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Sample records for acad sci issn

  1. ISSN Roundtable: FAQs About the ISSN.

    PubMed

    Antonio, Jose; Gann, Marc; Kalman, Douglas; Katch, Frank; Kleiner, Susan; Kreider, Richard; Willoughby, Darryn

    2005-01-01

    : MISSION STATEMENT OF THE ISSN : The mission of the International Society of Sports Nutrition is to be recognized as the leading professional organization in the study and application of sports nutrition. The ISSN is dedicated to promoting and supporting the study, practice, education, research and development of sports nutrition and the sports nutrition profession. All information disseminated by the ISSN is unbiased and scientifically supported. PMID:18500952

  2. ISSN Exercise & Sport Nutrition Review: Research & Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Kreider, Richard B; Almada, Anthony L; Antonio, Jose; Broeder, Craig; Earnest, Conrad; Greenwood, Mike; Incledon, Thomas; Kalman, Douglas S; Kleiner, Susan M; Leutholtz, Brian; Lowery, Lonnie M; Mendel, Ron; Stout, Jeffrey R; Willoughby, Darryn S; Ziegenfuss, Tim N

    2004-01-01

    Sport nutrition is a constantly evolving field with literally thousands of research papers published annually. For this reason, keeping up to date with the literature is often difficult. This paper presents a well-referenced overview of the current state of the science related to how to optimize training through nutrition. More specifically, this article discusses: 1.) how to evaluate the scientific merit of nutritional supplements; 2.) general nutritional strategies to optimize performance and enhance recovery; and, 3.) our current understanding of the available science behind weight gain, weight loss, and performance enhancement supplements. Our hope is that ISSN members find this review useful in their daily practice and consultation with their clients.

  3. ISSN exercise & sport nutrition review: research & recommendations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Sports nutrition is a constantly evolving field with hundreds of research papers published annually. For this reason, keeping up to date with the literature is often difficult. This paper is a five year update of the sports nutrition review article published as the lead paper to launch the JISSN in 2004 and presents a well-referenced overview of the current state of the science related to how to optimize training and athletic performance through nutrition. More specifically, this paper provides an overview of: 1.) The definitional category of ergogenic aids and dietary supplements; 2.) How dietary supplements are legally regulated; 3.) How to evaluate the scientific merit of nutritional supplements; 4.) General nutritional strategies to optimize performance and enhance recovery; and, 5.) An overview of our current understanding of the ergogenic value of nutrition and dietary supplementation in regards to weight gain, weight loss, and performance enhancement. Our hope is that ISSN members and individuals interested in sports nutrition find this review useful in their daily practice and consultation with their clients. PMID:20181066

  4. ISSN exercise & sport nutrition review: research & recommendations.

    PubMed

    Kreider, Richard B; Wilborn, Colin D; Taylor, Lem; Campbell, Bill; Almada, Anthony L; Collins, Rick; Cooke, Mathew; Earnest, Conrad P; Greenwood, Mike; Kalman, Douglas S; Kerksick, Chad M; Kleiner, Susan M; Leutholtz, Brian; Lopez, Hector; Lowery, Lonnie M; Mendel, Ron; Smith, Abbie; Spano, Marie; Wildman, Robert; Willoughby, Darryn S; Ziegenfuss, Tim N; Antonio, Jose

    2010-01-01

    Sports nutrition is a constantly evolving field with hundreds of research papers published annually. For this reason, keeping up to date with the literature is often difficult. This paper is a five year update of the sports nutrition review article published as the lead paper to launch the JISSN in 2004 and presents a well-referenced overview of the current state of the science related to how to optimize training and athletic performance through nutrition. More specifically, this paper provides an overview of: 1.) The definitional category of ergogenic aids and dietary supplements; 2.) How dietary supplements are legally regulated; 3.) How to evaluate the scientific merit of nutritional supplements; 4.) General nutritional strategies to optimize performance and enhance recovery; and, 5.) An overview of our current understanding of the ergogenic value of nutrition and dietary supplementation in regards to weight gain, weight loss, and performance enhancement. Our hope is that ISSN members and individuals interested in sports nutrition find this review useful in their daily practice and consultation with their clients. PMID:20181066

  5. Energy data base. Serial titles with ISSN listing

    SciTech Connect

    Hendricks, P.L.

    1984-03-01

    This issue of Serial Titles with ISSN Listing is the first revision of DOE/TIC-4579 to include the International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) for journals. The TIC journal authority was established to bring about conformity in citing the approximately 16,000 titles contained in this authority. It can prove to be a valuable tool in establishing the precise journal by ISSN and CODEN indication, especially for journals with the same title published in different locations. Serial Titles with ISSN Listing is comprised of two parts. Part 1 is an alphabetical listing by full title of the publication and also includes abbreviated title, CODEN, ISSN, coverage code, and country code. Part 2 is an ISSN-title correlation arranged in numeric order by ISSN and also includes the CODEN and full title.

  6. Energy Data Base: Serial titles with ISSN listing: Part 1, Alphabetic arrangement by title

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, J.H.

    1986-12-01

    ''Serial Titles with ISSN Listing'' lists periodical titles which have been included in the OSTI (Office of Scientific and Technical Information) Journal Authority. The OSTI Journal Authority was established to standardize the citing of the approximately 23,000 titles contained in this authority. It is also a valuable tool for identifying journals by ISSN and CODEN, especially for journals with the same title which are published in different locations. This Part 1 is an alphabetical listing by full title of the journal publication and also includes abbreviated title, CODEN, ISSN, coverage code, and country code.

  7. The International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) and Its Use by the United States Postal Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartley, Linda K.

    1980-01-01

    Describes the rationale and procedures for the implementation of the mandatory printing of ISSN on serials mailed at special rates through the United States mail. The article cites bibliographical, commercial, and managerial benefits for the information community. (Author/RAA)

  8. Linking Successive Entries Based upon the OCLC Control Number, ISSN, or LCCN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alan, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Describes a study that examined the feasibility of using machine links in an online catalog based on the presence of an OCLC control number, International Standard Serial Number (ISSN), or Library of Congress control number (LCCN) to link successive-entry serial bibliographic records that result from serial title changes. (Contains nine…

  9. Reveal genes functionally associated with ACADS by a network study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yulong; Su, Zhiguang

    2015-09-15

    Establishing a systematic network is aimed at finding essential human gene-gene/gene-disease pathway by means of network inter-connecting patterns and functional annotation analysis. In the present study, we have analyzed functional gene interactions of short-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase gene (ACADS). ACADS plays a vital role in free fatty acid β-oxidation and regulates energy homeostasis. Modules of highly inter-connected genes in disease-specific ACADS network are derived by integrating gene function and protein interaction data. Among the 8 genes in ACADS web retrieved from both STRING and GeneMANIA, ACADS is effectively conjoined with 4 genes including HAHDA, HADHB, ECHS1 and ACAT1. The functional analysis is done via ontological briefing and candidate disease identification. We observed that the highly efficient-interlinked genes connected with ACADS are HAHDA, HADHB, ECHS1 and ACAT1. Interestingly, the ontological aspect of genes in the ACADS network reveals that ACADS, HAHDA and HADHB play equally vital roles in fatty acid metabolism. The gene ACAT1 together with ACADS indulges in ketone metabolism. Our computational gene web analysis also predicts potential candidate disease recognition, thus indicating the involvement of ACADS, HAHDA, HADHB, ECHS1 and ACAT1 not only with lipid metabolism but also with infant death syndrome, skeletal myopathy, acute hepatic encephalopathy, Reye-like syndrome, episodic ketosis, and metabolic acidosis. The current study presents a comprehensible layout of ACADS network, its functional strategies and candidate disease approach associated with ACADS network. PMID:26045367

  10. Complex I assembly function and fatty acid oxidation enzyme activity of ACAD9 both contribute to disease severity in ACAD9 deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Schiff, Manuel; Haberberger, Birgit; Xia, Chuanwu; Mohsen, Al-Walid; Goetzman, Eric S.; Wang, Yudong; Uppala, Radha; Zhang, Yuxun; Karunanidhi, Anuradha; Prabhu, Dolly; Alharbi, Hana; Prochownik, Edward V.; Haack, Tobias; Häberle, Johannes; Munnich, Arnold; Rötig, Agnes; Taylor, Robert W.; Nicholls, Robert D.; Kim, Jung-Ja; Prokisch, Holger; Vockley, Jerry

    2015-01-01

    Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase 9 (ACAD9) is an assembly factor for mitochondrial respiratory chain Complex I (CI), and ACAD9 mutations are recognized as a frequent cause of CI deficiency. ACAD9 also retains enzyme ACAD activity for long-chain fatty acids in vitro, but the biological relevance of this function remains controversial partly because of the tissue specificity of ACAD9 expression: high in liver and neurons and minimal in skin fibroblasts. In this study, we hypothesized that this enzymatic ACAD activity is required for full fatty acid oxidation capacity in cells expressing high levels of ACAD9 and that loss of this function is important in determining phenotype in ACAD9-deficient patients. First, we confirmed that HEK293 cells express ACAD9 abundantly. Then, we showed that ACAD9 knockout in HEK293 cells affected long-chain fatty acid oxidation along with Cl, both of which were rescued by wild type ACAD9. Further, we evaluated whether the loss of ACAD9 enzymatic fatty acid oxidation affects clinical severity in patients with ACAD9 mutations. The effects on ACAD activity of 16 ACAD9 mutations identified in 24 patients were evaluated using a prokaryotic expression system. We showed that there was a significant inverse correlation between residual enzyme ACAD activity and phenotypic severity of ACAD9-deficient patients. These results provide evidence that in cells where it is strongly expressed, ACAD9 plays a physiological role in fatty acid oxidation, which contributes to the severity of the phenotype in ACAD9-deficient patients. Accordingly, treatment of ACAD9 patients should aim at counteracting both CI and fatty acid oxidation dysfunctions. PMID:25721401

  11. Ready Reference. How To Obtain an ISBN; How To Obtain an ISSN; How To Obtain an SAN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koltay, Emery

    2003-01-01

    These three articles describe ISBNs (International Standard Book Numbers); ISSNs (International Standard Serial Numbers); and SANs (Standard Address Numbers), for organizations served by the book industry; and explains how to apply to obtain the appropriate numbers. (LRW)

  12. SCI Hazard Report Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the methodology in creating a Source Control Item (SCI) Hazard Report (HR). The SCI HR provides a system safety risk assessment for the following Ares I Upper Stage Production Contract (USPC) components (1) Pyro Separation Systems (2) Main Propulsion System (3) Reaction and Roll Control Systems (4) Thrust Vector Control System and (5) Ullage Settling Motor System components.

  13. SPINAL CORD INJURY (SCI) DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Spinal Cord Injury Database has been in existence since 1973 and captures data from SCI cases in the United States. Since its inception, 24 federally funded Model SCI Care Systems have contributed data to the National SCI Database. Statistics are derived from this da...

