (L.) leaf extract to CT-DNA occurs through intercalation. One gram of A. nilotica (L.) leaf extract was found to be equivalent to 20 mg of ethyl gallate through HPLC analysis. Based on the acute toxicity results, A. nilotica (L.) leaf extract and ethyl gallate as well was found to be non-toxic and safe. Conclusions Results revealed no mortality or abnormal biochemical changes in vivo and the protective effect

  17. Influence of harvesting site on chemical composition and potential protein value of Acacia erioloba, A. nilotica and Ziziphus mucronata leaves for ruminants.

    PubMed

    Mnisi, C M; Mlambo, V

    2016-07-21

    This study was designed to evaluate the chemical composition, buffer N solubility, in vitro ruminal N degradation and in vitro ruminal biological activity of condensed tannins in Acacia erioloba, Acacia nilotica and Ziziphus mucronata leaves harvested from two sites (Masuthle communal grazing land and Molelwane private farm). Leaves were harvested, dried at 60 °C and milled. The highest crude protein (CP) content was found in leaves of Z. mucronata (177.7 g/kg DM). Leaves harvested from Masuthle had higher (p < 0.05) soluble phenolics (SPh) (44.6 g TAE/kg DM) compared to those harvested from Molelwane (29.8 g TAE/kg DM). In both Molelwane and Masuthle, leaves of A. nilotica had higher levels of condensed tannins (CT) (0.76 AU550/200 mg and 0.52 AU550/200 mg respectively) followed by A. erioloba and Z. mucronata, which did not differ (p > 0.05). Nitrogen degradability at 24 h was the same (p > 0.05) for all tree species but not at 12 and 36 h. No linear association (p > 0.05) was found between buffer-soluble N and in vitro ruminal N degradability in leaves with high SPh content. The largest polyethylene glycol (PEG) effect was in leaves of A. nilotica (448%) harvested from Masuthle after 36 h of incubation. Ziziphus mucronata leaves harvested from Molelwane had the least PEG effect at 48 h. There was no linear association (p > 0.05) between PEG effect and SPh for all incubation periods, but a positive relationship was observed between PEG effect and condensed tannins content. There was no linear association between solubility index (SI) and in vitro ruminal N degradability for tannin-rich leaves. It was concluded that higher browsing pressure in Masuthle communal rangeland resulted in leaves with higher levels of condensed tannins, which had higher in vitro ruminal biological activity, compared to those harvested from Molelwane.

  18. Chemotherapy targeting cancer stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Haiguang; Lv, Lin; Yang, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Conventional chemotherapy is the main treatment for cancer and benefits patients in the form of decreased relapse and metastasis and longer overall survival. However, as the target therapy drugs and delivery systems are not wholly precise, it also results in quite a few side effects, and is less efficient in many cancers due to the spared cancer stem cells, which are considered the reason for chemotherapy resistance, relapse, and metastasis. Conventional chemotherapy limitations and the cancer stem cell hypothesis inspired our search for a novel chemotherapy targeting cancer stem cells. In this review, we summarize cancer stem cell enrichment methods, the search for new efficient drugs, and the delivery of drugs targeting cancer stem cells. We also discuss cancer stem cell hierarchy complexity and the corresponding combination therapy for both cancer stem and non-stem cells. Learning from cancer stem cells may reveal novel strategies for chemotherapy in the future. PMID:26045975

  19. Valve stem and packing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Wordin, John J.

    1991-01-01

    A valve stem and packing assembly is provided in which a rotatable valve stem includes a first tractrix surface for sliding contact with a stem packing and also includes a second tractrix surface for sliding contact with a bonnet. Force is applied by means of a spring, gland flange, and gland on the stem packing so the stem packing seals to the valve stem and bonnet. This configuration serves to create and maintain a reliable seal between the stem packing and the valve stem. The bonnet includes a second complementary tractrix surface for contacting the second sliding tractrix surface, the combination serving as a journal bearing for the entire valve stem and packing assembly. The journal bearing so configured is known as a Schiele's pivot. The Schiele's pivot also serves to maintain proper alignment of the valve stem with respect to the bonnet. Vertical wear between the surfaces of the Schiele's pivot is uniform at all points of contact between the second sliding tractrix surface and the second complementary tractrix surface of a bonnet. The valve stem is connected to a valve plug by means of a slip joint. The valve is opened and closed by rotating the valve stem. The slip joint compensates for wear on the Schiele's pivot and on the valve plug. A ledge is provided on the valve bonnet for the retaining nut to bear against. The ledge prevents overtightening of the retaining nut and the resulting excessive friction between stem and stem packing.

  20. Valve stem and packing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Wordin, J.J.

    1991-09-03

    A valve stem and packing assembly is provided in which a rotatable valve stem includes a first tractrix surface for sliding contact with a stem packing and also includes a second tractrix surface for sliding contact with a bonnet. Force is applied by means of a spring, gland flange, and gland on the stem packing so the stem packing seals to the valve stem and bonnet. This configuration serves to create and maintain a reliable seal between the stem packing and the valve stem. The bonnet includes a second complementary tractrix surface for contacting the second sliding tractrix surface, the combination serving as a journal bearing for the entire valve stem and packing assembly. The journal bearing so configured is known as a Schiele's pivot. The Schiele's pivot also serves to maintain proper alignment of the valve stem with respect to the bonnet. Vertical wear between the surfaces of the Schiele's pivot is uniform at all points of contact between the second sliding tractrix surface and the second complementary tractrix surface of a bonnet. The valve stem is connected to a valve plug by means of a slip joint. The valve is opened and closed by rotating the valve stem. The slip joint compensates for wear on the Schiele's pivot and on the valve plug. A ledge is provided on the valve bonnet for the retaining nut to bear against. The ledge prevents over tightening of the retaining nut and the resulting excessive friction between stem and stem packing. 2 figures.

  1. Isolation and characterization of a protease inhibitor from Acacia karroo with a common combining loop and overlapping binding sites for chymotrypsin and trypsin.

    PubMed

    Patthy, András; Molnár, Tamás; Porrogi, Pálma; Naudé, Ryno; Gráf, László

    2015-01-01

    By using affinity and reversed-phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) chromatographies two chymotrypsin-trypsin inhibitors were isolated from seeds of Acacia karroo, a legume of the subfamily Mimosoideae. The primary structure of one of these inhibitors, named AkCI/1, was determined. The inhibitor consists of two polypeptide chains, 139 and 44 residues respectively, which are linked by a single disulfide bridge. The amino acid sequence of AkCI/1 is homologous to and showed more than 60% sequence similarity with other protease inhibitors isolated earlier from the group of Mimosoideae. AkCI/1 inhibits both chymotrypsin (EC 3.4.21.1) and trypsin (EC 3.4.21.4) in a 1:1M ratio with Ki values of 2.8 × 10(-12)M and 1.87 × 10(-12)M, respectively. The P1-P1' residues for trypsin were identified as Arg68-Ile69 by selective hydrolysis of the inhibitor at this site, with bovine trypsin and human trypsin IV. The cleavage did not affect the inhibition of trypsin, but fully abolished the chymotrypsin inhibitory activity of AkCI/1. This finding together with our studies on competition of the two enzymes for the same combining loop suggests that the same loop has to contain the binding sites for both proteases. The most likely P1 residue of AkCI/1 for chymotrypsin is Tyr67.

  2. Modelling vegetation water-use and groundwater recharge as affected by climate variability in an arid-zone Acacia savanna woodland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chao; Eamus, Derek; Cleverly, James; Boulain, Nicolas; Cook, Peter; Zhang, Lu; Cheng, Lei; Yu, Qiang

    2014-11-01

    For efficient and sustainable utilisation of limited groundwater resources, improved understanding of how vegetation water-use responds to climate variation and the corresponding controls on recharge is essential. This study investigated these responses using a modelling approach. The biophysically based model WAVES was calibrated and validated with more than two years of field experimental data conducted in Mulga (Acacia aneura) in arid central Australia. The validated model was then applied to simulate vegetation growth (as changes in overstory and understory leaf area index; LAI), vegetation water-use and groundwater recharge using observed climate data for the period 1981-2012. Due to large inter-annual climatic variability, especially precipitation, simulated annual mean LAI ranged from 0.12 to 0.35 for the overstory and 0.07 to 0.21 for the understory. These variations in simulated LAI resulted in vegetation water-use varying greatly from year-to-year, from 64 to 601 mm pa. Simulated vegetation water-use also showed distinct seasonal patterns. Vegetation dynamics affected by climate variability exerted significant controls on simulated annual recharge, which was greatly reduced to 0-48 mm compared to that (58-672 mm) only affected by climate. Understanding how climate variability and land use/land cover change interactively impact on groundwater recharge significantly improves groundwater resources management in arid and semi-arid regions.

  3. Induction of Osmoregulation and Modulation of Salt Stress in Acacia gerrardii Benth. by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Bacillus subtilis (BERA 71).

    PubMed

    Hashem, Abeer; Abd Allah, E F; Alqarawi, A A; Al-Huqail, A A; Shah, M A

    2016-01-01

    The role of soil microbiota in plant stress management, though speculated a lot, is still far from being completely understood. We conducted a greenhouse experiment to examine synergistic impact of plant growth promoting rhizobacterium, Bacillus subtilis (BERA 71), and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) (Claroideoglomus etunicatum; Rhizophagus intraradices; and Funneliformis mosseae) to induce acquired systemic resistance in Talh tree (Acacia gerrardii Benth.) against adverse impact of salt stress. Compared to the control, the BERA 71 treatment significantly enhanced root colonization intensity by AMF, in both presence and absence of salt. We also found positive synergistic interaction between B. subtilis and AMF vis-a-vis improvement in the nutritional value in terms of increase in total lipids, phenols, and fiber content. The AMF and BERA 71 inoculated plants showed increased content of osmoprotectants such as glycine, betaine, and proline, though lipid peroxidation was reduced probably as a mechanism of salt tolerance. Furthermore, the application of bioinoculants to Talh tree turned out to be potentially beneficial in ameliorating the deleterious impact of salinity on plant metabolism, probably by modulating the osmoregulatory system (glycine betaine, proline, and phenols) and antioxidant enzymes system (SOD, CAT, POD, GR, APX, DHAR, MDAHR, and GSNOR).

  4. Evidence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated apoptosis in Setaria cervi induced by green silver nanoparticles from Acacia auriculiformis at a very low dose.

    PubMed

    Saini, Prasanta; Saha, Swadhin Kr; Roy, Priya; Chowdhury, Pranesh; Sinha Babu, Santi P

    2016-01-01

    Green synthesis of silver nanomaterial plays a pivotal role in the growing field of nanotechnology. Development of anti-parasitic drugs from plant metabolites has been in regular practice from the ancient period but most of them were discarded due to their inefficiency to control diseases effectively. At present, nanoparticles are used for developing anti-parasitic therapy for their unique properties such as smallest in size, bio-ability, bio-compatibility and penetration capacity into a cell. The present study aims at synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by using funicles extract of Acacia auriculiformis and tests its efficacy as antifilarial. Experimental evidence show that AgNPs are effective at a very low concentration compared to crude plant extracts. Synthesis of these nanoparticles is a single-step, biogenic, cost effective and eco-friendly process. Synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, TEM, SAED, FTIR, EDX, FESEM and Z-potential. The antifilarial efficacy of AgNPs was tested against different life cycle stages of bovine filarial parasite Setaria cervi by morphological study, motility assessment and viability assay. These nanoparticles are found to have antifilarial activity with LC50 of 5.61 μg/mL and LC90 of 15.54 μg/mL against microfilaria of S. cervi. The microscopic findings and the detailed molecular studies confirmed that green synthesized AgNPs were effective enough to induce apoptosis through up regulation of ROS (reactive oxygen species).

