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  1. Helping Your Child through Early Adolescence -- Helping Your Child Series

    MedlinePlus

    ... CHILD'S ACADEMIC SUCCESS Helping Your Child Through Early Adolescence -- Helping Your Child Series PDF (1 MB) For ... Acknowledgements Tips to Help Your Child through Early Adolescence No Child Left Behind < Previous page | ^ Top ^ | Next ...

  2. Child Maltreatment and Adolescent Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trickett, Penelope K.; Negriff, Sonya; Ji, Juye; Peckins, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect, often collectively called child maltreatment, are huge social problems affecting millions of children and adolescents in America. Adolescents are affected both by maltreatment which occurred during childhood with lingering effects and by maltreatment that continues into or begins in adolescence. Several decades of research…

  3. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

    MedlinePlus

    ... aacap.org for questions. Be CAPtivated - Child and Adolescent Psychiatry as a Career AACAP's Current Award Opportunities ... More... AACAP Workforce Maps More... Delirium in Children & Adolescents More... Issues to Consider When Engaging Asian American ...

  4. Research in child and adolescent telemental health.

    PubMed

    Myers, Kathleen M; Palmer, Nancy B; Geyer, John R

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade telepsychiatry, and more broadly telemental health (TMH), services with children and adolescents have been implemented with diverse populations in many geographic areas across the United States. The feasibility and acceptability of child and adolescent TMH have been well demonstrated, but little research exists on the efficacy and effectiveness of TMH in improving the mental health care and outcomes for underserved youth. This article summarizes the state of research in child and adolescent telemental health TMH and examines studies in other areas of telemedicine that may inspire and guide child and adolescent telepsychiatrists to collect data on the process and outcomes of their own work.

  5. The Importance of Child and Adolescent Psychopathy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrington, David P.

    2005-01-01

    In commenting on the five articles in this special issue, this paper discusses (1) the concept of child and adolescent psychopathy, and whether adolescent psychopaths are qualitatively distinct from other young people; (2) the measurement of adolescent psychopathy; (3) the relationship between psychopathy and other personality dimensions; (4)…

  6. Ethical issues in child and adolescent psychiatry.

    PubMed Central

    Green, J; Stewart, A

    1987-01-01

    This paper concerns the special ethical problems in child and adolescent psychiatry which relate to the child as a developing being. Two themes are discussed--the sense of responsibility in the child, and the therapist's responsibility towards the child. As a background to understanding the former, ideas on moral and cognitive development are reviewed. The therapist's responsibility is discussed in relation to different styles of therapy and the ethical issues they raise. The article concludes with a number of suggested ethical principles. PMID:3572994

  7. Fifty Years in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werry, John

    2013-01-01

    John Werry completed training in child and adolescent psychiatry at McGill University in Montreal, and has been a world renowned leader in children's mental health. Drawing on a half century of work in Canada, the United States, and his native New Zealand, he shares his reflections and vision for the future in the interview given for this…

  8. The Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Trials Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    March, John S.; Silva, Susan G.; Compton, Scott; Anthony, Ginger; DeVeaugh-Geiss, Joseph; Califf, Robert; Krishnan, Ranga

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The current generation of clinical trials in pediatric psychiatry often fails to maximize clinical utility for practicing clinicians, thereby diluting its impact. Method: To attain maximum clinical relevance and acceptability, the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Trials Network (CAPTN) will transport to pediatric psychiatry the practical…

  9. Social Neuroscience of Child and Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Anita

    2007-01-01

    The social neuroscience of child and adolescent depression is inherently multidisciplinary. Depressive disorders beginning early in life can have serious developmental and functional consequences. Psychopathology research has described depression's defining clinical and contextual features, and intervention research has characterized its response…

  10. Adolescent risk factors for child maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Thornberry, Terence P; Matsuda, Mauri; Greenman, Sarah J; Augustyn, Megan Bears; Henry, Kimberly L; Smith, Carolyn A; Ireland, Timothy O

    2014-04-01

    We investigate adolescent risk factors, measured at both early and late adolescence, for involvement in child maltreatment during adulthood. Comprehensive assessments of risk factors for maltreatment that use representative samples with longitudinal data are scarce and can inform multilevel prevention. We use data from the Rochester Youth Development Study, a longitudinal study begun in 1988 with a sample of 1,000 seventh and eighth graders. Participants have been interviewed 14 times and, at the last assessment (age 31), 80% were retained. Risk factors represent 10 developmental domains: area characteristics, family background/structure, parent stressors, exposure to family violence, parent-child relationships, education, peer relationships, adolescent stressors, antisocial behaviors, and precocious transitions to adulthood. Maltreatment is measured by substantiated reports from Child Protective Services records. Many individual risk factors (20 at early adolescence and 14 at later adolescence) are significantly, albeit moderately, predictive of maltreatment. Several developmental domains stand out, including family background/structure, education, antisocial behaviors, and precocious transitions. In addition, there is a pronounced impact of cumulative risk on the likelihood of maltreatment. For example, only 3% of the youth with no risk domains in their background at early adolescence were involved in later maltreatment, but for those with risk in 9 developmental domains the rate was 45%. Prevention programs targeting youth at high risk for engaging in maltreatment should begin during early adolescence when risk factors are already at play. These programs need to be comprehensive, capable of addressing the multiple and interwoven nature of risk that is associated with maltreatment.

  11. Adolescent Risk Factors for Child Maltreatment

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Mauri; Greenman, Sarah J.; Augustyn, Megan Bears; Henry, Kimberly L.; Smith, Carolyn A.; Ireland, Timothy O.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate adolescent risk factors, measured at both early and late adolescence, for involvement in child maltreatment during adulthood. Comprehensive assessments of risk factors for maltreatment that use representative samples with longitudinal data are scarce and can inform multilevel prevention. We use data from the Rochester Youth Development Study, a longitudinal study begun in 1988 with a sample of 1,000 seventh and eighth graders. Participants have been interviewed 14 times and, at the last assessment (age 31), 80% were retained. Risk factors represent 10 developmental domains: area characteristics, family background/structure, parent stressors, exposure to family violence, parent-child relationships, education, peer relationships, adolescent stressors, antisocial behaviors, and precocious transitions to adulthood. Maltreatment is measured by substantiated reports from Child Protective Services records. Many individual risk factors (20 at early adolescence and 14 at later adolescence) are significantly, albeit moderately, predictive of maltreatment. Several developmental domains stand out, including family background/structure, education, antisocial behaviors, and precocious transitions. In addition, there is a pronounced impact of cumulative risk on the likelihood of maltreatment. For example, only 3% of the youth with no risk domains in their background at early adolescence were involved in later maltreatment, but for those with risk in 9 developmental domains the rate was 45%. Prevention programs targeting youth at high risk for engaging in maltreatment should begin during early adolescence when risk factors are already at play. These programs need to be comprehensive, capable of addressing the multiple and interwoven nature of risk that is associated with maltreatment. PMID:24075569

  12. Psychosocial adjustment in adolescent child molesters.

    PubMed

    Katz, R C

    1990-01-01

    This study compared adolescent child molesters (n = 31) with nonsex offending delinquents (n = 34) and normal adolescents (n = 71) on standardized measures of social competence and psychological adjustment. The measures included the Adolescent Assertiveness Scale, the Survey of Heterosocial Interactions, the Self-Consciousness Scale, the Social Anxiety and Distress Scale, the Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale, the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Norwicki-Strickland Locus of Control Scale, and the Jesness Inventory. Results were consistent with predictions. Molesters showed significantly more global maladjustment than normals and were more socially anxious and threatened by heterosocial interactions than nonsex offending delinquents. A discriminant function analysis suggested that molesters, more than delinquents, were likely to perceive themselves as socially inadequate and to be externally oriented in their attributional style. Results support the hypothesis that social skill deficits and social isolation are risk factors that may predispose some adolescents to commit sexual crimes against children.

  13. Child and Adolescent Psychiatrists' Practices in Assisting Their Adolescent Patients Who Smoke to Quit Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, James H.; Sidani, Jaime E.; Price, Joy A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This national study examined the practices and perceptions of smoking cessation activities among child and adolescent psychiatrists. Method: A random sample of child and adolescent psychiatrists was identified from the membership list of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and was mailed a valid and reliable 34-item…

  14. Perceptions of Child Support and Sexual Activity of Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chien-Chung; Han, Wen-Jui

    2004-01-01

    Using the 1995 new cohort of the National Survey of Adolescent Males, this paper examines the association between perceptions of child support and adolescent males' sexual activity. The results indicate that adolescent males who expect the chance of being required to pay child support is high if one becomes a non-resident father or who has a…

  15. Histories of Child Maltreatment and Psychiatric Disorder in Pregnant Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Elisa; Zoccolillo, Mark; Paquette, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The study investigated histories of child maltreatment and psychiatric disorder in a high-risk sample of pregnant adolescents. Method: Cross-sectional data were obtained for 252 pregnant adolescents from high school, hospital, and group home settings in Montreal (Canada). Adolescents completed a child maltreatment questionnaire and a…

  16. Factors Affecting Recruitment into Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Jon A.; Lewis, John E.; Katyal, Shalini

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors studied the factors affecting the recruitment into child and adolescent psychiatry training in the United States. Methods: Medical students (n = 154) and general and child and adolescent psychiatry residents (n = 111) completed a questionnaire to evaluate career choice in child psychiatry (n = 265). Results: Compared with…

  17. Parent-Child Communication and Parental Involvement in Latino Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Tatiana M.; Cardemil, Esteban V.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the associations among parent-child relationship characteristics, acculturation and enculturation, and child externalizing symptoms in a sample of 40 Latino parent-adolescent dyads. Specifically, the associations between parent-child relationship characteristics (i.e., communication and parental involvement) and adolescents'…

  18. [Child and adolescent gynecology. Introduction to the focal topic 'Child and adolescent gynecology'].

    PubMed

    Anthuber, Sabine; Hepp, H

    2003-06-01

    Valuable knowledge from the subspecialty of child and adolescent gynecology is of considerable importance for the clinically active pediatrician and gynecologist. Focal topics such as sexual violence to children and young adults, undesired pregnancies and pregnancy termination should not only be made known in the media, but also to specialists, so that successful prevention and treatment can be carried out. Furthermore, endocrinological problems and genital malformations in adolescence should be detectable and treatable. PMID:12806190

  19. [Pharmacovigilance in child and adolescent psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Egberts, Karin; Karwautz, Andreas; Plener, Paul L; Mehler-Wex, Claudia; Kölch, Michael; Dang, Su-Yin; Taurines, Regina; Romanos, Marcel; Gerlach, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    Rational pharmacotherapy is a challenging task in child and adolescent psychiatry. Increasing prescription numbers contrast with the uncertainties of safety and efficacy issues. The lack of clinical (authorization) trials often implies a non- age-specific use of drugs. However, young patients show particular metabolic conditions and a higher vulnerability for adverse drug reactions. Thus it seems mandatory to create age-specific pharmacological data about efficacy and safety of psychotropic drug use in minors. Legislation authorities became aware of this situation and introduced European and national scientific pharmacovigilance regulations and programmes accordingly in order to continuously evaluate the benefit-risk-ratio, detect, collect, minimize, and prevent adverse effects of drugs by appropriate measures, e.g., therapeutic drug monitoring. In this paper the principles and needs of pharmacovigilance in child and adolescent psychiatry are discussed. Furthermore a large multicenter clinical trial («TDM-VIGIL»), funded by the German Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices, is presented, which appeals to collect epidemiological prescription and safety data of psychotropic drugs in children and adolescents using an internet-based data infrastructure (patient registry).

  20. A Data Book of Child and Adolescent Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health, Washington, DC.

    This booklet contains 54 graphs and accompanying narrative which summarize available data on child and adolescent non-natural injuries and deaths and are intended to help in the multi-disciplinary and multi-agency "Healthy People 2000" campaign to improve the nation's health and prevent needless child and adolescent injuries. Graphs illustrate…

  1. Family Therapy Training in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Fellowship Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rait, Douglas Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study describes the current state of family therapy training in a sample of child and adolescent psychiatry fellowship programs. Method: Child and adolescent psychiatry fellows (N = 66) from seven training programs completed a questionnaire assessing demographics, family therapy training experiences, common models of treatment and…

  2. Resolution of Parent-Child Conflicts in the Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Ruiz, Marta; Rodrigo, Maria Jose; Hernandez-Cabrera, Juan Andres; Maiquez, Maria Luisa; Dekovic, Maja

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the study were: (1) to examine whether adolescents' attachment and the perceived quality of the communication with their parents relate to effective resolution of parent-child conflicts and (2) to determine whether the pattern of associations changes with adolescents' gender and age. The sample consisted of 295 adolescents who filled…

  3. Developmental Changes in Parent-Child Communication throughout Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keijsers, Loes; Poulin, François

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how parent-child communication regarding adolescent unsupervised activities develops over the course of adolescence. We used questionnaire data from 390 adolescents (58% girls; 90% European Canadian) who were followed from age 12 to 19. Latent growth curve modeling revealed curvilinear developmental changes that differed for…

  4. Maternal Smoking in Pregnancy, Child Behavior Problems, and Adolescent Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griesler, Pamela C.; Kandel, Denise B.; Davies, Mark

    1998-01-01

    Used longitudinal sample of 187 mother-child dyads to examine the role of child behavior problems in explaining the effect of maternal prenatal smoking on adolescent daughters' smoking. Found that maternal prenatal smoking retained a unique effect on girls' current smoking with controls for current maternal smoking, child behavior problems, and…

  5. [Diagnosis of child and adolescent nutritional status

    PubMed

    Sigulem, D M; Devincenzi, M U; Lessa, A C

    2000-11-01

    OBJECTIVE: To present a review on the methods for the assessment of child and adolescent nutritional status, emphasizing anthropometry and the various methods for the assessment of body composition; pointing out their advantages, limitations and risks. METHODS: Chapters of textbooks, theses, and articles relevant to the topic, as well as personal files and authors previous publications were selected. RESULTS: Anthropometry, which consists of the assessment of physical dimensions and global composition of the human body, has been regarded as the most frequently used isolated method for nutritional diagnosis, especially in childhood and adolescence, due to its ease of use, low cost and innocuousness. The most frequently adopted measurements aim at determining body mass, expressed by weight; linear dimensions, especially height; body composition and reserves of energy and proteins, estimated through subcutaneous fat and muscle mass. Laboratorial methods especially developed for the assessment of body composition are presented here. The justification for the use of methods that expose children and adolescents to ionizing radiation is also presented. CONCLUSIONS: On defining methods for the assessment of nutritional status, we should select those that better detect the nutritional deficiencies we want to correct, also taking into consideration their costs, level of personal skill required for their proper application, necessary time for application, acceptability by the studied population and possible health risks. PMID:14676905

  6. Child and adolescent mental health emergency services in Macedonia.

    PubMed

    Releva, M; Boskovska, M; Apceva, A; Polazarevska, M; Novotni, A; Bonevski, D; Sargent, J

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the development of child and adolescent mental health emergency services in Macedonia since 1993. The evolution of services through the Mental Crisis Centre for Children and Adolescents, funded by the Open Society Institute, and located in six cities is outlined. The paper also defines traditional services, the nature of child mental health emergencies, the evaluation process, follow-up care and training and supervision. It concludes with concern that the mental health emergency system is not sufficient to meet the needs of the child and adolescent population, particularly in the face of the Kosovar refugee crisis. Recommendations for the future are made. PMID:11508566

  7. Ethics and risk management in administrative child and adolescent psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Sondheimer, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    This article examines ethics (the philosophic study of "doing the right thing") and risk management (the practice that seeks to manage the likelihood of "doing the wrong thing") and the relationship between them in the context of administrative child and adolescent psychiatry. Issues that affect child and adolescent psychiatrists who manage staff and business units and clinical practitioners who treat and manage individual patients are addressed. Malpractice, budgeting, credentialing, boundaries, assessment, documentation, treatment, research, dangerousness, and confidentiality are among the topics reviewed.

  8. Child and adolescent psychiatry leadership in public mental health, child welfare, and developmental disabilities agencies.

    PubMed

    Zachik, Albert A; Naylor, Michael W; Klaehn, Robert L

    2010-01-01

    Child and adolescent psychiatrists are in a unique position to provide administrative and clinical leadership to public agencies. In mental health, services for children and adolescents in early childhood, school, child welfare, and juvenile justice settings, transition-aged youth programs, workforce development, family and youth leadership programs, and use of Medicaid waivers for home- and community-based service system development are described. In child welfare, collaboration between an academic child psychiatry department and a state child welfare department is described. In developmental disabilities, the role of the child and adolescent psychiatrist administrator is described providing administrative leadership, clinical consultation, quality review, and oversight of health and behavioral health plans for persons with developmental disabilities.

  9. An analysis of adolescent suicide attempts: the expendable child.

    PubMed

    Woznica, J G; Shapiro, J R

    1990-12-01

    Assessed the concept of the "expendable child" syndrome proposed by Sabbath (1969) as a contributing factor in adolescent suicide attempts. It was hypothesized that suicidal adolescents would be rated higher on a measure of "expendability" than would a psychiatric control group of adolescents with no known history of suicide attempts or ideation. Forty adolescents, ages 13-24, who had been seen in psychotherapy at a teen-age health clinic, were rated by their psychotherapists on suicidality and a 12-item scale of expendability (a sense of being unwanted and/or a burden on the family). As predicted, suicidal adolescents received significantly higher ratings on the expendability measure than nonsuicidal adolescents. Results support the concept that feeling expendable is a characteristic of suicidal adolescents. Implications for prevention and treatment of adolescent suicidality are discussed.

  10. [Child and adolescent workers: a commitment for collective health

    PubMed

    Minayo-Gomez; Meirelles

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents some issues pertaining to child and adolescent labor and their impact on health, pointing out the main structural characteristics which are responsible for and socially justify the early incorporation of this segment into the labor market. In Brazil, legislation governing adolescent labor is frequently ignored, showing the need to implement health surveillance programs involving both public institutions and civil rights movements.

  11. Is There an Epidemic of Child or Adolescent Depression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costello, E. Jane; Erkanli, Alaattin; Angold, Adrian

    2006-01-01

    Background: Both the professional and the general media have recently published concerns about an "epidemic" of child and adolescent depression. Reasons for this concern include (1) increases in antidepressant prescriptions, (2) retrospective recall by successive birth cohorts of adults, (3) rising adolescent suicide rates until 1990, and (4)…

  12. Child and Adolescent Mental Health: Building a System of Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Barbara G.; Collins, Thomas M.

    1994-01-01

    Examines unnecessary hospitalization and inadequacy of community services for children and adolescents with serious emotional or behavioral disorders. Discusses barriers that impede improved mental health services systems for children and their families and presents Child and Adolescent Service System Program "system of care" model as alternative.…

  13. Developmental changes in parent-child communication throughout adolescence.

    PubMed

    Keijsers, Loes; Poulin, François

    2013-12-01

    This study examined how parent-child communication regarding adolescent unsupervised activities develops over the course of adolescence. We used questionnaire data from 390 adolescents (58% girls; 90% European Canadian) who were followed from age 12 to 19. Latent growth curve modeling revealed curvilinear developmental changes that differed for boys and girls. From age 14 to 19 (but not from age 12 to 14) a linear decrease in parental control was found for both genders. For girls, parent-child communication decreased in early adolescence, as indicated by decreasing parental solicitation, decreasing adolescent disclosure, and increasing secrecy. Girls' communication with parents intensified in middle adolescence, as indicated by increasing parental solicitation, increasing adolescent disclosure, and decreasing adolescent secrecy. For boys, disclosure declined in early adolescence, but secrecy and solicitation were stable throughout adolescence. Parental knowledge decreased from age 12 to 19 for both genders but was temporarily stable for middle adolescent girls. The meaning of these developmental changes, their timing, and gender differences are discussed.

  14. Clinical Assessment of Child and Adolescent Sleep Disturbance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Brett R.; Mayfield, Joan W.; Kuhn, Robert H.

    1999-01-01

    Provides guidelines for counselors interested in developing their own assessment procedure to evaluate child and adolescent sleep disturbance. Guidelines include reviewing the developmental and medical history, screening for parental psychopathology, obtaining a child behavior rating scale and sleep diary, and conducting a semistructured clinical…

  15. Review of Child and Adolescent Refugee Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lustig, Stuart L.; Kia-Keating, Maryam; Knight, Wanda Grant; Geltman, Paul; Ellis, Heidi; Kinzie, J. David; Keane, Terence; Saxe, Glenn N.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To review stressful experiences and stress reactions among child and adolescent refugees, as well as interventions and ethical considerations in research and clinical work, within the framework of the chronological experiences of child refugees; namely, the phases of preflight, flight, and resettlement. Highlighted are special refugee…

  16. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Training: A Global Perspective.

    PubMed

    Mian, Ayesha I; Milavić, Gordana; Skokauskas, Norbert

    2015-10-01

    Training programs aim to produce child and adolescent psychiatry professionals who are competent at both clinical work as well as health promotion through teaching and research. Child psychiatry training programs not only offer training in teaching the clinical skills of the discipline of child and adolescent psychiatry but also strive to help with the development of professionalism, ethical behaviors, and leadership skills in their trainees. Ultimately, it is the children of the world who stand to gain by having a skilled work force that adheres to the highest global standards when it comes to the provision of mental health services.

  17. Ethics in child and adolescent forensic psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Ratner, Richard A

    2002-10-01

    Ethical concerns are ever present in the practice of all branches of psychiatry. They are likely to be more acute and commonplace in the practice of child and adolescent psychiatry because of the complication introduced by the immaturity of the patient. Children, depending on their age and developmental stage, may be incapable of giving meaningful consent, and situations in which breaking confidentiality must be considered arise more often. The field of forensic psychiatry is fundamentally different from clinical psychiatry because of the universal involvement of third parties and because interactions with evaluees do not occur within the context of a doctor patient relationship. Arguably, these conditions compel the forensic psychiatrist to function as a double agent. According to Appelbaum, an influential psychiatric ethicist, forensic practice calls for a different set of ethical guidelines that, while humane, do not either imply or derive from the existence of a doctor patient relationship. Others argue that a mix of forensic and clinical ethics is more appropriate. New developments in psychiatry, including the use of the Internet for E-mail and telepsychiatry, require continuing vigilance by the profession so that ethical standards can evolve to cover new circumstances at the frontiers of psychiatric practice.

  18. Academic Training in a Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Fellowship: A Curriculum Based on Leadership Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivany, Christopher G.; Russell, Robert K.; Vanessa, Venezia A.; Saito, Albert Y.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe how one child and adolescent psychiatry fellowship program responded to emerging trends in clinical practice which increasingly demand that child and adolescent psychiatrists lead their colleagues through instruction and supervision. Methods: Data from surveys of recent graduates of child and adolescent training…

  19. Correlates of Child Maltreatment Among Adolescent Mothers With Young Children.

    PubMed

    Scannapieco, Maria; Connell-Carrick, Kelli

    2016-01-01

    Child maltreatment and teen pregnancy are serious social problems facing America today. In 2010, 3.3 million referrals of child abuse and neglect resulted in approximately 461,297 confirmed victims. Teen pregnancy has similarly been a cause of serious political and social concern. Although the teen birth rate has declined overall during the last half century, the United States still has a higher teen birth rate than other industrialized countries. Young maternal age is generally considered a risk factor for child maltreatment. What is not known is what separates adolescent mothers who maltreat their children and those who do not. This study compares the ecological correlates of adolescent mothers who maltreat their children to adolescent mothers who do not maltreat. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.

  20. Adolescent Hope as a Mediator between Parent-Child Connectedness and Adolescent Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Hardy, Sam A.; Christensen, Katherine J.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines adolescent hope as a mediator between connectedness to mother and father, and positive and negative child outcomes. Participants included 489 adolescents aged 9 to 14 years (M = 11.29; SD = 1.01) and their parents from the "Flourishing Families Project", and data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results…

  1. "My Mom Makes Me So Angry!" Adolescent Perceptions of Mother-Child Interactions as Correlates of Adolescent Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine adolescents' perceptions of mother-child interactions as correlates of adolescents' positive, negative, and guilt emotions. Two hundred thirty-four adolescents (M age = 16.39, SD = 1.17) completed measures assessing parenting practices in response to typical mother-child interactions in both positive…

  2. Family-based Treatment of Child and Adolescent Eating Disorders.

    PubMed

    Forsberg, Sarah; Lock, James

    2015-07-01

    Best-practice guidelines for the treatment of child and adolescent eating disorders recommend the inclusion of parents. Family-based treatment (FBT) posits that families are not only important in supporting their children but are critical change agents in the recovery process. As originally developed for anorexia nervosa, parents take a central role in managing and disrupting eating disorder symptoms. The most evidence-based treatment model for adolescent anorexia nervosa, FBT has also recently been found to be useful in the treatment of adolescent bulimia nervosa. This article provides a summary of the theoretic model, evidence base, and application of FBT.

  3. Child and Adolescent Therapy: Cognitive-Behavioral Procedures. Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Philip C., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Widely regarded as the definitive clinical reference and text in the field, this authoritative volume presents effective cognitive-behavioral approaches for treating frequently encountered child and adolescent disorders. The editor and contributors are leading experts who provide hands-on, how-to-do-it descriptions illustrated with clinical…

  4. Guide to Your Child's Sleep: Birth through Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, George J., Ed.

    Because sleep disturbances are common in childhood, almost every parent will have to deal with a child's sleeptime problems at some point. This guide offers information on sleep in children from birth through adolescence. The book answers common questions from parents, and provides advice on preventing Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, getting infants…

  5. CATCH: Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health. [Multimedia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Heart, Lung, and Blood Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) of the National Institutes of Health has launched an initiative called the Cardiovascular Health Promotion Project to teach heart-healthy habits to children. One of the programs developed by this initiative, CATCH, the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health, is the largest…

  6. Parenting in Relation to Child and Adolescent Vocational Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Brenda K.; Zvonkovic, Anisa M.; Reynolds, Paula

    2006-01-01

    Processes of child and adolescent vocational development include acquisition of knowledge, beliefs, and values about work options and requirements, exploration of interests that will be relevant for occupational interest development, development of academic aspirations, self-efficacy, expectations, and attainment. These elements serve to provide…

  7. Applied Research in Child and Adolescent Development: A Practical Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maholmes, Valerie, Ed.; Lomonaco, Carmela Gina, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Developed for an NIH training institute, this volume is organized around the most frequently asked questions by researchers starting their careers in applied research in child and adolescent development. With contributions from the leading scholars in the field, actual research experiences highlight the challenges one faces in conducting such…

  8. The Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Match: Problems and Potential Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ascherman, Lee I.; Lamps, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Match was instituted in 1996 to establish fair and uniform resident recruitment practices. METHOD: The impetus for its use was the desire to protect applicants and training programs from premature decisions based on fears of not securing a training position or not filling a program. RESULTS: However,…

  9. Classroom Research and Child and Adolescent Development in South America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preiss, David Daniel; Calcagni, Elisa; Grau, Valeska

    2015-01-01

    The article reviews recent classroom research developed in South America related to child and adolescent development. We review work about three themes: ethnicity, school climate and violence, and the learning process. The few studies found on ethnicity and classroom experiences told a story of invisibility, if not exclusion and discrimination.…

  10. Child and Adolescent Predictors of Male Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, Delphine; Farrington, David P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study addresses to what extent child and adolescent explanatory factors predict male perpetrated intimate partner violence (IPV) in adulthood. Methods: We use prospective longitudinal data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development (CSDD). The CSDD is a survey of 411 male born in the 1950s in an inner London area. The men…

  11. Child Maltreatment and Delinquency Onset among African American Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, James Herbert; Van Dorn, Richard A.; Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Nebbitt, Von E.

    2010-01-01

    Child welfare and criminology research have increasingly sought to better understand factors that increase the likelihood that abused and neglected children will become involved in the juvenile justice system. However, few studies have addressed this relationship among African American male adolescents. The current study examines the relationship…

  12. Developments in Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliland, David; Gallagher, Peter; Growcott, John

    2005-01-01

    This paper highlights the main issues that are present in the field of child and adolescent mental health services with regard to strategic development. It identifies the major themes that have emerged concerning the commissioning and delivery of services, and also highlights the difficulties faced by particular groups of children. The authors…

  13. Psychometric Evaluation of the Child-Adolescent Teasing Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vessey, Judith A.; Horowitz, June A.; Carlson, Karen L.; Duffy, Mary

    2008-01-01

    Background: This article presents the psychometric evaluation of the Child-Adolescent Teasing Scale (CATS), an instrument to be used as a screening measure with middle school students. Methods: A 70-item scale was initially derived from qualitative data obtained from focus groups comprised of middle school students. A diverse sample of…

  14. Multiple Regression Analyses in Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaccard, James; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Johansson, Margaret; Bouris, Alida

    2006-01-01

    A major form of data analysis in clinical child and adolescent psychology is multiple regression. This article reviews issues in the application of such methods in light of the research designs typical of this field. Issues addressed include controlling covariates, evaluation of predictor relevance, comparing predictors, analysis of moderation,…

  15. Adolescent Fathers Involved with Child Protection: Social Workers Speak

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Derrick M.; Watkins, Natasha D.; Walling, Sherry M.; Wilhelm, Sara; Rayford, Brett S.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined adolescent paternity through structured interviews with their social workers. It adds to the literature by exploring if there were young men involved with the child protection services (CPS) system who are fathers, identifying their unique needs, and beginning discussions on working with these young men. CPS social workers from…

  16. [Adolescent pregnancy: the drama of the child-mothers].

    PubMed

    Monterosa Castro, A

    1993-12-01

    According to the 1990 Demographic and Health Survey, 21% of fertile-aged women in Colombia are adolescents aged 15-19. Research throughout the world has revealed that young people are initiating their sexual lives at ever earlier ages, due to earlier sexual maturation, constant erotic stimuli, and a mistaken understanding of sexuality. A Colombian survey showed that 49% of males and 11% of females had sex by age 18. Earlier sexual activity is leading to increased incidence of unwanted pregnancy. 78 of each 1000 adolescents become mothers each year. Among adolescents aged 16-18 with positive pregnancy tests at the Profamilia Adolescent Clinic in Bogota, 80% did not use contraception and 85% did not with to be pregnant. Unwanted adolescent pregnancy is usually traumatic, with implications for all areas of life. None of the options open to an adolescent with an undesired pregnancy is desirable. Keeping the baby exposes the mother to ostracism and rejection by the family, expulsion from school, and societal rejection. Forced marriages almost always end in separation. Adoption leads to frustration and feelings of guilt in the future. Abortion in Colombia is illegal and exposes the women to emotional and physical trauma and to risk of death or injury. The unwanted child is at risk of mistreatment, abandonment, or rejection. A demographic survey by Profamilia showed that 25% of Colombian women are mothers by age 19. 62% of uneducated adolescents are mothers by this age. Low educational level is associated with early pregnancy and limited economic opportunity. Adolescents are at higher risk of pregnancy complications due to physiological immaturity, stress, poor adaptability to pregnancy, and inadequate prenatal care. Adolescent pregnancy should be prevented. The prevention should be achieved through integrated sex education beginning at the first contact of the child with the world outside the family. The child should learn basic concepts of self-esteem, values, and

  17. Child Maltreatment Prevention and the Scope of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Constantino, John N

    2016-04-01

    Child maltreatment is one of the most deleterious known influences on the mental health and development of children. This article briefly reviews a complement of methods that are ready to incorporate into child and adolescent psychiatric practice, by having been validated either with respect to the prevention of child maltreatment or with respect to adverse outcomes associated with maltreatment (and primarily focused on enhancing the caregiving environment); they are feasible for integration into clinical decision making, and most importantly, can be included in the training of the next generation of clinicians. PMID:26980121

  18. Child/Pet Maltreatment: Adolescents' Ratings of Parent and Owner Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roscoe, Bruce; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Results from an investigation of 614 adolescents' ratings of forms of child and pet maltreatment indicated that adolescents were highly critical of acts which constitute maltreatment, more critical of abusive than neglectful acts, less tolerant of child abuse than pet abuse, but more tolerant of physical force directed toward a child if they had…

  19. Child and Adolescent Development for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pressley, Michael; McCormick, Christine B.

    2006-01-01

    Filling a tremendous need, this is the first graduate-level child development text written specifically for future educators. The volume provides a solid understanding of major theories of development, focusing on how each has informed research and practice in educational contexts. Topics include the impact of biology and early experiences on the…

  20. Research on Child and Adolescent Development and Public Policy in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Narea, Marigen

    2016-06-01

    This commentary discusses the implication of child and adolescent development research for public policy in Latin America. As illustrated by the articles in this special issue, even though the research of child and adolescent development in Latin America is making significant progress, still more research is needed. Developmental research in the region faces the challenge of uncovering the mechanisms that affect child development in a context of high levels of poverty and inequality. In addition, researchers in the region should be particularly careful in using appropriate and rigorous methods, improving the design and adaptation of instruments that measure child and adolescent development, developing longitudinal datasets, and looking for causal evidence. Children and adolescents in Latin America will benefit from a further expansion of developmental research. Research in child and adolescent development using data from Latin America can advise policy makers and help improve the design and evaluation of interventions and public policies that promote child and adolescent well-being in the region.

  1. Child and adolescent labor, socioeconomic status, and reduced adult height.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Rosa Amélia; Santana, Vilma Sousa

    2010-01-01

    This population-based cross-sectional study of 3262 individuals aged 18 to 65 years from Aracaju, Brazil investigates the effects of child/adolescent labor (CAL) experience on adult height, considering gender, socioeconomic status (SES), and skin color. We hypothesized that the younger children are at their first job, the greater the negative effects will be on their later growth as adults. Child/adolescent laborers reported having paid jobs before 14 years of age. Among males in the low and medium SES strata, CAL experience was negatively associated with adult height independent of skin color; among females, this inverse association was observed for those in the low and high SES strata. Among males in the low and medium SES strata, there was a linear inverse relation between age at first job and adult height. CAL could reduce height in adulthood, suggesting a need for programs that reduce the impact of CAL on future physical development.

  2. Peer contagion in child and adolescent social and emotional development.

    PubMed

    Dishion, Thomas J; Tipsord, Jessica M

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we examine the construct of peer contagion in childhood and adolescence and review studies of child and adolescent development that have identified peer contagion influences. Evidence suggests that children's interactions with peers are tied to increases in aggression in early and middle childhood and amplification of problem behaviors such as drug use, delinquency, and violence in early to late adolescence. Deviancy training is one mechanism that accounts for peer contagion effects on problem behaviors from age 5 through adolescence. In addition, we discuss peer contagion relevant to depression in adolescence, and corumination as an interactive process that may account for these effects. Social network analyses suggest that peer contagion underlies the influence of friendship on obesity, unhealthy body images, and expectations. Literature is reviewed that suggests how peer contagion effects can undermine the goals of public education from elementary school through college and impair the goals of juvenile corrections systems. In particular, programs that "select" adolescents at risk for aggregated preventive interventions are particularly vulnerable to peer contagion effects. It appears that a history of peer rejection is a vulnerability factor for influence by peers, and adult monitoring, supervision, positive parenting, structure, and self-regulation serve as protective factors.

  3. Reconsidering Changes in Parent-Child Conflict across Adolescence: A Meta-Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laursen, Brett; Coy, Katherine C.; Collins, W. Andrew

    1998-01-01

    A series of meta-analyses identified changes in parent-child conflict during adolescence and moderating factors. Results of age meta-analyses indicated that conflict rate and total conflict declined from early to mid adolescence and from mid to late adolescence; conflict affect increased from early to mid-adolescence. Puberty meta-analyses…

  4. Child and Adolescent Obesity and Employment Sector in Urban China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi; Zimmer, Zachary

    2013-01-01

    Despite its importance as a part of the economic reform in China, sectoral employment has been overlooked as a potential determinant of child and adolescent obesity (CAO). Using large-scale longitudinal data from surveys conducted from 1989 to 2006, this paper examines the relationship between the sector in which a parent is employed and CAO, with the sector being based on ownership and categorised as either state or non-state. Analyses of over 1,700 children and adolescents show that children and adolescents whose parents work in the state sector are less likely to be obese. Patterns of sectoral employment's effect are robust across time periods, in fixed-effects models, and across multiple measures of obesity. Additionally, the paper shows that socioeconomic characteristics of the parent, such as income, education, and occupation, typically thought to be important predictors of CAO, are not as important when the parental working sector is included in the models. PMID:24298293

  5. [Neurocognitive function in child and adolescent psychopathology].

    PubMed

    Chamorro Oschilewsky, Rodrigo

    2011-01-01

    Executive control processes, such as sustained attention, response inhibition and working memory allows us to guide behavior appropriately, flexible and adaptable. The consequences of executive dysfunction in humans can be dramatic, as evidenced by the wide range of neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders in which such deficits impact negatively on the performance and quality of life, affecting high prosecutions relating to the prefrontal areas and their connections, including cognitive function. This review is to update and highlight the importance of assess neuropsychological and neurocognitive functional changes that occur in the course of various neuropsychiatric disorders in children and adolescents. PMID:21977606

  6. Child rights and Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Damodaran, J; Sherlock, C

    2013-12-01

    This paper explores children's rights in the child and adolescent mental health arena in Ireland. It begins by outlining the legal and policy contexts of both children's services and mental health policy and practice. It specifically focuses on the notion of participation as a key factor in addressing rights-based approaches in the provision of services. The article explores current practice in Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services, highlights some of the disparities in services, which result in questions about human rights. Mainly reflective in its approach, it does, however, provide data from a small scale qualitative study carried out in relation to young people diagnosed with ADHD and their perceptions of psychopharmacological approach. The issue of consent is explored as an example of how current practice approaches fall short of a rights-based framework. It concludes with recommendations for changes incorporating a more participatory and collaborative approach. PMID:23512493

  7. [Systemic arterial hypertension in child and adolescent].

    PubMed

    Rosas-Peralta, Martín; Medina-Concebida, Luz Elena; Borrayo-Sánchez, Gabriela; Madrid-Miller, Alejandra; Ramírez-Arias, Erick; Pérez-Rodríguez, Gilberto

    2016-01-01

    The epidemic of childhood obesity, the risk of developing left ventricular hypertrophy, and evidence of the early development of atherosclerosis in children would make the detection of and intervention in childhood hypertension important to reduce long-term health risks; however, supporting data are lacking. Secondary hypertension is more common in preadolescent children, with most cases caused by renal disease. Primary or essential hypertension is more common in adolescents and has multiple risk factors, including obesity and a family history of hypertension. Evaluation involves a through history and physical examination, laboratory tests, and specialized studies. Management is multifaceted. Nonpharmacologic treatments include weight reduction, exercise, and dietary modifications. Although the evidence of first line therapy for hypertension is still controversial, the recommendations for pharmacologic treatment are based on symptomatic hypertension, evidence of end-organ damage, stage 2 of hypertension, or stage 1 of hypertension unresponsive to lifestyle modifications, and hypertension with diabetes mellitus where is the search for microalbuminuria justified. PMID:27284843

  8. [Systemic arterial hypertension in child and adolescent].

    PubMed

    Rosas-Peralta, Martín; Medina-Concebida, Luz Elena; Borrayo-Sánchez, Gabriela; Madrid-Miller, Alejandra; Ramírez-Arias, Erick; Pérez-Rodríguez, Gilberto

    2016-01-01

    The epidemic of childhood obesity, the risk of developing left ventricular hypertrophy, and evidence of the early development of atherosclerosis in children would make the detection of and intervention in childhood hypertension important to reduce long-term health risks; however, supporting data are lacking. Secondary hypertension is more common in preadolescent children, with most cases caused by renal disease. Primary or essential hypertension is more common in adolescents and has multiple risk factors, including obesity and a family history of hypertension. Evaluation involves a through history and physical examination, laboratory tests, and specialized studies. Management is multifaceted. Nonpharmacologic treatments include weight reduction, exercise, and dietary modifications. Although the evidence of first line therapy for hypertension is still controversial, the recommendations for pharmacologic treatment are based on symptomatic hypertension, evidence of end-organ damage, stage 2 of hypertension, or stage 1 of hypertension unresponsive to lifestyle modifications, and hypertension with diabetes mellitus where is the search for microalbuminuria justified.

  9. Child Abuse and Mental Disorders in Iranian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pirdehghan, Azar; Vakili, Mahmood; Rajabzadeh, Yavar; Puyandehpour, Mohammad; Aghakoochak, Arezoo

    2016-01-01

    Background Child abuse is a serious social health problem all over the world with important adverse effects. Objectives The aim of this study was to extend our understanding of the relation between mental disorders and child abuse. Materials and Methods The study was designed as a cross-sectional survey on 700 students in secondary schools using multiple cluster sampling in Yazd, Iran in 2013. We applied 2 self reported questionnaires: DASS (depression anxiety stress scales)-42 for assessing mental disorders (anxiety, stress and depression) and a standard self-reported valid and reliable questionnaire for recording child abuse information in neglect, psychological, physical and sexual domains. The collected data was analyzed using SPSS software. P-values < 0.05 were considered as significant. Results There was a statically significant correlation between mental disorder and child abuse score (Spearman rho: 0.2; P-value < 0.001). The highest correlations between mental disorders and child abuse were found in psychological domain, Spearman’s rho coefficients were 0.46, 0.41 and 0.36 for depression, anxiety and stress respectively (P-value < 0.001). Based on the results of logistic regression for mental disorder, females, last born adolescents and subjects with drug or alcohol abuser parents had mental disorder odds of 3, 0.4 and 1.9 times compared to others; and severe psychological abuse, being severely neglected and having sexual abuse had odds 90, 1.6 and 1.5 respectively in another model. Conclusions Programming for mandatory reporting of child abuse by physicians and all health care givers e.g. those attending schools or health centers, in order to prevent or reduce its detrimental effects is useful and success in preventing child abuse could lead to reductions in the prevalence of mental disorders. PMID:27437096

  10. Exposing Medical Students to Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: A Case-Based Seminar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Jeremy S.; Lake, MaryBeth

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Despite a documented shortage of child and adolescent psychiatrists, few studies have examined whether including child and adolescent psychiatry didactics in a medical school curriculum can stimulate appreciation and interest among students, possibly leading more students to choose careers in this specialty. Methods: The authors…

  11. Exposure to Child and Adolescent Psychiatry for Medical Students: Are There Optimal "Teaching Perspectives"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Jeffrey; Barrett, Rowland; Grapentine, W. Lex; Liguori, Gina; Trivedi, Harsh K.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The ability to develop quality medical student exposures in child and adolescent psychiatry is critical to the professional development of these future physicians and to the growth of recruitment efforts into the field. This study identifies teaching perspectives among child and adolescent psychiatry faculty to determine whether there…

  12. Adolescent Tobacco and Cannabis Use: Young Adult Outcomes from the Ontario Child Health Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgiades, Katholiki; Boyle, Michael H.

    2007-01-01

    Background: This study examines the longitudinal associations between adolescent tobacco and cannabis use and young adult functioning. Methods: Data for analysis come from the Ontario Child Health Study (OCHS), a prospective study of child health, psychiatric disorder and adolescent substance use in a general population sample that began in 1983,…

  13. Research on Child and Adolescent Development and Public Policy in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narea, Marigen

    2016-01-01

    This commentary discusses the implication of child and adolescent development research for public policy in Latin America. As illustrated by the articles in this special issue, even though the research of child and adolescent development in Latin America is making significant progress, still more research is needed. Developmental research in the…

  14. Parent-Child Interaction and Adolescents' Future Orientation: The Effects of Age and Sex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    A number of studies have shown that parent-child interaction influences the manner in which adolescents see their future. In an investigation designed to determine whether this influence varies according to the child's age and sex, 57 Finnish adolescents were interviewed at ages 11 and 15 about their hopes for the future. The internality,…

  15. Adolescents in Child Training (Project ACT); Summative Evaluation Report; [Parts 1 and 2].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Joan R.; Puryear, Gwendolyn R.

    The evaluation report examines three ACT demonstration projects (Adolescents in Child Training) in San Antonio, Chicago, and Little Rock designed to involve adolescents in child training through the classroom and actual field experience. Part 1 of the report describes the three projects with respect to their contextual, conceptual, and programatic…

  16. Improving Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Education for Medical Students: An Inter-Organizational Collaborative Action Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Geraldine S.; Stock, Saundra; Briscoe, Gregory W.; Beck, Gary L.; Horton, Rita; Hunt, Jeffrey I.; Liu, Howard Y.; Rutter, Ashley Partner; Sexson, Sandra; Schlozman, Steven C.; Stubbe, Dorothy E.; Stuber, Margaret L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: A new Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Medical Education (CAPME) Task Force, sponsored by the Association for Directors of Medical Student Education in Psychiatry (ADMSEP), has created an inter-organizational partnership between child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) educators and medical student educators in psychiatry. This paper…

  17. Early Child Maltreatment, Runaway Youths, and Risk of Delinquency and Victimization in Adolescence: A Mediational Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Min Jung; Tajima, Emiko A.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Huang, Bu

    2009-01-01

    This article examines whether running away from home mediates the link between child maltreatment and later delinquency and victimization in adolescence. Specifically, the authors tested the hypothesis that childhood physical and psychological abuse increase the risk of a child's running away from home by the time of adolescence. Running away from…

  18. Do Parents Blame or Doubt Their Child More when Sexually Abused by Adolescents versus Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Wendy A.; Cross, Theodore P.; Jones, Lisa M.

    2012-01-01

    Although the importance of parental support for child sexual abuse victims is well documented, the nature of parental support for victims sexually abused by adolescents is less understood. In this exploratory study, we examine whether parents differ in their levels of blame or doubt for their child when sexually abused by adolescents versus…

  19. Overview of integrative medicine in child and adolescent psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Simkin, Deborah R; Popper, Charles W

    2013-07-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) defies simple definition, because the distinction between CAM and conventional medicine is largely arbitrary and fluid. Despite inconclusive data on the efficacy and safety of many CAM treatments in child and adolescent psychiatry, there are enough data on certain treatments to provide guidance to clinicians and researchers. CAM treatments, as adjunctive therapy or monotherapy, can be clinically beneficial and sensible. The low stigma and cost-competitiveness of many CAM psychiatric treatments are highly attractive to children and parents. Physicians need to be knowledgeable about CAM treatments to provide clinically valid informed consent for some conventional treatments.

  20. How Animal Models Inform Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Hanna E.; Vaccarino, Flora M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Every available approach should be utilized to advance the field of child and adolescent psychiatry. Biological systems are important for the behavioral problems of children. Close examination of non-human animals and the biology and behavior they share with humans is an approach that must be used to advance the clinical work of child psychiatry. Method We review here how model systems are used to contribute to significant insights into childhood psychiatric disorders. Model systems have not only demonstrated causality of risk factors for psychiatric pathophysiology but have also allowed child psychiatrists to think in different ways about risks for psychiatric disorders and multiple levels that might be the basis of recovery and prevention. Results We present examples of how animal systems are utilized to benefit child psychiatry, including through environmental, genetic, and acute biological manipulations. Animal model work has been essential in our current thinking about childhood disorders, including the importance of dose and timing of risk factors, specific features of risk factors that are significant, neurochemistry involved in brain functioning, molecular components of brain development, and the importance of cellular processes previously neglected in psychiatric theories. Conclusion Animal models have clear advantages and disadvantages that must both be considered for these systems to be useful. Coupled with increasingly sophisticated methods for investigating human behavior and biology, animal model systems will continue to make essential contributions to our field. PMID:25901771

  1. Anticipating Adolescence: How To Cope with Your Child's Emotional Upheaval and Forge a New Relationship Together.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriel, H. Paul; Wool, Robert

    Noting that with informed understanding, parents can prepare for and cope with their adolescents' profound internal turmoil, this book provides parents with a clear view of what to expect during their child's adolescence: the major biological and psychological developments of adolescence; the most significant social, sexual, and cultural…

  2. A Survey of Addiction Training in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Residency Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldbaum, Marjorie; Galanter, Marc; Dermatis, Helen; Greenberg, William M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Childhood and adolescence represent a critical period for the potential initiation of substance use, and thus it is important that child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) residents learn to screen, assess, refer, and/or treat children and adolescents who have substance abuse diagnoses. Method: The authors conducted a survey by mail of…

  3. Adolescents' and parents' views of Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Coyne, I; McNamara, N; Healy, M; Gower, C; Sarkar, M; McNicholas, F

    2015-10-01

    Service user involvement is essential for quality care in the Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS). This study was conducted to explore adolescents' and parents' experiences of CAMHS in relation to accessibility, approachability and appropriateness. This study used a descriptive qualitative design, and focus groups and single interviews were conducted with adolescents (n = 15) and parents (n = 32) from three mental health clinics. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Accessing mental health services was a challenging experience for many parents and adolescents due to knowledge deficit, lack of information and limited availability of specialist services. Some parents and adolescents reported positive experiences while others reported negative experiences. They expressed a need for more information, involvement in decision making, flexible scheduling of appointments, school support and parent support groups. The nature and quality of the relationship with staff was critical to positive experience with the service; therefore, frequent changes of medical staff was disruptive. Mental health nurses can play a vital role in ensuring continuity, assessing adolescents' participation preferences and advocating for their information needs with other members of the interdisciplinary team. PMID:25977175

  4. [Treatment of eating disorders in adolescents--the view of a child and adolescence psychiatric hospital].

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Ernst; Hansen, Berit; Korte, Alexander; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike

    2005-04-01

    The paper presents--in the sense of clinical guidelines--reality of clinical care in a child and adolescence university hospital specialised on eating disorders. Need of a multimodal therapeutic approach is emphasized, including normalisation of weight and eating behaviour, nursing and pedagogical measures, individual, group and family therapy, completed by body therapy, art and music therapy and in case psychopharmacotherapy. Recommendations for overcoming weak spots are made.

  5. Endocrine Responses to Exercise in the Developing Child and Adolescent.

    PubMed

    Richmond, Erick; Rogol, Alan D

    2016-01-01

    The impact of exercise training on the neuroendocrine control of the pituitary in the developing child is complex and the exact mechanisms are not fully understood. Multiple determinants influence adaptive hypothalamic-pituitary secretory responses to physical stress, namely, training intensity and duration, nutrition and energy balance, gender, age, sex, and sexual maturation status. The increase in growth hormone (GH) in response to acute exercise is dependent on pubertal status; children in more advanced pubertal stages respond with larger peak GH concentrations compared to those in earlier stages. The adolescent female athlete is more prone to menstrual disorders than the more mature athlete, and recent data suggest that athletes may be able to reverse menstrual disorders by increasing their dietary energy intake without decreasing their exercise levels. The thyroid changes observed are of minor impact, practically reflecting the relative negative energy balance during strenuous exercise. Studies that evaluated changes in cortisol secretion during aerobic exercise in children and adolescents show either an increase or no change in response to the exercise bout. Recent research showed that physical activity is an important contributor to bone strength prior to adolescence and increasing levels of physical activity during childhood likely enhance optimal bone strength. PMID:27348816

  6. Child Maltreatment and Delinquency Onset Among African American Adolescent Males

    PubMed Central

    Williams, James Herbert; Van Dorn, Richard A.; Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Nebbitt, Von E.