  14. A novel morpholino oligomer targeting ISS-N1 improves rescue of severe spinal muscular atrophy transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Haiyan; Janghra, Narinder; Mitrpant, Chalermchai; Dickinson, Rachel L; Anthony, Karen; Price, Loren; Eperon, Ian C; Wilton, Stephen D; Morgan, Jennifer; Muntoni, Francesco

    2013-03-01

    In the search for the most efficacious antisense oligonucleotides (AOs) aimed at inducing SMN2 exon 7 inclusion, we systematically assessed three AOs, PMO25 (-10, -34), PMO18 (-10, -27), and PMO20 (-10, -29), complementary to the SMN2 intron 7 splicing silencer (ISS-N1). PMO25 was the most efficacious in augmenting exon 7 inclusion in vitro in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) patient fibroblasts and in vitro splicing assays. PMO25 and PMO18 were compared further in a mouse model of severe SMA. After a single intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection in neonatal mice, PMO25 increased the life span of severe SMA mice up to 30-fold, with average survival greater by 3-fold compared with PMO18 at a dose of 20 μg/g and 2-fold at 40 μg/g. Exon 7 inclusion was increased in the CNS but not in peripheral tissues. Systemic delivery of PMO25 at birth achieved a similar outcome and produced increased exon 7 inclusion both in the CNS and peripherally. Systemic administration of a 10-μg/g concentration of PMO25 conjugated to an octaguanidine dendrimer (VMO25) increased the life span only 2-fold in neonatal type I SMA mice, although it prevented tail necrosis in mild SMA mice. Higher doses and ICV injection of VMO25 were associated with toxicity. We conclude that (1) the 25-mer AO is more efficient than the 18-mer and 20-mer in modifying SMN2 splicing in vitro; (2) it is more efficient in prolonging survival in SMA mice; and (3) naked Morpholino oligomers are more efficient and safer than the Vivo-Morpholino and have potential for future SMA clinical applications. PMID:23339722

  15. Ready Reference. Publishers' Toll-Free Telephone Numbers and Web Sites; How To Obtain an ISBN; How To Obtain an ISSN; How To Obtain an SAN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koltay, Emery

    2002-01-01

    Includes four articles: one lists publishers' toll-free telephone numbers and Web sites; and the others explain how to obtain an ISBN (International Standard Book Number), an ISSN (International Standard Serial Number), and an SAN (Standard Address Number) for organizations involved in the book industry. (LRW)

  16. Preface: SciDAC 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Horst

    2009-07-01

    By almost any measure, the SciDAC community has come a long way since DOE launched the SciDAC program back in 2001. At the time, we were grappling with how to efficiently run applications on terascale systems (the November 2001 TOP500 list was led by DOE's ASCI White IBM system at Lawrence Livermore achieving 7.2 teraflop/s). And the results stemming from the first round of SciDAC projects were summed up in two-page reports. The scientific results were presented at annual meetings, which were by invitation only and typically were attended by about 75 researchers. Fast forward to 2009 and we now have SciDAC Review, a quarterly magazine showcasing the scientific computing contributions of SciDAC projects and related programs, all focused on presenting a comprehensive look at Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing. That is also the motivation behind the annual SciDAC conference that in 2009 was held from June 14-18 in San Diego. The annual conference, which can also be described as a celebration of all things SciDAC, grew out those meetings organized in the early days of the program. In 2005, the meeting was held in San Francisco and attendance was opened up to all members of the SciDAC community. The schedule was also expanded to include a keynote address, plenary speakers and other features found in a conference format. This year marks the fifth such SciDAC conference, which now comprises four days of computational science presentations, multiple poster sessions and, since last year, an evening event showcasing simulations and modeling runs resulting from SciDAC projects. The fifth annual SciDAC conference was remarkable on several levels. The primary purpose, of course, is to showcase the research accomplishments resulting from SciDAC programs in particular and computational science in general. It is these accomplishments, represented in 38 papers and 52 posters, that comprise this set of conference proceedings. These proceedings can stand alone as

  17. Preface: SciDAC 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Horst

    2009-07-01

    By almost any measure, the SciDAC community has come a long way since DOE launched the SciDAC program back in 2001. At the time, we were grappling with how to efficiently run applications on terascale systems (the November 2001 TOP500 list was led by DOE's ASCI White IBM system at Lawrence Livermore achieving 7.2 teraflop/s). And the results stemming from the first round of SciDAC projects were summed up in two-page reports. The scientific results were presented at annual meetings, which were by invitation only and typically were attended by about 75 researchers. Fast forward to 2009 and we now have SciDAC Review, a quarterly magazine showcasing the scientific computing contributions of SciDAC projects and related programs, all focused on presenting a comprehensive look at Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing. That is also the motivation behind the annual SciDAC conference that in 2009 was held from June 14-18 in San Diego. The annual conference, which can also be described as a celebration of all things SciDAC, grew out those meetings organized in the early days of the program. In 2005, the meeting was held in San Francisco and attendance was opened up to all members of the SciDAC community. The schedule was also expanded to include a keynote address, plenary speakers and other features found in a conference format. This year marks the fifth such SciDAC conference, which now comprises four days of computational science presentations, multiple poster sessions and, since last year, an evening event showcasing simulations and modeling runs resulting from SciDAC projects. The fifth annual SciDAC conference was remarkable on several levels. The primary purpose, of course, is to showcase the research accomplishments resulting from SciDAC programs in particular and computational science in general. It is these accomplishments, represented in 38 papers and 52 posters, that comprise this set of conference proceedings. These proceedings can stand alone as

  18. Evidence of a wide spectrum of cardiac involvement due to ACAD9 mutations: Report on nine patients.

    PubMed

    Dewulf, Joseph P; Barrea, Catherine; Vincent, Marie-Françoise; De Laet, Corinne; Van Coster, Rudy; Seneca, Sara; Marie, Sandrine; Nassogne, Marie-Cécile

    2016-07-01

    Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase 9 (ACAD9) is a mitochondrial protein involved in oxidative phosphorylation complex I biogenesis. This protein also exhibits acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACAD) activity. ACAD9-mutated patients have been reported to suffer from primarily heart, muscle, liver, and nervous system disorders. ACAD9 mutation is suspected in cases of elevated lactic acid levels combined with complex I deficiency, and confirmed by ACAD9 gene analysis. At least 18 ACAD9-mutated patients have previously been reported, usually displaying severe cardiac involvement. We retrospectively studied nine additional patients from three unrelated families with a wide spectrum of cardiac involvement between the families as well as the patients from the same families. All patients exhibited elevated lactate levels. Deleterious ACAD9 mutations were identified in all patients except one for whom it was not possible to recover DNA. To our knowledge, this is one of the first reports on isolated mild ventricular hypertrophy due to ACAD9 mutation in a family with moderate symptoms during adolescence. This report also confirms that dilated cardiomyopathy may occur in conjunction with ACAD9 mutation and that some patients may respond clinically to riboflavin treatment. Of note, several patients suffered from patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), with one exhibiting a complex congenital heart defect. It is yet unknown whether these cardiac manifestations were related to ACAD9 mutation. In conclusion, this disorder should be suspected in the presence of lactic acidosis, complex I deficiency, and any cardiac involvement, even mild. PMID:27233227

  19. Preface: SciDAC 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, William M., Dr.

    2006-01-01

    The second annual Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) Conference was held from June 25-29, 2006 at the new Hyatt Regency Hotel in Denver, Colorado. This conference showcased outstanding SciDAC-sponsored computational science results achieved during the past year across many scientific domains, with an emphasis on science at scale. Exciting computational science that has been accomplished outside of the SciDAC program both nationally and internationally was also featured to help foster communication between SciDAC computational scientists and those funded by other agencies. This was illustrated by many compelling examples of how domain scientists collaborated productively with applied mathematicians and computer scientists to effectively take advantage of terascale computers (capable of performing trillions of calculations per second) not only to accelerate progress in scientific discovery in a variety of fields but also to show great promise for being able to utilize the exciting petascale capabilities in the near future. The SciDAC program was originally conceived as an interdisciplinary computational science program based on the guiding principle that strong collaborative alliances between domain scientists, applied mathematicians, and computer scientists are vital to accelerated progress and associated discovery on the world's most challenging scientific problems. Associated verification and validation are essential in this successful program, which was funded by the US Department of Energy Office of Science (DOE OS) five years ago. As is made clear in many of the papers in these proceedings, SciDAC has fundamentally changed the way that computational science is now carried out in response to the exciting challenge of making the best use of the rapid progress in the emergence of more and more powerful computational platforms. In this regard, Dr. Raymond Orbach, Energy Undersecretary for Science at the DOE and Director of the OS has stated

  20. Preface: SciDAC 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Rick

    2008-07-01

    The fourth annual Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) Conference was held June 13-18, 2008, in Seattle, Washington. The SciDAC conference series is the premier communitywide venue for presentation of results from the DOE Office of Science's interdisciplinary computational science program. Started in 2001 and renewed in 2006, the DOE SciDAC program is the country's - and arguably the world's - most significant interdisciplinary research program supporting the development of advanced scientific computing methods and their application to fundamental and applied areas of science. SciDAC supports computational science across many disciplines, including astrophysics, biology, chemistry, fusion sciences, and nuclear physics. Moreover, the program actively encourages the creation of long-term partnerships among scientists focused on challenging problems and computer scientists and applied mathematicians developing the technology and tools needed to address those problems. The SciDAC program has played an increasingly important role in scientific research by allowing scientists to create more accurate models of complex processes, simulate problems once thought to be impossible, and analyze the growing amount of data generated by experiments. To help further the research community's ability to tap into the capabilities of current and future supercomputers, Under Secretary for Science, Raymond Orbach, launched the Innovative and Novel Computational Impact on Theory and Experiment (INCITE) program in 2003. The INCITE program was conceived specifically to seek out computationally intensive, large-scale research projects with the potential to significantly advance key areas in science and engineering. The program encourages proposals from universities, other research institutions, and industry. During the first two years of the INCITE program, 10 percent of the resources at NERSC were allocated to INCITE awardees. However, demand for supercomputing resources

  1. Preface: SciDAC 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keyes, David E.

    2007-09-01

    It takes a village to perform a petascale computation—domain scientists, applied mathematicians, computer scientists, computer system vendors, program managers, and support staff—and the village was assembled during 24-28 June 2007 in Boston's Westin Copley Place for the third annual Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) 2007 Conference. Over 300 registered participants networked around 76 posters, focused on achievements and challenges in 36 plenary talks, and brainstormed in two panels. In addition, with an eye to spreading the vision for simulation at the petascale and to growing the workforce, 115 participants—mostly doctoral students and post-docs complementary to the conferees—were gathered on 29 June 2007 in classrooms of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology for a full day of tutorials on the use of SciDAC software. Eleven SciDAC-sponsored research groups presented their software at an introductory level, in both lecture and hands-on formats that included live runs on a local BlueGene/L. Computation has always been about garnering insight into the behavior of systems too complex to explore satisfactorily by theoretical means alone. Today, however, computation is about much more: scientists and decision makers expect quantitatively reliable predictions from simulations ranging in scale from that of the Earth's climate, down to quarks, and out to colliding black holes. Predictive simulation lies at the heart of policy choices in energy and environment affecting billions of lives and expenditures of trillions of dollars. It is also at the heart of scientific debates on the nature of matter and the origin of the universe. The petascale is barely adequate for such demands and we are barely established at the levels of resolution and throughput that this new scale of computation affords. However, no scientific agenda worldwide is pushing the petascale frontier on all its fronts as vigorously as SciDAC. The breadth of this conference

  2. FAQs about Spinal Cord Injury (SCI)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Website Managing Bowel Function After Spinal Cord Injury Resilience, Depression and Bouncing Back after SCI Getting to ... a “complete” and “incomplete” spinal cord injury? What recovery is expected following spinal cord injury? Where is ...

