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  1. Adolescents and child maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Beard, Joyce W

    2014-03-01

    Child maltreatment is a very complex medical and social problem. Many children have died as a result of child maltreatment; others are depressed, engaging in risky behaviors and substance abuse and running away from home. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of child maltreatment in the United States. Characteristics and contributing factors of maltreatment are described, and health and behavior problems associated with maltreated adolescents will be reviewed. Additionally the role of the school nurse will be discussed. It is imperative that school nurses are aware of the significance of the problem and the effects that child maltreatment has on children as they mature into early adulthood. PMID:24707655

  2. Helping Your Child through Early Adolescence -- Helping Your Child Series

    MedlinePlus

    ... CHILD'S ACADEMIC SUCCESS Helping Your Child Through Early Adolescence -- Helping Your Child Series PDF (1 MB) For ... Acknowledgements Tips to Help Your Child through Early Adolescence No Child Left Behind < Previous page | ^ Top ^ | Next ...

  3. Child Maltreatment and Adolescent Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trickett, Penelope K.; Negriff, Sonya; Ji, Juye; Peckins, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect, often collectively called child maltreatment, are huge social problems affecting millions of children and adolescents in America. Adolescents are affected both by maltreatment which occurred during childhood with lingering effects and by maltreatment that continues into or begins in adolescence. Several decades of research…

  4. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Health and Mental Hygiene, Baltimore.

    The major goal of the 2-year child and adolescent psychiatry fellowship program at the University of Maryland is to provide an integrated but flexible set of learning experiences, with areas of emphasis including child and adolescent development, early intervention and prevention of mental health problems, community child psychiatry, and research.…

  5. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Children and Guns. Be CAPtivated - Child and Adolescent Psychiatry as a Career U.S. House Passes Mental ... More... AACAP Workforce Maps More... Delirium in Children & Adolescents More... Issues to Consider When Engaging Asian American ...

  6. The Importance of Child and Adolescent Psychopathy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrington, David P.

    2005-01-01

    In commenting on the five articles in this special issue, this paper discusses (1) the concept of child and adolescent psychopathy, and whether adolescent psychopaths are qualitatively distinct from other young people; (2) the measurement of adolescent psychopathy; (3) the relationship between psychopathy and other personality dimensions; (4)…

  7. Teachers' Awareness of Child and Adolescent Maltreatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyome, Nancy Dodge; Gaeddert, William

    1998-01-01

    Investigated teachers' knowledge of child and adolescent maltreatment and scenarios. Teacher ratings of the seriousness of depictions of different forms of maltreatment indicated that teachers tended to possess more knowledge about maltreatment of children than adolescents and tended to feel that adolescent sexual abuse was the most serious form…

  8. Neurosteroids in child and adolescent psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Golubchik, Pavel; Lewis, Matthew; Maayan, Rachel; Sever, Jonathan; Strous, Rael; Weizman, Abraham

    2007-02-01

    Neurosteroids play a significant role in neurodevelopment and are involved in a wide variety of psychopathological processes. There is accumulating evidence on their role in adult psychopathology, including Alzheimer disease, schizophrenia, mood disorder, anxiety disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder. Little is known, however, about the possible role of neurosteroids in child and adolescent psychopathology although there is increasing evidence for their critical role from the early stages of brain development until adolescence. In this review we focus on the involvement of neurosteroids in neurodevelopment and mental disorders in children and adolescents. Adequate physiological levels protect the developing neural system from insult and contribute to the regulation of brain organization and function. Neurosteroids may be involved in the pathophysiology and pharmacotherapy of a variety of disorders in children and adolescents, including schizophrenia, depression, eating disorders, aggressive behavior and attention deficit. The complex interaction between neurosteroids, neurodevelopment, life-events, genetics and mental disorders in children and adolescents merits further investigation. PMID:17079119

  9. Social Neuroscience of Child and Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Anita

    2007-01-01

    The social neuroscience of child and adolescent depression is inherently multidisciplinary. Depressive disorders beginning early in life can have serious developmental and functional consequences. Psychopathology research has described depression's defining clinical and contextual features, and intervention research has characterized its response…

  10. The Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Trials Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    March, John S.; Silva, Susan G.; Compton, Scott; Anthony, Ginger; DeVeaugh-Geiss, Joseph; Califf, Robert; Krishnan, Ranga

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The current generation of clinical trials in pediatric psychiatry often fails to maximize clinical utility for practicing clinicians, thereby diluting its impact. Method: To attain maximum clinical relevance and acceptability, the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Trials Network (CAPTN) will transport to pediatric psychiatry the practical…

  11. Fifty Years in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werry, John

    2013-01-01

    John Werry completed training in child and adolescent psychiatry at McGill University in Montreal, and has been a world renowned leader in children's mental health. Drawing on a half century of work in Canada, the United States, and his native New Zealand, he shares his reflections and vision for the future in the interview given for this…

  12. Adolescent Risk Factors for Child Maltreatment

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Mauri; Greenman, Sarah J.; Augustyn, Megan Bears; Henry, Kimberly L.; Smith, Carolyn A.; Ireland, Timothy O.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate adolescent risk factors, measured at both early and late adolescence, for involvement in child maltreatment during adulthood. Comprehensive assessments of risk factors for maltreatment that use representative samples with longitudinal data are scarce and can inform multilevel prevention. We use data from the Rochester Youth Development Study, a longitudinal study begun in 1988 with a sample of 1,000 seventh and eighth graders. Participants have been interviewed 14 times and, at the last assessment (age 31), 80% were retained. Risk factors represent 10 developmental domains: area characteristics, family background/structure, parent stressors, exposure to family violence, parent-child relationships, education, peer relationships, adolescent stressors, antisocial behaviors, and precocious transitions to adulthood. Maltreatment is measured by substantiated reports from Child Protective Services records. Many individual risk factors (20 at early adolescence and 14 at later adolescence) are significantly, albeit moderately, predictive of maltreatment. Several developmental domains stand out, including family background/structure, education, antisocial behaviors, and precocious transitions. In addition, there is a pronounced impact of cumulative risk on the likelihood of maltreatment. For example, only 3% of the youth with no risk domains in their background at early adolescence were involved in later maltreatment, but for those with risk in 9 developmental domains the rate was 45%. Prevention programs targeting youth at high risk for engaging in maltreatment should begin during early adolescence when risk factors are already at play. These programs need to be comprehensive, capable of addressing the multiple and interwoven nature of risk that is associated with maltreatment. PMID:24075569

  13. Child and Adolescent Psychiatrists' Practices in Assisting Their Adolescent Patients Who Smoke to Quit Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, James H.; Sidani, Jaime E.; Price, Joy A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This national study examined the practices and perceptions of smoking cessation activities among child and adolescent psychiatrists. Method: A random sample of child and adolescent psychiatrists was identified from the membership list of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and was mailed a valid and reliable 34-item…

  14. Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist Finder

    MedlinePlus

    Skip to main content Loading... Families and Youth Family Resources Youth Resources Facts for Families Resource Centers Advocacy Getting Help Support AACAP Medical Students and Residents Medical Student Resources Child Psychiatry ...

  15. Perceptions of Child Support and Sexual Activity of Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chien-Chung; Han, Wen-Jui

    2004-01-01

    Using the 1995 new cohort of the National Survey of Adolescent Males, this paper examines the association between perceptions of child support and adolescent males' sexual activity. The results indicate that adolescent males who expect the chance of being required to pay child support is high if one becomes a non-resident father or who has a…

  16. Histories of Child Maltreatment and Psychiatric Disorder in Pregnant Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Elisa; Zoccolillo, Mark; Paquette, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The study investigated histories of child maltreatment and psychiatric disorder in a high-risk sample of pregnant adolescents. Method: Cross-sectional data were obtained for 252 pregnant adolescents from high school, hospital, and group home settings in Montreal (Canada). Adolescents completed a child maltreatment questionnaire and a…

  17. Factors Affecting Recruitment into Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Jon A.; Lewis, John E.; Katyal, Shalini

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors studied the factors affecting the recruitment into child and adolescent psychiatry training in the United States. Methods: Medical students (n = 154) and general and child and adolescent psychiatry residents (n = 111) completed a questionnaire to evaluate career choice in child psychiatry (n = 265). Results: Compared with…

  18. Adolescent mother -- an unprepared child.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, B D; Chandra, R

    1993-01-01

    The World Health Organization considers adolescence to be the period between 10 and 20 years during which individuals undergo significant psychosexual and psychosocial development. The needs an well-being of people, especially girls, in this age group in India, however, are neglected. Almost 25% of India's population is comprised of girls below 20 years of age. Adolescent pregnancies make up 10-15% of the total and may be largely attributed to early marriage, but these girls are prepared neither physically nor emotionally for pregnancy and motherhood. Adolescents who marry between aged 15-19 will nonetheless bear on average 6-7 children over the course of their lives. In fact, 80% of women's time between the ages 15 and 35 is spent either being pregnant or nursing offspring. Sections discuss nutritional deprivation and poor fetal growth, obstetric risks, and maternal and infant mortality, literacy and school dropouts, and psychosocial aspects of adolescent pregnancy and motherhood. Intervention programs could aim to increase total food intake, prevent against iron deficiency anemia, provide education and health care for girls aged 10-15, promote the use of contraception, register marriages and provide family life education, and involve boys in the education process. While the marriage age needs to be increased, this change should not be legislated. Change must instead result from education syllabi at the school level. PMID:12287001

  19. [Child and adolescent bipolar disorder].

    PubMed

    Aichhorn, Wolfgang; Stuppäck, Christoph; Kralovec, Karl; Yazdi, Kurosch; Aichhorn, Monika; Hausmann, Armand

    2007-01-01

    The onset of bipolar disorders before the age of 10 is rare. First manifestation occurs most frequently between the age of 15 to 30. Children of a parent with bipolar disorder are at a fivefold risk for developing a bipolar disorder. Therefore, an elaborate family-history is essential for the assessment of potentially manic or depressive symptoms in children and adolescents. Basically, for all age groups the same diagnostic criteria according to ICD 10 are applied. Due to the differing symptoms for children and adolescents the finding of a diagnosis is considerably harder than for adults. Manic episodes before the age of 10 are characterized by increased activity, more risk taking behaviour and elevated emotional instability. In adolescents, however, behavioural disturbance with antisocial behaviour and drug-abuse are more common. Thus, typical misdiagnosis as ADHD or conduct disorders for children and adolescents are frequent. Aggravating the complexity, in up to 90 % both differential-diagnosis may occur as comorbid disorders. Furthermore, psychotic symptoms are more common than in adults and dysphoria is more likely than euphoric or depressive mood. Asymptomatic intervals rarely exist, whereas "ups" and "downs" in rapid succession are prevailing (rapid cycling). An early diagnosis, leading specific treatment, is essential for the prognosis of bipolar disorders. Additionally, structural (CCT or MRI) and laboratory examination are essential to expel endocrine or brain-organic diseases. Besides psychotherapeutic and psychoeducative methods, always including parents and attached persons, the psychopharmacological treatment is a major part of a multimodal treatment. The available substances partly have been in use for years and are appropriate for youngsters. These include mood stabilizers like lithium, divalproex and carbamazepine, which provide besides their acute antimanic effects also relapse-prophylactic properties. In addition atypical antipsychotics like

  20. Psychosocial aspects of child and adolescent obesity.

    PubMed

    Nieman, Peter; Leblanc, Claire Ma

    2012-04-01

    In addition to counselling families about regular physical activity and healthy nutrition, clinicians need to identify and help them to address the psychosocial factors that may be contributing to their child's or adolescent's obesity. Affected individuals may suffer from depression, low self-esteem, bullying, and weight bias, experiences that can make achieving desired health outcomes more difficult. Clinicians should try to identify these underlying stressors and ensure that appropriate counselling is implemented. PMID:23543619

  1. Family Therapy Training in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Fellowship Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rait, Douglas Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study describes the current state of family therapy training in a sample of child and adolescent psychiatry fellowship programs. Method: Child and adolescent psychiatry fellows (N = 66) from seven training programs completed a questionnaire assessing demographics, family therapy training experiences, common models of treatment and…

  2. A Data Book of Child and Adolescent Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health, Washington, DC.

    This booklet contains 54 graphs and accompanying narrative which summarize available data on child and adolescent non-natural injuries and deaths and are intended to help in the multi-disciplinary and multi-agency "Healthy People 2000" campaign to improve the nation's health and prevent needless child and adolescent injuries. Graphs illustrate…

  3. Model Curriculum for Academic Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubbe, Dorothy; Martin, Andres; Bloch, Michael; Belitsky, Richard; Carter, Debbie; Ebert, Michael; Friedman, Alan; Giese, Alexis; Kirwin, Paul; Ross, Randal G.; Leckman, James F.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The United States is facing a severe shortage of academic child and adolescent psychiatrists. This article reviews a model integrated pathway to improve recruitment. Methods: The authors review training portals for research in child and adolescent psychiatry. There is a summary of a focus group discussion of the advantages and…

  4. The Protestant child, adolescent, and family.

    PubMed

    Mercer, Joyce Ann

    2004-01-01

    This article addresses Protestant Christianity as an often-overlooked but significant factor in clinical work with children and adolescents. Noting the wide range of beliefs and practices among Protestants, the article identifies key tenets of Protestant faith that shape the worldviews of children, adolescents, and their families. Clinical implications of these beliefs are explored, with particular attention to three potentially psychopathologic features: the religious legitimation of child maltreatment; paranormal, direct experiences of the divine through unusual perceptions such as trance states or visions deemed normal within their religious context but that may also evidence serious pathology; and sexuality issues of particular significance for adolescents. Research suggests that Protestant beliefs also constitute resources for clinical work because they appear to be protective factors in relation to depression, avoidance of high-risk behaviors, and other measures of resiliency among adolescents. Clinicians who do not take the Protestant Christian family's religious/spiritual worldview into consideration in case formulation risk misunderstanding or alienating them from treatment. The article concludes with suggestions for collaboration. PMID:14723307

  5. Resolution of Parent-Child Conflicts in the Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Ruiz, Marta; Rodrigo, Maria Jose; Hernandez-Cabrera, Juan Andres; Maiquez, Maria Luisa; Dekovic, Maja

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the study were: (1) to examine whether adolescents' attachment and the perceived quality of the communication with their parents relate to effective resolution of parent-child conflicts and (2) to determine whether the pattern of associations changes with adolescents' gender and age. The sample consisted of 295 adolescents who filled…

  6. Developmental Changes in Parent-Child Communication throughout Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keijsers, Loes; Poulin, François

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how parent-child communication regarding adolescent unsupervised activities develops over the course of adolescence. We used questionnaire data from 390 adolescents (58% girls; 90% European Canadian) who were followed from age 12 to 19. Latent growth curve modeling revealed curvilinear developmental changes that differed for…

  7. Injury prevention and the attainment of child and adolescent health

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Alison; Peden, Margie; Soori, Hamid; Bartolomeos, Kidist

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Urgent attention is required to tackle the problem of child and adolescent injury across the world. There have been considerable shifts in the epidemiological patterns of child deaths; while great progress has been made in preventing infectious diseases, the exposure of children and adolescents to the risks of injury appear to be increasing and will continue to do so in the future. The issue of injuries is too often absent from child and adolescent health agendas. In December 2008, WHO and the United Nations Children’s Fund published the World report on child injury prevention, calling global attention to the problem of child injuries. This article expands on the report’s arguments that child injuries must be integrated into child health initiatives and proposes initial steps for achieving this integration. PMID:19551258

  8. The Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment (CAPA).

    PubMed

    Angold, A; Prendergast, M; Cox, A; Harrington, R; Simonoff, E; Rutter, M

    1995-07-01

    Great advances have been made during the last 20 years in the development of structured and semi-structured interviews for use with psychiatric patients. However, in the field of child and adolescent psychiatry there have been weaknesses in the specification and definition of both symptoms and the psychosocial impairments resulting from psychiatric disorder. Furthermore, most of the available interviews for use with children have been tied to a single diagnostic system (DSM-III, DSM-III-R, or ICD-9). This has meant that symptom coverage has been limited and nosological comparisons have been inhibited. The Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment (CAPA) represents an attempt to remedy some of these shortcomings. This paper outlines the principles adopted in the CAPA to improve the standardization, reliability and meaningfulness of symptom and diagnostic ratings. The CAPA is an interviewer-based diagnostic interview with versions for use with children and their parents, focused on symptoms occurring during the preceding 3 month period, adapted for assessments in both clinical and epidemiological research. PMID:7480451

  9. [Diagnosis of child and adolescent nutritional status

    PubMed

    Sigulem, D M; Devincenzi, M U; Lessa, A C

    2000-11-01

    OBJECTIVE: To present a review on the methods for the assessment of child and adolescent nutritional status, emphasizing anthropometry and the various methods for the assessment of body composition; pointing out their advantages, limitations and risks. METHODS: Chapters of textbooks, theses, and articles relevant to the topic, as well as personal files and authors previous publications were selected. RESULTS: Anthropometry, which consists of the assessment of physical dimensions and global composition of the human body, has been regarded as the most frequently used isolated method for nutritional diagnosis, especially in childhood and adolescence, due to its ease of use, low cost and innocuousness. The most frequently adopted measurements aim at determining body mass, expressed by weight; linear dimensions, especially height; body composition and reserves of energy and proteins, estimated through subcutaneous fat and muscle mass. Laboratorial methods especially developed for the assessment of body composition are presented here. The justification for the use of methods that expose children and adolescents to ionizing radiation is also presented. CONCLUSIONS: On defining methods for the assessment of nutritional status, we should select those that better detect the nutritional deficiencies we want to correct, also taking into consideration their costs, level of personal skill required for their proper application, necessary time for application, acceptability by the studied population and possible health risks. PMID:14676905

  10. Child and adolescent mental health emergency services in Macedonia.

    PubMed

    Releva, M; Boskovska, M; Apceva, A; Polazarevska, M; Novotni, A; Bonevski, D; Sargent, J

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the development of child and adolescent mental health emergency services in Macedonia since 1993. The evolution of services through the Mental Crisis Centre for Children and Adolescents, funded by the Open Society Institute, and located in six cities is outlined. The paper also defines traditional services, the nature of child mental health emergencies, the evaluation process, follow-up care and training and supervision. It concludes with concern that the mental health emergency system is not sufficient to meet the needs of the child and adolescent population, particularly in the face of the Kosovar refugee crisis. Recommendations for the future are made. PMID:11508566

  11. Training child and adolescent psychiatrists to be culturally competent.

    PubMed

    Mian, Ayesha I; Al-Mateen, Cheryl S; Cerda, Gabrielle

    2010-10-01

    The changing face of the United States urges the field of child and adolescent psychiatry toward more culturally sensitive care. This article gives a comprehensive review of the history of cultural education, empirical findings that speak to its need, and the challenges that may be faced in the conception and implementation of a cultural competency curriculum. The American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry's model curriculum is presented to help child and adolescent residency programs design one that is specific to their resources and needs. PMID:21056348

  12. [Child and adolescent psychiatry its problems and foresight].

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Kosuke

    2002-01-01

    Accompanying the fall in birth rate, problems pertaining to the child's mind such as school in attendance, bullying, violence in the school, intrafamilial violence, eating disorders, substance abuse, and child abuse have rocketed and diversified, in addition to affecting increasingly lower age groups. The importance of child and adolescent psychiatry has never been more profound, but our country, without a chair in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in the medical school framework, and lacking recognition of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry as a clinical department has undoubtedly become an underdeveloped country in terms of child and adolescent psychiatric care. The medical schools have been in the process of review and reorganization these past few years. The range of mental science is wide, and despite being a major discipline constituting one of the two arms of medical science together with somatic medicine, it is regarded as a minor existence in our country. This is the time to re-establish mental science, with areas such as child and adolescent psychiatry, geriatric psychiatry, social psychiatry, and crime psychiatry placed on an equal footing with general psychiatry. Turning our eyes on the world, the children are being robbed of their mental health as refugees, through child labor, starvation, and civil war. The demand of this age is true symbiosis, surpassing differences in race, religion, language, and culture, which is probably the indispensable element in the quest for a happy future for the children of this age. PMID:12607920

  13. Developmental Horizons: Legacies and Prospects in Child and Adolescent Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Lene Arnett; Larson, Reed W.

    2005-01-01

    This volume brings together leading scholars to describe important new directions in research on child and adolescent development. This introductory chapter places their articles in the context of three larger trends in the field.

  14. Child and Adolescent Health Profile: New York State 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simkin, Linda; And Others

    This profile of child and adolescent health, which was designed for policymakers and program planners, contains over 40 indicators grouped into 10 categories: (1) population characteristics; (2) socioeconomic status; (3) program participation; (4) health care access; (5) pregnancies, births and infant health; (6) adolescent health; (7) morbidity;…

  15. Is There an Epidemic of Child or Adolescent Depression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costello, E. Jane; Erkanli, Alaattin; Angold, Adrian

    2006-01-01

    Background: Both the professional and the general media have recently published concerns about an "epidemic" of child and adolescent depression. Reasons for this concern include (1) increases in antidepressant prescriptions, (2) retrospective recall by successive birth cohorts of adults, (3) rising adolescent suicide rates until 1990, and (4)…

  16. Adolescent Responsibility, Parent-Child Relations, and School Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Laurence; Elmen, Julie D.

    Examined are the relationships of student responsibility and parent-adolescent relations to the school performance of middle-school-age youth. A total of 120 families with a first-born child between 11 and 16 years of age participated in the study. Assessment of adolescent responsibility included measures of self-reliance, work orientation,…

  17. Developmental changes in parent-child communication throughout adolescence.

    PubMed

    Keijsers, Loes; Poulin, François

    2013-12-01

    This study examined how parent-child communication regarding adolescent unsupervised activities develops over the course of adolescence. We used questionnaire data from 390 adolescents (58% girls; 90% European Canadian) who were followed from age 12 to 19. Latent growth curve modeling revealed curvilinear developmental changes that differed for boys and girls. From age 14 to 19 (but not from age 12 to 14) a linear decrease in parental control was found for both genders. For girls, parent-child communication decreased in early adolescence, as indicated by decreasing parental solicitation, decreasing adolescent disclosure, and increasing secrecy. Girls' communication with parents intensified in middle adolescence, as indicated by increasing parental solicitation, increasing adolescent disclosure, and decreasing adolescent secrecy. For boys, disclosure declined in early adolescence, but secrecy and solicitation were stable throughout adolescence. Parental knowledge decreased from age 12 to 19 for both genders but was temporarily stable for middle adolescent girls. The meaning of these developmental changes, their timing, and gender differences are discussed. PMID:23477535

  18. Review of Child and Adolescent Refugee Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lustig, Stuart L.; Kia-Keating, Maryam; Knight, Wanda Grant; Geltman, Paul; Ellis, Heidi; Kinzie, J. David; Keane, Terence; Saxe, Glenn N.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To review stressful experiences and stress reactions among child and adolescent refugees, as well as interventions and ethical considerations in research and clinical work, within the framework of the chronological experiences of child refugees; namely, the phases of preflight, flight, and resettlement. Highlighted are special refugee…

  19. Clinical Assessment of Child and Adolescent Sleep Disturbance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Brett R.; Mayfield, Joan W.; Kuhn, Robert H.

    1999-01-01

    Provides guidelines for counselors interested in developing their own assessment procedure to evaluate child and adolescent sleep disturbance. Guidelines include reviewing the developmental and medical history, screening for parental psychopathology, obtaining a child behavior rating scale and sleep diary, and conducting a semistructured clinical…

  20. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Training: A Global Perspective.

    PubMed

    Mian, Ayesha I; Milavić, Gordana; Skokauskas, Norbert

    2015-10-01

    Training programs aim to produce child and adolescent psychiatry professionals who are competent at both clinical work as well as health promotion through teaching and research. Child psychiatry training programs not only offer training in teaching the clinical skills of the discipline of child and adolescent psychiatry but also strive to help with the development of professionalism, ethical behaviors, and leadership skills in their trainees. Ultimately, it is the children of the world who stand to gain by having a skilled work force that adheres to the highest global standards when it comes to the provision of mental health services. PMID:26346384

  1. Child and family outreach services as an adjunct to child and adolescent mental health treatment.

    PubMed

    Stein, M B; Hyde, K L; Monopolis, S J

    1991-06-01

    Child and Family Outreach Services have been an important adjunct to urban community child and adolescent mental health treatment. The Child and Family Outreach Services Program was developed as an extension of a child and adolescent outpatient and child partial hospitalization program to provide a comprehensive continuum of treatment. The Child and Family Outreach Program generalizes and links traditional therapeutic services to the patient's and family's environment through in-home, in-school, and community intervention. The latter treatment model enables the mental health service provider comprehensively to treat and effect positive change with high-risk patients and their families. Outreach service involvement has increased treatment compliance and reduced out-of-home placements. PMID:10114458

  2. Academic Training in a Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Fellowship: A Curriculum Based on Leadership Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivany, Christopher G.; Russell, Robert K.; Vanessa, Venezia A.; Saito, Albert Y.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe how one child and adolescent psychiatry fellowship program responded to emerging trends in clinical practice which increasingly demand that child and adolescent psychiatrists lead their colleagues through instruction and supervision. Methods: Data from surveys of recent graduates of child and adolescent training…

  3. Adolescent Hope as a Mediator between Parent-Child Connectedness and Adolescent Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Hardy, Sam A.; Christensen, Katherine J.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines adolescent hope as a mediator between connectedness to mother and father, and positive and negative child outcomes. Participants included 489 adolescents aged 9 to 14 years (M = 11.29; SD = 1.01) and their parents from the "Flourishing Families Project", and data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results…

  4. "My Mom Makes Me So Angry!" Adolescent Perceptions of Mother-Child Interactions as Correlates of Adolescent Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine adolescents' perceptions of mother-child interactions as correlates of adolescents' positive, negative, and guilt emotions. Two hundred thirty-four adolescents (M age = 16.39, SD = 1.17) completed measures assessing parenting practices in response to typical mother-child interactions in both positive…

  5. Family-based Treatment of Child and Adolescent Eating Disorders.

    PubMed

    Forsberg, Sarah; Lock, James

    2015-07-01

    Best-practice guidelines for the treatment of child and adolescent eating disorders recommend the inclusion of parents. Family-based treatment (FBT) posits that families are not only important in supporting their children but are critical change agents in the recovery process. As originally developed for anorexia nervosa, parents take a central role in managing and disrupting eating disorder symptoms. The most evidence-based treatment model for adolescent anorexia nervosa, FBT has also recently been found to be useful in the treatment of adolescent bulimia nervosa. This article provides a summary of the theoretic model, evidence base, and application of FBT. PMID:26092743

  6. Adolescent Fathers Involved with Child Protection: Social Workers Speak

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Derrick M.; Watkins, Natasha D.; Walling, Sherry M.; Wilhelm, Sara; Rayford, Brett S.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined adolescent paternity through structured interviews with their social workers. It adds to the literature by exploring if there were young men involved with the child protection services (CPS) system who are fathers, identifying their unique needs, and beginning discussions on working with these young men. CPS social workers from…

  7. Child and Adolescent Therapy: Cognitive-Behavioral Procedures. Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Philip C., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Widely regarded as the definitive clinical reference and text in the field, this authoritative volume presents effective cognitive-behavioral approaches for treating frequently encountered child and adolescent disorders. The editor and contributors are leading experts who provide hands-on, how-to-do-it descriptions illustrated with clinical…

  8. Child and Adolescent Predictors of Male Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, Delphine; Farrington, David P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study addresses to what extent child and adolescent explanatory factors predict male perpetrated intimate partner violence (IPV) in adulthood. Methods: We use prospective longitudinal data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development (CSDD). The CSDD is a survey of 411 male born in the 1950s in an inner London area. The men…

  9. The Impact of Parental Suicide on Child and Adolescent Offspring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuramoto, S. Janet; Brent, David A.; Wilcox, Holly C.

    2009-01-01

    Child and adolescent survivors of parental suicide experience two stressful events simultaneously: (1) the loss of a primary caregiver, and (2) suicidal death of a significant person. These youths are thought to be at increased risk for mental health problems, but a systematic review of studies on these survivors has not yet been conducted. A…

  10. Parenting in Relation to Child and Adolescent Vocational Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Brenda K.; Zvonkovic, Anisa M.; Reynolds, Paula

    2006-01-01

    Processes of child and adolescent vocational development include acquisition of knowledge, beliefs, and values about work options and requirements, exploration of interests that will be relevant for occupational interest development, development of academic aspirations, self-efficacy, expectations, and attainment. These elements serve to provide…

  11. Classroom Research and Child and Adolescent Development in South America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preiss, David Daniel; Calcagni, Elisa; Grau, Valeska

    2015-01-01

    The article reviews recent classroom research developed in South America related to child and adolescent development. We review work about three themes: ethnicity, school climate and violence, and the learning process. The few studies found on ethnicity and classroom experiences told a story of invisibility, if not exclusion and discrimination.…

  12. CATCH: Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health. [Multimedia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Heart, Lung, and Blood Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) of the National Institutes of Health has launched an initiative called the Cardiovascular Health Promotion Project to teach heart-healthy habits to children. One of the programs developed by this initiative, CATCH, the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health, is the largest…

  13. Multiple Regression Analyses in Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaccard, James; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Johansson, Margaret; Bouris, Alida

    2006-01-01

    A major form of data analysis in clinical child and adolescent psychology is multiple regression. This article reviews issues in the application of such methods in light of the research designs typical of this field. Issues addressed include controlling covariates, evaluation of predictor relevance, comparing predictors, analysis of moderation,…

  14. Child Maltreatment and Delinquency Onset among African American Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, James Herbert; Van Dorn, Richard A.; Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Nebbitt, Von E.

    2010-01-01

    Child welfare and criminology research have increasingly sought to better understand factors that increase the likelihood that abused and neglected children will become involved in the juvenile justice system. However, few studies have addressed this relationship among African American male adolescents. The current study examines the relationship…

  15. Psychometric Evaluation of the Child-Adolescent Teasing Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vessey, Judith A.; Horowitz, June A.; Carlson, Karen L.; Duffy, Mary

    2008-01-01

    Background: This article presents the psychometric evaluation of the Child-Adolescent Teasing Scale (CATS), an instrument to be used as a screening measure with middle school students. Methods: A 70-item scale was initially derived from qualitative data obtained from focus groups comprised of middle school students. A diverse sample of…

  16. Guide to Your Child's Sleep: Birth through Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, George J., Ed.

    Because sleep disturbances are common in childhood, almost every parent will have to deal with a child's sleeptime problems at some point. This guide offers information on sleep in children from birth through adolescence. The book answers common questions from parents, and provides advice on preventing Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, getting infants…

  17. Applied Research in Child and Adolescent Development: A Practical Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maholmes, Valerie, Ed.; Lomonaco, Carmela Gina, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Developed for an NIH training institute, this volume is organized around the most frequently asked questions by researchers starting their careers in applied research in child and adolescent development. With contributions from the leading scholars in the field, actual research experiences highlight the challenges one faces in conducting such…

  18. The Continuing Shortage of Child and Adolescent Psychiatrists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Christopher R.; Holzer, Charles E., III

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The national shortage of child and adolescent psychiatrists has prompted efforts to improve recruitment. It is uncertain whether these efforts will be sufficient to address this shortage and its impact on youth mental health services. Method: Data were compared from 1990 to 2001 by state, county characteristics, number of youths, and…

  19. Primary Supervision: Massachusetts General Hospital's child and adolescent psychiatry seminar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jellinek, Michael S.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes "Primary Supervision", a seminar he has led for approximately 20 years, which is designed for the entire class of nine first-year residents in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry training at Massachusetts General Hospital. The seminar meets for 1 hour each week throughout the first year. Through 900 hours of…

  20. [Adolescent pregnancy: the drama of the child-mothers].

    PubMed

    Monterosa Castro, A

    1993-12-01

    According to the 1990 Demographic and Health Survey, 21% of fertile-aged women in Colombia are adolescents aged 15-19. Research throughout the world has revealed that young people are initiating their sexual lives at ever earlier ages, due to earlier sexual maturation, constant erotic stimuli, and a mistaken understanding of sexuality. A Colombian survey showed that 49% of males and 11% of females had sex by age 18. Earlier sexual activity is leading to increased incidence of unwanted pregnancy. 78 of each 1000 adolescents become mothers each year. Among adolescents aged 16-18 with positive pregnancy tests at the Profamilia Adolescent Clinic in Bogota, 80% did not use contraception and 85% did not with to be pregnant. Unwanted adolescent pregnancy is usually traumatic, with implications for all areas of life. None of the options open to an adolescent with an undesired pregnancy is desirable. Keeping the baby exposes the mother to ostracism and rejection by the family, expulsion from school, and societal rejection. Forced marriages almost always end in separation. Adoption leads to frustration and feelings of guilt in the future. Abortion in Colombia is illegal and exposes the women to emotional and physical trauma and to risk of death or injury. The unwanted child is at risk of mistreatment, abandonment, or rejection. A demographic survey by Profamilia showed that 25% of Colombian women are mothers by age 19. 62% of uneducated adolescents are mothers by this age. Low educational level is associated with early pregnancy and limited economic opportunity. Adolescents are at higher risk of pregnancy complications due to physiological immaturity, stress, poor adaptability to pregnancy, and inadequate prenatal care. Adolescent pregnancy should be prevented. The prevention should be achieved through integrated sex education beginning at the first contact of the child with the world outside the family. The child should learn basic concepts of self-esteem, values, and

  1. Child Maltreatment Prevention and the Scope of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Constantino, John N

    2016-04-01

    Child maltreatment is one of the most deleterious known influences on the mental health and development of children. This article briefly reviews a complement of methods that are ready to incorporate into child and adolescent psychiatric practice, by having been validated either with respect to the prevention of child maltreatment or with respect to adverse outcomes associated with maltreatment (and primarily focused on enhancing the caregiving environment); they are feasible for integration into clinical decision making, and most importantly, can be included in the training of the next generation of clinicians. PMID:26980121

  2. Child/Pet Maltreatment: Adolescents' Ratings of Parent and Owner Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roscoe, Bruce; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Results from an investigation of 614 adolescents' ratings of forms of child and pet maltreatment indicated that adolescents were highly critical of acts which constitute maltreatment, more critical of abusive than neglectful acts, less tolerant of child abuse than pet abuse, but more tolerant of physical force directed toward a child if they had…

  3. Helping Your Child through Early Adolescence. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulu, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    Early adolescence can be a challenging time for both children and parents. This booklet is intended to provide parents with the latest research and practical information that can help them support their young teen children at home and in school. Selected subject headings include: (1) Changes; (2) Being an Effective Parent; (3) Communication; (4)…

  4. Reconsidering Changes in Parent-Child Conflict across Adolescence: A Meta-Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laursen, Brett; Coy, Katherine C.; Collins, W. Andrew

    1998-01-01

    A series of meta-analyses identified changes in parent-child conflict during adolescence and moderating factors. Results of age meta-analyses indicated that conflict rate and total conflict declined from early to mid adolescence and from mid to late adolescence; conflict affect increased from early to mid-adolescence. Puberty meta-analyses…

  5. Child and Adolescent Development for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pressley, Michael; McCormick, Christine B.

    2006-01-01

    Filling a tremendous need, this is the first graduate-level child development text written specifically for future educators. The volume provides a solid understanding of major theories of development, focusing on how each has informed research and practice in educational contexts. Topics include the impact of biology and early experiences on the…

  6. Peer Contagion in Child and Adolescent Social and Emotional Development

    PubMed Central

    Dishion, Thomas J.; Tipsord, Jessica M.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we examine the construct of peer contagion in childhood and adolescence and review studies of child and adolescent development that have identified peer contagion influences. Evidence suggests that children's interactions with peers are tied to increases in aggression in early and middle childhood and amplification of problem behaviors such as drug use, delinquency, and violence in early to late adolescence. Deviancy training is one mechanism that accounts for peer contagion effects on problem behaviors from age 5 through adolescence. In addition, we discuss peer contagion relevant to depression in adolescence, and corumination as an interactive process that may account for these effects. Social network analyses suggest that peer contagion underlies the influence of friendship on obesity, unhealthy body images, and expectations. Literature is reviewed that suggests how peer contagion effects can undermine the goals of public education from elementary school through college and impair the goals of juvenile corrections systems. In particular, programs that “select” adolescents at risk for aggregated preventive interventions are particularly vulnerable to peer contagion effects. It appears that a history of peer rejection is a vulnerability factor for influence by peers, and adult monitoring, supervision, positive parenting, structure, and self-regulation serve as protective factors. PMID:19575606

  7. Peer contagion in child and adolescent social and emotional development.

    PubMed

    Dishion, Thomas J; Tipsord, Jessica M

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we examine the construct of peer contagion in childhood and adolescence and review studies of child and adolescent development that have identified peer contagion influences. Evidence suggests that children's interactions with peers are tied to increases in aggression in early and middle childhood and amplification of problem behaviors such as drug use, delinquency, and violence in early to late adolescence. Deviancy training is one mechanism that accounts for peer contagion effects on problem behaviors from age 5 through adolescence. In addition, we discuss peer contagion relevant to depression in adolescence, and corumination as an interactive process that may account for these effects. Social network analyses suggest that peer contagion underlies the influence of friendship on obesity, unhealthy body images, and expectations. Literature is reviewed that suggests how peer contagion effects can undermine the goals of public education from elementary school through college and impair the goals of juvenile corrections systems. In particular, programs that "select" adolescents at risk for aggregated preventive interventions are particularly vulnerable to peer contagion effects. It appears that a history of peer rejection is a vulnerability factor for influence by peers, and adult monitoring, supervision, positive parenting, structure, and self-regulation serve as protective factors. PMID:19575606

  8. [Neurocognitive function in child and adolescent psychopathology].

    PubMed

    Chamorro Oschilewsky, Rodrigo

    2011-01-01

    Executive control processes, such as sustained attention, response inhibition and working memory allows us to guide behavior appropriately, flexible and adaptable. The consequences of executive dysfunction in humans can be dramatic, as evidenced by the wide range of neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders in which such deficits impact negatively on the performance and quality of life, affecting high prosecutions relating to the prefrontal areas and their connections, including cognitive function. This review is to update and highlight the importance of assess neuropsychological and neurocognitive functional changes that occur in the course of various neuropsychiatric disorders in children and adolescents. PMID:21977606

  9. Child and adolescent psychiatry and family therapy. An overview.

    PubMed

    Malone, C A

    2001-07-01

    This article has provided an overview of the complex relationship between family therapy and child and adolescent psychiatry. Emphasis has been placed on the fact that the controversy and polarization that earlier characterized the relationship have delayed, but not blocked, the full integration of family therapy into child and adolescent psychiatry. Child psychiatrists and family therapists have been able to move beyond dichotomous polemics to combine the two fields in clinical practice, which has led to meaningful convergence in research and services. Family research has yielded important new directions for clinical practice in the areas of attachment, alcoholism, conduct disorder, and schizophrenia spectrum disorders. It also has led to models of family continuity that have considerable potential for interrelating and possibly integrating different family therapy models. Family research also has uncovered family factors in the intergenerational transmission of psychopathology that can inform clinical practice. Convergence in the clinical domain has led to improved assessment and treatment across a wide range of child, adolescent, and family developmental, emotional, behavioral, and mental disorders. Finally, this article has reviewed the controversy over family systems therapy and the development of new directions in theory and practice to which this controversy has led. Despite the possibility that these new directions might lead to significant disruption and interference in the process of convergence, careful examination of the controversy and the new developments in practice suggests that rather than producing division between the two fields, the new developments, especially narrative therapy, are more likely to bring the two fields closer, particularly in the realm of interventive interviewing in family therapy. PMID:11449803

  10. Child Abuse and Mental Disorders in Iranian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pirdehghan, Azar; Vakili, Mahmood; Rajabzadeh, Yavar; Puyandehpour, Mohammad; Aghakoochak, Arezoo

    2016-01-01

    Background Child abuse is a serious social health problem all over the world with important adverse effects. Objectives The aim of this study was to extend our understanding of the relation between mental disorders and child abuse. Materials and Methods The study was designed as a cross-sectional survey on 700 students in secondary schools using multiple cluster sampling in Yazd, Iran in 2013. We applied 2 self reported questionnaires: DASS (depression anxiety stress scales)-42 for assessing mental disorders (anxiety, stress and depression) and a standard self-reported valid and reliable questionnaire for recording child abuse information in neglect, psychological, physical and sexual domains. The collected data was analyzed using SPSS software. P-values < 0.05 were considered as significant. Results There was a statically significant correlation between mental disorder and child abuse score (Spearman rho: 0.2; P-value < 0.001). The highest correlations between mental disorders and child abuse were found in psychological domain, Spearman’s rho coefficients were 0.46, 0.41 and 0.36 for depression, anxiety and stress respectively (P-value < 0.001). Based on the results of logistic regression for mental disorder, females, last born adolescents and subjects with drug or alcohol abuser parents had mental disorder odds of 3, 0.4 and 1.9 times compared to others; and severe psychological abuse, being severely neglected and having sexual abuse had odds 90, 1.6 and 1.5 respectively in another model. Conclusions Programming for mandatory reporting of child abuse by physicians and all health care givers e.g. those attending schools or health centers, in order to prevent or reduce its detrimental effects is useful and success in preventing child abuse could lead to reductions in the prevalence of mental disorders. PMID:27437096

  11. Exposure to Child and Adolescent Psychiatry for Medical Students: Are There Optimal "Teaching Perspectives"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Jeffrey; Barrett, Rowland; Grapentine, W. Lex; Liguori, Gina; Trivedi, Harsh K.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The ability to develop quality medical student exposures in child and adolescent psychiatry is critical to the professional development of these future physicians and to the growth of recruitment efforts into the field. This study identifies teaching perspectives among child and adolescent psychiatry faculty to determine whether there…

  12. Early Child Maltreatment, Runaway Youths, and Risk of Delinquency and Victimization in Adolescence: A Mediational Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Min Jung; Tajima, Emiko A.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Huang, Bu

    2009-01-01

    This article examines whether running away from home mediates the link between child maltreatment and later delinquency and victimization in adolescence. Specifically, the authors tested the hypothesis that childhood physical and psychological abuse increase the risk of a child's running away from home by the time of adolescence. Running away from…

  13. Research on Child and Adolescent Development and Public Policy in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narea, Marigen

    2016-01-01

    This commentary discusses the implication of child and adolescent development research for public policy in Latin America. As illustrated by the articles in this special issue, even though the research of child and adolescent development in Latin America is making significant progress, still more research is needed. Developmental research in the…

  14. Adolescent Tobacco and Cannabis Use: Young Adult Outcomes from the Ontario Child Health Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgiades, Katholiki; Boyle, Michael H.

    2007-01-01

    Background: This study examines the longitudinal associations between adolescent tobacco and cannabis use and young adult functioning. Methods: Data for analysis come from the Ontario Child Health Study (OCHS), a prospective study of child health, psychiatric disorder and adolescent substance use in a general population sample that began in 1983,…

  15. Characteristics of Patients Visiting the Child & Adolescent Psychiatric Clinic: A 26-Year Study from North India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malhotra, Savita; Biswas, Parthasarathy; Sharan, Pratap; Grover, Sandeep

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To study the sociodemographic and clinical profile of patients, who presented to the child and adolescent psychiatric services of a tertiary care centre over a 26-year period (1980-2005). Methodology: Data were abstracted retrospectively from detailed work up files of all subjects assessed in the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (CAP) Clinic…

  16. Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Child and Adolescent Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Paula M.; Farrell, Lara; Pina, Armando A.; Peris, Tara S.; Piacentini, John

    2008-01-01

    Child and adolescent obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic and debilitating condition associated with a wide range of impairments. This article briefly discusses the phenomenology of OCD, the theory underlying current treatment approaches, and the extant psychosocial treatment literature for child and adolescent OCD relative to the…

  17. Improving Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Education for Medical Students: An Inter-Organizational Collaborative Action Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Geraldine S.; Stock, Saundra; Briscoe, Gregory W.; Beck, Gary L.; Horton, Rita; Hunt, Jeffrey I.; Liu, Howard Y.; Rutter, Ashley Partner; Sexson, Sandra; Schlozman, Steven C.; Stubbe, Dorothy E.; Stuber, Margaret L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: A new Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Medical Education (CAPME) Task Force, sponsored by the Association for Directors of Medical Student Education in Psychiatry (ADMSEP), has created an inter-organizational partnership between child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) educators and medical student educators in psychiatry. This paper…

  18. Exposing Medical Students to Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: A Case-Based Seminar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Jeremy S.; Lake, MaryBeth

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Despite a documented shortage of child and adolescent psychiatrists, few studies have examined whether including child and adolescent psychiatry didactics in a medical school curriculum can stimulate appreciation and interest among students, possibly leading more students to choose careers in this specialty. Methods: The authors…

  19. Adolescents in Child Training (Project ACT); Summative Evaluation Report; [Parts 1 and 2].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Joan R.; Puryear, Gwendolyn R.

    The evaluation report examines three ACT demonstration projects (Adolescents in Child Training) in San Antonio, Chicago, and Little Rock designed to involve adolescents in child training through the classroom and actual field experience. Part 1 of the report describes the three projects with respect to their contextual, conceptual, and programatic…

  20. Do Parents Blame or Doubt Their Child More when Sexually Abused by Adolescents versus Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Wendy A.; Cross, Theodore P.; Jones, Lisa M.

    2012-01-01

    Although the importance of parental support for child sexual abuse victims is well documented, the nature of parental support for victims sexually abused by adolescents is less understood. In this exploratory study, we examine whether parents differ in their levels of blame or doubt for their child when sexually abused by adolescents versus…

  1. Overview of integrative medicine in child and adolescent psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Simkin, Deborah R; Popper, Charles W

    2013-07-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) defies simple definition, because the distinction between CAM and conventional medicine is largely arbitrary and fluid. Despite inconclusive data on the efficacy and safety of many CAM treatments in child and adolescent psychiatry, there are enough data on certain treatments to provide guidance to clinicians and researchers. CAM treatments, as adjunctive therapy or monotherapy, can be clinically beneficial and sensible. The low stigma and cost-competitiveness of many CAM psychiatric treatments are highly attractive to children and parents. Physicians need to be knowledgeable about CAM treatments to provide clinically valid informed consent for some conventional treatments. PMID:23806310

  2. Families At-Risk for Destructive Parent-Child Relations in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garbarino, James; And Others

    A developmental perspective of family violence requires examining the parental, adolescent, and family system characteristics that place a family at-risk for destructive parent-child relations in adolescence. Families (N=64), all of which consisted of a youth aged 10-16 and two parents, completed the Adolescent-Abuse Inventory (AAI); the Achenbach…

  3. Childhood History of Abuse and Child Abuse Potential in Adolescent Mothers: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Paul, Joaquin; Domenech, Leticia

    2000-01-01

    Two matched groups (24 adolescents and 24 adults) of pregnant mothers were followed for 20 months. During pregnancy, memories of child maltreatment were evaluated. Although adolescent and adult mothers showed no differences in memories of childhood physical or emotional abuse, adolescent mothers and physically abused mothers showed higher child…

  4. Anticipating Adolescence: How To Cope with Your Child's Emotional Upheaval and Forge a New Relationship Together.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriel, H. Paul; Wool, Robert

    Noting that with informed understanding, parents can prepare for and cope with their adolescents' profound internal turmoil, this book provides parents with a clear view of what to expect during their child's adolescence: the major biological and psychological developments of adolescence; the most significant social, sexual, and cultural…

  5. How Animal Models Inform Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Hanna E.; Vaccarino, Flora M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Every available approach should be utilized to advance the field of child and adolescent psychiatry. Biological systems are important for the behavioral problems of children. Close examination of non-human animals and the biology and behavior they share with humans is an approach that must be used to advance the clinical work of child psychiatry. Method We review here how model systems are used to contribute to significant insights into childhood psychiatric disorders. Model systems have not only demonstrated causality of risk factors for psychiatric pathophysiology but have also allowed child psychiatrists to think in different ways about risks for psychiatric disorders and multiple levels that might be the basis of recovery and prevention. Results We present examples of how animal systems are utilized to benefit child psychiatry, including through environmental, genetic, and acute biological manipulations. Animal model work has been essential in our current thinking about childhood disorders, including the importance of dose and timing of risk factors, specific features of risk factors that are significant, neurochemistry involved in brain functioning, molecular components of brain development, and the importance of cellular processes previously neglected in psychiatric theories. Conclusion Animal models have clear advantages and disadvantages that must both be considered for these systems to be useful. Coupled with increasingly sophisticated methods for investigating human behavior and biology, animal model systems will continue to make essential contributions to our field. PMID:25901771

  6. Adolescents' and parents' views of Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Coyne, I; McNamara, N; Healy, M; Gower, C; Sarkar, M; McNicholas, F

    2015-10-01

    Service user involvement is essential for quality care in the Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS). This study was conducted to explore adolescents' and parents' experiences of CAMHS in relation to accessibility, approachability and appropriateness. This study used a descriptive qualitative design, and focus groups and single interviews were conducted with adolescents (n = 15) and parents (n = 32) from three mental health clinics. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Accessing mental health services was a challenging experience for many parents and adolescents due to knowledge deficit, lack of information and limited availability of specialist services. Some parents and adolescents reported positive experiences while others reported negative experiences. They expressed a need for more information, involvement in decision making, flexible scheduling of appointments, school support and parent support groups. The nature and quality of the relationship with staff was critical to positive experience with the service; therefore, frequent changes of medical staff was disruptive. Mental health nurses can play a vital role in ensuring continuity, assessing adolescents' participation preferences and advocating for their information needs with other members of the interdisciplinary team. PMID:25977175

  7. [Treatment of eating disorders in adolescents--the view of a child and adolescence psychiatric hospital].