    2013-01-01

    Child welfare and criminology research have increasingly sought to better understand factors that increase the likelihood that abused and neglected children will become involved in the juvenile justice system. However, few studies have addressed this relationship among African American male adolescents. The current study examines the relationship between child maltreatment (i.e., neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and other/mixed abuse) and the likelihood of a delinquency petition using a sample of African American males (N = 2,335) born before 1990. Multivariable logistic regression models compared those with a delinquency-based juvenile justice petition to those without. Results indicate that African American males with a history of neglect, physical abuse, or other/mixed abuse were more likely to be involved in the juvenile justice system than those without any child maltreatment. Additionally, multiple maltreatment reports, a prior history of mental health treatment, victimization, and having a parent who did not complete high school also increased the likelihood of a delinquency petition. Implications for intervention and prevention are discussed. PMID:23730121

  7. Child Maltreatment and Delinquency Onset Among African American Adolescent Males.

    PubMed

    Williams, James Herbert; Van Dorn, Richard A; Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Nebbitt, Von E

    2010-05-01

    Child welfare and criminology research have increasingly sought to better understand factors that increase the likelihood that abused and neglected children will become involved in the juvenile justice system. However, few studies have addressed this relationship among African American male adolescents. The current study examines the relationship between child maltreatment (i.e., neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and other/mixed abuse) and the likelihood of a delinquency petition using a sample of African American males (N = 2,335) born before 1990. Multivariable logistic regression models compared those with a delinquency-based juvenile justice petition to those without. Results indicate that African American males with a history of neglect, physical abuse, or other/mixed abuse were more likely to be involved in the juvenile justice system than those without any child maltreatment. Additionally, multiple maltreatment reports, a prior history of mental health treatment, victimization, and having a parent who did not complete high school also increased the likelihood of a delinquency petition. Implications for intervention and prevention are discussed.

  8. Religion and spirituality in child and adolescent psychiatry: a new frontier.

    PubMed

    Josephson, Allan M; Dell, Mary Lynn

    2004-01-01

    This article introduces the interface between child and adolescent psychiatry and religion and spirituality. Developmental psychopathology has become increasingly diverse in its study of risk and protective factors for child and adolescent psychopathology. The effect of religion and spirituality on clinical conditions is among those factors. This review addresses (1) historical aspects of the relationship between psychiatry and religion/spirituality, (2) definitional issues, and (3) unique factors in child and adolescent work. Considering these factors and some general principles of intervention, it prepares the reader for other articles in this issue. The article concludes with some observations on the "secular family".

  9. Challenges in Providing Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Services in Low Resource Countries.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Savita; Padhy, Susanta Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Ninety percent of the world's children and adolescents live in low resource countries; and nearly one-half of all mental disorders begin before age 14. The prevalence of child and adolescent mental disorders in low resource countries is around 20%. Fewer than 25% of children and adolescents with psychiatric disorders receive treatment. Resources are insufficient, inequitably distributed, and inefficiently utilized; treatment and care are often neither evidence based nor of comprehensive or of high quality. Nationally, child and adolescent mental health policies and standardized training are virtually nonexistent. This article highlights the challenges faced and discusses measures to overcome them.

  10. An Ecological Analysis of Child Sexual Abuse Disclosure: Considerations for Child and Adolescent Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Alaggia, Ramona

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Research continues to indicate a concerning number of children and youth, between 60–80%, withhold disclosure until adulthood suggesting that many children endure prolonged victimization or never receive necessary intervention. The study aim was to qualitatively identify factors that impede or promote child sexual abuse (CSA) disclosure. Methods: Using a phenomenological design, forty adult survivors of CSA were interviewed about their disclosure experiences to provide retrospective accounts of their childhood and adolescent abuse experiences, disclosure attempts, and meaning-making of these experiences. Results: Findings show that disclosure is multiply determined by a complex interplay of factors related to child characteristics, family environment, community influences, and cultural and societal attitudes. An ecological analysis is offered to understand these complexities. Unless barriers to disclosure are eradicated, negative effects of CSA can persist manifesting in serious mental health issues. Conclusions: Practitioners can expect to work with children, adolescents and adults who have withheld disclosure or attempted to tell over time having experienced a wide range of responses. Multi-level intervention is recommended at the individual, community and macro-levels. Future investigations should focus on how to identify and measure the impact of community and macro level factors on disclosure, aspects that have received much less attention. PMID:20119565

  11. Psychometric Properties of the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) in a Non-Clinical Sample of Children and Adolescents in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Arab, Arwa; El Keshky, Mogeda; Hadwin, Julie A

    2016-08-01

    This paper examined the reliability, convergent validity and factor structure of the self-report Screen for Child Anxiety Disorders (SCARED; Birmaher et al. in J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 36:545-553, 1997) in a large community sample of children and adolescents in Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire showed moderate to high internal consistency and satisfactory test-retest reliability over a 2 week period. In addition, there were significant positive correlations between reported anxiety symptoms with parent report behavioural difficulties. The five factor structure model of the SCARED also had a good model fit in this population. The results showed that self-report anxiety symptoms decreased with age (for boys and not girls) and were higher in adolescent girls. The results suggest that the SCARED could be useful in this population to identify individuals who are at risk of developing anxiety disorders in childhood with a view to implementing prevention and intervention methods to ensure positive developmental outcome over time.

  12. Parent-child relationships between Korean American adolescents and their parents.

    PubMed

    Choi, Heeseung; Kim, Minju; Park, Chang Gi; Dancy, Barbara L

    2012-09-01

    This cross-sectional correlational study examined the association between Korean American adolescents' and their parents' reports of parent-child relationships. A total of 61 Korean American families completed a questionnaire assessing parental knowledge, parental/filial self-efficacy, parent-child communication, and parent-child conflicts. T tests, Pearson's correlations, a scatter diagram, and bivariate regression were used to analyze the data. Both Korean American adolescents and their parents reported that fathers were less knowledgeable about their child's school life and less likely to communicate with their children than were mothers. Fathers reported a significantly lower level of parental self-efficacy than mothers, and adolescents also reported a significantly higher level of filial self-efficacy in mother-child relationships than in father-child relationships. Positive correlations between parents' and adolescents' reports of parent-child relationships were observed. These findings indicated a need for parent education programs or counseling services for Korean American parents of adolescents, particularly fathers with inadequate parental skills and limited communication with their children.

  13. The Relationship between Parent-Child Conflict and Adolescent Antisocial Behavior: Confirming Shared Environmental Mediation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klahr, Ashlea M.; Rueter, Martha A.; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.; Burt, S. Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    Prior studies have indicated that the relationship between parent-child conflict and adolescent antisocial behavior is at least partially shared environmental in origin. However, all available research on this topic (to our knowledge) relies exclusively on parent and/or adolescent informant-reports, both of which are subject to various forms of…

  14. Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse by Adolescents: A Qualitative In-Depth Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schonbucher, Verena; Maier, Thomas; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Schnyder, Ulrich; Landolt, Markus A.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study aimed to study the process of disclosure by examining adolescents from the general population who had experienced child sexual abuse (CSA). Twenty-six sexually victimized adolescents (23 girls, 3 boys; age: 15-18 years) participated in a qualitative face-to-face in-depth interview on different aspects of disclosure. A…

  15. Scaling Up Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services in South Africa: Human Resource Requirements and Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Crick; Boyce, Gerard; Flisher, Alan J.; Kafaar, Zuhayr; Dawes, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Background: Children and adolescents with mental health problems have poor service cover in low- and middle-income countries. Little is known about the resources that would be required to provide child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) in these countries. The purpose of this study was to calculate the human resources and associated…

  16. I.G.B.: An Educational Treatment Design for the Autistic Child and Adolescent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durant, Sherri Lynn

    The Individually Guided Behavior (IGB) concept was designed to help autistic children and adolescents structure their time and increase independence in work skills activities. The approach is also designed to reduce specificity of performance output, helping the child or adolescent to rely on environmental rather than teacher initiated cues for…

  17. Illicit Drug Use from Adolescence to Young Adulthood among Child Welfare-Involved Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casanueva, Cecilia; Stambaugh, Leyla; Urato, Matthew; Fraser, Jenifer Goldman; Williams, Jason

    2014-01-01

    This study examined illicit substance use among 1,004 adolescents, ages 11-21, involved with the Child Welfare System (CWS) and followed from 1999 to 2007. By the time they reached transition age, more than 60% of the sample had used an illicit substance in their lifetime. Predictors of regular use during adolescence were having a prior CWS…

  18. Predictors of Psychological Distress and Positive Resources among Palestinian Adolescents: Trauma, Child, and Mothering Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qouta, Samir; Punamaki, Raija-Leena; Montgomery, Edith; El Sarraj, Eyad

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The aim was to examine how traumatic and stressful events, responses to violence, child characteristics, and mothering quality, as measured in middle childhood predict psychological distress and positive resources in adolescence. Method: The participants were 65 Palestinian adolescents (17 [plus or minus] 0.85 years; 52% girls), who had…

  19. Parenting Styles, Communication and Child/Adolescent Diets and Weight Status: Let's Talk about It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parletta, Natalie; Peters, Jacqueline; Owen, Amber; Tsiros, Margarita D.; Brennan, Leah

    2012-01-01

    Parenting styles have been associated with health-related behaviours in children and adolescents. We present a series of studies. Study 1 investigated parenting styles and parent-child communication styles as cross-sectional predictors of dietary patterns in children, and study 2 as cross-sectional predictors of weight status in adolescents. Data…

  20. Preparing Foster Adolescents for Self-Support: A New Challenge for Child Welfare Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mech, Edmund V.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the situation of adolescents in the foster care system and the role of independent-living programs to help them adjust to life on their own. Provides an overview of the content of the November/December 1988 edition of CHILD WELFARE. This issue consists of articles pertaining to the preparation of at-risk adolescents for independent…

  1. Child Sexual Abuse Consequences in Community Samples of Latino and European American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newcomb, Michael D.; Munoz, David T.; Carmona, Jennifer Vargas

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Research investigating the impact of child sexual abuse (CSA) in community samples of adolescents has been limited. This study aims to identify sexual abuse among ethnically diverse high school adolescents of both genders and evaluate their psycho-emotional consequences. Method: Through the use of self-report instruments, a sample of…

  2. Completed Suicides Among Quebec Adolescents Involved with Juvenile Justice and Child Welfare Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farand, Lambert; Chagnon, Francois; Renaud, Johanne; Rivard, Michele

    2004-01-01

    In the Province of Quebec (Canada), adolescents involved with the child welfare and juvenile justice systems committed at least one third of all completed suicides in their age group in 1995 and 1996. Their risk of suicide, standardized for age and sex, was five times that of the general adolescent population, and female juvenile delinquents had…

  3. The Structure and Temporal Stability of the Child and Adolescent Perfectionism Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Rory C.; Dixon, Diane; Rasmussen, Susan

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the factor structure and temporal stability of the Child and Adolescent Perfectionism Scale (CAPS; G. L. Flett, P. L. Hewitt, D. J. Boucher, L. A. Davidson, & Y. Munro, 1997) in 2 samples of adolescents (15-16 years old). In Sample 1 (n = 624), confirmatory factor analysis did not support a 2-factor structure…

  4. Gender differences in caregiver-child relationship mediation of the association between violence exposure severity and adolescent behavior problems.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Susan; Kobulsky, Julia M; Voith, Laura A; Steigerwald, Stacey; Holmes, Megan R

    2015-12-01

    The main objectives of this study were to investigate (1) the relationship between mild, moderate, and severe violence exposure in the home and behavior problems in adolescents; (2) the caregiver-child relationship as a potential mediator in this relationship; and (3) gender differences. A series of path analyses were conducted using a sample drawn from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NCSAW-I) of 848 adolescents (ages 11-15) who had been reported to Child Protective Services for maltreatment and who remained in their homes. Exposure to violence and the caregiver-child relationship were reported by adolescents. Both caregiver ratings and adolescent self-reports were used to assess adolescents' behavior problems. Path analysis indicated that exposure to mild and severe violence was directly associated with higher levels of child-reported behavior problems. However, exposure to violence was not directly associated with caregiver ratings of adolescent behavior problems. The caregiver-child relationship mediated the relationship between mild and moderate violence on both caregiver and child-reported adolescent behavior problems. Gender differences also emerged; for girls, the caregiver-child relationship mediated the effects of mild and moderate violence, whereas for boys, it mediated the effects of severe violence on behavior problems. Study findings suggest caregiver-child relationships as a critical underlying mechanism in the association between violence exposure and adolescent behavior problems, highlighting the importance of adding the caregiver-child relationship factor to intervention efforts.

  5. Longitudinal linkages among parent-child acculturation discrepancy, parenting, parent-child sense of alienation, and adolescent adjustment in Chinese immigrant families.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su Yeong; Chen, Qi; Wang, Yijie; Shen, Yishan; Orozco-Lapray, Diana

    2013-05-01

    Parent-child acculturation discrepancy is a risk factor in the development of children in immigrant families. Using a longitudinal sample of Chinese immigrant families, the authors of the current study examined how unsupportive parenting and parent-child sense of alienation sequentially mediate the relationship between parent-child acculturation discrepancy and child adjustment during early and middle adolescence. Acculturation discrepancy scores were created using multilevel modeling to take into account the interdependence among family members. Structural equation models showed that during early adolescence, parent-child American orientation discrepancy is related to parents' use of unsupportive parenting practices; parents' use of unsupportive parenting is related to increased sense of alienation between parents and children, which in turn is related to more depressive symptoms and lower academic performance in Chinese American adolescents. These patterns of negative adjustment established in early adolescence persist into middle adolescence. This mediating effect is more apparent among father-adolescent dyads than among mother-adolescent dyads. In contrast, parent-child Chinese orientation discrepancy does not demonstrate a significant direct or indirect effect on adolescent adjustment, either concurrently or longitudinally. The current findings suggest that during early adolescence, children are more susceptible to the negative effects of parent-child acculturation discrepancy; they also underscore the importance of fathering in Chinese immigrant families.

  6. Longitudinal Linkages among Parent-Child Acculturation Discrepancy, Parenting, Parent-Child Sense of Alienation, and Adolescent Adjustment in Chinese Immigrant Families

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su Yeong; Chen, Qi; Wang, Yijie; Shen, Yishan; Orozco-Lapray, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Parent-child acculturation discrepancy is a risk factor in the development of children in immigrant families. Using a longitudinal sample of Chinese immigrant families, the current study examined how unsupportive parenting and parent-child sense of alienation sequentially mediate the relationship between parent-child acculturation discrepancy and child adjustment during early and middle adolescence. Acculturation discrepancy scores were created using multilevel modeling to take into account the interdependence among family members. Structural equation models showed that, during early adolescence, parent-child American orientation discrepancy is related to parents’ use of unsupportive parenting practices; parents’ use of unsupportive parenting is related to increased sense of alienation between parents and children, which in turn is related to more depressive symptoms and lower academic performance in Chinese American adolescents. These patterns of negative adjustment established in early adolescence persist into middle adolescence. This mediating effect is more apparent among father-adolescent dyads than among mother-adolescent dyads. In contrast, parent-child Chinese orientation discrepancy does not demonstrate a significant direct or indirect effect on adolescent adjustment, either concurrently or longitudinally. The current findings suggest that early adolescence is more susceptible to the negative effects of parent-child acculturation discrepancy; they also underscore the importance of fathering in Chinese immigrant families. PMID:22799587

  7. Longitudinal linkages among parent-child acculturation discrepancy, parenting, parent-child sense of alienation, and adolescent adjustment in Chinese immigrant families.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su Yeong; Chen, Qi; Wang, Yijie; Shen, Yishan; Orozco-Lapray, Diana

    2013-05-01

    Parent-child acculturation discrepancy is a risk factor in the development of children in immigrant families. Using a longitudinal sample of Chinese immigrant families, the authors of the current study examined how unsupportive parenting and parent-child sense of alienation sequentially mediate the relationship between parent-child acculturation discrepancy and child adjustment during early and middle adolescence. Acculturation discrepancy scores were created using multilevel modeling to take into account the interdependence among family members. Structural equation models showed that during early adolescence, parent-child American orientation discrepancy is related to parents' use of unsupportive parenting practices; parents' use of unsupportive parenting is related to increased sense of alienation between parents and children, which in turn is related to more depressive symptoms and lower academic performance in Chinese American adolescents. These patterns of negative adjustment established in early adolescence persist into middle adolescence. This mediating effect is more apparent among father-adolescent dyads than among mother-adolescent dyads. In contrast, parent-child Chinese orientation discrepancy does not demonstrate a significant direct or indirect effect on adolescent adjustment, either concurrently or longitudinally. The current findings suggest that during early adolescence, children are more susceptible to the negative effects of parent-child acculturation discrepancy; they also underscore the importance of fathering in Chinese immigrant families. PMID:22799587

  8. Program Learning: Dealing with Common Problems in the Residential Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safian-Rush, Donna

    This manual is a programed learning tool for mental health professionals which teaches child and adolescent patient management skills to be used in a residential psychiatric care setting. The introduction to the paper describes the basic differences between adult and child psychiatry; behaviors that are abnormal for adults, such as having…

  9. The Father-Child Relationship, Parenting Styles, and Adolescent Risk Behaviors in Intact Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta; Moore, Kristin A.; Carrano, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    The father-child relationship and father's parenting style are examined as predictors of first delinquency and substance use, using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1997, Rounds 1 to 3 (N = 5,345), among adolescents in intact families. Discrete time logistic regressions indicate that a more positive father-child relationship…

  10. Practice Parameter on Child and Adolescent Mental Health Care in Community Systems of Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This parameter presents overarching principles and practices for child and adolescent mental health care in community systems of care. Community systems of care are defined broadly as comprising the wide array of child-serving agencies, programs, and practitioners (both public and private), in addition to natural community supports such as…

  11. Child Maltreatment and Adolescent Mental Health Problems in a Large Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Ryan; Scott, James; Alati, Rosa; O'Callaghan, Michael; Najman, Jake M.; Strathearn, Lane

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether notified child maltreatment is associated with adverse psychological outcomes in adolescence, and whether differing patterns of psychological outcome are seen depending on the type of maltreatment. Methods: The participants were 7,223 mother and child pairs enrolled in a population-based birth cohort study in…

  12. US Military Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Training Programs and Careers of Military Child Psychiatrists.

    PubMed

    Weston, Christina G; Dougherty, Joseph G; Nelson, Suzie C; Baker, Matthew J; Chow, Jennifer C

    2015-08-01

    Military child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) fellowship programs offer educational experiences universal to all civilian training programs in the USA. They also offer unique training opportunities not found in civilian CAP fellowships in order to prepare graduates to serve the needs of military families. Military-specific curricula and exposures prepare trainees to address various issues faced by military families, in contending with frequent military moves, parental deployments, and disrupted social ties. Curricula are also designed to provide the psychiatrist with a greater understanding of the rigors of military service. CAP training and subsequent assignments prepare military psychiatrists for diverse career paths in the military environment. CAP military careers often include duties in addition to treating patients. Administrative roles, academic teaching positions, as well as school consultation positions are all career options available to military CAP.

  13. World wide use of psychotropic drugs in child and adolescent psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Simeon, J G; Wiggins, D M; Williams, E

    1995-05-01

    1. Questionnaires were mailed to child psychiatrists world wide to obtain more precise information on views and approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of childhood psychiatric disorders. 2. Results indicated important problems related to the management of child psychiatry practice both overseas and in Canada. 3. The choice of medication was frequently restricted by lack of availability, and political or social attitudes. 4. A consensus on diagnosis and treatment guidelines in child and adolescent psychiatry remains an important issue.

  14. Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study: Evaluating Safety

    PubMed Central

    Rynn, Moira A.; Walkup, John T.; Compton, Scott N.; Sakolsky, Dara J.; Sherrill, Joel T.; Shen, Sa; Kendall, Philip C.; McCracken, James; Albano, Anne Marie; Piacentini, John; Riddle, Mark A.; Keeton, Courtney; Waslick, Bruce; Chrisman, Allan; Iyengar, Satish; March, John S.; Birmaher, Boris

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the frequency of adverse events (AEs) across four treatment conditions in the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS), and to compare the frequency of AEs between children and adolescents. Method Participants ages 7-17 years (M=10.7) meeting the DSM-IV criteria for one or more of the following disorders: separation anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, or social phobia were randomized (2:2:2:1) to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT, n=139), sertraline (SRT, n=133), combination of both (COMB, n=140), or pill placebo (PBO, n=76). AEs were collected via a standardized inquiry method plus a self-report Physical Symptom Checklist (PSC). Results There were no differences between the double-blinded conditions (SRT vs. PBO) for total physical and psychiatric AEs or any individual physical or psychiatric AEs. The rates of total physical AEs were greater in the SRT-alone treatment condition when compared to CBT (p<.01) and COMB (p<.01). Moreover, those who received SRT alone reported higher rates of several physical AEs when compared to COMB and CBT. The rate of total psychiatric AEs was higher in children (≤12 years) across all arms (31.7% vs. 23.1%, p<.05). Total PSC scores decreased over time with no significant differences between treatment groups. Conclusion The results support the tolerability/safety of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment for anxiety disorders even after adjusting for the number of reporting opportunities leading to no differences in overall rates of AEs. Few differences occurred on specific items. Additional monitoring of psychiatric AEs is recommended in children (≤12 years). PMID:25721183

  15. The quality of parent/child relationships in adolescence is associated with poor adult psychosocial adjustment.

    PubMed

    Raudino, Alessandra; Fergusson, David M; Horwood, L John

    2013-04-01

    This study used data gathered over the course of a New Zealand longitudinal study (N = 924) to examine the relationships between measures of parental bonding and attachment in adolescence (age 15-16) and later personal adjustment (major depression; anxiety disorder; suicidal behaviour; illicit drug abuse/dependence; crime) assessed up to the age of 30. Key findings included: 1) There were significant (p < 0.05) and pervasive associations between all measures of attachment and bonding and later outcomes. 2) Structural equation modelling showed that all measures of bonding and attachment loaded on a common factor reflecting the quality of parent/child relationships in adolescence. 3) After adjustment for covariates there were modest relationships (β = 0.16-0.17) between the quality of parent/child relationships in adolescence factor and later adjustment. The study findings suggest that the quality of parent/child relationships in adolescence is modestly related to later psychosocial functioning in adulthood.

  16. The relationship between child maltreatment and substance abuse treatment outcomes among emerging adults and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Garner, Bryan R; Hunter, Brooke D; Smith, Douglas C; Smith, Jane Ellen; Godley, Mark D

    2014-01-01

    Emerging adulthood is the period of greatest risk for problematic substance use. The primary aim of the current study was to examine the relationship between a broad measure of child maltreatment and several key outcomes for a large clinical sample of emerging adults (n = 858) and adolescents (n = 2,697). The secondary aim was to examine the extent to which the relationship between child maltreatment and treatment outcomes differed between emerging adults and adolescents. Multilevel latent growth curve analyses revealed emerging adults and adolescents who experienced child maltreatment reported significantly greater reductions over time on several treatment outcomes (e.g., substance use, substance-related problems, and emotional problems). Overall, analyses did not support differential relationships between child maltreatment and changes over time in these substance use disorder treatment outcomes for emerging adults and adolescents. The one exception was that although emerging adults with child maltreatment did reduce their HIV risk over time, their improvements were not as great as were the improvements in HIV risk reported by adolescents who had experienced child maltreatment.

  17. Child sexual abuse among adolescents in southeast Nigeria: A concealed public health behavioral issue

    PubMed Central

    C, Manyike Pius; M, Chinawa Josephat; Elias, Aniwada; I, Odutola Odetunde; Awoere, Chinawa T.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Child sexual abuse among adolescents is an often overlooked issue in pediatrics, yet it is a major cause of low self esteem and stigmatization in adolescents. The objective of this study was to determine the socioeconomic determinant and pattern of child sexual abuse among adolescent attending secondary schools in South East Nigeria. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study that was carried out among children in three secondary schools in Enugu and Ebonyi states of Nigeria. Five hundred and six adolescents who met inclusion criteria were consecutively recruited into our prospective study between June and October, 2014. Results: One hundred and ninety nine (40 %) of the respondents had been abused and the commonest form of abuse was to look at pornographic pictures, drawings, films, videotapes or magazine 93(18.4%). Fifty eight (11.5%) adolescents stated that they were abused once with age at first exposure being 7-12 years 57 (11.4%). When grouped together, family members and relatives are perpetrators of child sexual abuse. There was significant difference in sex abuse between males and females (p=0.014) while there were no significant difference for age (p=0.157) and social class (p=0.233). Conclusion: Overall prevalence and one time prevalence rates of sexual abuse among adolescents in south east Nigeria was 40% and 11.5% respectively with male perpetrators. There is no link between socioeconomic class, age and child sexual abuse among adolescents. PMID:26430412

  18. Teaching child and adolescent psychiatry to undergraduate medical students - A survey in German-speaking countries

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objective To conduct a survey about teaching child and adolescent psychiatry to undergraduate medical students in German-speaking countries. Methods A questionnaire was sent to the 33 academic departments of child and adolescent psychiatry in Germany, Austria, and the German-speaking part of Switzerland. Results All departments responded. For teaching knowledge, the methods most commonly reported were lectures and case presentations. The most important skills to be taught were thought to be how to assess psychopathology in children and how to assess families. For elective courses, the departments reported using a wide range of teaching methods, many with active involvement of the students. An average of 34 hours per semester is currently allocated by the departments for teaching child and adolescent psychiatry to medical students. Required courses are often taught in cooperation with adult psychiatry and pediatrics. Achievement of educational objectives is usually assessed with written exams or multiple-choice tests. Only a minority of the departments test the achievement of skills. Conclusions Two ways of improving education in child and adolescent psychiatry are the introduction of elective courses for students interested in the field and participation of child and adolescent psychiatrists in required courses and in longitudinal courses so as to reach all students. Cooperation within and across medical schools can enable departments of child and adolescent psychiatry, despite limited resources, to become more visible and this specialty to become more attractive to medical students. Compared to the findings in earlier surveys, this survey indicates a trend towards increased involvement of academic departments of child and adolescent psychiatry in training medical students. PMID:20653973

  19. [Treatment of acute crisis in child and adolescent psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Walter, Joachim; Hoffmann, Sascha; Romer, Georg

    2005-01-01

    Crises from the child and adolescent psychiatric point of view must be considered as unique or repeated moments of basic questioning of self-focused and relational perception. Hospitalisation if necessary depends on a well prepared social, legal, physical and cooperative framework. Patients, their family or social environment are in need of clarity, structure, and a professional counterpart willing to engage responsibly within an inpatient or--mostly--outpatient framework. He must adapt his diagnostic or therapeutic action to the patient's experience of fear, loss of orientation and insecurity. Then a crisis may be experienced like a bonding experience. Concerning the capacity of action confronted to psychiatric crisis the authors stress the importance of the scenic understanding, expressed symptoms and the acted-out crisis dynamics more than diagnostic classification. The diagnostic and decisive process of atunement to the patient in crisis is being described. A model for psychodynamic understanding of perception of and action towards crisis is proposed, which allows describing the interference between relational dynamics and intra-psychic conflicts leading to crisis. This can then be used as therapeutical focus for the crisis intervention or a consecutive psychotherapeutic treatment.

  20. Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Child Behavior Problems among Latina Adolescent Mothers: The Buffering Effect of Mother-Reported Partner Child Care Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Erin N.; Grau, Josefina M.; Duran, Petra A.; Castellanos, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    We examined the relations between maternal depressive symptoms and child internalizing and externalizing problems in a sample of 125 adolescent Latina mothers (primarily Puerto Rican) and their toddlers. We also tested the influence of mother-reported partner child care involvement on child behavior problems and explored mother-reported partner…

  1. Physical Child Abuse and Teacher Harassment and Their Effects on Mental Health Problems Amongst Adolescent Bully-Victims in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Ko, Chih-Hung; Liu, Tai-Ling; Hu, Huei-Fan

    2015-10-01

    This study compared physical child abuse and teacher harassment of bully-victims with other groups and examined their associations with mental health problems in bully-victims. For 6,160 adolescents, experiences of physical child abuse, teacher harassment, peer bullying, and six mental health problem indicators were assessed. Adolescents that had experienced physical child abuse and teacher harassment were more likely to be bully-victims but not neutral or pure victims. Adolescents who reported physical child abuse were more likely to be bully-victims but not pure bullies. Bully-victims that had experienced teacher harassment exhibited more severe depression and insomnia than did those without teacher harassment. Gender had moderating effects on the difference in physical child abuse between bully-victims and neutrals and on the association between physical child abuse and suicidality in bully-victims. Physical child abuse and teacher harassment should be considered when preventive and intervention programs are developed for adolescents.

  2. Physical Child Abuse and Teacher Harassment and Their Effects on Mental Health Problems Amongst Adolescent Bully-Victims in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Ko, Chih-Hung; Liu, Tai-Ling; Hu, Huei-Fan

    2015-10-01

    This study compared physical child abuse and teacher harassment of bully-victims with other groups and examined their associations with mental health problems in bully-victims. For 6,160 adolescents, experiences of physical child abuse, teacher harassment, peer bullying, and six mental health problem indicators were assessed. Adolescents that had experienced physical child abuse and teacher harassment were more likely to be bully-victims but not neutral or pure victims. Adolescents who reported physical child abuse were more likely to be bully-victims but not pure bullies. Bully-victims that had experienced teacher harassment exhibited more severe depression and insomnia than did those without teacher harassment. Gender had moderating effects on the difference in physical child abuse between bully-victims and neutrals and on the association between physical child abuse and suicidality in bully-victims. Physical child abuse and teacher harassment should be considered when preventive and intervention programs are developed for adolescents. PMID:25300192

  3. Parent-child acculturation profiles as predictors of Chinese American adolescents' academic trajectories.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie; Chen, Qi; Shen, Yishan; Hou, Yang

    2015-06-01

    Acculturation plays a critical role in the adjustment of Asian Americans, as a large proportion of them are immigrants in the US. However, little is known about how acculturation influences Asian American adolescents' academic trajectories over time. Using a longitudinal sample of 444 Chinese American families (54% female children), the current study explored the effect of mothers', fathers', and adolescents' individual acculturation profiles and parent-child acculturation dissonance on adolescents' academic trajectories from 8th to 12th grade. Academic performance was measured by grade point average (GPA), and by standardized test scores in English language arts (ELA) and Math every year. Latent growth modeling analyses showed that adolescents with a Chinese-oriented father showed faster decline in GPA, and Chinese-oriented adolescents had lower initial ELA scores. Adolescents whose parents had American-oriented acculturation profiles tended to have lower initial Math scores. These results suggest that Chinese and American profiles may be disadvantageous for certain aspects of academic performance, and bicultural adolescents and/or adolescents with bicultural parents are best positioned to achieve across multiple domains. In terms of the role of parent-child acculturation dissonance on academic trajectories, the current study highlighted the importance of distinguishing among different types of dissonance. Adolescents who were more Chinese-oriented than their parents tended to have the lowest initial ELA scores, and adolescents experiencing more normative acculturation dissonance (i.e., who were more American-oriented than their parents) had the highest initial ELA scores. No effects of parent-child acculturation dissonance were observed for GPAs or standardized Math scores. Altogether, the current findings add nuances to the current understanding of acculturation and adolescent adjustment.

  4. Parent-child acculturation profiles as predictors of Chinese American adolescents' academic trajectories.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie; Chen, Qi; Shen, Yishan; Hou, Yang

    2015-06-01

    Acculturation plays a critical role in the adjustment of Asian Americans, as a large proportion of them are immigrants in the US. However, little is known about how acculturation influences Asian American adolescents' academic trajectories over time. Using a longitudinal sample of 444 Chinese American families (54% female children), the current study explored the effect of mothers', fathers', and adolescents' individual acculturation profiles and parent-child acculturation dissonance on adolescents' academic trajectories from 8th to 12th grade. Academic performance was measured by grade point average (GPA), and by standardized test scores in English language arts (ELA) and Math every year. Latent growth modeling analyses showed that adolescents with a Chinese-oriented father showed faster decline in GPA, and Chinese-oriented adolescents had lower initial ELA scores. Adolescents whose parents had American-oriented acculturation profiles tended to have lower initial Math scores. These results suggest that Chinese and American profiles may be disadvantageous for certain aspects of academic performance, and bicultural adolescents and/or adolescents with bicultural parents are best positioned to achieve across multiple domains. In terms of the role of parent-child acculturation dissonance on academic trajectories, the current study highlighted the importance of distinguishing among different types of dissonance. Adolescents who were more Chinese-oriented than their parents tended to have the lowest initial ELA scores, and adolescents experiencing more normative acculturation dissonance (i.e., who were more American-oriented than their parents) had the highest initial ELA scores. No effects of parent-child acculturation dissonance were observed for GPAs or standardized Math scores. Altogether, the current findings add nuances to the current understanding of acculturation and adolescent adjustment. PMID:24820295

  5. Incidences of new prescribing by British child and adolescent psychiatrists: a prospective study over 12 months.

    PubMed

    Clark, Andrew F

    2004-03-01

    Little is known about the epidemiology of pharmacotherapy in the treatment of child psychiatric disorder. This study reports on the systematic prospective collection of instances of new prescribing by child and adolescent mental health services serving a population of approximately four million people in North West England. Diagnostic and demographic information regarding new prescribing by child and adolescent mental health services within Greater Manchester and Lancashire was systematically collected prospectively over two 6-month periods between 2000 and 2002. Within the 12 months studied, there were 845 instances of a drug being newly prescribed to a child or adolescent in the treatment of a psychiatric disorder. In total, 48 different drugs were prescribed for 25 different diagnoses. The eight most commonly prescribed drugs were methylphenidate, methylphenidate/placebo trial, paroxetine, fluoxetine, risperidone, imipramine, dexamphetamine and melatonin, accounting for 73% of all prescribing. There was marked variation between services in the amount of prescribing with significant correlation between prescription of stimulants and prescription of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants. Prescription of medications in the treatment of child psychiatric disorder has become a significant part of child and adolescent mental health practice. However, the evidence base underpinning this usage remains limited, and further high quality therapeutic clinical trials are urgently needed.

  6. Drug monitoring in child and adolescent psychiatry for improved efficacy and safety of psychopharmacotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Mehler-Wex, Claudia; Kölch, Michael; Kirchheiner, Julia; Antony, Gisela; Fegert, Jörg M; Gerlach, Manfred

    2009-01-01

    Most psychotropic drugs used in the treatment of children and adolescents are applied "off label" with a direct risk of under- or overdosing and a delayed risk of long-term side effects. The selection of doses in paediatric psychiatric patients requires a consideration of pharmacokinetic parameters and the development of central nervous system, and warrants specific studies in children and adolescents. Because these are lacking for most of the psychotropic drugs applied in the Child and Adolescent and Psychiatry, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is a valid tool to optimise pharmacotherapy and to enable to adjust the dosage of drugs according to the characteristics of the individual patient. Multi-centre TDM studies enable the identification of age- and development-dependent therapeutic ranges of blood concentrations and facilitate a highly qualified standardized documentation in the child and adolescent health care system. In addition, they will provide data for future research on psychopharmacological treatment in children and adolescents, as a baseline for example for clinically relevant interactions with various co-medications. Therefore, a German-Austrian-Swiss "Competence Network on Therapeutic Drug Monitoring in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry" was founded [1] introducing a comprehensive internet data base for the collection of demographic, safety and efficacy data as well as blood concentrations of psychotropic drugs in children and adolescents. PMID:19358696

  7. Increasing Interest in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in the Third-Year Clerkship: Results from a Post-Clerkship Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Erin; Hollar, David; Lindsey, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors aimed to determine whether a structured clinical experience in child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) during the third-year psychiatry clerkship would impact interest in pursuing careers in psychiatry and CAP. Methods: The authors constructed and administered a post-rotation survey, the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry…

  8. Concluding the Series on Evidence-Based Practice: The Spread of Excellence in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, John D.

    2008-01-01

    The child and adolescent psychiatry community has been using large systems of information and new technologies to improve its performance.Evidence-based approach is used by practitioners to find and implement feasible therapies and medication. The different procedures involved of evidence-based practice, as used in child and adolescent psychology,…

  9. 10-Year Research Update Review: The Epidemiology of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Disorders--I. Methods and Public Health Burden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costello, E. Jane; Egger, Helen; Angold, Adrian

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To review recent progress in child and adolescent psychiatric epidemiology in the area of prevalence and burden. Method: The literature published in the past decade was reviewed under two headings: methods and findings. Results: Methods for assessing the prevalence and community burden of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders have…

  10. Revising the Child and Adolescent Perfectionism Scale: A Test of the Four-Factor Structure in a Chinese Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Hongfei; Hong, Chaoqin; Tao, Xiaodan; Zhu, Lingyi

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the structure, reliability, and validity of the revised Chinese version of the Child and Adolescent Perfectionism Scale (N = 933). The results confirmed the four-factor structure of the Chinese version of the Child and Adolescent Perfectionism Scale. Implications, limitations, and suggestions for future research are provided.

  11. Language Brokering, Autonomy, Parent-Child Bonding, Biculturalism, and Depression: A Study of Mexican American Adolescents from Immigrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Julia A.; Buriel, Raymond

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between language brokering, parent-child bonding, perceived autonomy, biculturalism, and depression for Mexican American adolescents. It was hypothesized that adolescent language brokers who reported a strong parent-child bond and high levels of psychological autonomy, privilege, and responsibility would also…

  12. The Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS).

    PubMed

    Anckarsäter, Henrik; Lundström, Sebastian; Kollberg, Linnea; Kerekes, Nora; Palm, Camilla; Carlström, Eva; Långström, Niklas; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Halldner, Linda; Bölte, Sven; Gillberg, Christopher; Gumpert, Clara; Råstam, Maria; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2011-12-01

    The Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS) is an ongoing longitudinal twin study targeting all twins born in Sweden since July 1, 1992. Since 2004, parents of twins are interviewed regarding the children's somatic and mental health and social environment in connection with their 9th or 12th birthdays (CATSS-9/12). By January 2010, 8,610 parental interviews concerning 17,220 twins had been completed, with an overall response rate of 80%. At age 15 (CATSS-15) and 18 (CATSS-18), twins and parents complete questionnaires that, in addition to assessments of somatic and mental health, include measures of personality development and psychosocial adaptation. Twin pairs in CATSS-9/12 with one or both twins screening positive for autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, tic disorders, developmental coordination disorder, learning disorders, oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and/or eating problems have been followed with in-depth questionnaires on family, social environment and personality, and subsequently by clinical assessments at age 15 together with randomly selected population controls, including 195 clinically assessed twin pairs from the first 2 year cohorts (CATSS-15/DOGSS). This article describes the cohorts and study groups, data collection, and measures used. Prevalences, distributions, heritability estimates, ages at onset, and sex differences of mental health problems in the CATSS-9/12, that were analyzed and found to be overall comparable to those of other clinical and epidemiological studies. The CATSS study has the potential of answering important questions on the etiology of childhood mental health problems and their role in the development of later adjustment problems. PMID:22506305

  13. PREVENTING CHILD AND ADOLESCENT ANXIETY DISORDERS: OVERVIEW OF SYSTEMATIC REVIEWS.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Kathryn; Manassis, Katharina; Duda, Stephanie; Bagnell, Alexa; Bernstein, Gail A; Garland, E Jane; Miller, Lynn D; Newton, Amanda; Thabane, Lehana; Wilansky, Pamela

    2015-12-01

    Overviews of systematic reviews (OSRs) provide rapid access to high quality, consolidated research evidence about prevention intervention options, supporting evidence-informed decision-making, and the identification of fruitful areas of new research. This OSR addressed three questions about prevention strategies for child and adolescent anxiety: (1) Does the intervention prevent anxiety diagnosis and/or reduce anxiety symptoms compared to passive controls? (2) Is the intervention equal to or more effective than active controls? (3) What is the evidence quality (EQ) for the intervention? Prespecified inclusion criteria identified systematic reviews and meta-analyses (2000-2014) with an AMSTAR quality score ≥ 3/5. EQ was rated using Oxford evidence levels EQ1 (highest) to EQ5 (lowest). Three reviews met inclusion criteria. One narrative systematic review concluded school-based interventions reduce anxiety symptoms. One meta-analysis pooled 65 randomized controlled trials (RCTs; any intervention) and reported a small, statistically significant reduction in anxiety symptoms and diagnosis incidence. Neither review provided pooled effect size estimates for specific intervention options defined by type (i.e., universal/selective/indicated), intervention content, or comparison group (i.e., passive/active control), thus precluding EQ ratings. One meta-analysis pooled trials of vigorous exercise and reported small, nonstatistically significant reductions in anxiety symptoms for comparisons against passive and active controls (EQ1). Better use of primary studies in meta-analyses, including program-specific pooled effect size estimates and network meta-analysis is needed to guide evidence-informed anxiety prevention program choices. RCTs of innovative community/primary care based interventions and web-based strategies can fill knowledge gaps.

  14. Future directions in clinical child and adolescent psychology: a Delphi survey.

    PubMed

    James, Rochelle L; Roberts, Michael C

    2009-10-01

    This study sought to identify the future directions in three domains: clinical practice, research, and training of clinical child and adolescent psychologists in the upcoming decade. Doctoral-level active members in the field were surveyed via a two-round Delphi survey (45 in round 1; 35 in round 2). Evidence-based practice received the greatest consensus by the participants and highest rank in each of the three domains. Other highly ranked clinical practice directions included prevention and early diagnosis and treatment, and clinical services for specific psychological problems. Research directions focused on biological and social factors interactions in the etiology and treatment and specific child and adolescent disorders. In the training domain, major directions included the pursuit of specialty training in child and adolescent psychology and training emphasizing the biological basis of behavior. Implications of these future directions are discussed.

  15. From child maltreatment to adolescent cannabis abuse and dependence: A developmental cascade model

    PubMed Central

    Rogosch, Fred A.; Oshri, Assaf; Cicchetti, Dante

    2010-01-01

    A developmental cascade model tested associations among child maltreatment, internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, social competence, and cannabis abuse and dependence symptoms in a longitudinal cohort (N = 415). Nested structural equation models evaluated continuity and cross-domain influences among broad multi-informant constructs across four developmental periods: age 7 to 9, 10 to 12, 13 to 15, and 15 to 18. Results indicated significant paths from child maltreatment to early externalizing and internalizing problems and social competence, as well as to cannabis abuse and dependence (CAD) symptoms in adolescence. Youth CAD symptoms were primarily related directly to child maltreatment and externalizing problems. Childhood internalizing symptoms contributed to later childhood decreases in social competence, which predicted increases in late adolescent externalizing problems. Using a developmental psychopathology framework, results are discussed in relation to cascade and transactional effects and the interplay between problem behaviors during childhood and development of CAD symptoms during early and late adolescence. PMID:20883588

  16. Adolescent mothers and child abuse potential: an evaluation of risk factors.

    PubMed

    Dukewich, T L; Borkowski, J G; Whitman, T L

    1996-11-01

    This research examines maternal and child factors that place adolescent mothers at risk for abusing their children. Using a longitudinal design, relationships among four risk factors (social supports, maternal psychological adjustment, maternal preparation for parenting, and child temperament), maternal psychological predisposition for aggressive coping (perceptions of stress and endorsements of punitive parenting), and maternal abuse potential were examined in a sample of 75 primiparous adolescent mothers and their children. Preparation for parenting, a construct which included knowledge and attitudes about children's development, was the strongest direct predictor of abuse potential; however, its effects were also partially mediated by the mother's psychological predisposition for aggressive coping. Similarly, the effects of child temperament on abuse were mediated by the mother's psychological predisposition for aggressive coping. Implications for designing intervention programs, and identifying at-risk adolescents, were also discussed. PMID:8958454

  17. Effects of parental monitoring, parent-child communication, and parents' expectation of the child's acculturation on the substance use behaviors of urban, Hispanic adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Unger, Jennifer B; Wagner, Karla D; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Sussman, Steve

    2008-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was conducted on 1,936 Hispanic adolescents of mean age 14.0 years (standard deviation= 0.4) from seven Los Angeles area schools. The effects of perceived parental monitoring and parent-child communication on the adolescents' self-reported past thirty day cigarette smoking and alcohol and marijuana use behaviors were analyzed. In addition, the relationships between parents' expectations of the child's acculturation and adolescents' drug use behaviors were examined. Parental monitoring and parent-child communication were found to have statistically significant inverse associations with all three drug types when controlling for one another and the demographic variables assessed in the study. Parents' expectation of the child's acculturation to the U.S. was found to be inversely related with alcohol use. Parental monitoring and parent-child communication were not found to mediate the relationship between parents' expectation of the child's acculturation and alcohol use.

  18. Commentary on "Psychiatric Aspects of Child and Adolescent Obesity: A Review of the Past 10 Years"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgibbon, Marian L.

    2004-01-01

    This article is a brief review of child and adolescent obesity over the past ten years. The starting point for the review is the well-known fact that there has been a dramatic rise in the prevalence of obesity among children, adolescents, and adults in the United Sates (Ogden et al., 2002). The rise has occurred across all age and ethnic groups,…

  19. Practice parameter for cultural competence in child and adolescent psychiatric practice.

    PubMed

    Pumariega, Andrés J; Rothe, Eugenio; Mian, Ayesha; Carlisle, Lee; Toppelberg, Claudio; Harris, Toi; Gogineni, Rama Rao; Webb, Sala; Smith, Jacqueline

    2013-10-01

    The United States faces a rapidly changing demographic and cultural landscape, with its population becoming increasingly multiracial and multicultural. In consequence, cultural and racial factors relating to mental illness and emotional disturbances deserve closer attention and consideration. This Practice Parameter outlines clinical applications of the principle of cultural competence that will enable child and adolescent mental health clinicians to better serve diverse children, adolescents, and their families.

  20. Spasmodic torticollis associated with sertraline in a child and an adolescent.

    PubMed

    Ayaydın, Hamza; Bozkurt, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    Movement disorders or extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) associated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have been reported. Although akathisia was found to be the most common EPS, and fluoxetine was implicated in the majority of the adverse reactions, there were also cases with EPS due to sertraline treatment. We present a child and an adolescent who developed torticollis (cervical dystonia) after using sertraline. To our knowledge, the child case is the first such report of sertraline-induced torticollis, and the adolescent case is the third in the literature.

  1. Building a Better Teenager: A Summary of "What Works" in Adolescent Development. American Teens Series. Child Trends Research Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Kristin Anderson; Zaff, Jonathan F.

    Although most American adolescents are psychologically, socially, and physically healthy, adolescence remains a time of considerable change and risk. To examine what works to promote well-being among America's adolescents, Child Trends reviewed contributing influences and programs that lead to positive behavior in seven areas: mental health,…

  2. Sluggish Cognitive Tempo in a Child and Adolescent Clinical Outpatient Setting.

    PubMed

    Camprodon-Rosanas, Ester; Batlle, Santiago; Estrada-Prat, Xavier; Aceña-Díaz, Marta; Petrizan-Aleman, Araitz; Pujals, Elena; Martin-López, Luis M; Pérez-Solá, Víctor; Ribas-Fitó, Núria

    2016-09-01

    Sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) symptoms have largely emerged from investigations of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Recent research has demonstrated the relevance of SCT symptoms in the field of clinical child and adolescent psychiatry. The goal of this research was to study the symptoms of SCT in a clinical child and adolescent sample and to define its features and comorbid conditions. We reviewed 834 clinical records of patients referred to Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services and examined SCT symptoms and their relation with sociodemographic data, clinical diagnosis, comorbid conditions, Child Behavior Checklist dimensions, and intelligence quotient. Of the 515 patients (age range, 4 to 17 y, 62.5% male) for whom a fully completed Child Behavior Checklist for Children and Adolescents was available, 20.8% showed high levels of SCT symptoms. SCT symptoms were strongly associated with age, internalizing symptoms, learning disabilities, and ADHD inattentive subtype (ADHD-I). No significant correlations with intelligence quotient were found. We concluded that SCT symptoms are highly prevalent in a clinical sample, and that these symptoms might be related to the difficulties that some individuals have in responding to demands in their environments, such as academic or social demands, as they increase over time. PMID:27648500

  3. International medical graduates in child and adolescent psychiatry: adaptation, training, and contributions.

    PubMed

    Gogineni, R Rao; Fallon, April E; Rao, Nyapati R

    2010-10-01

    This article reviews, consolidates, and enhances current knowledge about the issues and problems child and adolescent psychiatry international medical graduates face. Their training, work force issues, and establishment and advancement of professional identity are presented. Acculturation and immigration dynamics include facing prejudice and discrimination, social mirroring, and difficulties with language. Treatment issues are discussed with a special focus on therapeutic alliance, resistance, transference, countertransference, and child rearing practices. Recommendations for training and future goals are considered.

  4. [The return home of a child or adolescent after a diabetes diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Le Tallec, Claire

    2015-10-01

    The diagnosis of diabetes in a child or adolescent upsets the family dynamics. After the initial shock of the diagnosis, the child and their parents are given guidance to help them acquire a level of autonomy adapted to their needs. The aim of this early therapeutic education is to enable them to envisage resuming existing activities or organising new projects, as soon as they leave hospital. PMID:26461210

  5. Brief report: the adolescent Child-to-Parent Aggression Questionnaire: an examination of aggressions against parents in Spanish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Calvete, E; Gamez-Guadix, M; Orue, I; Gonzalez-Diez, Z; Lopez de Arroyabe, E; Sampedro, R; Pereira, R; Zubizarreta, A; Borrajo, E

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a questionnaire to assess child-to-parent aggression in adolescents and to document the extent of the problem. The questionnaire developed in this study, the Child-to-Parent Aggression Questionnaire (CPAQ), includes forms of physical and psychological aggression directed at both the mother and the father. It also includes open questions about the reasons for the aggressive acts. The CPAQ was completed by a sample of 2719 adolescents (age range: 13-18 years old, 51.4% girls). Confirmatory factor analysis supported a four-factor correlated structure (physical aggression against mother, physical aggression against father, psychological aggression against mother, and psychological aggression against father). Psychological and physical aggression against the mother was more frequent than against the father. However, there were no differences with regard to severe forms of aggression. Girls scored significantly higher on all indicators of psychological aggression, including severe psychological aggression. Nevertheless, except for the prevalence of physical aggression against mothers, which was higher in females, there were no significant differences in physical aggression against parents. Finally, the reasons provided by the adolescents for the aggression included both instrumental (e.g., to obtain permission to get home late and to access their computers) and reactive reasons (e.g., anger and self-defense). These findings highlight the complexity of child-to-parent aggression in adolescence.

  6. Child and Adolescent Mental Health in Haiti: Developing Long-Term Mental Health Services After the 2010 Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Legha, Rupinder K; Solages, Martine

    2015-10-01

    This article presents an overview of child and adolescent mental health in Haiti, emphasizing the role of structural violence and the factors shaping child protection. The 2010 Haiti earthquake is discussed as an acute on chronic event that highlighted the lack of pre-existing formal biomedical mental health services and worsened the impact of structural violence. Considerations for long-term, sustainable, culturally relevant child and adolescent mental health care in Haiti are also provided.

  7. [Major obstacles in the development of child and adolescent psychiatry in Hungary].