  3. Accelerating Scientific Analysis with SciDB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerhardt, L.; Faham, C. H.; Yao, Y.

    2015-12-01

    SciDB is an open-source analytical database for scalable complex analytics on very large array or multi-structured data from a variety of sources, programmable from Python and R. It runs on HPC, commodity hardware grids, or in a cloud and can manage and analyze terabytes of array-structured data and do complex analytics in-database. We present an overall description of the SciDB framework and describe its implementation at NERSC at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. A case study using SciDB to analyze data from the LUX dark matter detector is described and future plans for a large SciDB array at NERSC are described.

  4. Preface: SciDAC 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Rick

    2008-07-01

    The fourth annual Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) Conference was held June 13-18, 2008, in Seattle, Washington. The SciDAC conference series is the premier communitywide venue for presentation of results from the DOE Office of Science's interdisciplinary computational science program. Started in 2001 and renewed in 2006, the DOE SciDAC program is the country's - and arguably the world's - most significant interdisciplinary research program supporting the development of advanced scientific computing methods and their application to fundamental and applied areas of science. SciDAC supports computational science across many disciplines, including astrophysics, biology, chemistry, fusion sciences, and nuclear physics. Moreover, the program actively encourages the creation of long-term partnerships among scientists focused on challenging problems and computer scientists and applied mathematicians developing the technology and tools needed to address those problems. The SciDAC program has played an increasingly important role in scientific research by allowing scientists to create more accurate models of complex processes, simulate problems once thought to be impossible, and analyze the growing amount of data generated by experiments. To help further the research community's ability to tap into the capabilities of current and future supercomputers, Under Secretary for Science, Raymond Orbach, launched the Innovative and Novel Computational Impact on Theory and Experiment (INCITE) program in 2003. The INCITE program was conceived specifically to seek out computationally intensive, large-scale research projects with the potential to significantly advance key areas in science and engineering. The program encourages proposals from universities, other research institutions, and industry. During the first two years of the INCITE program, 10 percent of the resources at NERSC were allocated to INCITE awardees. However, demand for supercomputing resources

  5. High incidence and variable clinical outcome of cardiac hypertrophy due to ACAD9 mutations in childhood.

    PubMed

    Collet, Marie; Assouline, Zahra; Bonnet, Damien; Rio, Marlène; Iserin, Franck; Sidi, Daniel; Goldenberg, Alice; Lardennois, Caroline; Metodiev, Metodi Dimitrov; Haberberger, Birgit; Haack, Tobias; Munnich, Arnold; Prokisch, Holger; Rötig, Agnès

    2016-08-01

    Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase family, member 9 (ACAD9) mutation is a frequent, usually fatal cause of early-onset cardiac hypertrophy and mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I deficiency in early childhood. We retrospectively studied a series of 20 unrelated children with cardiac hypertrophy and isolated complex I deficiency and identified compound heterozygosity for missense, splice site or frame shift ACAD9 variants in 8/20 patients (40%). Age at onset ranged from neonatal period to 9 years and 5/8 died in infancy. Heart transplantation was possible in 3/8. Two of them survived and one additional patient improved spontaneously. Importantly, the surviving patients later developed delayed-onset neurologic or muscular symptoms, namely cognitive impairment, seizures, muscle weakness and exercise intolerance. Other organ involvement included proximal tubulopathy, renal failure, secondary ovarian failure and optic atrophy. We conclude that ACAD9 mutation is the most frequent cause of cardiac hypertrophy and isolated complex I deficiency. Heart transplantation in children surviving neonatal period should be considered with caution, as delayed-onset muscle and brain involvement of various severity may occur, even if absent prior to transplantation. PMID:26669660

  6. Preface: SciDAC 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezzacappa, Anthony

    2005-01-01

    On 26-30 June 2005 at the Grand Hyatt on Union Square in San Francisco several hundred computational scientists from around the world came together for what can certainly be described as a celebration of computational science. Scientists from the SciDAC Program and scientists from other agencies and nations were joined by applied mathematicians and computer scientists to highlight the many successes in the past year where computation has led to scientific discovery in a variety of fields: lattice quantum chromodynamics, accelerator modeling, chemistry, biology, materials science, Earth and climate science, astrophysics, and combustion and fusion energy science. Also highlighted were the advances in numerical methods and computer science, and the multidisciplinary collaboration cutting across science, mathematics, and computer science that enabled these discoveries. The SciDAC Program was conceived and funded by the US Department of Energy Office of Science. It is the Office of Science's premier computational science program founded on what is arguably the perfect formula: the priority and focus is science and scientific discovery, with the understanding that the full arsenal of `enabling technologies' in applied mathematics and computer science must be brought to bear if we are to have any hope of attacking and ultimately solving today's computational Grand Challenge problems. The SciDAC Program has been in existence for four years, and many of the computational scientists funded by this program will tell you that the program has given them the hope of addressing their scientific problems in full realism for the very first time. Many of these scientists will also tell you that SciDAC has also fundamentally changed the way they do computational science. We begin this volume with one of DOE's great traditions, and core missions: energy research. As we will see, computation has been seminal to the critical advances that have been made in this arena. Of course, to

  7. SciDAC-2 software infrastructure for lattice QCD.

    SciTech Connect

    Balint Joo

    2007-06-01

    We present work carried out by the USQCD Collaboration on Software Infrastructure funded under SciDAC 2. We present successes of the software from the original SciDAC 1 project as well as ongoing and future work. We outline the various scientific collaborations SciDAC-2 has created.

  8. Using SciDB to Support Photon Science Data Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Becla, Jack; Wang, Daniel; lim, Kian-Tat; /SLAC

    2012-02-15

    Array data analytic systems like SciDB hold great potential to accelerate processing data from SLAC's Linac Coherent Light Source and other experiments. SciDB is unique in its ability to integrate storage and processing of array data efficiently, providing both space-efficient storage and out-of-memory efficient parallel array processing. We describe a recent effort to leverage SciDB to store and process LCLS data. The work includes development of software to import data into SciDB, subsequent benchmarks, and interactive manipulation of data in SciDB.

  9. Astronomy Popularization via Sci-fi Movies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qingkang

    2015-08-01

    It is astronomers’ duty to let more and more young people know a bit astronomy and be interested in astronomy and appreciate the beauty and great achievements in astronomy. One of the most effective methods to popularize astronomy to young people nowadays might be via enjoying some brilliant sci-fi movies related to astronomy with some guidance from astronomers. Firstly, we will introduce the basic information of our selective course “Appreciation of Sci-fi Movies in Astronomy” for the non-major astronomy students in our University, which is surely unique in China, then we will show its effect on astronomy popularization based on several rounds of teaching.

  10. EC Detector at SciBooNE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariani, Camillo

    2009-04-01

    SciBooNE is an experiment to measure neutrino and anti-neutrino cross-sections on the Booster Neutrino Beam at Fermilab. The EC is an extruded lead sheets and scintillating fibers "spaghetti calorimeter" to provide longitudinal containment and energy measurement for electrons and photons.

  11. Training Endusers on MathSci Disc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sichel, Beatrice

    1991-01-01

    Describes how the physical sciences library at Western Michigan University introduced a mathematical database on CD-ROM and trained patrons to conduct their own searches. The "Mathematical Reviews" database (entitled MathSci Disc) is described, and three types of training are discussed: informal demonstrations, self-instructional guides, and…

  12. Riboflavin-responsive oxidative phosphorylation complex I deficiency caused by defective ACAD9: new function for an old gene.

    PubMed

    Gerards, Mike; van den Bosch, Bianca J C; Danhauser, Katharina; Serre, Valérie; van Weeghel, Michel; Wanders, Ronald J A; Nicolaes, Gerry A F; Sluiter, Wim; Schoonderwoerd, Kees; Scholte, Hans R; Prokisch, Holger; Rötig, Agnès; de Coo, Irenaeus F M; Smeets, Hubert J M

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondrial complex I deficiency is the most common oxidative phosphorylation defect. Mutations have been detected in mitochondrial and nuclear genes, but the genetics of many patients remain unresolved and new genes are probably involved. In a consanguineous family, patients presented easy fatigability, exercise intolerance and lactic acidosis in blood from early childhood. In muscle, subsarcolemmal mitochondrial proliferation and a severe complex I deficiency were observed. Exercise intolerance and complex I activity was improved by a supplement of riboflavin at high dosage. Homozygosity mapping revealed a candidate region on chromosome three containing six mitochondria-related genes. Four genes were screened for mutations and a homozygous substitution was identified in ACAD9 (c.1594 C>T), changing the highly conserved arginine-532 into tryptophan. This mutation was absent in 188 ethnically matched controls. Protein modelling suggested a functional effect due to the loss of a stabilizing hydrogen bond in an α-helix and a local flexibility change. To test whether the ACAD9 mutation caused the complex I deficiency, we transduced fibroblasts of patients with wild-type and mutant ACAD9. Wild-type, but not mutant, ACAD9 restored complex I activity. An unrelated patient with the same phenotype was compound heterozygous for c.380 G>A and c.1405 C>T, changing arginine-127 into glutamine and arginine-469 into tryptophan, respectively. These amino acids were highly conserved and the substitutions were not present in controls, making them very probably pathogenic. Our data support a new function for ACAD9 in complex I function, making this gene an important new candidate for patients with complex I deficiency, which could be improved by riboflavin treatment. PMID:20929961

  13. Opening Comments: SciDAC 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strayer, Michael

    2008-07-01

    Welcome to Seattle and the 2008 SciDAC Conference. This conference, the fourth in the series, is a continuation of the PI meetings we first began under SciDAC-1. I would like to start by thanking the organizing committee, and Rick Stevens in particular, for organizing this year's meeting. This morning I would like to look briefly at SciDAC, to give you a brief history of SciDAC and also look ahead to see where we plan to go over the next few years. I think the best description of SciDAC, at least the simulation part, comes from a quote from Dr Ray Orbach, DOE's Under Secretary for Science and Director of the Office of Science. In an interview that appeared in the SciDAC Review magazine, Dr Orbach said, `SciDAC is unique in the world. There isn't any other program like it anywhere else, and it has the remarkable ability to do science by bringing together physical scientists, mathematicians, applied mathematicians, and computer scientists who recognize that computation is not something you do at the end, but rather it needs to be built into the solution of the very problem that one is addressing'. Of course, that is extended not just to physical scientists, but also to biological scientists. This is a theme of computational science, this partnership among disciplines, which goes all the way back to the early 1980s and Ken Wilson. It's a unique thread within the Department of Energy. SciDAC-1, launched around the turn of the millennium, created a new generation of scientific simulation codes. It advocated building out mathematical and computing system software in support of science and a new collaboratory software environment for data. The original concept for SciDAC-1 had topical centers for the execution of the various science codes, but several corrections and adjustments were needed. The ASCR scientific computing infrastructure was also upgraded, providing the hardware facilities for the program. The computing facility that we had at that time was the big 3

  14. Thymosin alpha1. SciClone Pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Billich, Andreas

    2002-05-01

    Thymosin alpha1 (Talpha1), a synthetic 28-amino acid peptide with multiple biological activities primarily directed towards immune response enhancement, was originally developed by Alpha 1 Biomedicals for the treatment of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. SciClone developed and launched Talpha1, under the trade name Zadaxin, for the treatment of HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. The drug is also being developed for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), hepatocellular carcinoma, AIDS and malignant melanoma. Talpha1 is able to potentiate the action of cytokines and also reduce the hematological toxicity of cytotoxic drug therapy (cyclophosphamide-, 5-fluorouracil-, dacarbazine- or ifosfamide-based regimens). These studies also demonstrated the mechanism of action of Talpha1 and its role as an immune system enhancer. By July 2001, it was in phase III trials in the US in combination with PEGylated interferon-alpha, and later the same month it was approved in the Philippines. SciClone received expanded approval for HBV and HCV infection in Mexico in July 2001. Talpha1 has been launched in Argentina, China, Peru, the Philippines and Singapore for the treatment of chronic HBV infection. The product subsequently received expanded approval for the treatment of both HBV and HCV infection in Argentina. Marketing approval was granted in India for HBV infection in February 2001. The company was working to expand this approval to include HCV infection. In March 2000, approval for treatment of HBV infection was granted in Thailand, Laos and Malta. Approval was also granted in Sri Lanka and Brunei in August 1999. In September 2000, SciClone announced that approval had been expanded to include the treatment of HCV infection as well as the previously approved HBV indication in both Peru and Sri Lanka. In January 1999, SciClone received approval for Talpha1 in Venezuela for the treatment of HBV and HCV infection. The company also filed a marketing

  15. Sci-Math: Applications in Proportional Problem Solving. Module Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodstein, Madeline P.

