Science.gov

Sample records for acacia road birch

  1. VIEW DOWN BIRCH CIRCLE FROM CORNER OF BIRCH CIRCLE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW DOWN BIRCH CIRCLE FROM CORNER OF BIRCH CIRCLE AND ELM DRIVE. VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  2. VIEW OF NORTHWEST BEND IN BIRCH CIRCLE. VIEW FACING WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF NORTHWEST BEND IN BIRCH CIRCLE. VIEW FACING WEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  3. VIEW OF BIRCH CIRCLE, FROM INTERSECTION WITH DATE DRIVE. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF BIRCH CIRCLE, FROM INTERSECTION WITH DATE DRIVE. VIEW FACING WEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  4. VIEW ACROSS BIRCH CIRCLE, SHOWING PLAYGROUND #1 NEAR DATE DRIVE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW ACROSS BIRCH CIRCLE, SHOWING PLAYGROUND #1 NEAR DATE DRIVE. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  5. VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING INTERSECTION OF ACACIA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING INTERSECTION OF ACACIA ROAD WITH BIRCH CIRCLE. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  6. VIEW OF FACILITY 628 ON BIRCH CIRCLE, ON THE CORNER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF FACILITY 628 ON BIRCH CIRCLE, ON THE CORNER OF CEDAR DRIVE AND BIRCH CIRCLE, ON THE NAVY SIDE OF THE NEIGHBORHOOD. VIEW FACING NORTH/NORTHWEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  7. VIEW OF BIRCH CIRCLE, SHOWING SEGMENT WHICH FORMS THE WESTERNMOST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF BIRCH CIRCLE, SHOWING SEGMENT WHICH FORMS THE WESTERNMOST BOUNDARY OF THE NEIGHBORHOOD. VIEW FACING NORTH/NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  8. VIEW OF PLAYGROUND #3 ON SOUTHERN PORTION OF BIRCH CIRCLE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF PLAYGROUND #3 ON SOUTHERN PORTION OF BIRCH CIRCLE, SHOWING BENCH AND DRINKING FOUNTAIN. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  9. VIEW OF BIRCH CIRCLE FROM ITS INTERSECTION WITH CEDAR DRIVE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF BIRCH CIRCLE FROM ITS INTERSECTION WITH CEDAR DRIVE, ON THE MARINE SIDE OF THE NEIGHBORHOOD. RESIDENTIAL TOWER VISIBLE ON FAR RIGHT. VIEW FACING EAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  10. VIEW OF BACKYARD AREA BEHIND FACILITIES 529 (BIRCH CIRCLE) AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF BACKYARD AREA BEHIND FACILITIES 529 (BIRCH CIRCLE) AND 606 (CEDAR DRIVE). VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  11. VIEW OF DATE DRIVE, FROM INTERSECTION WITH BIRCH CIRCLE, WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF DATE DRIVE, FROM INTERSECTION WITH BIRCH CIRCLE, WITH FACILITY 809 ON LEFT, 816 ON RIGHT. NOTE THE MANY DATE PALMS. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  12. VIEW FROM EAST SIDE OF ELM DRIVE/BIRCH CIRCLE BLOCK, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM EAST SIDE OF ELM DRIVE/BIRCH CIRCLE BLOCK, SHOWING SLOPING TOPOGRAPHY. VIEW FACING WEST. - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  13. Winter Birch Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Debra; Rounds, Judy

    2011-01-01

    Trees are great inspiration for artists. Many art teachers find themselves inspired and maybe somewhat obsessed with the natural beauty and elegance of the lofty tree, and how it changes through the seasons. One such tree that grows in several regions and always looks magnificent, regardless of the time of year, is the birch. In this article, the…

  14. 78 FR 15681 - Beaverhead-Deerlodge National Forest, Dillon Ranger District; Montana; Birch, Willow, Lost Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... reconstruction of a total of 13.3 miles on five roads within the project area. Forest Road (FR) 7487 (Farlin Gulch) would have 1.7 miles Reconditioned/Spot Reconstructed. FR 98 (Birch Creek) would have 3.7 miles Reconditioned/Spot Reconstructed. FR 1211 (Gorge Creek) would have 1.1 miles Reconditioned/Spot...

  15. Final report of the safety assessment of Acacia catechu gum, Acacia concinna fruit extract, Acacia dealbata leaf extract, Acacia dealbata leaf wax, Acacia decurrens extract, Acacia farnesiana extract, Acacia farnesiana flower wax, Acacia farnesiana gum, Acacia senegal extract, Acacia senegal gum, and Acacia senegal gum extract.

    PubMed

    2005-01-01

    These ingredients are derived from various species of the acacia plant. Only material derived from Acacia senegal are in current use according to industry data. The concentration at which these ingredients are reported to be used ranges from 9% in mascara to 0.0001% in tonics, dressings, and other hair-grooming aids. Gum arabic is a technical name for Acacia Senegal Gum. Gum arabic is comprised of various sugars and glucuronic acid residues in a long chain of galactosyl units with branched oligosaccharides. Gum arabic is generally recognized as safe as a direct food additive. Little information is available to characterize the extracts of other Acacia plant parts or material from other species. Acacia Concinna Fruit Extract was generally described as containing saponins, alkaloids, and malic acid with parabens and potassium sorbate added as preservatives. Cosmetic ingredient functions have been reported for Acacia Decurrens Extract (astringent; skin-conditioning agent--occlusive) and Acacia Farnesiana Extract (astringent), but not for the other Acacias included in this review. Toxicity data on gum arabic indicates little or no acute, short-term, or subchronic toxicity. Gum arabic is negative in several genotoxicity assays, is not a reproductive or developmental toxin, and is not carcinogenic when given intraperitoneally or orally. Clinical testing indicated some evidence of skin sensitization with gum arabic. The extensive safety test data on gum arabic supports the safety of Acacia Senegal Gum and Acacia Senegal Gum Extract, and it was concluded that these two ingredients are safe as used in cosmetic formulations. It was not possible, however, to relate the data on gum arabic to the crude Acacias and their extracts from species other than Acacia senegal. Therefore, the available data were considered insufficient to support the safety of Acacia Catechu Gum, Acacia Concinna Fruit Extract, Acacia Dealbata Leaf Extract, Acacia Dealbata Leaf Wax, Acacia Decurrens

  16. Immersion freezing of birch pollen washing water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustin, S.; Wex, H.; Niedermeier, D.; Pummer, B.; Grothe, H.; Hartmann, S.; Tomsche, L.; Clauss, T.; Voigtländer, J.; Ignatius, K.; Stratmann, F.

    2013-11-01

    Birch pollen grains are known to be ice nucleating active biological particles. The ice nucleating activity has previously been tracked down to biological macromolecules that can be easily extracted from the pollen grains in water. In the present study, we investigated the immersion freezing behavior of these ice nucleating active (INA) macromolecules. Therefore we measured the frozen fractions of particles generated from birch pollen washing water as a function of temperature at the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS). Two different birch pollen samples were considered, with one originating from Sweden and one from the Czech Republic. For the Czech and Swedish birch pollen samples, freezing was observed to start at -19 and -17 °C, respectively. The fraction of frozen droplets increased for both samples down to -24 °C. Further cooling did not increase the frozen fractions any more. Instead, a plateau formed at frozen fractions below 1. This fact could be used to determine the amount of INA macromolecules in the droplets examined here, which in turn allowed for the determination of nucleation rates for single INA macromolecules. The main differences between the Swedish birch pollen and the Czech birch pollen were obvious in the temperature range between -17 and -24 °C. In this range, a second plateau region could be seen for Swedish birch pollen. As we assume INA macromolecules to be the reason for the ice nucleation, we concluded that birch pollen is able to produce at least two different types of INA macromolecules. We were able to derive parameterizations for the heterogeneous nucleation rates for both INA macromolecule types, using two different methods: a simple exponential fit and the Soccer ball model. With these parameterization methods we were able to describe the ice nucleation behavior of single INA macromolecules from both the Czech and the Swedish birch pollen.

  17. Paper Birch Decline in the Niobrara River Valley, Nebraska: Weather, Microclimate, and Birch Stand Conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stroh, Esther D.; Miller, Joel P.

    2009-01-01

    The Niobrara River Valley in north-central Nebraska supports scattered stands of paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh), a species more typical of boreal forests. These birch stands are considered to be relictual populations that have persisted since the end of the Wisconsin glaciation, when regional flora was more boreal in nature (Wright 1970, Kaul and others, 1988). Dieback of canopy-sized birch has been observed throughout the Niobrara Valley in recent years, although no onset dates are documented. The current dieback event probably started around or after the early 1980's. The study objectives were to understand microclimatic conditions in birch stands relative to nearby weather stations and historic weather conditions, and to assess current health conditions of individual birch trees. Temperature was measured every half-hour from June 2005 through October 2007 in 12 birch stands and individual birch tree health was measured as expressed by percent living canopy in these and 13 additional stands in spring 2006 and 2007. Birch site microclimate was compared to data from a National Weather Service station in Valentine, Nebraska, and to an automated weather station at The Nature Conservancy Niobrara Valley Preserve 24 kilometers north of Johnstown, Nebraska. Historic weather data from the Valentine station and another National Weather Service Station at Ainsworth, Nebraska, were used to reconstruct minimum and maximum temperature at The Nature Conservancy and one microclimate monitoring station using Kalman filtering and smoothing algorithms. Birch stand microclimate differed from local weather stations as well as among stands. Birch health was associated with annual minimum temperature regimes; those stands whose annual daily minimum temperature regimes were most like The Nature Conservancy station contained smaller proportions of living trees. Frequency of freeze/thaw conditions capable of inducing rootlet injury and subsequent crown dieback significantly have

  18. VOC emissions from beech, birch, and oak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildt, J.; Folkers, A.; Koch, N.; Kleist, E.

    2003-04-01

    VOC emissions from beech (Fagus sylvatica), birch (Betula pendula), and oak (Quercus robur) were studied in continuously stirred tank reactors. Oak emitted nearly exclusively isoprene. The dependence of these isoprene emissions on temperature and photosynthetic radiation (PAR) could quite well be described with existing algorithms and the emission factors were fairly constant. Beech and birch emitted mainly short chained oxygenated VOC and monoterpenes. Temperature and PAR dependence of monoterpene emissions were superimposed by a slow frequency modulation. Hence, descriptions of these emissions with existing algorithms were not successful. Moreover, in some cases the emission pattern switched drastically. For birch it was observed that the plant switched from a sesquiterpene emitter to a monoterpene emitter. emission pattern plants. Emissions of ethanol, acetaldehyde, and methanol were not affected by PAR. Here, the emission factors are determined by other factors not included in existing algorithms.

  19. Birch Stands Growth Increase in Western Siberia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Kuzmichev, Valeriy V.; Im, Sergey T.; Ranson, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    Birch (Betula pendula Roth) growth within the Western Siberia forest-steppe was analyzed based on long-term (1897-2006) inventory data (height, diameter at breast height [dbh], and stand volume). Analysis of biometry parameters showed increased growth at the beginning of twenty-first century compared to similar stands (stands age = 40-60 years) at the end of nineteenth century. Mean height, dbh, and stem volume increased from 14 to 20 m, from 16 to 22 cm, and from approx. 63 to approx. 220 cu m/ha, respectively. Significant correlations were found between the stands mean height, dbh, and volume on the one hand, and vegetation period length (r(sub s) = 0.71 to 0.74), atmospheric CO2 concentration (r(sub s) = 0.71 to 0.76), and drought index (Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index, r(sub s) = -0.33 to -0.51) on the other hand. The results obtained have revealed apparent climate-induced impacts (e.g. increase of vegetation period length and birch habitat drying due to drought increase) on the stands growth. Along with this, a high correlation of birch biometric parameters and [CO2] in ambient air indicated an effect of CO2 fertilization. Meanwhile, further drought increase may switch birch stand growth into decline and greater mortality as has already been observed within the Trans-Baikal forest-steppe ecotone.

  20. 21 CFR 184.1330 - Acacia (gum arabic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acacia (gum arabic). 184.1330 Section 184.1330 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1330 Acacia (gum arabic). (a) Acacia (gum arabic) is the dried gummy exudate from stems and branches of trees of various species of the genus Acacia,...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1330 - Acacia (gum arabic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acacia (gum arabic). 184.1330 Section 184.1330... GRAS § 184.1330 Acacia (gum arabic). (a) Acacia (gum arabic) is the dried gummy exudate from stems and branches of trees of various species of the genus Acacia, family Leguminosae. (b) The ingredient meets...

  2. Quantitative DNA Analyses for Airborne Birch Pollen

    PubMed Central

    Müller-Germann, Isabell; Vogel, Bernhard; Vogel, Heike; Pauling, Andreas; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine; Pöschl, Ulrich; Després, Viviane R.

    2015-01-01

    Birch trees produce large amounts of highly allergenic pollen grains that are distributed by wind and impact human health by causing seasonal hay fever, pollen-related asthma, and other allergic diseases. Traditionally, pollen forecasts are based on conventional microscopic counting techniques that are labor-intensive and limited in the reliable identification of species. Molecular biological techniques provide an alternative approach that is less labor-intensive and enables identification of any species by its genetic fingerprint. A particularly promising method is quantitative Real-Time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), which can be used to determine the number of DNA copies and thus pollen grains in air filter samples. During the birch pollination season in 2010 in Mainz, Germany, we collected air filter samples of fine (<3 μm) and coarse air particulate matter. These were analyzed by qPCR using two different primer pairs: one for a single-copy gene (BP8) and the other for a multi-copy gene (ITS). The BP8 gene was better suitable for reliable qPCR results, and the qPCR results obtained for coarse particulate matter were well correlated with the birch pollen forecasting results of the regional air quality model COSMO-ART. As expected due to the size of birch pollen grains (~23 μm), the concentration of DNA in fine particulate matter was lower than in the coarse particle fraction. For the ITS region the factor was 64, while for the single-copy gene BP8 only 51. The possible presence of so-called sub-pollen particles in the fine particle fraction is, however, interesting even in low concentrations. These particles are known to be highly allergenic, reach deep into airways and cause often severe health problems. In conclusion, the results of this exploratory study open up the possibility of predicting and quantifying the pollen concentration in the atmosphere more precisely in the future. PMID:26492534

  3. 21 CFR 184.1330 - Acacia (gum arabic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acacia (gum arabic). 184.1330 Section 184.1330... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1330 Acacia (gum arabic). (a) Acacia (gum arabic) is the dried gummy exudate from stems and branches of trees of various species of the genus...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1330 - Acacia (gum arabic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acacia (gum arabic). 184.1330 Section 184.1330... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1330 Acacia (gum arabic). (a) Acacia (gum arabic) is the dried gummy exudate from stems and branches of trees of various species of the genus...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1330 - Acacia (gum arabic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acacia (gum arabic). 184.1330 Section 184.1330... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1330 Acacia (gum arabic). (a) Acacia (gum arabic) is the dried gummy exudate from stems and branches of trees of various species of the genus...

  6. Molecular Ice Nucleation Activity of Birch Pollen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felgitsch, Laura; Bichler, Magdalena; Häusler, Thomas; Weiss, Victor U.; Marchetti-Deschmann, Martina; Allmaier, Günter; Grothe, Hinrich

    2015-04-01

    Heterogeneous ice nucleation plays a major part in ecosystem and climate. Due to the triggering of ice cloud formation it influences the radiation balance of the earth, but also on the ground it can be found to be important in many processes of nature. So far the process of heterogeneous ice nucleation is not fully understood and many questions remain to be answered. Biological ice nucleation is hereby from great interest, because it shows the highest freezing temperatures. Several bacteria and fungi act as ice nuclei. A famous example is Pseudomonas syringae, a bacterium in commercial use (Snomax®), which increases the freezing from homogeneous freezing temperatures of approx. -40° C (for small volumes as in cloud droplets) to temperatures up to -2° C. In 2001 it was found that birch pollen can trigger ice nucleation (Diehl et al. 2001; Diehl et al. 2002). For a long time it was believed that this is due to macroscopic features of the pollen surface. Recent findings of Bernhard Pummer (2012) show a different picture. The ice nuclei are not attached on the pollen surface directly, but on surface material which can be easily washed off. This shows that not only the surface morphology, but also specific molecules or molecular structures are responsible for the ice nucleation activity of birch pollen. With various analytic methods we work on elucidating the structure of these molecules as well as the mechanism with which they trigger ice nucleation. To solve this we use various instrumental analytic techniques like Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy (NMR), Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-MS), and Gas-phase Electrophoretic Mobility Molecular Analysis (GEMMA). Also standard techniques like various chromatographic separation techniques and solvent extraction are in use. We state here that this feature might be due to the aggregation of small molecules, with agglomerates showing a specific surface structure. Our results

  7. Potential biological activity of acacia honey.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Aliyu; Odunola, Oyeronke A; Ibrahim, Mohammed A; Sallau, Abdullahi B; Erukainure, Ochuko L; Aimola, Idown A; Malami, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in functional foods-based research have increasingly become an area of major interest because it affects human health and activities. Functional foods are classes of foods with health promoting and disease preventing properties in addition to multiple nutritional values and of such type is honey. Acacia honey is a type of honey produced by bees (Apis mellifera) fed on Acacia flowers, hence the name. This review focuses on the potential biological activities of Acacia honey which includes quality, antioxidant, immuno-modulatory, antiproliferative and neurological properties at in vitro and in vivo levels. Based on our review, Acacia honey used from various researches is of high purity, contains some bioactive compounds ranging from vitamins, phenolics, flavonoids and fatty acids. It's highly nutritional with strong antioxidant and immuno-modulatory potentials which may therefore be considered a potential candidate for both cancer prevention and treatment. Neurologically, it may be considered as a viable therapeutic agent in the management of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:26709666

  8. Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Three-Bedroom Duplex Type 4, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, Cedar Drive and Elm Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  9. Phenolic compounds in ectomycorrhizal interaction of lignin modified silver birch

    PubMed Central

    Sutela, Suvi; Niemi, Karoliina; Edesi, Jaanika; Laakso, Tapio; Saranpää, Pekka; Vuosku, Jaana; Mäkelä, Riina; Tiimonen, Heidi; Chiang, Vincent L; Koskimäki, Janne; Suorsa, Marja; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Häggman, Hely

    2009-01-01

    Background The monolignol biosynthetic pathway interconnects with the biosynthesis of other secondary phenolic metabolites, such as cinnamic acid derivatives, flavonoids and condensed tannins. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether genetic modification of the monolignol pathway in silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) would alter the metabolism of these phenolic compounds and how such alterations, if exist, would affect the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis. Results Silver birch lines expressing quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides L.) caffeate/5-hydroxyferulate O-methyltransferase (PtCOMT) under the 35S cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) promoter showed a reduction in the relative expression of a putative silver birch COMT (BpCOMT) gene and, consequently, a decrease in the lignin syringyl/guaiacyl composition ratio. Alterations were also detected in concentrations of certain phenolic compounds. All PtCOMT silver birch lines produced normal ectomycorrhizas with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus (Batsch: Fr.), and the formation of symbiosis enhanced the growth of the transgenic plants. Conclusion The down-regulation of BpCOMT in the 35S-PtCOMT lines caused a reduction in the syringyl/guaiacyl ratio of lignin, but no significant effect was seen in the composition or quantity of phenolic compounds that would have been caused by the expression of PtCOMT under the 35S or UbB1 promoter. Moreover, the detected alterations in the composition of lignin and secondary phenolic compounds had no effect on the interaction between silver birch and P. involutus. PMID:19788757

  10. Allergen immunotherapy for birch pollen-allergic patients: recent advances.

    PubMed

    Moingeon, Philippe; Floch, Véronique Bordas-Le; Airouche, Sabi; Baron-Bodo, Véronique; Nony, Emmanuel; Mascarell, Laurent

    2016-05-01

    As of today, allergen immunotherapy is performed with aqueous natural allergen extracts. Recombinant allergen vaccines are not yet commercially available, although they could provide patients with well-defined and highly consistent drug substances. As Bet v 1 is the major allergen involved in birch pollen allergy, with more than 95% of patients sensitized to this allergen, pharmaceutical-grade recombinant Bet v 1-based vaccines were produced and clinically tested. Herein, we compare the clinical results and modes of action of treatments based on either a birch pollen extract or recombinant Bet v 1 expressed as hypoallergenic or natural-like molecules. We also discuss the future of allergen immunotherapy with improved drugs intended for birch pollen-allergic patients suffering from rhinoconjunctivitis. PMID:27140409

  11. Description of Nemophora acaciae sp. nov. (Lepidoptera: Adelidae) from Kenya.

    PubMed

    Agassiz, David J L; Kozlov, Mikhail V

    2015-01-01

    Nemophora acaciae sp. nov. is described from Kenya on the basis of a large series bred from flowers of Acacia seyal and A. lahai. The new species differs from all Afrotropical Nemophora species by its dark brown forewing fascia with white medial stripe near the costal margin of forewing. The key to the Afrotropical Nemophora species is provided. PMID:26701526

  12. Extracting Features of Acacia Plantation and Natural Forest in the Mountainous Region of Sarawak, Malaysia by ALOS/AVNIR2 Image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadaei, H.; Ishii, R.; Suzuki, R.; Kendawang, J.

    2013-12-01

    The remote sensing technique has provided useful information to detect spatio-temporal changes in the land cover of tropical forests. Land cover characteristics derived from satellite image can be applied to the estimation of ecosystem services and biodiversity over an extensive area, and such land cover information would provide valuable information to global and local people to understand the significance of the tropical ecosystem. This study was conducted in the Acacia plantations and natural forest situated in the mountainous region which has different ecological characteristic from that in flat and low land area in Sarawak, Malaysia. The main objective of this study is to compare extract the characteristic of them by analyzing the ALOS/AVNIR2 images and ground truthing obtained by the forest survey. We implemented a ground-based forest survey at Aacia plantations and natural forest in the mountainous region in Sarawak, Malaysia in June, 2013 and acquired the forest structure data (tree height, diameter at breast height (DBH), crown diameter, tree spacing) and spectral reflectance data at the three sample plots of Acacia plantation that has 10 x 10m area. As for the spectral reflectance data, we measured the spectral reflectance of the end members of forest such as leaves, stems, road surface, and forest floor by the spectro-radiometer. Such forest structure and spectral data were incorporated into the image analysis by support vector machine (SVM) and object-base/texture analysis. Consequently, land covers on the AVNIR2 image were classified into three forest types (natural forest, oil palm plantation and acacia mangium plantation), then the characteristic of each category was examined. We additionally used the tree age data of acacia plantation for the classification. A unique feature was found in vegetation spectral reflectance of Acacia plantations. The curve of the spectral reflectance shows two peaks around 0.3μm and 0.6 - 0.8μm that can be assumed to

  13. Early growth performance of full-sib Acacia auriculiformis x Acacia mangium F1 hybrid progenies at three different sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah Aimin, Atirah Abdullah; Abdullah, Mohd Zaki; Muhammad, Norwati; Ratnam, Wickneswari

    2014-09-01

    Field trials of 14 full sib Acacia auriculiformis x Acacia mangium F1 hybrid progenies were evaluated for growth performance at three sites (Bintulu, Mentakab and Segamat). Results indicated that there were significant differences (p> 0.05) for diameter breast height (Dbh) and total height (Ht) among the progenies and different sites. Superior progenies have been identified for future tree selection and improvement.

  14. Conspiracy Drama and the John Birch Society: A Movement Reconsidered.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollihan, Thomas A.

    This paper examines the conspiracy drama which characterizes the rhetoric generated by the John Birch Society. According to the Society, "innocent" America is under direct threat from some organized external and internal force that is seeking its destruction. Members are called to react in a carefully outlined manner: (1) piece together the…

  15. Two invasive acacia species secure generalist pollinators in invaded communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montesinos, Daniel; Castro, Sílvia; Rodríguez-Echeverría, Susana

    2016-07-01

    Exotic entomophilous plants need to establish effective pollinator interactions in order to succeed after being introduced into a new community, particularly if they are obligatory outbreeders. By establishing these novel interactions in the new non-native range, invasive plants are hypothesised to drive changes in the composition and functioning of the native pollinator community, with potential impacts on the pollination biology of native co-flowering plants. We used two different sites in Portugal, each invaded by a different acacia species, to assess whether two native Australian trees, Acacia dealbata and Acacia longifolia, were able to recruit pollinators in Portugal, and whether the pollinator community visiting acacia trees differed from the pollinator communities interacting with native co-flowering plants. Our results indicate that in the invaded range of Portugal both acacia species were able to establish novel mutualistic interactions, predominantly with generalist pollinators. For each of the two studied sites, only two other co-occurring native plant species presented partially overlapping phenologies. We observed significant differences in pollinator richness and visitation rates among native and non-native plant species, although the study of β diversity indicated that only the native plant Lithodora fruticosa presented a differentiated set of pollinator species. Acacias experienced a large number of visits by numerous pollinator species, but massive acacia flowering resulted in flower visitation rates frequently lower than those of the native co-flowering species. We conclude that the establishment of mutualisms in Portugal likely contributes to the effective and profuse production of acacia seeds in Portugal. Despite the massive flowering of A. dealbata and A. longifolia, native plant species attained similar or higher visitation rates than acacias.

  16. Does the whistling thorn acacia (Acacia drepanolobium) use auditory aposematism to deter mammalian herbivores?

    PubMed

    Lev-Yadun, Simcha

    2016-08-01

    Auditory signaling including aposematism characterizes many terrestrial animals. Auditory aposematism by which certain animals use auditory aposematic signals to fend off enemies is well known for instance in rattlesnakes. Auditory signaling by plants toward animals and other plants is an emerging area of plant biology that still suffers from limited amount of solid data. Here I propose that auditory aposematism operates in the African whistling thorn acacia (Acacia drepanolobium = Vachellia drepanolobium). In this tree, the large and hollow thorn bases whistle when wind blows. This type of aposematism compliments the well-known conspicuous thorn and mutualistic ant based aposematism during day and may operate during night when the conspicuous thorns are invisible. PMID:27359246

  17. Mesorhizobium acaciae sp. nov., isolated from root nodules of Acacia melanoxylon R. Br.

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Ya Jie; Lu, Jun Kun; Chen, Ying Long; Wang, Sheng Kun; Sui, Xin Hua

    2015-01-01

    Three novel strains, RITF741T, RITF1220 and RITF909, isolated from root nodules of Acacia melanoxylon in Guangdong Province of China, have been previously identified as members of the genus Mesorhizobium, displaying the same 16S rRNA gene RFLP pattern. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the three strains belong to the genus Mesorhizobium and had highest similarity (100.0 %) to Mesorhizobium plurifarium LMG 11892T. Phylogenetic analyses of housekeeping genes recA, atpD and glnII revealed that these strains represented a distinct evolutionary lineage within the genus Mesorhizobium. Strain RITF741T showed >73 % DNA–DNA relatedness with strains RITF1220 and RITF909, but < 60 % DNA–DNA relatedness with the closest type strains of recognized species of the genus Mesorhizobium. They differed from each other and from their closest phylogenetic neighbours by presence/absence of several fatty acids, or by large differences in the relative amounts of particular fatty acids. While showing distinctive features, they were generally able to utilize a wide range of substrates as sole carbon sources based on API 50CH and API 20NE tests. The three strains were able to form nodules with the original host Acacia melanoxylon and other woody legumes such as Acacia aneura, Albizia falcataria and Leucaena leucocephala. In conclusion, these strains represent a novel species belonging to the genus Mesorhizobium based on the data obtained in the present and previous studies, for which the name Mesorhizobium acaciae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is RITF741T ( = CCBAU 101090T = JCM 30534T), the DNA G+C content of which is 64.1 mol% (Tm). PMID:26296667

  18. Mesorhizobium acaciae sp. nov., isolated from root nodules of Acacia melanoxylon R. Br.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ya Jie; Kun, Jun; Chen, Ying Long; Wang, Sheng Kun; Sui, Xin Hua; Kang, Li Hua

    2015-10-01

    Three novel strains, RITF741T, RITF1220 and RITF909, isolated from root nodules of Acacia melanoxylon in Guangdong Province of China, have been previously identified as members of the genus Mesorhizobium, displaying the same 16S rRNA gene RFLP pattern. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the three strains belong to the genus Mesorhizobium and had highest similarity (100.0 %) to Mesorhizobium plurifarium LMG 11892T. Phylogenetic analyses of housekeeping genes recA, atpD and glnII revealed that these strains represented a distinct evolutionary lineage within the genus Mesorhizobium. Strain RITF741T showed >73 % DNA–DNA relatedness with strains RITF1220 and RITF909, but < 60 % DNA–DNA relatedness with the closest type strains of recognized species of the genus Mesorhizobium. They differed from each other and from their closest phylogenetic neighbours by presence/absence of several fatty acids, or by large differences in the relative amounts of particular fatty acids. While showing distinctive features, they were generally able to utilize a wide range of substrates as sole carbon sources based on API 50CH and API 20NE tests. The three strains were able to form nodules with the original host Acacia melanoxylon and other woody legumes such as Acacia aneura, Albizia falcataria and Leucaena leucocephala. In conclusion, these strains represent a novel species belonging to the genus Mesorhizobium based on the data obtained in the present and previous studies, for which the name Mesorhizobium acaciae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is RITF741T ( = CCBAU 101090T = JCM 30534T), the DNA G+C content of which is 64.1 mol% (T m). PMID:26296667

  19. Salt- and alkaline-tolerance are linked in Acacia.

    PubMed

    Bui, Elisabeth N; Thornhill, Andrew; Miller, Joseph T

    2014-07-01

    Saline or alkaline soils present a strong stress on plants that together may be even more deleterious than alone. Australia's soils are old and contain large, sometimes overlapping, areas of high salt and alkalinity. Acacia and other Australian plant lineages have evolved in this stressful soil environment and present an opportunity to understand the evolution of salt and alkalinity tolerance. We investigate this evolution by predicting the average soil salinity and pH for 503 Acacia species and mapping the response onto a maximum-likelihood phylogeny. We find that salinity and alkalinity tolerance have evolved repeatedly and often together over 25 Ma of the Acacia radiation in Australia. Geographically restricted species are often tolerant of extreme conditions. Distantly related species are sympatric in the most extreme soil environments, suggesting lack of niche saturation. There is strong evidence that many Acacia have distributions affected by salinity and alkalinity and that preference is lineage specific. PMID:25079493

  20. Transcriptomic Analysis of Phenotypic Changes in Birch (Betula platyphylla) Autotetraploids

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Huai-Zhi; Liu, Zi-Jia; Lin, Lin; Li, Hui-Yu; Jiang, Jing; Liu, Gui-Feng

    2012-01-01

    Plant breeders have focused much attention on polyploid trees because of their importance to forestry. To evaluate the impact of intraspecies genome duplication on the transcriptome, a series of Betula platyphylla autotetraploids and diploids were generated from four full-sib families. The phenotypes and transcriptomes of these autotetraploid individuals were compared with those of diploid trees. Autotetraploids were generally superior in breast-height diameter, volume, leaf, fruit and stoma and were generally inferior in height compared to diploids. Transcriptome data revealed numerous changes in gene expression attributable to autotetraploidization, which resulted in the upregulation of 7052 unigenes and the downregulation of 3658 unigenes. Pathway analysis revealed that the biosynthesis and signal transduction of indoleacetate (IAA) and ethylene were altered after genome duplication, which may have contributed to phenotypic changes. These results shed light on variations in birch autotetraploidization and help identify important genes for the genetic engineering of birch trees. PMID:23202935

  1. 21 CFR 172.780 - Acacia (gum arabic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may obtain copies from the... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acacia (gum arabic). 172.780 Section 172.780 Food... Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.780 Acacia (gum arabic). The food additive may be safely used...

  2. 21 CFR 172.780 - Acacia (gum arabic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may obtain copies from the... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acacia (gum arabic). 172.780 Section 172.780 Food... Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.780 Acacia (gum arabic). The food additive may be safely used...

  3. 21 CFR 172.780 - Acacia (gum arabic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may obtain copies from the... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acacia (gum arabic). 172.780 Section 172.780 Food... Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.780 Acacia (gum arabic). The food additive may be safely used...

  4. 21 CFR 172.780 - Acacia (gum arabic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may obtain copies from the... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acacia (gum arabic). 172.780 Section 172.780 Food... Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.780 Acacia (gum arabic). The food additive may be safely used...

  5. Budgeting Ecosystem - Atmosphere Carbon Exchange in a Subarctic Birch Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heliasz, M.; Johansson, T.; Mastepanov, M.; Callaghan, T. V.; Christensen, T. R.

    2008-12-01

    The overarching objective of this project is to work towards a better understanding of ecosystem-atmosphere interactions in a composite subarctic landscape with a focus on measurements and modeling of carbon cycling in birch forest environments. In this presentation we document the interactions between the birch forest (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii) ecosystem and the atmosphere both in terms of greenhouse gas and energy exchanges. The study provides new information on climatic controls of interannual variability in annual carbon and energy exchange. This information is complimented with studies of the effects of insect outbreak disturbance on these annual budgets. Carbon flux data produced since 2003 shows that during the first year of measurements the forest acted as a large net sink of atmospheric carbon. However, during the growing season of 2004 the area was severely affected by an extreme outbreak of the autumnal moth (Epirrita autumnata) resulting in total defoliation of the forest over large areas. This caused the same forest stand to act as a net source of CO2 even during the peak growing season. During the summer of 2008, as part of a special campaign under the International Polar Year, the larger scale variability of the subarctic birch forest carbon fluxes was documented. A mobile eddy covariance tower provided seasonal measurements from six different locations in the catchment of lake Tornetrask which can be compared with longer term, inter-annual data from two permanent flux towers operating continuously in the vicinity of the village of Abisko. The sites were chosen to document possible differences in CO2 fluxes depending on the time since last defoliation which was in 2004 in some areas. Also sites were chosen with different types of birch forest (monocormic, polycormic) and at greatly varying distances to the oceanic influence from the Norwegian coast. This poster will present and discuss preliminary CO2 flux data from all these different

  6. Spontaneous formation of small sized albumin/acacia coacervate particles.

    PubMed

    Burgess, D J; Singh, O N

    1993-07-01

    Microgel coacervate particles form spontaneously on mixing aqueous solutions of oppositely charged albumin and acacia, under specific conditions of pH, ionic strength, and polyion concentration, close to but not at the optimum conditions for maximum coacervate yield. The mean particle diameter of these coacervate particles is approximately 6 microns when suspended in aqueous media, as determined by HIAC/Royco particle analysis. The geometric standard deviation of the particles falls in the range 1.2-1.9 microns. The particle size was not dependent on the method of emulsification of the coacervate in the equilibrium phase, or on the stirring speed applied during the manufacturing process. The microgel particles were stable on storage, for periods up to forty-six days, without the addition of a chemical cross-linking agent, or the application of heat. Stability was measured with respect to the change in particle size of samples stored at different temperatures. The non-cross-linked microcapsules were also shown to be stable on pH change, to pH values outside the coacervation pH range. At the optimum conditions for maximum coacervate yield the albumin/acacia system formed a very viscous coacervate phase, which was unsuitable for microcapsule preparation. The rheological properties of albumin/acacia and gelatin/acacia complex coacervates optimized for maximum coacervate yield were compared. The albumin/acacia coacervate was shown to be three orders of magnitude more viscous than the gelatin/acacia system. PMID:8105049

  7. Wound-induced Oxidative Responses in Mountain Birch Leaves

    PubMed Central

    RUUHOLA, TEIJA; YANG, SHIYONG

    2006-01-01

    • Aims The aim of the study was to examine oxidative responses in subarctic mountain birch, Betula pubescens subsp. czerepanovii, induced by herbivory and manual wounding. • Methods Herbivory-induced changes in polyphenoloxidase, peroxidase and catalase activities in birch leaves were determined. A cytochemical dye, 3,3-diaminobenzidine, was used for the in situ and in vivo detection of H2O2 accumulation as a response to herbivory and wounding. To localize peroxidase activity in leaves, 10 mm H2O2 was applied to the dye reagent. • Key Results Feeding by autumnal moth, Epirrita autumnata, larvae caused an induction in polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase activities within 24 h, and a concomitant decrease in the activity of antioxidative catalases in wounded leaves. Wounding also induced H2O2 accumulation, which may have both direct and indirect defensive properties against herbivores. Wound sites and guard cells showed a high level of peroxidase activity, which may efficiently restrict invasion by micro-organisms. • Conclusion Birch oxidases together with their substrates may form an important front line in defence against herbivores and pathogens. PMID:16254021

  8. Detection of prognostic factors for oral allergy syndrome in patients with birch pollen hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Asero, R; Massironi, F; Velati, C

    1996-02-01

    To determine why a significant proportion of birch pollen-sensitive patients do not have the oral allergy syndrome (OAS), possible predictive in vivo or in vitro tests for OAS were sought in a large retrospective and prospective follow-up study performed in 283 patients with clinical evidence of birch pollen hypersensitivity. OAS was associated with more severe respiratory symptoms and with higher birch-specific and total IgE levels; moreover, its onset was clearly related to duration of birch pollinosis. The prospective part of this study, performed in 63 patients without OAS, confirmed these findings and highlighted the very high negative predictive value of both skin prick tests with fresh foods and RAST with food allergens. This work suggests that about 15% of patients with birch pollen hypersensitivity are not prone to OAS and that their anti-birch IgE might be directed against determinants that do not crossreact with food allergens. PMID:8621846

  9. Host Plant Use by Competing Acacia-Ants: Mutualists Monopolize While Parasites Share Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Kautz, Stefanie; Ballhorn, Daniel J.; Kroiss, Johannes; Pauls, Steffen U.; Moreau, Corrie S.; Eilmus, Sascha; Strohm, Erhard; Heil, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Protective ant-plant mutualisms that are exploited by non-defending parasitic ants represent prominent model systems for ecology and evolutionary biology. The mutualist Pseudomyrmex ferrugineus is an obligate plant-ant and fully depends on acacias for nesting space and food. The parasite Pseudomyrmex gracilis facultatively nests on acacias and uses host-derived food rewards but also external food sources. Integrative analyses of genetic microsatellite data, cuticular hydrocarbons and behavioral assays showed that an individual acacia might be inhabited by the workers of several P. gracilis queens, whereas one P. ferrugineus colony monopolizes one or more host trees. Despite these differences in social organization, neither of the species exhibited aggressive behavior among conspecific workers sharing a tree regardless of their relatedness. This lack of aggression corresponds to the high similarity of cuticular hydrocarbon profiles among ants living on the same tree. Host sharing by unrelated colonies, or the presence of several queens in a single colony are discussed as strategies by which parasite colonies could achieve the observed social organization. We argue that in ecological terms, the non-aggressive behavior of non-sibling P. gracilis workers — regardless of the route to achieve this social structure — enables this species to efficiently occupy and exploit a host plant. By contrast, single large and long-lived colonies of the mutualist P. ferrugineus monopolize individual host plants and defend them aggressively against invaders from other trees. Our findings highlight the necessity for using several methods in combination to fully understand how differing life history strategies affect social organization in ants. PMID:22662191

  10. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers from the acacia-ant Crematogaster mimosae.

    PubMed

    Rubin, B E; Makarewich, C A; Talaba, A L; Stenzler, L; Bogdanowicz, S M; Lovette, I J

    2009-07-01

    We describe 10 microsatellite loci developed from Crematogaster mimosae, an ant species that nests mutualistically in Acacia drepanolobium trees in east Africa. Polymorphism ranged from 4 to 16 alleles per locus (mean = 7.3). Observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.485 to 0.813 (mean 0.626), and from 0.502 to 0.894 (mean 0.674), respectively. These markers will foster studies of the population structure, colony structure, and reproductive strategies of these ants. PMID:21564879

  11. Organic matter characteristics in boreal forest soils under stands of silver birch, Norway spruce, and Norway spruce with a mixture of silver birch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolander, A.; Kitunen, V.

    2012-04-01

    The aim was to study how tree species and a tree species mixture affect microbial C and N transformations and two major plant secondary compound groups, terpenes and phenolic compounds in soil. The study site was a tree-species experiment in middle-eastern part of Finland containing plots of 43-year-old silver birch, Norway spruce and Norway spruce with a mixture of silver birch (22 and 37 % birch of the total stem number). Soil was podzol and humus type mor. Samples were taken from the organic layer. C and N in the microbial biomass, rates of C mineralization (CO2 evolution), net N mineralization and nitrification, and concentrations of total water-soluble phenolic compounds, condensed tannins and different kind of terpenes were measured. Amounts of C and N in the microbial biomass and the rates of C mineralization and net N mineralization were all lower under spruce than birch, and particularly net N mineralization was stimulated by birch mixture. Concentrations of total water-soluble phenolic compounds were on a similar level, irrespective of tree species. However, there were less low-molecular-weight phenolics and more high-molecular-weight phenolics under spruce than birch. Concentrations of condensed tannins and both sesqui- and diterpenes were all higher under spruce than birch but the concentrations of triterpenes were similar in all soils. The difference between tree species was greatest with monoterpenes which were measured from both organic layer and soil atmosphere: high concentrations under spruce and negligible under birch. Birch mixture tended to decrease the concentrations of condensed tannins and mono-, sesqui- and diterpenes.

  12. 21 CFR 872.3400 - Karaya and sodium borate with or without acacia denture adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Karaya and sodium borate with or without acacia... and sodium borate with or without acacia denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A karaya and sodium borate with or without acacia denture adhesive is a device composed of karaya and sodium borate with...

  13. 21 CFR 872.3400 - Karaya and sodium borate with or without acacia denture adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Karaya and sodium borate with or without acacia... and sodium borate with or without acacia denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A karaya and sodium borate with or without acacia denture adhesive is a device composed of karaya and sodium borate with...

  14. 21 CFR 872.3400 - Karaya and sodium borate with or without acacia denture adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Karaya and sodium borate with or without acacia... and sodium borate with or without acacia denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A karaya and sodium borate with or without acacia denture adhesive is a device composed of karaya and sodium borate with...

  15. Characterisation and molecular association of Nigerian and Sudanese Acacia gum exudates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chemical and physicochemical characteristics of gum exudate samples harvested from mature trees of Acacia senegal at two specific locations in Nigeria have been investigated together with gum samples harvested from Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal originating from Sudan. The monosaccharide sugar ...

  16. 75 FR 27334 - Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Baseline Filing May 7, 2010. Take notice that on May 5, 2010, Acacia Natural Gas Corporation (Acacia) submitted a correction to its April... transportation services provided under section 311(a)(2) of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 (NGPA). Any...

  17. 75 FR 24940 - Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Baseline Filing April 29, 2010. Take notice that on April 27, 2010, Acacia Natural Gas Corporation (Acacia) submitted its baseline... under section 311(a)(2) of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 (NGPA). Any person desiring to...

  18. 77 FR 63311 - Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval Take notice that on October 9, 2012, Acacia Natural Gas Corporation (Acacia) filed a Petition for...

  19. 75 FR 28599 - Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Baseline Filing May 13, 2010. Take notice that on May 11, 2010, Acacia Natural Gas Corporation (Acacia) submitted a corrected baseline... under section 311(a)(2) of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 (``NGPA''). Any person desiring...

  20. Stimulated production of steroids in Inonotus obliquus by host factors from birch.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lian-Xia; Lu, Zhen-Ming; Geng, Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Mei; Xu, Guo-Hua; Shi, Jin-Song; Xu, Zheng-Hong

    2014-12-01

    Steroids was considered as one of the bioactive components in Inonotus obliquus, while this kind of secondary metabolites are less accumulated in cultured mycelia. In this study, effect of extracts from bark and core of host-related species, birch (Betula platyphylla Suk.), on steroid production of I. obliquus in submerged culture were evaluated. The results showed that all dosages (0.01 and 0.1 g/L) of aqueous extracts and methanol extracts from birch bark and birch core possessed significantly stimulatory effect on steroid production of I. obliquus (P < 0.05). Among the eight extracts, the aqueous extract (0.01 g/L) from birch bark gave the highest steroid production (225.5 ± 8.7 mg/L), which is 97.3% higher than that of the control group. The aqueous extract (0.01 and 0.1 g/L) from birch bark could simultaneously stimulated mycelial growth and steroid content, while the methanol extract from birch bark only elevated the steroid content. High performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that productions of betulin, ergosterol, cholesterol, lanosterol, stigmasterol, and sitosterol in I. obliquus simultaneously increased in the presence of aqueous extract and methanol extract from birch bark. The results presented herein indicate that extracts from birch bark could act as an inducer for steroid biosynthesis of I. obliquus. PMID:25027706

  1. 77 FR 6556 - Birch Power Company; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Birch Power Company; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments, Motions To Intervene, and Competing Applications On December 1, 2011, Birch Power Company filed an...

  2. Bioconversion of Birch Wood Hemicellulose Hydrolyzate to Xylitol.

    PubMed

    Miura, Masahiro; Shimotori, Yasutaka; Nakatani, Hisayuki; Harada, Akira; Aoyama, Masakazu

    2015-06-01

    A sugar solution containing 42.9 g l(-1) of xylose was prepared from the wood of Japanese white birch (Betula platyphylla var. japonica) by hydrolysis with 3 % sulfuric acid with a liquor-to-solid ratio of 4 (g g(-1)) at 120 °C for 1 h. During the acid hydrolysis, undesirable by-products were generated, such as acetic acid, furfural, and low-molecular-weight phenols, which inhibit bioconversion of xylose to xylitol. These inhibitors were successfully removed from the hydrolyzate by sorption onto a steam-activated charcoal followed by treatment with an anion exchange resin. Bioconversion of the detoxified hydrolyzate to xylitol by the yeast Candida magnoliae was investigated under the microaerobic conditions. The oxygen transfer rate (OTR) varied from 9.6 to 22.3 mmol O2 l(-1) h(-1). The best fermentative performance of C. magnoliae in the birch wood hydrolyzate (xylitol yield 0.74 g xylitol g xylose(-1); volumetric productivity 1.0 g l(-1) h(-1)) was obtained at the OTR of 12.6 mmol O2 l(-1) h(-1). PMID:25894947

  3. Fungal Assemblages in Different Habitats in an Erman's Birch Forest.

    PubMed

    Yang, Teng; Sun, Huaibo; Shen, Congcong; Chu, Haiyan

    2016-01-01

    Recent meta-analyses of fungal diversity using deeply sequenced marker genes suggest that most fungal taxa are locally distributed. However, little is known about the extent of overlap and niche partitions in total fungal communities or functional guilds within distinct habitats on a local forest scale. Here, we compared fungal communities in endosphere (leaf interior), phyllosphere (leaf interior and associated surface area) and soil samples from an Erman's birch forest in Changbai Mountain, China. Community structures were significantly differentiated in terms of habitat, with soil having the highest fungal richness and phylogenetic diversity. Endophytic and phyllosphere fungi of Betula ermanii were more phylogenetically clustered compared with the corresponding soil fungi, indicating the ability of that host plants to filter and select their fungal partners. Furthermore, the majority of soil fungal taxa were soil specialists, while the dominant endosphere and phyllosphere taxa were aboveground generalists, with soil and plant foliage only sharing <8.2% fungal taxa. Most of the fungal taxa could be assigned to different functional guilds; however, the assigned guilds showed significant habitat specificity with variation in relative abundance. Collectively, the fungal assemblages in this Erman's birch forest were strictly niche specialized and constrained by weak migration among habitats. The findings suggest that phylogenetic relatedness and functional guilds' assignment can effectively interpret the certain ecological processes. PMID:27625646

  4. Moth herbivory enhances resource turnover in subarctic mountain birch forests?

    PubMed

    Kaukonen, Maarit; Ruotsalainen, Anna Liisa; Wäli, Piippa R; Männistö, Minna K; Setälä, Heikki; Saravesi, Karita; Huusko, Karoliina; Markkola, Annamari

    2013-02-01

    Massive moth outbreaks cause large-scale damage in subarctic mountain birch forests with a concomitant decrease in carbon flux to mycorrhizal fungi and an increased deposition of dissolved carbon and nutrients as moth frass into soil. We investigated impacts of moth herbivory along three replicated gradients with three levels of moth herbivory (undamaged, once damaged, repeatedly damaged) on soil nutrient levels and biological parameters. We found an increase in soil nutrients and in the biomass of enchytraeid worms, which are key faunal decomposers. Fungi bacteria ratio and C:N ratio decreased in humus with increasing severity of herbivory. Our findings suggest enhanced resource turnover in mountain birch forests due to massive moth herbivory. This may provide a shortcut for carbon and nutrient input to subarctic soils, which largely bypasses the main routes of carbon from plants to soil via mycorrhizal and litter-decomposing fungi. Moreover, a temporal shift occurs in carbon allocation to soil, providing decomposers an opportunity to use an early-season peak in resource availability. Our results suggest a hitherto unappreciated role of massive insect herbivore attacks on resource dynamics in subarctic ecosystems. PMID:23691644

  5. [A relationship between birch pollen counts and meteorological factors in Sapporo].

    PubMed

    Shirasaki, Hideaki; Yamamoto, Tetsuo; Saikawa, Etsuko; Seki, Nobuhiko; Asakura, Kohji; Kataura, Akikatsu; Himi, Tetsuo

    2014-05-01

    Occurrence of airborne pollen in Sapporo has been studied for 19 years during the period between 1995 and 2013. There are wide year-to-year variations in the quantities of birch pollens. A simple linear regression with the least squares method was used for studying correlations between the annual quantities of birch pollens and the meteorological factors. A significant positive correlation was found between the hours of sunlight in June of the preceding year and the annual birch pollen concentrations with the correlation coefficient, R = 0.667. Also, we found the significant positive correlation between the hours of sunlight in March and the annual birch pollen concentrations with the correlation coefficient, R = 0.684. These results suggest that the atmospheric birch pollen counts can be predicted from meteorological factors. PMID:24956742

  6. Palaeoclimatic potential of Acacia tortilis in the Eastern Sahara.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagen, Mary; Young, Giles; Andersen, Gidske; Krzywinski, Knut; Goslar, Tomasz

    2014-05-01

    The challenge of deriving useful dendroclimatic information from non-annual ring forming trees cannot be overstated. Here we consider the contribution to be made by combining radioacarbon dating with stable isotope dendroclimatology in the analysis of Sudanese Acacia. Stable carbon isotopic analyses are presented from 14C-dated living Sudanese Acacia tortilis in xeric northern Africa. Stable carbon isotopic ratios were assigned calendar dates based on high-density 14C results. Intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE) changes are calculated over the industrial period.

  7. Fluoride metabolism in Acacia georginae Gidyea

    PubMed Central

    Peters, R. A.; Murray, L. R.; Shorthouse, M.

    1965-01-01

    1. The metabolism of fluoride in seedlings and small plants of Acacia georginae has been studied with the idea of finding the conditions under which the plant makes fluoroacetate in the laboratory. 2. Individual seedlings vary in the extent to which they take up fluoride and convert it into a form other than inorganic which is here called `organic' fluoride, F(org.). The differences between the toxicity of A. georginae Gidyea trees may therefore be genetic in origin. 3. The uptake of fluoride from solutions 0·525–1·05mm (10–20p.p.m.) was not large. In 1–4 days it reached 8 p.p.m. in the aerial parts and 16 p.p.m. in the roots. Unlike the distribution of the halogen in grass, total fluoride was greater than inorganic fluoride. It was almost a rule that more `organic' fluoride was present in the roots than in the aerial parts. 4. With higher concentrations of fluoride 10·5–15·75mm (200–300p.p.m.) much larger amounts of fluoride were taken up, especially by the roots, and much more apparent organic fluoride was formed. 5. pH had a large influence upon the intake, this being lowest at an initial pH8·4 and highest at pH4·0. The pH outside this range was not investigated. Some observations have been made with a view to clarifying the biochemical paths for the synthesis of the C–F bond. 6. There is no evidence that chloride is an intermediary in synthesis. 7. Succinate is not accumulated in fluoride-stressed plants, suggesting that succinate dehydrogenase is not inhibited. 8. Enolase does not appear to be inhibited in vivo. PMID:14342508

  8. A method to derive vegetation distribution maps for pollen dispersion models using birch as an example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauling, A.; Rotach, M. W.; Gehrig, R.; Clot, B.

    2012-09-01

    Detailed knowledge of the spatial distribution of sources is a crucial prerequisite for the application of pollen dispersion models such as, for example, COSMO-ART (COnsortium for Small-scale MOdeling - Aerosols and Reactive Trace gases). However, this input is not available for the allergy-relevant species such as hazel, alder, birch, grass or ragweed. Hence, plant distribution datasets need to be derived from suitable sources. We present an approach to produce such a dataset from existing sources using birch as an example. The basic idea is to construct a birch dataset using a region with good data coverage for calibration and then to extrapolate this relationship to a larger area by using land use classes. We use the Swiss forest inventory (1 km resolution) in combination with a 74-category land use dataset that covers the non-forested areas of Switzerland as well (resolution 100 m). Then we assign birch density categories of 0%, 0.1%, 0.5% and 2.5% to each of the 74 land use categories. The combination of this derived dataset with the birch distribution from the forest inventory yields a fairly accurate birch distribution encompassing entire Switzerland. The land use categories of the Global Land Cover 2000 (GLC2000; Global Land Cover 2000 database, 2003, European Commission, Joint Research Centre; resolution 1 km) are then calibrated with the Swiss dataset in order to derive a Europe-wide birch distribution dataset and aggregated onto the 7 km COSMO-ART grid. This procedure thus assumes that a certain GLC2000 land use category has the same birch density wherever it may occur in Europe. In order to reduce the strict application of this crucial assumption, the birch density distribution as obtained from the previous steps is weighted using the mean Seasonal Pollen Index (SPI; yearly sums of daily pollen concentrations). For future improvement, region-specific birch densities for the GLC2000 categories could be integrated into the mapping procedure.

  9. Road Rage

    PubMed Central

    Sansone, Lori A.

    2010-01-01

    Up to one-third of community participants report being perpetrators of road rage, indicating that various forms of road rage are relatively commonplace. However, only two percent or less of incidents culminate in serious damage to persons or vehicles. The most common offenders appear to be young and male. A number of factors may contribute to road rage, including environmental factors (e.g., greater number of miles driven per day, traffic density), nonspecific psychological factors (e.g., displaced aggression, attribution of blame to others), and bona fide Axis I and II disorders. The most common Axis I disorders appear to be related to alcohol and substance misuse, whereas possible Axis II disorders include borderline and antisocial personality disorders. Being aware of these contributory factors to road rage may improve general clinical awareness of the nature and treatment of perpetrators. PMID:20805914

  10. Metabolomic profiling and antioxidant activity of some Acacia species

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Farid, I.B.; Sheded, M.G.; Mohamed, E.A.

    2014-01-01

    Metabolomic profiling of different parts (leaves, flowers and pods) of Acacia species (Acacia nilotica, Acacia seyal and Acacia laeta) was evaluated. The multivariate data analyses such as principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were used to differentiate the distribution of plant metabolites among different species or different organs of the same species. A.nilotica was characterized with a high content of saponins and A.seyal was characterized with high contents of proteins, phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanins. A.laeta had a higher content of carbohydrates than A. nilotica and A. seyal. On the basis of these results, total antioxidant capacity, DPPH free radical scavenging activity and reducing power of the methanolic extracts of studied parts were evaluated. A.nilotica and A.seyal extracts showed less inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) compared to A.laeta extracts which means that these two species have the strongest radical scavenging activity whereas A. laeta extracts have the lowest radical scavenging activity. A positive correlation between saponins and flavonoids with total antioxidant capacity and DPPH radical scavenging activity was observed. Based on these results, the potentiality of these plants as antioxidants was discussed. PMID:25313274

  11. 21 CFR 172.780 - Acacia (gum arabic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may obtain copies from the United States Pharmacopeial Convention, 12601.../federal-register/cfr/ibr-locations.html. (c) The ingredient is used in food in accordance with good... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acacia (gum arabic). 172.780 Section 172.780...

  12. Distributed road assessment system

    SciTech Connect

    Beer, N. Reginald; Paglieroni, David W

    2014-03-25

    A system that detects damage on or below the surface of a paved structure or pavement is provided. A distributed road assessment system includes road assessment pods and a road assessment server. Each road assessment pod includes a ground-penetrating radar antenna array and a detection system that detects road damage from the return signals as the vehicle on which the pod is mounted travels down a road. Each road assessment pod transmits to the road assessment server occurrence information describing each occurrence of road damage that is newly detected on a current scan of a road. The road assessment server maintains a road damage database of occurrence information describing the previously detected occurrences of road damage. After the road assessment server receives occurrence information for newly detected occurrences of road damage for a portion of a road, the road assessment server determines which newly detected occurrences correspond to which previously detected occurrences of road damage.

  13. Are the birch trees in Southern England a source of Betula pollen for North London?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skjøth, C. A.; Smith, M.; Brandt, J.; Emberlin, J.

    2009-01-01

    Birch pollen is highly allergenic. Knowledge of daily variations, atmospheric transport and source areas of birch pollen is important for exposure studies and for warnings to the public, especially for large cities such as London. Our results show that broad-leaved forests with high birch tree densities are located to the south and west of London. Bi-hourly Betula pollen concentrations for all the days included in the study, and for all available days with high birch pollen counts (daily average birch pollen counts >80 grains/m3), show that, on average, there is a peak between 1400 hours and 1600 hours. Back-trajectory analysis showed that, on days with high birch pollen counts ( n = 60), 80% of air masses arriving at the time of peak diurnal birch pollen count approached North London from the south in a 180 degree arc from due east to due west. Detailed investigations of three Betula pollen episodes, with distinctly different diurnal patterns compared to the mean daily cycle, were used to illustrate how night-time maxima (2200-0400 hours) in Betula pollen counts could be the result of transport from distant sources or long transport times caused by slow moving air masses. We conclude that the Betula pollen recorded in North London could originate from sources found to the west and south of the city and not just trees within London itself. Possible sources outside the city include Continental Europe and the Betula trees within the broad-leaved forests of Southern England.

  14. Carbon-carbon cleavage during Birch-Hueckel-type reductions

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, C.J.; Hombach, H.P.; Maxwell, B.; Woody, M.C.; Benjamin, B.M.

    1980-01-16

    Results of reactions of Na-K alloy in the solvent system glyme-triglyme on a series of compounds, bibenzyl, 1,2-diphenylpropane, diphenylmethane, and phenyl-p-tolylmethane, to determine whether the Birch-Hueckel reduction could be used in this solvent system to cleave C-C bonds are reported. Both methyl-/sup 14/C iodide and water were studied as quenchers, and the products from all reactions were analyzed by gas chromatography. The results indicated that coal can be efficiently degraded at low-temperatures by cleavage of aliphatic as well as aromatic-aliphatic C-C bonds by the action of Na-K alloy under conditions studied in this work. (BLM)

  15. Changes in spectral properties of detached birch leaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daughtry, C. S. T.; Biehl, L. L.

    1985-01-01

    A study conducted in order to determine the rate of changes in spectral properties of detached leaves and to evaluate the effectiveness of low temperature and cytokinins for delaying the changes, is examined. For five minutes, leaves from red birch are immersed in water or 0.001 M BAP, and then stored in plastic bags in the dark at either 5 or 25 C. Using a spectroradiometer and an integrating sphere, total directional-hemispherical reflectance and transmittance of the adaxial surface of the leaves are measured over the 400-1100 nm wavelength region. The results indicate that for leaves stored at 5 C for one week, the changes in the spectral properties are less than 5 percent of the initial values, whereas storage at 25 C promotes rapid senescence and large changes in the spectral properties. It is shown that low temperature is more effective than BAP in delaying senescence.

  16. Sound velocities of hot dense iron: Birch's law revisited.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jung-Fu; Sturhahn, Wolfgang; Zhao, Jiyong; Shen, Guoyin; Mao, Ho-Kwang; Hemley, Russell J

    2005-06-24

    Sound velocities of hexagonal close-packed iron (hcp-Fe) were measured at pressures up to 73 gigapascals and at temperatures up to 1700 kelvin with nuclear inelastic x-ray scattering in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell. The compressional-wave velocities (VP) and shear-wave velocities (VS) of hcp-Fe decreased significantly with increasing temperature under moderately high pressures. VP and VS under high pressures and temperatures thus cannot be fitted to a linear relation, Birch's law, which has been used to extrapolate measured sound velocities to densities of iron in Earth's interior. This result means that there are more light elements in Earth's core than have been inferred from linear extrapolation at room temperature. PMID:15976298

  17. Hardrock Elastic Physical Properties: Birch's Seismic Parameter Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, M.; Milkereit, B.

    2014-12-01

    Identifying rock composition and properties is imperative in a variety of fields including geotechnical engineering, mining, and petroleum exploration, in order to accurately make any petrophysical calculations. Density is, in particular, an important parameter that allows us to differentiate between lithologies and estimate or calculate other petrophysical properties. It is well established that compressional and shear wave velocities of common crystalline rocks increase with increasing densities (i.e. the Birch and Nafe-Drake relationships). Conventional empirical relations do not take into account S-wave velocity. Physical properties of Fe-oxides and massive sulfides, however, differ significantly from the empirical velocity-density relationships. Currently, acquiring in-situ density data is challenging and problematic, and therefore, developing an approximation for density based on seismic wave velocity and elastic moduli would be beneficial. With the goal of finding other possible or better relationships between density and the elastic moduli, a database of density, P-wave velocity, S-wave velocity, bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young's modulus, and Poisson's ratio was compiled based on a multitude of lab samples. The database is comprised of isotropic, non-porous metamorphic rock. Multi-parameter cross plots of the various elastic parameters have been analyzed in order to find a suitable parameter combination that reduces high density outliers. As expected, the P-wave velocity to S-wave velocity ratios show no correlation with density. However, Birch's seismic parameter, along with the bulk modulus, shows promise in providing a link between observed compressional and shear wave velocities and rock densities, including massive sulfides and Fe-oxides.

  18. An orb-weaver spider exploits an ant–acacia mutualism for enemy-free space

    PubMed Central

    Styrsky, John D

    2014-01-01

    Exploiters of protection mutualisms are assumed to represent an important threat for the stability of those mutualisms, but empirical evidence for the commonness or relevance of exploiters is limited. Here, I describe results from a manipulative study showing that an orb-weaver spider, Eustala oblonga, inhabits an ant-acacia for protection from predators. This spider is unique in the orb-weaver family in that it associates closely with both a specific host plant and ants. I tested the protective effect of acacia ants on E. oblonga by comparing spider abundance over time on acacias with ants and on acacias from which entire ant colonies were experimentally removed. Both juvenile and adult spider abundance significantly decreased over time on acacias without ants. Concomitantly, the combined abundance of potential spider predators increased over time on acacias without ants. These results suggest that ant protection of the ant-acacia Acacia melanocerus also protects the spiders, thus supporting the hypothesis that E. oblonga exploits the ant–acacia mutualism for enemy-free space. Although E. oblonga takes advantage of the protection services of ants, it likely exacts little to no cost and should not threaten the stability of the ant–acacia mutualism. Indeed, the potential threat of exploiter species to protection mutualisms in general may be limited to species that exploit the material rewards traded in such mutualisms rather than the protection services. PMID:24558583

  19. Advances in clarifying the phylogenetic relationships of acacias: Relevance for biological control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinjan, C. A.; Hoffmann, J. H.