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Ernst; Hansen, Berit; Korte, Alexander; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike

    2005-04-01

    The paper presents--in the sense of clinical guidelines--reality of clinical care in a child and adolescence university hospital specialised on eating disorders. Need of a multimodal therapeutic approach is emphasized, including normalisation of weight and eating behaviour, nursing and pedagogical measures, individual, group and family therapy, completed by body therapy, art and music therapy and in case psychopharmacotherapy. Recommendations for overcoming weak spots are made. PMID:15918540

  8. Child neglect and adolescent violence: examining the effects of self-control and peer rejection.

    PubMed

    Chapple, Constance L; Tyler, Kimberly A; Bersani, Bianca E

    2005-02-01

    Child maltreatment researchers have often suggested that experiences with child neglect have long-term, negative effects. Child neglect is thought to have particularly adverse effects on self-control, peer relations, and delinquency. In this research, we examine the relationship of child neglect with adolescent violence via self-control and peer rejection. Using prospective, longitudinal data from a community sample, we find that child neglect adversely affects peer rejection and violence. Neglected children were more likely to be rejected by their peers in early adolescence and were more likely to be violent later in adolescence. Contrary to theoretical predictions, child neglect was not a significant predictor of self-control. Implications for delinquency and child maltreatment researchers are discussed. PMID:16047934

  9. Child Maltreatment and Delinquency Onset Among African American Adolescent Males

    PubMed Central

    Williams, James Herbert; Van Dorn, Richard A.; Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Nebbitt, Von E.

    2013-01-01

    Child welfare and criminology research have increasingly sought to better understand factors that increase the likelihood that abused and neglected children will become involved in the juvenile justice system. However, few studies have addressed this relationship among African American male adolescents. The current study examines the relationship between child maltreatment (i.e., neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and other/mixed abuse) and the likelihood of a delinquency petition using a sample of African American males (N = 2,335) born before 1990. Multivariable logistic regression models compared those with a delinquency-based juvenile justice petition to those without. Results indicate that African American males with a history of neglect, physical abuse, or other/mixed abuse were more likely to be involved in the juvenile justice system than those without any child maltreatment. Additionally, multiple maltreatment reports, a prior history of mental health treatment, victimization, and having a parent who did not complete high school also increased the likelihood of a delinquency petition. Implications for intervention and prevention are discussed. PMID:23730121

  10. An Ecological Analysis of Child Sexual Abuse Disclosure: Considerations for Child and Adolescent Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Alaggia, Ramona

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Research continues to indicate a concerning number of children and youth, between 60–80%, withhold disclosure until adulthood suggesting that many children endure prolonged victimization or never receive necessary intervention. The study aim was to qualitatively identify factors that impede or promote child sexual abuse (CSA) disclosure. Methods: Using a phenomenological design, forty adult survivors of CSA were interviewed about their disclosure experiences to provide retrospective accounts of their childhood and adolescent abuse experiences, disclosure attempts, and meaning-making of these experiences. Results: Findings show that disclosure is multiply determined by a complex interplay of factors related to child characteristics, family environment, community influences, and cultural and societal attitudes. An ecological analysis is offered to understand these complexities. Unless barriers to disclosure are eradicated, negative effects of CSA can persist manifesting in serious mental health issues. Conclusions: Practitioners can expect to work with children, adolescents and adults who have withheld disclosure or attempted to tell over time having experienced a wide range of responses. Multi-level intervention is recommended at the individual, community and macro-levels. Future investigations should focus on how to identify and measure the impact of community and macro level factors on disclosure, aspects that have received much less attention. PMID:20119565

  11. Psychometric Properties of the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) in a Non-Clinical Sample of Children and Adolescents in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Arab, Arwa; El Keshky, Mogeda; Hadwin, Julie A

    2016-08-01

    This paper examined the reliability, convergent validity and factor structure of the self-report Screen for Child Anxiety Disorders (SCARED; Birmaher et al. in J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 36:545-553, 1997) in a large community sample of children and adolescents in Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire showed moderate to high internal consistency and satisfactory test-retest reliability over a 2 week period. In addition, there were significant positive correlations between reported anxiety symptoms with parent report behavioural difficulties. The five factor structure model of the SCARED also had a good model fit in this population. The results showed that self-report anxiety symptoms decreased with age (for boys and not girls) and were higher in adolescent girls. The results suggest that the SCARED could be useful in this population to identify individuals who are at risk of developing anxiety disorders in childhood with a view to implementing prevention and intervention methods to ensure positive developmental outcome over time. PMID:26424720

  12. The Relation between Child-Rearing Beliefs and the Home Environment in a Sample of Adolescent Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luster, Tom; Rhoades, Kelly

    1989-01-01

    Examined quality of child care provided by adolescent mothers vs. older mothers and whether maternal child-rearing beliefs predict supportive care mothers. Administered inventory to adolescent mothers (N=20) and older mothers (N=65). Found higher supportive care scores among older mothers and found both supportive-care older and adolescent mothers…

  13. The structure of child and adolescent psychopathology: generating new hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Lahey, Benjamin B; Applegate, Brooks; Waldman, Irwin D; Loft, John D; Hankin, Benjamin L; Rick, Jacqueline

    2004-08-01

    To begin to resolve conflicts among current competing taxonomies of child and adolescent psychopathology, the authors developed an interview covering the symptoms of anxiety, depression, inattention, and disruptive behavior used in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994), the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10; World Health Organization, 1992), and several implicit taxonomies. This interview will be used in the future to compare the internal and external validity of alternative taxonomies. To provide an informative framework for future hypothesis-testing studies, the authors used principal factor analysis to induce new testable hypotheses regarding the structure of this item pool in a representative sample of 1,358 children and adolescents ranging in age from 4 to 17 years. The resulting hypotheses differed from the DSM-IV, particularly in suggesting that some anxiety symptoms are part of the same syndrome as depression, whereas separation anxiety, fears, and compulsions constitute a separate anxiety dimension. PMID:15311983

  14. Ethical perspectives on managed care as it relates to child and adolescent psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Geraty, R D; Hendren, R L; Flaa, C J

    1992-05-01

    Managed health care is providing an increasing influence in the way child and adolescent psychiatry is practiced. The goals of managed care have been to manage price, service, and quality. As external forces are brought to bear on child and adolescent psychiatry, ethical and legal dilemmas are faced. Underlying principles and the impact of society force physicians to reexamine their values and reeducate themselves about legal developments. PMID:1592769

  15. Prevalence of different forms of child maltreatment among Taiwanese adolescents: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jui-Ying; Chang, Yi-Ting; Chang, Hsin-Yi; Fetzer, Susan; Wang, Jung-Der

    2015-04-01

    Reported cases of child maltreatment are increasing in Taiwan. Yet, comprehensive epidemiological characteristics of adolescents' exposure over the wide spectrum of violence are still lacking. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence and magnitude of child maltreatment among Taiwanese adolescents. A population-based study was conducted with 5,276 adolescents aged 12-18 from 35 schools in 17 cities and townships to determine the prevalence of five forms of child maltreatment in Taiwan. A total of 5,236 adolescents completed anonymous, self-report, structured questionnaires. Most adolescents (91%, n=4,788) experienced at least one form of maltreatment with 83% (n=4,347) exposed during the previous year. Violence exposure was the most common type of child maltreatment experienced, followed by psychological abuse, physical abuse, neglect, and sexual abuse. Adolescents reported an average of 7.4 (SD=5.87) victimizations over their lifetime and 4.8 (SD=4.82) victimizations during the past year. Females reported a higher rate of neglect, while males reported a higher rate of sexual abuse. Most of the sexual abuse perpetrators were known by their victims. Adolescents' victimization and polyvictimization from child maltreatment in Taiwan deserves a review and modification of national control and prevention policies. PMID:25477233

  16. Research on Child and Adolescent Development and Public Policy in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Narea, Marigen

    2016-06-01

    This commentary discusses the implication of child and adolescent development research for public policy in Latin America. As illustrated by the articles in this special issue, even though the research of child and adolescent development in Latin America is making significant progress, still more research is needed. Developmental research in the region faces the challenge of uncovering the mechanisms that affect child development in a context of high levels of poverty and inequality. In addition, researchers in the region should be particularly careful in using appropriate and rigorous methods, improving the design and adaptation of instruments that measure child and adolescent development, developing longitudinal datasets, and looking for causal evidence. Children and adolescents in Latin America will benefit from a further expansion of developmental research. Research in child and adolescent development using data from Latin America can advise policy makers and help improve the design and evaluation of interventions and public policies that promote child and adolescent well-being in the region. PMID:27254830

  17. The Relationship between Parent-Child Conflict and Adolescent Antisocial Behavior: Confirming Shared Environmental Mediation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klahr, Ashlea M.; Rueter, Martha A.; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.; Burt, S. Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    Prior studies have indicated that the relationship between parent-child conflict and adolescent antisocial behavior is at least partially shared environmental in origin. However, all available research on this topic (to our knowledge) relies exclusively on parent and/or adolescent informant-reports, both of which are subject to various forms of…

  18. Preparing Foster Adolescents for Self-Support: A New Challenge for Child Welfare Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mech, Edmund V.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the situation of adolescents in the foster care system and the role of independent-living programs to help them adjust to life on their own. Provides an overview of the content of the November/December 1988 edition of CHILD WELFARE. This issue consists of articles pertaining to the preparation of at-risk adolescents for independent…

  19. Styles of Parent-Child Interaction and Moral Reasoning in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyes, Michael C.; Allen, Sandra G.

    1993-01-01

    Examined whether adolescents of authoritative parents exhibit a greater preference for postconventional moral reasoning than do adolescents of permissive or authoritarian parents. Subjects (75 high school and 67 undergraduate students) completed Rest's Defining Issues Test and Schaefer's Child Report of Parental Behavior Inventory. Results…

  20. Child Sexual Abuse Consequences in Community Samples of Latino and European American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newcomb, Michael D.; Munoz, David T.; Carmona, Jennifer Vargas

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Research investigating the impact of child sexual abuse (CSA) in community samples of adolescents has been limited. This study aims to identify sexual abuse among ethnically diverse high school adolescents of both genders and evaluate their psycho-emotional consequences. Method: Through the use of self-report instruments, a sample of…

  1. Scaling Up Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services in South Africa: Human Resource Requirements and Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Crick; Boyce, Gerard; Flisher, Alan J.; Kafaar, Zuhayr; Dawes, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Background: Children and adolescents with mental health problems have poor service cover in low- and middle-income countries. Little is known about the resources that would be required to provide child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) in these countries. The purpose of this study was to calculate the human resources and associated…

  2. Illicit Drug Use from Adolescence to Young Adulthood among Child Welfare-Involved Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casanueva, Cecilia; Stambaugh, Leyla; Urato, Matthew; Fraser, Jenifer Goldman; Williams, Jason

    2014-01-01

    This study examined illicit substance use among 1,004 adolescents, ages 11-21, involved with the Child Welfare System (CWS) and followed from 1999 to 2007. By the time they reached transition age, more than 60% of the sample had used an illicit substance in their lifetime. Predictors of regular use during adolescence were having a prior CWS…

  3. Understanding the Educational Aspirations of African American Adolescents: Child, Family, and Community Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Tanya M.; Kotchick, Beth A.; Barry, Carolyn McNamara; Haskins, Deborah G.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the association between multiple systems of influence (adolescent, family, and community) and the educational aspirations of African American adolescents. Guided by ecological and integrative models of child development, in the current study the authors examined the association between the educational aspirations of 130…

  4. Completed Suicides Among Quebec Adolescents Involved with Juvenile Justice and Child Welfare Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farand, Lambert; Chagnon, Francois; Renaud, Johanne; Rivard, Michele

    2004-01-01

    In the Province of Quebec (Canada), adolescents involved with the child welfare and juvenile justice systems committed at least one third of all completed suicides in their age group in 1995 and 1996. Their risk of suicide, standardized for age and sex, was five times that of the general adolescent population, and female juvenile delinquents had…

  5. The Structure and Temporal Stability of the Child and Adolescent Perfectionism Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Rory C.; Dixon, Diane; Rasmussen, Susan

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the factor structure and temporal stability of the Child and Adolescent Perfectionism Scale (CAPS; G. L. Flett, P. L. Hewitt, D. J. Boucher, L. A. Davidson, & Y. Munro, 1997) in 2 samples of adolescents (15-16 years old). In Sample 1 (n = 624), confirmatory factor analysis did not support a 2-factor structure…

  6. Parenting Styles, Communication and Child/Adolescent Diets and Weight Status: Let's Talk about It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parletta, Natalie; Peters, Jacqueline; Owen, Amber; Tsiros, Margarita D.; Brennan, Leah

    2012-01-01

    Parenting styles have been associated with health-related behaviours in children and adolescents. We present a series of studies. Study 1 investigated parenting styles and parent-child communication styles as cross-sectional predictors of dietary patterns in children, and study 2 as cross-sectional predictors of weight status in adolescents. Data…

  7. Child Attachment and Family Environment Differences of Adolescent Children with ADHD and/or Conduct Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garbarino, Jennifer; Thompson, Bruce

    This study explored the development of attachment bonds in adolescents with diagnoses of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and/or conduct disorder (CD). Participants included 102 mother/adolescent-child dyads from both rural and metropolitan areas and from six states. Subjects had received an ADHD diagnosis, a CD diagnosis, or a…

  8. Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse by Adolescents: A Qualitative In-Depth Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schonbucher, Verena; Maier, Thomas; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Schnyder, Ulrich; Landolt, Markus A.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study aimed to study the process of disclosure by examining adolescents from the general population who had experienced child sexual abuse (CSA). Twenty-six sexually victimized adolescents (23 girls, 3 boys; age: 15-18 years) participated in a qualitative face-to-face in-depth interview on different aspects of disclosure. A…

  9. The Use of Therapeutic Stories in Counseling Child and Adolescent Sexual Abuse Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kress, Victoria E.; Adamson, Nicole A.; Yensel, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Counselors will regularly counsel children and adolescents with histories of sexual abuse and be challenged with providing supportive and empowering interventions that serve to move the client from victim to survivor status. Therapeutic stories are a creative counseling technique that can be used when counseling child and adolescent sexual abuse…

  10. Physical Child Abuse Potential in Adolescent Girls: Associations With Psychopathology, Maltreatment, and Attitudes Toward Child-Bearing

    PubMed Central

    Pajer, Kathleen A; Gardner, William; Lourie, Andrea; Chang, Chien-Ni; Wang, Wei; Currie, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Adolescent mothers are at increased risk of mistreating their children. Intervening before they become pregnant would be an ideal primary prevention strategy. Our goal was to determine whether psychopathology, exposure to maltreatment, preparedness for child-bearing, substance use disorders (SUDs), IQ, race, and socioeconomic status were associated with the potential for child abuse in nonpregnant adolescent girls. Method: The Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAPI) was administered to 195 nonpregnant girls (aged 15 to 16 years; 54% African American) recruited from the community. Psychiatric diagnoses from a structured interview were used to form 4 groups: conduct disorder (CD), internalizing disorders (INTs; that is, depressive disorder, anxiety disorder, or both), CD + INTs, or no disorder. Exposure to maltreatment was assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the Childbearing Attitudes Questionnaire measured maternal readiness. Results: CAPI scores were positively correlated with all types of psychopathology, previous exposure to maltreatment, and negative attitudes toward child-bearing. IQ, SUDs, and demographic factors were not associated. Factors associated with child abuse potential interacted in complex ways, but the abuse potential of CD girls was high, regardless of other potentially protective factors. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that adolescent girls who have CD or INT are at higher risk of perpetrating physical child abuse when they have children. However, the core features of CD may put this group at a particularly high risk, even in the context of possible protective factors. Treatment providers should consider pre-pregnant counselling about healthy mothering behaviours to girls with CD. PMID:24881128

  11. Longitudinal Linkages among Parent-Child Acculturation Discrepancy, Parenting, Parent-Child Sense of Alienation, and Adolescent Adjustment in Chinese Immigrant Families

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su Yeong; Chen, Qi; Wang, Yijie; Shen, Yishan; Orozco-Lapray, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Parent-child acculturation discrepancy is a risk factor in the development of children in immigrant families. Using a longitudinal sample of Chinese immigrant families, the current study examined how unsupportive parenting and parent-child sense of alienation sequentially mediate the relationship between parent-child acculturation discrepancy and child adjustment during early and middle adolescence. Acculturation discrepancy scores were created using multilevel modeling to take into account the interdependence among family members. Structural equation models showed that, during early adolescence, parent-child American orientation discrepancy is related to parents’ use of unsupportive parenting practices; parents’ use of unsupportive parenting is related to increased sense of alienation between parents and children, which in turn is related to more depressive symptoms and lower academic performance in Chinese American adolescents. These patterns of negative adjustment established in early adolescence persist into middle adolescence. This mediating effect is more apparent among father-adolescent dyads than among mother-adolescent dyads. In contrast, parent-child Chinese orientation discrepancy does not demonstrate a significant direct or indirect effect on adolescent adjustment, either concurrently or longitudinally. The current findings suggest that early adolescence is more susceptible to the negative effects of parent-child acculturation discrepancy; they also underscore the importance of fathering in Chinese immigrant families. PMID:22799587

  12. Longitudinal linkages among parent-child acculturation discrepancy, parenting, parent-child sense of alienation, and adolescent adjustment in Chinese immigrant families.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su Yeong; Chen, Qi; Wang, Yijie; Shen, Yishan; Orozco-Lapray, Diana

    2013-05-01

    Parent-child acculturation discrepancy is a risk factor in the development of children in immigrant families. Using a longitudinal sample of Chinese immigrant families, the authors of the current study examined how unsupportive parenting and parent-child sense of alienation sequentially mediate the relationship between parent-child acculturation discrepancy and child adjustment during early and middle adolescence. Acculturation discrepancy scores were created using multilevel modeling to take into account the interdependence among family members. Structural equation models showed that during early adolescence, parent-child American orientation discrepancy is related to parents' use of unsupportive parenting practices; parents' use of unsupportive parenting is related to increased sense of alienation between parents and children, which in turn is related to more depressive symptoms and lower academic performance in Chinese American adolescents. These patterns of negative adjustment established in early adolescence persist into middle adolescence. This mediating effect is more apparent among father-adolescent dyads than among mother-adolescent dyads. In contrast, parent-child Chinese orientation discrepancy does not demonstrate a significant direct or indirect effect on adolescent adjustment, either concurrently or longitudinally. The current findings suggest that during early adolescence, children are more susceptible to the negative effects of parent-child acculturation discrepancy; they also underscore the importance of fathering in Chinese immigrant families. PMID:22799587

  13. Child Maltreatment and Adolescent Mental Health Problems in a Large Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Ryan; Scott, James; Alati, Rosa; O'Callaghan, Michael; Najman, Jake M.; Strathearn, Lane

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether notified child maltreatment is associated with adverse psychological outcomes in adolescence, and whether differing patterns of psychological outcome are seen depending on the type of maltreatment. Methods: The participants were 7,223 mother and child pairs enrolled in a population-based birth cohort study in…

  14. The Father-Child Relationship, Parenting Styles, and Adolescent Risk Behaviors in Intact Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta; Moore, Kristin A.; Carrano, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    The father-child relationship and father's parenting style are examined as predictors of first delinquency and substance use, using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1997, Rounds 1 to 3 (N = 5,345), among adolescents in intact families. Discrete time logistic regressions indicate that a more positive father-child relationship…

  15. Program Learning: Dealing with Common Problems in the Residential Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safian-Rush, Donna

    This manual is a programed learning tool for mental health professionals which teaches child and adolescent patient management skills to be used in a residential psychiatric care setting. The introduction to the paper describes the basic differences between adult and child psychiatry; behaviors that are abnormal for adults, such as having…

  16. The relationship between parent-child conflict and adolescent antisocial behavior: confirming shared environmental mediation.

    PubMed

    Klahr, Ashlea M; Rueter, Martha A; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G; Burt, S Alexandra

    2011-07-01

    Prior studies have indicated that the relationship between parent-child conflict and adolescent antisocial behavior is at least partially shared environmental in origin. However, all available research on this topic (to our knowledge) relies exclusively on parent and/or adolescent informant-reports, both of which are subject to various forms of rater bias. As the presence of significant shared environmental effects has often been attributed to rater bias in the past (Baker et al. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 16:219-235, 2007; Bartels et al. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 42:1351-1359, 2003, Twin Research 7:162-175, 2004; Hewitt et al. Behavior Genetics 22:293-317, 1992), it would be important to confirm that findings of shared environmental mediation persist when even examining (presumably more objective) observer-ratings of these constructs. The current study thus examined the origins of the relationship between parent-child conflict and adolescent acting-out behavior, as measured using both observer-ratings and various informant-reports. Participants included 1,199 adopted and non-adopted adolescents in 610 families from the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study (SIBS). Results indicated that parent-child conflict consistently predicts acting-out behavior in adopted adolescents, and moreover, that this association is equivalent to that in biologically-related adolescents. Most importantly, these findings did not vary across parent- and adolescent-reported or observer-ratings of parent-child conflict and acting-out behavior. Such findings argue strongly against rater bias as a primary explanation of shared environmental mediation of the association between parent-child conflict and adolescent antisocial behavior. PMID:21484334

  17. Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study: Evaluating Safety

    PubMed Central

    Rynn, Moira A.; Walkup, John T.; Compton, Scott N.; Sakolsky, Dara J.; Sherrill, Joel T.; Shen, Sa; Kendall, Philip C.; McCracken, James; Albano, Anne Marie; Piacentini, John; Riddle, Mark A.; Keeton, Courtney; Waslick, Bruce; Chrisman, Allan; Iyengar, Satish; March, John S.; Birmaher, Boris

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the frequency of adverse events (AEs) across four treatment conditions in the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS), and to compare the frequency of AEs between children and adolescents. Method Participants ages 7-17 years (M=10.7) meeting the DSM-IV criteria for one or more of the following disorders: separation anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, or social phobia were randomized (2:2:2:1) to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT, n=139), sertraline (SRT, n=133), combination of both (COMB, n=140), or pill placebo (PBO, n=76). AEs were collected via a standardized inquiry method plus a self-report Physical Symptom Checklist (PSC). Results There were no differences between the double-blinded conditions (SRT vs. PBO) for total physical and psychiatric AEs or any individual physical or psychiatric AEs. The rates of total physical AEs were greater in the SRT-alone treatment condition when compared to CBT (p<.01) and COMB (p<.01). Moreover, those who received SRT alone reported higher rates of several physical AEs when compared to COMB and CBT. The rate of total psychiatric AEs was higher in children (≤12 years) across all arms (31.7% vs. 23.1%, p<.05). Total PSC scores decreased over time with no significant differences between treatment groups. Conclusion The results support the tolerability/safety of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment for anxiety disorders even after adjusting for the number of reporting opportunities leading to no differences in overall rates of AEs. Few differences occurred on specific items. Additional monitoring of psychiatric AEs is recommended in children (≤12 years). PMID:25721183

  18. Child sexual abuse among adolescents in southeast Nigeria: A concealed public health behavioral issue

    PubMed Central

    C, Manyike Pius; M, Chinawa Josephat; Elias, Aniwada; I, Odutola Odetunde; Awoere, Chinawa T.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Child sexual abuse among adolescents is an often overlooked issue in pediatrics, yet it is a major cause of low self esteem and stigmatization in adolescents. The objective of this study was to determine the socioeconomic determinant and pattern of child sexual abuse among adolescent attending secondary schools in South East Nigeria. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study that was carried out among children in three secondary schools in Enugu and Ebonyi states of Nigeria. Five hundred and six adolescents who met inclusion criteria were consecutively recruited into our prospective study between June and October, 2014. Results: One hundred and ninety nine (40 %) of the respondents had been abused and the commonest form of abuse was to look at pornographic pictures, drawings, films, videotapes or magazine 93(18.4%). Fifty eight (11.5%) adolescents stated that they were abused once with age at first exposure being 7-12 years 57 (11.4%). When grouped together, family members and relatives are perpetrators of child sexual abuse. There was significant difference in sex abuse between males and females (p=0.014) while there were no significant difference for age (p=0.157) and social class (p=0.233). Conclusion: Overall prevalence and one time prevalence rates of sexual abuse among adolescents in south east Nigeria was 40% and 11.5% respectively with male perpetrators. There is no link between socioeconomic class, age and child sexual abuse among adolescents. PMID:26430412

  19. Child and adolescent violent deaths: an epidemiologic investigation.

    PubMed Central

    McGowan, Angela Kay; Crosby, Alex E.; La Hasbrouck, Mar; Boulton, Matthew L.; Kanluen, Sawait; Maseru, Noble A. W.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: An apparent increase in violent deaths among children and adolescents in Detroit, MI in 2002 prompted a coordinated epidemiologic investigation involving federal, state and local organizations. METHODS: A descriptive analysis of cases and violent deaths (homicide, suicide or firearm-related) among juveniles <17 years was conducted, along with a case-control study using records from the medical examiner, police, schools and social service agencies. RESULTS: Twenty-nine cases were identified. Median age was 10 years (range 1 day-16 years), and 15 (52%) were male. There were 25 homicides, two suicides and two unintentional firearm-related deaths. Nine (31%) homicides resulted from child abuse and neglect, and eight (28%) were among bystanders. The most common mechanism of fatal injury was firearm (63%). Victims' families were more likely to have a history of familial violence, prior contact with the state social services agency, > or = 2 adults and > or = 4 persons in the household (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The 2002 deaths did not represent a statistically significant increase from previous years. Several findings were remarkable: the proportion of deaths among bystanders, females and children age <5. PMID:16708501

  20. Adaptive Interventions in Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Almirall, Daniel; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The treatment or prevention of child and adolescent mental health (CAMH) disorders often requires an individualized, sequential approach to intervention, whereby treatments (or prevention efforts) are adapted over time based on the youth's evolving status (e.g., early response, adherence). Adaptive interventions are intended to provide a replicable guide for the provision of individualized sequences of interventions in actual clinical practice. Recently, there has been great interest in the development of adaptive intervenions by investigators working in CAMH. The development of such replicable, real-world, individualized sequences of decision rules to guide the treatment or prevention of CAMH disorders represents an important "next step" in interventions research. The primary purpose of this special issue is to showcase some recent work on the science of adaptive interventions in CAMH. In this overview article, we review why individualized sequences of interventions are needed in CAMH, provide an introduction to adaptive interventions, briefly describe each of the articles included in this special issue, and describe some exciting areas of ongoing and future research. A hopeful outcome of this special issue is that it encourages other researchers in CAMH to pursue creative and significant research on adaptive interventions. PMID:27310565

  1. Classroom research and child and adolescent development in South America.

    PubMed

    Preiss, David Daniel; Calcagni, Elisa; Grau, Valeska

    2015-01-01

    The article reviews recent classroom research developed in South America related to child and adolescent development. We review work about three themes: ethnicity, school climate and violence, and the learning process. The few studies found on ethnicity and classroom experiences told a story of invisibility, if not exclusion and discrimination. Research on violence suggests that, although there are variations within countries, school climate is an area of concern. Intervention work, still limited, is necessary considering the incidence of violence in the classrooms. Research on learning showed that most classrooms adhere to a very conventional pedagogy. There is a need to advance on international comparisons across all themes. Similarly, there is a need to go beyond the description of classroom dynamics to test educational interventions that may shed light on ways to improve educational performance, to decrease school violence, and to promote diversity within the classroom. Notwithstanding its limitations, the research here reviewed provides clear evidence of the relevant role that classroom experiences play in human development. In addition to their essential role in schooling, classrooms are the settings where processes related to peer relations, identity formation, and socioemotional development unfold. PMID:25732019

  2. Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Child Behavior Problems among Latina Adolescent Mothers: The Buffering Effect of Mother-Reported Partner Child Care Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Erin N.; Grau, Josefina M.; Duran, Petra A.; Castellanos, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    We examined the relations between maternal depressive symptoms and child internalizing and externalizing problems in a sample of 125 adolescent Latina mothers (primarily Puerto Rican) and their toddlers. We also tested the influence of mother-reported partner child care involvement on child behavior problems and explored mother-reported partner…

  3. Physical Child Abuse and Teacher Harassment and Their Effects on Mental Health Problems Amongst Adolescent Bully-Victims in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Ko, Chih-Hung; Liu, Tai-Ling; Hu, Huei-Fan

    2015-10-01

    This study compared physical child abuse and teacher harassment of bully-victims with other groups and examined their associations with mental health problems in bully-victims. For 6,160 adolescents, experiences of physical child abuse, teacher harassment, peer bullying, and six mental health problem indicators were assessed. Adolescents that had experienced physical child abuse and teacher harassment were more likely to be bully-victims but not neutral or pure victims. Adolescents who reported physical child abuse were more likely to be bully-victims but not pure bullies. Bully-victims that had experienced teacher harassment exhibited more severe depression and insomnia than did those without teacher harassment. Gender had moderating effects on the difference in physical child abuse between bully-victims and neutrals and on the association between physical child abuse and suicidality in bully-victims. Physical child abuse and teacher harassment should be considered when preventive and intervention programs are developed for adolescents. PMID:25300192

  4. Parent-child acculturation profiles as predictors of Chinese American adolescents' academic trajectories.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie; Chen, Qi; Shen, Yishan; Hou, Yang

    2015-06-01

    Acculturation plays a critical role in the adjustment of Asian Americans, as a large proportion of them are immigrants in the US. However, little is known about how acculturation influences Asian American adolescents' academic trajectories over time. Using a longitudinal sample of 444 Chinese American families (54% female children), the current study explored the effect of mothers', fathers', and adolescents' individual acculturation profiles and parent-child acculturation dissonance on adolescents' academic trajectories from 8th to 12th grade. Academic performance was measured by grade point average (GPA), and by standardized test scores in English language arts (ELA) and Math every year. Latent growth modeling analyses showed that adolescents with a Chinese-oriented father showed faster decline in GPA, and Chinese-oriented adolescents had lower initial ELA scores. Adolescents whose parents had American-oriented acculturation profiles tended to have lower initial Math scores. These results suggest that Chinese and American profiles may be disadvantageous for certain aspects of academic performance, and bicultural adolescents and/or adolescents with bicultural parents are best positioned to achieve across multiple domains. In terms of the role of parent-child acculturation dissonance on academic trajectories, the current study highlighted the importance of distinguishing among different types of dissonance. Adolescents who were more Chinese-oriented than their parents tended to have the lowest initial ELA scores, and adolescents experiencing more normative acculturation dissonance (i.e., who were more American-oriented than their parents) had the highest initial ELA scores. No effects of parent-child acculturation dissonance were observed for GPAs or standardized Math scores. Altogether, the current findings add nuances to the current understanding of acculturation and adolescent adjustment. PMID:24820295

  5. Assessing the utilization of maternal and child health care among married adolescent women: evidence from India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Lucky; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Singh, Prashant Kumar

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the prevalence and factors associated with the utilization of maternal and child health care services among married adolescent women in India using the third round of the National Family Health Survey (2005-06). The findings suggest that the utilization of maternal and child health care services among adolescent women is far from satisfactory in India. A little over 10% of adolescent women utilized antenatal care, about 50% utilized safe delivery services and about 41% of the children of adolescent women received full immunization. Large differences by urban-rural residence, educational attainment, religion, economic status and region were evident. Both gross effect and fixed effect binary logit models yielded statistically significant socioeconomic and demographic factors. Women's education, wealth quintile and region are the most important determinants for the utilization of maternal and child health care services. Health care programmes should focus more on educating adolescents, providing financial support, creating awareness and counselling households with married adolescent women. Moreover, there should be substantial financial assistance for the provision of delivery and child care for married women below the age of 19 years. PMID:21933465

  6. Assessing Mindfulness in Children and Adolescents: Development and Validation of the Child and Adolescent Mindfulness Measure (CAMM)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greco, Laurie A.; Baer, Ruth A.; Smith, Gregory T.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents 4 studies (N = 1,413) describing the development and validation of the Child and Adolescent Mindfulness Measure (CAMM). In Study 1 (n = 428), the authors determined procedures for item development and examined comprehensibility of the initial 25 items. In Study 2 (n = 334), they reduced the initial item pool from 25 to 10…

  7. Maternal Employment and Adolescent Adjustment and Perceptions of Child Rearing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dusek, Jerome B.; Litovsky, Viviana G.

    In this investigation of the effects of maternal employment on adolescents, 88 male and 128 female adolescents from grades 7 through 12 completed the Children's Report of Parental Behavior Inventory and the Inventory of Psychosocial Development. Several questions were addressed: (1) Does maternal employment status influence adolescents'…

  8. Adolescent Mothers' Perceptions of the Coparenting Relationship with Their Child's Father: A Function of Attachment Security and Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheftall, Arielle H.; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Futris, Ted G.

    2010-01-01

    This study used data from 75 adolescent mothers to examine relations among adolescent mothers' attachment avoidance and anxiety, their ability to trust their child's father, and their perceptions of the quality of their coparenting relationship with their child's father. Results suggest that mothers with lower avoidance had more trust for their…

  9. Revising the Child and Adolescent Perfectionism Scale: A Test of the Four-Factor Structure in a Chinese Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Hongfei; Hong, Chaoqin; Tao, Xiaodan; Zhu, Lingyi

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the structure, reliability, and validity of the revised Chinese version of the Child and Adolescent Perfectionism Scale (N = 933). The results confirmed the four-factor structure of the Chinese version of the Child and Adolescent Perfectionism Scale. Implications, limitations, and suggestions for future research are provided.

  10. Concluding the Series on Evidence-Based Practice: The Spread of Excellence in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, John D.

    2008-01-01

    The child and adolescent psychiatry community has been using large systems of information and new technologies to improve its performance.Evidence-based approach is used by practitioners to find and implement feasible therapies and medication. The different procedures involved of evidence-based practice, as used in child and adolescent psychology,…

  11. Increasing Interest in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in the Third-Year Clerkship: Results from a Post-Clerkship Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Erin; Hollar, David; Lindsey, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors aimed to determine whether a structured clinical experience in child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) during the third-year psychiatry clerkship would impact interest in pursuing careers in psychiatry and CAP. Methods: The authors constructed and administered a post-rotation survey, the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry…

  12. The role of fathers in child and adolescent psychopathology: make room for daddy.

    PubMed

    Phares, V; Compas, B E

    1992-05-01

    This review summarizes research concerning the relation between paternal factors and child and adolescent psychopathology. When compared with mothers, fathers continue to be dramatically underrepresented in developmental research on psychopathology. However, findings from studies of children of clinically referred fathers and nonreferred samples of children and their fathers indicate that there is substantial association between paternal characteristics and child and adolescent psychopathology. Findings from studies of fathers of clinically referred children are stronger for fathers' effects on children's externalizing than internalizing problems. In most cases the degree of risk associated with paternal psychopathology is comparable to that associated with maternal psychopathology. Evidence indicates that the presence of paternal psychopathology is a sufficient but not necessary condition for child or adolescent psychopathology. PMID:1594718

  13. Association of selected risk factors with variation in child and adolescent firearm mortality by state.

    PubMed

    Murnan, Judy; Dake, Joseph A; Price, James H

    2004-10-01

    This study examined relationships between variation in child and adolescent firearm mortality by state and the following variables: childhood poverty rate, percent single parent families, percent population that is African American, percent population that is Hispanic, percent students carrying a gun, percent students carrying a weapon, percent students feeling unsafe, percent students feeling sad/hopeless, percent students academically at-risk, percent students involved infighting, percent students engaging in binge drinking behavior, violent crime rate for youths, individual gun laws in each state, prevalence of firearm ownership, and percent residing in urban area. Stepwise regression was calculated and one independent variable, prevalence of firearm ownership in the state, emerged as a significant predictor of child and adolescent firearm mortality. This variable predicted 47% of the variance from state to state in the child and adolescent firearm mortality. Schools need to address firearm safety and advocate for elimination of firearms accessible to youth. PMID:15554120

  14. Adolescent mothers and child abuse potential: an evaluation of risk factors.

    PubMed

    Dukewich, T L; Borkowski, J G; Whitman, T L

    1996-11-01

    This research examines maternal and child factors that place adolescent mothers at risk for abusing their children. Using a longitudinal design, relationships among four risk factors (social supports, maternal psychological adjustment, maternal preparation for parenting, and child temperament), maternal psychological predisposition for aggressive coping (perceptions of stress and endorsements of punitive parenting), and maternal abuse potential were examined in a sample of 75 primiparous adolescent mothers and their children. Preparation for parenting, a construct which included knowledge and attitudes about children's development, was the strongest direct predictor of abuse potential; however, its effects were also partially mediated by the mother's psychological predisposition for aggressive coping. Similarly, the effects of child temperament on abuse were mediated by the mother's psychological predisposition for aggressive coping. Implications for designing intervention programs, and identifying at-risk adolescents, were also discussed. PMID:8958454

  15. From child maltreatment to adolescent cannabis abuse and dependence: A developmental cascade model

    PubMed Central

    Rogosch, Fred A.; Oshri, Assaf; Cicchetti, Dante

    2010-01-01

    A developmental cascade model tested associations among child maltreatment, internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, social competence, and cannabis abuse and dependence symptoms in a longitudinal cohort (N = 415). Nested structural equation models evaluated continuity and cross-domain influences among broad multi-informant constructs across four developmental periods: age 7 to 9, 10 to 12, 13 to 15, and 15 to 18. Results indicated significant paths from child maltreatment to early externalizing and internalizing problems and social competence, as well as to cannabis abuse and dependence (CAD) symptoms in adolescence. Youth CAD symptoms were primarily related directly to child maltreatment and externalizing problems. Childhood internalizing symptoms contributed to later childhood decreases in social competence, which predicted increases in late adolescent externalizing problems. Using a developmental psychopathology framework, results are discussed in relation to cascade and transactional effects and the interplay between problem behaviors during childhood and development of CAD symptoms during early and late adolescence. PMID:20883588

  16. The Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS).

    PubMed

    Anckarsäter, Henrik; Lundström, Sebastian; Kollberg, Linnea; Kerekes, Nora; Palm, Camilla; Carlström, Eva; Långström, Niklas; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Halldner, Linda; Bölte, Sven; Gillberg, Christopher; Gumpert, Clara; Råstam, Maria; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2011-12-01

    The Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS) is an ongoing longitudinal twin study targeting all twins born in Sweden since July 1, 1992. Since 2004, parents of twins are interviewed regarding the children's somatic and mental health and social environment in connection with their 9th or 12th birthdays (CATSS-9/12). By January 2010, 8,610 parental interviews concerning 17,220 twins had been completed, with an overall response rate of 80%. At age 15 (CATSS-15) and 18 (CATSS-18), twins and parents complete questionnaires that, in addition to assessments of somatic and mental health, include measures of personality development and psychosocial adaptation. Twin pairs in CATSS-9/12 with one or both twins screening positive for autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, tic disorders, developmental coordination disorder, learning disorders, oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and/or eating problems have been followed with in-depth questionnaires on family, social environment and personality, and subsequently by clinical assessments at age 15 together with randomly selected population controls, including 195 clinically assessed twin pairs from the first 2 year cohorts (CATSS-15/DOGSS). This article describes the cohorts and study groups, data collection, and measures used. Prevalences, distributions, heritability estimates, ages at onset, and sex differences of mental health problems in the CATSS-9/12, that were analyzed and found to be overall comparable to those of other clinical and epidemiological studies. The CATSS study has the potential of answering important questions on the etiology of childhood mental health problems and their role in the development of later adjustment problems. PMID:22506305

  17. Gender Differences in Child and Adolescent Social Withdrawal: A Commentary

    PubMed Central

    Barstead, Matthew G.

    2015-01-01

    In a manuscript entitled, “Bashful boys and coy girls: A review of gender differences in childhood shyness” Doey et al. (2013) suggest that shyness and its related constructs pose a greater developmental risk for boys compared to girls. They support this claim by citing empirical evidence suggesting that shy and anxiously withdrawn boys are responded to more negatively by important others (i.e., parents, peers, and teachers) and that the relationship between internalizing problems and anxious withdrawal is stronger for boys compared to girls. The principal aim of our commentary is to provide a critical examination of Doey et al.’s conclusions vis-à-vis gender differences in child and adolescent shyness. In this response, we begin by providing important theoretical background regarding shyness and its related constructs. Next, we critically examine the two main arguments the authors use in support of their conclusion through a review of existing empirical and theoretical work as well as the presentation of data from The Friendship Project. These data were analyzed with the specific purpose of providing an empirical test of the hypotheses implicit in Doey et al.’s primary arguments: 1) shy and anxiously withdrawn boys are responded to more negatively than girls and 2) the association between anxious withdrawal and internalizing problems is stronger for boys compared to girls. Our results indicate mixed support for these two claims. Finally, we conclude by suggesting new directions for future researchers interested in clarifying the relationship between gender and both the correlates and outcomes of childhood shyness. PMID:25709144

  18. Commentary on "Psychiatric Aspects of Child and Adolescent Obesity: A Review of the Past 10 Years"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgibbon, Marian L.

    2004-01-01

    This article is a brief review of child and adolescent obesity over the past ten years. The starting point for the review is the well-known fact that there has been a dramatic rise in the prevalence of obesity among children, adolescents, and adults in the United Sates (Ogden et al., 2002). The rise has occurred across all age and ethnic groups,…

  19. Practice parameter for cultural competence in child and adolescent psychiatric practice.

    PubMed

    Pumariega, Andrés J; Rothe, Eugenio; Mian, Ayesha; Carlisle, Lee; Toppelberg, Claudio; Harris, Toi; Gogineni, Rama Rao; Webb, Sala; Smith, Jacqueline

    2013-10-01

    The United States faces a rapidly changing demographic and cultural landscape, with its population becoming increasingly multiracial and multicultural. In consequence, cultural and racial factors relating to mental illness and emotional disturbances deserve closer attention and consideration. This Practice Parameter outlines clinical applications of the principle of cultural competence that will enable child and adolescent mental health clinicians to better serve diverse children, adolescents, and their families. PMID:24074479

  20. Adolescent Child Care Program, 1992-93: OREA Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renfro, Sally

    The Program for Pregnant and Parenting Services (PPPF) assists children in the New York City public school system who also happen to be parents. In 1993 the program received a federal child care and development block grant which was used to augment the child development, child care, and case management services provided to their student clientele.…

  1. Brief report: the adolescent Child-to-Parent Aggression Questionnaire: an examination of aggressions against parents in Spanish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Calvete, E; Gamez-Guadix, M; Orue, I; Gonzalez-Diez, Z; Lopez de Arroyabe, E; Sampedro, R; Pereira, R; Zubizarreta, A; Borrajo, E

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a questionnaire to assess child-to-parent aggression in adolescents and to document the extent of the problem. The questionnaire developed in this study, the Child-to-Parent Aggression Questionnaire (CPAQ), includes forms of physical and psychological aggression directed at both the mother and the father. It also includes open questions about the reasons for the aggressive acts. The CPAQ was completed by a sample of 2719 adolescents (age range: 13-18 years old, 51.4% girls). Confirmatory factor analysis supported a four-factor correlated structure (physical aggression against mother, physical aggression against father, psychological aggression against mother, and psychological aggression against father). Psychological and physical aggression against the mother was more frequent than against the father. However, there were no differences with regard to severe forms of aggression. Girls scored significantly higher on all indicators of psychological aggression, including severe psychological aggression. Nevertheless, except for the prevalence of physical aggression against mothers, which was higher in females, there were no significant differences in physical aggression against parents. Finally, the reasons provided by the adolescents for the aggression included both instrumental (e.g., to obtain permission to get home late and to access their computers) and reactive reasons (e.g., anger and self-defense). These findings highlight the complexity of child-to-parent aggression in adolescence. PMID:24215954

  2. Child and Adolescent Mental Health in Haiti: Developing Long-Term Mental Health Services After the 2010 Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Legha, Rupinder K; Solages, Martine

    2015-10-01

    This article presents an overview of child and adolescent mental health in Haiti, emphasizing the role of structural violence and the factors shaping child protection. The 2010 Haiti earthquake is discussed as an acute on chronic event that highlighted the lack of pre-existing formal biomedical mental health services and worsened the impact of structural violence. Considerations for long-term, sustainable, culturally relevant child and adolescent mental health care in Haiti are also provided. PMID:26346386

  3. Parent-child associations in selected food group and nutrient intakes among overweight and obese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Watts, Allison W; Mâsse, Louise C; Barr, Susan I; Lovato, Chris Y; Hanning, Rhona M

    2014-10-01

    Few studies have compared parent-child dietary intake among adolescents who are overweight or obese. The purpose of our study was to determine the relationship between parent-teen intake of selected dietary components among this sample. Baseline data from 165 parent and adolescent (aged 11 to 16 years) pairs who presented for a lifestyle behavior modification intervention were collected between 2010 and 2012. Parent and adolescent dietary intake (servings of fruits and vegetables [F/V]; grams of sugar; and percent energy from total fat, saturated fat, dessert/treats, sugar-sweetened beverages, and snacks) was assessed using web-based 24-hour dietary recalls. Multivariable linear and negative binomial regression models identified associations between parent and child dietary intake adjusting for relevant covariates. A large proportion of adolescents and parents did not meet dietary recommendations for F/V, total fat, and saturated fat. Parent-adolescent intake of F/V, total fat, saturated fat, sugar, sugar-sweetened beverages, and snacks were positively associated (r=0.19 to 0.37). No relationship was observed for dessert/treats. In multivariate models, significant interaction effects suggest that the parent-child association in diet was weaker for fat intake among parents with higher educational attainment (b=-.31; P<0.05) and for snacking among adolescent boys (b=-.30; P<.05). Parent intake of several dietary components important for good health, and related to obesity, was associated with adolescent intake. Helping parents improve their diet may promote improvements in their adolescent's diet and is a potential target for interventions designed to increase healthy eating among adolescents. PMID:24951436

  4. [Major obstacles in the development of child and adolescent psychiatry in Hungary].

    PubMed

    Kalmar, Sandor

    2016-06-01

    The author ascertains that healthy personality development faces increasingly serious obstacles and consequently the number of children in need of mental healthcare is on the rise. Child and adolescent psychiatry has drawn increasing appreciation, however, it is only formal and deficient in Hungary today and cannot assure optimal mental care according to the principles of evidence-based medicine. The author emphasizes that 75% of the first manifestation of the psychiatric disorders occurs during adolescence and young adulthood. In spite of legal regulation, several deficiencies hinder the development of children into healthy adults. The author analyses the most important obstacles in the development of child and adolescent Psychiatry. The author emphasizes the role of keypersons, describes the situation of and problems faced by Hungarian child psychiatric care. The author lists in detail the most important contradictions, deficiencies and obstacles and outlines suggestions for resolving the present crisis. The author emphasizes (1) the responsibility of institutions, and people dealing with society and children, and the disinterest of competent authorities. (2) The somatic, mental, cultural and spiritual ignorance/illiteracy among parents, teachers, healthcare workers, and the general population partly related to crises among the pedagogues. (3) The lack of holistic approach to treatment of children suffering from mental disorder. (4) The importance and the lack of knowledge concerning central nervous system function in child psychiatry. (5) Application of evidence-based medicine in child and adolescent psychiatry based on understanding the relationship between central nervous system alterations and mental functions. (6) Respecting keypersons' competence limits. (7) Immediate development of inpatient and outpatient child and adolescent psychiatry in the whole country. (8) Reform of child psychiatry board exam. (9) Development of currently missing textbooks and

  5. Developmentally informed pharmacotherapy for child and adolescent depressive disorders.

    PubMed

    Sakolsky, Dara; Birmaher, Boris

    2012-04-01

    This article reviews evidence-based pharmacotherapy for children and adolescents with depression. Several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) support the use of fluoxetine for the treatment of childhood and adolescent depression as well as escitalopram in the treatment of adolescent depression. To date, one RCT has demonstrated the effectiveness of sertraline or citalopram for the treatment of major depressive disorder in youth. Only a small number of RCTs for depression have included children, and none of these trials were adequately powered to detect differences in the efficacy of medication between children and adolescents. PMID:22537729

  6. Parenting Stress, Social Support, and Depression for Ethnic Minority Adolescent Mothers: Impact on Child Development

    PubMed Central

    Costeines, Jessica; Ayala, Carmen; Kaufman, Joy S.