    Sci-Math is an interdisciplinary curriculum intended to help students develop the math skills needed for science, especially dimensional analysis, ratio, and the concept of proportion. Sci-Math is divided into two modules with each module having a student and teacher's guide. Module one is a pre-algebra module dealing with the arithmetic and logic…

  16. Sci-Math: Applications in Proportional Problem Solving. Module One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodstein, Madeline P.

    Sci-Math is an interdisciplinary curriculum intended to help students develop the math skills needed for science, especially dimensional analysis, ratio, and the concept of proportion. Sci-Math is divided into two modules with each module having a student and teacher's guide. This module is a pre-algebra module dealing with the arithmetic and…

  17. Development and initial evaluation of the SCI-FI/AT

    PubMed Central

    Jette, Alan M.; Slavin, Mary D.; Ni, Pengsheng; Kisala, Pamela A.; Tulsky, David S.; Heinemann, Allen W.; Charlifue, Susie; Tate, Denise G.; Fyffe, Denise; Morse, Leslie; Marino, Ralph; Smith, Ian; Williams, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe the domain structure and calibration of the Spinal Cord Injury Functional Index for samples using Assistive Technology (SCI-FI/AT) and report the initial psychometric properties of each domain. Design Cross sectional survey followed by computerized adaptive test (CAT) simulations. Setting Inpatient and community settings. Participants A sample of 460 adults with traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) stratified by level of injury, completeness of injury, and time since injury. Interventions None Main outcome measure SCI-FI/AT Results Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and Item response theory (IRT) analyses identified 4 unidimensional SCI-FI/AT domains: Basic Mobility (41 items) Self-care (71 items), Fine Motor Function (35 items), and Ambulation (29 items). High correlations of full item banks with 10-item simulated CATs indicated high accuracy of each CAT in estimating a person's function, and there was high measurement reliability for the simulated CAT scales compared with the full item bank. SCI-FI/AT item difficulties in the domains of Self-care, Fine Motor Function, and Ambulation were less difficult than the same items in the original SCI-FI item banks. Conclusion With the development of the SCI-FI/AT, clinicians and investigators have available multidimensional assessment scales that evaluate function for users of AT to complement the scales available in the original SCI-FI. PMID:26010975

  18. Evaluation and Management of SCI-Associated Pain.

    PubMed

    Saulino, Michael; Averna, Justin F

    2016-09-01

    Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating neurological condition. Treatment of SCI-related pain is challenging for the treating physician, as normal neural pathways are disrupted. Patients with SCI consistently rate pain as one of the most difficult problems associated with their injury. SCI-related pain can be refractory and complete relief is often not possible. The multidimensional nature of SCI-related pain affects the neural system including autonomic nervous system deregulation and can alter metabolic and biochemical processes throughout the body. Co-morbid psychological illnesses such as depression and adjustment disorder are seen in a significant percentage of patients. Despite a better understanding of the underlying pain mechanisms and advances in procedural, pharmacologic, and non-pharmacologic therapies, treatment of pain after SCI remains elusive. This manuscript reviews the current evidence-based evaluation and management of the SCI patient with the overarching goal of providing appropriate and effective management of their pain. In particular, additional well-designed studies are needed to help elucidate effective treatments for SCI-related neuropathic pain in an effort to help provide these patients with better management of their pain and improve their quality of life. PMID:27474095

  19. Experiences using SciPy for computer vision research

    SciTech Connect

    Eads, Damian R; Rosten, Edward J

    2008-01-01

    SciPy is an effective tool suite for prototyping new algorithms. We share some of our experiences using it for the first time to support our research in object detection. SciPy makes it easy to integrate C code, which is essential when algorithms operating on large data sets cannot be vectorized. The universality of Python, the language in which SciPy was written, gives the researcher access to a broader set of non-numerical libraries to support GUI development, interface with databases, manipulate graph structures. render 3D graphics, unpack binary files, etc. Python's extensive support for operator overloading makes SciPy's syntax as succinct as its competitors, MATLAB, Octave, and R. More profoundly, we found it easy to rework research code written with SciPy into a production application, deployable on numerous platforms.

  20. 75 FR 24747 - SCI, LLC/Zener-Rectifier Operations Division A Wholly Owned Subsidiary of SCI, LLC/ON...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... of SCI, LLC/ON Semiconductor, Phoenix, Arizona. The notice was published in the Federal Register on December 11, 2009 (74 FR 65795). At the request of the petitioner, the Department reviewed the... of SCI, LLC/ON Semiconductor Including On-Site Leased Workers From Superior Technical...

  1. Active correction of aperture discontinuities (ACAD) for space telescope pupils: a parametic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazoyer, Johan; Pueyo, Laurent; Norman, Colin; N'Diaye, Mamadou; Mawet, Dimitri; Soummer, Rémi; Perrin, Marshall; Choquet, Élodie; Carlotti, Alexis

    2015-09-01

    As the performance of coronagraphs improves, the achievable contrast is more and more dependent of the shape of the pupil. The future generation of space and ground based coronagraphic instruments will have to achieve high contrast levels on on-axis and/or segmented telescopes. To correct for the high amplitude aberrations introduced by secondary mirror structures and segmentation of the primary mirror, we explore a two deformable mirror (DM) method. The major difficulty of several DM methods is the non-linear relation linking actuator strokes to the point spread function in the coronagraph focal plane. The Active Compensation of Aperture Discontinuities (ACAD) method is achieving this minimization by solving a non linear differential Monge Ampere equation. Once this open loop method have reached the minimum, a close-loop stroke minimization method can be applied to correct for phase and amplitude aberrations to achieve the ultimate contrast. In this paper, I describe the results of the parametric analysis that that I have undertaken on this method. After recalling the principle of the method, I will described the explored parameter space (deformable mirror set-up, shape of the pupil, bandwidth, coronagraph designs). I will precisely described the way I simulated the Vortex coronagraph for this numerical simulation. Finally I will present the preliminary results of this parametric analysis for space telescope pupils only.

  2. Opening Comments: SciDAC 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strayer, Michael

    2008-07-01

    Welcome to Seattle and the 2008 SciDAC Conference. This conference, the fourth in the series, is a continuation of the PI meetings we first began under SciDAC-1. I would like to start by thanking the organizing committee, and Rick Stevens in particular, for organizing this year's meeting. This morning I would like to look briefly at SciDAC, to give you a brief history of SciDAC and also look ahead to see where we plan to go over the next few years. I think the best description of SciDAC, at least the simulation part, comes from a quote from Dr Ray Orbach, DOE's Under Secretary for Science and Director of the Office of Science. In an interview that appeared in the SciDAC Review magazine, Dr Orbach said, `SciDAC is unique in the world. There isn't any other program like it anywhere else, and it has the remarkable ability to do science by bringing together physical scientists, mathematicians, applied mathematicians, and computer scientists who recognize that computation is not something you do at the end, but rather it needs to be built into the solution of the very problem that one is addressing'. Of course, that is extended not just to physical scientists, but also to biological scientists. This is a theme of computational science, this partnership among disciplines, which goes all the way back to the early 1980s and Ken Wilson. It's a unique thread within the Department of Energy. SciDAC-1, launched around the turn of the millennium, created a new generation of scientific simulation codes. It advocated building out mathematical and computing system software in support of science and a new collaboratory software environment for data. The original concept for SciDAC-1 had topical centers for the execution of the various science codes, but several corrections and adjustments were needed. The ASCR scientific computing infrastructure was also upgraded, providing the hardware facilities for the program. The computing facility that we had at that time was the big 3

  3. Opening Remarks: SciDAC 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strayer, Michael

    2007-09-01

    Good morning. Welcome to Boston, the home of the Red Sox, Celtics and Bruins, baked beans, tea parties, Robert Parker, and SciDAC 2007. A year ago I stood before you to share the legacy of the first SciDAC program and identify the challenges that we must address on the road to petascale computing—a road E E Cummins described as `. . . never traveled, gladly beyond any experience.' Today, I want to explore the preparations for the rapidly approaching extreme scale (X-scale) generation. These preparations are the first step propelling us along the road of burgeoning scientific discovery enabled by the application of X- scale computing. We look to petascale computing and beyond to open up a world of discovery that cuts across scientific fields and leads us to a greater understanding of not only our world, but our universe. As part of the President's America Competitiveness Initiative, the ASCR Office has been preparing a ten year vision for computing. As part of this planning the LBNL together with ORNL and ANL hosted three town hall meetings on Simulation and Modeling at the Exascale for Energy, Ecological Sustainability and Global Security (E3). The proposed E3 initiative is organized around four programmatic themes: Engaging our top scientists, engineers, computer scientists and applied mathematicians; investing in pioneering large-scale science; developing scalable analysis algorithms, and storage architectures to accelerate discovery; and accelerating the build-out and future development of the DOE open computing facilities. It is clear that we have only just started down the path to extreme scale computing. Plan to attend Thursday's session on the out-briefing and discussion of these meetings. The road to the petascale has been at best rocky. In FY07, the continuing resolution provided 12% less money for Advanced Scientific Computing than either the President, the Senate, or the House. As a consequence, many of you had to absorb a no cost extension for your

  4. Developmental and maladaptive plasticity in neonatal SCI.

    PubMed

    Pape, Karen E

    2012-06-01

    Babies and young children with early spinal cord injury (SCI) have evidence of an improved level of recovery over an extended time period. Enhanced neuroplasticity is well recognized in neonatal animal models. In the young human, developmental apraxia and learned early habitual movements mask expression of residual or recovered motor function. Techniques providing sensorimotor stimulation with threshold electrical stimulation (TES) and EMG triggered stimulation (ETS) act to increase awareness and useful function. Small cohort size and prolonged developmental maturation argue for the use of single subject research designs in this population. PMID:22306423

  5. People Interview: Using sci-fi to promote physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-07-01

    INTERVIEW Using sci-fi to promote physics Robert Flack, a research fellow at University College London, talks to David Smith about science writing and the consequences for physicists of books like Angels and Demons.