    2013-04-01

    Biological control of invasive Australian acacias will benefit from recent advances in resolving the phylogenetic relationships of Acacia s.l. and Acacia s.s. ("Australian acacias") within the subfamily Mimosoideae. Some of the phytophage taxa associated with Acacia s.s. display fidelity to a derived clade within the genus. This derived clade contains most of the Acacia s.s. species that have become problematic around the world. Phytophages that are demonstrably restricted to species within the derived clade pose essentially no risk to species outside Acacia s.s.. In contrast, prospective agents able to develop on species in the basal lineages of Acacia s.s. would require more-expansive testing because Acacia s.s. is closely related to the Ingeae, and then sequentially to the genera Acaciella, Mariosousa and Senegalia. Importantly, Vachellia is distantly related to Acacia s.s., being nested in basal Mimoseae lineages, and is thus less likely to be at risk than previously envisaged. Elucidation of these trends shows the benefits of having a comprehensive knowledge of the phylogeny of plants and phytophages under consideration for biological control.

  20. Vermicomposting of the leaf litter of acacia (Acacia auriculiformis): possible roles of reactor geometry, polyphenols, and lignin.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, P Sankar; Gajalakshmi, S; Abbasi, S A

    2009-03-01

    Vermicomposting of the pre-composted leaf litter of acacia (Acacia auriculiformis) was studied in reactors of identical volume but with surface area: height ratios varying from 4 to 250. In separate sets of experiments with these reactors, epigeic earthworm species Eudrilus eugeniae and anecic earthworm species Lampito mauritii were employed at densities of 75 and 150 adult animals per litre of reactor volume. The results reveal that greater the surface area: volume ratio of the reactor, higher is the vermicast output in terms of vermicast output per animal; the more densely populated reactors were comparatively under-productive. Even as the vermicast production remained consistently high in all the reactors, there was significant earthworm mortality throughout the course of the experiments and the worms who survived, steadily lost weight with time. A detailed investigation of the possible causes revealed that, whereas the C:N ratio of acacia compost was comparable with that of other substrates; the polyphenols and lignin content were much higher. Studies by other authors on leaf litter consumption by earthworms in natural or man-made forests have indicated that leaf litter rich in polyphenols and lignin are not preferred by most species of earthworm. This may perhaps be the reason for the high rate of mortality and weight loss in earthworms forced to feed upon acacia in the experiments conducted by the authors. PMID:19026533

  1. Sound Velocities and Validity of Birch's Law for Ultra-High Pressure Metals and Ionic Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ware, L.; Boness, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    Recent detection of super-Earths has expanded interest in ultra-high pressure, temperature minerals and elements to help constrain the composition and physical properties of the interiors of these large planets. To understand Earth's interior, Birch's Law and velocity-density systematics has long been important. Recent published DAC experimental measurements of sound velocities in iron are inconsistent with each other with regard to the validity of Birch's Law. We examine the range of validity of Birch's Law for several metallic elements, including iron, and ionic solids shocked into the ultra-high pressure, temperature fluid state and make comparisons to the recent DAC data.

  2. Bayesian analysis of climate change effects on observed and projected airborne levels of birch pollen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Isukapalli, Sastry S.; Bielory, Leonard; Georgopoulos, Panos G.

    2013-04-01

    A Bayesian framework is presented for modeling effects of climate change on pollen indices such as annual birch pollen count, maximum daily birch pollen count, start date of birch pollen season and the date of maximum daily birch pollen count. Annual mean CO2 concentration, mean spring temperature and the corresponding pollen index of prior year were found to be statistically significant accounting for effects of climate change on four pollen indices. Results suggest that annual productions and peak values from 2020 to 2100 under different scenarios will be 1.3-8.0 and 1.1-7.3 times higher respectively than the mean values for 2000, and start and peak dates will occur around two to four weeks earlier. These results have been partly confirmed by the available historical data. As a demonstration, the emission profiles in future years were generated by incorporating the predicted pollen indices into an existing emission model.

  3. Bayesian Analysis of Climate Change Effects on Observed and Projected Airborne Levels of Birch Pollen.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Isukapalli, Sastry; Bielory, Leonard; Georgopoulos, Panos

    2013-04-01

    A Bayesian framework is presented for modeling Effects of climate change on pollen indices such as annual birch pollen count, maximum daily birch pollen count, start date of birch pollen season and the date of maximum daily birch pollen count. Annual mean CO2 concentration, mean spring temperature and the corresponding pollen index of prior year were found to be statistically significant accounting for Effects of climate change on four pollen indices. Results suggest that annual productions and peak values from 2020 to 2100 under different scenarios will be 1.3-8.0 and 1.1-7.3 times higher respectively than the mean values for 2000, and start and peak dates will occur around two to four weeks earlier. These results have been partly confirmed by the available historical data. As a demonstration, the emission profiles in future years were generated by incorporating the predicted pollen indices into an existing emission model. PMID:23526049

  4. Bayesian Analysis of Climate Change Effects on Observed and Projected Airborne Levels of Birch Pollen

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yong; Isukapalli, Sastry; Bielory, Leonard; Georgopoulos, Panos

    2012-01-01

    A Bayesian framework is presented for modeling Effects of climate change on pollen indices such as annual birch pollen count, maximum daily birch pollen count, start date of birch pollen season and the date of maximum daily birch pollen count. Annual mean CO2 concentration, mean spring temperature and the corresponding pollen index of prior year were found to be statistically significant accounting for Effects of climate change on four pollen indices. Results suggest that annual productions and peak values from 2020 to 2100 under different scenarios will be 1.3-8.0 and 1.1-7.3 times higher respectively than the mean values for 2000, and start and peak dates will occur around two to four weeks earlier. These results have been partly confirmed by the available historical data. As a demonstration, the emission profiles in future years were generated by incorporating the predicted pollen indices into an existing emission model. PMID:23526049

  5. Basophil histamine release in patients with birch pollen hypersensitivity with and without allergic symptoms to fruits.

    PubMed

    Kleine-Tebbe, J; Galleani, M; Jeep, S; Pilz, B; Baisch, A; Kunkel, G

    1992-12-01

    Histamine release (HR) studies were performed in 40 birch pollen-allergic patients (positive case history, positive SPT, positive birch pollen-specific serum IgE: RAST > or = 3) with (n = 20, A) and without (n = 20, B) fruit hypersensitivity, and 10 nonatopic volunteers (C). Several fruit allergens were used and characterized by protein determination and immunoblot techniques. Dose-dependent HR (apple peel = apple pulp > peach = cherry) was demonstrated in both allergic groups, but to a higher extent in patients with fruit allergy (P < 0.01). Increased basophil sensitivity to birch pollen was found in the group with fruit allergy (P < 0.001). Strong correlations between the mediator response induced by several fruits indicate common allergens within the extracts. We conclude that fruit-related symptoms require not only high specific serum IgE, but a strong cellular sensitization to birch pollen allergens together with an increased cellular reactivity to fruit allergens. PMID:1283657

  6. Cross-Reactivity between Oak and Birch Pollens in Korean Tree Pollinosis.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Son, Mina; Park, Jin Hee; Park, Kyung Hee; Park, Hye Jung; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Hong, Chein-Soo; Park, Jung-Won

    2016-08-01

    Oak and birch trees belong to Fagales order. Specific IgE to pollen allergens of both trees are frequently found in Korea pollinosis patients. Oak trees which comprise 40% of forest area are common in Korea. However, birch trees are sparse. We compared the allergenicity of pollen extracts of white oak, sawtooth and Mongolian oaks which are prevalent species in Korea, with the pollen extract of birch. The cross-reactivity of four pollen extracts was examined with pooled sera of 12 patients by ELISA, immunoblotting and CAP inhibitions. A protein of 17 kDa, putatively homologous to a major birch allergen Bet v 1, displayed strong IgE reactivity from white oak and sawtooth oak pollen extract but not from Mongolian oak pollen. Notably, a 23-kDa protein from sawtooth and white oaks showed strong IgE reactivity and inhibited by Bet v 1. IgE binding to white oak was inhibited a maximum of 94.6% by white oak, 93.4% by sawtooth oak, 83.2% by Mongolian oak, and 68.8% by birch. Furthermore, sawtooth oak, white oak, and Mongolian oak extracts were able to inhibit up to 78.5%, 76.6% and 67.3% of IgE binding to birch extract, while birch extract itself inhibited up to 94.3%. Specific IgE to Bet v 1 was inhibited a maximum of 79.1% by sawtooth oak, 77.4% by white oak, and 72.7% by Mongolian oak, while 81.5% inhibition was shown by birch. Bet v 1 was able to partially inhibit its homologous molecules from sawtooth oak and white oak in immunoblotting. Birch pollen extract was found to be cross-reactive primarily with Bet v 1-homologous allergen from oak pollens in Korea pollinosis patients. Considering the sparseness of birch tree in Korea, oak, especially sawtooth oak may be the main cause of tree pollinosis in Korea, rather than birch. PMID:27478329

  7. Cross-Reactivity between Oak and Birch Pollens in Korean Tree Pollinosis

    PubMed Central

    Son, Mina; Park, Jin Hee; Park, Hye Jung; Hong, Chein-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Oak and birch trees belong to Fagales order. Specific IgE to pollen allergens of both trees are frequently found in Korea pollinosis patients. Oak trees which comprise 40% of forest area are common in Korea. However, birch trees are sparse. We compared the allergenicity of pollen extracts of white oak, sawtooth and Mongolian oaks which are prevalent species in Korea, with the pollen extract of birch. The cross-reactivity of four pollen extracts was examined with pooled sera of 12 patients by ELISA, immunoblotting and CAP inhibitions. A protein of 17 kDa, putatively homologous to a major birch allergen Bet v 1, displayed strong IgE reactivity from white oak and sawtooth oak pollen extract but not from Mongolian oak pollen. Notably, a 23-kDa protein from sawtooth and white oaks showed strong IgE reactivity and inhibited by Bet v 1. IgE binding to white oak was inhibited a maximum of 94.6% by white oak, 93.4% by sawtooth oak, 83.2% by Mongolian oak, and 68.8% by birch. Furthermore, sawtooth oak, white oak, and Mongolian oak extracts were able to inhibit up to 78.5%, 76.6% and 67.3% of IgE binding to birch extract, while birch extract itself inhibited up to 94.3%. Specific IgE to Bet v 1 was inhibited a maximum of 79.1% by sawtooth oak, 77.4% by white oak, and 72.7% by Mongolian oak, while 81.5% inhibition was shown by birch. Bet v 1 was able to partially inhibit its homologous molecules from sawtooth oak and white oak in immunoblotting. Birch pollen extract was found to be cross-reactive primarily with Bet v 1-homologous allergen from oak pollens in Korea pollinosis patients. Considering the sparseness of birch tree in Korea, oak, especially sawtooth oak may be the main cause of tree pollinosis in Korea, rather than birch. PMID:27478329

  8. Celtic Roads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinney, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Building upon lessons learned is relevant to art and life. As an art teacher dealing with teens, the author tries to give her students an understanding of art as a window to the "big picture" as well as a practical, relevant skill. She developed this lesson plan, "Celtic Roads," with that objective in mind. The success rate is high, the product is…

  9. Natural and Induced Polyploidy in Acacia dealbata Link. and Acacia mangium Willd.

    PubMed Central

    BLAKESLEY, DAVID; ALLEN, ANNABEL; PELLNY, TILL K.; ROBERTS, ANDY V.

    2002-01-01

    Seeds were obtained from seven natural populations of Acacia dealbata, three natural populations of A. mangium and a seed orchard of A. mangium, representing the natural range of the two species. Polyploids were discovered in two of the seven populations of A. dealbata. The 2C DNA amount for diploid A. dealbata (2n = 2x = 26) was 1·74 pg, and for diploid A. mangium (2n = 2x = 26) was 1·30 pg. A naturally occurring tetraploid of A. dealbata (2n = 4x = 52) had a 2C DNA amount of 3·41 pg and a naturally occurring triploid genotype had a 2C DNA amount of 2·53 pg. The use of colchicine and oryzalin was investigated as a means of producing higher frequencies of tetraploids of both A. mangium and A. dealbata for incorporation into breeding programmes. Colchicine treatment gave tetraploid frequencies up to 29 % for A. dealbata seedlings, and up to 18 % for A. mangium seedlings. In contrast, no tetraploid A. mangium was detected following oryzalin treatment, and the low frequencies of tetraploids observed in A. dealbata could be attributed to their natural occurrence. PMID:12234151

  10. Natural and induced polyploidy in Acacia dealbata Link. and Acacia mangium Willd.

    PubMed

    Blakesley, David; Allen, Annabel; Pellny, Till K; Roberts, Andy V

    2002-09-01

    Seeds were obtained from seven natural populations of Acacia dealbata, three natural populations of A. mangium and a seed orchard of A. mangium, representing the natural range of the two species. Polyploids were discovered in two of the seven populations of A. dealbata. The 2C DNA amount for diploid A. dealbata (2n = 2x = 26) was 1.74 pg, and for diploid A. mangium (2n = 2x = 26) was 1.30 pg. A naturally occurring tetraploid of A. dealbata (2n = 4x = 52) had a 2C DNA amount of 3.41 pg and a naturally occurring triploid genotype had a 2C DNA amount of 2.53 pg. The use of colchicine and oryzalin was investigated as a means of producing higher frequencies of tetraploids of both A. mangium and A. dealbata for incorporation into breeding programmes. Colchicine treatment gave tetraploid frequencies up to 29% for A. dealbata seedlings, and up to 18% for A. mangium seedlings. In contrast, no tetraploid A. mangium was detected following oryzalin treatment, and the low frequencies of tetraploids observed in A. dealbata could be attributed to their natural occurrence. PMID:12234151

  11. Influence of 2-meter temperature bias on birch pollen season and concentrations in the Enviro-HIRLAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurganskiy, Alexander; Kaas, Eigil; Baklanov, Alexander; Mahura, Alexander; Nuterman, Roman; Rasmussen, Alix

    2016-04-01

    Forecasting the start of the birch pollen season as well as birch pollen concentrations is a challenging task from a modeling point of view. The start of birch pollen season is commonly determined by so-called Growing-Degree-Days (GDD) parameterization. GDD is based on accumulation of 2-meter daily mean air temperatures above a given threshold and supposes that birch flowering starts as soon as the accumulated temperature reaches a certain value depending on geographical location. Therefore, even a minor bias (for example, 0.5 °C) of 2-meter air temperature forecasted by a numerical weather prediction model can lead to an error of several days for simulated start of the birch pollen season. Moreover, birch pollen emission is strongly dependent on such meteorological parameters as 2-meter temperature and relative humidity, 10-meter wind speed and direction, and accumulated precipitation. So, 2-meter air temperature biases can also influence the modeled birch pollen emissions and, consequently, modeled atmospheric birch pollen concentrations. In our study, the online-coupled meteorology chemistry model Enviro-HIRLAM (Environment - High Resolution Limited Area Model) was employed to simulate birch pollen emissions, atmospheric transport, dispersion and deposition for the European domain with 15-km horizontal resolution. Model runs were performed for a case study of birch pollen season 2006 with and without attempts to correct for 2-meter air temperature biases and related changes in relative humidity. The modeled birch pollen concentrations were compared with aerobiological observations for European measurement sites. The influence of 2-meter air temperature bias correction on the start of birch pollen season and magnitude of birch pollen concentrations turns out to be important and should be included in operational setups.

  12. A leaf phosphorus assay for seedlings of Acacia mangium.

    PubMed

    Sun, J S; Simpson, R J; Sands, R

    1992-10-01

    Concentrations of extractable and total phosphorus in leaves, stem, root and nodules of 12-week-old seedlings of two provenances of Acacia mangium Willd. were analyzed to identify the fraction of phosphorus and the plant part most suitable for predicting the phosphorus nutritional status of the seedlings.For both provenances, concentrations of extractable phosphorus were more sensitive to changes in soil phosphorus status and varied less among different plant parts than concentrations of total phosphorus. Concentrations of extractable phosphorus in the youngest fully expanded leaf (Leaf 3 from the apex) and the next two older leaves correlated closely with seedling dry mass and may be used to assess the phosphorus nutritional status of Acacia mangium seedlings. PMID:14969954

  13. Mechanical properties of acacia and eucalyptus wood chars

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, M.; Verma, B.B.; Gupta, R.C.

    1999-10-01

    In the present investigation the effects of carbonization conditions (temperature and heating rate) on the mechanical properties (such as crushing and impact strengths and shatter index) of acacia and eucalyptus wood chars have been determined. The crushing and impact strengths of both the acacia and eucalyptus wood chars (made by slow carbonization) decreased with increase of preparation temperature up to 600 C, followed by an increase thereafter. These wood chars showed a continuous increase in shatter index values with carbonization temperature. In contrast to slow carbonization (heating rate 4 C min{sup {minus}1}), rapid carbonization (heating rate 30 C min{sup {minus}1}) yielded chars of lower crushing strengths. Slowly carbonized eucalyptus wood gave chars of superior crushing and impact strengths than those produced from acacia wood under the same carbonization conditions. The crushing and impact strengths of these wood chars, in general, have shown an increase with increase in their apparent density. The crushing strength of cubic-shaped wood char decreased with increase in size.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of monodisperse copper nanoparticles using gum acacia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Chunfa; Cai, Hao; Zhang, Xianglin; Cao, Chuanliang

    2014-03-01

    A simple method was put forward in this paper for preparing colloidal copper nanoparticles in aqueous solutions using copper sulfate, gum acacia and hydrazine hydrate as copper precursor, capping agents and reducing agents, respectively, without any inert gas. The formation of nanosized copper was confirmed by its characteristic surface plasmon absorption peak at 604 nm in UV-vis spectra. The transmission electron microscopic (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) images show that the as-synthesized copper fine spherical particles are distributed uniformly with a narrow distribution from 3 nm to 9 nm. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution transmission electron microscopic (HRTEM) demonstrated that the obtained metallic nanoparticles are single crystalline copper nanoparticles. Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR) spectroscopic data suggested that the copper nanoparticles are coated with gum acacia. The effects of the quantity of gum acacia on the particle size were investigated by the UV-vis spectra and TEM images. The growth process of the nanoparticles was monitored by the UV-vis spectra. The mechanism of the formation copper nanoparticles was discussed. The process raised in this study can be served as an excellent candidate for the preparation of copper nanoparticles in a large scale production.

  15. Washboard Road

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McElwaine, Jim; Dalziel, Stuart; Taberlet, Nicolas; Morris, Stephen

    2006-11-01

    The tendency of unpaved road surfaces to develop lateral ripples (``washboard'' or ``corrugated'' road) is annoyingly familiar to drivers on dry gravel roads. Similar ripples are well known on railroad tracks and many other rolling or sliding, load bearing surfaces. Our approach combined laboratory experiments, soft-particle direct numerical simulations and simple nonlinear dynamics models. The experiment consisted of a rotating table 60 cm in radius with a thick layer of sand forming a roadbed around the circumference. A 6 cm radius hard rubber wheel, with a support stationary in the lab frame, rolled on the sand layer. We varied the speed of the table and the details of the suspension of the wheel. The onset of the ripple pattern exhibits a sharp threshold and was strongly subcritical with a large hysteresis as a function of the speed of the table. The ripple pattern appears as small patches of travelling waves which eventually spread to the entire circumference. The ripples move slowly in the driving direction. Interesting secondary dynamics of the saturated ripples were observed. All of these effects are captured qualitatively by a 2D soft particle simulations. The simulations clearly indicate that neither compaction nor particle size segregation are crucial for the appearance of the ripples, and we present a simple model to describe the wavelength and amplitude of the ripples.

  16. Spatial heterogeneity in the timing of birch budburst in response to future climate warming in Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caffarra, Amelia; Zottele, Fabio; Gleeson, Emily; Donnelly, Alison

    2014-05-01

    In order to predict the impact of future climate warming on trees it is important to quantify the effect climate has on their development. Our understanding of the phenological response to environmental drivers has given rise to various mathematical models of the annual growth cycle of plants. These models simulate the timing of phenophases by quantifying the relationship between development and its triggers, typically temperature. In addition, other environmental variables have an important role in determining the timing of budburst. For example, photoperiod has been shown to have a strong influence on phenological events of a number of tree species, including Betula pubescens (birch). A recently developed model for birch (DORMPHOT), which integrates the effects of temperature and photoperiod on budburst, was applied to future temperature projections from a 19-member ensemble of regional climate simulations (on a 25 km grid) generated as part of the ENSEMBLES project, to simulate the timing of birch budburst in Ireland each year up to the end of the present century. Gridded temperature time series data from the climate simulations were used as input to the DORMPHOT model to simulate future budburst timing. The results showed an advancing trend in the timing of birch budburst over most regions in Ireland up to 2100. Interestingly, this trend appeared greater in the northeast of the country than in the southwest, where budburst is currently relatively early. These results could have implications for future forest planning, species distribution modeling, and the birch allergy season.

  17. Structural analysis of heat-treated birch (Betule papyrifera) surface during artificial weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xianai; Kocaefe, Duygu; Kocaefe, Yasar; Boluk, Yaman; Krause, Cornélia

    2013-01-01

    Effect of artificial weathering on the surface structural changes of birch (Betule papyrifera) wood, heat-treated to different temperatures, was studied using the fluorescence microscopy and the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Changes in the chemical structure of wood components were analyzed by FTIR in order to understand the mechanism of degradation taking place due to heat treatment and artificial weathering. The results are compared with those of the untreated (kiln-dried) birch. The SEM analysis results show that the effect of weathering on the cell wall of the untreated birch surface is more than that of heat-treated samples. The FTIR spectroscopy results indicate that lignin is the most sensitive component of heat-treated birch to the weathering degradation process. Elimination of the amorphous and highly crystallised cellulose is observed for both heat-treated and untreated wood during weathering. It is also observed that heat treatment increases the lignin and crystallised cellulose contents, which to some extent protects heat-treated birch against degradation due to weathering.

  18. m-BIRCH: an online clustering approach for computer vision applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madan, Siddharth K.; Dana, Kristin J.

    2015-03-01

    We adapt a classic online clustering algorithm called Balanced Iterative Reducing and Clustering using Hierarchies (BIRCH), to incrementally cluster large datasets of features commonly used in multimedia and computer vision. We call the adapted version modified-BIRCH (m-BIRCH). The algorithm uses only a fraction of the dataset memory to perform clustering, and updates the clustering decisions when new data comes in. Modifications made in m-BIRCH enable data driven parameter selection and effectively handle varying density regions in the feature space. Data driven parameter selection automatically controls the level of coarseness of the data summarization. Effective handling of varying density regions is necessary to well represent the different density regions in data summarization. We use m-BIRCH to cluster 840K color SIFT descriptors, and 60K outlier corrupted grayscale patches. We use the algorithm to cluster datasets consisting of challenging non-convex clustering patterns. Our implementation of the algorithm provides an useful clustering tool and is made publicly available.

  19. Host Status of Thirteen Acacia Species to Meloidogyne javanica

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Ahmed A. M.; Aref, Ibrahim M.

    2000-01-01

    Thirteen indigenous and exotic Acacia species grown in Saudi Arabia were evaluated for their host status for Meloidogyne javanica in pot tests both in the growth chamber and under outdoor conditions. In both experiments, 21-day-old seedlings were transplanted individually into 15-cm-diam. plastic pots containing a steam-sterilized mixture of equal parts loam and sandy loam. Seedlings were inoculated with 5,000 M. javanica eggs/plant 30 days later. After 120 days, fresh root weight, disease index (1-9 scale), the number of eggs/pot (Pf), eggs/g fresh root, and a reproductive factor (Rf) were determined. Results of both the growth chamber and the outdoor tests were similar. Species were grouped into host suitability categories according to Rf, and they were also grouped into resistance categories based on the sum of gall index, gall size, and percentage of the root system that was galled. Only A. salicina was a poor host and was resistant to M. javanica. Acacia farnisiana, A. gerrardii subsp. negevensis var. najdensis, and A. saligna were excellent hosts and highly susceptible. Both A. nilotica and A. stenophylla were classified as good hosts and highly susceptible, while A. ampliceps, A. ehrenbergiana, A. gerrardii subsp. negevensis var negevensis, A. sclerosperma, A. seyal, A. tortilis, and A. tortilis subsp. spirocarpa were also good hosts but were classified as susceptible rather than highly susceptible. This is the first report on the susceptibility of Acacia species to M. javanica in Saudi Arabia, including some new hosts worldwide. PMID:19271016

  20. Computational verification of the Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture for individual elliptic curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigorov, Grigor; Jorza, Andrei; Patrikis, Stefan; Stein, William A.; Tarnita, Corina

    2009-12-01

    We describe theorems and computational methods for verifying the Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer conjectural formula for specific elliptic curves over mathbb{Q} of analytic ranks 0 and 1 . We apply our techniques to show that if E is a non-CM elliptic curve over mathbb{Q} of conductor leq 1000 and rank 0 or 1 , then the Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer conjectural formula for the leading coefficient of the L -series is true for E , up to odd primes that divide either Tamagawa numbers of E or the degree of some rational cyclic isogeny with domain E . Since the rank part of the Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture is a theorem for curves of analytic rank 0 or 1 , this completely verifies the full conjecture for these curves up to the primes excluded above.

  1. Acidic fog and temperature effects on stigmatic receptivity in two birch species

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, R.N.; Cox, R.M.

    1994-07-01

    Factorial assays were performed to determine the effects of simulated acid fog (SAF) and temperature on stigmatic receptivity in two birch species. Excised reproductive branches were sampled from representative individuals of mountain paper birch (Betula cordifolia Regel.) and paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) in populations adjacent to the Bay of Fundy, New Brunswick, Canada. Since 1979 these trees have exhibited branch dieback in association with abnormal foliar browning symptoms. This browning has been linked with acidity and nitrate deposited by fog, which is frequent in the area. In general, experimental results indicated that pollen germination increased with temperature, but pH effects were less obvious. Similarly, pollen tube growth responded positively to temperature and was little affected by fog acidity. ANOVA tests indicated a significant difference (P < 0.05) between species in their pollen germination response only at 12{degrees}C, and not at the other three temperatures tested. For pollen tube growth, significant differences between species (P < 0.05) were demonstrated at 12 and 22{degrees}C. A significant pH effect was demonstrated at 27{degrees}C for germination, while pH effects on tube growth were significant at 27 and 12{degrees}C (P < 0.01). A response surface regression analysis indicated that acidity significantly affected pollen germination in mountain paper birch (P < 0.001) but not in paper birch. Temperature was not a significant factor for in vivo pollen germination in either species. For pollen tube growth, however, temperature was more important than pH and produced highly significant effects in both species (P < 0.001). Acidity was also a significant factor in pollen tube growth for paper birch. 39 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Climate change effect on Betula (birch) and Quercus (oak) pollen seasons in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Bielory, Leonard; Georgopoulos, Panos G.

    2014-07-01

    Climatic change is expected to affect the spatiotemporal patterns of airborne allergenic pollen, which has been found to act synergistically with common air pollutants, such as ozone, to cause allergic airway disease (AAD). Observed airborne pollen data from six stations from 1994 to 2011 at Fargo (North Dakota), College Station (Texas), Omaha (Nebraska), Pleasanton (California), Cherry Hill and Newark (New Jersey) in the US were studied to examine climate change effects on trends of annual mean and peak value of daily concentrations, annual production, season start, and season length of Betula (birch) and Quercus (oak) pollen. The growing degree hour (GDH) model was used to establish a relationship between start/end dates and differential temperature sums using observed hourly temperatures from surrounding meteorology stations. Optimum GDH models were then combined with meteorological information from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, and land use land coverage data from the Biogenic Emissions Land use Database, version 3.1 (BELD3.1), to simulate start dates and season lengths of birch and oak pollen for both past and future years across the contiguous US (CONUS). For most of the studied stations, comparison of mean pollen indices between the periods of 1994-2000 and 2001-2011 showed that birch and oak trees were observed to flower 1-2 weeks earlier; annual mean and peak value of daily pollen concentrations tended to increase by 13.6 %-248 %. The observed pollen season lengths varied for birch and for oak across the different monitoring stations. Optimum initial date, base temperature, and threshold GDH for start date was found to be 1 March, 8 °C, and 1,879 h, respectively, for birch; 1 March, 5 °C, and 4,760 h, respectively, for oak. Simulation results indicated that responses of birch and oak pollen seasons to climate change are expected to vary for different regions.

  3. Climate change effect on Betula (birch) and Quercus (oak) pollen seasons in the United States.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Bielory, Leonard; Georgopoulos, Panos G

    2014-07-01

    Climatic change is expected to affect the spatiotemporal patterns of airborne allergenic pollen, which has been found to act synergistically with common air pollutants, such as ozone, to cause allergic airway disease (AAD). Observed airborne pollen data from six stations from 1994 to 2011 at Fargo (North Dakota), College Station (Texas), Omaha (Nebraska), Pleasanton (California), Cherry Hill and Newark (New Jersey) in the US were studied to examine climate change effects on trends of annual mean and peak value of daily concentrations, annual production, season start, and season length of Betula (birch) and Quercus (oak) pollen. The growing degree hour (GDH) model was used to establish a relationship between start/end dates and differential temperature sums using observed hourly temperatures from surrounding meteorology stations. Optimum GDH models were then combined with meteorological information from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, and land use land coverage data from the Biogenic Emissions Land use Database, version 3.1 (BELD3.1), to simulate start dates and season lengths of birch and oak pollen for both past and future years across the contiguous US (CONUS). For most of the studied stations, comparison of mean pollen indices between the periods of 1994-2000 and 2001-2011 showed that birch and oak trees were observed to flower 1-2 weeks earlier; annual mean and peak value of daily pollen concentrations tended to increase by 13.6%-248%. The observed pollen season lengths varied for birch and for oak across the different monitoring stations. Optimum initial date, base temperature, and threshold GDH for start date was found to be 1 March, 8 °C, and 1,879 h, respectively, for birch; 1 March, 5 °C, and 4,760 h, respectively, for oak. Simulation results indicated that responses of birch and oak pollen seasons to climate change are expected to vary for different regions. PMID:23793955

  4. [Antiviral activity of aqueous extracts of the birch fungus Inonotus obliquus on the human immunodeficiency virus].

    PubMed

    Shibnev, V A; Garaev, T M; Finogenova, M P; Kalnina, L B; Nosik, D N

    2015-01-01

    Fractions of aqueous and water-alcohol extracts of the birch fungus Inonotus obliquus have antiviral effect against the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Antiviral properties of low toxic extracts were manifested in the concentration of 5.0 μg/ml upon simultaneous application with the virus in the lymphoblastoid cells culture MT-4. The extract of the birch fungus can be used for development of new antiviral drugs, inhibitors of HIV-replication when used both in the form of individual drugs and as a part of complex therapy. PMID:26182655

  5. Inhibitory Effects of Sodium Arsenite and Acacia Honey on Acetylcholinesterase in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Odunola, Oyeronke A.; Gbadegesin, Michael A.; Sallau, Abdullahi B.; Ndidi, Uche S.; Ibrahim, Mohammed A.

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of sodium arsenite and Acacia honey on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and electrolytes in the brain and serum of Wistar rats. Male Wistar albino rats in four groups of five rats each were treated with distilled water, sodium arsenite (5 mg/kg body weight), Acacia honey (20% v/v), and sodium arsenite and Acacia honey, daily for one week. The sodium arsenite and Acacia honey significantly (P < 0.05) decreased AChE activity in the brain with the combined treatment being more potent. Furthermore, sodium arsenite and Acacia honey significantly (P < 0.05) decreased AChE activity in the serum. Strong correlation was observed between the sodium and calcium ion levels with acetylcholinesterase activity in the brain and serum. The gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis of Acacia honey revealed the presence of a number of bioactive compounds such as phenolics, sugar derivatives, and fatty acids. These findings suggest that sodium arsenite and/or Acacia honey modulates acetylcholinesterase activities which may be explored in the management of Alzheimer's diseases but this might be counteracted by the hepatotoxicity induced by arsenics. PMID:25821630

  6. The Inhibition of Lipase and Glucosidase Activities by Acacia Polyphenol

    PubMed Central

    Ikarashi, Nobutomo; Takeda, Rumi; Ito, Kiyomi; Ochiai, Wataru; Sugiyama, Kiyoshi

    2011-01-01

    Acacia polyphenol (AP) extracted from the bark of the black wattle tree (Acacia mearnsii) is rich in unique catechin-like flavan-3-ols, such as robinetinidol and fisetinidol. In an in vitro study, we measured the inhibitory activity of AP on lipase and glucosidase. In addition, we evaluated the effects of AP on absorption of orally administered olive oil, glucose, maltose, sucrose and starch solution in mice. We found that AP concentration-dependently inhibited the activity of lipase, maltase and sucrase with an IC50 of 0.95, 0.22 and 0.60 mg ml−1, respectively. In ICR mice, olive oil was administered orally immediately after oral administration of AP solution, and plasma triglyceride concentration was measured. We found that AP significantly inhibited the rise in plasma triglyceride concentration after olive oil loading. AP also significantly inhibited the rise in plasma glucose concentration after maltose and sucrose loading, and this effect was more potent against maltose. AP also inhibited the rise in plasma glucose concentration after glucose loading and slightly inhibited it after starch loading. Our results suggest that AP inhibits lipase and glucosidase activities, which leads to a reduction in the intestinal absorption of lipids and carbohydrates. PMID:21660093

  7. Evaluation of Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Acacia aroma Leaf Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Mattana, C. M.; Cangiano, M. A.; Alcaráz, L. E.; Sosa, A.; Escobar, F.; Sabini, C.; Sabini, L.; Laciar, A. L.

    2014-01-01

    Acacia aroma, native plant from San Luis, Argentina, is commonly used as antiseptic and for healing of wounds. The present study was conducted to investigate the in vitro cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of hot aqueous extract (HAE) and ethanolic extract (EE) of A. aroma. The cytotoxic activity was assayed by neutral red uptake assay on Vero cell. Cell treatment with a range from 100 to 5000 μg/mL of HAE and EE showed that 500 μg/mL and 100 μg/mL were the maximum noncytotoxic concentrations, respectively. The CC50 was 658 μg/mL for EE and 1020 μg/mL for HAE. The genotoxicity was tested by the single-cell gel electrophoresis comet assay. The results obtained in the evaluation of DNA cellular damage exposed to varied concentrations of the HAE showed no significant genotoxic effect at range of 1–20 mg/mL. The EE at 20 mg/mL showed moderate genotoxic effect related to the increase of the DNA percentage contained in tail of the comet; DNA was classified in category 2. At concentrations below 5 mg/mL, the results of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Acacia aroma guarantee the safety at cell and genomic level. However further studies are needed for longer periods including animal models to confirm the findings. PMID:25530999

  8. Estimation of catechin in Ayurvedic oil formulations containing Acacia catechu.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Nidhi; Dubey, Nitin; Mehta, Rajendra; Saluja, Ajay

    2009-01-01

    A sensitive, simple, rapid, and efficient HPTLC method was developed and validated for the analysis of catechin in marketed Ayurvedic oil formulations containing Acacia catechu. Chromatography of methanolic-0.1% formic acid (7:3, v/v) extracts of these formulations was performed on silica gel 60 F254 aluminum-backed TLC plates of 0.2 mm layer thickness. The plate was developed up to 85 mm with the ternary-mobile phase chloroform-acetone-0.1% formic acid (7.7 + 1.5 + 0.8%, v/v/v) at 22 +/- 2 degrees C with 20 min of chamber saturation. The system produced compact spots of catechin at an Rf value of 0.36. The marker, catechin, was quantified at its maximum absorbance of 296 nm. The limit of detection and quantitation values were 6 and 20 ng/spot, respectively. The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plot showed a good linear relationship with a correlation coefficient of 0.9993 in the concentration range of 200-1200 ng/spot for catechin with respect to peak area. Repeatability of the method was 0.88% RSD. Recovery values from 97 to 102% indicate excellent accuracy of the method. The developed HPTLC method is accurate, precise, and cost-effective, and it can be successfully applied for the determination of catechin in marketed Ayurvedic oil formulations containing Acacia catechu. PMID:19714967

  9. A novel strain D5 isolated from Acacia confusa.

    PubMed

    Huang, Baoling; Lv, Chengqun; Zhao, Yili; Huang, Rong

    2012-01-01

    We isolated a novel strain D5 from nodules of Acacia confusa. Under strict sterile conditions the strain could successfully nodulate Acacia confusa, A. crassicarpa and A. mangium, with nitrogenase activity ranging from 18.90 to 19.86 nmol·g(-1)·min(-1). In the phylogenetic tree based on a complete 16S rRNA gene sequence, the sequence of strain D5 shared 99% homology with that of four species of genus Pseudomonas. The 685 bp nodA fragment amplified from strain D5 shared 95% homology with the nodA sequence of 9 species of genus Bradyrhizobium, with a genetic distance of 0.01682. The 740 bp nifH gene fragment was amplified from strain D5. This strain D5 nifH gene and Bradyrhizobium spp. formed a branch, showing 98% homology and a genetic distance of 0. The homology between this branch and the Bradyrhizobium spp. DG in another branch was 99%, with a genetic distance of 0.007906. These results indicate that this strain D5 is a new type of nitrogen-fixing bacterium. PMID:23166618

  10. The Authoritarian Character of the John Birch Society: The Functional Utility of Alarmist Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Craig Allen

    Conventional wisdom holds that the right-wing John Birch Society disintegrated during the late 1960s. An examination of the society's periodical readership indicates that it has, instead, expanded. Moreover, this expansion occurred during a period of ideological dissonance for the organization, a fact that undermines confidence in the explanation…

  11. 78 FR 50410 - Birch Power Company; Notice of Proposed Restricted Service List for a Programmatic Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... Project] Birch Power Company; Notice of Proposed Restricted Service List for a Programmatic Agreement Rule..., the Secretary may establish a restricted service list for a particular phase or issue in a proceeding. The restricted service list should contain the names of persons on the service list who, in...

  12. Study of the betulin enriched birch bark extracts effects on human carcinoma cells and ear inflammation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pentacyclic triterpenes, mainly betulin and betulinic acid, are valuable anticancer agents found in the bark of birch tree. This study evaluates birch bark extracts for the active principles composition. Results New improved extraction methods were applied on the bark of Betula pendula in order to reach the maximum content in active principles. Extracts were analyzed by HPLC-MS, Raman, SERS and 13C NMR spectroscopy which revealed a very high yield of betulin (over 90%). Growth inhibiting effects were measured in vitro on four malignant human cell lines: A431 (skin epidermoid carcinoma), A2780 (ovarian carcinoma), HeLa (cervix adenocarcinoma) and MCF7 (breast adenocarcinoma), by means of MTT assay. All of the prepared bark extracts exerted a pronounced antiproliferative effect against human cancer cell lines. In vivo studies involved the anti-inflammatory effect of birch extracts on TPA-induced model of inflammation in mice. Conclusions The research revealed the efficacy of the extraction procedures as well as the antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory effects of birch extracts. PMID:23158079

  13. Antioxidants from slow pyrolysis bio-oil of birch wood: Application for biodiesel and biobased lubricants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Birch wood was slowly pyrolyzed to produce bio-oil and biochar. Slow pyrolysis conditions including reaction temperature, residence time, and particle size of the feed were optimized to maximize bio-oil yield. Particle size had an insignificant effect, whereas yields of up to 56% were achieved using...

  14. Airborne birch and grass pollen allergens in street-level shops.

    PubMed

    Holmquist, L; Weiner, J; Vesterberg, O

    2001-12-01

    Polluted urban outdoor air may be enriched with large amounts of submicronic respirable pollen allergen particles that penetrate into street-level shops. The objectives of the study were to map concentrations of birch and grass pollen allergens in indoor air of street-level shops and to explore the effect of electrostatic air cleaning under authentic working conditions, indoor air samples were collected in May and July 1999 in two shops. Allergens were quantified by a direct on sampling filter in solution (DOSIS) luminescence immunoassay. The average concentration of airborne indoor birch pollen allergen in the shop with air cleaning was estimated to be 20 +/- 9 SQ/m3 (mean +/- SD) compared to 31 +/- 17 SQ/m3 (mean +/- SD) of that without. The air cleaner reduced the indoor air birch pollen allergen concentration by on average 26 to 48% (P < 0.05). Corresponding figures for airborne indoor grass pollen allergen concentrations were 14 +/- 7 SQ/m3 and 17 +/- 8 SQ/m3, indicating a statistically non-significant (t-test) average 18% reduction of allergen by air cleaning. Excluding two observations with poor fit to the statistical model a significant (P < 0.05) average 27% reduction was obtained. Substantial amounts of airborne birch and grass pollen allergens may occur in street-level shops during flowering seasons. PMID:11761599

  15. Sharing rotting wood in the shade: ectomycorrhizal communities of co-occurring birch and hemlock seedlings.

    PubMed

    Poznanovic, Sarah K; Lilleskov, Erik A; Webster, Christopher R

    2015-02-01

    Coarse woody debris (CWD) is an important nursery environment for many tree species. Understanding the communities of ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECMF)and the effect of ECMF species on tree seedling condition in CWD will elucidate the potential for ECMF-mediated effects on seedling dynamics. In hemlock-dominated stands, we characterized ECMF communities associated with eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr) and yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britt) seedling pairs growing on CWD. Seedling foliage and CWD were analyzed chemically, and seedling growth, canopy cover, and canopy species determined. Thirteen fungal taxa, 12 associated with birch, and 6 with hemlock, were identified based on morphology and ITS sequencing. Five species were shared by co-occurring birch and hemlock, representing 75% of ectomycorrhizal root tips. Rarified ECMF taxon richness per seedling was higher on birch than hemlock. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling revealed significant correlations between ordination axes, the mutually exclusive ECMF Tomentella and Lactarius spp., foliar N and K, CWD pH, and exchangeable Ca and Mg. Seedlings colonized by Lactarius and T. sublilacina differed significantly in foliar K and N, and CWD differed in exchangeable Ca and Mg. CWD pH and nutrient concentrations were low but foliar macro-nutrient concentrations were not. We hypothesize that the dominant ECMF are adapted to low root carbohydrate availability typical in shaded environments but differ in their relative supply of different nutrients. PMID:25091153

  16. Ontogeny and environment as determinants of the secondary chemistry of three species of white birch.

    PubMed

    Laitinen, Jaana; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Rousi, Matti; Heinonen, Jaakko; Tahvanainen, Jorma

    2005-10-01

    This study investigates variation in the secondary chemistry of the bark of three closely related, winter-dormant species of white birch (Betula resinifera, B. pendula, and B. platyphylla) at different ontogenetic stages by using different plant parts (top and base). The experimental birches were grown for 4 years in two growing conditions (pot and field) at different nutrient levels. There was considerable species-specific quantitative and qualitative variation in the secondary chemicals in bark, but this was also affected by fertilization and the age of the plant. In general, there was greater chemical diversity in saplings than in seedlings. The study revealed three new components, secoisolariciresinol 9-O-beta-glucopyranoside and two of its derivatives, that have not been reported previously for the bark of white birches. Principal component analysis showed that the species studied had a similar chemical composition at the juvenile stage, but as the plants grew, they became more clearly differentiated, which indicates that the species of older plants can be identified by chemotaxonomy. Evidently, the secondary chemistry of birches is under genetic control, but it is affected by properties of growing conditions and ontogeny. PMID:16195842

  17. Impacts of Elevated Atmospheric CO 2 and O 3 on Paper Birch ( Betula papyrifera ): Reproductive Fitness

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Darbah, Joseph N. T.; Kubiske, Mark E.; Nelson, Neil; Oksanen, Elina; Vaapavuori, Elina; Karnosky, David F.

    2007-01-01

    Atmospheric CO 2 and tropospheric O 3 are rising in many regions of the world. Little is known about how these two commonly co-occurring gases will affect reproductive fitness of important forest tree species. Here, we report on the long-term effects of CO 3 and O 3 for paper birch seedlings exposed for nearly their entire life history at the Aspen FACE (Free Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment) site in Rhinelander, WI. Elevated CO 2 increased both male and female flower production, while elevated O 3 increased female flower production compared to trees in control rings. Interestingly, very little floweringmore » has yet occurred in combined treatment. Elevated CO 2 had significant positive effect on birch catkin size, weight, and germination success rate (elevated CO 2 increased germination rate of birch by 110% compared to ambient CO 2 concentrations, decreased seedling mortality by 73%, increased seed weight by 17%, increased root length by 59%, and root-to-shoot ratio was significantly decreased, all at 3 weeks after germination), while the opposite was true of elevated O 3 (elevated O 3 decreased the germination rate of birch by 62%, decreased seed weight by 25%, and increased root length by 15%). Under elevated CO 2 , plant dry mass increased by 9 and 78% at the end of 3 and 14 weeks, respectively. Also, the root and shoot lengths, as well as the biomass of the seedlings, were increased for seeds produced under elevated CO 2 , while the reverse was true for seedlings from seeds produced under the elevated O 3 . Similar trends in treatment differences were observed in seed characteristics, germination, and seedling development for seeds collected in both 2004 and 2005. Our results suggest that elevated CO 2 and O 3 can dramatically affect flowering, seed production, and seed quality of paper birch, affecting reproductive fitness of this species.« less

  18. Recombinant Mal d 1 facilitates sublingual challenge tests of birch pollen-allergic patients with apple allergy

    PubMed Central

    Kinaciyan, T.; Nagl, B.; Faustmann, S.; Kopp, S.; Wolkersdorfer, M.; Bohle, B.

    2015-01-01

    It is still unclear whether allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) with birch pollen improves birch pollen-related food allergy. One reason for this may be the lack of standardized tests to assess clinical reactions to birch pollen-related foods, for example apple. We tested the applicability of recombinant (r) Mal d 1, the Bet v 1-homolog in apple, for oral challenge tests. Increasing concentrations of rMal d 1 in 0.9% NaCl were sublingually administered to 72 birch pollen-allergic patients with apple allergy. The dose of 1.6 μg induced oral allergy syndromes in 26.4%, 3.2 μg in 15.3%, 6.3 μg in 27.8%, 12.5 μg in 8.3%, 25 μg in 11.1%, and 50 μg in 4.2% of the patients. No severe reactions occurred. None of the patients reacted to 0.9% NaCl alone. Sublingual administration of 50 μg of rMal d 1 induced no reactions in three nonallergic individuals. Our approach allows straight forward, dose-defined sublingual challenge tests in a high number of birch pollen-allergic patients that inter alia can be applied to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of birch pollen AIT on birch pollen-related food allergy. PMID:26443126

  19. Recombinant Mal d 1 facilitates sublingual challenge tests of birch pollen-allergic patients with apple allergy.

    PubMed

    Kinaciyan, T; Nagl, B; Faustmann, S; Kopp, S; Wolkersdorfer, M; Bohle, B

    2016-02-01

    It is still unclear whether allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) with birch pollen improves birch pollen-related food allergy. One reason for this may be the lack of standardized tests to assess clinical reactions to birch pollen-related foods, for example apple. We tested the applicability of recombinant (r) Mal d 1, the Bet v 1-homolog in apple, for oral challenge tests. Increasing concentrations of rMal d 1 in 0.9% NaCl were sublingually administered to 72 birch pollen-allergic patients with apple allergy. The dose of 1.6 μg induced oral allergy syndromes in 26.4%, 3.2 μg in 15.3%, 6.3 μg in 27.8%, 12.5 μg in 8.3%, 25 μg in 11.1%, and 50 μg in 4.2% of the patients. No severe reactions occurred. None of the patients reacted to 0.9% NaCl alone. Sublingual administration of 50 μg of rMal d 1 induced no reactions in three nonallergic individuals. Our approach allows straight forward, dose-defined sublingual challenge tests in a high number of birch pollen-allergic patients that inter alia can be applied to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of birch pollen AIT on birch pollen-related food allergy. PMID:26443126

  20. DETAIL OF TYPICAL ALUMINUM FLASHING AT THE BOTTOM OF AN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF TYPICAL ALUMINUM FLASHING AT THE BOTTOM OF AN EXTERIOR WALL AT UNIT B. VIEW FACING NORTH - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Two-Bedroom Duplex Type 1, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  1. OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR SIDE WITH UNIT B ON THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR SIDE WITH UNIT B ON THE LEFT. NOTE THE TERRACING OF THE YARD WHICH IS TYPICAL OF THE NEIGHBORHOOD. VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Three-Bedroom Duplex Type 2, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  2. OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR SIDE WITH UNIT A ON THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR SIDE WITH UNIT A ON THE RIGHT. VIEW FACING SOUTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Three-Bedroom Duplex Type 2, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  3. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE LIVING ROOM. NOTE THE SLIDING DOORS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF THE LIVING ROOM. NOTE THE SLIDING DOORS TO THE DINING ROOM ON THE LEFT. VIEW FACING NORTH - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Three-Bedroom Duplex Type 2, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  4. LANAI OF UNIT B. NOTE THE DECORATIVE PROTRUDING CONCRETE MASONRY. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LANAI OF UNIT B. NOTE THE DECORATIVE PROTRUDING CONCRETE MASONRY. VIEW FACING WEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Two-Bedroom Duplex Type 1, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  5. OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR SIDE WITH UNIT A IN FOREGROUND. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR SIDE WITH UNIT A IN FOREGROUND. NOTE THE FLOOR TO CEILING WINDOWS OF THE LIVING ROOM. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Three-Bedroom Duplex Type 3, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  6. HALL SHOWING DOORWAY TO FOYER (CENTER) WITH ENTRY DOOR IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HALL SHOWING DOORWAY TO FOYER (CENTER) WITH ENTRY DOOR IN BACKGROUND. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Three-Bedroom Duplex Type 2, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  7. OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTHWEST CORNER OF UNIT B. NOTE THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTHWEST CORNER OF UNIT B. NOTE THE TERRACING WHICH IS TYPICAL OF THE NEIGHBORHOOD. VIEW FACING SOUTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Three-Bedroom Duplex Type 3, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  8. LIVING ROOM VIEW LOOKING TOWARD THE FOYER SHOWING THE WINDOWS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LIVING ROOM VIEW LOOKING TOWARD THE FOYER SHOWING THE WINDOWS TO THE CARPORT. VIEW FACING SOUTH - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Three-Bedroom Duplex Type 2, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  9. LINEN CLOSET IN THE MASTER BEDROOM WITH BUILTIN SHELVES. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LINEN CLOSET IN THE MASTER BEDROOM WITH BUILT-IN SHELVES. VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Three-Bedroom Duplex Type 2, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  10. VIEW FROM THE BACKYARDS OF THE RESIDENCES ON THE SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM THE BACKYARDS OF THE RESIDENCES ON THE SOUTH SIDE OF BIRCH CIRCLE SHOWING CAMP H.M. SMITH RECREATIONAL FACILITIES ON THE LEFT, CLOTHESLINES TO THE RIGHT. VIEW FACING WEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  11. OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTHEAST CORNER UNIT A. NOTE THE ADDED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTHEAST CORNER UNIT A. NOTE THE ADDED OPENING WITH AIR CONDITIONER. VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Two-Bedroom Duplex Type 1, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  12. OVERVIEW OF SOUTH SIDE WITH SCALE. UNIT B IS ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF SOUTH SIDE WITH SCALE. UNIT B IS ON THE RIGHT. VIEW FACING NORTH - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Three-Bedroom Duplex Type 2, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  13. OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTHEAST CORNER OF UNIT A. VIEW FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTHEAST CORNER OF UNIT A. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Two-Bedroom Duplex Type 1, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  14. OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTHWEST CORNER UNIT A. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTHWEST CORNER UNIT A. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Three-Bedroom Duplex Type 2, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  15. OBLIQUE VIEW OF THE FRONT OF UNIT B. VIEW FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF THE FRONT OF UNIT B. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Three-Bedroom Duplex Type 2, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  16. CARPORT OF UNIT B. THE SPACE BETWEEN UNITS IS IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CARPORT OF UNIT B. THE SPACE BETWEEN UNITS IS IN THE BACKGROUND AT LEFT. VIEW FACING SOUTH - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Two-Bedroom Duplex Type 1, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  17. KITCHEN SHOWING THE COMBINATION DOOR AND CLERESTORY WINDOWS TO THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    KITCHEN SHOWING THE COMBINATION DOOR AND CLERESTORY WINDOWS TO THE LAUNDRY AREA. VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Three-Bedroom Duplex Type 2, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  18. INTERIOR VIEW OF DINING ROOM WITH PASSTHROUGH TO KITCHEN. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF DINING ROOM WITH PASS-THROUGH TO KITCHEN. NOTE THE SIDING DOORS TO THE LIVING ROOM ON RIGHT. VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Two-Bedroom Duplex Type 1, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  19. EAST SIDE OF UNIT A. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST Camp ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAST SIDE OF UNIT A. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Two-Bedroom Duplex Type 1, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  20. VIEW OF PLAYGROUND #5, IN THE BLOCK BETWEEN CEDAR DRIVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF PLAYGROUND #5, IN THE BLOCK BETWEEN CEDAR DRIVE AND BIRCH CIRCLE. VIEW FACING WEST/SOUTHWEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  1. DETAIL OF TYPICAL OVERHANGING EAVES. NOTE THE CONCRETE PARTY WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF TYPICAL OVERHANGING EAVES. NOTE THE CONCRETE PARTY WALL OF THE REAR LANAI WITH DECORATIVE MASONRY. VIEW FACING WEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Three-Bedroom Duplex Type 2, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  2. OBLIQUE VIEW OF UNIT B. THE SPACE BETWEEN UNITS IS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF UNIT B. THE SPACE BETWEEN UNITS IS ON THE RIGHT. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Two-Bedroom Duplex Type 1, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  3. OBLIQUE VIEW OF WEST SIDE OF UNIT B. VIEW FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF WEST SIDE OF UNIT B. VIEW FACING SOUTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Two-Bedroom Duplex Type 1, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  4. DETAIL OF EXTERIOR OF UNIT A LANAI WALL SHOWING THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF EXTERIOR OF UNIT A LANAI WALL SHOWING THE DECORATIVE CONCRETE MASONRY. VIEW FACING SOUTH - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Two-Bedroom Duplex Type 1, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  5. VIEW OF SHADED REAR YARD WITH CHAINLINK FENCE AND TERRACING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF SHADED REAR YARD WITH CHAINLINK FENCE AND TERRACING, BEHIND 559 BIRCH CIRCLE. VIEW FACING EAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  6. KITCHEN SHOWING THE PASSTHROUGH TO THE DINING ROOM. VIEW FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    KITCHEN SHOWING THE PASS-THROUGH TO THE DINING ROOM. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Two-Bedroom Duplex Type 1, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  7. DETAIL OF THE LOCKSET ON THE HALL LINEN CLOSET DOOR. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF THE LOCKSET ON THE HALL LINEN CLOSET DOOR. VIEW FACING SOUTH - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Two-Bedroom Duplex Type 1, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  8. FOYER AND HALL TO BEDROOMS. SHOWING THE LINEN CLOSET WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FOYER AND HALL TO BEDROOMS. SHOWING THE LINEN CLOSET WITH BUILT-IN SHELVES AT LEFT. VIEW FACING SOUTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Two-Bedroom Duplex Type 1, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  9. DETAIL OF THE DRUMSHAPED LIGHT FIXTURE IN THE FOYER. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF THE DRUM-SHAPED LIGHT FIXTURE IN THE FOYER. VIEW FACING SOUTH - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Two-Bedroom Duplex Type 1, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  10. VIEW OF SHADED REAR YARDS AND TERRACING, SHOWING REAR OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF SHADED REAR YARDS AND TERRACING, SHOWING REAR OF 527 BIRCH CIRCLE ON LEFT. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  11. BEDROOM 2 SHOWING THE SLIDING CLOSET DOORS AND WINDOWS IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BEDROOM 2 SHOWING THE SLIDING CLOSET DOORS AND WINDOWS IN THE UPPER PORTION OF THE EXTERIOR WALL. VIEW FACING NORTH - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Two-Bedroom Duplex Type 1, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  12. DETAIL OF CARPORT OF UNIT B. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF CARPORT OF UNIT B. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Three-Bedroom Duplex Type 2, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  13. MASTER BATH. VIEW FACING EAST Camp H.M. Smith and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MASTER BATH. VIEW FACING EAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Three-Bedroom Duplex Type 2, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  14. DINING ROOM SHOWING THE PASSTHROUGH TO THE KITCHEN. VIEW FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DINING ROOM SHOWING THE PASS-THROUGH TO THE KITCHEN. VIEW FACING WEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Three-Bedroom Duplex Type 2, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  15. LIVING ROOM WITH THE SLIDING DOORS TO DINING ROOM ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LIVING ROOM WITH THE SLIDING DOORS TO DINING ROOM ON THE LEFT. SHOWING THE WOOD GRILLE TO THE FOYER. VIEW FACING SOUTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Two-Bedroom Duplex Type 1, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  16. VIEW OF CRESCENTSHAPED ISLAND/MEDIAN WITH LARGE MONKEYPOD TREE AT SOUTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF CRESCENT-SHAPED ISLAND/MEDIAN WITH LARGE MONKEYPOD TREE AT SOUTHEAST “CORNER” OF BIRCH CIRCLE. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  17. DETAIL OF THE PARTIAL HEIGHT GRAPESTAKE FENCING WHICH ENCLOSES THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF THE PARTIAL HEIGHT GRAPESTAKE FENCING WHICH ENCLOSES THE LAUNDRY AREA IN THE CARPORT. VIEW FACING WEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Three-Bedroom Duplex Type 2, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  18. OVERVIEW OF NORTH SIDE WITH SCALE. UNIT B IS ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF NORTH SIDE WITH SCALE. UNIT B IS ON THE RIGHT. VIEW FACING SOUTH - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Three-Bedroom Duplex Type 3, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  19. CARPORT OF UNIT B WITH THE AREA BETWEEN UNITS TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CARPORT OF UNIT B WITH THE AREA BETWEEN UNITS TO THE RIGHT. VIEW FACING NORTH - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Two-Bedroom Duplex Type 1, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  20. BEDROOM 2 SHOWING THE CANEC PANEL CEILING AND TONGUE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BEDROOM 2 SHOWING THE CANEC PANEL CEILING AND TONGUE AND GROOVE WALL BOARDS. VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Three-Bedroom Duplex Type 2, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  1. OBLIQUE VIEW OF WEST SIDE OF UNIT B. VIEW FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF WEST SIDE OF UNIT B. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Three-Bedroom Duplex Type 3, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  2. MASTER BATH SHOWING THE LINEN CLOSET WITH BUILTIN SHELVES. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MASTER BATH SHOWING THE LINEN CLOSET WITH BUILT-IN SHELVES. NOTE THE WINDOWS IN THE UPPER PORTION OF THE EXTERIOR WALL. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Two-Bedroom Duplex Type 1, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  3. OBLIQUE VIEW OF UNIT A NORTHEAST CORNER. VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF UNIT A NORTHEAST CORNER. VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Three-Bedroom Duplex Type 3, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  4. MASTER BEDROOM SHOWING THE SLIDING CLOSET DOORS AND THE HALL. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MASTER BEDROOM SHOWING THE SLIDING CLOSET DOORS AND THE HALL. VIEW FACING SOUTH - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Three-Bedroom Duplex Type 2, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  5. OVERVIEW OF NORTH SIDE WITH SCALE. UNIT B IS ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF NORTH SIDE WITH SCALE. UNIT B IS ON THE RIGHT. VIEW FACING SOUTH - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Two-Bedroom Duplex Type 1, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  6. OBLIQUE VIEW OF UNIT A. THE SPACE BETWEEN UNITS IS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF UNIT A. THE SPACE BETWEEN UNITS IS ON THE LEFT. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Two-Bedroom Duplex Type 1, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  7. BATH 1 SHOWING THE SHOWER ENCLOSURE AND FLUSH DOOR OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BATH 1 SHOWING THE SHOWER ENCLOSURE AND FLUSH DOOR OF LINEN CLOSET. VIEW FACING SOUTH - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Three-Bedroom Duplex Type 4, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, Cedar Drive and Elm Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  8. Molecular Cloning and Expression of a New Allergen of Acacia farnesiana (Aca f 2).

    PubMed

    Sepahi, Najmeh; Khodadadi, Ali; Assarehzadegan, Mohammad-Ali; Amini, Akram; Zarinhadideh, Farnoosh; Ali-Sadeghi, Hosein

    2015-08-01

    Inhalation of pollens from different species of Acacia is a common cause of respiratory allergy in tropical areas of the world. Acacia farnesiana is commonly used as street trees in towns and ornamental shade trees in parks and gardens throughout arid and semi-arid regions of Asia. This study aimed to produce and purify the A. farnesiana pollen profilin (Aca f 2) and evaluate its nucleotide sequence homology with profilins of common allergenic plants to predict allergenic cross-reactivity. Thirty-nine patients who were allergic to Acacia pollens were included in the study. Cloning of Acacia profilin-coding sequence was performed by polymerase chain reaction using primers from Acacia pollen RNA. The cDNA of Acacia pollen profilin was then expressed in Escherichia coli using pET-21b(+) vector and purified by metal affinity chromatography. Immunoreactivity of the recombinant Acacia profilin (rAca f 2) was evaluated by specific ELISA, immunoblotting, and inhibition assays. The coding sequence of the Acacia profilin cDNA was recognized as a 399-bp open reading frame encoding 133 amino acid residues. Eighteen patients (18/39, 46.15%) had significant specific IgE levels against Aca f 2. Immunodetection and inhibition assays indicated that purified Aca f 2 might be the same as that in the crude extract. Aca f2, the first allergen from A. farnesiana pollen, was identified as belonging to the family of profilins. The amino acid sequence homology analysis showed high cross-reactivity between Aca f 2 and other profilins from botanically unrelated common allergenic plants. PMID:26547704

  9. The Importance of Acacia Trees for Insectivorous Bats and Arthropods in the Arava Desert

    PubMed Central

    Hackett, Talya D.; Korine, Carmi; Holderied, Marc W.

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic habitat modification often has a profound negative impact on the flora and fauna of an ecosystem. In parts of the Middle East, ephemeral rivers (wadis) are characterised by stands of acacia trees. Green, flourishing assemblages of these trees are in decline in several countries, most likely due to human-induced water stress and habitat changes. We examined the importance of healthy acacia stands for bats and their arthropod prey in comparison to other natural and artificial habitats available in the Arava desert of Israel. We assessed bat activity and species richness through acoustic monitoring for entire nights and concurrently collected arthropods using light and pit traps. Dense green stands of acacia trees were the most important natural desert habitat for insectivorous bats. Irrigated gardens and parks in villages and fields of date palms had high arthropod levels but only village sites rivalled acacia trees in bat activity level. We confirmed up to 13 bat species around a single patch of acacia trees; one of the richest sites in any natural desert habitat in Israel. Some bat species utilised artificial sites; others were found almost exclusively in natural habitats. Two rare species (Barbastella leucomelas and Nycteris thebaica) were identified solely around acacia trees. We provide strong evidence that acacia trees are of unique importance to the community of insectivorous desert-dwelling bats, and that the health of the trees is crucial to their value as a foraging resource. Consequently, conservation efforts for acacia habitats, and in particular for the green more densely packed stands of trees, need to increase to protect this vital habitat for an entire community of protected bats. PMID:23441145

  10. Acacia mangium: Growing and utilization. MPTS monograph series No. 3

    SciTech Connect

    Awang, K.; Taylor, D.