    PubMed

    Kalmar, Sandor

    2016-06-01

    The author ascertains that healthy personality development faces increasingly serious obstacles and consequently the number of children in need of mental healthcare is on the rise. Child and adolescent psychiatry has drawn increasing appreciation, however, it is only formal and deficient in Hungary today and cannot assure optimal mental care according to the principles of evidence-based medicine. The author emphasizes that 75% of the first manifestation of the psychiatric disorders occurs during adolescence and young adulthood. In spite of legal regulation, several deficiencies hinder the development of children into healthy adults. The author analyses the most important obstacles in the development of child and adolescent Psychiatry. The author emphasizes the role of keypersons, describes the situation of and problems faced by Hungarian child psychiatric care. The author lists in detail the most important contradictions, deficiencies and obstacles and outlines suggestions for resolving the present crisis. The author emphasizes (1) the responsibility of institutions, and people dealing with society and children, and the disinterest of competent authorities. (2) The somatic, mental, cultural and spiritual ignorance/illiteracy among parents, teachers, healthcare workers, and the general population partly related to crises among the pedagogues. (3) The lack of holistic approach to treatment of children suffering from mental disorder. (4) The importance and the lack of knowledge concerning central nervous system function in child psychiatry. (5) Application of evidence-based medicine in child and adolescent psychiatry based on understanding the relationship between central nervous system alterations and mental functions. (6) Respecting keypersons' competence limits. (7) Immediate development of inpatient and outpatient child and adolescent psychiatry in the whole country. (8) Reform of child psychiatry board exam. (9) Development of currently missing textbooks and

  8. Developmentally informed pharmacotherapy for child and adolescent depressive disorders.

    PubMed

    Sakolsky, Dara; Birmaher, Boris

    2012-04-01

    This article reviews evidence-based pharmacotherapy for children and adolescents with depression. Several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) support the use of fluoxetine for the treatment of childhood and adolescent depression as well as escitalopram in the treatment of adolescent depression. To date, one RCT has demonstrated the effectiveness of sertraline or citalopram for the treatment of major depressive disorder in youth. Only a small number of RCTs for depression have included children, and none of these trials were adequately powered to detect differences in the efficacy of medication between children and adolescents. PMID:22537729

  9. Parent-child Relationships, Parental Attitudes towards Sex, and Birth Outcomes among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Harville, Emily W.; Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Xie, Yiqiong

    2014-01-01

    Study objective To examine how parent-child relationships, parental control, and parental attitudes towards sex were related to pregnancy outcomes among adolescent mothers. Design Prospective cohort study. Parental report of relationship satisfaction, disapproval of adolescent having sex, discussion around sexual health, and sexual communication attitudes, and adolescent report of relationship satisfaction, parental control, and parental disapproval of sex were examined as predictors of self-reported birth outcomes. Weighted multivariable linear regression models were run incorporating interactions by race. Setting United States Participants 632 females who participated in Waves I and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a nationally-representative sample of students enrolled in grades 7–12 in 1994–95 and followed up in 2007–2008 Main Outcome Measures birthweight and gestational age Results For Black adolescents, better parent-child relationship was associated with higher birthweight (0.14 kg, p<0.05) and gestational age (0.75 weeks, p<0.01), while higher parental disapproval of having sex (adjusted beta 0.15 kg, p<0.05) were associated with higher birthweight. For non-Black adolescents, a moderate amount of discussion of birth control was associated with higher birthweight (0.19 kg, p<0.01 and lower child-perceived parental disapproval of having sex was associated with higher birthweight (0.08 kg, p<0.05) and gestational age (0.37 weeks, p<0.05). Higher parental control was associated with a reduced likelihood of smoking during pregnancy and a greater likelihood of early prenatal care. Conclusion Parent-child relationships and attitudes about sex affect outcomes of pregnant adolescents. PMID:25023982

  10. Parenting Stress, Social Support, and Depression for Ethnic Minority Adolescent Mothers: Impact on Child Development

    PubMed Central

    Costeines, Jessica; Ayala, Carmen; Kaufman, Joy S.

    2013-01-01

    Rates of teenage pregnancies are higher for African American and Latina adolescents compared to their White peers. African American and Latina adolescent mothers also experience more adversities than their White peers, such as higher rates of depression, school dropout, and economic disadvantage. Furthermore, children of adolescent mothers are at higher risk for adverse development. Parenting stress and social support can impact outcomes experienced by adolescent parents and their children. The present study examined the influence of adolescent mothers' parenting stress and perceived social support on maternal depression at baseline (six months after birth), and its impact on infant development one year later (18 months after birth). Participants were 180 adolescent mothers of African American or Latino/Hispanic descent. Results suggest that higher levels of parenting stress and less perceived social support were associated with higher levels of depression in the adolescent mothers at baseline. Higher levels of maternal depression were also associated with more developmental delays in infants one year post-baseline. Additionally, depression mediated the relationship between parenting stress and later child outcomes. These findings highlight the importance of examining parenting factors such as parenting stress, social support, and maternal depression in ethnic minority adolescent parents, and provide valuable information regarding unique risk and protective factors associated with positive maternal outcomes for ethnic minority adolescent parents and healthy development for their children. PMID:24653641

  11. The Brown University Child and Adolescent Behavior Letter, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipsitt, Lewis P., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    These 12 monthly issues, one special report, and index from 1997 explore problems encountered by children and adolescents. Regular features include "Keep Your Eye On...," brief accounts of research into childhood and adolescent problems; "What's New in Research," summarizing research from recent publications and professional conferences;…

  12. Profiles of Personal Resiliency in Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Geetha; Steer, Robert A.; Gulab, Nazli A.

    2010-01-01

    To ascertain whether children and adolescents whose ages ranged from 9 to 17 years described distinct profiles of personal resiliency, the Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents (RSCA) were administered to 100 youth who were admitted to an inpatient psychiatric unit and were diagnosed with various "DSM-IV-TR" disorders along with the Beck…

  13. Perceived Parent-Child Relations and Adolescent Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulanda, Ronald E.; Majumdar, Debarun

    2009-01-01

    We used data drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to assess the independent and interactive correlations of maternal and paternal parenting with adolescent self-esteem. Specifically, ordinary least squares regression was used to provide estimates for a large, culturally diverse sample of married, biological…

  14. The Brown University Child and Adolescent Behavior Letter, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipsitt, Lewis P., Ed.

    1996-01-01

    These 12 monthly newsletters from 1996 explore the many problems encountered by children and adolescents as they grow up. Regular departments in the newsletter issues include "Keep Your Eye On...," which briefly presents results of research into childhood and adolescent problems; "What's New in Research," summarizing research from recent…

  15. The Brown University Child and Adolescent Behavior Letter, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipsitt, Lewis P., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    These 12 monthly issues from 1998 explore problems encountered by children and adolescents. Regular features include "Keep Your Eye On...," brief accounts of research into childhood and adolescent problems, "What's New in Research," summarizing research from recent publications and professional conferences; "Commentary," editorials from…

  16. The Brown University Child and Adolescent Behavior Letter, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipsitt, Lewis P., Ed.

    1999-01-01

    These 12 monthly issues from 1999 explore problems encountered by children and adolescents. Regular features include "Keep Your Eye On...," brief accounts of research into childhood and adolescent problems; "What's New in Research," summarizing research from recent publications and professional conferences; "Commentary," editorials from…

  17. What they tell you to forget: from child sexual abuse to adolescent motherhood.

    PubMed

    Erdmans, Mary Patrice; Black, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between child sexual abuse and adolescent motherhood, using a life story interview method. The sample consists of 27 mothers participating in a home-visitation parenting program for mothers at risk of child maltreatment. The failure to articulate the violation of child sexual abuse and to appropriately construct blame resulted in a range of self-destructive behaviors, some of which placed mothers at greater risk of teen pregnancy. Repressed feelings associated with the trauma often resurfaced with motherhood as victims re-experienced their innocence and vulnerability as children.

  18. Measuring absorbed dose for i-CAT CBCT examinations in child, adolescent and adult phantoms

    PubMed Central

    Choi, E

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Design and construct child and adolescent head phantoms to measure the absorbed doses imparted during dental CBCT and compare with the absorbed dose measured in an adult phantom. Methods: A child phantom was developed to represent the smallest patients receiving CBCT, usually for craniofacial developmental concerns, and an adolescent phantom was developed to represent healthy orthodontic patients. Absorbed doses were measured using a thimble ionization chamber for the custom-built child and adolescent phantoms and compared with measurements using a commercially available adult phantom. Imaging was performed with an i-CAT Next Generation (Imaging Sciences International, Hatfield, PA) CBCT using two different fields of view covering the craniofacial complex (130 mm high) or maxilla/mandible (60 mm high). Results: Measured absorbed doses varied depending on the location of the ionization chamber within the phantoms. For CBCT images obtained using the same protocol for all phantoms, the highest absorbed dose was measured in all locations of the small child phantom. The lowest absorbed dose was measured in the adult phantom. Conclusions: Images were obtained with the same protocol for the adult, adolescent and child phantoms. A consistent trend was observed with the highest absorbed dose being measured in the smallest phantom (child), while the lowest absorbed dose was measured in the largest phantom (adult). This study demonstrates the importance of child-sizing the dose by using dedicated paediatric protocols optimized for the imaging task, which is critical as children are more sensitive to harmful effects of radiation and have a longer life-span post-irradiation for radiation-induced symptoms to develop than do adults. PMID:25785822

  19. Child and Adolescent Development: The Critical Missing Focus in School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comer, James P.

    2005-01-01

    The key to improving student achievement, the author asserts, is to pay attention to child and adolescent development. If this factor is overlooked, new approaches to curriculum, instruction, and assessment will have little chance of succeeding. But even troubled districts that have made development a priority have seen remarkable success. The…

  20. Models of Integrated Training in Psychiatry and Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sexson, Sandra B.; Thomas, Christopher R.; Pope, Kayla

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Previous studies indicate declining interest in child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) as a career choice during psychiatry residency training. Programs have developed integrated training in psychiatry and CAP as a means to address the workforce shortage in CAP, but little is known about the number or nature of these training tracks.…

  1. Assessing Child and Adolescent Pragmatic Language Competencies: Toward Evidence-Based Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Robert L.; Grizzle, Kenneth L.

    2008-01-01

    Using language appropriately and effectively in social contexts requires pragmatic language competencies (PLCs). Increasingly, deficits in PLCs are linked to child and adolescent disorders, including autism spectrum, externalizing, and internalizing disorders. As the role of PLCs expands in diagnosis and treatment of developmental psychopathology,…

  2. Child Maltreatment and Mediating Influences of Childhood Personality Types on the Development of Adolescent Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oshri, Assaf; Rogosch, Fred A.; Cicchetti, Dante

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate longitudinal risk processes linking early child maltreatment, childhood personality organizations, and adolescent maladaptation. In a sample of maltreated and nonmaltreated children ("N" = 400; 62.3% African American, 11.8% Hispanic; 40.8% girls), a tripartite personality typology based on…

  3. Training of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Fellows in Autism and Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marrus, Natasha; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy; Hellings, Jessica A.; Stigler, Kimberly A.; Szymanski, Ludwik; King, Bryan H.; Carlisle, L. Lee; Cook, Edwin H., Jr.; Pruett, John R., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Patients with autism spectrum disorders and intellectual disability can be clinically complex and often have limited access to psychiatric care. Because little is known about post-graduate clinical education in autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability, we surveyed training directors of child and adolescent psychiatry fellowship…

  4. Prevention in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: The Reduction of Risk for Mental Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, David, Ed.; And Others

    The book describes Project Prevention, an interdisciplinary project developed by the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, to identify risk factors for mental disorders and preventive interventions. After an introductory chapter, the following eight chapters cover: the scope of Project Prevention; children at high risk (e.g.,…

  5. Evidence-Based Assessment of Child and Adolescent Disorders: Issues and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mash, Eric J.; Hunsley, John

    2005-01-01

    The main purpose of this article and this special section is to encourage greater attention to evidence-based assessment (EBA) in the development of a scientifically supported clinical child and adolescent psychology. This increased attention is especially important in light of (a) the omission of assessment considerations in recent efforts to…

  6. Psychometrics of a Self-Report Version of the Child and Adolescent Dispositions Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahey, Benjamin B.; Rathouz, Paul J.; Applegate, Brooks; Tackett, Jennifer L.; Waldman, Irwin D.

    2010-01-01

    Lahey and Waldman (2003, 2005) proposed a model in which three dispositions--sympathetic response to others; negative emotional response to threat, frustration, and loss; and positive response to novelty and risk--transact with the environment to influence risk for conduct disorder (CD). To test this model, the Child and Adolescent Dispositions…

  7. Families Created by Assisted Reproduction: Parent-Child Relationships in Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Lucy; Golombok, Susan

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of the third phase of a longitudinal study of families created by assisted reproduction. The quality of parent-child relationships was examined close to the adolescent's 18th birthday in 26 "in vitro" fertilization (IVF) families and 26 donor insemination (DI) families in comparison with 38 adoptive families and 63…

  8. Interpartner Conflict and Child Abuse Risk among African American and Latino Adolescent Parenting Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, David R.; Florsheim, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to identify links between observed conflict interactions and risk for child abuse and harsh parenting among a multiethnic sample of adolescent mothers (14-19 years) and young fathers (14-24 years). Methods: Prior to childbirth (T1), observation-based relationship data were collected from 154 expectant…

  9. Child and Adolescent Life Stories: Perspectives from Youth, Parents, and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lodico, Marguerite G.; Voegtle, Katherine H.

    2005-01-01

    The uniqueness of this book lies in the multiple perspectives drawn from youth, their parents, and their teachers. These perspectives provide a range of lenses through which a student or beginning teacher may view child and adolescent development. The complex processes of development occur within a social context, and therefore a professional…

  10. The Child Suicide Risk Assessment: A Screening Measure of Suicide Risk in Pre-Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larzelere, Robert E.; Andersen, Jamie J.; Ringle, Jay L.; Jorgensen, Dan D.

    2004-01-01

    This study documents the initial reliability and validity of the Child Suicide Risk Assessment (CSRA) for children under the age of 13. The revised CSRA retained 18 of 20 original items based on item-specific psychometric data from 140 pre-adolescents in out-of-home treatment programs. The CSRA demonstrated adequate internal consistency (alpha =…

  11. Psychopharmacological Treatment Options for Global Child and Adolescent Mental Health: The WHO Essential Medicines Lists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutcher, Stan; Murphy, Andrea; Gardner, David

    2008-01-01

    The article examines the World Health Organization's Model List of Essential Medicines (EML) and suggests modification for appropriate psychopharmacological treatment of child- and adolescent-onset mental disorders. The EML enlists few of the psychotropic medicines that are useful for the treatment of young people thereby limiting the…

  12. Psychiatric Aspects of Child and Adolescent Obesity: A Review of the Past 10 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zametkin, Alan J.; Zoon, Christine K.; Klein, Hannah W.; Munson, Suzanne

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To review the past 10 years of published research on psychiatric aspects of child and adolescent obesity and highlight information mental health professionals need for preventing obesity in youths and diagnosing and treating it. Method: Researchers performed computerized and manual searches of the literature and summarized the most…

  13. Parent-Child Relationships and Dyadic Friendship Experiences as Predictors of Behavior Problems in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sentse, Miranda; Laird, Robert D.

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on support and conflict in parent-child relationships and dyadic friendships as predictors of behavior problems in early adolescence (n = 182; M age = 12.9 years, 51% female, 45% African American, 74% two-parent homes). Support and conflict in one relationship context were hypothesized to moderate the effects of experiences in…

  14. Parent-Child Relationship Trajectories during Adolescence: Longitudinal Associations with Romantic Outcomes in Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Overbeek, Geertjan; Vermulst, Ad

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the developmental trajectories of parent-child relationships in adolescence, especially with respect to changes in support levels and negativity, and analyzed if and how these trajectories were associated with the subsequent quality of romantic relationships in young adulthood. A sample of 145 German subjects was followed…

  15. Clinical Profile of Childhood Onset Depression Presenting to Child Adolescent and Family Services in Northampton

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majumder, Pallab; Hammad, Hala

    2006-01-01

    Background: The clinical profile of depressive disorder in children and young people in Child Adolescent and Family Services (CAFS), Northampton was studied. Methods: Twenty-five patients who had attended the CAFS over a period of 2 years were analysed retrospectively. Results: The age range of subjects was 8 to 19 years. Majority of patients were…

  16. The Validity of the Child and Adolescent Needs and Strengths Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilley, Joseph B.; Weiner, Dana A.; Lyons, John S.; Martinovich, Zoran

    2007-01-01

    The Child and Adolescent Needs and Strengths (CANS) is a functional assessment used in approximately 27 states to evaluate youth service outcomes. The CANS purports to measure both the youth's risk and protective factors, but its validity is largely un-researched. This study compares ratings of 304 delinquent youth on the CANS and ratings on a…

  17. Association of Selected Risk Factors with Variation in Child and Adolescent Firearm Mortality by State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murnan, Judy; Dake, Joseph A.; Price, James H.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined relationships between variation in child and adolescent firearm mortality by state and the following variables: childhood poverty rate, percent single parent families, percent population that is African American, percent population that is Hispanic. percent students carrying a gun, percent students carrying a weapon, percent…

  18. Learning from Tragedy: A Survey of Child and Adolescent Restraint Fatalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunno, Michael A.; Holden, Martha J.; Tollar, Amanda

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This descriptive study examines 45 child and adolescent fatalities related to restraints in residential (institutional) placements in the United States from 1993 to 2003. Method: The study team used common Internet search engines as its primary case discovery strategy to determine the frequency and the nature of the fatalities, as well…

  19. The Utility of the Child and Adolescent Psychopathy Construct in Hong Kong, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fung, Annis Lai-Chu; Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the nature of child and adolescent psychopathy using the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD) in 3,675 schoolchildren (ages 11-16) in Hong Kong, China. A confirmatory factor analysis observed a good fit for the three-factor model (callous-unemotional, impulsivity, narcissism) of APSD, with boys scoring…

  20. [The meaning of bibliotherapy and expressive writing in child and adolescent psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Blechinger, Tobias; Klosinski, Gunther

    2011-01-01

    Child- and adolescent psychiatry is a good field for the application of creative and playful therapies. Bibliotherapy and expressive writing are two examples of them. The effectiveness of both, for different types of disorders, has been proved in many studies. Up until today it was unknown just how prevalent these therapies are within child and adolescent psychiatry in the german speaking countries. The following article summarizes the results of a survey conducted in 122 child and adolescence psychiatric clinics in Germany, Austria and Switzerland to gain more information about their use. The survey takes into account the frequency of application of bibliotherapy and expressive writing therapies depending on age and type of disorder, preferences amongst patient groups, as well as specific approaches. More than half of the surveyed child and adolescent psychiatries are using at least one of the two therapies. They are used on an irregular and non-systematic basis and rather symptom- than diagnosis-orientated. Bibliotherapy and expressive writing are dynamic therapies which can be used in manifold ways. Reading and writing are two of the main pillars of our educational system and can be utilized within a therapeutic setting. Provided that the patient is not suffering from severe cognitive or mental limitations, the spoken and written word can leave deep imprints within the patient's, but also the therapist's, soul.

  1. Quality of Parent-Child Relations in Adolescence and Later Adult Parenting Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friesen, Myron D.; Woodward, Lianne J.; Horwood, L. John; Fergusson, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Data from the Christchurch Health and Development Study, a 30-year prospective longitudinal study, were used to examine the associations between the quality of parent-child relations in adolescence and adult parenting behaviour 15 years later. At ages 14 and 15 years, cohort members were interviewed about the quality of their relationship with…

  2. Measuring Perceived Social Support: Development of the Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale (CASSS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malecki, Christine Kerres; Demaray, Michelle Kilpatrick

    2002-01-01

    Study conducts confirmatory factor, reliability, and correlational analyses of scores on the Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale (CASSS). Analyses revealed evidence of reliability, a four-factor structure (Parent, Teacher, Classmate, and Close Friend subscales), and construct validity. There is evidence that the CASSS can be used to…

  3. Using Epidemiologic Methods to Test Hypotheses regarding Causal Influences on Child and Adolescent Mental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahey, Benjamin B.; D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Waldman, Irwin D.

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiology uses strong sampling methods and study designs to test refutable hypotheses regarding the causes of important health, mental health, and social outcomes. Epidemiologic methods are increasingly being used to move developmental psychopathology from studies that catalogue correlates of child and adolescent mental health to designs that…

  4. Child and Adolescent Behaviorally Based Disorders: A Critical Review of Reliability and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallett, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the historical construction and empirical support of two child and adolescent behaviorally based mental health disorders: oppositional defiant and conduct disorders. Method: The study utilized a historiography methodology to review, from 1880 to 2012, these disorders' inclusion in…

  5. Parent-Child Relations and Adolescent Self-Image Following Divorce: A 10-Year Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlop, Rosemary; Burns, Ailsa; Bermingham, Suzanne

    2001-01-01

    Explored links between self-image, family structure (divorced or intact), parent-child relations, and gender at 3 intervals over 10 years during adolescence to early adulthood. Results suggest a consistent relationship between high parental care, low overprotective control, and better self-image scores with a stronger effect among subjects from…

  6. Annotation: Economic Evaluations of Child and Adolescent Mental Health Interventions--A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romeo, Renee; Byford, Sarah; Knapp, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Background: Recognition has grown over recent years of the need for economic information on the impacts of child and adolescent mental health problems and the cost-effectiveness of interventions. Methods: A range of electronic databases were examined using a predefined search strategy to identify economic studies which focused on services,…

  7. Impact of Exposure to Violence in School on Child and Adolescent Mental Health and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Daniel J.; Wester, Kelly L.; Singer, Mark I.

    2004-01-01

    Exposure to violence at school remains a significant problem for children and adolescents. This study examined the relationship between exposure to violence at school and child reports of psychological trauma symptoms and violent behavior. The sample consisted of children in grades 3 through 12 in 17 public schools from two different states. Rates…

  8. A Practical Approach to Implementing the Core Competencies in a Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Residency Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dingle, Arden D.; Sexson, Sandra B.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe the development and implementation of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's core competencies in a child and adolescent psychiatry residency program. Method: The authors identify the program's organizational approach and participants and detail various strategies and methods of defining,…

  9. Food-related parenting practices and child and adolescent weight and weight-related behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Loth, K; Fulkerson, JA; Neumark-Sztainer, D

    2015-01-01

    Summary The prevalence of overweight and obesity in children has reached a concerning plateau in the past three decades, with overweight or obesity impacting approximately one-third of youth. Unhealthy weight-related behaviors, including dieting, unhealthy weight control practices and binge eating, are also a great public health concern for young people given both their high prevalence and harmful consequences. Food-related parenting practices, including food restriction and pressure-to-eat, have been associated with higher weight status, as well as the use of unhealthy weight-related behaviors, in children and adolescents. Physicians and other health care providers who work with families should discourage parents from using food restriction and pressure-to-eat parenting practices with their child or adolescent. Alternatively, parents should be empowered to promote healthy eating by focusing on making nutritious food items readily available within their home and modeling healthy food choices for their child or adolescent. PMID:26413263

  10. Child Support Enforcement and Sexual Activity of Male Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chien-Chung; Han, Wen-Jui

    2007-01-01

    Strong child support enforcement requires fathers to take financial responsibility for their children and may also encourage more responsible sexual behavior. Using the 1997-2001 waves of the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 4,272), this article examines the association between child support enforcement and the sexual activity of…

  11. Early Child Care and Adolescent Functioning at the End of High School: Results from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandell, Deborah Lowe; Burchinal, Margaret; Pierce, Kim M.

    2016-01-01

    Relations between early child care and adolescent functioning at the end of high school (EOHS; M age = 18.3 years) were examined in a prospective longitudinal study of 1,214 children. Controlling for extensive measures of family background, early child care was associated with academic standing and behavioral adjustment at the EOHS. More…

  12. National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, No. 7: Special Health Care Needs among Children in Child Welfare, Research Brief: Findings from the NSCAW Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This research brief, the seventh in a series of National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW) briefs, examines the presence of special health care needs among children in the child welfare system (CWS). It specifically examines the presence of chronic health conditions (e.g., asthma, diabetes) and special needs (e.g., emotional…

  13. Parental Acculturative Stressors and Adolescent Adjustment Through Interparental and Parent-Child Relationships in Chinese American Families.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yang; Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie

    2016-07-01

    Perpetual foreigner stereotype and bicultural management difficulty are two understudied acculturative stressors frequently experienced by Asian Americans. This study expanded the family stress model to examine how parental experiences of these two acculturative stressors relate to measures of adolescent adjustment (depressive symptoms, delinquent behaviors, and academic performance) during high school and emerging adulthood through interparental and parent-child relationship processes. Participants were 350 Chinese American adolescents (M age  = 17.04, 58 % female) and their parents in Northern California. Path models showed that parental acculturative stressors positively related to parent-child conflict, either directly (for both mother-adolescent and father-adolescent dyads) or indirectly through interparental conflict (for mother-adolescent dyads only). Subsequently, both interparental and parent-child conflict positively related to a sense of alienation between parents and adolescents, which then related to more depressive symptoms, more delinquent behaviors, and lower academic performance in adolescents, for mother-adolescent and father-adolescent dyads. These effects persisted from high school to emerging adulthood. The results highlight the indirect effects of maternal and paternal acculturative stressors on adolescent adjustment through family processes involving interparental and parent-child relationships.

  14. Applications of generalizability theory to clinical child and adolescent psychology research.

    PubMed

    Lakes, Kimberley D; Hoyt, William T

    2009-01-01

    Using generalizability theory to evaluate the reliability of child and adolescent measures enables researchers to enhance precision of measurement and consequently increase confidence in research findings. With an observer-rated measure of child self-regulation, we illustrate how multiple sources of error variance (e.g., raters, items) affect the dependability (replicability) of scores and demonstrate methods for enhancing dependability of observer ratings. Using ratings of 181 children, we illustrate the use of two-facet (i.e., raters and items as sources of error) and three-facet (i.e., raters, items and occasions) analyses to optimize design features of future studies using this measure. In addition, we show how generalizability theory provides a useful conceptual framework for thinking about determinants of scores on acquaintance (e.g., teacher or parent) ratings, as well as observer ratings, and sheds light on the strengths and limitations of both types of data for child and adolescent clinical research. PMID:19130364

  15. Child maltreatment and mediating influences of childhood personality types on the development of adolescent psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Oshri, Assaf; Rogosch, Fred A; Cicchetti, Dante

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate longitudinal risk processes linking early child maltreatment, childhood personality organizations, and adolescent maladaptation. In a sample of maltreated and nonmaltreated children (N = 400; 62.3% African American, 11.8% Hispanic; 40.8% girls), a tripartite personality typology based on California Child Q-Set items representative of ego resiliency and ego control personality dimensions (Block & Block, 1969/1980 ) was derived at Wave 1 (age range = 10-12). The typology, composed of Resilient, Overcontrolled, and Undercontrolled profiles, was evaluated for associations with previous child maltreatment, and for its utility in predicting adolescent psychopathology (age range = 15-18). Maltreated children were significantly more likely than nonmaltreated children to be classified into the overcontrolled (Odds Ratio = 1.847) and undercontrolled profiles (Odds Ratio = 2.101), compared to the Resilient profile. The undercontrolled profile reported higher cannabis symptoms and externalizing problems in adolescence than the other two profiles. The overcontrolled group showed the highest levels of internalizing and lowest levels of alcohol problems compared to the other profiles. Person-centered mediation analyses showed that the overcontrolled and the undercontrolled profiles significantly and differentially mediated the link between number of child maltreatment subtypes and the development of adolescent psychopathology. Child maltreatment is a potent environmental stressor that potentiates compromised personality development, eventuating in heightened psychopathology in adolescence. These findings have important implications for prevention and intervention of psychopathology and substance abuse among low income and maltreated youth.

  16. Top 10 milieu interventions for inpatient child/adolescent treatment.

    PubMed

    Delaney, Kathleen R

    2006-11-01

    Presented in this article are 10 interventions to deal with children and adolescents on inpatient psychiatric units. The 10 are divided into three categories: behavioral, cognitive, and affective. The interventions discussed are particularly relevant to staff in their efforts to help children and adolescents achieve control over their thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. Each intervention includes a summary of the theory that supports its efficacy, a brief explanation of the intervention, and methods for applying the technique in clinical situations.

  17. Furthering the Understanding of Parent–Child Relationships: A Nursing Scholarship Review Series. Part 5: Parent–Adolescent and Teen Parent–Child Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Riesch, Susan K.; Anderson, Lori S.; Pridham, Karen A.; Lutz, Kristin F.; Becker, Patricia T.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this paper is to examine nursing’s contribution to understanding the parent–adolescent and the teen parent–child relationships. CONCLUSION Relationships between parents and adolescents may reflect turmoil and affect adolescents’ health and development. The social and developmental contexts for teen parenting are powerful and may need strengthening. Several interventions to help teen mothers interact sensitively with their infants have been developed and tested. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS Nurse researchers have begun to provide evidence for practitioners to use in caring for families of adolescents and teen parents to acquire interaction skills that, in turn, may promote optimal health and development of the child. PMID:20618633

  18. Preparation for Adulthood. Proceedings of the Asian Workshop on Child and Adolescent Development (3rd, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, April 9-14, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ching, Leong Yin, Ed.; And Others

    Attended by participants from 19 nations, this conference focused on six topics related to child and adolescent development. Major topics discussed included child development and related issues, curriculum and the adolescent, the adolescent and technological changes, and the preparation of youth for adulthood. Symposia focusing on child…

  19. Clinical phenomenology of child and adolescent dissociative disorders.

    PubMed

    Hornstein, N L; Putnam, F W

    1992-11-01

    A comparison of two separately diagnosed samples of children and adolescents with dissociative disorders demonstrates good construct validity for these diagnoses in childhood. Descriptive analyses of the total sample reveal a clinical profile characterized by a plethora of affective, anxiety, conduct, posttraumatic, and dissociative symptoms. Children with multiple personality disorder (MPD) differ from those with dissociative disorder not otherwise specified (DDNOS) in having more amnesias, identity disturbances, and hallucinations. Adolescents were more symptomatic than children age 11 or younger and more likely to receive a diagnosis of multiple personality disorder.

  20. [Adolescent parenting – developmental risks for the mother-child dyad].

    PubMed

    Dahmen, Brigitte; Firk, Christine; Konrad, Kerstin; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate

    2013-11-01

    Adolescent mothers and their children are exposed to multiple psychosocial risk factors and represent a high-risk group for adverse developmental outcomes. It is not the mother's young age alone which contributes to the developmental risk of the mother-child dyad. Rather, both the combination of risks, such as poverty, domestic violence, dysfunctional family relationships, or a psychiatric disorder, all of which predispose to adolescent pregnancy, as well as the strains of parenthood during the mother's own developmental stage add to the psychosocial risks of children of teenage mothers. Early motherhood can lead to lower levels of education and a lower socioeconomic status. In addition, there is a higher risk for psychopathology in both the teenage mother and her child. This article provides an overview of the current research findings regarding adolescent parenting and its associated risks. Risk factors leading to early motherhood are reviewed and associated with differences in parenting behaviors and the developmental outcomes of their children. This article will conclude with a short overview on intervention programs for adolescent mothers and their children. Further research is needed to develop age-appropriate support programs for adolescent mothers and their children to cope with the complexity of risks and improve their developmental trajectories.

  1. Resolving Child and Adolescent Traumatic Grief: Creative Techniques and Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgar-Bailey, Meredith; Kress, Victoria E.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a review of creative interventions that can be helpful in facilitating the resolution of traumatic grief in children and adolescents. Traumatic grief is conceptualized as a condition in which a person loses a close loved one (e.g., a parent or a sibling) in a traumatic manner, and ensuing trauma-related symptoms disrupt the…

  2. Child Sexual Abuse and Adolescent Prostitution: A Comparative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seng, Magnus J.

    1989-01-01

    Explored relationship between sexual abuse and adolescent prostitution by comparing 70 sexually abused children with 35 prostitution-involved children on 22 variables. Findings suggest that relationship is not direct, but involves runaway behavior as intervening variable. Concludes that it is not so much sexual abuse that leads to prostitution, as…

  3. Parent-Child Communication and Adolescents' Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Terri D.; Pollack, Robert H.

    Although the benefits of sex education are often questioned, numerous studies have shown that the more knowledgeable a person is about sexuality, the less likely he or she is to engage in early sexual activities. To compare the differences in sexual knowledge, attitudes, and contraceptive choice between those adolescents who talk to their parents…

  4. Practice Parameter for Child and Adolescent Forensic Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This Parameter addresses the key concepts that differentiate the forensic evaluation of children and adolescents from a clinical assessment. There are ethical issues unique to the forensic evaluation, because the forensic evaluator's duty is to the person, court, or agency requesting the evaluation, rather than to the patient. The forensic…

  5. Preventing Child and Adolescent Firearm Injuries. Firearm Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duker, Laurie

    In an effort to reduce the current epidemic of gun violence among children and adolescents in the United States, this fact sheet presents various approaches to reducing access to and interest in carrying firearms. Suggested approaches to reducing access include: (1) urging parents to turn in their guns to police; (2) repealing anti-gun control…

  6. Prerequisites for Global Child and Adolescent Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Leon; Belfer, Myron

    2009-01-01

    The epidemiology of the mental and physical health of children and adolescents the world over reflects: the genomes they inherit (and the modifications those genes undergo in utero); the pregnancies that led to their births, whether their mothers survive those pregnancies, and whether their births were welcome; the parents, the neighbors, and the…

  7. Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Child and Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David-Ferdon, Corinne; Kaslow, Nadine J.

    2008-01-01

    The evidence-base of psychosocial treatment outcome studies for depressed youth conducted since 1998 is examined. All studies for depressed children meet Nathan and Gorman's (2002) criteria for Type 2 studies whereas the adolescent protocols meet criteria for both Type 1 and Type 2 studies. Based on the Task Force on the Promotion and…

  8. Commentary: Treatment Guidelines for Child and Adolescent Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClellan, Jon

    2005-01-01

    Once considered rare in children, pediatric bipolar disorder is now widely diagnosed in the United States. The illness has become a cultural phenomenon, adorning the cover of Time magazine and headlining national news broadcasts. Kowatch and colleagues, in compiling consensus recommendations for bipolar disorder in children and adolescents, have…

  9. Assessment of Child and Adolescent Overweight and Obesity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate appropriate assessment of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents is a critical aspect of contemporary medical care. However, physicians and other health care professionals may find this a somewhat thorny field to enter. The BMI has become the standard as a reliable indicator of ...

  10. Compulsive Internet Use among Adolescents: Bidirectional Parent-Child Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Eijnden, Regina J. J. M.; Spijkerman, Renske; Vermulst, Ad A.; van Rooij, Tony J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2010-01-01

    Although parents experience growing concerns about their children's excessive internet use, little is known about the role parents can play to prevent their children from developing Compulsive Internet Use (CIU). The present study addresses associations between internet-specific parenting practices and CIU among adolescents, as well as the…

  11. Child abuse and suicidal ideation among adolescents in China.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Sylvia Y C L; Chai, Wenyu; He, Xuesong

    2013-11-01

    The present study examined the relationship among physical abuse, psychological abuse, perceived family functioning and adolescent suicidal ideation in Shanghai, China. Perceived family functioning was investigated as a possible moderator between physical abuse, psychological abuse and suicidal ideation. A cross sectional survey using convenience sampling was conducted. A total of 560 valid self-administered questionnaires were completed by the students aged from 12 to 17 in Shanghai. Descriptive statistical analyses, Pearson correlations analyses, and hierarchical regression analyses were adopted as methods of data analyses. Results indicated that physical abuse was significantly associated with greater adolescent suicidal ideation, while a higher level of perceived family functioning was significantly associated with lower suicidal ideation. However, psychological abuse was not associated with suicidal ideation. Perceived family functioning was shown to be a moderator between physical abuse and suicidal ideation. Specifically, mutuality and family communication moderated the relationship between physical abuse and suicidal ideation. To decrease adolescent suicidal ideation, measures are suggested to prevent physical abuse and enhance family functioning. First, it is important to increase the parents' awareness of the meaning and boundaries of physical abuse, as well as the role it plays in contributing to adolescent suicidal ideation. Second, parents should be taught appropriate parenting skills and knowledge and be guided to treat the children as individuals with their unique personality, rights and privileges. Third, it is important to promote family harmony, effective communication as well as mutual trust, concern and understanding among family members. PMID:23899534

  12. Child abuse and suicidal ideation among adolescents in China.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Sylvia Y C L; Chai, Wenyu; He, Xuesong

    2013-11-01

    The present study examined the relationship among physical abuse, psychological abuse, perceived family functioning and adolescent suicidal ideation in Shanghai, China. Perceived family functioning was investigated as a possible moderator between physical abuse, psychological abuse and suicidal ideation. A cross sectional survey using convenience sampling was conducted. A total of 560 valid self-administered questionnaires were completed by the students aged from 12 to 17 in Shanghai. Descriptive statistical analyses, Pearson correlations analyses, and hierarchical regression analyses were adopted as methods of data analyses. Results indicated that physical abuse was significantly associated with greater adolescent suicidal ideation, while a higher level of perceived family functioning was significantly associated with lower suicidal ideation. However, psychological abuse was not associated with suicidal ideation. Perceived family functioning was shown to be a moderator between physical abuse and suicidal ideation. Specifically, mutuality and family communication moderated the relationship between physical abuse and suicidal ideation. To decrease adolescent suicidal ideation, measures are suggested to prevent physical abuse and enhance family functioning. First, it is important to increase the parents' awareness of the meaning and boundaries of physical abuse, as well as the role it plays in contributing to adolescent suicidal ideation. Second, parents should be taught appropriate parenting skills and knowledge and be guided to treat the children as individuals with their unique personality, rights and privileges. Third, it is important to promote family harmony, effective communication as well as mutual trust, concern and understanding among family members.

  13. [Social reasoning of early adolescents and parents regarding parent-child conflicts].

    PubMed

    Utsumi, Shoka

    2015-08-01

    Few researches have delineated how adolescents and parents view conflict in familial settings in Japan. Seventh and eighth grade junior high school students (n = 63) and parents (n = 68) were asked to complete a questionnaire using four hypothetical stories to investigate their judgments and reasoning about parent-child situations. Vignettes described health management, household chores, and two situations involving personal choice (clothes and friends) situations. Participants responded differently to personal, prudential, and conventional conflict. Parental acceptance of the child's demands and discretion and the child's tendency to reject parental authority were significantly higher for personal than for conventional or prudential conflict, and for conventional than for prudential conflict. Children rejected parental authority more than adults rejected parental authority when the child's choice was central to the child's identity; on the other hand, children accepted parents' conventional demands more often than adults accepted parents' conventional demands. These results suggest that early adolescents assert their rights when they judge the situation to be in the personal domain.

  14. [Social reasoning of early adolescents and parents regarding parent-child conflicts].

    PubMed

    Utsumi, Shoka

    2015-08-01

    Few researches have delineated how adolescents and parents view conflict in familial settings in Japan. Seventh and eighth grade junior high school students (n = 63) and parents (n = 68) were asked to complete a questionnaire using four hypothetical stories to investigate their judgments and reasoning about parent-child situations. Vignettes described health management, household chores, and two situations involving personal choice (clothes and friends) situations. Participants responded differently to personal, prudential, and conventional conflict. Parental acceptance of the child's demands and discretion and the child's tendency to reject parental authority were significantly higher for personal than for conventional or prudential conflict, and for conventional than for prudential conflict. Children rejected parental authority more than adults rejected parental authority when the child's choice was central to the child's identity; on the other hand, children accepted parents' conventional demands more often than adults accepted parents' conventional demands. These results suggest that early adolescents assert their rights when they judge the situation to be in the personal domain. PMID:26402954

  15. A Review of Familial Correlates of Child and Adolescent Obesity: What has the 21st Century Taught us so Far?

    PubMed Central

    Berge, Jerica M.

    2010-01-01

    Background With the rising prevalence rates of child and adolescent obesity over the last several decades it is important to examine the extant research in order to inform future research. Objective The aim of this paper is to review and critique research investigating familial correlates of child and adolescent obesity in the last decade. Methods A literature review was conducted between March 2008 and December 2008. Studies published after 2000 that assessed familial associations with child and adolescent obesity in the parental, family functioning, and sibling domains were included in the review. A total of 81 studies met inclusionary criteria. Results The majority of studies focused on the parental domain. Substantial evidence indicates an association between authoritative parenting style and child/adolescent lower BMI, healthy dietary intake and physical activity. Also, research on family meals has consistently shown an association between the frequency of family meals and child/adolescent lower BMI and healthy dietary intake. Conclusion To date, there is preliminary evidence that suggests that familial factors are associated with child and adolescent obesity, dietary intake, physical activity and weight control behaviors, but the majority of the evidence is cross-sectional and there are limitations with the research. Recommendations for future research are discussed. PMID:20306760

  16. Is the Prediction of Adolescent Outcomes From Early Child Care Moderated by Later Maternal Sensitivity? Results From the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development

    PubMed Central

    Burchinal, Margaret R.; Vandell, Deborah Lowe; Belsky, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Longitudinal data are used to examine whether effects of early child care are amplified and/or attenuated by later parenting. Analyses tested these interactions using parenting as both a categorical and continuous variable to balance power and flexibility in testing moderation. The most consistent finding was that maternal sensitivity during adolescence accentuated the association between child care quality and adolescent academic-cognitive skills at age 15 years when maternal sensitivity during adolescence was high. This interaction was obtained in analyses with maternal sensitivity as both a categorical and continuous variable. Relations between early child care hours and adolescent behavioral outcomes also were moderated by maternal sensitivity, with longer child care hours predicting more impulsivity and externalizing at age 15 when maternal sensitivity during middle childhood, scored as a categorical variable, was low to moderate and when maternal sensitivity during adolescence, scored as a continuous variable, was lower. These findings suggest that some child care effects are moderated by subsequent parenting and that this moderation may take both linear and nonlinear forms. PMID:23937381

  17. Maternal Parenting Styles and Mother-Child Relationship among Adolescents with and without Persistent Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Chang, Jane Pei-Chen

    2013-01-01

    We investigated mothering and mother-child interactions in adolescents with and without persistent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a sample of 190 adolescents with persistent DSM-IV ADHD, 147 without persistent ADHD, and 223 without ADHD. Both participants and their mothers received psychiatric interviews for diagnosis of ADHD…

  18. The Child Health and Illness Profile--Adolescent Edition: Assessing Well-Being in Group Homes or Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altshuler, Sandra J.; Poertner, John

    2002-01-01

    The Child Health and Illness Profile--Adolescent Edition (CHIP-AE) was administered to 63 adolescents in group settings. Domains studied were satisfaction, resilience, risk, achievement, and disorders. Compared to a normed group, youth in group homes or institutions felt physically healthy and safe and were resilient. Of concern were low…

  19. Child Sexual Abuse and Its Relationship with Health Risk Behaviors among Rural Children and Adolescents in Hunan, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Danhua; Li, Xiaoming; Fan, Xinghua; Fang, Xiaoyi

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The current study was designed to explore the prevalence of child sexual abuse (CSA) and its association with health risk behaviors (i.e., smoking, alcohol use, binge drinking, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempt) among rural children and adolescents in China. Methods: A sample of 683 rural children and adolescents (8 to 18 years of…

  20. Mother-Child Conflict and Its Moderating Effects on Depression Outcomes in a Preventive Intervention for Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jami F.; Gallop, Robert; Mufson, Laura

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on mother-child conflict as an outcome and moderator of Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training (IPT-AST), a preventive intervention for depression. Forty-one adolescents (average age = 13.37, SD = 1.19) with elevated depression symptoms were randomized to receive IPT-AST or school counseling (SC). Adolescents…

  1. Attitudes, Skills and Knowledge Change in Child and Adolescent Mental Health Workers Following AOD Screening and Brief Intervention Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Grant; Black, Stella; Dunbar, Lucy; Pulford, Justin; Wheeler, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Adolescent mental health workers are generally poor at identifying and treating co-existing alcohol and other drug (AOD) disorder. This study aimed to evaluate the utility and acceptability of an AOD screening and brief intervention (BI) training package delivered to child and adolescent mental health workers and its impact on relevant attitudes,…

  2. Growing Up the Chinese Way: Chinese Child and Adolescent Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Sing, Ed.

    This volume is a collection of current research by noted scholars on Chinese child development. The volume re-examines long-held beliefs and preconceptions about Chinese culture, draws forth incompatible pictures and contradictory facts about Chinese children, and draws attention to new problems of the modern Chinese family. The chapters of the…

  3. Healthcare Reform and Preparing the Future Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology Workforce.

    PubMed

    Janicke, David M; Fritz, Alyssa M; Rozensky, Ronald H

    2015-01-01

    The healthcare environment is undergoing important changes for both patients and providers, in part due to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA). Ultimately the healthcare delivery system will function very differently by the end of this decade. These changes will have important implications for the education, training, scientific inquiry, and practice of clinical child and adolescent psychologists. In this article we provide a brief description of the fundamental features of the ACA, with a specific focus on critical components of the act that have important, specific implications for clinical child and adolescents psychologists. We then provide recommendations to help position our field to thrive in the evolving healthcare environment to help facilitate further awareness and promote discussion of both challenges and opportunities that face our field in this evolving health care environment. PMID:26158589

  4. Training of child and adolescent psychiatry fellows in autism and intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Marrus, Natasha; Veenstra-Vanderweele, Jeremy; Hellings, Jessica A; Stigler, Kimberly A; Szymanski, Ludwik; King, Bryan H; Carlisle, L Lee; Cook, Edwin H; Pruett, John R

    2014-05-01

    Patients with autism spectrum disorders and intellectual disability can be clinically complex and often have limited access to psychiatric care. Because little is known about post-graduate clinical education in autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability, we surveyed training directors of child and adolescent psychiatry fellowship programs. On average, child and adolescent psychiatry directors reported lectures of 3 and 4 h per year in autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability, respectively. Training directors commonly reported that trainees see 1-5 patients with autism spectrum disorder or intellectual disability per year for outpatient pharmacological management and inpatient treatment. Overall, 43% of directors endorsed the need for additional resources for training in autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability, which, coupled with low didactic and clinical exposure, suggests that current training is inadequate.

  5. Healthcare Reform and Preparing the Future Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology Workforce.

    PubMed

    Janicke, David M; Fritz, Alyssa M; Rozensky, Ronald H

    2015-01-01

    The healthcare environment is undergoing important changes for both patients and providers, in part due to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA). Ultimately the healthcare delivery system will function very differently by the end of this decade. These changes will have important implications for the education, training, scientific inquiry, and practice of clinical child and adolescent psychologists. In this article we provide a brief description of the fundamental features of the ACA, with a specific focus on critical components of the act that have important, specific implications for clinical child and adolescents psychologists. We then provide recommendations to help position our field to thrive in the evolving healthcare environment to help facilitate further awareness and promote discussion of both challenges and opportunities that face our field in this evolving health care environment.

  6. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder across the lifespan: the child, adolescent, and adult.

    PubMed

    Greydanus, Donald E; Pratt, Helen D; Patel, Dilip R

    2007-02-01

    Management of a child, adolescent, college student, or adult with ADD/ADHD (ADHD) is reviewed with emphasis on pharmacologic approaches in the adult. Psychological treatment includes psychotherapy, cognitive-behavior therapy, support groups, parent training, biofeedback, meditation, and social skills training. Medications are reviewed that research has revealed can improve the core symptomatology of a child or adolescent with ADHD. These medications include stimulants (psychostimulants), antidepressants, alpha-2 agonists, and a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor. Psychopharmacology approved and/or used in pediatric patients are also used in adults with ADHD, though most are not officially FDA-approved. It is emphasized that ADHD management should include a multi-modal approach, involving appropriate educational interventions, appropriate psychological management of the patient of any age, and judicious use of medications. Such an approach is recommended to benefit those with ADHD achieve their maximum potential across the human life span.

  7. [Effects of Ward Interventions on Repeated Critical Incidents in Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatient Care].

    PubMed

    Ulke, Christine; Klein, Annette M; von Klitzing, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Effects of Ward Interventions on Repeated Critical Incidents in Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatient Care. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of several ward interventions (transition to an open ward concept, individualized treatment plans, tiered crisis-management, staff training, quality control) on repeated critical incidents, non-restrictive and restrictive measures. The outcome variables were compared in two time periods, 2007 and 2011. The study included 74 critical incident reports of 51 child and adolescent inpatients that had at least one hospital stay and one critical incident in the selected time periods. Aggressive, self-harming, and absconding incidents were included. The quantitative results suggest that ward interventions can contribute to a reduction of repeated critical incidents and restrictive measures. The qualitative evaluation suggests a cultural change of crisis management.

  8. A Model CSMH Curriculum for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Training Programs.

    PubMed

    Derenne, Jennifer; Martel, Adele

    2015-10-01

    Child and adolescent psychiatrists (CAP) care for high school students preparing to enter college. They also may continue to see students while on school vacations and may care for college students in various settings (emergency room, inpatient hospital unit, private practice, college student health service, or counseling center). As increasing numbers of students with mental health diagnoses pursue secondary education, CAP need to be knowledgeable about campus systems of care, principles of transition, and privacy and educational laws affecting college students. This article describes an informal needs assessment of general CAP members of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and details the results of a survey of CAP program directors on training opportunities in college student mental health (CSMH). The authors present a sample curriculum for a clinical rotation in CSMH, as well as providing ideas for core didactic lectures, and proposing the development of online resources to reduce the burden of creating new lectures and standardize experiences among training programs.

  9. [Child and adolescent obesity, psychosocial consequences and treatment strategies].

    PubMed

    Hartmann, A S; Hilbert, A

    2013-04-01

    Being overweight and obese in childhood and adolescence is associated with various somatic and psychosocial sequelae. Psychosocial problems can negatively influence the future weight trajectory. Therefore, weight reduction or stabilization should be complemented by the treatment of significant psychosocial problems. This review provides an overview of the psychosocial problems associated with being overweight and obese in childhood and adolescence. Evidence on weight-related stigmatization and discrimination, eating disorder symptoms, general psychopathology, impaired quality of life, lowered self-esteem, social skill deficits, as well as academic problems is summarized. Furthermore, state-of-the-art diagnostic and therapeutic procedures for the psychosocial problems are summarized. Future research should focus on the development of interventions targeting the destigmatization of obesity, as experiences of stigmatization and discrimination likely aggravate the psychosocial sequelae of overweight and obesity. PMID:23529599

  10. The hyperactive child at adolescence: cognitive, emotional, and social functioning.

    PubMed

    Hoy, E; Weiss, G; Minde, K; Cohen, N

    1978-09-01

    In view of the paucity of detailed follow-up studies on hyperactive children, the performance of 15 adolescents diagnosed hyperactive 5 years previously was compared to that of a control group of equivalent age, sex, intelligence, and social class. Eleven cognitive tests measuring sustained attention, visual-motor and motor skills, abstraction, and reading ability, as well as three self-assessment tests examining self-esteem, activity level, social functioning, academic status, and career aspirations were administered. The hyperactives performed significantly worse than the controls on the sustained attention, visual-motor, and motor tasks, and on two of the four reading tests. They also gave themselves significantly lower ratings on some of the self-esteem and sociability items. It would appear that the hyperactives at adolescence still have attentional and stimulus-processing difficulties, which affect not only their academic performance but also their social functioning.

  11. [Articulation between child and adolescent mental health services].

    PubMed

    Delfini, Patricia Santos de Souza; Reis, Alberto Olavo Advincula

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this paper was to describe and analyze the articulation between children and adolescent mental health care interventions undertaken by teams working under the Family Health Strategy (FHS) and Psychosocial Care Centers for Children and Adolescents (CAPSI). In order to achieve these objectives, semi-structured interviews were conducted with five CAPSI and 13 FHS managers from five different regions of the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The 18 interviews were transcribed and analyzed froma hermeneutic perspective. It was found that interactions between the FHS and CAPSI occur mainly through referral of cases, matrix support or partnerships in cases concerning CAPSI. Obstacles, such as a lack of human resources, productivity goals and lack of training in mental health of FHS professionals were mentioned. The referral system and passing responsibility for mental health cases to specialized services and the hegemonic biomedical model and the fragmentation of care are common place in these services.

  12. Child and Adolescent Development Research and Teacher Education: Evidence-Based Pedagogy, Policy, and Practice. Summary of Roundtable Meetings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), 2006

    2006-01-01

    The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) and the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) collaborated on a child and adolescent development project involving roundtables of knowledgeable researchers and teacher educators. This summary report discusses major issues faced by teachers and schools,…

  13. The Moderating Effects of Pubertal Timing on the Longitudinal Associations between Parent-Child Relationship Quality and Adolescent Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, Katherine H.; Van Den Bree, Marianne B. M.