  6. SciDAC Advances and Applications in Computational Beam Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Ryne, R.; Abell, D.; Adelmann, A.; Amundson, J.; Bohn, C.; Cary, J.; Colella, P.; Dechow, D.; Decyk, V.; Dragt, A.; Gerber, R.; Habib, S.; Higdon, D.; Katsouleas, T.; Ma, K.-L.; McCorquodale, P.; Mihalcea, D.; Mitchell, C.; Mori, W.; Mottershead, C.T.; Neri, F.; Pogorelov, I.; Qiang, J.; Samulyak, R.; Serafini, D.; Shalf, J.; Siegerist, C.; Spentzouris, P.; Stoltz, P.; Terzic, B.; Venturini, M.; Walstrom, P.

    2005-06-26

    SciDAC has had a major impact on computational beam dynamics and the design of particle accelerators. Particle accelerators--which account for half of the facilities in the DOE Office of Science Facilities for the Future of Science 20 Year Outlook--are crucial for US scientific, industrial, and economic competitiveness. Thanks to SciDAC, accelerator design calculations that were once thought impossible are now carried routinely, and new challenging and important calculations are within reach. SciDAC accelerator modeling codes are being used to get the most science out of existing facilities, to produce optimal designs for future facilities, and to explore advanced accelerator concepts that may hold the key to qualitatively new ways of accelerating charged particle beams. In this poster we present highlights from the SciDAC Accelerator Science and Technology (AST) project Beam Dynamics focus area in regard to algorithm development, software development, and applications.

  7. What Are the Treatments for Spinal Cord Injury (SCI)?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources and Publications What are the treatments for spinal cord injury (SCI)? Skip sharing on social media links ... no known ways to reverse damage to the spinal cord. However, researchers are continually working on new treatments, ...

  8. Status of FNAL SciBooNE experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Nakajima, Yasuhiro; /Kyoto U.

    2007-12-01

    SciBooNE is a new experiment at FNAL which will make precision neutrino-nucleus cross section measurements in the one GeV region. These measurements are essential for the future neutrino oscillation experiments. We started data taking in the antineutrino mode on June 8, 2007, and collected 5.19 x 10{sup 19} protons on target (POT) before the accelerator shutdown in August. The first data from SciBooNE are reported in this article.

  9. Introduction to Searching with SciFinder Scholar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridley, Damon D.

    2001-04-01

    With SciFinder Scholar now one of the preferred access routes to information in the sciences, many college information retrieval courses that dealt with online networks need to be redesigned. Although one of the basic assumptions within the design of SciFinder Scholar is that staff and students may retrieve valuable answers with little training, nevertheless, with a little instruction improved search results may be obtained. We present here our basic teaching program for senior undergraduate and postgraduate classes.

  10. Opening Remarks: SciDAC 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strayer, Michael

    2007-09-01

    Good morning. Welcome to Boston, the home of the Red Sox, Celtics and Bruins, baked beans, tea parties, Robert Parker, and SciDAC 2007. A year ago I stood before you to share the legacy of the first SciDAC program and identify the challenges that we must address on the road to petascale computing—a road E E Cummins described as `. . . never traveled, gladly beyond any experience.' Today, I want to explore the preparations for the rapidly approaching extreme scale (X-scale) generation. These preparations are the first step propelling us along the road of burgeoning scientific discovery enabled by the application of X- scale computing. We look to petascale computing and beyond to open up a world of discovery that cuts across scientific fields and leads us to a greater understanding of not only our world, but our universe. As part of the President's America Competitiveness Initiative, the ASCR Office has been preparing a ten year vision for computing. As part of this planning the LBNL together with ORNL and ANL hosted three town hall meetings on Simulation and Modeling at the Exascale for Energy, Ecological Sustainability and Global Security (E3). The proposed E3 initiative is organized around four programmatic themes: Engaging our top scientists, engineers, computer scientists and applied mathematicians; investing in pioneering large-scale science; developing scalable analysis algorithms, and storage architectures to accelerate discovery; and accelerating the build-out and future development of the DOE open computing facilities. It is clear that we have only just started down the path to extreme scale computing. Plan to attend Thursday's session on the out-briefing and discussion of these meetings. The road to the petascale has been at best rocky. In FY07, the continuing resolution provided 12% less money for Advanced Scientific Computing than either the President, the Senate, or the House. As a consequence, many of you had to absorb a no cost extension for your

  11. Combined SCI and TBI: Recovery of forelimb function after unilateral cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) is retarded by contralateral traumatic brain injury (TBI), and ipsilateral TBI balances the effects of SCI on paw placement

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Tomoo; Lin, Amity; Ma, Xiaokui; McKenna, Stephen L.; Creasey, Graham H.; Manley, Geoffrey T.; Ferguson, Adam R.; Bresnahan, Jacqueline C.; Beattie, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    A significant proportion (estimates range from 16–74%) of patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) have concomitant traumatic brain injury (TBI), and the combination often produces difficulties in planning and implementing rehabilitation strategies and drug therapies. For example, many of the drugs used to treat SCI may interfere with cognitive rehabilitation, and conversely drugs that are used to control seizures in TBI patients may undermine locomotor recovery after SCI. The current paper presents an experimental animal model for combined SCI and TBI to help drive mechanistic studies of dual diagnosis. Rats received a unilateral SCI (75 kdyn) at C5 vertebral level, a unilateral TBI (2.0 mm depth, 4.0 m/s velocity impact on the forelimb sensori-motor cortex), or both SCI + TBI. TBI was placed either contralateral or ipsilateral to the SCI. Behavioral recovery was examined using paw placement in a cylinder, grooming, open field locomotion, and the IBB cereal eating test. Over 6 weeks, in the paw placement test, SCI + contralateral TBI produced a profound deficit that failed to recover, but SCI + ipsilateral TBI increased the relative use of the paw on the SCI side. In the grooming test, SCI + contralateral TBI produced worse recovery than either lesion alone even though contralateral TBI alone produced no observable deficit. In the IBB forelimb test, SCI + contralateral TBI revealed a severe deficit that recovered in 3 weeks. For open field locomotion, SCI alone or in combination with TBI resulted in an initial deficit that recovered in 2 weeks. Thus, TBI and SCI affected forelimb function differently depending upon the test, reflecting different neural substrates underlying, for example, exploratory paw placement and stereotyped grooming. Concurrent SCI and TBI had significantly different effects on outcomes and recovery, depending upon laterality of the two lesions. Recovery of function after cervical SCI was retarded by the addition of a moderate TBI in the

  12. SciDAC Institute for Ultrascale Visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Humphreys, Grigori R.

    2008-09-30

    The Institute for Ultrascale Visualization aims to address visualization needs of SciDAC science domains, including research topics in advanced scientific visualization architectures, algorithms, and interfaces for understanding large, complex datasets. During the current project period, the focus of the team at the University of Virginia has been interactive remote rendering for scientific visualization. With high-performance computing resources enabling increasingly complex simulations, scientists may desire to interactively visualize huge 3D datasets. Traditional large-scale 3D visualization systems are often located very close to the processing clusters, and are linked to them with specialized connections for high-speed rendering. However, this tight coupling of processing and display limits possibilities for remote collaboration, and prohibits scientists from using their desktop workstations for data exploration. In this project, we are developing a client/server system for interactive remote 3D visualization on desktop computers.

  13. Opening Comments: SciDAC 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strayer, Michael

    2009-07-01

    Welcome to San Diego and the 2009 SciDAC conference. Over the next four days, I would like to present an assessment of the SciDAC program. We will look at where we've been, how we got to where we are and where we are going in the future. Our vision is to be first in computational science, to be best in class in modeling and simulation. When Ray Orbach asked me what I would do, in my job interview for the SciDAC Director position, I said we would achieve that vision. And with our collective dedicated efforts, we have managed to achieve this vision. In the last year, we have now the most powerful supercomputer for open science, Jaguar, the Cray XT system at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). We also have NERSC, probably the best-in-the-world program for productivity in science that the Office of Science so depends on. And the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility offers architectural diversity with its IBM Blue Gene/P system as a counterbalance to Oak Ridge. There is also ESnet, which is often understated—the 40 gigabit per second dual backbone ring that connects all the labs and many DOE sites. In the President's Recovery Act funding, there is exciting news that ESnet is going to build out to a 100 gigabit per second network using new optical technologies. This is very exciting news for simulations and large-scale scientific facilities. But as one noted SciDAC luminary said, it's not all about the computers—it's also about the science—and we are also achieving our vision in this area. Together with having the fastest supercomputer for science, at the SC08 conference, SciDAC researchers won two ACM Gordon Bell Prizes for the outstanding performance of their applications. The DCA++ code, which solves some very interesting problems in materials, achieved a sustained performance of 1.3 petaflops, an astounding result and a mark I suspect will last for some time. The LS3DF application for studying nanomaterials also required the development of a

  14. Opening Comments: SciDAC 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strayer, Michael

    2009-07-01

    Welcome to San Diego and the 2009 SciDAC conference. Over the next four days, I would like to present an assessment of the SciDAC program. We will look at where we've been, how we got to where we are and where we are going in the future. Our vision is to be first in computational science, to be best in class in modeling and simulation. When Ray Orbach asked me what I would do, in my job interview for the SciDAC Director position, I said we would achieve that vision. And with our collective dedicated efforts, we have managed to achieve this vision. In the last year, we have now the most powerful supercomputer for open science, Jaguar, the Cray XT system at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). We also have NERSC, probably the best-in-the-world program for productivity in science that the Office of Science so depends on. And the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility offers architectural diversity with its IBM Blue Gene/P system as a counterbalance to Oak Ridge. There is also ESnet, which is often understated—the 40 gigabit per second dual backbone ring that connects all the labs and many DOE sites. In the President's Recovery Act funding, there is exciting news that ESnet is going to build out to a 100 gigabit per second network using new optical technologies. This is very exciting news for simulations and large-scale scientific facilities. But as one noted SciDAC luminary said, it's not all about the computers—it's also about the science—and we are also achieving our vision in this area. Together with having the fastest supercomputer for science, at the SC08 conference, SciDAC researchers won two ACM Gordon Bell Prizes for the outstanding performance of their applications. The DCA++ code, which solves some very interesting problems in materials, achieved a sustained performance of 1.3 petaflops, an astounding result and a mark I suspect will last for some time. The LS3DF application for studying nanomaterials also required the development of a

  15. The GeoSciML Logical Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laxton, J.; Wyborn, L.

    2007-12-01

    GeoSciML is being developed as an interchange language for geoscience. The initial scope has been designed to include the information generally shown on geological maps, and some observations, in particular using boreholes. The logical model has been built in UML and the model includes packages for mapped features, geologic units, earth material and geologic structures. The model inherits from GML, for spatial information, and observations and measurements (O&M) in particular. At present the scope of the model is largely interpreted information, but the intention is to extend it to include more observational data. A 'mapped feature' can be considered an occurrence, such as a polygon on a geologic map, of a real-world geologic feature the full extent of which is unknown. Geologic features are associated with geologic events for recording their age, process and environment of formation. The two main types of geologic feature modelled are geologic units and geologic structures. Geologic units have specialisations for lithostratigraphic units, lithodemic units, chronostratigraphic units and deformation units, but more will be added in the future as required. The model allows for composite geologic units, made up of other geologic units, to be described. Geologic structures include fractures, shear displacement structures, contacts, fold and foliation. The earth material package allows for the description of both individual components such as minerals and compound materials such as rocks or unconsolidated material. The model incorporates a structure for controlled concepts which can be defined in terms of normative descriptions of geologic units or earth materials. These can be built into geologic vocabularies, such as stratigraphic lexicons. Two data types of particular use in describing geologic properties have been defined: one allows properties to be recorded with term, number and range values along with a qualifier property for handling the 'fuzziness' of much

  16. SciDB and Geoinformatics Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Paul

    2015-04-01

    The SciDB project took as its design goals a list of features identified as being critical to scientific data management in a survey of working scientists (Stonebraker et al 2009). Earth scientists working with remote sensing data were well represented among those polled so it should come as no surprise that the platform has been embraced by that community. In this talk we focus on work done by researchers at NASA and INPE, and on applications created by commercial data providers in Korea and the United States. For each use-case, we will review the project team's objectives, the nature and quantity of the data involved, the their workload queries. As we discuss each use-case we will describe what is emerging as "best practice" for data management and analysis in this space. M. Stonebraker, J. Becla, D. J. DeWitt, K. T. Lim, D. Maier, O. Ratzesberger, and S. B. Zdonik. Requirements for science data bases and scidb. In CIDR 2009, Fourth Biennial Conference on Innovative Data Systems Research, Asilomar, CA, USA, January 4-7, 2009, Online Proceedings, 2009.