  5. 26-week repeated oral dose toxicity study of UP446, a combination of defined extracts of Scutellaria baicalensis and Acacia catechu, in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Yimam, Mesfin; Lee, Young Chul; Jia, Qi

    2016-07-01

    The needs for relatively safe botanical alternatives to relieve symptoms associated to arthritis have continued to grow in parallel with the ageing population. UP446, a standardized bioflavonoid composition from the roots of Scutellaria baicalensis and the heartwoods of Acacia catechu, has been used as over the counter joint care dietary supplements and a prescription medical food. Significant safety data have been documented in rodents and human for this composition. Here we evaluated the potential adverse effects of orally administered UP446 in beagle dogs following a 26-week repeated oral dose toxicity study. UP446 at doses of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day were administered orally to beagle dogs for 26 weeks. A 4-week recovery group from the high dose (1000 mg/kg) and vehicle treated groups were included. No morbidity or mortality was observed for the duration of the study. No significant differences between groups in body weights, food consumption, ophthalmological examinations, electrocardiograms, urinalysis, hematology, clinical chemistry, organ weights, gross pathology and histopathology were documented. Emesis, loose feces and diarrhea were noted in both genders at the 1000 mg/kg treatment groups. These clinical signs were considered to be reversible as they were not evident in the recovery period. In conclusion, the no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) of UP446 was considered to be 500 mg/kg/day both in male and female beagle dogs.

  6. Molecular modeling of lectin-like protein from Acacia farnesiana reveals a possible anti-inflammatory mechanism in Carrageenan-induced inflammation.

    PubMed

    Abrantes, Vanessa Erika Ferreira; Matias da Rocha, Bruno Anderson; Batista da Nóbrega, Raphael; Silva-Filho, José Caetano; Teixeira, Claudener Souza; Cavada, Benildo Sousa; Gadelha, Carlos Alberto de Almeida; Ferreira, Sergio Henrique; Figueiredo, Jozi Godoy; Santi-Gadelha, Tatiane; Delatorre, Plinio

    2013-01-01

    Acacia farnesiana lectin-like protein (AFAL) is a chitin-binding protein and has been classified as phytohaemagglutinin from Phaseolus vulgaris (PHA). Legume lectins are examples for structural studies, and this family of proteins shows a remarkable conservation in primary, secondary, and tertiary structures. Lectins have ability to reduce the effects of inflammation caused by phlogistic agents, such as carrageenan (CGN). This paper explains the anti-inflammatory activity of AFAL through structural comparison with anti-inflammatory legume lectins. The AFAL model was obtained by molecular modeling and molecular docking with glycan and carrageenan were performed to explain the AFAL structural behavior and biological activity. Pisum sativum lectin was the best template for molecular modeling. The AFAL structure model is folded as a β sandwich. The model differs from template in loop regions, number of β strands and carbohydrate-binding site. Carrageenan and glycan bind to different sites on AFAL. The ability of AFAL binding to carrageenan can be explained by absence of the sixth β -strand (posterior β sheets) and two β strands in frontal region. AFAL can inhibit pathway inflammatory process by carrageenan injection by connecting to it and preventing its entry into the cell and triggers the reaction.

  7. About the Las Acacias, Trelew and Vassouras Magnetic Observatories Monitoring the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly Region Response to an Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gianibelli, J. C.; Quaglino, N. M.

    2007-05-01

    The South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly (SAMA) Region presents evolutive characteristics very important as were observed by a variety of satelital sensors. Important Magnetic Observatories with digital record monitor the effects of the Sun-Earth interaction, such as San Juan de Puerto Rico (SJG), Kourou (KOU), Vassouras (VSS), Las Acacias (LAS), Trelew (TRW), Vernadsky (AIA), Hermanus (HER) and Huancayo (HUA). In the present work we present the features registered during the geomagnetic storm in January 21, 2005, produced by a geoeffective Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) whose Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejection (ICME) was detected by the instrumental onboard the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) Sonde. We analize how the Magnetic Total Intensity records at VSS, TRW and LAS Observatories shows the effect of the entering particles to ionospherical dephts producing a field enhancement following the first Interplanetary Shock (IP) arrival of the ICME. This process manifest in the digital record as an increment over the magnetospheric Ring Current field effect and superinpossed effects over the Antarctic Auroral Electrojet. The analysis and comparison of the records demonstrate that the Ring Current effects are important in SJG and KOU but not in VSS, LAS and TRW observatories, concluding that SAMA region shows a enhancement of the ionospherical currents oposed to those generated at magnetospheric heighs. Moreover in TRW, 5 hours after the ICME shock arrival, shows the effect of the Antarctic Auroral Electrojet counteracting to fields generated by the Ring Current.

  8. A combination of Scutellaria baicalensis and Acacia catechu extracts for short-term symptomatic relief of joint discomfort associated with osteoarthritis of the knee.

    PubMed

    Arjmandi, Bahram H; Ormsbee, Lauren T; Elam, Marcus L; Campbell, Sara C; Rahnama, Nader; Payton, Mark E; Brummel-Smith, Ken; Daggy, Bruce P

    2014-06-01

    The extracts of Scutellaria baicalensis and Acacia catechu have been shown in previous studies to alleviate joint discomfort, reduce stiffness, and improve mobility by reducing the production of proinflammatory molecules over long periods of supplementation. The acute effects of intake of these extracts have not yet been investigated. Thus, we carried out a 1 week clinical trial to examine the extent to which UP446-a natural proprietary blend of S. baicalensis and A. catechu (UP446)-decreases knee joint pain, mobility, and biomarkers of inflammation in comparison to naproxen. Seventy-nine men and women (40-90 years old) diagnosed as having mild to moderate osteoarthritis (OA) consumed either 500 mg/day of the UP446 supplement or 440 mg/day of naproxen for 1 week in a double-blind randomized control trial. Pain, knee range of motion (ROM), and overall physical activity were evaluated at the start and at the end of treatment. Fasting blood was collected to determine serum interleukins 1β and 6, tumor necrosis factor-α, C-reactive protein, and hyaluronic acid. The UP446 group experienced a significant decrease in perceived pain (P=.009) time dependently. Stiffness was significantly reduced by both treatments (P=.002 UP446, P=.008 naproxen). Significant increases in mean ROM over time (P=.04) were found in the UP446 group. These findings suggest that UP446 is effective in reducing the physical symptoms associated with knee OA.

  9. A cell-type-specific defect in border cell formation in the Acacia mangium root cap developing an extraordinary sheath of sloughed-off cells

    PubMed Central

    Endo, Izuki; Tange, Takeshi; Osawa, Hiroki

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Root caps release border cells, which play central roles in microbe interaction and root protection against soil stresses. However, the number and connectivity of border cells differ widely among plant species. Better understanding of key border-cell phenotype across species will help define the total function of border cells and associated genes. Methods The spatio-temporal detachment of border cells in the leguminous tree Acacia mangium was investigated by using light and fluorescent microscopy with fluorescein diacetate, and their number and structural connectivity compared with that in soybean (Glycine max). Key Results Border-like cells with a sheet structure peeled bilaterally from the lateral root cap of A. mangium. Hydroponic root elongation partially facilitated acropetal peeling of border-like cells, which accumulate as a sheath that covers the 0- to 4-mm tip within 1 week. Although root elongation under friction caused basipetal peeling, lateral root caps were minimally trimmed as compared with hydroponic roots. In the meantime, A. mangium columella caps simultaneously released single border cells with a number similar to those in soybean. Conclusions These results suggest that cell type-specific inhibitory factors induce a distinct defective phenotype in single border-cell formation in A. mangium lateral root caps. PMID:21712296

  10. Purification of a Kunitz-type inhibitor from Acacia polyphyllaDC seeds: characterization and insecticidal properties against Anagasta kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Machado, Suzy Wider; de Oliveira, Caio Fernando Ramalho; Bezerra, Cezar da Silva; Freire, Maria das Graças Machado; Regina Kill, Marta; Machado, Olga Lima Tavares; Marangoni, Sergio; Macedo, Maria Ligia Rodrigues

    2013-03-13

    Anagasta kuehniella is a polyphagous pest that causes economic losses worldwide. This species produces serine proteases as its major enzymes for protein digestion. In this study, a new serine-protease inhibitor was isolated from Acacia polyphylla seeds (AcKI).Further analysis revealed that AcKI is formed by two polypeptide chains with a relative molecular mass of ∼20 kDa. The effects of AcKI on the development, survival, and enzymatic activity of Anagasta kuehniella larvae were evaluated, by incorporating AcKI in an artificial diet. Bioassays revealed a reduction in larval weight of ∼50% with the lower concentration of AcKI used in the study (0.5%). Although additionalassays showed an increase in endogenous trypsin and chymotrypsin activities, with a degree of AcKI-insensivity, AcKI produces an anti nutritional effect on A. kuehniella, indicating AcKI as a promising bioinsecticide protein for engineering plants that are resistant to insect pests.

  11. Induction of Osmoregulation and Modulation of Salt Stress in Acacia gerrardii Benth. by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Bacillus subtilis (BERA 71)

    PubMed Central

    Hashem, Abeer; Alqarawi, A. A.; Al-Huqail, A. A.; Shah, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    The role of soil microbiota in plant stress management, though speculated a lot, is still far from being completely understood. We conducted a greenhouse experiment to examine synergistic impact of plant growth promoting rhizobacterium, Bacillus subtilis (BERA 71), and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) (Claroideoglomus etunicatum; Rhizophagus intraradices; and Funneliformis mosseae) to induce acquired systemic resistance in Talh tree (Acacia gerrardii Benth.) against adverse impact of salt stress. Compared to the control, the BERA 71 treatment significantly enhanced root colonization intensity by AMF, in both presence and absence of salt. We also found positive synergistic interaction between B. subtilis and AMF vis-a-vis improvement in the nutritional value in terms of increase in total lipids, phenols, and fiber content. The AMF and BERA 71 inoculated plants showed increased content of osmoprotectants such as glycine, betaine, and proline, though lipid peroxidation was reduced probably as a mechanism of salt tolerance. Furthermore, the application of bioinoculants to Talh tree turned out to be potentially beneficial in ameliorating the deleterious impact of salinity on plant metabolism, probably by modulating the osmoregulatory system (glycine betaine, proline, and phenols) and antioxidant enzymes system (SOD, CAT, POD, GR, APX, DHAR, MDAHR, and GSNOR). PMID:27597969

  12. A Combination of Scutellaria Baicalensis and Acacia Catechu Extracts for Short-Term Symptomatic Relief of Joint Discomfort Associated with Osteoarthritis of the Knee

    PubMed Central

    Ormsbee, Lauren T.; Elam, Marcus L.; Campbell, Sara C.; Rahnama, Nader; Payton, Mark E.; Brummel-Smith, Ken; Daggy, Bruce P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The extracts of Scutellaria baicalensis and Acacia catechu have been shown in previous studies to alleviate joint discomfort, reduce stiffness, and improve mobility by reducing the production of proinflammatory molecules over long periods of supplementation. The acute effects of intake of these extracts have not yet been investigated. Thus, we carried out a 1 week clinical trial to examine the extent to which UP446—a natural proprietary blend of S. baicalensis and A. catechu (UP446)—decreases knee joint pain, mobility, and biomarkers of inflammation in comparison to naproxen. Seventy-nine men and women (40–90 years old) diagnosed as having mild to moderate osteoarthritis (OA) consumed either 500 mg/day of the UP446 supplement or 440 mg/day of naproxen for 1 week in a double-blind randomized control trial. Pain, knee range of motion (ROM), and overall physical activity were evaluated at the start and at the end of treatment. Fasting blood was collected to determine serum interleukins 1β and 6, tumor necrosis factor-α, C-reactive protein, and hyaluronic acid. The UP446 group experienced a significant decrease in perceived pain (P=.009) time dependently. Stiffness was significantly reduced by both treatments (P=.002 UP446, P=.008 naproxen). Significant increases in mean ROM over time (P=.04) were found in the UP446 group. These findings suggest that UP446 is effective in reducing the physical symptoms associated with knee OA. PMID:24611484

  13. Molecular Modeling of Lectin-Like Protein from Acacia farnesiana Reveals a Possible Anti-Inflammatory Mechanism in Carrageenan-Induced Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Abrantes, Vanessa Erika Ferreira; Matias da Rocha, Bruno Anderson; Batista da Nóbrega, Raphael; Silva-Filho, José Caetano; Teixeira, Claudener Souza; Cavada, Benildo Sousa; Gadelha, Carlos Alberto de Almeida; Ferreira, Sergio Henrique; Figueiredo, Jozi Godoy; Santi-Gadelha, Tatiane; Delatorre, Plinio