    2013-01-01

    Rates of teenage pregnancies are higher for African American and Latina adolescents compared to their White peers. African American and Latina adolescent mothers also experience more adversities than their White peers, such as higher rates of depression, school dropout, and economic disadvantage. Furthermore, children of adolescent mothers are at higher risk for adverse development. Parenting stress and social support can impact outcomes experienced by adolescent parents and their children. The present study examined the influence of adolescent mothers' parenting stress and perceived social support on maternal depression at baseline (six months after birth), and its impact on infant development one year later (18 months after birth). Participants were 180 adolescent mothers of African American or Latino/Hispanic descent. Results suggest that higher levels of parenting stress and less perceived social support were associated with higher levels of depression in the adolescent mothers at baseline. Higher levels of maternal depression were also associated with more developmental delays in infants one year post-baseline. Additionally, depression mediated the relationship between parenting stress and later child outcomes. These findings highlight the importance of examining parenting factors such as parenting stress, social support, and maternal depression in ethnic minority adolescent parents, and provide valuable information regarding unique risk and protective factors associated with positive maternal outcomes for ethnic minority adolescent parents and healthy development for their children. PMID:24653641

  7. Parenting Stress, Social Support, and Depression for Ethnic Minority Adolescent Mothers: Impact on Child Development.

    PubMed

    Huang, Cindy Y; Costeines, Jessica; Ayala, Carmen; Kaufman, Joy S

    2014-02-01

    Rates of teenage pregnancies are higher for African American and Latina adolescents compared to their White peers. African American and Latina adolescent mothers also experience more adversities than their White peers, such as higher rates of depression, school dropout, and economic disadvantage. Furthermore, children of adolescent mothers are at higher risk for adverse development. Parenting stress and social support can impact outcomes experienced by adolescent parents and their children. The present study examined the influence of adolescent mothers' parenting stress and perceived social support on maternal depression at baseline (six months after birth), and its impact on infant development one year later (18 months after birth). Participants were 180 adolescent mothers of African American or Latino/Hispanic descent. Results suggest that higher levels of parenting stress and less perceived social support were associated with higher levels of depression in the adolescent mothers at baseline. Higher levels of maternal depression were also associated with more developmental delays in infants one year post-baseline. Additionally, depression mediated the relationship between parenting stress and later child outcomes. These findings highlight the importance of examining parenting factors such as parenting stress, social support, and maternal depression in ethnic minority adolescent parents, and provide valuable information regarding unique risk and protective factors associated with positive maternal outcomes for ethnic minority adolescent parents and healthy development for their children. PMID:24653641

  8. Parent-child Relationships, Parental Attitudes towards Sex, and Birth Outcomes among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Harville, Emily W.; Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Xie, Yiqiong

    2014-01-01

    Study objective To examine how parent-child relationships, parental control, and parental attitudes towards sex were related to pregnancy outcomes among adolescent mothers. Design Prospective cohort study. Parental report of relationship satisfaction, disapproval of adolescent having sex, discussion around sexual health, and sexual communication attitudes, and adolescent report of relationship satisfaction, parental control, and parental disapproval of sex were examined as predictors of self-reported birth outcomes. Weighted multivariable linear regression models were run incorporating interactions by race. Setting United States Participants 632 females who participated in Waves I and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a nationally-representative sample of students enrolled in grades 7–12 in 1994–95 and followed up in 2007–2008 Main Outcome Measures birthweight and gestational age Results For Black adolescents, better parent-child relationship was associated with higher birthweight (0.14 kg, p<0.05) and gestational age (0.75 weeks, p<0.01), while higher parental disapproval of having sex (adjusted beta 0.15 kg, p<0.05) were associated with higher birthweight. For non-Black adolescents, a moderate amount of discussion of birth control was associated with higher birthweight (0.19 kg, p<0.01 and lower child-perceived parental disapproval of having sex was associated with higher birthweight (0.08 kg, p<0.05) and gestational age (0.37 weeks, p<0.05). Higher parental control was associated with a reduced likelihood of smoking during pregnancy and a greater likelihood of early prenatal care. Conclusion Parent-child relationships and attitudes about sex affect outcomes of pregnant adolescents. PMID:25023982

  9. Death and suicide among former child and adolescent psychiatric patients

    PubMed Central

    Engqvist, Ulf; Rydelius, Per-Anders

    2006-01-01

    Background Increased mortality rates among previous child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) patients have been found in Scandinavian studies up to the 1980s. The suicide risk in this group has been estimated to be almost five times higher than expected. This article addresses two questions: Do Swedish CAP patients continue to risk premature death and what kind of information related to psychiatric symptoms and/or behavior problems can predict later suicide? Methods Hospital files, Sweden's census databases (including immigration and emigration) and administrative databases (including the Swedish Hospital Discharge register and the Persons Convicted of Offences register), and the Cause of Death register were examined to determine the mortality rate in a group of 1,400 former CAP inpatients and outpatients over a period of 12–33 years. Observed and expected numbers of deceased were calculated with the prospective method and the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) method. The relative risk or the risk ratio (RR) is presented with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Significance level tests were made using two-by-two tables and chi-square tests. The Cox proportional-hazards regression model was used for survival analysis. Results Twenty-four males and 14 females died. Compared with the general population, the standardized mortality ratio in this group of CAP patients was significantly higher in both sexes. Behavioral problems, school problems, and co-morbid alcohol or drug abuse and criminality (including alcohol-related crimes) were found to be important predictors. Thirty-two deaths were attributed to suicide, intoxication, drug overdose, or accident; one patient died of an alcohol abuse-related disorder, and five patients died of natural causes. Suicide was the most common cause of death, but only 2 of these 19 cases were initially admitted for attempted suicide. Conclusion We suggest that suicide and death prevention among CAP patients may not be a psychiatric issue per

  10. The Brown University Child and Adolescent Behavior Letter, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipsitt, Lewis P., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    These 12 monthly newsletters from 1995 explore the myriad problems encountered by children and adolescents as they grow up. Regular departments in the newsletter issues include "Keep Your Eye On...," which briefly presents results of research into childhood and adolescent problems; "New Research," summarizing research from recent publications and…

  11. Family-Based Interventions for Child and Adolescent Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaslow, Nadine J.; Broth, Michelle Robbins; Smith, Chaundrissa Oyeshiku; Collins, Marietta H.

    2012-01-01

    Emotional and behavioral symptoms and disorders are prevalent in children and adolescents. There has been a burgeoning literature supporting evidence-based treatments for these disorders. Increasingly, family-based interventions have been gaining prominence and demonstrating effectiveness for myriad childhood and adolescent disorders. This article…

  12. Profiles of Personal Resiliency in Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Geetha; Steer, Robert A.; Gulab, Nazli A.

    2010-01-01

    To ascertain whether children and adolescents whose ages ranged from 9 to 17 years described distinct profiles of personal resiliency, the Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents (RSCA) were administered to 100 youth who were admitted to an inpatient psychiatric unit and were diagnosed with various "DSM-IV-TR" disorders along with the Beck…

  13. The Brown University Child and Adolescent Behavior Letter, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipsitt, Lewis P., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    These 12 monthly issues, one special report, and index from 1997 explore problems encountered by children and adolescents. Regular features include "Keep Your Eye On...," brief accounts of research into childhood and adolescent problems; "What's New in Research," summarizing research from recent publications and professional conferences;…

  14. The Brown University Child and Adolescent Behavior Letter, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipsitt, Lewis P., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    These 12 monthly issues from 1998 explore problems encountered by children and adolescents. Regular features include "Keep Your Eye On...," brief accounts of research into childhood and adolescent problems, "What's New in Research," summarizing research from recent publications and professional conferences; "Commentary," editorials from…

  15. Perceived Parent-Child Relations and Adolescent Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulanda, Ronald E.; Majumdar, Debarun

    2009-01-01

    We used data drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to assess the independent and interactive correlations of maternal and paternal parenting with adolescent self-esteem. Specifically, ordinary least squares regression was used to provide estimates for a large, culturally diverse sample of married, biological…

  16. Child-Rearing Practices and Delinquency in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiriakidis, Stavros P.

    2010-01-01

    The present paper is an overview of studies examining the way family influences the development of delinquency in adolescents. The review focused on published papers dealing with the association of adolescent delinquency and their families. The association between family practices and juvenile delinquency, with potent predictive value is…

  17. The Brown University Child and Adolescent Behavior Letter, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipsitt, Lewis P., Ed.

    1996-01-01

    These 12 monthly newsletters from 1996 explore the many problems encountered by children and adolescents as they grow up. Regular departments in the newsletter issues include "Keep Your Eye On...," which briefly presents results of research into childhood and adolescent problems; "What's New in Research," summarizing research from recent…

  18. The Brown University Child and Adolescent Behavior Letter, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipsitt, Lewis P., Ed.

    1999-01-01

    These 12 monthly issues from 1999 explore problems encountered by children and adolescents. Regular features include "Keep Your Eye On...," brief accounts of research into childhood and adolescent problems; "What's New in Research," summarizing research from recent publications and professional conferences; "Commentary," editorials from…

  19. Measuring absorbed dose for i-CAT CBCT examinations in child, adolescent and adult phantoms

    PubMed Central

    Choi, E

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Design and construct child and adolescent head phantoms to measure the absorbed doses imparted during dental CBCT and compare with the absorbed dose measured in an adult phantom. Methods: A child phantom was developed to represent the smallest patients receiving CBCT, usually for craniofacial developmental concerns, and an adolescent phantom was developed to represent healthy orthodontic patients. Absorbed doses were measured using a thimble ionization chamber for the custom-built child and adolescent phantoms and compared with measurements using a commercially available adult phantom. Imaging was performed with an i-CAT Next Generation (Imaging Sciences International, Hatfield, PA) CBCT using two different fields of view covering the craniofacial complex (130 mm high) or maxilla/mandible (60 mm high). Results: Measured absorbed doses varied depending on the location of the ionization chamber within the phantoms. For CBCT images obtained using the same protocol for all phantoms, the highest absorbed dose was measured in all locations of the small child phantom. The lowest absorbed dose was measured in the adult phantom. Conclusions: Images were obtained with the same protocol for the adult, adolescent and child phantoms. A consistent trend was observed with the highest absorbed dose being measured in the smallest phantom (child), while the lowest absorbed dose was measured in the largest phantom (adult). This study demonstrates the importance of child-sizing the dose by using dedicated paediatric protocols optimized for the imaging task, which is critical as children are more sensitive to harmful effects of radiation and have a longer life-span post-irradiation for radiation-induced symptoms to develop than do adults. PMID:25785822

  20. Annotation: Economic Evaluations of Child and Adolescent Mental Health Interventions--A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romeo, Renee; Byford, Sarah; Knapp, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Background: Recognition has grown over recent years of the need for economic information on the impacts of child and adolescent mental health problems and the cost-effectiveness of interventions. Methods: A range of electronic databases were examined using a predefined search strategy to identify economic studies which focused on services,…

  1. Psychometrics of a Self-Report Version of the Child and Adolescent Dispositions Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahey, Benjamin B.; Rathouz, Paul J.; Applegate, Brooks; Tackett, Jennifer L.; Waldman, Irwin D.

    2010-01-01

    Lahey and Waldman (2003, 2005) proposed a model in which three dispositions--sympathetic response to others; negative emotional response to threat, frustration, and loss; and positive response to novelty and risk--transact with the environment to influence risk for conduct disorder (CD). To test this model, the Child and Adolescent Dispositions…

  2. Assessment of Patient Functioning in a Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Facility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Carol Valera; Meyer, Tracy

    This study investigated the effectiveness of the Child and Adolescent Functional Assessment Scale (CAFAS) for assessing the functioning of youth with mental disorders. The CAFAS is a multidimensional tool used to record the extent to which a youth's mental health disorder is disruptive of functioning in each of five psycho-social areas: role…

  3. Looking Back, for a Change: A Story of Directions in Child and Adolescent Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damon, William

    2005-01-01

    Over the past quarter century, the study of child and adolescent development has made important progress by using its theoretical insights to address the common problems of growing up. In light of findings generated by this empirical activity, it is now time to take a new look at the field's theoretical base to establish a comprehensive framework…

  4. Child and Adolescent Development: The Critical Missing Focus in School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comer, James P.

    2005-01-01

    The key to improving student achievement, the author asserts, is to pay attention to child and adolescent development. If this factor is overlooked, new approaches to curriculum, instruction, and assessment will have little chance of succeeding. But even troubled districts that have made development a priority have seen remarkable success. The…

  5. Families Created by Assisted Reproduction: Parent-Child Relationships in Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Lucy; Golombok, Susan

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of the third phase of a longitudinal study of families created by assisted reproduction. The quality of parent-child relationships was examined close to the adolescent's 18th birthday in 26 "in vitro" fertilization (IVF) families and 26 donor insemination (DI) families in comparison with 38 adoptive families and 63…

  6. The Validity of the Child and Adolescent Needs and Strengths Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilley, Joseph B.; Weiner, Dana A.; Lyons, John S.; Martinovich, Zoran

    2007-01-01

    The Child and Adolescent Needs and Strengths (CANS) is a functional assessment used in approximately 27 states to evaluate youth service outcomes. The CANS purports to measure both the youth's risk and protective factors, but its validity is largely un-researched. This study compares ratings of 304 delinquent youth on the CANS and ratings on a…

  7. Association of Selected Risk Factors with Variation in Child and Adolescent Firearm Mortality by State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murnan, Judy; Dake, Joseph A.; Price, James H.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined relationships between variation in child and adolescent firearm mortality by state and the following variables: childhood poverty rate, percent single parent families, percent population that is African American, percent population that is Hispanic. percent students carrying a gun, percent students carrying a weapon, percent…

  8. Process Evaluation in the Multicenter Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGraw, Sarah A.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Includes "Design of Process Evaluation (PE) within the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health,""Classroom PE in a Multicenter Trial,""Food Service Program PE,""Physical Activity PE,""Family PE,""PE of Environmental Factors and Programs,""Challenges of Conducting PE in a Multicenter Trial." (SK)

  9. Parent-Child Attachment Working Models and Self-Esteem in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Cynthia B.; Kennedy, Janice H.

    1994-01-01

    Continuity over time in parent-child attachments and the relationship between these attachments and current self-esteem were studied for 218 nonparent college students. Results indicate continuity over time of attachment. Self-esteem is related to childhood and adolescent styles of attachment and dimensions of independence encouragement and…

  10. Training of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Fellows in Autism and Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marrus, Natasha; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy; Hellings, Jessica A.; Stigler, Kimberly A.; Szymanski, Ludwik; King, Bryan H.; Carlisle, L. Lee; Cook, Edwin H., Jr.; Pruett, John R., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Patients with autism spectrum disorders and intellectual disability can be clinically complex and often have limited access to psychiatric care. Because little is known about post-graduate clinical education in autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability, we surveyed training directors of child and adolescent psychiatry fellowship…

  11. Psychopharmacological Treatment Options for Global Child and Adolescent Mental Health: The WHO Essential Medicines Lists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutcher, Stan; Murphy, Andrea; Gardner, David

    2008-01-01

    The article examines the World Health Organization's Model List of Essential Medicines (EML) and suggests modification for appropriate psychopharmacological treatment of child- and adolescent-onset mental disorders. The EML enlists few of the psychotropic medicines that are useful for the treatment of young people thereby limiting the…

  12. The Influence of Positive Mother-Child Verbal Interactions on Adolescent Mothers' Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Heather-Lee M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this six-month qualitative microethnographic case study was to determine what influence a family literacy program based on positive mother-child verbal interactions would have on the participating adolescent mothers' literacy skills. The design of the program was founded on the Hart and Risley study (1995) and their findings…

  13. Child Maltreatment and Mediating Influences of Childhood Personality Types on the Development of Adolescent Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oshri, Assaf; Rogosch, Fred A.; Cicchetti, Dante

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate longitudinal risk processes linking early child maltreatment, childhood personality organizations, and adolescent maladaptation. In a sample of maltreated and nonmaltreated children ("N" = 400; 62.3% African American, 11.8% Hispanic; 40.8% girls), a tripartite personality typology based on…

  14. Psychiatric Aspects of Child and Adolescent Obesity: A Review of the Past 10 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zametkin, Alan J.; Zoon, Christine K.; Klein, Hannah W.; Munson, Suzanne

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To review the past 10 years of published research on psychiatric aspects of child and adolescent obesity and highlight information mental health professionals need for preventing obesity in youths and diagnosing and treating it. Method: Researchers performed computerized and manual searches of the literature and summarized the most…

  15. Learning from Tragedy: A Survey of Child and Adolescent Restraint Fatalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunno, Michael A.; Holden, Martha J.; Tollar, Amanda

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This descriptive study examines 45 child and adolescent fatalities related to restraints in residential (institutional) placements in the United States from 1993 to 2003. Method: The study team used common Internet search engines as its primary case discovery strategy to determine the frequency and the nature of the fatalities, as well…

  16. Quality of Parent-Child Relations in Adolescence and Later Adult Parenting Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friesen, Myron D.; Woodward, Lianne J.; Horwood, L. John; Fergusson, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Data from the Christchurch Health and Development Study, a 30-year prospective longitudinal study, were used to examine the associations between the quality of parent-child relations in adolescence and adult parenting behaviour 15 years later. At ages 14 and 15 years, cohort members were interviewed about the quality of their relationship with…

  17. A Practical Approach to Implementing the Core Competencies in a Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Residency Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dingle, Arden D.; Sexson, Sandra B.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe the development and implementation of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's core competencies in a child and adolescent psychiatry residency program. Method: The authors identify the program's organizational approach and participants and detail various strategies and methods of defining,…

  18. Inpatient Treatment in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry--A Prospective Study of Health Gain and Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Jonathan; Jacobs, Brian; Beecham, Jennifer; Dunn, Graham; Kroll, Leo; Tobias, Catherine; Briskman, Jackie

    2007-01-01

    Background: Inpatient treatment is a complex intervention for the most serious mental health disorders in child and adolescent psychiatry. This is the first large-scale study into its effectiveness and costs. Previous studies have been criticised for methodological weaknesses. Methods: A prospective cohort study, including economic evaluation,…

  19. Parent-Child Relationship Trajectories during Adolescence: Longitudinal Associations with Romantic Outcomes in Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Overbeek, Geertjan; Vermulst, Ad

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the developmental trajectories of parent-child relationships in adolescence, especially with respect to changes in support levels and negativity, and analyzed if and how these trajectories were associated with the subsequent quality of romantic relationships in young adulthood. A sample of 145 German subjects was followed…

  20. Parent-Child Relations and Adolescent Self-Image Following Divorce: A 10-Year Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlop, Rosemary; Burns, Ailsa; Bermingham, Suzanne

    2001-01-01

    Explored links between self-image, family structure (divorced or intact), parent-child relations, and gender at 3 intervals over 10 years during adolescence to early adulthood. Results suggest a consistent relationship between high parental care, low overprotective control, and better self-image scores with a stronger effect among subjects from…

  1. Interpartner Conflict and Child Abuse Risk among African American and Latino Adolescent Parenting Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, David R.; Florsheim, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to identify links between observed conflict interactions and risk for child abuse and harsh parenting among a multiethnic sample of adolescent mothers (14-19 years) and young fathers (14-24 years). Methods: Prior to childbirth (T1), observation-based relationship data were collected from 154 expectant…

  2. Bullying Experiences of Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service-Users: A Pilot Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyer, Kevin; Teggart, Tom

    2007-01-01

    Victims and perpetrators of bullying experience a variety of psychological problems. The aim of the current pilot study was to explore the bullying experiences of Child and Adolescent Mental Health (CAMHS) service-users. The investigation was conducted as a cross-sectional survey at a community-based specialist CAMH service. A modified version of…

  3. Impact of Exposure to Violence in School on Child and Adolescent Mental Health and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Daniel J.; Wester, Kelly L.; Singer, Mark I.

    2004-01-01

    Exposure to violence at school remains a significant problem for children and adolescents. This study examined the relationship between exposure to violence at school and child reports of psychological trauma symptoms and violent behavior. The sample consisted of children in grades 3 through 12 in 17 public schools from two different states. Rates…

  4. Prevention in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: The Reduction of Risk for Mental Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, David, Ed.; And Others

    The book describes Project Prevention, an interdisciplinary project developed by the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, to identify risk factors for mental disorders and preventive interventions. After an introductory chapter, the following eight chapters cover: the scope of Project Prevention; children at high risk (e.g.,…

  5. The Child and Adolescent Mental Health Studies (CAMS) Minor at New York University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shatkin, Jess P.; Koplewicz, Harold S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe the Child and Adolescent Mental Health Studies (CAMS) undergraduate college minor at New York University. Methods: The authors detail the development, structure, and operation of the CAMS minor. They describe the importance of identifying program goals, building coalitions, creating an advisory board, selecting…

  6. Assessing Child and Adolescent Pragmatic Language Competencies: Toward Evidence-Based Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Robert L.; Grizzle, Kenneth L.

    2008-01-01

    Using language appropriately and effectively in social contexts requires pragmatic language competencies (PLCs). Increasingly, deficits in PLCs are linked to child and adolescent disorders, including autism spectrum, externalizing, and internalizing disorders. As the role of PLCs expands in diagnosis and treatment of developmental psychopathology,…

  7. Child and Adolescent Behaviorally Based Disorders: A Critical Review of Reliability and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallett, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the historical construction and empirical support of two child and adolescent behaviorally based mental health disorders: oppositional defiant and conduct disorders. Method: The study utilized a historiography methodology to review, from 1880 to 2012, these disorders' inclusion in…

  8. Models of Integrated Training in Psychiatry and Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sexson, Sandra B.; Thomas, Christopher R.; Pope, Kayla

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Previous studies indicate declining interest in child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) as a career choice during psychiatry residency training. Programs have developed integrated training in psychiatry and CAP as a means to address the workforce shortage in CAP, but little is known about the number or nature of these training tracks.…

  9. Child and Adolescent Life Stories: Perspectives from Youth, Parents, and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lodico, Marguerite G.; Voegtle, Katherine H.

    2005-01-01

    The uniqueness of this book lies in the multiple perspectives drawn from youth, their parents, and their teachers. These perspectives provide a range of lenses through which a student or beginning teacher may view child and adolescent development. The complex processes of development occur within a social context, and therefore a professional…

  10. The Utility of the Child and Adolescent Psychopathy Construct in Hong Kong, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fung, Annis Lai-Chu; Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the nature of child and adolescent psychopathy using the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD) in 3,675 schoolchildren (ages 11-16) in Hong Kong, China. A confirmatory factor analysis observed a good fit for the three-factor model (callous-unemotional, impulsivity, narcissism) of APSD, with boys scoring…

  11. Clinical Profile of Childhood Onset Depression Presenting to Child Adolescent and Family Services in Northampton

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majumder, Pallab; Hammad, Hala

    2006-01-01

    Background: The clinical profile of depressive disorder in children and young people in Child Adolescent and Family Services (CAFS), Northampton was studied. Methods: Twenty-five patients who had attended the CAFS over a period of 2 years were analysed retrospectively. Results: The age range of subjects was 8 to 19 years. Majority of patients were…

  12. Treating Child Abuse-Related Posttraumatic Stress and Comorbid Substance Abuse in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Judith A.; Mannarino, Anthony P.; Zhitova, Aren C.; Capone, Margery E.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: Child abuse is a risk factor for developing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and subsequent Substance Use Disorder (SUD). The purpose of this review is to summarize current knowledge about effective treatments for adolescent abuse-related PTSD, SUD, and the co-occurrence of these conditions. Method: The literature on empirical…

  13. Using Epidemiologic Methods to Test Hypotheses regarding Causal Influences on Child and Adolescent Mental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahey, Benjamin B.; D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Waldman, Irwin D.

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiology uses strong sampling methods and study designs to test refutable hypotheses regarding the causes of important health, mental health, and social outcomes. Epidemiologic methods are increasingly being used to move developmental psychopathology from studies that catalogue correlates of child and adolescent mental health to designs that…

  14. Prevalence and Predictors of Dating Violence among Adolescent Female Victims of Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cyr, Mireille; McDuff, Pierre; Wright, John

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to advance knowledge of dating violence behaviors among adolescent victims of child sexual abuse (CSA), first, by determining the prevalence of psychological and physical dating violence and the reciprocity of violence, and second, by investigating the influence of certain CSA characteristics to dating violence.…

  15. Food-related parenting practices and child and adolescent weight and weight-related behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Loth, K; Fulkerson, JA; Neumark-Sztainer, D

    2015-01-01

    Summary The prevalence of overweight and obesity in children has reached a concerning plateau in the past three decades, with overweight or obesity impacting approximately one-third of youth. Unhealthy weight-related behaviors, including dieting, unhealthy weight control practices and binge eating, are also a great public health concern for young people given both their high prevalence and harmful consequences. Food-related parenting practices, including food restriction and pressure-to-eat, have been associated with higher weight status, as well as the use of unhealthy weight-related behaviors, in children and adolescents. Physicians and other health care providers who work with families should discourage parents from using food restriction and pressure-to-eat parenting practices with their child or adolescent. Alternatively, parents should be empowered to promote healthy eating by focusing on making nutritious food items readily available within their home and modeling healthy food choices for their child or adolescent. PMID:26413263

  16. Parental Acculturative Stressors and Adolescent Adjustment Through Interparental and Parent-Child Relationships in Chinese American Families.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yang; Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie

    2016-07-01

    Perpetual foreigner stereotype and bicultural management difficulty are two understudied acculturative stressors frequently experienced by Asian Americans. This study expanded the family stress model to examine how parental experiences of these two acculturative stressors relate to measures of adolescent adjustment (depressive symptoms, delinquent behaviors, and academic performance) during high school and emerging adulthood through interparental and parent-child relationship processes. Participants were 350 Chinese American adolescents (M age  = 17.04, 58 % female) and their parents in Northern California. Path models showed that parental acculturative stressors positively related to parent-child conflict, either directly (for both mother-adolescent and father-adolescent dyads) or indirectly through interparental conflict (for mother-adolescent dyads only). Subsequently, both interparental and parent-child conflict positively related to a sense of alienation between parents and adolescents, which then related to more depressive symptoms, more delinquent behaviors, and lower academic performance in adolescents, for mother-adolescent and father-adolescent dyads. These effects persisted from high school to emerging adulthood. The results highlight the indirect effects of maternal and paternal acculturative stressors on adolescent adjustment through family processes involving interparental and parent-child relationships. PMID:26885827

  17. National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, No. 7: Special Health Care Needs among Children in Child Welfare, Research Brief: Findings from the NSCAW Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This research brief, the seventh in a series of National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW) briefs, examines the presence of special health care needs among children in the child welfare system (CWS). It specifically examines the presence of chronic health conditions (e.g., asthma, diabetes) and special needs (e.g., emotional…

  18. Child Support Enforcement and Sexual Activity of Male Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chien-Chung; Han, Wen-Jui

    2007-01-01

    Strong child support enforcement requires fathers to take financial responsibility for their children and may also encourage more responsible sexual behavior. Using the 1997-2001 waves of the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 4,272), this article examines the association between child support enforcement and the sexual activity of…

  19. Parent-child shared time from middle childhood to late adolescence: developmental course and adjustment correlates.

    PubMed

    Lam, Chun Bun; McHale, Susan M; Crouter, Ann C

    2012-11-01

    The development and adjustment correlates of parent-child social (parent, child, and others present) and dyadic time (only parent and child present) from age 8 to 18 were examined. Mothers, fathers, and firstborns and secondborns from 188 White families participated in both home and nightly phone interviews. Social time declined across adolescence, but dyadic time with mothers and fathers peaked in early and middle adolescence, respectively. In addition, secondborns' social time declined more slowly than firstborns', and gendered time use patterns were more pronounced in boys and in opposite-sex sibling dyads. Finally, youths who spent more dyadic time with their fathers, on average, had higher general self-worth, and changes in social time with fathers were positively linked to changes in social competence. PMID:22925042

  20. Parent-Child Shared Time From Middle Childhood to Late Adolescence: Developmental Course and Adjustment Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Chun Bun; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.

    2012-01-01

    The development and adjustment correlates of parent-child social (parent, child, and others present) and dyadic time (only parent and child present) from age 8 to 18 were examined. Mothers, fathers, and firstborns and secondborns from 188 White families participated in both home and nightly phone interviews. Social time declined across adolescence, but dyadic time with mothers and fathers peaked in early and middle adolescence, respectively. Additionally, secondborns’ social time declined more slowly than firstborns’, and gendered time use patterns were more pronounced in boys and in opposite-sex sibling dyads. Finally, youths who spent more dyadic time with their fathers, on average, had higher general self-worth, and changes in social time with fathers were positively linked to changes in social competence. PMID:22925042

  1. Child maltreatment and mediating influences of childhood personality types on the development of adolescent psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Oshri, Assaf; Rogosch, Fred A; Cicchetti, Dante

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate longitudinal risk processes linking early child maltreatment, childhood personality organizations, and adolescent maladaptation. In a sample of maltreated and nonmaltreated children (N = 400; 62.3% African American, 11.8% Hispanic; 40.8% girls), a tripartite personality typology based on California Child Q-Set items representative of ego resiliency and ego control personality dimensions (Block & Block, 1969/1980 ) was derived at Wave 1 (age range = 10-12). The typology, composed of Resilient, Overcontrolled, and Undercontrolled profiles, was evaluated for associations with previous child maltreatment, and for its utility in predicting adolescent psychopathology (age range = 15-18). Maltreated children were significantly more likely than nonmaltreated children to be classified into the overcontrolled (Odds Ratio = 1.847) and undercontrolled profiles (Odds Ratio = 2.101), compared to the Resilient profile. The undercontrolled profile reported higher cannabis symptoms and externalizing problems in adolescence than the other two profiles. The overcontrolled group showed the highest levels of internalizing and lowest levels of alcohol problems compared to the other profiles. Person-centered mediation analyses showed that the overcontrolled and the undercontrolled profiles significantly and differentially mediated the link between number of child maltreatment subtypes and the development of adolescent psychopathology. Child maltreatment is a potent environmental stressor that potentiates compromised personality development, eventuating in heightened psychopathology in adolescence. These findings have important implications for prevention and intervention of psychopathology and substance abuse among low income and maltreated youth. PMID:22963011

  2. Furthering the Understanding of Parent–Child Relationships: A Nursing Scholarship Review Series. Part 5: Parent–Adolescent and Teen Parent–Child Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Riesch, Susan K.; Anderson, Lori S.; Pridham, Karen A.; Lutz, Kristin F.; Becker, Patricia T.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this paper is to examine nursing’s contribution to understanding the parent–adolescent and the teen parent–child relationships. CONCLUSION Relationships between parents and adolescents may reflect turmoil and affect adolescents’ health and development. The social and developmental contexts for teen parenting are powerful and may need strengthening. Several interventions to help teen mothers interact sensitively with their infants have been developed and tested. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS Nurse researchers have begun to provide evidence for practitioners to use in caring for families of adolescents and teen parents to acquire interaction skills that, in turn, may promote optimal health and development of the child. PMID:20618633

  3. The Interplay Between Child and Maternal Health: Reciprocal Relationships and Cumulative Disadvantage During Childhood and Adolescence*

    PubMed Central

    Garbarski, Dana

    2015-01-01

    While many studies use parental socioeconomic status and health to predict children's health, this study examines the interplay over time between child and maternal health across childhood and adolescence. Using data from women in the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1979 cohort and their children (N = 2,225), autoregressive cross-lagged models demonstrate that at particular points during childhood and adolescence, there are direct effects of child activity limitations on maternal health limitations two years later and direct effects of maternal health limitations on child activity limitations two years later, net of a range of health-relevant time-varying and time-invariant covariates. Furthermore, there are indirect effects of child activity limitations on subsequent maternal health limitations and indirect effects of maternal health limitations on subsequent child activity limitations via intervening health statuses. This study examines how the interplay between child and maternal health unfolds over time and describes how these interdependent statuses jointly experience health disadvantages. PMID:24578398

  4. Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Child Behavior Problems among Latina Adolescent Mothers: The Buffering Effect of Mother-reported Partner Child Care Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Erin N.; Grau, Josefina M.; Duran, Petra A.; Castellanos, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    We examined the relations between maternal depressive symptoms and child internalizing and externalizing problems in a sample of 125 adolescent Latina mothers (primarily Puerto Rican) and their toddlers. We also tested the influence of mother-reported partner child care involvement on child behavior problems and explored mother-reported partner characteristics that related to this involvement. Results suggested that maternal depressive symptoms related to child internalizing and externalizing problems when accounting for contextual risk factors. Importantly, these symptoms mediated the link between life stress and child behavior problems. Mother-reported partner child care interacted with maternal depressive symptoms for internalizing, not externalizing, problems. Specifically, depressive symptoms related less strongly to internalizing problems at higher levels of partner child care than at lower levels. Participants with younger partners, co-residing partners, and in longer romantic relationships reported higher partner child care involvement. Results are discussed considering implications for future research and interventions for mothers, their children, and their partners. PMID:24339474

  5. Preparation for Adulthood. Proceedings of the Asian Workshop on Child and Adolescent Development (3rd, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, April 9-14, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ching, Leong Yin, Ed.; And Others

    Attended by participants from 19 nations, this conference focused on six topics related to child and adolescent development. Major topics discussed included child development and related issues, curriculum and the adolescent, the adolescent and technological changes, and the preparation of youth for adulthood. Symposia focusing on child…

  6. A stepped-care model of post-disaster child and adolescent mental health service provision

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, Brett M.; Cobham, Vanessa E.

    2014-01-01

    Background From a global perspective, natural disasters are common events. Published research highlights that a significant minority of exposed children and adolescents develop disaster-related mental health syndromes and associated functional impairment. Consistent with the considerable unmet need of children and adolescents with regard to psychopathology, there is strong evidence that many children and adolescents with post-disaster mental health presentations are not receiving adequate interventions. Objective To critique existing child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) models of care and the capacity of such models to deal with any post-disaster surge in clinical demand. Further, to detail an innovative service response; a child and adolescent stepped-care service provision model. Method A narrative review of traditional CAMHS is presented. Important elements of a disaster response – individual versus community recovery, public health approaches, capacity for promotion and prevention and service reach are discussed and compared with the CAMHS approach. Results Difficulties with traditional models of care are highlighted across all levels of intervention; from the ability to provide preventative initiatives to the capacity to provide intense specialised posttraumatic stress disorder interventions. In response, our over-arching stepped-care model is advocated. The general response is discussed and details of the three tiers of the model are provided: Tier 1 communication strategy, Tier 2 parent effectiveness and teacher training, and Tier 3 screening linked to trauma-focused cognitive behavioural therapy. Conclusion In this paper, we argue that traditional CAMHS are not an appropriate model of care to meet the clinical needs of this group in the post-disaster setting. We conclude with suggestions how improved post-disaster child and adolescent mental health outcomes can be achieved by applying an innovative service approach. PMID:25045422

  7. Child maltreatment and adolescent mental health problems in a large birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Scott, James; Alati, Rosa; O'Callaghan, Michael; Najman, Jake; Strathearn, Lane

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine whether notified child maltreatment is associated with adverse psychological outcomes in adolescence, and whether differing patterns of psychological outcome are seen depending on the type of maltreatment. Methods The participants were 7223 mother and child pairs enrolled in a population-based birth cohort study in Brisbane, Australia. Exposure to suspected child maltreatment was measured by linkage with state child protection agency data. The primary outcomes were the internalizing and externalizing scales of the Youth Self Report (YSR) at approximately 14 years of age. Results The YSR was completed by 5172 subjects (71.6%), with increased attrition of cases of notified maltreatment. After adjustment for potential confounders, notified maltreatment was significantly associated with both internalizing behavior and externalizing behavior at 14. When evaluated as non-exclusive categories of maltreatment, physical abuse, neglect, and emotional abuse were each significantly associated with both internalizing and externalizing behavior after adjustment. When evaluated using an expanded hierarchical scheme that included combinations of multi-type maltreatment, the following groups had significantly higher internalizing behavior after adjustment: emotional abuse (with or without neglect), and multi-type maltreatment including physical (but not sexual) abuse with neglect and/or emotional abuse. The following groups were associated with externalizing behavior after adjustment: emotional abuse (with or without neglect), and multi-type maltreatment including physical abuse (with neglect and/or emotional abuse), or sexual abuse (with neglect and/or emotional abuse, and/or physical abuse). Conclusions This study suggests that child neglect and emotional abuse have serious adverse effects on adolescent mental health and warrant the attention given to other forms of child maltreatment. Additionally, it confirms that young people who are notified for more than

  8. Donor insemination: a follow-up study of disclosure decisions, family relationships and child adjustment at adolescence.

    PubMed

    Freeman, T; Golombok, S

    2012-08-01

    The call for greater openness about gamete donation highlights the need to assess the long-term implications of telling donor-conceived children about their origins. This longitudinal study examined the consequences of secrecy versus openness about donor insemination (DI) for family relationships and child adjustment at adolescence. Thirty heterosexual families with an adolescent (aged 10-14 years) conceived by anonymous DI were assessed using standardized measures of parent-child and marital relationships, and parents' and adolescents' psychological wellbeing. Ten (33%) adolescents had been told about their donor conception. The only differences found between disclosed and non-disclosed families concerned parent-child relationships. In particular, whilst disclosure was associated with lower levels of conflict between mothers and sons, adolescents who were aware of their donor origins reported less warm father-child relationships than those who had not been told. This is of interest given that identity issues and a fuller understanding of donor conception are likely to arise at adolescence. However, differences between disclosing and non-disclosing families cannot be directly attributed to parents' disclosure decisions. Overall, these findings suggest that openness about DI does not create significant difficulties for family functioning or child adjustment and that a child's age and sex may be important in assessing the impact of secrecy and disclosure. PMID:22683153

  9. A Review of Familial Correlates of Child and Adolescent Obesity: What has the 21st Century Taught us so Far?

    PubMed Central

    Berge, Jerica M.

    2010-01-01

    Background With the rising prevalence rates of child and adolescent obesity over the last several decades it is important to examine the extant research in order to inform future research. Objective The aim of this paper is to review and critique research investigating familial correlates of child and adolescent obesity in the last decade. Methods A literature review was conducted between March 2008 and December 2008. Studies published after 2000 that assessed familial associations with child and adolescent obesity in the parental, family functioning, and sibling domains were included in the review. A total of 81 studies met inclusionary criteria. Results The majority of studies focused on the parental domain. Substantial evidence indicates an association between authoritative parenting style and child/adolescent lower BMI, healthy dietary intake and physical activity. Also, research on family meals has consistently shown an association between the frequency of family meals and child/adolescent lower BMI and healthy dietary intake. Conclusion To date, there is preliminary evidence that suggests that familial factors are associated with child and adolescent obesity, dietary intake, physical activity and weight control behaviors, but the majority of the evidence is cross-sectional and there are limitations with the research. Recommendations for future research are discussed. PMID:20306760

  10. Child abuse and suicidal ideation among adolescents in China.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Sylvia Y C L; Chai, Wenyu; He, Xuesong

    2013-11-01

    The present study examined the relationship among physical abuse, psychological abuse, perceived family functioning and adolescent suicidal ideation in Shanghai, China. Perceived family functioning was investigated as a possible moderator between physical abuse, psychological abuse and suicidal ideation. A cross sectional survey using convenience sampling was conducted. A total of 560 valid self-administered questionnaires were completed by the students aged from 12 to 17 in Shanghai. Descriptive statistical analyses, Pearson correlations analyses, and hierarchical regression analyses were adopted as methods of data analyses. Results indicated that physical abuse was significantly associated with greater adolescent suicidal ideation, while a higher level of perceived family functioning was significantly associated with lower suicidal ideation. However, psychological abuse was not associated with suicidal ideation. Perceived family functioning was shown to be a moderator between physical abuse and suicidal ideation. Specifically, mutuality and family communication moderated the relationship between physical abuse and suicidal ideation. To decrease adolescent suicidal ideation, measures are suggested to prevent physical abuse and enhance family functioning. First, it is important to increase the parents' awareness of the meaning and boundaries of physical abuse, as well as the role it plays in contributing to adolescent suicidal ideation. Second, parents should be taught appropriate parenting skills and knowledge and be guided to treat the children as individuals with their unique personality, rights and privileges. Third, it is important to promote family harmony, effective communication as well as mutual trust, concern and understanding among family members. PMID:23899534

  11. Parent-Child Communication and Adolescents' Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Terri D.; Pollack, Robert H.

    Although the benefits of sex education are often questioned, numerous studies have shown that the more knowledgeable a person is about sexuality, the less likely he or she is to engage in early sexual activities. To compare the differences in sexual knowledge, attitudes, and contraceptive choice between those adolescents who talk to their parents…

  12. Resolving Child and Adolescent Traumatic Grief: Creative Techniques and Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgar-Bailey, Meredith; Kress, Victoria E.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a review of creative interventions that can be helpful in facilitating the resolution of traumatic grief in children and adolescents. Traumatic grief is conceptualized as a condition in which a person loses a close loved one (e.g., a parent or a sibling) in a traumatic manner, and ensuing trauma-related symptoms disrupt the…

  13. Child Sexual Abuse and Adolescent Prostitution: A Comparative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seng, Magnus J.

    1989-01-01

    Explored relationship between sexual abuse and adolescent prostitution by comparing 70 sexually abused children with 35 prostitution-involved children on 22 variables. Findings suggest that relationship is not direct, but involves runaway behavior as intervening variable. Concludes that it is not so much sexual abuse that leads to prostitution, as…

  14. Practice Parameter for Child and Adolescent Forensic Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This Parameter addresses the key concepts that differentiate the forensic evaluation of children and adolescents from a clinical assessment. There are ethical issues unique to the forensic evaluation, because the forensic evaluator's duty is to the person, court, or agency requesting the evaluation, rather than to the patient. The forensic…

  15. Compulsive Internet Use among Adolescents: Bidirectional Parent-Child Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Eijnden, Regina J. J. M.; Spijkerman, Renske; Vermulst, Ad A.; van Rooij, Tony J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2010-01-01

    Although parents experience growing concerns about their children's excessive internet use, little is known about the role parents can play to prevent their children from developing Compulsive Internet Use (CIU). The present study addresses associations between internet-specific parenting practices and CIU among adolescents, as well as the…

  16. Commentary: Treatment Guidelines for Child and Adolescent Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClellan, Jon

    2005-01-01

    Once considered rare in children, pediatric bipolar disorder is now widely diagnosed in the United States. The illness has become a cultural phenomenon, adorning the cover of Time magazine and headlining national news broadcasts. Kowatch and colleagues, in compiling consensus recommendations for bipolar disorder in children and adolescents, have…

  17. Child and Adolescent Abuse and Subsequent Victimization: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, Cindy L.; Gidycz, Christine A.; Warkentin, Jennifer B.; Loh, Catherine; Weiland, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the possible reciprocal relationship between victimization experiences and psychological functioning by assessing abuse experiences in childhood, adolescence, and during a 2-month follow-up period. Method: At the beginning of the study (Time 1), abuse histories, trauma and depressive symptoms, and interpersonal…

  18. Preventing Child and Adolescent Firearm Injuries. Firearm Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duker, Laurie

    In an effort to reduce the current epidemic of gun violence among children and adolescents in the United States, this fact sheet presents various approaches to reducing access to and interest in carrying firearms. Suggested approaches to reducing access include: (1) urging parents to turn in their guns to police; (2) repealing anti-gun control…

  19. Prerequisites for Global Child and Adolescent Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Leon; Belfer, Myron

    2009-01-01

    The epidemiology of the mental and physical health of children and adolescents the world over reflects: the genomes they inherit (and the modifications those genes undergo in utero); the pregnancies that led to their births, whether their mothers survive those pregnancies, and whether their births were welcome; the parents, the neighbors, and the…

  20. Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Child and Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David-Ferdon, Corinne; Kaslow, Nadine J.

    2008-01-01

    The evidence-base of psychosocial treatment outcome studies for depressed youth conducted since 1998 is examined. All studies for depressed children meet Nathan and Gorman's (2002) criteria for Type 2 studies whereas the adolescent protocols meet criteria for both Type 1 and Type 2 studies. Based on the Task Force on the Promotion and…

  1. Assessment of Child and Adolescent Overweight and Obesity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate appropriate assessment of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents is a critical aspect of contemporary medical care. However, physicians and other health care professionals may find this a somewhat thorny field to enter. The BMI has become the standard as a reliable indicator of ...

  2. [Social reasoning of early adolescents and parents regarding parent-child conflicts].

    PubMed

    Utsumi, Shoka

    2015-08-01

    Few researches have delineated how adolescents and parents view conflict in familial settings in Japan. Seventh and eighth grade junior high school students (n = 63) and parents (n = 68) were asked to complete a questionnaire using four hypothetical stories to investigate their judgments and reasoning about parent-child situations. Vignettes described health management, household chores, and two situations involving personal choice (clothes and friends) situations. Participants responded differently to personal, prudential, and conventional conflict. Parental acceptance of the child's demands and discretion and the child's tendency to reject parental authority were significantly higher for personal than for conventional or prudential conflict, and for conventional than for prudential conflict. Children rejected parental authority more than adults rejected parental authority when the child's choice was central to the child's identity; on the other hand, children accepted parents' conventional demands more often than adults accepted parents' conventional demands. These results suggest that early adolescents assert their rights when they judge the situation to be in the personal domain. PMID:26402954

  3. Health-risk behaviors in young adolescents in the child welfare system

    PubMed Central

    Leslie, Laurel K.; James, Sigrid; Monn, Amy; Kauten, Milena C.; Zhang, Jinjin; Aarons, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine rates and patterns of health-risk behavior (e.g. sexuality, depression/suicidality, substance use, delinquency) among a national probability sample of youth active to the child welfare/child protective services system. Recent federal legislation, P.L. 110–351, encourages child welfare systems, Medicaid, and pediatric experts to collaborate to assure youth entering foster care receive comprehensive health examinations. Methods Analysis of baseline caregiver, caseworker and child interviews, and assessment data for a subsample (n=993) of youth, ages 11–15 years, from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, a national probability sample of children and adolescents undergoing investigation for abuse or neglect. Results Almost half of the sample (46.3%) endorsed at least one health-risk behavior. On Poisson multivariate regression modeling, factors related to higher rates of health-risk behaviors included older age, female gender, abuse history, deviant peers, limited caregiver monitoring, and poor school engagement. Conclusion Given the heightened vulnerability of this population, early screening for health-risk behaviors must be prioritized. Further research should explore specific subpopulations at risk for health-risk behaviors and possible interventions to change these youths’ trajectories. PMID:20547289

  4. Attitudes, Skills and Knowledge Change in Child and Adolescent Mental Health Workers Following AOD Screening and Brief Intervention Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Grant; Black, Stella; Dunbar, Lucy; Pulford, Justin; Wheeler, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Adolescent mental health workers are generally poor at identifying and treating co-existing alcohol and other drug (AOD) disorder. This study aimed to evaluate the utility and acceptability of an AOD screening and brief intervention (BI) training package delivered to child and adolescent mental health workers and its impact on relevant attitudes,…

  5. Maternal Parenting Styles and Mother-Child Relationship among Adolescents with and without Persistent Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Chang, Jane Pei-Chen

    2013-01-01

    We investigated mothering and mother-child interactions in adolescents with and without persistent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a sample of 190 adolescents with persistent DSM-IV ADHD, 147 without persistent ADHD, and 223 without ADHD. Both participants and their mothers received psychiatric interviews for diagnosis of ADHD…

  6. Child Sexual Abuse and Its Relationship with Health Risk Behaviors among Rural Children and Adolescents in Hunan, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Danhua; Li, Xiaoming; Fan, Xinghua; Fang, Xiaoyi

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The current study was designed to explore the prevalence of child sexual abuse (CSA) and its association with health risk behaviors (i.e., smoking, alcohol use, binge drinking, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempt) among rural children and adolescents in China. Methods: A sample of 683 rural children and adolescents (8 to 18 years of…

  7. The Child Health and Illness Profile--Adolescent Edition: Assessing Well-Being in Group Homes or Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altshuler, Sandra J.; Poertner, John

    2002-01-01

    The Child Health and Illness Profile--Adolescent Edition (CHIP-AE) was administered to 63 adolescents in group settings. Domains studied were satisfaction, resilience, risk, achievement, and disorders. Compared to a normed group, youth in group homes or institutions felt physically healthy and safe and were resilient. Of concern were low…

  8. Mother-Child Conflict and Its Moderating Effects on Depression Outcomes in a Preventive Intervention for Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jami F.; Gallop, Robert; Mufson, Laura

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on mother-child conflict as an outcome and moderator of Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training (IPT-AST), a preventive intervention for depression. Forty-one adolescents (average age = 13.37, SD = 1.19) with elevated depression symptoms were randomized to receive IPT-AST or school counseling (SC). Adolescents…

  9. Predicting Desire for a Child among Low-Income Urban Adolescent Girls: Interpersonal Processes in the Context of Poverty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Kathryn; Grace, Pamela; Trujillo, Jaime; Halpert, Jane; Kessler-Cordeiro, Anna; Razzino, Brian; Davis, Trina

    2002-01-01

    Interpersonal influences on the desire to have a child were examined in a sample of pregnant low-income urban adolescents. It was hypothesized that adolescent girls who report poorer relationships with their parents would report greater emotional reliance on their boyfriends and greater reliance on boyfriends would predict greater desire for a…

  10. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder across the lifespan: the child, adolescent, and adult.

    PubMed

    Greydanus, Donald E; Pratt, Helen D; Patel, Dilip R

    2007-02-01

    Management of a child, adolescent, college student, or adult with ADD/ADHD (ADHD) is reviewed with emphasis on pharmacologic approaches in the adult. Psychological treatment includes psychotherapy, cognitive-behavior therapy, support groups, parent training, biofeedback, meditation, and social skills training. Medications are reviewed that research has revealed can improve the core symptomatology of a child or adolescent with ADHD. These medications include stimulants (psychostimulants), antidepressants, alpha-2 agonists, and a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor. Psychopharmacology approved and/or used in pediatric patients are also used in adults with ADHD, though most are not officially FDA-approved. It is emphasized that ADHD management should include a multi-modal approach, involving appropriate educational interventions, appropriate psychological management of the patient of any age, and judicious use of medications. Such an approach is recommended to benefit those with ADHD achieve their maximum potential across the human life span. PMID:17386306

  11. Healthcare Reform and Preparing the Future Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology Workforce.

    PubMed

    Janicke, David M; Fritz, Alyssa M; Rozensky, Ronald H

    2015-01-01

    The healthcare environment is undergoing important changes for both patients and providers, in part due to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA). Ultimately the healthcare delivery system will function very differently by the end of this decade. These changes will have important implications for the education, training, scientific inquiry, and practice of clinical child and adolescent psychologists. In this article we provide a brief description of the fundamental features of the ACA, with a specific focus on critical components of the act that have important, specific implications for clinical child and adolescents psychologists. We then provide recommendations to help position our field to thrive in the evolving healthcare environment to help facilitate further awareness and promote discussion of both challenges and opportunities that face our field in this evolving health care environment. PMID:26158589

  12. Training of child and adolescent psychiatry fellows in autism and intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Marrus, Natasha; Veenstra-Vanderweele, Jeremy; Hellings, Jessica A; Stigler, Kimberly A; Szymanski, Ludwik; King, Bryan H; Carlisle, L Lee; Cook, Edwin H; Pruett, John R

    2014-05-01

    Patients with autism spectrum disorders and intellectual disability can be clinically complex and often have limited access to psychiatric care. Because little is known about post-graduate clinical education in autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability, we surveyed training directors of child and adolescent psychiatry fellowship programs. On average, child and adolescent psychiatry directors reported lectures of 3 and 4 h per year in autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability, respectively. Training directors commonly reported that trainees see 1-5 patients with autism spectrum disorder or intellectual disability per year for outpatient pharmacological management and inpatient treatment. Overall, 43% of directors endorsed the need for additional resources for training in autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability, which, coupled with low didactic and clinical exposure, suggests that current training is inadequate. PMID:24113341

  13. Growing Up the Chinese Way: Chinese Child and Adolescent Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Sing, Ed.