  17. Neonatal multiorgan failure due to ACAD9 mutation and complex I deficiency with mitochondrial hyperplasia in liver, cardiac myocytes, skeletal muscle, and renal tubules.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Nancy; Wang, Xinjian; Peng, Yanyan; Valencia, C Alexander; Khuchua, Zaza; Hata, Jessica; Witte, David; Huang, Taosheng; Bove, Kevin E

    2016-03-01

    Complex I deficiency causes Leigh syndrome, fatal infant lactic acidosis, and neonatal cardiomyopathy. Mutations in more than 100 nuclear DNA and mitochondrial DNA genes miscode for complex I subunits or assembly factors. ACAD9 is an acyl-CoA dehydrogenase with a novel function in assembly of complex I; biallelic mutations cause progressive encephalomyopathy, recurrent Reye syndrome, and fatal cardiomyopathy. We describe the first autopsy in fatal neonatal lethal lactic acidosis due to mutations in ACAD9 that reduced complex I activity. We identified mitochondrial hyperplasia in cardiac myocytes, diaphragm muscle, and liver and renal tubules in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue using immunohistochemistry for mitochondrial antigens. Whole-exome sequencing revealed compound heterozygous variants in the ACAD9 gene: c.187G>T (p.E63*) and c.941T>C (p.L314P). The nonsense mutation causes late infantile lethality; the missense variant is novel. Autopsy-derived fibroblasts had reduced complex I activity (53% of control) with normal activity in complexes II to IV, similar to reported cases of ACAD9 deficiency. PMID:26826406

  18. Solving Large-scale Eigenvalue Problems in SciDACApplications

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Chao

    2005-06-29

    Large-scale eigenvalue problems arise in a number of DOE applications. This paper provides an overview of the recent development of eigenvalue computation in the context of two SciDAC applications. We emphasize the importance of Krylov subspace methods, and point out its limitations. We discuss the value of alternative approaches that are more amenable to the use of preconditioners, and report the progression using the multi-level algebraic sub-structuring techniques to speed up eigenvalue calculation. In addition to methods for linear eigenvalue problems, we also examine new approaches to solving two types of non-linear eigenvalue problems arising from SciDAC applications.

  19. Overview of the Spinal Cord Injury – Quality of Life (SCI-QOL) measurement system

    PubMed Central

    Tulsky, David S.; Kisala, Pamela A.; Victorson, David; Tate, Denise G.; Heinemann, Allen W.; Charlifue, Susan; Kirshblum, Steve C.; Fyffe, Denise; Gershon, Richard; Spungen, Ann M.; Bombardier, Charles H.; Dyson-Hudson, Trevor A.; Amtmann, Dagmar; Z. Kalpakjian, Claire; W. Choi, Seung; Jette, Alan M.; Forchheimer, Martin; Cella, David

    2015-01-01

    Context/Objective The Spinal Cord Injury – Quality of Life (SCI-QOL) measurement system was developed to address the shortage of relevant and psychometrically sound patient reported outcome (PRO) measures available for clinical care and research in spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation. Using a computer adaptive testing (CAT) approach, the SCI-QOL builds on the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) and the Quality of Life in Neurological Disorders (Neuro-QOL) initiative. This initial manuscript introduces the background and development of the SCI-QOL measurement system. Greater detail is presented in the additional manuscripts of this special issue. Design Classical and contemporary test development methodologies were employed. Qualitative input was obtained from individuals with SCI and clinicians through interviews, focus groups, and cognitive debriefing. Item pools were field tested in a multi-site sample (n = 877) and calibrated using item response theory methods. Initial reliability and validity testing was performed in a new sample of individuals with traumatic SCI (n = 245). Setting Five Model SCI System centers and one Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center across the United States. Participants Adults with traumatic SCI. Interventions n/a Outcome Measures n/a Results The SCI-QOL consists of 19 item banks, including the SCI-Functional Index banks, and 3 fixed-length scales measuring physical, emotional, and social aspects of health-related QOL (HRQOL). Conclusion The SCI-QOL measurement system consists of psychometrically sound measures for individuals with SCI. The manuscripts in this special issue provide evidence of the reliability and initial validity of this measurement system. The SCI-QOL also links to other measures designed for a general medical population. PMID:26010962

  20. Sci-Tech Books of 1977: An Addendum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mount, Ellis; Crockett, Edith S.

    1978-01-01

    The 35 titles in this annotated bibliography complete the list of 100 best sci-tech titles; the first 65 appeared in the March 1, 1978 issue. Major subject subdivisions in this addendum include astronomy, earth sciences, and general science. (JAB)

  1. SciTech Clubs for Girls. [Annual] technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Nogal, A.M.

    1993-02-01

    Since January 1992, 9 exhibits have been constructed by the SciTech Clubs for Girls, which involved 63 girls, ages 10 to 14. These exhibits are: Bubble Shapes by the St. Charles Cadette Girl Scout Troop No. 109. Density Games by the South Elgin Cadette Girl Scout Troop No. 132. Electric Fleas by the Warrenville Junior Girl Scout Troop No. 305. Energy vs. Power by the Aurora Junior Girl Scout Troop No. 242. The Organ Pipe by the Bartlett Junior Girl Scout Troop No. 107. Ohm`s Law by the Geneva Junior Girl Scout Troop No. 401. What is Gravity by the Pilsen YMCA girls. Insulation at Work by the Algonquin Junior Girl Scout Troop No. 303. Series vs. Parallel by the Leland Junior Girl Scout Troop No. 50. The report is a description of each exhibit and the group that built the exhibit. Each group had a minimum of 10 hours of contact time at SciTech with the SciTech Clubs for Girls Program Coordinator. All mentors are female. Each exhibit building experience includes a trip to the hardware store to purchase supplies. After the exhibit is complete, the girls receive certificates of achievement and a SciTech Club Patch.

  2. OPENING REMARKS: SciDAC: Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strayer, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Good morning. Welcome to SciDAC 2005 and San Francisco. SciDAC is all about computational science and scientific discovery. In a large sense, computational science characterizes SciDAC and its intent is change. It transforms both our approach and our understanding of science. It opens new doors and crosses traditional boundaries while seeking discovery. In terms of twentieth century methodologies, computational science may be said to be transformational. There are a number of examples to this point. First are the sciences that encompass climate modeling. The application of computational science has in essence created the field of climate modeling. This community is now international in scope and has provided precision results that are challenging our understanding of our environment. A second example is that of lattice quantum chromodynamics. Lattice QCD, while adding precision and insight to our fundamental understanding of strong interaction dynamics, has transformed our approach to particle and nuclear science. The individual investigator approach has evolved to teams of scientists from different disciplines working side-by-side towards a common goal. SciDAC is also undergoing a transformation. This meeting is a prime example. Last year it was a small programmatic meeting tracking progress in SciDAC. This year, we have a major computational science meeting with a variety of disciplines and enabling technologies represented. SciDAC 2005 should position itself as a new corner stone for Computational Science and its impact on science. As we look to the immediate future, FY2006 will bring a new cycle to SciDAC. Most of the program elements of SciDAC will be re-competed in FY2006. The re-competition will involve new instruments for computational science, new approaches for collaboration, as well as new disciplines. There will be new opportunities for virtual experiments in carbon sequestration, fusion, and nuclear power and nuclear waste, as well as collaborations

  3. Measurement of Bone: Diagnosis of SCI-Induced Osteoporosis and Fracture Risk Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Morse, Leslie R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is associated with a rapid loss of bone mass, resulting in severe osteoporosis and a 5- to 23-fold increase in fracture risk. Despite the seriousness of fractures in SCI, there are multiple barriers to osteoporosis diagnosis and wide variations in treatment practices for SCI-induced osteoporosis. Methods: We review the biological and structural changes that are known to occur in bone after SCI in the context of promoting future research to prevent or reduce risk of fracture in this population. We also review the most commonly used methods for assessing bone after SCI and discuss the strengths, limitations, and clinical applications of each method. Conclusions: Although dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry assessments of bone mineral density may be used clinically to detect changes in bone after SCI, 3-dimensional methods such as quantitative CT analysis are recommended for research applications and are explained in detail. PMID:26689691

  4. Development and psychometric characteristics of the SCI-QOL Pressure Ulcers scale and short form

    PubMed Central

    Kisala, Pamela A.; Tulsky, David S.; Choi, Seung W.; Kirshblum, Steven C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop a self-reported measure of the subjective impact of pressure ulcers on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) as part of the SCI quality of life (SCI-QOL) measurement system. Design Grounded-theory based qualitative item development methods, large-scale item calibration testing, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and item response theory-based psychometric analysis. Setting Five SCI Model System centers and one Department of Veterans Affairs medical center in the United States. Participants Adults with traumatic SCI. Main Outcome Measures SCI-QOL Pressure Ulcers scale. Results 189 individuals with traumatic SCI who experienced a pressure ulcer within the past 7 days completed 30 items related to pressure ulcers. CFA confirmed a unidimensional pool of items. IRT analyses were conducted. A constrained Graded Response Model with a constant slope parameter was used to estimate item thresholds for the 12 retained items. Conclusions The 12-item SCI-QOL Pressure Ulcers scale is unique in that it is specifically targeted to individuals with spinal cord injury and at every stage of development has included input from individuals with SCI. Furthermore, use of CFA and IRT methods provide flexibility and precision of measurement. The scale may be administered in its entirety or as a 7-item “short form” and is available for both research and clinical practice. PMID:26010965

  5. The End of Alchemy? The Repudiation and Persistence of Chrysopoeia at the Académie Royale des Sciences in the Eighteenth Century.

    PubMed

    Principe, Lawrence M

    2014-01-01

    The general abandonment of serious endeavor toward metallic transmutation represents a major development in the history of chemistry, yet its exact causes and timing remain unclear. This essay examines the fate of chrysopoeia at the eighteenth-century Académie Royale des Sciences. It reveals a long-standing tension between Académie chemists, who pursued transmutation, and administrators, who tried to suppress it. This tension provides background for Etienne-François Geoffroy's 1722 paper describing fraudulent practices around transmutation. Although transmutation seems to disappear after Geoffroy's paper, manuscripts reveal that most of the institution's chemists continued to pursue it privately until at least the 1760s, long after widely accepted dates for the "demise of alchemy" in learned circles. PMID:26103750

  6. Overview of the Scalable Coherent Interface, IEEE STD 1596 (SCI)

    SciTech Connect

    Gustavson, D.B.; James, D.V.; Wiggers, H.A.