    2013-01-01

    Acacia farnesiana lectin-like protein (AFAL) is a chitin-binding protein and has been classified as phytohaemagglutinin from Phaseolus vulgaris (PHA). Legume lectins are examples for structural studies, and this family of proteins shows a remarkable conservation in primary, secondary, and tertiary structures. Lectins have ability to reduce the effects of inflammation caused by phlogistic agents, such as carrageenan (CGN). This paper explains the anti-inflammatory activity of AFAL through structural comparison with anti-inflammatory legume lectins. The AFAL model was obtained by molecular modeling and molecular docking with glycan and carrageenan were performed to explain the AFAL structural behavior and biological activity. Pisum sativum lectin was the best template for molecular modeling. The AFAL structure model is folded as a β sandwich. The model differs from template in loop regions, number of β strands and carbohydrate-binding site. Carrageenan and glycan bind to different sites on AFAL. The ability of AFAL binding to carrageenan can be explained by absence of the sixth β-strand (posterior β sheets) and two β strands in frontal region. AFAL can inhibit pathway inflammatory process by carrageenan injection by connecting to it and preventing its entry into the cell and triggers the reaction. PMID:24490151

  14. Pharmaco-Phylogenetic Investigation of Methyl Gallate Isolated from Acacia nilotica (L.) Delile and Its Cytotoxic Effect on NIH3T3 Mouse Fibroblast.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Rohit K; Ramakrishna, M; Mishra, Vani; Pathak, Ashutosh; Rajesh, S; Sharma, Shivesh; Pandey, Avinash C; Nageswara Rao, G; Dikshit, Anupam

    2016-01-01

    Present exploration deals with the therapeutic perspective of methyl gallate isolated from the leaf extract of Acacia nilotica (L.) Delile in contrast to food-borne bacterial pathogen's viz., Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus with their evolutionary succession. The extract was subjected to phytochemical analysis and isolated compound was identified as methyl gallate using UV-vis, IR and NMR spectra. It was found most potent against K. pneumoniae with its minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) of 0.32 mg/ml and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) at 0.62 mg/ml. The correlation of MIC values with an evolutionary succession assists the relationship between their genetic and toxic properties. The cytotoxic pursuit of methyl gallate was additionally assessed over NIH3T3 mouse fibroblast by Neutral red (NR) uptake, MTT cell proliferation assay and did not disclose any relevant influence on cell viability as well as cell proliferation. As such, the methyl gallate extracted from the leaf of A. nilotica holds massive antibacterial aptitude and hands out towards a new paradigm for food and pharmaceutical industries.

  15. Assessment of the cytotoxic and anti-viral potential of aqueous extracts from different parts of Acacia nilotica (Linn) Delile against Peste des petits ruminants virus.

    PubMed

    Raheel, Rizwana; Ashraf, Muhammad; Ejaz, Sohail; Javeed, Aqeel; Altaf, Imran

    2013-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV); a negative sense single stranded RNA enveloped virus that causes Peste des petits ruminants (PPR), is dramatically affecting the health status of ruminants all around the world resulting in extensive economical losses in livestock sector. Acacia nilotica (Linn) Delile; a tannin-rich medicinal plant distributed throughout subcontinent, is traditionally used as food for ruminants and possesses anti-viral potential against different RNA viruses. In the current study, aqueous extracts from the bark, leaves and pods of A. nilotica (Linn) Delile indica were evaluated for their cytotoxicity and anti-viral activities against PPRV by adopting MTT colorimetric assay and anti-viral assay using Vero cell line. Aqueous extract from the leaves presented significantly better (P<0.05) anti-PPRV activities in comparison to pods extract. On the contrary, bark extract did not show any anti-viral activity. The data presented in the study could pave a way toward the discovery of novel anti-viral chemicals in the plants against PPRV and other viral diseases.

  16. Fifth Annual Stem Cell Summit.

    PubMed

    Knowlton, Daniel

    2010-04-01

    The Fifth Annual Stem Cell Summit, held in New York, included topics covering new commercial developments in the research field of stem cell-based therapies. This conference report highlights selected presentations on embryonic and adult stem cells, stem cell-based therapies for the treatment of orthopedic and cardiovascular indications and inflammatory diseases, as well as technologies for processing and storing stem cells. Investigational therapies discussed include placental expanded (PLX) cells (Pluristem Therapeutics Inc), StemEx (Gamida-Teva Joint Venture/Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd) and remestemcel-L (Osiris Therapeutics Inc/Genzyme Corp/JCR Pharmaceuticals Co Ltd/ Mochida Pharmaceutical Co Ltd).

  17. 7. VIEW OF UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE, WHEEL STEM AND STEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE, WHEEL STEM AND STEM GUIDE (14' DIAMETER CIRCULAR CALCO CAST IRON SLIDE GATE), LOOKING SOUTHEAST - High Mountain Dams in Bonneville Unit, Fire Lake Dam, Wasatch National Forest, Kamas, Summit County, UT

  18. 5. VIEW OF INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM GUIDE, (12' DIAMETER HARDESTY MODEL 112 CIRCULAR GATE), LOOKING NORTHEAST - High Mountain Dams in Bonneville Unit, Island Lake Dam, Wasatch National Forest, Kamas, Summit County, UT

  19. 5. VIEW SHOWING INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW SHOWING INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM GUIDE (28' WIDE HARDESTY CAST IRON SLIDE HEADGATE), LOOKING NORTHEAST - High Mountain Dams in Bonneville Unit, Duck Lake Dam, Wasatch National Forest, Kamas, Summit County, UT

  20. 5. VIEW OF UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM GUIDE, LOOKING NORTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Drift Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 11.4 miles Northwest of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  1. 6. VIEW SHOWING INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW SHOWING INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM GUIDE (18' HARDESTY GATE), LOOKING SOUTHEAST - High Mountain Dams in Bonneville Unit, Long Lake Dam, Wasatch National Forest, Kamas, Summit County, UT

  2. 5. VIEW OF UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE, STEM, STEM GUIDE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE, STEM, STEM GUIDE AND WHEEL (10' HARDESTY CAST IRON VERTICAL LIFT GATE), LOOKING WEST - High Mountain Dams in Bonneville Unit, Weir Lake Dam, Wasatch National Forest, Kamas, Summit County, UT

  3. 7. VIEW OF INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM GUIDE (15' HARDESTY MODEL 115 GATE), LOOKING NORTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Bonneville Unit, Marjorie Lake Dam, Wasatch National Forest, Kamas, Summit County, UT

  4. 4. VIEW OF INCLINED OUTLET GATE, STEM, STEM GUIDE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF INCLINED OUTLET GATE, STEM, STEM GUIDE AND WHEEL (10' HARDESTY VERTICAL LIFT GATE), LOOKING NORTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Bonneville Unit, Pot Lake Dam, Wasatch National Forest, Kamas, Summit County, UT

  5. 5. VIEW OF UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM GUIDE (HARDESTY CAST IRON RECTANGULAR SLIDE GATE), LOOKING SOUTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Bonneville Unit, Lost Lake Dam, Kamas, Summit County, UT

  6. Dental pulp stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Ashri, Nahid Y.; Ajlan, Sumaiah A.; Aldahmash, Abdullah M.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory periodontal disease is a major cause of loss of tooth-supporting structures. Novel approaches for regeneration of periodontal apparatus is an area of intensive research. Periodontal tissue engineering implies the use of appropriate regenerative cells, delivered through a suitable scaffold, and guided through signaling molecules. Dental pulp stem cells have been used in an increasing number of studies in dental tissue engineering. Those cells show mesenchymal (stromal) stem cell-like properties including self-renewal and multilineage differentiation potentials, aside from their relative accessibility and pleasant handling properties. The purpose of this article is to review the biological principles of periodontal tissue engineering, along with the challenges facing the development of a consistent and clinically relevant tissue regeneration platform. This article includes an updated review on dental pulp stem cells and their applications in periodontal regeneration, in combination with different scaffolds and growth factors. PMID:26620980

  7. Reversing breast cancer stem cell into breast somatic stem cell.

    PubMed

    Wijaya, L; Agustina, D; Lizandi, A O; Kartawinata, M M; Sandra, F

    2011-02-01

    Stem cells have an important role in cell biology, allowing tissues to be renewed by freshly created cells throughout their lifetime. The specific micro-environment of stem cells is called stem cell niche; this environment influences the development of stem cells from quiescence through stages of differentiation. Recent advance researches have improved the understanding of the cellular and molecular components of the micro-environment--or niche--that regulates stem cells. We point out an important trend to the study of niche activity in breast cancers. Breast cancer has long been known to conserve a heterogeneous population of cells. While the majority of cells that make up tumors are destined to differentiate and eventually stop dividing, only minority populations of cells, termed cancer stem cell, possess extensive self renewal capability. These cancer stem cells possess characteristics of both stem cells and cancer cells. Breast cancer stem cells reversal to breast somatic stem cells offer a new therapy, that not only can stop the spread of breast cancer cells, but also can differentiate breast cancer stem cells into normal breast somatic stem cells. These can replace damaged breast tissue. Nevertheless, the complexity of realizing this therapy approach needs further research.

  8. Stem cells and healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Goodell, Margaret A; Rando, Thomas A

    2015-12-04

    Research into stem cells and aging aims to understand how stem cells maintain tissue health, what mechanisms ultimately lead to decline in stem cell function with age, and how the regenerative capacity of somatic stem cells can be enhanced to promote healthy aging. Here, we explore the effects of aging on stem cells in different tissues. Recent research has focused on the ways that genetic mutations, epigenetic changes, and the extrinsic environmental milieu influence stem cell functionality over time. We describe each of these three factors, the ways in which they interact, and how these interactions decrease stem cell health over time. We are optimistic that a better understanding of these changes will uncover potential strategies to enhance stem cell function and increase tissue resiliency into old age.

  9. Multipotent Stem Cell and Reproduction.

    PubMed

    Khanlarkhani, Neda; Baazm, Maryam; Mohammadzadeh, Farzaneh; Najafi, Atefeh; Mehdinejadiani, Shayesteh; Sobhani, Aligholi

    2016-01-01

    Stem cells are self-renewing and undifferentiated cell types that can be differentiate into functional cells. Stem cells can be classified into two main types based on their source of origin: Embryonic and Adult stem cells. Stem cells also classified based on the range of differentiation potentials into Totipotent, Pluripotent, Multipotent, and Unipotent. Multipotent stem cells have the ability to differentiate into all cell types within one particular lineage. There are plentiful advantages and usages for multipotent stem cells. Multipotent Stem cells act as a significant key in procedure of development, tissue repair, and protection. The accessibility and adaptability of these amazing cells create them a great therapeutic choice for different part of medical approaches, and it becomes interesting topic in the scientific researches to found obvious method for the most advantageous use of MSC-based therapies. Recent studies in the field of stem cell biology have provided new perspectives and opportunities for the treatment of infertility disorders.

  10. Stem Cells and Female Reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Du, Hongling; Taylor, Hugh S.

    2011-01-01

    Several recent findings in stem cell biology have resulted in new opportunities for the treatment of reproductive disease. Endometrial regeneration can be driven by bone marrow derived stem cells. This finding has potential implications for the treatment of uterine disorders. It also supports a new theory for the etiology of endometriosis. The ovaries have been shown to contain stem cells that form oocytes in adults and can be cultured in vitro to develop mature oocytes. Stem cells from the fetus have been demonstrated to lead to microchimerism in the mother and implicated in several maternal diseases. Additionally the placenta may be another source of hematopoietic stem cell. Finally endometrial derived stem cells have been demonstrated to differentiate into non-reproductive tissues. While we are just beginning to understand stem cells and many key questions remain, the potential advantages of stem cells in reproductive biology and medicine are apparent. PMID:19208782

  11. Stem Cell Organoid Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Xiaolei; Mead, Benjamin E.; Safaee, Helia; Langer, Robert; Karp, Jeffrey M.; Levy, Oren

    2016-01-01

    Organoid systems leverage the self-organizing properties of stem cells to create diverse multi-cellular tissue proxies. Most organoid models only represent single or partial components of a tissue, and it is often difficult to control the cell type, organization, and cell-cell/cell-matrix interactions within these systems. Herein, we discuss basic approaches to generate stem cell-based organoids, their advantages and limitations, and how bioengineering strategies can be used to steer the cell composition and their 3D organization within organoids to further enhance their utility in research and therapies. PMID:26748754

  12. Engineering Stem Cell Organoids.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiaolei; Mead, Benjamin E; Safaee, Helia; Langer, Robert; Karp, Jeffrey M; Levy, Oren

    2016-01-07

    Organoid systems leverage the self-organizing properties of stem cells to create diverse multi-cellular tissue proxies. Most organoid models only represent single or partial components of a tissue, and it is often difficult to control the cell type, organization, and cell-cell/cell-matrix interactions within these systems. Herein, we discuss basic approaches to generate stem cell-based organoids, their advantages and limitations, and how bioengineering strategies can be used to steer the cell composition and their 3D organization within organoids to further enhance their utility in research and therapies.