    2010-01-01

    This prospective, longitudinal study investigated the moderating role of pubertal timing on reciprocal links between adolescent appraisals of parent-child relationship quality and girls' (N = 1,335) and boys' (N = 1,203) cigarette and alcohol use across a 12-month period. Reciprocal effects were found between parent-child relations and on-time…

  14. National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW) CPS Sample Component Wave 1 Data Analysis Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Children's Bureau of the Administration on Children, Youth and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, has undertaken the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW) to learn about the experiences of children and families who come in contact with the child welfare system. NSCAW is gathering information associated…

  15. Relations between Parenting and Externalizing and Internalizing Problem Behaviour in Early Adolescence: Child Behaviour as Moderator and Predictor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reitz, E.; Dekovic, M.; Meijer, A. M.

    2006-01-01

    In this longitudinal study we investigated relations between parenting and externalizing and internalizing problem behaviour during early adolescence. First, we examined parenting effects on problem behaviour, including child behaviour as a moderator. Second, we examined child behaviour as predictor of parenting, also including moderator effects.…

  16. Physician leadership and quality improvement in the acute child and adolescent psychiatric care setting.

    PubMed

    Malloy, Erin; Butt, Shiraz; Sorter, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Inpatient child and adolescent psychiatry leadership roles are often multifaceted, necessitating strong clinical knowledge and skills, organizational and leadership abilities, and in the academic setting the desire and skill in teaching and research. Early career psychiatrists who do possess these attributes may find themselves unprepared for such challenges as dealing with complex administrative and economic issues, accreditation, legal matters, and multitasking. This article offers a primer addressing these basic issues and in managing change through quality improvement processes.

  17. Medication adherence in the asthmatic child and adolescent.

    PubMed

    Desai, Mauli; Oppenheimer, John J

    2011-12-01

    Asthma is a common inflammatory condition affecting more than 7 million children in the United States alone, and tens of millions more globally. Despite effective preventive medications, medication nonadherence in children and adolescents is alarmingly high. Nonadherence can result in poor asthma control, which leads to decreased quality of life, lost productivity, increased health care utilization, and even the risk of death. Nonadherence in children and adolescents deserves special attention because they face unique barriers to adherence that change with age. Young children depend on adults for the delivery of asthma care, and their care is strongly influenced by parental motivation and attitudes and the home environment. As these children enter adolescence, they typically assume responsibility for their asthma care at the same time that they are claiming their independence and possibly experimenting with high-risk behaviors. Morbidity and mortality, as well as nonadherence, appear to be greatest among adolescents and minority children. Although no perfect tool for measuring adherence exists, objective methods, such as electronic monitoring, can provide valuable information to health care providers. Beyond asthma self-management and education, no specific resource-heavy adherence interventions have proven consistently helpful. However, large-scale, well-designed studies on this subject are lacking. In light of the fact that nonadherence is a potentially modifiable factor that impacts on morbidity and mortality, it is worth pursuing further research to determine better interventions. It is likely, however, that no one answer exists, and interventions will need to be tailored to specific at-risk populations. PMID:21968618

  18. Contribution of Athletic Identity to Child and Adolescent Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Cheryl B.; Mâsse, Louise C.; Zhang, Hong; Coleman, Karen J.; Chang, Shine

    2009-01-01

    Background Identity theorists maintain that domain-specific self-concepts help explain the differential investment of people’s time and effort in various activities. Purpose This study examined the contribution of athletic identity and three key demographic variables to physical activity and sports team participation. Methods Students in Grades 4–5 (n=391, mean age 9.9 years, range 8–13 years, collected in 2003) and Grades 7–8 (n=948, mean age 13.6 years, range 11–15 years, collected in 2002 and 2006) completed the 40-item Athletic Identity Questionnaire, which measures self-perceptions of athletic appearance; competence; importance of physical activity and sports; and encouragement for activity from parents, teachers, and friends. Hierarchic multiple regression analyses in 2008 assessed the effects of athletic identity, race/ethnicity group, gender, and overweight status on 7-day moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and organized sport team participation in each age group. Results In children and adolescents, the global score of athletic identity was independently, positively related to MVPA (p<0.0001, p<0.0001, respectively) and team participation (p<0.0001, p<0.0001, respectively), after controlling for demographic variables. More variance in MVPA was explained in children (23%) than in adolescents (5%), in contrast to team sports (5% in children, 15% in adolescents). In the subscale analyses, positive relationships for appearance, competence, importance, and parental encouragement persisted independent of demographic factors. Conclusions Results support the role of athletic self-concept in promoting physical activity and organized sport participation in children and adolescents. PMID:19595559

  19. The relationship between family functioning and child and adolescent overweight and obesity: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Halliday, J A; Palma, C L; Mellor, D; Green, J; Renzaho, A M N

    2014-04-01

    There is mounting evidence that family functioning is linked to childhood overweight and obesity, and that both of these are associated with health-related behaviours and adverse health outcomes in children and adolescents. This paper systematically examines the peer-reviewed evidence regarding the relationship between child and adolescent overweight and obesity and family functioning. Peer-reviewed literature published between 1990 and 2011 hosted in Scopus, Pub Med or Psyc INFO were searched, in addition to the reference lists of included papers. Twenty-one studies met the selection criteria. Of the 17 identified cross-sectional and longitudinal studies, 12 reported significant associations between family functioning and childhood overweight and obesity. The instruments used to measure family functioning in the identified studies were heterogeneous. Poor family functioning was associated with increased risk of obesity and overweight in children and adolescents, and obese children and adolescents were more likely to come from families with poor family functioning. Aspects of family functioning which were associated with increased risk of child and adolescent obesity included poor communication, poor behaviour control, high levels of family conflict and low family hierarchy values. Half (2/4) of the identified intervention studies showed a significant relationship between family functioning and changes in child weight. The results demonstrate that family functioning is linked to obesity; however, higher level evidence and greater understanding of the mechanisms behind this relationship are required. The results indicate a need for a standardised family functioning measure applicable across populations. The results provide evidence of the value of considering family functioning in childhood obesity research and intervention.

  20. Is physiotherapy effective in the management of child and adolescent conversion disorder? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    FitzGerald, Tara L; Southby, Alesha K; Haines, Terrence P; Hough, Janet P; Skinner, Elizabeth H

    2015-02-01

    Child and adolescent conversion disorder has the potential to impart significant burden on health-care services and affect quality of life. Clinically, physiotherapists are involved in conversion disorder management; however, no systematic reviews have examined physiotherapy effectiveness in its management. The aim of this review is to identify the efficacy of physiotherapy management of child and adolescent conversion disorder. A search of multiple databases (Medline, CINAHL, Embase, PsychINFO, PEDro and the Cochrane Library) was completed along with manual searching of relevant reference lists to identify articles including children 0-18 years with a diagnosis of conversion disorder who received physical management. Two independent reviewers screened titles and abstracts using criteria. Data were extracted regarding study characteristics, functional outcome measures, length of stay, physiotherapy service duration and resolution of conversion symptoms. Methodological quality was assessed using a tool designed for observational studies. Twelve observational studies were included. No functional outcome measures were used to assess the effectiveness of the treatment protocols in the case studies. Resolution of symptoms occurred in all but two cases, with conversion symptoms still present at 11 months and at 2 years. Length of stay varied from 3 days to 16 weeks, with similar variation evident in length of physiotherapy service provision (2.5 weeks to 16 weeks). There was limited and poor quality evidence to establish the efficacy of physiotherapy management of child and adolescent conversion disorders. More rigorous study designs with consistent use of reliable, valid and sensitive functional outcome measures are needed in this area.

  1. Child and adolescent obesity: part of a bigger picture.

    PubMed

    Lobstein, Tim; Jackson-Leach, Rachel; Moodie, Marjory L; Hall, Kevin D; Gortmaker, Steven L; Swinburn, Boyd A; James, W Philip T; Wang, Youfa; McPherson, Klim

    2015-06-20

    The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity has risen substantially worldwide in less than one generation. In the USA, the average weight of a child has risen by more than 5 kg within three decades, to a point where a third of the country's children are overweight or obese. Some low-income and middle-income countries have reported similar or more rapid rises in child obesity, despite continuing high levels of undernutrition. Nutrition policies to tackle child obesity need to promote healthy growth and household nutrition security and protect children from inducements to be inactive or to overconsume foods of poor nutritional quality. The promotion of energy-rich and nutrient-poor products will encourage rapid weight gain in early childhood and exacerbate risk factors for chronic disease in all children, especially those showing poor linear growth. Whereas much public health effort has been expended to restrict the adverse marketing of breastmilk substitutes, similar effort now needs to be expanded and strengthened to protect older children from increasingly sophisticated marketing of sedentary activities and energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods and beverages. To meet this challenge, the governance of food supply and food markets should be improved and commercial activities subordinated to protect and promote children's health.

  2. Child and adolescent obesity: part of a bigger picture

    PubMed Central

    Lobstein, Tim; Jackson-Leach, Rachel; Moodie, Marjory L; Hall, Kevin D; Gortmaker, Steven L; Swinburn, Boyd A; James, W Philip T; Wang, Youfa; McPherson, Klim

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity has risen substantially worldwide in less than one generation. In the USA, the average weight of a child has risen by more than 5 kg within three decades, to a point where a third of the country’s children are overweight or obese. Some low-income and middle-income countries have reported similar or more rapid rises in child obesity, despite continuing high levels of undernutrition. Nutrition policies to tackle child obesity need to promote healthy growth and household nutrition security and protect children from inducements to be inactive or to overconsume foods of poor nutritional quality. The promotion of energy-rich and nutrient-poor products will encourage rapid weight gain in early childhood and exacerbate risk factors for chronic disease in all children, especially those showing poor linear growth. Whereas much public health effort has been expended to restrict the adverse marketing of breastmilk substitutes, similar effort now needs to be expanded and strengthened to protect older children from increasingly sophisticated marketing of sedentary activities and energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods and beverages. To meet this challenge, the governance of food supply and food markets should be improved and commercial activities subordinated to protect and promote children’s health. PMID:25703114

  3. Child and adolescent obesity: part of a bigger picture.

    PubMed

    Lobstein, Tim; Jackson-Leach, Rachel; Moodie, Marjory L; Hall, Kevin D; Gortmaker, Steven L; Swinburn, Boyd A; James, W Philip T; Wang, Youfa; McPherson, Klim

    2015-06-20

    The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity has risen substantially worldwide in less than one generation. In the USA, the average weight of a child has risen by more than 5 kg within three decades, to a point where a third of the country's children are overweight or obese. Some low-income and middle-income countries have reported similar or more rapid rises in child obesity, despite continuing high levels of undernutrition. Nutrition policies to tackle child obesity need to promote healthy growth and household nutrition security and protect children from inducements to be inactive or to overconsume foods of poor nutritional quality. The promotion of energy-rich and nutrient-poor products will encourage rapid weight gain in early childhood and exacerbate risk factors for chronic disease in all children, especially those showing poor linear growth. Whereas much public health effort has been expended to restrict the adverse marketing of breastmilk substitutes, similar effort now needs to be expanded and strengthened to protect older children from increasingly sophisticated marketing of sedentary activities and energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods and beverages. To meet this challenge, the governance of food supply and food markets should be improved and commercial activities subordinated to protect and promote children's health. PMID:25703114

  4. Every child should be a wanted child. Thinking about adolescent sexual consciousness and behavior in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, K

    1991-12-01

    While the author considers adolescence to be a positive and creative period of developing sexuality and self-awakening, he is nonetheless troubled by a trend toward increasing premarital sexual activity, with a correspondingly elevated teen pregnancy rate in Japan. The social climate encourages adolescent pregnancy, posing medical, gynecological, and social problems. Teenage abortions have increased from 12, 123 to 29, 675 over the period 1975-1989; the proportion of teen abortions rising from 1.8% to 6.35% of all abortions. Those youths opting to bear children to term often only make for irresponsible parents. This increased preponderance of adolescence sexual activity may be attributed to a host of factors including a trend toward delayed marriage and increased years of schooling, increased acceptance and prevalence of single parent and dual income families, a burgeoning Japanese sex industry widely conveyed through mass media, wide dissemination of contraceptive methods and effective medical treatment of most sexually transmitted diseases, and inadequate, inappropriate sex education. Family and school environments, the nature of growing older, and the difference between male and female adolescent psychological development are also cited as accelerators of sex behavior. Adults are urged to foster happy family and school environments for youth, encourage extracurricular activities, and regard masturbation as positive release of sexual morality, but support the adoption and continuation of birth limiting methods such as oral contraceptives at the expense of the condom. Demographic data and survey findings on adolescent attitudes toward sex and actual adolescent sexual practice are included to support the author's argument.

  5. Developmental pathways from child maltreatment to adolescent marijuana dependence: Examining moderation by FK506 binding protein 5 gene (FKBP5).

    PubMed

    Handley, Elizabeth D; Rogosch, Fred A; Cicchetti, Dante

    2015-11-01

    The current study examined the prospective association between child maltreatment and the development of substance use disorder in adolescence with the aim of investigating pathways underlying this relation, as well as genetic moderation of these developmental mechanisms. Specifically, we tested whether youth who experienced maltreatment prior to age 8 were at risk for the development of marijuana dependence in adolescence by way of a childhood externalizing pathway and a childhood internalizing pathway. Moreover, we tested whether variation in FK506 binding protein 5 gene (FKBP5) CATT haplotype moderated these pathways. The participants were 326 children (n =179 maltreated; n = 147 nonmaltreated) assessed across two waves of data collection (childhood: ages 7-9 and adolescence: ages 15-18). Results indicated that higher levels of child externalizing symptoms significantly mediated the effect of child maltreatment on adolescent marijuana dependence symptoms for individuals with one or two copies of the FKBP5 CATT haplotype only. We did not find support for an internalizing pathway from child maltreatment to adolescent marijuana dependence, nor did we find evidence of moderation of the internalizing pathway by FKBP5 haplotype variation. Findings extend previous research by demonstrating that whether a maltreated child will traverse an externalizing pathway toward substance use disorder in adolescence is dependent on FKBP5 genetic variation. PMID:26535939

  6. Expanding the vision: the strengths-based, community-oriented child and adolescent psychiatrist working in schools.

    PubMed

    Kriechman, Avron; Salvador, Melina; Adelsheim, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Because the majority of children with mental health needs are most likely to receive treatment in a school setting, there is a long history of linking child and adolescent psychiatrists to schools. Psychiatrists traditionally have been involved in assessing, diagnosing, and treating the severely mentally ill or consulting with school-based providers. With no end in sight to the dearth of child and adolescent psychiatrists, not to mention child and adolescent behavioral health providers in other disciplines, this role has been broadened in recent years by several programs in which the child and adolescent psychiatrist provides flexible, population-based, systemic, and context-specific approaches to working in schools. In this article, the authors first review some of the traditional roles for child and adolescent psychiatrists working in school mental health settings. Then 2 national programs are highlighted, which successfully integrate psychiatrist trainees into comprehensive school mental health programs. The theoretical approach to a specific community-oriented, strengths-based model for school mental health support used in New Mexico by the University of New Mexico (UNM) Psychiatry Department's Center for Rural and Community Behavioral Health school telepsychiatry program, which supports rural and frontier school mental health programs and school-based health centers, is discussed in detail. The UNM model involves a strength-and resiliency-based collaboration between the child and adolescent psychiatrist, students, families, educators, and those who support them. The psychiatrist co-creates a "community of concern" and support for students, including not only customary participants such as parents, educators, and health care providers but also peers, families of choice, lay professionals, community gatekeepers, and others identified by the student as critical to his or her well-being. The advantages for child and adolescent psychiatry trainees being exposed to

  7. The Ethnic Context of Child and Adolescent Problem Behavior: Implications for Child and Family Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yasui, Miwa; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2007-01-01

    This article links the empirical literature on race and ethnicity in developmental psychopathology with interventions designed to reduce adolescent problem behavior. We present a conceptual framework in which culture is endogenous to the socialization of youth and the development of specific self-regulatory strategies. The importance of cultural…

  8. Child and adolescent obesity: epidemiology and developmental perspectives.

    PubMed

    Adair, Linda S

    2008-04-22

    From infancy through adolescence, more and more children are becoming overweight. National prevalence data show that more than 17% of youth have a body mass index (BMI) above the 95th percentile of the US age and sex-specific reference. Particularly alarming are rates in children as young as 2 years of age, and among minority children. Periods of heightened vulnerability to weight gain have been identified, and research supports the notion that obesity has its origins in early life. This paper focuses on susceptibility to increased adiposity during the prenatal period, infancy, mid-childhood and adolescence, and how factors operating in each of these periods influence risk of becoming overweight. Prenatal exposure to over or undernutrition, rapid growth in early infancy, an early adiposity rebound in childhood, and early pubertal development have all been implicated in the development of obesity. The persistence of obesity from young ages emphasizes the importance of understanding growth trajectories, and of developing prevention strategies to overcome strong influences of obesigenic environments at young ages.

  9. A friend request from dear old dad: associations between parent-child social networking and adolescent outcomes.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Sarah M; Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Day, Randal D; Harper, James; Stockdale, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between parent-child social networking, connection, and outcomes for adolescents. Participants (491 adolescents and their parents) completed a number of questionnaires on social networking use, feelings of connection, and behavioral outcomes. Social networking with parents was associated with increased connection between parents and adolescents. Feelings of connection then mediated the relationship between social networking with parents and behavioral outcomes, including higher prosocial behavior and lower relational aggression and internalizing behavior. Conversely, adolescent social networking use without parents was associated with negative outcomes, such as increased relational aggression, internalizing behaviors, delinquency, and decreased feelings of connection. These results indicate that although high levels of social networking use may be problematic for some individuals, social networking with parents may potentially strengthen parent-child relationships and then lead to positive outcomes for adolescents.

  10. Characteristics of Child Maltreatment and Adolescent Marijuana Use: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Dubowitz, Howard; Thompson, Richard; Arria, Amelia M.; English, Diana; Metzger, Richard; Kotch, Jonathan B.

    2015-01-01

    There has been increasing acceptance of marijuana use in the US in recent years, and rates among adolescents have risen. At the same time, marijuana use during adolescence has been linked to an array of health and social problems. Maltreated children are at risk for marijuana use, but the relationships among characteristics of maltreatment and marijuana use are unclear. In this paper we examine how the type and the extent of maltreatment are related to the level of adolescent marijuana use. Data analyses were conducted on a subsample of maltreated adolescents (n = 702) from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN) project. Approximately half the sample had used marijuana, and maltreatment was associated with its use. Multivariate regression models showed that being male, extensive maltreatment, and peer marijuana use were associated with Heavy Use of marijuana. These findings suggest the importance of comprehensively assessing children’s maltreatment experiences and their peers’ drug use to help prevent or address possible marijuana use in these high-risk adolescents. PMID:26715532

  11. Characteristics of Child Maltreatment and Adolescent Marijuana Use: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Dubowitz, Howard; Thompson, Richard; Arria, Amelia M; English, Diana; Metzger, Richard; Kotch, Jonathan B

    2016-02-01

    There has been increasing acceptance of marijuana use in the United States in recent years, and rates among adolescents have risen. At the same time, marijuana use during adolescence has been linked to an array of health and social problems. Maltreated children are at risk for marijuana use, but the relationships among characteristics of maltreatment and marijuana use are unclear. In this article, we examine how the type and the extent of maltreatment are related to the level of adolescent marijuana use. Data analyses were conducted on a subsample of maltreated adolescents (n = 702) from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect project. Approximately half the sample had used marijuana, and maltreatment was associated with its use. Multivariate regression models showed that being male, extensive maltreatment, and peer marijuana use were associated with heavy use of marijuana. These findings suggest the importance of comprehensively assessing children's maltreatment experiences and their peers' drug use to help prevent or address possible marijuana use in these high-risk adolescents. PMID:26715532

  12. Characteristics of Child Maltreatment and Adolescent Marijuana Use: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Dubowitz, Howard; Thompson, Richard; Arria, Amelia M; English, Diana; Metzger, Richard; Kotch, Jonathan B

    2016-02-01

    There has been increasing acceptance of marijuana use in the United States in recent years, and rates among adolescents have risen. At the same time, marijuana use during adolescence has been linked to an array of health and social problems. Maltreated children are at risk for marijuana use, but the relationships among characteristics of maltreatment and marijuana use are unclear. In this article, we examine how the type and the extent of maltreatment are related to the level of adolescent marijuana use. Data analyses were conducted on a subsample of maltreated adolescents (n = 702) from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect project. Approximately half the sample had used marijuana, and maltreatment was associated with its use. Multivariate regression models showed that being male, extensive maltreatment, and peer marijuana use were associated with heavy use of marijuana. These findings suggest the importance of comprehensively assessing children's maltreatment experiences and their peers' drug use to help prevent or address possible marijuana use in these high-risk adolescents.

  13. Annual Research Review: Optimal outcomes of child and adolescent mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Costello, E. Jane; Maughan, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Background ‘Optimal outcomes’ of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders may mean the best possible outcome, or the best considering a child’s history. Most research into the outcomes of child and adolescent psychiatric disorder concentrates on the likelihood of adult illness and disability given an earlier history of psychopathology. Methods In this article we review the research literature (based on a literature search using PubMed, RePORT and Google Advanced Scholar databases) on optimal outcomes for young people with a history of anxiety, depression, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, or substance use disorders in childhood or adolescence. We consider three types of risks that these children may run later in development: future episodes of the same disorder, future episodes of a different disorder, and functional impairment. The impact of treatment or preventative interventions on early adult functioning is briefly reviewed. Results We found that very few studies enabled us to answer our questions with certainty, but that in general about half of adults with a psychiatric history were disorder-free and functioning quite well in their 20s or 30s. However, their chance of functioning well was less than that of adults without a psychiatric history, even in the absence of a current disorder. Conclusions Among adults who had a psychiatric disorder as a child or adolescent, about half can be expected to be disorder-free as young adults, and of these about half will be free of significant difficulties in the areas of work, health, relationships, and crime. Optimal outcomes are predicted by a mixture of personal characteristics and environmental supports. PMID:25496295

  14. Psychotropic drug prescribing in child and adolescent learning disability psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Bramble, David

    2007-07-01

    This postal questionnaire study investigated the prescribing practices of a group of senior British psychiatrists who have responsibilities for children and adolescents with learning disabilities (mental retardation). The study revealed that all of the clinicians surveyed (n = 16) were prescribing psychotropic medication; psychostimulants and major tranquillizers represented the most frequently prescribed classes and, respectively, methylphenidate, risperidone, melatonin, sodium valproate and carbamazepine were the most frequently employed specific agents. Most patients were receiving monotherapy. Many (14/16) clinicians reported difficulties in shared-care prescribing arrangements with General Practitioners. The study concludes that psychopharmacology is an established part of the psychiatric management of learning disabled children but acknowledges the need for the elaboration of clinical governance standards to this area of practice.

  15. Psychotropic drug prescribing in child and adolescent learning disability psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Bramble, David

    2007-07-01

    This postal questionnaire study investigated the prescribing practices of a group of senior British psychiatrists who have responsibilities for children and adolescents with learning disabilities (mental retardation). The study revealed that all of the clinicians surveyed (n = 16) were prescribing psychotropic medication; psychostimulants and major tranquillizers represented the most frequently prescribed classes and, respectively, methylphenidate, risperidone, melatonin, sodium valproate and carbamazepine were the most frequently employed specific agents. Most patients were receiving monotherapy. Many (14/16) clinicians reported difficulties in shared-care prescribing arrangements with General Practitioners. The study concludes that psychopharmacology is an established part of the psychiatric management of learning disabled children but acknowledges the need for the elaboration of clinical governance standards to this area of practice. PMID:17446203

  16. Prerequisites for global child and adolescent mental health.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Leon; Belfer, Myron

    2009-01-01

    The epidemiology of the mental and physical health of children and adolescents the world over reflects: the genomes they inherit (and the modifications those genes undergo in utero); the pregnancies that led to their births, whether their mothers survive those pregnancies, and whether their births were welcome; the parents, the neighbors, and the neighborhoods they 'inherit' along with their genomes; when and where they live (by cohort, by country, and by province); the air they breathe; the water they drink; what and how much they eat; the schools they attend (and by whom they are taught what and for how long); the energy they expend; the family status in the social order; the friends they have; and last but not least, the amount and kind of medical and psychiatric care they receive. PMID:19220587

  17. Child and adolescent abuse and neglect in the city of Curitiba, Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva Franzin, Lucimara Cheles; Olandovski, Márcia; Vettorazzi, Maria Lúcia Tozetto; Werneck, Renata Iani; Moysés, Samuel Jorge; Kusma, Solena Ziemer; Moysés, Simone Tetu

    2014-10-01

    Identify and analyze cases of child and adolescent abuse and neglect in Curitiba, Brazil. This is an exploratory descriptive study that takes a quantitative approach. Secondary data from the reporting registry of the Network for the Protection of Children and Adolescents at Risk for Violence in Curitiba, Brazil, dating from 2004 to 2009, were analyzed. Variables included the victims' sociodemographic profile, place of notification, type, nature and severity of abuse, information about the author of the aggression or abuse, and physical lesions. The frequency distribution and associations between the variables were analyzed using the Chi-square test at a 5% significance level. The analysis of 19,316 records showed that domestic violence, abuse and neglect directed against children and adolescents were the most frequently recorded situation, with 17,082 cases (88.4%) distributed in the following manner: neglect, with 9742 reports (57.0%); physical violence, with 1341 reports (7.9%); sexual violence, with 796 reports (4.7%); psychological violence, with 574 reports (3.4%); and abandonment, with 190 reports (1.1%). Of the total, 43.9% were considered severe cases. The most affected age group was between 5 and 14 years of age, with balance between genders. In the majority of cases, the mother was registered as the author of the abuse or neglect. Physical sequelae (20.2%) mostly affected the head and upper and lower limbs, with consequent lesions manifesting as bruises, cuts, and fractures. An increase in the visibility of domestic violence and children and adolescents abuse and neglect has been observed in the city during the last few years, suggesting the effectiveness of the reporting strategies proposed by the protection network. It is important to increase social security and public welfare policies to prevent child and adolescent abuse and neglect, focusing on family support. PMID:24661691

  18. Stability, Continuity, and Similarity of Parenting Stress in European American Mothers and Fathers across their Child's Transition to Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Putnick, Diane L; Bornstein, Marc H; Hendricks, Charlene; Painter, Kathleen M; Suwalsky, Joan T D; Collins, W Andrew

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Experiencing some degree of parenting stress is virtually unavoidable, particularly as children enter early adolescence and assert their independence. In this study, we examined how parenting stress attributed to the parent, the child, or the dyad changed in mean level and relative standing across their child's transition to adolescence. We also compared mothers and fathers from the same families in terms of parenting stress and explored how one parent's stress affected the other parent's stress. DESIGN: Participants included 222 European American parents (111 mothers and 111 fathers), assessed when their children were 10 and 14 years old. RESULTS: Parenting stress was highly stable from 10 to 14 years. Total parenting stress increased across time, and was attributable to stress due to increased parent-child dysfunctional interaction, not parental distress or stress due to child behavior. Mothers and fathers agreed moderately in their relative standing and in the average levels of parenting stress in the three different domains of parenting stress at each time point. Mothers' and fathers' stress across domains were sometimes related. CONCLUSIONS: Mothers' and fathers' increased parenting stress across their child's transition to adolescence seems to derive from parent-child interaction rather than qualities of the parent or the child per se. Finding ways to maintain parent-child communication and closeness may protect parents and families from increased stress during this vulnerable time. PMID:20191083

  19. Inpatient Opioid Withdrawal Management of Street Children and Adolescents Admitted to Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Ward: A Preliminary Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Firouzkouhi Moghadam, Mahboubeh; Hashemian, Seyed-Sepehr; Pishjoo, Masoud; Ghasemi, Sanaz; Hajebi, Ahmad; Noroozi, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Background About 10 million children worldwide live or work on the street. International reports estimate the prevalence of substance use among street children to be between 25% - 90%, which is who were referredntal disorders and high-risk behaviors. Objectives The objective of this study was to report the outcomes of assisted withdrawal of opioid-dependent vulnerable children and adolescents who were referred to child and adolescent psychiatric ward of Ali Ebne Abitaleb hospital, an academic hospital in Zahedan city. Methods Clinical chart abstractions were performed on a convenience sample of 40 serial opioid-dependent street children and adolescents (mean age: 11.14 ± 3.6 years) who were referred to child and adolescent psychiatric ward of Ali Ebne Abitaleb treatment and research center from November 2014 to May 2015. The demographic data, drug use history, comorbid physical and psychiatric conditions, symptomatology of opioid withdrawal syndrome, pharmacotherapies and psychosocial services, length of hospital stay, and any adverse events were extracted from the patients’ files using a checklist developed by the authors. Results Twenty-four (60%) patients were male, and 16 (40%) were female. The main drug used by all patients was opioids. Heroin Kerack (which has a street name of crystal in southeast Iran) was the most common (75%) drug of use, followed by opium (10%) and opium residue (7.5%). None of the participants self-reported using injected drugs. The high rate of a lack of eligibility for guardianship was documented among parents (87.5%) mainly due to their use of illegal drugs. Musculoskeletal pain and diarrhea were the most common withdrawal symptoms of the patients upon admission. The mean length of stay was 10.8 (± 7.30) days, and no significant adverse events were reported during the symptomatic treatment of opioid withdrawal syndrome. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first study to report on the safety and feasibility of inpatient

  20. Management in child and adolescent psychiatry: how does it look in the Balkans?

    PubMed

    Pejovic-Milovancevic, M; Miletic, V; Anagnostopoulos, D; Raleva, M; Stancheva, V; Burgic-Radmanovic, M; Barac-Otasevic, Z; Ispanovic, V

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the situation of child and adolescent psychiatry in the following Balkan countries: Greece, Serbia, Bulgaria, Romania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, FYROM, and Montenegro. With the exception of Greece, these countries are new democracies, with their mental health services in a transitional stage of organization. Overall, they have initiated programmes to move psychiatric care towards deinstitutionalization, developing outpatient infrastructures to handle psychiatric disorders. Child psychiatry as a specialization is still less developed than adult psychiatry at a significant, albeit different degree among these countries. The number of mental health services offered to children and adolescents is deemed insufficient, and the type of services limited and lacking. This situation is also reflected in the small number of child psychiatrists and other mental health specialists for children and adolescents, as well as in the complete lack (Montenegro) or deficiency of special programmes and actions for children and adolescents. The same also applies to mental health legislation. Greece is the exception in the development of the entire spectrum of services, the number of specialists, and the establishment of an adequate legislation framework reinforced by the incorporation of all international treaties on children's rights; although the recent economic crisis has affected the country negatively, threatening with regression to pre-reformational practices. Children and adolescents in need of mental health care have been increasing in all countries. The effect of violent and sudden changes taking place in most countries is a major factor for the emergence of increased and stress-related psychopathology and psychosocial problems in children and families. In all countries, there is a significant development of nongovernmental organizations undertaking a large part of reformation work. There is also the disconcerting phenomenon of professional exhaustion and the

  1. Are parents reliable in reporting child victimization? Comparison of parental and adolescent reports in a matched Chinese household sample.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ko Ling

    2015-06-01

    There is ongoing debate about the reliability of parental reports on child victimization. Some studies have shown that they are useful, whereas some others have provided contrary evidence suggesting that parents are not accurate in reporting child victimization, especially when they are the one who inflicted the violence. This study aimed to (a) examine the reliability of parental reports of adolescents' experiences of victimization, including that inflicted by parents as well as others, by comparing them with self-reports using a parent-child matched sample from China; and (b) explore the possible reasons underlying any disagreement between the parental and adolescent reports. A total of 2,624 parent-adolescent pairs were recruited during 2009 and 2010 in 6 cities in China. Parents were asked to report the victimization experiences of their child using of the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire, and these reports were matched with the adolescents' self-reports of victimization. Low levels of parent-adolescent agreement in reporting were found (Cohen's kappa=.04-.29). Except for sexual violence, parents were significantly less likely to report all types of victimization. Overall, lower levels of agreement were found in the reporting of (a) less severe types of victimization, (b) victimization outside the family, and (c) victimization involving parents as perpetrators. Intimate partner violence between parents was significantly associated with discrepancies between reports. The findings suggest that parents might not be reliable as a single source of information on certain types of adolescent victimization. PMID:25465317

  2. How to assess quality of life in child and adolescent psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Karow, Anne; Barthel, Dana; Klasen, Fionna

    2014-06-01

    This article provides an overview of the conceptual foundations of measuring health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in children and adolescents in child and adolescent psychiatry, and of the current state of research in this field. The available procedures for determining quality of life are presented according to their areas of use and their psychometric characteristics. The internationally available generic instruments for measuring HRQoL in children are identified and assessed in terms of their strengths and weaknesses with regard to selected criteria. As a result, seven generic HRQoL instruments and two utility procedures have been identified which satísfy the following criteria: (i) psychometric qualíty; (ii) age-appropriate measurement; (iii) versions for self-reporting and external rating; and (iv) cross-cultural measurement. The identified instruments satisfy the individual criteria to different degrees. They are increasingly being used in health services research, treatment studies, and epidemiological research; however, they are not yet widely used as part of the clinical routine in child and adolescent psychiatrics.

  3. How to assess quality of life in child and adolescent psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Karow, Anne; Barthel, Dana; Klasen, Fionna

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the conceptual foundations of measuring health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in children and adolescents in child and adolescent psychiatry, and of the current state of research in this field. The available procedures for determining quality of life are presented according to their areas of use and their psychometric characteristics. The internationally available generic instruments for measuring HRQoL in children are identified and assessed in terms of their strengths and weaknesses with regard to selected criteria. As a result, seven generic HRQoL instruments and two utility procedures have been identified which satísfy the following criteria: (i) psychometric qualíty; (ii) age-appropriate measurement; (iii) versions for self-reporting and external rating; and (iv) cross-cultural measurement. The identified instruments satisfy the individual criteria to different degrees. They are increasingly being used in health services research, treatment studies, and epidemiological research; however, they are not yet widely used as part of the clinical routine in child and adolescent psychiatrics. PMID:25152654

  4. Mother and Adolescent Reports of Associations between Child Behavior Problems and Mother-Child Relationship Qualities: Separating Shared Variance from Individual Variance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burk, William J.; Laursen, Brett

    2010-01-01

    This study contrasts results from different correlational methods for examining links between mother and child (N = 72 dyads) reports of early adolescent (M = 11.5 years) behavior problems and relationship negativity and support. Simple (Pearson) correlations revealed a consistent pattern of statistically significant associations, regardless of…

  5. Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms and Trajectories in Child Sexual Abuse Victims: An Analysis of Sex Differences Using the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maikovich, Andrea Kohn; Koenen, Karestan C.; Jaffee, Sara R.

    2009-01-01

    Very few studies have prospectively examined sex differences in posttraumatic stress symptoms and symptom trajectories in youth victimized by childhood sexual abuse. This study addresses that question in a relatively large sample of children, drawn from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, who were between the ages of 8-16 years…

  6. Longitudinal Study on the Effects of Child Abuse and Children's Exposure to Domestic Violence, Parent-Child Attachments, and Antisocial Behavior in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sousa, Cindy; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Moylan, Carrie A.; Tajima, Emiko A.; Klika, J. Bart; Herrenkohl, Roy C.; Russo, M. Jean

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the unique and combined effects of child abuse and children's exposure to domestic violence on later attachment to parents and antisocial behavior during adolescence. Analyses also investigated whether the interaction of exposure and low attachment predicted youth outcomes. Findings suggest that, although youth dually exposed…

  7. Longitudinal study on the effects of child abuse and children's exposure to domestic violence, parent-child attachments, and antisocial behavior in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Cindy; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Moylan, Carrie A; Tajima, Emiko A; Klika, J Bart; Herrenkohl, Roy C; Russo, M Jean

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the unique and combined effects of child abuse and children's exposure to domestic violence on later attachment to parents and antisocial behavior during adolescence. Analyses also investigated whether the interaction of exposure and low attachment predicted youth outcomes. Findings suggest that, although youth dually exposed to abuse and domestic violence were less attached to parents in adolescence than those who were not exposed, for those who were abused only and those who were exposed only to domestic violence, the relationship between exposure types and youth outcomes did not differ by level of attachment to parents. However, stronger bonds of attachment to parents in adolescence did appear to predict a lower risk of antisocial behavior independent of exposure status. Preventing child abuse and children's exposure to domestic violence could lessen the risk of antisocial behavior during adolescence, as could strengthening parent-child attachments in adolescence. However, strengthening attachments between parents and children after exposure may not be sufficient to counter the negative impact of earlier violence trauma in children.

  8. Assessment of child and adolescent overweight and obesity.

    PubMed

    Krebs, Nancy F; Himes, John H; Jacobson, Dawn; Nicklas, Theresa A; Guilday, Patricia; Styne, Dennis

    2007-12-01

    Accurate appropriate assessment of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents is a critical aspect of contemporary medical care. However, physicians and other health care professionals may find this a somewhat thorny field to enter. The BMI has become the standard as a reliable indicator of overweight and obesity. The BMI is incomplete, however, without consideration of the complex behavioral factors that influence obesity. Because of limited time and resources, clinicians need to have quick, evidence-based interventions that can help patients and their families recognize the importance of reducing overweight and obesity and take action. In an era of fast food, computers, and DVDs, it is not easy to persuade patients to modify their diets and to become more physically active. Because research concerning effective assessment of childhood obesity contains many gaps, this report is intended to provide a comprehensive approach to assessment and to present the evidence available to support key aspects of assessment. The discussion and recommendations are based on >300 studies published since 1995, which examined an array of assessment tools. With this information, clinicians should find themselves better equipped to face the challenges of assessing childhood overweight and obesity accurately.

  9. Child and adolescent traumatic brain injury: correlates of injury severity.

    PubMed

    Max, J E; Lindgren, S D; Knutson, C; Pearson, C S; Ihrig, D; Welborn, A

    1998-01-01

    A record review focused on children and adolescents, with a history of traumatic brain injury, who were consecutively admitted to a brain injury clinic in which all new patients are psychiatrically evaluated. Significant correlates of severity of injury in the cognitive, education and communication domains of functioning included Performance IQ but not Verbal IQ nor standardized ratings of language or learning disability. Current organic personality syndrome (OPS) but not attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder diagnostic status was significantly related to severity. In conclusion, the findings in this referred sample are similar to prospective studies indicating that Performance IQ appears sensitive in reflecting brain damage. The finding linking OPS to severity of injury is not surprising. This is because OPS is a diagnosis which is dependent on the clinician's judgment of the likelihood that the organic factor is etiologically related to a defined behavioural syndrome. The diagnosis therefore requires a clinical judgment that the threshold of severity of a presumed organic etiological factor has been reached.

  10. Parental physical punishment and adolescent adjustment: bidirectionality and the moderation effects of child ethnicity and parental warmth.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming-Te; Kenny, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    This study used cross-lagged modeling to examine reciprocal relations between maternal and paternal physical punishment and adolescent misconduct and depressive symptoms, while accounting for stability in both physical punishment and adjustment problems over time. Data were drawn from a sample of 862 two-parent families and their adolescent children (52 % males; 54 % European American; 44 % African American; 2 % other ethnic backgrounds). Mothers' and fathers' physical punishment of their adolescents' ages 12 and 14 predicted increased misconduct and depressive symptoms among these adolescents at ages 14 and 16. Adolescent misconduct, but not depressive symptoms, at ages 12 and 14 predicted increased physical punishment by their parents at ages 14 and 16. Neither parental warmth nor child ethnicity moderated the longitudinal relationship between parental physical punishment and adolescent adjustment. Patterns of findings were similar across mothers and fathers.

  11. Parental physical punishment and adolescent adjustment: bidirectionality and the moderation effects of child ethnicity and parental warmth.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming-Te; Kenny, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    This study used cross-lagged modeling to examine reciprocal relations between maternal and paternal physical punishment and adolescent misconduct and depressive symptoms, while accounting for stability in both physical punishment and adjustment problems over time. Data were drawn from a sample of 862 two-parent families and their adolescent children (52 % males; 54 % European American; 44 % African American; 2 % other ethnic backgrounds). Mothers' and fathers' physical punishment of their adolescents' ages 12 and 14 predicted increased misconduct and depressive symptoms among these adolescents at ages 14 and 16. Adolescent misconduct, but not depressive symptoms, at ages 12 and 14 predicted increased physical punishment by their parents at ages 14 and 16. Neither parental warmth nor child ethnicity moderated the longitudinal relationship between parental physical punishment and adolescent adjustment. Patterns of findings were similar across mothers and fathers. PMID:24384596

  12. Does Formal Integration between Child Welfare and Behavioral Health Agencies Result in Improved Placement Stability for Adolescents Engaged with Both Systems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Rebecca; Chuang, Emmeline

    2012-01-01

    National survey data were used to assess whether child welfare agency ties to behavioral health care providers improved placement stability for adolescents served by both systems. Adolescents initially at home who were later removed tended to have fewer moves when child welfare and behavioral health were in the same larger agency. Joint training…

  13. Cell Phone Use and Child and Adolescent Reading Proficiency

    PubMed Central

    Hofferth, Sandra L.; Moon, Ui Jeong

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association between cell phone use, including minutes spent talking and number of text messages sent, and two measures of children’s reading proficiency — tests of word decoding and reading comprehension — in the United States. Data were drawn from the Child Development Supplement to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, a nationally representative survey of 1,147 children 10–18 in 2009. Children whose parents were better educated, who had higher family incomes, who had fewer siblings, and who lived in urban areas were more likely to own or share a cell phone. Among those with access to a phone, children who spent more time talking on the phone were less proficient at word decoding, whereas children who spent more time sending text messages had greater reading comprehension. Although girls spent more time texting than did boys, there were no gender differences in the association between time spent talking or number of text messages sent with achievement. In spite of racial/ethnic differences in cell phone use levels, there were no racial/ethnic differences in the association between cell phone use and reading proficiency.

  14. The parent–child relationship and adolescent alcohol use: a systematic review of longitudinal studies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Alcohol use among adolescents has become a major public health problem in the past decade and has large short- and long-term consequences on their health. The aim of this systematic review was to provide an overview of longitudinal cohort studies that have analyzed the association between the parent–child relationship (PCR) and change in alcohol use during adolescence. Methods A search of the literature from 1985 to July 2011 was conducted in Medline, PsycINFO, and EMBASE in order to identify longitudinal, general population studies regarding the influence of the PCR on alcohol use during adolescence. The studies were screened, and the quality of the relevant studies was assessed. A best-evidence synthesis was used to summarize the results. Results Twenty-eight relevant studies were identified. Five studies found that a negative PCR was associated with higher levels of alcohol use. Another seven papers only found this association for certain subgroups such as boys or girls, or a specific age group. The remaining sixteen studies did not find any association. Conclusions We found weak evidence for a prospective association between the PCR and adolescent alcohol use. Further research to the association of the PCR with several types of alcohol use (e.g., initiation or abuse) and to the potential reversed causality of the PCR and alcohol use is required. PMID:23083405

  15. Leadership in adolescent health: developing the next generation of maternal child health leaders through mentorship.

    PubMed

    Blood, Emily A; Trent, Maria; Gordon, Catherine M; Goncalves, Adrianne; Resnick, Michael; Fortenberry, J Dennis; Boyer, Cherrie B; Richardson, Laura; Emans, S Jean

    2015-02-01

    Leadership development is a core value of Maternal Child Health Bureau training programs. Mentorship, an MCH Leadership Competency, has been shown to positively affect career advancement and research productivity. Improving mentorship opportunities for junior faculty and trainees may increase pursuit of careers in areas such as adolescent health research and facilitate the development of new leaders in the field. Using a framework of Developmental Networks, a group of MCH Leadership Education in Adolescent Health training program faculty developed a pilot mentoring program offered at the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine Annual Meeting (2011-2013). The program matched ten interdisciplinary adolescent health fellows and junior faculty with senior mentors at other institutions with expertise in the mentee's content area of study in 2011. Participants were surveyed over 2 years. Respondents indicated they were "very satisfied" with their mentor match, and all agreed or strongly agreed that the mentoring process in the session was helpful, and that the mentoring relationships resulted in several ongoing collaborations and expanded their Developmental Networks. These results demonstrate that MCH programs can apply innovative strategies to disseminate the MCH Leadership Competencies to groups beyond MCH-funded training programs through programs at scientific meetings. Such innovations may enhance the structure of mentoring, further the development of new leaders in the field, and expand developmental networks to provide support for MCH professionals transitioning to leadership roles. PMID:25376658

  16. Child Maltreatment and the Adolescent Patient With Severe Obesity: Implications for Clinical Care

    PubMed Central

    Noll, Jennie G.; Sarwer, David B.; Reiter-Purtill, Jennifer; Rofey, Dana L.; Baughcum, Amy E.; Peugh, James; Courcoulas, Anita P.; Michalsky, Marc P.; Jenkins, Todd M; Becnel, Jennifer N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To characterize prevalence and correlates of child maltreatment (CM) in a clinical sample of adolescents with severe obesity. Method Multicenter baseline data from 139 adolescents undergoing weight loss surgery (Mage = 16.9; 79.9% female, 66.2% White; Mbody mass index [BMI] = 51.5 kg/m2) and 83 nonsurgical comparisons (Mage = 16.1; 81.9% female, 54.2% White; MBMI = 46.9 kg/m2) documented self-reported CM (Childhood Trauma Questionnaire) and associations with psychopathology, quality of life, self-esteem and body image, high-risk behaviors, and family dysfunction. Results CM prevalence (females: 29%; males: 12%) was similar to national adolescent base rates. Emotional abuse was most prevalent. One in 10 females reported sexual abuse. For females, CM rates were higher in comparisons, yet correlates were similar for both cohorts: greater psychopathology, substance use, and family dysfunction, and lower quality of life. Conclusion While a minority of adolescents with severe obesity reported a CM history, they carry greater psychosocial burden into the clinical setting. PMID:25774054

  17. Leadership in Adolescent Health: Developing the Next Generation of Maternal Child Health Leaders Through Mentorship

    PubMed Central

    Trent, Maria; Gordon, Catherine M.; Goncalves, Adrianne; Resnick, Michael; Fortenberry, J. Dennis; Boyer, Cherrie B.; Richardson, Laura; Emans, S. Jean

    2016-01-01

    Leadership development is a core value of Maternal Child Health Bureau training programs. Mentorship, an MCH Leadership Competency, has been shown to positively affect career advancement and research productivity. Improving mentorship opportunities for junior faculty and trainees may increase pursuit of careers in areas such as adolescent health research and facilitate the development of new leaders in the field. Using a framework of Developmental Networks, a group of MCH Leadership Education in Adolescent Health training program faculty developed a pilot mentoring program offered at the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine Annual Meeting (2011–2013). The program matched ten interdisciplinary adolescent health fellows and junior faculty with senior mentors at other institutions with expertise in the mentee's content area of study in 2011. Participants were surveyed over 2 years. Respondents indicated they were “very satisfied” with their mentor match, and all agreed or strongly agreed that the mentoring process in the session was helpful, and that the mentoring relationships resulted in several ongoing collaborations and expanded their Developmental Networks. These results demonstrate that MCH programs can apply innovative strategies to disseminate the MCH Leadership Competencies to groups beyond MCH-funded training programs through programs at scientific meetings. Such innovations may enhance the structure of mentoring, further the development of new leaders in the field, and expand developmental networks to provide support for MCH professionals transitioning to leadership roles. PMID:25376658

  18. The Beijing Twin Study (BeTwiSt): a longitudinal study of child and adolescent development.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Li, Xinying; Zhang, Jianxin; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Leve, Leslie D; Harold, Gordon T; Chen, Zhiyan; Yang, Xiaodong; Guo, Fei; Zhang, Jie; Ge, Xiaojia

    2013-02-01

    Rates of emotional and behavioral problems among children and adolescents in China are increasing and represent a major public health concern. To investigate the etiology of such problems, including the effects and interplay of genes and environment, the Beijing Twin Study (BeTwiSt) was established. A representative sample of adolescent twins in Beijing (N = 1,387 pairs of adolescent twins, mostly between the ages of 10 and 18 years) was recruited and assessed longitudinally. Data collection included the following: emotional and behavioral problems (e.g., depressive symptoms, anxiety, delinquency, drinking, and smoking); family, peer, and school environments; stress; social and academic competence; cognitive traits (e.g., emotion suppression, rumination, and effortful control); and saliva samples for DNA genotyping and sequencing. The combination of quantitative and molecular genetic approaches and the timeliness of the project, with the sample residing in a region with a rapidly changing economic and cultural climate, are particular strengths of this study. Findings from this study are expected to help understanding of the etiological mechanisms underlying child and adolescent normal and abnormal development in regions undergoing substantial social, cultural, and economic changes. PMID:23177327

  19. The Beijing Twin Study (BeTwiSt): a longitudinal study of child and adolescent development.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Li, Xinying; Zhang, Jianxin; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Leve, Leslie D; Harold, Gordon T; Chen, Zhiyan; Yang, Xiaodong; Guo, Fei; Zhang, Jie; Ge, Xiaojia

    2013-02-01

    Rates of emotional and behavioral problems among children and adolescents in China are increasing and represent a major public health concern. To investigate the etiology of such problems, including the effects and interplay of genes and environment, the Beijing Twin Study (BeTwiSt) was established. A representative sample of adolescent twins in Beijing (N = 1,387 pairs of adolescent twins, mostly between the ages of 10 and 18 years) was recruited and assessed longitudinally. Data collection included the following: emotional and behavioral problems (e.g., depressive symptoms, anxiety, delinquency, drinking, and smoking); family, peer, and school environments; stress; social and academic competence; cognitive traits (e.g., emotion suppression, rumination, and effortful control); and saliva samples for DNA genotyping and sequencing. The combination of quantitative and molecular genetic approaches and the timeliness of the project, with the sample residing in a region with a rapidly changing economic and cultural climate, are particular strengths of this study. Findings from this study are expected to help understanding of the etiological mechanisms underlying child and adolescent normal and abnormal development in regions undergoing substantial social, cultural, and economic changes.

  20. Leadership in adolescent health: developing the next generation of maternal child health leaders through mentorship.

    PubMed

    Blood, Emily A; Trent, Maria; Gordon, Catherine M; Goncalves, Adrianne; Resnick, Michael; Fortenberry, J Dennis; Boyer, Cherrie B; Richardson, Laura; Emans, S Jean

    2015-02-01

    Leadership development is a core value of Maternal Child Health Bureau training programs. Mentorship, an MCH Leadership Competency, has been shown to positively affect career advancement and research productivity. Improving mentorship opportunities for junior faculty and trainees may increase pursuit of careers in areas such as adolescent health research and facilitate the development of new leaders in the field. Using a framework of Developmental Networks, a group of MCH Leadership Education in Adolescent Health training program faculty developed a pilot mentoring program offered at the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine Annual Meeting (2011-2013). The program matched ten interdisciplinary adolescent health fellows and junior faculty with senior mentors at other institutions with expertise in the mentee's content area of study in 2011. Participants were surveyed over 2 years. Respondents indicated they were "very satisfied" with their mentor match, and all agreed or strongly agreed that the mentoring process in the session was helpful, and that the mentoring relationships resulted in several ongoing collaborations and expanded their Developmental Networks. These results demonstrate that MCH programs can apply innovative strategies to disseminate the MCH Leadership Competencies to groups beyond MCH-funded training programs through programs at scientific meetings. Such innovations may enhance the structure of mentoring, further the development of new leaders in the field, and expand developmental networks to provide support for MCH professionals transitioning to leadership roles.