    1993-01-01

    With deforestation in the Asia-Pacific region progressing at the rate of 4.4 million ha per year, many countries have adopted plantation forestry using fast-growing species as a way to sustain the commercial supply of tree products and reduce pressure on natural forests. Acacia mangium (A. mangium) is playing a large role in this development, especially in Indonesia and Malaysia, due to its versatility and its ability to recapture grasslands dominated by the noxious weed, Imperata cylindrica. This monograph consolidates information on A. mangium from published literature, unpublished reports and studies, and observations from those familiar with the species. Priorities for future research are included in each chapter and in the final summary.

  11. Cytotoxic lupane-type triterpenoids from Acacia mellifera.

    PubMed

    Mutai, Charles; Abatis, Dennis; Vagias, Constantinos; Moreau, Dimitri; Roussakis, Christos; Roussis, Vassilios

    2004-04-01

    One new and eight previously described lupane-type metabolites were isolated for the first time from Acacia mellifera (Leguminosae). Based on spectral analyses, the structure of the new compound was elucidated as 28-hydroxy-3-oxo-lup-20-(29)-en-30-al (1), while the known compounds were identified as 3-oxo-lup-20-(29)-en-30-al (2), 3-hydroxy-lup-20-(29)-en-30-al (3), 28-hydroxy-lup-20-(29)-en-3-one (4), lupenone (5), lupeol (6), betulin (7), betulinic acid (8), and betulonic acid (9). Metabolites 2, 3, and 4 are reported for the first time in the Leguminosae family. The cytotoxicity of the isolated metabolites was evaluated on the NSCLC-N6 cell line, derived from a human non-small-cell bronchopulmonary carcinoma. Compounds 1 and 3 exhibited significant levels of activity. PMID:15110698

  12. Lupane triterpenoids from Acacia mellifera with cytotoxic activity.

    PubMed

    Mutai, Charles; Abatis, Dennis; Vagias, Constantinos; Moreau, Dimitri; Roussakis, Christos; Roussis, Vassilios

    2007-01-01

    Three new pentacyclic triterpenoids: (20R)-3-oxolupan-30-al (1), (20S)-3-oxolupan-30-al (2) and (20R)-28-hydroxylupen-30-al-3-one (3), along with (20S)-3beta-hydroxylupan-30-al (4), the latter previously described as a constituent of an epimeric mixture, were isolated from Acacia mellifera. In addition, the known metabolites 30-hydroxylup-20-(29)-en-3-one (5), 30-hydroxylup-20-(29)-en-3beta-ol (6), atranorin, methyl 2,4-dihydroxy-3,6 dimethyl benzoate, sitosterol-3beta-O-glucoside and linoleic acid were found in the analyzed plant species for the first time. The structures of the new metabolites were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses and their relative stereochemistry was determined by NOESY experiments. The new metabolite 3 exhibited significant cytotoxic activity against the NSCLC-N6 cell line, derived from a human non-small-cell bronchopulmonary carcinoma. PMID:17873838

  13. Antigenotoxic activities of crude extracts from Acacia salicina leaves.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Hédi B; Boubaker, Jihed; Bouhlel, Inès; Mahmoud, Amor; Bernillon, Stéphane; Chibani, Jemni B; Ghedira, Kamel; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila

    2007-01-01

    For centuries, plants have been used in traditional medicines and there has been recent interest in the chemopreventive properties of compounds derived from plants. In the present study, we investigated the effects of extracts of Acacia salicina leaves on the genotoxicity of benzo[a]pyrene (B(a)P) and nifuroxazide in the SOS Chromotest. Aqueous, total oligomers flavonoids (TOF)-enriched, petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts were prepared from powdered Acacia leaves, and characterized qualitatively for the presence of tannins, flavonoids, and sterols. All the extracts significantly decreased the genotoxicity induced by 1 microg B(a)P (+S9) and 10 microg nifuroxazide (-S9). The TOF-enriched and methanol extracts decreased the SOS response induced by B(a)P to a greater extent, whereas the TOF-enriched and the ethyl acetate extracts exhibited increased activity against the SOS response produced by nifuroxazide. In addition, the aqueous, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts showed increased activity in scavenging the 1,1-diphenyl- 2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical, while 100-300 microg/ml of all the test extracts were active in inhibiting O2-production in a xanthine/xanthine oxidase system. In contrast, only the petroleum ether extract was effective at inhibiting nitroblue tetrazolium reduction by the superoxide radical in a nonenzymatic O2- -generating system. The present study indicates that extracts of A. salicina leaves are a significant source of compounds with antigenotoxic and antioxidant activity (most likely phenolic compounds and sterols), and thus may be useful for chemoprevention. PMID:17177209

  14. Effect of acacia honey on cultured rabbit corneal keratocytes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Acacia honey is a natural product which has proven to have therapeutic effects on skin wound healing, but its potential healing effects in corneal wound healing have not been studied. This study aimed to explore the effects of Acacia honey (AH) on corneal keratocytes morphology, proliferative capacity, cell cycle, gene and protein analyses. Keratocytes from the corneal stroma of six New Zealand white rabbits were isolated and cultured until passage 1. The optimal dose of AH in the basal medium (FD) and medium containing serum (FDS) for keratocytes proliferation was identified using MTT assay. The morphological changes, gene and protein expressions of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), marker for quiescent keratocytes and vimentin, marker for fibroblasts were detected using q-RTPCR and immunocytochemistry respectively. Flowcytometry was performed to evaluate the cell cycle analysis of corneal keratocytes. Results Cultured keratocytes supplemented with AH showed no morphological changes compared to control. Keratocytes cultured in FD and FDS media supplemented with 0.025% AH showed optimal proliferative potential compared with FD and FDS media, respectively. Gene expressions of ADLH and vimentin were increased in keratocytes cultured with AH enriched media. All proteins were expressed in keratocytes cultured in all media in accordance to the gene expression findings. No chromosomal changes were detected in keratocytes in AH enriched media. Conclusion Corneal keratocytes cultured in media supplemented with 0.025% AH showed an increase in proliferative capacity while retaining their morphology, gene and protein expressions with normal cell cycle. The results of the present study show promising role of AH role in accelerating the initial stage of corneal wound healing. PMID:24885607

  15. Influence of halophytic hosts on their parasites—the case of Plicosepalus acaciae

    PubMed Central

    Veste, Maik; Todt, Henning; Breckle, Siegmar-W.

    2015-01-01

    Halophytes develop various morphological and physiological traits that enable them to grow successfully on saline substrates. Parasitic plants on halophytic hosts may also encounter salt stress. We investigated the mistletoe Plicosepalus acaciae (syn: Loranthus acacia; Loranthaceae), which occurs on 5 halophytic and at least 10 non-halophytic hosts in the Southern Arava Valley (Israel). Plicosepalus acaciae is a common parasite north of Eilat to the Dead Sea area and in the Jordan Valley. Morphological and physiological responses of P. acaciae to salinity were investigated by comparison of plants on halophytic with those on non-halophytic hosts. Ion patterns of different host–parasite associations were determined as was the development of leaf succulence at different growth stages. The leaf water content of P. acaciae increased and leaves developed succulence when growing on halophytic hosts, especially on Tamarix species, where leaf water content was three times higher than that on non-halophytic hosts and the leaf volume increased four to five times. The reason for increased succulence was a higher ion concentration of, and osmotic adjustment with, Na+ and Cl−. Plicosepalus acaciae showed a high morphological and ecophysiological plasticity, enabling it to cope with salt stress, and can be classified as a facultative eu-halophyte, which increases its halo-succulence according to the host. Host–parasite associations are a model system for the investigation of halophytes under different salt stress conditions. PMID:25515726

  16. Biological activities of some Acacia spp. (Fabaceae) against new clinical isolates identified by ribosomal RNA gene-based phylogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Mahmoud Fawzy; Alrumman, Sulaiman Abdullah; Hesham, Abd El-Latif

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays,most of the pathogenic bacteria become resistant to antibiotics. Therefore,the pharmaceutical properties of the natural plant extracts have become of interest to researchers as alternative antimicrobial agents. In this study,antibacterial activities of extract gained from Acacia etbaica, Acacia laeta, Acacia origena and Acacia pycnantha have been evaluated against isolated pathogenic bacteria (Strains MFM-01, MFM-10 and AH-09) using agar well diffusion methods.The bacterial strains were isolated from infected individuals,and their exact identification was detected on the basis of 16S rRNA gene amplification and sequence determination. Alignment results and the comparison of 16 SrRN A gene sequences of the isolates to 16 SrRN A gene sequences available in Gen Bank data base as well as the phylogenetic analysis confirmed the accurate position of the isolates as Klebsiella oxytoca strain MFM-01, Staphylococcus aureus strain MFM-10 and Klebsiella pneumoniae strain AH-09. Except for cold water, all tested solvents (Chloroform, petroleum ether, methanol, diethyl ether, and acetone) showed variation in their activity against studied bacteria. GC-MS analysis of ethanol extracts showed that four investigated Acacia species have different phyto components. Eight important pharmaceutical components were found in the legume of Acacia etbaica, seven in the legume of Acacia laeta, fifteen in the legume of Acacia origena and nine in the leaves of Acacia pycnantha. A dendrogram was constructed based on chemical composition, revealed that Acacia laeta is more closely related to Acacia etbaica forming on eclade, whereas Acacia origena less similar to other species. Our results demonstrated that, investigated plants and chemical compounds present could be used as promising antibacterial agents. PMID:26826814

  17. 2. Big Creek Road, worm fence and road at trailhead. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Big Creek Road, worm fence and road at trailhead. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Big Creek Road, Between State Route 284 & Big Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  18. Development of SSR Markers and Genetic Diversity in White Birch (Betula platyphylla)

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Wei; Wang, Shengji; Liu, Huajing; Zhou, Boru; Wang, Xinwang; Jiang, Tingbo

    2015-01-01

    In order to study genetic diversity of white birch (Betula platyphylla), 544 primer pairs were designed based on the genome-wide Solexa sequences. Among them, 215 primer pairs showed polymorphism between five genotypes and 111 primer pairs that presented clear visible bands in genotyping 41 white birch plants that were collected from 6 different geographical regions. A total of 717 alleles were obtained at 111 loci with a range of 2 to 12 alleles per locus. The results of statistic analysis showed that polymorphic frequency of the alleles ranged from 17% to 100% with a mean of 55.85%; polymorphism information content (PIC) of the loci was from 0.09 to 0.58 with a mean of 0.30; and gene diversity between the tested genotypes was from 0.01 to 0.66 with a mean of 0.36. The results also indicated that major allele frequency ranged from 0.39 to 1.00 with an mean of 0.75; expected heterozygosity from 0.22 to 0.54 with a mean of 0.46; observed heterozygosity from 0.02 to 0.95 with a mean of 0.26; Nei's index from 0.21 to 0.54 with a mean of 0.46; and Shannon's Information from 0.26 to 0.87 with a mean of 0.66. The 41 white birch genotypes at the 111 selected SSR loci showed low to moderate similarity (0.025-0.610), indicating complicated genetic diversity among the white birch collections. The UPGMA-based clustering analysis of the allelic constitution of 41 white birch genotypes at 111 SSR loci suggested that the six different geographical regions can be further separated into four clusters at a similarity coefficient of 0.22. Genotypes from Huanren and Liangshui provenances were grouped into Cluster I, genotypes from Xiaobeihu and Qingyuan provenances into Cluster II, genotypes from Finland provenance into Cluster III, and genotypes from Maoershan into Cluster IV. The information provided in this study could help for genetic improvement and germplasm conservation, evaluation and utilization in white birch tree breeding program. PMID:25923698

  19. A prospective study comparing the efficacy and safety of two sublingual birch allergen preparations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background SUBLIVAC FIX Birch (SUB-B) is a liquid oral preparation of Betula verrucosa pollen extract for the treatment of allergic rhinitis/rhinoconjuctivitis induced by birch pollen. The major allergen content of SUB-B and Staloral Birch (Stal-B) have been shown to be comparable. In order to compare the clinical efficacy and safety of both products, the present study was designed to investigate efficacy of treatment with SUB-B compared to Stal-B by means of reduction in allergy symptoms assessed by a titrated nasal provocation test (TNPT) in subjects suffering from IgE mediated allergy complaints triggered by birch pollen. Methods A prospective, randomized, open, blinded endpoint (PROBE), controlled, single-centre study in 74 birch allergic adults was performed. Treatment consisted of either SUB-B (10,000 AUN/ml) or Stal-B (initial phase 10 I.R./ml and maintenance phase 300 I.R./ml) for 16–20 weeks at maintenance dose. The primary efficacy outcome was defined by the difference in change of the TNPT-threshold dose between the two treatment groups at baseline and after completion of treatment. Secondary outcomes included determination of birch pollen specific IgE and IgG levels, safety lab and ECG. During the first 30 days of treatment, subjects were requested to fill out a diary concerning compliance with study medication, occurrence of AEs and the use of concomitant medication. Results Analysis of the primary efficacy parameter showed that the percentage of subjects showing a beneficial treatment effect was similar in both treatment groups, 33.3% for SUB-B vs. 31.4% for Stal-B in the intention to treat population. Evaluation of the immunologic response, showed that treatment with SUB-B and Stal-B induced similar increases (approximately 2 times) in IgE, IgG and IgG4 specific for Bet v 1. In total, 143 related adverse events (AEs) were reported. The majority of the AEs was of mild intensity. The same pattern of AEs was observed for both products. No clinically

  20. Biogeography of Alaska paper birch (Betula neoalaskana): latitudinal patterns in chemical defense and plant architecture.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Michael T; Brown, Sarah C; Bothwell, Helen M; Bryant, John P

    2016-02-01

    The latitudinal herbivory-defense hypothesis (LHDH) predicts that plants near the equator will be more heavily defended against herbivores than are plants at higher latitudes. Although this idea is widely found in the literature, recent studies have called this biogeographic pattern into question. We sought to evaluate the LHDH in a high-latitude terrestrial ecosystem where fire and mammalian herbivores may contribute to selection for higher levels of defensive chemistry. To address this objective, we collected seeds of Alaska paper birch (Betula neoalaskana) from nine locations along two north-south transects between 55 degrees N and 62 degrees N latitudes in western, interior Canada. The birch seeds were planted in pots in a common garden in Madison, Wisconsin, USA. From the resulting seedlings, we determined levels of chemical defense by assessing the density of resin glands, which have been shown to be negatively correlated with browsing. To assess plant architectural traits such as height, mean individual leaf area, and root-to-shoot ratio, we harvested a subset of the birch seedlings. Further, we used these traits to examine growth-defense trade-offs. Contrary to the LHDH, we found a positive correlation between chemical defense and latitude. Investigating relationships with fire, we found a strong positive correlation between resin gland density and percentage of area annually burned (PAAB) around each collection location and also between PAAB and latitude. Additionally, birch seedlings originating from higher latitudes were shorter, smaller-leaved, and rootier than their lower-latitude counterparts. Growth-defense trade-offs were observed in negative correlations between resin gland density and height and leaf size. Seedlings with higher resin gland densities also allocated less biomass to shoots and more to roots. These results further call into question the LHDH and provide specific information about latitudinal trends in plant defense at high, northern

  1. Development of SSR Markers and Genetic Diversity in White Birch (Betula platyphylla).

    PubMed

    Hao, Wei; Wang, Shengji; Liu, Huajing; Zhou, Boru; Wang, Xinwang; Jiang, Tingbo

    2015-01-01

    In order to study genetic diversity of white birch (Betula platyphylla), 544 primer pairs were designed based on the genome-wide Solexa sequences. Among them, 215 primer pairs showed polymorphism between five genotypes and 111 primer pairs that presented clear visible bands in genotyping 41 white birch plants that were collected from 6 different geographical regions. A total of 717 alleles were obtained at 111 loci with a range of 2 to 12 alleles per locus. The results of statistic analysis showed that polymorphic frequency of the alleles ranged from 17% to 100% with a mean of 55.85%; polymorphism information content (PIC) of the loci was from 0.09 to 0.58 with a mean of 0.30; and gene diversity between the tested genotypes was from 0.01 to 0.66 with a mean of 0.36. The results also indicated that major allele frequency ranged from 0.39 to 1.00 with an mean of 0.75; expected heterozygosity from 0.22 to 0.54 with a mean of 0.46; observed heterozygosity from 0.02 to 0.95 with a mean of 0.26; Nei's index from 0.21 to 0.54 with a mean of 0.46; and Shannon's Information from 0.26 to 0.87 with a mean of 0.66. The 41 white birch genotypes at the 111 selected SSR loci showed low to moderate similarity (0.025-0.610), indicating complicated genetic diversity among the white birch collections. The UPGMA-based clustering analysis of the allelic constitution of 41 white birch genotypes at 111 SSR loci suggested that the six different geographical regions can be further separated into four clusters at a similarity coefficient of 0.22. Genotypes from Huanren and Liangshui provenances were grouped into Cluster I, genotypes from Xiaobeihu and Qingyuan provenances into Cluster II, genotypes from Finland provenance into Cluster III, and genotypes from Maoershan into Cluster IV. The information provided in this study could help for genetic improvement and germplasm conservation, evaluation and utilization in white birch tree breeding program. PMID:25923698

  2. Influence of Biomass Pretreatment Process Time on Furfural Extraction from Birch Wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brazdausks, Prans; Puke, Maris; Vedernikovs, Nikolajs; Kruma, Irena

    2013-12-01

    Furfural is a biomass derived-chemical that can be used to replace petrochemicals. In this study, dilute sulphuric acid hydrolysis was used for hemicelluloses secession from birch wood. The reaction was investigated at different biomass treatment times (10-90 min, increasing it by 10 min). We found that the greatest amount of furfural 1.4-2.6%, which is 9.7-17.7% from theoretical possible yield, was formed in the first 30 min of the beginning of birch wood pentoses monosaccharide dehydration, but the greatest yield of furfural 10.3%, which is 70.0% from the theoretical yield, can be obtained after 90 min. Given that furfural yield generally does not exceed 50% from the theoretical amount, the result can be considered as very good.

  3. Effect of Different Pretreatment Methods on Birch Outer Bark: New Biorefinery Routes.

    PubMed

    Karnaouri, Anthi; Rova, Ulrika; Christakopoulos, Paul

    2016-01-01

    A comparative study among different pretreatment methods used for the fractionation of the birch outer bark components, including steam explosion, hydrothermal and organosolv treatments based on the use of ethanol/water media, is reported. The residual solid fractions have been characterized by ATR-FTIR, (13)C-solid-state NMR and morphological alterations after pretreatment were detected by scanning electron microscopy. The general chemical composition of the untreated and treated bark including determination of extractives, suberin, lignin and monosaccharides was also studied. Composition of the residual solid fraction and relative proportions of different components, as a function of the processing conditions, could be established. Organosolv treatment produces a suberin-rich solid fraction, while during hydrothermal and steam explosion treatment cleavage of polysaccharide bonds occurs. This work will provide a deeper fundamental knowledge of the bark chemical composition, thus increasing the utilization efficiency of birch outer bark and may create possibilities to up-scale the fractionation processes. PMID:27043513

  4. Pharmacological evidence of neuro-pharmacological activity of Acacia tortilis leaves in mice.

    PubMed

    Alharbi, Waheeb D M; Azmat, Aisha

    2016-08-01

    Acacia tortilis is abundantly present in Saudi Arabia but its neuro-pharmacological activity has not yet been evaluated. In this study, the antidepressant by Forced swim test, Anxiolytic (Light and Dark box) and sedative effects (by using Open Field) of Acacia leaves extract were evaluated in mice. Aqueous extracts of the Acacia tortilis leaves were prepared. Two different doses (400 and 800 mg/kg) of the extracts were administered to the mice orally (p.o.). In exploratory behavior, Acacia leave extract (800 mg/kg) produced a significant reduction (Veh, 91.00 ± 5.26; Acacia 800 mg/kg, 46.33 ± 3.24 p < 0.05) similar to the effect observed with chlorpromazine (CPZ) (Veh, 91.00 ± 5.26; CPZ 1.0 mg/kg, 24.20 ± 3.40 p < 0.05). A dose-dependent significant decrease in immobility time was also observed in mice and this effect was comparable to its positive control (Imipramine). However, In light-dark box test, mice treated with high dose (800 mg/kg/day) spent significant (p < 0.05) time on the light side of the light-dark box similar to positive control DZP. (Veh, 114.40 ± 6.30 s; Acacia 800 mg/kg, 162.2 ± 14.9; DZP 1.0 mg/kg, 184.20 ± 9.24 p < 0.05). The present research propounded that Acacia tortilis leave extract contains some active ingredients with potential anxiolytic activity at low doses and antidepressant and sedative activity at high doses. PMID:27025511

  5. BpMADS4 has a central role in inflorescence initiation in silver birch (Betula pendula).

    PubMed

    Elo, Annakaisa; Lemmetyinen, Juha; Novak, Anu; Keinonen, Kaija; Porali, Ilkka; Hassinen, Minna; Sopanen, Tuomas

    2007-09-01

    Acceleration of flowering would be beneficial for breeding trees with a long juvenile phase; conversely, inhibition of flowering would prevent the spread of transgenes from the genetically modified trees. We have previously isolated and characterized several MADS genes from silver birch (Betula pendula Roth). In this study, we investigated the more detailed function of one of them, BpMADS4, a member of the APETALA1/FRUITFULL group of MADS genes. The expression of BpMADS4 starts at very early stage of the male and female inflorescence development and the activity is high in the apex of the developing inflorescence. Later, some expression is detected in the bracts and in the flower initials. Ectopic expression of BpMADS4 accelerates flowering dramatically in normally flowering clones and also in the early-flowering birch clone, in which the earliest line flowered about 11 days after rooting, when the saplings were only 3 cm high. The birches transformed with the BpMADS4 antisense construct showed remarkable delay in flowering and the number of flowering individuals was reduced. Two of the transformed lines did not show any signs of flower development during our 2-year study, whereas all the control plants formed inflorescences within 107 days. Our results show that BpMADS4 has a critical role in the initiation of birch inflorescence development and that BpMADS4 seems to be involved in the transition from vegetative to reproductive development. Therefore, BpMADS4 provides a promising tool for the genetic enhancement of forest trees. PMID:18251933

  6. Determining the Composition of Lignins in Different Tissues of Silver Birch

    PubMed Central

    Fagerstedt, Kurt V.; Saranpää, Pekka; Tapanila, Tarja; Immanen, Juha; Alonso Serra, Juan Antonio; Nieminen, Kaisa

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative and qualitative lignin analyses were carried out on material from the trunks of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) trees. Two types of material were analyzed. First, whole birch trunk pieces were cryosectioned into cork cambium, non-conductive phloem, the cambial zone (conductive phloem, cambium and differentiating xylem), lignified xylem and the previous year’s xylem; material that would show differences in lignin amount and quality. Second, clonal material from one natural birch population was analyzed to show variations between individuals and between the lignin analysis methods. The different tissues showed marked differences in lignin amount and the syringyl:guaiacyl (S/G) ratio. In the non-conductive phloem tissue containing sclereids, the S/G ratio was very low, and typical for phloem fibers and in the newly-formed xylem, as well as in the previous year’s xylem, the ratio lay between five and seven, typical for broadleaf tree xylem. Clonal material consisting of 88 stems was used to calculate the S/G ratios from the thioacidolysis and CuO methods, which correlated positively with an R2 value of 0.43. Comparisons of the methods indicate clearly that the CuO method is a good alternative to study the monomeric composition and S/G ratio of wood lignins. PMID:27135322

  7. In vitro pollen responses of two birch species to acidity and temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, R.N.; Cox, R.M.

    1993-10-01

    Paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) and mountain paper birch (Betula cordifolia Regel) near the Bay of Fundy coast frequently intercept acidic advection marine fogs. Chemical deposition by these fogs is thought to be a factor contributing to the observed foliar browning symptoms associated with a marked deterioration of these trees in the area. In vitro experiments were performed to test whether pollen germination in these two birch species would be affected by acidity at levels routinely found in the fog. The combined effect of temperature with acidity was also examined. Pollen germination in both species was inhibited below pH 5.6 (P < 0.0001) and the effect of incubation temperature was also significant (P < 0.01) in both species. There was no difference in in vitro pollen germination between species (P > 0.05) in response to acidity, based on combined data from 12 trees of each; the optimum germination temperature was 22{degrees}C for B. papyrifera and 21{degrees}C for B. cordifolia.

  8. Mountain birch - potentially large source of sesquiterpenes into high latitude atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haapanala, S.; Ekberg, A.; Hakola, H.; Tarvainen, V.; Rinne, J.; Hellén, H.; Arneth, A.

    2009-11-01

    Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from mountain birches were measured in Abisko, northern Sweden. Mountain birches make up the majority of the tree biomass in Scandinavian high latitudes, a region subject to significant climate warming. The measurements were carried out in two growing seasons. The emissions of four branches, each from a different individual tree, were measured in June-August 2006 and one of them again in July 2007. The measurements were conducted using a dynamic flow through chamber covered with Teflon film. The studied mountain birches were found to emit substantial amounts of linalool, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. The monoterpene emission was dominated by sabinene. The magnitude and composition of the sesquiterpene emission changed dramatically between the years. For example, the average α-farnesene emission potential in 2006 was almost 2600 ng gdw-1 h-1 (3.5 pmol gdw-1 s-1) while in 2007 α-farnesene was not detected at all. Also the emissions of other sesquiterpenes decreased in 2007 to a fraction of that in 2006. One possible explanation for the change in emissions is the herbivory damage that occurred in the area in 2004. Herbivory is known to enhance the emissions of sesquiterpenes, especially those of α-farnesene, and the effect may last for several years.

  9. Mountain birch - potentially large source of sesquiterpenes into high latitude atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haapanala, S.; Ekberg, A.; Hakola, H.; Tarvainen, V.; Rinne, J.; Hellén, H.; Arneth, A.

    2009-06-01

    Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from mountain birches were measured in Abisko, northern Sweden. Mountain birches make up majority of the tree biomass in Scandinavian high latitudes, area subject to significant climate warming. The measurements were carried out in two growing seasons. The emissions of a branch from four individual trees were measured in June-August 2006 and one of them again in July 2007. The measurements were conducted using a dynamic flow through chamber covered with Teflon film. The studied mountain birches were found to emit substantial amounts of linalool, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. The monoterpene emission was dominated by sabinene. The magnitude and composition of sesquiterpene emission changed dramatically between the years. For example, the average α-farnesene emission in 2006 was almost 2000 ng gdw-1 h-1 while in 2007 the emission of α-farnesene was negligible. Also the emissions of other sesquiterpenes decreased in 2007 to a fraction of that in 2006. One possible explanation for the change in emissions is the herbivory damage that occurred in the area in 2004. Herbivory is known to enhance the emissions of sesquiterpenes, especially those of α-farnesene, and the effect may last several years.

  10. Lipid transfer protein in diagnosis of birch-apple syndrome in children.

    PubMed

    Cudowska, Beata; Kaczmarski, Maciej; Restani, Patrizia

    2008-01-01

    Lipid transfer protein (LTP) has been reported as an important allergen inducing severe systemic reactions in allergic subjects. The aim of the present study was to estimate the role of LTP in diagnosis of apple allergy in children allergic to birch pollen. The prospective study was carried out on a group of 21 children sensitized to birch pollen and apple allergens, confirmed by presence of specific IgE in the sera of patients. Allergens separated by electrophoresis were probed by Western blotting using hypersensitive patients' sera. Food hypersensitivity to apple was verified by oral food challenge test. Six patients' sera were hypersensitive to birch pollen and apple proteins. Almost all sera recognized specifically the main allergen of apple peal Mal d 3 with molecular weight <10kDa (LTP). Positive oral challenge to apple was found in 52.4% of investigated children. Children allergic to Mal d 1 presented different clinical symptoms. Sensitization to Mal d 3 is very common in children with apple allergy. No correlation between clinical symptoms and sensitization to recombinant apple allergens has been found, LTP may be useful in diagnosis of apple allergy. PMID:18241693

  11. Drying and wetting of Mediterranean soils stimulates decomposition and carbon dioxide emission: the "Birch effect".

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Paul; Rey, Ana; Petsikos, Charalampos; Wingate, Lisa; Rayment, Mark; Pereira, João; Banza, João; David, Jorge; Miglietta, Franco; Borghetti, Marco; Manca, Giovanni; Valentini, Riccardo

    2007-07-01

    Observations on the net carbon exchange of forests in the European Mediterranean region, measured recently by the eddy covariance method, have revived interest in a phenomenon first characterized on agricultural and forest soils in East Africa in the 1950s and 1960s by H. F. Birch and now often referred to as the "Birch effect." When soils become dry during summer because of lack of rain, as is common in regions with Mediterranean climate, or are dried in the laboratory in controlled conditions, and are then rewetted by precipitation or irrigation, there is a burst of decomposition, mineralization and release of inorganic nitrogen and CO(2). In forests in Mediterranean climates in southern Europe, this effect has been observed with eddy covariance techniques and soil respiration chambers at the stand and small plot scales, respectively. Following the early work of Birch, laboratory incubations of soils at controlled temperatures and water contents have been used to characterize CO(2) release following the rewetting of dry soils. A simple empirical model based on laboratory incubations demonstrates that the amount of carbon mineralized over one year can be predicted from soil temperature and precipitation regime, provided that carbon lost as CO(2) is taken into account. We show that the amount of carbon returned to the atmosphere following soil rewetting can reduce significantly the annual net carbon gain by Mediterranean forests. PMID:17403645

  12. Termites, vertebrate herbivores, and the fruiting success of Acacia drepanolobium.

    PubMed

    Brody, Alison K; Palmer, Todd M; Fox-Dobbs, Kena; Doak, Dan F

    2010-02-01

    In African savannas, vertebrate herbivores are often identified as key determinants of plant growth, survivorship, and reproduction. However, plant reproduction is likely to be the product of responses to a suite of abiotic and biotic factors, including nutrient availability and interactions with antagonists and mutualists. In a relatively simple system, we examined the role of termites (which act as ecosystem engineers--modifying physical habitat and creating islands of high soil fertility), vertebrate herbivores, and symbiotic ants, on the fruiting success of a dominant plant, Acacia drepanolobium, in East African savannas. Using observational data, large-scale experimental manipulations, and analysis of foliar N, we found that Acacia drepanolobium trees growing at the edge of termite mounds were more likely to reproduce than those growing farther away, in off-mound soils. Although vertebrate herbivores preferentially used termite mounds as demonstrated by dung deposits, long-term exclusion of mammalian grazers did not significantly reduce A. drepanolobium fruit production. Leaf N was significantly greater in trees growing next to mounds than in those growing farther away, and this pattern was unaffected by exclusion of vertebrates. Thus, soil enrichment by termites, rather than through dung and urine deposition by large herbivores, is of primary importance to fruit production near mounds. Across all mound-herbivore treatment combinations, trees that harbored Crematogaster sjostedti were more likely to fruit than those that harbored one of the other three ant species. Although C. sjostedti is less aggressive than the other ants, it tends to inhabit large, old trees near termite mounds which are more likely to fruit than smaller ones. Termites play a key role in generating patches of nutrient-rich habitat important to the reproductive success of A. drepanolobium in East African savannas. Enhanced nutrient acquisition from termite mounds appears to allow plants to

  13. Molecular characterization of a cellulose synthase gene (AaxmCesA1) isolated from an Acacia auriculiformis x Acacia mangium hybrid.

    PubMed

    Yong, Seok Yien Christina; Wickneswari, Ratnam

    2013-01-01

    Cellulose is the major component of plant cell walls, providing mechanical strength to the structural framework of plants. In association with lignin, hemicellulose, protein and pectin, cellulose forms the strong yet flexible bio-composite tissue of wood. Wood formation is an essential biological process and is of significant importance to the cellulosic private sector industry. Cellulose synthase genes encode the catalytic subunits of a large protein complex responsible for the biogenesis of cellulose in higher plants. The hybrid Acacia auriculiformis x Acacia mangium represents an important source of tree cellulose for forest-based product manufacturing, with enormous economic potential. In this work, we isolate the first cellulose synthase gene, designated AaxmCesA1, from this species. The isolated full-length AaxmCesA1 cDNA encodes a polypeptide of 1,064 amino acids. Sequence analyses revealed that AaxmCesA1 cDNA possesses the key motif characteristics of a CesA protein. AaxmCesA1 shares more than 75 % amino acid sequence identity with CesA proteins from other plant species. Subsequently, the full-length AaxmCesA1 gene of 7,389 bp with partial regulatory and 13 intron regions was also isolated. Relative gene expression analysis by quantitative PCR in different tissues of the Acacia hybrid, suggests the involvement of the AaxmCesA1 gene in primary cell wall synthesis of rapidly dividing young root cells. Similarity analyses using Blast algorithms also suggests a role in primary cell wall deposition in the Acacia hybrid. Southern analysis predicts that AaxmCesA1 is a member of a multigene family with at least two isoforms in the genome of the Acacia hybrid. PMID:24415841

  14. Isolation and characterization of CCoAOMT in interspecific hybrid of Acacia auriculiformis x Acacia mangium--a key gene in lignin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Pang, S L; Ong, S S; Lee, H H; Zamri, Z; Kandasamy, K I; Choong, C Y; Wickneswari, R

    2014-01-01

    This study was directed at the understanding of the function of CCoAOMT isolated from Acacia auriculiformis x Acacia mangium. Full length cDNA of the Acacia hybrid CCoAOMT (AhCCoAOMT) was 1024-bp long, containing 750-bp coding regions, with one major open reading frame of 249 amino acids. On the other hand, full length genomic sequence of the CCoAOMT (AhgflCCoAOMT) was 2548 bp long, containing three introns and four exons with a 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) of 391 bp in length. The 5'UTR of the characterized CCoAOMT gene contains various regulatory elements. Southern analysis revealed that the Acacia hybrid has more than three copies of the CCoAOMT gene. Real-time PCR showed that this gene was expressed in root, inner bark, leaf, flower and seed pod of the Acacia hybrid. Downregulation of the homologous CCoAOMT gene in tobacco by antisense (AS) and intron-containing hairpin (IHP) constructs containing partial AhCCoAOMT led to reduction in lignin content. Expression of the CCoAOMT in AS line (pART-HAS78-03) and IHP line (pART-HIHP78-06) was reduced respectively by 37 and 75% compared to the control, resulting in a decrease in the estimated lignin content by 24 and 56%, respectively. AhCCoAOMT was found to have altered not only S and G units but also total lignin content, which is of economic value to the pulp industry. Subsequent polymorphism analysis of this gene across eight different genetic backgrounds each of A. mangium and A. auriculiformis revealed 47 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in A. auriculiformis CCoAOMT and 30 SNPs in A. mangium CCoAOMT. PMID:25222227

  15. Acacia-gelatin microencapsulated liposomes: preparation, stability, and release of acetylsalicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Dong, C; Rogers, J A

    1993-01-01

    Liposomes of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) containing acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) have been microencapsulated by acacia-gelatin using the complex coacervation technique as a potential oral drug delivery system. The encapsulation efficiency of ASA was unaltered by the microencapsulation process. The stability of the microencapsulated liposomes in sodium cholate solutions at pH 5.6 was much greater than the corresponding liposomes. The optimum composition and conditions for stability and ASA release were 3.0% acacia-gelatin and a 1- to 2-hr formaldehyde hardening time. Approximately 25% ASA was released in the first 6 hr from microencapsulated liposomes at 23 degrees C and the kinetics followed matrix-controlled release (Q varies; is directly proportional to t1/2). At 37 degrees C, this increased to 75% released in 30 min followed by a slow constant release, likely due to lowering of the phase transition temperature of DPPC by the acacia-gelatin to near 37 degrees C. At both temperatures, the release from control liposomes was even more rapid. Hardening times of 4 hr and an acacia-gelatin concentration of 5% resulted in a lower stability of liposomes and a faster release of ASA. It is concluded that under appropriate conditions the microencapsulation of liposomes by acacia-gelatin may increase their potential as an oral drug delivery system. PMID:8430052

  16. Antiatherosclerotic and Cardioprotective Potential of Acacia senegal Seeds in Diet-Induced Atherosclerosis in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Ram, Heera; Jatwa, Rameshwar; Purohit, Ashok

    2014-01-01

    Acacia senegal L. (Fabaceae) seeds are essential ingredient of “Pachkutta,” a specific Rajasthani traditional food. The present study explored antiatherosclerotic and cardioprotective potential of Acacia senegal seed extract, if any, in hypercholesterolemic diet-induced atherosclerosis in rabbits. Atherosclerosis in rabbits was induced by feeding normal diet supplemented with oral administration of cholesterol (500 mg/kg body weight/day mixed with coconut oil) for 15 days. Circulating total cholesterol (TC), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides, and VLDL-cholesterol (VLDL-C) levels; atherogenic index (AI); cardiac lipid peroxidation (LPO); planimetric studies of aortal wall; and histopathological studies of heart, aorta, kidney, and liver were performed. Apart from reduced atherosclerotic plaques in aorta (6.34 ± 0.72) and increased lumen volume (51.65 ± 3.66), administration with ethanolic extract of Acacia senegal seeds (500 mg/kg/day, p.o.) for 45 days to atherosclerotic rabbits significantly lowered serum TC, LDL-C, triglyceride, and VLDL-C levels and atherogenic index as compared to control. Atherogenic diet-induced cardiac LPO and histopathological abnormalities in aorta wall, heart, kidney, and liver were reverted to normalcy by Acacia senegal seed extract administration. The findings of the present study reveal that Acacia senegal seed extract ameliorated diet-induced atherosclerosis and could be considered as lead in the development of novel therapeutics. PMID:25544897

  17. A mycorrhiza helper bacterium enhances ectomycorrhizal and endomycorrhizal symbiosis of Australian Acacia species.

    PubMed

    Duponnois, R; Plenchette, C

    2003-04-01

    The aims of this study were to test the effects of a mycorrhiza helper bacterium (MHB), Pseudomonas monteilii strain HR13 on the mycorrhization of (1) an Australian Acacia, A. holosericea, by several ectomycorrhizal fungi or one endomycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices, and (2) several Australian Acacia species by Pisolithus alba strain IR100 under glasshouse conditions. Bacterial inoculant HR13 significantly promoted ectomycorrhizal colonization for all the Acacia species, from 45.8% ( A. mangium) to 70.3% ( A. auriculiformis). A stimulating effect of HR13 on the ectomycorrhizal establishment was recorded with all the fungal isolates (strains of Pisolithus and Scleroderma). The same effect of bacteria on the frequency of endomycorrhizal colonization of A. holosericea seedlings by G. intraradices with vesicles and hyphae frequencies was recorded. The stimulation of saprophytic fungal growth by MHB is usually the main mechanism that could explain this bacterial effect on mycorrhizal establishment. MHB could stimulate the production of phenolic compounds such as hypaphorine and increase the aggressiveness of the fungal symbiont. However, no significant effect of MHB on fungal growth was recorded with Scleroderma isolates under axenic conditions but positive bacterial effects were observed with Pisolithus strains. From a practical viewpoint, it appears that MHB could stimulate the mycorrhizal colonization of Australian Acacia species with ectomycorrhizal or endomycorrhizal fungi, and could also facilitate controlled mycorrhization in nursery practices where Acacia species are grown for forestation purposes. PMID:12682830

  18. Characterization and Physicochemical Properties of Condensed Tannins from Acacia catechu.

    PubMed

    Duval, Antoine; Avérous, Luc

    2016-03-01

    Condensed tannins from Acacia catechu were carefully studied to determine their chemical structure and physicochemical properties. The combined use of MALDI-TOF-MS and (13)C NMR revealed that catechin and epicatechin are the predominant monomers. Most of the compounds were dimers, as confirmed by size exclusion chromatography measurements. To evaluate their potential as aromatic building block in polymer synthesis, special care was given to the characterization and quantification of the different OH groups. A detailed (31)P NMR analysis showed the predominance of catechin, with a catechin/epicatechin ratio of 4.2:1. Two distinct (1)H NMR measurements confirmed the quantification. The thermal properties were also determined: the tannins showed a high temperature of degradation (ca. 190 °C) and a high glass transition temperature (ca. 140 °C), allowing for thermal processing or chemical reactions at relatively high temperature. A. catechu tannins thus present interesting features to be used as aromatic building blocks in polymer materials. PMID:26853705

  19. Phenolic extracts from Acacia mangium bark and their antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liangliang; Chen, Jiahong; Wang, Yongmei; Wu, Dongmei; Xu, Man

    2010-05-01

    Phenolic compounds are present at very high concentrations in the bark of Acacia mangium. These compounds are known to have strong antioxidant activity and thus different beneficial effects on human health. Phenolic compounds in bark of A. mangium were extracted and their antioxidant activities were investigated using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. A central composite design has been employed to optimize the experimental conditions for a high total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. The desirability function approach has been employed to simultaneously optimize the three responses: total phenols, antiradical activity and FRAP. An extraction time of 90 min, liquid-solid ratio of 5, and temperature of 50 degrees C was predicted for the optimum experimental conditions using the desirability function. A significant linear relationship between antioxidant potency, antiradical activity and the content of phenolic compounds of bark extracts was observed. The structures of condensed tannins isolated from A. mangium were characterized by MALDI-TOF MS analyses. Condensed tannin oligomers from A. mangium were shown to be heterogeneous mixtures consisting of procyanidin and prodelphinidin structural units with polymerization degrees up to 9. PMID:20657499

  20. Photosynthesis and antioxidant enzymes of phyllodes of Acacia mangium.

    PubMed

    Yu; Ong

    2000-10-16

    Physiological processes are influenced by environmental factors and plant characteristics. The distribution of photosynthetic capacity of phyllodes of Acacia mangium Willd. seedlings was studied in relation to the in vivo photosystem II (PSII) function, photosynthetic gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX)) of phyllodes at different positions on seedlings. There was a vertical gradient in photosynthetic capacity of phyllodes along the shoot. Phyllode 1 (at the apex) showed negative carbon uptake at PPFD lower than 400 µmol m(-2) s(-1). High photosynthetic capacities, chlorophyll concentrations, DeltaF/F'(m), and q(P) were observed in phyllodes 4, 6 and 8. The high photosynthetic capacities of mature phyllodes could be attributed to the enhanced availability of CO(2) and the high efficiency of PSII in energy absorption and utilization. Total SOD and APX activities (on a dry weight basis) were highest at phyllode 1 and decreased as the phyllodes matured. The high photosynthetic capacity and low respiration loss in mature phyllodes could be important factors, responsible for the rapid establishment and fast growth of A. mangium in reforestation programs. PMID:11011098

  1. Low chitinase activity in Acacia myrmecophytes: a potential trade-off between biotic and chemical defences?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heil, M.; Staehelin, Christian; McKey, D.

    We determined chitinase activity in leaves of four myrmecophytic and four non-myrmecophytic leguminous species at the plants' natural growing sites in Mexico. Myrmecophytic plants (or 'ant plants') have obligate mutualisms with ants protecting them against herbivores and pathogenic fungi. Plant chitinases can be considered a reliable measure of plant resistance to pathogenic fungi. The myrmecophytic Acacia species, which were colonised by mutualistic ants, exhibited at least six-fold lower levels of chitinase activity compared with the non-myrmecophytic Acacia farnesiana and three other non-myrmecophytes. Though belonging to different phylogenetic groups, the myrmecophytic Acacia species formed one distinct group in the data set, which was clearly separated from the non-myrmecophytic species. These findings allowed for comparison between two recent hypotheses that attempt to explain low chitinase activity in ant plants. Most probably, chitinases are reduced in myrmecophytic plant species because these are effectively defended indirectly due to their symbiosis with mutualistic ants.

  2. Low chitinase activity in Acacia myrmecophytes: a potential trade-off between biotic and chemical defences?

    PubMed

    Heil, M; Staehelin, C; McKey, D

    2000-12-01

    We determined chitinase activity in leaves of four myrmecophytic and four non-myrmecophytic leguminous species at the plants' natural growing sites in Mexico. Myrmecophytic plants (or 'ant plants') have obligate mutualisms with ants protecting them against herbivores and pathogenic fungi. Plant chitinases can be considered a reliable measure of plant resistance to pathogenic fungi. The myrmecophytic Acacia species, which were colonised by mutualistic ants, exhibited at least six-fold lower levels of chitinase activity compared with the non-myrmecophytic Acacia farnesiana and three other non-myrmecophytes. Though belonging to different phylogenetic groups, the myrmecophytic Acacia species formed one distinct group in the data set, which was clearly separated from the non-myrmecophytic species. These findings allowed for comparison between two recent hypotheses that attempt to explain low chitinase activity in ant plants. Most probably, chitinases are reduced in myrmecophytic plant species because these are effectively defended indirectly due to their symbiosis with mutualistic ants. PMID:11198198

  3. An unusual clinical presentation of plasma cell gingivitis related to "Acacia" containing herbal toothpaste.

    PubMed

    Makkar, Anjali; Tewari, Shikha; Kishor, Kamal; Kataria, Santprakash

    2013-07-01

    A 17-year-old female patient presented with unusual enlargement of the gingiva with generalized alveolar bone loss. In spite of periodontal therapy, including plaque control, scaling, root planning and surgical treatment, recurrence with the same degree of the gingival enlargement and further loss of attachment level occurred. Biopsy revealed dense infiltration of normal plasma cells separated by collagenous stroma. Discontinuation of herbal toothpaste resulted in remarkable remission of the gingival enlargement within 2 weeks. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of toothpaste components disclosed "Acacia" as an etiologic antigenic agent and confirmed the diagnosis of plasma cell gingivitis (PCG). Usually, PCG is not associated with the loss of attachment. This case report appears to be the first publication to document an atypical presentation of PCG with generalized aggressive periodontitis related to the use of herbal toothpaste containing "Acacia" extract from the tree "Acacia Arabica." PMID:24174738

  4. Fast-growing acacia as an example of a vegetable source for synthetic liquid fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Paushkin, Ya.M.; Gorlov, E.G.; Alaniya, V.P.

    1987-07-01

    The liquefaction of biomass, employing acacia sawdust, is described. Tests were conducted in a 1-liter vibratory autoclave at 26 vibrations per minute. The solvents used were tetralin, o-xylene, and decalin. The tests were conducted to evaluate the possibility of producing different hydrocarbons from acacia by alternative liquefaction processes (extraction under supercritical conditions or in a hydrogen donor medium). Gas and liquid fractions were comparatively determined for the different solvents and for their different ratios by chromatographic analysis. Optimum weight ratios and temperatures were established. It was concluded that thermal liquefaction of acacia can produce a broad gamut of different hydrocarbons, depending on solvent type and the liquefaction conditions, which can serve as motor fuel components or raw material for petrochemical synthesis.

  5. Delayed colonisation of Acacia by thrips and the timing of host-conservatism and behavioural specialisation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Repeated colonisation of novel host-plants is believed to be an essential component of the evolutionary success of phytophagous insects. The relative timing between the origin of an insect lineage and the plant clade they eat or reproduce on is important for understanding how host-range expansion can lead to resource specialisation and speciation. Path and stepping-stone sampling are used in a Bayesian approach to test divergence timing between the origin of Acacia and colonisation by thrips. The evolution of host-plant conservatism and ecological specialisation is discussed. Results Results indicated very strong support for a model describing the origin of the common ancestor of Acacia thrips subsequent to that of Acacia. A current estimate puts the origin of Acacia at approximately 6 million years before the common ancestor of Acacia thrips, and 15 million years before the origin of a gall-inducing clade. The evolution of host conservatism and resource specialisation resulted in a phylogenetically under-dispersed pattern of host-use by several thrips lineages. Conclusions Thrips colonised a diversity of Acacia species over a protracted period as Australia experienced aridification. Host conservatism evolved on phenotypically and environmentally suitable host lineages. Ecological specialisation resulted from habitat selection and selection on thrips behavior that promoted primary and secondary host associations. These findings suggest that delayed and repeated colonisation is characterised by cycles of oligo- or poly-phagy. This results in a cumulation of lineages that each evolve host conservatism on different and potentially transient host-related traits, and facilitates both ecological and resource specialisation. PMID:24010723

  6. Condensed tannins from acacia mangium bark: Characterization by spot tests and FTIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharudin, Muhammad Azizi; Zakaria, Sarani; Chia, Chin Hua

    2013-11-01

    This paper describes the adaptation and evaluation of one chemical tests for tannins characterization in acacia mangium bark. Acid butanol test developed to identify respectively condensed tannins is described. The two traditional tests used for tannin characterization namely ferric test and vanillin test were also performed and their functional also discussed. Condensed tannins were extracted from acacia mangium bark using water medium in presence of three different concentration basic reagent of NaOH(5%,10% and 15%) and were characterized by FT-IR spectrometry.

  7. Influence of carbonization conditions on the pyrolytic carbon deposition in acacia and eucalyptus wood chars

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, M.; Gupta, R.C.

    1997-04-01

    The amount of deposited pyrolytic carbon (resulting from the cracking of volatile matter) was found to depend on wood species and carbonization conditions, such as temperature and heating rate. Maximum pyrolytic carbon deposition in both the acacia and eucalyptus wood chars has been observed at a carbonization temperature of 800 C. Rapid carbonization (higher heating rate) of wood significantly reduces the amount of deposited pyrolytic carbon in resulting chars. Results also indicate that the amount of deposited pyrolytic carbon in acacia wood char is less than that in eucalyptus wood char.

  8. Recycled rubber roads

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-01

    The paper describes several innovative approaches for recycling old tires in the construction of roads. In one, 18 inches of shredded tire chips (2 X 2 inches) were used on top of 6-8 inches of small stone to construct a road across a sanitary landfill. No compacting or linders were needed. In another application, sidewall mats linked together with steel strapping were used as a sub-base for a road across a swampy area. A third application uses 1/2 inch bits of groundup rubber tires as a replacement for aggregate in an asphalt road base.

  9. Toxicological studies of aqueous extract of Acacia nilotica root

    PubMed Central

    Adesokan, Abdulfatai Ayoade; Salawu, Oluwakanyinsola Adeola; Akanji, Musbau Adewunmi

    2015-01-01

    Acacia nilotica is a widely used plant in traditional medical practice in Northern Nigeria and many African countries. The aim of this study was to determine the toxicological effects of a single dose (acute) and of repeated doses (sub-acute) administration of aqueous extract of A. nilotica root in rodents, following our earlier study on antiplasmodial activity. In the acute toxicity test, three groups of Swiss albino mice were orally administered aqueous extract of A. nilotica (50, 300 and 2000 mg/kg body weight) and signs of toxicity were observed daily for 14 days. In the sub-acute toxicity study, four groups of 12 rats (6 male and 6 female) were used. Group 1 received 10 ml/kg b.w distilled water (control), while groups 2, 3 and 4 received 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg b.w of the extract, respectively, for 28 consecutive days by oral gavage. Signs of toxicity/mortality, food and water intake and body weight changes were observed. Biochemical parameters were analysed in both plasma and liver homogenate. In the acute and sub-acute toxicity studies, the extract did not cause mortality. A significant reduction in the activity of lactate dehydrogenase was observed at 250 and 500 mg/kg b.w, while alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activities were significantly higher than control values at 500 mg/kg b.w. The aqueous extract of A. nilotica was found to be safe in single dose administration in mice but repeated administration of doses higher than 250 mg/kg b.w of the extract for 28 days in rats may cause hepatotoxicity. PMID:27486360

  10. 7. VIEW OF OLD ENTRANCE ROAD (NOW WILLOW FLATS ROAD) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF OLD ENTRANCE ROAD (NOW WILLOW FLATS ROAD) FACING EAST INTO PARK. - Arches National Park Main Entrance Road, Beginning at U.S. Highway 191, approximately 6 miles north of Moab, Moab, Grand County, UT

  11. 7. LASSEN PARK ROAD BRIDGE AT SULFUR WORKS. NOTE ROAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. LASSEN PARK ROAD BRIDGE AT SULFUR WORKS. NOTE ROAD TRAVERSING DISTANT RIDGE BEYOND BRIDGE. SEEN FROM WEST OF HIGHWAY FROM OLD HIGHWAY LOOP. LOOKING E. - Lassen Park Road, Mineral, Tehama County, CA

  12. Isolation and identification of plant phenolic compounds in birch leaves: Air pollution stress and leaf phenolics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loponen, Jyrki Mikael

    Chromatographic (analytical and preparative HPLC), chemical (hydrolysis) and spectroscopic (UV, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and MS) techniques proved to be suitable tools for the structure identification of plant phenolic compounds. More than 30 individual phenolic compounds were detected and quantified. Detailed information of the structures of individual compounds was determined after isolation from birch leaves. Ten flavonoid glycosides were identified. Two of them, myricetin-3-O-α-L-(acetyl)-rhamnopyranoside and quercetin-3-O-α-L-(4/prime'-O-acetyl)- rhamnopyranoside, have been rarely found in birch leaves. Further, some characterized major phenolics with non- flavonoid structures in our study were 1-O-galloyl- β-D-(2-O-acetyl)-glucopyranose, gallic, chlorogenic, neochlorogenic, cis- and trans-forms of 3- and 5-p-coumaroylquinic acids. The presence of gallotannin group was evidenced by strong positive correlations between concentrations of these gallotannins (preliminary identified by HPLC and UV spectra) and the protein precipitation capacity of extracts. Content of gallotannins decreased with leaf growth and maturation. It is known that concentrations of phenolic compounds regularly increase in slowly growing stressed plants and therefore, it is natural that they are also sensitive to different forms of air pollution. Total content and the contents of some individual phenolics correlated negatively with the distance from the pollution source in our study area. In addition to comparing absolute concentrations of compounds in question, the within-tree correlations or within-tree variations of the relevant compounds between polluted and control areas were an alternative approach. Differences in pairwise correlations between the investigated leaf phenolic compounds indicated the competition between some gallotannins and p-coumaroylquinic acids on the polluted but not on the control site. Air pollution seems to be a stress factor for birch trees associated with

  13. Comprehensive Transcriptome Analysis of Response to Nickel Stress in White Birch (Betula papyrifera)

    PubMed Central

    Theriault, Gabriel; Michael, Paul; Nkongolo, Kabwe

    2016-01-01

    White birch (Betula papyrifera) is a dominant tree species of the Boreal Forest. Recent studies have shown that it is fairly resistant to heavy metal contamination, specifically to nickel. Knowledge of regulation of genes associated with metal resistance in higher plants is very sketchy. Availability and annotation of the dwarf birch (B. nana) enables the use of high throughout sequencing approaches to understanding responses to environmental challenges in other Betula species such as B. papyrifera. The main objectives of this study are to 1) develop and characterize the B. papyrifera transcriptome, 2) assess gene expression dynamics of B. papyrifera in response to nickel stress, and 3) describe gene function based on ontology. Nickel resistant and susceptible genotypes were selected and used for transcriptome analysis. A total of 208,058 trinity genes were identified and were assembled to 275,545 total trinity transcripts. The transcripts were mapped to protein sequences and based on best match; we annotated the B. papyrifera genes and assigned gene ontology. In total, 215,700 transcripts were annotated and were compared to the published B. nana genome. Overall, a genomic match for 61% transcripts with the reference genome was found. Expression profiles were generated and 62,587 genes were found to be significantly differentially expressed among the nickel resistant, susceptible, and untreated libraries. The main nickel resistance mechanism in B. papyrifera is a downregulation of genes associated with translation (in ribosome), binding, and transporter activities. Five candidate genes associated to nickel resistance were identified. They include Glutathione S–transferase, thioredoxin family protein, putative transmembrane protein and two Nramp transporters. These genes could be useful for genetic engineering of birch trees. PMID:27082755

  14. Climate Induced Birch Mortality in Trans-Baikal Lake Region, Siberia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kharuk, V. I.; Ranson, K. J.; Oskorbin, P. A.; Im, S. T.; Dvinskaya, M. L.

    2013-01-01

    The Trans-Baikal (or Zabailkal'e) region includes the forest-steppe ecotones south and east of Lake Baikal in Russia and has experienced drought for several years. The decline and mortality of birch (Betula pendula) stands within the forest-steppe ecotone Trans-Baikal region was studied based on a temporal series of satellite data, ground measurements, and tree ring analysis. During the first decade of the 21st century birch stands decline and mortality were observed on )about 5% of the total area of stands within our 1250 km(exp 2 study area. Birch forest decline and mortality occurs mainly at the margins of stands, within the forest-steppe ecotone on slopes with direct insolation. During the first decade of the 21st century summer (June-August) precipitation was about 25% below normal. Soil water content measurements were lowest within dead stands and highest within healthy stands and intermediate within damaged stands. Drought impact on stands was amplified by an increase in summer air temperatures (+0.9 C) in comparison with the previous decade. Tree ring data of ''surviving'' and ''dead'' tree groups showed a positive correlation with summer/annual precipitation and negative correlation with summer air temperatures. Temperature and precipitation extreme anomalies tend to occur in the region with a period of about 27 years. The observed anomaly was the most severe since the beginning of meteorological observations in the year 1900. Data for the other sites showed a positive climate impact on the growth and expansion of Siberian forests. That is, the same species (B. pendula) showed considerable increase (1.4 times both in height and stem volume) during 20th-21st centuries as temperature increased but precipitation remained at adequate levels.

  15. Comprehensive Transcriptome Analysis of Response to Nickel Stress in White Birch (Betula papyrifera).

    PubMed

    Theriault, Gabriel; Michael, Paul; Nkongolo, Kabwe

    2016-01-01

    White birch (Betula papyrifera) is a dominant tree species of the Boreal Forest. Recent studies have shown that it is fairly resistant to heavy metal contamination, specifically to nickel. Knowledge of regulation of genes associated with metal resistance in higher plants is very sketchy. Availability and annotation of the dwarf birch (B. nana) enables the use of high throughout sequencing approaches to understanding responses to environmental challenges in other Betula species such as B. papyrifera. The main objectives of this study are to 1) develop and characterize the B. papyrifera transcriptome, 2) assess gene expression dynamics of B. papyrifera in response to nickel stress, and 3) describe gene function based on ontology. Nickel resistant and susceptible genotypes were selected and used for transcriptome analysis. A total of 208,058 trinity genes were identified and were assembled to 275,545 total trinity transcripts. The transcripts were mapped to protein sequences and based on best match; we annotated the B. papyrifera genes and assigned gene ontology. In total, 215,700 transcripts were annotated and were compared to the published B. nana genome. Overall, a genomic match for 61% transcripts with the reference genome was found. Expression profiles were generated and 62,587 genes were found to be significantly differentially expressed among the nickel resistant, susceptible, and untreated libraries. The main nickel resistance mechanism in B. papyrifera is a downregulation of genes associated with translation (in ribosome), binding, and transporter activities. Five candidate genes associated to nickel resistance were identified. They include Glutathione S-transferase, thioredoxin family protein, putative transmembrane protein and two Nramp transporters. These genes could be useful for genetic engineering of birch trees. PMID:27082755

  16. High correlation of specific IgE sensitization between birch pollen, soy and apple allergens indicates pollen-food allergy syndrome among birch pollen allergic patients in northern China

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Guo-dong; Zheng, Yi-wu; Wang, Zhi-xiang; Kong, Xing-ai; Song, Zhi-jing; Lai, Xu-xin; Spangfort, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Birch pollen sensitization and associated pollen-food syndrome among Chinese allergic patients have not been investigated. Methods: Sera from 203 allergic patients from the northern part of China and collected during February to July 2014 were investigated. Specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) against birch pollen extract Bet v and major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 were measured using the ADVIA Centaur. The presence of major apple allergen Mal d 1 and soy bean allergen Gly m 4 specific IgE was measured by ImmunoCAP 100. Results: Among the 203 sera, 34 sera (16.7%) had specific IgE to Bet v and of these, 28 sera (82.4%) contained Bet v 1-specific IgE. Among the 28 sera with Bet v 1-specific IgE, 27 sera (96.4%) contained Mal d 1-specific IgE and 22 sera (78.6%) contained Gly m 4-specific IgE. Of the 34 Bet v-positive sera, 6 sera (17.6%) contained no specific IgE for Bet v 1, Mal d 1, or Gly m 4. Almost all Bet v-positive sera were donated during the birch pollen season. Conclusions: The prevalence of birch allergy among patients visiting health care during pollen season can be as high as 16.7% in Tangshan City. The majority of Chinese birch allergic patients are IgE-sensitized to the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 as well as to the major apple allergen Mal d 1 and soy bean allergen Gly m 4. A relatively high number of patients (17.6%) are IgE-sensitized to birch pollen allergen(s) other than Bet v 1. The high prevalence of specific IgE to Mal d 1 and Gly m 4 among Bet v 1-sensitized patients indicates that pollen-food allergy syndrome could be of clinical relevance in China. PMID:27143268

  17. Super earth interiors and validity of Birch's Law for ultra-high pressure metals and ionic solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ware, Lucas Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Super Earths, recently detected by the Kepler Mission, expand the ensemble of known terrestrial planets beyond our Solar System's limited group. Birch's Law and velocity-density systematics have been crucial in constraining our knowledge of the composition of Earth's mantle and core. Recently published static diamond anvil cell experimental measurements of sound velocities in iron, a key deep element in most super Earth models, are inconsistent with each other with regard to the validity of Birch's Law. We examine the range of validity of Birch's Law for several metallic elements, including iron, and ionic solids shocked with a two-stage light gas gun into the ultra-high pressure, temperature fluid state and make comparisons to the recent static data.

  18. Roads to Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauer, Ezra

    1991-01-01

    Contends that the level of safety built into roads is largely unpremeditated and that roads and highways are not as safe as they might be. Discusses practices, standards, and deficiencies in highway and traffic safety related to geometric design and traffic engineering. Recommends increased transportation engineering professionalism and public…

  19. The Road Less Traveled

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKim, Brent

    2007-01-01

    The federal journey into public education has followed a long and winding road. Most educators know that the federal No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act is simply the latest version of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), which dates all the way back to 1965. In the years since its initial passage, the ESEA road has taken a number of…

  20. A ninety-day oral toxicity study of a new type of processed gum arabic, from Acacia tree (Acacia senegal) exudates, in F344 rats.