  13. Cloning of Mammary Stem Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-11-01

    these parity-induced cells do represent a totipotent mammary stem cell population per se, but these cells might support stem cell maintenance as... Stem Cells PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Kay-Uwe Wagner CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of Nebraska Medical Center Omaha, Nebraska 68198-6810 REPORT...Mammary Stem Cells DAMD17-00-1-0641 6. AUTHOR(S) Dr. Kay-Uwe Wagner 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT

  14. Laser biomodulation on stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Timon C.; Duan, Rui; Li, Yan; Li, Xue-Feng; Tan, Li-Ling; Liu, Songhao

    2001-08-01

    Stem cells are views from the perspectives of their function, evolution, development, and cause. Counterintuitively, most stem cells may arise late in development, to act principally in tissue renewal, thus ensuring an organisms long-term survival. Surprisingly, recent reports suggest that tissue-specific adult stem cells have the potential to contribute to replenishment of multiple adult tissues. Stem cells are currently in the news for two reasons: the successful cultivation of human embryonic stem cell lines and reports that adult stem cells can differentiate into developmentally unrelated cell types, such as nerve cells into blood cells. The spotlight on stem cells has revealed gaps in our knowledge that must be filled if we are to take advantage of their full potential for treating devastating degenerative diseases such as Parkinsons's disease and muscular dystrophy. We need to know more about the intrinsic controls that keep stem cells as stem cells or direct them along particular differentiation pathways. Such intrinsic regulators are, in turn, sensitive to the influences of the microenvironment, or niche, where stem cells normally reside. Both intrinsic and extrinsic signals regular stem cell fate and some of these signals have now been identified. Vacek et al and Wang et al have studied the effect of low intensity laser on the haemopoietic stem cells in vitro. There experiments show there is indeed the effect of low intensity laser on the haemopoietic stem cells in vitro, and the present effect is the promotion of haemopoietic stem cells proliferation. In other words, low intensity laser irradiation can act as an extrinsic signal regulating stem cell fate. In this paper, we study how low intensity laser can be used to regulate stem cell fate from the viewpoint of collective phototransduction.

  15. Stem Cell Transplants (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Stem Cell Transplants KidsHealth > For Parents > Stem Cell Transplants A A A What's in this article? ... Recovery Coping en español Trasplantes de células madre Stem cells are cells in the body that have the ...

  16. Information on Stem Cell Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home » Current Research » Focus on Research Focus on Stem Cell Research Stem cells possess the unique ability to differentiate into many ... they also retain the ability to produce more stem cells, a process termed self-renewal. There are multiple ...

  17. STEM--Beyond the Acronym

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasquez, Jo Anne

    2015-01-01

    When most educators think of STEM education, they think of fully integrated projects seamlessly combining all four disciplines--science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Although such transdisciplinary STEM units are ideal, writes Vasquez, they are not the only way to give students valuable STEM experiences. She gives examples of two…

  18. A Problem with STEM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marder, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Striking differences between physics and biology have important implications for interdisciplinary science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. The author is a physicist with interdisciplinary connections. The research group in which he works, the Center for Nonlinear Dynamics at the University of Texas at Austin, is…

  19. "Excellence" in STEM Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Aaron C.

    2012-01-01

    So what does it take to achieve excellence in STEM education? That is the title of the author's presentation delivered at International Technology and Engineering Educators Association's (ITEEA's) FTEE "Spirit of Excellence" Breakfast on March 16, 2012, in Long Beach, California. In preparation for this presentation, the author went back and read…

  20. STEM Sense and Nonsense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charette, Robert N.

    2015-01-01

    If you can believe the daily flood of mass media stories, journal articles, and white papers, the United States is facing a STEM worker crisis. Business leaders and politicians warn that the nation is falling hopelessly behind in the global economic race because our students are unprepared for and uninterested in science, technology, engineering,…

  1. STEMMING the Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahler, Jim; Valentine, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    America has a gap when it comes to youth pursuing science and technology careers. In an effort to improve the knowledge and application of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM), after-school programs can work in conjunction with formal in-school curriculum to improve science education. One organization that actively addresses this…

  2. STEM Comes to Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moomaw, Sally; Davis, Jaumall A.

    2010-01-01

    Math and science and the related technology and engineering are natural pairings. These four disciplines form the acronym STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math) and can be readily combined into an integrated curriculum for early childhood classrooms. Many educators believe that children learn best when disciplines are interconnected. An…

  3. Advancing Diversity in STEM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Paul L.; Shaw, Rose A.; Taylor, Jan R.; Hallar, Brittan L.

    2011-01-01

    Although progress has been made, greater efforts are needed to promote faculty diversity at the college and university levels, especially in STEM fields. Thus, it is important to elucidate best practices both for increasing awareness of diversity issues pertaining to higher education and for implementing change. This article focuses on the…

  4. Helping STEM Take Root

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schachter, Ron

    2011-01-01

    STEM--shorthand for "science, technology, engineering, and mathematics"--has been part of the school improvement discussion for more than a decade, as educational leaders and policy makers have underscored the importance of these areas in an internationally competitive, 21st-century economy. But building and implementing programs that…

  5. Helping STEM Take Root

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schachter, Ron

    2011-01-01

    STEM--the catchy shorthand for "science, technology, engineering and mathematics"--has been part of the school improvement discussion for more than a decade, as educational leaders and policy makers have underscored the importance of these areas in preparing students for an internationally competitive, 21st-century economy. But while the…

  6. In-Vitro, Anti-Bacterial Activities of Aqueous Extracts of Acacia catechu (L.F.)Willd, Castanea sativa, Ephedra sinica stapf and shilajita mumiyo Against Gram Positive and Gram Negative Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Dashtdar, Mehrab; Dashtdar, Mohammad Reza; Dashtdar, Babak; shirazi, Mohammad khabaz; Khan, Saeed Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Evaluations of the in-vitro anti-bacterial activities of aqueous extracts of Acacia catechu (L.F.)Willd, Castanea sativa, Ephedra sinica stapf and Shilajita mumiyo against gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumonia) and gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) are reasonable since these ethnomedicinal plants have been used in Persian folk medicine for treating skin diseases, venereal diseases, respiratory problems and nervous disorders for ages. Methods: The well diffusion method (KB testing) with a concentration of 250 μg/disc was used for evaluating the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC). Maximum synergistic effects of different combinations of components were also observed. Results: A particular combination of Acacia catechu (L.F.) Willd, Castanea sativa, Ephedra sinica stapf and shilajita mumiyo extracts possesses an outstanding anti-bacterial activity. It's inhibiting effect on microorganisms is significant when compared to the control group (P< 0.05). Staphylococcus aureus was the most sensitive microorganism. The highest antibacterial activity against gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumonia) or gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Proteus mirabilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) was exerted by formula number 2 (Table1). Conclusion: The results reveal the presence of antibacterial activities of Acacia catechu, Castanea sativa husk, Ephedra sp. and Mumiyo against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Synergistic effects in a combined formula, especially in formula number 2 (ASLANⓇ) can lead to potential sources of new antiseptic agents for treatment of acute or chronic skin ulcers. These results considering the significant antibacterial effect of the present formulation, support ethno-pharmacological uses against diarrheal and venereal diseases and demonstrate use of these plants to treat

  7. Stem cell mobilization.

    PubMed

    Cottler-Fox, Michele H; Lapidot, Tsvee; Petit, Isabelle; Kollet, Orit; DiPersio, John F; Link, Dan; Devine, Steven

    2003-01-01

    Successful blood and marrow transplant (BMT), both autologous and allogeneic, requires the infusion of a sufficient number of hematopoietic progenitor/stem cells (HPCs) capable of homing to the marrow cavity and regenerating a full array of hematopoietic cell lineages in a timely fashion. At present, the most commonly used surrogate marker for HPCs is the cell surface marker CD34, identified in the clinical laboratory by flow cytometry. Clinical studies have shown that infusion of at least 2 x 10(6) CD34(+) cells/kg recipient body weight results in reliable engraftment as measured by recovery of adequate neutrophil and platelet counts approximately 14 days after transplant. Recruitment of HPCs from the marrow into the blood is termed mobilization, or, more commonly, stem cell mobilization. In Section I, Dr. Tsvee Lapidot and colleagues review the wide range of factors influencing stem cell mobilization. Our current understanding focuses on chemokines, proteolytic enzymes, adhesion molecules, cytokines and stromal cell-stem cell interactions. On the basis of this understanding, new approaches to mobilization have been designed and are now starting to undergo clinical testing. In Section II, Dr. Michele Cottler-Fox describes factors predicting the ability to mobilize the older patient with myeloma. In addition, clinical approaches to improving collection by individualizing the timing of apheresis and adjusting the volume of blood processed to achieve a desired product are discussed. Key to this process is the daily enumeration of blood CD34(+) cells. Newer methods of enumerating and mobilizing autologous blood HPCs are discussed. In Section III, Dr. John DiPersio and colleagues provide data on clinical results of mobilizing allogeneic donors with G-CSF, GM-CSF and the combination of both as relates to the number and type of cells collected by apheresis. Newer methods of stem cell mobilization as well as the relationship of graft composition on immune reconstitution

  8. Inflammation and cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Shigdar, Sarah; Li, Yong; Bhattacharya, Santanu; O'Connor, Michael; Pu, Chunwen; Lin, Jia; Wang, Tao; Xiang, Dongxi; Kong, Lingxue; Wei, Ming Q; Zhu, Yimin; Zhou, Shufeng; Duan, Wei

    2014-04-10

    Cancer stem cells are becoming recognised as being responsible for metastasis and treatment resistance. The complex cellular and molecular network that regulates cancer stem cells and the role that inflammation plays in cancer progression are slowly being elucidated. Cytokines, secreted by tumour associated immune cells, activate the necessary pathways required by cancer stem cells to facilitate cancer stem cells progressing through the epithelial-mesenchymal transition and migrating to distant sites. Once in situ, these cancer stem cells can secrete their own attractants, thus providing an environment whereby these cells can continue to propagate the tumour in a secondary niche.

  9. Stem Cells in Mammalian Gonads.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ji; Ding, Xinbao; Wang, Jian

    Stem cells have great value in clinical application because of their ability to self-renew and their potential to differentiate into many different cell types. Mammalian gonads, including testes for males and ovaries for females, are composed of germline and somatic cells. In male mammals, spermatogonial stem cells maintain spermatogenesis which occurs continuously in adult testis. Likewise, a growing body of evidence demonstrated that female germline stem cells could be found in mammalian ovaries. Meanwhile, prior studies have shown that somatic stem cells exist in both testes and ovaries. In this chapter, we focus on mammalian gonad stem cells and discuss their characteristics as well as differentiation potentials.

  10. Gravitropism in Leafy Dicot Stems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salisbury, F. B.

    1985-01-01

    A polarizing research microscope with rotating stage and associated camera equipment were ordered, and techniques of fixation and preparation of specimens were perfected for studying possible changes in orientation of cellulose microfibrils in cell walls of gravistimulated dicot stems. Acid ethephon solutions or acid without ethephon caused elongation of stem tissues where they were applied; stems bent away from the side of application. Acid solutions applied to the bottom of horizontal stems greatly delayed bending. Research in tissue sensitivity changes during gravitropic bending of soybean hypocotyls while immersed in auxin and in castor bean stems is also reported.

  11. Ectomycorrhizal Pisolithus albus inoculation of Acacia spirorbis and Eucalyptus globulus grown in ultramafic topsoil enhances plant growth and mineral nutrition while limits metal uptake.