    1992-10-01

    The Scalable Coherent Interface standard defines a new generation of interconnection that spans the full range from supercomputer memory `bus` to campus-wide network. SCI provides bus-like services and a shared-memory software model while using an underlying, packet protocol on many independent communication links. Initially these links are 1 GByte/s (wires) and 1 GBit/s (fiber), but the protocol scales well to future faster or lower-cost technologies. The interconnect may use switches, meshes, and rings. The SCI distributed-shared-memory model is simple and versatile, enabling for the first time a smooth integration of highly parallel multiprocessors, workstations, personal computers, I/O, networking and data acquisition.

  7. Methodology for the development and calibration of the SCI-QOL item banks

    PubMed Central

    Tulsky, David S.; Kisala, Pamela A.; Victorson, David; Choi, Seung W.; Gershon, Richard; Heinemann, Allen W.; Cella, David

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop a comprehensive, psychometrically sound, and conceptually grounded patient reported outcomes (PRO) measurement system for individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods Individual interviews (n = 44) and focus groups (n = 65 individuals with SCI and n = 42 SCI clinicians) were used to select key domains for inclusion and to develop PRO items. Verbatim items from other cutting-edge measurement systems (i.e. PROMIS, Neuro-QOL) were included to facilitate linkage and cross-population comparison. Items were field tested in a large sample of individuals with traumatic SCI (n = 877). Dimensionality was assessed with confirmatory factor analysis. Local item dependence and differential item functioning were assessed, and items were calibrated using the item response theory (IRT) graded response model. Finally, computer adaptive tests (CATs) and short forms were administered in a new sample (n = 245) to assess test-retest reliability and stability. Participants and Procedures A calibration sample of 877 individuals with traumatic SCI across five SCI Model Systems sites and one Department of Veterans Affairs medical center completed SCI-QOL items in interview format. Results We developed 14 unidimensional calibrated item banks and 3 calibrated scales across physical, emotional, and social health domains. When combined with the five Spinal Cord Injury – Functional Index physical function banks, the final SCI-QOL system consists of 22 IRT-calibrated item banks/scales. Item banks may be administered as CATs or short forms. Scales may be administered in a fixed-length format only. Conclusions The SCI-QOL measurement system provides SCI researchers and clinicians with a comprehensive, relevant and psychometrically robust system for measurement of physical-medical, physical-functional, emotional, and social outcomes. All SCI-QOL instruments are freely available on Assessment CenterSM. PMID:26010963

  8. Utilization of SciFinder Scholar at an Undergraduate Institution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Reilly, Stacy A.; Wilson, Anne M.; Howes, Barbara

    2002-04-01

    The use of tools to search chemical information databases continues to be important to science educators. The ability to perform online searches of Chemical Abstracts Service can have a significant impact on teaching and research. The implementation of SciFinder Scholar at Butler University has resulted in significant changes in teaching, student-based research, and faculty development in the Chemistry Department. Details of these changes in courses, student research projects and proposals, and the professional growth of the faculty are discussed.

  9. The minor C-allele of rs2014355 in ACADS is associated with reduced insulin release following an oral glucose load

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A genome-wide association study (GWAS) using metabolite concentrations as proxies for enzymatic activity, suggested that two variants: rs2014355 in the gene encoding short-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (ACADS) and rs11161510 in the gene encoding medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (ACADM) impair fatty acid β-oxidation. Chronic exposure to fatty acids due to an impaired β-oxidation may down-regulate the glucose-stimulated insulin release and result in an increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). We aimed to investigate whether the two variants associate with altered insulin release following an oral glucose load or with T2D. Methods The variants were genotyped using KASPar® PCR SNP genotyping system and investigated for associations with estimates of insulin release and insulin sensitivity following an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in a random sample of middle-aged Danish individuals (n ACADS = 4,324; n ACADM = 4,337). The T2D-case-control study involved a total of ~8,300 Danish individuals (n ACADS = 8,313; n ACADM = 8,344). Results In glucose-tolerant individuals the minor C-allele of rs2014355 of ACADS associated with reduced measures of serum insulin at 30 min following an oral glucose load (per allele effect (β) = -3.8% (-6.3%;-1.3%), P = 0.003), reduced incremental area under the insulin curve (β = -3.6% (-6.3%;-0.9%), P = 0.009), reduced acute insulin response (β = -2.2% (-4.2%;0.2%), P = 0.03), and with increased insulin sensitivity ISIMatsuda (β = 2.9% (0.5%;5.2%), P = 0.02). The C-allele did not associate with two other measures of insulin sensitivity or with a derived disposition index. The C-allele was not associated with T2D in the case-control analysis (OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.96-1.18, P = 0.21). rs11161510 of ACADM did not associate with any indices of glucose-stimulated insulin release or with T2D. Conclusions In glucose-tolerant individuals the minor C-allele of rs2014355 of ACADS was associated with reduced measures of

  10. SCI: Present and Future Therapeutic Devices and Prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Giszter, Simon F.

    2008-01-01

    Summary A range of passive and active devices are under development, or are already in clinical use, to partially restore function after SCI (SCI). Prosthetic devices to promote host tissue regeneration and plasticity and reconnection are under development, comprising bioengineered bridging materials free of cells. Alternatively, artificial electrical stimulation and robotic bridges may be used, upon which we focus here. A range of neuroprostheses interfacing either with CNS or PNS both above and below the lesion are under investigation and are at different stages of development or translation to the clinic. In addition, there are orthotic and robotic devices which are being developed and tested in laboratory and clinic that can provide mechanical assistance, training or substitution after SCI. The range of different approaches employed draw on many different aspects of our current but limited understanding of neural regeneration and plasticity, and spinal cord function and interactions with cortex. The best therapeutic practice will ultimately likely depend on combinations of these approaches and technologies and on balancing the combined effects of these on the biological mechanisms and their interactions after injury. An increased understanding of plasticity of brain and spinal cord, and of the behavior of innate modular mechanisms in intact and injured systems, will likely assist future developments. We review the range of device designs under development and in use, the basic understanding of spinal cord organization and plasticity, the problems and design issues in device interactions with the nervous system, and the possible benefits of active motor devices. PMID:18164494

  11. Variations in IBD (ACAD8) in children with elevated C4-carnitine detected by tandem mass spectrometry newborn screening.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Christina B; Bischoff, Claus; Christensen, Ernst; Simonsen, Henrik; Lund, Allan M; Young, Sarah P; Koeberl, Dwight D; Millington, David S; Roe, Charles R; Roe, Diane S; Wanders, Ronald J A; Ruiter, Jos P N; Keppen, Laura D; Stein, Quinn; Knudsen, Inga; Gregersen, Niels; Andresen, Brage S

    2006-09-01

    The isobutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase (IBD) enzyme is involved in the degradation of valine. IBD deficiency was first reported in 1998 and subsequent genetic investigations identified acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACAD) 8, now IBD, as the gene responsible for IBD deficiency. Only three individuals homozygous or compound heterozygous for variations in the IBD gene have been reported. We present IBD deficiency in an additional four newborns with elevated C(4)-carnitine identified by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) screening in Denmark and the United States. Three showed urinary excretions of isobutyryl-glycine, and in vitro probe analysis of fibroblasts from two newborns indicated enzymatic IBD defect. Molecular genetic analysis revealed seven new rare variations in the IBD gene (c.348C>A, c.400G>T, c.409G>A, c.455T>C, c.958G>A, c.1000C>T and c.1154G>A). Furthermore, sequence analysis of the short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCAD) gene revealed heterozygosity for the prevalent c.625G>A susceptibility variation in all newborns and in the first reported IBD patient. Functional studies in isolated mitochondria demonstrated that the IBD variations present in the Danish newborn (c.409G>A and c.958G>A) together with a previously published IBD variation (c.905G>A) disturbed protein folding and reduced the levels of correctly folded IBD tetramers. Accordingly, low/no IBD residual enzyme activity was detectable when the variant IBD proteins were overexpressed in Chang cells. PMID:16857760

  12. Sci-Math: Applications in Proportional Problem Solving. Module One Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodstein, Madeline P.

    Sci-Math is an interdisciplinary curriculum intended to help students develop the math skills needed for science, especially dimensional analysis, ratio, and the concept of proportion. Sci-Math is divided into two modules with each module having a student and teacher's guide. Module one is a pre-algebra module dealing with the arithmetic and logic…

  13. Sci-Math: Applications in Proportional Problem Solving. Module Two Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodstein, Madeline P.

    Sci-Math is an interdisciplinary curriculum intended to help students develop the math skills needed for science, especially dimensional analysis, ratio, and the concept of proportion. Sci-Math is divided into two modules with each module having a student and teacher's guide. Module one is a pre-algebra module dealing with the arithmetic and logic…

  14. What is Matter? Study Guide. Unit C1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide is a two-part unit…

  15. Particles in Action. Study Guide. Unit C2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide is a four-part unit…

  16. Soil conditioning index (SCI) and soil organic carbon in the Midwest and southeastern USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calibration of the soil conditioning index (SCI) to a diversity of field studies with known changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) would improve the usefulness of the SCI by the USDA–Natural Resources Conservation Service to assess the environmental services provided by agricultural land stewardship. ...

  17. 75 FR 19626 - Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive Patent License: SciTech Medical Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ... Department of the Navy Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive Patent License: SciTech Medical Inc. AGENCY... intent to grant a partially exclusive license to SciTech Medical Inc. The proposed license is a revocable... ownership interest in these inventions, and they are covered by U.S. Patent No. 7,128,714:...

  18. One Hundred Years of Sci-Tech Libraries: A Brief History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mount, Ellis; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Includes papers on: the history of academic, public, government, and corporate science and technology libraries; the past 35 years in information retrieval; and education for sci-tech librarianship. Other papers provide statistical data on science/engineering libraries and bibliographies of computer-aided design literature, sci-tech reference…

  19. Looking at Life. Study Guide. Unit A2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  20. Close Encounters of the Best Kind: The Latest Sci-Fi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunzel, Bonnie

    2008-01-01

    Not only is science fiction alive and well--it's flourishing. From the big screen (howdy, Wall-E) to the big books (like Suzanne Collins's The Hunger Games, which has attracted loads of prepublication praise), 2008 has been a great year for sci-fi. Publishers have released truckloads of new sci-fi titles this year, but what's particularly…

  1. Detection of Abnormal Muscle Activations during Walking Following Spinal Cord Injury (SCI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ping; Low, K. H.; McGregor, Alison H.; Tow, Adela

    2013-01-01

    In order to identify optimal rehabilitation strategies for spinal cord injury (SCI) participants, assessment of impaired walking is required to detect, monitor and quantify movement disorders. In the proposed assessment, ten healthy and seven SCI participants were recruited to perform an over-ground walking test at slow walking speeds. SCI…

  2. First time experiences using SciPy for computer vision research

    SciTech Connect

    Eads, Damian R; Rosten, Edward J

    2008-01-01

    SciPy is an effective tool suite for prototyping new algorithms. We share some of our experiences using it for the first time to support our research in object detection. SciPy makes it easy to integrate C code, which is essential when algorithms operating on large data sets cannot be vectorized. Python's extensive support for operator overloading makes SciPy's syntax as succinct as its competitors, MATLAB. Octave. and R. The universality of Python. the language in which SciPy was written, gives the researcher access to a broader set of non-numerical libraries to support GUI development. interface with databases, manipulate graph structures, render 3D graphics, unpack binary files, etc. More profoundly, we found it easy to rework research code written with SciPy into a production application, deployable on numerous platforms.