    This volume is a collection of current research by noted scholars on Chinese child development. The volume re-examines long-held beliefs and preconceptions about Chinese culture, draws forth incompatible pictures and contradictory facts about Chinese children, and draws attention to new problems of the modern Chinese family. The chapters of the…

  14. The Moderating Effects of Pubertal Timing on the Longitudinal Associations between Parent-Child Relationship Quality and Adolescent Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, Katherine H.; Van Den Bree, Marianne B. M.

    2010-01-01

    This prospective, longitudinal study investigated the moderating role of pubertal timing on reciprocal links between adolescent appraisals of parent-child relationship quality and girls' (N = 1,335) and boys' (N = 1,203) cigarette and alcohol use across a 12-month period. Reciprocal effects were found between parent-child relations and on-time…

  15. Relations between Parenting and Externalizing and Internalizing Problem Behaviour in Early Adolescence: Child Behaviour as Moderator and Predictor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reitz, E.; Dekovic, M.; Meijer, A. M.

    2006-01-01

    In this longitudinal study we investigated relations between parenting and externalizing and internalizing problem behaviour during early adolescence. First, we examined parenting effects on problem behaviour, including child behaviour as a moderator. Second, we examined child behaviour as predictor of parenting, also including moderator effects.…

  16. National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW) CPS Sample Component Wave 1 Data Analysis Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Children's Bureau of the Administration on Children, Youth and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, has undertaken the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW) to learn about the experiences of children and families who come in contact with the child welfare system. NSCAW is gathering information associated…

  17. Child and Adolescent Development Research and Teacher Education: Evidence-Based Pedagogy, Policy, and Practice. Summary of Roundtable Meetings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), 2006

    2006-01-01

    The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) and the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) collaborated on a child and adolescent development project involving roundtables of knowledgeable researchers and teacher educators. This summary report discusses major issues faced by teachers and schools,…

  18. The history of managed care and the role of the child and adolescent psychiatrist.

    PubMed

    Glasser, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The child and adolescent psychiatrist cannot practice in today's world without interacting with the world of insurance and managed care. This article reviews the history of the development of the managed care industry. It also examines the variety of roles clinicians play, whether as members of physician networks, as a peer or utilization reviewers, or as medical directors. The skills required of the physician employee and the contractual and ethical concerns are discussed. PMID:19951807

  19. [Quality characteristics of freedom-restricting coercive measures in child and adolescent psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Schepker, Renate; Steinert, Tilman; Jungmann, Joachim; Bergmann, Frank; Fegert, Jörg M

    2006-01-01

    Putting into practice legal prescriptions of both children's rights and the personal freedom guaranteed by the German basic constitutional law requires a reflected and sensitive use of freedom-restricting coercive measures. Such measures imply uncertainties and burdens for staff and patients in child and adolescent psychiatry. Using guidelines of psychiatric associations and instructions from three institutions, basic attitudes and quality characteristics of indication, performance, and participation with regard to freedom-restricting coercive measures are described. PMID:17253028

  20. Impact of violence on children and adolescents: report from a community-based child psychiatry clinic.

    PubMed

    Benoit, M

    1993-02-01

    The Children's National Medical Center is located in the inner-city area of Washington, DC. As is nationally now well publicized, the drug-related violence in Washington has earned the area the dubious title of "murder capital of the world." Our outpatient child and adolescent psychiatry clinic at Children's Hospital provides walk-in services during daytime hours, Monday through Friday. Access to services is available at other times through the emergency room. PMID:8488207

  1. Compulsive internet use among adolescents: bidirectional parent-child relationships.

    PubMed

    van den Eijnden, Regina J J M; Spijkerman, Renske; Vermulst, Ad A; van Rooij, Tony J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2010-01-01

    Although parents experience growing concerns about their children's excessive internet use, little is known about the role parents can play to prevent their children from developing Compulsive Internet Use (CIU). The present study addresses associations between internet-specific parenting practices and CIU among adolescents, as well as the bidirectionality of these associations. Two studies were conducted: a cross-sectional study using a representative sample of 4,483 Dutch students and a longitudinal study using a self-selected sample of 510 Dutch adolescents. Results suggest that qualitatively good communication regarding internet use is a promising tool for parents to prevent their teenage children from developing CIU. Besides, parental reactions to excessive internet use and parental rules regarding the content of internet use may help prevent CIU. Strict rules about time of internet use, however, may promote compulsive tendencies. Finally, one opposite link was found whereby CIU predicted a decrease in frequency of parental communication regarding internet use. PMID:19728076

  2. [Child and adolescent obesity, psychosocial consequences and treatment strategies].

    PubMed

    Hartmann, A S; Hilbert, A

    2013-04-01

    Being overweight and obese in childhood and adolescence is associated with various somatic and psychosocial sequelae. Psychosocial problems can negatively influence the future weight trajectory. Therefore, weight reduction or stabilization should be complemented by the treatment of significant psychosocial problems. This review provides an overview of the psychosocial problems associated with being overweight and obese in childhood and adolescence. Evidence on weight-related stigmatization and discrimination, eating disorder symptoms, general psychopathology, impaired quality of life, lowered self-esteem, social skill deficits, as well as academic problems is summarized. Furthermore, state-of-the-art diagnostic and therapeutic procedures for the psychosocial problems are summarized. Future research should focus on the development of interventions targeting the destigmatization of obesity, as experiences of stigmatization and discrimination likely aggravate the psychosocial sequelae of overweight and obesity. PMID:23529599

  3. Medication adherence in the asthmatic child and adolescent.

    PubMed

    Desai, Mauli; Oppenheimer, John J

    2011-12-01

    Asthma is a common inflammatory condition affecting more than 7 million children in the United States alone, and tens of millions more globally. Despite effective preventive medications, medication nonadherence in children and adolescents is alarmingly high. Nonadherence can result in poor asthma control, which leads to decreased quality of life, lost productivity, increased health care utilization, and even the risk of death. Nonadherence in children and adolescents deserves special attention because they face unique barriers to adherence that change with age. Young children depend on adults for the delivery of asthma care, and their care is strongly influenced by parental motivation and attitudes and the home environment. As these children enter adolescence, they typically assume responsibility for their asthma care at the same time that they are claiming their independence and possibly experimenting with high-risk behaviors. Morbidity and mortality, as well as nonadherence, appear to be greatest among adolescents and minority children. Although no perfect tool for measuring adherence exists, objective methods, such as electronic monitoring, can provide valuable information to health care providers. Beyond asthma self-management and education, no specific resource-heavy adherence interventions have proven consistently helpful. However, large-scale, well-designed studies on this subject are lacking. In light of the fact that nonadherence is a potentially modifiable factor that impacts on morbidity and mortality, it is worth pursuing further research to determine better interventions. It is likely, however, that no one answer exists, and interventions will need to be tailored to specific at-risk populations. PMID:21968618

  4. Contribution of Athletic Identity to Child and Adolescent Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Cheryl B.; Mâsse, Louise C.; Zhang, Hong; Coleman, Karen J.; Chang, Shine

    2009-01-01

    Background Identity theorists maintain that domain-specific self-concepts help explain the differential investment of people’s time and effort in various activities. Purpose This study examined the contribution of athletic identity and three key demographic variables to physical activity and sports team participation. Methods Students in Grades 4–5 (n=391, mean age 9.9 years, range 8–13 years, collected in 2003) and Grades 7–8 (n=948, mean age 13.6 years, range 11–15 years, collected in 2002 and 2006) completed the 40-item Athletic Identity Questionnaire, which measures self-perceptions of athletic appearance; competence; importance of physical activity and sports; and encouragement for activity from parents, teachers, and friends. Hierarchic multiple regression analyses in 2008 assessed the effects of athletic identity, race/ethnicity group, gender, and overweight status on 7-day moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and organized sport team participation in each age group. Results In children and adolescents, the global score of athletic identity was independently, positively related to MVPA (p<0.0001, p<0.0001, respectively) and team participation (p<0.0001, p<0.0001, respectively), after controlling for demographic variables. More variance in MVPA was explained in children (23%) than in adolescents (5%), in contrast to team sports (5% in children, 15% in adolescents). In the subscale analyses, positive relationships for appearance, competence, importance, and parental encouragement persisted independent of demographic factors. Conclusions Results support the role of athletic self-concept in promoting physical activity and organized sport participation in children and adolescents. PMID:19595559

  5. Developmental pathways from child maltreatment to adolescent marijuana dependence: Examining moderation by FK506 binding protein 5 gene (FKBP5).

    PubMed

    Handley, Elizabeth D; Rogosch, Fred A; Cicchetti, Dante

    2015-11-01

    The current study examined the prospective association between child maltreatment and the development of substance use disorder in adolescence with the aim of investigating pathways underlying this relation, as well as genetic moderation of these developmental mechanisms. Specifically, we tested whether youth who experienced maltreatment prior to age 8 were at risk for the development of marijuana dependence in adolescence by way of a childhood externalizing pathway and a childhood internalizing pathway. Moreover, we tested whether variation in FK506 binding protein 5 gene (FKBP5) CATT haplotype moderated these pathways. The participants were 326 children (n =179 maltreated; n = 147 nonmaltreated) assessed across two waves of data collection (childhood: ages 7-9 and adolescence: ages 15-18). Results indicated that higher levels of child externalizing symptoms significantly mediated the effect of child maltreatment on adolescent marijuana dependence symptoms for individuals with one or two copies of the FKBP5 CATT haplotype only. We did not find support for an internalizing pathway from child maltreatment to adolescent marijuana dependence, nor did we find evidence of moderation of the internalizing pathway by FKBP5 haplotype variation. Findings extend previous research by demonstrating that whether a maltreated child will traverse an externalizing pathway toward substance use disorder in adolescence is dependent on FKBP5 genetic variation. PMID:26535939

  6. Child and adolescent obesity: part of a bigger picture.

    PubMed

    Lobstein, Tim; Jackson-Leach, Rachel; Moodie, Marjory L; Hall, Kevin D; Gortmaker, Steven L; Swinburn, Boyd A; James, W Philip T; Wang, Youfa; McPherson, Klim

    2015-06-20

    The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity has risen substantially worldwide in less than one generation. In the USA, the average weight of a child has risen by more than 5 kg within three decades, to a point where a third of the country's children are overweight or obese. Some low-income and middle-income countries have reported similar or more rapid rises in child obesity, despite continuing high levels of undernutrition. Nutrition policies to tackle child obesity need to promote healthy growth and household nutrition security and protect children from inducements to be inactive or to overconsume foods of poor nutritional quality. The promotion of energy-rich and nutrient-poor products will encourage rapid weight gain in early childhood and exacerbate risk factors for chronic disease in all children, especially those showing poor linear growth. Whereas much public health effort has been expended to restrict the adverse marketing of breastmilk substitutes, similar effort now needs to be expanded and strengthened to protect older children from increasingly sophisticated marketing of sedentary activities and energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods and beverages. To meet this challenge, the governance of food supply and food markets should be improved and commercial activities subordinated to protect and promote children's health. PMID:25703114

  7. Child and adolescent obesity: part of a bigger picture

    PubMed Central

    Lobstein, Tim; Jackson-Leach, Rachel; Moodie, Marjory L; Hall, Kevin D; Gortmaker, Steven L; Swinburn, Boyd A; James, W Philip T; Wang, Youfa; McPherson, Klim

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity has risen substantially worldwide in less than one generation. In the USA, the average weight of a child has risen by more than 5 kg within three decades, to a point where a third of the country’s children are overweight or obese. Some low-income and middle-income countries have reported similar or more rapid rises in child obesity, despite continuing high levels of undernutrition. Nutrition policies to tackle child obesity need to promote healthy growth and household nutrition security and protect children from inducements to be inactive or to overconsume foods of poor nutritional quality. The promotion of energy-rich and nutrient-poor products will encourage rapid weight gain in early childhood and exacerbate risk factors for chronic disease in all children, especially those showing poor linear growth. Whereas much public health effort has been expended to restrict the adverse marketing of breastmilk substitutes, similar effort now needs to be expanded and strengthened to protect older children from increasingly sophisticated marketing of sedentary activities and energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods and beverages. To meet this challenge, the governance of food supply and food markets should be improved and commercial activities subordinated to protect and promote children’s health. PMID:25703114

  8. A friend request from dear old dad: associations between parent-child social networking and adolescent outcomes.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Sarah M; Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Day, Randal D; Harper, James; Stockdale, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between parent-child social networking, connection, and outcomes for adolescents. Participants (491 adolescents and their parents) completed a number of questionnaires on social networking use, feelings of connection, and behavioral outcomes. Social networking with parents was associated with increased connection between parents and adolescents. Feelings of connection then mediated the relationship between social networking with parents and behavioral outcomes, including higher prosocial behavior and lower relational aggression and internalizing behavior. Conversely, adolescent social networking use without parents was associated with negative outcomes, such as increased relational aggression, internalizing behaviors, delinquency, and decreased feelings of connection. These results indicate that although high levels of social networking use may be problematic for some individuals, social networking with parents may potentially strengthen parent-child relationships and then lead to positive outcomes for adolescents. PMID:23845157

  9. The Ethnic Context of Child and Adolescent Problem Behavior: Implications for Child and Family Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yasui, Miwa; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2007-01-01

    This article links the empirical literature on race and ethnicity in developmental psychopathology with interventions designed to reduce adolescent problem behavior. We present a conceptual framework in which culture is endogenous to the socialization of youth and the development of specific self-regulatory strategies. The importance of cultural…

  10. Parents' Perceptions of Changes in Mother-Child and Father-Child Relationships during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shearer, Cindy L.; Crouter, Ann C.; McHale, Susan M.

    2005-01-01

    Little research has examined parents' experiences of their children's transition to adolescence. The authors studied a sample of 170 mothers' and 159 fathers' open-ended descriptions of their experiences and investigated the role of prior relationship quality in predicting the nature of parents' experiences. Changes in the personal qualities of…

  11. Characteristics of Child Maltreatment and Adolescent Marijuana Use: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Dubowitz, Howard; Thompson, Richard; Arria, Amelia M; English, Diana; Metzger, Richard; Kotch, Jonathan B

    2016-02-01

    There has been increasing acceptance of marijuana use in the United States in recent years, and rates among adolescents have risen. At the same time, marijuana use during adolescence has been linked to an array of health and social problems. Maltreated children are at risk for marijuana use, but the relationships among characteristics of maltreatment and marijuana use are unclear. In this article, we examine how the type and the extent of maltreatment are related to the level of adolescent marijuana use. Data analyses were conducted on a subsample of maltreated adolescents (n = 702) from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect project. Approximately half the sample had used marijuana, and maltreatment was associated with its use. Multivariate regression models showed that being male, extensive maltreatment, and peer marijuana use were associated with heavy use of marijuana. These findings suggest the importance of comprehensively assessing children's maltreatment experiences and their peers' drug use to help prevent or address possible marijuana use in these high-risk adolescents. PMID:26715532

  12. Characteristics of Child Maltreatment and Adolescent Marijuana Use: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Dubowitz, Howard; Thompson, Richard; Arria, Amelia M.; English, Diana; Metzger, Richard; Kotch, Jonathan B.

    2015-01-01

    There has been increasing acceptance of marijuana use in the US in recent years, and rates among adolescents have risen. At the same time, marijuana use during adolescence has been linked to an array of health and social problems. Maltreated children are at risk for marijuana use, but the relationships among characteristics of maltreatment and marijuana use are unclear. In this paper we examine how the type and the extent of maltreatment are related to the level of adolescent marijuana use. Data analyses were conducted on a subsample of maltreated adolescents (n = 702) from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN) project. Approximately half the sample had used marijuana, and maltreatment was associated with its use. Multivariate regression models showed that being male, extensive maltreatment, and peer marijuana use were associated with Heavy Use of marijuana. These findings suggest the importance of comprehensively assessing children’s maltreatment experiences and their peers’ drug use to help prevent or address possible marijuana use in these high-risk adolescents. PMID:26715532

  13. Annual Research Review: Optimal outcomes of child and adolescent mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Costello, E. Jane; Maughan, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Background ‘Optimal outcomes’ of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders may mean the best possible outcome, or the best considering a child’s history. Most research into the outcomes of child and adolescent psychiatric disorder concentrates on the likelihood of adult illness and disability given an earlier history of psychopathology. Methods In this article we review the research literature (based on a literature search using PubMed, RePORT and Google Advanced Scholar databases) on optimal outcomes for young people with a history of anxiety, depression, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, or substance use disorders in childhood or adolescence. We consider three types of risks that these children may run later in development: future episodes of the same disorder, future episodes of a different disorder, and functional impairment. The impact of treatment or preventative interventions on early adult functioning is briefly reviewed. Results We found that very few studies enabled us to answer our questions with certainty, but that in general about half of adults with a psychiatric history were disorder-free and functioning quite well in their 20s or 30s. However, their chance of functioning well was less than that of adults without a psychiatric history, even in the absence of a current disorder. Conclusions Among adults who had a psychiatric disorder as a child or adolescent, about half can be expected to be disorder-free as young adults, and of these about half will be free of significant difficulties in the areas of work, health, relationships, and crime. Optimal outcomes are predicted by a mixture of personal characteristics and environmental supports. PMID:25496295

  14. Evidence Base Update: 50 Years of Research on Treatment for Child and Adolescent Anxiety.

    PubMed

    Higa-McMillan, Charmaine K; Francis, Sarah E; Rith-Najarian, Leslie; Chorpita, Bruce F

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are the most common mental health disorder among children and adolescents. We examined 111 treatment outcome studies testing 204 treatment conditions for child and adolescent anxiety published between 1967 and mid-2013. Studies were selected for inclusion in this review using the PracticeWise Evidence-Based Services database. Using guidelines identified by this journal (Southam-Gerow & Prinstein, 2014 ), studies were included if they were conducted with children and/or adolescents (ages 1-19) with anxiety and/or avoidance problems. In addition to reviewing the strength of the evidence, the review also examined indicators of effectiveness, common practices across treatment families, and mediators and moderators of treatment outcome. Six treatments reached well-established status for child and adolescent anxiety, 8 were identified as probably efficacious, 2 were identified as possibly efficacious, 6 treatments were deemed experimental, and 8 treatments of questionable efficacy emerged. Findings from this review suggest substantial support for cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) as an effective and appropriate first-line treatment for youth with anxiety disorders. Several other treatment approaches emerged as probably efficacious that are not primarily CBT based, suggesting that there are alternative evidence-based treatments that practitioners can turn to for children and adolescents who do not respond well to CBT. The review concludes with a discussion of treatments that improve functioning in addition to reducing symptoms, common practices derived from evidence-based treatments, mediators and moderators of treatment outcomes, recommendations for best practice, and suggestions for future research. PMID:26087438

  15. Child and adolescent abuse and neglect in the city of Curitiba, Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva Franzin, Lucimara Cheles; Olandovski, Márcia; Vettorazzi, Maria Lúcia Tozetto; Werneck, Renata Iani; Moysés, Samuel Jorge; Kusma, Solena Ziemer; Moysés, Simone Tetu

    2014-10-01

    Identify and analyze cases of child and adolescent abuse and neglect in Curitiba, Brazil. This is an exploratory descriptive study that takes a quantitative approach. Secondary data from the reporting registry of the Network for the Protection of Children and Adolescents at Risk for Violence in Curitiba, Brazil, dating from 2004 to 2009, were analyzed. Variables included the victims' sociodemographic profile, place of notification, type, nature and severity of abuse, information about the author of the aggression or abuse, and physical lesions. The frequency distribution and associations between the variables were analyzed using the Chi-square test at a 5% significance level. The analysis of 19,316 records showed that domestic violence, abuse and neglect directed against children and adolescents were the most frequently recorded situation, with 17,082 cases (88.4%) distributed in the following manner: neglect, with 9742 reports (57.0%); physical violence, with 1341 reports (7.9%); sexual violence, with 796 reports (4.7%); psychological violence, with 574 reports (3.4%); and abandonment, with 190 reports (1.1%). Of the total, 43.9% were considered severe cases. The most affected age group was between 5 and 14 years of age, with balance between genders. In the majority of cases, the mother was registered as the author of the abuse or neglect. Physical sequelae (20.2%) mostly affected the head and upper and lower limbs, with consequent lesions manifesting as bruises, cuts, and fractures. An increase in the visibility of domestic violence and children and adolescents abuse and neglect has been observed in the city during the last few years, suggesting the effectiveness of the reporting strategies proposed by the protection network. It is important to increase social security and public welfare policies to prevent child and adolescent abuse and neglect, focusing on family support. PMID:24661691

  16. Family structure, parent-child conversation time and substance use among Chinese adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The family plays a vital role in shaping adolescent behaviours. The present study investigated the associations between family structure and substance use among Hong Kong Chinese adolescents. Methods A total of 32,961 Form 1 to 5 (grade 7-12 in the US) Hong Kong students participated in the Youth Smoking Survey in 2003-4. An anonymous questionnaire was used to obtain information about family structure, daily duration of parent-child conversation, smoking, alcohol drinking and drug use. Logistic regression was used to calculate the adjusted odds ratios (OR) for each substance use by family structure. Results Adjusting for sex, age, type of housing, parental smoking and school, adolescents from non-intact families were significantly more likely to be current smokers (OR = 1.62), weekly drinkers (OR = 1.72) and ever drug users (OR = 1.72), with significant linear increases in ORs from maternal, paternal to no-parent families compared with intact families. Furthermore, current smoking (OR = 1.41) and weekly drinking (OR = 1.46) were significantly more common among adolescents from paternal than maternal families. After adjusting for parent-child conversation time, the ORs for non-intact families remained significant compared with intact families, but the paternal-maternal differences were no longer significant. Conclusions Non-intact families were associated with substance use among Hong Kong Chinese adolescents. The apparently stronger associations with substance use in paternal than maternal families were probably mediated by the poorer communication with the father. PMID:20723230

  17. Prerequisites for global child and adolescent mental health.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Leon; Belfer, Myron

    2009-01-01

    The epidemiology of the mental and physical health of children and adolescents the world over reflects: the genomes they inherit (and the modifications those genes undergo in utero); the pregnancies that led to their births, whether their mothers survive those pregnancies, and whether their births were welcome; the parents, the neighbors, and the neighborhoods they 'inherit' along with their genomes; when and where they live (by cohort, by country, and by province); the air they breathe; the water they drink; what and how much they eat; the schools they attend (and by whom they are taught what and for how long); the energy they expend; the family status in the social order; the friends they have; and last but not least, the amount and kind of medical and psychiatric care they receive. PMID:19220587

  18. Psychotropic drug prescribing in child and adolescent learning disability psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Bramble, David

    2007-07-01

    This postal questionnaire study investigated the prescribing practices of a group of senior British psychiatrists who have responsibilities for children and adolescents with learning disabilities (mental retardation). The study revealed that all of the clinicians surveyed (n = 16) were prescribing psychotropic medication; psychostimulants and major tranquillizers represented the most frequently prescribed classes and, respectively, methylphenidate, risperidone, melatonin, sodium valproate and carbamazepine were the most frequently employed specific agents. Most patients were receiving monotherapy. Many (14/16) clinicians reported difficulties in shared-care prescribing arrangements with General Practitioners. The study concludes that psychopharmacology is an established part of the psychiatric management of learning disabled children but acknowledges the need for the elaboration of clinical governance standards to this area of practice. PMID:17446203

  19. Testosterone and Child and Adolescent Adjustment: The Moderating Role of Parent-Child Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Alan; Johnson, David R.; Granger, Douglas A.; Crouter, Ann C.; McHale, Susan

    2003-01-01

    In a sample of families with 6- to 18-year-olds, this study found that sons' and daughters' testosterone levels showed little direct connection to risk behavior or depressive symptoms. As parent-child relationship quality increased, testosterone-related adjustment problems were less evident. When relationship quality decreased, testosterone-linked…

  20. Associations between parent-child relationship quality and obesogenic risk in adolescence: a systematic review of recent literature.

    PubMed

    Blewitt, Claire; Bergmeier, Heidi; Macdonald, Jacqui A; Olsson, Craig A; Skouteris, Helen

    2016-07-01

    Adolescence is a period of significant cognitive, social and physiological change, presenting unique risk factors for weight gain. Childhood obesity research has traditionally focused on the influence of parent-level factors on children's eating and weight status. Increasingly, emphasis is turning towards the reciprocal nature of the parent-child relationship and its influence on health behaviour. A systematic literature review was conducted to investigate the relationship between parent-child relationship quality (defined as the felt emotional bond between parent and child) and obesogenic risk (weight status, eating attitudes and behaviours, level of physical activity and sedentary behaviour) in adolescence; 26 papers were included in the review. The results neither support nor challenge an association between parent-child relationship quality and weight, with study design flaws and limited measurement of the parent-child relationship precluding robust conclusions. The review does however suggests that several aspects of the parent-child relationship are important in understanding eating attitudes and behaviours, including the felt emotional bond between the parent and child, the child's perception of how much the parent cares for them and the mother's sensitivity towards the child. The need for further longitudinal research into the association between parent-child relationship quality and obesity risk across this developmental period is discussed. PMID:27125464

  1. Comparison of the number of supervisors on medical student satisfaction during a child and adolescent psychiatry rotation

    PubMed Central

    Mascioli, Kelly J; Robertson, Catharine J; Douglass, Alan B

    2016-01-01

    Background Traditionally, third-year medical students are assigned to one supervisor during their 1-week rotation in child and adolescent psychiatry. However, the majority of supervisory staff in the Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry opted to switch the supervision schedule to one in which some medical students are assigned to two primary supervisors. Objective The aim of the study was to determine if students assigned to two primary supervisors had greater rotation satisfaction compared with students assigned to one primary supervisor during a 1-week clerkship rotation in child and adolescent psychiatry. Methods A satisfaction questionnaire was sent to 110 third-year medical students who completed their child and adolescent clerkship rotation. Based on the responses, students were divided into groups depending on their number of supervisors. Questionnaire responses were compared between the groups using independent t-tests. Results When students who had one primary supervisor were compared to students who had two primary supervisors, the lone item showing a statistically significant difference was regarding improvement of assessment reports/progress notes. Conclusion The number of supervisors does not significantly affect the satisfaction of students during a 1-week clerkship rotation in child and adolescent psychiatry. Other factors are important in rotation satisfaction. PMID:27110145

  2. Are parents reliable in reporting child victimization? Comparison of parental and adolescent reports in a matched Chinese household sample.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ko Ling

    2015-06-01

    There is ongoing debate about the reliability of parental reports on child victimization. Some studies have shown that they are useful, whereas some others have provided contrary evidence suggesting that parents are not accurate in reporting child victimization, especially when they are the one who inflicted the violence. This study aimed to (a) examine the reliability of parental reports of adolescents' experiences of victimization, including that inflicted by parents as well as others, by comparing them with self-reports using a parent-child matched sample from China; and (b) explore the possible reasons underlying any disagreement between the parental and adolescent reports. A total of 2,624 parent-adolescent pairs were recruited during 2009 and 2010 in 6 cities in China. Parents were asked to report the victimization experiences of their child using of the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire, and these reports were matched with the adolescents' self-reports of victimization. Low levels of parent-adolescent agreement in reporting were found (Cohen's kappa=.04-.29). Except for sexual violence, parents were significantly less likely to report all types of victimization. Overall, lower levels of agreement were found in the reporting of (a) less severe types of victimization, (b) victimization outside the family, and (c) victimization involving parents as perpetrators. Intimate partner violence between parents was significantly associated with discrepancies between reports. The findings suggest that parents might not be reliable as a single source of information on certain types of adolescent victimization. PMID:25465317

  3. Management in child and adolescent psychiatry: how does it look in the Balkans?

    PubMed

    Pejovic-Milovancevic, M; Miletic, V; Anagnostopoulos, D; Raleva, M; Stancheva, V; Burgic-Radmanovic, M; Barac-Otasevic, Z; Ispanovic, V

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the situation of child and adolescent psychiatry in the following Balkan countries: Greece, Serbia, Bulgaria, Romania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, FYROM, and Montenegro. With the exception of Greece, these countries are new democracies, with their mental health services in a transitional stage of organization. Overall, they have initiated programmes to move psychiatric care towards deinstitutionalization, developing outpatient infrastructures to handle psychiatric disorders. Child psychiatry as a specialization is still less developed than adult psychiatry at a significant, albeit different degree among these countries. The number of mental health services offered to children and adolescents is deemed insufficient, and the type of services limited and lacking. This situation is also reflected in the small number of child psychiatrists and other mental health specialists for children and adolescents, as well as in the complete lack (Montenegro) or deficiency of special programmes and actions for children and adolescents. The same also applies to mental health legislation. Greece is the exception in the development of the entire spectrum of services, the number of specialists, and the establishment of an adequate legislation framework reinforced by the incorporation of all international treaties on children's rights; although the recent economic crisis has affected the country negatively, threatening with regression to pre-reformational practices. Children and adolescents in need of mental health care have been increasing in all countries. The effect of violent and sudden changes taking place in most countries is a major factor for the emergence of increased and stress-related psychopathology and psychosocial problems in children and families. In all countries, there is a significant development of nongovernmental organizations undertaking a large part of reformation work. There is also the disconcerting phenomenon of professional exhaustion and the

  4. How to assess quality of life in child and adolescent psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Karow, Anne; Barthel, Dana; Klasen, Fionna

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the conceptual foundations of measuring health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in children and adolescents in child and adolescent psychiatry, and of the current state of research in this field. The available procedures for determining quality of life are presented according to their areas of use and their psychometric characteristics. The internationally available generic instruments for measuring HRQoL in children are identified and assessed in terms of their strengths and weaknesses with regard to selected criteria. As a result, seven generic HRQoL instruments and two utility procedures have been identified which satísfy the following criteria: (i) psychometric qualíty; (ii) age-appropriate measurement; (iii) versions for self-reporting and external rating; and (iv) cross-cultural measurement. The identified instruments satisfy the individual criteria to different degrees. They are increasingly being used in health services research, treatment studies, and epidemiological research; however, they are not yet widely used as part of the clinical routine in child and adolescent psychiatrics. PMID:25152654

  5. Evaluating outcomes of the child and adolescent psychiatric unit: A prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The aims of this prospective study are to clarify the outcomes of child psychiatric inpatient treatment and to identify factors associated with patient improvement. Methods The attending psychiatrist used the Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) to assess youths at admission to and discharge from a child and adolescent psychiatric unit in Japan(N = 126, mean age = 12.8, SD = 1.9). Hospital records gathered sociodemographic and clinical variables. In addition, youths and their primary caregivers assessed themselves using the Youth Self Report (YSR) and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), respectively. Longitudinal analyses compared each scales' baseline and discharge scores. We also examined factors associated with changes in functioning (CGAS). Results Longitudinal comparisons revealed that CGAS, CBCL and YSR scores showed improvement over time (CGAS: t = -14.40, p = 0.00; CBCL: t = 3.80, p = 0.00; YSR: t = 2.40, p = 0.02). Linear regressions determined that the factors associated with improvement in CGAS included age, lower CGAS scores at admission, frequency of group therapy and psychiatric diagnosis. Conclusions This evaluation of children and adolescents in an inpatient unit demonstrated clinical improvement over time and identified factors associated with said improvement. PMID:21453481

  6. Instability in Parent-Child Coresidence and Adolescent Development in Urban South Africa.

    PubMed

    Marteleto, Letícia J; Cavanagh, Shannon; Prickett, Kate; Clark, Shelley

    2016-03-01

    There is widespread recognition of the importance of family stability for child development. South Africa presents an interesting context in which to study the consequences of family instability because of the traditionally fluid nature of household composition due to labor migration, child fostering, and non-marital fertility. More recently, the HIV pandemic has added another source of instability. Within South Africa, however, patterns of instability differ markedly across racial groups. We use the Cape Area Panel Study (CAPS) data to examine the implications of changes in parent-child coresidence for educational and sexual development of young South Africans. We show that changes in maternal and paternal coresidence have implications for the timing of sexual initiation for both black and coloured adolescents. Maternal and paternal transitions also lead to poorer educational outcomes for coloured adolescents, but parental disruptions are not significantly related to educational outcomes for blacks. These findings suggest that the implications of coresidential instability vary by race, reflecting racial differences with respect to cultural, social, and economic conditions. PMID:27027991

  7. Mother and Adolescent Reports of Associations between Child Behavior Problems and Mother-Child Relationship Qualities: Separating Shared Variance from Individual Variance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burk, William J.; Laursen, Brett

    2010-01-01

    This study contrasts results from different correlational methods for examining links between mother and child (N = 72 dyads) reports of early adolescent (M = 11.5 years) behavior problems and relationship negativity and support. Simple (Pearson) correlations revealed a consistent pattern of statistically significant associations, regardless of…

  8. Longitudinal Study on the Effects of Child Abuse and Children's Exposure to Domestic Violence, Parent-Child Attachments, and Antisocial Behavior in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sousa, Cindy; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Moylan, Carrie A.; Tajima, Emiko A.; Klika, J. Bart; Herrenkohl, Roy C.; Russo, M. Jean

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the unique and combined effects of child abuse and children's exposure to domestic violence on later attachment to parents and antisocial behavior during adolescence. Analyses also investigated whether the interaction of exposure and low attachment predicted youth outcomes. Findings suggest that, although youth dually exposed…

  9. Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms and Trajectories in Child Sexual Abuse Victims: An Analysis of Sex Differences Using the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maikovich, Andrea Kohn; Koenen, Karestan C.; Jaffee, Sara R.

    2009-01-01

    Very few studies have prospectively examined sex differences in posttraumatic stress symptoms and symptom trajectories in youth victimized by childhood sexual abuse. This study addresses that question in a relatively large sample of children, drawn from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, who were between the ages of 8-16 years…

  10. Longitudinal Study on the Effects of Child Abuse and Children’s Exposure to Domestic Violence, Parent-Child Attachments, and Antisocial Behavior in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Cindy; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Moylan, Carrie A.; Tajima, Emiko A.; Klika, J. Bart; Herrenkohl, Roy C.; Russo, M. Jean

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the unique and combined effects of child abuse and children’s exposure to domestic violence on later attachment to parents and antisocial behavior during adolescence. Analyses also investigated whether the interaction of exposure and low attachment predicted youth outcomes. Findings suggest that, while youth dually exposed to abuse and domestic violence were less attached to parents in adolescence than those who were not exposed, those who were abused only, and those who were exposed only to domestic violence, the relationship between exposure types and youth outcomes did not differ by level of attachment to parents. However, stronger bonds of attachment to parents in adolescence did appear to predict a lower risk of antisocial behavior independent of exposure status. Preventing child abuse and children’s exposure to domestic violence could lessen the risk of antisocial behavior during adolescence, as could strengthening parent-child attachments in adolescence. However, strengthening attachments between parents and children after exposure may not be sufficient to counter the negative impact of earlier violence trauma in children. PMID:20457846

  11. Longitudinal study on the effects of child abuse and children's exposure to domestic violence, parent-child attachments, and antisocial behavior in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Cindy; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Moylan, Carrie A; Tajima, Emiko A; Klika, J Bart; Herrenkohl, Roy C; Russo, M Jean

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the unique and combined effects of child abuse and children's exposure to domestic violence on later attachment to parents and antisocial behavior during adolescence. Analyses also investigated whether the interaction of exposure and low attachment predicted youth outcomes. Findings suggest that, although youth dually exposed to abuse and domestic violence were less attached to parents in adolescence than those who were not exposed, for those who were abused only and those who were exposed only to domestic violence, the relationship between exposure types and youth outcomes did not differ by level of attachment to parents. However, stronger bonds of attachment to parents in adolescence did appear to predict a lower risk of antisocial behavior independent of exposure status. Preventing child abuse and children's exposure to domestic violence could lessen the risk of antisocial behavior during adolescence, as could strengthening parent-child attachments in adolescence. However, strengthening attachments between parents and children after exposure may not be sufficient to counter the negative impact of earlier violence trauma in children. PMID:20457846

  12. Parental physical punishment and adolescent adjustment: bidirectionality and the moderation effects of child ethnicity and parental warmth.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming-Te; Kenny, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    This study used cross-lagged modeling to examine reciprocal relations between maternal and paternal physical punishment and adolescent misconduct and depressive symptoms, while accounting for stability in both physical punishment and adjustment problems over time. Data were drawn from a sample of 862 two-parent families and their adolescent children (52 % males; 54 % European American; 44 % African American; 2 % other ethnic backgrounds). Mothers' and fathers' physical punishment of their adolescents' ages 12 and 14 predicted increased misconduct and depressive symptoms among these adolescents at ages 14 and 16. Adolescent misconduct, but not depressive symptoms, at ages 12 and 14 predicted increased physical punishment by their parents at ages 14 and 16. Neither parental warmth nor child ethnicity moderated the longitudinal relationship between parental physical punishment and adolescent adjustment. Patterns of findings were similar across mothers and fathers. PMID:24384596

  13. Does Formal Integration between Child Welfare and Behavioral Health Agencies Result in Improved Placement Stability for Adolescents Engaged with Both Systems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Rebecca; Chuang, Emmeline

    2012-01-01

    National survey data were used to assess whether child welfare agency ties to behavioral health care providers improved placement stability for adolescents served by both systems. Adolescents initially at home who were later removed tended to have fewer moves when child welfare and behavioral health were in the same larger agency. Joint training…

  14. The Beijing Twin Study (BeTwiSt): a longitudinal study of child and adolescent development.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Li, Xinying; Zhang, Jianxin; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Leve, Leslie D; Harold, Gordon T; Chen, Zhiyan; Yang, Xiaodong; Guo, Fei; Zhang, Jie; Ge, Xiaojia

    2013-02-01

    Rates of emotional and behavioral problems among children and adolescents in China are increasing and represent a major public health concern. To investigate the etiology of such problems, including the effects and interplay of genes and environment, the Beijing Twin Study (BeTwiSt) was established. A representative sample of adolescent twins in Beijing (N = 1,387 pairs of adolescent twins, mostly between the ages of 10 and 18 years) was recruited and assessed longitudinally. Data collection included the following: emotional and behavioral problems (e.g., depressive symptoms, anxiety, delinquency, drinking, and smoking); family, peer, and school environments; stress; social and academic competence; cognitive traits (e.g., emotion suppression, rumination, and effortful control); and saliva samples for DNA genotyping and sequencing. The combination of quantitative and molecular genetic approaches and the timeliness of the project, with the sample residing in a region with a rapidly changing economic and cultural climate, are particular strengths of this study. Findings from this study are expected to help understanding of the etiological mechanisms underlying child and adolescent normal and abnormal development in regions undergoing substantial social, cultural, and economic changes. PMID:23177327

  15. Child Maltreatment and the Adolescent Patient With Severe Obesity: Implications for Clinical Care

    PubMed Central

    Noll, Jennie G.; Sarwer, David B.; Reiter-Purtill, Jennifer; Rofey, Dana L.; Baughcum, Amy E.; Peugh, James; Courcoulas, Anita P.; Michalsky, Marc P.; Jenkins, Todd M; Becnel, Jennifer N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To characterize prevalence and correlates of child maltreatment (CM) in a clinical sample of adolescents with severe obesity. Method Multicenter baseline data from 139 adolescents undergoing weight loss surgery (Mage = 16.9; 79.9% female, 66.2% White; Mbody mass index [BMI] = 51.5 kg/m2) and 83 nonsurgical comparisons (Mage = 16.1; 81.9% female, 54.2% White; MBMI = 46.9 kg/m2) documented self-reported CM (Childhood Trauma Questionnaire) and associations with psychopathology, quality of life, self-esteem and body image, high-risk behaviors, and family dysfunction. Results CM prevalence (females: 29%; males: 12%) was similar to national adolescent base rates. Emotional abuse was most prevalent. One in 10 females reported sexual abuse. For females, CM rates were higher in comparisons, yet correlates were similar for both cohorts: greater psychopathology, substance use, and family dysfunction, and lower quality of life. Conclusion While a minority of adolescents with severe obesity reported a CM history, they carry greater psychosocial burden into the clinical setting. PMID:25774054

  16. Leadership in Adolescent Health: Developing the Next Generation of Maternal Child Health Leaders Through Mentorship

    PubMed Central

    Trent, Maria; Gordon, Catherine M.; Goncalves, Adrianne; Resnick, Michael; Fortenberry, J. Dennis; Boyer, Cherrie B.; Richardson, Laura; Emans, S. Jean

    2016-01-01

    Leadership development is a core value of Maternal Child Health Bureau training programs. Mentorship, an MCH Leadership Competency, has been shown to positively affect career advancement and research productivity. Improving mentorship opportunities for junior faculty and trainees may increase pursuit of careers in areas such as adolescent health research and facilitate the development of new leaders in the field. Using a framework of Developmental Networks, a group of MCH Leadership Education in Adolescent Health training program faculty developed a pilot mentoring program offered at the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine Annual Meeting (2011–2013). The program matched ten interdisciplinary adolescent health fellows and junior faculty with senior mentors at other institutions with expertise in the mentee's content area of study in 2011. Participants were surveyed over 2 years. Respondents indicated they were “very satisfied” with their mentor match, and all agreed or strongly agreed that the mentoring process in the session was helpful, and that the mentoring relationships resulted in several ongoing collaborations and expanded their Developmental Networks. These results demonstrate that MCH programs can apply innovative strategies to disseminate the MCH Leadership Competencies to groups beyond MCH-funded training programs through programs at scientific meetings. Such innovations may enhance the structure of mentoring, further the development of new leaders in the field, and expand developmental networks to provide support for MCH professionals transitioning to leadership roles. PMID:25376658

  17. [Social participation and vocational integration as an objective of child and adolescent psychiatric rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Voll, Renate

    2009-09-01

    In order to avoid threatening social disintegration, it is important for children and adolescents with chronic mental disorders and also for physically disabled children to diagnose disturbances of social participation in an early stage and to commence rehabilitation measures. The need for rehabilitation, the ability to rehabilitate and the rehabilitation prognosis are important for identifying the individual rehabilitation goals. A multi-axial diagnosis according to the ICF with a determination of adaptability, a behavioural analysis, skills, activity and participation is required. For disabled children, there are only a few ICF check lists for diagnosing social participation. Because of this, the ICF check list CASP (Child & Adolescent Scale of Participation) for measuring social participation according to Bedell was translated, which is shown in the appendix. PMID:19739060

  18. Experiences of Domestic and School Violence Among Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Outpatients.

    PubMed

    Völkl-Kernstock, Sabine; Huemer, Julia; Jandl-Jager, Elisabeth; Abensberg-Traun, Marihan; Marecek, Sonja; Pellegrini, Elisabeth; Plattner, Belinda; Skala, Katrin

    2016-10-01

    The experience of cumulative childhood adversities, such as exposure to domestic violence or abuse by caregivers, has been described as risk factor for poor mental health outcomes in adolescence and adulthood. We performed an investigation of experience of violence in all patients aged 6 to 20 years who had consulted the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Medical University of Vienna, as outpatients during the period of one year. We were using the Childhood Trauma Interview (CTI) in order to obtain information on the kind of violence. Seventy-five percent of all patients had reported experiences of violence. These youth were significantly more often involved in acts of school violence, thus a significant correlation between experience of domestic violence and violence at school could be revealed. The results of our study emphasize the need for interventions preventing violence both in domestic and in school environments. PMID:26487648

  19. Is physiotherapy effective in the management of child and adolescent conversion disorder? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    FitzGerald, Tara L; Southby, Alesha K; Haines, Terrence P; Hough, Janet P; Skinner, Elizabeth H

    2015-02-01

    Child and adolescent conversion disorder has the potential to impart significant burden on health-care services and affect quality of life. Clinically, physiotherapists are involved in conversion disorder management; however, no systematic reviews have examined physiotherapy effectiveness in its management. The aim of this review is to identify the efficacy of physiotherapy management of child and adolescent conversion disorder. A search of multiple databases (Medline, CINAHL, Embase, PsychINFO, PEDro and the Cochrane Library) was completed along with manual searching of relevant reference lists to identify articles including children 0-18 years with a diagnosis of conversion disorder who received physical management. Two independent reviewers screened titles and abstracts using criteria. Data were extracted regarding study characteristics, functional outcome measures, length of stay, physiotherapy service duration and resolution of conversion symptoms. Methodological quality was assessed using a tool designed for observational studies. Twelve observational studies were included. No functional outcome measures were used to assess the effectiveness of the treatment protocols in the case studies. Resolution of symptoms occurred in all but two cases, with conversion symptoms still present at 11 months and at 2 years. Length of stay varied from 3 days to 16 weeks, with similar variation evident in length of physiotherapy service provision (2.5 weeks to 16 weeks). There was limited and poor quality evidence to establish the efficacy of physiotherapy management of child and adolescent conversion disorders. More rigorous study designs with consistent use of reliable, valid and sensitive functional outcome measures are needed in this area. PMID:24923418

  20. Effects of Rumination on Child and Adolescent Depressive Reactions to a Natural Disaster: the 2010 Nashville Flood

    PubMed Central

    Felton, Julia W.; Cole, David A.; Martin, Nina C.