    PubMed

    Jourand, Philippe; Hannibal, Laure; Majorel, Clarisse; Mengant, Stéphane; Ducousso, Marc; Lebrun, Michel

    2014-01-15

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECM) isolates of Pisolithus albus (Cooke and Massee) from nickel-rich ultramafic topsoils in New Caledonia were inoculated onto Acacia spirorbis Labill. (an endemic Fabaceae) and Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (used as a Myrtaceae plant host model). The aim of the study was to analyze the growth of symbiotic ECM plants growing on the ultramafic substrate that is characterized by high and toxic metal concentrations i.e. Co, Cr, Fe, Mn and Ni, deficient concentrations of plant essential nutrients such as N, P, K, and that presents an unbalanced Ca/Mg ratio (1/19). ECM inoculation was successful with a plant level of root mycorrhization up to 6.7%. ECM symbiosis enhanced plant growth as indicated by significant increases in shoot and root biomass. Presence of ECM enhanced uptake of major elements that are deficient in ultramafic substrates; in particular P, K and Ca. On the contrary, the ECM symbioses strongly reduced transfer to plants of element in excess in soils; in particular all metals. ECM-inoculated plants released metal complexing molecules as free thiols and oxalic acid mostly at lower concentrations than in controls. Data showed that ECM symbiosis helped plant growth by supplying uptake of deficient elements while acting as a protective barrier to toxic metals, in particular for plants growing on ultramafic substrate with extreme soil conditions. Isolation of indigenous and stress-adapted beneficial ECM fungi could serve as a potential tool for inoculation of ECM endemic plants for the successful restoration of ultramafic ecosystems degraded by mining activities.

  12. Interspecific and temporal variation of ant species within Acacia drepanolobium ant domatia, a staple food of patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) in Laikipia, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Isbell, Lynne A; Young, Truman P

    2007-12-01

    The ants that live in the swollen thorns (domatia) of Acacia drepanolobium are staple foods for patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas). To obtain a better understanding of these insects as resources for patas monkeys, we sampled the contents of 1,051 swollen thorns (ant domatia) over a 22-month period from December 1999 to September 2001, in Laikipia, Kenya. First, we confirmed that of the four species of ants that live on A. drepanolobium, Crematogaster sjostedti, the competitively dominant ant in this system, does not rear significant brood in the swollen thorns and is therefore not a major food item of patas monkeys. Second, across the other three species that do use swollen thorns for rearing their brood, C. nigriceps, C. mimosae, and Tetraponera penzigi, the number of worker ants per swollen thorn increased with increasing competitive dominance. Third, although there was considerable month-to-month variation in the number of workers, immatures, and especially alates (winged reproductives) within species, there was less variation across species because ant production was asynchronous. Variation in domatia contents was poorly related to rainfall for each of the three species. Finally, distal thorns held more alates and fewer workers than interior thorns, and branches higher off the ground held more alates and more workers than lower branches. For the numerically dominant C. mimosae, higher branches held significantly more immature ants than did lower branches. Ants are reliable food resources for patas monkeys, and are probably more reliable than many plant resources in this highly seasonal environment. We estimate that patas monkeys may get as much as a third of their daily caloric needs from these ants year-round. As ants and other insects are widely consumed by primates, we suggest that greater consideration be given to species differences in animal food choices and that further studies be conducted to examine the degree to which ants influence energy intake and

  13. Evolution and ecology meet molecular genetics: adaptive phenotypic plasticity in two isolated Negev desert populations of Acacia raddiana at either end of a rainfall gradient

    PubMed Central

    Ward, David; Shrestha, Madan K.; Golan-Goldhirsh, Avi

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims The ecological, evolutionary and genetic bases of population differentiation in a variable environment are often related to the selection pressures that plants experience. We compared differences in several growth- and defence-related traits in two isolated populations of Acacia raddiana trees from sites at either end of an extreme environmental gradient in the Negev desert. Methods We used random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) to determine the molecular differences between populations. We grew plants under two levels of water, three levels of nutrients and three levels of herbivory to test for phenotypic plasticity and adaptive phenotypic plasticity. Key Results The RAPD analyses showed that these populations are highly genetically differentiated. Phenotypic plasticity in various morphological traits in A. raddiana was related to patterns of population genetic differentiation between the two study sites. Although we did not test for maternal effects in these long-lived trees, significant genotype × environment (G × E) interactions in some of these traits indicated that such plasticity may be adaptive. Conclusions The main selection pressure in this desert environment, perhaps unsurprisingly, is water. Increased water availability resulted in greater growth in the southern population, which normally receives far less rain than the northern population. Even under the conditions that we defined as low water and/or nutrients, the performance of the seedlings from the southern population was significantly better, perhaps reflecting selection for these traits. Consistent with previous studies of this genus, there was no evidence of trade-offs between physical and chemical defences and plant growth parameters in this study. Rather, there appeared to be positive correlations between plant size and defence parameters. The great variation in several traits in both populations may result in a diverse potential for responding to selection pressures in

  14. Clinical and Preclinical Cognitive Function Improvement after Oral Treatment of a Botanical Composition Composed of Extracts from Scutellaria baicalensis and Acacia catechu

    PubMed Central

    Brownell, Lidia; Jia, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Dementia and cognitive impairment have become the major concerns worldwide due to a significantly aging population, increasing life span and lack of effective pharmacotherapy. In light of limited pharmaceutical drug choices and the socioeconomic implications of these conditions, the search for safe and effective alternatives from natural sources has gained many attractions within the medical food and dietary supplement industry. Two polyphenol extracts derived from roots of Scutellaria baicalensis and heartwoods of Acacia catechu containing free-B-ring flavonoids and flavans, respectively, were combined into a proprietary blend called UP326. A similar bioflavonoid composition, UP446, has been reported with modulation of pathways related to systemic inflammation. To test the effect of UP326 on memory and learning, a radial arm water maze (RAWM) and contextual fear conditioning (CF) were utilized in aged F344 rats fed with UP326 at doses of 3, 7, and 34 mg/kg for 11 weeks. The 7 and 34 mg/kg dosage groups had significantly fewer errors than aged vehicle control animals and their performance was equivalent to young animal controls. In a separate human clinical trial, test subjects orally given 300 mg of UP326 BID for 30 days showed marked improvement in speed and accuracy of processing complex information in computer tasks and reduced their standard deviation of performance compared to baseline and the placebo group. This data suggest that UP326 may help maintain memory, sustain speed of processing, and reduce the number or memory errors as we age. PMID:28042201

  15. Biophysical characterization of Acacia caesia-fabricated silver nanoparticles: effectiveness on mosquito vectors of public health relevance and impact on non-target aquatic biocontrol agents.

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni; Kadaikunnan, Shine; Alharbi, Naiyf S; Govindarajan, Marimuthu

    2017-02-05

    Mosquito-borne diseases lead to serious public health concerns in tropical and sub-tropical countries worldwide, due to development of mosquito resistance to synthetic pesticides, non-target effects of pesticides, and socioeconomic reasons. Currently, green nanotechnology is a promising research field, showing a wide range of potential applications in vector control programs. The employ of natural products as reducing agents to fabricate insecticidal nanocomposites is gaining research attention worldwide, due to low costs and high effectiveness. Interestingly, biophysical features of green-synthesized nanoparticles strongly differ when different botanicals are employed for nanosynthesis. In this study, a cheap Acacia caesia leaf extract was employed to fabricate silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) with ovicidal, larvicidal, and adulticidal toxicity against three mosquito vectors, Anopheles subpictus, Aedes albopictus, and Culex tritaeniorhynchus. Ag NPs were analyzed by various biophysical methods, including spectroscopy (UV-visible spectrophotometry, XRD, FTIR, EDX) and microscopy (SEM, TEM, AFM) techniques. High acute larvicidal potential was observed against larvae of An. subpictus (LC50 = 10.33 μg/ml), Ae. albopictus (LC50 = 11.32 μg/ml), and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (LC50 = 12.35 μg/ml). Ag NPs completely inhibited egg hatchability on three vectors at 60, 75, and 90 μg/ml, respectively. In adulticidal assays, LD50 values were 18.66, 20.94, and 22.63 μg/ml. If compared to mosquito larvae, Ag NPs were safer to three non-target aquatic biocontrol agents, with LC50 ranging from 684 to 2245 μg/ml. Overall, our study highlights the potential of A. caesia as an abundant and cheap bioresource to fabricate biogenic Ag NPs effective against mosquito young instars and adults, with moderate impact on non-target aquatic biocontrol agents.

  16. Clinical and Preclinical Cognitive Function Improvement after Oral Treatment of a Botanical Composition Composed of Extracts from Scutellaria baicalensis and Acacia catechu.

    PubMed

    Yimam, Mesfin; Burnett, Bruce P; Brownell, Lidia; Jia, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Dementia and cognitive impairment have become the major concerns worldwide due to a significantly aging population, increasing life span and lack of effective pharmacotherapy. In light of limited pharmaceutical drug choices and the socioeconomic implications of these conditions, the search for safe and effective alternatives from natural sources has gained many attractions within the medical food and dietary supplement industry. Two polyphenol extracts derived from roots of Scutellaria baicalensis and heartwoods of Acacia catechu containing free-B-ring flavonoids and flavans, respectively, were combined into a proprietary blend called UP326. A similar bioflavonoid composition, UP446, has been reported with modulation of pathways related to systemic inflammation. To test the effect of UP326 on memory and learning, a radial arm water maze (RAWM) and contextual fear conditioning (CF) were utilized in aged F344 rats fed with UP326 at doses of 3, 7, and 34 mg/kg for 11 weeks. The 7 and 34 mg/kg dosage groups had significantly fewer errors than aged vehicle control animals and their performance was equivalent to young animal controls. In a separate human clinical trial, test subjects orally given 300 mg of UP326 BID for 30 days showed marked improvement in speed and accuracy of processing complex information in computer tasks and reduced their standard deviation of performance compared to baseline and the placebo group. This data suggest that UP326 may help maintain memory, sustain speed of processing, and reduce the number or memory errors as we age.

  17. Antimicrobial efficacy of the combinations of Acacia nilotica, Murraya koenigii L. sprengel, Eucalyptus hybrid and Psidium guajava on primary plaque colonizers

    PubMed Central

    Chandra Shekar, B. R.; Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Singh, Rupal; Thaku, Roopesh

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is an urgent need for innovative strategies to combat the two most common dental diseases of mankind namely dental caries and periodontitis. Objective: The aim was to assess the antimicrobial efficacy of the double combinations of Acacia nilotica (AN), Murraya koenigii L. Sprengel (MKL), Eucalyptus hybrid and Psidium guajava on primary plaque colonizers. Materials and Methods: The plant extracts of AN, MKL. Sprengel, Eucalyptus hybrid and P. guajava were prepared using Soxhlet apparatus. The stock solutions of individual plant extracts (100 mg/ml) were prepared. Equal quantities of stock solutions were mixed to obtain six double combinations of herbal extracts. The antimicrobial efficacy testing was done against three primary plaque colonizers using agar well-diffusion method. 0.2% chlorhexidine and dimethyl sulfoxide were used as positive and as negative controls. The mean inhibition zone between the categories was compared using one-way Analysis of Variance and Tukey's post hoc test. Results: The combination of AN and P. guajava produced the highest mean diameter of inhibition zone (21.08 mm ± 2.11) against Streptococcus mutans. The chlorhexidine produced the least inhibition zone against S. mutans (14.50 ± 2.07). The combination of AN and P. guajava produced the maximum antimicrobial efficacy against Streptococcus sanguis (19.67 ± 1.03) and Streptococcus salivarius (20.33 ± 1.86). Conclusion: All the combinations of plant extracts have the potential to be used as antiplaque and anticaries agents. The combinations of herbal extracts offer enhanced antimicrobial efficacy due to the synergistic effects besides slowing the development of resistance. PMID:25316992

  18. Plio-Pleistocene history and phylogeography of Acacia senegal in dry woodlands and savannahs of sub-Saharan tropical Africa: evidence of early colonisation and recent range expansion