    PubMed

    Doi, Y; Ichihara, T; Hagiwara, A; Imai, N; Tamano, S; Orikoshi, H; Ogasawara, K; Sasaki, Y; Nakamura, M; Shirai, T

    2006-04-01

    This study was designed to evaluate and characterize any subchronic toxicity of a new type of gum arabic (SUPER GUM [Acacia(sen)SUPER GUM]), a naturally processed polysaccharide exudate from gum acacia trees (Acacia senegal), when administered to both sexes of F344 rats at dietary levels of 0 (control), 1.25%, 2.5%, and 5.0% (10 rats/sex/group). During the study, the treatment had no effects on clinical signs, survival, body weights, and food and water consumption, or on findings of urinalysis, ophthalmology, hematology, or blood biochemistry. Gross pathology and histopathology exhibited no differences of toxicological significance between control and treated rats. Increased relative cecum (filled) weights, evident in both sexes of 5.0% group and females of 1.25% and 2.5% groups, were considered to be a physiological adaptation. Thus, the results indicated the toxic level of SUPER GUM to be more than 5.0%, and the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) was concluded to be 5.0% (3,117 mg/kg body weights/day for males, and 3,296 mg/kg body weights/day for males) from the present study. PMID:16256256

  1. Mimotopes for Api g 5, a Relevant Cross-reactive Allergen, in the Celery-Mugwort-Birch-Spice Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lukschal, Anna; Wallmann, Julia; Bublin, Merima; Hofstetter, Gerlinde; Mothes-Luksch, Nadine; Breiteneder, Heimo; Pali-Schöll, Isabella

    2016-01-01

    Purpose In the celery-mugwort-birch-spice syndrome, a significant proportion of IgE is directed against high molecular weight (HMW) glycoproteins, including the celery allergen Api g 5. BIP3, a monoclonal antibody originally raised against birch pollen, recognizes HMW allergens in birch and mugwort pollens, celery, and Apiaceae spices. Our aim was to generate mimotopes using BIP3 for immunization against the HMW allergens relevant in the celery-mugwort-birch-spice cross reactivity syndrome. Methods Mimotopes were selected from a random-peptide display library by BIP3 and applied in IgE inhibition assays. The 3 phage clones with the highest inhibitory capacity were chosen for immunization of BALB/c mice. Mouse immune sera were tested for IgG binding to blotted birch pollen extract and used for inhibiting patients' IgE binding. Furthermore, sera were tested for binding to Api g 5, to horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as a second glycoprotein, or to non-glycosylated control allergen Phl p 5 in ELISA, and the specific Api g 5-specific IgG titers were determined. Results Three rounds of biopanning resulted in phage clones exhibiting 7 different sequences including 1 dominant, 1-6-cyclo-CHKLRCDKAIA. Three phage clones had the capacity to inhibit human IgE binding and induced IgG to the HMW antigen when used for immunizing BALB/c mice. The induced BIP3-mimotope IgG reached titers of 1:500 specifically to Api g 5, but hardly reacted to glycoprotein HRP, revealing a minor role of carbohydrates in their epitope. Conclusions The mimotopes characterized in this study mimic the epitope of BIP3 relevant for Api g 5, one of the cross-reactive HMW allergens relevant in the celery-mugwort-birch-spice syndrome. BIP3 mimotopes may be used in the future for hyposensitization in this clinical syndrome by virtue of good and specific immunogenicity. PMID:26739405

  2. Integration of complete chloroplast genome sequences with small amplicon datasets improves phylogenetic resolution in Acacia.

    PubMed

    Williams, Anna V; Miller, Joseph T; Small, Ian; Nevill, Paul G; Boykin, Laura M

    2016-03-01

    Combining whole genome data with previously obtained amplicon sequences has the potential to increase the resolution of phylogenetic analyses, particularly at low taxonomic levels or where recent divergence, rapid speciation or slow genome evolution has resulted in limited sequence variation. However, the integration of these types of data for large scale phylogenetic studies has rarely been investigated. Here we conduct a phylogenetic analysis of the whole chloroplast genome and two nuclear ribosomal loci for 65 Acacia species from across the most recent Acacia phylogeny. We then combine this data with previously generated amplicon sequences (four chloroplast loci and two nuclear ribosomal loci) for 508 Acacia species. We use several phylogenetic methods, including maximum likelihood bootstrapping (with and without constraint) and ExaBayes, in order to determine the success of combining a dataset of 4000bp with one of 189,000bp. The results of our study indicate that the inclusion of whole genome data gave a far better resolved and well supported representation of the phylogenetic relationships within Acacia than using only amplicon sequences, with the greatest support observed when using a whole genome phylogeny as a constraint on the amplicon sequences. Our study therefore provides methods for optimal integration of genomic and amplicon sequences. PMID:26702955

  3. Earleaf acacia, a fast growing, brittle exotic weed tree in Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Morton, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    A description is given of Acacia auriculiformis, together with a warning against its use for ornamental landscaping in Florida (a hurricane area). The tree grows very fast, reaching 30-55 ft in 8 years, lacks wind resistance, produces much persistent litter, seeds itself freely and is now a common weed species in Florida. The wood is of value for handicrafts. 3 references.

  4. Modeling the 'Birch Effect' Using a Microbial Enzyme Based Soil Organic Carbon Decomposition and Gas Transport Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, G.; Zhang, X.; Barron-Gafford, G.; Pavao-zuckerman, M.

    2013-12-01

    Soil respiration pulses in response to pulsed wetting ('Birch effect'; Birch 1958) have long been observed from laboratory and field experiments. The Birch effect produces more CO2 efflux and sustains greater microbial biomass than constantly moist soils. Various mechanisms causing the effect have been proposed. However, the exact mechanism underlying the Birch effect is not clear, and thus most models are not able to simulate this effect. We have recently developed a microbial enzyme based decomposition and gas transport model. The model integrates the most recent advances in the understanding of critical processes, including enzyme-catalyzed degradation of soil organic carbon (SOC) to dissolved organic carbon (DOC), acclimation of carbon use efficiency (CUE) for the uptake of DOC by microbes, and diffusive and convective transport of O2 and CO2 in the soil. The model has four kinds of carbon pools including SOC, DOC, microbial biomass (MIC), and extracellular enzyme (ENZ). However, the model coupled with a land surface model, which accurately simulates soil moisture and temperature, failed to simulate the Birch effect observed at a natural savannah ecosystem site in the southwest US monsoon region. We further divided the DOC and ENZ pools into two sub-pools, one for a wet zone and the other for a dry zone, respectively. We assume that in the dry zone, DOC can be produced through enzyme catalysis, although at a lower rate due to enzyme immobilization, and only in the wet zone can microbes take up DOC. Thus, the modeled DOC accumulates during dry periods and is quickly transitioned into DOC in the wet zone (proportional to saturation) in response to pulsed wetting during a storm, and becomes available for microbial use. In such a way, the model successfully simulates the Birch effect with the Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency being ~ 0.75 (correlation coefficient ~ 0.88) at a half-hourly time step. We will also present the effect of gas transport on the Birch effect

  5. Distribution of Cd and Zn levels in soils and Acacia xanthophloea Benth. from Lake Nakuru National Park Kenya.

    PubMed

    Dharani, N; Onyari, J M; Kinyamario, J I; Maina, D M; Mavuti, K M

    2010-09-01

    Cadmium and zinc from anthropogenic sources in Lake Nakuru were investigated. High metal levels (mg/kg) in soils (Cd < or = 16.3 and Zn < or = 280) and Acacia xanthophloea (Cd < or = 32 and Zn < or = 310) were observed at polluted sites. Significant variations in metal values were evaluated using ANOVA (F test) and student's t test at p < 0.05 and metal correlations studied. High levels of metals in soils and unhealthy/dying Acacia were obtained at polluted sites. Significant positive correlation was obtained between Cd and Zn in soils and plants. Acacia sp are effective biomonitor of environmental quality in areas subjected to pollution. PMID:20623266

  6. Fungal Assemblages in Different Habitats in an Erman’s Birch Forest

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Teng; Sun, Huaibo; Shen, Congcong; Chu, Haiyan

    2016-01-01

    Recent meta-analyses of fungal diversity using deeply sequenced marker genes suggest that most fungal taxa are locally distributed. However, little is known about the extent of overlap and niche partitions in total fungal communities or functional guilds within distinct habitats on a local forest scale. Here, we compared fungal communities in endosphere (leaf interior), phyllosphere (leaf interior and associated surface area) and soil samples from an Erman’s birch forest in Changbai Mountain, China. Community structures were significantly differentiated in terms of habitat, with soil having the highest fungal richness and phylogenetic diversity. Endophytic and phyllosphere fungi of Betula ermanii were more phylogenetically clustered compared with the corresponding soil fungi, indicating the ability of that host plants to filter and select their fungal partners. Furthermore, the majority of soil fungal taxa were soil specialists, while the dominant endosphere and phyllosphere taxa were aboveground generalists, with soil and plant foliage only sharing <8.2% fungal taxa. Most of the fungal taxa could be assigned to different functional guilds; however, the assigned guilds showed significant habitat specificity with variation in relative abundance. Collectively, the fungal assemblages in this Erman’s birch forest were strictly niche specialized and constrained by weak migration among habitats. The findings suggest that phylogenetic relatedness and functional guilds’ assignment can effectively interpret the certain ecological processes. PMID:27625646

  7. MACC regional multi-model ensemble simulations of birch pollen dispersion in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofiev, M.; Berger, U.; Prank, M.; Vira, J.; Arteta, J.; Belmonte, J.; Bergmann, K.-C.; Chéroux, F.; Elbern, H.; Friese, E.; Galan, C.; Gehrig, R.; Khvorostyanov, D.; Kranenburg, R.; Kumar, U.; Marécal, V.; Meleux, F.; Menut, L.; Pessi, A.-M.; Robertson, L.; Ritenberga, O.; Rodinkova, V.; Saarto, A.; Segers, A.; Severova, E.; Sauliene, I.; Siljamo, P.; Steensen, B. M.; Teinemaa, E.; Thibaudon, M.; Peuch, V.-H.

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents the first ensemble modelling experiment in relation to birch pollen in Europe. The seven-model European ensemble of MACC-ENS, tested in trial simulations over the flowering season of 2010, was run through the flowering season of 2013. The simulations have been compared with observations in 11 countries, all members of the European Aeroallergen Network, for both individual models and the ensemble mean and median. It is shown that the models successfully reproduced the timing of the very late season of 2013, generally within a couple of days from the observed start of the season. The end of the season was generally predicted later than observed, by 5 days or more, which is a known feature of the source term used in the study. Absolute pollen concentrations during the season were somewhat underestimated in the southern part of the birch habitat. In the northern part of Europe, a record-low pollen season was strongly overestimated by all models. The median of the multi-model ensemble demonstrated robust performance, successfully eliminating the impact of outliers, which was particularly useful since for most models this was the first experience of pollen forecasting.

  8. Moth outbreaks alter root-associated fungal communities in subarctic mountain birch forests.

    PubMed

    Saravesi, Karita; Aikio, Sami; Wäli, Piippa R; Ruotsalainen, Anna Liisa; Kaukonen, Maarit; Huusko, Karoliina; Suokas, Marko; Brown, Shawn P; Jumpponen, Ari; Tuomi, Juha; Markkola, Annamari

    2015-05-01

    Climate change has important implications on the abundance and range of insect pests in forest ecosystems. We studied responses of root-associated fungal communities to defoliation of mountain birch hosts by a massive geometrid moth outbreak through 454 pyrosequencing of tagged amplicons of the ITS2 rDNA region. We compared fungal diversity and community composition at three levels of moth defoliation (intact control, full defoliation in one season, full defoliation in two or more seasons), replicated in three localities. Defoliation caused dramatic shifts in functional and taxonomic community composition of root-associated fungi. Differentially defoliated mountain birch roots harbored distinct fungal communities, which correlated with increasing soil nutrients and decreasing amount of host trees with green foliar mass. Ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) abundance and richness declined by 70-80 % with increasing defoliation intensity, while saprotrophic and endophytic fungi seemed to benefit from defoliation. Moth herbivory also reduced dominance of Basidiomycota in the roots due to loss of basidiomycete EMF and increases in functionally unknown Ascomycota. Our results demonstrate the top-down control of belowground fungal communities by aboveground herbivory and suggest a marked reduction in the carbon flow from plants to soil fungi following defoliation. These results are among the first to provide evidence on cascading effects of natural herbivory on tree root-associated fungi at an ecosystem scale. PMID:25687127

  9. Inter- and intra-specific responses to elevated ozone and chamber climate in northern birches.

    PubMed

    Manninen, S; Huttunen, S; Vanhatalo, M; Pakonen, T; Hämäläinen, A

    2009-05-01

    We studied the responses of micropropagated, northern provenances of downy, mountain and silver birches to elevated ozone (O(3)) and changing climate using open-top chambers (OTCs). Contrary to our hypothesis, northern birches were sensitive to O(3), i.e. O(3) levels of 31-36 ppb reduced the leaf and root biomasses by -10%, whereas wood biomass was affected to a lesser extent. The warmer and drier OTC climate enhanced growth in general, though there were differences among the species and clones, e.g. in bud burst and biomass production. Inter- and intra-specific responses to O(3) and changing climate relate to traits such as allocation patterns between the above- and belowground parts (i.e. root/shoot ratio), which further relate to nutrient and water economy. Our experiments may have mimicked future conditions quite well, but only long-term field studies can yield the information needed to forecast responses at both tree and ecosystem levels. PMID:19147261

  10. Multitasking in a plant-ant interaction: how does Acacia myrtifolia manage both ants and pollinators?

    PubMed

    Martínez-Bauer, Angélica E; Martínez, Gerardo Cerón; Murphy, Daniel J; Burd, Martin

    2015-06-01

    Plant associations with protective ants are widespread among angiosperms, but carry the risk that ants will deter pollinators as well as herbivores. Such conflict, and adaptations to ameliorate or prevent the conflict, have been documented in African and neotropical acacias. Ant-acacia associations occur in Australia, but little is known of their ecology. Moreover, recent phylogenetic evidence indicates that Australian acacias are only distantly related to African and American acacias, providing an intercontinental natural experiment in the management of ant-pollinator conflict. We examined four populations of Acacia myrtifolia over a 400-km environmental gradient in southeastern Australia using ant and pollinator exclusion as well as direct observation of ants and pollinators to assess the potential for ant-pollinator conflict to affect seed set. Native bees were the only group of floral visitors whose visitation rates were a significant predictor of fruiting success, although beetles and wasps may play an important role as "insurance" pollinators. We found no increase in pollinator visitation or fruiting success following ant exclusion, even with large sample sizes and effective exclusion. Because ants are facultative visitors to A. myrtifolia plants, their presence may be insufficient to interfere greatly with floral visitors. It is also likely that the morphological location of extrafloral nectaries tends to draw ants away from reproductive parts, although we commonly observed ants on inflorescences, so the spatial separation is not strict. A. myrtifolia appears to maintain a generalized mutualism over a wide geographic range without the need for elaborate adaptations to resolve ant-pollinator conflict. PMID:25571873

  11. Corrugation of roads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Both, Joseph A.; Hong, Daniel C.; Kurtze, Douglas A.

    2001-12-01

    We present a one dimensional model for the development of corrugations in roads subjected to compressive forces from a flux of cars. The cars are modeled as damped harmonic oscillators translating with constant horizontal velocity across the surface, and the road surface is subject to diffusive relaxation. We derive dimensionless coupled equations of motion for the positions of the cars and the road surface H( x, t), which contain two phenomenological variables: an effective diffusion constant Δ( H) that characterizes the relaxation of the road surface, and a function a( H) that characterizes the plasticity or erodibility of the road bed. Linear stability analysis shows that corrugations grow if the speed of the cars exceeds a critical value, which decreases if the flux of cars is increased. Modifying the model to enforce the simple fact that the normal force exerted by the road can never be negative seems to lead to restabilized, quasi-steady road shapes, in which the corrugation amplitude and phase velocity remain fixed.

  12. Haul road dust control

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, W.R.; Organiscak, J.A.

    2007-10-15

    A field study was conducted to measure dust from haul trucks at a limestone quarry and a coal preparation plant waste hauling operation. The study found that primarily wind, distance and road treatment conditions notably affected the dust concentrations at locations next to, 50 ft from, and 100 ft away from the unpaved haulage road. Airborne dust measured along the unpaved haul road showed that high concentrations of fugitive dust can be generated with these concentrations rapidly decreasing to nearly background levels within 100 ft of the road. Instantaneous respirable dust measurements illustrated that the trucks generate a real-time dust cloud that has a peak concentration with a time-related decay rate as the dust moves past the sampling locations. The respirable dust concentrations and peak levels were notably diminished as the dust cloud was transported, diluted, and diffused by the wind over the 100 ft distance from the road. Individual truck concentrations and peak levels measured next to the dry road surface test section were quite variable and dependent on wind conditions, particularly wind direction, with respect to reaching the sampling location. The vast majority of the fugitive airborne dust generated from unpaved and untreated haulage roads was non-respirable. 6 figs.

  13. 14. VIEW OF NORTHSOUTH ROAD WHICH PARALLELS ROAD TO HATCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW OF NORTH-SOUTH ROAD WHICH PARALLELS ROAD TO HATCH ADIT (FEATURE B-28). NOTE MODERN 'LAY DOWN' FENCE ON ROAD. ROAD LIES TO THE WEST OF THE HATCH ADIT AND PHOTOGRAPH IS VIEW TO THE SOUTH. (OCTOBER, 1995) - Nevada Lucky Tiger Mill & Mine, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

  14. Sinorhizobium teranga bv. acaciae ORS1073 and Rhizobium sp. strain ORS1001, two distantly related Acacia-nodulating strains, produce similar Nod factors that are O carbamoylated, N methylated, and mainly sulfated.

    PubMed Central

    Lorquin, J; Lortet, G; Ferro, M; Mear, N; Promé, J C; Boivin, C

    1997-01-01

    We have determined the structures of Nod factors produced by strains representative of Sinorhizobium teranga bv. acaciae and the so-called cluster U from the Rhizobium loti branch, two genetically different symbionts of particular Acacia species. Compounds from both strains were found to be similar, i.e., mainly sulfated, O carbamoylated, and N methylated, indicating a close relationship between host specificity and Nod factor structure, regardless of the taxonomy of the bacterial symbiont. PMID:9139935

  15. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, Leo M.

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find an the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was was heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past.

  16. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, L.M.

    1998-05-05

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find at the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was not heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past. 2 figs.

  17. Polarimetric road ice detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drummond, Krista

    This thesis investigated the science behind polarimetric road ice detection systems. Laboratory Mueller matrix measurements of a simulated road under differing surface conditions were collected searching for a discriminatory polarization property. These Mueller matrices were decomposed into depolarization, diattenuation, and retardance. Individual sample surface polarization properties were then calculated from these three unique matrices and compared. Specular and off-specular reflection responses of each sample were collected. Four polarization properties stood out for having high separation between dry and iced measurements: Depolarization Index, Linear Diattenuation, Linear Polarizance, and Linear Retardance. Through our investigation polarimetric ice detection is possible. Continued research of the polarization properties of road ice can result in the development of a road ice detection system. Proposed deployment methods of such a system have been outlined following the analysis of the data collected in this experiment.

  18. A Holographic Road Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Larry D.; Rugheimer, Mac

    1979-01-01

    Describes the viewing sessions and the holograms of a holographic road show. The traveling exhibits, believed to stimulate interest in physics, include a wide variety of holograms and demonstrate several physical principles. (GA)

  19. Road boundary detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sowers, J.; Mehrotra, R.; Sethi, I. K.

    1989-01-01

    A method for extracting road boundaries using the monochrome image of a visual road scene is presented. The statistical information regarding the intensity levels present in the image along with some geometrical constraints concerning the road are the basics of this approach. Results and advantages of this technique compared to others are discussed. The major advantages of this technique, when compared to others, are its ability to process the image in only one pass, to limit the area searched in the image using only knowledge concerning the road geometry and previous boundary information, and dynamically adjust for inconsistencies in the located boundary information, all of which helps to increase the efficacy of this technique.

  20. Academic Success for Students of Color . . . At What Cost? The Importance of School Context at Birch High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Terah T. Venzant; Tabron, Lolita A.

    2013-01-01

    Kiara, an African American rising freshman, has aspirations to become a medical doctor. She enrolls at Birch High School because of the reputation of the principal, Mr. Brown, whose vision for academic excellence permeates every corner of the school. Kiara graduates from high school with top honors, but realizes her success may have come at a…

  1. 78 FR 69848 - Birch Power Company; Notice of Proposed Revised Restricted Service List for a Programmatic Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-21

    ...] Birch Power Company; Notice of Proposed Revised Restricted Service List for a Programmatic Agreement..., the Secretary may establish a restricted service list for a particular phase or issue in a proceeding. The restricted service list should contain the names of persons on the service list who, in...

  2. 78 FR 43189 - Birch Power Company; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Birch Power Company; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the...-filed. To paper-file, mail an original and five copies to: Kimberly D. Bose, Secretary, Federal...

  3. Chinese bellflower root anaphylaxis: IgE-binding components and cross-reactivity with mugwort and birch.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sae-Hoon; Lee, Sang-Min; Park, Heung-Woo; Cho, Sang-Heon; Min, Kyung-Up; Kim, You-Young; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2009-09-01

    A 56-year-old man who had suffered from seasonal rhinitis in spring and autumn experienced recurrent generalized urticaria and an oral burning sensation after eating several cooked herbs for 3 months. A skin-prick test showed positive responses to various pollens, celery, Chinese bellflower, and arrowroot. The Chinese bellflower-specific IgE ELISA OD value was 1.547. Oral challenge with unprocessed raw Chinese bellflower root provoked oral burning sensation, eyelid swelling, generalized urticaria, and hypotension. In an ELISA inhibition test, IgE binding to Chinese bellflower was significantly inhibited by Chinese bellflower, mugwort, and birch pollen extract. SDS-PAGE and immunoblot assay revealed nine IgE-binding components, and common protein bands were detected in the range of 40~55 kDa (Chinese bellflower-mugwort-birch) and 14 kDa (Chinese bellflower-birch). Chinese bellflower root can cause anaphylaxis and may have cross-reactivity with mugwort and birch. PMID:19721867

  4. Handbook of road safety research

    SciTech Connect

    Grime, G.

    1987-01-01

    This book describes the road safety, accident investigation or vehicle and highway design. This book also discusses the nature and cause of road accidents. It discusses the following contents: Forward; Preface; The main features of the accident situation in Great Britain; The interacting roles of road environment, vehicle and road user in accidents; Roads - features which may be related to accidents; Movements of vehicles and road users before accidents; What happens to vehicles during and after accidents; Injuries to road users; The potential for savings in accidents involving injury; General remarks on accident investigation; Appendices References.

  5. Extending temperature sum models to simulate onset of birch flowering on the regional scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Christian; Biernath, Christian; Priesack, Eckart

    2015-04-01

    For human health issues a reliable forecast of the onset of flowering of different plants which produce allergenic pollen is important. Yet, there are numerous phenological models available with different degrees of model complexity. All models consider the effect of the air temperatures on plant development; but only few models also include other environmental factors and/or plant internal water and nutrient status. However, the more complex models often use empirical relations without physiological meaning and are often tested against small datasets derived from a limited amount of sites. Most models which are used to simulate plant phenology are based on the temporal integration of temperatures above a defined base temperature. A critical temperature sum then defines the onset of a new phenological stage. The use of models that base on temperatures only, is efficient as temperatures are the most frequently documented and available weather component on global, regional and local scales. These models score by their robustness over a wide range of environmental conditions. However, the simulations sometimes fail by more than 20 days compared to measurements, and thus are not adequate for their use in pollen forecast. We tested the ability of temperature sum models to simulate onset of flowering of wild (e.g. birch) and domestic plants in Bavaria. In a first step we therefore determined both, a regional averaged optimum base temperature and temperature sum for the examined plant species in Bavaria. In the second step, the base temperatures were optimized to each site for the simulation period 2001-2010. Our hypothesis is that domestic plants depend much less on the regional weather conditions than wild plants do, due to low and high genetic variability, respectively. If so, the observed base temperatures of wild plants are smaller for low annual average temperatures and higher for high annual average temperatures. In the cases of domestic plants the optimized base

  6. Papyriferic acid, an antifeedant triterpene from birch trees, inhibits succinate dehydrogenase from liver mitochondria.

    PubMed

    McLean, Stuart; Richards, Stephen M; Cover, Siow-Leng; Brandon, Sue; Davies, Noel W; Bryant, John P; Clausen, Thomas P

    2009-10-01

    Papyriferic acid (PA) is a triterpene that is secreted by glands on twigs of the juvenile ontogenetic phase of resin producing tree birches (e.g., Betula neoalaskana, B. pendula) and that deters browsing by mammals such as the snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus). We investigated the pharmacology of PA as a first step in understanding its antifeedant effect. After oral administration to rats, PA and several metabolites were found in feces but not urine, indicating that little was absorbed systemically. Metabolism involved various combinations of hydrolysis of its acetyl and malonyl ester groups, and hydroxylation of the terpene moiety. The presence of a malonyl group suggested a possible interaction with succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), a mitochondrial enzyme known to be competitively inhibited by malonic acid. The effect of PA on the oxidation of succinate by SDH was examined in mitochondrial preparations from livers of ox, rabbit, and rat. In all three species, PA was a potent inhibitor of SDH. Kinetic analysis indicated that, unlike malonate, PA acted by an uncompetitive mechanism, meaning that it binds to the enzyme-substrate complex. The hydrolysis product of PA, betulafolienetriol oxide, was inactive on SDH. Overall, the evidence suggests that PA acts as the intact molecule and interacts at a site other than the succinate binding site, possibly binding to the ubiquinone sites on complex II. Papyriferic acid was potent (K(iEIS) ranged from 25 to 45 microM in the three species) and selective, as malate dehydrogenase was unaffected. Although rigorous proof will require further experiments, we have a plausible mechanism for the antifeedant effect of PA: inhibition of SDH in gastrointestinal cells decreases mitochondrial energy production resulting in a noxious stimulus, 5-HT release, and sensations of nausea and discomfort. There is evidence that the co-evolution of birches and hares over a large and geographically-diverse area in Northern Europe and America has

  7. Bradyrhizobium sp. Strains That Nodulate the Leguminous Tree Acacia albida Produce Fucosylated and Partially Sulfated Nod Factors

    PubMed Central

    Ferro, Myriam; Lorquin, Jean; Ba, Salif; Sanon, Kadidia; Promé, Jean-Claude; Boivin, Catherine

    2000-01-01

    We determined the structures of Nod factors produced by six different Bradyrhizobium sp. strains nodulating the legume tree Acacia albida (syn. Faidherbia albida). Compounds from all strains were found to be similar, i.e., O-carbamoylated and substituted by an often sulfated methyl fucose and different from compounds produced by Rhizobium-Mesorhizobium-Sinorhizobium strains nodulating other species of the Acaciae tribe. PMID:11055966

  8. A comparison of the stability of beverage cloud emulsions formulated with different gum acacia- and starch-based emulsifiers.

    PubMed

    Reiner, S J; Reineccius, G A; Peppard, T L

    2010-06-01

    The performance of several hydrocolloids (3 gum acacias, 1 modified gum acacia, and 3 modified starches) in stabilizing beverage emulsions and corresponding model beverages was investigated employing different core materials, emulsifier usage levels, and storage temperatures. Concentrated emulsions were prepared using orange terpenes or Miglyol 812 (comprising medium-chain triglycerides, MCT) weighted 1:1 with ester gum, stored at 25 or 35 degrees C, and analyzed on days 0, 1, and 3. On day 3, model beverages were made from each emulsion, stored at both temperatures, and analyzed weekly for 4 wk. Stability of concentrated emulsions was assessed by measuring mean particle size and by visual observations of ringing; beverage stability was judged similarly and also by loss of turbidity. Particle size measurements showed concentrated emulsions containing gum acacia or modified gum acacia with either core material were stable over 3 d storage at both temperatures whereas those made with modified starches were not, destabilization being faster at 35 degrees C. Beverages based on orange terpenes, in contrast to Miglyol, yielded smaller mean particle sizes, both on manufacture and during storage, regardless of hydrocolloid used. Visual observations of ringing generally supported this finding. Modified gum acacia was evaluated at both recommended and higher usage levels, stability increasing in the latter case. In general, all gum acacia and modified gum acacia emulsifiers were superior in stability to those based on modified starches, at either temperature, for orange terpene-based beverages. In Miglyol-based beverages, similar results were seen, except 1 modified starch performed as well as the gum acacia products. PMID:20629869

  9. Phenolic compounds and expression of 4CL genes in silver birch clones and Pt4CL1a lines.

    PubMed

    Sutela, Suvi; Hahl, Terhi; Tiimonen, Heidi; Aronen, Tuija; Ylioja, Tiina; Laakso, Tapio; Saranpää, Pekka; Chiang, Vincent; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Häggman, Hely

    2014-01-01

    A small multigene family encodes 4-coumarate:CoA ligases (4CLs) catalyzing the CoA ligation of hydroxycinnamic acids, a branch point step directing metabolites to a flavonoid or monolignol pathway. In the present study, we examined the effect of antisense Populus tremuloides 4CL (Pt4CL1) to the lignin and soluble phenolic compound composition of silver birch (Betula pendula) Pt4CL1a lines in comparison with non-transgenic silver birch clones. The endogenous expression of silver birch 4CL genes was recorded in the stems and leaves and also in leaves that were mechanically injured. In one of the transgenic Pt4CL1a lines, the ratio of syringyl (S) and guaiacyl (G) lignin units was increased. Moreover, the transcript levels of putative silver birch 4CL gene (Bp4CL1) were reduced and contents of cinnamic acid derivatives altered. In the other two Pt4CL1a lines changes were detected in the level of individual phenolic compounds. However, considerable variation was found in the transcript levels of silver birch 4CLs as well as in the concentration of phenolic compounds among the transgenic lines and non-transgenic clones. Wounding induced the expression of Bp4CL1 and Bp4CL2 in leaves in all clones and transgenic lines, whereas the transcript levels of Bp4CL3 and Bp4CL4 remained unchanged. Moreover, minor changes were detected in the concentrations of phenolic compounds caused by wounding. As an overall trend the wounding decreased the flavonoid content in silver birches and increased the content of soluble condensed tannins. The results indicate that by reducing the Bp4CL1 transcript levels lignin composition could be modified. However, the alterations found among the Pt4CL1a lines and the non-transgenic clones were within the natural variation of silver birches, as shown in the present study by the clonal differences in the transcripts levels of 4CL genes, soluble phenolic compounds and condensed tannins. PMID:25502441

  10. Release of Bet v 1 from birch pollen from 5 European countries. Results from the HIALINE study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buters, Jeroen T. M.; Thibaudon, Michel; Smith, Matt; Kennedy, Roy; Rantio-Lehtimäki, Auli; Albertini, Roberto; Reese, Gerald; Weber, Bernhard; Galan, Carmen; Brandao, Rui; Antunes, Celia M.; Jäger, Siegfried; Berger, Uwe; Celenk, Sevcan; Grewling, Łukasz; Jackowiak, Bogdan; Sauliene, Ingrida; Weichenmeier, Ingrid; Pusch, Gudrun; Sarioglu, Hakan; Ueffing, Marius; Behrendt, Heidrun; Prank, Marje; Sofiev, Mikhail; Cecchi, Lorenzo; Hialine Working Group

    2012-08-01

    Exposure to allergens is pivotal in determining sensitization and allergic symptoms in individuals. Pollen grain counts in ambient air have traditionally been assessed to estimate airborne allergen exposure. However, the exact allergen content of ambient air is unknown. We therefore monitored atmospheric concentrations of birch pollen grains and the matched major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 simultaneously across Europe within the EU-funded project HIALINE (Health Impacts of Airborne Allergen Information Network). Pollen count was assessed with Hirst type pollen traps at 10 l min-1 at sites in France, United Kingdom, Germany, Italy and Finland. Allergen concentrations in ambient air were sampled at 800 l min-1 with a Chemvol® high-volume cascade impactor equipped with stages PM > 10 μm, 10 μm > PM > 2.5 μm, and in Germany also 2.5 μm > PM > 0.12 μm. The major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 was determined with an allergen specific ELISA. Bet v 1 isoform patterns were analyzed by 2D-SDS-PAGE blots and mass spectrometric identification. Basophil activation was tested in an FcɛR1-humanized rat basophil cell line passively sensitized with serum of a birch pollen symptomatic patient. Compared to 10 previous years, 2009 was a representative birch pollen season for all stations. About 90% of the allergen was found in the PM > 10 μm fraction at all stations. Bet v 1 isoforms pattern did not vary substantially neither during ripening of pollen nor between different geographical locations. The average European allergen release from birch pollen was 3.2 pg Bet v 1/pollen and did not vary much between the European countries. However, in all countries a >10-fold difference in daily allergen release per pollen was measured which could be explained by long-range transport of pollen with a deviating allergen release. Basophil activation by ambient air extracts correlated better with airborne allergen than with pollen concentration. Although Bet v 1 is a mixture of different

  11. Release of Bet v 1 from birch pollen from 5 European countries. Results from the HIALINE study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The HIALINE working Group; Buters, Jeroen T. M.; Thibaudon, Michel; Smith, Matt; Kennedy, Roy; Rantio-Lehtimäki, Auli; Albertini, Roberto; Reese, Gerald; Weber, Bernhard; Galan, Carmen; Brandao, Rui; Antunes, Celia M.; Jäger, Siegfried; Berger, Uwe; Celenk, Sevcan; Grewling, Łukasz; Jackowiak, Bogdan; Sauliene, Ingrida; Weichenmeier, Ingrid; Pusch, Gudrun; Sarioglu, Hakan; Ueffing, Marius; Behrendt, Heidrun; Prank, Marje; Sofiev, Mikhail; Cecchi, Lorenzo

    2012-08-01

    Exposure to allergens is pivotal in determining sensitization and allergic symptoms in individuals. Pollen grain counts in ambient air have traditionally been assessed to estimate airborne allergen exposure. However, the exact allergen content of ambient air is unknown. We therefore monitored atmospheric concentrations of birch pollen grains and the matched major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 simultaneously across Europe within the EU-funded project HIALINE (Health Impacts of Airborne Allergen Information Network).Pollen count was assessed with Hirst type pollen traps at 10 l min-1 at sites in France, United Kingdom, Germany, Italy and Finland. Allergen concentrations in ambient air were sampled at 800 l min-1 with a Chemvol® high-volume cascade impactor equipped with stages PM > 10 μm, 10 μm > PM > 2.5 μm, and in Germany also 2.5 μm > PM > 0.12 μm. The major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 was determined with an allergen specific ELISA. Bet v 1 isoform patterns were analyzed by 2D-SDS-PAGE blots and mass spectrometric identification. Basophil activation was tested in an FcɛR1-humanized rat basophil cell line passively sensitized with serum of a birch pollen symptomatic patient.Compared to 10 previous years, 2009 was a representative birch pollen season for all stations. About 90% of the allergen was found in the PM > 10 μm fraction at all stations. Bet v 1 isoforms pattern did not vary substantially neither during ripening of pollen nor between different geographical locations. The average European allergen release from birch pollen was 3.2 pg Bet v 1/pollen and did not vary much between the European countries. However, in all countries a >10-fold difference in daily allergen release per pollen was measured which could be explained by long-range transport of pollen with a deviating allergen release. Basophil activation by ambient air extracts correlated better with airborne allergen than with pollen concentration.Although Bet v 1 is a mixture of different

  12. Phenolic Compounds and Expression of 4CL Genes in Silver Birch Clones and Pt4CL1a Lines

    PubMed Central

    Sutela, Suvi; Hahl, Terhi; Tiimonen, Heidi; Aronen, Tuija; Ylioja, Tiina; Laakso, Tapio; Saranpää, Pekka; Chiang, Vincent; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Häggman, Hely

    2014-01-01

    A small multigene family encodes 4-coumarate:CoA ligases (4CLs) catalyzing the CoA ligation of hydroxycinnamic acids, a branch point step directing metabolites to a flavonoid or monolignol pathway. In the present study, we examined the effect of antisense Populus tremuloides 4CL (Pt4CL1) to the lignin and soluble phenolic compound composition of silver birch (Betula pendula) Pt4CL1a lines in comparison with non-transgenic silver birch clones. The endogenous expression of silver birch 4CL genes was recorded in the stems and leaves and also in leaves that were mechanically injured. In one of the transgenic Pt4CL1a lines, the ratio of syringyl (S) and guaiacyl (G) lignin units was increased. Moreover, the transcript levels of putative silver birch 4CL gene (Bp4CL1) were reduced and contents of cinnamic acid derivatives altered. In the other two Pt4CL1a lines changes were detected in the level of individual phenolic compounds. However, considerable variation was found in the transcript levels of silver birch 4CLs as well as in the concentration of phenolic compounds among the transgenic lines and non-transgenic clones. Wounding induced the expression of Bp4CL1 and Bp4CL2 in leaves in all clones and transgenic lines, whereas the transcript levels of Bp4CL3 and Bp4CL4 remained unchanged. Moreover, minor changes were detected in the concentrations of phenolic compounds caused by wounding. As an overall trend the wounding decreased the flavonoid content in silver birches and increased the content of soluble condensed tannins. The results indicate that by reducing the Bp4CL1 transcript levels lignin composition could be modified. However, the alterations found among the Pt4CL1a lines and the non-transgenic clones were within the natural variation of silver birches, as shown in the present study by the clonal differences in the transcripts levels of 4CL genes, soluble phenolic compounds and condensed tannins. PMID:25502441

  13. Glutathione-S-Transferase: A Minor Allergen in Birch Pollen due to Limited Release from Hydrated Pollen

    PubMed Central

    Vejvar, Eva; Kitzmüller, Claudia; Gadermaier, Gabriele; Nagl, Birgit; Vrtala, Susanne; Briza, Peter; Zlabinger, Gerhard J.; Jahn-Schmid, Beatrice; Ferreira, Fatima; Bohle, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Background Recently, a protein homologous to glutathione-S-transferases (GST) was detected in prominent amounts in birch pollen by proteomic profiling. As members of the GST family are relevant allergens in mites, cockroach and fungi we investigated the allergenic relevance of GST from birch (bGST). Methodology bGST was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and characterized by mass spectrometry. Sera from 217 birch pollen-allergic patients were tested for IgE-reactivity to bGST by ELISA. The mediator-releasing activity of bGST was analysed with IgE-loaded rat basophil leukaemia cells (RBL) expressing human FcεRI. BALB/c mice were immunized with bGST or Bet v 1. Antibody and T cell responses to either protein were assessed. IgE-cross-reactivity between bGST with GST from house dust mite, Der p 8, was studied with murine and human sera in ELISA. The release kinetics of bGST and Bet v 1 from birch pollen were assessed in water, simulated lung fluid, 0.9% NaCl and PBS. Eluted proteins were quantified by ELISA and analysed by immunoblotting. Principle findings Only 13% of 217 birch pollen-allergic patients showed IgE-reactivity to bGST. In RBL assays bGST induced mediator release. Immunization of mice with bGST induced specific IgE and a Th2-dominated cellular immune response comparably to immunization with Bet v 1. bGST did not cross-react with Der p 8. In contrast to Bet v 1, only low amounts of bGST were released from pollen grains upon incubation in water and the different physiological solutions. Conclusion/Significance Although bGST is abundant in birch pollen, immunogenic in mice and able to induce mediator release from effector cells passively loaded with specific IgE, it is a minor allergen for birch pollen-allergic patients. We refer this discrepancy to its limited release from hydrated pollen. Hence, bGST is an example demonstrating that allergenicity depends mainly on rapid elution from airborne particles. PMID:25275548

  14. Immunochemical characterization of acacia pollen allergens and evaluation of cross-reactivity pattern with the common allergenic pollens.

    PubMed

    Shamsbiranvand, Mohammad-Hosein; Khodadadi, Ali; Assarehzadegan, Mohammad-Ali; Borsi, Seyed Hamid; Amini, Akram

    2014-01-01

    Pollen from the Acacia has been reported as an important source of pollinosis in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The aim of this study was to characterize the IgE binding protein of Acacia farnesiana pollen extract and evaluate cross-reactivity with the most allergenic pollens. In this study, pollen extract was fractionated by SDS-PAGE and the allergenic profile was determined by IgE-immunoblotting and specific ELISA using forty-two Acacia allergic patients. Potential cross-reactivity among Acacia and selected allergenic plants was evaluated with ELISA and immunoblotting inhibition experiments. There were several resolved protein fractions on SDS-PAGE which ranged from 12 to 85 kDa. Several allergenic protein bands with molecular weights approximately between 12 and 85 kDa were recognized by IgE-specific antibodies from Acacia allergic patients in the immunoblot assay. The inhibition by the Prosopis juliflora pollen extract was more than those by other pollen extracts. Moreover, the wheal diameters generated by the Acacia pollen extract were highly correlated with those of P. juliflora pollen extracts. The findings suggest that several proteins such as 15, 23, 45, and 50 kDa proteins could be used as diagnostic and therapeutic reagents for patients allergic to A. farnesiana and P. juliflora. PMID:24949020

  15. Immunochemical Characterization of Acacia Pollen Allergens and Evaluation of Cross-Reactivity Pattern with the Common Allergenic Pollens

    PubMed Central

    Shamsbiranvand, Mohammad-Hosein; Khodadadi, Ali; Assarehzadegan, Mohammad-Ali; Borsi, Seyed Hamid; Amini, Akram

    2014-01-01

    Pollen from the Acacia has been reported as an important source of pollinosis in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The aim of this study was to characterize the IgE binding protein of Acacia farnesiana pollen extract and evaluate cross-reactivity with the most allergenic pollens. In this study, pollen extract was fractionated by SDS-PAGE and the allergenic profile was determined by IgE-immunoblotting and specific ELISA using forty-two Acacia allergic patients. Potential cross-reactivity among Acacia and selected allergenic plants was evaluated with ELISA and immunoblotting inhibition experiments. There were several resolved protein fractions on SDS-PAGE which ranged from 12 to 85 kDa. Several allergenic protein bands with molecular weights approximately between 12 and 85 kDa were recognized by IgE-specific antibodies from Acacia allergic patients in the immunoblot assay. The inhibition by the Prosopis juliflora pollen extract was more than those by other pollen extracts. Moreover, the wheal diameters generated by the Acacia pollen extract were highly correlated with those of P. juliflora pollen extracts. The findings suggest that several proteins such as 15, 23, 45, and 50 kDa proteins could be used as diagnostic and therapeutic reagents for patients allergic to A. farnesiana and P. juliflora. PMID:24949020

  16. Effects of biotic and abiotic constraints on the symbiosis between rhizobia and the tropical leguminous trees Acacia and Prosopis.

    PubMed

    Räsänen, Leena A; Lindström, Kristina

    2003-10-01

    N2-fixing, drought tolerant and multipurpose Acacia and Prosopis species are appropriate trees for reforestation of degraded areas in arid and semiarid regions of the tropics and subtropics. Acacia and Prosopis trees form N2-fixing nodules with a wide range of rhizobia, for example African acacias mainly with Sinorhizobium sp. and Mesorhizobium sp., and Australian acacias with Bradyrhizobium sp. Although dry and hot seasons restrict formation of N2-fixing nodules on Acacia and Prosopis spp., fully grown trees and their symbiotic partners are well adapted to survive in harsh growth conditions. This review on one hand deals with major constraints of arid and semiarid soils, i.e. drought, salinity and high soil temperature, which affect growth of trees and rhizobia, and on the other hand with adaptation mechanisms by which both organisms survive through unfavourable periods. In addition, defects in infection and nodulation processes due to various abiotic and biotic constraints are reviewed. This knowledge is important when Acacia and Prosopis seedlings are used for forestation of degraded areas in arid and semiarid tropics. PMID:15242281

  17. The water regime of silver (Betula pendula Roth) and Karelian (Betula pendula var. carelica) birches under sufficient and limited soil moisture conditions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sazonova, T.; Pridacha, V.; Olchev, A.

    2012-04-01

    The sensitivity of the silver (Betula pendula Roth) and Karelian (Betula pendula var. carelica) birches to different soil moisture conditions was investigated using results of field measurements provided in 2008-11 at forest experimental sites of the Forest Research Institute of Karelian Research Center of RAS in Karelia, Russia. Karelian birch is a specific form of the silver birch and it is characterized by structural abnormalities of trunk tissues (thickenings on the trunk, the marble-like pattern and figured wood) that results in considerable reduction of number of xylem vessels and increase of parenchyma cell number (Novitskaya, 2008). For experimental study several three-, five- and seven-year old trees of the silver and Karelian birches were selected. The transpiration rate of the leaves (E) was determined using the portable photosynthesis system Li-6400XTR (Li-Cor, USA). Leaf water potential of photosynthesizing leaves (Ψ) was measured using the pressure chamber. Amount of available water in leaves (WCf), water deficit (WSD) and saturating leaf water content (WCs) were calculated using the following equations: WCf = (Wf -Wd)/ Wd (gwatergdryweight-1), WSD = (Ws - Wf)/(Ws - Wd) (%), WCs= (Ws- Wf) / Wd (gwatergdryweight-1), where Wf and Wd - fresh and dried leaf biomass, Ws - weight of the leaves at saturation. Comparisons of three and five years old birches showed that the differences between WSD and WCs of the Karelian and silver birch increased with tree age. It can be explained that the Karelian birch has increased parenchyma and significant amount of water can be additionally stored there. Comparisons of WSD and WCs of silver birches of both forms show that the differences between forms increase with growth of water deficit in plants. It was observed in both seasonal and daily patterns. The largest differences were indicated at the afternoon and at the end of growing season (from middle of August until September). These results also show that WSD and WCs

  18. Is the Growth of Birch at the UPPER Timberline in the Himalayas Limited By Moisture or By Temperature?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, E.; Dawadi, B.; Pederson, N.; Eckstein, D.

    2014-12-01

    Birch (Betula) trees and forests are found across much of the temperate and boreal zones of the Northern Hemisphere. Yet, despite being an ecologically-significant genus, it is much less-well studied compared to common genera like Pinus, Picea, Juniperus, Quercus, and Fagus. In the Himalayas, Himalayan birch (Betula utilis) is a widespread, important broadleaf timberline species that survives in mountain rain shadows via access to water from snowmelt. Because precipitation in the Nepalese Himalayas decreases with increasing elevation, we hypothesized that the growth of birch at the upper timberlines between 3,900 and 4,150 m a.s.l. is primarily limited by moisture availability rather than by low temperature. To verify this assumption, a total of 292 increment cores were extracted from 211 birch trees at nine timberline sites. The synchronous occurrence of narrow rings and high inter-series correlations within and among sites evidenced a reliable cross-dating and a common climatic signal in the tree-ring widths variations. From March-May, all nine tree-ring width site chronologies showed a strongly positive response to total precipitation and a less strongly negative response to temperature. During the instrumental meteorological record (after 1960), years with a high percentage of missing rings coincided with pre-monsoon drought events. Periods of below-average growth are in phase with well-known drought events all over monsoon Asia, showing additional evidence that Himalayan birch growth at the upper timberlines is persistently limited by moisture availability. Our study describes the rare case of a drought-induced altitudinal timberline that is composed by a broadleaf tree species.

  19. Nickel and Copper Toxicity and Plant Response Mechanisms in White Birch (Betula papyrifera).

    PubMed

    Theriault, Gabriel; Nkongolo, Kabwe

    2016-08-01

    Nickel (Ni) and copper (Cu) are the most prevalent metals found in the soils in the Greater Sudbury Region (Canada) because of smelting emissions. The main objectives of the present study were to (1) determine the toxicity of nickel (Ni) and copper (Cu) at different doses in Betula papyrifera (white birch), (2) Characterize nickel resistance mechanism, and (3) assess segregating patterns for Ni and Cu resistance in B. papyrifera populations. This study revealed that B. papyrifera is resistant to Ni and Cu concentrations equivalent to the levels reported in metal-contaminated stands in the GSR. Resistant genotypes (RG) accumulate Ni in roots but not in leaves. Moderately susceptible (MSG) and susceptible genotypes (SG) show a high level of Ni translocation to leaves. Gene expression analysis showed differential regulation of genes in RG compared to MSG and SG. Analysis of segregation patterns suggests that resistance to Ni and Cu is controlled by single recessive genes. PMID:27230027

  20. Impact of Wetting/Oven-Drying Cycles on the Mechanical and Physical Properties of Birch Plywood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sooru, M.; Kasepuu, K.; Kask, R.; Lille, H.

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to explore some physical and mechanical properties and the dimensional stability of birch (Betula sp.) nine-ply veneers glued with phenol-formaldehyde (PF) after 10 cycles of soaking/oven-drying. The properties to be determined were bending strength (BS), modulus of elasticity in bending (MOE), Janka hardness (JH) and thickness swelling (TS), which were tested according to the European Standards (EN). An analytical equation was used for approximation of the change in the physical and mechanical properties of the samples depending on the number of cycles. It was shown that the values of the studied properties were affected most by the first soaking and drying cycles after which BS and MOE decreased continuously while the values of JH and TS stabilized. After 10 cycles the final values of BS, MOE, JH and TS accounted for 75-81%, 95%, 82% and 98.5% of the initial values, respectively.

  1. Heterodera betulae n. sp. (Heteroderidae), a Cyst-forming Nematode from River Birch

    PubMed Central

    Hirschmann, H.; Riggs, R. D.

    1969-01-01

    A new species of the genus Heterodera A. Schmidt, 1871 parasitic on river birch, Betula nigra L., is described and illustrated. Females and cysts are lemon-shaped to almost spherical with slight vulval protrusion. Female cuticles have a thick subcrystalline layer. The average cyst size is 763 by 616 [mu]. They are circumfenestrate with small anal opening and lack a yellow phase. The cyst wall pattern is typically network-like. All eggs are retained in the cyst, although a well-developed matrix is formed. The egg shell is without markings. The second-stage larvae average 462 [mu] in length and have 3 incisures in the lateral field. The tail terminal is shorter than the stylet. Males are rare. They have 4 incisures in the lateral field and bifid spicules. The relationship of H. betulae n. sp. to other Heterodera species is obscure. PMID:19325672

  2. Vegetation and lake-level history at Birch Lake, interior Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, M.E.; Finney, B.P.; Bigelow, N.H.; Gardner, D.G. ); Eisner, W.R. )

    1994-06-01

    In interior Alaska (mean ann. precip. ca 350 mm) lakes should be sensitive to changes in the P/E ratio. At Birch Lake, near Fairbanks, lake levels rose dramatically 11,000-9200 years ago, fell 9200-8500 years ago and then rose rapidly, probably in a few hundred years. Some major changes in vegetation appear coincident with the lake-level changes, but others do not, or are hard to interprete. Populus woodland expanded during the first transgression, but subsequently declined while lake levels were still high. 9000-8000 years ago Picea glauca expanded then decreased, its abundance apparently negatively correlated with moisture availability. The lake rise at ca 8000 yr B.P. is slightly preceded by regional expansion of Alnus. Data suggest that a complex interaction of climatic and non-climatic factors determined vegetation dynamics during the late-Quaternary in interior Alaska.

  3. Birch inner bark procyanidins can be resolved with enhanced sensitivity by hydrophilic interaction HPLC-MS.

    PubMed

    Karonen, Maarit; Liimatainen, Jaana; Sinkkonen, Jari

    2011-11-01

    A complex mixture of procyanidin aglycones was isolated by Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography from the silver birch inner bark, which is a polyphenol-rich source of natural antioxidants. Procyanidins were studied by using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography combined with high-resolution ESI-TOF-MS. A good chromatographic separation was achieved and procyanidins eluted according to their increasing degree of polymerization. Individual procyanidins were detected from dimers up to the degree of polymerization of 22 by their negative-ion mass spectra. The results showed that hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography can be successfully applied for the analysis of high-molecular-weight procyanidins with enhanced sensitivity in electrospray mass spectrometry. PMID:21998029

  4. Temperature-dependent changes in the microbial storage flora of birch and spruce sawdust.

    PubMed

    Blomqvist, Johanna; Leong, Su-lin L; Sandgren, Mats; Lestander, Torbjörn; Passoth, Volkmar

    2014-01-01

    Sawdust can be used to make pellets (biofuel) and particle boards and as a potential lignocellulose feedstock in bioethanol production. Microbial activity can affect sawdust quality; hence, we monitored the microbial population in birch- and spruce sawdust after 3 months' storage at various temperatures. Species composition was similar on both materials but was strongly influenced by temperature. Bacteria were present on all materials at all conditions: on birch, 2.8 × 10(8) , 1.1 × 10(8) , and 8.8 × 10(6) , and on spruce, 4.1 × 10(8) , 5.6 × 10(7) , and 1.5 × 10(8)  CFU/g DM, at 2, 20, and 37 °C, respectively. Dominant bacteria at 2, 20, and 37 °C were Pseudomonas spp. (some Enterobacteriaceae spp. present), Luteibacter rhizovicinus, and Fulvimonas sp., respectively. Pseudomonas spp. were absent at ≥20 °C. Among microfungi, yeasts dominated at 2 °C but were absent at 37 °C, whereas molds dominated at 20 and 37 °C. Common yeasts included Cystofilobasidium capitatum, Cystofilobasidium infirmominiatum, Candida saitoana, Candida oregonensis, and Candida railenensis. Ophiostoma quercus was a common mold at 2 and 20 °C, whereas the human pathogens Aspergillus fumigatus and Paecilomyces variotii dominated at 37 °C. Attempts to influence the microflora by addition of the biocontrol yeasts, Wickerhamomyces anomalus and Scheffersomyces stipitis, were unsuccessful, as their growth in sawdust was poor to absent. PMID:24527731

  5. Volatile organic compounds emitted from silver birch of different provenances across a latitudinal gradient in Finland.

    PubMed

    Maja, Mengistu M; Kasurinen, Anne; Holopainen, Toini; Kontunen-Soppela, Sari; Oksanen, Elina; Holopainen, Jarmo K

    2015-09-01

    Climate warming is having an impact on distribution, acclimation and defence capability of plants. We compared the emission rate and composition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from silver birch (Betula pendula (Roth)) provenances along a latitudinal gradient in a common garden experiment over the years 2012 and 2013. Micropropagated silver birch saplings from three provenances were acquired along a gradient of 7° latitude and planted at central (Joensuu 62°N) and northern (Kolari 67°N) sites. We collected VOCs emitted by shoots and assessed levels of herbivore damage of three genotypes of each provenance on three occasions at the central site and four occasions at the northern site. In 2012, trees of all provenances growing at the central site had higher total VOC emission rates than the same provenances growing at the northern site; in 2013 the reverse was true, thus indicating a variable effect of latitude. Trees of the southern provenance had lower VOC emission rates than trees of the central and northern provenances during both sampling years. However, northward or southward translocation itself had no significant effect on the total VOC emission rates, and no clear effect on insect herbivore damage. When VOC blend composition was studied, trees of all provenances usually emitted more green leaf volatiles at the northern site and more sesquiterpenes at the central site. The monoterpene composition of emissions from trees of the central provenance was distinct from that of the other provenances. In summary, provenance translocation did not have a clear effect in the short-term on VOC emissions and herbivory was not usually intense at the lower latitude. Our data did not support the hypothesis that trees growing at lower latitudes would experience more intense herbivory, and therefore allocate resources to chemical defence in the form of inducible VOC emissions. PMID:26093370

  6. Identification of lignin genes and regulatory sequences involved in secondary cell wall formation in Acacia auriculiformis and Acacia mangium via de novo transcriptome sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Acacia auriculiformis × Acacia mangium hybrids are commercially important trees for the timber and pulp industry in Southeast Asia. Increasing pulp yield while reducing pulping costs are major objectives of tree breeding programs. The general monolignol biosynthesis and secondary cell wall formation pathways are well-characterized but genes in these pathways are poorly characterized in Acacia hybrids. RNA-seq on short-read platforms is a rapid approach for obtaining comprehensive transcriptomic data and to discover informative sequence variants. Results We sequenced transcriptomes of A. auriculiformis and A. mangium from non-normalized cDNA libraries synthesized from pooled young stem and inner bark tissues using paired-end libraries and a single lane of an Illumina GAII machine. De novo assembly produced a total of 42,217 and 35,759 contigs with an average length of 496 bp and 498 bp for A. auriculiformis and A. mangium respectively. The assemblies of A. auriculiformis and A. mangium had a total length of 21,022,649 bp and 17,838,260 bp, respectively, with the largest contig 15,262 bp long. We detected all ten monolignol biosynthetic genes using Blastx and further analysis revealed 18 lignin isoforms for each species. We also identified five contigs homologous to R2R3-MYB proteins in other plant species that are involved in transcriptional regulation of secondary cell wall formation and lignin deposition. We searched the contigs against public microRNA database and predicted the stem-loop structures of six highly conserved microRNA families (miR319, miR396, miR160, miR172, miR162 and miR168) and one legume-specific family (miR2086). Three microRNA target genes were predicted to be involved in wood formation and flavonoid biosynthesis. By using the assemblies as a reference, we discovered 16,648 and 9,335 high quality putative Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in the transcriptomes of A. auriculiformis and A. mangium, respectively, thus yielding

  7. Effect of Acacia Gum, NaCl, and Sucrose on Physical Properties of Lotus Stem Starch.

    PubMed

    Puri, Ritika; Gill, Balmeet Singh; Khetra, Yogesh

    2014-01-01

    Consumer preferences in east Asian part of the world pave the way for consumption of lotus stem starch (LSS) in preparations such as breakfast meals, fast foods, and traditional confectioneries. The present study envisaged the investigation and optimization of additives, that is, acacia gum, sodium chloride (NaCl), and sucrose, on water absorption (WA), water absorption index (WAI), and water solubility index (WSI) of LSS employing response surface methodology (RSM). Acacia gum resulted in increased water uptake and swelling of starch; however, NaCl reduced the swelling power of starch by making water unavailable to starch and also due to starch-ion electrostatic interaction. Sucrose restricted the water absorption by binding free water and decreased amylose leaching by building bridges with starch chains and thus forming rigid structure. PMID:26904639

  8. A co-evolutionary relationship exists between Endoraecium (Pucciniales) and its Acacia hosts in Australia.

    PubMed

    McTaggart, A R; Doungsa-Ard, C; Geering, A D W; Aime, M C; Shivas, R G

    2015-12-01

    Endoraecium is a genus of rust fungi that infects several species of Acacia in Australia, South-East Asia and Hawaii. This study investigated the systematics of Endoraecium from 55 specimens in Australia based on a combined morphological and molecular approach. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted on partitioned datasets of loci from ribosomal and mitochondrial DNA. The recovered molecular phylogeny supported a recently published taxonomy based on morphology and host range that divided Endoraecium digitatum into five species. Spore morphology is synapomorphic and there is evidence Endoraecium co-evolved with its Acacia hosts. The broad host ranges of E. digitatum, E. parvum, E. phyllodiorum and E. violae-faustiae are revised in light of this study, and nine new species of Endoraecium are described from Australia based on host taxonomy, morphology and phylogenetic concordance. PMID:26823628

  9. Pretreatment of Acacia nilotica Sawdust by Catalytic Delignification and Its Fractal Kinetic Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallick, Abhyuday; Ash, Soumendra Nath; Mahapatra, Debashis Kumar

    2016-04-01

    Alkaline delignification of Acacia nilotica heartwood has been carried out using 10 % Sodium hydroxide and Sodium sulphide as the cooking liquor. Delignification was carried out at 373, 393, 403 and 413 K on Acacia nilotica sawdust of particle-sizes 70, 100 and 120 mesh, for durations ranging from 1 to 3 h. The reactions were carried out in presence and in absence of Ferrous sulphate to determine its catalytic properties in delignification. Maximum delignification achieved was 82.7 %, based on Klason lignin, in 3 h at 413 K for 120 mesh feed. The activation energies for delignification were 20.9275 and 35 kJ/mol, respectively, in presence and in absence of Ferrous sulphate, indicating its significant catalytic effect. A kinetic model for delignification was developed by modification of the Nuclei Growth model. Delignification extent could be predicted from the developed model quite accurately, with R2 values ranging from 0.947 to 0.99.

  10. Effect of Acacia Gum, NaCl, and Sucrose on Physical Properties of Lotus Stem Starch

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Balmeet Singh

    2014-01-01

    Consumer preferences in east Asian part of the world pave the way for consumption of lotus stem starch (LSS) in preparations such as breakfast meals, fast foods, and traditional confectioneries. The present study envisaged the investigation and optimization of additives, that is, acacia gum, sodium chloride (NaCl), and sucrose, on water absorption (WA), water absorption index (WAI), and water solubility index (WSI) of LSS employing response surface methodology (RSM). Acacia gum resulted in increased water uptake and swelling of starch; however, NaCl reduced the swelling power of starch by making water unavailable to starch and also due to starch-ion electrostatic interaction. Sucrose restricted the water absorption by binding free water and decreased amylose leaching by building bridges with starch chains and thus forming rigid structure. PMID:26904639

  11. Chemical composition, digestibility and antinutritional factors content of two wild legumes: Styphonolobium burseroides and Acacia bilimekii.

    PubMed

    Sotelo, A; Migliaro, P; Toledo, A; Contreras, J

    1999-01-01

    The chemical composition, digestibility and toxin contents of two wild legumes: Styphnolobium burseroides and Acacia bilimekii, collected in a semi-arid zone of Mexico, were determined. Both legumes had a high fiber content. The seeds of Styphnolobium burseroides had a low protein content (14%), and the pod a high content of reducing sugars. However the seeds of Acacia bilimekii had a high protein concentration (35%). The seed proteins were low in sulphur amino acids and tryptophan in both legumes but were rich in lysine. Trypsin inhibitors and lectins were present in low concentrations; alkaloids and cyanogenic glucosides were not detected. The in vitro digestibility for monogastric animals was low but the same test with ruminal juice showed a high digestibility for both legumes. Based on their chemical composition and digestibility, these legumes could be a good alternative source in the feeding of ruminants. PMID:10646630

  12. The long range transport of birch (Betula) pollen from Poland and Germany causes significant pre-season concentrations in Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambelas Skjoth, C.; Sommer, J.; Stach, A.; Smith, M.; Brandt, J.; Christensen, J. H.; Frohn, L. M.; Geels, C.; Hansen, K. M.; Hedegaard, G. B.