    2014-01-01

    The current longitudinal study tested hypotheses about Nolen-Hoeksema’s (1987, 1991) response styles theory (RST) of depression in a sample of child and adolescent public school students. Wave 1 measures of rumination, distraction, and depression were obtained 6 months prior to the 2010 Nashville flood. Similar measures plus a measure of flood-related stressors were administered at Wave 2, approximately ten days after students returned to school after the flood. Results revealed an indirect effect of preflood rumination on postflood depressive symptoms via the intervening variable of postflood rumination, and partial mediation of the effect of preflood depression on postflood depression. Further, the interaction of rumination with flood-related stressors was moderated by age, suggesting that rumination may not become a strong cognitive diathesis for depression until adolescence. Developmental implications emerged for the treatment of child and adolescent victims of natural disasters and for the application of RST to children and adolescents. PMID:22867116

  1. Head and Maxillofacial Injuries in Child and Adolescent Victims of Automotive Accidents

    PubMed Central

    Cavalcanti, Alessandro Leite; Lino, Thiago Henrique de Araujo; de Oliveira, Thaliny Batista Sarmento; de Oliveira, Thaisy Sarmento Batista; Cardoso, Andreia Medeiros Rodrigues; de Macedo, Rodrigo Feliciano; Padilha, Wilton Wilney Nascimento; Xavier, Alidianne Fabia Cabral

    2014-01-01

    Background. Victims of motor vehicle accidents may suffer multiple lesions, including maxillofacial injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with head, facial, and maxillofacial injuries in child and adolescent victims of automobile accidents. A cross-sectional study was carried out with analysis of forensic medical reports from the Legal Medical Institute of Campina Grande, Brazil, between January 2008 and December 2011. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis was conducted using the chi-square test (α = 0.05). From 1613 medical reports analyzed, the sample is composed 232 (14.4%) reports referring to child and adolescent victims of automobile accidents aged 0–19 years of both sexes. Victims were mostly adolescents aged from 15 to 19 years (64.2%), males (73.7%), and motorcyclists (51.3%). More than half of the victims had single lesions (54.3%) located in the head (20.7%) and face (21.6%). Head injuries occurred more frequently in children aged 0–4 years (53.8%, PR = 5.065, 95% CI = 1.617–5.870) and pedestrians (30.4%, PR = 2.039, 95% CI = 1.024–4.061), while facial and maxillofacial injuries occurred in higher proportion among females (31.1%, PR = 0.489, 95% CI = 0.251–0.954). Our findings suggest that accidents involving motorcyclists are the most prevalent, affecting male adolescents aged from 15 to 19 years, resulting in a high frequency of injuries in the head and face regions. PMID:25574492

  2. Prevalence of child sexual abuse among adolescents in Geneva: results of a cross sectional survey.

    PubMed Central

    Halpérin, D. S.; Bouvier, P.; Jaffé, P. D.; Mounoud, R. L.; Pawlak, C. H.; Laederach, J.; Wicky, H. R.; Astié, F.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To measure the cumulative prevalence of child sexual abuse in a representative sample of the adolescent population of Geneva. DESIGN--Cross sectional survey with an anonymous self administered questionnaire centred on a factual description of sexual activities. SETTING--68 classes (17 schools) randomly selected from the 201 ninth grade classes of the public school system in Geneva. SUBJECTS--1193 adolescents aged 13-17 years, of whom 1116 (93.5%; 568 girls, 548 boys) consented to the study and returned completed questionnaires. RESULTS--192 (33.8%) girls and 60 (10.9%) boys reported having experienced at least one sexually abusive event. The prevalence of abuse involving physical contact was 20.4% (116 cases) among girls and 3.3% (18) among boys. The prevalence of abuse involving some form of penetration was 5.6% (32 cases) among girls and 1.1% (six) among boys. One third of the abused adolescents had experienced more than one abusive event and 46.5% (92/198) had experienced the first event before age 12. Abuse by a family member was reported by 20.5% (36/176) of abused girls and 6.3% (3/48) of abused boys. Abusers were known to victims in two thirds of cases. Ninety per cent of abusers were male and 35.3% (71/201) came from the victim's peer group. Over 80% of participants found the questionnaire interesting, clearly formulated, and useful. CONCLUSIONS--Child sexual abuse is a universal social phenomenon. Adolescents themselves can contribute to research and so help in the search for more efficient prevention and intervention strategies. PMID:8646043

  3. Disclosure of child sexual abuse by adolescents: a qualitative in-depth study.

    PubMed

    Schönbucher, Verena; Maier, Thomas; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Schnyder, Ulrich; Landolt, Markus A

    2012-11-01

    This qualitative study aimed to study the process of disclosure by examining adolescents from the general population who had experienced child sexual abuse (CSA). Twenty-six sexually victimized adolescents (23 girls, 3 boys; age: 15-18 years) participated in a qualitative face-to-face in-depth interview on different aspects of disclosure. A qualitative content analysis was conducted following Mayring and using the qualitative data analysis program Atlas.ti. In addition, quantitative correlation analyses were calculated to identify factors associated with disclosure. Less than one third of participants immediately disclosed CSA to another person. In most cases, recipients of both immediate and delayed disclosure were peers. More than one third of participants had never disclosed the abuse to a parent. Main motives for nondisclosure to parents were lack of trust or not wanting to burden the parents. Factors that correlated positively with disclosure were extrafamilial CSA, single CSA, age of victim at CSA, and having parents who were still living together. Negative associations with disclosure were found for feelings of guilt and shame and the perpetrator's age. Many adolescent survivors of CSA have serious concerns about disclosure to their parents and consider friends as more reliable confidants. These findings have two main implications for prevention: (1) In order to facilitate disclosure to parents, the strengthening of the child-parent relationship should be given specific attention in prevention programs, and (2) prevention programs should aim at teaching adolescents how they can help a victim if they become a recipient of disclosure. PMID:22821848

  4. The Prevalence of Mental Disorders Among Children and Adolescents in the Child Welfare System

    PubMed Central

    Bronsard, Guillaume; Alessandrini, Marine; Fond, Guillaume; Loundou, Anderson; Auquier, Pascal; Tordjman, Sylvie; Boyer, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Abstract It remains unclear whether children and adolescents in the child welfare system (CWS) exhibit a higher prevalence of mental disorders compared with the general population. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the prevalence of mental disorders in the CWS. All of the epidemiological surveys assessing the prevalence of mental disorders in children and adolescents in the CWS were included. The pooled prevalence was estimated with random effect models. Potential sources of heterogeneity were explored using meta-regression analyses. Eight studies provided prevalence estimates that were obtained from 3104 children and adolescents. Nearly 1 child or adolescent of every 2 (49%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 43–54) was identified as meeting criteria for a current mental disorder. The most common mental disorder was disruptive disorder (27%; 95% CI 20–34), including conduct disorder (20%; 95% CI 13–27) and oppositional defiant disorder (12%; 95% CI 10–14). The prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder was estimated to be 11% (95% CI 6–15). The prevalence estimates of anxiety and depressive disorders were 18% (95% CI 12–24) and 11% (95% CI 7–15). Posttraumatic stress disorder had the lowest prevalence (4%; 95% CI 2–6). High prevalences of mental disorders in the CWS were reported, which highlights the need for the provision of qualified service. The substantial heterogeneity of our findings is indicative of the need for accurate epidemiological data to effectively guide public policy. PMID:26886603

  5. Off-Label Prescription of Psychopharmacological Drugs in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Braüner, Julie Vestergaard; Johansen, Lily Manzello; Roesbjerg, Troels; Pagsberg, Anne Katrine

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to describe the frequency of off-label prescriptions of psychopharmacological drugs in a child and adolescent psychiatric setting. A cross-sectional study was conducted on November 1, 2014, including all inpatients and outpatients at the Mental Health Centre for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Capital Region of Denmark, aged 0 to 17 years receiving medical treatment with antidepressants, antipsychotic agents, benzodiazepines, melatonin and/or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication. We included a total of 5555 prescriptions representing 2932 patients. The main findings were that 32.3% of all prescriptions were off-label, and 41.6% of subjects received at least 1 off-label prescription. The most frequent off-label category was low age, 72.2%, meaning that the drug was not approved for the age group of the patient. The off-label rates for each drug class were as follows: melatonin, 100%; antipsychotic agents, 95.6%; benzodiazepines, 72.5%; antidepressants, 51.1%; and ADHD medication, 2.7%. Prescription of 2 or more psychopharmacological drugs per patient was common (31.5%). The group of subjects with 4 or more prescriptions (n = 36) was characterized by a higher frequency of inpatients, older age, and a different distribution of diagnoses. This study found a frequent use of off-label prescriptions when treating children and adolescents with psychopharmacological drugs other than ADHD medication. In addition, prescription of more than 1 psychotropic drug is common. These findings support the need for extending the evidence base for psychopharmacologic treatment in children and adolescents. PMID:27529772

  6. Multiple types of child maltreatment and adolescent mental health in Viet Nam

    PubMed Central

    Dunne, Michael P; Le, Anh Vu

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine the prevalence of multiple types of maltreatment (MTM), potentially confounding factors and associations with depression, anxiety and self-esteem among adolescents in Viet Nam. Methods In 2006 we conducted a cross-sectional survey of 2591 students (aged 12–18 years; 52.1% female) from randomly-selected classes in eight secondary schools in urban (Hanoi) and rural (Hai Duong) areas of northern Viet Nam (response rate, 94.7%). Sequential multiple regression analyses were performed to estimate the relative influence of individual, family and social characteristics and of eight types of maltreatment, including physical, emotional and sexual abuse and physical or emotional neglect, on adolescent mental health. Findings Females reported more neglect and emotional abuse, whereas males reported more physical abuse, but no statistically significant difference was found between genders in the prevalence of sexual abuse. Adolescents were classified as having nil (32.6%), one (25.9%), two (20.7%), three (14.5%) or all four (6.3%) maltreatment types. Linear bivariate associations between MTM and depression, anxiety and low self-esteem were observed. After controlling for demographic and family factors, MTM showed significant independent effects. The proportions of the variance explained by the models ranged from 21% to 28%. Conclusion The combined influence of adverse individual and family background factors and of child maltreatment upon mental health in adolescents in Viet Nam is consistent with research in non-Asian countries. Emotional abuse was strongly associated with each health indicator. In Asian communities where child abuse is often construed as severe physical violence, it is important to emphasize the equally pernicious effects of emotional maltreatment. PMID:20428350

  7. Early life programming as a target for prevention of child and adolescent mental disorders

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This paper concerns future policy development and programs of research for the prevention of mental disorders based on research emerging from fetal and early life programming. The current review offers an overview of findings on pregnancy exposures such as maternal mental health, lifestyle factors, and potential teratogenic and neurotoxic exposures on child outcomes. Outcomes of interest are common child and adolescent mental disorders including hyperactive, behavioral and emotional disorders. This literature suggests that the preconception and perinatal periods offer important opportunities for the prevention of deleterious fetal exposures. As such, the perinatal period is a critical period where future mental health prevention efforts should be focused and prevention models developed. Interventions grounded in evidence-based recommendations for the perinatal period could take the form of public health, universal and more targeted interventions. If successful, such interventions are likely to have lifelong effects on (mental) health. PMID:24559477

  8. Parent-Child Relations, Conduct Problems and Cigarette Use in Adolescence: Examining the Role of Genetic and Environmental Factors on Patterns of Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, Katherine H.; Harold, Gordon T.; Fowler, Tom A.; Rice, Frances J.; Neale, Michael C.; Thapar, Anita; van den Bree, Marianne B. M.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated genetic and environmental influences on the associations between mother-child relationship quality (warmth and hostility) and adolescent conduct problems and cigarette use. Participants included 601 mothers and adolescent twin pairs (aged 12-17 years). Mothers and adolescents provided separate reports of mother-to-child…

  9. The Role of Child Gender, Problem Behaviors, and the Family Environment on Maternal Depressive Symptoms: Findings from Mothers of Substance Abusing Runaway Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Xiamei; Slesnick, Natasha

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relation between maternal depressive symptoms and adolescents' problem behaviors, moderated by adolescent gender, as well as the association between maternal depressive symptoms and the family environment characteristics above and beyond child variables. Data were collected from 137 mothers of runaway adolescents with…

  10. Adolescent nonsuicidal self-injury: Examining the role of child abuse, comorbidity, and disinhibition

    PubMed Central

    Auerbach, Randy P.; Kim, Judy C.; Chango, Joanna M.; Spiro, Westley J.; Cha, Christine; Gold, Joseph; Esterman, Michael; Nock, Matthew K.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine how several well-known correlates of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) might work together to contribute to the occurrence of this behavior. Specifically, we examined models including child abuse, psychiatric comorbidity, and disinhibition, testing how these factors may work together to lead to NSSI in the past month. Participants (n=194; 144 female; age 13–18 years) were recruited from a short-term, acute adolescent residential unit. Within 48 hours of admission to the hospital participants completed structured clinical interviews assessing mental disorders and patterns of NSSI. Following the interviews, participants completed a self-report questionnaire assessing childhood abuse and a computerized continuous performance task. Consistent with study hypotheses, results revealed that the association between child abuse and NSSI is partially mediated by comorbidity. Although disinhibition is associated with comorbidity, contrary to our hypothesis, disinhibition does not mediate the relation between child abuse and NSSI. Collectively, these findings provide new information about how comorbidity may increase risk for NSSI, and critically, discuss the potential importance of creating targeted programs to reduce the prevalence of child abuse. PMID:25095754

  11. Adolescent nonsuicidal self-injury: examining the role of child abuse, comorbidity, and disinhibition.

    PubMed

    Auerbach, Randy P; Kim, Judy C; Chango, Joanna M; Spiro, Westley J; Cha, Christine; Gold, Joseph; Esterman, Michael; Nock, Matthew K

    2014-12-15

    The purpose of the study is to examine how several well-known correlates of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) might work together to contribute to the occurrence of this behavior. Specifically, we examined models including child abuse, psychiatric comorbidity, and disinhibition, testing how these factors may work together to lead to NSSI in the past month. Participants (n=194; 144 female; age 13-18 years) were recruited from a short-term, acute adolescent residential unit. Within 48 hours of admission to the hospital participants completed structured clinical interviews assessing mental disorders and patterns of NSSI. Following the interviews, participants completed a self-report questionnaire assessing childhood abuse and a computerized continuous performance task. Consistent with study hypotheses, results revealed that the association between child abuse and NSSI is partially mediated by comorbidity. Although disinhibition is associated with comorbidity, contrary to our hypothesis, disinhibition does not mediate the relation between child abuse and NSSI. Collectively, these findings provide new information about how comorbidity may increase risk for NSSI, and critically, discuss the potential importance of creating targeted programs to reduce the prevalence of child abuse. PMID:25095754

  12. The Linkages among Childhood Maltreatment, Adolescent Mental Health, and Self-Compassion in Child Welfare Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanaka, Masako; Wekerle, Christine; Schmuck, Mary Lou; Paglia-Boak, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Childhood maltreatment is a robust risk factor for poor physical and mental health. Child welfare youths represent a high-risk group, given the greater likelihood of severe or multiple types of maltreatment. This study examined the relationship between childhood maltreatment and self-compassion--a concept of positive acceptance of…

  13. Parent-Child Engagement in Decision Making and the Development of Adolescent Affective Decision Capacity and Binge Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Lin; Bechara, Antoine; Palmer, Paula H.; Trinidad, Dennis R.; Wei, Yonglan; Jia, Yong; Johnson, C. Anderson

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate how parents’ engagement of their child in everyday decision-making influenced their adolescent’s development on two neuropsychological functions, namely, affective decision-making and working memory, and its effect on adolescent binge-drinking behavior. We conducted a longitudinal study of 192 Chinese adolescents. In 10th grade, the adolescents were tested for their affective decision-making ability using the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and working memory capacity using the Self-ordered Pointing Test (SOPT). Questionnaires were used to assess perceived parent-child engagement in decision-making, academic performance and drinking behavior. At one-year follow-up, the same neuropsychological tasks and questionnaires were repeated. Results indicate that working memory and academic performance were uninfluenced by parent-child engagement in decision-making. However, compared to adolescents whose parents made solitary decisions for them, adolescents engaged in everyday decision-making showed significant improvement on affective decision capacity and significantly less binge-drinking one year later. These findings suggest that parental engagement of children in everyday decision-making might foster the development of neurocognitive functioning relative to affective decision-making and reduce adolescent substance use behaviors. PMID:21804682

  14. Implementing CBT for Traumatized Children and Adolescents after September 11: Lessons Learned from the Child and Adolescent Trauma Treatments and Services (CATS) Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Child and Adolescent Trauma Treatments and Services Consortium (CATS) was the largest youth trauma project associated with the September 11 World Trade Center disaster. CATS was created as a collaborative project involving New York State policymakers; academic scientists; clinical treatment developers; and routine practicing clinicians,…

  15. Child sexual abuse as reported by Israeli adolescents: social and health related correlates.

    PubMed

    Mansbach-Kleinfeld, Ivonne; Ifrah, Anneke; Apter, Alan; Farbstein, Ilana

    2015-02-01

    The objectives of the study were to assess the prevalence of child sexual abuse (CSA) in a nation-wide representative sample of 14-17 year old Israeli adolescents, and to examine the associations between CSA, socio-demographic correlates and various measures of physical and mental health. The study population consisted of 906 mother-adolescent dyads, belonging to a community based, representative sample of Israeli 14-17 year olds, interviewed in 2004-5. Response rate was 68%. Subjects provided demographic data, and information about CSA, physical symptoms, body image, well-being and use of mental health services. DAWBA was used to obtain information regarding mental disorders and suicidality. SDQ was used to obtain data on bullying. Statistical analyses were conducted using an SPSS-17 complex sample analysis module and multivariate analyses were conducted to assess the associations between CSA and risk factors and social and health related correlates. Findings show that CSA was reported by 3.3% of adolescents. Higher risk of exposure to CSA was found among girls, among adolescents living in a one-parent household and among adolescents with a chronic disability. In multivariate models adjusting for gender, learning disabilities and depression, CSA was associated with suicidal attempts, stomach ache, dizziness, sleep problems, well being at home and bullying behaviors. No association was found with suicidal ideation or other physical symptoms. Our findings confirm that the associations between CSA and different outcomes vary depending on the socio-psychological context, and underline the importance of addressing the complexity of variables associated with CSA. PMID:25542832

  16. Aggression as a mediator of genetic contributions to the association between negative parent-child relationships and adolescent antisocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Narusyte, Jurgita; Andershed, Anna-Karin; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2007-03-01

    Previous research suggests that the association between conflictual parent-child relationships and maladjustment among adolescents is influenced by genetic effects emanating from the adolescents. In this study, we examined whether these effects are mediated by childhood aggression. The data come from the Twin study of CHild and Adolescent Development (TCHAD), a Swedish longitudinal study including 1,314 twin pairs followed from age 13-14 to 16-17. Early adolescent aggression, parental criticism, and delinquency in later adolescence were rated by parents and children at different time points. Multivariate genetic structural equation models were used to estimate genetic and environmental influences on these constructs and on their covariation. The results showed that approximately half of the genetic contribution to the association between parental criticism and delinquency was explained by early adolescent aggression. It suggests that aggression in children evokes negative parenting, which in turn influences adolescent antisocial behavior. The mechanism proposed by these findings is consistent with evocative gene-environment correlation. PMID:17136502

  17. A Model CSMH Curriculum for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Training Programs.

    PubMed

    Derenne, Jennifer; Martel, Adele

    2015-10-01

    Child and adolescent psychiatrists (CAP) care for high school students preparing to enter college. They also may continue to see students while on school vacations and may care for college students in various settings (emergency room, inpatient hospital unit, private practice, college student health service, or counseling center). As increasing numbers of students with mental health diagnoses pursue secondary education, CAP need to be knowledgeable about campus systems of care, principles of transition, and privacy and educational laws affecting college students. This article describes an informal needs assessment of general CAP members of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and details the results of a survey of CAP program directors on training opportunities in college student mental health (CSMH). The authors present a sample curriculum for a clinical rotation in CSMH, as well as providing ideas for core didactic lectures, and proposing the development of online resources to reduce the burden of creating new lectures and standardize experiences among training programs. PMID:25895628

  18. Blueprint for Change: Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health. Report of the National Advisory Mental Health Council's Workgroup on Child and Adolescent Mental Health Intervention Development and Deployment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHHS), Bethesda, MD.

    Findings from research in neurobiology, genetics, behavioral science, and social science have led to an increased understanding of the complex interactions among genetic and socioenvironmental factors and their contribution to child and adolescent mental disorders. Although scientifically proven interventions are available, the gap between…

  19. The characteristics and activities of child and adolescent mental health services in Italy: a regional survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To date, no studies have assessed in detail the characteristics, organisation, and functioning of Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS). This information gap represents a major limitation for researchers and clinicians because most mental disorders have their onset in childhood or adolescence, and effective interventions can therefore represent a major factor in avoiding chronicity. Interventions and mental health care are delivered by and through services, and not by individual, private clinicians, and drawbacks or limitations of services generally translate in inappropriateness and ineffectiveness of treatments and interventions: therefore information about services is essential to improve the quality of care and ultimately the course and outcome of mental disorders in childhood and adolescence. The present paper reports the results of the first study aimed at providing detailed, updated and comprehensive data on CAMHS of a densely populated Italian region (over 4 million inhabitants) with a target population of 633,725 subjects aged 0-17 years. Methods Unit Chiefs of all the CAMHS filled in a structured 'Facility Form', with activity data referring to 2008 (data for inpatient facilities referred to 2009), which were then analysed in detail. Results Eleven CAMHS were operative, including 110 outpatient units, with a ratio of approximately 20 child psychiatrists and 23 psychologists per 100,000 inhabitants aged 0-17 years. All outpatient units were well equipped and organized and all granted free service access. In 2008, approximately 6% of the target population was in contact with outpatient CAMHS, showing substantial homogeneity across the eleven areas thereby. Most patients in contact in 2008 received a language disorder- or learning disability diagnosis (41%). First-ever contacts accounted for 30% of annual visits across all units. Hospital bed availability was 5 per 100,000 inhabitants aged 0-17 years. Conclusion The percentage of

  20. A Novel Screening and Diagnostic Tool for Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Disorders for Telepsychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Savita; Chakrabarti, Subho; Shah, Ruchita; Mehta, Anurati; Gupta, Aarzoo; Sharma, Minali

    2015-01-01

    Background: A diagnostic tool designed as part of a telepsychiatry application for diagnosis and management of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders in India was developed considering the paucity of trained child psychiatrists and mental health professionals in India. Materials and Methods: The diagnostic tool consisted of screening and 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10) criteria-based diagnostic algorithms for 18 psychiatric disorders seen in childhood and adolescence. Accuracy of diagnoses and feasibility of use of the tool was examined by comparing it with detailed semi-structured clinical evaluations by a qualified psychiatrist with 50 psychiatric patients (children and adolescents). Statistical Analysis: Descriptive analyses and paired t-tests were conducted to compare the mean number of diagnosis generated by the two interviews. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were computed for the screening and the diagnostic sub-modules of the tool, compared to the clinical diagnoses. Kappa coefficients were computed to assess agreement between the diagnoses generated by the diagnostic sub-module and the clinical diagnoses. Results: The screening sub-module had high sensitivity, high specificity and negative predictive values for all disorders. For the diagnostic sub-module, there was moderate (kappa-0.4–0.6) to substantial agreement (kappa > 0.6) for all the disorders, (except psychosis) and high sensitivity (barring a few disorders) and specificity for almost all the disorders. Positive predictive values were found to be acceptable to high for most disorders, with consistently high negative predictive values. Conclusion: The new tool was found to be comprehensive, reasonably short and feasible. Results showed acceptable level of accuracy in diagnosis generated by the tool. PMID:26424901

  1. Promoting child and adolescent mental health in low and middle income countries.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vikram; Flisher, Alan J; Nikapota, Anula; Malhotra, Savita

    2008-03-01

    Children and adolescents in low and middle income countries (LAMIC) constitute 35-50% of the population. Although the population in many such countries is predominantly rural, rapid urbanisation and social change is under way, with an increase in urban poverty and unemployment, which are risk factors for poor child and adolescent mental health (CAMH). There is a vast gap between CAMH needs (as measured through burden of disease estimates) and the availability of CAMH resources. The role of CAMH promotion and prevention can thus not be overestimated. However, the evidence base for affordable and effective interventions for promotion and prevention in LAMIC is limited. In this review, we briefly review the public health importance of CAM disorders in LAMIC and the specific issues related to risk and protective factors for these disorders. We describe a number of potential strategies for CAMH promotion which focus on building capacity in children and adolescents, in parents and families, in the school and health systems, and in the wider community, including structural interventions. Building capacity in CAMH must also focus on the detection and treatment of disorders for which the evidence base is somewhat stronger, and on wider public health strategies for prevention and promotion. In particular, capacity needs to be built across the health system, with particular foci on low-cost, universally available and accessible resources, and on empowerment of families and children. We also consider the role of formal teaching and training programmes, and the role for specialists in CAMH promotion. PMID:18093112

  2. Does the quality of parent-child connectedness matter for adolescents' sexual behaviors in Nairobi informal settlements?

    PubMed

    Sidze, Estelle M; Elungata'a, Patricia; Maina, Beatrice W; Mutua, Michael M

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the associations between parent-child connectedness and sexual behaviors among adolescents living in informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya, a vulnerable group with respect to reproductive health outcomes. The study was based on data from the Transition to Adulthood project, a study designed to follow adolescents aged 12-22 for 3 years in the informal settlements of Korogocho and Viwandani. Direct face-to-face questions were asked to adolescents about parenting variables and sexual behaviors. This study used a subsample of 689 sexually experienced 12-22-years-olds at Wave 2. Bivariate analysis compared gender differences for three outcomes-sexual activity in the 12 months prior to the survey and, among those who had had sex in this period, multiple sexual partners and condom use at last sex. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to identify associations between these outcomes and the quality of parent-child connectedness. About 60% of adolescent females and males were sexually active in the 12 months prior to the survey. The multivariate results showed a strong association between the quality of parent-child connectedness and condom use among adolescent males. Living with related or unrelated guardians (versus living with biological parents) was also associated with higher odds of multiple sexual partners and lower odds of condom use at last sex among adolescent females and with higher odds of sexual activity among adolescent males. Sexual and reproductive health programs targeting adolescents living in Nairobi informal settlements would benefit from attention to assisting parents to improve their ability to play the connectedness role. PMID:25501658

  3. Child and adolescent service experience (ChASE): measuring service quality and therapeutic process.

    PubMed

    Day, Crispin; Michelson, Daniel; Hassan, Imren

    2011-11-01

    OBJECTIVES. Dissatisfaction with services has been associated with poorer child mental health outcomes, early treatment termination as well as disagreements over the nature of mental health difficulties, reasons for referral and therapy goals. The development of straightforward, reliable, and accurate methods of eliciting service users' views is essential within child and adolescent mental health care. This paper describes the development of the child and adolescent service experience (ChASE), a tool to measure children and young people's service experience DESIGN. The study comprises a non-experimental, cross-sectional design. METHODS. Participants were 132 mental health service users aged 8-18 years. Participants and their main carer completed the ChASE, Parent Satisfaction Questionnaire (PSQ) (Stallard, 1996) and Strengths and Difficulties (SDQ) Impact Supplement. Clinicians completed the SDQ Impact Supplement and provided clinical activity data. A sub-sample of participants completed the ChASE on a second occasion, 6 weeks after the completion of the first questionnaire. RESULTS. Scrutiny of ChASE data indicated high levels of completion. Principal axis factoring identified three factors within the ChASE: Relationship, Privacy, and Session Activity. The ChASE has good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Significant correlations were found between the ChASE and carer satisfaction, service use, and youth clinical outcomes. CONCLUSIONS. The ChASE is a short, psychometrically robust tool for routine measurement of children, and young people's experience of mental health services, which users can complete easily. The results underline the importance of alliance factors to children and young people and their association with clinical improvement as well as the potential for the ChASE to be used a measure of children's therapeutic progress and alliance. PMID:22003953

  4. Do adolescent child abusers, peer abusers, and non-sex offenders have different personality profiles?

    PubMed

    Glowacz, Fabienne; Born, Michel

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify two sub-populations of sex offenders based on the age of the victims and on the age difference between the abuser and the victim (child sexual abusers vs. peer sexual abusers), and to compare the personality characteristics of these two subgroups with those of juvenile non-sex offenders. The group was composed of 67 adolescent offenders aged 13-18 years who were adjudicated for sexual offenses or non-sexual offenses: 20 non-sex offenders (JNSOs), 26 child sexual abusers (CAs), and 21 peer sexual abusers (PAs). The Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI) was administered to all participants. The mean scores and clinical cutoffs on the MACI scales were compared across the three samples. Compared with PAs, CAs were more submissive and conforming, and they experienced more anxious feelings. Peer sexual abusers scored higher on the unruly and forceful personality scales, on social insensitivity, and on delinquent predisposition. Peer sexual abusers also reported higher scores on substance-abuse proneness, impulsive propensities, and antisocial functioning than CAs, but their scores were similar to those of JNSOs. Our results show clear similarities between PAs and JNSOs in terms of personality and clinical characteristics, especially with regard to antisocial personality traits. Child sexual abusers did not display the personality characteristics typical of PAs and JNSOs which predisposed them to delinquent activities. These results raise questions as to whether juvenile sex offenders should be treated within the same institutions as non-sex offenders and whether the same treatment programs should be implemented for all types of juvenile sex offenders. PMID:23064997

  5. Digital Game Playing Motives among Adolescents: Relations to Parent-Child Communication, School Performance, Sleeping Habits, and Perceived Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallenius, Marjut; Rimpela, Arja; Punamaki, Raija-Leena; Lintonen, Tomi

    2008-01-01

    The aims of this research were to describe Finnish adolescents' different motives for digital game playing, and to examine relations between digital game playing and parent-child communication, school performance, sleeping habits, and perceived health. A questionnaire was used to assess a nationwide postal sample of 12-18-year-old Finns (6761…

  6. The Evaluation of a Screening Tool for Children with an Intellectual Disability: The Child and Adolescent Intellectual Disability Screening Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Karen; Paxton, Donna; Murray, George; Milanesi, Paula; Murray, Aja Louise

    2012-01-01

    The study outlines the evaluation of an intellectual disability screening tool, the "Child and Adolescent Intellectual Disability Screening Questionnaire" ("CAIDS-Q"), with two age groups. A number of aspects of the reliability and validity of the "CAIDS-Q" were assessed for these two groups, including inter-rater reliability, convergent and…

  7. The Relationship between Parental Knowledge and Monitoring and Child and Adolescent Conduct Problems: A 10-Year Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Racz, Sarah Jensen; McMahon, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Inadequate parental monitoring is widely recognized as a risk factor for the development of child and adolescent conduct problems. However, previous studies examining parental monitoring have largely measured parental knowledge and not the active methods used by parents to track the activities and behavior of their children. The seminal work of…

  8. The Factor Structure of the BASC-2 Behavioral and Emotional Screening System Teacher Form, Child/Adolescent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dever, Bridget V.; Mays, Kristen L.; Kamphaus, Randy W.; Dowdy, Erin

    2012-01-01

    The BASC-2 Behavioral and Emotional Screening System Teacher, Child/Adolescent Form (BESS Teacher Form C/A; Kamphaus & Reynolds, 2007) is a brief teacher-report rating scale designed to identify students who are at-risk for behavioral and emotional problems. The aim of this study was to describe the latent dimensions that underlie the responses to…

  9. Representations of Mother-Child Attachment Relationships and Social-Information Processing of Peer Relationships in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granot, David; Mayseless, Ofra

    2012-01-01

    We examined the concurrent associations between early adolescents' representations of mother-child attachment relationships and how they process social information in their peer relationships. Attachment representations were examined in a normative sample of 97 males and 88 females (mean age = 10.35 years), using an adaptation of the Attachment…

  10. A Model of Therapist Competencies for the Empirically Supported Cognitive Behavioral Treatment of Child and Adolescent Anxiety and Depressive Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sburlati, Elizabeth S.; Schniering, Carolyn A.; Lyneham, Heidi J.; Rapee, Ronald M.

    2011-01-01

    While a plethora of cognitive behavioral empirically supported treatments (ESTs) are available for treating child and adolescent anxiety and depressive disorders, research has shown that these are not as effective when implemented in routine practice settings. Research is now indicating that is partly due to ineffective EST training methods,…

  11. Mentoring Increases Connectedness and Knowledge: A Cross-Sectional Evaluation of Two Programs in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horner, Michelle S.; Miller, Susan Milam; Rettew, David C.; Althoff, Robert; Ehmann, Mary; Hudziak, James J.; Martin, Andres

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors assess changes in knowledge and feeling connected to the field of child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) after participation in a brief mentoring program held at two CAP conferences. Methods: Similar mentorship programs were implemented at two CAP conferences, one national (N=119 participants), one international (N=53). The…

  12. Prior Victimization and Sexual and Contraceptive Self-Efficacy among Adolescent Females under Child Protective Services Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hovsepian, S. Lory; Blais, Martin; Manseau, Helene; Otis, Joanne; Girard, Marie-Eve

    2010-01-01

    Adolescent females under Child Protective Services care in Quebec, Canada (n = 328) completed a questionnaire designed to explore associations between prior victimization (childhood sexual abuse and four forms of dating violence) and four dimensions of sexual and contraceptive self-efficacy. Five MANCOVAs were performed. In each model, a…

  13. The Relation between Child Maltreatment and Adolescent Suicidal Behavior: A Systematic Review and Critical Examination of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Adam B.; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Weismoore, Julie T.; Renshaw, Keith D.

    2013-01-01

    A large body of research suggests that child maltreatment (CM) is associated with adolescent suicidal ideation and attempts. These studies, however, have not been critically examined and summarized in a manner that allows us to draw firm conclusions and make recommendations for future research and clinical work in this area. In this review, we…

  14. Pediatric, Adolescent, and Maternal AIDS Branch. Report to the National Advisory Child Health and Human Development Council.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD. Center for Research for Mothers and Children.

    This report describes current research activities and future plans of the Pediatric, Adolescent, and Maternal AIDS (PAMA) Branch of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Center for Research for Mothers and Children. The mission statement of the Branch notes that PAMA develops, implements, and directs a wide range of…

  15. The Bi-Directional Relationship between Parent-Child Conflict and Treatment Outcome in Treatment-Resistant Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rengasamy, Manivel; Mansoor, Brandon M.; Hilton, Robert; Porta, Giovanna; He, Jiayan; Emslie, Graham J.; Mayes, Taryn; Clarke, Gregory N.; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Keller, Martin B.; Ryan, Neal D.; Birmaher, Boris; Shamseddeen, Wael; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Brent, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the bidirectional relationship between parent-child discord and treatment outcome for adolescent treatment-resistant depression. Method: Depressed youth who had not responded to an adequate course of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) were randomized to either a switch to another SSRI or venlafaxine, with or…

  16. Child and Adolescent Suicidal Behavior: School-Based Prevention, Assessment, and Intervention. Practical Intervention in the Schools Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, David N.

    2011-01-01

    Meeting a crucial need, this book distills the best current knowledge on child and adolescent suicide prevention into comprehensive guidelines for school-based practitioners. The author draws on extensive research and clinical experience to provide best-practice recommendations for developing schoolwide prevention programs, conducting risk…

  17. Child Behavior Checklist Profiles of Children and Adolescents with and at High Risk for Developing Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Lisa L.; DelBello, Melissa P.; Stanford, Kevin E.; Strakowski, Stephen M.

    2007-01-01

    In order to recognize behavioral patterns in children and adolescents at risk for developing bipolar disorder, this study examined Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) profiles of bipolar offspring both with (BD group) and without ("at-risk" or AR group) bipolar disorder themselves. The BD youth had three CBCL subscale T scores greater than or equal to…

  18. Maternal Parenting Behavior and Child Behavior Problems in Families of Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maljaars, Jarymke; Boonen, Hannah; Lambrechts, Greet; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Noens, Ilse

    2014-01-01

    Parents of a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) face specific challenges in parenting, but concrete parenting behavior has never been properly investigated in these families. This exploratory questionnaire study compared parenting behaviors among mothers of children and adolescents with ASD (n = 552) and without ASD (n = 437) and examined…

  19. Adventure-Based Experiential Therapy with Inpatients in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: An Approach to Practicability and Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckstein, Florian; Rüth, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the use of adventure-based experiential therapy (AET) with child and adolescent psychiatry inpatients. AET environments, indications, practicality, therapeutic effects and research are outlined and clinical findings are reported. Activities such as rock-climbing, exploring a creek and caving are discussed and the limitations…

  20. Implementation of Problem-Based Learning in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: Shared Experiences of a Special-Interest Study Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skokauskas, Norbert; Guerrero, Anthony P. S.; Hanson, Mark D.; Coll, Xavier; Paul, Moli; Szatmari, Peter; Tan, Susan M. K.; Bell, Cathy K.; Hunt, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objective: Problem-based learning (PBL) represents a major development and change in educational practice that continues to have a large impact across subjects and disciplines worldwide. It would seem that child and adolescent psychiatry, because of its inherently integrative, bio-psycho-social nature and emphasis on teamwork and…

  1. Perspectives of clinical medical directors in child and adolescent psychiatry: diagnostic and treatment needs of migrant families.

    PubMed

    Kirkcaldy, Bruce David; Siefen, Rainer Georg

    2014-01-01

    Germany is one of many nations characterized by an increasing number of children originating from families with a migration background. Medical treatment modalities will be required to adjust for diversity of social and cultural background. Initiated by the Federal Society of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (BKJPP), representing mainly those psychiatrists working in private practice, and by the Federal Working Commission of Medical Directors employed in Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics (BAG), a questionnaire was constructed to identify mental health professionals' (psychiatrists') evaluation of the needs and quality of diagnosis and treatment for migrant families. The current study focused on medical directors and deputy chief physicians in clinics for child and adolescent psychiatry. Preliminary results of this survey - implementing descriptive statistics as well as univariate and multivariate statistical analyses - permitted an assessment of the current state of identification and treatment of migrant offspring attending child and adolescent psychiatric practices in Germany. Recommendations and concrete steps are offered, which aim to promote "cultural opening", and assist in health and social policy makers' decisions for improved mental health care. PMID:24447986

  2. Analyzing Multiple Informant Data on Child and Adolescent Behavior Problems: Predictive Validity and Comparison of Aggregation Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Dulmen, Manfred H. M.; Egeland, Byron

    2011-01-01

    We compared the predictive validity of five aggregation methods for multiple informant data on child and adolescent behavior problems. In addition, we compared the predictive validity of these aggregation methods with single informant scores. Data were derived from the Minnesota Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (N = 175). Maternal and…

  3. A Longitudinal Study of the Effects of Child Maltreatment on Later Outcomes among High-Risk Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Johnson, Katherine A.; Brownridge, Douglas A.

    2008-01-01

    The current study longitudinally examines the effects of child maltreatment, parenting, and disadvantaged neighborhood on victimization, delinquency, and well-being via running away and school engagement among a sample of 360 high-risk adolescents. Results of a path analysis revealed that parenting was associated with school engagement, running…

  4. Psychiatric Disorders in Adolescence and Early Adulthood and Risk for Child-Rearing Difficulties during Middle Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jeffrey G.; Cohen, Patricia; Kasen, Stephanie; Brook, Judith S.

    2008-01-01

    Data from a community-based longitudinal study were used to investigate the associations of parental psychiatric disorders evident by early adulthood with child-rearing behavior during middle adulthood. A series of psychiatric assessments was conducted during the adolescence (mean ages 14 and 16) and early adulthood (mean age 22) of 153 males and…

  5. Intergenerational continuity of child abuse among adolescent mothers: authoritarian parenting, community violence, and race.

    PubMed

    Valentino, Kristin; Nuttall, Amy K; Comas, Michelle; Borkowski, John G; Akai, Carol E

    2012-05-01

    Among the negative sequelae of child maltreatment is increased risk for continuity of maltreatment into subsequent generations. Despite acknowledgment in the literature that the pathways toward breaking the cycle of maltreatment are likely the result of dynamic interactions of risk and protective factors across multiple ecological levels, few studies have followed high-risk samples of maltreated and nonmaltreated parents over time to evaluate such processes. In the current investigation, exposure to community violence and authoritarian parenting attitudes were evaluated as predictors of the intergenerational continuity of abuse, and the moderating effect of African American race was examined. The sample included 70 mothers and their 18-year-old children, who have been followed longitudinally since the third trimester of the adolescent mothers' pregnancy. Results revealed that among mothers with a child abuse history, higher exposure to community violence and lower authoritarian parenting attitudes were associated with increased risk for intergenerational continuity of abuse. The relation of authoritarian parenting attitudes to intergenerational continuity was moderated by race; the protective effects of authoritarian parenting were limited to the African American families only. The salience of multiple ecological levels in interrupting the intergenerational continuity of child abuse is discussed, and implications for preventive programs are highlighted. PMID:22287568

  6. Lifetime Prevalence and Characteristics of Child Sexual Victimization in a Community Sample of Spanish Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pereda, Noemí; Abad, Judit; Guilera, Georgina

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the lifetime prevalence and characteristics of self-reported child sexual victimization and associations between sexual victimization and sociodemographic characteristics and victimological profiles in community adolescents in Spain. The Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire (Finkelhor, Hamby, Ormrod, & Turner, 2005) was applied to a sample of 1,105 community adolescents (M = 14.52 years, SD = 1.76). Experience of sexual victimization (with or without physical contact) was reported by 8.8% of the sample, at a mean age of 13 years old. Sexual victimization was more prevalent in girls (14.2%) and in older adolescents (10.6%). Offenders were mainly male (87.6%) and were mostly friends, neighbors, or schoolmates (52.6%). No injuries resulted from victimization (4.3%), although the percentage of penetration or attempted penetration was very high (30.6%). Only 9.3% of victims reported the incident to the police or the justice system. In regard to victimological profiles, sexual victims also experienced other forms of victimization (M = 7.16; SD = 3.39): boys reported more conventional crimes, peer and sibling victimization, and witnessing community violence than other victims, whereas sexually victimized girls reported more caregiver victimization and property crimes. Sexually victimized youth present a distinctive sociodemographic and victimological profile. Professionals need to be aware of these characteristics in order to conduct adequate prevention programs. We also need to assess a wide range of victimization experiences when treating sexual abuse victims in order to make adolescents less vulnerable to violence. PMID:26849005

  7. Maternal parenting styles and mother-child relationship among adolescents with and without persistent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Chang, Jane Pei-Chen

    2013-05-01

    We investigated mothering and mother-child interactions in adolescents with and without persistent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a sample of 190 adolescents with persistent DSM-IV ADHD, 147 without persistent ADHD, and 223 without ADHD. Both participants and their mothers received psychiatric interviews for diagnosis of ADHD and other mental disorders; and reported on the Parental Bonding Instrument about mother's parenting style, the Social Adjustment Inventory for Children and Adolescents for interactions with mothers and home behavioral problems. The mothers also reported on their ADHD and neurotic/depressive symptoms. Our results based on both informants showed that both ADHD groups obtained less affection/care and more overprotection and control from the mothers, and perceived less family support than those without ADHD. Child's inattention and comorbidity, and maternal depression were significantly correlated with decreased maternal affection/care and increased maternal controls; child's hyperactivity-impulsivity and maternal neurotic trait were significantly correlated with maternal overprotection; and child's inattention and comorbidity, and maternal neurotic/depressive symptoms were significantly correlated with impaired mother-child interactions and less family support. Our findings suggested that, regardless of persistence, childhood ADHD diagnosis, particularly inattention symptoms and comorbidity, combining with maternal neurotic/depressive symptoms was associated with impaired maternal process. PMID:23475008

  8. The mediating role of parent-child bonding to prevent adolescent alcohol abuse among Asian American families.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meme; Kviz, Frederick J; Miller, Arlene M

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe unique culturally-based factors that may increase the vulnerability of Asian American adolescents to engage in alcohol use and abuse and the role of parent-child bonding as a protective factor. In particular, this paper addresses the interactions among acculturation, alcohol use, and parent-child bonding and the challenges Asian American families face in strengthening parent-child bonds. We begin by examining likely causes for alienation that occur as a result of immigration to the United States. We then present the cultural context of Asian American families that can also serve to create distance between parent and child, including the contrasting cultural orientations of individualism and collectivism, Asian traditional values, differences in Eastern and Western parenting styles, and intergenerational cultural dissonance. Next, we present a review of the research that has examined acculturation as a risk factor for alcohol use and abuse among Asian American adolescents, with special attention to the mediating role of parent-child bonding. Finally, we conclude with recommendations for future research on the risk and protective factors for adolescent substance abuse, as well as other risky health behaviors among the growing population of Asian Americans in the United States. PMID:22367668

  9. Monday-Morning Quarterbacking: A Senior Analyst Uses His Early Work to Discuss Contemporary Child and Adolescent Psychoanalytic Technique.

    PubMed

    Sugarman, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary child and adolescent psychoanalytic technique has evolved and changed a great deal in the last thirty years. This paper will describe the analysis of an adolescent girl from early in the author's career to demonstrate the ways in which technique has changed. The clinical material presented highlights six areas in which contemporary child and adolescent analysts practice and/or understand material and the clinical process differently than they did thirty years ago: (1) the contemporary perspective on mutative action, (2) the contemporary emphasis on mental organization, (3) the developmental lag in integrating the structural model, (4) the child analyst's multiple functions, (5) the child analyst's use of countertransference, and (6) the child analyst's work with parents. The author discusses how he would work differently with the patient now using his contemporary perspective. But he also wonders what might have been lost by not working in a more traditional manner, in particular the opportunity to analyze the patient's hypersensitivity to feeling hurt and mistreated so directly in the transference. PMID:27337816

  10. Anxious Attachment, Social Isolation, and Indicators of Sex Drive and Compulsivity: Predictors of Child Sexual Abuse Perpetration in Adolescent Males?

    PubMed

    Miner, Michael H; Swinburne Romine, Rebecca; Robinson, Beatrice Bean E; Berg, Dianne; Knight, Raymond A

    2016-03-01

    It has been suggested that child sexual abuse is related to poor attachment to parents, which is associated with an inability to form intimate relationships. Seto and Lalumière indicated that there were too few studies of adolescent males to determine whether poor attachment was associated with perpetration. This study was designed to follow up on a previous study and further explored the association between insecure attachment to parents, social isolation, and interpersonal adequacy to child sexual abuse perpetration in adolescents. We compared two samples of adolescent males who had committed sexual offenses, those who committed offenses against children (n = 140) and those who committed offenses against peer or adults (n = 92), with a sample of similarly aged males in treatment for mental health or substance use issues (n = 93). Data were collected using a semi-structured interview and computer-administered questionnaire. We found an indirect association between anxious attachment and sexual offenses against child victims, which was accounted for by measures of social involvement and social isolation. These involvement and isolation measures also did not have a direct association with sexual offenses against child victims, in that their contribution was accounted for by a measure of Masculine Adequacy. This Masculine Adequacy, combined with decreased levels of Sexual Preoccupation and Hypersexuality and increased Sexual Compulsivity, was associated with commission of child sexual abuse. The interpersonal variables did not enter a model predicting sexual offending against peers/adults, which seemed solely associated with the interaction between Sexual Compulsivity and Hypersexuality. PMID:25143437

  11. Meta-analysis of quality of life in children and adolescents with ADHD: By both parent proxy-report and child self-report using PedsQL™.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yi-chen; Yang, Hao-Jan; Chen, Vincent Chin-Hung; Lee, Wan-Ting; Teng, Ming-Jen; Lin, Chung-Hui; Gossop, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent developmental disorder that seriously and negatively impacts a child's health-related quality of life (HRQOL). However, no meta-analysis has been conducted to examine the magnitude of impact, domains affected and factors moderating the impact. This review included nine studies that compared HRQOL of children or adolescents with ADHD with those with typical development using both child self-reports and parent proxy-reports. Seven among nine studies were meta-analytically synthesized to examine the degree of impact of ADHD on children and adolescents, parent-child discrepancy, and the moderators. The results indicate that ADHD impact a child's or adolescent's HRQOL negatively with a moderate effect in physical and a severe effect in psychosocial (i.e., emotional, social, and school) domains. Parental ratings of overall HRQOL in children or adolescents with ADHD were not significantly different from child's ratings when compared with typically developing children and adolescents. Age was negatively associated with all domains of HRQOL in children and adolescents with ADHD both by parent- and child-ratings, and the strongest effect was found in parental ratings of child's emotional HRQOL, with a moderate correlation. This meta-analysis suggests that HRQOL may be assessed in children and adolescents with ADHD both by parent proxy- and child self-reports, and that interventions may be planned accordingly. Future meta-analysis may explore how measures of HRQOL and other factors including child, parental, familiar and school characteristics influence the impact of ADHD and the parent-child agreement in children and adolescents. PMID:26829402

  12. The Bi-Directional Relationship Between Parent–Child Conflict and Treatment Outcome in Treatment-Resistant Adolescent Depression

    PubMed Central

    Rengasamy, Manivel; Mansoor, Brandon M.; Hilton, Robert; Porta, Giovanna; He, Jiayan; Emslie, Graham J.; Mayes, Taryn; Clarke, Gregory N.; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Keller, Martin B.; Ryan, Neal D.; Birmaher, Boris; Shamseddeen, Wael; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Brent, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the bidirectional relationship between parent–child discord and treatment outcome for adolescent treatment-resistant depression. Method Depressed youth who had not responded to an adequate course of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) were randomized to either a switch to another SSRI or venlafaxine, with or without the addition of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) in the Treatment of SSRI-Resistant Depression in Adolescents (TORDIA) study. The Conflict Behavior Questionnaire was used to assess adolescent (CBQ-A) and parent-reported (CBQ-P) parent–child discord. The impact of remission on parent–child conflict, and the differential impact of medication and CBT on the CBQ-A and CBQ-P, were assessed using generalized linear models. Results Although there were no differential treatment effects on parent or adolescent-report of conflict, remission was associated with improvement in the CBQ-P. In general, intake family conflict did not predict remission, except in the sub-group of participants whose parents reported clinically significant parent–child conflict at intake, for whom high levels of parent-reported conflict predicted a lower likelihood of remission. Conflict also did not moderate treatment response. Conclusions Remission of depression may be sufficient to reduce parent-reported parent–child conflict. However, higher parent-reported conflict, in the clinically significant range, predicts a lower likelihood of remission from depression. Clinical trial registration information—Treatment of SSRI-Resistant Depression in Adolescents (TORDIA); http://clinicaltrials.gov/;NCT00018902. PMID:23582868

  13. Canadian Rural/Remote Primary Care Physicians Perspectives on Child/Adolescent Mental Health Care Service Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Zayed, Richard; Davidson, Brenda; Nadeau, Lucie; Callanan, Terrence S.; Fleisher, William; Hope-Ross, Lindsay; Espinet, Stacey; Spenser, Helen R.; Lipton, Harold; Srivastava, Amresh; Lazier, Lorraine; Doey, Tamison; Khalid-Khan, Sarosh; McKerlie, Ann; Stretch, Neal; Flynn, Roberta; Abidi, Sabina; St. John, Kimberly; Auclair, Genevieve; Liashko, Vitaly; Fotti, Sarah; Quinn, Declan; Steele, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Primary Care Physicians (PCP) play a key role in the recognition and management of child/adolescent mental health struggles. In rural and under-serviced areas of Canada, there is a gap between child/adolescent mental health needs and service provision. Methods: From a Canadian national needs assessment survey, PCPs’ narrative comments were examined using quantitative and qualitative approaches. Using the phenomenological method, individual comments were drawn upon to illustrate the themes that emerged. These themes were further analyzed using chi-square to identify significant differences in the frequency in which they were reported. Results: Out of 909 PCPs completing the survey, 39.38% (n = 358) wrote comments. Major themes that emerged were: 1) psychiatrist access, including issues such as long waiting lists, no child/adolescent psychiatrists available, no direct access to child/adolescent psychiatrists; 2) poor communication/continuity, need for more systemized/transparent referral processes, and need to rely on adult psychiatrists; and, 3) referral of patients to other mental health professionals such as paediatricians, psychologists, and social workers. Conclusions: Concerns that emerged across sites primarily revolved around lack of access to care and systems issues that interfere with effective service delivery. These concerns suggest potential opportunities for future improvement of service delivery. Implications: Although the survey only had one comment box located at the end, PCPs wrote their comments throughout the survey. Further research focusing on PCPs’ expressed written concerns may give further insight into child/adolescent mental health care service delivery systems. A comparative study targeting urban versus rural regions in Canada may provide further valuable insights. PMID:27047554

  14. The role of timing of maltreatment and child intelligence in pathways to low symptoms of depression and anxiety in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Harpur, Lisa Jane; Polek, Ela; van Harmelen, Anne-Laura

    2015-09-01

    Research indicates that childhood maltreatment is strongly associated with high levels of adolescent depression and anxiety symptoms. Using LONGSCAN data and taking into account the range of family characteristics related to adversity (poverty, primary caregiver substance abuse) and protective factors (living with biological mother and father), the present study assessed the complex resilience process in which child intelligence (age 6) mediated the relationship between early childhood maltreatment (age 0-4) and adolescent symptoms of depression and anxiety (age 14). We also assessed if mid (age 6-8) and late (age 10-12) childhood maltreatment moderated this mediation. We found that mid-childhood intelligence mediated the negative effect of early childhood maltreatment (age 0-4) on anxiety symptoms (age 14), but not on depressive symptoms (age 14). We also found the effect of timing of maltreatment: early childhood maltreatment (age 0-4) predicted more anxiety symptoms in adolescence, whereas late childhood/early adolescent (age 10-12) maltreatment predicted more symptoms of depression in adolescence. In addition, mid (age 6-8) and late (age 10-12) childhood maltreatment dampened the protective effect of IQ (age 6) against anxiety (age 14). In sum, current evidence shows that low anxiety and depression symptoms in adolescence following childhood maltreatment was achieved through different pathways, and that early and late childhood/early adolescence were more sensitive periods for development of psychopathology related to depression and anxiety in adolescence. PMID:26146160

  15. Indications for and use of antidepressants in child and adolescent psychiatry--a cross-sectional survey in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Buhl Sørensen, Christine; Bøhm Jepsen, Ea; Thomsen, Per Hove; Dalsgaard, Søren

    2003-06-01

    The prescription of antidepressants for children and adolescents is a controversial subject, and it has been documented that the practice has increased in the past decade in Denmark, the UK, and the USA. The aim of this study was to survey the indications for and use of antidepressants in child and adolescent psychiatry. Questionnaires were sent to all Danish child and adolescent psychiatric hospitals, out-patient clinics and privately practising psychiatrists treating children and adolescents under the age of 19 years (31 units in all). A 93.5 % response rate for the total of 382 questionnaires in the survey. The antidepressant serotonin selective re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) were the most prominently used agents in treating children and adolescents. The extent of their use represents 8 % of the total sample of individuals under the age of 19 years receiving any kind of psychiatric treatment - 0.03 % of the reference population in Denmark. It is only a surprisingly minor group of children and adolescents that are being treated with antidepressants despite the fact that 10 % of youth under the age of 19 are afflicted with diseases like depression, OCD, anxiety disorder and eating disorders. PMID:12768458

  16. Journal abstracts from current research in the field of child and adolescent mental health.

    PubMed

    2009-12-01

    at-risk adolescents. Journal of Child & Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing 22(3): 160-168 Page RM & Hall CP (2009) Psychosocial distress and alcohol use as factors in adolescent sexual behaviour among sub-Saharan African adolescents. Journal of School Health 79(8): 369-379 Taliaferro LA, Rienzo BA, Pigg RM, Miller MD & Dodd VJ (2009) Spiritual well-being and suicidal ideation among college students. Journal of American College Health 58(1): 83-90 Jarrett T, Horn K & Zhang J (2009) Teen perceptions of facilitator characteristics in a school-based smoking cessation program. Journal of School Health 79(7): 297-303 Parker JS & Morton TL (2009) Distinguishing between early and late onset delinquents: Race, income, verbal intelligence and impulsivity. North American Journal of Psychology 11(2): 273-284 Burris JL, Smith GT & Carlson CR (2009) Relations among religiousness, spirituality and sexual practices. Journal of Sex Research 46(4): 282-289 Brown DW, Riley L, Butchart A, Meddings DR, Kann L & Harvey AP (2009) Exposure to physical and sexual violence and adverse health behaviours in African children: Results from the Global School-based Student Health Survey. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 87(6): 447-B. PMID:25865730

  17. 1984 Presidential election: issues of relevance to child and adolescent health.