  1. [Social participation and vocational integration as an objective of child and adolescent psychiatric rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Voll, Renate

    2009-09-01

    In order to avoid threatening social disintegration, it is important for children and adolescents with chronic mental disorders and also for physically disabled children to diagnose disturbances of social participation in an early stage and to commence rehabilitation measures. The need for rehabilitation, the ability to rehabilitate and the rehabilitation prognosis are important for identifying the individual rehabilitation goals. A multi-axial diagnosis according to the ICF with a determination of adaptability, a behavioural analysis, skills, activity and participation is required. For disabled children, there are only a few ICF check lists for diagnosing social participation. Because of this, the ICF check list CASP (Child & Adolescent Scale of Participation) for measuring social participation according to Bedell was translated, which is shown in the appendix. PMID:19739060

  2. Experiences of Domestic and School Violence Among Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Outpatients.

    PubMed

    Völkl-Kernstock, Sabine; Huemer, Julia; Jandl-Jager, Elisabeth; Abensberg-Traun, Marihan; Marecek, Sonja; Pellegrini, Elisabeth; Plattner, Belinda; Skala, Katrin

    2016-10-01

    The experience of cumulative childhood adversities, such as exposure to domestic violence or abuse by caregivers, has been described as risk factor for poor mental health outcomes in adolescence and adulthood. We performed an investigation of experience of violence in all patients aged 6 to 20 years who had consulted the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Medical University of Vienna, as outpatients during the period of one year. We were using the Childhood Trauma Interview (CTI) in order to obtain information on the kind of violence. Seventy-five percent of all patients had reported experiences of violence. These youth were significantly more often involved in acts of school violence, thus a significant correlation between experience of domestic violence and violence at school could be revealed. The results of our study emphasize the need for interventions preventing violence both in domestic and in school environments. PMID:26487648

  3. Experiences of Domestic and School Violence Among Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Outpatients.

    PubMed

    Völkl-Kernstock, Sabine; Huemer, Julia; Jandl-Jager, Elisabeth; Abensberg-Traun, Marihan; Marecek, Sonja; Pellegrini, Elisabeth; Plattner, Belinda; Skala, Katrin

    2016-10-01

    The experience of cumulative childhood adversities, such as exposure to domestic violence or abuse by caregivers, has been described as risk factor for poor mental health outcomes in adolescence and adulthood. We performed an investigation of experience of violence in all patients aged 6 to 20 years who had consulted the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Medical University of Vienna, as outpatients during the period of one year. We were using the Childhood Trauma Interview (CTI) in order to obtain information on the kind of violence. Seventy-five percent of all patients had reported experiences of violence. These youth were significantly more often involved in acts of school violence, thus a significant correlation between experience of domestic violence and violence at school could be revealed. The results of our study emphasize the need for interventions preventing violence both in domestic and in school environments.

  4. The importance of long-term follow-up in child and adolescent obesity prevention interventions.

    PubMed

    Jones, Rachel A; Sinn, Natalie; Campbell, Karen J; Hesketh, Kylie; Denney-Wilson, Elizabeth; Morgan, Philip J; Lubans, David R; Magarey, Anthea

    2011-08-01

    Pediatric overweight and obesity continues to be a major public health concern. Once established it is difficult to treat; therefore well-designed and evaluated prevention interventions are vitally important. There is considerable evidence to suggest that obesity prevention initiatives can change children's behaviours and weight status over the short- or medium-term; however, there is far less evidence on which to judge the impact over the longer term. In response to the rise in short- and medium-term obesity prevention studies for children and adolescents over recent years, the Prevention Stream of the Australasian Child and Adolescent Obesity Research Network highlight five points as to why the dearth of obesity prevention studies with long-term follow-up should be urgently addressed. Furthermore, recommendations to strengthen the evidence base and outline key implications for research design in this area and the support required for long-term follow-up studies are detailed.

  5. Amantadine: a review of use in child and adolescent psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Hosenbocus, Sheik; Chahal, Raj

    2013-02-01

    Résumé OBJECTIF: Passer en revue, résumer et discuter la littérature publiée sur la pharmacologie et l’utilisation de l’amantadine en pédopsychiatrie. MÉTHODE: Une recherche de la littérature dans plusieurs bases de données (PubMed, Psychinfo, CINAHL, Medline, PsycARTICLES, Biomedical Reference Collection et Academis Search Complete) a été menée avec le mot clé « amantadine » avec des limites: langue anglaise, essais sur des humains, tous les enfants (de 0 à 18 ans). Des articles additionnels pertinents ont été relevés dans les bibliographies. Étant donné la quantité limitée d’information obtenue, la recherche s’est élargie et a inclus « tous les enfants et les adultes », et l’information pertinente a été saisie. RÉSULTATS: L’utilisation de l’amantadine pour traiter les troubles neuro-développementaux chez les enfants est due à son effet antagoniste au recepteur N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA). L’effet de l’amantadine sur le système glutamatergique des neurotransmetteurs, jouer un rôle important dans de nombreux troubles psychiatriques. La majorité des études relevées étaient des études ouvertes et seulement deux étaient des études contrôlées d’enfants et d’adolescents. Un essai randomisé contrôlé rendait compte des effets bénéfiques du contrôle des symptômes d’irritabilité et d’hyperactivité chez les enfants souffrant d’un trouble autiste. Un autre essai randomisé contrôlé, une étude de comparaison directe avec le méthylphénidate, a constaté un effet statistiquement significatif sur le trouble de déficit de l’attention avec hyperactivité (TDAH). Deux autres études ouvertes constataient aussi des effets positifs sur le TDAH. Une étude pilote sur des enfants souffrant d’énurésie constatait une réduction significative de la fréquence de l’incontinence. Ouvertes pour la plupart, les études sur les adultes, relativement aux enfants et aux adolescents, rapportaient une

  6. Clinician-rated mental health in outpatient child and adolescent mental health services: associations with parent, teacher and adolescent ratings

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Clinician-rated measures are used extensively in child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS). The Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Children and Adolescents (HoNOSCA) is a short clinician-rated measure developed for ordinary clinical practice, with increasing use internationally. Several studies have investigated its psychometric properties, but there are few data on its correspondence with other methods, rated by other informants. We compared the HoNOSCA with the well-established Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA) questionnaires: the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), the Teacher's Report Form (TRF), and the Youth Self-Report (YSR). Methods Data on 153 patients aged 6-17 years at seven outpatient CAMHS clinics in Norway were analysed. Clinicians completed the HoNOSCA, whereas parents, teachers, and adolescents filled in the ASEBA forms. HoNOSCA total score and nine of its scales were compared with similar ASEBA scales. With a multiple regression model, we investigated how the ASEBA ratings predicted the clinician-rated HoNOSCA and whether the different informants' scores made any unique contribution to the prediction of the HoNOSCA scales. Results We found moderate correlations between the total problems rated by the clinicians (HoNOSCA) and by the other informants (ASEBA) and good correspondence between eight of the nine HoNOSCA scales and the similar ASEBA scales. The exception was HoNOSCA scale 8 psychosomatic symptoms compared with the ASEBA somatic problems scale. In the regression analyses, the CBCL and TRF total problems scores together explained 27% of the variance in the HoNOSCA total scores (23% for the age group 11-17 years, also including the YSR). The CBCL provided unique information for the prediction of the HoNOSCA total score, HoNOSCA scale 1 aggressive behaviour, HoNOSCA scale 2 overactivity or attention problems, HoNOSCA scale 9 emotional symptoms, and HoNOSCA scale 10 peer problems; the TRF for all

  7. Adolescent problem behavior: the effect of peers and the moderating role of father absence and the mother-child relationship.

    PubMed

    Mason, C A; Cauce, A M; Gonzales, N; Hiraga, Y

    1994-12-01

    Examined the effect of peer problem behavior, the absence of a father or equivalent in the home, and the mother-adolescent relationship as predictors of adolescent problem behavior in a sample of 112 African American adolescents. Statistical analyses compared a moderator model to a mediational model and a cumulative risk model. As predicted, the moderator model was superior to the alternative models. Specifically, whereas the mediational model predicted that the effect of father absence and the mother-child relationship upon adolescent problem behavior would be mediated by peer problem behavior, neither effected peer problem behavior or adolescent problem behavior. Similarly, a cumulative risk index did not predict either child or parent reports of problem behavior and was not sensitive to specific contingencies that existed between the predictor variables. In contrast, an interactive, moderator model described the data quite well. This model suggested that father or equivalent absence magnifies the negative impact of peer problem behavior, while a positive mother-adolescent relationship attenuates this risk. A strong mother-adolescent relationship also served to protect adolescents in father-absent homes from the risk of peer problem behavior. PMID:7639200

  8. Head and Maxillofacial Injuries in Child and Adolescent Victims of Automotive Accidents

    PubMed Central

    Cavalcanti, Alessandro Leite; Lino, Thiago Henrique de Araujo; de Oliveira, Thaliny Batista Sarmento; de Oliveira, Thaisy Sarmento Batista; Cardoso, Andreia Medeiros Rodrigues; de Macedo, Rodrigo Feliciano; Padilha, Wilton Wilney Nascimento; Xavier, Alidianne Fabia Cabral

    2014-01-01

    Background. Victims of motor vehicle accidents may suffer multiple lesions, including maxillofacial injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with head, facial, and maxillofacial injuries in child and adolescent victims of automobile accidents. A cross-sectional study was carried out with analysis of forensic medical reports from the Legal Medical Institute of Campina Grande, Brazil, between January 2008 and December 2011. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis was conducted using the chi-square test (α = 0.05). From 1613 medical reports analyzed, the sample is composed 232 (14.4%) reports referring to child and adolescent victims of automobile accidents aged 0–19 years of both sexes. Victims were mostly adolescents aged from 15 to 19 years (64.2%), males (73.7%), and motorcyclists (51.3%). More than half of the victims had single lesions (54.3%) located in the head (20.7%) and face (21.6%). Head injuries occurred more frequently in children aged 0–4 years (53.8%, PR = 5.065, 95% CI = 1.617–5.870) and pedestrians (30.4%, PR = 2.039, 95% CI = 1.024–4.061), while facial and maxillofacial injuries occurred in higher proportion among females (31.1%, PR = 0.489, 95% CI = 0.251–0.954). Our findings suggest that accidents involving motorcyclists are the most prevalent, affecting male adolescents aged from 15 to 19 years, resulting in a high frequency of injuries in the head and face regions. PMID:25574492

  9. Delinquency, depression, and substance use disorder among child welfare-involved adolescent females

    PubMed Central

    Lalayants, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Although adolescents with delinquency are known to have higher-than-average rates of depression or substance use disorder (SUD), research on the topic is inconsistent. It remains unclear weather depression or SUD leads to delinquency, whether delinquency leads to depression or SUD, or whether there is bi-directionality. Utilizing the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (Wave I: 2008–2009; Wave II: 18 months later: N = 5872), we used logistic regression to predict depression from delinquency (and vice versa), and SUD from delinquency (and vice versa). After inclusion of control variables, we found that females with minor theft in Wave I were more than 4 times as likely (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 4.34; 95% CI: 1.10–17.16) as females without minor theft to be depressed in Wave II, and those with public disorder in Wave I were almost 3 times as likely (aOR = 2.74; 95% CI: 1.03–7.30) as those without public disorder to have SUD in Wave II. Overall delinquency also predicted depression or SUD, and SUD predicted delinquency. Practitioners could address risk for depression or SUD among child welfare-involved adolescent females by focusing on overall delinquency or on specific types of delinquency (minor theft for depression and public disorder for SUD) and by offering interventions (e.g., cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy) that have been shown to be effective in preventing depression or SUD. In addition, with respect to our finding that SUD predicts delinquency among adolescent females, practitioners can help prevent delinquency by offering interventions (e.g., intensive outpatient treatments) that have well documented effectiveness in addressing SUD. PMID:24060474

  10. Off-Label Prescription of Psychopharmacological Drugs in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Braüner, Julie Vestergaard; Johansen, Lily Manzello; Roesbjerg, Troels; Pagsberg, Anne Katrine

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to describe the frequency of off-label prescriptions of psychopharmacological drugs in a child and adolescent psychiatric setting. A cross-sectional study was conducted on November 1, 2014, including all inpatients and outpatients at the Mental Health Centre for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Capital Region of Denmark, aged 0 to 17 years receiving medical treatment with antidepressants, antipsychotic agents, benzodiazepines, melatonin and/or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication. We included a total of 5555 prescriptions representing 2932 patients. The main findings were that 32.3% of all prescriptions were off-label, and 41.6% of subjects received at least 1 off-label prescription. The most frequent off-label category was low age, 72.2%, meaning that the drug was not approved for the age group of the patient. The off-label rates for each drug class were as follows: melatonin, 100%; antipsychotic agents, 95.6%; benzodiazepines, 72.5%; antidepressants, 51.1%; and ADHD medication, 2.7%. Prescription of 2 or more psychopharmacological drugs per patient was common (31.5%). The group of subjects with 4 or more prescriptions (n = 36) was characterized by a higher frequency of inpatients, older age, and a different distribution of diagnoses. This study found a frequent use of off-label prescriptions when treating children and adolescents with psychopharmacological drugs other than ADHD medication. In addition, prescription of more than 1 psychotropic drug is common. These findings support the need for extending the evidence base for psychopharmacologic treatment in children and adolescents.

  11. The Prevalence of Mental Disorders Among Children and Adolescents in the Child Welfare System

    PubMed Central

    Bronsard, Guillaume; Alessandrini, Marine; Fond, Guillaume; Loundou, Anderson; Auquier, Pascal; Tordjman, Sylvie; Boyer, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Abstract It remains unclear whether children and adolescents in the child welfare system (CWS) exhibit a higher prevalence of mental disorders compared with the general population. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the prevalence of mental disorders in the CWS. All of the epidemiological surveys assessing the prevalence of mental disorders in children and adolescents in the CWS were included. The pooled prevalence was estimated with random effect models. Potential sources of heterogeneity were explored using meta-regression analyses. Eight studies provided prevalence estimates that were obtained from 3104 children and adolescents. Nearly 1 child or adolescent of every 2 (49%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 43–54) was identified as meeting criteria for a current mental disorder. The most common mental disorder was disruptive disorder (27%; 95% CI 20–34), including conduct disorder (20%; 95% CI 13–27) and oppositional defiant disorder (12%; 95% CI 10–14). The prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder was estimated to be 11% (95% CI 6–15). The prevalence estimates of anxiety and depressive disorders were 18% (95% CI 12–24) and 11% (95% CI 7–15). Posttraumatic stress disorder had the lowest prevalence (4%; 95% CI 2–6). High prevalences of mental disorders in the CWS were reported, which highlights the need for the provision of qualified service. The substantial heterogeneity of our findings is indicative of the need for accurate epidemiological data to effectively guide public policy. PMID:26886603

  12. Prevalence of child sexual abuse among adolescents in Geneva: results of a cross sectional survey.

    PubMed Central

    Halpérin, D. S.; Bouvier, P.; Jaffé, P. D.; Mounoud, R. L.; Pawlak, C. H.; Laederach, J.; Wicky, H. R.; Astié, F.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To measure the cumulative prevalence of child sexual abuse in a representative sample of the adolescent population of Geneva. DESIGN--Cross sectional survey with an anonymous self administered questionnaire centred on a factual description of sexual activities. SETTING--68 classes (17 schools) randomly selected from the 201 ninth grade classes of the public school system in Geneva. SUBJECTS--1193 adolescents aged 13-17 years, of whom 1116 (93.5%; 568 girls, 548 boys) consented to the study and returned completed questionnaires. RESULTS--192 (33.8%) girls and 60 (10.9%) boys reported having experienced at least one sexually abusive event. The prevalence of abuse involving physical contact was 20.4% (116 cases) among girls and 3.3% (18) among boys. The prevalence of abuse involving some form of penetration was 5.6% (32 cases) among girls and 1.1% (six) among boys. One third of the abused adolescents had experienced more than one abusive event and 46.5% (92/198) had experienced the first event before age 12. Abuse by a family member was reported by 20.5% (36/176) of abused girls and 6.3% (3/48) of abused boys. Abusers were known to victims in two thirds of cases. Ninety per cent of abusers were male and 35.3% (71/201) came from the victim's peer group. Over 80% of participants found the questionnaire interesting, clearly formulated, and useful. CONCLUSIONS--Child sexual abuse is a universal social phenomenon. Adolescents themselves can contribute to research and so help in the search for more efficient prevention and intervention strategies. PMID:8646043

  13. Off-Label Prescription of Psychopharmacological Drugs in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Braüner, Julie Vestergaard; Johansen, Lily Manzello; Roesbjerg, Troels; Pagsberg, Anne Katrine

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to describe the frequency of off-label prescriptions of psychopharmacological drugs in a child and adolescent psychiatric setting. A cross-sectional study was conducted on November 1, 2014, including all inpatients and outpatients at the Mental Health Centre for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Capital Region of Denmark, aged 0 to 17 years receiving medical treatment with antidepressants, antipsychotic agents, benzodiazepines, melatonin and/or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication. We included a total of 5555 prescriptions representing 2932 patients. The main findings were that 32.3% of all prescriptions were off-label, and 41.6% of subjects received at least 1 off-label prescription. The most frequent off-label category was low age, 72.2%, meaning that the drug was not approved for the age group of the patient. The off-label rates for each drug class were as follows: melatonin, 100%; antipsychotic agents, 95.6%; benzodiazepines, 72.5%; antidepressants, 51.1%; and ADHD medication, 2.7%. Prescription of 2 or more psychopharmacological drugs per patient was common (31.5%). The group of subjects with 4 or more prescriptions (n = 36) was characterized by a higher frequency of inpatients, older age, and a different distribution of diagnoses. This study found a frequent use of off-label prescriptions when treating children and adolescents with psychopharmacological drugs other than ADHD medication. In addition, prescription of more than 1 psychotropic drug is common. These findings support the need for extending the evidence base for psychopharmacologic treatment in children and adolescents. PMID:27529772

  14. Effects of Rumination on Child and Adolescent Depressive Reactions to a Natural Disaster: the 2010 Nashville Flood

    PubMed Central

    Felton, Julia W.; Cole, David A.; Martin, Nina C.

    2014-01-01

    The current longitudinal study tested hypotheses about Nolen-Hoeksema’s (1987, 1991) response styles theory (RST) of depression in a sample of child and adolescent public school students. Wave 1 measures of rumination, distraction, and depression were obtained 6 months prior to the 2010 Nashville flood. Similar measures plus a measure of flood-related stressors were administered at Wave 2, approximately ten days after students returned to school after the flood. Results revealed an indirect effect of preflood rumination on postflood depressive symptoms via the intervening variable of postflood rumination, and partial mediation of the effect of preflood depression on postflood depression. Further, the interaction of rumination with flood-related stressors was moderated by age, suggesting that rumination may not become a strong cognitive diathesis for depression until adolescence. Developmental implications emerged for the treatment of child and adolescent victims of natural disasters and for the application of RST to children and adolescents. PMID:22867116

  15. Managing referrals of 'people you know': views of child and adolescent mental health professionals.

    PubMed

    Wurr, Kate; McKenzie, Manny

    2013-10-01

    Referrals of 'people you know' to Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) raise issues around anxiety, equity and confidentiality. Research in this area is limited. The framework approach was used to analyse interviews with CAMHS teams across Yorkshire. Issues identified included choice (and whose choice this is), power and perceived imbalances of power and relative lack of 'professional distance'. The notion that health staff should receive preferential treatment by right was not widespread, but nevertheless existed. Standard procedure has to be flexibly applied to offer the best quality care. Families should not be inappropriately advantaged by 'knowing us', but disadvantage should be recognised and kept to a minimum.

  16. Adolescent nonsuicidal self-injury: examining the role of child abuse, comorbidity, and disinhibition.

    PubMed

    Auerbach, Randy P; Kim, Judy C; Chango, Joanna M; Spiro, Westley J; Cha, Christine; Gold, Joseph; Esterman, Michael; Nock, Matthew K

    2014-12-15

    The purpose of the study is to examine how several well-known correlates of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) might work together to contribute to the occurrence of this behavior. Specifically, we examined models including child abuse, psychiatric comorbidity, and disinhibition, testing how these factors may work together to lead to NSSI in the past month. Participants (n=194; 144 female; age 13-18 years) were recruited from a short-term, acute adolescent residential unit. Within 48 hours of admission to the hospital participants completed structured clinical interviews assessing mental disorders and patterns of NSSI. Following the interviews, participants completed a self-report questionnaire assessing childhood abuse and a computerized continuous performance task. Consistent with study hypotheses, results revealed that the association between child abuse and NSSI is partially mediated by comorbidity. Although disinhibition is associated with comorbidity, contrary to our hypothesis, disinhibition does not mediate the relation between child abuse and NSSI. Collectively, these findings provide new information about how comorbidity may increase risk for NSSI, and critically, discuss the potential importance of creating targeted programs to reduce the prevalence of child abuse.

  17. The Linkages among Childhood Maltreatment, Adolescent Mental Health, and Self-Compassion in Child Welfare Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanaka, Masako; Wekerle, Christine; Schmuck, Mary Lou; Paglia-Boak, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Childhood maltreatment is a robust risk factor for poor physical and mental health. Child welfare youths represent a high-risk group, given the greater likelihood of severe or multiple types of maltreatment. This study examined the relationship between childhood maltreatment and self-compassion--a concept of positive acceptance of…

  18. Testing aspects of Carl Rogers's theory of creative environments: child-rearing antecedents of creative potential in young adolescents.

    PubMed

    Harrington, D M; Block, J H; Block, J

    1987-04-01

    Longitudinal data involving 106 children and their parents were used to test preschool child-rearing implications of Carl Rogers's theory of creativity-fostering environments (Rogers, 1954). Indices were developed for each parent and for each mother-father combination that reflected the degree to which the parents' child-rearing practices and interactions with their preschool children matched the recommendations implicit in Rogers's description of a creativity-fostering environment. The three indices of Rogers-prescribed child-rearing practices each correlated positively (rs = .38 to .46) and significantly (all ps less than .001) with a composite index of creative potential in early adolescence, 7 to 11 years later. Rogers-prescribed preschool child-rearing practices also emerged as significant antecedents of adolescent creative potential in regression/path analyses that held constant the influence of sex, preschool intelligence, and preschool creative potential. Theoretical and methodological aspects of the study are discussed.

  19. Relations between parenting and externalizing and internalizing problem behaviour in early adolescence: child behaviour as moderator and predictor.

    PubMed

    Reitz, E; Deković, M; Meijer, A M

    2006-06-01

    In this longitudinal study we investigated relations between parenting and externalizing and internalizing problem behaviour during early adolescence. First, we examined parenting effects on problem behaviour, including child behaviour as a moderator. Second, we examined child behaviour as predictor of parenting, also including moderator effects. A total of 650 13- to 14-year-olds filled out the Youth Self-Report and questionnaires about parenting at two times within a one-year interval. Relations between parenting and problem behaviour appeared to be stronger for externalizing than for internalizing problem behaviour. Both parenting effects and child effects were found. Parenting significantly predicted an increase in externalizing problem behaviour one year later. Adolescent's previous level of problem behaviour predicted changes in parenting (involvement and decisional autonomy granting). In addition, parental and child characteristics interacted in predicting outcome.

  20. Testing aspects of Carl Rogers's theory of creative environments: child-rearing antecedents of creative potential in young adolescents.

    PubMed

    Harrington, D M; Block, J H; Block, J

    1987-04-01

    Longitudinal data involving 106 children and their parents were used to test preschool child-rearing implications of Carl Rogers's theory of creativity-fostering environments (Rogers, 1954). Indices were developed for each parent and for each mother-father combination that reflected the degree to which the parents' child-rearing practices and interactions with their preschool children matched the recommendations implicit in Rogers's description of a creativity-fostering environment. The three indices of Rogers-prescribed child-rearing practices each correlated positively (rs = .38 to .46) and significantly (all ps less than .001) with a composite index of creative potential in early adolescence, 7 to 11 years later. Rogers-prescribed preschool child-rearing practices also emerged as significant antecedents of adolescent creative potential in regression/path analyses that held constant the influence of sex, preschool intelligence, and preschool creative potential. Theoretical and methodological aspects of the study are discussed. PMID:3572740

  1. Development and Lability in the Parent-Child Relationship During Adolescence: Associations With Pubertal Timing and Tempo

    PubMed Central

    Marceau, Kristine; Ram, Nilam; Susman, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents' and parents' reactions to pubertal development are hypothesized to contribute to changes in family dynamics. Using 7-year longitudinal data from the NICHD-SECCYD (488 boys, 475 girls) we examined relations between pubertal development (timing, tempo) and trajectories (developmental change and year-to-year lability) of parent-child conflict and closeness from age 8.5 to 15.5 years. Changes were mostly characterized by year-to-year fluctuations – lability. Parent-child conflict increased and closeness decreased some with age. Pubertal timing and tempo were more consistently associated with lability in parent-child relationships than with long-term trends, although faster tempo was associated with steeper decreases in parent-child closeness. Findings provide a platform for examining how puberty contributes to both long-term and transient changes in adolescents' relationships and adjustment. PMID:26321856

  2. The Role of Child Gender, Problem Behaviors, and the Family Environment on Maternal Depressive Symptoms: Findings from Mothers of Substance Abusing Runaway Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Xiamei; Slesnick, Natasha

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relation between maternal depressive symptoms and adolescents' problem behaviors, moderated by adolescent gender, as well as the association between maternal depressive symptoms and the family environment characteristics above and beyond child variables. Data were collected from 137 mothers of runaway adolescents with…

  3. Parent-Child Relations, Conduct Problems and Cigarette Use in Adolescence: Examining the Role of Genetic and Environmental Factors on Patterns of Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, Katherine H.; Harold, Gordon T.; Fowler, Tom A.; Rice, Frances J.; Neale, Michael C.; Thapar, Anita; van den Bree, Marianne B. M.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated genetic and environmental influences on the associations between mother-child relationship quality (warmth and hostility) and adolescent conduct problems and cigarette use. Participants included 601 mothers and adolescent twin pairs (aged 12-17 years). Mothers and adolescents provided separate reports of mother-to-child…

  4. Parent-Child Engagement in Decision Making and the Development of Adolescent Affective Decision Capacity and Binge Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Lin; Bechara, Antoine; Palmer, Paula H.; Trinidad, Dennis R.; Wei, Yonglan; Jia, Yong; Johnson, C. Anderson

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate how parents’ engagement of their child in everyday decision-making influenced their adolescent’s development on two neuropsychological functions, namely, affective decision-making and working memory, and its effect on adolescent binge-drinking behavior. We conducted a longitudinal study of 192 Chinese adolescents. In 10th grade, the adolescents were tested for their affective decision-making ability using the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and working memory capacity using the Self-ordered Pointing Test (SOPT). Questionnaires were used to assess perceived parent-child engagement in decision-making, academic performance and drinking behavior. At one-year follow-up, the same neuropsychological tasks and questionnaires were repeated. Results indicate that working memory and academic performance were uninfluenced by parent-child engagement in decision-making. However, compared to adolescents whose parents made solitary decisions for them, adolescents engaged in everyday decision-making showed significant improvement on affective decision capacity and significantly less binge-drinking one year later. These findings suggest that parental engagement of children in everyday decision-making might foster the development of neurocognitive functioning relative to affective decision-making and reduce adolescent substance use behaviors. PMID:21804682

  5. Implementing CBT for Traumatized Children and Adolescents after September 11: Lessons Learned from the Child and Adolescent Trauma Treatments and Services (CATS) Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Child and Adolescent Trauma Treatments and Services Consortium (CATS) was the largest youth trauma project associated with the September 11 World Trade Center disaster. CATS was created as a collaborative project involving New York State policymakers; academic scientists; clinical treatment developers; and routine practicing clinicians,…

  6. Child sexual abuse as reported by Israeli adolescents: social and health related correlates.

    PubMed

    Mansbach-Kleinfeld, Ivonne; Ifrah, Anneke; Apter, Alan; Farbstein, Ilana

    2015-02-01

    The objectives of the study were to assess the prevalence of child sexual abuse (CSA) in a nation-wide representative sample of 14-17 year old Israeli adolescents, and to examine the associations between CSA, socio-demographic correlates and various measures of physical and mental health. The study population consisted of 906 mother-adolescent dyads, belonging to a community based, representative sample of Israeli 14-17 year olds, interviewed in 2004-5. Response rate was 68%. Subjects provided demographic data, and information about CSA, physical symptoms, body image, well-being and use of mental health services. DAWBA was used to obtain information regarding mental disorders and suicidality. SDQ was used to obtain data on bullying. Statistical analyses were conducted using an SPSS-17 complex sample analysis module and multivariate analyses were conducted to assess the associations between CSA and risk factors and social and health related correlates. Findings show that CSA was reported by 3.3% of adolescents. Higher risk of exposure to CSA was found among girls, among adolescents living in a one-parent household and among adolescents with a chronic disability. In multivariate models adjusting for gender, learning disabilities and depression, CSA was associated with suicidal attempts, stomach ache, dizziness, sleep problems, well being at home and bullying behaviors. No association was found with suicidal ideation or other physical symptoms. Our findings confirm that the associations between CSA and different outcomes vary depending on the socio-psychological context, and underline the importance of addressing the complexity of variables associated with CSA. PMID:25542832

  7. Using and teaching evidence-based medicine: the Duke University child and adolescent psychiatry model.

    PubMed

    March, John S; Chrisman, Allan; Breland-Noble, Alfiee; Clouse, Kelly; D'Alli, Richard; Egger, Helen; Gammon, Pat; Gazzola, Marta; Lin, Anne; Mauro, Christian; Rana, Aasim; Ravi, Himabindu; Srirama, Madhanika; Su, Hansen; Thrall, Grace; van de Velde, Polly

    2005-04-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is defined as a set of processes that facilitate the conscientious, explicit, and judicious integration of individual clinical expertise with the best available external clinical evidence from systematic research in making decisions about the care of individual patients. EBM focuses not only on grading the strength of the evidence but also on the processes and tools that are necessary for clinicians to continually upgrade their knowledge and skills for those problems encountered in daily practice. This article, authored by members of the Duke Pediatric Psychiatry EBM Seminar Team, (1) describes EBM as applied to the training of child and adolescent psychiatrists in the Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry at Duke University Medical Center; (2) presents a simplified discussion of EBM as a technology for training and patient care; (3) discusses the basic principles and procedures for teaching EBM in the setting of a multidisciplinary training program; and (4) briefly mentions two training and research initiatives that are furthered by incorporating EBM.

  8. Parent-child communication and adolescent self-esteem in separated, intercountry adoptive and intact non-adoptive families.

    PubMed

    Lanz, M; Iafrate, R; Rosnati, R; Scabini, E

    1999-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to verify whether there are some differences in parent-child communication and in adolescent self-esteem among adoptive, separated and intact non-adoptive families and to investigate the extent to which parent-child communication is related to adolescent self-esteem in the three types of families. The study sample was composed of 450 adolescents aged between 11 and 17 years (160 from intact non-adoptive families, 140 from separated or divorced families and 150 from intercountry adoptive families). Subjects completed the Parent-Adolescent Communication Scale by Barnes and Olson, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale and some socio-demographic items. The results show that adolescents from separated families have more difficulties in their relationships with both the mother and the father than their peers, and that adoptive children perceive a more positive communication with their parents than biological children. Moreover, adoptees showed lower self-esteem than the other two groups of adolescents. Lastly, it emerged that male and female adolescents' self-esteem is related to positive communication with both parents in intact non-adoptive families, while no link was significant for male and female children of divorced parents or for adoptees.

  9. Blueprint for Change: Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health. Report of the National Advisory Mental Health Council's Workgroup on Child and Adolescent Mental Health Intervention Development and Deployment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHHS), Bethesda, MD.

    Findings from research in neurobiology, genetics, behavioral science, and social science have led to an increased understanding of the complex interactions among genetic and socioenvironmental factors and their contribution to child and adolescent mental disorders. Although scientifically proven interventions are available, the gap between…

  10. The characteristics and activities of child and adolescent mental health services in Italy: a regional survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To date, no studies have assessed in detail the characteristics, organisation, and functioning of Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS). This information gap represents a major limitation for researchers and clinicians because most mental disorders have their onset in childhood or adolescence, and effective interventions can therefore represent a major factor in avoiding chronicity. Interventions and mental health care are delivered by and through services, and not by individual, private clinicians, and drawbacks or limitations of services generally translate in inappropriateness and ineffectiveness of treatments and interventions: therefore information about services is essential to improve the quality of care and ultimately the course and outcome of mental disorders in childhood and adolescence. The present paper reports the results of the first study aimed at providing detailed, updated and comprehensive data on CAMHS of a densely populated Italian region (over 4 million inhabitants) with a target population of 633,725 subjects aged 0-17 years. Methods Unit Chiefs of all the CAMHS filled in a structured 'Facility Form', with activity data referring to 2008 (data for inpatient facilities referred to 2009), which were then analysed in detail. Results Eleven CAMHS were operative, including 110 outpatient units, with a ratio of approximately 20 child psychiatrists and 23 psychologists per 100,000 inhabitants aged 0-17 years. All outpatient units were well equipped and organized and all granted free service access. In 2008, approximately 6% of the target population was in contact with outpatient CAMHS, showing substantial homogeneity across the eleven areas thereby. Most patients in contact in 2008 received a language disorder- or learning disability diagnosis (41%). First-ever contacts accounted for 30% of annual visits across all units. Hospital bed availability was 5 per 100,000 inhabitants aged 0-17 years. Conclusion The percentage of

  11. A Novel Screening and Diagnostic Tool for Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Disorders for Telepsychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Savita; Chakrabarti, Subho; Shah, Ruchita; Mehta, Anurati; Gupta, Aarzoo; Sharma, Minali

    2015-01-01

    Background: A diagnostic tool designed as part of a telepsychiatry application for diagnosis and management of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders in India was developed considering the paucity of trained child psychiatrists and mental health professionals in India. Materials and Methods: The diagnostic tool consisted of screening and 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10) criteria-based diagnostic algorithms for 18 psychiatric disorders seen in childhood and adolescence. Accuracy of diagnoses and feasibility of use of the tool was examined by comparing it with detailed semi-structured clinical evaluations by a qualified psychiatrist with 50 psychiatric patients (children and adolescents). Statistical Analysis: Descriptive analyses and paired t-tests were conducted to compare the mean number of diagnosis generated by the two interviews. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were computed for the screening and the diagnostic sub-modules of the tool, compared to the clinical diagnoses. Kappa coefficients were computed to assess agreement between the diagnoses generated by the diagnostic sub-module and the clinical diagnoses. Results: The screening sub-module had high sensitivity, high specificity and negative predictive values for all disorders. For the diagnostic sub-module, there was moderate (kappa-0.4–0.6) to substantial agreement (kappa > 0.6) for all the disorders, (except psychosis) and high sensitivity (barring a few disorders) and specificity for almost all the disorders. Positive predictive values were found to be acceptable to high for most disorders, with consistently high negative predictive values. Conclusion: The new tool was found to be comprehensive, reasonably short and feasible. Results showed acceptable level of accuracy in diagnosis generated by the tool. PMID:26424901

  12. The practice of child and adolescent psychiatry: a survey of early-career psychiatrists in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Tateno, Masaru; Uchida, Naoki; Kikuchi, Saya; Kawada, Ryosaku; Kobayashi, Seiju; Nakano, Wakako; Sasaki, Ryuji; Shibata, Keisuke; Shirasaka, Tomohiro; Suzuki, Muneyuki; Uehara, Kumi; Saito, Toshikazu

    2009-01-01

    Background Child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP), a subspecialty of psychiatry in Japan, is facing a serious workforce shortage. To resolve this situation, the Japanese government has organized a task force and has been working to increase psychiatrists' clinical skills to improve care for children and adolescents with mental health problems. Using an online questionnaire system, the authors have conducted a survey to investigate the perceptions, experiences, and interests of early-career psychiatrists in CAP. Methods The subjects of this study were 182 psychiatrists in Japan whose individual clinical experiences did not exceed 15 years. The authors of this study created an online questionnaire system and e-mailed the URL and login password to all subjects. Respondents anonymously answered the questions. Most questions required an answer indicating a level of agreement scored on a nine-point scale. Responding to the questionnaire was considered to constitute consent, and all respondents' privacy was carefully protected. Results The mean age and clinical psychiatric experience of the subjects were found to be 33.1 ± 4.5 years and 5.43 ± 3.5 years, respectively. On a nine-point scale (with nine being the highest), experience and interest in CAP measured 3.05 ± 1.9 and 5.34 ± 2.5, respectively; further, these two factors showed significant correlation (r = 0.437, p < 0.0001). The mean score for the early-career psychiatrists' confidence in their ability to diagnose and appropriately treat was notably low, at 3.13 ± 1.9. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that early-career psychiatrists self-evaluated their CAP clinical experience as insufficient, and these clinicians' CAP experiences and interests correlated significantly. Therefore, in order to improve child and adolescent medical care, we need to expose young psychiatrists to sufficient CAP cases and explore the factors that could attract them to this field. PMID:19785745

  13. The role of child maltreatment and attachment style in adolescent relationship violence.

    PubMed

    Wekerle, C; Wolfe, D A

    1998-01-01

    Utilizing attachment theory as a basis for conceptualizing close relationships among adolescents, this study investigated two important relationship risk factors (child maltreatment, and adolescent self-perceived insecure attachment style) as predictors of "offender" and "victim" experiences in youth relationships. In addition to considering the influence of these risk factors, we further considered their interaction in predicting conflict in close relationships. Of interest was the extent to which attachment styles may function as a moderator of the relationship between childhood abuse and current abuse in teen close relationships. High school students (N = 321) in grades 9 and 10 completed questionnaires tapping their histories of maltreatment, currently viewed styles of attachment, and conflict in close relationships over the past 6 months. Maltreatment alone emerged as the most consistent predictor, accounting for 13-18% of the variance in male's physically, sexually, and verbally abusive behaviors; in contrast, it was not highly predictive of female's abusive behaviors. Maltreatment was predictive of victimization experiences for both males and females. Attachment style did not substantially add to the prediction of relationship conflict beyond maltreatment; however, avoidant attachment style emerged repeatedly as a significant predictor of female abusiveness and victimization. Attachment self-ratings were found to function as a moderator of child maltreatment in predicting primarily male coercive behavior towards a relationship partner as well as predicting male's experience of coercion from a partner. Thus, the presence of childhood maltreatment and adolescent self-perceived insecure attachment style applies predominantly to male youth. The implication of these gender differences for understanding relationship violence is discussed.

  14. Adverse effects of psychological therapy: An exploratory study of practitioners' experiences from child and adolescent psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, Ulf; Johanson, Josefin; Nilsson, Elin; Lindblad, Frank

    2016-07-01

    The scientific knowledge about adverse effects of psychological therapies and how such effects should be detected is limited. It is possible that children and adolescents are particularly vulnerable and need specific support in order to express adverse effects. In this exploratory study, we used a qualitative approach to explore practitioners' experiences of this phenomenon. Fourteen practitioners providing psychological therapy within the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Service were interviewed. Qualitative content analysis was applied to the data. Four overarching categories brought up by the practitioners were identified: vagueness of the concept (reflecting that the concept was novel and hard to define), psychotherapist-client interaction (encompassing aspects of the interaction possibly related to adverse effects), consequences for the young person (including a range of emotional, behavioural and social consequences) and family effects (e.g. professional complications and decreased autonomy for the parent). Professional discussions on these issues could improve psychological therapy for children and adolescents. Based on our findings and previous research, we propose three basic aspects to consider when adverse effects are detected and managed in this context: typology (form, severity and duration), aetiology (hypothesis about the causes) and perspective (adverse effects seen from the points of view of different interested parties).

  15. Do adolescent child abusers, peer abusers, and non-sex offenders have different personality profiles?

    PubMed

    Glowacz, Fabienne; Born, Michel

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify two sub-populations of sex offenders based on the age of the victims and on the age difference between the abuser and the victim (child sexual abusers vs. peer sexual abusers), and to compare the personality characteristics of these two subgroups with those of juvenile non-sex offenders. The group was composed of 67 adolescent offenders aged 13-18 years who were adjudicated for sexual offenses or non-sexual offenses: 20 non-sex offenders (JNSOs), 26 child sexual abusers (CAs), and 21 peer sexual abusers (PAs). The Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI) was administered to all participants. The mean scores and clinical cutoffs on the MACI scales were compared across the three samples. Compared with PAs, CAs were more submissive and conforming, and they experienced more anxious feelings. Peer sexual abusers scored higher on the unruly and forceful personality scales, on social insensitivity, and on delinquent predisposition. Peer sexual abusers also reported higher scores on substance-abuse proneness, impulsive propensities, and antisocial functioning than CAs, but their scores were similar to those of JNSOs. Our results show clear similarities between PAs and JNSOs in terms of personality and clinical characteristics, especially with regard to antisocial personality traits. Child sexual abusers did not display the personality characteristics typical of PAs and JNSOs which predisposed them to delinquent activities. These results raise questions as to whether juvenile sex offenders should be treated within the same institutions as non-sex offenders and whether the same treatment programs should be implemented for all types of juvenile sex offenders.

  16. Does the quality of parent-child connectedness matter for adolescents' sexual behaviors in Nairobi informal settlements?

    PubMed

    Sidze, Estelle M; Elungata'a, Patricia; Maina, Beatrice W; Mutua, Michael M

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the associations between parent-child connectedness and sexual behaviors among adolescents living in informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya, a vulnerable group with respect to reproductive health outcomes. The study was based on data from the Transition to Adulthood project, a study designed to follow adolescents aged 12-22 for 3 years in the informal settlements of Korogocho and Viwandani. Direct face-to-face questions were asked to adolescents about parenting variables and sexual behaviors. This study used a subsample of 689 sexually experienced 12-22-years-olds at Wave 2. Bivariate analysis compared gender differences for three outcomes-sexual activity in the 12 months prior to the survey and, among those who had had sex in this period, multiple sexual partners and condom use at last sex. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to identify associations between these outcomes and the quality of parent-child connectedness. About 60% of adolescent females and males were sexually active in the 12 months prior to the survey. The multivariate results showed a strong association between the quality of parent-child connectedness and condom use among adolescent males. Living with related or unrelated guardians (versus living with biological parents) was also associated with higher odds of multiple sexual partners and lower odds of condom use at last sex among adolescent females and with higher odds of sexual activity among adolescent males. Sexual and reproductive health programs targeting adolescents living in Nairobi informal settlements would benefit from attention to assisting parents to improve their ability to play the connectedness role. PMID:25501658

  17. Pediatric, Adolescent, and Maternal AIDS Branch. Report to the National Advisory Child Health and Human Development Council.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD. Center for Research for Mothers and Children.

    This report describes current research activities and future plans of the Pediatric, Adolescent, and Maternal AIDS (PAMA) Branch of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Center for Research for Mothers and Children. The mission statement of the Branch notes that PAMA develops, implements, and directs a wide range of…

  18. Child and Adolescent Suicidal Behavior: School-Based Prevention, Assessment, and Intervention. Practical Intervention in the Schools Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, David N.

    2011-01-01

    Meeting a crucial need, this book distills the best current knowledge on child and adolescent suicide prevention into comprehensive guidelines for school-based practitioners. The author draws on extensive research and clinical experience to provide best-practice recommendations for developing schoolwide prevention programs, conducting risk…

  19. The Bi-Directional Relationship between Parent-Child Conflict and Treatment Outcome in Treatment-Resistant Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rengasamy, Manivel; Mansoor, Brandon M.; Hilton, Robert; Porta, Giovanna; He, Jiayan; Emslie, Graham J.; Mayes, Taryn; Clarke, Gregory N.; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Keller, Martin B.; Ryan, Neal D.; Birmaher, Boris; Shamseddeen, Wael; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Brent, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the bidirectional relationship between parent-child discord and treatment outcome for adolescent treatment-resistant depression. Method: Depressed youth who had not responded to an adequate course of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) were randomized to either a switch to another SSRI or venlafaxine, with or…

  20. Symptoms and Behavior Problems of Adolescents and Adults with Autism: Effects of Mother-Child Relationship Quality, Warmth, and Praise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Leann E.; Greenberg, Jan S.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Hong, Jinkuk

    2008-01-01

    Using a cross-lagged panel design, we investigated the impact of positive family processes on change in autism symptoms and behaviors. A sample of 149 co-residing mothers and their adolescent or adult child with autism was drawn from a large, longitudinal study. Maternal warmth and praise were measured using coded speech samples in which mothers…

  1. The Development of Multiple Domains of Child and Adolescent Self-Concept: A Cohort Sequential Longitudinal Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, David A.; Maxwell, Scott E.; Martin, Joan M.; Peeke, Lachlan G.; Seroczynski, A.D.; Tran, Jane M.; Hoffman, Kit B.; Ruiz, Mark D.; Jacquez, Farrah; Maschman, Tracy

    2001-01-01

    Examined development of child and adolescent self-concept in two overlapping age cohorts as a function of the self-concept domain, social/developmental/educational transitions, and gender. Structural equation modeling addressed questions about stability of individual differences over time. Multilevel modeling addressed questions about mean-level…

  2. Adventure-Based Experiential Therapy with Inpatients in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: An Approach to Practicability and Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckstein, Florian; Rüth, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the use of adventure-based experiential therapy (AET) with child and adolescent psychiatry inpatients. AET environments, indications, practicality, therapeutic effects and research are outlined and clinical findings are reported. Activities such as rock-climbing, exploring a creek and caving are discussed and the limitations…

  3. A Model of Therapist Competencies for the Empirically Supported Cognitive Behavioral Treatment of Child and Adolescent Anxiety and Depressive Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sburlati, Elizabeth S.; Schniering, Carolyn A.; Lyneham, Heidi J.; Rapee, Ronald M.

    2011-01-01

    While a plethora of cognitive behavioral empirically supported treatments (ESTs) are available for treating child and adolescent anxiety and depressive disorders, research has shown that these are not as effective when implemented in routine practice settings. Research is now indicating that is partly due to ineffective EST training methods,…

  4. Maternal Parenting Behavior and Child Behavior Problems in Families of Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maljaars, Jarymke; Boonen, Hannah; Lambrechts, Greet; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Noens, Ilse

    2014-01-01

    Parents of a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) face specific challenges in parenting, but concrete parenting behavior has never been properly investigated in these families. This exploratory questionnaire study compared parenting behaviors among mothers of children and adolescents with ASD (n = 552) and without ASD (n = 437) and examined…

  5. Analyzing Multiple Informant Data on Child and Adolescent Behavior Problems: Predictive Validity and Comparison of Aggregation Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Dulmen, Manfred H. M.; Egeland, Byron

    2011-01-01

    We compared the predictive validity of five aggregation methods for multiple informant data on child and adolescent behavior problems. In addition, we compared the predictive validity of these aggregation methods with single informant scores. Data were derived from the Minnesota Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (N = 175). Maternal and…

  6. Representations of Mother-Child Attachment Relationships and Social-Information Processing of Peer Relationships in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granot, David; Mayseless, Ofra

    2012-01-01

    We examined the concurrent associations between early adolescents' representations of mother-child attachment relationships and how they process social information in their peer relationships. Attachment representations were examined in a normative sample of 97 males and 88 females (mean age = 10.35 years), using an adaptation of the Attachment…

  7. Prior Victimization and Sexual and Contraceptive Self-Efficacy among Adolescent Females under Child Protective Services Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hovsepian, S. Lory; Blais, Martin; Manseau, Helene; Otis, Joanne; Girard, Marie-Eve

    2010-01-01

    Adolescent females under Child Protective Services care in Quebec, Canada (n = 328) completed a questionnaire designed to explore associations between prior victimization (childhood sexual abuse and four forms of dating violence) and four dimensions of sexual and contraceptive self-efficacy. Five MANCOVAs were performed. In each model, a…

  8. Using Process Data to Explain Outcomes. An Illustration from the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGraw, Sarah A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Data from the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health, a school-based field trial, are used to illustrate the use of process evaluation for understanding study outcomes. Teacher characteristics and fidelity to the program model had direct and independent effects on student outcomes from the program. (SLD)

  9. Psychiatric Disorders in Adolescence and Early Adulthood and Risk for Child-Rearing Difficulties during Middle Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jeffrey G.; Cohen, Patricia; Kasen, Stephanie; Brook, Judith S.

    2008-01-01

    Data from a community-based longitudinal study were used to investigate the associations of parental psychiatric disorders evident by early adulthood with child-rearing behavior during middle adulthood. A series of psychiatric assessments was conducted during the adolescence (mean ages 14 and 16) and early adulthood (mean age 22) of 153 males and…

  10. Child Behavior Checklist Profiles of Children and Adolescents with and at High Risk for Developing Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Lisa L.; DelBello, Melissa P.; Stanford, Kevin E.; Strakowski, Stephen M.

    2007-01-01

    In order to recognize behavioral patterns in children and adolescents at risk for developing bipolar disorder, this study examined Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) profiles of bipolar offspring both with (BD group) and without ("at-risk" or AR group) bipolar disorder themselves. The BD youth had three CBCL subscale T scores greater than or equal to…

  11. A Longitudinal Study of the Effects of Child Maltreatment on Later Outcomes among High-Risk Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Johnson, Katherine A.; Brownridge, Douglas A.

    2008-01-01

    The current study longitudinally examines the effects of child maltreatment, parenting, and disadvantaged neighborhood on victimization, delinquency, and well-being via running away and school engagement among a sample of 360 high-risk adolescents. Results of a path analysis revealed that parenting was associated with school engagement, running…

  12. Digital Game Playing Motives among Adolescents: Relations to Parent-Child Communication, School Performance, Sleeping Habits, and Perceived Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallenius, Marjut; Rimpela, Arja; Punamaki, Raija-Leena; Lintonen, Tomi

    2008-01-01

    The aims of this research were to describe Finnish adolescents' different motives for digital game playing, and to examine relations between digital game playing and parent-child communication, school performance, sleeping habits, and perceived health. A questionnaire was used to assess a nationwide postal sample of 12-18-year-old Finns (6761…

  13. Parent-Child Communication about Adolescent Tobacco and Alcohol Use: What Do Parents Say and Does It Affect Youth Behavior?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ennett, Susan T.; Bauman, Karl E.; Foshee, Vangie A.; Pemberton, Michael; Hicks, Katherine A.

    2001-01-01

    Adolescent-parent pairs (N=537) were interviewed concerning their communication about tobacco and alcohol use. Parent communication reports identified three domains: rules and discipline; consequences and circumstances; and media influences. Results show that parent-child communication was not related to initiation of smoking or drinking. However,…

  14. The Relation between Child Maltreatment and Adolescent Suicidal Behavior: A Systematic Review and Critical Examination of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Adam B.; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Weismoore, Julie T.; Renshaw, Keith D.

    2013-01-01

    A large body of research suggests that child maltreatment (CM) is associated with adolescent suicidal ideation and attempts. These studies, however, have not been critically examined and summarized in a manner that allows us to draw firm conclusions and make recommendations for future research and clinical work in this area. In this review, we…

  15. The Relationship between Parental Knowledge and Monitoring and Child and Adolescent Conduct Problems: A 10-Year Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Racz, Sarah Jensen; McMahon, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Inadequate parental monitoring is widely recognized as a risk factor for the development of child and adolescent conduct problems. However, previous studies examining parental monitoring have largely measured parental knowledge and not the active methods used by parents to track the activities and behavior of their children. The seminal work of…

  16. Implementation of Problem-Based Learning in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: Shared Experiences of a Special-Interest Study Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skokauskas, Norbert; Guerrero, Anthony P. S.; Hanson, Mark D.; Coll, Xavier; Paul, Moli; Szatmari, Peter; Tan, Susan M. K.; Bell, Cathy K.; Hunt, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objective: Problem-based learning (PBL) represents a major development and change in educational practice that continues to have a large impact across subjects and disciplines worldwide. It would seem that child and adolescent psychiatry, because of its inherently integrative, bio-psycho-social nature and emphasis on teamwork and…

  17. Intergenerational continuity of child abuse among adolescent mothers: authoritarian parenting, community violence, and race.