    2009-04-01

    In Denmark, where birch pollen is considered to be among the most important allergenic pollen, about one million people suffer from seasonal allergic rhinitis. In Denmark, the official reported pollen forecast is based on the daily weather forecast, the pollen calendar and local 24-h measurements. Birch pollen has the potential for long-range transport but the present Danish pollen forecast does not account for birch pollen being transported into the country from distant sources.. Long-range transport episodes are intermittent and often out of the main pollen season, where individuals in general will be medically unprotected. Here we use an integrated approach to investigate whether or not Denmark receives significant quantities of birch pollen from Poland and Germany before local trees start to flower. In 2006 we used a combination of phenological observations and pollen measurements in Poland (Poznań) and Denmark (Copenhagen). Seasonal and diurnal variations in birch pollen measurement from Copenhagen (2000-2006) were examined with the aim of identifying pre-seasonal episodes originating from long-range transport. The 2.5% accumulation method was used for identifying start of season. If daily pollen counts exceeded 30 grains/m3 either before the local flowering season began or on the actual start day, the episode was chosen for investigation with back trajectory analysis. A birch forest inventory for Northern Europe was produced and implemented in DEHM-Pollen along with a simple unified pollen release model SUPREME to investigate the 2006 campaign in detail. In 2006, full flowering took place in Poznan between 20th and 28th of April and daily concentrations varied between 739 and 2169 grains/m3. In Copenhagen phenological observations showed that local flowering was initiated the 2nd of May. In Copenhagen several episodes with pollen concentrations at 108, 244 and 41 grains/m3 were recorded the 23rd, 26th and 27th of April, respectively. Back-trajectory analysis

  13. Precipitation of Calcium, Magnesium, Strontium and Barium in Tissues of Four Acacia Species (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae)

    PubMed Central

    He, Honghua; Bleby, Timothy M.; Veneklaas, Erik J.; Lambers, Hans; Kuo, John

    2012-01-01

    Precipitation of calcium in plants is common. There are abundant studies on the uptake and content of magnesium, strontium and barium, which have similar chemical properties to calcium, in comparison with those of calcium in plants, but studies on co-precipitation of these elements with calcium in plants are rare. In this study, we compared morphologies, distributional patterns, and elemental compositions of crystals in tissues of four Acacia species grown in the field as well as in the glasshouse. A comparison was also made of field-grown plants and glasshouse-grown plants, and of phyllodes of different ages for each species. Crystals of various morphologies and distributional patterns were observed in the four Acacia species studied. Magnesium, strontium and barium were precipitated together with calcium, mainly in phyllodes of the four Acacia species, and sometimes in branchlets and primary roots. These elements were most likely precipitated in forms of oxalate and sulfate in various tissues, including epidermis, mesophyll, parenchyma, sclerenchyma (fibre cells), pith, pith ray and cortex. In most cases, precipitation of calcium, magnesium, strontium and barium was biologically induced, and elements precipitated differed between soil types, plant species, and tissues within an individual plant; the precipitation was also related to tissue age. Formation of crystals containing these elements might play a role in regulating and detoxifying these elements in plants, and protecting the plants against herbivory. PMID:22848528

  14. [Discrimination of Rice Syrup Adulterant of Acacia Honey Based Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan-nan; Chen, Lan-zhen; Xue, Xiao-feng; Wu, Li-ming; Li, Yi; Yang, Juan

    2015-09-01

    At present, the rice syrup as a low price of the sweeteners was often adulterated into acacia honey and the adulterated honeys were sold in honey markets, while there is no suitable and fast method to identify honey adulterated with rice syrup. In this study, Near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) combined with chemometric methods were used to discriminate authenticity of honey. 20 unprocessed acacia honey samples from the different honey producing areas, mixed? with different proportion of rice syrup, were prepared of seven different concentration gradient? including 121 samples. The near infrared spectrum (NIR) instrument and spectrum processing software have been applied in the? spectrum? scanning and data conversion on adulterant samples, respectively. Then it was analyzed by Principal component analysis (PCA) and canonical discriminant analysis methods in order to discriminating adulterated honey. The results showed that after principal components analysis, the first two principal components accounted for 97.23% of total variation, but the regionalism of the score plot of the first two PCs was not obvious, so the canonical discriminant analysis was used to make the further discrimination, all samples had been discriminated correctly, the first two discriminant functions accounted for 91.6% among the six canonical discriminant functions, Then the different concentration of adulterant samples can be discriminated correctly, it illustrate that canonical discriminant analysis method combined with NIR spectroscopy is not only feasible but also practical for rapid and effective discriminate of the rice syrup adulterant of acacia honey. PMID:26669162

  15. Monitoring Acacia seedlings establishment and survival for a geo-spatial analysis model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaacson, Sivan; Winters, Gidon; Blumberg, Dan G.; Rachmilevitch, shimon; Ephrath, Jhonathan E.

    2016-04-01

    Seedlings are considered the stage most vulnerable to environmental conditions in the life cycle of plants. For plants in general but even more so for desert plants, seedling survival during the first years is crucial to the longevity of the population. Within the study area, Arava valley, southern Israeli Negev desert, flood events have been known to induce germination of seedlings, with only a small percentage (if any) of such seedlings surviving the dry summer. Following the floods of the 2013 winter (Jan-April 2013), we identified a 50 x 50 m section within the Gidron Wadi (Ephemeral river), in which we located and marked some 50 acacia (Acacia tortilis and Acacia raddiana) seedlings. We monitored the seedlings survival, growth and trunk diameter over the period of three years as well as taking periodical thermal and near infra-red (NIR) photographs. In order to better understand the geohydrology conditions we created a digital elevation model of the Wadi segment that includes the seedlings location, using total station theodolite. The survey will enable us to locate and map hotspots in the Wadi, which have high potential for seedling establishment and survival. Understanding the conditions (micro-topographic, radiative, plant competition) effect on seedling germination and establishment, can be translated into a spatial rule set of recruitment probability for population dynamic spatial models.

  16. A role for indirect facilitation in maintaining diversity in a guild of African acacia ants.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Todd M; Stanton, Maureen L; Young, Truman P; Lemboi, John S; Goheen, Jacob R; Pringle, Robert M

    2013-07-01

    Determining how competing species coexist is essential to understanding patterns of biodiversity. Indirect facilitation, in which a competitively dominant species exerts a positive effect on one competitor by more strongly suppressing a third, shared competitor, is a potentially potent yet understudied mechanism for competitive coexistence. Here we provide evidence for indirect facilitation in a guild of four African Acacia ant species that compete for nesting space on the host plant Acacia drepanolobium, showing that a competitively dominant acacia ant species indirectly creates establishment opportunities for the most subordinate species that may help to maintain diversity. Using long-term observational data and field experiments, we demonstrate that the competitively dominant ant species outcompetes two competitively intermediate species, while tolerating colonies of the subordinate competitor; this creates opportunities for local colonization and establishment of colonies of the subordinate species within the dominant species' territories. Host plants occupied by this subordinate species are then more likely to be colonized by the intermediate species, which in turn are more likely to be displaced by the dominant species. This process has the potential to generate a cyclical succession of ant species on host trees, contributing to stable coexistence within this highly competitive community. PMID:23951713

  17. Effect of composite yogurt enriched with acacia fiber and Bifidobacterium lactis

    PubMed Central

    Min, Yang Won; Park, Sang Un; Jang, Yeon Sil; Kim, Young-Ho; Rhee, Poong-Lyul; Ko, Seo Hyun; Joo, Nami; Kim, Sun Im; Kim, Cheol-Hyun; Chang, Dong Kyung

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether composite yogurt with acacia dietary fiber and Bifidobacterium lactis (B. lactis) has additive effects in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). METHODS: A total of 130 patients were randomly allocated to consume, twice daily for 8 wk, either the composite yogurt or the control product. The composite yogurt contained acacia dietary fiber and high-dose B. lactis together with two classic yogurt starter cultures. Patients were evaluated using the visual analog scale via a structured questionnaire administered at baseline and after treatment. RESULTS: Improvements in bowel habit satisfaction and overall IBS symptoms from baseline were significantly higher in the test group than in the control group (27.16 vs 15.51, P = 0.010, 64.2 ± 17.0 vs 50.4 ± 20.5, P < 0.001; respectively). In constipation-predominant IBS, improvement in overall IBS symptoms was significantly higher in the test group than in the control group (72.4 ± 18.4 vs 50.0 ± 21.8, P < 0.001). In patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS, improvement in bowel habit satisfaction from baseline was significantly higher in the test group than in the control group (32.90 vs 7.81, P = 0.006). CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that composite yogurt enriched with acacia fiber and B. lactis has greater therapeutic effects in patients with IBS than standard yogurt. PMID:22969230

  18. Ecophysiological and foliar nitrogen concentration responses of understorey Acacia spp. and Eucalyptus sp. to prescribed burning.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ling; Rao, Xingquan; Lu, Ping; Bai, Shahla Hosseini; Xu, Zhihong; Chen, Xiaoyang; Blumfield, Timothy; Xie, Jun

    2015-07-01

    Eucalyptus spp. is a dominant tree genus in Australia and most Eucalyptus spp. are canopy dominant species. In Australian natural forests, Eucalyptus spp. commonly are associated with understorey legumes which play a crucial role for ecological restoration owing to their nitrogen (N) fixing ability for replenishing the soil N lost after frequent prescribed burning. This study aimed to explore to what extent physiological responses of these species differ 7 and 12 years after last fire. Two most common understorey Acacia spp., Acacia leiocalyx and A. disparrima, as well as one non-leguminous Eucalyptus resinifera, were studied due to their dominance in the forest. Both A. leiocalyx and A. disparrima showed higher carbon (C) assimilation capacity, maximum photosynthetic capacity, and moderate foliar C/N ratio compared with E. resinifera. A. leiocalyx showed various advantages compared to A. disparrima such as higher photosynthetic capacity, adaptation to wider light range and higher foliar total N (TNmass). A. leiocalyx also relied on N2-fixing ability for longer time compared to A. disparrima. The results suggested that the two Acacia spp. were more beneficial to C and N cycles for the post burning ecosystem than the non-N2-fixing species E. resinifera. A. leiocalyx had greater contribution to complementing soil N cycle long after burning compared to A. disparrima. PMID:25703618

  19. Does aridity influence the morphology, distribution and accumulation of calcium oxalate crystals in Acacia (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae)?

    PubMed

    Brown, Sharon L; Warwick, Nigel W M; Prychid, Christina J

    2013-12-01

    Calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals are a common natural feature of many plant families, including the Leguminosae. The functional role of crystals and the mechanisms that underlie their deposition remain largely unresolved. In several species, the seasonal deposition of crystals has been observed. To gain insight into the effects of rainfall on crystal formation, the morphology, distribution and accumulation of calcium oxalate crystals in phyllodes of the leguminous Acacia sect. Juliflorae (Benth.) C. Moore & Betche from four climate zones along an aridity gradient, was investigated. The shapes of crystals, which include rare Rosanoffian morphologies, were constant between species from different climate zones, implying that morphology was not affected by rainfall. The distribution and accumulation of CaOx crystals, however, did appear to be climate-related. Distribution was primarily governed by vein density, an architectural trait which has evolved in higher plants in response to increasing aridity. Furthermore, crystals were more abundant in acacias from low rainfall areas, and in phyllodes containing high concentrations of calcium, suggesting that both aridity and soil calcium levels play important roles in the precipitation of CaOx. As crystal formation appears to be calcium-induced, we propose that CaOx crystals in Acacia most likely function in bulk calcium regulation. PMID:24157700

  20. View east along Wolf Den Road showing residences on the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View east along Wolf Den Road showing residences on the north side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  1. View northwest along Wolf Den Road showing residences on the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northwest along Wolf Den Road showing residences on the north side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  2. View southeast along Pomfret Road (Route 169) showing residence on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southeast along Pomfret Road (Route 169) showing residence on the east side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  3. View northeast across Hyde Road showing a residenc on the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northeast across Hyde Road showing a residenc on the east side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  4. View north along Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing residences on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View north along Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing residences on the east side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  5. View north along Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing residences on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View north along Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing residences on west side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  6. View southeast across Providence Road (Route 6) showing a residence ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southeast across Providence Road (Route 6) showing a residence on the south side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  7. View northeast along Pomfret Road (Route 169) showing rersidences on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northeast along Pomfret Road (Route 169) showing rersidences on the east side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  8. View southwest along Hartford Road (Route 6) showing residences on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southwest along Hartford Road (Route 6) showing residences on the north side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  9. View southwest along Brown Road showing residential and commercial buildings ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southwest along Brown Road showing residential and commercial buildings on the north and south sides of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  10. Prevention of Birch Pollen-Related Food Allergy by Mucosal Treatment with Multi-Allergen-Chimers in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hoflehner, Elisabeth; Hufnagl, Karin; Schabussova, Irma; Jasinska, Joanna; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Karin; Bohle, Barbara; Maizels, Rick M.; Wiedermann, Ursula

    2012-01-01

    Background Among birch pollen allergic patients up to 70% develop allergic reactions to Bet v 1-homologue food allergens such as Api g 1 (celery) or Dau c 1 (carrot), termed as birch pollen-related food allergy. In most cases, specific immunotherapy with birch pollen extracts does not reduce allergic symptoms to the homologue food allergens. We therefore genetically engineered a multi-allergen chimer and tested if mucosal treatment with this construct could represent a novel approach for prevention of birch pollen-related food allergy. Methodology BALB/c mice were poly-sensitized with a mixture of Bet v 1, Api g 1 and Dau c 1 followed by a sublingual challenge with carrot, celery and birch pollen extracts. For prevention of allergy sensitization an allergen chimer composed of immunodominant T cell epitopes of Api g 1 and Dau c 1 linked to the whole Bet v 1 allergen, was intranasally applied prior to sensitization. Results Intranasal pretreatment with the allergen chimer led to significantly decreased antigen-specific IgE-dependent β-hexosaminidase release, but enhanced allergen-specific IgG2a and IgA antibodies. Accordingly, IL-4 levels in spleen cell cultures and IL-5 levels in restimulated spleen and cervical lymph node cell cultures were markedly reduced, while IFN-γ levels were increased. Immunomodulation was associated with increased IL-10, TGF-β and Foxp3 mRNA levels in NALT and Foxp3 in oral mucosal tissues. Treatment with anti-TGF-β, anti-IL10R or anti-CD25 antibodies abrogated the suppression of allergic responses induced by the chimer. Conclusion Our results indicate that mucosal application of the allergen chimer led to decreased Th2 immune responses against Bet v 1 and its homologue food allergens Api g 1 and Dau c 1 by regulatory and Th1-biased immune responses. These data suggest that mucosal treatment with a multi-allergen vaccine could be a promising treatment strategy to prevent birch pollen-related food allergy. PMID:22768077

  11. Impact of the energy crop Jatropha curcas L. on the composition of rhizobial populations nodulating cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) and acacia (Acacia seyal L.).

    PubMed

    Dieng, Amadou; Duponnois, Robin; Floury, Antoine; Laguerre, Gisèle; Ndoye, Ibrahima; Baudoin, Ezékiel

    2015-03-01

    Jatropha curcas, a Euphorbiaceae species that produces many toxicants, is increasingly planted as an agrofuel plant in Senegal. The purpose of this study was to determine whether soil priming induced by J. curcas monoculture could alter the rhizobial populations that nodulate cowpea and acacia, two locally widespread legumes. Soil samples were transferred into a greenhouse from three fields previously cultivated with Jatropha for 1, 2, and 15 years, and the two trap legumes were grown in them. Control soil samples were also taken from adjacent Jatropha-fallow plots. Both legumes tended to develop fewer but larger nodules when grown in Jatropha soils. Nearly all the nifH sequences amplified from nodule DNA were affiliated to the Bradyrhizobium genus. Only sequences from Acacia seyal nodules grown in the most recent Jatropha plantation were related to the Mesorhizobium genus, which was much a more conventional finding on A. seyal than the unexpected Bradyrhizobium genus. Apart from this particular case, only minor differences were found in the respective compositions of Jatropha soil versus control soil rhizobial populations. Lastly, the structure of these rhizobial populations was systematically imbalanced owing to the overwhelming dominance of a very small number of nifH genotypes, some of which were identical across soil types or even sites. Despite these weak and sparse effects on rhizobial diversity, future investigations should focus on the characterization of the nitrogen-fixing abilities of the predominant rhizobial strains. PMID:25466917

  12. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, Leo M.

    1999-01-01

    Disclosed are improvments to a rapid road repair vehicle comprising an improved cleaning device arrangement, two dispensing arrays for filling defects more rapidly and efficiently, an array of pre-heaters to heat the road way surface in order to help the repair material better bond to the repaired surface, a means for detecting, measuring, and computing the number, location and volume of each of the detected surface imperfection, and a computer means schema for controlling the operation of the plurality of vehicle subsystems. The improved vehicle is, therefore, better able to perform its intended function of filling surface imperfections while moving over those surfaces at near normal traffic speeds.

  13. VIEW OF MAIN ENTRANCE ROAD FACING SOUTH. SPUR ROAD TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF MAIN ENTRANCE ROAD FACING SOUTH. SPUR ROAD TO WINDOWS SECTION AT LEFT, BALANCED ROCK NEAR CENTER OF PHOTO - Arches National Park Main Entrance Road, Beginning at U.S. Highway 191, approximately 6 miles north of Moab, Moab, Grand County, UT

  14. 6. VIEW OF MAIN ENTRANCE ROAD FACING SOUTH. SPUR ROAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF MAIN ENTRANCE ROAD FACING SOUTH. SPUR ROAD TO WINDOWS SECTION AT LEFT, BALANCED ROCK NEAR CENTER OF PHOTO. - Arches National Park Main Entrance Road, Beginning at U.S. Highway 191, approximately 6 miles north of Moab, Moab, Grand County, UT

  15. 24. OLD TIOGA ROAD VIEW, NOW MAY LAKE ROAD , ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. OLD TIOGA ROAD VIEW, NOW MAY LAKE ROAD , AT SNOW FLAT. MOUNT HOFFMAN AT CENTER REAR. LOOKING NW. GIS: N-37 49 34.6 / W-119 29 58.2 - Tioga Road, Between Crane Flat & Tioga Pass, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  16. 25. At Willard, corner of Willard Road and Oklahoma Road. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. At Willard, corner of Willard Road and Oklahoma Road. Metal flume section (once located elsewhere, over another road). Note skewed section. South/southwest 260 degrees. - Broughton Flume, Hood River Junction on Columbia River at Washington/Oregon border, Hood, Skamania County, WA

  17. 19. At Willard, corner of Willard Road and Oklahoma Road. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. At Willard, corner of Willard Road and Oklahoma Road. Metal flume section (once located elsewhere, over another road). Note skewed section. North/northeast 80 degrees. - Broughton Flume, Hood River Junction on Columbia River at Washington/Oregon border, Hood, Skamania County, WA

  18. Risk assessment, eradication, and biological control: global efforts to limit Australian acacia invasions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, John R.U.; Gairifo, Carla; Gibson, Michelle R.; Arianoutsou, Margarita; Bakar, Baki B.; Baret, Stephane; Celesti-Grapow, Laura; DiTomaso, Joseph M.; Dufour-Dror, Jean-Marc; Kueffer, Christoph; Kull, Christian A.; Hoffman, John H.; Impson, Fiona A.C.; Loope, Lloyd L.; Marchante, Elizabete; Harchante, Helia; Moore, Joslin L.; Murphy, Daniel J.; Tassin, Jacques; Witt, Arne; Zenni, Rafael D.; Richardson, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Aim Many Australian Acacia species have been planted around the world, some are highly valued, some are invasive, and some are both highly valued and invasive. We review global efforts to minimize the risk and limit the impact of invasions in this widely used plant group. Location Global. Methods Using information from literature sources, knowledge and experience of the authors, and the responses from a questionnaire sent to experts around the world, we reviewed: (1) a generalized life cycle of Australian acacias and how to control each life stage, (2) different management approaches and (3) what is required to help limit or prevent invasions. Results Relatively few Australian acacias have been introduced in large numbers, but all species with a long and extensive history of planting have become invasive somewhere. Australian acacias, as a group, have a high risk of becoming invasive and causing significant impacts as determined by existing assessment schemes. Moreover, in most situations, long-lived seed banks mean it is very difficult to control established infestations. Control has focused almost exclusively on widespread invaders, and eradication has rarely been attempted. Classical biological control is being used in South Africa with increasing success. Main conclusions A greater emphasis on pro-active rather than reactive management is required given the difficulties managing established invasions of Australian acacias. Adverse effects of proposed new introductions can be minimized by conducting detailed risk assessments in advance, planning for on-going monitoring and management, and ensuring resources are in place for long-term mitigation. Benign alternatives (e.g. sterile hybrids) could be developed to replace existing utilized taxa. Eradication should be set as a management goal more often to reduce the invasion debt. Introducing classical biological control agents that have a successful track-record in South Africa to other regions and identifying new

  19. Classification of road surface profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Rouillard, V.; Bruscella, B.; Sek, M.

    2000-02-01

    This paper introduces a universal classification methodology for discretely sampled sealed bituminous road profile data for the study of shock and vibrations related to the road transportation process. Data representative of a wide variety of Victorian (Australia) road profiles were used to develop a universal classification methodology with special attention to their non-Gaussian and nonstationary properties. This resulted in the design of computer software to automatically detect and extract transient events from the road spatial acceleration data as well as to identify segments of the constant RMS level enabling transients to be analyzed separately from the underlying road process. Nine universal classification parameters are introduced to describe road profile spatial acceleration based on the statistical characteristics of the transient amplitude and stationary RMS segments. Results from this study are aimed at the areas of road transport simulation as well as road surface characterization.

  20. The major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 induces different responses in dendritic cells of birch pollen allergic and healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Smole, Ursula; Radauer, Christian; Lengger, Nina; Svoboda, Martin; Rigby, Neil; Bublin, Merima; Gaier, Sonja; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Karin; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika; Mechtcheriakova, Diana; Breiteneder, Heimo

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic cells play a fundamental role in shaping the immune response to allergens. The events that lead to allergic sensitization or tolerance induction during the interaction of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 and dendritic cells are not very well studied. Here, we analyzed the uptake of Bet v 1 and the cross-reactive celery allergen Api g 1 by immature monocyte-derived dendritic cells (iMoDCs) of allergic and normal donors. In addition, we characterized the allergen-triggered intracellular signaling and transcriptional events. Uptake kinetics, competitive binding, and internalization pathways of labeled allergens by iMoDCs were visualized by live-cell imaging. Surface-bound IgE was detected by immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Allergen- and IgE-induced gene expression of early growth response genes and Th1 and Th2 related cytokines and chemokines were analyzed by real-time PCR. Phosporylation of signaling kinases was analyzed by Western blot. Internalization of Bet v 1 by iMoDCs of both donor groups, likely by receptor-mediated caveolar endocytosis, followed similar kinetics. Bet v 1 outcompeted Api g 1 in cell surface binding and uptake. MoDCs of allergic and healthy donors displayed surface-bound IgE and showed a pronounced upregulation of Th2 cytokine- and NFκB-dependent genes upon non-specific Fcε receptor cross-linking. In contrast to these IgE-mediated responses, Bet v 1-stimulation increased transcript levels of the Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 but not of NFκB-related genes in MoDCs of BP allergic donors. Cells of healthy donors were either unresponsive or showed elevated mRNA levels of Th1-promoting chemokines. Moreover, Bet v 1 was able to induce Erk1/2 and p38 MAPK activation in BP allergics but only a slight p38 activation in normal donors. In conclusion, our data indicate that Bet v 1 favors the activation of a Th2 program only in DCs of BP allergic individuals. PMID:25635684

  1. The Major Birch Pollen Allergen Bet v 1 Induces Different Responses in Dendritic Cells of Birch Pollen Allergic and Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Smole, Ursula; Radauer, Christian; Lengger, Nina; Svoboda, Martin; Rigby, Neil; Bublin, Merima; Gaier, Sonja; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Karin; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika; Mechtcheriakova, Diana; Breiteneder, Heimo

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic cells play a fundamental role in shaping the immune response to allergens. The events that lead to allergic sensitization or tolerance induction during the interaction of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 and dendritic cells are not very well studied. Here, we analyzed the uptake of Bet v 1 and the cross-reactive celery allergen Api g 1 by immature monocyte-derived dendritic cells (iMoDCs) of allergic and normal donors. In addition, we characterized the allergen-triggered intracellular signaling and transcriptional events. Uptake kinetics, competitive binding, and internalization pathways of labeled allergens by iMoDCs were visualized by live-cell imaging. Surface-bound IgE was detected by immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Allergen- and IgE-induced gene expression of early growth response genes and Th1 and Th2 related cytokines and chemokines were analyzed by real-time PCR. Phosporylation of signaling kinases was analyzed by Western blot. Internalization of Bet v 1 by iMoDCs of both donor groups, likely by receptor-mediated caveolar endocytosis, followed similar kinetics. Bet v 1 outcompeted Api g 1 in cell surface binding and uptake. MoDCs of allergic and healthy donors displayed surface-bound IgE and showed a pronounced upregulation of Th2 cytokine- and NFκB-dependent genes upon non-specific Fcε receptor cross-linking. In contrast to these IgE-mediated responses, Bet v 1-stimulation increased transcript levels of the Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 but not of NFκB-related genes in MoDCs of BP allergic donors. Cells of healthy donors were either unresponsive or showed elevated mRNA levels of Th1-promoting chemokines. Moreover, Bet v 1 was able to induce Erk1/2 and p38 MAPK activation in BP allergics but only a slight p38 activation in normal donors. In conclusion, our data indicate that Bet v 1 favors the activation of a Th2 program only in DCs of BP allergic individuals. PMID:25635684

  2. Changes in expression of BetV1 allergen of silver birch pollen in urbanized area of Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Žiarovská, Jana; Labajová, Mária; Ražná, Katarína; Bežo, Milan; Štefúnová, Veronika; Shevtsova, Tatiana; Garkava, Kateryna; Brindza, Ján

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determinate the level of expression of silver birch allergen Betv1 in pollen samples from different Ukraine areas by RT-qPCR SYBR Green assay. Protocol for quantifying the expression of Betv1 allergen was developed when testing of three housekeeping genes-cyclophylin, alpha-tubulin and transcription factor CBF1. Samples from urbanized area was analysed by real-time PCR when a sample from forest growth conditions was used as a calibrator. Real-time PCR based quantifying of Betv1 provides a useful method for rapid and sensitive analyses of this silver birch allergen. Our results show higher expression levels in samples from central parts of urbanized area as housing estates when compared to the samples from borders of the urbanized area. PMID:23802156

  3. On the Road

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Mary Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Veteran development officers say the experience of visiting and traveling to different places or countries often feels like an endless cycle of getting lost, missing flights, and eating midnight dinners from hotel vending machines. Despite ongoing travel challenges, experienced road warriors have learned how to maximize their effectiveness,…

  4. Training Guide: Road Transport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogan Page, Ltd., London (England).

    The third in a series of guides to British industrial training, this publication begins with a survey of training issues and tasks confronting the Road Transport Industry Training Board (RTITB). This is followed by information on RTITB policies and provisions; RTITB members, officers, and committees; apprenticeships and other training schemes;…

  5. Road-Cleaning Device

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    Roadways are literally soaked with petrochemical byproducts, oils, gasoline, and other volatile substances that eventually run off into sewers and end up in rivers, waterways, and other undesirable places. Can the roads be cleaned of these wastes, with their proper disposal? Can vehicles, robots, or other devices be designed that could be driven…

  6. Fine-Scale Road Stretch Forecasting along Main Danish Roads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahura, A.; Petersen, C.; Sattler, K.; Sass, B.

    2009-09-01

    The DMI has in collaboration with the Danish Road Directorate (DRD) for almost two decades used a Road Condition Model (RCM) system (based on a dense road observations network and the numerical weather prediction model - HIgh Resolution Limited Area Model, HIRLAM) to provide operational forecasts of main road conditions at selected road stations of the Danish road network. As of Jan 2009, there are 357 road stations (equipped in total with 456 sensors), where measurements and forecasts of road surface temperature, air and dew point temperatures are conducted. Forecasts of other important meteorological parameters such as cloud cover and precipitations as well as radar and satellite images are also distributed to the users through the web-based interface vejvejr.dk and through DMI and DRD web-pages. For icing conditions, new technology has made it easy to vary the dose of spreaded salt, making it possible to use salt only on the parts of the road network where it is really needed. In our study measurements of road surface temperature from road stations and salt spreaders have additionally been used to examine both road stations and road stretches forecasts along the main roads of the Danish Road Network (accounting almost 23 thousand points located at distances of 250 m). These results showed critical importance of availability of detailed characteristics of the roads surroundings. To make local forecasts in a specific point all possible local detailed information is needed. Since high resolution models running at faster supercomputers as well as detailed physiographic datasets now are available, it is possible to improve the modelling and parameterization of significant physical processes influencing the formation of the slippery road conditions. First of all, it is based on a new dataset available from Kort og Matrikel styrelsen, the so-called Danish Height Model (Danmarks Højdemodel) which is a very detailed set of data with horizontal resolution of a few meters

  7. The development of gypsy moth larvae raised on gray and yellow birch foliage grown in ambient and elevated CO[sub 2

    SciTech Connect

    Traw, M.B.B.; Bazzaz, F.A. )

    1993-06-01

    This study addresses insect-host plant interactions in an elevated CO[sub 2] atmosphere. Gypsy moth larvae (Lynmtria dispar) were raised on two of their natural host species of New England's temperate forest, yellow and gray birch (Betula alleganiensis and B. populifolia). Birch seedlings were germinated and grown at either ambient (350 ppm) or elevated (700 ppm) CO[sub 2] in light and temperature controlled chambers. After four months, we added newly hatched L dispar larvae. Twenty-four mesh cages, each containing one caterpillar and one plant, were set up for each treatment (2 host species x 2 CO[sub 2] levels). Over the next two months, we tracked larval weights and behavior. A sub sample of birch were harvested to measure characteristics that might affect herbivores. A separate group of second and third instar larvae were given the choice of two different, detached leaves in a petri dish. Two preference tests were performed; between species (Yb vs Gb), CO[sub 2] levels (350 vs 700). Our results show that larvae grew significantly larger and reach maturity more rapidly at 350 ppm CO[sub 2] and on gray birch. In preference tests, larvae preferred yellow birch over gray at 350 ppm, and in yellow birch, preferred 350 ppm foliage over 700 ppm foliage. These results suggest that the impact of a generatist insect herbivore on different host plant species may change in an elevated CO[sub 2] atmosphere.

  8. IgE binding to a new cross-reactive structure: a 35 kDa protein in birch pollen, exotic fruit and other plant foods.

    PubMed

    Wellhausen, A; Schöning, B; Petersen, A; Vieths, S

    1996-12-01

    Food allergies in birch pollen allergic patients have been shown to be due to cross-reactivities of specific IgE antibodies which are directed against birch pollen allergens with related proteins in fruit, nuts and vegetables. We identified a new cross-reactive structure of 35 kDa in birch pollen and some plant food extracts by Enzyme Allergosorbent Test (EAST) and immunoblot inhibition studies. The 35 kDa birch pollen protein is a minor allergen to which approximately 10-15% of birch pollen allergic individuals have specific IgE. Our data demonstrate that there is cross-reactivity of this protein with proteins of comparable size from lychee, mango, banana, orange, apple, pear and carrot. While the 35 kDa protein is immunologically independent of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1, we also observed IgE binding to a 34 kDa structure which appears to be a Bet v 1 dimer. PMID:9000332

  9. New datasets for quantifying snow-vegetation-atmosphere interactions in boreal birch and conifer forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, T. D.; Essery, R.; Rutter, N.; Huntley, B.; Baxter, R.; Holden, R.; King, M.; Hancock, S.; Carle, J.

    2012-12-01

    Boreal forests exert a strong influence on weather and climate by modifying the surface energy and radiation balance. However, global climate and numerical weather prediction models use forest parameter values from simple look-up tables or maps that are derived from limited satellite data, on large grid scales. In reality, Arctic landscapes are inherently heterogeneous, with highly variable land cover types and structures on a variety of spatial scales. There is value in collecting detailed field data for different areas of vegetation cover, to assess the accuracy of large-scale assumptions. To address these issues, a consortium of researchers funded by the UK's Natural Environment Research Council have collected extensive data on radiation, meteorology, snow cover and canopy structure at two contrasting Arctic forest sites. The chosen study sites were an area of boreal birch forest near Abisko, Sweden in March/April 2011 and mixed conifer forest at Sodankylä, Finland in March/April 2012. At both sites, arrays comprising ten shortwave pyranometers and four longwave pyrgeometers were deployed for periods of up to 50 days, under forest plots of varying canopy structures and densities. In addition, downwelling longwave irradiance and global and diffuse shortwave irradiances were recorded at nearby open sites representing the top-of-canopy conditions. Meteorological data were recorded at all sub-canopy and open sites using automatic weather stations. Over the same periods, tree skin temperatures were measured on selected trees using contact thermocouples, infrared thermocouples and thermal imagery. Canopy structure was accurately quantified through manual surveys, extensive hemispherical photography and terrestrial laser scans of every study plot. Sub-canopy snow depth and snow water equivalent were measured on fine-scale grids at each study plot. Regular site maintenance ensured a high quality dataset covering the important Arctic spring period. The data have several

  10. Simulation of Birch and Pine Litter Influence on Early Stage of Reclaimed Soil Formation Process under Controlled Conditions.

    PubMed

    Woś, Bartłomiej; Pietrzykowski, Marcin

    2015-07-01

    The impact of litter decomposition on chemical substrate properties and element leaching during early soil formation in afforested post-mine sites and the influence of different tree species are key issues in new ecosystem development. Scots pine ( L.) and common birch ( Roth) are important pioneering species used in afforestation of post-mine sites in central and eastern Europe. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of litter decomposition of these species on the chemical properties of mine soil substrates. The impact of litter decomposition on soil properties was tested on quaternary and neogene substrates with different textures (sands, loams, and mixtures of clays and sands) in a controlled incubation experiment using PVC columns. Simulation of precipitation and leaching was undertaken for 10 wk at a temperature of 16°C with distilled water (200 mL wk) through cylinders with litter, substrate + litter, and control substrate (no litter). Filtrated water solution was collected once a week for laboratory analysis, and the concentrations of dissolved organic C, total N, K, Ca, Mg, and P were determined. The study results indicate a stronger impact of the common birch on the chemical properties of reclaimed mine soils compared with pine. After the experiment, birch litter caused significant changes in pH in quaternary sands, concentration of P in quaternary loams (Ql) and mixtures of neogene clays and quaternary sands (QsNc), exchangeable Ca in QsNc, and Mg in Ql and QsNc compared with pine litter. Birch, in comparison to pine, may affect the intensity of early-stage soil-forming processes by increasing nutrient availability and transport into the soil profile, which may affect the development of soil microbial communities. This process results in different soil properties under the two tree species. PMID:26437090

  11. Ameliorative Effects of Acacia Honey against Sodium Arsenite-Induced Oxidative Stress in Some Viscera of Male Wistar Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Aliyu, Muhammad; Ibrahim, Sani; Inuwa, Hajiya M.; Sallau, Abdullahi B.; Abbas, Olagunju; Aimola, Idowu A.; Habila, Nathan; Uche, Ndidi S.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and its development is frequently associated with oxidative stress-induced by carcinogens such as arsenicals. Most foods are basically health-promoting or disease-preventing and a typical example of such type is honey. This study was undertaken to investigate the ameliorative effects of Acacia honey on sodium arsenite-induced oxidative stress in the heart, lung and kidney tissues of male Wistar rats. Male Wistar albino rats divided into four groups of five rats each were administered distilled water, Acacia honey (20%), sodium arsenite (5 mg/kg body weight), Acacia honey, and sodium arsenite daily for one week. They were sacrificed anesthetically using 60 mg/kg sodium pentothal. The tissues were used for the assessment of glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities, protein content and lipid peroxidation. Sodium arsenite significantly (P < 0.05) suppressed the glutathione peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase activities with simultaneous induction of lipid peroxidation. Administration of Acacia honey significantly increased (P < 0.05) glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities with concomitant suppression of lipid peroxidation as evident by the decrease in malondialdehyde level. From the results obtained, Acacia honey mitigates sodium arsenite induced-oxidative stress in male Wistar albino rats, which suggest that it may attenuate oxidative stress implicated in chemical carcinogenesis. PMID:24368942

  12. Birch pulp xylan works as a food hydrocolloid in acid milk gels and is fermented slowly in vitro.

    PubMed

    Rosa-Sibakov, Natalia; Hakala, Terhi K; Sözer, Nesli; Nordlund, Emilia; Poutanen, Kaisa; Aura, Anna-Marja

    2016-12-10

    The objective was to evaluate the potential of birch xylan as a food hydrocolloid and dietary fibre. High-molecular weight xylan was isolated from birch kraft pulp by alkaline extraction, and enzymatically hydrolysed. Fermentability of xylans was evaluated using an in vitro colon model and performance as a hydrocolloid was studied in low-fat acid milk gels (1.5% and 3% w/w). Texture of the gels and water holding capacity of xylans were compared with inulin, fructooligosaccharide and xylooligosaccharide. Xylans showed slower fermentation rate by faecal microbiota than the references. Xylan-enriched acid milk gels (3% w/w) had improved water holding capacity (over 2-fold) and showed lower spontaneous syneresis, firmness and elasticity when compared to control (no hydrocolloids) or to references. In conclusion, birch xylan improved texture of low-fat acid milk gel applications, and the slow in vitro fermentation rate predicts lower incidence of intestinal discomfort in comparison to the commercial references. PMID:27577922

  13. Unidirectional diploid-tetraploid introgression among British birch trees with shifting ranges shown by restriction site-associated markers.

    PubMed

    Zohren, Jasmin; Wang, Nian; Kardailsky, Igor; Borrell, James S; Joecker, Anika; Nichols, Richard A; Buggs, Richard J A

    2016-06-01

    Hybridization may lead to introgression of genes among species. Introgression may be bidirectional or unidirectional, depending on factors such as the demography of the hybridizing species, or the nature of reproductive barriers between them. Previous microsatellite studies suggested bidirectional introgression between diploid Betula nana (dwarf birch) and tetraploid B. pubescens (downy birch) and also between B. pubescens and diploid B. pendula (silver birch) in Britain. Here, we analyse introgression among these species using 51 237 variants in restriction site-associated (RAD) markers in 194 individuals, called with allele dosages in the tetraploids. In contrast to the microsatellite study, we found unidirectional introgression into B. pubescens from both of the diploid species. This pattern fits better with the expected nature of the reproductive barrier between diploids and tetraploids. As in the microsatellite study, introgression into B. pubescens showed clear clines with increasing introgression from B. nana in the north and from B. pendula in the south. Unlike B. pendula alleles, introgression of B. nana alleles was found far from the current area of sympatry or allopatry between B. nana and B. pubescens. This pattern fits a shifting zone of hybridization due to Holocene reduction in the range of B. nana and expansion in the range of B. pubescens. PMID:27065091

  14. Developmental and anatomical changes in leaves of yellow birch and red kidney bean exposed to simulated acid precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Paparozzi, E.T.; Tukey, H.B. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Leaves of Betula alleghaniensis Britt. (yellow birch) and Phaseolus vulgaris L cv. Red Kidney (bean) were examined microscopically during development and after exposure to simulated rain of pH 5.5, 4.3, 3.2, and 2.8. Yellow birch leaves attained maximal leaf area, midvein length, and cuticle thickness at 21 days. Trichomes were either long, unicellular, or multicellular with caplike head and stalk. Epicuticular wax was a bumpy and amorphous layer. The 2nd trifoliolate leaf of red kidney bean attained maximal leaf area, midvein length, and cuticle thickness when the 3rd trifoliolate leaf was expanding. Trichomes present were long, with a unicellular head and a multicellular base; long, unicellular, and terminally hooked; and small and multicellular. Epicuticular wax was present as small irregular flakes. After 2 days of pH 2.8 and 4 days of pH 3.2 simulated acid rain, round yellow and small tan lesions appeared on birch and bean leaves, respectively. Most injury occurred on or between small veins. Most trichome types were uninjured. Lesions formed as a result of collapsed epidermal and highly plasmolyzed palisade cells. The cuticle was still present over injured epidermal cells and epicuticular waxes were unchanged. There was not statistical difference in mean cuticle thickness due to pH of simulated rain. 25 references, 10 figures, 4 tables.

  15. View southeast to Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing the Israel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southeast to Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing the Israel Putnam Memorial - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  16. View northwest along Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing the Unitarian ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northwest along Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing the Unitarian Church and the Federated Church of Christ - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  17. Ligand Binding Modulates the Structural Dynamics and Compactness of the Major Birch Pollen Allergen

    PubMed Central

    Grutsch, Sarina; Fuchs, Julian E.; Freier, Regina; Kofler, Stefan; Bibi, Marium; Asam, Claudia; Wallner, Michael; Ferreira, Fátima; Brandstetter, Hans; Liedl, Klaus R.; Tollinger, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Pathogenesis-related plant proteins of class-10 (PR-10) are essential for storage and transport of small molecules. A prominent member of the PR-10 family, the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1, is the main cause of spring pollinosis in the temperate climate zone of the northern hemisphere. Bet v 1 binds various ligand molecules to its internal cavity, and immunologic effects of the presence of ligand have been discussed. However, the mechanism of binding has remained elusive. In this study, we show that in solution Bet v 1.0101 is conformationally heterogeneous and cannot be represented by a single structure. NMR relaxation data suggest that structural dynamics are fundamental for ligand access to the protein interior. Complex formation then leads to significant rigidification of the protein along with a compaction of its 3D structure. The data presented herein provide a structural basis for understanding the immunogenic and allergenic potential of ligand binding to Bet v 1 allergens. PMID:25517162

  18. Low vapour pressure deficit affects nitrogen nutrition and foliar metabolites in silver birch.

    PubMed

    Lihavainen, Jenna; Ahonen, Viivi; Keski-Saari, Sarita; Kontunen-Soppela, Sari; Oksanen, Elina; Keinänen, Markku

    2016-07-01

    Air humidity indicated as vapour pressure deficit (VPD) is directly related to transpiration and stomatal function of plants. We studied the effects of VPD and nitrogen (N) supply on leaf metabolites, plant growth, and mineral nutrition with young micropropagated silver birches (Betula pendula Roth.) in a growth chamber experiment. Plants that were grown under low VPD for 26 d had higher biomass, larger stem diameter, more leaves, fewer fallen leaves, and larger total leaf area than plants that were grown under high VPD. Initially, low VPD increased height growth rate and stomatal conductance; however, the effect was transient and the differences between low and high VPD plants became smaller with time. Metabolic adjustment to low VPD reflected N deficiency. The concentrations of N, iron, chlorophyll, amino acids, and soluble carbohydrates were lower and the levels of starch, quercetin glycosides, and raffinose were higher in the leaves that had developed under low VPD compared with high VPD. Additional N supply did not fully overcome the negative effect of low VPD on nutrient status but it diminished the effects of low VPD on leaf metabolism. Thus, with high N supply, the glutamine to glutamate ratio and starch production under low VPD became comparable with the levels under high VPD. The present study demonstrates that low VPD affects carbon and nutrient homeostasis and modifies N allocation of plants. PMID:27259554

  19. Quantification of C uptake in subarctic birch forest after setback by an extreme insect outbreak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heliasz, Michal; Johansson, Torbjörn; Lindroth, Anders; Mölder, Meelis; Mastepanov, Mikhail; Friborg, Thomas; Callaghan, Terry V.; Christensen, Torben R.

    2011-01-01

    The carbon dynamics of northern natural ecosystems contribute significantly to the global carbon balance. Periodic disturbances to these dynamics include insect herbivory. Larvae of autumn and winter moths (Epirrita autumnata and Operophtera brumata) defoliate mountain birch (Betula pubescens) forests in northern Scandinavia cyclically every 9-10 years and occasionally (50-150 years) extreme population densities can threaten ecosystem stability. Here we report impacts on C balance following a 2004 outbreak where a widespread area of Lake Torneträsk catchment was severely defoliated. We show that in the growing season of 2004 the forest was a much smaller net sink of C than in a reference year, most likely due to lower gross photosynthesis. Ecosystem respiration in 2004 was smaller and less sensitive to air temperature at nighttime relative to 2006. The difference in growing season uptake between an insect affected and non-affected year over the 316 km2 area is in the order of 29 × 103 tonnes C equal to a reduction of the sink strength by 89%.

  20. The role of willow-birch forest in the surface energy balance at arctic treeline

    SciTech Connect

    Blanken, P.D. ); Rouse, W.R. )

    1994-11-01

    Continuous measurements of the energy balance components were made during the 1991 growing season over a willow-birch forest located near Churchill, Manitoba, Canada. On the basis of measurements of leaf area index, the growing season was divided into three distinct periods: growth, mature, and senescence. Changes in surface albedo were strongly correlated with changing leaf area index during the growth period with albedo increasing as leaf area increased. The latent heat flux density, Q[sub E], represented 74% of net radiation during the mature period compared to 55 and 54% during the growth and senescence periods, respectively. The greater Q[sub E] at plant maturity is due primarily to canopy transpiration. The sensitivity of Q[sub E] to net radiation was largest during the growth period. In contrast, the sensitivity of Q[sub E] to the surface resistance and aerodynamic resistance was the largest during the mature period. The implications of climate variability on the timing of leaf development and the surface energy and water balance are discussed. 28 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Distribution and turnover of (137)Cs in birch forest ecosystems: influence of precipitation chemistry.

    PubMed

    Thørring, H; Skuterud, L; Steinnes, E

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present work was to study radioactive caesium in soil and plants from birch forests subject to different chemical climate. Four areas and three types of precipitation regimes were considered, representing a natural climatic range found in Norway: (A) acidic precipitation (southernmost part of the country); (B) precipitation rich in "sea salts"/marine cations (coastal areas); and (C) + (D) low concentrations of sea salts (inland areas). The results showed significant regional differences in plant uptake between the investigated areas. For instance the aggregated soil-to-plant transfer coefficients (Tag) were generally up to 7-8 times higher for the area receiving acid rain. Differences in caesium speciation partly explained the regional variability - e.g. the exchangeable fraction ranged from 1 to 40% (with the largest fraction of exchangeable caesium found in southernmost Norway). Transfer coefficients estimated on the basis of exchangeable fractions showed no significant differences between the areas of highest (A) and lowest (C) Tags. However, exchangeable fractions taken into consideration, the uptake of (137)Cs in plants in the acid rain-influenced area is still about twice that in the sea salt influenced area B. A significantly lower concentration of soluble base cations and a higher share of acid components in soils in area A is a likely explanation for this observation. PMID:22388272

  2. Rejuvenation of a mountain birch forest by an Epirrita autumnata (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) outbreak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenow, O.; Bylund, H.; Karlsson, P. S.; Hoogesteger, J.

    2004-03-01

    In 1955, the mountain birch forest in the Abisko valley of northern Sweden was defoliated by caterpillars of the moth Epirrita autumnata with death of stems of the polycormic trees as a result. Since then, some stands have recovered from surviving trees, producing new shoots while other stands became rejuvenated from basal sprouts. Usually, basal sprouting occurs after the death of whole trees or stems. In this case, extensive basal sprouting occurred in spite of only minor stem mortality. Two associated explanations to these differences were explored: (i) the abundant basal sprouting was caused by more top damage (and, hence, a reduced apical dominance) than in stands with less sprouting, (ii) this top damage was caused by a higher caterpillar density in the upper part of trees. Studies made during the outbreak and reported here confirm (i) and reject (ii) by showing that caterpillar densities were lower in the upper part of crowns than in the lower. The more extensive damage in the upper part of crowns may have several explanations. However, a specific sequence of events seemed to produce the rejuvenated stand. The sequence included a severe stress existing before the outbreak (as indicated by a decreased radial stem growth) which was increased by defoliations in two successive years. We, therefore, hypothesize that top dieback was caused by between - and within - stem competition for depleted carbohydrate resources at the expense of tree tops. The contributions of different types of sprouts to the rejuvenation and prerequisites for an outbreak to rejuvenate stands are discussed.

  3. Artificially decreased vapour pressure deficit in field conditions modifies foliar metabolite profiles in birch and aspen.

    PubMed

    Lihavainen, Jenna; Keinänen, Markku; Keski-Saari, Sarita; Kontunen-Soppela, Sari; Sõber, Anu; Oksanen, Elina

    2016-07-01

    Relative air humidity (RH) is expected to increase in northern Europe due to climate change. Increasing RH reduces the difference of water vapour pressure deficit (VPD) between the leaf and the atmosphere, and affects the gas exchange of plants. Little is known about the effects of decreased VPD on plant metabolism, especially under field conditions. This study was conducted to determine the effects of artificially decreased VPD on silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) and hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L.×P. tremuloides Michx.) foliar metabolite and nutrient profiles in a unique free air humidity manipulation (FAHM) field experiment during the fourth season of humidity manipulation, in 2011. Long-term exposure to decreased VPD modified nutrient homeostasis in tree leaves, as demonstrated by a lower N concentration and N:P ratio in aspen leaves, and higher Na concentration and lower K:Na ratio in the leaves of both species in decreased VPD than in ambient VPD. Decreased VPD caused a shift in foliar metabolite profiles of both species, affecting primary and secondary metabolites. Metabolic adjustment to decreased VPD included elevated levels of starch and heptulose sugars, sorbitol, hemiterpenoid and phenolic glycosides, and α-tocopherol. High levels of carbon reserves, phenolic compounds, and antioxidants under decreased VPD may modify plant resistance to environmental stresses emerging under changing climate. PMID:27255929

  4. Differential responses of silver birch (Betula pendula) ecotypes to short-day photoperiod and low temperature.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunyang; Welling, Annikki; Puhakainen, Tuula; Viherä-Aarnio, Anneli; Ernstsen, Arild; Junttila, Olavi; Heino, Pekka; Palva, E Tapio

    2005-12-01

    We investigated interrelations of dormancy and freezing tolerance and the role of endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) in the development of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) ecotypes in controlled environments. Short-day treatment induced growth cessation, bud set and dormancy development, as well as initiation of cold acclimation and an increase in freezing tolerance. Subsequent low temperature and short days (12-h photoperiod) resulted in a significant increase in freezing tolerance, whereas bud dormancy was gradually released. The concentration of ABA increased in response to short days and then remained high, but ABA concentrations fluctuated irregularly when the dormant plants were subsequently exposed to low temperature during short days. Although there was a parallel development of freezing tolerance and bud dormancy in response to short days, subsequent exposure to low temperature had opposite effects on these processes, enhancing freezing tolerance and releasing dormancy. Compared with the southern ecotype, the northern ecotype was more responsive to short days and low temperature, exhibiting earlier initiation of cold acclimation, growth cessation and an increase in ABA concentrations in short days, and higher freezing tolerance, faster dormancy release and greater alteration in ABA concentrations when subsequently exposed to low temperature during short days. The rates and extent of the increases in ABA concentration may be related to increases in freezing tolerance and dormancy development during short days, whereas the extent of the fluctuations in ABA concentration may play an important role in enhancing freezing tolerance and releasing dormancy during a subsequent exposure to low temperature during short days. PMID:16137942

  5. Carbohydrate concentrations and freezing stress resistance of silver birch buds grown under elevated temperature and ozone.

    PubMed

    Riikonen, Johanna; Kontunen-Soppela, Sari; Vapaavuori, Elina; Tervahauta, Arja; Tuomainen, Marjo; Oksanen, Elina

    2013-03-01

    The effects of slightly elevated temperature (+0.8 °C), ozone (O3) concentration (1.3 × ambient O3 concentration) and their combination on over-wintering buds of Betula pendula Roth were studied after two growing seasons of exposure in the field. Carbohydrate concentrations, freezing stress resistance (FSR), bud dry weight to fresh weight ratio, and transcript levels of cytochrome oxidase (COX), alternative oxidase (AOX) and dehydrin (LTI36) genes were studied in two clones (clones 12 and 25) in December. Elevated temperature increased the bud dry weight to fresh weight ratio and the ratio of raffinose family oligosaccharides to sucrose and the transcript levels of the dehydrin (LTI36) gene (in clone 12 only), but did not alter the FSR of the buds. Genotype-specific alterations in carbohydrate metabolism were found in the buds grown under elevated O3. The treatments did not significantly affect the transcript level of the COX or AOX genes. No clear pattern of an interactive effect between elevated temperature and O3 concentration was found. According to these data, the increase in autumnal temperatures and slightly increasing O3 concentrations do not increase the risk for freeze-induced damage in winter in silver birch buds, although some alterations in bud physiology occur. PMID:23425688

  6. Influence of Birch Bark Triterpenes on Keratinocytes and Fibroblasts from Diabetic and Nondiabetic Donors.

    PubMed

    Wardecki, Tina; Werner, Philipp; Thomas, Maria; Templin, Markus F; Schmidt, Gudula; Brandner, Johanna M; Merfort, Irmgard

    2016-04-22

    Impaired wound healing is one of the main risk factors associated with diabetes mellitus. Few options are available to treat diabetic wounds, and therefore efficient remedies are urgently needed. An interesting option might be an extract of birch bark (TE) that has been clinically proven to accelerate acute wound healing. We investigated the effects of TE and its main components betulin and lupeol in cultured normal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts from diabetic and nondiabetic donors. These in vitro models can provide insights into possible beneficial effects in wound healing. TE and betulin treatment led to increased mRNA levels of chemokines, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and mediators important in wound healing, e.g., IL-6, TNFα, IL-8, and RANTES. We observed a pronounced upregulation of MIF, IL-8, and RANTES on the protein level. Furthermore, a shape change of the actin cytoskeleton was seen in keratinocytes and fibroblasts, and the Rho-GTPases and p38-MAPK were found to be activated in keratinocytes. On the basis of our results, TE is worthy of further study as a potential option to influence wound-healing processes under diabetic conditions. These first insights need to be confirmed by clinical studies with diabetic patients. PMID:27002382

  7. Responses of selected birch (Betula pendula Roth) clones to ozone change over time.

    PubMed

    Oksanen, E.

    2003-06-01

    A long-term free air ozone fumigation experiment was conducted to study changes in physiological ozone responses during tree ontogeny and exposure time in ozone sensitive and tolerant clones of European white birch (Betula pendula Roth), originated from south and central Finland. The trees were grown in soil in natural microclimatic conditions under ambient ozone (control) and 1.4-1.7 x ambient (elevated) ozone from May 1996 to October 2001, and were measured for stem and foliage growth, net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, stomatal density, visible injuries, foliar starch content and bud formation. After 6 years of exposure, the magnitude of ozone-induced growth reductions in the sensitive clone was 12-48% (significant difference), levels similar or greater than those reported earlier for 2- and 3-year-old saplings undergoing shorter exposures. In the tolerant clone, growth of these larger trees was reduced by 1-38% (significant difference in stem volume), although the saplings had previously been unaffected. In both clones, ozone stress led to significantly reduced leaf-level net photosynthesis but significantly increased stomatal conductance rates during the late summer, resulting in a lower carbon gain for bud formation and the onset of visible foliar injuries. Increasing ozone sensitivity with duration of exposure was explained by a change in growth form (relatively reduced foliage mass), a lower photosynthesis to stomatal conductance ratio during the late summer, and deleterious carry-over effects arising from the reduced number of over-wintering buds. PMID:12803615

  8. OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR SIDE WITH UNIT B IN FOREGROUND. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF REAR SIDE WITH UNIT B IN FOREGROUND. NOTE THE GABLE VENT AND CONCRETE SLAB OF THE CARPORT (TO THE RIGHT OF UNIT B). VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Three-Bedroom Duplex Type 3, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  9. Is road safety management linked to road safety performance?

    PubMed

    Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Yannis, George

    2013-10-01

    This research aims to explore the relationship between road safety management and road safety performance at country level. For that purpose, an appropriate theoretical framework is selected, namely the 'SUNflower' pyramid, which describes road safety management systems in terms of a five-level hierarchy: (i) structure and culture, (ii) programmes and measures, (iii) 'intermediate' outcomes'--safety performance indicators (SPIs), (iv) final outcomes--fatalities and injuries, and (v) social costs. For each layer of the pyramid, a composite indicator is implemented, on the basis of data for 30 European countries. Especially as regards road safety management indicators, these are estimated on the basis of Categorical Principal Component Analysis upon the responses of a dedicated road safety management questionnaire, jointly created and dispatched by the ETSC/PIN group and the 'DaCoTA' research project. Then, quasi-Poisson models and Beta regression models are developed for linking road safety management indicators and other indicators (i.e. background characteristics, SPIs) with road safety performance. In this context, different indicators of road safety performance are explored: mortality and fatality rates, percentage reduction in fatalities over a given period, a composite indicator of road safety final outcomes, and a composite indicator of 'intermediate' outcomes (SPIs). The results of the analyses suggest that road safety management can be described on the basis of three composite indicators: "vision and strategy", "budget, evaluation and reporting", and "measurement of road user attitudes and behaviours". Moreover, no direct statistical relationship could be established between road safety management indicators and final outcomes. However, a statistical relationship was found between road safety management and 'intermediate' outcomes, which were in turn found to affect 'final' outcomes, confirming the SUNflower approach on the consecutive effect of each layer

  10. Simulator of Road Tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danišovič, Peter; Schlosser, František; Šrámek, Juraj; Rázga, Martin

    2015-05-01

    A Tunnel Traffic & Operation Simulator is a device of the Centre of Transport Research at the University of Žilina. The Simulator allows managing technological equipment of virtual two-tube highway tunnel, which is interconnected with simulation of vehicle traffic in tunnel. Changes of the traffic-operation states and other equipment are reflecting at the simulated traffic, as well as simulations of various emergency events in traffic initiate changes in tunnel detecting and measuring devices. It is thus possible to simulate emergency states, which can be affected by various faults of technology as well as by climatic conditions. The solutions can be found in irreplaceable experiences of Slovak road tunnel operators, changes of trafficoperation states, visualizations of operator technological display screens, technological devices labelling in order to increase operational safety of road tunnels.

  11. Road Traffic Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckenbauer, Thomas

    Road traffic is the most interfering noise source in developed countries. According to a publication of the European Union (EU) at the end of the twentieth century [1], about 40% of the population in 15 EU member states is exposed to road traffic noise at mean levels exceeding 55 dB(A). Nearly 80 million people, 20% of the population, are exposed to levels exceeding 65 dB(A) during daytime and more than 30% of the population is exposed to levels exceeding 55 dB(A) during night time. Such high noise levels cause health risks and social disorders (aggressiveness, protest, and helplessness), interference of communication and disturbance of sleep; the long- and short-term consequences cause adverse cardiovascular effects, detrimental hormonal responses (stress hormones), and possible disturbance of the human metabolism (nutrition) and the immune system. Even performance at work and school could be impaired.

  12. The conversion of grassland to acacia forest as an effective option for net reduction in greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    de Godoi, Stefânia Guedes; Neufeld, Ângela Denise Hubert; Ibarr, Mariana Alves; Ferreto, Décio Oscar Cardoso; Bayer, Cimélio; Lorentz, Leandro Homrich; Vieira, Frederico Costa Beber

    2016-03-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of forestation with leguminous Acacia mearnsii De Wild in native grasslands on the soil greenhouse (GHG) fluxes and their main driving factors. The experiment was conducted in the Brazilian Pampa over the period of one year in a six-year-old Acacia plantation, evaluating four treatments: Acacia (AM), Acacia with litter periodically removed (A-l), Acacia after harvest (AH) and native grassland (NG) (reference treatment). Air samples were obtained by the static chamber method, and gas concentrations were evaluated by gas chromatography. Soil and climate factors were monitored. The accumulated fluxes of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) were statistically similar between the soils in the AM and NG treatments, which tended to oxidize CH4 (-1445 and -1752 g C-CH4 ha(-1) yr(-1), respectively) and had low emission of N2O (242 and 316 g N-N2O ha(-1) yr(-1)), most likely influenced by the low water-filled pore space and the low content of mineral N in the soil. However, the soil in the AH treatment presented higher emissions of both gases, totaling 1889 g C-CH4 ha(-1) yr(-1) and 1250 g N-N2O ha(-1) yr(-1). Afforestation neither significantly affected the total organic C stocks nor their lability, keeping the C management index for the forested area similar to that in the NG treatment. The conversion from grassland to Acacia forest represents an effective option for mitigating the net reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, which is basically determined by C accumulation in biomass and wood products. PMID:26731308

  13. Tweets on the Road

    PubMed Central

    Lenormand, Maxime; Tugores, Antònia; Colet, Pere; Ramasco, José J.

    2014-01-01

    The pervasiveness of mobile devices, which is increasing daily, is generating a vast amount of geo-located data allowing us to gain further insights into human behaviors. In particular, this new technology enables users to communicate through mobile social media applications, such as Twitter, anytime and anywhere. Thus, geo-located tweets offer the possibility to carry out in-depth studies on human mobility. In this paper, we study the use of Twitter in transportation by identifying tweets posted from roads and rails in Europe between September 2012 and November 2013. We compute the percentage of highway and railway segments covered by tweets in 39 countries. The coverages are very different from country to country and their variability can be partially explained by differences in Twitter penetration rates. Still, some of these differences might be related to cultural factors regarding mobility habits and interacting socially online. Analyzing particular road sectors, our results show a positive correlation between the number of tweets on the road and the Average Annual Daily Traffic on highways in France and in the UK. Transport modality can be studied with these data as well, for which we discover very heterogeneous usage patterns across the continent. PMID:25141161

  14. Experiments on Washboard Road

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Stephen; Taberlet, Nicolas; McElwaine, James; Dalziel, Stuart

    2007-03-01

    Granular surfaces to develop lateral ripples (so-called ``washboard" or ``corrugated" road) under the action of rolling wheels. Similar ripples are observed on railroad tracks and many other rolling, load bearing surfaces. Our aim was to investigate this instability of the flat road surface from the point of view of driven, dissipative granular dynamics. We report the results of both laboratory experiments and soft-particle direct numerical simulations. The experiment consisted of a rotating table 60 cm in radius with a thick layer of sand forming a roadbed around the circumference. A 6 cm radius hard rubber wheel, with a support stationary in the lab frame, rolled on the sand layer. We varied the speed of the table, the details of the grains and the suspension of the wheel. The ripple pattern appears as small patches of travelling waves which eventually spread to the entire circumference. The ripples drift slowly in the driving direction. Interesting secondary dynamics of the saturated ripples were observed, as well as various ripple creation and destruction events. The wavelength of the ripples can be quantized by the finite circumference of the road. All of these effects are captured qualitatively by 2D soft particle simulations in which a disk rolls over a 2D bed of polydisperse particles in a periodic box.

  15. Tweets on the road.

    PubMed

    Lenormand, Maxime; Tugores, Antònia; Colet, Pere; Ramasco, José J

    2014-01-01

    The pervasiveness of mobile devices, which is increasing daily, is generating a vast amount of geo-located data allowing us to gain further insights into human behaviors. In particular, this new technology enables users to communicate through mobile social media applications, such as Twitter, anytime and anywhere. Thus, geo-located tweets offer the possibility to carry out in-depth studies on human mobility. In this paper, we study the use of Twitter in transportation by identifying tweets posted from roads and rails in Europe between September 2012 and November 2013. We compute the percentage of highway and railway segments covered by tweets in 39 countries. The coverages are very different from country to country and their variability can be partially explained by differences in Twitter penetration rates. Still, some of these differences might be related to cultural factors regarding mobility habits and interacting socially online. Analyzing particular road sectors, our results show a positive correlation between the number of tweets on the road and the Average Annual Daily Traffic on highways in France and in the UK. Transport modality can be studied with these data as well, for which we discover very heterogeneous usage patterns across the continent. PMID:25141161

  16. [The Interaction of Oil Microcapsule Wall Materials between Whey Protein and Acacia].

    PubMed

    Shi, Yan; Li, Ru-yi; Wang, Hui; Li, Qian; Li, De-jun; Tu, Zong-cai

    2015-03-01

    The interaction between whey protein and acacia which were used as wall material was studied on the formation of the oils microcapsules by the FTIR Spectroscopy and Computer Aided Analysis. The results indicated that whey protein changed obviously in amide A and amide I by high pressured homogenization and spray-drying. The amide A moved from 3 406.5 cm(-1) to 3 425.4 cm(-1) which was possibly due to covalent cross-linking between whey protein and acacia. Furthermore the amide I moved from 1 648.6 cm(-1) to 1 654.7 cm(-1) for intramolecular hydrogen bonding of protein had been weaken. After Gaussian fitting on amide I , it was found that the content of secondary structure of α-helix content and β-folding in whey protein reduced from 19.55% to 17.50% and from 30.59% to 25.63%, respectively. This suggests that protein intramolecular hydrogen bonding force was abated, resulting in abating the rigid structure of the protein molecules and enhancing of the toughness structure. The protein molecules showed some flexibility. The result of SDS-PAGE electrophoresis showed that whey protein--gum Arabic complexes produced covalent products in larger molecular weight. During the spray-drying process, covalent cross-linking produced between whey protein and gum Arabic which improved emulsifying activity of the complex whey protein and gum Arabic produced covalent cross-linking and improved the complex emulsifying activity. Observing the surface structure of the fish oil microcapsule by SEM, the compound of whey protein and acacia as wall material was proved better toughness, less micropore, and more compact structure. PMID:26117866

  17. Simulation of water-surface elevations for a hypothetical 100-year peak flow in Birch Creek at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Berenbrock, C.; Kjelstrom, L.C.