    PubMed Central

    Odee, D W; Telford, A; Wilson, J; Gaye, A; Cavers, S

    2012-01-01

    Drylands are extensive across sub-Saharan Africa, socio-economically and ecologically important yet highly sensitive to environmental changes. Evolutionary history, as revealed by contemporary intraspecific genetic variation, can provide valuable insight into how species have responded to past environmental and population changes and guide strategies to promote resilience to future changes. The gum arabic tree (Acacia senegal) is an arid-adapted, morphologically diverse species native to the sub-Saharan drylands. We used variation in nuclear sequences (internal transcribed spacer (ITS)) and two types of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) markers (PCR-RFLP, cpSSR) to study the phylogeography of the species with 293 individuals from 66 populations sampled across its natural range. cpDNA data showed high regional and rangewide haplotypic diversity (hT(cpSSR)=0.903–0.948) and population differentiation (GST(RFLP)=0.700–0.782) with a phylogeographic pattern that indicated extensive historical gene flow via seed dispersal. Haplotypes were not restricted to any of the four varieties, but showed significant geographic structure (GST(cpSSR)=0.392; RST=0.673; RST>RST (permuted)), with the major division separating East and Southern Africa populations from those in West and Central Africa. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS data indicated a more recent origin for the clade including West and Central African haplotypes, suggesting range expansion in this region, possibly during the Holocene humid period. In conjunction with paleobotanical evidence, our data suggest dispersal to West Africa, and across to the Arabian Peninsula and Indian subcontinent, from source populations located in the East African region during climate oscillations of the Plio-Pleistocene. PMID:22929152

  19. Antimicrobial efficacy of Acacia nilotica, Murraya koenigii L. Sprengel, Eucalyptus hybrid, and Psidium guajava on primary plaque colonizers: An in vitro comparison between hot and cold extraction process

    PubMed Central

    Shekar, Chandra; Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Singh, Rupal; Thakur, Rupesh

    2015-01-01

    Background: The potential drawbacks of the existing antiplaque agents call for innovative strategies that are safe, effective, and easily available. Objective: The objective was to assess and compare antimicrobial efficacy of four plant extracts derived using hot and cold extraction methods against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, and Streptococcus salivarius. Materials and Methods: The leaves of Acacia nilotica, P. guajava, Eucalyptus hybrid, and Murraya konigii L. Sprengel were collected from the surrounding areas, identified and authenticated by a taxonomist. The leaves were washed, shade-dried, and hand crushed to obtain coarse powder. This was subsequently ground into a fine powder and extracted using ethanol by cold infusion and hot extraction process. The antimicrobial efficacy testing was done on American Type Culture Collection strains of S. mutans, S. sanguis, and S. salivarius using agar well diffusion method. 0.2% chlorhexidine and dimethyl sulfoxide were used as positive and negative controls. The mean inhibition zone using 10% concentration of these extracts was compared using independent sample t-test and one-way analysis of variance. Results: All the four plant extracts inhibited the growth of S. mutans, S. sanguis, and S. salivarius irrespective of the method of extraction. The extracts of A. nilotica, P. guajava, and E. hybrid derived from both the methods of extraction exhibited a significantly higher inhibition zone against S. mutans in comparison with Murraya koenigii L. Sprengel and chlorhexidine. The cold extracts of A. nilotica and E. hybrid exhibited higher zone of inhibition against S. sanguis while the hot extracts of M. koenigii L. Sprengel exhibited a higher zone of inhibition against S. mutans. Conclusion: All the four plant extracts derived using either hot or cold extraction were effective against these bacteria and have the potential to be used as antiplaque agents. PMID:26015668

  20. Development of a new model for the induction of chronic kidney disease via intraperitoneal adenine administration, and the effect of treatment with gum acacia thereon

    PubMed Central

    Al Za’abi, Mohammed; Al Busaidi, Mahfouda; Yasin, Javid; Schupp, Nicole; Nemmar, Abderrahim; Ali, Badreldin H

    2015-01-01

    Oral adenine (0.75% w/w in feed), is an established model for human chronic kidney disease (CKD). Gum acacia (GA) has been shown to be a nephroprotective agent in this model. Here we aimed at developing a new adenine-induced CKD model in rats via a systemic route (intraperitoneal, i.p.) and to test it with GA to obviate the possibility of a physical interaction between GA and adenine in the gut. Adenine was injected i.p. (50 or 100 mg/Kg for four weeks), and GA was given concomitantly in drinking water at a concentration of 15%, w/v. Several plasma and urinary biomarkers of oxidative stress were measured and the renal damage was assessed histopathologically. Adenine, at the two given i.p. doses, significantly reduced body weight, and increased relative kidney weight, water intake and urine output. It dose-dependently increased plasma and urinary inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers, and caused morphological and histological damage resembling that which has been reported with oral adenine. Concomitant treatment with GA significantly mitigated almost all the above measured indices. Administration of adenine i.p. induced CKD signs very similar to those induced by oral adenine. Therefore, this new model is quicker, more practical and accurate than the original (oral) model. GA ameliorates the CKD effects caused by adenine given i.p. suggesting that the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties possessed by oral GA are the main mechanism for its salutary action in adenine-induced CKD, an action that is independent of its possible interaction with adenine in the gut. PMID:25755826

  1. Methanolic bark extract of Acacia catechu ameliorates benzo(a)pyrene induced lung toxicity by abrogation of oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Shahid, Ayaz; Ali, Rashid; Ali, Nemat; Kazim Hasan, Syed; Barnwal, Preeti; Mohammad Afzal, Shekh; Vafa, Abul; Sultana, Sarwat

    2016-12-29

    Benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] is a well-known carcinogen present in the environment. In this study, we evaluated the protective potential of methanolic bark extract of Acacia catechu Willd. (MEBA) against the lung toxicity induced by B(a)P in Swiss albino mice. To determine the protective efficacy of MEBA, it was orally administered to the mice at two doses (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight) once daily for 7 days. Mice were also exposed (orally) to B(a)P at a dose of 125 mg/kg body weight on 7th day. Administration of B(a)P increased the activities of toxicity markers such as LDH, LPO, and XO with a subsequent decrease in the activities of tissue anti-oxidant armory (CAT, SOD, GST, GPx, GR, QR, and GSH). It also caused activation of the apoptotic and inflammatory pathway by upregulation of TNF-α, NF-kB, COX-2, p53, bax, caspase-3, and downregulating Bcl-2. Pretreatment with MEBA at two different doses (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight) significantly ameliorates B(a)P-induced increased toxicity markers and activities of detoxifying enzymes along with the levels of glutathione content. It also significantly attenuated expression of apoptotic and inflammatory markers in the lungs. Histological results further confirmed the protective role of MEBA against B(a)P-induced lung toxicity. The results indicate that MEBA may be beneficial in ameliorating the B(a)P-induced oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis in the lungs of mice.

  2. Extensive long-distance pollen dispersal and highly outcrossed mating in historically small and disjunct populations of Acacia woodmaniorum (Fabaceae), a rare banded iron formation endemic

    PubMed Central

    Millar, Melissa A.; Coates, David J.; Byrne, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Understanding patterns of pollen dispersal and variation in mating systems provides insights into the evolutionary potential of plant species and how historically rare species with small disjunct populations persist over long time frames. This study aims to quantify the role of pollen dispersal and the mating system in maintaining contemporary levels of connectivity and facilitating persistence of small populations of the historically rare Acacia woodmaniorum. Methods Progeny arrays of A. woodmaniorum were genotyped with nine polymorphic microsatellite markers. A low number of fathers contributed to seed within single pods; therefore, sampling to remove bias of correlated paternity was implemented for further analysis. Pollen immigration and mating system parameters were then assessed in eight populations of varying size and degree of isolation. Key Results Pollen immigration into small disjunct populations was extensive (mean minimum estimate 40 % and mean maximum estimate 57 % of progeny) and dispersal occurred over large distances (≤1870m). Pollen immigration resulted in large effective population sizes and was sufficient to ensure adaptive and inbreeding connectivity in small disjunct populations. High outcrossing (mean tm = 0·975) and a lack of apparent inbreeding suggested that a self-incompatibility mechanism is operating. Population parameters, including size and degree of geographic disjunction, were not useful predictors of pollen dispersal or components of the mating system. Conclusions Extensive long-distance pollen dispersal and a highly outcrossed mating system are likely to play a key role in maintaining genetic diversity and limiting negative genetic effects of inbreeding and drift in small disjunct populations of A. woodmaniorum. It is proposed that maintenance of genetic connectivity through habitat and pollinator conservation will be a key factor in the persistence of this and other historically rare species with similar

  3. Plio-Pleistocene history and phylogeography of Acacia senegal in dry woodlands and savannahs of sub-Saharan tropical Africa: evidence of early colonisation and recent range expansion.

    PubMed

    Odee, D W; Telford, A; Wilson, J; Gaye, A; Cavers, S

    2012-12-01

    Drylands are extensive across sub-Saharan Africa, socio-economically and ecologically important yet highly sensitive to environmental changes. Evolutionary history, as revealed by contemporary intraspecific genetic variation, can provide valuable insight into how species have responded to past environmental and population changes and guide strategies to promote resilience to future changes. The gum arabic tree (Acacia senegal) is an arid-adapted, morphologically diverse species native to the sub-Saharan drylands. We used variation in nuclear sequences (internal transcribed spacer (ITS)) and two types of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) markers (PCR-RFLP, cpSSR) to study the phylogeography of the species with 293 individuals from 66 populations sampled across its natural range. cpDNA data showed high regional and rangewide haplotypic diversity (h(T(cpSSR))=0.903-0.948) and population differentiation (G(ST(RFLP))=0.700-0.782) with a phylogeographic pattern that indicated extensive historical gene flow via seed dispersal. Haplotypes were not restricted to any of the four varieties, but showed significant geographic structure (G(ST(cpSSR))=0.392; R(ST)=0.673; R(ST)>R(ST) (permuted)), with the major division separating East and Southern Africa populations from those in West and Central Africa. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS data indicated a more recent origin for the clade including West and Central African haplotypes, suggesting range expansion in this region, possibly during the Holocene humid period. In conjunction with paleobotanical evidence, our data suggest dispersal to West Africa, and across to the Arabian Peninsula and Indian subcontinent, from source populations located in the East African region during climate oscillations of the Plio-Pleistocene.

  4. Stem cells and transplant arteriosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qingbo

    2008-05-09

    Stem cells can differentiate into a variety of cells to replace dead cells or to repair damaged tissues. Recent evidence indicates that stem cells are involved in the pathogenesis of transplant arteriosclerosis, an alloimmune initiated vascular stenosis that often results in transplant organ failure. Although the pathogenesis of transplant arteriosclerosis is not yet fully understood, recent developments in stem cell research have suggested novel mechanisms of vascular remodeling in allografts. For example, stem cells derived from the recipient may repair damaged endothelial cells of arteries in transplant organs. Further evidence suggests that stem cells or endothelial progenitor cells may be released from both bone marrow and non-bone marrow tissues. Vascular stem cells appear to replenish cells that died in donor vessels. Concomitantly, stem/progenitor cells may also accumulate in the intima, where they differentiate into smooth muscle cells. However, several issues concerning the contribution of stem cells to the pathogenesis of transplant arteriosclerosis are controversial, eg, whether bone marrow-derived stem cells can differentiate into smooth muscle cells that form neointimal lesions of the vessel wall. This review summarizes recent research on the role of stem cells in transplant arteriosclerosis, discusses the mechanisms of stem cell homing and differentiation into mature endothelial and smooth muscle cells, and highlights the controversial issues in the field.

  5. Materials as stem cell regulators

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, William L.; McDevitt, Todd C.; Engler, Adam J.