    PubMed

    Valentino, Kristin; Nuttall, Amy K; Comas, Michelle; Borkowski, John G; Akai, Carol E

    2012-05-01

    Among the negative sequelae of child maltreatment is increased risk for continuity of maltreatment into subsequent generations. Despite acknowledgment in the literature that the pathways toward breaking the cycle of maltreatment are likely the result of dynamic interactions of risk and protective factors across multiple ecological levels, few studies have followed high-risk samples of maltreated and nonmaltreated parents over time to evaluate such processes. In the current investigation, exposure to community violence and authoritarian parenting attitudes were evaluated as predictors of the intergenerational continuity of abuse, and the moderating effect of African American race was examined. The sample included 70 mothers and their 18-year-old children, who have been followed longitudinally since the third trimester of the adolescent mothers' pregnancy. Results revealed that among mothers with a child abuse history, higher exposure to community violence and lower authoritarian parenting attitudes were associated with increased risk for intergenerational continuity of abuse. The relation of authoritarian parenting attitudes to intergenerational continuity was moderated by race; the protective effects of authoritarian parenting were limited to the African American families only. The salience of multiple ecological levels in interrupting the intergenerational continuity of child abuse is discussed, and implications for preventive programs are highlighted.

  18. Perceived parental control processes, parent-child relational qualities and psychological well-being of Chinese adolescents in intact and non-intact families in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Shek, Daniel T L; Lee, Tak Yan

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines whether Chinese adolescents' perceptions (N = 3,017) of parental behavioral control (parental knowledge, expectation, monitoring, discipline, and demandingness as well as parental control based on indigenous Chinese concepts), parental psychological control, parent-child relational qualities (perceived parental trust, child's trust of the parents, child's readiness to communicate with the parents, and child's satisfaction with parental control), and adolescent psychological well-being (hopelessness, mastery, life satisfaction and self-esteem) differed in intact and non-intact families. Results showed that relative to non-intact families, parental behavioral control processes were higher and parent-child relational qualities were better in intact families. In contrast, parental psychological control was higher in non-intact families than in intact families. Finally, the psychological well-being of adolescents in non-intact families was poorer than that of adolescents in intact families. PMID:17593768

  19. Maternal parenting styles and mother-child relationship among adolescents with and without persistent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Chang, Jane Pei-Chen

    2013-05-01

    We investigated mothering and mother-child interactions in adolescents with and without persistent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a sample of 190 adolescents with persistent DSM-IV ADHD, 147 without persistent ADHD, and 223 without ADHD. Both participants and their mothers received psychiatric interviews for diagnosis of ADHD and other mental disorders; and reported on the Parental Bonding Instrument about mother's parenting style, the Social Adjustment Inventory for Children and Adolescents for interactions with mothers and home behavioral problems. The mothers also reported on their ADHD and neurotic/depressive symptoms. Our results based on both informants showed that both ADHD groups obtained less affection/care and more overprotection and control from the mothers, and perceived less family support than those without ADHD. Child's inattention and comorbidity, and maternal depression were significantly correlated with decreased maternal affection/care and increased maternal controls; child's hyperactivity-impulsivity and maternal neurotic trait were significantly correlated with maternal overprotection; and child's inattention and comorbidity, and maternal neurotic/depressive symptoms were significantly correlated with impaired mother-child interactions and less family support. Our findings suggested that, regardless of persistence, childhood ADHD diagnosis, particularly inattention symptoms and comorbidity, combining with maternal neurotic/depressive symptoms was associated with impaired maternal process.

  20. Anxious Attachment, Social Isolation, and Indicators of Sex Drive and Compulsivity: Predictors of Child Sexual Abuse Perpetration in Adolescent Males?

    PubMed

    Miner, Michael H; Swinburne Romine, Rebecca; Robinson, Beatrice Bean E; Berg, Dianne; Knight, Raymond A

    2016-03-01

    It has been suggested that child sexual abuse is related to poor attachment to parents, which is associated with an inability to form intimate relationships. Seto and Lalumière indicated that there were too few studies of adolescent males to determine whether poor attachment was associated with perpetration. This study was designed to follow up on a previous study and further explored the association between insecure attachment to parents, social isolation, and interpersonal adequacy to child sexual abuse perpetration in adolescents. We compared two samples of adolescent males who had committed sexual offenses, those who committed offenses against children (n = 140) and those who committed offenses against peer or adults (n = 92), with a sample of similarly aged males in treatment for mental health or substance use issues (n = 93). Data were collected using a semi-structured interview and computer-administered questionnaire. We found an indirect association between anxious attachment and sexual offenses against child victims, which was accounted for by measures of social involvement and social isolation. These involvement and isolation measures also did not have a direct association with sexual offenses against child victims, in that their contribution was accounted for by a measure of Masculine Adequacy. This Masculine Adequacy, combined with decreased levels of Sexual Preoccupation and Hypersexuality and increased Sexual Compulsivity, was associated with commission of child sexual abuse. The interpersonal variables did not enter a model predicting sexual offending against peers/adults, which seemed solely associated with the interaction between Sexual Compulsivity and Hypersexuality.

  1. Meta-analysis of quality of life in children and adolescents with ADHD: By both parent proxy-report and child self-report using PedsQL™.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yi-chen; Yang, Hao-Jan; Chen, Vincent Chin-Hung; Lee, Wan-Ting; Teng, Ming-Jen; Lin, Chung-Hui; Gossop, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent developmental disorder that seriously and negatively impacts a child's health-related quality of life (HRQOL). However, no meta-analysis has been conducted to examine the magnitude of impact, domains affected and factors moderating the impact. This review included nine studies that compared HRQOL of children or adolescents with ADHD with those with typical development using both child self-reports and parent proxy-reports. Seven among nine studies were meta-analytically synthesized to examine the degree of impact of ADHD on children and adolescents, parent-child discrepancy, and the moderators. The results indicate that ADHD impact a child's or adolescent's HRQOL negatively with a moderate effect in physical and a severe effect in psychosocial (i.e., emotional, social, and school) domains. Parental ratings of overall HRQOL in children or adolescents with ADHD were not significantly different from child's ratings when compared with typically developing children and adolescents. Age was negatively associated with all domains of HRQOL in children and adolescents with ADHD both by parent- and child-ratings, and the strongest effect was found in parental ratings of child's emotional HRQOL, with a moderate correlation. This meta-analysis suggests that HRQOL may be assessed in children and adolescents with ADHD both by parent proxy- and child self-reports, and that interventions may be planned accordingly. Future meta-analysis may explore how measures of HRQOL and other factors including child, parental, familiar and school characteristics influence the impact of ADHD and the parent-child agreement in children and adolescents.

  2. The Effects of Child Abuse and Exposure to Domestic Violence on Adolescent Internalizing and Externalizing Behavior Problems.

    PubMed

    Moylan, Carrie A; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Sousa, Cindy; Tajima, Emiko A; Herrenkohl, Roy C; Russo, M Jean

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the effects of child abuse and domestic violence exposure in childhood on adolescent internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Data for this analysis are from the Lehigh Longitudinal Study, a prospective study of 457 youth addressing outcomes of family violence and resilience in individuals and families. Results show that child abuse, domestic violence, and both in combination (i.e., dual exposure) increase a child's risk for internalizing and externalizing outcomes in adolescence. When accounting for risk factors associated with additional stressors in the family and surrounding environment, only those children with dual exposure had an elevated risk of the tested outcomes compared to non-exposed youth. However, while there were some observable differences in the prediction of outcomes for children with dual exposure compared to those with single exposure (i.e., abuse only or exposure to domestic violence only), these difference were not statistically significant. Analyses showed that the effects of exposure for boys and girls are statistically comparable.

  3. Canadian Rural/Remote Primary Care Physicians Perspectives on Child/Adolescent Mental Health Care Service Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Zayed, Richard; Davidson, Brenda; Nadeau, Lucie; Callanan, Terrence S.; Fleisher, William; Hope-Ross, Lindsay; Espinet, Stacey; Spenser, Helen R.; Lipton, Harold; Srivastava, Amresh; Lazier, Lorraine; Doey, Tamison; Khalid-Khan, Sarosh; McKerlie, Ann; Stretch, Neal; Flynn, Roberta; Abidi, Sabina; St. John, Kimberly; Auclair, Genevieve; Liashko, Vitaly; Fotti, Sarah; Quinn, Declan; Steele, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Primary Care Physicians (PCP) play a key role in the recognition and management of child/adolescent mental health struggles. In rural and under-serviced areas of Canada, there is a gap between child/adolescent mental health needs and service provision. Methods: From a Canadian national needs assessment survey, PCPs’ narrative comments were examined using quantitative and qualitative approaches. Using the phenomenological method, individual comments were drawn upon to illustrate the themes that emerged. These themes were further analyzed using chi-square to identify significant differences in the frequency in which they were reported. Results: Out of 909 PCPs completing the survey, 39.38% (n = 358) wrote comments. Major themes that emerged were: 1) psychiatrist access, including issues such as long waiting lists, no child/adolescent psychiatrists available, no direct access to child/adolescent psychiatrists; 2) poor communication/continuity, need for more systemized/transparent referral processes, and need to rely on adult psychiatrists; and, 3) referral of patients to other mental health professionals such as paediatricians, psychologists, and social workers. Conclusions: Concerns that emerged across sites primarily revolved around lack of access to care and systems issues that interfere with effective service delivery. These concerns suggest potential opportunities for future improvement of service delivery. Implications: Although the survey only had one comment box located at the end, PCPs wrote their comments throughout the survey. Further research focusing on PCPs’ expressed written concerns may give further insight into child/adolescent mental health care service delivery systems. A comparative study targeting urban versus rural regions in Canada may provide further valuable insights. PMID:27047554

  4. The Bi-Directional Relationship Between Parent–Child Conflict and Treatment Outcome in Treatment-Resistant Adolescent Depression

    PubMed Central

    Rengasamy, Manivel; Mansoor, Brandon M.; Hilton, Robert; Porta, Giovanna; He, Jiayan; Emslie, Graham J.; Mayes, Taryn; Clarke, Gregory N.; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Keller, Martin B.; Ryan, Neal D.; Birmaher, Boris; Shamseddeen, Wael; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Brent, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the bidirectional relationship between parent–child discord and treatment outcome for adolescent treatment-resistant depression. Method Depressed youth who had not responded to an adequate course of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) were randomized to either a switch to another SSRI or venlafaxine, with or without the addition of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) in the Treatment of SSRI-Resistant Depression in Adolescents (TORDIA) study. The Conflict Behavior Questionnaire was used to assess adolescent (CBQ-A) and parent-reported (CBQ-P) parent–child discord. The impact of remission on parent–child conflict, and the differential impact of medication and CBT on the CBQ-A and CBQ-P, were assessed using generalized linear models. Results Although there were no differential treatment effects on parent or adolescent-report of conflict, remission was associated with improvement in the CBQ-P. In general, intake family conflict did not predict remission, except in the sub-group of participants whose parents reported clinically significant parent–child conflict at intake, for whom high levels of parent-reported conflict predicted a lower likelihood of remission. Conflict also did not moderate treatment response. Conclusions Remission of depression may be sufficient to reduce parent-reported parent–child conflict. However, higher parent-reported conflict, in the clinically significant range, predicts a lower likelihood of remission from depression. Clinical trial registration information—Treatment of SSRI-Resistant Depression in Adolescents (TORDIA); http://clinicaltrials.gov/;NCT00018902. PMID:23582868

  5. The role of timing of maltreatment and child intelligence in pathways to low symptoms of depression and anxiety in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Harpur, Lisa Jane; Polek, Ela; van Harmelen, Anne-Laura

    2015-09-01

    Research indicates that childhood maltreatment is strongly associated with high levels of adolescent depression and anxiety symptoms. Using LONGSCAN data and taking into account the range of family characteristics related to adversity (poverty, primary caregiver substance abuse) and protective factors (living with biological mother and father), the present study assessed the complex resilience process in which child intelligence (age 6) mediated the relationship between early childhood maltreatment (age 0-4) and adolescent symptoms of depression and anxiety (age 14). We also assessed if mid (age 6-8) and late (age 10-12) childhood maltreatment moderated this mediation. We found that mid-childhood intelligence mediated the negative effect of early childhood maltreatment (age 0-4) on anxiety symptoms (age 14), but not on depressive symptoms (age 14). We also found the effect of timing of maltreatment: early childhood maltreatment (age 0-4) predicted more anxiety symptoms in adolescence, whereas late childhood/early adolescent (age 10-12) maltreatment predicted more symptoms of depression in adolescence. In addition, mid (age 6-8) and late (age 10-12) childhood maltreatment dampened the protective effect of IQ (age 6) against anxiety (age 14). In sum, current evidence shows that low anxiety and depression symptoms in adolescence following childhood maltreatment was achieved through different pathways, and that early and late childhood/early adolescence were more sensitive periods for development of psychopathology related to depression and anxiety in adolescence. PMID:26146160

  6. The role of timing of maltreatment and child intelligence in pathways to low symptoms of depression and anxiety in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Harpur, Lisa Jane; Polek, Ela; van Harmelen, Anne-Laura

    2015-09-01

    Research indicates that childhood maltreatment is strongly associated with high levels of adolescent depression and anxiety symptoms. Using LONGSCAN data and taking into account the range of family characteristics related to adversity (poverty, primary caregiver substance abuse) and protective factors (living with biological mother and father), the present study assessed the complex resilience process in which child intelligence (age 6) mediated the relationship between early childhood maltreatment (age 0-4) and adolescent symptoms of depression and anxiety (age 14). We also assessed if mid (age 6-8) and late (age 10-12) childhood maltreatment moderated this mediation. We found that mid-childhood intelligence mediated the negative effect of early childhood maltreatment (age 0-4) on anxiety symptoms (age 14), but not on depressive symptoms (age 14). We also found the effect of timing of maltreatment: early childhood maltreatment (age 0-4) predicted more anxiety symptoms in adolescence, whereas late childhood/early adolescent (age 10-12) maltreatment predicted more symptoms of depression in adolescence. In addition, mid (age 6-8) and late (age 10-12) childhood maltreatment dampened the protective effect of IQ (age 6) against anxiety (age 14). In sum, current evidence shows that low anxiety and depression symptoms in adolescence following childhood maltreatment was achieved through different pathways, and that early and late childhood/early adolescence were more sensitive periods for development of psychopathology related to depression and anxiety in adolescence.

  7. Journal abstracts from current research in the field of child and adolescent mental health.

    PubMed

    2009-12-01

    at-risk adolescents. Journal of Child & Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing 22(3): 160-168 Page RM & Hall CP (2009) Psychosocial distress and alcohol use as factors in adolescent sexual behaviour among sub-Saharan African adolescents. Journal of School Health 79(8): 369-379 Taliaferro LA, Rienzo BA, Pigg RM, Miller MD & Dodd VJ (2009) Spiritual well-being and suicidal ideation among college students. Journal of American College Health 58(1): 83-90 Jarrett T, Horn K & Zhang J (2009) Teen perceptions of facilitator characteristics in a school-based smoking cessation program. Journal of School Health 79(7): 297-303 Parker JS & Morton TL (2009) Distinguishing between early and late onset delinquents: Race, income, verbal intelligence and impulsivity. North American Journal of Psychology 11(2): 273-284 Burris JL, Smith GT & Carlson CR (2009) Relations among religiousness, spirituality and sexual practices. Journal of Sex Research 46(4): 282-289 Brown DW, Riley L, Butchart A, Meddings DR, Kann L & Harvey AP (2009) Exposure to physical and sexual violence and adverse health behaviours in African children: Results from the Global School-based Student Health Survey. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 87(6): 447-B. PMID:25865730

  8. 1984 Presidential election: issues of relevance to child and adolescent health.

    PubMed

    Mondale, W F; Reagan, R W

    1984-10-01

    To clarify the position of the 2 major candidates for the office of presidency of the US on child and adolescent health issues, the editors of the Journal of School Health requested information about the candidate's positions from the headquarters of Mondale and Reagan. This document presents a summary based on the information received. In reference to defense spending, Mondale said he would cut some defense programs and increase social support programs. Reagan noted that his proposed budget for the next 5 years allocated US$2.6 trillion to human programs compared to US$1.7 trillion for defense. In regard to health card, Mondale placed a high priority on health care cost containment to be achieved by placing limits on physician and hospital fees, increasing competition between health facilities, and streamlining the Medicare and Medicaid programs. Reagan expressed satisfaction with the current health status of the population and said that health care inflation could be controlled through the provision of incentives to increase the efficiency of hospitals. Mondale indicated that he would reverse Regan's current social policies and provide strong support for social programs including Headstart, maternal and child health programs, Medicaid, Aid to Dependent Children, day care programs, child and spouse abuse programs, and several others. Reagan noted that child health indicators improved during the early 1980s, and that spending for child health increased during his 1st term. His administration would focus attention on the health gap between black and white children and on enforcing child support laws. Mondale indicated broad support for family planning including the right of poor women to obtain abortion services and the right to teenagers to receive contraceptive services without parental involvement. Reagan reiterated his belief that abortion is morally wrong and said that federal funds should not be used to pay for abortion services unless the abortion is

  9. Adolescent Attachment Trajectories with Mothers and Fathers: The Importance of Parent-Child Relationship Experiences and Gender

    PubMed Central

    Ruhl, Holly; Dolan, Elaine A.; Buhrmester, Duane

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated how attachment with mothers and fathers changes during adolescence, and how gender and parent-child relationship experiences are associated with attachment trajectories. The relative importance of specific positive and negative relationship experiences on attachment trajectories was also examined. An initial sample of 223 adolescents reported on relationship experiences and attachment avoidance and anxiety with mothers and fathers in grades 6, 8, 10, and 12 (final N=110; Mage=11.90 years at onset, SD=.43). Mothers and fathers reported on relationship experiences with adolescents. Hierarchical linear modeling showed that security with parents increased during adolescence. Positive relationship experiences (companionship, satisfaction, approval, support) predicted increases in security and negative experiences (pressure, criticism) predicted decreases in security. Females reported less avoidance than males. PMID:26347590

  10. Coping style and memory specificity in adolescents and adults with histories of child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Harris, Latonya S; Block, Stephanie D; Ogle, Christin M; Goodman, Gail S; Augusti, Else-Marie; Larson, Rakel P; Culver, Michelle A; Pineda, Annarheen R; Timmer, Susan G; Urquiza, Anthony

    2016-09-01

    Individuals with histories of childhood trauma may adopt a nonspecific memory retrieval strategy to avoid unpleasant and intrusive memories. In a sample of 93 adolescents and adults with or without histories of child sexual abuse (CSA), we tested the hypothesis that nonspecific memory retrieval is related to an individual's general tendency to use avoidant (i.e., distancing) coping as a personal problem-solving or coping strategy, especially in victims of CSA. We also examined age differences and other individual differences (e.g., trauma-related psychopathology) as predictors of nonspecific memories. Distancing coping was significantly associated with less specific autobiographical memory. Younger age, lower vocabulary scores, and non-CSA childhood maltreatment (i.e., physical and emotional abuse) also uniquely predicted less autobiographical memory specificity, whereas trauma-related psychopathology was associated with more specific memory. Implications for the development of autobiographical memory retrieval in the context of coping with childhood maltreatment are discussed. PMID:26241375

  11. Coping style and memory specificity in adolescents and adults with histories of child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Harris, Latonya S; Block, Stephanie D; Ogle, Christin M; Goodman, Gail S; Augusti, Else-Marie; Larson, Rakel P; Culver, Michelle A; Pineda, Annarheen R; Timmer, Susan G; Urquiza, Anthony

    2016-09-01

    Individuals with histories of childhood trauma may adopt a nonspecific memory retrieval strategy to avoid unpleasant and intrusive memories. In a sample of 93 adolescents and adults with or without histories of child sexual abuse (CSA), we tested the hypothesis that nonspecific memory retrieval is related to an individual's general tendency to use avoidant (i.e., distancing) coping as a personal problem-solving or coping strategy, especially in victims of CSA. We also examined age differences and other individual differences (e.g., trauma-related psychopathology) as predictors of nonspecific memories. Distancing coping was significantly associated with less specific autobiographical memory. Younger age, lower vocabulary scores, and non-CSA childhood maltreatment (i.e., physical and emotional abuse) also uniquely predicted less autobiographical memory specificity, whereas trauma-related psychopathology was associated with more specific memory. Implications for the development of autobiographical memory retrieval in the context of coping with childhood maltreatment are discussed.

  12. The demand side: uses of research in child and adolescent mental health services.

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, Abram; Tseng, Vivian

    2010-03-01

    This special issue on child and adolescent mental health contains a thoughtful set of papers that address many of the challenges in bridging research and practice. These articles, however, focus predominantly on the supply side of producing research for use by a range of audiences, including practitioners, administrators and policymakers. This commentary emphasizes the importance of attending to, and better understanding, the demand side with regard to how research evidence is evaluated, understood,and utilized. Drawing from work underway at the William T. Grant Foundation, the authors argue for the need to understand three broad topics: user settings and perspectives, political, economic and social contexts, and the various uses of research. Furthermore, understanding the use of research evidence, or the demand side, is itself atopic for empirical investigation. The authors conclude that, when it comes to supplying evidence, don't forget the demand side.

  13. Resiliency as a mediator of the impact of sleep on child and adolescent behavior

    PubMed Central

    Chatburn, Alex; Coussens, Scott; Kohler, Mark J

    2014-01-01

    Background Disturbed sleep is detrimental to child behavior; however, the precise means by which this association occurs is unclear. Sleep and resilience can theoretically share an underlying neural mechanism and therefore influence one another. However, the role of resilience in the association between sleep and behavior is not known. The associations between sleep, resilience, and problematic behavior in children and adolescents aged 7–18 years were investigated in this study. Methods A correlational design was used to determine the relationships between total sleep problems, indices of resilience, and internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Results Sleep problems and resiliency variables were strongly correlated, and further, sleep problems were found to be predictive of resiliency scores. Resiliency significantly mediated the relationship between increased sleep problems and both overall internalizing and externalizing behavior problems, and specifically, measures of depression and anxiety. Conclusion Sleep impacted levels of resilience such that greater sleep disturbance reduced resilience and consequently increased problematic behavior, potentially predisposing individuals to psychopathology. PMID:24379734

  14. Integration of a token economy into a child and adolescent psychiatry training clinic.

    PubMed

    Dulcan, M K; Mannarino, A P; Borcherding, B G

    1991-12-01

    We developed a token economy pilot program in which reinforcers were provided by a university outpatient child and adolescent psychiatry clinic to address two problems common to psychiatry training programs: 1) psychiatric residents have insufficient opportunity to learn to use behavior modification techniques with outpatients, and 2) many patients and their parents seen in training clinics are poorly motivated and noncompliant with treatment, which leads to psychiatry resident discouragement and frustration. The rationale for the program is presented from the perspective of both the resident and the patient. The implementation of the program with 25 cases is described, including potential and actual difficulties. One case treated by a psychiatry resident is presented in more detail.

  15. Off-label prescribing of psychotropic drugs in a Danish child and adolescent psychiatric outpatient clinic.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Eva Skovslund; Hellfritzsch, Maja; Sørensen, Merete Juul; Rasmussen, Helle; Thomsen, Per Hove; Laursen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the level of off-label treatment with psychotropic drugs at a child and adolescent psychiatric outpatient clinic in Denmark. We performed a cross-sectional study assessing records on patients treated with medicine at two outpatient clinics at the child and adolescent psychiatric ward, on 1 day in 2014. Prescriptions of drugs from ATC group N05-N06 were classified according to label status. Six hundred and fifteen drug prescriptions distributed on nine different drugs were prescribed to 503 children eligible for this study. Overall results showed that 170 of the 615 prescriptions were off-label, which corresponds to 27.6 %. Attention deficit hyperkinetic disorder (ADHD) drugs were prescribed 450 times (73.2 %) of which 11 prescriptions were off-label (2.4 %). Other psychotropic drugs comprised 165 (26.8 %) prescriptions and of these 159 (96.4 %) were off-label. With 106 prescriptions, melatonin was the most prescribed of these drugs; all prescriptions were off-label. The main reasons for classifying prescriptions as off-label were age and indication of treatment. This cross-sectional study reveals that medical treatment of children with other psychotropic drugs than ADHD drugs is usually off-label. ADHD drugs were, as the only drug group, primarily prescribed on-label. Although off-label prescription may be rational and even evidence based, the responsibility in case of, e.g. adverse drug reactions is a challenge, and clinical trials in children should be incited.

  16. The Validity of the Multi-Informant Approach to Assessing Child and Adolescent Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Augenstein, Tara M.; Wang, Mo; Thomas, Sarah A.; Drabick, Deborah A.G.; Burgers, Darcy E.; Rabinowitz, Jill

    2015-01-01

    Child and adolescent patients may display mental health concerns within some contexts and not others (e.g., home vs. school). Thus, understanding the specific contexts in which patients display concerns may assist mental health professionals in tailoring treatments to patients' needs. Consequently, clinical assessments often include reports from multiple informants who vary in the contexts in which they observe patients' behavior (e.g., patients, parents, teachers). Previous meta-analyses indicate that informants' reports correlate at low-to-moderate magnitudes. However, is it valid to interpret low correspondence among reports as indicating that patients display concerns in some contexts and not others? We meta-analyzed 341 studies published between 1989 and 2014 that reported cross-informant correspondence estimates, and observed low-to-moderate correspondence (mean internalizing: r = .25; mean externalizing: r = .30; mean overall: r = .28). Informant pair, mental health domain, and measurement method moderated magnitudes of correspondence. These robust findings have informed the development of concepts for interpreting multi-informant assessments, allowing researchers to draw specific predictions about the incremental and construct validity of these assessments. In turn, we critically evaluated research on the incremental and construct validity of the multi-informant approach to clinical child and adolescent assessment. In so doing, we identify crucial gaps in knowledge for future research, and provide recommendations for “best practices” in using and interpreting multi-informant assessments in clinical work and research. This paper has important implications for developing personalized approaches to clinical assessment, with the goal of informing techniques for tailoring treatments to target the specific contexts where patients display concerns. PMID:25915035

  17. Child and adolescent body mass index data according to who new child growth standards in Georgia (Kakheti region).

    PubMed

    Kharabadze, M; Betaneli, M; Khetsuriani, R; Rainauli, Z; Khutsishvili, L

    2012-10-01

    The Studies were carried in Georgia among 6-18 years old 854 children and adolescent; (417girls, 437 boys). Measurements of weight, height and chest circumference were taken from following standard techniques. The Body Mass Index of each child was computed as weight/height2. The calculated BMI was compared to the World Health Organization BMI - for-age centiles tables (5-19 years old girls and boys). According the given results the nutritional status was defined: thinness-2.6%, overweight- 13%, obesity-7.2%. The most 6-18 years old children BMI is adequate to 25th, 50th and 75th centiles of the World Health Organization standard BMI -for-age percentile tables. The thinness was revealed only among the children of 6-12 age group. With the prevalence among the girls. The high number of thin children is fixed with both 6 years. old girls and boys(6.4%).12 years old girls (11.1%),but the number of underweight children is less than the number of the same age schoolchildren in Tbilisi. The number of fat and overweighted children increases within the age and dominates among the boys. The highest percent of obesity was revealed among the children of both sex at the age of 11 (21.5%) also among the 18 years old boys(17.6%). The data analysis of the carried studies, allow comparisons with the other studies, carried out in different countries of the world. The data analysis showed that underweight, overweight and obesity distribution among the schoolchildren in Georgia is close to the statistics data of the Eastern and Central Europian countries. PMID:23131985

  18. Mechanisms of Contextual Risk for Adolescent Self-Injury: Invalidation and Conflict Escalation in Mother-Child Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Crowell, Sheila E.; Baucom, Brian R.; McCauley, Elizabeth; Potapova, Natalia V.; Fitelson, Martha; Barth, Heather; Smith, Cindy J.; Beauchaine, Theodore P.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE According to developmental theories of self-injury, both child characteristics and environmental contexts shape and maintain problematic behaviors. Although progress has been made toward identifying biological vulnerabilities to self-injury, mechanisms underlying psychosocial risk have received less attention. METHOD In the present study, we compared self-injuring adolescents (n=17) with typical controls (n=20) during a mother-child conflict discussion. Dyadic interactions were coded using both global and microanalytic systems, allowing for a highly detailed characterization of mother-child interactions. We also assessed resting state psychophysiological regulation, as indexed by respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). RESULTS Global coding revealed that maternal invalidation was associated with adolescent anger. Furthermore, maternal invalidation and coerciveness were both related to adolescent opposition/defiance. Results from the microanalytic system indicated that self-injuring dyads were more likely to escalate conflict, suggesting a potential mechanism through which emotion dysregulation is shaped and maintained over time. Finally, mother and teen aversiveness interacted to predict adolescent resting RSA. Low-aversive teens with highly aversive mothers had the highest RSA, whereas teens in high-high dyads showed the lowest RSA. CONCLUSIONS These findings are consistent with theories that emotion invalidation and conflict escalation are possible contextual risk factors for self-injury. PMID:23581508

  19. [The motor activity study segment as pilot study of The Child and Adolescent Health Survey].

    PubMed

    Kahl, H; Emmel, J

    2002-12-01

    In the Health Survey for Children and Adolescents the examination of motor activity is one aspect of physical health covered by the study. This underlines the importance of physical activity for physical development in early years. This first representative child and adolescent study for Germany intends to obtain data on motor activity and to allow for the implementation of specific intervention programmes encouraging physical activity. The specific general conditions under which the survey is conducted restrict the selection and scope of possible instruments to a minimal programme, including fitness tests, strength in combination with endurance and coordinative skills as well as flexibility. In a pilot study the suitability, feasibility and the obtained evidence of selected single motor tests were tested. This article explains the choice of instruments and methods used in the examination of physical fitness. It also discusses methodological difficulties which affect the standardisation of tests and the requirements regarding personnel. A major concern of the pilot study was the evaluation of tested instruments with regard to gender and age differences. For the main survey the following tests are recommended: coordination (balancing backwards, one-leg-footing, sideway jumping), perseverance (sit-ups, push-ups), and flexibility (trunk bending).

  20. Clinicopathologic analysis of isolated hematuria in child/adolescent and adult patients.

    PubMed

    Chen, GuangLei; Zhu, Jun; Song, MingHui; Ma, Lu; Pan, Tao; Yang, Qi; Zhang, WenSheng

    2015-12-01

    To our knowledge, no in-depth clinicopathologic study of isolated hematuria (IH) is currently available. To address this gap, we analyzed the clinicopathologic features of IH as it manifests in child/adolescent and adult patients. The clinical data and pathological types of 543 IH patients who underwent renal pathological examinations from January 2005 to June 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. Clinical manifestations differed among the age groups: children/adolescents exhibited the highest percentage of mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (41.78%), whereas adults showed the highest percentage of immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) (52.39%). In addition, the percentage of IH patients who were classified according to clinical pathology differed from that of patients who were classified according to renal pathological type. Patients with IgAN who were found to have minimal proteinuria had more severe IH. For IH patients, especially those with a small amount of proteinuria, renal biopsy should be performed as early as possible in order to develop a long-term treatment plan and prognosis evaluation. PMID:27003766

  1. Communication approaches to parent-child conflict: young adolescence to young adult.

    PubMed

    Riesch, Susan K; Jackson, Norma M; Chanchong, Weena

    2003-08-01

    As trusted and accessible health care providers, pediatric nurses are asked frequently for advice on the rearing of children and adolescents, particularly during developmental transitions. The parent-adolescent relationship has been characterized as a continuing renegotiation of relational qualities. Aspects of communication, such as conflicts and approaches to them, expose the re-negotiation process. The purpose of this study was to examine how communication approaches and topics of conflict in a parent child relationship evolved over 10 years. Thirty-three families with young adults as children between the ages of 22 and 26 years old responded to a survey about conflict and conflict resolution. Parents and young adults, as respondents, were asked to describe two incidents of conflict. The first incident was a conflict from the past, when the young adult was 11 to 14, and the second incident was a conflict they recently experienced. Inductive analyses were used to substantiate themes from the data. Regarding past topics of conflict, parents and young adults had no difficulty recalling incidents. The approaches to solving the past conflicts were seldom effective. Both parent and teenager were reactive, negative, confrontational, or avoidant. Occasionally, incidents that reflected thinking, planning ahead, and caring were reported. Descriptions of more recent experiences indicated less conflict and more direct and healthy communication approaches; although manipulative, negative, and intimidating tactics were present. PMID:12923735

  2. A window of opportunity: referral of adolescents to the hospital Child Protection Team.

    PubMed

    Glasser, Saralee; Chen, Wendy; Stoffman, Nava; Lerner-Geva, Liat

    2008-01-01

    The arrival of an adolescent at the hospital provides a window of opportunity to help those exposed to abuse or neglect, by looking beyond the presenting symptom. The Child Protection Team (CPT) assesses cases of suspected abuse or neglect (SCAN) referred by hospital staff. As adolescents pose a particular array of presentations, this study assessed their socio-demographic features and characteristics of hospitalization in order to improve procedures for identifying SCAN. The study group included all 674 referrals of 10-17-year-olds to the CPT from 1991-2007. Their files were abstracted and demographics compared to similarly-aged Emergency Department (ED) admissions. Different patterns were found by gender and age group. The youngest group (10-13 years) included a higher rate of boys than girls (47.9% vs. 27.6%), and among the oldest (16-17 years) the rate of girls was higher (31.9% vs 15.8%). Comparison with all ED admissions indicated a lower rate of younger girls and a higher rate of 14-15-year-old girls in the study group. The study group also had a higher rate of immigrants (12.8% vs. 4.7%). The most frequent reason for arrival at the hospital was suicidal behavior (30.9%). Older age was related to fewer arrivals for trauma/burn and more suicidal behavior. In 83.1% of the referrals, reports were made to welfare authorities and/or police. The suspicion in 64.2% of the referrals was emotional abuse or physical/emotional neglect; in 18.8%, physical and/or sexual abuse was suspected. The older groups had lower rates of physical and/or sexual abuse and higher rates of emotional abuse or physical/emotional neglect. This study highlights the importance of age-by-gender analysis and understanding of the differential susceptibility of early, middle and late adolescence to SCAN.

  3. Treatment of Anxiety in Children and Adolescents: Using the Child and Adolescent Anxiety Psychodynamic Psychotherapy (CAPP) Therapy Gabrielle Silver, Theodore Shapiro, Barbara Milrod

    PubMed Central

    Silver, Gabrielle; Shapiro, Theodore; Milrod, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Information is presented here on CAPP – child and adolescent psychodynamic psychotherapy. Following a definition of anxiety, the authors present study outcomes of non-psychodynamic treatment approaches, alone and in combination with psychopharmacologic treatment, then explore psychodynamic approaches. A detailed overview of psychodynamic psychotherapy is presented, along with two cases illustrating the use of CAPP with young patients with anxiety. The authors also present tables and boxes summarizing CAPP therapeutic processes and strategies as intervention for anxious youth. PMID:23164129

  4. The effects of knowledge of child development and social-emotional maturity on adolescent attitudes toward parenting.

    PubMed

    Larsen, J J; Juhasz, A M

    1985-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the combined effect of knowledge of child development and level of social-emotional maturity, and the extent to which this relationship affects adolescent attitudes toward parenting. The analysis of the data (multiple regression and canonical analysis) suggested that there were significant relationships among these variables. In general, the relationships indicated that subjects' negative attitudes toward parenting were associated with lack of knowledge of child development and low levels of social-emotional maturity, while subjects' positive attitudes toward parenting were associated with knowledge of child development and high levels of social-emotional maturity. The joint impact of knowledge of child development and social-emotional maturity factors on attitudes toward parenting accounted for 51% of the variation among the variables.

  5. Longitudinal changes in the time parents spend in activities with their adolescent children as a function of child age, pubertal status, and gender.

    PubMed

    Dubas, Judith Semon; Gerris, Jan R M

    2002-12-01

    This study examined the time Dutch mothers (N = 301) and fathers (N = 255) spend per day engaging in 4 activities (going somewhere, doing something, watching TV, and eating together) with their adolescent children both concurrently and 5 years later. Also assessed was whether parent-child shared time was related to parent or child gender and whether age-related differences could be explained by adolescent pubertal status, family conflict, adolescent and parent work or volunteer hours, parental work stress, and adolescent computer use. Finally, the study examined whether family conflict predicted changes in shared time and whether shared time predicted changes in conflict. The findings showed that age changes depended on the activity and that pubertal status mediated age differences in TV viewing among mixed-gender parent-child pairs. Shared time during pre-, early, and mid-adolescence was linked to decreases in family conflict 5 years later.

  6. Parent-child math anxiety and math-gender stereotypes predict adolescents' math education outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Casad, Bettina J.; Hale, Patricia; Wachs, Faye L.

    2015-01-01

    Two studies examined social determinants of adolescents' math anxiety including parents' own math anxiety and children's endorsement of math-gender stereotypes. In Study 1, parent-child dyads were surveyed and the interaction between parent and child math anxiety was examined, with an eye to same- and other-gender dyads. Results indicate that parent's math anxiety interacts with daughters' and sons' anxiety to predict math self-efficacy, GPA, behavioral intentions, math attitudes, and math devaluing. Parents with lower math anxiety showed a positive relationship to children's math outcomes when children also had lower anxiety. The strongest relationships were found with same-gender dyads, particularly Mother-Daughter dyads. Study 2 showed that endorsement of math-gender stereotypes predicts math anxiety (and not vice versa) for performance beliefs and outcomes (self-efficacy and GPA). Further, math anxiety fully mediated the relationship between gender stereotypes and math self-efficacy for girls and boys, and for boys with GPA. These findings address gaps in the literature on the role of parents' math anxiety in the effects of children's math anxiety and math anxiety as a mechanism affecting performance. Results have implications for interventions on parents' math anxiety and dispelling gender stereotypes in math classrooms. PMID:26579000

  7. Parent-child math anxiety and math-gender stereotypes predict adolescents' math education outcomes.

    PubMed

    Casad, Bettina J; Hale, Patricia; Wachs, Faye L

    2015-01-01

    Two studies examined social determinants of adolescents' math anxiety including parents' own math anxiety and children's endorsement of math-gender stereotypes. In Study 1, parent-child dyads were surveyed and the interaction between parent and child math anxiety was examined, with an eye to same- and other-gender dyads. Results indicate that parent's math anxiety interacts with daughters' and sons' anxiety to predict math self-efficacy, GPA, behavioral intentions, math attitudes, and math devaluing. Parents with lower math anxiety showed a positive relationship to children's math outcomes when children also had lower anxiety. The strongest relationships were found with same-gender dyads, particularly Mother-Daughter dyads. Study 2 showed that endorsement of math-gender stereotypes predicts math anxiety (and not vice versa) for performance beliefs and outcomes (self-efficacy and GPA). Further, math anxiety fully mediated the relationship between gender stereotypes and math self-efficacy for girls and boys, and for boys with GPA. These findings address gaps in the literature on the role of parents' math anxiety in the effects of children's math anxiety and math anxiety as a mechanism affecting performance. Results have implications for interventions on parents' math anxiety and dispelling gender stereotypes in math classrooms.

  8. Impact of Trauma System Preparedness on the Outcomes of Severe Child and Adolescent Injuries.

    PubMed

    Afifi, Raouf

    2015-12-01

    Severe child trauma poses a heavy burden upon the public's health and the nations' economies, in terms of mortality, morbidity, and disability. The burden varies by the maturity level of the adopted trauma system. This work aimed to identify the impact of trauma system maturity upon the outcomes of care of severely injured children. Discharge data for hospitalized trauma children in Florida (mature trauma system) and Indiana (immature trauma system) were retrospectively analyzed. All severely injured children, 1-15 years of age with an injury severity score ≥25 during 1999-2000 were included. Assessment involved the differences in specified treatment procedures, survival rates, hospital length of stay, and the need for post-hospital institutional care. Analysis revealed that Indiana children significantly stay longer in hospital, and that no differences in the rates of patient mortality, discharge home, and selected procedures were found. Trauma system maturity impacts the volume and complexity of interventions, as well as the mortality, morbidity, and disability associated with the severe child and adolescent trauma. The cost of such burden could be directed to improving quality of the state's injury management services.

  9. Intimate partner violence, power, and equity among adolescent parents: relation to child outcomes and parenting.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Crystal; Callands, Tamora A; Magriples, Urania; Divney, Anna; Kershaw, Trace

    2015-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization and perpetration and power imbalances in parenting partners may result in poor outcomes for parents and children. Previous work in this area has focused on the maternal experiences, neglecting to examine paternal effects. The present study aimed to elucidate the role of IPV, power, and equity in parenting and child outcomes in an urban sample of adolescent parents. 159 male and 182 female parents in a relationship were recruited through university-affiliated hospitals. Power, equity, and IPV were measured at 6 months post-partum and were used as predictors for parenting and child outcomes 12 months post-partum using general estimating equations. Gender interactions and mediation effects of depression were also assessed. Higher perceived relationship equity was related to better infant temperament (B = 0.052, SE = 0.023, p = 0.02) whereas higher partner power was related to poorer social development (B = -0.201, SE = 0.088, p = 0.02) and fine motor development (B = -0.195, SE = 0.078, p = 0.01). IPV victimization was associated with poor infant temperament (B = -2.925, SE = 1.083, p = 0.007) and lower parenting competence (B = -3.508, SE = 1.142, p = 0.002). Depression mediated the relationship between IPV and parenting and IPV and infant temperament. No gender effects were found. IPV, inequities, and power imbalances were disadvantageous for parenting and child outcomes. Our results suggest that these dynamics may negatively affect both males and females. Interventions to reduce violence in both partners and promote equity in relationships could benefit couples and their children.

  10. Intimate Partner Violence, Power, and Equity Among Adolescent Parents: Relation to Child Outcomes and Parenting

    PubMed Central

    Callands, Tamora A.; Magriples, Urania; Divney, Anna; Kershaw, Trace

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization and perpetration and power imbalances in parenting partners may result in poor outcomes for parents and children. Previous work in this area has focused on the maternal experiences, neglecting to examine paternal effects. The present study aimed to elucidate the role of IPV, power, and equity in parenting and child outcomes in an urban sample of adolescent parents. 159 male and 182 female parents in a relationship were recruited through university-affiliated hospitals. Power, equity, and IPV were measured at 6 months post-partum and were used as predictors for parenting and child outcomes 12 months post-partum using general estimating equations. Gender interactions and mediation effects of depression were also assessed. Higher perceived relationship equity was related to better infant temperament (B = 0.052, SE = 0.023, p = 0.02) whereas higher partner power was related to poorer social development (B = −0.201, SE = 0.088, p = 0.02) and fine motor development (B = −0.195, SE = 0.078, p = 0.01). IPV victimization was associated with poor infant temperament (B = −2.925, SE = 1.083, p = 0.007) and lower parenting competence (B = −3.508, SE = 1.142, p = 0.002). Depression mediated the relationship between IPV and parenting and IPV and infant temperament. No gender effects were found. IPV, inequities, and power imbalances were disadvantageous for parenting and child outcomes. Our results suggest that these dynamics may negatively affect both males and females. Interventions to reduce violence in both partners and promote equity in relationships could benefit couples and their children. PMID:24781878

  11. [Factors influencing the course and duration of inpatient child and adolescent psychiatric treatment: between empiricism and clinical reality].

    PubMed

    Branik, Emil

    2003-09-01

    In the last two decades considerable changes influenced the scope of inpatient treatment in child and adolescent psychiatry. Proceeding from a literature review dilemmas between available research data and clinical practice will be pointed out. Proposals will be made to take into account the complex developmental processes, the individuality and the social context by psychic impaired children and adolescents requiring hospitalisation. This could improve the transfer of research findings into the clinical practice. It will be argued against a confusion of economical interests with research findings.

  12. Soliciting stakeholders’ views on the organization of child and adolescent mental health services: a system in trouble

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite a high prevalence of mental health problems among children and adolescents Belgium, like many other Western countries, does not have a clear strategy for the organization of child and adolescent mental healthcare services (CAMHS). Methods This paper describes stakeholders’ views on the organization of CAMHS based on a qualitative study. Ten in-depth interviews with high profile stakeholders were complemented by roundtable discussions (n = 30). Results This diagnostic analysis illustrated that the system is in serious trouble characterized by fragmentation and compartmentalization. Conclusion The findings create a sense of urgency that should be used to initiate a system reform of the Belgian CAMHS system. PMID:24359535

  13. A review of the father-child relationship in the development and maintenance of adolescent anorexia and bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Gale, Christopher J; Cluett, Elizabeth R; Laver-Bradbury, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    There are disproportionately fewer studies examining the role of the father in the development of child and adolescent psychopathology. This is pertinent in the field of eating disorders, where there is a wealth of research related to family influences and the value of family-based interventions. This article reviews the key themes within the literature around the potential impact of the father-child relationship on the development and maintenance of Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa in young people. The critical review searched relevant health and social care databases, as well as manually searching key journals in the eating disorder field. In these results, 13 studies met the inclusion/exclusion criteria and were critiqued, with 8 being taken forward for discussion. The 8 studies identified key themes within the relationship of the father and child (particularly daughters) around conflict and communication, parental protection and psychological control, emotional regulation and self-esteem, and self-perfectionism. All of these factors appear to influence the child's level of self-determining autonomy, which in turn can impact maladaptive eating attitudes and psychopathology. Tentative recommendations are made around working with fathers to encourage free expression of ideas and foster a sense of autonomy through compromise and collaboration with their adolescent child. Further research around these themes in relation to other family members is also suggested.

  14. Perceived parental control processes, parent-child relational qualities, and psychological well-being in chinese adolescents with and without economic disadvantage.

    PubMed

    Shek, Daniel T L

    2005-06-01

    The author assessed the relationships between poverty and perceived parenting style, parent-child relationships, and adolescent psychological well-being in Chinese secondary school students (N = 3,017). Participants completed questionnaires designed to assess (a) the degree to which their parents used monitoring, discipline, and other techniques to control their behavior; (b) the extent to which their parents attempted to control them in a way that undermined their psychological development; (c) the parent-child relational qualities, such as the child's readiness to communicate with the parents and perceived mutual trust; and (d) the child's psychological well-being. Although adolescents with economic disadvantage did not differ from adolescents without economic disadvantage on the maternal variables (except on parental knowledge and parental monitoring), adolescents whose families were receiving public assistance generally perceived paternal behavioral control and father-child relational qualities to be more negative than did adolescents who were not receiving public assistance. The author found psychological well-being (shown by hopelessness, mastery, life satisfaction, self-esteem) of adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage to be weaker than that of adolescents not experiencing economic disadvantage. PMID:15906930

  15. Perceived parental control processes, parent-child relational qualities, and psychological well-being in chinese adolescents with and without economic disadvantage.

    PubMed

    Shek, Daniel T L

    2005-06-01

    The author assessed the relationships between poverty and perceived parenting style, parent-child relationships, and adolescent psychological well-being in Chinese secondary school students (N = 3,017). Participants completed questionnaires designed to assess (a) the degree to which their parents used monitoring, discipline, and other techniques to control their behavior; (b) the extent to which their parents attempted to control them in a way that undermined their psychological development; (c) the parent-child relational qualities, such as the child's readiness to communicate with the parents and perceived mutual trust; and (d) the child's psychological well-being. Although adolescents with economic disadvantage did not differ from adolescents without economic disadvantage on the maternal variables (except on parental knowledge and parental monitoring), adolescents whose families were receiving public assistance generally perceived paternal behavioral control and father-child relational qualities to be more negative than did adolescents who were not receiving public assistance. The author found psychological well-being (shown by hopelessness, mastery, life satisfaction, self-esteem) of adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage to be weaker than that of adolescents not experiencing economic disadvantage.

  16. Evidence of a wide spectrum of cardiac involvement due to ACAD9 mutations: Report on nine patients.

    PubMed

    Dewulf, Joseph P; Barrea, Catherine; Vincent, Marie-Françoise; De Laet, Corinne; Van Coster, Rudy; Seneca, Sara; Marie, Sandrine; Nassogne, Marie-Cécile

    2016-07-01

    Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase 9 (ACAD9) is a mitochondrial protein involved in oxidative phosphorylation complex I biogenesis. This protein also exhibits acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACAD) activity. ACAD9-mutated patients have been reported to suffer from primarily heart, muscle, liver, and nervous system disorders. ACAD9 mutation is suspected in cases of elevated lactic acid levels combined with complex I deficiency, and confirmed by ACAD9 gene analysis. At least 18 ACAD9-mutated patients have previously been reported, usually displaying severe cardiac involvement. We retrospectively studied nine additional patients from three unrelated families with a wide spectrum of cardiac involvement between the families as well as the patients from the same families. All patients exhibited elevated lactate levels. Deleterious ACAD9 mutations were identified in all patients except one for whom it was not possible to recover DNA. To our knowledge, this is one of the first reports on isolated mild ventricular hypertrophy due to ACAD9 mutation in a family with moderate symptoms during adolescence. This report also confirms that dilated cardiomyopathy may occur in conjunction with ACAD9 mutation and that some patients may respond clinically to riboflavin treatment. Of note, several patients suffered from patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), with one exhibiting a complex congenital heart defect. It is yet unknown whether these cardiac manifestations were related to ACAD9 mutation. In conclusion, this disorder should be suspected in the presence of lactic acidosis, complex I deficiency, and any cardiac involvement, even mild. PMID:27233227

  17. Evidence of a wide spectrum of cardiac involvement due to ACAD9 mutations: Report on nine patients.

    PubMed

    Dewulf, Joseph P; Barrea, Catherine; Vincent, Marie-Françoise; De Laet, Corinne; Van Coster, Rudy; Seneca, Sara; Marie, Sandrine; Nassogne, Marie-Cécile

    2016-07-01

    Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase 9 (ACAD9) is a mitochondrial protein involved in oxidative phosphorylation complex I biogenesis. This protein also exhibits acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACAD) activity. ACAD9-mutated patients have been reported to suffer from primarily heart, muscle, liver, and nervous system disorders. ACAD9 mutation is suspected in cases of elevated lactic acid levels combined with complex I deficiency, and confirmed by ACAD9 gene analysis. At least 18 ACAD9-mutated patients have previously been reported, usually displaying severe cardiac involvement. We retrospectively studied nine additional patients from three unrelated families with a wide spectrum of cardiac involvement between the families as well as the patients from the same families. All patients exhibited elevated lactate levels. Deleterious ACAD9 mutations were identified in all patients except one for whom it was not possible to recover DNA. To our knowledge, this is one of the first reports on isolated mild ventricular hypertrophy due to ACAD9 mutation in a family with moderate symptoms during adolescence. This report also confirms that dilated cardiomyopathy may occur in conjunction with ACAD9 mutation and that some patients may respond clinically to riboflavin treatment. Of note, several patients suffered from patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), with one exhibiting a complex congenital heart defect. It is yet unknown whether these cardiac manifestations were related to ACAD9 mutation. In conclusion, this disorder should be suspected in the presence of lactic acidosis, complex I deficiency, and any cardiac involvement, even mild.