    PubMed

    Mondale, W F; Reagan, R W

    1984-10-01

    To clarify the position of the 2 major candidates for the office of presidency of the US on child and adolescent health issues, the editors of the Journal of School Health requested information about the candidate's positions from the headquarters of Mondale and Reagan. This document presents a summary based on the information received. In reference to defense spending, Mondale said he would cut some defense programs and increase social support programs. Reagan noted that his proposed budget for the next 5 years allocated US$2.6 trillion to human programs compared to US$1.7 trillion for defense. In regard to health card, Mondale placed a high priority on health care cost containment to be achieved by placing limits on physician and hospital fees, increasing competition between health facilities, and streamlining the Medicare and Medicaid programs. Reagan expressed satisfaction with the current health status of the population and said that health care inflation could be controlled through the provision of incentives to increase the efficiency of hospitals. Mondale indicated that he would reverse Regan's current social policies and provide strong support for social programs including Headstart, maternal and child health programs, Medicaid, Aid to Dependent Children, day care programs, child and spouse abuse programs, and several others. Reagan noted that child health indicators improved during the early 1980s, and that spending for child health increased during his 1st term. His administration would focus attention on the health gap between black and white children and on enforcing child support laws. Mondale indicated broad support for family planning including the right of poor women to obtain abortion services and the right to teenagers to receive contraceptive services without parental involvement. Reagan reiterated his belief that abortion is morally wrong and said that federal funds should not be used to pay for abortion services unless the abortion is

  18. Unmet health and mental health need among adolescents: the roles of sexual minority status and child-parent connectedness.

    PubMed

    Williams, Kelly A; Chapman, Mimi V

    2012-10-01

    Using a representative national sample from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) survey (N = 18,924), this article explores sexual minority status (SMS) and child-parent connectedness in relation to the unmet needs for health or mental health care among adolescents. Through the use of logistic regression models, data were analyzed to determine whether SMS and child-parent connectedness predict unmet health and mental health need. In addition, models tested whether child-parent connectedness, sex or gender, and race or ethnicity interact with SMS to predict unmet need. Results show that both SMS and child-parent connectedness predict unmet health and mental health need. Being a sexual minority youth (SMY) significantly increases the odds of having an unmet need for health or mental health care; female SMY have the highest odds of an unmet mental health need. Child-parent connectedness is a predictor of unmet need regardless of SMS. Youth with lower levels of child-parent connectedness have significantly higher odds of an unmet health or mental health need. Findings call for service providers to address the unmet needs of SMY both in terms of outreach to youth and parents and to communicate the importance of the parental role in helping teens access care. PMID:23039345

  19. The Moderating Effects of Pubertal Timing on the Longitudinal Associations Between Parent-Child Relationship Quality and Adolescent Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Shelton, Katherine H.; van den Bree, Marianne B.M.

    2010-01-01

    This prospective, longitudinal study investigated the moderating role of pubertal timing on reciprocal links between adolescent appraisals of parent-child relationship quality and girls’ (N=1335) and boys’ (N=1203) cigarette and alcohol use across a twelve-month period. Reciprocal effects were found between parent-child relations and on-time maturing boys and girls’ cigarette and alcohol use, after estimating stability in these constructs across time. Parent-child relationship quality was associated with increased alcohol use twelve months later for early maturing girls. Cigarette and alcohol use were associated with increased problems in the parent-child relationship for late maturing girls. No off-time effects were observed for off-time maturing boys in the pathways between parent-child relationship quality and substance use. Pubertal timing moderated the pathway linking parent-child relationship quality with cigarette use one year later such that the association was stronger for late maturing girls compared to early and on-time maturing girls. The findings indicate interplay between the psychosocial aspects of maturation, family relationships and adolescent substance use and highlight possible gender-specific influences. PMID:21170159

  20. Adolescent Attachment Trajectories with Mothers and Fathers: The Importance of Parent-Child Relationship Experiences and Gender

    PubMed Central

    Ruhl, Holly; Dolan, Elaine A.; Buhrmester, Duane

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated how attachment with mothers and fathers changes during adolescence, and how gender and parent-child relationship experiences are associated with attachment trajectories. The relative importance of specific positive and negative relationship experiences on attachment trajectories was also examined. An initial sample of 223 adolescents reported on relationship experiences and attachment avoidance and anxiety with mothers and fathers in grades 6, 8, 10, and 12 (final N=110; Mage=11.90 years at onset, SD=.43). Mothers and fathers reported on relationship experiences with adolescents. Hierarchical linear modeling showed that security with parents increased during adolescence. Positive relationship experiences (companionship, satisfaction, approval, support) predicted increases in security and negative experiences (pressure, criticism) predicted decreases in security. Females reported less avoidance than males. PMID:26347590

  1. Predicting abuse in adolescent dating relationships over 1 year: the role of child maltreatment and trauma.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, David A; Wekerle, Christine; Scott, Katreena; Straatman, Anna-Lee; Grasley, Carolyn

    2004-08-01

    Three mediators of the relationship between childhood maltreatment and dating violence perpetration during midadolescence (i.e., trauma-related symptoms, attitudes justifying dating violence, and empathy and self-efficacy in dating relationships) were tested over 1 year with a sample of students from 10 high schools (N = 1,317). Trauma-related symptoms had a significant cross-time effect on predicting incidents of dating violence for both boys and girls. Attitudes and empathy and self-efficacy did not predict dating violence over time, although they were correlated with such behavior at both time points. Child maltreatment is a distal risk factor for adolescent dating violence, and trauma-related symptoms act as a significant mediator of this relationship. The importance of longitudinal methodology that separates correlates from predictors is discussed. PMID:15311986

  2. Resiliency as a mediator of the impact of sleep on child and adolescent behavior

    PubMed Central

    Chatburn, Alex; Coussens, Scott; Kohler, Mark J

    2014-01-01

    Background Disturbed sleep is detrimental to child behavior; however, the precise means by which this association occurs is unclear. Sleep and resilience can theoretically share an underlying neural mechanism and therefore influence one another. However, the role of resilience in the association between sleep and behavior is not known. The associations between sleep, resilience, and problematic behavior in children and adolescents aged 7–18 years were investigated in this study. Methods A correlational design was used to determine the relationships between total sleep problems, indices of resilience, and internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Results Sleep problems and resiliency variables were strongly correlated, and further, sleep problems were found to be predictive of resiliency scores. Resiliency significantly mediated the relationship between increased sleep problems and both overall internalizing and externalizing behavior problems, and specifically, measures of depression and anxiety. Conclusion Sleep impacted levels of resilience such that greater sleep disturbance reduced resilience and consequently increased problematic behavior, potentially predisposing individuals to psychopathology. PMID:24379734

  3. Child maltreatment, trauma-related psychopathology, and eyewitness memory in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    McWilliams, Kelly; Harris, Latonya S; Goodman, Gail S

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine eyewitness memory in children and adolescents (9- to 15-years-old) with and without known histories of maltreatment (e.g., physical abuse, exposure to domestic violence). In Experiment 1, participants (N = 35) viewed a positive film clip depicting a congenial interaction between family members. In Experiment 2, participants (N = 31) watched a negative film clip in which a family argument was shown. Younger age and higher levels of trauma-related psychopathology significantly predicted commission errors to direct questions when the positive family interaction had been viewed, but not when the negative family interaction had been shown. Maltreatment history was not a significant unique predictor of memory performance for the positive or negative film clip. Implications for a scientific understanding of the effects of child maltreatment on memory are discussed. PMID:25537437

  4. Coping style and memory specificity in adolescents and adults with histories of child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Harris, Latonya S; Block, Stephanie D; Ogle, Christin M; Goodman, Gail S; Augusti, Else-Marie; Larson, Rakel P; Culver, Michelle A; Pineda, Annarheen R; Timmer, Susan G; Urquiza, Anthony

    2016-09-01

    Individuals with histories of childhood trauma may adopt a nonspecific memory retrieval strategy to avoid unpleasant and intrusive memories. In a sample of 93 adolescents and adults with or without histories of child sexual abuse (CSA), we tested the hypothesis that nonspecific memory retrieval is related to an individual's general tendency to use avoidant (i.e., distancing) coping as a personal problem-solving or coping strategy, especially in victims of CSA. We also examined age differences and other individual differences (e.g., trauma-related psychopathology) as predictors of nonspecific memories. Distancing coping was significantly associated with less specific autobiographical memory. Younger age, lower vocabulary scores, and non-CSA childhood maltreatment (i.e., physical and emotional abuse) also uniquely predicted less autobiographical memory specificity, whereas trauma-related psychopathology was associated with more specific memory. Implications for the development of autobiographical memory retrieval in the context of coping with childhood maltreatment are discussed. PMID:26241375

  5. Treated prevalence, incidence, and pharmacotherapy of child and adolescent mood disorders in an HMO.

    PubMed

    DeBar, L L; Clarke, G N; O'Connor, E; Nichols, G A

    2001-06-01

    This study examined the "treated" prevalence, incidence, and pharmacotherapy of child and adolescent mood disorders in a managed care setting. General prevalence patterns across age and sex were similar to those reported in community epidemiology studies, although, not unexpectedly, the overall rates were somewhat lower. Primary care providers identified a substantial proportion of the youth with a mood disorder. Antidepressant medication was used more often by youth identified with a mood disorder in medical care settings than by those youth identified in specialty mental health care settings. These results are valuable in determining if youth with mood disorders receiving medication prescriptions across settings are treated according to current best practice guidelines (such as the adult depression guidelines [U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1993]), that is, primarily with SSRI medications. PMID:12109840

  6. 24- and 36-Week Outcomes for the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS)

    PubMed Central

    Piacentini, John; Bennett, Shannon; Compton, Scott; Kendall, Phillip; Birmaher, Boris; Albano, Anne Marie; March, John; Sherrill, Joel; Sakolsky, Dara; Ginsburg, Golda; Rynn, Moira; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Gosch, Elizabeth; Waslick, Bruce; Iyengar, Satish; McCracken, James; Walkup, John

    2014-01-01

    Objective We report active treatment group differences on response and remission rates and changes in anxiety severity at weeks 24 and 36 for the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS). Method CAMS youth (N=488; 74%≤12 years) with DSM-IV separation, generalized, or social anxiety disorder were randomized to 12 weeks of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), sertraline (SRT), CBT+SRT (COMB), or medication management/pill placebo (PBO). Responders attended 6 monthly booster sessions in their assigned treatment arm; youth in COMB and SRT continued on their medication throughout this period. Efficacy of COMB, SRT, and CBT (N=412) was assessed at 24 and 36 weeks postrandomization. Youth randomized to PBO (n=76) were offered active CAMS treatment if nonresponsive at week 12 or over follow-up and were not included here. Independent evaluators blind to study condition assessed anxiety severity, functioning, and treatment response. Concomitant treatments were allowed but monitored over follow-up. Results Most (>80%) acute responders maintained positive response at both weeks 24 and 36. Consistent with acute outcomes, COMB maintained advantage over CBT and SRT, which did not differ, on dimensional outcomes; the 3 treatments did not differ on most categorical outcomes over follow-up. Compared to COMB and CBT, youth in SRT obtained more concomitant psychosocial treatments, while those in SRT and CBT obtained more concomitant combined (medication plus psychosocial) treatment. Discussion COMB maintained advantage over CBT and SRT on some measures over follow-up, while the 2 monotherapies remained indistinguishable. The observed convergence of COMB and monotherapy may be related to greater use of concomitant treatment during follow-up among youth receiving the monotherapies, although other explanations are possible. While outcomes were variable, most CAMS-treated youth enjoyed sustained treatment benefit. Clinical trial registration information— Child and Adolescent

  7. The Validity of the Multi-Informant Approach to Assessing Child and Adolescent Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Augenstein, Tara M.; Wang, Mo; Thomas, Sarah A.; Drabick, Deborah A.G.; Burgers, Darcy E.; Rabinowitz, Jill

    2015-01-01

    Child and adolescent patients may display mental health concerns within some contexts and not others (e.g., home vs. school). Thus, understanding the specific contexts in which patients display concerns may assist mental health professionals in tailoring treatments to patients' needs. Consequently, clinical assessments often include reports from multiple informants who vary in the contexts in which they observe patients' behavior (e.g., patients, parents, teachers). Previous meta-analyses indicate that informants' reports correlate at low-to-moderate magnitudes. However, is it valid to interpret low correspondence among reports as indicating that patients display concerns in some contexts and not others? We meta-analyzed 341 studies published between 1989 and 2014 that reported cross-informant correspondence estimates, and observed low-to-moderate correspondence (mean internalizing: r = .25; mean externalizing: r = .30; mean overall: r = .28). Informant pair, mental health domain, and measurement method moderated magnitudes of correspondence. These robust findings have informed the development of concepts for interpreting multi-informant assessments, allowing researchers to draw specific predictions about the incremental and construct validity of these assessments. In turn, we critically evaluated research on the incremental and construct validity of the multi-informant approach to clinical child and adolescent assessment. In so doing, we identify crucial gaps in knowledge for future research, and provide recommendations for “best practices” in using and interpreting multi-informant assessments in clinical work and research. This paper has important implications for developing personalized approaches to clinical assessment, with the goal of informing techniques for tailoring treatments to target the specific contexts where patients display concerns. PMID:25915035

  8. Mechanisms of Contextual Risk for Adolescent Self-Injury: Invalidation and Conflict Escalation in Mother-Child Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Crowell, Sheila E.; Baucom, Brian R.; McCauley, Elizabeth; Potapova, Natalia V.; Fitelson, Martha; Barth, Heather; Smith, Cindy J.; Beauchaine, Theodore P.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE According to developmental theories of self-injury, both child characteristics and environmental contexts shape and maintain problematic behaviors. Although progress has been made toward identifying biological vulnerabilities to self-injury, mechanisms underlying psychosocial risk have received less attention. METHOD In the present study, we compared self-injuring adolescents (n=17) with typical controls (n=20) during a mother-child conflict discussion. Dyadic interactions were coded using both global and microanalytic systems, allowing for a highly detailed characterization of mother-child interactions. We also assessed resting state psychophysiological regulation, as indexed by respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). RESULTS Global coding revealed that maternal invalidation was associated with adolescent anger. Furthermore, maternal invalidation and coerciveness were both related to adolescent opposition/defiance. Results from the microanalytic system indicated that self-injuring dyads were more likely to escalate conflict, suggesting a potential mechanism through which emotion dysregulation is shaped and maintained over time. Finally, mother and teen aversiveness interacted to predict adolescent resting RSA. Low-aversive teens with highly aversive mothers had the highest RSA, whereas teens in high-high dyads showed the lowest RSA. CONCLUSIONS These findings are consistent with theories that emotion invalidation and conflict escalation are possible contextual risk factors for self-injury. PMID:23581508

  9. The significance of neighbourhood context to child and adolescent health and well-being: a systematic review of multilevel studies.

    PubMed

    Sellström, Eva; Bremberg, Sven

    2006-01-01

    Growing up in a poor neighbourhood has negative effects on children and adolescents. In the literature it has been concluded that the risk of low birth weight, childhood injury and abuse, and teenage pregnancy or criminality double in poor areas. However, the validity of such studies has been questioned, as they have been associated with ecological or individualistic fallacies. Studies using multilevel technique might thus contribute important knowledge in this field. The present review clarifies the importance of neighbourhood contextual factors in child and adolescent health outcomes, through considering only studies using multilevel technique. Keyword searching of the Medline, ERIC, PsycInfo, Sociological Abstracts, and Social Citation Index databases was performed. Original studies using multilevel technique to examine the effect of neighbourhood characteristics on child and adolescent health outcomes, and focusing on populations in high-income countries were included. Neighbourhood socioeconomic status and social climate were shown to have small to moderate effects on child health outcomes, i.e. birth weight, injuries, behavioural problems, and child maltreatment. On average, 10% of variation in health outcomes was explained by neighbourhood determinants, after controlling for important individual and family variables. This review demonstrates that interventions in underprivileged neighbourhoods can reduce health risks to children, especially in families that lack resources. An analysis of methodological fallacies indicates that observed effects and effect sizes can be underestimated, and that interventions may well have greater impact than this review was able to establish. PMID:16990166

  10. The role of infrastructure in the transformation of child-adolescent mental health systems.

    PubMed

    Stelk, Wayne; Slaton, Elaine

    2010-03-01

    There is a widespread recognition that the mental health system is not effective in meeting the needs of the children, adolescents, and families who seek its services. In response to this recognition, researchers and policy makers are developing and implementing strategies to transform mental health systems. This paper suggests that transformational interventions should not proceed faster than our understanding of the complexities of a mental health system. In a complex system, all component parts are interactive and interdependent. Problems with one component cannot be solved in isolation from other components. The inter-relationships between problems create inter-dependencies; and changes in the balance of these inter-dependencies can cause dramatic shifts in policy priorities, such as when managers of mental health systems respond to budget reductions in a recessionary economy. This paper examines the problem domains in mental health systems that are affected by complexity dynamics, and proposes that a well-built infrastructure is a necessary foundation for structural change in a child-adolescent mental health system. The concept of metastructure is proposed to account for the rule-based processes that govern the actions of agents within a system. PMID:20151194

  11. Focus on Guanfacine Extended-release: A Review of its Use in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Elbe, Dean; Reddy, Dorothy

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To review the basic pharmacology and published literature regarding use of guanfacine extended-release (GXR) for the treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents. Methods: A literature review was conducted using the search terms: ‘guanfacine’, with limits set to: Human trials, English Language, and All Child (Age 0–18). Articles pertaining to guanfacine immediate-release or for indications other than attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were not included for analysis. Additional articles were identified from reference information and poster presentation data. Results: Six prospective, randomized controlled trials (RCT) and four open-label trials (including two long-term safety extension trials) were identified for GXR in the treatment of ADHD. All published RCTs showed superiority over placebo on the primary outcome measure. Subgroup analysis of available RCT data showed no efficacy of GXR at any dose in adolescents. Adverse effects in GXR trials were generally mild to moderate. High rates of early discontinuation were observed in long-term open-label extension trials. Conclusion: GXR is an effective option for treatment of ADHD in patients 6–12 years of age as monotherapy, or as adjunctive treatment to psychostimulants. PMID:24516477

  12. Psychotropic drug prescribing in an Australian specialist child and adolescent eating disorder service: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To describe the rates, indications, and adverse effects of psychotropic drug prescription in a specialist tertiary hospital child and adolescent eating disorder service. Methods Retrospective case note study of all active eating disorder patients (N = 115) over the period of treatment from referral to time of study (M = 2 years), covering patient demographics, clinical characteristics, drug prescriptions, indications, and adverse effects. Results Psychotropic drugs were prescribed in 45% of cases, most commonly antidepressants (41%), followed by anxiolytics (29%) and antipsychotics (22%), with 8% initiated before referral to the specialist eating disorder program. Common indications were depressed mood, agitation, anxiety, and insomnia. Patient clinical severity and complexity was associated with prescribing. Adverse effects, mostly minor, were recorded in 23% of antidepressant prescriptions, 39% of antipsychotic prescriptions, and 13% of anxiolytic prescriptions. Second generation antipsychotic prescription was associated with subsequent new onset binge eating, in this preliminary observational study. Self-harm by overdose of psychotropics occurred in 11% of patients prescribed medication. Conclusions Psychotropic medications were frequently prescribed to adolescent eating disorder patients to treat distressing symptoms. Prospective randomised controlled trials to clarify efficacy and safety are needed. Given the difficulties of conducting clinical trials in this population, services are encouraged to monitor and audit medication safety and efficacy in everyday practice, and to report their findings. PMID:24999406

  13. Denoting treatment outcome in child and adolescent psychiatry: a comparison of continuous and categorical outcomes.

    PubMed

    de Beurs, Edwin; Barendregt, Marko; Rogmans, Bente; Robbers, Sylvana; van Geffen, Marieke; van Aggelen-Gerrits, Marleen; Houben, Huub

    2015-05-01

    Various approaches have been proposed to denote treatment outcome, such as the effect size of the pre-to-posttest change, percentage improvement, statistically reliable change, and clinical significant change. The aim of the study is to compare these approaches and evaluate their aptitude to differentiate among child and adolescent mental healthcare providers regarding their treatment outcome. Comparing outcomes according to continuous and categorical outcome indicators using real-life data of seven mental healthcare providers, three using the Child Behavior Checklist and four using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire as primary outcome measure. Within each dataset consistent differences were found between providers and the various methods led to comparable rankings of providers. Statistical considerations designate continuous outcomes as the optimal choice. Change scores have more statistical power and allow for a ranking of providers at first glance. Expressing providers' performance in proportions of recovered, changed, unchanged, or deteriorated patients has supplementary value, as it denotes outcome in a manner more easily interpreted and appreciated by clinicians, managerial staff, and, last but not least, by patients or their parents. PMID:25183369

  14. Parent-child math anxiety and math-gender stereotypes predict adolescents' math education outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Casad, Bettina J.; Hale, Patricia; Wachs, Faye L.

    2015-01-01

    Two studies examined social determinants of adolescents' math anxiety including parents' own math anxiety and children's endorsement of math-gender stereotypes. In Study 1, parent-child dyads were surveyed and the interaction between parent and child math anxiety was examined, with an eye to same- and other-gender dyads. Results indicate that parent's math anxiety interacts with daughters' and sons' anxiety to predict math self-efficacy, GPA, behavioral intentions, math attitudes, and math devaluing. Parents with lower math anxiety showed a positive relationship to children's math outcomes when children also had lower anxiety. The strongest relationships were found with same-gender dyads, particularly Mother-Daughter dyads. Study 2 showed that endorsement of math-gender stereotypes predicts math anxiety (and not vice versa) for performance beliefs and outcomes (self-efficacy and GPA). Further, math anxiety fully mediated the relationship between gender stereotypes and math self-efficacy for girls and boys, and for boys with GPA. These findings address gaps in the literature on the role of parents' math anxiety in the effects of children's math anxiety and math anxiety as a mechanism affecting performance. Results have implications for interventions on parents' math anxiety and dispelling gender stereotypes in math classrooms. PMID:26579000

  15. Psychometrics of a Self-Report Version of the Child and Adolescent Dispositions Scale

    PubMed Central

    Lahey, Benjamin B.; Rathouz, Paul J.; Applegate, Brooks; Tackett, Jennifer L.; Waldman, Irwin D.

    2010-01-01

    Lahey and Waldman (2003; 2005) proposed a model in which three dispositions—sympathetic response to others; negative emotional response to threat, frustration, and loss; and positive response to novelty and risk—transact with the environment to influence risk for conduct disorder (CD). To test this model, the Child and Adolescent Dispositions Scale (CADS) was developed to measure these dispositions using parent ratings of the child. Here we report psychometric evaluations of a parallel youth self-report version (CADS-Y). Exploratory factor analysis of CADS-Y items among 832 9–17 year olds yielded a 3-factor structure that was consistent with the model and invariant across sex and informants. In 1,582 pairs of 9–17 year old twins, confirmatory factor analyses supported the CADS-Y 3-factormodel. Each CADS-Y dimension was associated with CD as predicted. Correlations between the CADS-Y and the NEO Five-Factor Inventory described relations between the dispositions and an important model of personality. PMID:20419576

  16. Parent-child math anxiety and math-gender stereotypes predict adolescents' math education outcomes.

    PubMed

    Casad, Bettina J; Hale, Patricia; Wachs, Faye L

    2015-01-01

    Two studies examined social determinants of adolescents' math anxiety including parents' own math anxiety and children's endorsement of math-gender stereotypes. In Study 1, parent-child dyads were surveyed and the interaction between parent and child math anxiety was examined, with an eye to same- and other-gender dyads. Results indicate that parent's math anxiety interacts with daughters' and sons' anxiety to predict math self-efficacy, GPA, behavioral intentions, math attitudes, and math devaluing. Parents with lower math anxiety showed a positive relationship to children's math outcomes when children also had lower anxiety. The strongest relationships were found with same-gender dyads, particularly Mother-Daughter dyads. Study 2 showed that endorsement of math-gender stereotypes predicts math anxiety (and not vice versa) for performance beliefs and outcomes (self-efficacy and GPA). Further, math anxiety fully mediated the relationship between gender stereotypes and math self-efficacy for girls and boys, and for boys with GPA. These findings address gaps in the literature on the role of parents' math anxiety in the effects of children's math anxiety and math anxiety as a mechanism affecting performance. Results have implications for interventions on parents' math anxiety and dispelling gender stereotypes in math classrooms. PMID:26579000

  17. Soliciting stakeholders’ views on the organization of child and adolescent mental health services: a system in trouble

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite a high prevalence of mental health problems among children and adolescents Belgium, like many other Western countries, does not have a clear strategy for the organization of child and adolescent mental healthcare services (CAMHS). Methods This paper describes stakeholders’ views on the organization of CAMHS based on a qualitative study. Ten in-depth interviews with high profile stakeholders were complemented by roundtable discussions (n = 30). Results This diagnostic analysis illustrated that the system is in serious trouble characterized by fragmentation and compartmentalization. Conclusion The findings create a sense of urgency that should be used to initiate a system reform of the Belgian CAMHS system. PMID:24359535

  18. Post-Adolescent Issues

    MedlinePlus

    Search COPING & HEALING CARING FOR A CHILD: POST-ADOLESCENT ISSUES As your child reaches adulthood, there will ... intake. New issues that you and your post adolescent child may want to discus together with his/ ...

  19. Intimate partner violence, power, and equity among adolescent parents: relation to child outcomes and parenting.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Crystal; Callands, Tamora A; Magriples, Urania; Divney, Anna; Kershaw, Trace

    2015-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization and perpetration and power imbalances in parenting partners may result in poor outcomes for parents and children. Previous work in this area has focused on the maternal experiences, neglecting to examine paternal effects. The present study aimed to elucidate the role of IPV, power, and equity in parenting and child outcomes in an urban sample of adolescent parents. 159 male and 182 female parents in a relationship were recruited through university-affiliated hospitals. Power, equity, and IPV were measured at 6 months post-partum and were used as predictors for parenting and child outcomes 12 months post-partum using general estimating equations. Gender interactions and mediation effects of depression were also assessed. Higher perceived relationship equity was related to better infant temperament (B = 0.052, SE = 0.023, p = 0.02) whereas higher partner power was related to poorer social development (B = -0.201, SE = 0.088, p = 0.02) and fine motor development (B = -0.195, SE = 0.078, p = 0.01). IPV victimization was associated with poor infant temperament (B = -2.925, SE = 1.083, p = 0.007) and lower parenting competence (B = -3.508, SE = 1.142, p = 0.002). Depression mediated the relationship between IPV and parenting and IPV and infant temperament. No gender effects were found. IPV, inequities, and power imbalances were disadvantageous for parenting and child outcomes. Our results suggest that these dynamics may negatively affect both males and females. Interventions to reduce violence in both partners and promote equity in relationships could benefit couples and their children. PMID:24781878

  20. Perceived parental control processes, parent-child relational qualities, and psychological well-being in chinese adolescents with and without economic disadvantage.

    PubMed

    Shek, Daniel T L

    2005-06-01

    The author assessed the relationships between poverty and perceived parenting style, parent-child relationships, and adolescent psychological well-being in Chinese secondary school students (N = 3,017). Participants completed questionnaires designed to assess (a) the degree to which their parents used monitoring, discipline, and other techniques to control their behavior; (b) the extent to which their parents attempted to control them in a way that undermined their psychological development; (c) the parent-child relational qualities, such as the child's readiness to communicate with the parents and perceived mutual trust; and (d) the child's psychological well-being. Although adolescents with economic disadvantage did not differ from adolescents without economic disadvantage on the maternal variables (except on parental knowledge and parental monitoring), adolescents whose families were receiving public assistance generally perceived paternal behavioral control and father-child relational qualities to be more negative than did adolescents who were not receiving public assistance. The author found psychological well-being (shown by hopelessness, mastery, life satisfaction, self-esteem) of adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage to be weaker than that of adolescents not experiencing economic disadvantage. PMID:15906930

  1. A review of the father-child relationship in the development and maintenance of adolescent anorexia and bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Gale, Christopher J; Cluett, Elizabeth R; Laver-Bradbury, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    There are disproportionately fewer studies examining the role of the father in the development of child and adolescent psychopathology. This is pertinent in the field of eating disorders, where there is a wealth of research related to family influences and the value of family-based interventions. This article reviews the key themes within the literature around the potential impact of the father-child relationship on the development and maintenance of Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa in young people. The critical review searched relevant health and social care databases, as well as manually searching key journals in the eating disorder field. In these results, 13 studies met the inclusion/exclusion criteria and were critiqued, with 8 being taken forward for discussion. The 8 studies identified key themes within the relationship of the father and child (particularly daughters) around conflict and communication, parental protection and psychological control, emotional regulation and self-esteem, and self-perfectionism. All of these factors appear to influence the child's level of self-determining autonomy, which in turn can impact maladaptive eating attitudes and psychopathology. Tentative recommendations are made around working with fathers to encourage free expression of ideas and foster a sense of autonomy through compromise and collaboration with their adolescent child. Further research around these themes in relation to other family members is also suggested. PMID:23597275

  2. Examining the Developmental History of Child Maltreatment, Peer Relations, and Externalizing Problems among Adolescents with Symptoms of Paranoid Personality Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the childhood history of maltreatment, peer relations, and externalizing problems among individuals who manifested low, moderate, or high symptom levels of paranoid personality disorder (PPD) in adolescence. Participants included 174 children who attended a longitudinal summer camp research program between the ages of 9 to 12. Multiple sources of information (self-, peer-, and counselor-reports) were utilized. Subsequently, they participated in a personality disorder assessment during adolescence (Mean age =15.30). The results indicated that children who manifested higher levels of PPD symptoms in adolescence had higher odds of having a history of child maltreatment. Children who manifested high levels of PPD symptoms in adolescence showed a faster growth rate for peer bullying and externalizing problems in childhood. In addition, their peers rated them as less cooperative, less likely to be leaders, and more likely to initiate fights. These finding suggested that children who manifested elevated PPD symptoms in adolescence had shown early signs of behavioral disturbances in childhood, some of which gradually worsened as they approach adolescence. PMID:19825263

  3. The Effect of Parent-Child Function on Physical Activity and Television Viewing among Adolescents with and without Special Healthcare Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McManus, Beth M.; Mandic, Carmen Gomez; Carle, Adam C.; Robert, Stephanie A.

    2012-01-01

    Using the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health, the association between parent-child function and physical activity and television viewing was investigated among a national sample of adolescents in the United States. Parent-child function was measured using the National Survey of Children's Health "Family Function" survey items and…

  4. The "Test-Tube" Generation: Parent-Child Relationships and the Psychological Well-Being of In Vitro Fertilization Children at Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golombok, Susan; MacCallum, Fiona; Goodman, Emma

    2001-01-01

    Compared parent-child relationships and early adolescent well-being in families with children conceived by in vitro fertilization (IVF), adoptive families, and families with a naturally conceived child. Found that IVF children were functioning well and did not differ from other children in social or emotional adjustment. (Author/KB)

  5. Testing the Cycle of Violence Hypothesis: Child Abuse and Adolescent Dating Violence as Predictors of Intimate Partner Violence in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Anu Manchikanti

    2011-01-01

    Child abuse is an important determinant of future violence perpetration and victimization. Past research examining linkages between child abuse and adult intimate partner violence (IPV) has predominantly focused on married individuals and not considered adolescent dating violence. In the present study, data from three waves of the National…

  6. CLINICAL EXPERIENCE OF LONG-TERM TREATMENT WITH ARIPIPRAZOLE (ABILIFY) IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS AT THE CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRIC CLINIC 1 IN ROSKILDE, DENMARK.

    PubMed

    Diomšina, Beata; Rasmussen, Pernille Darling; Danilevičiütė, Vita

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to share the clinical experience of the treatment of aripiprazole (Abilify) in children and adolescents. The authors have done a cross-sectional study about Abilify's treatment in children and adolescents with severe conduct problems (high impulsivity, aggression, outward reaction, physical cross-border behavior), high restlessness with ADHD, psychotic and psychosis-like symptoms with autistic disorders, psychosis, and intensive tics with Tourette's syndrome. The authors studied and described patients at the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinic 1 in Roskilde, Denmark, who were treated with Abilify and were patients of the clinic in June 2013. The target group consisted of 33 patients, aged 9-18 years, which were in Abilify treatment during this time. Indications for the treatment and effectiveness of Abilify, Abilify's common doses used in children and adolescents, and the most common adverse effects of Abilify are presented. Abilify was found to be effective, well tolerated and safe for children and adolescents. The dose depends on the complexity of diagnosis (higher doses used in cases of complex diagnosis), on the age (higher doses used in older children, but only in the case of noncomplex diagnoses). Statistical analysis shows that in cases of complex diagnoses, dosage does not depend on age but depends on other factors. It also shows that the effect of treatment is better for those who did not gain weight. PMID:26642668

  7. Dissemination and Implementation of Evidence-Based Practices for Child and Adolescent Mental Health: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Novins, Douglas K.; Green, Amy E.; Legha, Rupinder K.; Aarons, Gregory A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective While there has been a dramatic increase in the number of evidence-based practices (EBPs) to improve child and adolescent mental health, the poor uptake of these EBPs has led to investigations of factors related to their successful dissemination and implementation. The purpose of this systematic review was to identify key findings from empirical studies examining the dissemination and implementation of EBPs for child and adolescent mental health. Method Out of 14,247 citations initially identified, 73 articles drawn from 44 studies met inclusion criteria. The articles were classified by implementation phase (exploration, preparation, implementation, and sustainment) and specific implementation factors examined. These factors were divided into outer (i.e., system level) and inner (i.e., organizational level) contexts. Results Few studies utilized true experimental designs; most were observational. Of the many inner context factors that were examined in these studies (e.g., provider characteristics, organizational resources, leadership), fidelity monitoring and supervision had the strongest empirical evidence. While the focus of fewer studies, implementation interventions focused on improving organizational climate and culture were associated with better intervention sustainment as well as child and adolescent outcomes. Outer contextual factors such as training and use of specific technologies to support intervention use were also important in facilitating the implementation process. Conclusions The further development and testing of dissemination and implementation strategies is needed in order to more efficiently move EBPs into usual care. PMID:24074468

  8. Gene-Environment Interplay between Parent-Child Relationship Problems and Externalizing Disorders in Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Samek, Diana R.; Hicks, Brian M.; Keyes, Margaret A.; Bailey, Jennifer; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that genetic risk for externalizing (EXT) disorders is greater in the context of adverse family environments during adolescence, but it is unclear whether these effects are long-lasting. The current study evaluated developmental changes in gene-environment interplay in the concurrent and prospective associations between parent-child relationship problems and EXT at ages 18 and 25. Method The sample included 1,382 twin pairs (48% male) from the Minnesota Twin Family Study, participating in assessments at ages 18 (M = 17.8 years, SD = 0.69) and 25 (M = 25.0 years, SD = 0.90). Perceptions of parent-child relationship problems were assessed using questionnaires. Structured interviews were used to assess symptoms of adult antisocial behavior and nicotine, alcohol, and illicit drug dependence. Results We detected a gene-environment interaction at age 18, such that the genetic influence on EXT was greater in the context of more parent-child relationship problems. This moderation effect was not present at age 25, nor did parent-relationship problems at age 18 moderate genetic influence on EXT at age 25. Rather, common genetic influences accounted for this longitudinal association. Conclusions Gene-environment interaction evident in the relationship between adolescent parent-child relationship problems and EXT is both proximal and developmentally limited. Common genetic influence, rather than a gene-environment interaction, accounts for the long-term association between parent-child relationship problems at age 18 and EXT at age 25. These results are consistent with a relatively pervasive importance of gene-environmental correlation in the transition from late adolescence to young adulthood. PMID:25066478

  9. Developmental pathways to adolescent cannabis abuse and dependence: child maltreatment, emerging personality, and internalizing versus externalizing psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Oshri, Assaf; Rogosch, Fred A; Burnette, Mandi L; Cicchetti, Dante

    2011-12-01

    Child maltreatment is strongly associated with adolescent psychopathology and substance abuse and dependence. However, developmental processes unfolding from childhood into adolescence that delineate this trajectory are not well understood. The current study used path analysis in a structural equation modeling framework to examine multiple mediator models, including ego control, ego resiliency, and internalizing and externalizing symptoms to investigate this developmental process. Participants were 415 children, assessed across 3 waves of data, (i.e., at ages 7 to 9, 10 to 12, and 13 to 15). The sample included maltreated (n = 259) and nonmaltreated (n = 156) children; groups were comparable in sociodemographic characteristics. Findings support an transactional-ecological model by revealing a developmental sequence in which severity of early childhood maltreatment potentiates less adaptive childhood personality functioning, followed by externalizing problems in preadolescence, and ultimately adolescent cannabis abuse and dependence symptoms. A developmental pathway from child maltreatment to adolescent cannabis abuse and dependence symptoms via personality and preadolescent internalizing problems was not supported. Understanding developmental pathways by which maltreatment experiences increase risk for substance abuse and dependence symptoms in youth has far-reaching implications for the treatment and prevention of substance use disorders. PMID:21534646

  10. Child and Adolescent Psychiatrists' Reported Monitoring Behaviors for Second-Generation Antipsychotics

    PubMed Central

    Rodday, Angie Mae; Parsons, Susan K.; Mankiw, Catherine; Correll, Christoph U.; Robb, Adelaide S.; Zima, Bonnie T.; Saunders, Tully S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The number of children and adolescents (hereafter referred to as “children”) who have been prescribed second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) has increased over the last decade, but little is known about monitoring practices in pediatric patients who are vulnerable to adverse effects. We examined factors associated with psychiatrists' self-reported monitoring of children who were prescribed SGAs. Methods: A survey was mailed to a national, randomly selected sample of 1600 child and adolescent psychiatrists from the American Medical Association mailing list. Using logistic regression, we tested whether psychiatrist characteristics, attitudes, and practice characteristics were associated with monitoring (baseline and/or periodic) the following: Patient history, height and weight, blood pressure, waist circumference, lipid and glucose levels, and electrocardiogram. Results: Among the analytic sample of 308, at least two thirds reported monitoring patient history, height and weight, blood pressure, and fasting plasma lipids and glucose; 23% reported monitoring waist circumference; and 12% reported conducting an electrocardiogram. More than one third stated that they routinely monitored thyroid levels and more than half reported monitoring complete blood count and electrolytes/blood urea nitrogen. Psychiatrists reporting that they were able to measure vital signs on site were more likely to measure height and weight. Those who reported feeling comfortable conducting a physical examination were more likely to measure blood pressure. Those answering that the risk of metabolic syndrome was low were less likely to measure blood pressure and waist circumference. Being board certified and able to measure vital signs on site were associated with more monitoring of glucose and lipid levels. Conversely, years in practice and feeling that patients were nonadherent with blood work were associated with less monitoring of glucose and lipid levels. Conclusions

  11. Parent-Adolescent Child Concordance in Social Norms related to Gender Equity in Marriage- Findings from Rural India

    PubMed Central

    Raj, Anita; Ghule, Mohan; Battala, Madhusudana; Dasgupta, Anindita; Ritter, Julie; Nair, Saritha; Saggurti, Niranjan; Silverman, Jay; Balaiah, Donta

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to assess parent-adolescent child concordance on social norms related to gender equity in marriage in rural Maharashtra, India. Survey data on marital norms related to girl’s marital age and choice, contraception, and marital violence (MV) were collected from unmarried adolescents (n=113 girls, 116 boys) and their parents (n=227 mothers, 203 fathers). Concordance was assessed using a Cohen’s unweighted Kappa statistic, with analyses stratified by sex of parent and child. Analyses revealed fair (K=.25-.27) mother-daughter concordance on girls’ right to choose when to marry, contraception use, and acceptability of MV. Father-son concordance was seen on girls’ right to choose when (K=.22, slight) and who (K=.20, fair) to marry and MV acceptability (K=.53, moderate). No opposite sex parent-child concordance was revealed. Results indicate same but not opposite sex parent-child concordance on gender equity social norms related to marriage, suggesting same sex transfer of these norms. PMID:25173179

  12. Brief report: parent-adolescent child concordance in social norms related to gender equity in marriage - findings from rural India.

    PubMed

    Raj, Anita; Ghule, Mohan; Battala, Madhusudana; Dasgupta, Anindita; Ritter, Julie; Nair, Saritha; Saggurti, Niranjan; Silverman, Jay G; Balaiah, Donta

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to assess parent-adolescent child concordance on social norms related to gender equity in marriage in rural Maharashtra, India. Survey data on marital norms related to girl's marital age and choice, contraception, and marital violence (MV) were collected from unmarried adolescents (n = 113 girls, 116 boys) and their parents (n = 227 mothers, 203 fathers). Concordance was assessed using a Cohen's unweighted Kappa statistic, with analyses stratified by sex of parent and child. Analyses revealed fair (K = .25-.27) mother-daughter concordance on girls' right to choose when to marry, contraception use, and acceptability of MV. Father-son concordance was seen on girls' right to choose when (K = .22, slight) and who (K = .20, fair) to marry and MV acceptability (K = .53, moderate). No opposite sex parent-child concordance was revealed. Results indicate same but not opposite sex parent-child concordance on gender equity social norms related to marriage, suggesting same sex transfer of these norms. PMID:25173179

  13. The child and adolescent psychiatry trials network (CAPTN): infrastructure development and lessons learned

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Mark; Silva, Susan G; Compton, Scott; Chrisman, Allan; DeVeaugh-Geiss, Joseph; Breland-Noble, Alfiee; Kondo, Douglas; Kirchner, Jerry; March, John S

    2009-01-01

    Background In 2003, the National Institute of Mental Health funded the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Trials Network (CAPTN) under the Advanced Center for Services and Intervention Research (ACSIR) mechanism. At the time, CAPTN was believed to be both a highly innovative undertaking and a highly speculative one. One reviewer even suggested that CAPTN was "unlikely to succeed, but would be a valuable learning experience for the field." Objective To describe valuable lessons learned in building a clinical research network in pediatric psychiatry, including innovations intended to decrease barriers to research participation. Methods The CAPTN Team has completed construction of the CAPTN network infrastructure, conducted a large, multi-center psychometric study of a novel adverse event reporting tool, and initiated a large antidepressant safety registry and linked pharmacogenomic study focused on severe adverse events. Specific challenges overcome included establishing structures for network organization and governance; recruiting over 150 active CAPTN participants and 15 child psychiatry training programs; developing and implementing procedures for site contracts, regulatory compliance, indemnification and malpractice coverage, human subjects protection training and IRB approval; and constructing an innovative electronic casa report form (eCRF) running on a web-based electronic data capture system; and, finally, establishing procedures for audit trail oversight requirements put forward by, among others, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Conclusion Given stable funding for network construction and maintenance, our experience demonstrates that judicious use of web-based technologies for profiling investigators, investigator training, and capturing clinical trials data, when coupled to innovative approaches to network governance, data management and site management, can reduce the costs and burden and improve the feasibility of incorporating clinical research into

  14. Characteristics of Mother-Child Interactions Related to Adolescents' Positive Values and Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine a theoretical model that considered accurate perception and acceptance of maternal values in relation to adolescents' positive values and behaviors. One hundred fifty-one mother-adolescent dyads completed measures targeting adolescent and maternal perceptions of prosocial values and adolescent behaviors (M…

  15. Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS): rationale, design, and methods

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objective To present the design, methods, and rationale of the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS), a recently completed federally-funded, multi-site, randomized placebo-controlled trial that examined the relative efficacy of cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT), sertraline (SRT), and their combination (COMB) against pill placebo (PBO) for the treatment of separation anxiety disorder (SAD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and social phobia (SoP) in children and adolescents. Methods Following a brief review of the acute outcomes of the CAMS trial, as well as the psychosocial and pharmacologic treatment literature for pediatric anxiety disorders, the design and methods of the CAMS trial are described. Results CAMS was a six-year, six-site, randomized controlled trial. Four hundred eighty-eight (N = 488) children and adolescents (ages 7-17 years) with DSM-IV-TR diagnoses of SAD, GAD, or SoP were randomly assigned to one of four treatment conditions: CBT, SRT, COMB, or PBO. Assessments of anxiety symptoms, safety, and functional outcomes, as well as putative mediators and moderators of treatment response were completed in a multi-measure, multi-informant fashion. Manual-based therapies, trained clinicians and independent evaluators were used to ensure treatment and assessment fidelity. A multi-layered administrative structure with representation from all sites facilitated cross-site coordination of the entire trial, study protocols and quality assurance. Conclusions CAMS offers a model for clinical trials methods applicable to psychosocial and psychopharmacological comparative treatment trials by using state-of-the-art methods and rigorous cross-site quality controls. CAMS also provided a large-scale examination of the relative and combined efficacy and safety of the best evidenced-based psychosocial (CBT) and pharmacologic (SSRI) treatments to date for the most commonly occurring pediatric anxiety disorders. Primary and secondary results of CAMS will hold

  16. Parent-child acculturation, parenting, and adolescent depressive symptoms in Chinese immigrant families.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su Yeong; Chen, Qi; Li, Jing; Huang, Xuan; Moon, Ui Jeong

    2009-06-01

    Using a sample of 388 father-adolescent and 399 mother-adolescent dyads in Chinese immigrant families, the current investigation tested Portes and Rumbaut's (1996) assertion that generational dissonance may indicate a family context that places children at increased risk for adverse outcomes. Study findings suggest that a high discrepancy in father-adolescent acculturation levels relates significantly to more adolescent depressive symptoms. The study further demonstrates that the quality of the parenting relationship between fathers and adolescents operates as a mediator between father-adolescent acculturation discrepancy and adolescent depressive symptoms. Specifically, a high level of discrepancy in American orientation between fathers and adolescents is associated with unsupportive parenting practices, which, in turn, are linked to more adolescent depressive symptoms. These relationships are significant even after controlling for the influence of family socioeconomic status and parents' and adolescents' sense of discrimination within the larger society. PMID:19586205

  17. Family Structure, Mother-Child Communication, Father-Child Communication, and Adolescent Life Satisfaction: A Cross-Sectional Multilevel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Kate A.; Currie, Candace

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the association between mother-child and father-child communication and children's life satisfaction, and the moderating effect of communication with stepparents. Design/methodology/approach: Data from the 2006 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children: WHO-collaborative Study in Scotland…

  18. Evidence of a wide spectrum of cardiac involvement due to ACAD9 mutations: Report on nine patients.

    PubMed

    Dewulf, Joseph P; Barrea, Catherine; Vincent, Marie-Françoise; De Laet, Corinne; Van Coster, Rudy; Seneca, Sara; Marie, Sandrine; Nassogne, Marie-Cécile

    2016-07-01

    Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase 9 (ACAD9) is a mitochondrial protein involved in oxidative phosphorylation complex I biogenesis. This protein also exhibits acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACAD) activity. ACAD9-mutated patients have been reported to suffer from primarily heart, muscle, liver, and nervous system disorders. ACAD9 mutation is suspected in cases of elevated lactic acid levels combined with complex I deficiency, and confirmed by ACAD9 gene analysis. At least 18 ACAD9-mutated patients have previously been reported, usually displaying severe cardiac involvement. We retrospectively studied nine additional patients from three unrelated families with a wide spectrum of cardiac involvement between the families as well as the patients from the same families. All patients exhibited elevated lactate levels. Deleterious ACAD9 mutations were identified in all patients except one for whom it was not possible to recover DNA. To our knowledge, this is one of the first reports on isolated mild ventricular hypertrophy due to ACAD9 mutation in a family with moderate symptoms during adolescence. This report also confirms that dilated cardiomyopathy may occur in conjunction with ACAD9 mutation and that some patients may respond clinically to riboflavin treatment. Of note, several patients suffered from patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), with one exhibiting a complex congenital heart defect. It is yet unknown whether these cardiac manifestations were related to ACAD9 mutation. In conclusion, this disorder should be suspected in the presence of lactic acidosis, complex I deficiency, and any cardiac involvement, even mild. PMID:27233227