    2014-01-01

    The stem cell/material interface is a complex, dynamic microenvironment in which the cell and the material cooperatively dictate one another's fate: the cell by remodelling its surroundings, and the material through its inherent properties (such as adhesivity, stiffness, nanostructure or degradability). Stem cells in contact with materials are able to sense their properties, integrate cues via signal propagation and ultimately translate parallel signalling information into cell fate decisions. However, discovering the mechanisms by which stem cells respond to inherent material characteristics is challenging because of the highly complex, multicomponent signalling milieu present in the stem cell environment. In this Review, we discuss recent evidence that shows that inherent material properties may be engineered to dictate stem cell fate decisions, and overview a subset of the operative signal transduction mechanisms that have begun to emerge. Further developments in stem cell engineering and mechanotransduction are poised to have substantial implications for stem cell biology and regenerative medicine. PMID:24845994

  6. Neural stem cells: an overview.

    PubMed

    Parati, E A; Pozzi, S; Ottolina, A; Onofrj, M; Bez, A; Pagano, S F

    2004-01-01

    Multipotent stem cells are present in the majority of mammalian tissues where they are a renewable source of specialized cells. According to the several biological portions from which multipotent stem cells can be derived, they are characterized as a) embryonic stem cells (ESCs) isolated from the pluripotent inner-cell mass of the pre-implantation blastocyste-stage embryo; b) multipotent fetal stem cells (FSCs) from aborted fetuses; and c) adult stem cells (ASCs) localized in small zones of several organs known as "niche" where a subset of tissue cells and extracellular substrates can indefinitely house one or more stem cells and control their self-renewal and progeny production in vivo. ECSs have an high self-renewing capacity, plasticity and pluripotency over the years. Pluripotency is a property that makes a stem cell able to give rise to all cell type found in the embryo and adult animals.

  7. Materials as stem cell regulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, William L.; McDevitt, Todd C.; Engler, Adam J.

    2014-06-01

    The stem cell/material interface is a complex, dynamic microenvironment in which the cell and the material cooperatively dictate one another's fate: the cell by remodelling its surroundings, and the material through its inherent properties (such as adhesivity, stiffness, nanostructure or degradability). Stem cells in contact with materials are able to sense their properties, integrate cues via signal propagation and ultimately translate parallel signalling information into cell fate decisions. However, discovering the mechanisms by which stem cells respond to inherent material characteristics is challenging because of the highly complex, multicomponent signalling milieu present in the stem cell environment. In this Review, we discuss recent evidence that shows that inherent material properties may be engineered to dictate stem cell fate decisions, and overview a subset of the operative signal transduction mechanisms that have begun to emerge. Further developments in stem cell engineering and mechanotransduction are poised to have substantial implications for stem cell biology and regenerative medicine.

  8. [Stem cell colloquy: conclusion].

    PubMed

    Tubiana, Maurice

    2002-10-01

    The stem cell data presented and discussed during the symposium raise the hope that important medical progress can be made in several fields: neuro-degenerative diseases, those linked to cellular deficit, some aspects of aging linked to cellular degeneration, and the treatment of cancers that may harm normal tissues at risk of being infiltrated by malignant cells. Three main types of stem cells are available. (i) Those present in normal adult tissue: contrary to what was believed, some data suggest that certain adult stem cells have a great plasticity (they can differentiate into cells different from those in tissues from which they were taken) and can proliferate in vitro without losing their properties. Nevertheless, their use faces several obstacles: in ill or elderly subjects, then these cells can be limited in number or not multiply well in vitro. In this case, auto-grafting of the cells cannot be used. They must be sought in another subject, and allo-grafting causes difficult and sometimes insoluble problems of immunological tolerance. (ii) Embryonic stem cells from surplus human embryos, obtained by in vitro fertilisation, which the parents decide not to use: these cells have a great potential for proliferation and differentiation, but can also encounter problems of immunological intolerance. (iii) Cells obtained from cell nuclear transfer in oocytes: these cells are well tolerated, since they are genetically and immunologically identical to those of the host. All types of stem cells can be obtained with them. However, they do present problems. For obtaining them, female oocytes are needed, which could lead to their commercialization. Moreover, the first steps for obtaining these cells are identical to those used in reproductive cloning. It therefore appears that each type of cell raises difficult scientific and practical problems. More research is needed to overcome these obstacles and to determine which type of stem cell constitutes the best solution for

  9. Common stemness regulators of embryonic and cancer stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Hadjimichael, Christiana; Chanoumidou, Konstantina; Papadopoulou, Natalia; Arampatzi, Panagiota; Papamatheakis, Joseph; Kretsovali, Androniki

    2015-01-01

    Pluripotency of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells is regulated by a well characterized gene transcription circuitry. The circuitry is assembled by ESC specific transcription factors, signal transducing molecules and epigenetic regulators. Growing understanding of stem-like cells, albeit of more complex phenotypes, present in tumors (cancer stem cells), provides a common conceptual and research framework for basic and applied stem cell biology. In this review, we highlight current results on biomarkers, gene signatures, signaling pathways and epigenetic regulators that are common in embryonic and cancer stem cells. We discuss their role in determining the cell phenotype and finally, their potential use to design next generation biological and pharmaceutical approaches for regenerative medicine and cancer therapies. PMID:26516408

  10. Global STEM Navigators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalimonte, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    In the STEM classroom, students can work in collaborative teams to build those essential skills needed for the 21st-century world. In project-based learning (PBL), teams of four to six students are often randomly selected to describe a realistic situation that may occur in today's workplace; this may be done by counting off in fours, fives,…

  11. Stem cells in dentistry--part I: stem cell sources.

    PubMed

    Egusa, Hiroshi; Sonoyama, Wataru; Nishimura, Masahiro; Atsuta, Ikiru; Akiyama, Kentaro

    2012-07-01

    Stem cells can self-renew and produce different cell types, thus providing new strategies to regenerate missing tissues and treat diseases. In the field of dentistry, adult mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) have been identified in several oral and maxillofacial tissues, which suggests that the oral tissues are a rich source of stem cells, and oral stem and mucosal cells are expected to provide an ideal source for genetically reprogrammed cells such as induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Furthermore, oral tissues are expected to be not only a source but also a therapeutic target for stem cells, as stem cell and tissue engineering therapies in dentistry continue to attract increasing clinical interest. Part I of this review outlines various types of intra- and extra-oral tissue-derived stem cells with regard to clinical availability and applications in dentistry. Additionally, appropriate sources of stem cells for regenerative dentistry are discussed with regard to differentiation capacity, accessibility and possible immunomodulatory properties.

  12. Measuring stem cell circadian rhythm.

    PubMed

    Hrushesky, William; Rich, Ivan N

    2015-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are biological rhythms that occur within a 24-h time cycle. Sleep is a prime example of a circadian rhythm and with it melatonin production. Stem cell systems also demonstrate circadian rhythms. This is particularly the case for the proliferating cells within the system. In fact, all proliferating cell populations exhibit their own circadian rhythm, which has important implications for disease and the treatment of disease. Stem cell chronobiology is particularly important because the treatment of cancer can be significantly affected by the time of day a drug is administered. This protocol provides a basis for measuring hematopoietic stem cell circadian rhythm for future stem cell chronotherapeutic applications.

  13. Contrasting views on STEM employment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Matthew; Huber, Michael

    2015-07-01

    In reply to “Unemployed and STEM” (Careers, May pp46-47), in which Penny Jackson described how her efforts to find a job in science, technology, engineering or mathematics (STEM) met with little success at first, even though she has a BSc in physics and a Master's in accelerator science. And in reply to “STEM paradox revisited” (Editorial, June p15), on why employers are expressing concerns about STEM shortages at a time when many recent STEM graduates are struggling to find jobs.

  14. Antimicrobial efficacy of Acacia nilotica, Murraya koenigii (L.) Sprengel, Eucalyptus hybrid, Psidium guajava extracts and their combination on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus

    PubMed Central

    Chandra Shekar, B. R.; Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Jain, Richa; Singh, Rupal; Thakur, Rupesh; Shekar, Suma

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this in vitro study was to assess antimicrobial efficacy of Acacia nilotica, Murraya koenigii (L.) Sprengel, Eucalyptus hybrid, Psidium guajava extracts, and their combination on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus. Materials and Methods: The branches of four plants were collected, identified, and authenticated by a taxonomist. The plants were rinsed in water, healthy leaves were separated and shade dried over a period of 3-4 weeks. Soxhlet apparatus using ethanol was employed for extraction procedure. The combinations of plant extracts were prepared by mixing equal quantities of 10% solutions of each of these extracts. 0.2% chlorhexidine and dimethyl sulfoxide were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. The antimicrobial efficacy testing was done using agar well-diffusion method under anaerobic conditions. The mean diameter of inhibition zone was computed and compared between different categories using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's post-hoc test. A qualitative assay was carried out to identify the various phytochemical constituents in the plants. The data was assessed by SPSS version 20. The statistical significance was fixed at 0.05. Results: All the plants extracts and their combinations inhibited S. mutans and L. acidophilus. However, the quadruple combination of A. nilotica + M. koenigii (L.) Sprengel + Eucalyptus hybrid + P. guajava produced the maximum inhibition zone (23.5 ± 2.2 mm) against S. mutans. Although, 0.2% chlorhexidine produced the highest inhibition zone against L. acidophilus (18.8 ± 1.2 mm), A. nilotica extract produced maximum inhibition among the various plant extracts and their combinations (14.1 ± 1.8 mm). Conclusion: All the individual plant extracts and their combinations were effective against S. mutans and L. acidophilus. These could be tried as herbal alternates to chlorhexidine. However, these in vitro results have to be further evaluated for any toxicity of the

  15. Humidity-regulated dormancy onset in the Fabaceae: a conceptual model and its ecological implications for the Australian wattle Acacia saligna

    PubMed Central

    Tozer, Mark G.; Ooi, Mark K. J.

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims Seed dormancy enhances fitness by preventing seeds from germinating when the probability of seedling survival and recruitment is low. The onset of physical dormancy is sensitive to humidity during ripening; however, the implications of this mechanism for seed bank dynamics have not been quantified. This study proposes a model that describes how humidity-regulated dormancy onset may control the accumulation of a dormant seed bank, and seed experiments are conducted to calibrate the model for an Australian Fabaceae, Acacia saligna. The model is used to investigate the impact of climate on seed dormancy and to forecast the ecological implications of human-induced climate change. Methods The relationship between relative humidity and dormancy onset was quantified under laboratory conditions by exposing freshly matured non-dormant seeds to constant humidity levels for fixed durations. The model was field-calibrated by measuring the response of seeds exposed to naturally fluctuating humidity. The model was applied to 3-hourly records of humidity spanning the period 1972–2007 in order to estimate both temporal variability in dormancy and spatial variability attributable to climatic differences among populations. Climate change models were used to project future changes in dormancy onset. Key Results A sigmoidal relationship exists between dormancy and humidity under both laboratory and field conditions. Seeds ripened under field conditions became dormant following very short exposure to low humidity (<20 %). Prolonged exposure at higher humidity did not increase dormancy significantly. It is predicted that populations growing in a temperate climate produce 33–55 % fewer dormant seeds than those in a Mediterranean climate; however, dormancy in temperate populations is predicted to increase as a result of climate change. Conclusions Humidity-regulated dormancy onset may explain observed variation in physical dormancy. The model offers a systematic

  16. STEm Minority Graduate Program

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholas, Kaen E

    2012-09-20

    ABSTRACT The state of science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) education in the United States has seen some unfavorable assessments over the past decade. In early February, 2010 the House of Representatives heard testimony on undergraduate and graduate education. The message from the panel, which included experts from academia, STEM-based industries, and the National Science Foundation (NSF) was dire and required an urgent response. The experts along with the committee's chairperson, U. S. Representative Daniel Lipinski (D-IL) cited that the complexity of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics applications and coursework and the methodology utilized to teach these subjects are forcing students out of these disciplines. As the National Academies described in its 2007 report Rising Above the Gathering Storm, successful STEM education is not just an academic pursuit it's a necessity for competing in the knowledge-based economy that the United States had a key role in creating. The potential for action is being made available again as the America COMPETES Act of 2007 is up for reauthorization. Its initial focus was on STEM education at the K-12 levels, but efforts at the undergraduate and graduate levels are needed to retain students to fill the jobs left vacant as baby boomers retire. The Educational Advancement Alliance, Inc. (EAA) has for two decades created programs that have not only addressed the issues of ensuring that students are aptly prepared for college but have focused its efforts over the past decade on increasing the number of students who pursue degrees in STEM disciplines. For the EAA, the introduction of the wonders of science begins at the elementary and middle school level via the Learning Lab, a state-of-the-art mobile science laboratory that visits students in grades 4-6 at the various schools throughout Philadelphia and The Math/Tech Academy which meets on Saturdays for students in grades 5-7. For the past two years the EAA has

  17. An Ecological Model of STEM Education: Operationalizing STEM FOR ALL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basham, James D.; Israel, Maya; Maynard, Kathie

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a framework for how to provide more accessible, relevant, and effective instruction in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education to all students. The STEM for All initiative asserts that all students, including those with disabilities and other diverse learning needs, should be included in meaningful…

  18. Learning for STEM Literacy: STEM Literacy for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zollman, Alan

    2012-01-01

    We are in the STEM generation whose comprehensive purpose is to resolve (1) societal needs for new technological and scientific advances; (2) economic needs for national security; and (3) personal needs to become a fulfilled, productive, knowledgeable citizen. STEM specifically refers to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics, but now…

  19. Aging, metabolism and stem cells: Spotlight on muscle stem cells.

    PubMed

    García-Prat, Laura; Muñoz-Cánoves, Pura

    2017-04-15

    All tissues and organs undergo a progressive regenerative decline as they age. This decline has been mainly attributed to loss of stem cell number and/or function, and both stem cell-intrinsic changes and alterations in local niches and/or systemic environment over time are known to contribute to the stem cell aging phenotype. Advancing in the molecular understanding of the deterioration of stem cell cells with aging is key for targeting the specific causes of tissue regenerative dysfunction at advanced stages of life. Here, we revise exciting recent findings on why stem cells age and the consequences on tissue regeneration, with a special focus on regeneration of skeletal muscle. We also highlight newly identified common molecular pathways affecting diverse types of aging stem cells, such as altered proteostasis, metabolism, or senescence entry, and discuss the questions raised by these findings. Finally, we comment on emerging stem cell rejuvenation strategies, principally emanating from studies on muscle stem cells, which will surely burst tissue regeneration research for future benefit of the increasing human aging population.