    1997-10-01

    Delineation of areas at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory that would be inundated by a 100-year peak flow in Birch Creek is needed by the US Department of Energy to fulfill flood-plain regulatory requirements. Birch Creek flows southward about 40 miles through an alluvium-filled valley onto the northern part of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental laboratory site on the eastern Snake River Plain. The lower 10-mile reach of Birch Creek that ends in Birch Creek Playa near several Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory facilities is of particular concern. Twenty-six channel cross sections were surveyed to develop and apply a hydraulic model to simulate water-surface elevations for a hypothetical 100-year peak flow in Birch Creek. Model simulation of the 100-year peak flow (700 cubic feet per second) in reaches upstream from State Highway 22 indicated that flow was confined within channels even when all flow was routed to one channel. Where the highway crosses Birch Creek, about 315 cubic feet per second of water was estimated to move downstream--115 cubic feet per second through a culvert and 200 cubic feet per second over the highway. Simulated water-surface elevation at this crossing was 0.8 foot higher than the elevation of the highway. The remaining 385 cubic feet per second flowed southwestward in a trench along the north side of the highway. Flow also was simulated with the culvert removed. The exact location of flood boundaries on Birch Creek could not be determined because of the highly braided channel and the many anthropogenic features (such as the trench, highway, and diversion channels) in the study area that affect flood hydraulics and flow. Because flood boundaries could not be located exactly, only a generalized flood-prone map was developed.

  18. Development and in-house validation of an allergen-specific ELISA for quantification of Bet v 4 in diagnostic and therapeutic birch allergen products.

    PubMed

    Dehus, Oliver; Zimmer, Julia; Döring, Sascha; Führer, Frank; Hanschmann, Kay-Martin; Holzhauser, Thomas; Neske, Florian; Strecker, Daniel; Trösemeier, Jan-Hendrik; Vieths, Stefan; Kaul, Susanne

    2015-02-01

    Birch (Betula) pollen is a major cause of allergy in northern and central Europe. The allergenic potency of products for diagnosis and therapy of birch pollen allergy is adjusted nearly exclusively to the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1. Although every fifth patient is additionally sensitized to Bet v 4, both content and variability of this minor allergen in birch allergen products remain unclear due to a lack of simple and cost-effective quantitative methods. This study aimed to develop and in-house validate the first Bet v 4-specific sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Based on a murine monoclonal antibody in combination with a polyclonal rabbit antiserum, the ELISA proved to be highly sensitive, with a lower limit of quantification of 30 pg/ml Bet v 4. After confirmation of satisfactory accuracy, reproducibility, and robustness, the ELISA was utilized to quantify Bet v 4 in 30 authorized birch allergen products. The allergen was detected in all samples tested, ranging from 0.2 to 4.4 μg/ml. No significant correlation of Bet v 4 was found with the respective amount of Bet v 1. In contrast to Bet v 1, also no correlation of Bet v 4 with total protein content or total allergenic activity could be observed. Thus, it seems presently unfeasible to base birch allergen product standardization additionally on Bet v 4. In light of these results, the continuous monitoring of Bet v 4 in birch allergen products with the presented ELISA will provide a basis for the understanding of the clinical relevance of minor allergens. PMID:25572690

  19. Analysis of commercial proanthocyanidins. Part 3: the chemical composition of wattle (Acacia mearnsii) bark extract.

    PubMed

    Venter, Pieter B; Senekal, Nadine D; Kemp, Gabré; Amra-Jordaan, Maryam; Khan, Pir; Bonnet, Susan L; van der Westhuizen, Jan H

    2012-11-01

    Wattle (Acacia mearnsii) bark extract is an important renewable industrial source of natural polymers for leather tanning and adhesive manufacturing. The wattle bark proanthocyanidin oligomers have 5-deoxy extender units that render the interflavanyl bonds resistant to acid catalysed hydrolysis and their composition cannot be determined via conventional thiolysis. We combined established phyto- and synthetic chemistry perspectives with an electrospray mass spectrometry investigation to establish that the flavan-3-ol based oligomers consist of a starter unit which is either catechin or gallocatechin, angularly bonded to fisetinidol or predominantly robinetinidol extender units. PMID:22917955

  20. Incidences and severity of vascular wilt in Acacia mangium plantations in Sabah, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maid, Mandy; Ratnam, Wickneswari

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the incidences and severity of vascular wilt disease associated with dieback in stands of commercial Acacia mangium plantations. The study revealed that the prevalence of the symptoms is high between 50 to 60% in two plantations, where it is found scattered in the plots that were surveyed. The incidence of the disease in each plot is low between 0 to 6%. The disease symptoms were more often found where the symptom syndrome in a chronic (level 3) or critical state (level 4). This suggests that the causal pathogen has the ability to penetrate into the tissues of the plants and only display symptoms at the latest stage.

  1. Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial applications of zinc oxide nanoparticles loaded gum acacia/poly(SA) hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, S K; Jadaun, Mamta; Tiwari, Seema

    2016-11-20

    In this work, zinc oxide nanoparticles were synthesized in-situ within the gum acacia/poly (acrylate) hydrogel network using hydrothermal approach. The synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles were characterized by Surface plasmon resonance (SPR), X-Ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The water absorption behavior of ZnO/GA/poly(SA) hydrogels was investigated in the phosphate buffer saline (PBS) of pH 7.4 at 37°C. The water uptake data were analyzed with the help of various kinetic models. Finally, the antimicrobial action of nanocomposites was studied using E. coli as model bacteria. PMID:27561472

  2. Size variation of Acacia caven (leguminosae) pods along a climatic gradient in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, J. R.; Armesto, J. J.

    1981-06-01

    A southward tendency of increment in pod-length is shown for 11 populations of Acacia caven (Mol.) Hook et Arn. localized along a climatic gradient of increasing annual rainfall in Chile. This fact would suggest that A. caven populations occurring in the south are in better conditions for reproduction than northern populations, since pod-length is related to the amount of seeds inside the pods. The possible bearing of this southward tendency of increasing seed production upon the expansion of A. caven toward the more humid zones in southern Chile is discussed.

  3. Road traffic injuries in Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Romão, Francelina; Nizamo, Hanifa; Mapasse, Domingos; Rafico, Momede Mussá; José, João; Mataruca, Simão; Efron, M Lúcia; Omondi, Lucas O; Leifert, Thelma; Bicho, Joaquim M L Marungo

    2003-01-01

    Road traffic injuries affect the economy, health and quality of life of the people of Mozambique. Current road safety programmes are inadequate and inefficient given the magnitude of the problem. Data reported on road traffic crashes in the period 1990 to 2000 from the National Institute for Road Safety, the traffic police and the Central Hospital of Maputo were reviewed. The burden of road traffic injuries in Mozambique is rising, with at least three people killed daily. The age group most affected is 25-38 (39.35%), followed by 16-24 (20.79%). The main causes of crashes include reckless driving, drunken driving, roads with potholes, inadequate signs, lack of protection for pedestrians, and inadequate traffic law enforcement. However, the data are not adequate to reveal the true magnitude of the problem. Data collected by different sources are incomplete and not coordinated with other sources and databases. In urban areas, however, better response to crashes, treatment of the injured, reporting and data collection is attributable to a greater concentration of police and medical facilities. Road traffic safety programmes in Mozambique are inadequate and inefficient, starting with the data collection system. Improvement of injury surveillance systems is needed to help make road traffic safety a national development agenda priority and for developing and implementing road safety policies. For road safety programmes to be effective, government must facilitate stakeholders' involvement, and the clear definition of government activities, civil society activities and public-private partnerships need to be established. PMID:12772487

  4. Can spatial data substitute temporal data in phenological modelling? A survey using birch flowering.

    PubMed

    Jochner, Susanne; Caffarra, Amelia; Menzel, Annette

    2013-12-01

    In addition to the evaluation of long-term series, the analysis of spatial gradients, such as urbanization gradients, may be helpful in assessing phenological responses to global warming. But are phenological responses of birch (Betula pendula Roth) assessed by temperature variations comparable over time and space and can spatially calibrated models predict long-term phenological data adequately? We calibrated and tested linear regression models and the process-based DORMPHOT model on phenological and temperature data sampled along an urbanization gradient in 2010 and 2011 in the German cities Munich and Ingolstadt (spatial data). Additionally, we analysed data from the German Meteorological Service for the period 1991-2010 (long-term data). The model comparison showed that the DORMPHOT model performed better than the linear model. Therefore, the importance of forcing and chilling sums as well as photoperiod, factors which were all considered in the DORMPHOT model, was evident. Models calibrated on spatial data produced good predictions of spatial data, but they were less adequate for predicting long-term data. Therefore, a time-for-space substitution might not always be appropriate. This finding was also confirmed by a comparison of temperature response rates. The rate of change in the spatial data (-4.4 days °C(-1)) did not match the changes observed in the long-term data (-1.9 days °C(-1)). Consequently, it is important not to generalize results derived from one specific study method, but their inherent methodological, spatial and temporal peculiarities have to be considered. PMID:24169102

  5. BVOC responses to realistic nitrogen fertilization and ozone exposure in silver birch.

    PubMed

    Carriero, G; Brunetti, C; Fares, S; Hayes, F; Hoshika, Y; Mills, G; Tattini, M; Paoletti, E

    2016-06-01

    Emission of BVOC (Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds) from plant leaves in response to ozone exposure (O3) and nitrogen (N) fertilization is poorly understood. For the first time, BVOC emissions were explored in a forest tree species (silver birch, Betula pendula) exposed for two years to realistic levels of O3 (35, 48 and 69 ppb as daylight average) and N (10, 30 and 70 kg ha(-1) yr(-1), applied weekly to the soil as ammonium nitrate). The main BVOCs emitted were: α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene, ocimene, (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT) and hexanal. Ozone exposure increased BVOC emission and reduced total leaf area. The effect on emission was stronger when a short-term O3 metric (concentrations at the time of sampling) rather than a long-term one (AOT40) was used. The effect of O3 on total leaf area was not able to compensate for the stimulation of emission, so that responses to O3 at leaf and whole-plant level were similar. Nitrogen fertilization increased total leaf area, decreased α-pinene and β-pinene emission, and increased ocimene, hexanal and DMNT emission. The increase of leaf area changed the significance of the emission response to N fertilization for most compounds. Nitrogen fertilization mitigated the effects of O3 exposure on total leaf area, while the combined effects of O3 exposure and N fertilization on BVOC emission were additive and not synergistic. In conclusion, O3 exposure and N fertilization have the potential to affect global BVOC via direct effects on plant emission rates and changes in leaf area. PMID:26809503

  6. Climate warming feedback from mountain birch forest expansion: reduced albedo dominates carbon uptake.

    PubMed

    de Wit, Heleen A; Bryn, Anders; Hofgaard, Annika; Karstensen, Jonas; Kvalevåg, Maria M; Peters, Glen P

    2014-07-01

    Expanding high-elevation and high-latitude forest has contrasting climate feedbacks through carbon sequestration (cooling) and reduced surface reflectance (warming), which are yet poorly quantified. Here, we present an empirically based projection of mountain birch forest expansion in south-central Norway under climate change and absence of land use. Climate effects of carbon sequestration and albedo change are compared using four emission metrics. Forest expansion was modeled for a projected 2.6 °C increase in summer temperature in 2100, with associated reduced snow cover. We find that the current (year 2000) forest line of the region is circa 100 m lower than its climatic potential due to land-use history. In the future scenarios, forest cover increased from 12% to 27% between 2000 and 2100, resulting in a 59% increase in biomass carbon storage and an albedo change from 0.46 to 0.30. Forest expansion in 2100 was behind its climatic potential, forest migration rates being the primary limiting factor. In 2100, the warming caused by lower albedo from expanding forest was 10 to 17 times stronger than the cooling effect from carbon sequestration for all emission metrics considered. Reduced snow cover further exacerbated the net warming feedback. The warming effect is considerably stronger than previously reported for boreal forest cover, because of the typically low biomass density in mountain forests and the large changes in albedo of snow-covered tundra areas. The positive climate feedback of high-latitude and high-elevation expanding forests with seasonal snow cover exceeds those of afforestation at lower elevation, and calls for further attention of both modelers and empiricists. The inclusion and upscaling of these climate feedbacks from mountain forests into global models is warranted to assess the potential global impacts. PMID:24343906

  7. Seedling response of four birch species ot simulate nitrogen deposition: Ammonium vs. Nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Crabtree, R.C; Bazzaz, F.A. )

    1993-05-01

    Chronic nitrogen deposition, from air pollution with high concentrations of nitrogen, has the potential to alter seedling shade tolerance and growth in the temperate forest of northeastern United States, by affecting both the form and the quantity of available nitrogen. Simulated deposition treatments were applied to seedling of four birch species that co-occur at Harvard Forest (Betula lenta, B. alleghaniensis, B. populifolia, and B. papyrifera). Seedlings were individually potted in forest soil, and grown under light treatment representative of forest understory and treefall gap light levels. In a split-plot design, N was applied at 25 and 50 kg[center dot]ha[sup [minus]1][center dot]yr[sup [minus]1], as either nitrate, ammonium nitrate, or ammonium, within each light environment. While B, populifolia and B. papyrifera, and B. lenta all showed increased biomass allocation to leaves added, and this response was conditional on rate of N application and light environment. At low light, nitrate-fed B. lenta grew best, and also at low rate of supply, nitrate treatments out-performed ammonium treatment. Greater growth under these conditions is probably the result of higher biomass allocation to leaves, and greater specific leaf area, which increased the leaf area ratio, and improved the capacity for carbon gain. Under N deposition regimes that increase soil nitrate availability, the differences in response of B. lenta and B. alleghaniensis of nitrate at low light may potentially lead to changes in the species composition of the seedling communities in the understory. When a treefall occurs, a different species mix of seedling will be released, with potential consequences for sapling and tree species mix. 31 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Effects on road safety of new urban arterial roads.

    PubMed

    Amundsen, Astrid H; Elvik, Rune

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of the effects on road safety of new urban arterial roads in Oslo, Norway, and a synthesis of evidence from similar studies that have evaluated the safety effects of new urban arterial roads in other cities. A before-and-after study was made of four urban arterial road projects in Oslo. The study controlled for general accident trends in Oslo and for regression-to-the-mean. A statistically non-significant reduction of 9% in the number of injury accidents was found for all four projects combined. The effects on safety of new urban arterial roads were found to vary, depending on whether a new arterial road was built, or an existing arterial road upgraded by means of lane additions and reconstruction of junctions to interchanges. New arterial roads tend to induce more traffic, which tends to offset the benefits of a lower accident rate on the new roads. The results for other cities are very consistent with those for Oslo. For a total of seven cases in which new arterial roads were built, a statistically non-significant reduction of 1% in the number of injury accidents was found. Two cases that involved lane additions and converting at-grade junctions to interchanges resulted in a mean accident reduction of 51%, which was highly significant. On the average, the nine arterial road projects from which evidence was summarised resulted in a net induced traffic of 16%, and a net reduction in accident rate (accidents per million vehicle kilometres) of 18%. These effects almost cancel each other, leading to a very small net change in the expected number of accidents. PMID:14572833

  9. Road traffic injuries in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Deysi Yasmin; Fernández, Francisco José; Acero Velásquez, Hugo

    2003-01-01

    Road traffic injuries are a leading public health problem in Colombia. Pedestrians are the most vulnerable road users, especially in the main urban centers of Bogotá, Medellin and Cali. Data analyzed in this report include official statistics from the National Police and the National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences for 1996-2000, and results of a study conducted at the National University of Colombia in 2000. Methods from the Highway Capacity Manual were used for determining physical and technical variables, and a Geographical Information System tool was used for the location and spatial analysis of the road traffic crashes. Pedestrians accounted for close to 32% of injuries and 40% of the deaths from road traffic crashes. The problem of road traffic crashes existed predominately in urban areas. In the main urban centers, pedestrians constituted nearly 68% of road traffic crash victims. The high level of risky road use behaviors demonstrated by pedestrians and drivers, and inadequate infrastructure for safe mobility of pedestrians in some sections of the road network were the main contributing factors. Major improvements were achieved in Bogotá following enhancements to the municipal transport system and other policies introduced since 1995. In conclusion, policies and programs for improving road safety, in particular pedestrian safety, and strengthening urban planning are top priority. PMID:12772483

  10. Foliar endophytic fungi as potential protectors from pathogens in myrmecophytic Acacia plants.

    PubMed

    González-Teuber, Marcia; Jiménez-Alemán, Guillermo H; Boland, Wilhelm

    2014-10-01

    In defensive ant-plant interactions myrmecophytic plants express reduced chemical defense in their leaves to protect themselves from pathogens, and it seems that mutualistic partners are required to make up for this lack of defensive function. Previously, we reported that mutualistic ants confer plants of Acacia hindsii protection from pathogens, and that the protection is given by the ant-associated bacteria. Here, we examined whether foliar endophytic fungi may potentially act as a new partner, in addition to mutualistic ants and their bacteria inhabitants, involved in the protection from pathogens in myrmecophytic Acacia plants. Fungal endophytes were isolated from the asymptomatic leaves of A. hindsii plants for further molecular identification of 18S rRNA gene. Inhibitory effects of fungal endophytes were tested against Pseudomonas plant pathogens. Our findings support a potential role of fungal endophytes in pathogen the protection mechanisms against pathogens in myrmecophytic plants and provide the evidence of novel fungal endophytes capable of biosynthesizing bioactive metabolites. PMID:26843901

  11. A green approach to prepare silver nanoparticles loaded gum acacia/poly(acrylate) hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, S K; Kumari, Mamta

    2015-09-01

    In this work, gum acacia (GA)/poly(sodium acrylate) semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (Semi-IPN) have been fabricated via free radical initiated aqueous polymerization of monomer sodium acrylate (SA) in the presence of dissolved Gum acacia (GA), using N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MB) as cross-linker and potassium persulphate (KPS) as initiator. The semi-IPNs, synthesized, were characterized by various techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The dynamic water uptake behavior of semi-IPNs was investigated and the data were interpreted by various kinetic models. The equilibrium swelling data were used to evaluate various network parameters. The semi-IPNs were used as template for the in situ preparation of silver nanoparticles using extract of Syzygium aromaticum (clove). The formation of silver nanoparticles was confirmed by surface plasmon resonance (SPR), XRD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Finally, the antibacterial activity of GA/poly(SA)/silver nanocomposites was tested against E. coli. PMID:26123815

  12. Diversity of nitrogen fixing bacteria associated to the new Caledonian ubiquitous tree Acacia spirorbis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grangeteau, C.; Ducousso, M.; Jourand, P.; Lebrun, M.; Klonowska, A.; Fritsch, E.; Juillot, F.; Acherar, S.

    2012-04-01

    The New Caledonian endemic tree species Acacia spirorbis is able to grow and to present invasive traits on a wide range of soils (e.g.: ultramafic, calcareous coral, siliceous, aluminium enriched) in a large range of pH. Acacia spirorbis is also adapted to poly-metallic toxicity, especially Ni, to an unbalanced Ca/Mg ratio in strong favour of Mg and to poor N, P and K availability. The goal of this study was to improve our knowledge concerning the influence of bacterial symbionts on A. spirorbis adaptation to different soil conditions. Firstly, bacterial symbiots were isolated from field collected nodules or nodules obtained by trapping method and characterized by phylogenetic analysis of housekeeping genes (recA, dnaK and glnII) and symbiotic genes (nodA and nifH). A strong preference of A. spirorbis for different species of Bradyrhizobium has been noted ; Rhizobium species has been isolated only from nodules collected from a plantation located out of its natural area of distribution. A selection of representative rhizobial strains isolated from diverse soils was tested to compare their symbiotic efficiency with A. spirorbis in nursery conditions. Results are presented in function of soils diversity and in perspective of A. spirorbis adaptation to extremely diverse and adverse soil conditions.

  13. Polyploidy can Confer Superiority to West African Acacia senegal (L.) Willd. Trees

    PubMed Central

    Diallo, Adja M.; Nielsen, Lene R.; Kjær, Erik D.; Petersen, Karen K.; Ræbild, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Polyploidy is a common phenomenon in the evolution of angiosperms. It has been suggested that polyploids manage harsh environments better than their diploid relatives but empirical data supporting this hypothesis are scarce, especially for trees. Using microsatellite markers and flow cytometry, we examine the frequency of polyploids and diploids in a progeny trial testing four different populations of Acacia senegal, a species native to sub-Saharan regions of Africa. We compare growth between cytotypes and test whether polyploid seedlings grow better than diploids. Our results show that polyploids coexist with diploids in highly variable proportions among populations in Senegal. Acacia senegal genotypes were predominantly diploid and tetraploid, but triploid, pentaploid, hexaploid, and octaploid forms were also found. We find that polyploids show faster growth than diploids under our test conditions: in an 18 years old field trial, polyploid superiority was estimated to be 17% in trunk diameter and 9% in height while in a growth chamber experiment, polyploids grew 28% taller, but only after being exposed to drought stress. The results suggest that polyploid A. senegal can have an adaptive advantage in some regions of Africa. PMID:27379120

  14. Foliar endophytic fungi as potential protectors from pathogens in myrmecophytic Acacia plants

    PubMed Central

    González-Teuber, Marcia; Jiménez-Alemán, Guillermo H; Boland, Wilhelm

    2014-01-01

    In defensive ant-plant interactions myrmecophytic plants express reduced chemical defense in their leaves to protect themselves from pathogens, and it seems that mutualistic partners are required to make up for this lack of defensive function. Previously, we reported that mutualistic ants confer plants of Acacia hindsii protection from pathogens, and that the protection is given by the ant-associated bacteria. Here, we examined whether foliar endophytic fungi may potentially act as a new partner, in addition to mutualistic ants and their bacteria inhabitants, involved in the protection from pathogens in myrmecophytic Acacia plants. Fungal endophytes were isolated from the asymptomatic leaves of A. hindsii plants for further molecular identification of 18S rRNA gene. Inhibitory effects of fungal endophytes were tested against Pseudomonas plant pathogens. Our findings support a potential role of fungal endophytes in pathogen the protection mechanisms against pathogens in myrmecophytic plants and provide the evidence of novel fungal endophytes capable of biosynthesizing bioactive metabolites. PMID:26843901

  15. Host-driven diversification of gall-inducing Acacia thrips and the aridification of Australia

    PubMed Central

    McLeish, Michael J; Chapman, Thomas W; Schwarz, Michael P

    2007-01-01

    Background Insects that feed on plants contribute greatly to the generation of biodiversity. Hypotheses explaining rate increases in phytophagous insect diversification and mechanisms driving speciation in such specialists remain vexing despite considerable attention. The proliferation of plant-feeding insects and their hosts are expected to broadly parallel one another where climate change over geological timescales imposes consequences for the diversification of flora and fauna via habitat modification. This work uses a phylogenetic approach to investigate the premise that the aridification of Australia, and subsequent expansion and modification of arid-adapted host flora, has implications for the diversification of insects that specialise on them. Results Likelihood ratio tests indicated the possibility of hard molecular polytomies within two co-radiating gall-inducing species complexes specialising on the same set of host species. Significant tree asymmetry is indicated at a branch adjacent to an inferred transition to a Plurinerves ancestral host species. Lineage by time diversification plots indicate gall-thrips that specialise on Plurinerves hosts differentially experienced an explosive period of speciation contemporaneous with climatic cycling during the Quaternary period. Chronological analyses indicated that the approximate age of origin of gall-inducing thrips on Acacia might be as recent as 10 million years ago during the Miocene, as truly arid landscapes first developed in Australia. Conclusion Host-plant diversification and spatial heterogeneity of hosts have increased the potential for specialisation, resource partitioning, and unoccupied ecological niche availability for gall-thrips on Australian Acacia. PMID:17257412

  16. Polyploidy can Confer Superiority to West African Acacia senegal (L.) Willd. Trees.

    PubMed

    Diallo, Adja M; Nielsen, Lene R; Kjær, Erik D; Petersen, Karen K; Ræbild, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Polyploidy is a common phenomenon in the evolution of angiosperms. It has been suggested that polyploids manage harsh environments better than their diploid relatives but empirical data supporting this hypothesis are scarce, especially for trees. Using microsatellite markers and flow cytometry, we examine the frequency of polyploids and diploids in a progeny trial testing four different populations of Acacia senegal, a species native to sub-Saharan regions of Africa. We compare growth between cytotypes and test whether polyploid seedlings grow better than diploids. Our results show that polyploids coexist with diploids in highly variable proportions among populations in Senegal. Acacia senegal genotypes were predominantly diploid and tetraploid, but triploid, pentaploid, hexaploid, and octaploid forms were also found. We find that polyploids show faster growth than diploids under our test conditions: in an 18 years old field trial, polyploid superiority was estimated to be 17% in trunk diameter and 9% in height while in a growth chamber experiment, polyploids grew 28% taller, but only after being exposed to drought stress. The results suggest that polyploid A. senegal can have an adaptive advantage in some regions of Africa. PMID:27379120

  17. Chemical composition and nutritional evaluation of the seeds of Acacia tortilis (Forssk.) Hayne ssp. raddiana.

    PubMed

    Embaby, Hassan E; Rayan, Ahmed M

    2016-06-01

    Chemical composition and nutritional evaluation as well as physicochemical and functional properties of seed flour of Acacia tortilis (Forssk.) Hayne ssp. raddiana were studied. The results indicated that seeds contained 5.30% moisture, 3.99% ash, 9.19% fat, 14.31% fiber, 27.21% protein and 45.30% carbohydrates. Potassium was the predominant element followed by calcium and then phosphorous. Phytic acid, tannins and trypsin inhibitor as antinutrients were detected. The amino acid profile compared well with FAO/WHO recommended pattern except for cystine/methionine, isoleucine, tyrosine/phenylalanine, lysine and threonine. Also, the first limiting amino acid was lysine. Fatty acid composition showed that linoleic acid was the major fatty acid, followed by palmitic, stearic, oleic and arachidic acids. The seed oil showed absorbance in the ultraviolet ranges, thus it can be used as a broad spectrum UV protectant. For physicochemical and functional properties, acacia seeds flour had excellent water holding index, swelling index, foaming capacity and foam stability. PMID:26830561

  18. Evolutionary history shapes patterns of mutualistic benefit in Acacia-rhizobial interactions.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Luke G; Zee, Peter C; Bever, James D; Miller, Joseph T; Thrall, Peter H

    2016-07-01

    The ecological and evolutionary factors that drive the emergence and maintenance of variation in mutualistic benefit (i.e., the benefits provided by one partner to another) in mutualistic symbioses are not well understood. In this study, we evaluated the role that host and symbiont phylogeny might play in determining patterns of mutualistic benefit for interactions among nine species of Acacia and 31 strains of nitrogen-fixing rhizobial bacteria. Using phylogenetic comparative methods we compared patterns of variation in mutualistic benefit (host response to inoculation) to rhizobial phylogenies constructed from housekeeping and symbiosis genes; and a multigene host phylogeny. We found widespread genotype-by-genotype variation in patterns of plant growth. A relatively large component of this variation (21-28%) was strongly influenced by the interacting evolutionary histories of both partners, such that phylogenetically similar host species had similar growth responses when inoculated with phylogenetically similar rhizobia. We also found a relatively large nonphylogenetic effect for the average mutualistic benefit provided by rhizobia to plants, such that phylogenetic relatedness did not predict the overall benefit provided by rhizobia across all hosts. We conclude that phylogenetic relatedness should frequently predict patterns of mutualistic benefit in acacia-rhizobial mutualistic interactions; but that some mutualistic traits also evolve independently of the phylogenies. PMID:27241367

  19. The road not taken*

    PubMed Central

    Messerle, Judith

    2001-01-01

    The annual Janet Doe Lecture was established in l966 to honor Janet Doe, emerita librarian of the New York Academy of Medicine. The lecture focuses on either the history or philosophy of health sciences librarianship. This lecture addresses three fundamental values of the field, highlighting basic beliefs of the profession that are at risk: privacy, intellectual property rights, and access to quality information. It calls upon readers to make the everyday choices required to keep the value system of health sciences librarianship in place. Robert Frost's poignant poem ”The Road Not Taken” provides the metaphor for examining choices in an information economy. PMID:11209796

  20. Large-Scale Variations in Lumber Value Recovery of Yellow Birch and Sugar Maple in Quebec, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Hassegawa, Mariana; Havreljuk, Filip; Ouimet, Rock; Auty, David; Pothier, David; Achim, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    Silvicultural restoration measures have been implemented in the northern hardwoods forests of southern Quebec, Canada, but their financial applicability is often hampered by the depleted state of the resource. To help identify sites most suited for the production of high quality timber, where the potential return on silvicultural investments should be the highest, this study assessed the impact of stand and site characteristics on timber quality in sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) and yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britt.). For this purpose, lumber value recovery (LVR), an estimate of the summed value of boards contained in a unit volume of round wood, was used as an indicator of timber quality. Predictions of LVR were made for yellow birch and sugar maple trees contained in a network of more than 22000 temporary sample plots across the Province. Next, stand-level variables were selected and models to predict LVR were built using the boosted regression trees method. Finally, the occurrence of spatial clusters was verified by a hotspot analysis. Results showed that in both species LVR was positively correlated with the stand age and structural diversity index, and negatively correlated with the number of merchantable stems. Yellow birch had higher LVR in areas with shallower soils, whereas sugar maple had higher LVR in regions with deeper soils. The hotspot analysis indicated that clusters of high and low LVR exist across the province for both species. Although it remains uncertain to what extent the variability of LVR may result from variations in past management practices or in inherent site quality, we argue that efforts to produce high quality timber should be prioritized in sites where LVR is predicted to be the highest. PMID:26313689

  1. Elevated air humidity affects hydraulic traits and tree size but not biomass allocation in young silver birches (Betula pendula)

    PubMed Central

    Sellin, Arne; Rosenvald, Katrin; Õunapuu-Pikas, Eele; Tullus, Arvo; Ostonen, Ivika; Lõhmus, Krista

    2015-01-01

    As changes in air temperature, precipitation, and air humidity are expected in the coming decades, studies on the impact of these environmental shifts on plant growth and functioning are of major importance. Greatly understudied aspects of climate change include consequences of increasing air humidity on forest ecosystems, predicted for high latitudes. The main objective of this study was to find a link between hydraulic acclimation and shifts in trees’ resource allocation in silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) in response to elevated air relative humidity (RH). A second question was whether the changes in hydraulic architecture depend on tree size. Two years of application of increased RH decreased the biomass accumulation in birch saplings, but the biomass partitioning among aboveground parts (leaves, branches, and stems) remained unaffected. Increased stem Huber values (xylem cross-sectional area to leaf area ratio) observed in trees under elevated RH did not entail changes in the ratio of non-photosynthetic to photosynthetic tissues. The reduction of stem–wood density is attributable to diminished mechanical load imposed on the stem, since humidified trees had relatively shorter crowns. Growing under higher RH caused hydraulic conductance of the root system (KR) to increase, while KR (expressed per unit leaf area) decreased and leaf hydraulic conductance increased with tree size. Saplings of silver birch acclimate to increasing air humidity by adjusting plant morphology (live crown length, slenderness, specific leaf area, and fine-root traits) and wood density rather than biomass distribution among aboveground organs. The treatment had a significant effect on several hydraulic properties of the trees, while the shifts were largely associated with changes in tree size but not in biomass allocation. PMID:26528318

  2. Large-Scale Variations in Lumber Value Recovery of Yellow Birch and Sugar Maple in Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Hassegawa, Mariana; Havreljuk, Filip; Ouimet, Rock; Auty, David; Pothier, David; Achim, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    Silvicultural restoration measures have been implemented in the northern hardwoods forests of southern Quebec, Canada, but their financial applicability is often hampered by the depleted state of the resource. To help identify sites most suited for the production of high quality timber, where the potential return on silvicultural investments should be the highest, this study assessed the impact of stand and site characteristics on timber quality in sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) and yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britt.). For this purpose, lumber value recovery (LVR), an estimate of the summed value of boards contained in a unit volume of round wood, was used as an indicator of timber quality. Predictions of LVR were made for yellow birch and sugar maple trees contained in a network of more than 22000 temporary sample plots across the Province. Next, stand-level variables were selected and models to predict LVR were built using the boosted regression trees method. Finally, the occurrence of spatial clusters was verified by a hotspot analysis. Results showed that in both species LVR was positively correlated with the stand age and structural diversity index, and negatively correlated with the number of merchantable stems. Yellow birch had higher LVR in areas with shallower soils, whereas sugar maple had higher LVR in regions with deeper soils. The hotspot analysis indicated that clusters of high and low LVR exist across the province for both species. Although it remains uncertain to what extent the variability of LVR may result from variations in past management practices or in inherent site quality, we argue that efforts to produce high quality timber should be prioritized in sites where LVR is predicted to be the highest. PMID:26313689

  3. Perinatal Maternal Administration of Lactobacillus paracasei NCC 2461 Prevents Allergic Inflammation in a Mouse Model of Birch Pollen Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Schabussova, Irma; Hufnagl, Karin; Tang, Mimi L. K.; Hoflehner, Elisabeth; Wagner, Angelika; Loupal, Gerhard; Nutten, Sophie; Zuercher, Adrian; Mercenier, Annick; Wiedermann, Ursula

    2012-01-01

    Background The hygiene hypothesis implies that microbial agents including probiotic bacteria may modulate foetal/neonatal immune programming and hence offer effective strategies for primary allergy prevention; however their mechanisms of action are poorly understood. We investigated whether oral administration of Lactobacillus paracasei NCC 2461 to mothers during gestation/lactation can protect against airway inflammation in offspring in a mouse model of birch pollen allergy, and examined the immune mechanisms involved. Methods BALB/c mice were treated daily with L. paracasei in drinking water or drinking water alone in the last week of gestation and during lactation. Their offspring were sensitized with recombinant Bet v 1, followed by aerosol challenge with birch pollen extract. Results Maternal exposure to L. paracasei prevented the development of airway inflammation in offspring, as demonstrated by attenuation of eosinophil influx in the lungs; reduction of IL-5 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage, and in lung and mediastinal lymph node cell cultures; and reduced peribronchial inflammatory infiltrate and mucus hypersecretion. While allergen-specific IgE and IgG antibody levels remained unchanged by the treatment, IL-4 and IL-5 production in spleen cell cultures were significantly reduced upon allergen stimulation in offspring of L. paracasei treated mice. Offspring of L. paracasei supplemented mothers had significantly reduced Bet v 1-specific as well as Concanavalin A-induced responses in spleen and mesenteric lymph node cell cultures, suggesting the modulation of both antigen-specific and mitogen-induced immune responses in offspring. These effects were associated with increased Foxp3 mRNA expression in the lungs and increased TGF-beta in serum. Conclusion Our data show that in a mouse model of birch pollen allergy, perinatal administration of L. paracasei NCC 2461 to pregnant/lactating mothers protects against the development of airway inflammation in offspring

  4. Seasonal variation of birch and grass pollen loads and allergen release at two sites in the German Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jochner, Susanne; Lüpke, Marvin; Laube, Julia; Weichenmeier, Ingrid; Pusch, Gudrun; Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia; Schmidt-Weber, Carsten; Buters, Jeroen T. M.; Menzel, Annette

    2015-12-01

    Less vegetated mountainous areas may provide better conditions for allergy sufferers. However, atmospheric transport can result in medically relevant pollen loads in such regions. The majority of investigations has focused on the pollen load, expressed as daily averages of pollen per cubic meter of air (pollen grains/m³); however, the severity of allergic symptoms is also determined by the actual allergen content of this pollen, its pollen potency, which may differ between high and low altitudes. We analysed airborne birch and grass pollen concentrations along with allergen content (birch: Bet v 1, grass: Phl p 5) at two different altitudes (734 and 2650 m a.s.l.) in the Zugspitze region (2009-2010). Back-trajectories were calculated for the high altitude site and for specific days with abrupt increases in pollen potency. We observed several days with medically relevant pollen concentrations at the highest site. In addition, a few days with pollen were not associated with allergens and vice versa. The calculated seasonal mean allergen release per pollen grain was 1.8-3.3 pg Bet v 1 and 5.7 pg Phl p 5 in the valley and 1.1-3.7 pg Bet v 1 and 0.7-1.5 pg Phl p 5 at the high altitude site. Back-trajectories revealed that high pollen potency at the higher site was generally associated with south-westerly to south-easterly (birch), or northerly (grass) wind directions. By investigating days with sudden increases in pollen potency, however, it was difficult to draw definitive conclusions on long- or short-range transport. Our findings suggest that people allergic to pollen might suffer less at higher altitudes and further indicate that a risk assessment relying on the actual concentration of airborne pollen does not necessarily reflect the actual allergy exposure of individuals.

  5. The Complete Sequence of the Acacia ligulata Chloroplast Genome Reveals a Highly Divergent clpP1 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Anna V.; Boykin, Laura M.; Howell, Katharine A.; Nevill, Paul G.; Small, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Legumes are a highly diverse angiosperm family that include many agriculturally important species. To date, 21 complete chloroplast genomes have been sequenced from legume crops confined to the Papilionoideae subfamily. Here we report the first chloroplast genome from the Mimosoideae, Acacia ligulata, and compare it to the previously sequenced legume genomes. The A. ligulata chloroplast genome is 158,724 bp in size, comprising inverted repeats of 25,925 bp and single-copy regions of 88,576 bp and 18,298 bp. Acacia ligulata lacks the inversion present in many of the Papilionoideae, but is not otherwise significantly different in terms of gene and repeat content. The key feature is its highly divergent clpP1 gene, normally considered essential in chloroplast genomes. In A. ligulata, although transcribed and spliced, it probably encodes a catalytically inactive protein. This study provides a significant resource for further genetic research into Acacia and the Mimosoideae. The divergent clpP1 gene suggests that Acacia will provide an interesting source of information on the evolution and functional diversity of the chloroplast Clp protease complex. PMID:25955637

  6. 77 FR 11531 - Electric Quarterly Reports, Acacia Energy, Inc., et al.; Notice of Revocation of Market-Based...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    .... 2001, 67 FR 31,043, FERC Stats. & Regs. ] 31,127, reh'g denied, Order No. 2001-A, 100 FERC ] 61,074... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Electric Quarterly Reports, Acacia Energy, Inc., et al.; Notice of Revocation of Market-Based Rate Tariff Electric Quarterly Reports....... Docket No. ER02-2001-017...

  7. Impact of Acacia tortilis ssp. raddiana tree on wheat and barley yield in the south of Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noumi, Zouhaier; Abdallah, Fathia; Torre, Franck; Michalet, Richard; Touzard, Blaise; Chaieb, Mohamed

    2011-03-01

    In the past, Acacia tortilis ssp. raddiana (Savi) Brenan colonised thousands of hectares in central and southern Tunisia. Nowadays, the geographical distribution of A. tortilis ssp. raddiana is restricted to the National Park of Bou-Hedma (central Tunisia). The Acacia is of considerable interest for local populations and may be considered as a "foundation species" under arid climate. This study examines the effects of Acacia canopy on soil fertility and cereal productivity. The improvement in soil fertility and microclimate provided by A. tortilis ssp. raddiana is known to facilitate the establishment of new species, but little is known about the interaction between the tree species and the cereals cultivated by local farmers. We studied the effect of A. tortilis ssp. raddiana canopy on the yield of three cereals crops ( Hordeum vulgare L., Triticum sativum L. and Triticum aestivum L.). We seeded 168 plots (15 × 15 m) under the tree canopy and in open areas on four different landform types (glacis, plain, wadis, and jessours) and measured cereal yield over two contrasting years (wet and dry). We found that: (1) precipitation and geomorphology are more important in determining cereal yield than canopy cover, (2) these effects on water availability are species-specific with no effect on the stress-tolerant barley. We finally discuss the potential negative effects of Acacia trees which may have balanced the positive effects found for nutrient in our study.

  8. Lignin biodegradation and ligninolytic enzyme studies during biopulping of Acacia mangium wood chips by tropical white rot fungi.

    PubMed

    Liew, C Y; Husaini, A; Hussain, H; Muid, S; Liew, K C; Roslan, H A

    2011-06-01

    White rot fungi are good lignin degraders and have the potential to be used in industry. In the present work, Phellinus sp., Daedalea sp., Trametes versicolor and Pycnoporus coccineus were selected due to their relatively high ligninolytic enzyme activity, and grown on Acacia mangium wood chips under solid state fermentation. Results obtained showed that manganese peroxidase produced is far more compared to lignin peroxidase, suggesting that MnP might be the predominating enzymes causing lignin degradation in Acacia mangium wood chips. Cellulase enzyme assays showed that no significant cellulase activity was detected in the enzyme preparation of T. versicolor and Phellinus sp. This low cellulolytic activity further suggests that these two white rot strains are of more interest in lignin degradation. The results on lignin losses showed 20-30% of lignin breakdown at 60 days of biodegradation. The highest lignin loss was found in Acacia mangium biotreated with T. versicolor after 60 days and recorded 26.9%, corresponding to the percentage of their wood weight loss recorded followed by P. coccineus. In general, lignin degradation was only significant from 20 days onwards. The overall percentage of lignin weight loss was within the range of 1.02-26.90% over the biodegradation periods. Microscopic observations conducted using scanning electron microscope showed that T. versicolor, P. coccineus, Daedalea sp. and Phellinus sp. had caused lignin degradation in Acacia mangium wood chips. PMID:25187145

  9. On the road to prevention: road injury and health promotion.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Mark; Thompson, Jason

    2014-04-01

    Road traffic injuries are already the leading cause of injury mortality and morbidity globally and by 2030 are predicted to be the fifth leading cause of mortality in the world. Australia has seen a dramatic reduction in road deaths and serious injuries since the 1970s and holds an international reputation for road traffic injury prevention due, in part, to its success in pioneering the multidisciplinary and intersectoral approach needed to address this significant issue and by applying an evidence-led approach to policy development. The paper will discuss Australia's early success in road traffic injury prevention (road safety), particularly the achievements following the implementation of targeted programs that focussed on road user behaviours for which health promotion played a role. The most successful of these programs was the introduction of comprehensive seat belt laws, random breath testing and more recently, strategic speed enforcement programs. Amid an array of significant challenges faced by the transport system in the future, the rapid development in information and communication technologies applied to transport is likely to provide the next generation of road safety benefits. The potential for a semi-autonomous transport system is likely to provide the next significant decline in road fatalities and serious injuries over the next 2 decades and the role of health promotion in relation to raising community engagement and building coalitions to increase uptake of new technologies will be discussed. PMID:24739772

  10. 25. White Plains Road Bridge in foreground; Unionport Road Bridge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. White Plains Road Bridge in foreground; Unionport Road Bridge in background. Van Nest, Bronx Co., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 12.75./78. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York County, NY

  11. Responses in the start of Betula (birch) pollen seasons to recent changes in spring temperatures across Europe.

    PubMed

    Emberlin, J; Detandt, M; Gehrig, R; Jaeger, S; Nolard, N; Rantio-Lehtimäki, A

    2002-09-01

    A shift in the timing of birch pollen seasons is important because it is well known to be a significant aeroallergen, especially in NW Europe where it is a notable cause of hay fever and pollen-related asthma. The research reported in this paper aims to investigate temporal patterns in the start dates of Betula (birch) pollen seasons at selected sites across Europe. In particular it investigates relationships between the changes in start dates and changes in spring temperatures over approximately the last 20 years. Daily birch pollen counts were used from Kevo, Turku, London, Brussels, Zurich and Vienna, for the core period from 1982 to 1999 and, in some cases, from 1970 to 2000. The sites represent a range of biogeographical situations from just within the Arctic Circle through to North West Maritime and Continental Europe. Pollen samples were taken with Hirst-type volumetric spore traps. Weather data were obtained from the sites nearest to the pollen traps. The timing of birch pollen seasons is known to depend mostly on a non-linear balance between the winter chilling required to break dormancy, and spring temperatures. Pollen start dates and monthly mean temperatures for January through to May were compiled to 5-year running means to examine trends. The start dates for the next 10 years were calculated from regression equations for each site, on the speculative basis that the current trends would continue. The analyses show regional contrasts. Kevo shows a marked trend towards cooler springs and later starts. If this continues the mean start date will become about 6 days later over the next 10 years. Turku exhibits cyclic patterns in start dates. A current trend towards earlier starts is expected to continue until 2007, followed by another fluctuation. London, Brussels, Zurich and Vienna show very similar patterns in the trends towards earlier start dates. If the trend continues the mean start dates at these sites will advance by about 6 days over the next 10

  12. Velocity-density systematics of liquid indium and the validity of the Birch's law for a liquid metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, J.; Komabayashi, T.; Hirose, K.; Baron, A. Q.; Tsutsui, S.; Ohishi, Y.

    2011-12-01

    The Earth's core is composed mostly of iron with some amounts of light element(s). In order to put constraints on the composition of the core, high-pressure (P) and -temperature (T) elastic properties and density of both solid and liquid iron and iron compounds are of quite importance. The Birch's law which suggests that the compressional velocity would change linearly with density, has been applied to the discussion of the core composition, since it does not require temperature of the core which is one of the most difficult parameters to constrain. Assuming the Birch's law, 300-K compression experiments of solid iron or iron compounds in a diamond anvil cell (DAC) can directly address the velocity-density relations of the inner core. On the other hand, the velocity-density relation for liquid iron has not been studied in the DAC since it requires high-temperatures. Here we investigated both velocity and density of a liquid metal, in order to study the validity of the Birch's law for the liquid metal. Since the melting temperature of iron is very high, we chose indium whose melting temperature is 430 K at 1 bar. For sound velocity measurements of liquid indium, we conducted inelastic X-ray scattering measurements in an externally heated DAC. The inelastic X-ray scattering measurements were conducted at the BL35XU, SPring-8 (Japan). We collected the data of solid and liquid phases at 10 different pressure and temperature conditions. The maximum P-T condition was 9 GPa and 750 K. The melting was confirmed by the two dimensional X-ray diffraction images. For density measurements, in-situ X-ray absorption experiments in the externally heated DAC were conducted at the BL10XU, SPring-8. Dual holes are drilled in the rhenium gasket and each hole was filled with either indium or NaCl. X-ray transmission intensities were measured by a photodiode across the sample and the standard material (NaCl). Assuming the Lambert-Beer law, we estimated the density of liquid indium up to

  13. Responses in the start of Betula (birch) pollen seasons to recent changes in spring temperatures across Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emberlin, J.; Detandt, M.; Gehrig, R.; Jaeger, S.; Nolard, N.; Rantio-Lehtimäki, A.

    2002-07-01

    A shift in the timing of birch pollen seasons is important because it is well known to be a significant aeroallergen, especially in NW Europe where it is a notable cause of hay fever and pollen-related asthma. The research reported in this paper aims to investigate temporal patterns in the start dates of Betula (birch) pollen seasons at selected sites across Europe. In particular it investigates relationships between the changes in start dates and changes in spring temperatures over approximately the last 20 years. Daily birch pollen counts were used from Kevo, Turku, London, Brussels, Zurich and Vienna, for the core period from 1982 to 1999 and, in some cases, from 1970 to 2000. The sites represent a range of biogeographical situations from just within the Arctic Circle through to North West Maritime and Continental Europe. Pollen samples were taken with Hirst-type volumetric spore traps. Weather data were obtained from the sites nearest to the pollen traps. The timing of birch pollen seasons is known to depend mostly on a non-linear balance between the winter chilling required to break dormancy, and spring temperatures. Pollen start dates and monthly mean temperatures for January through to May were compiled to 5-year running means to examine trends. The start dates for the next 10 years were calculated from regression equations for each site, on the speculative basis that the current trends would continue. The analyses show regional contrasts. Kevo shows a marked trend towards cooler springs and later starts. If this continues the mean start date will become about 6 days later over the next 10 years. Turku exhibits cyclic patterns in start dates. A current trend towards earlier starts is expected to continue until 2007, followed by another fluctuation. London, Brussels, Zurich and Vienna show very similar patterns in the trends towards earlier start dates. If the trend continues the mean start dates at these sites will advance by about 6 days over the next 10

  14. A Broadband IR Compact High Resolution Spectrometer (BIRCHES) for a Lunar Water Distribution (LWaDi) Cubesat Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Pamela E.; Macdowall, Robert J.; Reuter, Dennis; Mauk, Robin

    2014-11-01

    We are in the process of developing the BIRCH (Broadband IR for Cubesats with High Resolution) Spectrometer for characterization of a range of deep space targets. BIRCH is the first extremely compact Broadband IR spectrometer with high spectral resolution designed to measure water type and component distribution for a science-driven cubesat mission, such as the lunar orbital mission LWaDi (Lunar Water Distribution) designed to determine the systematics of lunar water and volatiles as a function of time of day, latitude, and terrain. The development of cubesat form factor instruments, such as BIRCH, capable of providing high priority science goals identified in the decadal survey is critical to achieve low cost planetary exploration promised by the cubesat paradigm by exploring volatile systems via orbiting or landed packages. On the Moon, as well as Mercury, Mars, and the asteroids, the source, distribution, and role of volatiles is a question of major importance, and has implications for formation processes, including interior structure, differentiation, and the origin of life in the early solar system. The form and distribution of water has implications for human exploration, resource exploitation, and sample curation. Recent lunar missions gave unanticipated evidence for the water from NIR instruments not optimized for finding it. Our instrument includes a compact broadband HgCdTe detector with a linear variable filter and a compact cryocooler (for operation below 140K) attached to a compact optical system with 2 off-axis parabolic mirrors and variable field stop operating below 240K. Its 10 nm or better resolution and longer wavelength upper range (1.3 to 3.7 microns) are necessary to identify and separate features associated with water type (adsorbed, bound, ice) and components. Its 4-sided adjustable iris at the field stop enables a constant spot size (10 x 10 km) regardless of altitude. BIRCH will be able to provide systematic and extensive enough

  15. View southwest along Route Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing commercial ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southwest along Route Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing commercial and residential buildings on the east and west sides of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  16. View northeast along Wauregan Road (Route 205) showing a residence ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northeast along Wauregan Road (Route 205) showing a residence on east side of the road from just south of the intersection of Routes 205 and 169 - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  17. RTP AREA ROAD GRADE MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Grade data collection with GPS equipment is important because the load model component of the MEASURE model uses grade to predict the vehicle load. To date, data collection has been conducted for high priority roads and this task will include other roads not included in the firs...

  18. Characterization of oak and birch dust-induced expression of cytokines and chemokines in mouse macrophage RAW 264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Määttä, Juha; Majuri, Marja-Leena; Luukkonen, Ritva; Lauerma, Antti; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti; Alenius, Harri; Savolainen, Kai

    2005-11-01

    Occupational exposure to wood dust is related to several respiratory diseases, such as allergic rhinitis, chronic bronchitis, and asthma. However, virtually nothing is known about molecular mechanisms behind wood dust-induced pulmonary inflammation. To elucidate the effects of wood dust exposure on cytokine and chemokine expression in murine macrophage cell line cells, mouse RAW 264.7 cells were exposed to two selected hardwood dusts, oak and birch. TiO2 and LPS were used as controls. Expression patterns of several cytokines, chemokines, and chemokine receptors were assessed by real-time quantitative PCR system and by ELISA. Exposure to birch dust caused a major increase in TNF-alpha and IL-6 protein levels whereas a weaker induction of TNF-alpha protein was found after exposure to oak dust. Inorganic TiO2 dust did not induce significant cytokine expression. With respect to the chemokines, a dose-dependent, about 10-fold induction of CCL2 mRNA and protein was found after exposure to birch dust. Oak dust induced weakly CCL2 protein. Similarly, birch dust induced a strong expression of CCL3, CCL4, and CXCL2/3 mRNA whereas only moderate levels of these chemokine mRNAs were detected after oak dust exposure. In contrast, expression of CCL24 mRNA was inhibited by more than 40-fold by both oak and birch dusts. TiO2 dust induced about five-fold expression of CCL3 and CCL4 mRNA but did not affect significantly other chemokines. These results suggest that exposure to birch or oak dusts may influence the development of the inflammatory process in the airways by modulating the expression of macrophage-derived cytokines and chemokines. PMID:16122864

  19. Scale invariance in road networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalapala, Vamsi; Sanwalani, Vishal; Clauset, Aaron; Moore, Cristopher

    2006-02-01

    We study the topological and geographic structure of the national road networks of the United States, England, and Denmark. By transforming these networks into their dual representation, where roads are vertices and an edge connects two vertices if the corresponding roads ever intersect, we show that they exhibit both topological and geographic scale invariance. That is, we show that for sufficiently large geographic areas, the dual degree distribution follows a power law with exponent 2.2⩽α⩽2.4 , and that journeys, regardless of their length, have a largely identical structure. To explain these properties, we introduce and analyze a simple fractal model of road placement that reproduces the observed structure, and suggests a testable connection between the scaling exponent α and the fractal dimensions governing the placement of roads and intersections.

  20. Concentrations and bioaccessibility of metals in vegetation and dust near a mining haul road, Cape Krusenstern National Monument, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brumbaugh, William G.; Morman, Suzette A.; May, Thomas W.

    2011-01-01

    Vegetation, sub-surface peat, and road dust were sampled near the Delong Mountain Transportation System (DMTS) haul road in northwest Alaska in 2005-2006 to document aluminum, barium, cadmium, lead, and zinc concentrations, and to evaluate bioaccessibility of these metals. The DMTS haul road is the transport corridor between Red Dog Mine (a large-scale, lead-zinc mine and mill) and the coastal shipping port, and it traverses National Park Service lands. Compared to reference locations, total metal concentrations in four types of vegetation (birch, cranberry, and willow leaves, and cotton grass blades/stalks) collected 25 m from the haul road were enriched on average by factors of 3.5 for zinc, 8.0 for barium, 20 for cadmium, and 150 for lead. Triple rinsing of vegetation with a water/methanol mixture reduced metals concentrations by at most 50%, and cadmium and zinc concentrations were least affected by rinsing. Cadmium and zinc bioaccessibility was greater in vegetation (50% to 100%) than in dust (15% to 20%); whereas the opposite pattern was observed for lead bioaccessibility (<30% in vegetation; 50% in dust). Barium exhibited low-to-intermediate bioaccessibility in dust and vegetation (20% to 40%), whereas aluminum bioaccessibility was relatively low (<6%) in all sample types. Our reconnaissance-level study indicates that clean-up and improvements in lead/zinc concentrate transfer activities have been effective; however, as of 2006, metal dispersion from past and/or present releases of fugitive dusts along the DMTS road still may have been contributing to elevated metals in surface vegetation. Vegetation was most enriched in lead, but because bioaccessibility of cadmium was greater, any potential risks to animals that forage near the haul road might be equally important for both of these metals.

  1. Concentrations and bioaccessibility of metals in vegetation and dust near a mining haul road, Cape Krusenstern National Monument, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brumbaugh, W.G.; Morman, S.A.; May, T.W.

    2011-01-01

    Vegetation, sub-surface peat, and road dust were sampled near the Delong Mountain Transportation System (DMTS) haul road in northwest Alaska in 2005-2006 to document aluminum, barium, cadmium, lead, and zinc concentrations, and to evaluate bioaccessibility of these metals. The DMTS haul road is the transport corridor between Red Dog Mine (a large-scale, lead-zinc mine and mill) and the coastal shipping port, and it traverses National Park Service lands. Compared to reference locations, total metal concentrations in four types of vegetation (birch, cranberry, and willow leaves, and cotton grass blades/stalks) collected 25 m from the haul road were enriched on average by factors of 3.5 for zinc, 8.0 for barium, 20 for cadmium, and 150 for lead. Triple rinsing of vegetation with a water/methanol mixture reduced metals concentrations by at most 50%, and cadmium and zinc concentrations were least affected by rinsing. Cadmium and zinc bioaccessibility was greater in vegetation (50% to 100%) than in dust (15% to 20%); whereas the opposite pattern was observed for lead bioaccessibility (<30% in vegetation; 50% in dust). Barium exhibited low-to-intermediate bioaccessibility in dust and vegetation (20% to 40%), whereas aluminum bioaccessibility was relatively low (<6%) in all sample types. Our reconnaissance-level study indicates that clean-up and improvements in lead/zinc concentrate transfer activities have been effective; however, as of 2006, metal dispersion from past and/or present releases of fugitive dusts along the DMTS road still may have been contributing to elevated metals in surface vegetation. Vegetation was most enriched in lead, but because bioaccessibility of cadmium was greater, any potential risks to animals that forage near the haul road might be equally important for both of these metals. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. (outside the USA).

  2. Concentrations and bioaccessibility of metals in vegetation and dust near a mining haul road, Cape Krusenstern National Monument, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Brumbaugh, William G; Morman, Suzette A; May, Thomas W

    2011-11-01

    Vegetation, sub-surface peat, and road dust were sampled near the Delong Mountain Transportation System (DMTS) haul road in northwest Alaska in 2005-2006 to document aluminum, barium, cadmium, lead, and zinc concentrations, and to evaluate bioaccessibility of these metals. The DMTS haul road is the transport corridor between Red Dog Mine (a large-scale, lead-zinc mine and mill) and the coastal shipping port, and it traverses National Park Service lands. Compared to reference locations, total metal concentrations in four types of vegetation (birch, cranberry, and willow leaves, and cotton grass blades/stalks) collected 25 m from the haul road were enriched on average by factors of 3.5 for zinc, 8.0 for barium, 20 for cadmium, and 150 for lead. Triple rinsing of vegetation with a water/methanol mixture reduced metals concentrations by at most 50%, and cadmium and zinc concentrations were least affected by rinsing. Cadmium and zinc bioaccessibility was greater in vegetation (50% to 100%) than in dust (15% to 20%); whereas the opposite pattern was observed for lead bioaccessibility (<30% in vegetation; 50% in dust). Barium exhibited low-to-intermediate bioaccessibility in dust and vegetation (20% to 40%), whereas aluminum bioaccessibility was relatively low (<6%) in all sample types. Our reconnaissance-level study indicates that clean-up and improvements in lead/zinc concentrate transfer activities have been effective; however, as of 2006, metal dispersion from past and/or present releases of fugitive dusts along the DMTS road still may have been contributing to elevated metals in surface vegetation. Vegetation was most enriched in lead, but because bioaccessibility of cadmium was greater, any potential risks to animals that forage near the haul road might be equally important for both of these metals. PMID:21318268

  3. Influence of Acacia trees on soil nutrient levels in arid lands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Boever, Maarten; Gabriels, Donald; Ouessar, Mohamed; Cornelis, Wim

    2014-05-01

    The potential of scattered trees as keystone structures in restoring degraded environments is gaining importance. Scattered trees have strong influence on their abiotic environment, mainly causing changes in microclimate, water budget and soil properties. They often function as 'nursing trees', facilitating the recruitment of other plants. Acacia raddiana is such a keystone species which persists on the edge of the Sahara desert. The study was conducted in a forest-steppe ecosystem in central Tunisia where several reforestation campaigns with Acacia took place. To indentify the impact of those trees on soil nutrients, changes in nutrient levels under scattered trees of three age stages were examined for the upper soil layer (0-10 cm) at five microsites with increasing distance from the trunk. In addition, changes in soil nutrient levels with depth underneath and outside the canopy were determined for the 0-30 cm soil layer. Higher concentrations of organic matter (OM) were found along the gradient from underneath to outside the canopy for large trees compared to medium and small trees, especially at microsites close to the trunk. Levels of soluble K, electrical conductivity (EC), available P, OM, total C and N decreased whereas pH and levels of soluble Mg increased with increasing distance from tree. Levels of soluble Ca and Na remained unchanged along the gradient. At the microsite closest to the trunk a significant decrease in levels of soluble K, EC, OM, available P, total C and N, while a significant increase in pH was found with increasing depth. The concentration of other nutrients remained unchanged or declined not differently underneath compared to outside the canopy with increasing depth. Differences in nutrient levels were largely driven by greater inputs of organic matter under trees. Hence, Acacia trees can affect the productivity and reproduction of understory species with the latter in term an important source of organic matter. This positive feedback

  4. Quantification of Overnight Movement of Birch (Betula pendula) Branches and Foliage with Short Interval Terrestrial Laser Scanning.

    PubMed

    Puttonen, Eetu; Briese, Christian; Mandlburger, Gottfried; Wieser, Martin; Pfennigbauer, Martin; Zlinszky, András; Pfeifer, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the study was to determine circadian movements of silver birch (Petula Bendula) branches and foliage detected with terrestrial laser scanning (TLS). The study consisted of two geographically separate experiments conducted in Finland and in Austria. Both experiments were carried out at the same time of the year and under similar outdoor conditions. Experiments consisted of 14 (Finland) and 77 (Austria) individual laser scans taken between sunset and sunrise. The resulting point clouds were used in creating a time series of branch movements. In the Finnish data, the vertical movement of the whole tree crown was monitored due to low volumetric point density. In the Austrian data, movements of manually selected representative points on branches were monitored. The movements were monitored from dusk until morning hours in order to avoid daytime wind effects. The results indicated that height deciles of the Finnish birch crown had vertical movements between -10.0 and 5.0 cm compared to the situation at sunset. In the Austrian data, the maximum detected representative point movement was 10.0 cm. The temporal development of the movements followed a highly similar pattern in both experiments, with the maximum movements occurring about an hour and a half before (Austria) or around (Finland) sunrise. The results demonstrate the potential of terrestrial laser scanning measurements in support of chronobiology. PMID:26973668

  5. Leaf surface lipophilic compounds as one of the factors of silver birch chemical defense against larvae of gypsy moth.

    PubMed

    Martemyanov, Vyacheslav V; Pavlushin, Sergey V; Dubovskiy, Ivan M; Belousova, Irina A; Yushkova, Yuliya V; Morosov, Sergey V; Chernyak, Elena I; Glupov, Victor V

    2015-01-01

    Plant chemical defense against herbivores is a complex process which involves a number of secondary compounds. It is known that the concentration of leaf surface lipophilic compounds (SLCs), particularly those of flavonoid aglycones are increased with the defoliation treatment of silver birch Betula pendula. In this study we investigated how the alteration of SLCs concentration in the food affects the fitness and innate immunity of the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar. We found that a low SLCs concentrations in consumed leaves led to a rapid larval development and increased females' pupae weight (= fecundity) compared to larvae fed with leaves with high SLCs content. Inversely, increasing the compounds concentration in an artificial diet produced the reverse effects: decreases in both larval weight and larval survival. Low SLCs concentrations in tree leaves differently affected larval innate immunity parameters. For both sexes, total hemocytes count in the hemolymph increased, while the activity of plasma phenoloxidase decreased when larvae consume leaves with reduced content of SLCs. Our results clearly demonstrate that the concentration of SLCs in silver birch leaves affects not only gypsy moth fitness but also their innate immune status which might alter the potential resistance of insects against infections and/or parasitoids. PMID:25816371

  6. How does solar ultraviolet-B radiation improve drought tolerance of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) seedlings?