  19. Opportunities on the Internet for child and adolescent psychopharmacologists: net access and mailing lists.

    PubMed

    Giedd, J N; Allen, A J; Behr, R

    1996-01-01

    The Internet, a system linking computers around the world, provides clinical and research psychopharmacologists with a convenient and efficient way to exchange information and offers a growing number of services to facilitate patient care. These opportunities are not theoretical, not in the future, and not for a select few. Many patients are already benefitting from practitioners who have sought guidance for their clinical work on the Internet. This article describes, for the novice user, how to begin the Internet journey. It also discusses psychopharmacology-related mailing lists, including a site that specializes in child and adolescent psychopharmacology. Subsequent articles will (1) show how to use Medlines to conduct literature searches and retrieve abstracts and articles from the computer screen, (2) describe ways to enter and traverse the World Wide Web (the "multimedia" portion of Internet), and (3) survey the use of "Web browsers" to find specialized psychopharmacology resources and databases, electronic journals, pertinent bulletin boards, and support services for patients and families-all with an emphasis on direct benefits to the practicing psychopharmacologist. PMID:9231307

  20. Optimal care of the infant, child, and adolescent on dialysis: 2014 update.

    PubMed

    Warady, Bradley A; Neu, Alicia M; Schaefer, Franz

    2014-07-01

    Providing optimal care to the infant, child, and adolescent patient who is treated with long-term dialysis therapy mandates that attention be directed to a variety of clinical issues in addition to those related to solute removal and fluid management. Therapeutic plans must be formulated by a multidisciplinary team of pediatric specialists to address the clinical parameters of growth, anemia and osteodystrophy management, cardiovascular health, nutritional adequacy, education, cognitive development, quality of life, preparation for transplantation, and transition to adult care. This review highlights key components of current management recommendations based on a combination of published guidelines, pediatric registry data, and the combined clinical experience of the authors. Whereas some components of this review reflect a modification of the content and recommendations contained in the original publication from more than a decade ago, the contrast emphasizes the advances in understanding and therapeutics of many aspects of pediatric dialysis care that have taken place in the interim. In turn, the content of this article should provide the reader with valuable guidance toward the goal of providing optimal care to patients receiving dialysis. PMID:24717681

  1. Reciprocal longitudinal associations between substance use and child-to-parent violence in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Calvete, Esther; Orue, Izaskun; Gámez-Guadix, Manuel

    2015-10-01

    Child-to-parent violence (CPV) is a type of violence that has received little attention despite its increasing rates in Western countries. Several models state that substance abuse constitutes a risk factor for aggressive behavior and that relationships among these variables can be reciprocal. In this study, the temporal relationships among substance use and physical and psychological CPV were examined. A sample of 981 adolescents (mean age = 15.22 years, SD = 1.2 years) completed measures of substance use and CPV at three time points (T1, T2, and T3) spaced 6 months apart. The results indicated that T1 levels of substance use predicted an increase in psychological CPV at T2 and that T2 levels of substance use predicted an increase in physical CPV at T3. Additionally, several mediational mechanisms emerged between substance use at T1 and CPV at T3. Neither physical nor psychological CPV predicted an increase in substance use at any time. Multiple comparisons indicated that the predictive association between substance use and physical aggression against parents was significant only in boys. These findings suggest that preventive programs for CPV should include specific components for reducing substance use. PMID:26275744

  2. Association of child maltreatment and psychiatric diagnosis in Brazilian children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Scomparini, Luciana Burim; dos Santos, Bernardo; Rosenheck, Robert Alan; Scivoletto, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between different types of child maltreatment and the presence of psychiatric disorders in highly vulnerable children and adolescents served by a multidisciplinary program. METHODS: In total, 351 patients with a mean age of 12.47, of whom 68.7% were male and 82.1% lived in shelters, underwent psychiatric evaluations based on the Kiddie-Sads-Present and Lifetime Version. Two different methods were used to evaluate maltreatment: medical records were reviewed to identify previous diagnoses related to socioeconomic and psychosocial circumstances, and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire was used to obtain a structured history of trauma. Bivariate associations were evaluated between psychiatric disorders and evidence of each type and the frequency of abuse. RESULTS: The most frequent psychiatric diagnoses were substance use disorders, affective disorders and specific disorders of early childhood, whereas 13.67% of the sample had no psychiatric diagnosis. All patients suffered neglect, and 58.4% experienced physical or sexual abuse. The presence of a history of multiple traumas was only associated with a diagnosis of substance use disorder. Mental retardation showed a strong positive association with reported physical abuse and emotional neglect. However, a negative correlation was found when we analyzed the presence of a history of multiple traumas and mental retardation. CONCLUSION: All children living in adverse conditions deserve careful assistance, but we found that physical abuse and emotional neglect were most strongly associated with mental retardation and multiple traumas with substance abuse. PMID:24037004

  3. Mediators of Change in the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Treatment Study

    PubMed Central

    Kendall, Philip C.; Cummings, Colleen M.; Villabø, Marianne A.; Narayanan, Martina K.; Treadwell, Kimberli; Birmaher, Boris; Compton, Scott; Piacentini, John; Sherrill, Joel; Walkup, John; Gosch, Elizabeth; Keeton, Courtney; Ginsburg, Golda; Suveg, Cindy; Albano, Anne Marie

    2015-01-01

    Objective Test changes in (a) coping efficacy and (b) anxious self-talk as potential mediators of treatment gains at 3-month follow-up in the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Treatment Study (CAMS). Method Participants were 488 youth (ages 7-17; 50.4% male) randomized to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT; Coping cat program), pharmacotherapy (sertraline), their combination, or pill placebo. Participants met DSM-IV criteria for generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, and/or separation anxiety disorder. Coping efficacy (reported ability to manage anxiety provoking situations) was measured by youth and parent reports on the Coping Questionnaire, and anxious self-talk was measured by youth report on the Negative Affectivity Self-Statement Questionnaire. Outcome was measured using the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale (completed by Independent Evaluators blind to condition). For temporal precedence, residualized treatment gains were assessed at 3-month follow-up. Results Residualized gains in coping efficacy mediated gains in the CBT, sertraline, and combination conditions. In the combination condition, some unique effect of treatment remained. Treatment assignment was not associated with a reduction in anxious self-talk, nor did anxious self-talk predict changes in anxiety symptoms. Conclusions The findings suggest that improvements in coping efficacy are a mediator of treatment gains. Anxious self-talk did not emerge as a mediator. PMID:26460572

  4. Connecting science and practice in child and adolescent mental health services research.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David A; Pringle, Beverly; Juliano-Bult, Denise

    2012-07-01

    Collaboration between researchers and stakeholder groups is a potentially powerful mechanism for strengthening the quality of mental health research and for amplifying its public health impact. For stakeholders, collaboration offers opportunities to help shape research questions; participate in data collection and interpretation; and improve local capacity to access and use research findings. For researchers, collaboration can build understanding of what stakeholders want and need from research; enhance capacity to frame research questions and findings in language and metrics of value to stakeholders; and provide opportunities to contribute science-backed knowledge to decision-making processes in real world settings. Key stakeholder groups can include the recipients and providers of care, public and private care systems, health plans, schools, family service and faith-based organizations, correctional systems, and employers providing mental health benefits. This commentary reflects on the path that NIMH has taken in fostering researcher-stakeholder collaboration, particularly regarding child and adolescent mental health research. It describes the goals that NIMH set out to achieve, steps taken to realize those goals, lessons learned from those efforts, and possible next steps. PMID:22271355

  5. Marital Problems, Maternal Gatekeeping Attitudes, and Father-Child Relationships in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Matthew M.; Fabricius, William V.; Cookston, Jeffrey T.; Parke, Ross D.; Coltrane, Scott; Braver, Sanford L.; Saenz, Delia S.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated maternal gatekeeping attitudes as a mediator of the relation between marital problems and father-child relationships in three waves when children were in 7th through 10th grade. We assessed each parent’s contribution to the marital problems experienced by the couple. Findings from mediational and cross-lagged structural equation models revealed that increased marital problem behaviors on the part of mothers at wave 1 predicted increased maternal gatekeeping attitudes at wave 2 which in turn predicted decreased amounts of father-adolescent interaction at wave 3. Decreased amounts of interaction with either parent were associated within each wave with adolescents’ perceptions that they mattered less to that parent. Amount of interaction with fathers at wave 2 positively predicted changes in boys’ perceptions of how much they mattered to their fathers at wave 3, and amount of interaction with mothers at wave 2 positively predicted changes in girls’ perceptions of how much they mattered to their mothers at wave 3. The findings did not differ for European-American versus Mexican-American families, or for biological fathers versus step-fathers. PMID:24364832

  6. The effect of long-term relocation on child and adolescent survivors of Hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed

    Hansel, Tonya C; Osofsky, Joy D; Osofsky, Howard J; Friedrich, Patricia

    2013-10-01

    The current study is designed to increase knowledge of the effects of relocation and its association with longer-term psychological symptoms following disaster. Following clinical observations and in discussions held with school officials expressing concerns about relocated students, it was hypothesized that students who relocated to a different city following Hurricane Katrina in 2005 would have more symptoms of posttraumatic stress compared to students who returned to New Orleans. The effect of Hurricane Katrina relocation was assessed on a sample of child and adolescent survivors in 5th through 12th grades (N = 795). Students with Orleans Parish zip codes prior to Hurricane Katrina were categorized into relocation groupings: (a) relocated to Baton Rouge, (b) returned to prior zip code, and (c) moved to a different zip code within Orleans Parish. Overall results revealed more trauma symptoms for relocated students. Results also revealed that younger relocated students had fewer symptoms compared to older students. The opposite was found for students who returned to their same zip code, with older students having fewer symptoms. This study supports the need for school-based services not only in disaster areas, but also in schools where survivors tend to migrate. PMID:24115291

  7. When is Sessional Monitoring More Likely in Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services?

    PubMed

    Edbrooke-Childs, J H; Gondek, D; Deighton, J; Fonagy, P; Wolpert, M

    2016-05-01

    Sessional monitoring of patient progress or experience of therapy is an evidence-based intervention recommended by healthcare systems internationally. It is being rolled out across child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) in England to inform clinical practice and service evaluation. We explored whether patient demographic and case characteristics were associated with the likelihood of using sessional monitoring. Multilevel regressions were conducted on N = 2609 youths from a routinely collected dataset from 10 CAMHS. Girls (odds ratio, OR 1.26), older youths (OR 1.10), White youths (OR 1.35), and youths presenting with mood (OR 1.46) or anxiety problems (OR 1.59) were more likely to have sessional monitoring. In contrast, youths under state care (OR 0.20) or in need of social service input (OR 0.39) were less likely to have sessional monitoring. Findings of the present research may suggest that sessional monitoring is more likely with common problems such as mood and anxiety problems but less likely with more complex cases, such as those involving youths under state care or those in need of social service input. PMID:26894889

  8. Impact of hospital delivery on child mortality: An analysis of adolescent mothers in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Pal, Sarmistha

    2015-10-01

    New medical inventions for saving young lives are not enough if these do not reach the children and the mother. The present paper provides new evidence that institutional delivery can significantly lower child mortality risks, because it ensures effective and timely access to modern diagnostics and medical treatments to save lives. We exploit the exogenous variation in community's access to local health facilities (both traditional and modern) before and after the completion of the 'Women's Health Project' in 2005 (that enhanced emergency obstetric care in women friendly environment) to identify the causal effect of hospital delivery on various mortality rates among children. Our best estimates come from the parents fixed effects models that help limiting any parents-level omitted variable estimation bias. Using 2007 Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey data from about 6000 children born during 2002-2007, we show that, ceteris paribus, access to family welfare clinic particularly boosted hospital delivery likelihood, which in turn lowered neo-natal, early and infant mortality rates. The beneficial effect was particularly pronouncedamong adolescent mothers after the completion of Women's Health Project in 2005; infant mortality for this cohort was more than halved when delivery took place in a health facility. PMID:26363451

  9. Childhood Anxiety Trajectories and Adolescent Disordered Eating: Findings from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development

    PubMed Central

    Zerwas, Stephanie; Von Holle, Ann; Watson, Hunna; Gottfredson, Nisha; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The goal of the present paper was to examine whether childhood anxiety trajectories predict eating psychopathology. We predicted that girls with trajectories of increasing anxiety across childhood would have significantly greater risk of disordered eating in adolescence in comparison to girls with stable or decreasing trajectories of anxiety over childhood. Method Data were collected as part of the prospective longitudinal NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N=450 girls). Childhood anxiety was assessed yearly (54 months through 6th grade) via maternal report on the Child Behavior Checklist. Disordered eating behaviors were assessed at age 15 via adolescent self-report on the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26). We conducted latent growth mixture modeling to define girls’ childhood anxiety trajectories. Maternal sensitivity, maternal postpartum depression, maternal anxiety, and child temperament were included as predictors of trajectory membership. Results The best fitting model included three trajectories of childhood anxiety, the low-decreasing class (22.9% of girls), the high-increasing class (35.4%), and the high-decreasing class (41.6%). Mothers with more symptoms of depression and separation anxiety had girls who were significantly more likely to belong to the high-increasing anxiety trajectory. There were no significant differences in adolescent disordered eating for girls across the three childhood anxiety trajectories. Conclusions Childhood anxiety, as captured by maternal report, may not be the most robust predictor of adolescent disordered eating and may be of limited utility for prevention programs that aim to identify children in the community at greatest risk for disordered eating. PMID:24938214

  10. Parent–Child Acculturation, Parenting, and Adolescent Depressive Symptoms in Chinese Immigrant Families

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su Yeong; Chen, Qi; Li, Jing; Huang, Xuan; Moon, Ui Jeong

    2009-01-01

    Using a sample of 388 father–adolescent and 399 mother–adolescent dyads in Chinese immigrant families, the current investigation tested Portes and Rumbaut's (1996) assertion that generational dissonance may indicate a family context that places children at increased risk for adverse outcomes. Study findings suggest that a high discrepancy in father–adolescent acculturation levels relates significantly to more adolescent depressive symptoms. The study further demonstrates that the quality of the parenting relationship between fathers and adolescents operates as a mediator between father–adolescent acculturation discrepancy and adolescent depressive symptoms. Specifically, a high level of discrepancy in American orientation between fathers and adolescents is associated with unsupportive parenting practices, which, in turn, are linked to more adolescent depressive symptoms. These relationships are significant even after controlling for the influence of family socioeconomic status and parents’ and adolescents’ sense of discrimination within the larger society. PMID:19586205

  11. Transactional effects among maternal depression, neighborhood deprivation, and child conduct problems from early childhood through adolescence: A tale of two low-income samples.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Daniel S; Sitnick, Stephanie L; Reuben, Julia; Dishion, Thomas J; Wilson, Melvin N

    2016-08-01

    The current study sought to advance our understanding of transactional processes among maternal depression, neighborhood deprivation, and child conduct problems (CP) using two samples of low-income families assessed repeatedly from early childhood to early adolescence. After accounting for initial levels of negative parenting, independent and reciprocal effects between maternal depressive symptoms and child CP were evident across both samples, beginning in early childhood and continuing through middle childhood and adolescence. In addition, neighborhood effects were consistently found in both samples after children reached age 5, with earlier neighborhood effects on child CP and maternal depression found in the one exclusively urban sample of families with male children. The results confirm prior research on the independent contribution of maternal depression and child CP to the maintenance of both problem behaviors. The findings also have implications for designing preventative and clinical interventions to address child CP for families living in high-risk neighborhoods. PMID:27427808

  12. Child and adolescent mental health problems in Tyva Republic, Russia, as possible risk factors for a high suicide rate.

    PubMed

    Slobodskaya, Helena R; Semenova, Nadezhda B

    2016-04-01

    High rates of child mental health problems in the Russian Federation have recently been documented; the rates of youth suicide are among the highest in the world. Across the Russian regions, Republic of Tyva has one of the highest rates of child and adolescent suicide and the lowest life expectancy at birth. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and associations of mental health problems in Native Tyvinian children and adolescents using internationally recognised measures and diagnoses. A two-stage, two-phase design involved selection of schools in five rural settlements in Western Tyva and two schools in the capital city followed by selection of Native Tyvinian children in grades 3-4 (ages 9-10) and 6-7 (ages 14-15). In the first phase, a screening measure of psychopathology, the Rutter Teacher Questionnaire, was obtained on 1048 children with a 97 % participation rate. In the second phase, more detailed psychiatric assessments were carried out for subgroups of screen-positive and screen-negative children. The prevalence of mental health problems was about 25 %, ranging from 40 % in adolescent boys from rural areas to 9 % in adolescent girls from the city. The patterning of disorders and risk factors were similar to those in other countries, rural areas were associated with an increased risk of psychopathology. The findings indicate that there is an urgent need for interventions to reduce risk in this population and provide effective help for Tyvinian children and adolescents with mental health problems. PMID:26162484

  13. Domestic violence and immigration status among Latina mothers in the child welfare system: findings from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being II (NSCAW II).

    PubMed

    Ogbonnaya, Ijeoma Nwabuzor; Finno-Velasquez, Megan; Kohl, Patricia L

    2015-01-01

    Many children involved with the child welfare system witness parental domestic violence. The association between children's domestic violence exposure and child welfare involvement may be influenced by certain socio-cultural factors; however, minimal research has examined this relationship. The current study compares domestic violence experiences and case outcomes among Latinas who are legal immigrants (n=39), unauthorized immigrants (n=77), naturalized citizens (n=30), and US-born citizen mothers (n=383) reported for child maltreatment. This analysis used data from the second round of the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being. Mothers were asked about whether they experienced domestic violence during the past year. In addition, data were collected to assess if (a) domestic violence was the primary abuse type reported and, if so, (b) the maltreatment allegation was substantiated. Results show that naturalized citizens, legal residents, and unauthorized immigrants did not differ from US-born citizens in self-reports of domestic violence; approximately 33% of mothers reported experiences of domestic violence within the past year. Yet, unauthorized immigrants were 3.76 times more likely than US-born citizens to have cases with allegations of domestic violence as the primary abuse type. Despite higher rates of alleged domestic violence, unauthorized citizens were not more likely than US-born citizens to have these cases substantiated for domestic violence (F(2.26, 153.99)=0.709, p=.510). Findings highlight that domestic violence is not accurately accounted for in families with unauthorized immigrant mothers. We recommend child welfare workers are trained to properly assess and fulfill the needs of immigrant families, particularly as it relates to domestic violence. PMID:25459990

  14. Maternal Thyroid Dysfunction During Pregnancy and Thyroid Function of Her Child in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Päkkilä, Fanni; Männistö, Tuija; Surcel, Heljä-Marja; Ruokonen, Aimo; Bloigu, Aini; Pouta, Anneli; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Vääräsmäki, Marja; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta

    2013-01-01

    Context: Normal maternal thyroid function is important for fetal development. No knowledge exists on how maternal thyroid function and thyroid antibodies during early pregnancy affect thyroid function of the offspring. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between maternal and adolescent thyroid function parameters. Design, Setting, and Participants: A total of 3673 mother-child pairs from the prospective, population-based Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 participated in the study. Maternal serum samples were drawn in early pregnancy (<20th gestational week), and children's samples were drawn at the age of 16 years and analyzed for TSH, free T4 (fT4), and thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Abs). Main Outcome Measures: TSH, fT4, and TPO-Ab concentrations were measured at the age of 16 years. Children of mothers with thyroid dysfunction (hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, or hypothyroxinemia) or TPO-Ab positivity were compared to those of euthyroid or TPO-Ab-negative mothers. The distributions are expressed as medians with 5th to 95th percentiles. Results: Boys of hypothyroid mothers had higher TSH concentrations than those of euthyroid mothers: 2.0 (0.9–4.0) vs 1.7 (0.8–3.3) mU/L; P = .001. Children of hyperthyroid mothers had lower TSH concentrations than those of euthyroid mothers: 1.3 (0.6–4.2) vs 1.7 (0.8–3.3) mU/L, P = .013, for boys; and 1.3 (0.5–3.5) vs 1.6 (0.7–3.4) mU/L, P = .034, for girls. There were no differences in TSH or fT4 concentrations between children of hypothyroxinemic and euthyroid mothers. TPO-Ab-positive mothers more often had TPO-Ab-positive children (prevalence, 9.0 vs 3.7% among boys, and 22.7 vs 7.5% among girls). Conclusions: Maternal thyroid dysfunction and TPO-Ab positivity during pregnancy seem to modify thyroid function parameters of offspring even in adolescence. Whether this increases the thyroid disease risk of the children is still unknown. PMID:23408571

  15. Adolescent Thinking: Self-Concept, Relationships and Punk. Unit for Child Studies. Selected Papers Number 28.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Shelley

    Beginning with the principle that self-concept and self-esteem are learned, this paper describes the adolescent self and its social concomitants. The depiction of adolescence emphasizes adolescents' ability to think abstractly and their knowledge of the mind's ability to process, direct, and manipulate experience. In contrast with the "radical…

  16. Is Parenting Child's Play? Kids Count in Missouri Report on Adolescent Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citizens for Missouri's Children, St. Louis.

    This Kids Count report presents current information on adolescent pregnancy rates in Missouri. Part 1, "Overview of Adolescent Pregnancy in Missouri," discusses the changing pregnancy, abortion, and birth rates for 15- to 19-year-old adolescents, racial differences in pregnancy risk, regional differences suggesting a link between pregnancy and…

  17. Engagement in Risky Sexual Behavior: Adolescents' Perceptions of Self and the Parent-Child Relationship Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerpelman, Jennifer L.; McElwain, Alyssa D.; Pittman, Joe F.; Adler-Baeder, Francesca M.

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined associations among parenting practices, adolescents' self-esteem and dating identity exploration, and adolescents' sexual behaviors. Participants were 680 African American and European American sexually experienced adolescents attending public high schools in the southeast. Results indicated that risky sexual behavior…

  18. The Relation Between Child Maltreatment and Adolescent Suicidal Behavior: A Systematic Review and Critical Examination of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Weismoore, Julie T.; Renshaw, Keith D.

    2013-01-01

    A large body of research suggests that child maltreatment (CM) is associated with adolescent suicidal ideation and attempts. These studies, however, have not been critically examined and summarized in a manner that allows us to draw firm conclusions and make recommendations for future research and clinical work in this area. In this review, we evaluated all of the research literature to date examining the relationship between CM and adolescent suicidal ideation and attempts. Results generally suggest that childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect are associated with adolescent suicidal ideation and attempts across community, clinical, and high-risk samples, using cross-sectional and longitudinal research designs. In most studies, these associations remain significant when controlling for covariates such as youth demographics, mental health, family, and peer-related variables. When different forms of CM are examined in the same multivariate analysis, most research suggests that each form of CM maintains an independent association with adolescent suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. However, a subset of studies yielded evidence to suggest that sexual abuse and emotional abuse may be relatively more important in explaining suicidal behavior than physical abuse or neglect. Research also suggests an additive effect—each form of CM contributes unique variance to adolescent suicide attempts. We discuss the current limitations of this literature and offer recommendations for future research. We conclude with an overview of the clinical implications of this research, including careful, detailed screening of CM history, past suicidal behavior, and current suicidal ideation, as well as the need for integrated treatment approaches that effectively address both CM and adolescent suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. PMID:23568617

  19. Informal Child Care and Adolescent Psychological Well-Being: Hong Kong’s “Children of 1997” Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Cherry Y.; Leung, Gabriel M.; Schooling, C. Mary

    2015-01-01

    Background Informal child care (child care by untrained family members, relatives or employees in the home) in Western populations is often associated with poorer psychological well-being, which may be confounded by socioeconomic position. We examined the association of informal child care, common in non-Western settings, with adolescent psychological well-being, using Hong Kong’s Chinese “Children of 1997” birth cohort. Methods Multivariable linear regression was used to examine the adjusted associations of informal child care (at 0.5, 3, 5 and 11 years) with parent-reported Rutter score for child behavior at 11 years, self-reported Culture-Free Self-Esteem Inventories score at 11 years and self-reported Patient Health Questionnaire-9 depressive symptom score at 13 years. Model comparisons were used to identify the best representation of child care, in terms of a critical period of exposure to informal child care (independent variable) at a specific age, combination of exposures to informal child care at several ages or an accumulation of exposures to informal child care. Results Child care was not associated with behavioral problems. A model considering child care at 3 years best represented the association of child care with self-esteem while a model considering child care at 5 years best represented the association of child care with depressive symptoms. Informal child care at 3 years was associated with lower self-esteem (-0.70, 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.26 to -0.14). Informal child care at 5 years was associated with more depressive symptoms (0.45, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.73). Conclusion In a developed non-Western setting, informal child care was associated with lower self-esteem and more depressive symptoms. PMID:25781484

  20. Child Sexual Abuse and Its Relationship With Health Risk Behaviors Among Adolescents and Young Adults in Taipei.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qianqian; Gao, Ersheng; Cheng, Yan; Chuang, Yi-Li; Zabin, Laurie S; Emerson, Mark R; Lou, Chaohua

    2015-09-01

    This study explores the association of child sexual abuse (CSA) with subsequent health risk behaviors among a cross-section of 4354 adolescents and young adults surveyed in urban and rural Taipei. Descriptive analysis and logistic regressions were employed. The overall proportion of CSA was 5.15%, with more females (6.14%) than males (4.16%) likely to experience CSA. CSA was differently associated with multiple adverse health outcomes, after adjusting other factors, such as age, residence, economic status, education, employment status, and household instability. Both males and females with CSA experience were more likely to report drinking, gambling, and suicidal ideation compared with those who had no history of CSA. However, the significant association between CSA and smoking, fighting, and suicidal attempt was not observed among females. Effective interventions are needed to reduce CSA and its adverse effects on adolescent well-being. PMID:25720535

  1. Treatment of Child/Adolescent Obesity Using the Addiction Model: A Smartphone App Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Stock, Carol M.; Allison, Stephen; Roeger, Leigh

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: The aim of this study was to test a weight loss program for young people based on an addiction treatment approach. Methods: A pilot study (n=43) was conducted of a 20-week child/adolescent obesity intervention based on an addiction treatment model (staged, incremental withdrawal from problem foods, snacking/grazing, and excessive amounts at meals) and implemented by a server-integrated smartphone app with health professional support. The primary outcome was standardized %overBMI measured at four time points. Secondary outcomes were participants' self-ratings of self-esteem, control over food, and the degree they turned to food when stressed. User satisfaction data were collected with an online questionnaire. Latent growth modeling techniques were used to identify independent variables and possible mediating treatment process variables associated with weight change. Results: Mean age of participants was 16 years (range, 10–21), 65% girls, and 84% Caucasian. Twenty-seven (63%) completed the program. There was a significant decrease in %overBMI over time of 7.1. There were significant improvements in participant ratings of self-esteem, control over food, and a reduction in turning to food when stressed. Males, younger participants, and participants with higher levels of program compliance achieved better weight loss. Participants who reported that calling obesity an addiction made their guilt worse experienced poorer weight loss. Females were more likely than males to report “addiction guilt,” and this partly mediated the overall gender effect. Conclusions: The staged, incremental food withdrawal approach was feasible to implement and was useful in helping reduce excessive weight, particularly among boys. PMID:25760813

  2. Comparing Parent-Child and Teacher-Child Relationships in Early Adolescence: Measurement Invariance of Perceived Attachment-Related Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Laet, Steven; Colpin, Hilde; Goossens, Luc; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Verschueren, Karine

    2014-01-01

    Through an examination of measurement invariance, this study investigated whether attachment-related dimensions (i.e., secure base, safe haven, and negative interactions as measured with the Network of Relationships Inventory-Behavioral Systems Version) have the same psychological meaning for early adolescents in their relationships with parents…

  3. The role of the mother-child relationship for anxiety disorders and depression: results from a prospective-longitudinal study in adolescents and their mothers.

    PubMed

    Asselmann, Eva; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Lieb, Roselind; Beesdo-Baum, Katja

    2015-04-01

    This study aims to examine whether (a) low child valence (emotional connectedness) within the mother-child relationship increases the risk for offspring depression, (b) low child potency (individual autonomy) increases the risk for offspring anxiety, and (c) maternal psychopathology pronounces these associations. We used data from a prospective-longitudinal study of adolescents (aged 14-17 at baseline) and their mothers (N = 1,015 mother-child dyads). Anxiety disorders and depression were assessed repeatedly over 10 years in adolescents (T0, T1, T2, T3) and their mothers (T1, T3) using the DSM-IV/M-CIDI. Valence and potency were assessed in mothers (T1) with the Subjective Family Image Questionnaire. Odds ratios (OR) from logistic regression were used to estimate associations between low child valence/potency and offspring psychopathology (cumulated lifetime incidences; adjusted for sex and age). In separate models (low valence or low potency as predictor), low child valence predicted offspring depression only (OR = 1.26 per SD), while low child potency predicted offspring anxiety (OR = 1.24) and depression (OR = 1.24). In multiple models (low valence and low potency as predictors), low child valence predicted offspring depression only (OR = 1.19), while low child potency predicted offspring anxiety only (OR = 1.22). Low child potency interacted with maternal anxiety on predicting offspring depression (OR = 1.49), i.e. low child potency predicted offspring depression only in the presence of maternal anxiety (OR = 1.33). These findings suggest that low child valence increases the risk for offspring depression, while low child potency increases the risk for offspring anxiety and depression and interacts with maternal psychopathology on predicting offspring depression. PMID:25201054

  4. Does Interpersonal Psychotherapy improve clinical care for adolescents with depression attending a rural child and adolescent mental health service? Study protocol for a cluster randomised feasibility trial

    PubMed Central

    Bearsley-Smith, Cate; Browne, Mark Oakley; Sellick, Ken; Villanueva, Elmer V; Chesters, Janice; Francis, Karen; Reddy, Prasuna

    2007-01-01

    Background Depression amongst adolescents is a costly societal problem. Little research documents the effectiveness of public mental health services in mapping this problem. Further, it is not clear whether usual care in such services can be improved via clinician training in a relevant evidence based intervention. One such intervention, found to be effective and easily learned amongst novice clinicians, is Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT). The study described in the current paper has two main objectives. First, it aims to investigate the impact on clinical care of implementing Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Adolescents for the treatment of adolescent depression within a rural mental health service compared with Treatment as Usual (TAU). The second objective is to record the process and challenges (i.e. feasibility, acceptability, sustainability) associated with implementing and evaluating an evidence-based intervention within a community service. This paper outlines the study rationale and design for this community based research trial. Methods/design The study involves a cluster randomisation trial to be conducted within a Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service in rural Australia. All clinicians in the service will be invited to participate. Participating clinicians will be randomised via block design at each of four sites to (a) training and delivery of IPT, or (b) TAU. The primary measure of impact on care will be a clinically significant change in depressive symptomatology, with secondary outcomes involving treatment satisfaction and changes in other symptomatology. Participating adolescents with significant depressive symptomatology, aged 12 to 18 years, will complete assessment measures at Weeks 0, 12 and 24 of treatment. They will also complete a depression inventory once a month during that period. This study aims to recruit 60 adolescent participants and their parent/guardian/s. A power analysis is not indicated as an intra-class correlation

  5. "Why are you here?" Seeking children's accounts of their presentation to Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service (CAMHS).

    PubMed

    Stafford, Victoria; Hutchby, Ian; Karim, Khalid; O'Reilly, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    The area of child mental health has a developing evidence base, with much of this focused on outcomes and a growing recognition for the value of process research. Despite this growth, however, there has still been little work conducted on first assessments in spite of their importance in establishing therapeutic rapport and engagement with services. We explore naturally occurring first assessments in a Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service (CAMHS) to explore the beliefs that children hold regarding their reasons for attendance and the implications this has for the trajectory of the appointment and later engagement with interventions. It was found that when children were asked for their reasons they either offered explanations using diagnostic labels or used lay descriptions, or they claimed to not know the reasons for attending the assessment. This has broader implications regarding the nature and type of information children may require in preparing them for service visits. PMID:25062687

  6. Explicating how parent-child communication increases Latino and European American early adolescents' intentions to intervene in a friend's substance Use.

    PubMed

    Kam, Jennifer A; Yang, Sijia

    2014-08-01

    This study used primary socialization theory and a focus theory of normative conduct to examine whether anti-substance-use norms mediated targeted parent-child communication against substance (alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana) use's effects on Latino and European American early adolescents' intentions to intervene in a friend's substance use. Further, this study investigated whether familism interacted with targeted parent-child communication to predict anti-substance-use norms, and whether this mediated moderation model functioned differently for Latino and European American early adolescents. Self-reported longitudinal survey data were collected from 6th-8th grade students (N = 627), attending rural IL public schools. Multigroup mediated moderation analyses revealed that as Latino and European American early adolescents engaged in targeted mother-child communication against substance use, they were more likely to develop anti-substance-use parent injunctive norms, and in turn, more likely to report anti-substance-use personal norms. Thus, they were more likely to report that if their friend used substances, they would talk to their friend, seek help from others, and end the friendship. They were, however, less likely to ignore the friend's substance use. Familism was not a significant moderator, and the hypothesized effects did not differ for Latino and European American early adolescents. The results suggest that parents of Latino and European American adolescents may discourage substance use by engaging in targeted parent-child communication, which may indirectly benefit their children's friends, as well. PMID:23689843

  7. [Gender identity disorder and related sexual behavior problems in children and adolescents: from the perspective of development and child psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    The present paper reviews the theoretical and empirical literature on children and adolescents with gender identity disorder. The organizational framework underlying this review is one that presents gender behavior in children and adolescents as a continuum rather than as a dichotomy of normal versus abnormal categories. Theories of normative gender development, prevalence, assessment, developmental trajectories, and comorbidity were investigated. There is a greater fluidity and likelihood of change in the pre-pubertal period. It was reported that the majority of affected children had been eventually developing a homosexual orientation. As an approach to determine the prevalence of GID in clinical samples in our child psychiatry clinic, screening instruments that include items on cross-gender or cross-sex identification were used. We applied the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Of the 113 items in the Japanese version of the CBCL, there are two measures of cross-gender identification: "behaves like opposite sex" and "wishes to be opposite sex." Like the other items, they are scored on a 3-point scale of: 0-not true, 1- somewhat true, and 2-very true. Our study of 323 clinically-referred children aged 4-15 years reported that, among the boys, 9.6% assigned a score of 1 (somewhat true) or a score of 2 (very true) to the two items. The corresponding rates for the clinically-referred girls were 24.5%. The item of diagnosis of GID in our clinical sample was significantly higher than in non-referred children, reported as 2-5% using the same method. Two clinical case histories of screened children are also presented. Both of them were diagnosed with PDDNOS. Together with the literature review, most of the gender-related symptoms in autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) could be related to the behavioral and psychological characteristics of autism as shown in case histories. ASD subjects in adolescence can sometimes develop a unique confusion of identity that occasionally

  8. Parent-Child Shared Time from Middle Childhood to Late Adolescence: Developmental Course and Adjustment Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Chun Bun; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.

    2012-01-01

    The development and adjustment correlates of parent-child social (parent, child, and others present) and dyadic time (only parent and child present) from age 8 to 18 were examined. Mothers, fathers, and firstborns and secondborns from 188 White families participated in both home and nightly phone interviews. Social time declined across…

  9. Investigating the effect of child maltreatment on early adolescent peer-on-peer sexual aggression: testing a multiple mediator model in a non-incarcerated sample of Danish adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bramsen, Rikke Holm; Lasgaard, Mathias; Koss, Mary P.; Elklit, Ask; Banner, Jytte

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between child maltreatment and severe early adolescent peer-on-peer sexual aggression, using a multiple mediator model. Methods The study comprised 330 male Grade 9 students with a mean age of 14.9 years (SD=0.5). Results Estimates from the mediation model indicated significant indirect effects of child physical abuse on sexual aggression via peer influence and insecure-hostile masculinity. No significant total effect of child sexual abuse and child neglect on sexual aggression was found. Conclusions Findings of the present study identify risk factors that are potentially changeable and therefore of value in informing the design of prevention programs aiming at early adolescent peer-on-peer sexual aggression in at-risk youth. PMID:24987497

  10. Language Brokering and Adjustment among Chinese and Korean American Adolescents: A Moderated Mediation Model of Perceived Maternal Sacrifice, Respect for the Mother, and Mother-Child Open Communication

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yishan; Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie; Chao, Ruth K.

    2014-01-01

    Asian American adolescents often language broker for their immigrant parents. Using a two-wave sample of Chinese American (n = 237; average age at W1 = 14.65, SD = .68) and Korean American (n = 262; average age at W1 = 14.72, SD = .69) adolescents, this study examined a culturally relevant conditional mechanism through which language brokering may contribute to lower levels of internalizing/externalizing problems. Results suggested that language brokering for the mother was associated with perceived maternal sacrifice, which was in turn associated with respect for the mother, which was eventually associated with lower levels of externalizing problems (but not internalizing problems) in the adolescents. Moreover, the indirect effect was conditional on the level of mother-child open communication. With a lower level of open communication, the indirect effect of language brokering on externalizing problems became stronger. Results indicate that interventions designed to reduce Asian American adolescent language brokers’ externalizing problems may be effective if they target adolescents' perception of parental sacrifice and respect for parents, especially for those adolescents experiencing a low level of parent-child open communication. At the same time, increasing open communication within the family may also ultimately reduce adolescent externalizing problems. PMID:25419443

  11. Interactive Effect of Child Maltreatment and Substance Use on Depressed Mood Among Adolescents Presenting to Community-Based Substance Use Treatment.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Judelysse; Becker, Sara; O'Brien, Kimberly; Spirito, Anthony

    2015-10-01

    Adolescents referred to community behavioral health centers (CBHC) for substance use (SU) problems report high rates of child maltreatment. Although SU and maltreatment are independent risk factors for adolescent depression, few studies have examined their interactive effects. This study examined the interactive effects of SU (alcohol and marijuana) and exposure to different types of trauma on depressed mood among 74 adolescents referred to a CBHC for SU. Hierarchical regressions controlling for sex and common adolescent comorbidities showed that sexual abuse had a stronger relationship with depressed mood than other types of maltreatment. Although SU was not independently related to depressed mood, consistent with the self-medication hypothesis, increased SU was associated with lower levels of depressed mood among adolescents with greater exposure to sexual abuse. Results suggest that teens presenting to CBHCs for SU should be assessed for multiple forms of maltreatment and for depressed mood. PMID:26017474

  12. [Child and adolescent psychiatric aspects of expertising on children suffering from impediments in learning or mental perceptien].

    PubMed

    Hässler, F; Bohne, S; Buchmann, J

    2001-11-01

    Based on the efforts by the legislator to standardize the law for disabled persons and to simplify the accesses to appropriate assistance, procedures of expert reports are exemplarily presented from the aspect of child and adolescent psychiatry. Obliged to the principle of the two aspects for constituting a claim (which is first to set up a diagnosis and then to evaluate the existent or imminent handicap, both serving as the basis for the claim), etiological models, diagnostic - including developmental psychological - and therapeutic approaches in underlying psychiatric disorders of learning difficulties such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorders, pervasive developmental disorders, specific developmental disorders in learning abilities, and mental retardation are described as the participation in social life is either at risk or already affected. With regard these descriptions it is readily recognizable that child and adolescent neuropsychiatry has not only to provide professional competence in cases of appraisal question formulations concerning special assistance in early childhood, determination of special educational needs, and creation of plans for auxilliary interventions, but should also be employed regularly. PMID:11713698

  13. Which Forms of Child/Adolescent Externalizing Behaviors Account for Late Adolescent Risky Sexual Behavior and Substance Use?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmermans, Maartje; van Lier, Pol A. C.; Koot, Hans M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Health risk behaviors like substance use (alcohol, tobacco, soft/hard drugs) and risky sexual behavior become more prevalent in adolescence. Children with behavior problems are thought to be prone to engage in health risk behaviors later in life. It is, however, unclear which problems within the externalizing spectrum account for these…

  14. The construction of moral agency in mother-child conversations about helping and hurting across childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Recchia, Holly E; Wainryb, Cecilia; Bourne, Stacia; Pasupathi, Monisha

    2014-01-01

    This study examined mother-child conversations about children's and adolescents' past harmful and helpful actions. The sample included 100 mothers and their 7-, 11-, or 16-year-old children; each dyad discussed events when the child (a) helped a friend and (b) hurt a friend. Analyses suggested that conversations about help may serve to facilitate children's sense of themselves as prosocial moral agents; mothers focused on children's feelings of pride, positive judgments of the child's behavior, and positive insights about the child's characteristics that could be drawn from the event. In turn, conversations about harm were more elaborated and contentious than those about help, and reflected more complex maternal goals; although mothers highlighted children's wrongdoing (e.g., by noting negative consequences of the child's actions for others), they also engaged in a variety of strategies that may support children's ability to reconcile their harmful actions with a positive self-view (e.g., by noting what children did do well or their capacity for repair). With respect to age effects, results revealed that older children played an increasingly active and spontaneous role in discussions. Furthermore, as compared with 7-year-olds, conversations with 11- and 16-year-olds focused more on psychological insights that could be drawn from experiences and less on children's concrete harmful and helpful actions. Overall, results illuminate the processes whereby conversations with mothers may further children's developing understandings of their own and others' moral agency, and how discussions of prosocial and transgressive moral experiences may provide distinct but complementary opportunities for moral socialization. PMID:23795554

  15. Psychometric Properties of the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Child Version (OCI-CV) in Chilean Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-González, Agustín E.; Rodríguez-Jiménez, Tíscar; Piqueras, José A.; Vera-Villarroel, Pablo; Godoy, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a considerable increase in the development of assessment tools for obsessive-compulsive symptomatology in children and adolescents. The Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-Child Version (OCI-CV) is a well-established assessment self-report, with special interest for the assessment of dimensions of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD). This instrument has shown to be useful for clinical and non-clinical populations in two languages (English and European Spanish). Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the OCI-CV in a Chilean community sample. The sample consisted of 816 children and adolescents with a mean age of 14.54 years (SD = 2.21; range = 10–18 years). Factor structure, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, convergent/divergent validity, and gender/age differences were examined. Confirmatory factor analysis showed a 6-factor structure (Doubting/Checking, Obsessing, Hoarding, Washing, Ordering, and Neutralizing) with one second-order factor. Good estimates of reliability (including internal consistency and test-retest), evidence supporting the validity, and small age and gender differences (higher levels of OCD symptomatology among older participants and women, respectively) are found. The OCI-CV is also an adequate scale for the assessment of obsessions and compulsions in a general population of Chilean children and adolescents. PMID:26317404

  16. Quality of care in American Indian child and adolescent behavioral health: A pilot study of patient and family perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Podlogar, Matthew C.; Novins, Douglas K.

    2015-01-01

    Research regarding the quality of behavioral health care for American Indian (AI) children and adolescents is extremely limited, and no study has considered the qualitative perspectives of the AI children receiving such services or that of their families. This pilot study investigated AI patient and family perspectives of what quality of care means to them. Data were drawn from interviews of parents (n = 15), and the youth (if they were age 11 or older; n = 11) of 16 children and adolescents who received treatment at three behavioral health programs serving AI communities. Interview transcripts were coded and analyzed for key themes that related to treatment structure, process, and outcomes. According to these participants, the principal indicator of treatment quality was “being able to trust the clinician.” The most valued treatment outcomes for improvement were the youth’s “self-efficacy and self-worth,” “functioning in school,” and “relationship with the family.” Future research is needed on how to best integrate these domains into specific and objective indicators for standardized quality of care assessments of AI child and adolescent behavioral health services. PMID:25961647

  17. Does the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) measure anxiety symptoms consistently across adolescence? The TRAILS study

    PubMed Central

    Mathyssek, Christina M.; Olino, Thomas M.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Van Oort, Floor V.A.

    2013-01-01

    We assessed if the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) measures anxiety symptoms similarly across age groups within adolescence. This is crucial for valid comparison of anxiety levels between different age groups. Anxiety symptoms were assessed biennially in a representative population sample (n = 2226) at three time points (age range 10–17 years) using the RCADS anxiety subscales (generalized anxiety disorder [GAD], obsessive-compulsive disorder [OCD], panic disorder [PD], separation anxiety [SA], social phobia [SP]). We examined longitudinal measurement invariance of the RCADS, using longitudinal confirmatory factor analysis, by examining the factor structure (configural invariance), factor loadings (metric invariance) and thresholds (strong invariance). We found that all anxiety subtypes were configural invariant. Metric invariance held for items on the GAD, OCD, PD and SA subscales; yet, for the SP subscale three items showed modest longitudinal variation at age 10–12. Model fit decreased modestly when enforcing additional constraints across time; however, model fit for these models was still adequate to excellent. We conclude that the RCADS measures anxiety symptoms similarly across time in a general population sample of adolescents; hence, measured changes in anxiety symptoms very likely reflect true changes in anxiety levels. We consider the instrument suitable to assess anxiety levels across adolescence. PMID:23483654

  18. Parent and Child Characteristics Related to Chosen Adolescent Alcohol and Drug Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Brenda A.; Aalborg, Annette E.; Byrnes, Hilary F.; Bauman, Karl; Spoth, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Mothers were allowed to choose between two different family-based adolescent alcohol-drug prevention strategies and the choice was examined in relation to parent and teen characteristics. Under real world conditions, parents are making choices regarding health promotion strategies for their adolescents and little is known about how parent and teen…

  19. Unplanned Parenthood: The Socio-Economic Consequences of Adolescent Child-Bearing in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odu, Bimbola Kemi; Ayodele, Christian Junior; Isola, Alabi Olusola

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent girls feel that adolescent years are a period of breaking away from parents and authority and of finding personal values and particular social and vocational roles. It is an exciting period but possibly a time of experimentation and discovery, discovering people in a relationship and for the first time expressing that relationship…

  20. Stress Generation in Adolescent Depression: The Moderating Role of Child Abuse and Neglect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harkness, Kate L.; Lumley, Margaret N.; Truss, Alanna E.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the role of childhood abuse and neglect and depression recurrence in moderating the generation of stressful life events in adolescent depression. Maltreatment history and stressful life events were assessed using two rigorous contextual interviews and rating systems. In a sample of 59 community depressed adolescents we…

  1. Minority Ethnic Adolescents' Wellbeing: Child Rearing Practices and Positive Family Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochieng, Bertha M. N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This paper examines Black adolescents' experiences and views on the interrelationships between their families' parenting practices and their wellbeing. Method: The material is drawn from a community-based qualitative study on the health and wellbeing experiences of Black African families and adolescents. A total of 53…

  2. Adolescent's Separation from Their Families. Unit for Child Studies Selected Papers Number 36.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rickarby, Geoff

    Based on the family systems approach to therapeutic intervention, the first part of this paper develops themes of adolescent development in family contexts. Specific attention is given to adolescents' relationships with their parents, their role in the family, the way in which they develop within this role, and the ways such development affects…

  3. Longitudinal Associations between Perceived Parent-Child Relationship Quality and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branje, Susan J. T.; Hale, William W., III; Frijns, Tom; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined bidirectional paths between perceived parent-adolescent relationship quality and depressive symptoms, as well as the moderating role of sex, age, and personality type. 1313 Dutch adolescents (51% girls) from two cohorts (923 12-year olds and 390 16-year olds at Wave 1) reported on their personality, depressive…

  4. Adolescent Substance Abuse: Risk Factors and Prevention Strategies. Maternal & Child Health Technical Information Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Mark J.

    The high prevalence of alcohol and substance abuse by adolescents poses a significant threat to the wellness of youth. Adolescents appear to use drugs for a variety of reasons. In addition to the multiple etiologic and risk factors present for substance abuse, there are many pathways teenagers may follow on their way to substance abuse. The…

  5. Adolescent Perspectives on Rules and Resistance within the Parent-Child Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkin, C. Melanie; Kuczynski, Leon

    2012-01-01

    Thirty-two adolescents between the ages of 13 and 19 participated in a semistructured interview regarding their perspectives on parental expectations and their strategies for expressing resistance. Thematic analyses indicated that adolescents perceive parental expectations as flexible and coconstructed rather than as firm, explicit, standing…

  6. Functional Outcomes of Child and Adolescent Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms in Young Adult Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Jeffrey D.; Rowe, Richard; Boylan, Khrista

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is considered to be a disorder of childhood, yet evidence suggests that prevalence rates of the disorder are stable into late adolescence and trajectories of symptoms persist into young adulthood. Functional outcomes associated with ODD through childhood and adolescence include conflict within…

  7. Parent-Child Acculturation Patterns and Substance Use among Hispanic Adolescents: A Longitudinal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unger, Jennifer B.; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Wagner, Karla D.; Soto, Daniel W.; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes

    2009-01-01

    Acculturation discrepancy theory predicts that conflicting cultural preferences between adolescents and their parents will increase the adolescents' risk for behavior problems such as substance use. This study evaluated this hypothesis in a sample of 1683 Hispanic students in Southern California who completed surveys in 9th and 10th grade.…

  8. Understanding the Sex Difference in Vulnerability to Adolescent Depression: An Examination of Child and Parent Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eberhart, Nicole K.; Shih, Josephine H.; Hammen, Constance L.; Brennan, Patricia A.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined sex differences in risk factors associated with adolescent depression in a large sample of boys and girls. Moderation and mediation explanatory models of the sex difference in likelihood of depression were examined. Findings indicate that the factors associated with depression in adolescent boys and girls are quite similar. All…

  9. The Stress Response and Adolescents' Adjustment: The Impact of Child Maltreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Emily C.; Chaplin, Tara M.; Sinha, Rajita; Tebes, Jacob K.; Mayes, Linda C.