  18. Examining the developmental history of child maltreatment, peer relations, and externalizing problems among adolescents with symptoms of paranoid personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Natsuaki, Misaki N; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the childhood history of maltreatment, peer relations, and externalizing problems among individuals who manifested low, moderate, or high symptom levels of paranoid personality disorder (PPD) in adolescence. Participants included 174 children who attended a longitudinal summer camp research program between the ages of 9 to 12. Multiple sources of information (self-, peer, and counselor reports) were utilized. Subsequently, they participated in a personality disorder assessment during adolescence (mean age = 15.30). The results indicated that children who manifested higher levels of PPD symptoms in adolescence had higher odds of having a history of child maltreatment. Children who manifested high levels of PPD symptoms in adolescence showed a faster growth rate for peer bullying and externalizing problems in childhood. In addition, their peers rated them as less cooperative, less likely to be leaders, and more likely to initiate fights. These findings suggested that children who manifested elevated PPD symptoms in adolescence had shown early signs of behavioral disturbances in childhood, some of which gradually worsened as they approach adolescence.

  19. The "Test-Tube" Generation: Parent-Child Relationships and the Psychological Well-Being of In Vitro Fertilization Children at Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golombok, Susan; MacCallum, Fiona; Goodman, Emma

    2001-01-01

    Compared parent-child relationships and early adolescent well-being in families with children conceived by in vitro fertilization (IVF), adoptive families, and families with a naturally conceived child. Found that IVF children were functioning well and did not differ from other children in social or emotional adjustment. (Author/KB)

  20. Testing the Cycle of Violence Hypothesis: Child Abuse and Adolescent Dating Violence as Predictors of Intimate Partner Violence in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Anu Manchikanti

    2011-01-01

    Child abuse is an important determinant of future violence perpetration and victimization. Past research examining linkages between child abuse and adult intimate partner violence (IPV) has predominantly focused on married individuals and not considered adolescent dating violence. In the present study, data from three waves of the National…

  1. The Effect of Parent-Child Function on Physical Activity and Television Viewing among Adolescents with and without Special Healthcare Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McManus, Beth M.; Mandic, Carmen Gomez; Carle, Adam C.; Robert, Stephanie A.

    2012-01-01

    Using the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health, the association between parent-child function and physical activity and television viewing was investigated among a national sample of adolescents in the United States. Parent-child function was measured using the National Survey of Children's Health "Family Function" survey items and…

  2. CLINICAL EXPERIENCE OF LONG-TERM TREATMENT WITH ARIPIPRAZOLE (ABILIFY) IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS AT THE CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRIC CLINIC 1 IN ROSKILDE, DENMARK.

    PubMed

    Diomšina, Beata; Rasmussen, Pernille Darling; Danilevičiütė, Vita

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to share the clinical experience of the treatment of aripiprazole (Abilify) in children and adolescents. The authors have done a cross-sectional study about Abilify's treatment in children and adolescents with severe conduct problems (high impulsivity, aggression, outward reaction, physical cross-border behavior), high restlessness with ADHD, psychotic and psychosis-like symptoms with autistic disorders, psychosis, and intensive tics with Tourette's syndrome. The authors studied and described patients at the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinic 1 in Roskilde, Denmark, who were treated with Abilify and were patients of the clinic in June 2013. The target group consisted of 33 patients, aged 9-18 years, which were in Abilify treatment during this time. Indications for the treatment and effectiveness of Abilify, Abilify's common doses used in children and adolescents, and the most common adverse effects of Abilify are presented. Abilify was found to be effective, well tolerated and safe for children and adolescents. The dose depends on the complexity of diagnosis (higher doses used in cases of complex diagnosis), on the age (higher doses used in older children, but only in the case of noncomplex diagnoses). Statistical analysis shows that in cases of complex diagnoses, dosage does not depend on age but depends on other factors. It also shows that the effect of treatment is better for those who did not gain weight.

  3. US Child Labor Violations in the Retail and Service Industries: Findings From a National Survey of Working Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Rauscher, Kimberly J.; Runyan, Carol W.; Schulman, Michael D.; Bowling, J. Michael

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated child labor violations among US adolescents working in the retail and service industries. Methods. We used interview data from a nationally representative sample of working adolescents, and investigated reports of select child labor violations (e.g., hours, equipment, and work permits). We computed weighted percentages of respondents reporting each type of discrete (and aggregated) violation. Results. Nearly 37% of respondents reported a violation of the hazardous occupations orders (i.e., prohibited jobs or use of equipment), and 40% reported a work permit violation. Fewer than 2% reported working more than the maximum weekly hours allowed during the school year, but 11% reported working past the latest hour allowed on a school night, and 15% reported working off the clock. Conclusions. Significant numbers of US adolescents are employed in violation of the child labor laws and as a result are exposed to safety risks. Although our data did not allow for an analysis of enforcement, our findings demonstrate gaps in employer compliance with the law. We suggest that closer attention to enforcement policy and practice is needed. PMID:18633089

  4. Moderation of Harsh Parenting on Genetic and Environmental Contributions to Child and Adolescent Deviant Peer Affiliation: A Longitudinal Twin Study.

    PubMed

    Li, Mengjiao; Chen, Jie; Li, Xinying; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2015-07-01

    Affiliation with deviant peers is associated with biologically influenced personal attributes, and is itself a major contributor to growth in antisocial behavior over childhood and adolescence. Several studies have shown that variance in child and adolescent deviant peer affiliation includes genetic and non-genetic influences, but none have examined longitudinal genetic and environmental stability or change within the context of harsh parenting. To address this gap, we tested the moderating role of harsh parenting on genetic and environmental stability or change of deviant peer affiliation in a longitudinal (spanning one and a half years) study of Chinese child and adolescent twin pairs (N = 993, 52.0% female). Using multiple informants (child- and parent-reports) and measurement methods to minimize rater bias, we found that individual differences in deviant peer affiliation at each assessment were similarly explained by moderate genetic and nonshared environmental variance. The longitudinal stability and change of deviant peer affiliation were explained by genetic and nonshared environmental factors. The results also revealed that the genetic variance for deviant peer affiliation is higher in the families with harsher parenting. This amplified genetic risk underscores the role of harsh parenting in the selection and socialization process of deviant peer relationships.

  5. Child and Adolescent Psychiatrists' Reported Monitoring Behaviors for Second-Generation Antipsychotics

    PubMed Central

    Rodday, Angie Mae; Parsons, Susan K.; Mankiw, Catherine; Correll, Christoph U.; Robb, Adelaide S.; Zima, Bonnie T.; Saunders, Tully S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The number of children and adolescents (hereafter referred to as “children”) who have been prescribed second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) has increased over the last decade, but little is known about monitoring practices in pediatric patients who are vulnerable to adverse effects. We examined factors associated with psychiatrists' self-reported monitoring of children who were prescribed SGAs. Methods: A survey was mailed to a national, randomly selected sample of 1600 child and adolescent psychiatrists from the American Medical Association mailing list. Using logistic regression, we tested whether psychiatrist characteristics, attitudes, and practice characteristics were associated with monitoring (baseline and/or periodic) the following: Patient history, height and weight, blood pressure, waist circumference, lipid and glucose levels, and electrocardiogram. Results: Among the analytic sample of 308, at least two thirds reported monitoring patient history, height and weight, blood pressure, and fasting plasma lipids and glucose; 23% reported monitoring waist circumference; and 12% reported conducting an electrocardiogram. More than one third stated that they routinely monitored thyroid levels and more than half reported monitoring complete blood count and electrolytes/blood urea nitrogen. Psychiatrists reporting that they were able to measure vital signs on site were more likely to measure height and weight. Those who reported feeling comfortable conducting a physical examination were more likely to measure blood pressure. Those answering that the risk of metabolic syndrome was low were less likely to measure blood pressure and waist circumference. Being board certified and able to measure vital signs on site were associated with more monitoring of glucose and lipid levels. Conversely, years in practice and feeling that patients were nonadherent with blood work were associated with less monitoring of glucose and lipid levels. Conclusions

  6. Adolescent girls' infant and young child nutrition knowledge levels and sources differ among rural and urban samples in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hoddinott, John; Karachiwalla, Naureen I; Ledlie, Natasha A; Roy, Shalini

    2016-10-01

    In many low-income countries, girls marry early and have children very soon after marriage. Although conveying infant and young child nutrition (IYCN) knowledge to adolescent girls in time is important to ensure the well-being of their children, little is known about the best ways to convey these messages. This study examines the extent of, and sources from which adolescent girls derive IYCN knowledge in order to inform the design of programmes that convey such information. Data on adolescent girls aged 12-18 was collected in 2013 in 140 clusters of villages in rural areas (n = 436), and 70 clusters of slums in urban areas (n = 345) in Bangladesh. Data were analysed using multivariable Poisson regression models. In both the urban and rural samples, girls' schooling is positively and significantly associated with IYCN knowledge (P < 0.01 and P < 0.10, respectively). IYCN knowledge of adolescent girls' mothers is also associated with adolescents' IYCN knowledge in both urban and rural samples, but the magnitude of association in the urban sample is only half that of the rural sample (P < 0.01 and P < 0.10, respectively). In Bangladesh, efforts to improve knowledge regarding IYCN are typically focused on mothers of young children. Only some of this knowledge is passed onto adolescent girls living in the same household. As other messaging efforts directed towards mothers have only small, or no association with adolescent girls' knowledge of IYCN, improving adolescent girls' IYCN knowledge may require information and messaging specifically directed towards them. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Adolescent girls' infant and young child nutrition knowledge levels and sources differ among rural and urban samples in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hoddinott, John; Karachiwalla, Naureen I; Ledlie, Natasha A; Roy, Shalini

    2016-10-01

    In many low-income countries, girls marry early and have children very soon after marriage. Although conveying infant and young child nutrition (IYCN) knowledge to adolescent girls in time is important to ensure the well-being of their children, little is known about the best ways to convey these messages. This study examines the extent of, and sources from which adolescent girls derive IYCN knowledge in order to inform the design of programmes that convey such information. Data on adolescent girls aged 12-18 was collected in 2013 in 140 clusters of villages in rural areas (n = 436), and 70 clusters of slums in urban areas (n = 345) in Bangladesh. Data were analysed using multivariable Poisson regression models. In both the urban and rural samples, girls' schooling is positively and significantly associated with IYCN knowledge (P < 0.01 and P < 0.10, respectively). IYCN knowledge of adolescent girls' mothers is also associated with adolescents' IYCN knowledge in both urban and rural samples, but the magnitude of association in the urban sample is only half that of the rural sample (P < 0.01 and P < 0.10, respectively). In Bangladesh, efforts to improve knowledge regarding IYCN are typically focused on mothers of young children. Only some of this knowledge is passed onto adolescent girls living in the same household. As other messaging efforts directed towards mothers have only small, or no association with adolescent girls' knowledge of IYCN, improving adolescent girls' IYCN knowledge may require information and messaging specifically directed towards them. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:27515279

  8. Parent-Adolescent Child Concordance in Social Norms related to Gender Equity in Marriage- Findings from Rural India

    PubMed Central

    Raj, Anita; Ghule, Mohan; Battala, Madhusudana; Dasgupta, Anindita; Ritter, Julie; Nair, Saritha; Saggurti, Niranjan; Silverman, Jay; Balaiah, Donta

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to assess parent-adolescent child concordance on social norms related to gender equity in marriage in rural Maharashtra, India. Survey data on marital norms related to girl’s marital age and choice, contraception, and marital violence (MV) were collected from unmarried adolescents (n=113 girls, 116 boys) and their parents (n=227 mothers, 203 fathers). Concordance was assessed using a Cohen’s unweighted Kappa statistic, with analyses stratified by sex of parent and child. Analyses revealed fair (K=.25-.27) mother-daughter concordance on girls’ right to choose when to marry, contraception use, and acceptability of MV. Father-son concordance was seen on girls’ right to choose when (K=.22, slight) and who (K=.20, fair) to marry and MV acceptability (K=.53, moderate). No opposite sex parent-child concordance was revealed. Results indicate same but not opposite sex parent-child concordance on gender equity social norms related to marriage, suggesting same sex transfer of these norms. PMID:25173179

  9. Brief report: parent-adolescent child concordance in social norms related to gender equity in marriage - findings from rural India.

    PubMed

    Raj, Anita; Ghule, Mohan; Battala, Madhusudana; Dasgupta, Anindita; Ritter, Julie; Nair, Saritha; Saggurti, Niranjan; Silverman, Jay G; Balaiah, Donta

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to assess parent-adolescent child concordance on social norms related to gender equity in marriage in rural Maharashtra, India. Survey data on marital norms related to girl's marital age and choice, contraception, and marital violence (MV) were collected from unmarried adolescents (n = 113 girls, 116 boys) and their parents (n = 227 mothers, 203 fathers). Concordance was assessed using a Cohen's unweighted Kappa statistic, with analyses stratified by sex of parent and child. Analyses revealed fair (K = .25-.27) mother-daughter concordance on girls' right to choose when to marry, contraception use, and acceptability of MV. Father-son concordance was seen on girls' right to choose when (K = .22, slight) and who (K = .20, fair) to marry and MV acceptability (K = .53, moderate). No opposite sex parent-child concordance was revealed. Results indicate same but not opposite sex parent-child concordance on gender equity social norms related to marriage, suggesting same sex transfer of these norms.

  10. Perpetration, revictimization, and self-injury: traumatic reenactments of child sexual abuse in a nonclinical sample of South African adolescents.

    PubMed

    Penning, Susan L; Collings, Steven J

    2014-01-01

    Risk factors for traumatic reenactments of child sexual abuse experiences (perpetration, revictimization, and self-injury) were examined in a sample of 718 South African secondary school adolescents. Logistic regression analyses indicated that the most consistent predictors of reenactments were a history of child sexual abuse (rape and/or indecent assault) and respondents' gender, with males being significantly more likely than females to report perpetration (OR = 13.5) and females being more likely to report revictimization (OR = 3.2) and self-injury (OR = 2.5). An analysis restricted to respondents with a history of child sexual abuse indicated that negative abuse-related cognitions were the most consistent predictor of all forms of traumatic reenactment.

  11. Characteristics of Mother-Child Interactions Related to Adolescents' Positive Values and Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine a theoretical model that considered accurate perception and acceptance of maternal values in relation to adolescents' positive values and behaviors. One hundred fifty-one mother-adolescent dyads completed measures targeting adolescent and maternal perceptions of prosocial values and adolescent behaviors (M…

  12. Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS): rationale, design, and methods

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objective To present the design, methods, and rationale of the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS), a recently completed federally-funded, multi-site, randomized placebo-controlled trial that examined the relative efficacy of cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT), sertraline (SRT), and their combination (COMB) against pill placebo (PBO) for the treatment of separation anxiety disorder (SAD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and social phobia (SoP) in children and adolescents. Methods Following a brief review of the acute outcomes of the CAMS trial, as well as the psychosocial and pharmacologic treatment literature for pediatric anxiety disorders, the design and methods of the CAMS trial are described. Results CAMS was a six-year, six-site, randomized controlled trial. Four hundred eighty-eight (N = 488) children and adolescents (ages 7-17 years) with DSM-IV-TR diagnoses of SAD, GAD, or SoP were randomly assigned to one of four treatment conditions: CBT, SRT, COMB, or PBO. Assessments of anxiety symptoms, safety, and functional outcomes, as well as putative mediators and moderators of treatment response were completed in a multi-measure, multi-informant fashion. Manual-based therapies, trained clinicians and independent evaluators were used to ensure treatment and assessment fidelity. A multi-layered administrative structure with representation from all sites facilitated cross-site coordination of the entire trial, study protocols and quality assurance. Conclusions CAMS offers a model for clinical trials methods applicable to psychosocial and psychopharmacological comparative treatment trials by using state-of-the-art methods and rigorous cross-site quality controls. CAMS also provided a large-scale examination of the relative and combined efficacy and safety of the best evidenced-based psychosocial (CBT) and pharmacologic (SSRI) treatments to date for the most commonly occurring pediatric anxiety disorders. Primary and secondary results of CAMS will hold

  13. Family Structure, Mother-Child Communication, Father-Child Communication, and Adolescent Life Satisfaction: A Cross-Sectional Multilevel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Kate A.; Currie, Candace

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the association between mother-child and father-child communication and children's life satisfaction, and the moderating effect of communication with stepparents. Design/methodology/approach: Data from the 2006 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children: WHO-collaborative Study in Scotland…

  14. Traumatic brain injury in the neonate, child and adolescent human: an overview of pathology.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, William L

    2012-05-01

    In the middle of the last century it had been thought that a good recovery of function and behavior would occur after traumatic brain injury (TBI) in very young human beings. A recent major change in thinking states that early childhood TBI may result in a severe compromise of normal brain growth and development such that TBI, rather, may compromise later normal development resulting in a need for very long term patient care and management. The mechanisms of injury and pathology within the injured brain are reviewed and compared between when injury occurs at or close to the time of birth, in an infant, in a young child, in a child between ages 5 and 10, in young and older adolescents and in young adulthood. Our understanding of pathophysiological responses by cells of the human central nervous system has recently greatly increased but has really only served to illustrate the great complexity of interactions between different types of cell within the growing and developing CNS. The hypothesis is developed that the outcome for a very young patient differs with the relative state of development of injured cells at the locus of injury. And that the potential for either repair, re-instatement of normal cellular and organ function or for continued normal development is much reduced after an early brain insult (EBI) compared with TBI in a slightly older child or young adult patient. The advent of increasingly sophisticated non-invasive imaging technology has allowed assessment of the influence and time course of brain pathology both early and late after TBI. This has generated greater confidence on the part of clinicians in forecasting outcomes for an injured patient. But our increased understanding has still not allowed development of therapeutic strategies that might ameliorate the effect of an injury. It is suggested that an improved integration of major clinical and scientific effort needs to be made to appreciate the import of multiple interactions between cells

  15. Opportunities on the Internet for child and adolescent psychopharmacologists: net access and mailing lists.

    PubMed

    Giedd, J N; Allen, A J; Behr, R

    1996-01-01

    The Internet, a system linking computers around the world, provides clinical and research psychopharmacologists with a convenient and efficient way to exchange information and offers a growing number of services to facilitate patient care. These opportunities are not theoretical, not in the future, and not for a select few. Many patients are already benefitting from practitioners who have sought guidance for their clinical work on the Internet. This article describes, for the novice user, how to begin the Internet journey. It also discusses psychopharmacology-related mailing lists, including a site that specializes in child and adolescent psychopharmacology. Subsequent articles will (1) show how to use Medlines to conduct literature searches and retrieve abstracts and articles from the computer screen, (2) describe ways to enter and traverse the World Wide Web (the "multimedia" portion of Internet), and (3) survey the use of "Web browsers" to find specialized psychopharmacology resources and databases, electronic journals, pertinent bulletin boards, and support services for patients and families-all with an emphasis on direct benefits to the practicing psychopharmacologist. PMID:9231307

  16. The effect of long-term relocation on child and adolescent survivors of Hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed

    Hansel, Tonya C; Osofsky, Joy D; Osofsky, Howard J; Friedrich, Patricia

    2013-10-01

    The current study is designed to increase knowledge of the effects of relocation and its association with longer-term psychological symptoms following disaster. Following clinical observations and in discussions held with school officials expressing concerns about relocated students, it was hypothesized that students who relocated to a different city following Hurricane Katrina in 2005 would have more symptoms of posttraumatic stress compared to students who returned to New Orleans. The effect of Hurricane Katrina relocation was assessed on a sample of child and adolescent survivors in 5th through 12th grades (N = 795). Students with Orleans Parish zip codes prior to Hurricane Katrina were categorized into relocation groupings: (a) relocated to Baton Rouge, (b) returned to prior zip code, and (c) moved to a different zip code within Orleans Parish. Overall results revealed more trauma symptoms for relocated students. Results also revealed that younger relocated students had fewer symptoms compared to older students. The opposite was found for students who returned to their same zip code, with older students having fewer symptoms. This study supports the need for school-based services not only in disaster areas, but also in schools where survivors tend to migrate.

  17. The effect of long-term relocation on child and adolescent survivors of Hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed

    Hansel, Tonya C; Osofsky, Joy D; Osofsky, Howard J; Friedrich, Patricia

    2013-10-01

    The current study is designed to increase knowledge of the effects of relocation and its association with longer-term psychological symptoms following disaster. Following clinical observations and in discussions held with school officials expressing concerns about relocated students, it was hypothesized that students who relocated to a different city following Hurricane Katrina in 2005 would have more symptoms of posttraumatic stress compared to students who returned to New Orleans. The effect of Hurricane Katrina relocation was assessed on a sample of child and adolescent survivors in 5th through 12th grades (N = 795). Students with Orleans Parish zip codes prior to Hurricane Katrina were categorized into relocation groupings: (a) relocated to Baton Rouge, (b) returned to prior zip code, and (c) moved to a different zip code within Orleans Parish. Overall results revealed more trauma symptoms for relocated students. Results also revealed that younger relocated students had fewer symptoms compared to older students. The opposite was found for students who returned to their same zip code, with older students having fewer symptoms. This study supports the need for school-based services not only in disaster areas, but also in schools where survivors tend to migrate. PMID:24115291

  18. When is Sessional Monitoring More Likely in Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services?

    PubMed

    Edbrooke-Childs, J H; Gondek, D; Deighton, J; Fonagy, P; Wolpert, M

    2016-05-01

    Sessional monitoring of patient progress or experience of therapy is an evidence-based intervention recommended by healthcare systems internationally. It is being rolled out across child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) in England to inform clinical practice and service evaluation. We explored whether patient demographic and case characteristics were associated with the likelihood of using sessional monitoring. Multilevel regressions were conducted on N = 2609 youths from a routinely collected dataset from 10 CAMHS. Girls (odds ratio, OR 1.26), older youths (OR 1.10), White youths (OR 1.35), and youths presenting with mood (OR 1.46) or anxiety problems (OR 1.59) were more likely to have sessional monitoring. In contrast, youths under state care (OR 0.20) or in need of social service input (OR 0.39) were less likely to have sessional monitoring. Findings of the present research may suggest that sessional monitoring is more likely with common problems such as mood and anxiety problems but less likely with more complex cases, such as those involving youths under state care or those in need of social service input.

  19. Optimal care of the infant, child, and adolescent on dialysis: 2014 update.

    PubMed

    Warady, Bradley A; Neu, Alicia M; Schaefer, Franz

    2014-07-01

    Providing optimal care to the infant, child, and adolescent patient who is treated with long-term dialysis therapy mandates that attention be directed to a variety of clinical issues in addition to those related to solute removal and fluid management. Therapeutic plans must be formulated by a multidisciplinary team of pediatric specialists to address the clinical parameters of growth, anemia and osteodystrophy management, cardiovascular health, nutritional adequacy, education, cognitive development, quality of life, preparation for transplantation, and transition to adult care. This review highlights key components of current management recommendations based on a combination of published guidelines, pediatric registry data, and the combined clinical experience of the authors. Whereas some components of this review reflect a modification of the content and recommendations contained in the original publication from more than a decade ago, the contrast emphasizes the advances in understanding and therapeutics of many aspects of pediatric dialysis care that have taken place in the interim. In turn, the content of this article should provide the reader with valuable guidance toward the goal of providing optimal care to patients receiving dialysis. PMID:24717681

  20. Impact of hospital delivery on child mortality: An analysis of adolescent mothers in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Pal, Sarmistha

    2015-10-01

    New medical inventions for saving young lives are not enough if these do not reach the children and the mother. The present paper provides new evidence that institutional delivery can significantly lower child mortality risks, because it ensures effective and timely access to modern diagnostics and medical treatments to save lives. We exploit the exogenous variation in community's access to local health facilities (both traditional and modern) before and after the completion of the 'Women's Health Project' in 2005 (that enhanced emergency obstetric care in women friendly environment) to identify the causal effect of hospital delivery on various mortality rates among children. Our best estimates come from the parents fixed effects models that help limiting any parents-level omitted variable estimation bias. Using 2007 Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey data from about 6000 children born during 2002-2007, we show that, ceteris paribus, access to family welfare clinic particularly boosted hospital delivery likelihood, which in turn lowered neo-natal, early and infant mortality rates. The beneficial effect was particularly pronouncedamong adolescent mothers after the completion of Women's Health Project in 2005; infant mortality for this cohort was more than halved when delivery took place in a health facility.

  1. Marital Problems, Maternal Gatekeeping Attitudes, and Father-Child Relationships in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Matthew M.; Fabricius, William V.; Cookston, Jeffrey T.; Parke, Ross D.; Coltrane, Scott; Braver, Sanford L.; Saenz, Delia S.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated maternal gatekeeping attitudes as a mediator of the relation between marital problems and father-child relationships in three waves when children were in 7th through 10th grade. We assessed each parent’s contribution to the marital problems experienced by the couple. Findings from mediational and cross-lagged structural equation models revealed that increased marital problem behaviors on the part of mothers at wave 1 predicted increased maternal gatekeeping attitudes at wave 2 which in turn predicted decreased amounts of father-adolescent interaction at wave 3. Decreased amounts of interaction with either parent were associated within each wave with adolescents’ perceptions that they mattered less to that parent. Amount of interaction with fathers at wave 2 positively predicted changes in boys’ perceptions of how much they mattered to their fathers at wave 3, and amount of interaction with mothers at wave 2 positively predicted changes in girls’ perceptions of how much they mattered to their mothers at wave 3. The findings did not differ for European-American versus Mexican-American families, or for biological fathers versus step-fathers. PMID:24364832

  2. Association of child maltreatment and psychiatric diagnosis in Brazilian children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Scomparini, Luciana Burim; dos Santos, Bernardo; Rosenheck, Robert Alan; Scivoletto, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between different types of child maltreatment and the presence of psychiatric disorders in highly vulnerable children and adolescents served by a multidisciplinary program. METHODS: In total, 351 patients with a mean age of 12.47, of whom 68.7% were male and 82.1% lived in shelters, underwent psychiatric evaluations based on the Kiddie-Sads-Present and Lifetime Version. Two different methods were used to evaluate maltreatment: medical records were reviewed to identify previous diagnoses related to socioeconomic and psychosocial circumstances, and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire was used to obtain a structured history of trauma. Bivariate associations were evaluated between psychiatric disorders and evidence of each type and the frequency of abuse. RESULTS: The most frequent psychiatric diagnoses were substance use disorders, affective disorders and specific disorders of early childhood, whereas 13.67% of the sample had no psychiatric diagnosis. All patients suffered neglect, and 58.4% experienced physical or sexual abuse. The presence of a history of multiple traumas was only associated with a diagnosis of substance use disorder. Mental retardation showed a strong positive association with reported physical abuse and emotional neglect. However, a negative correlation was found when we analyzed the presence of a history of multiple traumas and mental retardation. CONCLUSION: All children living in adverse conditions deserve careful assistance, but we found that physical abuse and emotional neglect were most strongly associated with mental retardation and multiple traumas with substance abuse. PMID:24037004

  3. Impact of hospital delivery on child mortality: An analysis of adolescent mothers in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Pal, Sarmistha

    2015-10-01

    New medical inventions for saving young lives are not enough if these do not reach the children and the mother. The present paper provides new evidence that institutional delivery can significantly lower child mortality risks, because it ensures effective and timely access to modern diagnostics and medical treatments to save lives. We exploit the exogenous variation in community's access to local health facilities (both traditional and modern) before and after the completion of the 'Women's Health Project' in 2005 (that enhanced emergency obstetric care in women friendly environment) to identify the causal effect of hospital delivery on various mortality rates among children. Our best estimates come from the parents fixed effects models that help limiting any parents-level omitted variable estimation bias. Using 2007 Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey data from about 6000 children born during 2002-2007, we show that, ceteris paribus, access to family welfare clinic particularly boosted hospital delivery likelihood, which in turn lowered neo-natal, early and infant mortality rates. The beneficial effect was particularly pronouncedamong adolescent mothers after the completion of Women's Health Project in 2005; infant mortality for this cohort was more than halved when delivery took place in a health facility. PMID:26363451

  4. Childhood Anxiety Trajectories and Adolescent Disordered Eating: Findings from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development

    PubMed Central

    Zerwas, Stephanie; Von Holle, Ann; Watson, Hunna; Gottfredson, Nisha; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The goal of the present paper was to examine whether childhood anxiety trajectories predict eating psychopathology. We predicted that girls with trajectories of increasing anxiety across childhood would have significantly greater risk of disordered eating in adolescence in comparison to girls with stable or decreasing trajectories of anxiety over childhood. Method Data were collected as part of the prospective longitudinal NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N=450 girls). Childhood anxiety was assessed yearly (54 months through 6th grade) via maternal report on the Child Behavior Checklist. Disordered eating behaviors were assessed at age 15 via adolescent self-report on the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26). We conducted latent growth mixture modeling to define girls’ childhood anxiety trajectories. Maternal sensitivity, maternal postpartum depression, maternal anxiety, and child temperament were included as predictors of trajectory membership. Results The best fitting model included three trajectories of childhood anxiety, the low-decreasing class (22.9% of girls), the high-increasing class (35.4%), and the high-decreasing class (41.6%). Mothers with more symptoms of depression and separation anxiety had girls who were significantly more likely to belong to the high-increasing anxiety trajectory. There were no significant differences in adolescent disordered eating for girls across the three childhood anxiety trajectories. Conclusions Childhood anxiety, as captured by maternal report, may not be the most robust predictor of adolescent disordered eating and may be of limited utility for prevention programs that aim to identify children in the community at greatest risk for disordered eating. PMID:24938214

  5. Domestic violence and immigration status among Latina mothers in the child welfare system: findings from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being II (NSCAW II).

    PubMed

    Ogbonnaya, Ijeoma Nwabuzor; Finno-Velasquez, Megan; Kohl, Patricia L

    2015-01-01

    Many children involved with the child welfare system witness parental domestic violence. The association between children's domestic violence exposure and child welfare involvement may be influenced by certain socio-cultural factors; however, minimal research has examined this relationship. The current study compares domestic violence experiences and case outcomes among Latinas who are legal immigrants (n=39), unauthorized immigrants (n=77), naturalized citizens (n=30), and US-born citizen mothers (n=383) reported for child maltreatment. This analysis used data from the second round of the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being. Mothers were asked about whether they experienced domestic violence during the past year. In addition, data were collected to assess if (a) domestic violence was the primary abuse type reported and, if so, (b) the maltreatment allegation was substantiated. Results show that naturalized citizens, legal residents, and unauthorized immigrants did not differ from US-born citizens in self-reports of domestic violence; approximately 33% of mothers reported experiences of domestic violence within the past year. Yet, unauthorized immigrants were 3.76 times more likely than US-born citizens to have cases with allegations of domestic violence as the primary abuse type. Despite higher rates of alleged domestic violence, unauthorized citizens were not more likely than US-born citizens to have these cases substantiated for domestic violence (F(2.26, 153.99)=0.709, p=.510). Findings highlight that domestic violence is not accurately accounted for in families with unauthorized immigrant mothers. We recommend child welfare workers are trained to properly assess and fulfill the needs of immigrant families, particularly as it relates to domestic violence.

  6. Adolescent Thinking: Self-Concept, Relationships and Punk. Unit for Child Studies. Selected Papers Number 28.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Shelley

    Beginning with the principle that self-concept and self-esteem are learned, this paper describes the adolescent self and its social concomitants. The depiction of adolescence emphasizes adolescents' ability to think abstractly and their knowledge of the mind's ability to process, direct, and manipulate experience. In contrast with the "radical…

  7. Engagement in Risky Sexual Behavior: Adolescents' Perceptions of Self and the Parent-Child Relationship Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerpelman, Jennifer L.; McElwain, Alyssa D.; Pittman, Joe F.; Adler-Baeder, Francesca M.

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined associations among parenting practices, adolescents' self-esteem and dating identity exploration, and adolescents' sexual behaviors. Participants were 680 African American and European American sexually experienced adolescents attending public high schools in the southeast. Results indicated that risky sexual behavior…

  8. Is Parenting Child's Play? Kids Count in Missouri Report on Adolescent Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citizens for Missouri's Children, St. Louis.

    This Kids Count report presents current information on adolescent pregnancy rates in Missouri. Part 1, "Overview of Adolescent Pregnancy in Missouri," discusses the changing pregnancy, abortion, and birth rates for 15- to 19-year-old adolescents, racial differences in pregnancy risk, regional differences suggesting a link between pregnancy and…

  9. The Relation Between Child Maltreatment and Adolescent Suicidal Behavior: A Systematic Review and Critical Examination of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Weismoore, Julie T.; Renshaw, Keith D.

    2013-01-01

    A large body of research suggests that child maltreatment (CM) is associated with adolescent suicidal ideation and attempts. These studies, however, have not been critically examined and summarized in a manner that allows us to draw firm conclusions and make recommendations for future research and clinical work in this area. In this review, we evaluated all of the research literature to date examining the relationship between CM and adolescent suicidal ideation and attempts. Results generally suggest that childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect are associated with adolescent suicidal ideation and attempts across community, clinical, and high-risk samples, using cross-sectional and longitudinal research designs. In most studies, these associations remain significant when controlling for covariates such as youth demographics, mental health, family, and peer-related variables. When different forms of CM are examined in the same multivariate analysis, most research suggests that each form of CM maintains an independent association with adolescent suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. However, a subset of studies yielded evidence to suggest that sexual abuse and emotional abuse may be relatively more important in explaining suicidal behavior than physical abuse or neglect. Research also suggests an additive effect—each form of CM contributes unique variance to adolescent suicide attempts. We discuss the current limitations of this literature and offer recommendations for future research. We conclude with an overview of the clinical implications of this research, including careful, detailed screening of CM history, past suicidal behavior, and current suicidal ideation, as well as the need for integrated treatment approaches that effectively address both CM and adolescent suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. PMID:23568617

  10. The relation between child maltreatment and adolescent suicidal behavior: a systematic review and critical examination of the literature.

    PubMed

    Miller, Adam B; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Weismoore, Julie T; Renshaw, Keith D

    2013-06-01

    A large body of research suggests that child maltreatment (CM) is associated with adolescent suicidal ideation and attempts. These studies, however, have not been critically examined and summarized in a manner that allows us to draw firm conclusions and make recommendations for future research and clinical work in this area. In this review, we evaluated all of the research literature to date examining the relationship between CM and adolescent suicidal ideation and attempts. Results generally suggest that childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect are associated with adolescent suicidal ideation and attempts across community, clinical, and high-risk samples, using cross-sectional and longitudinal research designs. In most studies, these associations remain significant when controlling for covariates such as youth demographics, mental health, family, and peer-related variables. When different forms of CM are examined in the same multivariate analysis, most research suggests that each form of CM maintains an independent association with adolescent suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. However, a subset of studies yielded evidence to suggest that sexual abuse and emotional abuse may be relatively more important in explaining suicidal behavior than physical abuse or neglect. Research also suggests an additive effect-each form of CM contributes unique variance to adolescent suicide attempts. We discuss the current limitations of this literature and offer recommendations for future research. We conclude with an overview of the clinical implications of this research, including careful, detailed screening of CM history, past suicidal behavior, and current suicidal ideation, as well as the need for integrated treatment approaches that effectively address both CM and adolescent suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. PMID:23568617

  11. Comparing Parent-Child and Teacher-Child Relationships in Early Adolescence: Measurement Invariance of Perceived Attachment-Related Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Laet, Steven; Colpin, Hilde; Goossens, Luc; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Verschueren, Karine

    2014-01-01

    Through an examination of measurement invariance, this study investigated whether attachment-related dimensions (i.e., secure base, safe haven, and negative interactions as measured with the Network of Relationships Inventory-Behavioral Systems Version) have the same psychological meaning for early adolescents in their relationships with parents…

  12. Treatment of Child/Adolescent Obesity Using the Addiction Model: A Smartphone App Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Stock, Carol M.; Allison, Stephen; Roeger, Leigh

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: The aim of this study was to test a weight loss program for young people based on an addiction treatment approach. Methods: A pilot study (n=43) was conducted of a 20-week child/adolescent obesity intervention based on an addiction treatment model (staged, incremental withdrawal from problem foods, snacking/grazing, and excessive amounts at meals) and implemented by a server-integrated smartphone app with health professional support. The primary outcome was standardized %overBMI measured at four time points. Secondary outcomes were participants' self-ratings of self-esteem, control over food, and the degree they turned to food when stressed. User satisfaction data were collected with an online questionnaire. Latent growth modeling techniques were used to identify independent variables and possible mediating treatment process variables associated with weight change. Results: Mean age of participants was 16 years (range, 10–21), 65% girls, and 84% Caucasian. Twenty-seven (63%) completed the program. There was a significant decrease in %overBMI over time of 7.1. There were significant improvements in participant ratings of self-esteem, control over food, and a reduction in turning to food when stressed. Males, younger participants, and participants with higher levels of program compliance achieved better weight loss. Participants who reported that calling obesity an addiction made their guilt worse experienced poorer weight loss. Females were more likely than males to report “addiction guilt,” and this partly mediated the overall gender effect. Conclusions: The staged, incremental food withdrawal approach was feasible to implement and was useful in helping reduce excessive weight, particularly among boys. PMID:25760813

  13. The role of the mother-child relationship for anxiety disorders and depression: results from a prospective-longitudinal study in adolescents and their mothers.

    PubMed

    Asselmann, Eva; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Lieb, Roselind; Beesdo-Baum, Katja

    2015-04-01

    This study aims to examine whether (a) low child valence (emotional connectedness) within the mother-child relationship increases the risk for offspring depression, (b) low child potency (individual autonomy) increases the risk for offspring anxiety, and (c) maternal psychopathology pronounces these associations. We used data from a prospective-longitudinal study of adolescents (aged 14-17 at baseline) and their mothers (N = 1,015 mother-child dyads). Anxiety disorders and depression were assessed repeatedly over 10 years in adolescents (T0, T1, T2, T3) and their mothers (T1, T3) using the DSM-IV/M-CIDI. Valence and potency were assessed in mothers (T1) with the Subjective Family Image Questionnaire. Odds ratios (OR) from logistic regression were used to estimate associations between low child valence/potency and offspring psychopathology (cumulated lifetime incidences; adjusted for sex and age). In separate models (low valence or low potency as predictor), low child valence predicted offspring depression only (OR = 1.26 per SD), while low child potency predicted offspring anxiety (OR = 1.24) and depression (OR = 1.24). In multiple models (low valence and low potency as predictors), low child valence predicted offspring depression only (OR = 1.19), while low child potency predicted offspring anxiety only (OR = 1.22). Low child potency interacted with maternal anxiety on predicting offspring depression (OR = 1.49), i.e. low child potency predicted offspring depression only in the presence of maternal anxiety (OR = 1.33). These findings suggest that low child valence increases the risk for offspring depression, while low child potency increases the risk for offspring anxiety and depression and interacts with maternal psychopathology on predicting offspring depression.

  14. Parent-child relationship quality moderates the link between marital conflict and adolescents' physiological responses to social evaluative threat.

    PubMed

    Lucas-Thompson, Rachel G; Granger, Douglas A

    2014-08-01

    This study examined how marital conflict and parent-child relationship quality moderate individual differences in adolescents' adrenocortical and autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses to social evaluative threat. Saliva samples (later assayed for cortisol and alpha-amylase, sAA) were collected from 153 youth (52% female; ages 10-17 years) before and after, and cardiovascular activity was assessed before and during, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Marital conflict predicted higher levels of sAA reactivity but lower levels of heart rate (HR) reactivity. Parent-child relationship quality moderated these associations, such that marital conflict was more strongly related to heightened sAA and dampened SBP reactivity if youth had low-quality relationships with their parents. The findings suggest a "dual-hazard" pathway with implications for biosocial models of the family, as well as theories of the social determinants of biological sensitivity/susceptibility to context.

  15. "Why are you here?" Seeking children's accounts of their presentation to Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service (CAMHS).

    PubMed

    Stafford, Victoria; Hutchby, Ian; Karim, Khalid; O'Reilly, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    The area of child mental health has a developing evidence base, with much of this focused on outcomes and a growing recognition for the value of process research. Despite this growth, however, there has still been little work conducted on first assessments in spite of their importance in establishing therapeutic rapport and engagement with services. We explore naturally occurring first assessments in a Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service (CAMHS) to explore the beliefs that children hold regarding their reasons for attendance and the implications this has for the trajectory of the appointment and later engagement with interventions. It was found that when children were asked for their reasons they either offered explanations using diagnostic labels or used lay descriptions, or they claimed to not know the reasons for attending the assessment. This has broader implications regarding the nature and type of information children may require in preparing them for service visits.

  16. Does Interpersonal Psychotherapy improve clinical care for adolescents with depression attending a rural child and adolescent mental health service? Study protocol for a cluster randomised feasibility trial

    PubMed Central

    Bearsley-Smith, Cate; Browne, Mark Oakley; Sellick, Ken; Villanueva, Elmer V; Chesters, Janice; Francis, Karen; Reddy, Prasuna

    2007-01-01

    Background Depression amongst adolescents is a costly societal problem. Little research documents the effectiveness of public mental health services in mapping this problem. Further, it is not clear whether usual care in such services can be improved via clinician training in a relevant evidence based intervention. One such intervention, found to be effective and easily learned amongst novice clinicians, is Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT). The study described in the current paper has two main objectives. First, it aims to investigate the impact on clinical care of implementing Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Adolescents for the treatment of adolescent depression within a rural mental health service compared with Treatment as Usual (TAU). The second objective is to record the process and challenges (i.e. feasibility, acceptability, sustainability) associated with implementing and evaluating an evidence-based intervention within a community service. This paper outlines the study rationale and design for this community based research trial. Methods/design The study involves a cluster randomisation trial to be conducted within a Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service in rural Australia. All clinicians in the service will be invited to participate. Participating clinicians will be randomised via block design at each of four sites to (a) training and delivery of IPT, or (b) TAU. The primary measure of impact on care will be a clinically significant change in depressive symptomatology, with secondary outcomes involving treatment satisfaction and changes in other symptomatology. Participating adolescents with significant depressive symptomatology, aged 12 to 18 years, will complete assessment measures at Weeks 0, 12 and 24 of treatment. They will also complete a depression inventory once a month during that period. This study aims to recruit 60 adolescent participants and their parent/guardian/s. A power analysis is not indicated as an intra-class correlation

  17. [Gender identity disorder and related sexual behavior problems in children and adolescents: from the perspective of development and child psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    The present paper reviews the theoretical and empirical literature on children and adolescents with gender identity disorder. The organizational framework underlying this review is one that presents gender behavior in children and adolescents as a continuum rather than as a dichotomy of normal versus abnormal categories. Theories of normative gender development, prevalence, assessment, developmental trajectories, and comorbidity were investigated. There is a greater fluidity and likelihood of change in the pre-pubertal period. It was reported that the majority of affected children had been eventually developing a homosexual orientation. As an approach to determine the prevalence of GID in clinical samples in our child psychiatry clinic, screening instruments that include items on cross-gender or cross-sex identification were used. We applied the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Of the 113 items in the Japanese version of the CBCL, there are two measures of cross-gender identification: "behaves like opposite sex" and "wishes to be opposite sex." Like the other items, they are scored on a 3-point scale of: 0-not true, 1- somewhat true, and 2-very true. Our study of 323 clinically-referred children aged 4-15 years reported that, among the boys, 9.6% assigned a score of 1 (somewhat true) or a score of 2 (very true) to the two items. The corresponding rates for the clinically-referred girls were 24.5%. The item of diagnosis of GID in our clinical sample was significantly higher than in non-referred children, reported as 2-5% using the same method. Two clinical case histories of screened children are also presented. Both of them were diagnosed with PDDNOS. Together with the literature review, most of the gender-related symptoms in autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) could be related to the behavioral and psychological characteristics of autism as shown in case histories. ASD subjects in adolescence can sometimes develop a unique confusion of identity that occasionally

  18. Parent-Child Shared Time from Middle Childhood to Late Adolescence: Developmental Course and Adjustment Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Chun Bun; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.

    2012-01-01

    The development and adjustment correlates of parent-child social (parent, child, and others present) and dyadic time (only parent and child present) from age 8 to 18 were examined. Mothers, fathers, and firstborns and secondborns from 188 White families participated in both home and nightly phone interviews. Social time declined across…

  19. Clinical Commentary by Dorothy Judd, Child and Adolescent and Couple Psychotherapist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judd, Dorothy

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the author's observations on a clinical extract which describes a child psychotherapist working with Maya, a seriously ill child, in a hospital. The author said that the hospital setting raises the question of what it is like to apply child psychotherapists' thinking within a hospital setting, and how they adapt the way they…

  20. Investigating the effect of child maltreatment on early adolescent peer-on-peer sexual aggression: testing a multiple mediator model in a non-incarcerated sample of Danish adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bramsen, Rikke Holm; Lasgaard, Mathias; Koss, Mary P.; Elklit, Ask; Banner, Jytte

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between child maltreatment and severe early adolescent peer-on-peer sexual aggression, using a multiple mediator model. Methods The study comprised 330 male Grade 9 students with a mean age of 14.9 years (SD=0.5). Results Estimates from the mediation model indicated significant indirect effects of child physical abuse on sexual aggression via peer influence and insecure-hostile masculinity. No significant total effect of child sexual abuse and child neglect on sexual aggression was found. Conclusions Findings of the present study identify risk factors that are potentially changeable and therefore of value in informing the design of prevention programs aiming at early adolescent peer-on-peer sexual aggression in at-risk youth. PMID:24987497

  1. Parent-child discrepancies in reports of parental monitoring and their relationship to adolescent alcohol-related behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Abar, Caitlin C.; Jackson, Kristina M.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Barnett, Nancy P.

    2014-01-01

    Discrepancies between parents and adolescents regarding parenting behaviors have been hypothesized to represent a deficit in the parent-child relationship and may represent unique risk factors for poor developmental outcomes. The current study examined the predictive utility of multiple methods for characterizing discrepancies in parents’ and adolescents’ reports of parental monitoring on youth alcohol use behaviors in order to inform future study design and predictive modeling. Data for the current study came from a prospective investigation of alcohol initiation and progression. The analyzed sample consisted of 606 adolescents (6th – 8th grade; 54% female) and their parents were surveyed at baseline, with youth followed up 12 months later. A series of hierarchical logistic regressions were performed for each monitoring-related construct examined (parental knowledge, parental control, parental solicitation, and child disclosure). The results showed that adolescents’ reports were more closely related to outcomes than parents’ reports, while greater discrepancies were frequently found to be uniquely associated with greater likelihood of alcohol use behaviors. Implications for future work incorporating parents’ and adolescents’ reports are discussed. PMID:24964878

  2. Interactive Effect of Child Maltreatment and Substance Use on Depressed Mood Among Adolescents Presenting to Community-Based Substance Use Treatment.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Judelysse; Becker, Sara; O'Brien, Kimberly; Spirito, Anthony

    2015-10-01

    Adolescents referred to community behavioral health centers (CBHC) for substance use (SU) problems report high rates of child maltreatment. Although SU and maltreatment are independent risk factors for adolescent depression, few studies have examined their interactive effects. This study examined the interactive effects of SU (alcohol and marijuana) and exposure to different types of trauma on depressed mood among 74 adolescents referred to a CBHC for SU. Hierarchical regressions controlling for sex and common adolescent comorbidities showed that sexual abuse had a stronger relationship with depressed mood than other types of maltreatment. Although SU was not independently related to depressed mood, consistent with the self-medication hypothesis, increased SU was associated with lower levels of depressed mood among adolescents with greater exposure to sexual abuse. Results suggest that teens presenting to CBHCs for SU should be assessed for multiple forms of maltreatment and for depressed mood. PMID:26017474

  3. Maternal Psychological Control and Its Association with Mother and Child Perceptions of Adolescent Adjustment: More Evidence on the Strength of Shared Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Valdes, Olivia M; Laursen, Brett; Guimond, Fanny A; Hartl, Amy C; Denner, Jill

    2016-10-01

    Mothers and adolescents hold distinct albeit correlated views of their relationship and of one another. The present study focuses on disentangling these independent views. Concurrent associations between maternal psychological control and children's adjustment are examined at two time points in order to identify the degree to which associations reflect (a) views that are shared by mothers and adolescents, and (b) views that are unique to mothers and adolescents. A total of 123 (56 % female) U.S. Latino/a adolescents (M = 10.4 years old at the outset) and their mothers reported on maternal psychological control, children's conduct problems, and children's anxiety, twice within a 5-month period. Data were collected at the close of primary school when the adolescents were in grade 5 and again at the beginning of middle school, when they were in grade 6. Results from conventional correlations indicated that mother- and adolescent-reports yielded similar associations between maternal psychological control and adolescent adjustment. Common fate model analyses partitioned results into variance shared across mother and adolescent reports and variance unique to mother and adolescent reports. Results differed for anxiety and conduct problems. Shared views indicated that greater maternal psychological control was associated with heightened child conduct problems; there were no associations unique to either reporter. In contrast, unique reporter views indicated that greater maternal psychological control was associated with child anxiety; there were no associations involving shared views. Although mother- and adolescent-reports agree that maternal psychological control is correlated with children's adjustment, there is considerable divergence in results when associations are partitioned according to shared and unique reporter views. Associations between maternal psychological control and children's anxiety are more apt to be inflated by same-reporter variance bias than are

  4. Maternal Psychological Control and Its Association with Mother and Child Perceptions of Adolescent Adjustment: More Evidence on the Strength of Shared Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Valdes, Olivia M; Laursen, Brett; Guimond, Fanny A; Hartl, Amy C; Denner, Jill

    2016-10-01

    Mothers and adolescents hold distinct albeit correlated views of their relationship and of one another. The present study focuses on disentangling these independent views. Concurrent associations between maternal psychological control and children's adjustment are examined at two time points in order to identify the degree to which associations reflect (a) views that are shared by mothers and adolescents, and (b) views that are unique to mothers and adolescents. A total of 123 (56 % female) U.S. Latino/a adolescents (M = 10.4 years old at the outset) and their mothers reported on maternal psychological control, children's conduct problems, and children's anxiety, twice within a 5-month period. Data were collected at the close of primary school when the adolescents were in grade 5 and again at the beginning of middle school, when they were in grade 6. Results from conventional correlations indicated that mother- and adolescent-reports yielded similar associations between maternal psychological control and adolescent adjustment. Common fate model analyses partitioned results into variance shared across mother and adolescent reports and variance unique to mother and adolescent reports. Results differed for anxiety and conduct problems. Shared views indicated that greater maternal psychological control was associated with heightened child conduct problems; there were no associations unique to either reporter. In contrast, unique reporter views indicated that greater maternal psychological control was associated with child anxiety; there were no associations involving shared views. Although mother- and adolescent-reports agree that maternal psychological control is correlated with children's adjustment, there is considerable divergence in results when associations are partitioned according to shared and unique reporter views. Associations between maternal psychological control and children's anxiety are more apt to be inflated by same-reporter variance bias than are

  5. Adolescent Maltreatment: Youth as Victims of Abuse and Neglect. Maternal & Child Health Technical Information Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, Janice; Langlykke, Kristin

    This bulletin is intended to raise awareness of the magnitude and gravity of adolescent maltreatment and to provide information on public health program and policy interventions. A review of adolescent victimization, with a focus on vulnerable youth, provides background for the development of public health measures to promote prevention and ensure…

  6. Child Abuse and Aids-Related Knowledge, Attitudes and Behavior among Adolescents in Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slonim-Nevo, Vered; Mukuka, Lawrence

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To research the correlation between physical and sexual abuse by family members and AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy and behavior among urban and rural adolescents in Zambia. Sample: The sample comprises 3,360 adolescents, aged 10-19, from urban and rural Zambia; 2,160 of them attended school, while 1,200 of them did…

  7. Unplanned Parenthood: The Socio-Economic Consequences of Adolescent Child-Bearing in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odu, Bimbola Kemi; Ayodele, Christian Junior; Isola, Alabi Olusola

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent girls feel that adolescent years are a period of breaking away from parents and authority and of finding personal values and particular social and vocational roles. It is an exciting period but possibly a time of experimentation and discovery, discovering people in a relationship and for the first time expressing that relationship…

  8. Parent-Child Interactions, Peripheral Serotonin, and Self-Inflicted Injury in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowell, Sheila E.; Beauchaine, Theodore P.; McCauley, Elizabeth; Smith, Cindy J.; Vasilev, Christina A.; Stevens, Adrianne L.