    PubMed

    Robson, T Matthew; Hartikainen, Saara M; Aphalo, Pedro J

    2015-05-01

    We hypothesized that solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation would protect silver birch seedlings from the detrimental effects of water stress through a coordinated suite of trait responses, including morphological acclimation, improved control of water loss through gas exchange and hydraulic sufficiency. To better understand how this synergetic interaction works, plants were grown in an experiment under nine treatment combinations attenuating ultraviolet-A and ultraviolet-B (UVB) from solar radiation together with differential watering to create water-deficit conditions. In seedlings under water deficit, UV attenuation reduced height growth, leaf production and leaf length compared with seedlings receiving the full spectrum of solar radiation, whereas the growth and morphology of well-watered seedlings was largely unaffected by UV attenuation. There was an interactive effect of the treatment combination on water relations, which was more apparent as a change in the water potential at which leaves wilted or plants died than through differences in gas exchange. This suggests that changes occur in the cell wall elastic modulus or accumulation of osmolites in cells under UVB. Overall, the strong negative effects of water deficit are partially ameliorated by solar UV radiation, whereas well-watered silver birch seedlings are slightly disadvantaged by the solar UV radiation they receive. PMID:25041067

  7. Quantification of Overnight Movement of Birch (Betula pendula) Branches and Foliage with Short Interval Terrestrial Laser Scanning

    PubMed Central

    Puttonen, Eetu; Briese, Christian; Mandlburger, Gottfried; Wieser, Martin; Pfennigbauer, Martin; Zlinszky, András; Pfeifer, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the study was to determine circadian movements of silver birch (Petula Bendula) branches and foliage detected with terrestrial laser scanning (TLS). The study consisted of two geographically separate experiments conducted in Finland and in Austria. Both experiments were carried out at the same time of the year and under similar outdoor conditions. Experiments consisted of 14 (Finland) and 77 (Austria) individual laser scans taken between sunset and sunrise. The resulting point clouds were used in creating a time series of branch movements. In the Finnish data, the vertical movement of the whole tree crown was monitored due to low volumetric point density. In the Austrian data, movements of manually selected representative points on branches were monitored. The movements were monitored from dusk until morning hours in order to avoid daytime wind effects. The results indicated that height deciles of the Finnish birch crown had vertical movements between -10.0 and 5.0 cm compared to the situation at sunset. In the Austrian data, the maximum detected representative point movement was 10.0 cm. The temporal development of the movements followed a highly similar pattern in both experiments, with the maximum movements occurring about an hour and a half before (Austria) or around (Finland) sunrise. The results demonstrate the potential of terrestrial laser scanning measurements in support of chronobiology. PMID:26973668

  8. Effective Method of Purification of Betulin from Birch Bark: The Importance of Its Purity for Scientific and Medicinal Use

    PubMed Central

    Šiman, Pavel; Filipová, Alžběta; Tichá, Alena; Niang, Mohamed; Bezrouk, Aleš; Havelek, Radim

    2016-01-01

    A new and relatively simple method for purification of betulin from birch bark extract was developed in this study. Its five purification steps are based on the differential solubility of extract components in various solvents and their crystallization and/or precipitation, on their affinity for Ca(OH)2 in ethanol, and on the affinity of some impurities for silica gel in chloroform. In addition, all used solvents can be simply recycled. Betulin of more than 99% purity can be prepared by this method with minimal costs. Various observations including crystallization of betulin, changes in crystals during heating, and attempt of localization of betulin in outer birch bark are also described in this work. The original extract, fraction without betulinic acid and lupeol, amorphous fraction of pure betulin, final crystalline fraction of pure betulin and commercial betulin as a standard were employed to determine the antiproliferative/cytotoxic effect. We used WST-1 tetrazolium-based assays with triple negative breast cancer cell line BT-549. The decrease in cell survival showed clear relationship with the purity of the samples, being most pronounced using our final product of pure crystalline betulin. WST-1 proliferation/cytotoxicity test using triple negative breast cancer cell line BT-549 clearly showed the importance of purity of betulin for biological experiments and, apparently, for its medicinal use. PMID:27152419

  9. Nutrient supply has greater influence than sink strength on photosynthetic adaptation to CO2 elevation in white birch seedlings.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shouren; Dang, Qing-Lai; Cao, Bing

    2013-04-01

    To study the effects of source-sink ratio and nutrient supply on photosynthetic acclimation to CO(2) elevation, we subjected white birch seedlings to two levels of nutrient supply (high vs. low) and CO(2) concentrations (ambient vs. doubled [CO(2)]) for two months and then shaded the lower canopy on half of the seedlings to reduce source/sink ratio for an additional month. The CO(2) elevation significantly increased P(n) and IWUE at both nutrient levels but the increase was greater in the high than low nutrient treatment. The CO(2) elevation resulted in a down-regulation of V(cmax) in the low nutrient treatment but up-regulation of J(max), TPU, [Formula: see text] and J(c) in the high nutrient after 3 months of treatment. Both the CO(2) elevation and high nutrient supply increased the partition of total electron transport to carboxylation at the expense of oxidation. The seedlings responded to the shading of the lower canopy by reducing biomass allocation to roots rather than making physiological adjustments to unshaded leaves in the upper canopy. Our results suggest that the direction of photosynthetic acclimation to CO(2) elevation in white birch was nutrient-dependent and an increase in sink strength could reduce the feedback inhibition of photosynthesis. PMID:23415328

  10. Systemic and local eosinophil inflammation during the birch pollen season in allergic patients with predominant rhinitis or asthma

    PubMed Central

    Kämpe, Mary; Stålenheim, Gunnemar; Janson, Christer; Stolt, Ingrid; Carlson, Marie

    2007-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to investigate inflammation during the birch pollen season in patients with rhinitis or asthma. Methods Subjects with birch pollen asthma (n = 7) or rhinitis (n = 9) and controls (n = 5) were studied before and during pollen seasons. Eosinophils (Eos), eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and human neutrophil lipocalin were analysed. Results Allergic asthmatics had a larger decline in FEV1 after inhaling hypertonic saline than patients with rhinitis (median) (-7.0 vs.-0.4%, p = 0.02). The asthmatics had a lower sesonal PEFR than the rhinitis group. The seasonal increase in B-Eos was higher among patients with asthma (+0.17 × 109/L) and rhinitis (+0.27 × 109/L) than among controls (+0.01 × 109/L, p = 0.01). Allergic asthmatics and patients with rhinitis had a larger increase in sputum ECP (+2180 and +310 μg/L) than the controls (-146 μg/L, p = 0.02). No significant differences in inflammatory parameters were found between the two groups of allergic patients. Conclusion Patients with allergic asthma and rhinitis have the same degree of eosinophil inflammation. Despite this, only the asthmatic group experienced an impairment in lung function during the pollen season. PMID:17967188

  11. Birch pollen influence the severity of atopic eczema – prospective clinical cohort pilot study and ex vivo penetration study

    PubMed Central

    Fölster-Holst, Regina; Galecka, Jagoda; Weißmantel, Sigo; Dickschat, Ute; Rippke, Frank; Bohnsack, Kerstin; Werfel, Thomas; Wichmann, Katja; Buchner, Matthias; Schwarz, Thomas; Vogt, Annika; Lademann, Jürgen; Meinke, Martina C

    2015-01-01

    There is little clinical evidence for a correlation between the severity of atopic eczema (AE) and pollen exposition. To obtain more data, we performed a clinical cohort pilot study about the influence of pollen on AE between sensitized and nonsensitized subjects and an experimental study addressing the cutaneous penetration of pollen into the skin. Fifty-five patients were monitored during birch pollen season. To study the cutaneous penetration, grass pollen allergens were applied on excised skin and the uptake in CD1c-expressing dendritic cells was investigated. The correlation between environmental pollen load and severity of the Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) score and pruritus was observed, regardless of the status of sensitization. The sensitized group recovered significantly worse after the birch pollen season. Remarkably higher amounts of pollen allergens taken up by CD1c cells were detected in epidermal cells derived from skin explants with a disturbed epidermal barrier. These findings suggest an exacerbating role of pollen in AE utilizing the epidermal route. PMID:26604810

  12. Effective Method of Purification of Betulin from Birch Bark: The Importance of Its Purity for Scientific and Medicinal Use.

    PubMed

    Šiman, Pavel; Filipová, Alžběta; Tichá, Alena; Niang, Mohamed; Bezrouk, Aleš; Havelek, Radim

    2016-01-01

    A new and relatively simple method for purification of betulin from birch bark extract was developed in this study. Its five purification steps are based on the differential solubility of extract components in various solvents and their crystallization and/or precipitation, on their affinity for Ca(OH)2 in ethanol, and on the affinity of some impurities for silica gel in chloroform. In addition, all used solvents can be simply recycled. Betulin of more than 99% purity can be prepared by this method with minimal costs. Various observations including crystallization of betulin, changes in crystals during heating, and attempt of localization of betulin in outer birch bark are also described in this work. The original extract, fraction without betulinic acid and lupeol, amorphous fraction of pure betulin, final crystalline fraction of pure betulin and commercial betulin as a standard were employed to determine the antiproliferative/cytotoxic effect. We used WST-1 tetrazolium-based assays with triple negative breast cancer cell line BT-549. The decrease in cell survival showed clear relationship with the purity of the samples, being most pronounced using our final product of pure crystalline betulin. WST-1 proliferation/cytotoxicity test using triple negative breast cancer cell line BT-549 clearly showed the importance of purity of betulin for biological experiments and, apparently, for its medicinal use. PMID:27152419

  13. Road safety performance indicators for the interurban road network.

    PubMed

    Yannis, George; Weijermars, Wendy; Gitelman, Victoria; Vis, Martijn; Chaziris, Antonis; Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Azevedo, Carlos Lima

    2013-11-01

    Various road safety performance indicators (SPIs) have been proposed for different road safety research areas, mainly as regards driver behaviour (e.g. seat belt use, alcohol, drugs, etc.) and vehicles (e.g. passive safety); however, no SPIs for the road network and design have been developed. The objective of this research is the development of an SPI for the road network, to be used as a benchmark for cross-region comparisons. The developed SPI essentially makes a comparison of the existing road network to the theoretically required one, defined as one which meets some minimum requirements with respect to road safety. This paper presents a theoretical concept for the determination of this SPI as well as a translation of this theory into a practical method. Also, the method is applied in a number of pilot countries namely the Netherlands, Portugal, Greece and Israel. The results show that the SPI could be efficiently calculated in all countries, despite some differences in the data sources. In general, the calculated overall SPI scores were realistic and ranged from 81 to 94%, with the exception of Greece where the SPI was relatively lower (67%). However, the SPI should be considered as a first attempt to determine the safety level of the road network. The proposed method has some limitations and could be further improved. The paper presents directions for further research to further develop the SPI. PMID:23268762

  14. Silk Roads or Steppe Roads? The Silk Roads in World History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christian, David

    2000-01-01

    Explores the prehistory of the Silk Roads, reexamines their structure and history in the classical era, and explores shifts in their geography in the last one thousand years. Explains that a revised understanding of the Silk Roads demonstrates how the Afro-Eurasian land mass has been linked by networks of exchange since the Bronze Age. (CMK)

  15. Acclimation of whole-plant Acacia farnesiana transpiration to carbon dioxide concentration.

    PubMed

    Dugas, W A; Polley, H W; Mayeux, H S; Johnson, H B

    2001-07-01

    Transpiration per unit leaf area of Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd. plants grown at a CO2 concentration ([CO2]) of 385 micromol x mol(-1) was about twice that of plants grown at 980 micromol x mol(-1). However, whes plants grown for more than a year at 980 micromol x mol(-1) were exposed to 380 micromol x mol(-1) for 9 days, they transpired at half the rate of those that had been grown at 380 micromol x mol(-1)1. Similarly, plants grown at 380 micromol x mol(-1), when exposed to 980 micromol x mol(-1), transpired at twice the rate of those grown at 980 micromol x mol(-1). Thus, the effects of elevated [CO2] on whole-plant transpiration, like those on photosynthesis, respiration and stomatal conductance, cannot reliably be extrapolated from measurements made during short-term exposure to elevated [CO2]. PMID:11470664

  16. Induction of somatic embryogenesis in gum arabic tree [Acacia senegal (L.) Willd].

    PubMed

    Rathore, Jitendra Singh; Rai, Manoj K; Shekhawat, N S

    2012-10-01

    Factors affecting somatic embryogenesis from immature cotyledon of gum arabic tree [Acacia senegal (L.) Willd.] were investigated. Induction of somatic embryogenesis was influenced by plant growth regulator concentrations and addition of amino acids in medium. Best induction of somatic embryogenesis was obtained on MS medium supplemented with 0.45 μM 2, 4-D, 2.32 μM Kin and 15 mM L-glutamine. L-glutamine plays a significant role in the maturation of somatic embryos and most of embryos attained maturity only on L-glutamine (15 mM) containing medium. Maximum percent (75.0 ± 2.5) germination of somatic embryos was recorded on medium containing 0.22 μM BAP. PMID:24082503

  17. Dark aerobic methane emission associated to leaf factors of two Acacia and five Eucalyptus species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Makoto; Watanabe, Yoko; Kim, Yong Suk; Koike, Takayoshi

    2012-07-01

    We sought the biological factors determining variations in the methane emission rates from leaves of different plant species under aerobic conditions. Accordingly, we studied relations between the methane emission rate and leaf traits of two Acacia and five Eucalyptus species. We grew seedlings of each species in a glasshouse and measured the methane emission rate of the detached leaves under dark conditions at 30 °C. At the same time we measured the leaf mass per area (LMA), water content, and concentrations of carbon and nitrogen. There was no correlation between the leaf nitrogen concentration and the methane emission rate. This is consistent with previous findings that enzymatic processes do not influence methane emission. We found a significant negative correlation between LMA and the methane emission rate. Our results suggest that leaf structure is primarily responsible for differences in the rates of aerobic methane emission from leaves of different species.

  18. Biosynthesis, characterization and antibacterial studies of silver nanoparticles using pods extract of Acacia auriculiformis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nalawade, Pradnya; Mukherjee, Poulomi; Kapoor, Sudhir

    2014-08-01

    The present study reports an environmental friendly method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using an aqueous extract of Acacia auriculiformis that acts as reducing agent as well as capping agent. The obtained NPs were characterized by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and showed a sharp surface plasmon absorption band at ∼400 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed nanoparticles were capped with plant compounds. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that the particles were spherical in nature with diameter ranging from 20 to 150 nm depending on the pH of the solution. The as-synthesized Ag NPs showed antibacterial activity against both Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria with more efficacy against Gram negative bacteria.

  19. Structural changes in soil communities after triclopyr application in soils invaded by Acacia dealbata Link.

    PubMed

    Souza-Alonso, Pablo; Guisande, Alejandra; González, Luís

    2015-01-01

    Triclopyr is a commonly used herbicide in the control of woody plants and can exhibit toxic effects to soil microorganisms. However, the impact on soils invaded by plant exotics has not yet been addressed. Here, we present the results of an 18-month field study conducted to evaluate the impact of triclopyr on the structure of fungal and bacterial communities in soils invaded by Acacia dealbata Link, through the use of denature gradient gel electrophoresis. After triclopyr application, analyses of bacterial fingerprints suggested a change in the structure of the soil bacterial community, whereas the structure of the soil fungal community remained unaltered. Bacterial density and F:B ratio values changed across the year but were not altered due to herbicide spraying. On the contrary, fungal diversity was increased in plots sprayed with triclopyr 5 months after the first application. Richness and diversity (H') of both bacteria and fungi were not modified after triclopyr application. PMID:25602151

  20. Modelling changes in leaf shape prior to phyllode acquisition in Acacia mangium Willd. seedlings.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Céline; Heuret, Patrick

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise changes in leaf shape prior to phyllode acquisition along the axes of Acacia mangium seedlings. The study area was located in North Lampung (South Sumatra, Indonesia), where these trees belong to a naturally regenerated stand. A total of 173 seedlings, less than three months old, were described node by node. Leaf shape and leaf length were recorded and the way in which one leaf type succeeded another was modelled using a hidden semi-Markov chain composed of seven states. The phyllotactical pattern was studied using another sample of forty 6-month-old seedlings. The results indicate (i) the existence of successive zones characterised by one or a combination of leaf types, and (ii) that phyllode acquisition seems to be accompanied by a change in the phyllotactical pattern. The concepts of juvenility and heteroblasty, as well as potential applications for taxonomy are discussed. PMID:18241805

  1. Comparison of antifungal and antioxidant activities of Acacia mangium and A. auriculiformis heartwood extracts.

    PubMed

    Mihara, Rie; Barry, Karen M; Mohammed, Caroline L; Mitsunaga, Tohru

    2005-04-01

    The effect of heartwood extracts from Acacia mangium (heartrot-susceptible) and A. auriculiformis (heartrot-resistant) was examined on the growth of wood rotting fungi with in vitro assays. A. auriculiformis heartwood extracts had higher antifungal activity than A. mangium. The compounds 3,4',7,8-tetrahydroxyflavanone and teracacidin (the most abundant flavonoids in both species) showed antifungal activity. A. auriculiformis contained higher levels of these flavonoids (3.5- and 43-fold higher, respectively) than A. mangium. This suggests that higher levels of these compounds may contribute to heartrot resistance. Furthermore, both flavonoids had strong 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and laccase inhibition. This suggests that the antifungal mechanism of these compounds may involve inhibition of fungal growth by quenching of free radicals produced by the extracellular fungal enzyme laccase. PMID:16124251

  2. Mating system and seed variation of Acacia hybrid (A. mangium x A. auriculiformis).

    PubMed

    Ng, Chin-Hong; Lee, Soon-Leong; Ng, Kevin Kit-Siong; Muhammad, Norwati; Ratnam, Wickneswari

    2009-04-01

    The mating system and seed variation of Acacia hybrid (A. mangium x A. auriculiformis) were studied using allozymes and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers, respectively. Multi-locus outcrossing rate estimations indicated that the hybrid was predominantly outcrossed (mean+/- s.e. t(m) = 0.86+/-0.01). Seed variation was investigated using 35 polymorphic RAPD fragments. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed the highest genetic variation among seeds within a pod (66%-70%), followed by among pods within inflorescence (29%-37%), and the least variation among inflorescences within tree (1%). In addition, two to four RAPD profiles could be detected among seeds within pod. Therefore, the results suggest that a maximum of four seeds per pod could be sampled for the establishment of a mapping population for further studies. PMID:19417541

  3. Chemical composition and allelopathic potential of essential oils obtained from Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. Cultivated in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    El Ayeb-Zakhama, Asma; Sakka-Rouis, Lamia; Bergaoui, Afifa; Flamini, Guido; Ben Jannet, Hichem; Harzallah-Skhiri, Fethia

    2015-04-01

    Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. (Fabaceae), synonym Acacia saligna (Labill.) H. L.Wendl., native to West Australia and naturalized in North Africa and South Europe, was introduced in Tunisia for rangeland rehabilitation, particularly in the semiarid zones. In addition, this evergreen tree represents a potential forage resource, particularly during periods of drought. A. cyanophylla is abundant in Tunisia and some other Mediterranean countries. The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from different plant parts, viz., roots, stems, phyllodes, flowers, and pods (fully mature fruits without seeds), was characterized for the first time here. According to GC-FID and GC/MS analyses, the principal compound in the phyllode and flower oils was dodecanoic acid (4), representing 22.8 and 66.5% of the total oil, respectively. Phenylethyl salicylate (8; 34.9%), heptyl valerate (3; 17.3%), and nonadecane (36%) were the main compounds in the root, stem, and pod oils, respectively. The phyllode and flower oils were very similar, containing almost the same compounds. Nevertheless, the phyllode oil differed from the flower oil for its higher contents of hexahydrofarnesyl acetone (6), linalool (1), pentadecanal, α-terpineol, and benzyl benzoate (5) and its lower content of 4. Principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses separated the five essential oils into four groups, each characterized by its main constituents. Furthermore, the allelopathic activity of each oil was evaluated using lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) as a plant model. The phyllode, flower, and pod oils exhibited a strong allelopathic activity against lettuce. PMID:25879505

  4. 34. At Willard, Oklahoma Road north of Willard Road, at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. At Willard, Oklahoma Road north of Willard Road, at the site of the former Cook House for Willard Mill (upper mill that cut cants for Broughton Lumber Company's flume). Section of feeder after Lava Creek, looking down flume. Note extra large size of "V" in water supply vs. cant portions of flume. South/southeast 170 degrees. - Broughton Flume, Hood River Junction on Columbia River at Washington/Oregon border, Hood, Skamania County, WA

  5. Food sensitivity reported by patients with asthma and hay fever. A relationship between food sensitivity and birch pollen-allergy and between food sensitivity and acetylsalicylic acid intolerance.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, N E

    1978-08-01

    Among adult patients with bronchial asthma and/or allergic rhinitis undergoing allergological investigation with skin test, nasal provocation test and RAST, 1129 answered a questionaire regarding food sensitivity (FS). 276 (24%) of the patients reported some kind of allergic symptoms on eating or handling various foods, of which hazel nut, apple and shell fish were the most often named. Females reported FS more often than males. A correlation was found between birch pollen allergy and FS with nuts, apple, peach, cherry, pear, plum, carrot and new potato. The higher the degree of birch pollen allergy, according to skin test, RAST or provocation test, the higher the frequency of FS. A correlation was found too between acetylsalicylic acid intolerance and FS with some foods, e.g. nuts, strawberry, almond, green pepper, hip, chocolate, egg, cabbage, milk and wine. The connection between birch pollen allergy and FS is probably explained by the structural relationship between birch pollen allergen and some allergens of the foodstuffs, whereas the high incidence of FS in acetylsalicylic acid-intolerant patients is probably explained by additives in foods as well as salicylates or benzoates naturally occurring in some food. PMID:717703

  6. 12 CFR 1010.210 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Roads. 1010.210 Section 1010.210 Banks and... § 1010.210 Roads. (a) State the estimated cost to the developer of the proposed road system. (b) If the developer is to complete any roads providing access to the subdivision, submit copies of any bonds or...

  7. 30 CFR 816.150 - Roads: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Roads: general. 816.150 Section 816.150 Mineral... PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.150 Roads: general. (a) Road classification system. (1) Each road, as defined in § 701.5 of this chapter, shall...

  8. 30 CFR 817.151 - Primary roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Primary roads. 817.151 Section 817.151 Mineral... roads. Primary roads shall meet the requirements of § 817.150 and the additional requirements of this section. (a) Certification. The construction or reconstruction of primary roads shall be certified in...

  9. 25 CFR 265.3 - Roads prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Roads prohibited. 265.3 Section 265.3 Indians BUREAU OF... ON INDIAN RESERVATIONS § 265.3 Roads prohibited. (a) Within the boundaries of this officially... highways, roads, truck trails, work roads, and all other types of ways constructed to make possible...

  10. 25 CFR 265.3 - Roads prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Roads prohibited. 265.3 Section 265.3 Indians BUREAU OF... ON INDIAN RESERVATIONS § 265.3 Roads prohibited. (a) Within the boundaries of this officially... highways, roads, truck trails, work roads, and all other types of ways constructed to make possible...

  11. 30 CFR 817.150 - Roads: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Roads: General. 817.150 Section 817.150 Mineral... PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.150 Roads: General. (a) Road classification system. (1) Each road, as defined in § 701.5 of this chapter, shall...

  12. 12 CFR 1010.210 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Roads. 1010.210 Section 1010.210 Banks and... § 1010.210 Roads. (a) State the estimated cost to the developer of the proposed road system. (b) If the developer is to complete any roads providing access to the subdivision, submit copies of any bonds or...

  13. 30 CFR 816.151 - Primary roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Primary roads. 816.151 Section 816.151 Mineral... roads. Primary roads shall meet the requirements of section 816.150 and the additional requirements of this section. (a) Certification. The construction or reconstruction of primary roads shall be...

  14. 25 CFR 265.3 - Roads prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Roads prohibited. 265.3 Section 265.3 Indians BUREAU OF... ON INDIAN RESERVATIONS § 265.3 Roads prohibited. (a) Within the boundaries of this officially... highways, roads, truck trails, work roads, and all other types of ways constructed to make possible...

  15. 25 CFR 265.3 - Roads prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Roads prohibited. 265.3 Section 265.3 Indians BUREAU OF... ON INDIAN RESERVATIONS § 265.3 Roads prohibited. (a) Within the boundaries of this officially... highways, roads, truck trails, work roads, and all other types of ways constructed to make possible...

  16. 12 CFR 1010.210 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Roads. 1010.210 Section 1010.210 Banks and... § 1010.210 Roads. (a) State the estimated cost to the developer of the proposed road system. (b) If the developer is to complete any roads providing access to the subdivision, submit copies of any bonds or...

  17. The Dilemma of Mountain Roads

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mountain roads and trails are proliferating throughout developing Southeast Asia with severe but largely unrecognized long-term consequences related to effects of landslides and surface erosion on communities and downstream resources.

  18. MAJOR ROADS COVERAGE AND DATASET

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing (TIGER) system contains digital descriptions of water and transportation features - rivers, lakes, roads, railroads, etc. - as well as major power lines and pipelines. This coverage is a subset of the larger TIGER ...

  19. Road Weather and Connected Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisano, P.; Boyce, B. C.

    2015-12-01

    On average, there are over 5.8 M vehicle crashes each year of which 23% are weather-related. Weather-related crashes are defined as those crashes that occur in adverse weather or on slick pavement. The vast majority of weather-related crashes happen on wet pavement (74%) and during rainfall (46%). Connected vehicle technologies hold the promise to transform road-weather management by providing improved road weather data in real time with greater temporal and geographic accuracy. This will dramatically expand the amount of data that can be used to assess, forecast, and address the impacts that weather has on roads, vehicles, and travelers. The use of vehicle-based measurements of the road and surrounding atmosphere with other, more traditional weather data sources, and create road and atmospheric hazard products for a variety of users. The broad availability of road weather data from mobile sources will vastly improve the ability to detect and forecast weather and road conditions, and will provide the capability to manage road-weather response on specific roadway links. The RWMP is currently demonstrating how weather, road conditions, and related vehicle data can be used for decision making through an innovative Integrated Mobile Observations project. FHWA is partnering with 3 DOTs (MN, MI, & NV) to pilot these applications. One is a mobile alerts application called the Motorists Advisories and Warnings (MAW) and a maintenance decision support application. These applications blend traditional weather information (e.g., radar, surface stations) with mobile vehicle data (e.g., temperature, brake status, wiper status) to determine current weather conditions. These weather conditions, and other road-travel-relevant information, are provided to users via web and phone applications. The MAW provides nowcasts and short-term forecasts out to 24 hours while the EMDSS application can provide forecasts up to 72 hours in advance. The three DOTs have placed readers and external

  20. Effect of feeding Neem (Azadirachta indica) and Acacia (Acacia senegal) tree foliage on nutritional and carcass parameters in short-eared Somali goats.

    PubMed

    Hailemariam, Samson; Urge, Mengistu; Menkir, Sissay

    2016-02-01

    The study was conducted to determine the effects of dried foliage of Acacia senegal and Neem (Azadirachta indica) tree supplementations on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, growth, and carcass parameters in short-eared Somali goats. Twenty male intact short-eared Somali goat yearlings with an average live weight of 16.2 ± 1.08 (Mean ± SD) were assigned to four treatment groups, which comprised a basal diet of hay alone (T1) and supplementation with the tree foliages. Supplements consisted Neem tree (T2), A. senegal (T3) and the mixture of the two (1:1 ratio; T4) dried foliages. The crude protein (CP) content of Neem tree foliage, A. senegal, and their mixture were 16.92, 17.5 and 17.01 % of dry matter (DM), respectively. Total DM intake and digestibility of DM and organic matter were significantly (P < 0.001) higher for the supplemented groups. CP digestibility was significantly higher (P < 0.01) for goats supplemented with Neem tree (72 %) and A. senegal (67 %). The final body weights were higher (P < 0.05) for the goats supplemented with A. Senegal. An average daily body weight (BW) gain was higher (P < 0.01) in supplemented groups. The hot carcass weight was higher in the group supplemented with A. senegal (8.3 kg) among the supplemented groups, all of which are higher than the control (4.9 kg). It is concluded that the supplementation with tree foliage, especially with A. senegal tree foliage, on grass hay encouraged a better utilization of nutrients and animal performance as compared to goats fed on a basal diet of grass hay only. PMID:26563272

  1. 34. COULTERVILLE ROAD AT CENTER AND EL PORTAL ROAD/HIGHWAY 140 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. COULTERVILLE ROAD AT CENTER AND EL PORTAL ROAD/HIGHWAY 140 AT BOTTOM. ROCK SLIDES ARE AT THE COOKIE CLIFFS, BOTTOM RIGHT. NOTE OLD STAGE COACH ROAD JUST ABOVE THE EL PORTAL ROAD IN LOWER RIGHT TO LEFT OF ROCK SLIDE AREA. - Yosemite National Park Roads & Bridges, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  2. Observations of Novae From ROAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hambsch, F.-J.

    2014-12-01

    The author discusses observations of galactic novae and some extragalactic supernovae from his remote observatory ROAD (Remote Observatory Atacama Desert) he commenced in August 2011 with Nova Lupi 2011 (PR Lup). The observed novae are mainly chosen according to AAVSO Alert Notices and AAVSO Special Notices as published on their website. Examples of dense observations of different novae are presented. The focus goes to the different behaviors of their light curves. It also demonstrates the capability of the remote observatory ROAD.

  3. Observations of Novae from ROAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hambsch, Franz-Josef

    2014-05-01

    The author discusses observations of galactic novae and some extragalactic supernovae from his remote observatory ROAD (Remote Observatory Atacama Desert) he commenced in August 2011 with Nova Lupi 2011 (PR Lup). The observed novae are mainly chosen according to alert notices and special notices of the AAVSO as published on their website. Examples of dense observations of different novae are presented. The focus goes to the different behaviors of their light curves. It also demonstrates the capability of the remote observatory ROAD.

  4. Fine Structure of Bacteroids in Root Nodules of Vigna sinensis, Acacia longifolia, Viminaria juncea, and Lupinus angustifolius

    PubMed Central

    Dart, P. J.; Mercer, F. V.

    1966-01-01

    Dart, P. J. (University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia), and F. V. Mercer. Fine structure of bacteroids in root nodules of Vigna sinensis, Acacia longifolia, Viminaria juncea, and Lupinus angustifolius. J. Bacteriol. 91:1314–1319.—In nodules of Vigna sinensis, Acacia longifolia, and Viminaria juncea, membrane envelopes enclose groups of bacteroids. The bacteroids often contain inclusion granules and electron-dense bodies, expand little during development, and retain their rod form with a compact, central nucleoid area. The membrane envelope may persist around bacteroids after host cytoplasm breakdown. In nodules of Lupinus angustifolius, the membrane envelopes enclose only one or two bacteroids, which expand noticeably during development and change from their initial rod structure. Images PMID:5929757

  5. Automatic inspection of road surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rughooputh, Harry C. S.; Rughooputh, Soonil D. D. V.; Kinser, Jason M.

    2000-03-01

    Traditional inspections of road surfaces for the condition assessment and for locating cracks are time-consuming, expensive and can prove to be dangerous. What is ideally required would be a fully equipped automated inspecting vehicle capable of high precision location and characterization of road surface cracks over the width of the road (single pass). We propose an automatic crack monitoring system (akin to HARRIS - UK) with the video-based subsystem substituted by Global Positioning Systems for more accurate positioning. Besides, our technique avoids the storage of large volumes of scanned images of 'acceptable' road surface conditions. A pulse coupled neural network (PCNN) is used as a preprocessor for each scanned image to detect cracks while another PCNN segments this image to characterize identified defects. The latter image is then stored as binary image along with the GPS data. The type of cracks is later identified (offline) from the recorded binary images. This mode of data collection leads to a more accurate, less costly and faster automated system. Our results for road surface (concrete and bituminous) images reveal the suitability of this novel technique for a fully automated road inspection system for crack identification and characterization.

  6. Individual based, long term monitoring of acacia trees in hyper arid zone: Integration of a field survey and a remote sensing approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaacson, Sivan; Blumberg, Dan G.; Ginat, Hanan; Shalmon, Benny

    2013-04-01

    Vegetation in hyper arid zones is very sparse as is. Monitoring vegetation changes in hyper arid zones is important because any reduction in the vegetation cover in these areas can lead to a considerable reduction in the carrying capacity of the ecological system. This study focuses on the impact of climate fluctuations on the acacia population in the southern Arava valley, Israel. The period of this survey includes a sequence of dry years with no flashfloods in most of the plots that ended in two years with vast floods. Arid zone acacia trees play a significant role in the desert ecosystem by moderating the extreme environmental conditions including radiation, temperature, humidity and precipitation. The trees also provide nutrients for the desert dwellers. Therefore, acacia trees in arid zones are considered to be `keystone species', because they have major influence over both plants and animal species, i.e., biodiversity. Long term monitoring of the acacia tree population in this area can provide insights into long term impacts of climate fluctuations on ecosystems in arid zones. Since 2000, a continuous yearly based survey on the three species of acacia population in seven different plots is conducted in the southern Arava (established by Shalmon, ecologist of the Israel nature and parks authority). The seven plots representing different ecosystems and hydrological regimes. A yearly based population monitoring enabled us to determine the mortality and recruitment rate of the acacia populations as well as growing rates of individual trees. This survey provides a unique database of the acacia population dynamics during a sequence of dry years that ended in a vast flood event during the winter of 2010. A lack of quantitative, nondestructive methods to estimate and monitor stress status of the acacia trees, led us to integrate remote sensing tools (ground and air-based) along with conventional field measurements in order to develop a long term monitoring of acacia

  7. Reproductive performance and milk production of Damascus goats fed acacia shrubs or berseem clover hay in North Sinai, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Shetaewi, M M; Abdel-Samee, A M; Bakr, E A

    2001-02-01

    Thirty-three adult Damascus does (29 +/- 1.1 kg BW) were fed 0.6 kg per head per day of a concentrate diet plus ad libitum rice straw (Oryza sativa, control, R), or green acacia (Acacia saligna, A) or berseem clover hay (Trifolium alexandrinum, B). All treatment groups had free access to underground saline water containing 3600 ppm TDS. The DM intake was lower (p < 0.05) for the R group but did not differ between the other two groups. The DM intake of acacia was 0.64 kg per head per day (1.98% BW) during pregnancy and 0.93 kg per head per day (2.95% BW) during lactation. The drinking water differed (p < 0.05) between the three dietary treatments; group B had the highest mean intake and group A had the lowest. The percentage kidding and the litter weight at birth did not differ significantly between the groups. However, the number of kids weaned/doe kidding and the weight of the kids weaned/doe kidding were significantly higher for group B. The mean body weight of the kids at birth and at weaning were significantly lower for group R. The total milk yield over 10 weeks and the milk composition (total solids, fat and protein percentages) were significantly different between the three groups; group B having the highest means and group R the lowest. These results suggest that supplemental feeding is required to enhance the productivity of goats in arid or semi-arid environments and Acacia saligna should not be used fresh in excessive quantities for extended periods. PMID:11234194

  8. Volatile compounds in acacia, chestnut, cherry, ash, and oak woods, with a view to their use in cooperage.

    PubMed

    de Simón, Brígida Fernández; Esteruelas, Enrique; Muñoz, Angel M; Cadahía, Estrella; Sanz, Miriam

    2009-04-22

    Extracts of wood from acacia, European ash, American ash, chestnut, cherry, and three oak species (Quercus pyrenaica, Quercus alba and Quercus petraea) before and after toasting in cooperage were studied by GC-MS. 110 compounds were detected, and 97 of them were identified. In general, all studied woods showed more lignin derivatives than lipid and carbohydrate derivatives, with a higher variety of compounds detected and abundance of them. The toasting led to an increase in the concentrations of most of these compounds, and this increase is especially important in acacia, chestnut and ash woods. The cis and trans isomers of beta-methyl-gamma-octalactone and isobutyrovanillone were only detected in oak wood, 3,4-dimethoxyphenol and 2,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde only in acacia wood, and p-anisaldehyde and benzylsalicylate only in cherry wood, before and after toasting, and these compounds could be considered chemical markers for each one of these woods. Moreover, each wood has a characteristic volatile composition, from a quantitative point of view, and therefore we can expect a characteristic sensorial profile. The oak wood turned out to be the most balanced, since although it provides a lot of volatile compounds to the aroma and flavor of aged wine, it can do so without masking their primary and secondary aroma. On the whole, toasted acacia and chestnut woods showed a very high richness of studied compounds, as lignin as lipid and carbohydrate derivatives, while cherry and ash were much richer than toasted oak wood in lignin derivatives, but much poorer in lipid and carbohydrate derivatives. PMID:19290598

  9. Cultivable actinomycetes from rhizosphere of birch (Betula pendula) growing on a coal mine dump in Silets, Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Ostash, Bohdan; Gren, Tetiana; Hrubskyy, Yaroslav; Tistechok, Stepan; Beshley, Stepan; Baranov, Volodymyr; Fedorenko, Victor

    2014-08-01

    Five actinomycete strains were isolated from the rhizosphere of birch, one of a few native tree forms capable of thriving on the upper level of a coal mine dump near the village of Silets (Lvivska region, Ukraine). No such strains were isolated from surrounding gangue, or from nearby grass Calamagrostis epigeios. Using 16S rDNA sequencing and analysis of cell wall aminoacids, four of these strains were shown to belong to genus Streptomyces and one to be Amycolatopsis. The isolates were able to produce siderophores and antibacterial compounds. In comparison to the reference strain Streptomyces coelicolor M145, certain rhizospheric isolates displayed somewhat increased survival in the presence of copper, iron(III), or chromium(VI) salts. The Amycolatopsis isolate was also shown to accumulate significant quantities of heavy metals from waste extracts. Possible roles of the described strains in coal mine dump ecology are discussed. PMID:23686352

  10. Seasonal fluxes of some ions through the overstory, underbrush, and organic soil horizons of an aspen-birch forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Anthony G.; Watters, Robert J.

    1988-03-01

    A study was made of the water and chemical fluxes in a predominantly deciduous forest at Chalk River, Ontario. The chemistry of water moving to the soil through trembling aspen, large-tooth aspen and paper birch is strongly modified by interaction with all major components in the system: the overstory leaves and trunks, the underbrush stems and leaves, and the organic plus upper mineral soil horizon. The dominant controls on the chemistry of water reaching the forest floor are those exerted by the overstory. Hydrochemical changes through the underbrush are, generally, of the same type as those through the overstory, but of a smaller size. A significant, positive relationship was found between the hydrogen ion flux imposed on the overstory, and the net loss of calcium, magnesium, and potassium from the canopy, showing that acid deposition is having an effect on the export of these nutrients from the canopy.

  11. Interspecific differences in foliar 1 PAHs load between Scots pine, birch, and wild rosemary from three polish peat bogs.

    PubMed

    Mętrak, Monika; Aneta, Ekonomiuk; Wiłkomirski, Bogusław; Staszewski, Tomasz; Suska-Malawska, Małgorzata

    2016-08-01

    Pine needles are one of the most commonly used bioindicators of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the environment. Therefore, the main objective of the current research was the assessment of PAHs accumulation potential of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles in comparison to wild rosemary (Rhododendron tomentosum Harmaja) and birch (Betula spp.) leaves. Our study was carried out on three peat bogs subjected to different degree of anthropopression, which gave us also the opportunity to identify local emission sources. Pine needles had the lowest accumulation potential from all the studied species. The highest accumulation potential, and hence carcinogenic potential, was observed for wild rosemary leaves. As far as emission sources are concerned, the most pronounced influence on atmospheric PAHs loads had traditional charcoal production, resulting in great influx of heavy PAHs. Observed seasonal changes in PAHs concentrations followed the pattern of winter increase, caused mainly by heating season, and summer decrease, caused mainly by volatilization of light PAHs. PMID:27393196

  12. Potential of hot water extraction of birch wood to produce high-purity dissolving pulp after alkaline pulping.

    PubMed

    Borrega, Marc; Tolonen, Lasse K; Bardot, Fanny; Testova, Lidia; Sixta, Herbert

    2013-05-01

    The potential of hot water extraction of birch wood to produce highly purified dissolving pulp in a subsequent soda-anthraquinone pulping process was evaluated. After intermediate extraction intensities, pulps with low xylan content (3-5%) and high cellulose yield were successfully produced. Increasing extraction intensity further decreased the xylan content in pulp. However, below a xylan content of 3%, the cellulose yield dramatically decreased. This is believed to be due to cleavage of glycosidic bonds in cellulose during severe hot water extractions, followed by peeling reactions during alkaline pulping. Addition of sodium borohydride as well as increased anthraquinone concentration in the pulping liquor increased the cellulose yield, but had no clear effects on pulp purity and viscosity. The low intrinsic viscosity of pulps produced after severe extraction intensities and soda-anthraquinone pulping corresponded to the viscosity at the leveling-off degree of polymerization, suggesting that nearly all amorphous cellulose had been degraded. PMID:23260272

  13. Degradation kinetics of the main carbohydrates in birch wood during hot water extraction in a batch reactor at elevated temperatures.

    PubMed

    Borrega, Marc; Nieminen, Kaarlo; Sixta, Herbert

    2011-11-01

    Hot water extraction of wood at elevated temperatures may be a suitable method to produce hemicellulose-lean pulps and to recover xylan-derived products from the water extract. In this study, water extractions of birch wood were conducted at temperatures between 180 and 240 °C in a batch reactor. Xylan was extensively removed, whereas cellulose was partly degraded only at temperatures above 180 °C. Under severe extraction conditions, acetic acid content in the water extract was higher than the corresponding amount of acetyl groups in wood. In addition to oligo- and monosaccharides, considerable amounts of furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) were recovered from the extracts. After reaching a maximum, the furfural yield remained constant with increasing extraction time. This maximum slightly decreased with increasing extraction temperature, suggesting the preferential formation of secondary degradation products from xylose. Kinetic models fitting experimental data are proposed to explain degradation and conversion reactions of xylan and glucan. PMID:21967712

  14. Seasonal fluxes of some ions through the overstory, underbrush and organic soil horizons of an aspen-birch forest

    SciTech Connect

    Price, A.G.; Watters, R.J.

    1988-03-01

    A study was made of the water and chemical fluxes in a predominantly deciduous forest at Chalk River, Ontario. The chemistry of water moving to the soil through trembling aspen, large-tooth aspen and paper birch is strongly modified by interaction with all major components in the system: the overstory leaves and trunks, the underbrush stems and leaves, and the organic plus upper mineral soil horizon. The dominant controls on the chemistry of water reaching the forest floor are those exerted by the overstory. Hydrochemical changes through the underbrush are, generally, of the same type as those through the overstory, but of a smaller size. A significant, positive relationship was found between the hydrogen ion flux imposed on the overstory, and the net loss of calcium, magnesium, and potassium from the canopy, showing that acid deposition is having an effect on the export of these nutrients from the canopy.

  15. The Impact of Nitration on the Structure and Immunogenicity of the Major Birch Pollen Allergen Bet v 1.0101

    PubMed Central

    Ackaert, Chloé; Kofler, Stefan; Horejs-Hoeck, Jutta; Zulehner, Nora; Asam, Claudia; von Grafenstein, Susanne; Fuchs, Julian E.; Briza, Peter; Liedl, Klaus R.; Bohle, Barbara; Ferreira, Fátima; Brandstetter, Hans; Oostingh, Gertie J.; Duschl, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Allergy prevalence has increased in industrialized countries. One contributing factor could be pollution, which can cause nitration of allergens exogenously (in the air) or endogenously (in inflamed lung tissue). We investigated the impact of nitration on both the structural and immunological behavior of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1.0101 to determine whether nitration might be a factor in the increased incidence of allergy. Bet v 1.0101 was nitrated with tetranitromethane. Immune effects were assessed by measuring the proliferation of specific T-cell lines (TCLs) upon stimulation with different concentrations of nitrated and unmodified allergen, and by measurement of cytokine release of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs) and primary DCs (primDCs) stimulated with nitrated versus unmodified allergen. HPLC-MS, crystallography, gel electrophoresis, amino acid analysis, size exclusion chromatography and molecular dynamics simulation were performed to characterize structural changes after nitration of the allergen. The proliferation of specific TCLs was higher upon stimulation with the nitrated allergen in comparison to the unmodified allergen. An important structural consequence of nitration was oligomerization. Moreover, analysis of the crystal structure of nitrated Bet v 1.0101 showed that amino acid residue Y83, located in the hydrophobic cavity, was nitrated to 100%. Both moDCs and primDCs showed decreased production of TH1-priming cytokines, thus favoring a TH2 response. These results implicate that nitration of Bet v 1.0101 might be a contributing factor to the observed increase in birch pollen allergy, and emphasize the importance of protein modifications in understanding the molecular basis of allergenicity. PMID:25126882

  16. Research into the pyrolysis of pure cellulose, lignin, and birch wood flour in the China Lake entrained-flow reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Diebold, J.

    1980-06-01

    This experimental program used the China Lake entrained-flow pyrolysis reactor to briefly investigate the pyrolysis of pure cellulose, pure lignin, and birch wood flour. The study determined that the cellulose and wood flour do pyrolyze to produce primarily gaseous products containing significant amounts of ethylene and other useful hydrocarbons. During attempts to pyrolyze powdered lignin, the material melted and bubbled to block the reactor entrance. The pure cellulose and wood flour produced C/sub 2/ + yields of 12% to 14% by weight, which were less than yields from an organic feedstock derived from processed municipal trash. The char yields were 0.1% by weight from cellulose and 1.5% from birch wood flour - one to two orders of magnitude less than were produced from the trash-derived feedstock. In scanning electron microscope photographs, most of the wood flour char had a sintered and agglomerated appearance, although some particles retained the gross cell characteristics of the wood flour. The appearance of the char particles indicated that the material had once been molten and possibly vapor before it formed spheroidal particles about 1 ..mu..m diameter which agglomerated to form larger char particles. The ability to completely melt or vaporize lignocellulosic materials under conditions of high heating rates has now been demonstrated in a continuous flow reactor and promises new techniques for fast pyrolysis. This char was unexpectedly attracted by a magnet, presumably because of iron contamination from the pyrolysis reactor tube wall. The production of water-insoluble tars was negligible compared to the tars produced from trash-derived feedstock. The production of water-soluble organic materials was fairly low and qualitatively appeared to vary inversely with temperature. This study was of a preliminary nature and additional studies are necessary to optimize ethylene production from these feedstocks.

  17. Getting the biggest birch for the bang: restoring and expanding upland birchwoods in the Scottish Highlands by managing red deer

    PubMed Central

    Tanentzap, Andrew J; Zou, James; Coomes, David A

    2013-01-01

    High deer populations threaten the conservation value of woodlands and grasslands, but predicting the success of deer culling, in terms of allowing vegetation to recover, is difficult. Numerical simulation modeling is one approach to gain insight into the outcomes of management scenarios. We develop a spatially explicit model to predict the responses of Betula spp. to red deer (Cervus elaphus) and land management in the Scottish Highlands. Our model integrates a Bayesian stochastic stage-based matrix model within the framework of a widely used individual-based forest simulation model, using data collected along spatial and temporal gradients in deer browsing. By initializing our model with the historical spatial locations of trees, we find that densities of juvenile trees (<3 m tall) predicted after 9–13 years closely match counts observed in the field. This is among the first tests of the accuracy of a dynamical simulation model for predicting the responses of tree regeneration to herbivores. We then test the relative importance of deer browsing, ground cover vegetation, and seed availability in facilitating landscape-level birch regeneration using simulations in which we varied these three variables. We find that deer primarily control transitions of birch to taller (>3 m) height tiers over 30 years, but regeneration also requires suitable ground cover for seedling establishment. Densities of adult seed sources did not influence regeneration, nor did an active management scenario where we altered the spatial configuration of adults by creating “woodland islets”. Our results show that managers interested in maximizing tree regeneration cannot simply reduce deer densities but must also improve ground cover for seedling establishment, and the model we develop now enables managers to quantify explicitly how much both these factors need to be altered. More broadly, our findings emphasize the need for land managers to consider the impacts of large herbivores

  18. Mediterranean savanna of Acacia caven (Mol) is still a sink of CO2 in spite of severe hydrological drought conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravo-Martínez, F.; Meza, F. J.

    2012-12-01

    An eddy covariance tower was set up to monitor net ecosystem exchange (NEE) on a mediterranean shrubland of Acacia caven (Mol) in October 2010. This ecosystem (commonly referred as "espinal") is one of the most abundant land covers of Chile's central valley (2.000.000 ha). The last two years (2010-2011) were characterized by the occurrence of a severe drought (rainfall deficit 56%) and a small increase in temperature evaluated using a climatic change index (Peterson, 2005). We also detected a strong reduction in vegetation index during this period (evaluated using MODIS imagery). The historical analysis of the enhanced vegetation index (EVI) and leaf area index (LAI) showed that water status of the acacia savanna were at a minimum during this period (record of 14 years of data). The annual balance of NEE of 2011 was -54gC m-2 y-1, which means that the espinal is a sink of atmospheric CO2 notwithstanding the many stressors on photosynthesis. Monthly analysis of NEE shows the strong dependence of ecosystem fluxes on phenological state. Maximum rates of assimilation are a consequence of grassland activity, whereas secondary picks during the year (late spring and early autumn) are attributed to the semideciduos leaf of A. caven. Climatic conditions during the study season, confirm the tremendous plasticity of Acacia caven and its role as a colonizer of degraded sclerophyll forest because it adaptation to water and thermal stress.

  19. Genetic and Genomic Diversity Studies of Acacia Symbionts in Senegal Reveal New Species of Mesorhizobium with a Putative Geographical Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Diouf, Fatou; Diouf, Diegane; Klonowska, Agnieszka; Le Queré, Antoine; Bakhoum, Niokhor; Fall, Dioumacor; Neyra, Marc; Parrinello, Hugues; Diouf, Mayecor; Ndoye, Ibrahima; Moulin, Lionel

    2015-01-01

    Acacia senegal (L) Willd. and Acacia seyal Del. are highly nitrogen-fixing and moderately salt tolerant species. In this study we focused on the genetic and genomic diversity of Acacia mesorhizobia symbionts from diverse origins in Senegal and investigated possible correlations between the genetic diversity of the strains, their soil of origin, and their tolerance to salinity. We first performed a multi-locus sequence analysis on five markers gene fragments on a collection of 47 mesorhizobia strains of A. senegal and A. seyal from 8 localities. Most of the strains (60%) clustered with the M. plurifarium type strain ORS 1032T, while the others form four new clades (MSP1 to MSP4). We sequenced and assembled seven draft genomes: four in the M. plurifarium clade (ORS3356, ORS3365, STM8773 and ORS1032T), one in MSP1 (STM8789), MSP2 (ORS3359) and MSP3 (ORS3324). The average nucleotide identities between these genomes together with the MLSA analysis reveal three new species of Mesorhizobium. A great variability of salt tolerance was found among the strains with a lack of correlation between the genetic diversity of mesorhizobia, their salt tolerance and the soils samples characteristics. A putative geographical pattern of A. senegal symbionts between the dryland north part and the center of Senegal was found, reflecting adaptations to specific local conditions such as the water regime. However, the presence of salt does not seem to be an important structuring factor of Mesorhizobium species. PMID:25658650

  20. Road safety and road traffic accidents in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Mansuri, Farah A.; Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen H.; Zalat, Marwa M.; Qabshawi, Reem I.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To identify the changing trends and crucial preventive approaches to road traffic accidents (RTAs) adopted in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) over the last 2.5 decades, and to analyze aspects previously overlooked. Methods: This systematic review was based on evidence of RTAs in KSA. All articles published during the last 25 years on road traffic accident in KSA were analyzed. This study was carried out from December 2013 to May 2014 in the Department of Family and Community Medicine, Taibah University, Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, KSA. Results: Road traffic accidents accounted for 83.4% of all trauma admissions in 1984-1989, and no such overall trend was studied thereafter. The most frequently injured body regions as reported in the latest studies were head and neck, followed by upper and lower extremities, which was found to be opposite to that of the studies reported earlier. Hospital data showed an 8% non-significant increase in road accident mortalities in contrast to police records of a 27% significant reduction during the years 2005-2010. Excessive speeding was the most common cause reported in all recent and past studies. Conclusion: Disparity was common in the type of reporting of RTAs, outcome measures, and possible causes over a period of 2.5 decade. All research exclusively looked into the drivers’ faults. A sentinel surveillance of road crashes should be kept in place in the secondary and tertiary care hospitals for all regions of KSA. PMID:25828277

  1. Road Nail: Experimental Solar Powered Intelligent Road Marking System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samardžija, Dragan; Teslić, Nikola; Todorović, Branislav M.; Kovač, Erne; Isailović, Đorđe; Miladinović, Bojan

    2012-03-01

    Driving in low visibility conditions (night time, fog or heavy precipitation) is particularly challenging task with an increased probability of traffic accidents and possible injuries. Road Nail is a solar powered intelligent road marking system of wirelessly networked signaling devices that improve driver safety in low visibility conditions along hazardous roadways. Nails or signaling devices are autonomous nodes with capability to accumulate energy, exchange wireless messages, detect approaching vehicles and emit signalization light. We have built an experimental test-bed that consists of 20 nodes and a cellular gateway. Implementation details of the above system, including extensive measurements and performance evaluations in realistic field deployments are presented. A novel distributed network topology discovery scheme is proposed which integrates both sensor and wireless communication aspects, where nodes act autonomously. Finally, integration of the Road Nail system with the cellular network and the Internet is described.

  2. Encapsulating urban traffic rhythms into road networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junjie; Wei, Dong; He, Kun; Gong, Hang; Wang, Pu

    2014-01-01

    Using road GIS (geographical information systems) data and travel demand data for two U.S. urban areas, the dynamical driver sources of each road segment were located. A method to target road clusters closely related to urban traffic congestion was then developed to improve road network efficiency. The targeted road clusters show different spatial distributions at different times of a day, indicating that our method can encapsulate dynamical travel demand information into the road networks. As a proof of concept, when we lowered the speed limit or increased the capacity of road segments in the targeted road clusters, we found that both the number of congested roads and extra travel time were effectively reduced. In addition, the proposed modeling framework provided new insights on the optimization of transport efficiency in any infrastructure network with a specific supply and demand distribution. PMID:24553203

  3. Extracting Road Vector Data from Raster Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Yao-Yi; Knoblock, Craig A.

    Raster maps are an important source of road information. Because of the overlapping map features (e.g., roads and text labels) and the varying image quality, extracting road vector data from raster maps usually requires significant user input to achieve accurate results. In this paper, we present an accurate road vectorization technique that minimizes user input by combining our previous work on extracting road pixels and road-intersection templates to extract accurate road vector data from raster maps. Our approach enables GIS applications to exploit the road information in raster maps for the areas where the road vector data are otherwise not easily accessible, such as the countries of the Middle East. We show that our approach requires minimal user input and achieves an average of 93.2% completeness and 95.6% correctness in an experiment using raster maps from various sources.

  4. Structure of arabinogalactan-protein from Acacia gum: from porous ellipsoids to supramolecular architectures.

    PubMed

    Renard, D; Garnier, C; Lapp, A; Schmitt, C; Sanchez, C

    2012-09-01

    The structure of the arabinogalactan-protein (AGP) fraction of the gum exudate of Acacia senegal (gum Arabic) isolated from hydrophobic interaction chromatography was investigated using HPSEC-MALLS, small angle neutron scattering and TEM observations. Literature reported that the AGP structure of gum Arabic adopts a very compact conformation in solution due to the attachment of short arabinoside side chains and much larger blocks of carbohydrate to the polypeptidic backbone. The present study revealed that AGP in solution had a weight average molecular weight Mw of 1.86×10(6) g mol(-1) and a radius of gyration Rg of 30 nm. In addition, two exponent values were identified in the Rg, [η], Rh and ρ vs. Mw relationships highlighting two types of conformations depending on the molecular weight range considered: a low molar mass population with long-chain branching and a compact conformation and a high molar mass population with short-chain branching and an elongated conformation. AGP would behave in solution as a branched or hyper-branched polymer with conformations ranging from globular to elongated shape depending on the size of the carbohydrate branches. Small angle scattering form factor revealed an elongated average conformation corresponding to a triaxial ellipsoid while inverse Fourier transform of the scattering form factor gave a maximum dimension for AGP of 64 nm. Transmission electron microscopy highlighted the existence of two types of flat objects with thicknesses below 3-5 nm, single particles with a more or less anisotropic spheroidal shape and aggregated structures with a more elongated shape. A remarkable feature of all particle morphologies was the presence of an outer structure combined to an inner more or less porous network of interspersed chains or interacting structural blocks, as previously found for the arabinogalactan (AG) main molecular fraction of Acacia gum. However, clear differences were observed in the density and morphology of the

  5. Effects of Gelam and Acacia honey acute administration on some biochemical parameters of Sprague Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Since ancient times, honey has been used for medicinal purposes in many cultures; it is one of the oldest and most enduring substances used in wound management. Scientific evidence for its efficacy is widely studied, but systemic safety studies are still lacking. It is essential to study the impact of consumption of honey on the health and proper development of the consumer. Therefore, the present study was designed to observe the effects of acute administration (14 days) of Gelam honey (GH), a wild harvesting honey and Acacia honey (AH), a beekeeping honey, on male and female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Methods An acute oral study was performed following OECD test guideline 423, with minor modifications. In the study, GH, AH and sucrose (S) were administered at 2000 mg/kg body weight. Animals were observed for the next 14 days. Gross pathology was performed at the end of the study. Animals were observed for mortality, morbidity, body weight changes, feed and water intake. Clinical biochemistry, gross pathology, relative organ weight and histopathological examination were performed. Results Rats fed with honey did not exhibit any abnormal signs or deaths. Results showed a decrease in weight gain and energy efficiency, but significantly increased in total food intake and total calories in female rats fed with GH, compared to control (p < 0.05). Nevertheless, a significant increase in body weight was observed in male rats in all honey-treated groups. Male rats fed with AH significantly decreased in total food intake, total calories and energy efficiency. Both male and female rats fed with GH displayed a significant decrease in triglycerides compared to control group. Hepatic and renal function levels were within acceptable range. The gross necropsy analysis did not reveal changes in any of the organs examined. Conclusions Our results suggest that acute consumption of GH and AH at 2000 mg/kg body weight of male and female SD rats has some discrepancy

  6. Characterization of a new IgE-binding 35-kDa protein from birch pollen with cross-reacting homologues in various plant foods.

    PubMed

    Vieths, S; Frank, E; Scheurer, S; Meyer, H E; Hrazdina, G; Haustein, D

    1998-03-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to obtain molecular data of a new immunoglobulin (Ig)E-binding birch pollen protein with a mass of 35 kDa. In a previous study, this protein showed IgE cross-reactivity with 34- and 35-kDa proteins in apples, pears, carrots, bananas and other exotic fruits. Since the protein was N-terminally blocked, it was purified by preparative SDS-PAGE, and multiple proteolytic fragments were subsequently generated by in-gel digestion with the endoproteinases Glu C, Lys C and Clostripain. After electrophoretic separation and blotting onto polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF), the resulting polypeptides were subjected to N-terminal amino acid microsequencing. The internal sequences obtained showed a high degree of sequence identity to isoflavone reductases (IFR) and isoflavone reductase-like proteins (IRL) from several plants which also had a similar size. For a stretch of 25 consecutive residues this identity ranged from 56% for IFR from peas and chick peas and an IRL from maize, to 80% for a tobacco IRL. A 453 bp fragment was amplified from total birch pollen RNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers derived from the nucleotide sequence of the tobacco IRL. The deduced 151 amino acid sequence represented approximately 50% of the protein and confirmed the sequence identities obtained by Edman degradation. Moreover, the 25 amino acid sequence was included in the cloned fragment. Deduced and determined amino acids showed only one mismatch, which was due to a single nucleotide exchange. At the antibody level, the immunological relationship of the birch pollen protein to IRL and IFR was demonstrated by immunoblotting with a rabbit antiserum against a pea IFR which recognized the same birch protein as patients' IgE. The rabbit antiserum also reproduced the cross-reactivity pattern previously observed with patients' IgE by recognizing related proteins in specific plant foods, including some exotic fruits. We therefore suggest that the 35

  7. Symbiotic characterization and diversity of rhizobia associated with native and introduced acacias in arid and semi-arid regions in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Boukhatem, Zineb Faiza; Domergue, Odile; Bekki, Abdelkader; Merabet, Chahinez; Sekkour, Sonia; Bouazza, Fatima; Duponnois, Robin; de Lajudie, Philippe; Galiana, Antoine

    2012-06-01

    The diversity of rhizobia associated with introduced and native Acacia species in Algeria was investigated from soil samples collected across seven districts distributed in arid and semi-arid zones. The in vitro tolerances of rhizobial strains to NaCl and high temperature in pure culture varied greatly regardless of their geographical and host plant origins but were not correlated with the corresponding edaphoclimatic characteristics of the sampling sites, as clearly demonstrated by principal component analysis. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons, the 48 new strains isolated were ranked into 10 phylogenetic groups representing five bacterial genera, namely, Ensifer, Mesorhizobium, Rhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, and Ochrobactrum. Acacia saligna, an introduced species, appeared as the most promiscuous host because it was efficiently nodulated with the widest diversity of rhizobia taxa including both fast-growing ones, Rhizobium, Ensifer, and Mesorhizobium, and slow-growing Bradyrhizobium. The five other Acacia species studied were associated with fast-growing bacterial taxa exclusively. No difference in efficiency was found between bacterial taxa isolated from a given Acacia species. The tolerances of strains to salinity and temperature remains to be tested in symbiosis with their host plants to select the most adapted Acacia sp.-LNB taxa associations for further revegetation programs. PMID:22283876

  8. A global strategy for road building.

    PubMed

    Laurance, William F; Clements, Gopalasamy Reuben; Sloan, Sean; O'Connell, Christine S; Mueller, Nathan D; Goosem, Miriam; Venter, Oscar; Edwards, David P; Phalan, Ben; Balmford, Andrew; Van Der Ree, Rodney; Arrea, Irene Burgues

    2014-09-11

    The number and extent of roads will expand dramatically this century. Globally, at least 25 million kilometres of new roads are anticipated by 2050; a 60% increase in the total length of roads over that in 2010. Nine-tenths of all road construction is expected to occur in developing nations, including many regions that sustain exceptional biodiversity and vital ecosystem services. Roads penetrating into wilderness or frontier areas are a major proximate driver of habitat loss and fragmentation, wildfires, overhunting and other environmental degradation, often with irreversible impacts on ecosystems. Unfortunately, much road proliferation is chaotic or poorly planned, and the rate of expansion is so great that it often overwhelms the capacity of environmental planners and managers. Here we present a global scheme for prioritizing road building. This large-scale zoning plan seeks to limit the environmental costs of road expansion while maximizing its benefits for human development, by helping to increase agricultural production, which is an urgent priority given that global food demand could double by mid-century. Our analysis identifies areas with high environmental values where future road building should be avoided if possible, areas where strategic road improvements could promote agricultural development with relatively modest environmental costs, and 'conflict areas' where road building could have sizeable benefits for agriculture but with serious environmental damage. Our plan provides a template for proactively zoning and prioritizing roads during the most explosive era of road expansion in human history. PMID:25162528

  9. Photogrammetric Techniques for Road Surface Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knyaz, V. A.; Chibunichev, A. G.