  20. Stem Cells, Redox Signaling, and Stem Cell Aging

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Functional stem cell decline has been postulated to result in loss of maintenance of tissue homeostasis leading to organismal decline and diseases of aging. Recent Advances: Recent findings implicate redox metabolism in the control of stem cell pool and stem cell aging. Although reactive oxygen species (ROS) are better known for their damaging properties to DNA, proteins and lipids, recent findings suggest that ROS may also be an integral physiological mediator of cellular signaling in primary cells. Critical Issues: Here we review recent published work on major signaling pathways and transcription factors that are regulated by ROS and mediate ROS regulation of stem cell fate. We will specifically focus on how alterations in this regulation may be implicated in disease and particularly in diseases of stem cell aging. In general, based on the work described here we propose a model in which ROS function as stem cell rheostat. Future Directions: Future work in elucidating how ROS control stem cell cycling, apoptotic machinery, and lineage determination should shed light on mechanisms whereby ROS may control stem cell aging. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 1902–1916. PMID:24383555

  1. STEM TIPS: Supporting the Beginning Secondary STEM Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Griff; Dana, Thomas; LaFramenta, Joanne; Adams, Thomasenia Lott; Arnold, Jason Dean

    2016-01-01

    The STEM TIPS mobile-ready support platform gives institutions or school districts the ability to provide immediate and customized mentoring to teachers through multiple tiers of web-based support and resources. Using the results of a needs assessment, STEM TIPS was created and launched in partnership with 18 Florida school districts. Further…

  2. Advancing the STEM Workforce through STEM-Centric Career Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feller, Rich

    2011-01-01

    Preparing for the future is not what it used to be. Yet, advising students, preparing lessons, and promoting the value of STEM options remains constant. As a result, technical and engineering educators seek clarity about the future of careers, career development, and ways to promote STEM options. Recently, the ITEEA conference allowed the author…

  3. 6. VIEW SHOWING UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW SHOWING UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM GUIDE, WITH LOG ACCESS STRUCTURE, LOOKING WEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Bluebell Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 11.2 miles Northwest of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  4. 5. VIEW SHOWING UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW SHOWING UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM GUIDE, WITH LOG ACCESS STRUCTURE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Bluebell Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 11.2 miles Northwest of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  5. Are STEM High School Students Entering the STEM Pipeline?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franco, M. Suzanne; Patel, Nimisha H.; Lindsey, Jill

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the career skills and interests for students in two STEM schools to national data. Students completed the KUDER skills assessment and career planning online tools. Results were compared across school, grade level, and sex. The results provided evidence that STEM high school students expressed career intents in predominately…

  6. The advantages of hair follicle pluripotent stem cells over embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells for regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Amoh, Yasuyuki; Katsuoka, Kensei; Hoffman, Robert M

    2010-12-01

    Multipotent adult stem cells have many potential therapeutic applications. Our recent findings suggest that hair follicles are a promising source of easily accessible multipotent stem cells. Stem cells in the hair follicle area express the neural stem cell marker nestin, suggesting that hair-follicle stem cells and neural stem cells have common features. Nestin-expressing hair follicle stem cells can form neurons and other cell types, and thus adult hair follicle stem cells could have important therapeutic applications, particularly for neurologic diseases. Transplanted hair follicle stem cells promote the functional recovery of injured peripheral nerve and spinal cord. Recent findings suggest that direct transplantation of hair-follicle stem cells without culture can promote nerve repair, which makes them potentially clinically practical. Human hair follicle stem cells as well as mouse hair follicle stem cells promote nerve repair and can be applied to test the hypothesis that human hair follicle stem cells can provide a readily available source of neurologically therapeutic stem cells. The use of hair follicle stem cells for nerve regeneration overcomes critical problems of embryonic stem cells or induced pluripotent stem cells in that the hair follicle stem cells are multipotent, readily accessible, non-oncogenic, and are not associated with ethical issues.

  7. Stem Cell Research

    SciTech Connect

    Verfaillie, Catherine

    2009-01-23

    We have identified a population of primitive cells in normal human post-natal bone marrow that can, at the single cell level, differentiate in many ways and also proliferate extensively. These cells can differentiate in vitro into most mesodermal cell types (for example, bone cells, and others), as well as cells into cells of the nervous system. The finding that stem cells exist in post-natal tissues with previously unknown proliferation and differentiation potential opens up the possibility of using them to treat a host of degenerative, traumatic or congenital diseases.

  8. Gastrointestinal stem cell up-to-date.

    PubMed

    Pirvulet, V

    2015-01-01

    Cellular and tissue regeneration in the gastrointestinal tract depends on stem cells with properties of self-renewal, clonogenicity, and multipotency. Progress in stem cell research and the identification of potential gastric, intestinal, colonic stem cells new markers and the signaling pathways provide hope for the use of stem cells in regenerative medicine and treatments for disease. This review provides an overview of the different types of stem cells, focusing on tissue-restricted adult stem cells.

  9. Building STEM Opportunities for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Sharon J.; Peters-Burton, Erin; Ford, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In response to a report from the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology, President Obama issued a challenge to the U.S. education system to create more than 1,000 new STEM-focused schools, including 200 high schools. Inclusive STEM-focused high schools--which focus their efforts on females, minorities, and students who are…

  10. Engaging Students in STEM Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, T. J.; Odell, M. R. L.

    2014-01-01

    With the "flattening" of the global economy in the 21st century, the teaching of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) has taken on new importance as economic competition has become truly global. STEM education has evolved into a meta-discipline, an integrated effort that removes the traditional barriers between these…

  11. Excising the Root from STEM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lock, Roger

    2009-01-01

    There are a number of well-intentioned STEM initiatives, some designed to improve the recruitment and retention of science teachers. Sometimes it appears that the initiators are remote from direct contact with the "grass roots" issues that feed the "stem" on which the blossoms of young enthusiastic recruits to the science teaching profession are…

  12. Deconstruction Geography: A STEM Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehlhar, Adam M.; Duffield, Stacy K.

    2015-01-01

    This article will define the engineering design process used to create an integrated curriculum at STEM Center Middle School, and it features the planning, implementation, and revision of the Deconstruction Geography unit. The Science Technology Engineering and Math (STEM) Center opened in the fall of 2009 as a way to relieve overcrowding at the…

  13. Trouble at the stem end

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato tubers have an axial, stem to bud polarity that is apparent at all stages of growth and development. This polarity is most evident in elongate potatoes, but is also found in “round” varieties. These differences between the stem end and other regions of the tuber establish the context for rese...

  14. University Festival Promotes STEM Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quagliata, Andrew B.

    2015-01-01

    STEM education is argued as an essential ingredient in preparing our children for careers of the future. This study describes a university festival that includes the promotion of STEM-related career interests in young people among its goals. A total of 203 participants between the age of 7 and 17 completed both pre-event and post-event surveys. In…

  15. Ethical Reasoning in STEM Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tekerek, Mehmet; Karakaya, Ferhat; Tekerek, Betül

    2016-01-01

    In this study, it was aimed to determine ethical reasoning of lecturers in STEM disciplines in terms of several independent variables (gender, working another institution, age, academic title, academic discipline, service period). This study was designed as a survey research. Lecturers in STEM disciplines in Kahramanmaras Sutçuimam University were…

  16. The Backbone of STEM Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    If we want talented young teachers to develop the capacity to get students excited about high-quality science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) learning, we must develop a network of STEM teachers who can support teachers in their continued learning about their work and enable them to collaborate with others. If we want teachers to…

  17. Stem cell mitochondria during aging.

    PubMed

    Min-Wen, Jason Chua; Jun-Hao, Elwin Tan; Shyh-Chang, Ng

    2016-04-01

    Mitochondria are the central hubs of cellular metabolism, equipped with their own mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) blueprints to direct part of the programming of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism and thus reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. In stem cells, many stem cell factors governing the intricate balance between self-renewal and differentiation have been found to directly regulate mitochondrial processes to control stem cell behaviors during tissue regeneration and aging. Moreover, numerous nutrient-sensitive signaling pathways controlling organismal longevity in an evolutionarily conserved fashion also influence stem cell-mediated tissue homeostasis during aging via regulation of stem cell mitochondria. At the genomic level, it has been demonstrated that heritable mtDNA mutations and variants affect mammalian stem cell homeostasis and influence the risk for human degenerative diseases during aging. Because such a multitude of stem cell factors and signaling pathways ultimately converge on the mitochondria as the primary mechanism to modulate cellular and organismal longevity, it would be most efficacious to develop technologies to therapeutically target and direct mitochondrial repair in stem cells, as a unified strategy to combat aging-related degenerative diseases in the future.

  18. STEM: Science Technology Engineering Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnevale, Anthony P.; Smith, Nicole; Melton, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    The generative economic power and social influence of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) has made the production of a capable science and engineering workforce a priority among business and policy leaders. They are rightly concerned that without a robust STEM workforce, the nation will become less competitive in the global…

  19. Breast Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Velasco-Velázquez, Marco A.; Homsi, Nora; De La Fuente, Marisol; Pestell, Richard G.

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) constitute a subpopulation of tumor cells that express stem cell-associated markers and have a high capacity for tumor generation in vivo. Identification of BCSCs from tumor samples or breast cancer cell lines has been based mainly on CD44+/CD24−/low or ALDH+ phenotypes. BCSCs isolation has allowed the analysis of the molecular mechanisms involved in their origin, self-renewal, differentiation into tumor cells, resistance to radiation therapy and chemotherapy, and invasiveness and metastatic ability. Molecular genetic analysis using knockout animals and inducible transgenics have identified NF-κB, c-Jun, p21CIP1, and Forkhead-like-protein Dach1 in BCSC expansion and fate. Clinical analyses of BCSCs in breast tumors have found a correlation between the proportion of BCSCs and poor prognosis. Therefore, new therapies that specifically target BCSCs are an urgent need. We summarize recent evidence that partially explain the biological characteristics of BCSCs. PMID:22249027

  20. (Re)defining stem cells.

    PubMed

    Shostak, Stanley

    2006-03-01

    Stem-cell nomenclature is in a muddle! So-called stem cells may be self-renewing or emergent, oligopotent (uni- and multipotent) or pluri- and totipotent, cells with perpetual embryonic features or cells that have changed irreversibly. Ambiguity probably seeped into stem cells from common usage, flukes in biology's history beginning with Weismann's divide between germ and soma and Haeckel's biogenic law and ending with contemporary issues over the therapeutic efficacy of adult versus embryonic cells. Confusion centers on tissue dynamics, whether stem cells are properly members of emerging or steady-state populations. Clarity might yet be achieved by codifying differences between cells in emergent populations, including embryonic stem and embryonic germ (ES and EG) cells in tissue culture as opposed to self-renewing (SR) cells in steady-state populations.