    2008-01-01

    Self-inflicted injury in adolescence indicates significant emotional and psychological suffering. Although data on the etiology of self-injury are limited, current theories suggest that the emotional lability observed among self-injuring adolescents results from complex interactions between individual biological vulnerabilities and environmental…

  9. Parent-Child Acculturation Patterns and Substance Use among Hispanic Adolescents: A Longitudinal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unger, Jennifer B.; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Wagner, Karla D.; Soto, Daniel W.; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes

    2009-01-01

    Acculturation discrepancy theory predicts that conflicting cultural preferences between adolescents and their parents will increase the adolescents' risk for behavior problems such as substance use. This study evaluated this hypothesis in a sample of 1683 Hispanic students in Southern California who completed surveys in 9th and 10th grade.…

  10. Longitudinal Associations between Perceived Parent-Child Relationship Quality and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branje, Susan J. T.; Hale, William W., III; Frijns, Tom; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined bidirectional paths between perceived parent-adolescent relationship quality and depressive symptoms, as well as the moderating role of sex, age, and personality type. 1313 Dutch adolescents (51% girls) from two cohorts (923 12-year olds and 390 16-year olds at Wave 1) reported on their personality, depressive…

  11. Adolescent Morality: Social Responsibility versus Alienation. Unit for Child Studies. Selected Papers Number 26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Hedda

    Divided into three sections, this paper briefly presents Kohlberg's theory of moral reasoning; surveys some key research relating childrearing practices to adolescents' social competence, including moral reasoning; and reports research findings concerning the value systems adolescents develop. The first section characterizes preconventional,…

  12. Functional Outcomes of Child and Adolescent Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms in Young Adult Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Jeffrey D.; Rowe, Richard; Boylan, Khrista

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is considered to be a disorder of childhood, yet evidence suggests that prevalence rates of the disorder are stable into late adolescence and trajectories of symptoms persist into young adulthood. Functional outcomes associated with ODD through childhood and adolescence include conflict within…

  13. Minority Ethnic Adolescents' Wellbeing: Child Rearing Practices and Positive Family Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochieng, Bertha M. N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This paper examines Black adolescents' experiences and views on the interrelationships between their families' parenting practices and their wellbeing. Method: The material is drawn from a community-based qualitative study on the health and wellbeing experiences of Black African families and adolescents. A total of 53…

  14. Adolescent Perspectives on Rules and Resistance within the Parent-Child Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkin, C. Melanie; Kuczynski, Leon

    2012-01-01

    Thirty-two adolescents between the ages of 13 and 19 participated in a semistructured interview regarding their perspectives on parental expectations and their strategies for expressing resistance. Thematic analyses indicated that adolescents perceive parental expectations as flexible and coconstructed rather than as firm, explicit, standing…

  15. Understanding the Sex Difference in Vulnerability to Adolescent Depression: An Examination of Child and Parent Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eberhart, Nicole K.; Shih, Josephine H.; Hammen, Constance L.; Brennan, Patricia A.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined sex differences in risk factors associated with adolescent depression in a large sample of boys and girls. Moderation and mediation explanatory models of the sex difference in likelihood of depression were examined. Findings indicate that the factors associated with depression in adolescent boys and girls are quite similar. All…

  16. Parent and Child Characteristics Related to Chosen Adolescent Alcohol and Drug Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Brenda A.; Aalborg, Annette E.; Byrnes, Hilary F.; Bauman, Karl; Spoth, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Mothers were allowed to choose between two different family-based adolescent alcohol-drug prevention strategies and the choice was examined in relation to parent and teen characteristics. Under real world conditions, parents are making choices regarding health promotion strategies for their adolescents and little is known about how parent and teen…

  17. The Stress Response and Adolescents' Adjustment: The Impact of Child Maltreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Emily C.; Chaplin, Tara M.; Sinha, Rajita; Tebes, Jacob K.; Mayes, Linda C.

    2012-01-01

    Experience with and management of stress has implications for adolescents' behavioral and socioemotional development. This study examined the relationship between adolescents' physiological response to an acute laboratory stressor (i.e., Trier Social Stress Test; TSST) and anger regulation and interpersonal competence in a sample of 175 low-income…

  18. Adolescent Substance Abuse: Risk Factors and Prevention Strategies. Maternal & Child Health Technical Information Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Mark J.

    The high prevalence of alcohol and substance abuse by adolescents poses a significant threat to the wellness of youth. Adolescents appear to use drugs for a variety of reasons. In addition to the multiple etiologic and risk factors present for substance abuse, there are many pathways teenagers may follow on their way to substance abuse. The…

  19. Quality of care in American Indian child and adolescent behavioral health: A pilot study of patient and family perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Podlogar, Matthew C.; Novins, Douglas K.

    2015-01-01

    Research regarding the quality of behavioral health care for American Indian (AI) children and adolescents is extremely limited, and no study has considered the qualitative perspectives of the AI children receiving such services or that of their families. This pilot study investigated AI patient and family perspectives of what quality of care means to them. Data were drawn from interviews of parents (n = 15), and the youth (if they were age 11 or older; n = 11) of 16 children and adolescents who received treatment at three behavioral health programs serving AI communities. Interview transcripts were coded and analyzed for key themes that related to treatment structure, process, and outcomes. According to these participants, the principal indicator of treatment quality was “being able to trust the clinician.” The most valued treatment outcomes for improvement were the youth’s “self-efficacy and self-worth,” “functioning in school,” and “relationship with the family.” Future research is needed on how to best integrate these domains into specific and objective indicators for standardized quality of care assessments of AI child and adolescent behavioral health services. PMID:25961647

  20. Impact of psychotic symptoms on cognitive functioning in child and adolescent psychiatric inpatients with severe mood disorders.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, James B; Weiss, Shira R; Segovich, Kristin T; Barbot, Baptiste

    2016-10-30

    Despite established differences in cognitive functioning of adults with mood disorder-related psychosis and those with non-affective psychotic disorders, there is limited evidence of the impact of psychotic symptoms on the cognitive functioning of children and adolescents with mood disorders. This study investigates IQ, working memory, and processing speed scores in 80 child and adolescent inpatients discharged from an intermediate care state psychiatric hospital, using a retrospective chart review. Associations between diagnosis based on DSM-IV criteria (7 with Major Depression- MDD; 43 with Bipolar Disorders-BD, and 30 with Mood Disorders Not Otherwise Specified-NOS), presence of current psychotic features, and cognitive functioning (WISC-IV IQ, Coding, Symbol Search, and Digit Span) were investigated using Multivariate Analyses of Variance. No differences were found in cognitive functioning between patients with MDD and BD, or between those with severe Mood Disorders (MDD or BD) and those with NOS, when controlling for age, gender, and presence of psychotic features. However, patients with severe mood disorders and psychotic features showed lower IQs and greater working memory deficits than those without psychotic features or NOS. Results are discussed in terms of treatment planning for children and adolescents at risk for developing psychotic symptoms and severe mood disorders.

  1. Psychometric Properties of the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Child Version (OCI-CV) in Chilean Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-González, Agustín E.; Rodríguez-Jiménez, Tíscar; Piqueras, José A.; Vera-Villarroel, Pablo; Godoy, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a considerable increase in the development of assessment tools for obsessive-compulsive symptomatology in children and adolescents. The Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-Child Version (OCI-CV) is a well-established assessment self-report, with special interest for the assessment of dimensions of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD). This instrument has shown to be useful for clinical and non-clinical populations in two languages (English and European Spanish). Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the OCI-CV in a Chilean community sample. The sample consisted of 816 children and adolescents with a mean age of 14.54 years (SD = 2.21; range = 10–18 years). Factor structure, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, convergent/divergent validity, and gender/age differences were examined. Confirmatory factor analysis showed a 6-factor structure (Doubting/Checking, Obsessing, Hoarding, Washing, Ordering, and Neutralizing) with one second-order factor. Good estimates of reliability (including internal consistency and test-retest), evidence supporting the validity, and small age and gender differences (higher levels of OCD symptomatology among older participants and women, respectively) are found. The OCI-CV is also an adequate scale for the assessment of obsessions and compulsions in a general population of Chilean children and adolescents. PMID:26317404

  2. Social determinants of child and adolescent traffic-related and intentional injuries: a multilevel study in Stockholm County.

    PubMed

    Laflamme, Lucie; Hasselberg, Marie; Reimers, Anne-Mari; Cavalini, Luciana Tricai; Ponce de Leon, Antonio

    2009-05-01

    Several significant developmental and socialisation processes in the life of children and adolescents take place in the area where they live. The extent to which they can feel and be safe in this environment is an important component of the success of those processes. This study highlights the independent contribution of neighbourhood and individual-level demographic and socioeconomic attributes to child and adolescent injuries. All individuals between the ages of 7 and 16 years living in Stockholm County in January 1998 (n=184 545) were followed up for their injuries during a five-year period considering injuries sustained as a pedestrian/cyclist/motor-vehicle rider and intentional injuries (violence-related and self-inflicted). A series of two-level logistic regressions were conducted to examine the association between the occurrence of injuries and individual (compositional) characteristics nested into parish of residence as well as contextual characteristics. For children and adolescents living in Stockholm County, contextual socioeconomic and social attributes of their place of residence were significant for injuries sustained as motor-vehicle riders but not for those sustained as pedestrians/cyclists or those inflicted intentionally. In the latter case, only the highest concentration of social benefit recipients was associated with significantly higher odds ratios. This emphasises that each injury mechanism has its own socioeconomic and social pathway, where contextual and compositional factors come into play to varying degrees.

  3. Adolescent mothers and their children: changes in maternal characteristics and child developmental and behavioral outcome at school age.

    PubMed

    Camp, B W

    1996-06-01

    This study examines stability and change in characteristics of adolescent mothers from their child's infancy to school age, describes cognitive and behavioral characteristics of their children at school age, and reports on the relationship between maternal characteristics and child behavior and development at school age. Cognitive status and childrearing attitudes were assessed in 43 adolescent mothers (mean age 16.3 years) when their children were infants (Time 1) and again when children were school age (Time 2). At school age, mothers also completed the Louisville Behavior Checklist, and children were administered the Slosson Intelligence Test and the Wide Range Achievement Test. Significant correlations were obtained between maternal measures at Time 1 and Time 2, and no significant differences were observed between mean scores at Time 1 and Time 2 on any measures. Children demonstrated average intelligence, but mean achievement was almost 1 SD below average. Significantly more children had high scores than expected on scales for hyperactivity and academic disability. Except for maternal vocabulary, maternal measures obtained at Time 1 were not directly related to children's IQ or behavior problems. Maternal vocabulary and authoritarian and hostile childrearing attitudes assessed at Time 1 contributed independently to prediction of achievement test scores in a positive direction. Mothers' vocabulary at Time 2 and high or increased hostile childrearing attitudes contributed positively to prediction of child IQ. Mothers who still had high scores in authoritarian childrearing attitudes or whose scores increased had children with lower IQs. Changes in attitudes or contemporary measures of attitudes were also related to behavior problems at school age.

  4. Associations of Child Insomnia, Sleep Movement, and Their Persistence With Mental Health Symptoms in Childhood and Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Jeffrey M.; Ruttle, Paula L.; Klein, Marjorie H.; Essex, Marilyn J.; Benca, Ruth M.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine the patterns of insomnia and sleep-related movement from ages 4.5 to 9 years, their concurrent associations with mental health symptoms in childhood, and the longitudinal associations of sleep-problem persistence with mental health symptoms at ages 9 and 18 years. Design: A 14-year prospective follow-up study. Assessments included maternal report on the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire at ages 4.5 and 9, and child mental health symptoms via maternal report at age 4.5, multi-informant (child, teacher, mother) report at age 9, and adolescent report at age 18. Setting: Community. Participants: A total of 396 children (51% female). Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Sleep problems were more common at age 4.5 than 9; symptoms of insomnia and abnormal sleep movement both had persistence rates of 9–10%. At age 4.5, insomnia was associated with hostile-aggressive and hyperactive-distractible behavior, but there were no significant associations for sleep movement. At age 9, both insomnia and sleep movement were associated with symptoms of depression, externalizing, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Insomnia persistence was associated with symptoms of depression, externalizing, and ADHD at age 9 and anxiety and externalizing at age 18; sleep- movement persistence was associated with externalizing and ADHD at age 9, and ADHD at age 18. The age 18 persistence effects for insomnia and anxiety and for sleep movement and ADHD were significant when controlling for earlier mental health. Conclusions: Childhood insomnia and sleep movement are common and associated with mental health symptoms. Their persistence from middle to late childhood predicts associations with specific types of mental health symptoms at age 18. Citation: Armstrong JM, Ruttle PL, Klein MH, Essex MJ, Benca RM. Associations of child insomnia, sleep movement, and their persistence with mental health symptoms in childhood and adolescence. SLEEP 2014

  5. The Differential Impact of Clerk Interest and Participation in a Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Clerkship Rotation upon Psychiatry and Pediatrics Residency Matches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Mark D.; Szatmari, Peter; Eva, Kevin W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors evaluated the differential impact of clerk interest and participation in a Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (CAP) clerkship rotation upon psychiatry and pediatrics residency matches. Method: Authors studied clerks from the McMaster University M.D. program graduating years of 2005-2007. Participants were categorized as 1)…

  6. Digital Game Violence and Direct Aggression in Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study of the Roles of Sex, Age, and Parent-Child Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallenius, Marjut; Punamaki, Raija-Leena

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the roles of sex, age, and parent-child communication in moderating the association between digital game violence and direct aggression in a two-year longitudinal study. Finnish 12- and 15-year-old adolescents (N = 316) participated in the follow-up survey. As hypothesized, digital game violence was linked to direct…

  7. Child and Adolescent Mental Health Research in the Context of Hurricane Katrina: An Ecological Needs-Based Perspective and Introduction to the Special Section

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weems, Carl F.; Overstreet, Stacy

    2008-01-01

    This article introduces the special section on child and adolescent mental health research in the context of Hurricane Katrina. We outline the purpose and intent of the special section and present an integrative perspective based on broad contextual theories of human development with which to think about the impact of disasters like Katrina. The…

  8. "Why Did You Call for Them?" Child and Youth Care Professionals' Practice of Flooding the Zone during Encounters with Suicidal Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranahan, Patti

    2013-01-01

    Child and youth care (CYC) professionals often provide care to children, youth and families in conjunction with professionals from other disciplines. How CYC professionals engage other service providers in the provision of care for suicidal adolescents requires examination. The purpose of the overall study was to understand and explain the process…

  9. Mother-Child Dyadic Synchrony in European American and African American Families during Early Adolescence: Relations with Self-Esteem and Prosocial Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsey, Eric W.; Colwell, Malinda J.; Frabutt, James M.; Chambers, Jessica Campbell; MacKinnon-Lewis, Carol

    2008-01-01

    Mother-child relationships characterized by dyadic synchrony, a mutually responsive and interconnected interaction style, have been consistently linked to children's psychosocial adjustment in early childhood, but it is unclear whether such interaction patterns remain conducive to positive outcomes in early adolescence. The aim of the present…

  10. A Longitudinal Study of Perceived Differences in Parental Control and Parent-Child Relational Qualities in Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2007-01-01

    On two occasions separated by 1 year, 2,758 Chinese adolescents respond to instruments assessing perceived parental behavioral control (indexed by parental knowledge, expectation, monitoring, discipline, demandingness, and control based on Chinese concepts), parental psychological control, and parent-child relational qualities (satisfaction with…

  11. The Relationship between Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms and Substance Use among Adolescents Involved with Child Welfare: Implications for Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Abby L.; Wekerle, Christine; Tonmyr, Lil; Thornton, Tiffany; Waechter, Randall; Pereira, Jessica; Chung, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the role of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) in predicting substance use and substance-related problems in a sample of older youth and emerging adults involved with child welfare. The sample was drawn from the Maltreatment and Adolescent Pathways (MAP) longitudinal study (Wekerle et al. 2009).…

  12. Perceived Parental Control Processes, Parent-Child Relational Qualities, and Psychological Well-Being in Chinese Adolescents with and without Economic Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2005-01-01

    The author assessed the relationships between poverty and perceived parenting style, parent-child relationships, and adolescent psychological well-being in Chinese secondary school students (N = 3,017). Participants completed questionnaires designed to assess (a) the degree to which their parents used monitoring, discipline, and other techniques…

  13. Does Parental Monitoring Moderate the Relation between Parent-Child Communication and Pre-Coital Sexual Behaviours among Urban, Minority Early Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Maria, Diane; Markham, Christine; Swank, Paul; Baumler, Elizabeth; McCurdy, Sheryl; Tortolero, Susan

    2014-01-01

    This study examined parental monitoring (PM) as a potential moderator of the relation between parent-child communication (PCC) and pre-coital sexual behaviours (PCSB) in an urban, minority, early adolescent population. Seventh-grade students (n = 1609) reported PCC, PM and PCSB. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to assess for…

  14. Treating Children and Adolescents

    MedlinePlus

    ... Children and Adolescents Go Back Treating Children and Adolescents Email Print + Share For the most part, the ... tailored, based upon the child's weight. Children and adolescents are moving through a period of physical and ...

  15. Racial/ethnic and income disparities in child and adolescent exposure to food and beverage television ads across the U.S. media markets.

    PubMed

    Powell, Lisa M; Wada, Roy; Kumanyika, Shiriki K

    2014-09-01

    Obesity prevalence and related health burdens are greater among U.S. racial/ethnic minority and low-income populations. Targeted advertising may contribute to disparities. Designated market area (DMA) spot television ratings were used to assess geographic differences in child/adolescent exposure to food-related advertisements based on DMA-level racial/ethnic and income characteristics. Controlling for unobserved DMA-level factors and time trends, child/adolescent exposure to food-related ads, particularly for sugar-sweetened beverages and fast-food restaurants, was significantly higher in areas with higher proportions of black children/adolescents and lower-income households. Geographically targeted TV ads are important to consider when assessing obesity-promoting influences in black and low-income neighborhoods.

  16. Racial/ethnic and income disparities in child and adolescent exposure to food and beverage television ads across the U.S. media markets.

    PubMed

    Powell, Lisa M; Wada, Roy; Kumanyika, Shiriki K

    2014-09-01

    Obesity prevalence and related health burdens are greater among U.S. racial/ethnic minority and low-income populations. Targeted advertising may contribute to disparities. Designated market area (DMA) spot television ratings were used to assess geographic differences in child/adolescent exposure to food-related advertisements based on DMA-level racial/ethnic and income characteristics. Controlling for unobserved DMA-level factors and time trends, child/adolescent exposure to food-related ads, particularly for sugar-sweetened beverages and fast-food restaurants, was significantly higher in areas with higher proportions of black children/adolescents and lower-income households. Geographically targeted TV ads are important to consider when assessing obesity-promoting influences in black and low-income neighborhoods. PMID:25086271

  17. Racial/Ethnic and Income Disparities in Child and Adolescent Exposure to Food and Beverage Television Ads across U.S. Media Markets

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Lisa M.; Wada, Roy; Kumanyika, Shiriki K.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity prevalence and related health burdens are greater among U.S. racial/ethnic minority and low-income populations. Targeted advertising may contribute to disparities. Designated market area (DMA) spot television ratings were used to assess geographic differences in child/adolescent exposure to food-related advertisements based on DMA-level racial/ethnic and income characteristics. Controlling for unobserved DMA-level factors and time trends, child/adolescent exposure to food-related ads, particularly for sugar-sweetened beverages and fast-food restaurants, was significantly higher in areas with higher proportions of black children/adolescents and lower-income households. Geographically targeted TV ads are important to consider when assessing obesity-promoting influences in black and low-income neighborhoods. PMID:25086271

  18. Preventing Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission among South African Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varga, Christine; Brookes, Heather

    2008-01-01

    Although prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) programs are predicated on maternal behavior change, little is known about sociocultural factors affecting maternal-child care practices in this arena. The authors used narrative methods (key informant workshops, questionnaires, focus groups, and case study analysis) to explore how…

  19. Early Family and Child-Care Antecedents of Awakening Cortisol Levels in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roisman, Glenn I.; Susman, Elizabeth; Barnett-Walker, Kortnee; Booth-Laforce, Cathryn; Owen, Margaret Tresch; Belsky, Jay; Bradley, Robert H.; Houts, Renate; Steinberg, Laurence

    2009-01-01

    This study examined early observed parenting and child-care experiences in relation to functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis over the long term. Consistent with the attenuation hypothesis, individuals (n = 863) who experienced: (a) higher levels of maternal insensitivity and (b) more time in child-care centers in the first…

  20. A Study of the Effects of Child Rearing Patterns on Test Anxiety in Late Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mine, Hiroshi; And Others

    This study of Japanese families postulated that positive and negative parental attitudes may affect the degree of test anxiety experienced by children in the families. The study used translations of the Reactions to Tests (RTT) inventory and parental attitude tests to identify relationships between child rearing practices and the child's…

  1. [Structural quality in inpatient and daycare child and adolescent psychiatry- indicators for planning future staff ratios for the era following the Psychiatry Personnel Act].

    PubMed

    Schepker, Renate; Fegert, Jörg M; Becker, Katja

    2015-11-01

    The German Psychiatry Personnel Act, which went into effect in 1990, has led to a decrease in the number of child and adolescent psychiatry inpatient beds, to a decrease in the length of stay, and to an increase in inpatient psychotherapy. Today, this act is outdated~ for a number of reasons, such as changes in the morbidity of the population, the rising number of emergencies, and new professional standards such as documentation. In addition, new legal provisions and conventions (like the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child) necessitate a complete reevaluation. Child and adolescent psychiatry needs a normative act to enable the necessary implementation. Many different rationales are available to support the debate.

  2. Comparison Between Family Power Structure and the Quality of Parent-Child Interaction Among the Delinquent and Non-Delinquent Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Khodabakhshi Koolaee, Anahita; Shaghelani Lor, Hossein; Soleimani, Ali Akbar; Rahmatizadeh, Masoumeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Few studies indicate that most behavioral problems are due to family dysfunction and inappropriate family environment. It seems that the family of the delinquent adolescent is unbalanced in the power structure and parenting style. Objectives: The present study compares the family power structure and parent-child relationship quality in delinquent and non-delinquent young subjects in Tehran. Patients and Methods: Eighty students of secondary schools aged between 15 and 18 in Tehran were enrolled with cluster sampling method and 80 delinquent adolescents of the Correction and Rehabilitation Centers aged between 15 and 18 were chosen with a convenience sampling method. They responded to an instrument of family power structure (Child–parents relationship inventory). Data was compared between these two groups by utilizing the independent and dependent t-test and Levene’s test. Results: The findings indicated there is a significant difference between delinquent and non-delinquent adolescents in family power structure and its subscales (P < 0.001) and father-child relationship quality (P < 0.005). Also, there is no statistically significant difference between these two groups in mother-child relationship quality (P < 0.005). Besides, the results revealed that delinquent adolescents were significantly different regarding the quality of parent-child relationship (P < 0.001). Conclusions: These results emphasize that an inappropriate decision making process pattern in a family has a significant effect on deviant behavior in adolescents. The fathers’ parenting is more strongly linked to their sons’ delinquency. So, family power structure and parent-child relationship can be considered in therapeutic interventions (prevention and treatment) for adolescents’ delinquency. PMID:25032158

  3. Initial Steps in Treating Child and Adolescent Survivors of Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendergast, William E.

    1994-01-01

    Outlines and discusses the rationale for each of the 10 steps recommended in the initial stages of treatment for survivors of sexual abuse, especially when victimization occurred in childhood or adolescence, and offers abbreviated case illustrations. (Author/LKS)

  4. Assessment and treatment of knee pain in the child and adolescent athlete.

    PubMed

    Yen, Yi-Meng

    2014-12-01

    Knee pain in children and adolescents is one of the most prevalent complaints in a pediatric practice, accounting for at least a third of musculoskeletal complaints. Accurate diagnosis requires an understanding of knee anatomy and patterns of knee injuries and skill in physical examination. This review covers the most common causes of knee pain in children and adolescents, including overuse issues, such as Osgood-Schlatter and osteochondritis dissecans, as well as traumatic injuries, including tibial spine fractures and anterior cruciate ligament injuries.

  5. [Qualitative research approaches in practical use in child and adolescent psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Fegert, J; Gerwert, U

    1993-10-01

    Experimental study designs and quantitative analysis are dominating the methodology of child psychiatric research. Sometimes the "box of tools" consisting of standardized software packages for statistical analysis seems to lead to a regrettable uniformity in research strategies. Elaborated sociological research concepts in the tradition of Max Weber and the "Chicago school" could close the scientific gap between quantitative studies on large samples and simple case-reports. They are excellent instruments for generating hypothesis on relatively rare clinical problems or in new fields of child psychiatric research. Based on a review of the literature potential applications of qualitative methodology in child psychiatry will be discussed.

  6. Brief report: the influence of posttraumatic stress on unprotected sex among sexually active adolescent girls and boys involved in the child welfare system of the United States.

    PubMed

    Cavanaugh, Courtenay E

    2013-10-01

    While posttraumatic stress (PTS) has been positively associated with risky sexual behavior (RSB) among adult women, there is a paucity of research examining PTS in relation to RSB among adolescent girls and boys. This study aimed to replicate findings among adult women with sexually active adolescents (179 females and 106 males) involved in a national study of children in the United States child welfare system. After controlling for age and the complex study design, sexually active adolescent girls with clinically significant PTS symptoms were more than seven times more likely than those without such symptoms to report unprotected intercourse. In contrast, sexually active adolescent boys with clinically significant PTS symptoms were less likely than those without such symptoms to report unprotected intercourse. Research is needed to 1) understand the mechanisms linking PTS and RSB, 2) further explore gender differences reported here, and 3) inform RSB interventions in this high-risk population.

  7. A Person-centered Approach to Studying the Linkages among Parent–Child Differences in Cultural Orientation, Supportive Parenting, and Adolescent Depressive Symptoms in Chinese American Families

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su Yeong

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined whether supportive parenting mediates relations between parent– child differences in cultural orientation (generational dissonance) and depressive symptoms with a sample of 451 first and second generation Chinese American parents and adolescents (12–15 years old at time 1). Using a person-centered approach, meaningful typologies of cultural orientation were derived for fathers, mothers, and adolescents. Overall, results provided support, though qualified, for the notion that generational dissonance is linked to depressive symptoms through decreased supportive parenting. In general, having a parent with a bicultural profile seemed to be most advantageous if adolescents similarly had a bicultural profile, whereas more American oriented adolescents with more Chinese oriented parents reported the least supportive parenting and most depressive symptoms. Directions for future research and the benefits of using a person-centered approach in research of acculturation and generational dissonance are discussed. PMID:20725611

  8. International dissemination of evidence-based practice, open access and the IACAPAP textbook of child and adolescent mental health.

    PubMed

    Rey, Joseph M; Omigbodun, Olayinka Olusola

    2015-01-01

    Dramatic changes have occurred in both publishing and teaching in the last 20 years stemming from the digital and Internet revolutions. Such changes are likely to grow exponentially in the near future aided by the trend to open access publishing. This revolution has challenged traditional publishing and teaching methods that-largely but not exclusively due to cost-are particularly relevant to professionals in low and middle income countries. The digital medium and the Internet offer boundless opportunities for teaching and training to people in disadvantaged regions. This article describes the development of the IACAPAP eTextbook of child and adolescent mental health, its use, accessibility, and potential impact on the international dissemination of evidence-based practice.

  9. Child and adolescent psychotherapy in research and practice contexts: review of the evidence and suggestions for improving the field.

    PubMed

    Weisz, J R; Jensen, A L

    2001-01-01

    The body of evidence on child and adolescent psychotherapy outcomes has now grown to more than 500 studies. Here we summarize key findings, focusing on effectiveness and efficacy research. Research is sparse on the effectiveness of treatment in everyday practice, but available evidence suggests little benefit. By contrast, extensive research on efficacy of structured treatments administered under controlled conditions shows very substantial evidence of benefit. We note several specific treatments for which evidence is encouraging, and we offer suggestions for future research. Particularly important will be research on treatment models most often used in practice settings, tests of outcome mediators and moderators, tests employing a broadened range of treatment delivery models, and research bridging the gap between lab-tested treatments and the conditions of real-world practice.

  10. Child and adolescent fast-food choice and the influence of calorie labeling: a natural experiment

    PubMed Central

    Elbel, B; Gyamfi, J; Kersh, R

    2013-01-01

    Objective Obesity is an enormous public health problem and children have been particularly highlighted for intervention. Of notable concern is the fast-food consumption of children. However, we know very little about how children or their parents make fast-food choices, including how they respond to mandatory calorie labeling. We examined children’s and adolescents’ fast-food choice and the influence of calorie labels in low-income communities in New York City (NYC) and in a comparison city (Newark, NJ). Design Natural experiment: Survey and receipt data were collected from low-income areas in NYC, and Newark, NJ (as a comparison city), before and after mandatory labeling began in NYC. Study restaurants included four of the largest chains located in NYC and Newark: McDonald’s, Burger King, Wendy’s and Kentucky Fried Chicken. Subjects A total of 349 children and adolescents aged 1–17 years who visited the restaurants with their parents (69%) or alone (31%) before or after labeling was introduced. In total, 90% were from racial or ethnic minority groups. Results We found no statistically significant differences in calories purchased before and after labeling; many adolescents reported noticing calorie labels after their introduction (57% in NYC) and a few considered the information when ordering (9%). Approximately 35% of adolescents ate fast food six or more times per week and 72% of adolescents reported that taste was the most important factor in their meal selection. Adolescents in our sample reported that parents have some influence on their meal selection. Conclusions Adolescents in low-income communities notice calorie information at similar rates as adults, although they report being slightly less responsive to it than adults. We did not find evidence that labeling influenced adolescent food choice or parental food choices for children in this population. PMID:21326209

  11. [Operationalized psychodynamic diagnostics in childhood and adolescence (OPD-CA): the axis during psychoanalytic child- and adolescent psychotherapy].

    PubMed

    Weitkamp, Katharina; Claaßen, Sanna; Wiegand-Grefe, Silke; Romer, Georg

    2014-01-01

    There is evidence for the effectiveness of psychodynamic therapies in terms of symptom reduction. Up to now, there is little evidence to what extend therapy translates to the improvement of core analytical concepts, like psychic structure, interpersonal relatedness, and intrapsychic conflicts. The current study focuses on these concepts over the course of therapy as well as in connection with outcome. The concepts are assessed with the Operationalized Psychodynamic Diagnostics in Childhood and Adolescence (OPD-CA). Additionally, the OPD-CA axis prerequisites of treatment is tested as a predictor of outcome. 16 therapists rated 146 participating patients at the beginning and the end of therapy within the framework of a study on the effectiveness of psychoanalytical psychotherapy. Therapists rated the OPD-CA as well as the level of psychosocial impairment. Psychic structure, interpersonal relatedness, and intrapsychic conflicts improved significantly over the course of therapy. Positive outcome was predicted by communicative abilities, positive self-relatedness and an undistinctive intrapsychic conflict at the beginning of therapy as well as the improvement of these during therapy. Among the prerequisites of treatment only the subjective level of mental impairment and the intrapsychic resources were predictive of outcome. Psychoanalytic psychotherapy for children and adolescents improved central psychodynamic concepts like psychic structure, interpersonal relatedness, and intrapsychic conflicts. PMID:25523916

  12. [Operationalized psychodynamic diagnostics in childhood and adolescence (OPD-CA): the axis during psychoanalytic child- and adolescent psychotherapy].

    PubMed

    Weitkamp, Katharina; Claaßen, Sanna; Wiegand-Grefe, Silke; Romer, Georg

    2014-01-01

    There is evidence for the effectiveness of psychodynamic therapies in terms of symptom reduction. Up to now, there is little evidence to what extend therapy translates to the improvement of core analytical concepts, like psychic structure, interpersonal relatedness, and intrapsychic conflicts. The current study focuses on these concepts over the course of therapy as well as in connection with outcome. The concepts are assessed with the Operationalized Psychodynamic Diagnostics in Childhood and Adolescence (OPD-CA). Additionally, the OPD-CA axis prerequisites of treatment is tested as a predictor of outcome. 16 therapists rated 146 participating patients at the beginning and the end of therapy within the framework of a study on the effectiveness of psychoanalytical psychotherapy. Therapists rated the OPD-CA as well as the level of psychosocial impairment. Psychic structure, interpersonal relatedness, and intrapsychic conflicts improved significantly over the course of therapy. Positive outcome was predicted by communicative abilities, positive self-relatedness and an undistinctive intrapsychic conflict at the beginning of therapy as well as the improvement of these during therapy. Among the prerequisites of treatment only the subjective level of mental impairment and the intrapsychic resources were predictive of outcome. Psychoanalytic psychotherapy for children and adolescents improved central psychodynamic concepts like psychic structure, interpersonal relatedness, and intrapsychic conflicts.

  13. Annual Research Review: Child and adolescent mental health interventions: a review of progress in economic studies across different disorders

    PubMed Central

    Beecham, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Background Resources for supporting children and adolescents with psychiatric disorders continue to be scarce. Economics research can identify current patterns of expenditure, and help inform allocation of treatment and support resources between competing needs or uses. Scope and methods The aim was to identify the costs of supporting children and adolescents, the economic impacts of childhood psychiatric disorders in adulthood and any new evidence on the cost-effectiveness of interventions. An electronic search of databases (including PubMed, Medline and Psychinfo) identified peer-reviewed journal articles published between 2005 and 2012. Findings Sixty-seven papers provided data on support and treatment costs now or in the future, or cost-effectiveness analyses of services. Half the articles came from the United States. Most articles focussed on autism spectrum disorder (ASD; 23 articles), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; n = 15), conduct disorder (CD; n = 7), and anxiety or depression (n = 8). Conclusion Only 14 studies used a cost perspective wider than health care; most included education costs (n = 11), but only five included costs to the justice system. The number of studies estimating costs to the family has increased, particularly for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In the United Kingdom, support costs for children and adolescents with conduct disorder (CD) appear to be lower than for those with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), although for the United States, the opposite may be true. Support costs for children and adolescents with ASD may be higher than both CD and ADHD. However, there were many differences between the samples and the methods employed making comparisons between studies difficult. Outcomes in adulthood include negative impacts on (mental) health, quality of life, public sector services, employment status and income. The evidence base is improving for child and adolescent psychiatric

  14. The Effects of Being an Only Child, Family Cohesion, and Family Conflict on Behavioral Problems among Adolescents with Physically Ill Parents

    PubMed Central

    Sui, Guo-Yuan; Wang, Jia-Na; Liu, Guang-Cong; Wang, Lie

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to examine the parental physical illness’ effect on behavioral problems among adolescents, and the effects of being an only child, family cohesion, and family conflict on behavioral problems among adolescents with physically ill parents in Liaoning province, China. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in 2009. A questionnaire including two dimensions of the Family Environment Scale (family cohesion and family conflict), self-reported Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), and demographic factors was distributed to the subjects. Results: Among the 5220 adolescents, 308 adolescents lived with physically ill parents. The adolescents with physically ill parents had more behavioral problems than adolescents with healthy parents. Among the girls who lived in families with physically ill parents, the SDQ score and the prevalence of SDQ syndromes were higher in the girls with siblings than the girls without siblings after adjusting for variables; the effect of family cohesion on SDQ was significant after adjusting for variables. Conclusion: Interventions targeting family cohesion may be effective to reduce behavioral problems of adolescents with physically ill parents. PMID:26404347

  15. Influences of coaches, parents, and peers on the motivational patterns of child and adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Chan, D K; Lonsdale, C; Fung, H H

    2012-08-01

    The purposes of this study were to assess the relative impact of social influences initiated by coach, parents, and peers on children and adolescent athletes' motivational patterns, involving self-rated effort, enjoyment, competence, and competitive trait anxiety. Questionnaire data were collected from 408 youth swimmers (aged 9-18 years). Results of multi-group structural equation modeling analyses generally showed that compared with athletes in the other age group, the social influence from mother was stronger in childhood (mean age=10.87 years; SD=1.00), and that from peers was greater in adolescence (mean age=16.32 years; SD=1.15). The social influence from coach was more influential for athletes' effort and enjoyment in childhood, and competence in adolescence. We concluded that age appeared to moderate the impact of social influence from significant others on young athletes' sport experiences.

  16. The development and evaluation of the Australian child and adolescent recommended food score: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Diet quality tools have been developed to assess the adequacy of dietary patterns for predicting future morbidity and mortality. This study describes the development and evaluation of a brief food-based diet quality index for use with children at the individual or population level. The Australian Child and Adolescent Recommended Food Score (ACARFS) was developed to reflect adherence to the Dietary Guidelines for Children and Adolescents in Australia and modelled on the approach of the US Recommended Food Score. Methods The ACARFS has eight sub-scales and is scored from zero to 73. The diet quality score was evaluated by assessing correlation (Spearman’s correlations) and agreement (weighted κ statistics) between ACARFS scores and nutrient intakes, derived from a food frequency questionnaire in 691 children (mean age 11.0, SD 1.1) in New South Wales, Australia. Nutrient intakes for ACARFS quartiles were compared with the relevant Australian nutrient reference values. Results ACARFS showed slight to substantial agreement (κ 0.13-0.64) with nutrient intakes, with statistically significant moderate to strong positive correlations with all vitamins, minerals and energy intake (r = 0.42-0.70). ACARFS was not related to BMI.Participants who scored less than the median ACARFS were more likely to have sub-optimal intakes of fibre, folic acid and calcium. Conclusion ACARFS demonstrated sufficient accuracy for use in future studies evaluating diet quality. Future research on its utility in targeting improvements in the nutritional quality of usual eating habits of children and adolescents is warranted. PMID:23164095

  17. A National Snapshot of Substance Misuse among Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatients in Malta.

    PubMed

    Grech, Anton; Axiak, Sally

    2015-09-01

    This paper reports on a patient record survey that was undertaken with the central aim of establishing reliable, baseline information to inform strategic planning and organisation of future CAMHS in Malta. The records of the total population of children and adolescents admitted into the psychatric hospital over a five year period were surveyed. Results showed that the characteristics and circumstances of children and adolescents with mental disorder and comorbid substance misuse in Malta are similar to those described in international studies. The survey emphasised the pressing need for further research into this sub group and also highlighted gaps in reliable data systems locally.

  18. Associations between evidence-based practice and mental health outcomes in child and adolescent mental health services.

    PubMed

    Deighton, Jessica; Argent, Rachel; De Francesco, Davide; Edbrooke-Childs, Julian; Jacob, Jenna; Fleming, Isobel; Ford, Tamsin; Wolpert, Miranda

    2016-04-01

    The effectiveness of evidence-based practice in the treatment of children with conduct disorder (n = 186) or emotional disorders (n = 490) in routine care was examined using naturalistic, previously collected data from 30 child and adolescent mental health services. Repeated measures analysis of covariance was used to compare the outcomes of children who received parent training for conduct disorder and cognitive behavioural therapy for emotional disorders (evidence-based practice) with children who did not receive these treatments (non-evidence-based practice). There was a relatively low occurrence of evidence-based practice, particularly for children with conduct disorder. Both the evidence-based practice and non-evidence-based practice groups improve over time, with moderate effect sizes, and there were greater improvements associated with evidence-based practice for children with emotional disorders, based on child self-reported symptoms but not on parent report. In the present sample, significant differences were not found for conduct disorder. Findings provide tentative support for evidence-based practice for the treatment of emotional disorders in routine care settings.

  19. [Placement of children and adolescents following seclusion and restraint actions–a study on family-court approvals of minors in youth welfare, child and adolescent psychiatry and jail according to Para. 1631 German Civil Code].

    PubMed

    Kölch, Michael; Vogel, Harald

    2016-01-01

    According to German law (Para. 1631b German Civil Code), the placement of children and adolescents following seclusion and restraint actions must be approved by a family court. We analyzed the family court data of a court district in Berlin (Tempelhof-Kreuzberg) concerning cases of “placement of minors” between 2008 and 2011. A total of 474 such procedures were discovered. After data clearing and correction of cases (e. g., because of emergency interventions of the youth welfare system taking children into custody according to Para. 42, German Civil Code VIII), 376 cases remained. Of these 376 procedures in the years 2008 to 2011, 127 cases concerned children and adolescents according to Para. 1631b German Civil Code, and 249 procedures were settled either by dismissal, withdrawal or by repealing the initial decision to place the child with restrain or seclusion by means of an interim order or by filing an appeal against the final decision. Of the 127 procedures, 68 concerned girls, who were on average slightly younger than boys (14.5 years vs. 15.1 years). In two thirds of the procedures, the children and adolescents were German citizens. The majority of youths involved were living at home at the time of the procedure, but in 15 % of the case the youths were homeless. Most of the adolescents were treated with restraint in child and adolescent psychiatry. The most frequently quoted reasons for seclusion were substance abuse, suicide risk and running away from home/being homeless. PMID:26864226

  20. [Placement of children and adolescents following seclusion and restraint actions–a study on family-court approvals of minors in youth welfare, child and adolescent psychiatry and jail according to Para. 1631 German Civil Code].

    PubMed

    Kölch, Michael; Vogel, Harald

    2016-01-01

    According to German law (Para. 1631b German Civil Code), the placement of children and adolescents following seclusion and restraint actions must be approved by a family court. We analyzed the family court data of a court district in Berlin (Tempelhof-Kreuzberg) concerning cases of “placement of minors” between 2008 and 2011. A total of 474 such procedures were discovered. After data clearing and correction of cases (e. g., because of emergency interventions of the youth welfare system taking children into custody according to Para. 42, German Civil Code VIII), 376 cases remained. Of these 376 procedures in the years 2008 to 2011, 127 cases concerned children and adolescents according to Para. 1631b German Civil Code, and 249 procedures were settled either by dismissal, withdrawal or by repealing the initial decision to place the child with restrain or seclusion by means of an interim order or by filing an appeal against the final decision. Of the 127 procedures, 68 concerned girls, who were on average slightly younger than boys (14.5 years vs. 15.1 years). In two thirds of the procedures, the children and adolescents were German citizens. The majority of youths involved were living at home at the time of the procedure, but in 15 % of the case the youths were homeless. Most of the adolescents were treated with restraint in child and adolescent psychiatry. The most frequently quoted reasons for seclusion were substance abuse, suicide risk and running away from home/being homeless.

  1. Child and Adolescent (Early Onset) Schizophrenia: A Review in Light of DSM-III-R.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werry, John S.

    1992-01-01

    This review of studies of early onset schizophrenia examines the nosological similarity between adult and early onset schizophrenia, differential diagnosis, treatment, and the extent to which children and adolescents diagnosed as having schizophrenia using adult criteria have the characteristic adult correlates. The paper discusses gender…

  2. Parental Awareness: A Social Cognitive Explanation of Adolescent Mother-Child Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flick, Louise H.; McSweeney, Maryellen

    The role of psychosocial immaturity in the behavior of adolescent mothers remains unexplained. This project explores the validity of Newberger's Parental Awareness (PA) model which outlines the development of parents' conceptions of their parental role. PA distinguishes parents reported to be abusive from non-abusive parents. This study tests the…

  3. Child and Adolescent Violence Research at the National Institute of Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHHS), Bethesda, MD.

    An assessment was taken by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) on violent behavior among adolescents in the United States to guide research towards areas that require intervention. The NIMH gathered information on the risk factors, experiences, and processes related to the development of aggressive, antisocial, and violent behavior…

  4. Child/Adolescent Abuse and Suicidal Behavior: Are They Sex Related?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gal, Gilad; Levav, Itzhak; Gross, Raz

    2012-01-01

    The association between childhood and adolescent abuse and suicidal behavior, and the possible contribution of abuse to sex differences in non lethal suicidal behavior, was investigated. Data were extracted from the Israel-based component of the WHO World Mental Health Survey (Kessler & Utsun, 2008a). Increased risk for ideation, plan, and…

  5. African American Adolescents' Perceptions of Family Interactions: Kinship Support, Parent-Child Relationships, and Teen Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamborn, Susie D.; Nguyen, Dang-Giao T.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined perceived kinship support and parenting practices for 158 African American adolescents in the 9th and 10th grades. Kinship support showed direct associations with teen outcomes that, for work orientation and school orientation, were partially mediated by parenting practices. With a few exceptions, kinship support was positively…

  6. In Search of HPA Axis Dysregulation in Child and Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerry, John D.; Hastings, Paul D.

    2011-01-01

    Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in adults with major depressive disorder is among the most consistent and robust biological findings in psychiatry. Given the importance of the adolescent transition to the development and recurrence of depressive phenomena over the lifespan, it is important to have an integrative…

  7. Testing Structural Models of DSM-IV Symptoms of Common Forms of Child and Adolescent Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahey, Benjamin B.; Rathouz, Paul J.; Van Hulle, Carol; Urbano, Richard C.; Krueger, Robert F.; Applegate, Brooks; Garriock, Holly A.; Chapman, Derek A.; Waldman, Irwin D.

    2008-01-01

    Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted of "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders", Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) symptoms of common mental disorders derived from structured interviews of a representative sample of 4,049 twin children and adolescents and their adult caretakers. A dimensional model based on the assignment of symptoms…

  8. Prevalence of Child and Adolescent Mental Disorders in Chile: A Community Epidemiological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vicente, Benjamin; Saldivia, Sandra; de la Barra, Flora; Kohn, Robert; Pihan, Ronaldo; Valdivia, Mario; Rioseco, Pedro; Melipillan, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Background: In Latin America, there is limited research on the prevalence of mental disorders in children and adolescents. This Chilean survey is the first national representative survey in the Latin American region to examine the prevalence of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV (DSM-IV) psychiatric disorders in the region in children and…

  9. The Quality of Parent/Child Relationships in Adolescence Is Associated with Poor Adult Psychosocial Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raudino, Alessandra; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John

    2013-01-01

    This study used data gathered over the course of a New Zealand longitudinal study (N = 924) to examine the relationships between measures of parental bonding and attachment in adolescence (age 15-16) and later personal adjustment (major depression; anxiety disorder; suicidal behaviour; illicit drug abuse/dependence; crime) assessed up to the age…

  10. Bridging the Gap Between Laboratory and Clinic in Child and Adolescent Psychotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisz, John R.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    In studies of the usefulness of psychotherapy with children and adolescents, clinical therapy has markedly poorer outcomes than laboratory studies. Proposals to bridge the gap include enriching the data base on treatment effects by clinical practitioners, identifying the features of research therapy that account for positive outcomes, and…

  11. Non-suicidal self-injurious behavior in forensic child and adolescent populations

    PubMed Central

    Kara, Koray; Ozsoy, Sait; Teke, Hacer; Congologlu, M. Ayhan; Turker, Turker; Renklidag, Tulay; Karapirli, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate risk factors for non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), and present the relationship between NSSI and depression in children and adolescents who appeared for forensic examination. Methods: This study consisted of 295 children and adolescents who were brought for judicial examination in the TR Ministry of Justice Forensic Science Department, Council of Forensic Medicine, Ankara, Turkey between May and October 2013. Sociodemographic factors, alcohol and substance abuse, and history of sexual abuse and suicide attempts were assessed using a semi-structured questionnaire. During forensic medical examinations, NSSI was evaluated. Depression was assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory. Results: The frequency of NSSI was 20.2% among boys, and 30.6% among girls. Statistical differences were found between subjects with and without NSSI in terms of number of children in their families, whether or not their parents were divorced, whether they held part-time jobs, or had a history of sexual abuse, substance abuse, or suicide attempts, and the number of criminal involvements. Those with NSSI had higher depressive scores than others (p<0.001). Conclusion: Children and adolescents with NSSI have wide-ranging problems in their lives. In a forensic adolescent population, depressive symptoms are more common in individuals with NSSI behaviors, and the specific characteristics of these behaviors need further investigation. PMID:25630778

  12. Two Low-Cost Measures of Child and Adolescent Functioning for Services Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickman, L.; Lambert, E. W.; Karver, K.; Andrade, A. R.

    1998-01-01

    The Parent and Youth Vanderbilt Functioning Indexes are functioning problem indexes for children and adolescents that require neither clinicians nor trained raters. Their low cost of administration permits adequate sample sizes in outcome evaluations of large numbers of students. The development of these instruments is described. (SLD)

  13. Management of Child and Adolescent Eating Disorders: The Current Evidence Base and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gowers, Simon; Bryant-Waugh, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    Although eating disorders in children and adolescents remain a serious cause of morbidity and mortality, the evidence base for effective interventions is surprisingly weak. The adult literature is growing steadily, but this is mainly with regard to psychological therapies for bulimia nervosa and to some extent in the field of pharmacotherapy. This…

  14. Associations of Personality with Alcohol Use Behaviour and Alcohol Problems in Adolescents Receiving Child Welfare Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Sherry Heather; McGonnell, Melissa; Wekerle, Christine; Adlaf, Ed

    2011-01-01

    Four specific personality factors have been theorized to put adolescents at risk for alcohol abuse: hopelessness (HOP), anxiety sensitivity (AS), sensation seeking (SS), and impulsivity (IMP). We examined relations of these personality factors to various alcohol-related indices in a sample at high risk for alcohol problems--specifically, a child…

  15. The Concurrence of Eating Disorders with Histories of Child Abuse among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Jeanne

    1995-01-01

    Examines the relationship between eating disorders and history of physical abuse, incest, and extrafamilial sexual abuse. Results of a survey of adolescents (n=6,224) indicate that eating disorders are correlated with all 3 types of abuse. Presence of an eating disorder also correlates with presence of other addictive behaviors, family history of…

  16. Offending Behaviours of Child and Adolescent Firesetters over a 10-Year Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambie, Ian; Ioane, Julia; Randell, Isabel; Seymour, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Background: To assess the postintervention arson recidivism and other offending rates of a group of 182 firesetting children and adolescents referred to the New Zealand Fire Awareness and Intervention Program (FAIP) over a follow-up period of 10 years. To investigate predictors of offending behaviour as well as variables associated with previous…

  17. Child Immunization Status among a Sample of Adolescent Mothers: Comparing the Validity of Measurement Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Clarissa; Cota-Robles, Sonia; Knight, Margaret; Francis, Judith; Phillips, Elizabeth; Mazerbo, Laurie

    2011-01-01

    This study of adolescent mothers sought to identify whether a single general question asked by phone or a detailed, vaccine-specific question asked in a self-report questionnaire best captured infant immunization status at 6 months postpartum, by comparing them with immunization record books. Responses to a global question about whether infants…

  18. Differential Trajectories of Parent-Child Relationships and Psychosocial Adjustment in Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noack, Peter; Puschner, Bernd

    1999-01-01

    Investigated family development during second half of adolescence. Analysis of family connectedness and individuality yielded three groupings: families constantly high on connectedness and individuality; families high on connectedness with an increase in individuality over time; and families higher on individuality than connectedness at every…

  19. Viewing Violence: How Media Violence Affects Your Child's and Adolescent's Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Madeline

    Numerous studies have shown that viewing media violence encourages aggression, desensitization, and pessimism in children. This book reviews research on the effects of television and movie violence on children and adolescents, offering parents suggestions for dealing with the problems it creates. It is asserted that parents frequently…

  20. Child Sexual Abuse Is Largely Hidden from the Adult Society: An Epidemiological Study of Adolescents' Disclosures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Goran

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate disclosure rates and disclosure patterns and to examine predictors of non-disclosure in a sample of male and female adolescents with self-reported experiences of sexual abuse. Method: A sample of 4,339 high school seniors (2,324 girls, 2,015 boys) was examined with a questionnaire concerning…