    2016-06-01

    The quality and condition of a road surface is of great importance for convenience and safety of driving. So the investigations of the behaviour of road materials in laboratory conditions and monitoring of existing roads are widely fulfilled for controlling a geometric parameters and detecting defects in the road surface. Photogrammetry as accurate non-contact measuring method provides powerful means for solving different tasks in road surface reconstruction and analysis. The range of dimensions concerned in road surface analysis can have great variation from tenths of millimetre to hundreds meters and more. So a set of techniques is needed to meet all requirements of road parameters estimation. Two photogrammetric techniques for road surface analysis are presented: for accurate measuring of road pavement and for road surface reconstruction based on imagery obtained from unmanned aerial vehicle. The first technique uses photogrammetric system based on structured light for fast and accurate surface 3D reconstruction and it allows analysing the characteristics of road texture and monitoring the pavement behaviour. The second technique provides dense 3D model road suitable for road macro parameters estimation.

  10. China takes to the roads.

    PubMed

    Roberts, I

    1995-05-20

    China is undergoing rapid motorisation--motor vehicle registrations are growing at a rate of 10%-20% a year. Road trauma is already a major public health problem, and road deaths, officially estimated to be around 50,000 a year, will almost certainly rise with increasing motorisation. China, with its millions of bicycles, currently has one of the most environmentally friendly transportation systems on the planet. However, as the trend towards car travel continues, the problems of congestion and environmental pollution so evident in the West will also become critical public health issues in China. PMID:7773048

  11. Purification and properties of S-alkyl-L-cysteine lyase from seedlings of Acacia farnesiana Willd.

    PubMed

    Mazelis, M; Creveling, R K

    1975-06-01

    1. An S-alkyl-L-cysteine lyase (EC 4.4.1.6) was purified to apparent homogeneity from extracts of acetone-dried powders of the hypocotyls of etiolated 5-day-old seedlings of Acacia farnesiana Willd. 2. The enzyme catalyses a beta-elimination reaction and will utilize both the thioether and sulphoxide form of the substrate. 3. There is a braod specificity with regard to the alkyl substituent, but cystathionine is utilized very poorly. 4. The pH optimum is 7.8 and the Km value for the probable natural substrate L-djenkolate is 0.3 mM. 5. Both sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and ultracentirfugal analysis give a molecular weight of about 144000. 6. One mol of pyridoxal phosphate is bound/mol of enzyme. 7. The energy of activation with L-djenkolate as the substrate is 53.1 kJ/mol. 8. The enzyme has a partial specific volume of 0.56 and S20,w 7.26S. PMID:241329

  12. Huizache (Acacia farnesiana) whole pods (flesh and seeds) as an alternative feed for sheep in Mexico.

    PubMed

    García-Winder, L R; Goñi-Cedeño, S; Olguín-Lara, P A; Díaz-Salgado, G; Arriaga-Jordán, C M

    2009-12-01

    Two experiments were undertaken to evaluate the use of pods from Huizache (Acacia farnesiana), common in the arid and semiarid regions of Mexico, on the perfromance and apparent digestibility in Pelibuey Mexican hair growing ewe lambs. Twenty-four Pelibuey ewe lambs were used in the animal performance experiment, with a mean live weight of 14.91 +/- 1.48 kg, randomnly allocated to three groups which received ad libitum for 77 days (11 weeks) experimental whole rations T0 with 0%, T12 with 12% or T24 with 24% inclusión of dried and ground Huizache pods. Dry matter intakes (g/kg (0.75) daily) were 83, 95, 90 for T0, T12, and T24 respectively (P > 0.05). Mean daily live-weight gain was 90, 75, and 63 g/day for T0, T12, and T24 (P < 0.001). Nine Pelibuey ewe lambs were used to determine apparent digestibility in vivo of the experimental diets using a 3 x 3 latin square design repeated three times. There were differences in the digestibility of dry matter (P < 0.001), organic matter (P < 0.001), nitrogen (P < 0.031), neutral detergent fibre (P < 0.002), and acid detergent fibre (P < 0.001) being lower in T24. Huizache pods may be an alternative feed when included up to 12% of dry matter in the diets for sheep growing moderately. PMID:19390982

  13. The balance between facilitation and competition in mixtures of Eucalyptus and Acacia changes as stands develop.

    PubMed

    Forrester, David I; Vanclay, Jerome K; Forrester, Robert I

    2011-05-01

    The balance between facilitation and competition is likely to change with age due to the dynamic nature of nutrient, water and carbon cycles, and light availability during stand development. These processes have received attention in harsh, arid, semiarid and alpine ecosystems but are rarely examined in more productive communities, in mixed-species forest ecosystems or in long-term experiments spanning more than a decade. The aim of this study was to examine how inter- and intraspecific interactions between Eucalyptus globulus Labill. mixed with Acacia mearnsii de Wildeman trees changed with age and productivity in a field experiment in temperate south-eastern Australia. Spatially explicit neighbourhood indices were calculated to quantify tree interactions and used to develop growth models to examine how the tree interactions changed with time and stand productivity. Interspecific influences were usually less negative than intraspecific influences, and their difference increased with time for E. globulus and decreased with time for A. mearnsii. As a result, the growth advantages of being in a mixture increased with time for E. globulus and decreased with time for A. mearnsii. The growth advantage of being in a mixture also decreased for E. globulus with increasing stand productivity, showing that spatial as well as temporal dynamics in resource availability influenced the magnitude and direction of plant interactions. PMID:21344256

  14. Nutritional and antinutritional evaluation of raw and processed Australian wattle (Acacia saligna) seeds.

    PubMed

    Ee, K Y; Yates, P

    2013-06-01

    Raw and processed (soaked, soaked/boiled, roasted) wattle, Acacia saligna subspecies (subsp.) saligna, pruinescens, stolonifera and lindleyi, seeds were analysed for nutritional and antinutritional qualities. Whole wattle seeds mainly comprised proteins (27.6-32.6%) and carbohydrates (30.2-36.4%), which had approximately 12.0-14.0% fat and 13.0-15.0% crude fibre. Palmitic (9.6%), stearic (2.0%), oleic (20.0%) and linoleic (64.3%) acids were identified by gas chromatography (GC) analysis. Phenolic (∼0.2%), oxalate (2.2-3.4%) and saponin (2.6-3.0%) contents were fairly high; phytate content was low. All untreated samples contained a high level of trypsin inhibitor (2474.3-3271.4 trypsin inhibitor units per gramme (TIU/g) of flour) and low level of α-chymotrypsin inhibitor (120.4-150.6 CIU/g). Soaking overnight following with 2-min boiling led to a significant reduction of protease inhibitor activity. Roasting at 2 min or longer was sufficient to reduce both trypsin and α-chymotrypsin inhibitors to negligible values, also to reduce phytate, oxalate and saponin contents, simultaneously enhanced the nutritional values of wattle seeds. PMID:23411173

  15. Antimalarial activity of fractions of aqueous extract of Acacia nilotica root

    PubMed Central

    Alli, Lukman Adewale; Adesokan, Abdulfatai Ayoade; Salawu, Adeola Oluwakanyinsola

    2016-01-01

    Background: The problem of resistance of malarial parasites to available antimalarial drugs makes the development of new drugs imperative, with natural plant products providing an alternative source for discovering new drugs. Aim: To evaluate the antimalarial activity of eluted fractions of Acacia nilotica root extract and determine the phytochemicals responsible for its antimalarial activity. Materials and Methods: The extract was eluted successively in gradients of solvent mixture (hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol) in multiples of 100 ml, and each fraction was collected separately. Eluates that showed similar thin layer chromatographic profiles and Rf values were combined to produce 4 main fractions (F-1, F-2, F-3, and F-4), which were tested separately for antimalarial activity using the curative test. Changes in body weight, temperature, and packed cell volume (PCV) were also recorded. Results: Fraction F-1 of A. nilotica at 50 and 100 mg/kg b/w produced significant and dose-dependent reduction in parasite count in Plasmodium berghei infected mice compared to the control, and also significantly increased the survival time of the mice compared to the control group. This fraction also ameliorated the malaria-induced anemia by improving PCV in treated mice. Conclusion: Antimalarial activity of extract of A. nilotica root is probably localized in the F-1 fraction of the extract, which was found to be rich in alkaloids and phenolics. Further study will provide information on the chemical properties of the active metabolites in this fraction. PMID:27104040

  16. Pharmacological assessment of the medicinal potential of Acacia mearnsii De Wild.: antimicrobial and toxicity activities.

    PubMed

    Olajuyigbe, Olufunmiso O; Afolayan, Anthony J

    2012-01-01

    Acacia mearnsii De Wild. (Fabaceae) is a medicinal plant used in the treatment of microbial infections in South Africa without scientific validation of its bioactivity and toxicity. The antimicrobial activity of the crude acetone extract was evaluated by both agar diffusion and macrobroth dilution methods while its cytotoxicity effect was assessed with brine shrimp lethality assay. The study showed that both bacterial and fungal isolates were highly inhibited by the crude extract. The MIC values for the gram-positive bacteria (78.1-312.5) μg/mL, gram-negative bacteria (39.1-625) μg/mL and fungal isolates (625-5000) μg/mL differ significantly. The bacteria were more susceptible than the fungal strains tested. The antibiosis determination showed that the extract was more (75%) bactericidal than bacteriostatic (25%) and more fungicidal (66.67%) than fungistatic (33.33%). The cytotoxic activity of the extract was observed between 31.25 μg/mL and 500 μg/mL and the LC(50) value (112.36 μg/mL) indicates that the extract was nontoxic in the brine shrimp lethality assay (LC(50) > 100 μg/mL). These results support the use of A. mearnsii in traditional medicine for treatment of microbial infections. The extract exhibiting significant broad spectrum antimicrobial activity and nontoxic effects has potential to yield active antimicrobial compounds. PMID:22605976

  17. Development of 23 polymorphic microsatellite loci in invasive silver wattle, Acacia dealbata (Fabaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Guillemaud, Thomas; Broadhurst, Linda; Legoff, Isabelle; Henery, Martin; Blin, Aurélie; Ducatillion, Catherine; Ferrando, Nathalie; Malausa, Thibaut

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed for silver wattle, Acacia dealbata (Fabaceae), which is both an ornamental and an invasive weed species. It is native to southeastern Australia and invasive in Europe, Africa, Asia, and the Americas. Methods and Results: The pyrosequencing of a microsatellite-enriched genomic DNA library of A. dealbata produced 33,290 sequences and allowed the isolation of 201 loci with a minimum of seven repeats of microsatellite motifs. Amplification tests led to the setup of two multiplex PCR mixes allowing the amplification of 21 loci. The polymorphism of these markers was evaluated on a sample of 32 individuals collected in southeastern Australia. The number of alleles and the expected heterozygosity varied between two and 11, and between 0.11 and 0.88, respectively. Conclusions: The level of polymorphism of this set of 23 microsatellites is large enough to provide valuable information on the genetic structure and the invasion history of A. dealbata. PMID:25995979

  18. Larvicidal activity of Acacia nilotica extracts and isolation of D-pinitol--a bioactive carbohydrate.

    PubMed

    Chaubal, Rohini; Pawar, Pushpa V; Hebbalkar, Geeta D; Tungikar, Vijay B; Puranik, Vedavati G; Deshpande, Vishnu H; Deshpande, Nirmala R

    2005-05-01

    A low-molecular-weight, sugar-like compound other than glucose, fructose, sucrose, or myo-inositol showing lipophilic nature was isolated from the EtOH extract of Acacia nilotica. The structure of the compound was determined by spectral methods. This alicyclic polyalcohol was found to be D-pinitol (= 3-O-methyl-D-chiro-inositol; 1). The configuration of the compound was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray analysis. The compound 1 is known from Soybean, Australian mangroves, Fagonia indica, Arachis hypogaea, etc., but we have isolated this compound for the first time from the aerial parts of A. nilotica. Very few references have been cited for compound 1 for its entomological activity, and there are no reports on mosquitoes. Therefore, the crude extracts of A. nilotica were tested for its biological activity against mosquito larvae. Acetone extract at 500-ppm concentration showed chronic toxicity against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus IVth instar mosquito larvae. Such a biological activity has been observed for the first time for this plant. This study could be a stepping stone to a solution for destroying larval species as well as consumption of such a widely grown, problem weed, A. nilotica. This larvicidal agent, since it is derived from plant, is eco-friendly, cost effective, non-hazardous to non-target organisms and would be safe unlike commercially available insecticides. PMID:17192011

  19. Downregulation of mouse intestinal Na(+)-coupled glucose transporter SGLT1 by gum arabic (Acacia Senegal).

    PubMed

    Nasir, Omaima; Artunc, Ferruh; Wang, Kan; Rexhepaj, Rexhep; Föller, Michael; Ebrahim, Ammar; Kempe, Daniela S; Biswas, Raja; Bhandaru, Madhuri; Walter, Michael; Mohebbi, Nilufar; Wagner, Carsten A; Saeed, Amal M; Lang, Florian

    2010-01-01

    Intestinal Na(+)-coupled glucose transporter SGLT1 determines the rate of glucose transport, which in turn influences glucose-induced insulin release and development of obesity. The present study explored effects of Gum Arabic (GA), a dietary polysaccharide from dried exudates of Acacia Senegal, on intestinal glucose transport and body weight in wild-type C57Bl/6 mice. Treatment with GA (100 g/l) in drinking water for four weeks did not affect intestinal SGLT1 transcript levels but decreased SGLT1 protein abundance in jejunal brush border membrane vesicles. Glucose-induced jejunal short-circuit currents revealed that GA treatment decreased electrogenic glucose transport. Drinking a 20% glucose solution for four weeks significantly increased body weight and fasting plasma glucose concentrations, effects significantly blunted by simultaneous treatment with GA. GA further significantly blunted the increase in body weight, fasting plasma glucose and fasting insulin concentrations during high fat diet. In conclusion, the present observations disclose a completely novel effect of gum arabic, i.e. its ability to decrease intestinal SGLT1 expression and activity and thus to counteract glucose-induced obesity. PMID:20110681

  20. Pharmacological Assessment of the Medicinal Potential of Acacia mearnsii De Wild.: Antimicrobial and Toxicity Activities

    PubMed Central

    Olajuyigbe, Olufunmiso O.; Afolayan, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    Acacia mearnsii De Wild. (Fabaceae) is a medicinal plant used in the treatment of microbial infections in South Africa without scientific validation of its bioactivity and toxicity. The antimicrobial activity of the crude acetone extract was evaluated by both agar diffusion and macrobroth dilution methods while its cytotoxicity effect was assessed with brine shrimp lethality assay. The study showed that both bacterial and fungal isolates were highly inhibited by the crude extract. The MIC values for the gram-positive bacteria (78.1–312.5) μg/mL, gram-negative bacteria (39.1–625) μg/mL and fungal isolates (625–5000) μg/mL differ significantly. The bacteria were more susceptible than the fungal strains tested. The antibiosis determination showed that the extract was more (75%) bactericidal than bacteriostatic (25%) and more fungicidal (66.67%) than fungistatic (33.33%). The cytotoxic activity of the extract was observed between 31.25 μg/mL and 500 μg/mL and the LC50 value (112.36 μg/mL) indicates that the extract was nontoxic in the brine shrimp lethality assay (LC50 > 100 μg/mL). These results support the use of A. mearnsii in traditional medicine for treatment of microbial infections. The extract exhibiting significant broad spectrum antimicrobial activity and nontoxic effects has potential to yield active antimicrobial compounds. PMID:22605976

  1. Antioxidant Activities of Fractions of Polymeric Procyanidins from Stem Bark of Acacia confusa

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Shu-Dong; Zhou, Hai-Chao; Lin, Yi-Ming

    2011-01-01

    The polymeric procyanidins extracted from Acacia confusa stem bark were fractionated with a step gradient of water, methanol and acetone on a Sephadex LH-20 column. The antioxidant activity of the collected fractions was investigated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. All fractions possessed potent antioxidant activity with the highest activity observed for fraction F9. The matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) analyses suggested that the collected fractions consisted primarily of oligomeric and polymeric procyanidins, with different polymer ranges and most abundant polymer size. For each fraction, catechin and epicatechin were present as both terminal and extension units, and epicatechin was the major component in the extended chain. The mean degree of polymerization (mDP) of each fraction differed, ranging from 1.68 (fraction F2) to 17.31 (fraction F11). There was a relationship between antioxidant activity (IC50/DPPH and FRAP) and mDP (R2DPPH = 0.861, P = 0.006 and R2FRAP = 0.608, P = 0.038), respectively. However, the highest antioxidant activity of fraction (F9) was not coincident with the maximum mDP of fraction (F11). PMID:21541049

  2. Chemical composition and anti-inflammatory activities of the essential oils from Acacia mearnsii de Wild.

    PubMed

    Avoseh, Opeyemi N; Oyedeji, Ope-oluwa O; Aremu, Kayode; Nkeh-Chungag, Benedicta N; Songca, Sandile P; Oluwafemi, Samuel O; Oyedeji, Adebola O

    2015-01-01

    The volatile oils of the leaves and the stem bark of Acacia mearnsii de Wild obtained by hydro-distillation were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 20, 38, 29 and 38 components accounted for 93.8%, 92.1%, 78.5% and 90.9% of the total oils of the fresh, dry leaves and fresh, dry stem bark, respectively. The major components of the oil were octadecyl alcohol (25.5%) and phytol (10.5%); cis-verbenol (29.5%); phytol (10.1%) and phytol (23.4%) for the fresh leaves, dried leaves, fresh stem, dry stem bark, respectively. Oral administration of essential oils at a dose of 2% showed significant (p < 0.05) anti-inflammatory properties in the albumin-induced test model in rats. Oils from the fresh leaves and dry stems inhibited inflammation beyond 4 h post treatment. The potent anti-inflammatory activity of essential oils of A. mearnsii hereby confirmed its traditional use in treating various inflammatory diseases. PMID:25422136

  3. Hydrogen peroxide sensing and cytotoxicity activity of Acacia lignin stabilized silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Aadil, Keshaw Ram; Barapatre, Anand; Meena, Avtar Singh; Jha, Harit

    2016-01-01

    The study is aimed at detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) using Acacia lignin mediated silver nanoparticles (AGNPs). The synthesis of AGNPs was achieved at conditions optimized as, 3 ml of 0.02% lignin and 1mM silver nitrate incubated for 30 min at 80°C and pH 9. Initial screening of AGNPs was performed by measuring the surface plasmon resonance peak at 410-430 nm using UV-vis spectrophotometer. Transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction and particle size analysis confirmed the spherical shaped face centered cubic structure and 10-50 nm size of AGNPs. The infrared spectroscopy study further revealed that the active functional groups present in lignin were responsible for the reduction of silver ions (Ag(+)) to metallic silver (Ag(0)). Lignin stabilized silver nanoparticles showed good sensitivity and a linear response over wide concentrations of H2O2 (10(-1) to 10(-6)M). Further, the in vitrocytotoxicity activity of the lignin mediated AGNPs (5-500 μg/ml) demonstrated toxicity effects in MCF-7 and A375 cell lines. Thus, lignin stabilized silver nanoparticles based optical sensor for H2O2 could be potentially applied in the determination of reactive oxygen species and toxic chemicals which further expands the importance of lignin stabilized silver nanoparticles. PMID:26434518

  4. Tolerance, arsenic uptake, and oxidative stress in Acacia farnesiana under arsenate-stress.

    PubMed

    Alcantara-Martinez, Nemi; Guizar, Sandra; Rivera-Cabrera, Fernando; Anicacio-Acevedo, Blanca E; Buendia-Gonzalez, Leticia; Volke-Sepulveda, Tania

    2016-07-01

    Acacia farnesiana is a shrub widely distributed in soils heavily polluted with arsenic in Mexico. However, the mechanisms by which this species tolerates the phytotoxic effects of arsenic are unknown. This study aimed to investigate the tolerance and bioaccumulation of As by A. farnesiana seedlings exposed to high doses of arsenate (AsV) and the role of peroxidases (POX) and glutathione S-transferases (GST) in alleviating As-stress. For that, long-period tests were performed in vitro under different AsV treatments. A. farnesiana showed a remarkable tolerance to AsV, achieving a half-inhibitory concentration (IC50) of about 2.8 mM. Bioaccumulation reached about 940 and 4380 mg As·kg(-1) of dry weight in shoots and roots, respectively, exposed for 60 days to 0.58 mM AsV. Seedlings exposed to such conditions registered a growth delay during the first 15 days, when the fastest As uptake rate (117 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) occurred, coinciding with both the highest rate of lipid peroxidation and the strongest up-regulation of enzyme activities. GST activity showed a strong correlation with the As bioaccumulated, suggesting its role in imparting AsV tolerance. This study demonstrated that besides tolerance to AsV, A. farnesiana bioaccumulates considerable amounts of As, suggesting that it may be useful for phytostabilization purposes. PMID:26618535

  5. Bradyrhizobium ganzhouense sp. nov., an effective symbiotic bacterium isolated from Acacia melanoxylon R. Br. nodules

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jun Kun; Dou, Ya Jing; Zhu, Ya Jie; Wang, Sheng Kun; Sui, Xin Hua

    2014-01-01

    Three slow-growing rhizobial strains, designated RITF806T, RITF807 and RITF211, isolated from root nodules of Acacia melanoxylon grown in Ganzhou city, Jiangxi Province, China, had been previously defined, based on amplified 16S rRNA gene restriction analysis, as a novel group within the genus Bradyrhizobium. To clarify their taxonomic position, these strains were further analysed and compared with reference strains of related bacteria using a polyphasic approach. According to 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolates formed a group that was closely related to ‘Bradyrhizobium rifense’ CTAW71, with a similarity value of 99.9 %. In phylogenetic analyses of the housekeeping and symbiotic gene sequences, the three strains formed a distinct lineage within the genus Bradyrhizobium, which was consistent with the results of DNA–DNA hybridization. In analyses of cellular fatty acids and phenotypic features, some differences were found between the novel group and related species of the genus Bradyrhizobium, indicating that these three strains constituted a novel group distinct from any recognized species of the genus Bradyrhizobium. Based on the data obtained in this study, we conclude that our strains represent a novel species of the genus Bradyrhizobium, for which the name Bradyrhizobium ganzhouense sp. nov. is proposed, with RITF806T ( = CCBAU 101088T = JCM 19881T) as the type strain. The DNA G+C content of strain RITF806T is 64.6 mol% (Tm). PMID:24585376

  6. Acacia gum as modifier of thermal stability, solubility and emulsifying properties of α-lactalbumin.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Fabíola Cristina; Dos Reis Coimbra, Jane Sélia; de Oliveira, Eduardo Basílio; Rodrigues, Marina Quadrio Raposo Branco; Sabioni, Rachel Campos; de Souza, Bartolomeu Warlene Silva; Santos, Igor José Boggione

    2015-03-30

    Protein-polysaccharide conjugates often display improved techno-functional properties when compared to their individual involved biomolecules. α-Lactalbumin:acacia gum (α-la:AG) conjugates were prepared via Maillard reaction by the dry-heating method. Conjugate formation was confirmed using results of absorbance, o-phthalaldehyde test, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and size exclusion chromatography. Techno-functional properties (emulsifying characteristics, solubility, and thermal stability) were evaluated for α-la, α-la/AG mixtures and α-la:AG conjugates. Conjugate thermal stability was improved compared to pure α-la treated at the same conditions of conjugate formation. Response surface methodology was used to establish models to predict solubility and emulsifying activity as functions of the salt concentration, pH and reaction time. α-la:AG conjugate solubility is affected in a complex manner by the three factors analyzed. Emulsifying activity index (EAI) of α-la is significantly affected by pH, while the α-la:AG EAI is affected by the three analyzed factors. Both solubility and EAI are maximized with pH 8.0, NaCl concentration of 0.3 mol L(-1) and two days of Maillard reaction. PMID:25563962

  7. Pharmacodynamic studies on the isolated active fraction of Acacia farnesiana (L.) willd

    PubMed Central

    Kingsley, Bino; Kayarohanam, Saminathan; Brindha, Pemaiah; Subramoniam, Appian

    2014-01-01

    Background: Acacia farnesiana is a medicinal plant that grows throughout tropical parts of Indian subcontinent, particularly in sandy soils of river beds in Northern India. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the anti-hyperglycemic activity of the extracts using glucose tolerance test. Isolation of an active fraction (AF) from the active extract (water extract) using alcohol precipitation and to get insight to the mechanism of action of the AF of A. farnesiana. Materials and Methods: Glucose uptake by isolated rat diaphragm of the AF was performed. Further the effect of release of Insulin from isolated and cultured pancreatic β-cell was determined. Besides, effect of oral administration of the AF was compared with that of intraperitonial administration. The effect of AF on serum glucose levels in orally glucose loaded rats was compared with that of intraperitoneal glucose loaded rats. Results: The water extract significantly lowered the blood glucose level. When precipitated with alcohol, the activity was found in the soluble fraction. Glucose uptake in the isolated rat hemidiaphragm, was increased by the AF at 40 μg/ml concentration, the AF did not significantly influence insulin release from cultured islets. The AF was found to be effective in orally glucose loaded in contrast to intraperitonial route. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that this plant is promising for further studies leading to the development of valuable medicine for diabetes. PMID:24991104

  8. Bradyrhizobium Populations Occur in Deep Soil under the Leguminous Tree Acacia albida

    PubMed Central

    Dupuy, Nicolas C.; Dreyfus, Bernard L.

    1992-01-01

    Soil cores were drilled under the leguminous tree Acacia albida growing in two different ecoclimatic zones of West Africa: the Sahelian area (100 to 500 mm of annual rainfall) and the Sudano-Guinean area (1,000 to 1,500 mm of annual rainfall). Soil samples were collected at different depths from the surface down to the water table level and analyzed for the presence of rhizobia able to nodulate A. albida. In both areas, population densities of rhizobia were substantially greater near the water table than near the surface. In the Sahelian area, rhizobia were present as deep as 34 m at a concentration of 1.3 × 103/g of soil. In the Sudano-Guinean area, population densities at 0.5 to 4.5 m depth were higher than in the Sahelian area and, at several depths, comparable to that of temperate soils supporting legume crops (104 rhizobia per g of soil). Surface and deep soil isolates from all four sites were found to be slow-growing rhizobia (Bradyrhizobium sp.). The proportion of effective isolates was almost the same within surface and deep soils. PMID:16348745

  9. Effects of large mammalian herbivores and ant symbionts on condensed tannins of Acacia drepanolobium in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Ward, David; Young, Truman P

    2002-05-01

    Condensed tannins have been considered to be important inducible defenses against mammalian herbivory. We tested for differences in condensed tannin defenses in Acacia drepanolobium in Kenya over two years among different large mammalian herbivore treatments [total exclusion, antelope only, and megaherbivore (elephants and giraffes) + antelope] and with four different ant symbiont species on the trees. We predicted that (1) condensed tannin concentrations would be lowest in the mammal treatment with the lowest level of herbivory (total exclusion), (2) trees occupied by mutualist ants that protect the trees most aggressively would have lower levels of tannins, and (3) if chemical defense production is costly, there would be a trade-off between tannin concentrations, growth, and mechanical defenses. Mean tannin concentrations increased from total exclusion treatments to wildlife-only treatments to megaherbivore + antelope treatments. In 1997, condensed tannin concentrations were significantly lower in trees occupied by the ant Crematogaster nigriceps, the only ant species that actively removed axillary buds. Contrary to our prediction, trees occupied by ant species that protect the trees more aggressively against mammalian herbivores did not have lower overall levels of condensed tannins. There was no consistent evidence of a trade-off between tannin concentrations and growth rate, but there was a positive correlation between mean thorn length and mean tannin concentrations across species of ant inhabitants and across herbivore treatments in 1997. Contrary to our expectation, trees had higher tannin concentrations in the upper parts of the canopy where there is little herbivory by mammals. PMID:12049231

  10. Pseudomyrmex ants and Acacia host plants join efforts to protect their mutualism from microbial threats

    PubMed Central

    González-Teuber, Marcia

    2010-01-01

    Plants express numerous ‘pathogenesis-related’ (PR) proteins to defend themselves against pathogen infection. We recently discovered that PR-proteins such as chitinases, glucanases, peroxidases and thaumatin-like proteins are also functioning in the protection of extra-floral nectar (EFN) of Mexican Acacia myrmecophytes. These plants produce EFN, cellular food bodies and nesting space to house defending ant species of the genus Pseudomyrmex. More than 50 PR-proteins were discovered in this EFN and bioassays demonstrated that they actively can inhibit the growth of fungi and other phytopathogens. Although the plants can, thus, express PR-proteins and secrete them into the nectar, the leaves of these plants exhibit reduced activities of chitinases as compared to non-myrmecophytic plants and their antimicrobial protection depends on the mutualistic ants. When we deprived plants of their resident ants we observed higher microbial loads in the leaves and even in the tissue of the nectaries, as compared to plants that were inhabited by ants. The indirect defence that is achieved through an ant-plant mutualism can protect plants also from infections. Future studies will have to investigate the chemical nature of this mechanism in order to understand why plants depend on ants for their antimicrobial defence. PMID:20484982

  11. The concentration of ascorbic acid and glutathione in 13 provenances of Acacia melanoxylon.

    PubMed

    Wujeska-Klause, Agnieszka; Bossinger, Gerd; Tausz, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Climate change can negatively affect sensitive tree species, affecting their acclimation and adaptation strategies. A common garden experiment provides an opportunity to test whether responses of trees from different provenances are genetically driven and if this response is related to factors at the site of origin. We hypothesized that antioxidative defence systems and leaf mass area ofAcacia melanoxylonR. Br. samples collected from different provenances will vary depending on local rainfall. Thirteen provenances ofA. melanoxylonoriginating from different rainfall habitats (500-2000 mm) were grown for 5 years in a common garden. For 2 years, phyllode samples were collected during winter and summer, for measurements of leaf mass area and concentrations of glutathione and ascorbic acid. Leaf mass area varied between seasons, years and provenances ofA. melanoxylon, and an increase was associated with decreasing rainfall at the site of origin. Ascorbic acid and glutathione concentrations varied between seasons, years (i.e., environmental factors) and among provenances ofA. melanoxylon In general, glutathione and ascorbic acid concentrations were higher in winter compared with summer. Ascorbic acid and glutathione were different among provenances, but this was not associated with rainfall at the site of origin. PMID:26960387

  12. In vitro evaluation of antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of lignin fractions extracted from Acacia nilotica.

    PubMed

    Barapatre, Anand; Meena, Avtar Singh; Mekala, Sowmya; Das, Amitava; Jha, Harit

    2016-05-01

    Lignin is one of the most important phytomacromolecule with diverse therapeutic properties such as anticancer, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and immune-stimulatory. The present study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant, free radical scavenging and anti-proliferative/cytotoxic activities of eleven different lignin fractions, extracted from the wood of Acacia nilotica by pressurized solvent extraction (PSE) and successive solvent extraction (SSE) methods. Results indicate that the PSE fractions have high polyphenolic content and reducing power. However, the antioxidant efficiency examined by DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assay was higher in SSE fractions. All lignin fractions revealed a significant ability to scavenge nitric oxide, hydroxyl and superoxide radicals. The extracted lignin fractions display high ferric ion reducing capacity and also possess excellent antioxidant potential in the hydrophobic (linoleic acid) system. Fractions extracted by polar solvent has the highest iron (Fe(2+)) chelating activity as compared to other factions, indicating their effect on the redox cycling of iron. Four lignin fractions depicted higher cytotoxic potential (IC50: 2-15 μg/mL) towards breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) but were ineffective (IC50: ≥ 100 μg/mL) against normal primary human hepatic stellate cells (HHSteCs). These findings suggest that the lignin extracts of A. nilotica wood has a remarkable potential to prevent disease caused by the overproduction of radicals and also seem to be a promising candidate as natural antioxidant and anti-cancer agents. PMID:26836619

  13. Dynamics of component carbon fluxes in a semi-arid Acacia woodland, central Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleverly, James; Boulain, Nicolas; Villalobos-Vega, Randol; Grant, Nicole; Faux, Ralph; Wood, Cameron; Cook, Peter G.; Yu, Qiang; Leigh, Andrea; Eamus, Derek

    2013-07-01

    Vast areas in the interior of Australia are exposed to regular but infrequent periods of heavy rainfall, interspersed with long periods at high temperatures, but little is known of the carbon budget of these remote areas or how they respond to extreme precipitation. In this study, we applied three methods to partition net ecosystem photosynthesis into gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (Re) during two years of contrasting rainfall. The first year was wet (>250 mm above average rainfall), while little precipitation fell during the second year (>100 mm below average). During the first year of study, rates of GPP were large (793 g C m-2 yr-1) in this semi-arid Mulga (Acacia aneura) and grass savanna due to complementary photosynthetic responses by the canopy and C4 understorey to cycles of heavy rainfall. Patterns in GPP during the summer and autumn matched those in leaf area index (LAI), photosynthetic activity, and autotrophic respiration. During the dry year, small but positive photosynthetic uptake by Mulga contributed to the neutral carbon budget (GPP / Re = 1.06 ± 0.03). Small rates of photosynthesis by evergreen Mulga when dry were supported by storage of soil moisture above a relatively shallow hardpan. Little soil organic matter (1.1%) was available to support heterotrophic respiration (Rh) without input of fresh substrate. The two largest sources of Re in this study were autotrophic respiration by the seasonal understorey and Rh through decomposition of fresh organic matter supplied by the senescent understorey.

  14. Elevated CO[sub 2] amplifies expression of genetic variability in Acacia smallii

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, E.A.; Miyanishi, K.; Kleb, H. Univ. of Guelph, Ontario Univ. of Regina )

    1993-06-01

    Seedlings of Acacia smallii grown at three CO[sub 2] concentrations in environmentally controlled greenhouses exhibited much greater variability in growth rates and plant size in elevated CO[sub 2] than in current ambient CO[sub 2] (around 350 ppm) during a 90 day growth period prior to winter quiescence. Elongation of the central axis and the number of branches per plant were markedly stimulated by elevated CO[sub 2]. Number of branches and the total lengths and growth rates of shoots were closely related. Plant length (branches included) after 90 days at 1000 ppm averaged 6.3 m with a range from 3.3 to 13.2 m and at 350 ppm averaged 1.6 m with a range from 1.0 to 1.9 m. Length and growth rate averages and variability ranges for plants grown at 700 ppm CO[sub 2] were intermediate. These results implicate genetic variability as an important consideration in developing conceptual models of how natural selection will operate in native vegetation as CO[sub 2] concentrations rise and suggest new kinds of experiments that should be conducted to evaluate the effects of changing CO[sub 2] on vegetation composition and structure.

  15. Phytochemical Characterization and Anti-inflammatory Properties of Acacia mearnsii Leaves.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Jia; Graceb, Mary H; Esposito, Debora; Wang, Fei; Lila, Mary Ann

    2016-05-01

    This study was performed to investigate potential bioactive secondary metabolites from the leaves of Acacia mearnsii, a forest waste product in China. The polyphenol constituents and bioactivity of crude extract (L) and semi purified fractions (L1-L4) were examined. The L and L1-L4 showed qualitative and quantitative differences in their phenolic content, antioxidant activities and the activities against inflammation-related genes such as the inducible forms of COX-2, iNOS, and the pro-inflammatory IL in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. All the fractions depressed reactive oxygen species (ROS) in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells, and (except L2) inhibited the release of nitric oxide (NO). Fractions L3 and L4 significantly inhibited the mRNA expression levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β, COX-2, iNOS, and IL-6. In addition, L4 (1.8 g obtained from 5 g crude leaves extract) which contained 646.6 mg/g gallic acid equivalent total phenolic content and consisted of primarily proanthocyanidins (12.6 mg/g as procyanidin B2 equivalent by the DMAC assay) showed the best activity in all the assays. Results indicate that A. mearnsii leaves, a forest waste product, could be a valuable natural source of anti-inflammatory and functional components related to human health. PMID:27319141

  16. Antiviral activity of Acacia nilotica against Hepatitis C Virus in liver infected cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) belonging to the family Flaviviridae has infected 3% of the population worldwide and 6% of the population in Pakistan. The only recommended standard treatment is pegylated INF-α plus ribavirin. Due to less compatibility of the standard treatment, thirteen medicinal plants were collected from different areas of Pakistan on the basis of undocumented antiviral reports against different viral infections. Medicinal plants were air dried, extracted and screened out against HCV by infecting HCV inoculums of 3a genotype in liver cells. RT-PCR results demonstrate that acetonic and methanolic extract of Acacia nilotica (AN) showed more than 50% reduction at non toxic concentration. From the above results, it can be concluded that by selecting different molecular targets, specific structure-activity relationship can be achieved by doing mechanistic analysis. So, additional studies are required for the isolation and recognition of antiviral compound in AN to establish its importance as antiviral drug against HCV. For further research, we will scrutinize the synergistic effect of active antiviral compound in combination with standard PEG INF-α and ribavirin which may be helpful in exploring further gateways for antiviral therapy against HCV. PMID:21569385

  17. First comparative phenetic studies of Argentinean species of Acacia (Fabaceae), using morphometric, isozymal, and RAPD approaches.

    PubMed

    Casiva, Paola V; Saidman, Beatriz O; Vilardi, Juan C; Cialdella, Ana M

    2002-05-01

    Morphological and genetic diversity among Acacia aroma, A. macracantha, A. caven, and A. furcatispina were studied with morphometric, isozymal, and RAPD approaches. The analysis of seven isozyme systems revealed 21 loci, and RAPD analysis showed 34 loci. Most of these loci allowed us to differentiate the species, with the exception of A. aroma and A. macracantha, the two most similar species. The levels of genetic variability estimated by isozymes were higher than those obtained from RAPD analyses. Morphometric characters showed highly significant differences among the species, although A. aroma and A. macracantha are differentiated only by thorn length. The phenogram obtained from isozyme data is consistent with morphological data. The RAPD phenogram based on allelic frequencies showed agreement with morphological and isozymal approaches only at the intraspecific levels, while the RAPD phenogram based on Nei and Li's similarity measures agreed with the phenograms constructed from isozyme and morphological data. High similarities and high indirect gene flow were found between A. aroma and A. macracantha, results that call the relationship between them into question. PMID:21665685

  18. Mating system and population structure of Acacia aroma and A. macracantha (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Casiva, Paola Vanesa; Vilardi, Juan César; Cialdella, Ana María; Saidman, Beatriz O

    2004-01-01

    Acacia aroma and A. macracantha are closely related species that inhabit northern and central Argentina. The reproductive barriers between them seem to be weak. They exhibit low genetic differentiation, high levels of interspecific gene flow, and extensive areas of sympatry. Isoenzymatic approaches were used to evaluate the population structure and mating system parameters in natural Argentine populations of A. aroma and A. macracantha and to provide new tools for the analysis of relationships between these two species. All studied populations had high levels of genetic variability and no significant departures from Hardy-Weinberg expectations, but the two species did not differ from each other. Most variability occured within populations. Mating system analysis showed high levels of outcrossing, no biparental inbreeding, and a high probability that individuals within progeny arrays are full rather than half sibs. In all A. aroma and A. macracantha populations, polymorphic loci had the same allelic variants, and no geographic or genetic isolation between species was found. The results favor the hypothesis that these two entities represent a single polymorphic species rather than two distinct species. PMID:21653363

  19. Improving linkage analysis in outcrossed forest trees - an example from Acacia mangium.

    PubMed

    Butcher, A.; Williams, R.; Whitaker, D.; Ling, S.; Speed, P.; Moran, F.

    2002-05-01

    Mapping in forest trees generally relies on outbred pedigrees in which genetic segregation is the result of meiotic recombination from both parents. The currently available mapping packages are not optimal for outcrossed pedigrees as they either cannot order phase-ambiguous data or only use pairwise information when ordering loci within linkage groups. A new package, OUTMAP, has been developed for mapping codominant loci in outcrossed trees. A comparison of maps produced using linkage data from two pedigrees of Acacia mangium Willd demonstrated that the marker orders produced using OUTMAP were consistently of higher likelihood than those produced by JOINMAP. In addition, the maps were produced more efficiently, without the need for recoding data or the detailed investigation of pairwise recombination fractions which was necessary to select the optimal marker order using JOINMAP. Distances between markers often varied from those calculated by JOINMAP, resulting in an increase in the estimated genome length. OUTMAP can be used with all segregation types to determine phase and to calculate the likelihood of alternative marker orders, with a choice of three optimisation methods. PMID:12582629

  20. Chemical composition and structural features of the macromolecular components of plantation Acacia mangium wood.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Paula C; Evtuguin, Dmitry V; Pascoal Neto, Carlos

    2005-10-01

    The wood of Acacia mangium, a prominent fast-growing plantation species used in the pulp-and-paper industry and, so far, poorly investigated for its chemical structure, was submitted to a detailed characterization of its main macromolecular components. Lignin (28% wood weight) isolated by mild acidolysis and characterized by permanganate oxidation, 1H and 13C NMR, and GPC, showed a very low content of syringylpropane-derived units (S:G:H of 48:49:3), a high degree of condensation, a low content of beta-O-4 ( approximately 0.40-0.43 per C6) structures, and a Mw of 2230. Glucuronoxylan (14% wood weight) isolated by alkaline (KOH) or by dimethyl sulfoxide extraction was characterized by methylation analysis, 1H NMR, and GPC. About 10% of the xylopyranose (Xylp) units constituting the linear backbone were substituted at O-2 with 4-O-methylglucuronic acid residues. Almost half of the Xylp units (45%) were O-2 (18%), O-3 (24%) or O-2,3 (3%) acetylated. X-ray diffraction analysis of cellulose (46% wood weight), isolated according to the Kürschner-Hoffer method, showed a degree of crystallinity of 67.6%. PMID:16190642

  1. [Effects of tree height on whole-tree water use of Acacia mangium].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-jing; Zhao, Ping; Wang, Quan; Cai, Xi-an; Zeng, Xiao-ping

    2009-01-01

    By using Granier's thermal dissipation probe, the sap flow of 14 sample trees in a 22-year old Acacia mangium forest in hilly land of South China was continuously measured in 2004. Environmental factors including the photosynthetically active radiation, air temperature, and air humidity above canopy and the water content in 0-30 cm soil layer were monitored simultaneously. Combining with the tree morphological features and sap flux density, the whole-tree transpiration, canopy stomatal conductance, and ratio of leaf area to sapwood area were calculated by simplified Whitehead and Jarvis equation, and the effects of tree height on these three parameters were analyzed. The results indicated that under sufficient soil water supply, the whole-tree transpiration increased in a quadratic polynomial way with tree height (P < 0.01), and the diurnal variation of canopy stomatal conductance was of one-peak pattern. Within the measured range of photosynthetically active radiation, taller A. mangium trees had higher reference canopy stomatal conductance and higher sensitivity of canopy stomatal conductance to vapor pressure deficit, compared with the shorter ones. The ratio of leaf area to sapwood area was (1.837 +/- 0.048) m2 x cm(-2), and increased in power function with tree height. A. mangium had no obvious hydraulic limitation and PMID:19449559

  2. [Responses of canopy stomatal conductance of Acacia mangium forest to environmental driving factors].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ping; Rao, Xingquan; Ma, Ling; Cai, Xi'an; Zeng, Xiaoping

    2006-07-01

    Employing Granierś probes, this paper measured the sap flow of 14 sample trees in an Acacia mangium forest on the Heshan hilly lands of Guangdong Province, and recorded the photosynthetic active radiation (PAR), air relative humidity (RH) , and air temperature (T) above the forest canopy. The whole-tree transpiration (E), stand transpiration (Et), and mean canopy stomatal conductance (gc) were calculated, and the relationships between tree morphological characters and whole-tree water use as well as the responses of gc to PAR and vapor pressure deficit (D) were analyzed. The results showed that the whole-tree transpiration had logarithmical positive correlations with tree diameter at breast height (DBH) (P < 0.0001) , sapwood area (P < 0.0001) and canopy size (P = 0.0007), and an exponential positive correlation with tree height (P = 0. 014). The maximum gc (gc max) changed with PAR hyperbolically (P < 0.0001), and with D logarithmically (P < 0.0001). The sap flow measurement system used in this study was reliable and accurate in estimating the transpiration of whole-tree and stand and the canopy stomatal conductance, being an effective tool in studying the relationships between forest water use and environmental factors. PMID:17044483

  3. Tree sap flow and stand transpiration of two Acacia mangium plantations in Sabah, Borneo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cienciala, E.; Kučera, J.; Malmer, A.

    2000-09-01

    Water use of Acacia mangium trees grown in plantations was measured by a heat balance method in two stands that largely differed in tree density. Tree sap flow was closely coupled to climatic drivers and responded with minimal time delay. Using no time shift, sap flow rate could be tightly fitted to a simple equation that combined a parabolic response to radiation and an inverse linear response to air humidity. On the contrary, the analysis of canopy conductance showed no meaningful response to either individual or combined microclimatic variables. No indication of water deficit was observed, though the measurement period was during the dry period of the year. The measurements indicate a minimal diurnal use of water stored in plant tissues. The difference in tree water use from the two studied stands was effectively scaled by tree sapwood area. Canopy transpiration of the densest stand reached in average 3.9 mm d -1 compared with 2.7 mm d -1 for the stand representing the average conditions in the catchment.

  4. Isolation and characterization of flower-specific transcripts in Acacia mangium.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xing Jun; Cao, Xiang Ling; Hong, Yan

    2005-02-01

    Acacia mangium Willd. is a legume tree species native to subtropical and tropical regions of Asia and Australia. Many features of its flower development are common to other legume tree species. To identify genes involved in its floral development, we constructed a subtractive flower cDNA library against vegetative tissues. The 1123 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) represented 576 unique genes. Macroarray analysis further identified 147 of these genes as specific to the early, late or whole flowering process. Eight percent of these flower-specific genes encode MADS-domain-containing transcription factors and MYB proteins. Four percent encode other transcription factors and 10% encode regulatory proteins such as G proteins, kinases and phosphatases. Flower-specific transcripts for gibberellic acid (GA) synthesis and GA-induced proteins, as well as other stress- and pathogenesis-related genes (9%), implicate their involvement in A. mangium flower development. Eighteen percent of the flower-specific genes encode hypothetical proteins and 18% encode proteins of unknown functions. The RNA blot hybridization confirmed and detailed the expression patterns of selected genes. Functions of the A. mangium flower-specific genes are discussed based on comparison with their Arabidopsis homologues, most of which have been implicated in Arabidopsis floral development. Our work suggests general conservation of floral development in A. mangium and Arabidopsis. Further characterization of the conserved and different flower-specific genes will delineate the flowering process of this important legume tree species and facilitate genetic modification of its reproduction. PMID:15574398

  5. The phosphorus requirement of N2 -fixing and urea-fed Acacia mangium.

    PubMed

    Ribet, J M; Drevon, J J

    1996-03-01

    The fast-growing leguminous tree Acacia mangium Willd, was grown for at least 22 wk in aerated solution culture either under N2 -fixing conditions or with 2 mmol urea per plant per wk. Inorganic phosphorus was supplied at between 1 and 100 μmol P(1) per plant per wk: the latter was determined to be the optimum P supply for growth. The external P requirement for growth and the efficiency of utilization of internal P were similar for both N sources. However, shoot growth and the concentrations of N and P in leaves were decreased by P deficiency to a slightly higher extent in N2 -fixing plants than in urea-fed plants. Even though P deficiency limited nodule growth more drastically than it did shoot growth, the fraction of P allocated to both nodules and nodule nitrogenase activity (acetylene reduction) increased with P deficiency. It is concluded that this increase in nitrogenase activity reflects a higher N requirement per unit nodule mass in P-deficient plants and that, once nodules are fully functional the efficiency of utilization of internal P in N2 -fixing A. mangium is high compared with that of other N2 -fixing legumes. PMID:26763634

  6. [Litter decomposition and nutrient release in Acacia mangium plantations established on degraded soils of Colombia].

    PubMed

    Castellanos-Barliza, Jeiner; León Peláez, Juan Diego

    2011-03-01

    Several factors control the decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems such as humidity, temperature, quality of litter and microbial activity. We investigated the effects of rainfall and soil plowing prior to the establishment of Acacia mangium plantations, using the litterbag technique, during a six month period, in forests plantations in Bajo Cauca region, Colombia. The annual decomposition constants (k) of simple exponential model, oscillated between 1.24 and 1.80, meanwhile k1 y k2 decomposition constants of double exponential model were 0.88-1.81 and 0.58-7.01. At the end of the study, the mean residual dry matter (RDM) was 47% of the initial value for the three sites. We found a slow N, Ca and Mg release pattern from the A. mangium leaf litter, meanwhile, phosphorus (P) showed a dominant immobilization phase, suggesting its low availability in soils. Chemical leaf litter quality parameters (e.g. N and P concentrations, C/N, N/P ratios and phenols content) showed an important influence on decomposition rates. The results of this study indicated that rainfall plays an important role on the decomposition process, but not soil plowing. PMID:21516640

  7. Analysis of miRNAs and Their Targets during Adventitious Shoot Organogenesis of Acacia crassicarpa

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Lingyu; Wang, Xiaoyu; Zheng, Fei; Wang, Weixuan; Liang, Di; Yang, Hailun; Jin, Yi; Xie, Xiangming

    2014-01-01

    Organogenesis is an important process for plant regeneration by tissue or cell mass differentiation to regenerate a complete plant. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an essential role in regulating plant development by mediating target genes at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels, but the diversity of miRNAs and their potential roles in organogenesis of Acacia crassicarpa have rarely been investigated. In this study, approximately 10 million sequence reads were obtained from a small RNA library, from which 189 conserved miRNAs from 57 miRNA families, and 7 novel miRNAs from 5 families, were identified from A. crassicarpa organogenetic tissues. Target prediction for these miRNAs yielded 237 potentially unique genes, of which 207 received target Gene Ontology annotations. On the basis of a bioinformatic analysis, one novel and 13 conserved miRNAs were selected to investigate their possible roles in A. crassicarpa organogenesis by qRT-PCR. The stage-specific expression patterns of the miRNAs provided information on their possible regulatory functions, including shoot bud formation, modulated function after transfer of the culture to light, and regulatory roles during induction of organogenesis. This study is the first to investigate miRNAs associated with A. crassicarpa organogenesis. The results provide a foundation for further characterization of miRNA expression profiles and roles in the regulation of diverse physiological pathways during adventitious shoot organogenesis of A. crassicarpa. PMID:24718555

  8. Quinonoid constituents as contact sensitisers in Australian blackwood (Acacia melanoxylon RBR).

    PubMed Central

    Hausen, B M; Schmalle, H

    1981-01-01

    Australian blackwood (Acacia melanoxylon RBR) is a valuable commercial timber that since 1925 has been incriminated as being injurious to health. In addition to toxic effects numerous cases of allergic contact dermatitis and bronchial asthma have been observed in woodworkers. Several constituents have been identified in recent years, but none of them could be considered as aetiological factors. Sensitizing experiments performed with blackwood heartwood extracts corroborated the described sensitising properties. Chemical studies showed the occurrence of two or possibly three quinones that produced positive skin responses in the sensitised guinea pigs. The main contact allergens were isolated and identified by x-ray analysis. The first, a yellow quinone, was identified as 2,6-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone while the second, a red quinone, has the structure of 6-methoxy-2-methyl-3,5-dihydrobenzofurano-4,7-dion and was named acamelin. Whereas 2, 6-dimethoxy-p-benzoquinone is already known from natural sources, acamelin is new and belongs to the rate group of naturally occurring furanoquinones. Though the obtained sensitising capacity of A melanoxylon RBR in respect of its quinones is not high, it should be considered as a possible source of allergic contact dermatitis, especially as greater amounts of Australian blackwood may enter European countries in the near future. PMID:7236533

  9. Antioxidant and anti-acetylcholinesterase activities of extracts and secondary metabolites from Acacia cyanophylla

    PubMed Central

    Ghribia, Lotfi; Ghouilaa, Hatem; Omrib, Amel; Besbesb, Malek; Janneta, Hichem Ben

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the antioxidant potential and anti-acetycholinesterase activity of compounds and extracts from Acacia cyanophylla (A. cyanophylla). Methods Three polyphenolic compounds were isolated from ethyl acetate extract of A. cyanophylla flowers. They have been identified as isosalipurposide 1, quercetin 2 and naringenin 3. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR experiments as well as ES-MS. The prepared extracts and the isolated compounds 1-3 were tested for their antioxidant activity using 1′-1′-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) scavenging assays and reducing power. They have been also investigated for inhibitory effect against acetylcholinesterase using the microplate assay. Results In the DPPH test, the EtOAc extract of flowers exhibited the highest antioxidant effect (67.26 µg/mL). Isosalipurposide 1 showed a significant antiradical power against DPPH (81.9 µg/mL). All extracts showed a dose-dependent acetylcholinesterase inhibition. In terms of the IC50 value, the butanolic extract (16.03 µg/mL) was the most potent sample. Isosalipurposide 1 was found to be active against AChE with an IC50 value of 52.04 µg/mL. Conclusions The results demonstrated the important antioxidant and anti-acetylcholinesterase activity of pure compounds and extracts from A. cyanophylla. PMID:25183120

  10. Gene expression responses of paper birch to elevated O3 and CO2 during leaf maturation and senescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontunen-Soppela, S.; Parviainen, J.; Ruhanen, H.; Brosché, M.; Keinanen, M.; Thakur, R. C.; Kolehmainen, M.; Kangasjarvi, J.; Oksanen, E.; Karnosky, D. F.; Vapaavuori, E.

    2009-12-01

    Forest trees are exposed to increasing concentrations of O3 and CO2 simultaneously. The rise of concentration in these gases causes changes in the gene expression of trees, which can be small in acclimated trees, but yet pivotal for the metabolism of the trees. We have studied the response of paper birch (Betula papyrifera) leaf gene expression to elevated O3 and CO2 concentrations during leaf maturation and senescence. The hypotheses were:(1) Elevated O3 induces oxidative stress in leaves. During long O3-exposure repair mechanisms are activated. Because chemical defense requires energy and carbon uptake is reduced, leaf senescence is activated earlier. Alternatively, the senescence-associated processes, remobilization and storage of carbohydrates and nutrients, may not be completed. (2) In the combination of elevated CO2+O3, the O3-caused damages are not seen or they are smaller, due to closure of the stomata under elevated CO2 and decreased O3 uptake by the leaves. On the other hand, elevated CO2 may provide energy and increase defense chemicals, enabling leaves to repair the O3-caused damages. Gene expression responses of paper birch leaves to elevated O3 and CO2 were studied with microarray analyses. Samples were collected from the long-term O3 and CO2 fumigation experiment Aspen FACE in Rhinelander, WI, USA (http://aspenface.mtu.edu/). The site contains 12 FACE rings receiving CO2, O3, CO2+O3, and ambient air (controls). Birches have been exposed to elevated CO2 (550ppm) and O3 (1.5X ambient) since 1998. Leaf samples were collected in July, August and September 2004. The cDNA-microarrays used for hybridizations consisted of Populus euphratica ESTs representing ca 6500 different genes. In order to detect similar gene expression patterns within samplings and treatments, the microarray data was analyzed with multivariate methods; clustering with Self-Organizing Map, finding optimal cluster grouping by K-means clustering and visualizing the results with Sammon

  11. General road detection from a single image.

    PubMed

    Kong, Hui; Audibert, Jean-Yves; Ponce, Jean

    2010-08-01

    Given a single image of an arbitrary road, that may not be well-paved, or have clearly delineated edges, or some a priori known color or texture distribution, is it possible for a computer to find this road? This paper addresses this question by decomposing the road detection process into two steps: the estimation of the vanishing point associated with the main (straight) part of the road, followed by the segmentation of the corresponding road area based upon the detected vanishing point. The main technical contributions of the proposed approach are a novel adaptive soft voting scheme based upon a local voting region using high-confidence voters, whose texture orientations are computed using Gabor filters, and a new vanishing-point-constrained edge detection technique for detecting road boundaries. The proposed method has been implemented, and experiments with 1003 general road images demonstrate that it is effective at detecting road regions in challenging conditions. PMID:20371404

  12. Road surface texture and skid resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, Minh-Tan; Cerezo, Veronique

    2015-12-01

    This paper deals with the relationship between road surface texture and skid resistance. Mechanisms underlying the tire/wet road friction are first described. Definitions of road surface irregularities scales are given. The rest of the paper is then focused on the macrotexture and microtexture scales and their respective roles in what happens at the tire/road interface. Existing methods to measure and characterize the road surface texture are presented. On the one hand, problems encountered when using sensors developed for machined surfaces for the measurement of road surface profiles or cartographies are discussed. On the other hand, potential improvements when applying characterization methods developed for machined surfaces to road surfaces are highlighted. The paper presents finally modeling approaches to calculate friction forces from road surface texture. The generalized form of the models is presented from which terms related respectively to the macrotexture and the microtexture are identified. Approaches used to calculate these terms, integrating eventually other variables, are presented.

  13. Assessment of hydrology, water quality, and trace elements in selected placer-mined creeks in the birch creek watershed near central, Alaska, 2001-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennedy, Ben W.; Langley, Dustin E.

    2007-01-01

    Executive Summary The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, completed an assessment of hydrology, water quality, and trace-element concentrations in streambed sediment of the upper Birch Creek watershed near Central, Alaska. The assessment covered one site on upper Birch Creek and paired sites, upstream and downstream from mined areas, on Frying Pan Creek and Harrison Creek. Stream-discharge and suspended-sediment concentration data collected at other selected mined and unmined sites helped characterize conditions in the upper Birch Creek watershed. The purpose of the project was to provide the Bureau of Land Management with baseline information to evaluate watershed water quality and plan reclamation efforts. Data collection began in September 2001 and ended in September 2005. There were substantial geomorphic disturbances in the stream channel and flood plain along several miles of Harrison Creek. Placer mining has physically altered the natural stream channel morphology and removed streamside vegetation. There has been little or no effort to re-contour waste rock piles. During high-flow events, the abandoned placer-mine areas on Harrison Creek will likely contribute large quantities of sediment downstream unless the mined areas are reclaimed. During 2004 and 2005, no substantial changes in nutrient or major-ion concentrations were detected in water samples collected upstream from mined areas compared with water samples collected downstream from mined areas on Frying Pan Creek and Harrison Creek that could not be attributed to natural variation. This also was true for dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance-a measure of total dissolved solids. Sample sites downstream from mined areas on Harrison Creek and Frying Pan Creek had higher median suspended-sediment concentrations, by a few milligrams per liter, than respective upstream sites. However, it is difficult to attach much importance to the small downstream increase

  14. 2. AERIAL VIEW, SHOWING GLENDALE ROAD BRIDGE WITHIN ITS SETTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW, SHOWING GLENDALE ROAD BRIDGE WITHIN ITS SETTING AT GLENDALE ROAD CROSSING OF DEEP CREEK LAKE (PHOTOGRAPH BY RUTHVAN MORROW) - Glendale Road Bridge, Spanning Deep Creek Lake on Glendale Road, McHenry, Garrett County, MD

  15. 1. AERIAL VIEW, SHOWING GLENDALE ROAD BRIDGE WITHIN ITS SETTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW, SHOWING GLENDALE ROAD BRIDGE WITHIN ITS SETTING AT GLENDALE ROAD CROSSING OF DEEP CREEK LAKE (PHOTOGRAPH BY RUTHVAN MORROW) - Glendale Road Bridge, Spanning Deep Creek Lake on Glendale Road, McHenry, Garrett County, MD

  16. 35. PRATER GRADE ROAD VIEW, FACING NW. NOTE WEATHERING STEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. PRATER GRADE ROAD VIEW, FACING NW. NOTE WEATHERING STEEL RAIL AND ROAD CUT IN DISTANCE. MONTEZUMA VALLEY OVERLOOK IS JUST TO RIGHT OF DISTANT ROAD CUT. - Mesa Verde National Park Main Entrance Road, Cortez, Montezuma County, CO

  17. 6. ELEVATED, OBLIQUE VIEW OF INTERSECTION INFRASTRUCTURE AT LATROBE ROAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. ELEVATED, OBLIQUE VIEW OF INTERSECTION INFRASTRUCTURE AT LATROBE ROAD AND WHITE ROCK ROAD; VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Placerville Road, White Rock Road between Clarksville & White Rock, El Dorado Hills, El Dorado County, CA

  18. Old Big Oak Flat Road at intersection with New Tioga ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Old Big Oak Flat Road at intersection with New Tioga Road. Note gate for road to Tamarack Campground - Big Oak Flat Road, Between Big Oak Flat Entrance & Merced River, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  19. 3. ENVIRONMENT, FROM SOUTH, SHOWING RIVER ROAD RIDGE CARRYING CASSELMAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. ENVIRONMENT, FROM SOUTH, SHOWING RIVER ROAD RIDGE CARRYING CASSELMAN RIVER ROAD OVER CASSELMAN RIVER - River Road Bridge, Crossing Casselman River on Casselman River Road, Grantsville, Garrett County, MD

  20. Influence of the Oil Phase and Topical Formulation on the Wound Healing Ability of a Birch Bark Dry Extract.

    PubMed

    Steinbrenner, Isabel; Houdek, Pia; Pollok, Simone; Brandner, Johanna M; Daniels, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Triterpenes from the outer bark of birch are known for various pharmacological effects including enhanced wound healing (WH). A birch bark dry extract (TE) obtained by accelerated solvent extraction showed the ability to form oleogels when it is suspended in oils. Consistency of the oleogels and the dissolved amount of triterpenes varies largely with the used oil. Here we wanted to know to what extent different oils and formulations (oleogel versus o/w emulsion) influence WH. Looking at the plain oils, medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) enhanced WH (ca. 1.4-fold), while e.g. castor oil (ca.0.3-fold) or light liquid paraffin (LLP; ca. 0.5-fold) significantly decreased WH. Concerning the respective oleogels, TE-MCT showed no improvement although the solubility of the TE was high. In contrast, the oleogel of sunflower oil which alone showed a slight tendency to impair WH, enhanced WH significantly (ca. 1.6-fold). These results can be explained by release experiments where the release rate of betulin, the main component of TE, from MCT oleogels was significantly lower than from sunflower oil oleogels. LLP impaired WH as plain oil and even though it released betulin comparable to sunflower oil it still results in an overall negative effect of the oleogel on WH. As a further formulation option also surfactant free o/w emulsions were prepared using MCT, sunflower oil and LLP as a nonpolar oil phase. Depending on the preparation method (suspension or oleogel method) the distribution of the TE varied markedly and affected also release kinetics. However, the released betulin was clearly below the values measured with the respective oleogels. Consequently, none of the emulsions showed a significantly positive effect on WH. In conclusion, our data show that the oil used as a vehicle influences wound healing not only by affecting the release of the extract, but also by having its own vehicle effect on wound healing. This is also of importance for other applications where drugs