    2012-01-01

    Experience with and management of stress has implications for adolescents' behavioral and socioemotional development. This study examined the relationship between adolescents' physiological response to an acute laboratory stressor (i.e., Trier Social Stress Test; TSST) and anger regulation and interpersonal competence in a sample of 175 low-income…

  10. Patterns of Parental Independence Giving to Adolescents: Variations by Race, Age, and Gender of Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulcroft, Richard A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examines the differences among Anglo, African American, and Hispanic parents in granting independence to adolescents. Using data from a national families survey found distinct patterns of independence giving across racial groups by gender and by age of the adolescent. Differences are attributed to values of modified patriarchy, communalism, and…

  11. Parent-Child Interactions, Peripheral Serotonin, and Self-Inflicted Injury in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowell, Sheila E.; Beauchaine, Theodore P.; McCauley, Elizabeth; Smith, Cindy J.; Vasilev, Christina A.; Stevens, Adrianne L.

    2008-01-01

    Self-inflicted injury in adolescence indicates significant emotional and psychological suffering. Although data on the etiology of self-injury are limited, current theories suggest that the emotional lability observed among self-injuring adolescents results from complex interactions between individual biological vulnerabilities and environmental…

  12. Child, Parent, and Contextual Influences on Perceived Parenting Competence among Parents of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogenschneider, Karen; Small, Stephen A.; Tsay, Jenner C.

    1997-01-01

    Examined Belsky's model of the determinants of parenting among 666 pairs of White mothers and adolescents and 510 pairs of White fathers and adolescents. Results indicate that, when parents reported higher perceived parenting competence, sons and daughters reported more parental monitoring and responsiveness and less parental psychological…

  13. Welfare Reform's Impact on Adolescents: Early Warning Signs. Child Trends Research Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Jennifer L.; Hair, Elizabeth C.; Zaslow, Martha J.

    With the passage of the 1996 welfare reform law, numerous commentators expressed concern about the impact of welfare reform on young children of welfare recipients, while few expressed concern about adolescents. However, recent evidence suggests that adolescents are affected negatively when their parents participate in welfare-to-work programs.…

  14. Adolescent Maltreatment: Youth as Victims of Abuse and Neglect. Maternal & Child Health Technical Information Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, Janice; Langlykke, Kristin

    This bulletin is intended to raise awareness of the magnitude and gravity of adolescent maltreatment and to provide information on public health program and policy interventions. A review of adolescent victimization, with a focus on vulnerable youth, provides background for the development of public health measures to promote prevention and ensure…

  15. Comparative efficacy, acceptability, and tolerability of lisdexamfetamine in child and adolescent ADHD: a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Maneeton, Benchalak; Maneeton, Narong; Likhitsathian, Surinporn; Suttajit, Sirijit; Narkpongphun, Assawin; Srisurapanont, Manit; Woottiluk, Pakapan

    2015-01-01

    Background Several studies have shown that lisdexamfetamine (LDX) is efficacious in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Objectives Aims of this study were to systematically review the efficacy, acceptability, and tolerability of LDX in child and adolescent ADHD. Any randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of LDX versus placebo carried out in children and adolescents with ADHD were included. Data sources The searches of the SCOPUS, MEDLINE, CINAHL and Cochrane Controlled Trials Register were performed in September 2014. Additional searches in the ClinicalTrials. gov and EU Clinical Trials Register database were conducted. Study eligibility criteria, participants, and interventions This review included all RCTs of LDX versus placebo which were carried out in children and adolescents up to 18 years old. Additionally, the included studies must have reported the final outcomes of: i) severity of ADHD symptoms with standardized scales, ii) rates of improvement, iii) rates of discontinuation. To be more thorough, the languages of such RCTs were not limited. Study appraisal and synthesis methods The abstracts from databases were inspected and the full text versions of relevant trials were examined and extracted for important outcomes. The efficacious measurements included either the pooled mean end-point or changed scores of ADHD rating scales, and the rate of improvement. Acceptability and tolerability were measured by the pooled overall discontinuation rate and the pooled discontinuation rate due to adverse events, respectively. A random effect model technique was utilized to synthesize the mean differences (either standardized mean differences or weighted mean differences) and relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results A total of 1,016 children and adolescents with ADHD were included. The dosage of LDX was 30 to 70 mg/day. The pooled mean change scores of LDX-treated group was significantly greater than that

  16. Associations of Child Insomnia, Sleep Movement, and Their Persistence With Mental Health Symptoms in Childhood and Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Jeffrey M.; Ruttle, Paula L.; Klein, Marjorie H.; Essex, Marilyn J.; Benca, Ruth M.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine the patterns of insomnia and sleep-related movement from ages 4.5 to 9 years, their concurrent associations with mental health symptoms in childhood, and the longitudinal associations of sleep-problem persistence with mental health symptoms at ages 9 and 18 years. Design: A 14-year prospective follow-up study. Assessments included maternal report on the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire at ages 4.5 and 9, and child mental health symptoms via maternal report at age 4.5, multi-informant (child, teacher, mother) report at age 9, and adolescent report at age 18. Setting: Community. Participants: A total of 396 children (51% female). Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Sleep problems were more common at age 4.5 than 9; symptoms of insomnia and abnormal sleep movement both had persistence rates of 9–10%. At age 4.5, insomnia was associated with hostile-aggressive and hyperactive-distractible behavior, but there were no significant associations for sleep movement. At age 9, both insomnia and sleep movement were associated with symptoms of depression, externalizing, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Insomnia persistence was associated with symptoms of depression, externalizing, and ADHD at age 9 and anxiety and externalizing at age 18; sleep- movement persistence was associated with externalizing and ADHD at age 9, and ADHD at age 18. The age 18 persistence effects for insomnia and anxiety and for sleep movement and ADHD were significant when controlling for earlier mental health. Conclusions: Childhood insomnia and sleep movement are common and associated with mental health symptoms. Their persistence from middle to late childhood predicts associations with specific types of mental health symptoms at age 18. Citation: Armstrong JM, Ruttle PL, Klein MH, Essex MJ, Benca RM. Associations of child insomnia, sleep movement, and their persistence with mental health symptoms in childhood and adolescence. SLEEP 2014

  17. Treating Children and Adolescents

    MedlinePlus

    ... Children and Adolescents Go Back Treating Children and Adolescents Email Print + Share For the most part, the ... tailored, based upon the child's weight. Children and adolescents are moving through a period of physical and ...

  18. The Relationship between Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms and Substance Use among Adolescents Involved with Child Welfare: Implications for Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Abby L.; Wekerle, Christine; Tonmyr, Lil; Thornton, Tiffany; Waechter, Randall; Pereira, Jessica; Chung, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the role of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) in predicting substance use and substance-related problems in a sample of older youth and emerging adults involved with child welfare. The sample was drawn from the Maltreatment and Adolescent Pathways (MAP) longitudinal study (Wekerle et al. 2009).…

  19. National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, No. 1: Who Are the Children in Foster Care? Research Brief: Findings from the NSCAW Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Over 530,000 children are in foster care in the United States. These children live in a variety of settings, including non-relative foster homes, the homes of relatives, and group homes. This research brief offers a national portrait of children who had been in foster care for one year. The National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being…

  20. Does Parental Monitoring Moderate the Relation between Parent-Child Communication and Pre-Coital Sexual Behaviours among Urban, Minority Early Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Maria, Diane; Markham, Christine; Swank, Paul; Baumler, Elizabeth; McCurdy, Sheryl; Tortolero, Susan

    2014-01-01

    This study examined parental monitoring (PM) as a potential moderator of the relation between parent-child communication (PCC) and pre-coital sexual behaviours (PCSB) in an urban, minority, early adolescent population. Seventh-grade students (n = 1609) reported PCC, PM and PCSB. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to assess for…

  1. Perceived Parental Control Processes, Parent-Child Relational Qualities, and Psychological Well-Being in Chinese Adolescents with and without Economic Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2005-01-01

    The author assessed the relationships between poverty and perceived parenting style, parent-child relationships, and adolescent psychological well-being in Chinese secondary school students (N = 3,017). Participants completed questionnaires designed to assess (a) the degree to which their parents used monitoring, discipline, and other techniques…

  2. "Why Did You Call for Them?" Child and Youth Care Professionals' Practice of Flooding the Zone during Encounters with Suicidal Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranahan, Patti

    2013-01-01

    Child and youth care (CYC) professionals often provide care to children, youth and families in conjunction with professionals from other disciplines. How CYC professionals engage other service providers in the provision of care for suicidal adolescents requires examination. The purpose of the overall study was to understand and explain the process…

  3. A Longitudinal Study of Perceived Differences in Parental Control and Parent-Child Relational Qualities in Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2007-01-01

    On two occasions separated by 1 year, 2,758 Chinese adolescents respond to instruments assessing perceived parental behavioral control (indexed by parental knowledge, expectation, monitoring, discipline, demandingness, and control based on Chinese concepts), parental psychological control, and parent-child relational qualities (satisfaction with…

  4. The Differential Impact of Clerk Interest and Participation in a Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Clerkship Rotation upon Psychiatry and Pediatrics Residency Matches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Mark D.; Szatmari, Peter; Eva, Kevin W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors evaluated the differential impact of clerk interest and participation in a Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (CAP) clerkship rotation upon psychiatry and pediatrics residency matches. Method: Authors studied clerks from the McMaster University M.D. program graduating years of 2005-2007. Participants were categorized as 1)…

  5. Child and Adolescent Mental Health Research in the Context of Hurricane Katrina: An Ecological Needs-Based Perspective and Introduction to the Special Section

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weems, Carl F.; Overstreet, Stacy

    2008-01-01

    This article introduces the special section on child and adolescent mental health research in the context of Hurricane Katrina. We outline the purpose and intent of the special section and present an integrative perspective based on broad contextual theories of human development with which to think about the impact of disasters like Katrina. The…

  6. Mother-Child Dyadic Synchrony in European American and African American Families during Early Adolescence: Relations with Self-Esteem and Prosocial Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsey, Eric W.; Colwell, Malinda J.; Frabutt, James M.; Chambers, Jessica Campbell; MacKinnon-Lewis, Carol

    2008-01-01

    Mother-child relationships characterized by dyadic synchrony, a mutually responsive and interconnected interaction style, have been consistently linked to children's psychosocial adjustment in early childhood, but it is unclear whether such interaction patterns remain conducive to positive outcomes in early adolescence. The aim of the present…

  7. A Person-Centered Approach to Studying the Linkages among Parent-Child Differences in Cultural Orientation, Supportive Parenting, and Adolescent Depressive Symptoms in Chinese American Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Scott R.; Kim, Su Yeong

    2008-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined whether supportive parenting mediates relations between parent-child differences in cultural orientation (generational dissonance) and depressive symptoms with a sample of 451 first and second generation Chinese American parents and adolescents (12-15 years old at time 1). Using a person-centered approach,…

  8. Annual Research Review: Categories versus Dimensions in the Classification and Conceptualisation of Child and Adolescent Mental Disorders--Implications of Recent Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coghill, David; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.

    2012-01-01

    The question of whether child and adolescent mental disorders are best classified using dimensional or categorical approaches is a contentious one that has equally profound implications for clinical practice and scientific enquiry. Here, we explore this issue in the context of the forth coming publication of the DSM-5 and ICD-11 approaches to…

  9. Digital Game Violence and Direct Aggression in Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study of the Roles of Sex, Age, and Parent-Child Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallenius, Marjut; Punamaki, Raija-Leena

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the roles of sex, age, and parent-child communication in moderating the association between digital game violence and direct aggression in a two-year longitudinal study. Finnish 12- and 15-year-old adolescents (N = 316) participated in the follow-up survey. As hypothesized, digital game violence was linked to direct…

  10. Links between posttrauma appraisals and trauma-related distress in adolescent females from the child welfare system.

    PubMed

    Srinivas, Tejaswinhi; DePrince, Anne P; Chu, Ann T

    2015-09-01

    Research on predictors of trauma-related distress in youth has tended to focus on trauma exposure and individual difference characteristics. This study extends previous research by examining the role of posttrauma appraisals in predicting trauma-related distress in a sample of female adolescents with current or prior involvement in the child welfare system and a history of maltreatment. Participants' posttrauma appraisals accounted for unique variance in trauma-related distress, above and beyond key trauma exposure and individual difference variables. Further, posttrauma appraisals of alienation accounted for unique variance in posttraumatic stress, dissociation, and depression symptom severity, and posttrauma appraisals of shame accounted for unique variance in posttraumatic stress symptom severity. These results suggest that posttrauma appraisals may represent an important predictor of trauma-related distress for youth with current or prior involvement in the child welfare system. They also replicate findings in youth and adult literature on interpersonal trauma, lending further support to the existence of specific pathways between certain appraisals and various forms of trauma-related distress. We discuss the implications of our study for trauma-informed practice within the child welfare system. PMID:26074467

  11. Racial/ethnic and income disparities in child and adolescent exposure to food and beverage television ads across the U.S. media markets.

    PubMed

    Powell, Lisa M; Wada, Roy; Kumanyika, Shiriki K

    2014-09-01

    Obesity prevalence and related health burdens are greater among U.S. racial/ethnic minority and low-income populations. Targeted advertising may contribute to disparities. Designated market area (DMA) spot television ratings were used to assess geographic differences in child/adolescent exposure to food-related advertisements based on DMA-level racial/ethnic and income characteristics. Controlling for unobserved DMA-level factors and time trends, child/adolescent exposure to food-related ads, particularly for sugar-sweetened beverages and fast-food restaurants, was significantly higher in areas with higher proportions of black children/adolescents and lower-income households. Geographically targeted TV ads are important to consider when assessing obesity-promoting influences in black and low-income neighborhoods. PMID:25086271

  12. Racial/Ethnic and Income Disparities in Child and Adolescent Exposure to Food and Beverage Television Ads across U.S. Media Markets

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Lisa M.; Wada, Roy; Kumanyika, Shiriki K.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity prevalence and related health burdens are greater among U.S. racial/ethnic minority and low-income populations. Targeted advertising may contribute to disparities. Designated market area (DMA) spot television ratings were used to assess geographic differences in child/adolescent exposure to food-related advertisements based on DMA-level racial/ethnic and income characteristics. Controlling for unobserved DMA-level factors and time trends, child/adolescent exposure to food-related ads, particularly for sugar-sweetened beverages and fast-food restaurants, was significantly higher in areas with higher proportions of black children/adolescents and lower-income households. Geographically targeted TV ads are important to consider when assessing obesity-promoting influences in black and low-income neighborhoods. PMID:25086271

  13. Sexual self-schemas of female child sexual abuse survivors: relationships with risky sexual behavior and sexual assault in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Niehaus, Ashley F; Jackson, Joan; Davies, Stephanie

    2010-12-01

    Childhood sexual trauma has been demonstrated to increase survivors' risk for engaging in unrestricted sexual behaviors and experiencing adolescent sexual assault. The current study used the sexual self-schema construct to examine cognitive representations of sexuality that might drive these behavioral patterns. In Study 1 (N = 774), we attempted to improve the content validity of the Sexual Self Schema Scale for child sexual abuse (CSA) survivors, introducing a fourth sexual self-schema factor titled the "immoral/irresponsible" factor. In Study 2 (N = 1150), the potential differences in sexual self-views, as assessed by the four sexual self-schema factors, between CSA survivors and non-victims were explored. In addition, Study 2 evaluated how these sexual self-schema differences may contribute to participation in unrestricted sexual behaviors and risk for sexual assault in adolescence. Results indicated that a history of CSA impacted the way women viewed themselves as a sexual person on each of the four factors. CSA survivors were found to view themselves as more open and possessing more immoral/irresponsible cognitions about sexuality as compared to women who did not have a CSA history. In addition, the CSA survivors endorsed less embarrassment and passionate/romantic views of their sexual selves. The interaction of CSA severity and the sexual self-schemas explained variance in adolescent sexual assault experiences above and beyond the severity of CSA history and participation in risky sexual behaviors. The findings suggest that sexual self-views may serve to moderate the relationship between CSA and adolescent sexual assault. Implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:20229148

  14. [Cognitive remediation therapy for children: literature data and clinical application in a child and adolescent psychiatry department].

    PubMed

    Doyen, C; Contejean, Y; Risler, V; Asch, M; Amado, I; Launay, C; Redon, P De Bois; Burnouf, I; Kaye, K

    2015-04-01

    The hypothesis of cerebral plasticity in psychiatric disorders has encouraged clinicians to develop cognitive remediation therapy (CRT), a new therapeutic approach based on attention, memory, planning, and mental flexibility tasks. The first cognitive remediation programs were developed and validated for adults with schizophrenia and were shown to have a positive impact on executive functions as well as on quality of life. In children and adolescents, researchers emphasized the existence of executive dysfunction in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autistic spectrum disorder, attention deficit disorder, and eating disorders. For these disorders, neuropsychological studies suggest that memory, planning, attention and mental flexibility are impaired. Despite the paucity of studies on cognitive remediation (CR) in children, preliminary results have suggested, as in adults with schizophrenia, good compliance and optimization of executive functioning. Consequently, programs dedicated to young subjects were developed in English-speaking countries, and the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry of Sainte Anne Hospital (Paris) developed a new CR program for children with attention deficit disorder, academic problems, or eating disorders. These programs complete the field of CRT proposed by Sainte Anne Hospital's Remediation and Psychosocial Rehabilitation Reference Center, initially designed for adults with schizophrenia. Our team used and adapted validated tools such as Delahunty and Wykes's CRT program (translated and validated in French by Amado and Franck) and Lindvall and Lask's CRT Resource Pack. One program was developed for an adolescent with anorexia nervosa and applied to the subject and her family, but the purpose of this paper is to present a CR approach for children with attention deficit disorder or academic disorder, a 6-month program based on paper-pencil tasks and board and card games. The team was trained in different kinds of cognitive

  15. Early Family and Child-Care Antecedents of Awakening Cortisol Levels in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roisman, Glenn I.; Susman, Elizabeth; Barnett-Walker, Kortnee; Booth-Laforce, Cathryn; Owen, Margaret Tresch; Belsky, Jay; Bradley, Robert H.; Houts, Renate; Steinberg, Laurence

    2009-01-01

    This study examined early observed parenting and child-care experiences in relation to functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis over the long term. Consistent with the attenuation hypothesis, individuals (n = 863) who experienced: (a) higher levels of maternal insensitivity and (b) more time in child-care centers in the first…

  16. Facts for Families from the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry [1990].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Washington, DC.

    Four fact sheets relevant to children's emotional well being are presented in this document. The first fact sheet, "Responding to Child Sexual Abuse" presents guidelines for responding to children who have been sexually abused. Information is given for reporting abuse to the local Child Protection Agency. Also discussed are issues regarding…

  17. Preventing Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission among South African Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varga, Christine; Brookes, Heather

    2008-01-01

    Although prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) programs are predicated on maternal behavior change, little is known about sociocultural factors affecting maternal-child care practices in this arena. The authors used narrative methods (key informant workshops, questionnaires, focus groups, and case study analysis) to explore how…

  18. Comparison Between Family Power Structure and the Quality of Parent-Child Interaction Among the Delinquent and Non-Delinquent Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Khodabakhshi Koolaee, Anahita; Shaghelani Lor, Hossein; Soleimani, Ali Akbar; Rahmatizadeh, Masoumeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Few studies indicate that most behavioral problems are due to family dysfunction and inappropriate family environment. It seems that the family of the delinquent adolescent is unbalanced in the power structure and parenting style. Objectives: The present study compares the family power structure and parent-child relationship quality in delinquent and non-delinquent young subjects in Tehran. Patients and Methods: Eighty students of secondary schools aged between 15 and 18 in Tehran were enrolled with cluster sampling method and 80 delinquent adolescents of the Correction and Rehabilitation Centers aged between 15 and 18 were chosen with a convenience sampling method. They responded to an instrument of family power structure (Child–parents relationship inventory). Data was compared between these two groups by utilizing the independent and dependent t-test and Levene’s test. Results: The findings indicated there is a significant difference between delinquent and non-delinquent adolescents in family power structure and its subscales (P < 0.001) and father-child relationship quality (P < 0.005). Also, there is no statistically significant difference between these two groups in mother-child relationship quality (P < 0.005). Besides, the results revealed that delinquent adolescents were significantly different regarding the quality of parent-child relationship (P < 0.001). Conclusions: These results emphasize that an inappropriate decision making process pattern in a family has a significant effect on deviant behavior in adolescents. The fathers’ parenting is more strongly linked to their sons’ delinquency. So, family power structure and parent-child relationship can be considered in therapeutic interventions (prevention and treatment) for adolescents’ delinquency. PMID:25032158

  19. A Person-centered Approach to Studying the Linkages among Parent–Child Differences in Cultural Orientation, Supportive Parenting, and Adolescent Depressive Symptoms in Chinese American Families

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su Yeong

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined whether supportive parenting mediates relations between parent– child differences in cultural orientation (generational dissonance) and depressive symptoms with a sample of 451 first and second generation Chinese American parents and adolescents (12–15 years old at time 1). Using a person-centered approach, meaningful typologies of cultural orientation were derived for fathers, mothers, and adolescents. Overall, results provided support, though qualified, for the notion that generational dissonance is linked to depressive symptoms through decreased supportive parenting. In general, having a parent with a bicultural profile seemed to be most advantageous if adolescents similarly had a bicultural profile, whereas more American oriented adolescents with more Chinese oriented parents reported the least supportive parenting and most depressive symptoms. Directions for future research and the benefits of using a person-centered approach in research of acculturation and generational dissonance are discussed. PMID:20725611

  20. Semi-occupational exposure to lead: a case study of child and adolescent street vendors in Istanbul.

    PubMed

    Furman, A; Laleli, M

    2000-05-01

    This study analyzed lead levels in scalp hair of child and adolescent street vendors in Istanbul. The mean lead in hair concentration found among children exposed to intensive motor traffic, 11.82 +/- 6.89 microg/g, was over five times higher than that in the control group, 2.70 +/- 2.30 microg/g. Vendors from a location with higher traffic density had significantly higher lead in hair levels, than vendors from a location with lower traffic density (14.18+/- 5.33 and 9.86 +/- 7.54 microg/g, respectively). The results pointed to the dose-response effect between traffic intensity and lead in hair concentration. Despite low lead content in gasoline, an intensive exposure to motor traffic may be a nonnegligible source of lead and poses a considerable health risk for individuals who work in particularly busy locations. PMID:10845780

  1. International dissemination of evidence-based practice, open access and the IACAPAP textbook of child and adolescent mental health.

    PubMed

    Rey, Joseph M; Omigbodun, Olayinka Olusola

    2015-01-01

    Dramatic changes have occurred in both publishing and teaching in the last 20 years stemming from the digital and Internet revolutions. Such changes are likely to grow exponentially in the near future aided by the trend to open access publishing. This revolution has challenged traditional publishing and teaching methods that-largely but not exclusively due to cost-are particularly relevant to professionals in low and middle income countries. The digital medium and the Internet offer boundless opportunities for teaching and training to people in disadvantaged regions. This article describes the development of the IACAPAP eTextbook of child and adolescent mental health, its use, accessibility, and potential impact on the international dissemination of evidence-based practice. PMID:26557872

  2. Child and adolescent fast-food choice and the influence of calorie labeling: a natural experiment

    PubMed Central

    Elbel, B; Gyamfi, J; Kersh, R

    2013-01-01

    Objective Obesity is an enormous public health problem and children have been particularly highlighted for intervention. Of notable concern is the fast-food consumption of children. However, we know very little about how children or their parents make fast-food choices, including how they respond to mandatory calorie labeling. We examined children’s and adolescents’ fast-food choice and the influence of calorie labels in low-income communities in New York City (NYC) and in a comparison city (Newark, NJ). Design Natural experiment: Survey and receipt data were collected from low-income areas in NYC, and Newark, NJ (as a comparison city), before and after mandatory labeling began in NYC. Study restaurants included four of the largest chains located in NYC and Newark: McDonald’s, Burger King, Wendy’s and Kentucky Fried Chicken. Subjects A total of 349 children and adolescents aged 1–17 years who visited the restaurants with their parents (69%) or alone (31%) before or after labeling was introduced. In total, 90% were from racial or ethnic minority groups. Results We found no statistically significant differences in calories purchased before and after labeling; many adolescents reported noticing calorie labels after their introduction (57% in NYC) and a few considered the information when ordering (9%). Approximately 35% of adolescents ate fast food six or more times per week and 72% of adolescents reported that taste was the most important factor in their meal selection. Adolescents in our sample reported that parents have some influence on their meal selection. Conclusions Adolescents in low-income communities notice calorie information at similar rates as adults, although they report being slightly less responsive to it than adults. We did not find evidence that labeling influenced adolescent food choice or parental food choices for children in this population. PMID:21326209

  3. Annual Research Review: Child and adolescent mental health interventions: a review of progress in economic studies across different disorders

    PubMed Central

    Beecham, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Background Resources for supporting children and adolescents with psychiatric disorders continue to be scarce. Economics research can identify current patterns of expenditure, and help inform allocation of treatment and support resources between competing needs or uses. Scope and methods The aim was to identify the costs of supporting children and adolescents, the economic impacts of childhood psychiatric disorders in adulthood and any new evidence on the cost-effectiveness of interventions. An electronic search of databases (including PubMed, Medline and Psychinfo) identified peer-reviewed journal articles published between 2005 and 2012. Findings Sixty-seven papers provided data on support and treatment costs now or in the future, or cost-effectiveness analyses of services. Half the articles came from the United States. Most articles focussed on autism spectrum disorder (ASD; 23 articles), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; n = 15), conduct disorder (CD; n = 7), and anxiety or depression (n = 8). Conclusion Only 14 studies used a cost perspective wider than health care; most included education costs (n = 11), but only five included costs to the justice system. The number of studies estimating costs to the family has increased, particularly for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In the United Kingdom, support costs for children and adolescents with conduct disorder (CD) appear to be lower than for those with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), although for the United States, the opposite may be true. Support costs for children and adolescents with ASD may be higher than both CD and ADHD. However, there were many differences between the samples and the methods employed making comparisons between studies difficult. Outcomes in adulthood include negative impacts on (mental) health, quality of life, public sector services, employment status and income. The evidence base is improving for child and adolescent psychiatric

  4. [The role of community-based public health services in child and adolescent health in Germany].

    PubMed

    Wegner, R E

    2005-10-01

    Children and adolescents increasingly show health-related problems which may not be considered as diseases to be treated but nevertheless severely affect academic performance and social behaviour. Regarding the consequences, e.g. from the PISA study, the significance of health problems and their negative impact on academic success are still not sufficiently taken into account. The tasks of paediatric public health services include: (1) health promotion in schools and kindergartens, (2) preventive and other medical checkups in kindergartens and schools to detect the individual needs of children and adolescents for support, (3) reducing the risk of long-term damage in handicapped or retarded children and adolescents by seeking out these children where necessary, and (4) advising the political decision makers by reporting on the population's health and social situation. The main aim is to provide children with special needs with what they need in order to prevent them, especially those whose parents cannot ensure this support themselves, developing a deeper disturbance, or to make sure that these young people are able to participate in social life and to integrate into society in spite of health problems or handicaps. To achieve these goals and to improve the health of children and adolescents, a community-based paediatric public health service has to cooperate with other institutions such as youth authorities, social welfare, education authorities, schools and other local institutions with an input into the health of children and adolescents. PMID:16179986

  5. Incidence of child and adolescent abuse among incarcerated females in the northeast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Falbo, Gilliatt; Caminha, Fátima; Aguiar, Florence; Albuquerque, Jácia; de Chacon Lourdes, M; Miranda, Simone; Marques, Sônia

    2004-10-01

    The intergenerational transmission of violence and the tendency for abused and neglected children to become abusers, delinquents, and violent offenders in their adult life is an important field to be understood. It is also important to understand these backgrounds to guide future preventative interventions. Through a cross-sectional study, the occurrence of abuse during childhood and adolescence of adult women incarcerated in a female state prison at Recife in northeast Brazil was investigated. Among 219 prisoners, 190 accepted to join the research; 149 were young women (23-27 years) with severe educational deficiency. Living in poor socioeconomical conditions with problematic and violent familiar relations, 116 (61 per cent) left home at the end of their adolescence and the same number reported having been abused (p < 0.000015). There was a statistical significance between the abuses suffered and witnessed by the subjects and the perpetration of abuse against children and adolescents by themselves (p < 0.0022 and p < 0.0000049). Parents were the most frequent perpetrators (37.4 per cent). Sexual activity and use of legal and illegal drugs occurred early in adolescence. The group also had a family history of violence. Based on the analysed data of this studied group, the authors assumed that the abuse suffered in childhood and adolescence of these women drove them to be abusers in adult life and could have been a predictive marker for their conduct disorders and subsequent criminal behavior. PMID:15510761

  6. The Effects of Being an Only Child, Family Cohesion, and Family Conflict on Behavioral Problems among Adolescents with Physically Ill Parents

    PubMed Central

    Sui, Guo-Yuan; Wang, Jia-Na; Liu, Guang-Cong; Wang, Lie

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to examine the parental physical illness’ effect on behavioral problems among adolescents, and the effects of being an only child, family cohesion, and family conflict on behavioral problems among adolescents with physically ill parents in Liaoning province, China. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in 2009. A questionnaire including two dimensions of the Family Environment Scale (family cohesion and family conflict), self-reported Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), and demographic factors was distributed to the subjects. Results: Among the 5220 adolescents, 308 adolescents lived with physically ill parents. The adolescents with physically ill parents had more behavioral problems than adolescents with healthy parents. Among the girls who lived in families with physically ill parents, the SDQ score and the prevalence of SDQ syndromes were higher in the girls with siblings than the girls without siblings after adjusting for variables; the effect of family cohesion on SDQ was significant after adjusting for variables. Conclusion: Interventions targeting family cohesion may be effective to reduce behavioral problems of adolescents with physically ill parents. PMID:26404347

  7. The development and evaluation of the Australian child and adolescent recommended food score: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Diet quality tools have been developed to assess the adequacy of dietary patterns for predicting future morbidity and mortality. This study describes the development and evaluation of a brief food-based diet quality index for use with children at the individual or population level. The Australian Child and Adolescent Recommended Food Score (ACARFS) was developed to reflect adherence to the Dietary Guidelines for Children and Adolescents in Australia and modelled on the approach of the US Recommended Food Score. Methods The ACARFS has eight sub-scales and is scored from zero to 73. The diet quality score was evaluated by assessing correlation (Spearman’s correlations) and agreement (weighted κ statistics) between ACARFS scores and nutrient intakes, derived from a food frequency questionnaire in 691 children (mean age 11.0, SD 1.1) in New South Wales, Australia. Nutrient intakes for ACARFS quartiles were compared with the relevant Australian nutrient reference values. Results ACARFS showed slight to substantial agreement (κ 0.13-0.64) with nutrient intakes, with statistically significant moderate to strong positive correlations with all vitamins, minerals and energy intake (r = 0.42-0.70). ACARFS was not related to BMI.Participants who scored less than the median ACARFS were more likely to have sub-optimal intakes of fibre, folic acid and calcium. Conclusion ACARFS demonstrated sufficient accuracy for use in future studies evaluating diet quality. Future research on its utility in targeting improvements in the nutritional quality of usual eating habits of children and adolescents is warranted. PMID:23164095

  8. Associations between evidence-based practice and mental health outcomes in child and adolescent mental health services.

    PubMed

    Deighton, Jessica; Argent, Rachel; De Francesco, Davide; Edbrooke-Childs, Julian; Jacob, Jenna; Fleming, Isobel; Ford, Tamsin; Wolpert, Miranda

    2016-04-01

    The effectiveness of evidence-based practice in the treatment of children with conduct disorder (n = 186) or emotional disorders (n = 490) in routine care was examined using naturalistic, previously collected data from 30 child and adolescent mental health services. Repeated measures analysis of covariance was used to compare the outcomes of children who received parent training for conduct disorder and cognitive behavioural therapy for emotional disorders (evidence-based practice) with children who did not receive these treatments (non-evidence-based practice). There was a relatively low occurrence of evidence-based practice, particularly for children with conduct disorder. Both the evidence-based practice and non-evidence-based practice groups improve over time, with moderate effect sizes, and there were greater improvements associated with evidence-based practice for children with emotional disorders, based on child self-reported symptoms but not on parent report. In the present sample, significant differences were not found for conduct disorder. Findings provide tentative support for evidence-based practice for the treatment of emotional disorders in routine care settings. PMID:26071258

  9. A National Snapshot of Substance Misuse among Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatients in Malta.

    PubMed

    Grech, Anton; Axiak, Sally

    2015-09-01

    This paper reports on a patient record survey that was undertaken with the central aim of establishing reliable, baseline information to inform strategic planning and organisation of future CAMHS in Malta. The records of the total population of children and adolescents admitted into the psychatric hospital over a five year period were surveyed. Results showed that the characteristics and circumstances of children and adolescents with mental disorder and comorbid substance misuse in Malta are similar to those described in international studies. The survey emphasised the pressing need for further research into this sub group and also highlighted gaps in reliable data systems locally. PMID:26417795

  10. [Placement of children and adolescents following seclusion and restraint actions–a study on family-court approvals of minors in youth welfare, child and adolescent psychiatry and jail according to Para. 1631 German Civil Code].

    PubMed

    Kölch, Michael; Vogel, Harald

    2016-01-01

    According to German law (Para. 1631b German Civil Code), the placement of children and adolescents following seclusion and restraint actions must be approved by a family court. We analyzed the family court data of a court district in Berlin (Tempelhof-Kreuzberg) concerning cases of “placement of minors” between 2008 and 2011. A total of 474 such procedures were discovered. After data clearing and correction of cases (e. g., because of emergency interventions of the youth welfare system taking children into custody according to Para. 42, German Civil Code VIII), 376 cases remained. Of these 376 procedures in the years 2008 to 2011, 127 cases concerned children and adolescents according to Para. 1631b German Civil Code, and 249 procedures were settled either by dismissal, withdrawal or by repealing the initial decision to place the child with restrain or seclusion by means of an interim order or by filing an appeal against the final decision. Of the 127 procedures, 68 concerned girls, who were on average slightly younger than boys (14.5 years vs. 15.1 years). In two thirds of the procedures, the children and adolescents were German citizens. The majority of youths involved were living at home at the time of the procedure, but in 15 % of the case the youths were homeless. Most of the adolescents were treated with restraint in child and adolescent psychiatry. The most frequently quoted reasons for seclusion were substance abuse, suicide risk and running away from home/being homeless. PMID:26864226

  11. Low heart rate as a risk factor for child and adolescent proactive aggressive and impulsive psychopathic behavior.

    PubMed

    Raine, Adrian; Fung, Annis Lai Chu; Portnoy, Jill; Choy, Olivia; Spring, Victoria L

    2014-01-01

    Although low resting heart rate has been viewed as a well-replicated biological correlate of child and adolescent antisocial behavior, little is known about how it interacts with psychosocial adversity in predisposing to both reactive-proactive aggression and psychopathy, and whether this relationship generalizes to an East Asian population. This study tests the hypothesis that low resting heart rate will be associated with aggression and psychopathic traits, and that heart rate will interact with adversity in predisposing to these antisocial traits. Resting heart rate was assessed in 334 Hong Kong male and female schoolchildren aged 11-17 years. A social adversity index was calculated from a psychosocial interview of the parent, while parents assessed their children on the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire and the Antisocial Personality Screening Device. Low resting heart rate was significantly associated with higher proactive aggression, impulsive features of psychopathy, and total child psychopathy. Low resting heart rate interacted with high psychosocial adversity in explaining higher reactive (but not proactive) aggression, as well as impulsive psychopathy. These findings provide support for a biosocial perspective of reactive aggression and impulsive psychopathy, and document low resting heart rate as a robust correlate of both childhood impulsive psychopathic behavior and proactive aggression. To our knowledge, this study is the first to document low resting heart rate as a correlate of child psychopathy and the second to establish low heart rate as a risk factor of antisocial behavior in an East Asian population. The findings provide further evidence for both low resting heart rate as a potential biomarker for childhood psychopathic and aggressive behavior, and also a biosocial perspective on childhood antisocial behavior. PMID:24604759

  12. Stressors and Child and Adolescent Psychopathology: Measurement Issues and Prospective Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Kathryn E.; Compas, Bruce E.; Thurm, Audrey E.; McMahon, Susan D.; Gipson, Polly Y.

    2004-01-01

    This article reviews existing research on the association between stressors and symptoms of psychopathology in children and adolescents with a focus on measurement issues and prospective effects. The first half of the article focuses on the measurement of stressors, emphasizing checklists and interviews. Available measures of stressful experiences…

  13. Testing Structural Models of DSM-IV Symptoms of Common Forms of Child and Adolescent Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahey, Benjamin B.; Rathouz, Paul J.; Van Hulle, Carol; Urbano, Richard C.; Krueger, Robert F.; Applegate, Brooks; Garriock, Holly A.; Chapman, Derek A.; Waldman, Irwin D.

    2008-01-01

    Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted of "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders", Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) symptoms of common mental disorders derived from structured interviews of a representative sample of 4,049 twin children and adolescents and their adult caretakers. A dimensional model based on the assignment of symptoms…

  14. Two Low-Cost Measures of Child and Adolescent Functioning for Services Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickman, L.; Lambert, E. W.; Karver, K.; Andrade, A. R.

    1998-01-01

    The Parent and Youth Vanderbilt Functioning Indexes are functioning problem indexes for children and adolescents that require neither clinicians nor trained raters. Their low cost of administration permits adequate sample sizes in outcome evaluations of large numbers of students. The development of these instruments is described. (SLD)

  15. In Search of HPA Axis Dysregulation in Child and Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerry, John D.; Hastings, Paul D.

    2011-01-01

    Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in adults with major depressive disorder is among the most consistent and robust biological findings in psychiatry. Given the importance of the adolescent transition to the development and recurrence of depressive phenomena over the lifespan, it is important to have an integrative…

  16. Child Immunization Status among a Sample of Adolescent Mothers: Comparing the Validity of Measurement Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Clarissa; Cota-Robles, Sonia; Knight, Margaret; Francis, Judith; Phillips, Elizabeth; Mazerbo, Laurie

    2011-01-01

    This study of adolescent mothers sought to identify whether a single general question asked by phone or a detailed, vaccine-specific question asked in a self-report questionnaire best captured infant immunization status at 6 months postpartum, by comparing them with immunization record books. Responses to a global question about whether infants…

  17. Child and Adolescent (Early Onset) Schizophrenia: A Review in Light of DSM-III-R.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werry, John S.

    1992-01-01

    This review of studies of early onset schizophrenia examines the nosological similarity between adult and early onset schizophrenia, differential diagnosis, treatment, and the extent to which children and adolescents diagnosed as having schizophrenia using adult criteria have the characteristic adult correlates. The paper discusses gender…

  18. Offending Behaviours of Child and Adolescent Firesetters over a 10-Year Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambie, Ian; Ioane, Julia; Randell, Isabel; Seymour, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Background: To assess the postintervention arson recidivism and other offending rates of a group of 182 firesetting children and adolescents referred to the New Zealand Fire Awareness and Intervention Program (FAIP) over a follow-up period of 10 years. To investigate predictors of offending behaviour as well as variables associated with previous…

  19. Viewing Violence: How Media Violence Affects Your Child's and Adolescent's Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Madeline

    Numerous studies have shown that viewing media violence encourages aggression, desensitization, and pessimism in children. This book reviews research on the effects of television and movie violence on children and adolescents, offering parents suggestions for dealing with the problems it creates. It is asserted that parents frequently…

  20. The Quality of Parent/Child Relationships in Adolescence Is Associated with Poor Adult Psychosocial Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raudino, Alessandra; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John

    2013-01-01

    This study used data gathered over the course of a New Zealand longitudinal study (N = 924) to examine the relationships between measures of parental bonding and attachment in adolescence (age 15-16) and later personal adjustment (major depression; anxiety disorder; suicidal behaviour; illicit drug abuse/dependence; crime) assessed up to the age…

  1. African American Adolescents' Perceptions of Family Interactions: Kinship Support, Parent-Child Relationships, and Teen Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamborn, Susie D.; Nguyen, Dang-Giao T.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined perceived kinship support and parenting practices for 158 African American adolescents in the 9th and 10th grades. Kinship support showed direct associations with teen outcomes that, for work orientation and school orientation, were partially mediated by parenting practices. With a few exceptions, kinship support was positively…

  2. The Concurrence of Eating Disorders with Histories of Child Abuse among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Jeanne

    1995-01-01

    Examines the relationship between eating disorders and history of physical abuse, incest, and extrafamilial sexual abuse. Results of a survey of adolescents (n=6,224) indicate that eating disorders are correlated with all 3 types of abuse. Presence of an eating disorder also correlates with presence of other addictive behaviors, family history of…

  3. Management of Child and Adolescent Eating Disorders: The Current Evidence Base and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gowers, Simon; Bryant-Waugh, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    Although eating disorders in children and adolescents remain a serious cause of morbidity and mortality, the evidence base for effective interventions is surprisingly weak. The adult literature is growing steadily, but this is mainly with regard to psychological therapies for bulimia nervosa and to some extent in the field of pharmacotherapy. This…

  4. Child/Adolescent Abuse and Suicidal Behavior: Are They Sex Related?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gal, Gilad; Levav, Itzhak; Gross, Raz

    2012-01-01

    The association between childhood and adolescent abuse and suicidal behavior, and the possible contribution of abuse to sex differences in non lethal suicidal behavior, was investigated. Data were extracted from the Israel-based component of the WHO World Mental Health Survey (Kessler & Utsun, 2008a). Increased risk for ideation, plan, and…

  5. Learning that an Adolescent Child Is Gay or Lesbian: The Parent Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltzburg, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Increasing numbers of adolescents are disclosing their sexual orientation to parents at an earlier stage of the family life cycle than their predecessors. Although we know that parents are coexperiencing the range of difficulties reflected in reports of gay and lesbian youths after disclosure, there is a paucity of investigative research exploring…

  6. Child Sexual Abuse Is Largely Hidden from the Adult Society: An Epidemiological Study of Adolescents' Disclosures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Goran

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate disclosure rates and disclosure patterns and to examine predictors of non-disclosure in a sample of male and female adolescents with self-reported experiences of sexual abuse. Method: A sample of 4,339 high school seniors (2,324 girls, 2,015 boys) was examined with a questionnaire concerning…

  7. A Critical Analysis of the Child and Adolescent Wellness Scale (CAWS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weller-Clarke, Alandra

    2006-01-01

    Current practice for assessing children and adolescents rely on objectively scored deficit-based models and/or informal assessments to determine how maladaptive behaviors affect performance. Social-emotional assessment instruments are used in schools and typically provide information related to behavioral and emotional deficits, but provide little…

  8. Prevalence of Child and Adolescent Mental Disorders in Chile: A Community Epidemiological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vicente, Benjamin; Saldivia, Sandra; de la Barra, Flora; Kohn, Robert; Pihan, Ronaldo; Valdivia, Mario; Rioseco, Pedro; Melipillan, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Background: In Latin America, there is limited research on the prevalence of mental disorders in children and adolescents. This Chilean survey is the first national representative survey in the Latin American region to examine the prevalence of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV (DSM-IV) psychiatric disorders in the region in children and…

  9. What Growing Up Is All About: A Parent's Guide to Child and Adolescent Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernon, Ann; Al-Mabuk, Radhi H.

    Noting that parenting is a responsibility people enter into with varying degrees of competence and confidence, this book offers parents information on children's developmental stages so that they may effectively address typical problems of childhood and adolescence. Following a brief introduction, the first chapter of the book discusses general…

  10. Associations of Personality with Alcohol Use Behaviour and Alcohol Problems in Adolescents Receiving Child Welfare Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Sherry Heather; McGonnell, Melissa; Wekerle, Christine; Adlaf, Ed

    2011-01-01

    Four specific personality factors have been theorized to put adolescents at risk for alcohol abuse: hopelessness (HOP), anxiety sensitivity (AS), sensation seeking (SS), and impulsivity (IMP). We examined relations of these personality factors to various alcohol-related indices in a sample at high risk for alcohol problems--specifically, a child…

  11. The Relationship between Child Sexual Abuse and Academic Achievement in a Sample of Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckle, Sarah K.; Lancaster, Sandra; Powell, Martin B.; Higgins, Daryl J.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the relationship between sexual abuse and academic achievement in an adolescent inpatient psychiatric population. Individual factors expected to influence this relationship were measured to explore the way they each interacted with sexual abuse and its relationship to academic achievement. Method: Eighty-one adolescent…

  12. Child and Adolescent Inpatient Restraint Reduction: A State Initiative to Promote Strength-Based Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBel, Janice; Stromberg, Nan; Duckworth, Ken; Kerzner, Joan; Goldstein, Robert; Weeks, Michael; Harper, Gordon; LaFlair, Lareina; Sudders, Marylou

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To reduce the use of restraint and seclusion with children and adolescents in psychiatric inpatient units by promoting a preventive, strength-based model of care. Method: The State Mental Health Authority used data analysis, quality improvement strategies, regulatory oversight, and technical assistance to develop and implement system…

  13. Associations between Sugar Intake from Different Food Sources and Adiposity or Cardio-Metabolic Risk in Childhood and Adolescence: The Korean Child-Adolescent Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Hur, Yang-Im; Park, Hyesook; Kang, Jae-Heon; Lee, Hye-Ah; Song, Hong Ji; Lee, Hae-Jeung; Kim, Ok-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity is a serious public health problem associated with co-morbidities in adulthood, as well as childhood. This study was conducted to identify associations between total sugar intake and sugar intake from different foods (fruit, milk, and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs)), and adiposity and continuous metabolic syndrome scores (cMetS) among Korean children and adolescents using cohort data. The study subjects were children (n = 770) who participated in the 4th year (2008) of the Korean Child-Adolescent Cohort Study (KoCAS). Dietary intake data were collected via three-day 24-h food records, and sugar intake was calculated for the total sugar content of foods using our database compiled from various sources. Anthropometric measurements, assessments of body composition, and blood sample analysis were performed at baseline and at follow-up four years later. The cMetS was calculated based on waist circumference, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, and mean arterial blood pressure. According to multiple linear regression analysis, there were no significant associations between total sugar intake and adiposity and cMetS. However, higher intake of fruit sugar at baseline was significantly associated with lower body mass index (BMI) z-scores and body fat percentages at baseline (β = -0.10, p = 0.02 and β = -0.78, p < 0.01, respectively). At follow-up, sugar intake from fruit at baseline was still negatively associated with the above outcomes, but only the relationship with BMI z-scores retained statistical significance (β = -0.08, p < 0.05). There was a significant positive relationship between consumption of sugar from SSBs and cMetS at baseline (β = 0.04, p = 0.02), but that relationship was not observed at follow-up (p = 0.83). Differences in consumption sugars from fruit and SSBs might play an important role in the risk of adiposity and metabolic disease in children and adolescents. Our results

  14. The Ethics Committees of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and the American Psychiatric Association: history, process, education, and advocacy.

    PubMed

    Sondheimer, Adrian N; Klykylo, William M

    2008-01-01

    The American Psychiatric Association (APA) and the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP) are the primary organizational embodiments of the specialties of, respectively, general psychiatry and child and adolescent psychiatry in the United States. Professional organizations set guidelines and standards for the expected behaviors of their members. To those ends, ethics committees were established by both the APA and the AACAP. This article describes how each of these organizations, via their committees, produced codes of ethics, and continuously provide relevant educational materials and advocacy efforts. It also reviews the APA ethics committee's responsibility for the evaluation of ethical complaints lodged against members. In closing, the article examines ethical dilemmas lurking on the horizon, beginning to be faced by the specialties and thus likely to be addressed by the committees. PMID:18036488

  15. Child and Adolescent Emotion Regulation: The Role of Parental Emotion Regulation and Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bariola, Emily; Gullone, Eleonora; Hughes, Elizabeth K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews current literature relating to parent and child emotional functioning, specifically their emotion regulatory skills and emotional expression. Included are considerations regarding theoretical, methodological, and sampling strengths and weaknesses of existing literature. On the basis of the review, several directions for future…

  16. Your Child's Growing Mind: A Guide to Learning and Brain Development from Birth to Adolescence. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, Jane M.

    Noting that understanding a child's brain and the way it develops is the key to understanding learning, this book explores the relationship between brain physiology and children's learning processes. The book first translates the most current scientific theories on nervous-system development into practical information for parents. It then details…

  17. Mental Health of Immigrant Children: A New Challenge for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Services in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skokauskas, Norbert; Clarke, Dermot

    2009-01-01

    Ethnically, Ireland has diversified greatly over the past few years. According to the 2006 census, 419733 foreign nationals live in Ireland. Immigration is one of the one of the most stressful events a child can undergo; it involves profound changes, including a disruption of well-established relationships and acculturation. Since the…

  18. Incorporating Health and Behavioral Consequences of Child Abuse in Prevention Programs Targeting Female Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buzi, Ruth S.; Weinman, Maxine L.; Smith, Peggy B.

    1998-01-01

    Examined the health and behavioral consequences of child abuse, comparing parenting and never-pregnant teens. Both groups identified major consequences of suicide, prostitution, school drop-out, crime, and substance abuse. Parenting teens expressed interest in prevention programs that would address these consequences. Recommendations for child…

  19. The Child PTSD Symptom Scale: Psychometric Properties in Female Adolescent Sexual Assault Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillihan, Seth J.; Aderka, Idan M.; Conklin, Phoebe H.; Capaldi, Sandra; Foa, Edna B.

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic experiences are common among youths and can lead to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In order to identify traumatized children who need PTSD treatment, instruments that can accurately and efficiently evaluate pediatric PTSD are needed. One such measure is the Child PTSD Symptom Scale (CPSS), which has been found to be a reliable and…

  20. Facts for Families from the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry [1989].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Washington, DC.

    Six fact sheets on issues relevant to children's emotional well being are presented in this document. The first fact sheet, "Children and Divorce" provides information for parents to consider when getting a divorce. Parents are encouraged to be aware of the stress that the events surrounding a divorce cause for the child. The second fact sheet,…