  3. AACR, ISBD(S) and ISSN: A Comment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasana, Paul

    1975-01-01

    The recommendation to abandon AACR 6 (Anglo-American Cataloging Rules) should be rejected because of the adverse impact it will have on the quality, integrity, and continuity of existing library catalogs and library collections. (Author)

  4. Orthostatic Responses to Anticholinesterase Inhibition in Persons with SCI

    PubMed Central

    Wecht, Jill M.; Cirnigliaro, Christopher M.; Azarelo, Frank; Bauman, William A.; Kirshblum, Steven C.

    2015-01-01

    Acetylcholine (Ach) is the pre-synaptic neurotransmitter of the sympathetic nervous system. Increased pre-synaptic Ach may augment post-synaptic release of norepinephrine thereby increasing systemic blood pressure (BP). The primary objective of this investigation was to determine the hemodynamic effect of pyridostigmine bromide (PYRIDO: 60 mg), an Ach inhibitor (AchI), compared to no-drug (NO-D) during head-up tilt (HUT) in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Secondarily we aimed to determine the effects of PYRIDO compared to NO-D on symptoms of orthostatic intolerance (OI) and adverse event reporting (AE). Ten individuals with SCI (C4–C7) were studied on 2 occasions: visit 1) NO-D and visit 2) PYRIDO. On each visit subjects underwent a progressive HUT maneuver to 15°, 25°, 35° for 5 minutes at each angle and 45 minutes at 45°. Supine and orthostatic heart rate (HR), systolic and diastolic BP (SBP & DBP) were monitored and symptoms of OI and AE recorded. Supine hemodynamics did not differ between the trials. The significant fall in SBP during the NO-D trial was diminished with PYRIDO and five subjects had an increased DBP during HUT with PYRIDO compared to the NO-D trial. Individuals that responded to PYRIDO with an increase in orthostatic BP had significantly lower resting HR than non-responders (p<0.01), which suggests increased levels of pre-synaptic Ach. Subjective symptoms of OI and AE reporting did not differ between the two trials. These preliminary data suggest that PYRIDO is safe and may be effective at ameliorating the orthostatic fall in BP in select individuals with SCI. PMID:25916633

  5. Detection of abnormal muscle activations during walking following spinal cord injury (SCI).

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Low, K H; McGregor, Alison H; Tow, Adela

    2013-04-01

    In order to identify optimal rehabilitation strategies for spinal cord injury (SCI) participants, assessment of impaired walking is required to detect, monitor and quantify movement disorders. In the proposed assessment, ten healthy and seven SCI participants were recruited to perform an over-ground walking test at slow walking speeds. SCI participants were given assistance from physiotherapists, if required, while they were walking. In agreement with other research, larger cadence and smaller step length and swing phase of SCI gait were observed as a result of muscle weakness and resultant gait instability. Muscle activation patterns of seven major leg muscles were collected. The EMG signal was processed by the RMS in frequency domain to represent the muscle activation power, and the distribution of muscle activation was compared between healthy and SCI participants. The alternations of muscle activation within the phases of the gait cycle are highlighted to facilitate our understanding of the underlying muscular activation following SCI. Key differences were observed (p-value=0.0006) in the reduced activation of tibialis anterior (TA) in single stance phase and rectus femoris (RF) in swing phase (p-value=0.0011). We can then conclude that the proposed assessment approach of gait provides valuable information that can be used to target and define therapeutic interventions and their evaluation; hence impacting the functional outcome of SCI individuals. PMID:23396198

  6. Nuclear Physics in the SciDAC Era

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Edwards

    2009-08-01

    Lattice QCD currently provides our only means of solving QCD (Quantum Chromo Dynamics) -- the theory of the strong nuclear force -- in the low-energy regime, and thus of crucial importance for theoretical and experimental research programs in High Energy and Nuclear Physics. Under the SciDAC program, a software infrastructure has been developed for lattice QCD that effectively utilize the capabilities of the INCITE facilities. These developments have enabled a new generation of Nuclear Physics calculations investigating the spectrum and structure of matter, such as the origin of mass and spin. This software infrastructure is described and recent results are reviewed.

  7. Introduction to Structure Searching with SciFinder Scholar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridley, Damon D.

    2001-04-01

    CAS Registry Numbers provide a key to searching for chemical substances in CAS databases, and the challenge is to obtain the Registry Numbers for all the substances required. When the substances can be represented by structures, then one option is to find the Registry Numbers through structure searches. With SciFinder Scholar, the process of drawing and searching structures is intuitive; however, there are underlying issues and opportunities that need some explanation in courses on chemical information retrieval.We describe here our introductory course, which addresses the major ones.

  8. GeoSciML v2: an interchange and mark-up language for geologic information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laxton, J.

    2009-04-01

    GeoSciML was released in 2006 as a data transfer standard for geoscience. The scope of GeoSciML is the information generally shown on geological maps along with some observations, in particular those made using boreholes. Following further testing and use-case analysis GeoSciML v2 has recently been released incorporating enhanced representation of geologic units, earth materials, structures and associated vocabularies. The model utilizes the XML-based Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Geography Markup Language (GML) for spatial information, and Observations and Measurements markup schema (O&M) for field and lab observations, including boreholes. In the GeoSciML conceptual model, 'mapped features,' which represent occurrences such as a polygon or curve on a geologic map, are specified by a 'geologic feature,' which is a typed description of an entity analogous to a 'legend item' on a map. The two main types of geologic feature modelled are geologic units and geologic structures. GeoSciML also includes a structure for controlled concepts that may be defined in terms of normative geologic features, GeoSciML earth material descriptions, or an entity from some other schema. Controlled concepts can be built into geologic vocabularies, such as stratigraphic lexicons, and are used as the basis for classification. GeoSciMLv2 has been proven in an OGC web services compliant testbed comprising services from 10 geological surveys worldwide. Testbed services and products include Web Mapping Services (WMS) and Web Feature Services (WFS) serving data in GeoSciML v2 form; catalog and vocabulary services, and metadata for such services; registers of vocabularies; and clients capable of using, querying and rendering such services. The paper will describe the GeoSciML v2 resources available and how to obtain them. These include the schema representation in UML and W3C XSD, documentation describing the schema and how to use it, and example data files.

  9. Astronomical Data Processing Using SciQL, an SQL Based Query Language for Array Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Scheers, B.; Kersten, M.; Ivanova, M.; Nes, N.

    2012-09-01

    SciQL (pronounced as ‘cycle’) is a novel SQL-based array query language for scientific applications with both tables and arrays as first class citizens. SciQL lowers the entrance fee of adopting relational DBMS (RDBMS) in scientific domains, because it includes functionality often only found in mathematics software packages. In this paper, we demonstrate the usefulness of SciQL for astronomical data processing using examples from the Transient Key Project of the LOFAR radio telescope. In particular, how the LOFAR light-curve database of all detected sources can be constructed, by correlating sources across the spatial, frequency, time and polarisation domains.

  10. SciBox, an Integrated Instrument and Spacecraft Planning and Commanding System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choo, T. H.; Murchie, S. L.; Bedini, P. D.; Nair, H.; McGovern, J. A.

    2012-10-01

    SciBox is a revolutionary, proven approach to planning and sequencing orbital science observations. It automates searching for and selecting observing opportunities, construction of sequences, conflict resolution, sequence validation and commanding.

  11. SciServer Compute brings Analysis to Big Data in the Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raddick, Jordan; Medvedev, Dmitry; Lemson, Gerard; Souter, Barbara

    2016-06-01

    SciServer Compute uses Jupyter Notebooks running within server-side Docker containers attached to big data collections to bring advanced analysis to big data "in the cloud." SciServer Compute is a component in the SciServer Big-Data ecosystem under development at JHU, which will provide a stable, reproducible, sharable virtual research environment.SciServer builds on the popular CasJobs and SkyServer systems that made the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) archive one of the most-used astronomical instruments. SciServer extends those systems with server-side computational capabilities and very large scratch storage space, and further extends their functions to a range of other scientific disciplines.Although big datasets like SDSS have revolutionized astronomy research, for further analysis, users are still restricted to downloading the selected data sets locally – but increasing data sizes make this local approach impractical. Instead, researchers need online tools that are co-located with data in a virtual research environment, enabling them to bring their analysis to the data.SciServer supports this using the popular Jupyter notebooks, which allow users to write their own Python and R scripts and execute them on the server with the data (extensions to Matlab and other languages are planned). We have written special-purpose libraries that enable querying the databases and other persistent datasets. Intermediate results can be stored in large scratch space (hundreds of TBs) and analyzed directly from within Python or R with state-of-the-art visualization and machine learning libraries. Users can store science-ready results in their permanent allocation on SciDrive, a Dropbox-like system for sharing and publishing files. Communication between the various components of the SciServer system is managed through SciServer‘s new Single Sign-on Portal.We have created a number of demos to illustrate the capabilities of SciServer Compute, including Python and R scripts

  12. Measurement of Charged Current Charged Single Pion Production in SciBooNE

    SciTech Connect

    Hiraide, K.

    2008-10-01

    The SciBooNE experiment is designed to measure neutrino cross sections on carbon around one GeV region. Charged current single charged pion production is a dominant background process for {nu}{sub {mu}} to {nu}{sub x} oscillation experiments with a few-GeV neutrino beam, and thus a precision measurement of the cross section is essential. This article reports preliminary results on this process from SciBooNE.

  13. Mid-year Status of MESSENGER SciBox Science Planning and Commanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, L.; Choo, T. H.; Steele, R. J.; Lucks, M.; Nair, H.; Perry, M. E.; Anderson, B. J.; Berman, A. F.; Solomon, S. C.

    2011-12-01

    More than halfway into its primary orbital mission, MESSENGER has successfully exploited the SciBox planning and commanding system to automate science observation scheduling and command generation for its full instrument suite, as well as its radio-frequency communication and guidance and control systems. MESSENGER's SciBox software coordinates instrument observations to determine the optimal conflict-free science schedule for the entire orbital mission and generates weekly command sequences for submission to mission operations. SciBox maximizes science return by filling all available observing opportunities and fully utilizing onboard storage and downlink bandwidth. As of four months into its one-year orbital mission, MESSENGER SciBox had scheduled the acquisition and downlink of nearly 40,000 images and comparable data sets from the spacecraft's six other instruments. The flexibility of MESSENGER SciBox allows for rapid re-optimization of schedules in the event of unforeseen circumstances. It has also allowed the science and planning teams to analyze rapidly the effects of modifying operational parameters and adding new observations. Within two hours, the entire mission can be re-optimized, schedules and command sequences generated, and a full set of plots and reports produced. The effects on resource usage, observational coverage, and compliance with operational constraints may be quickly assessed. This rapid turnaround ensures that optimal schedules are produced regardless of circumstances. We present an overview of the MESSENGER SciBox design and its operation.

  14. Interoperable geometry and mesh components for SciDAC applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tautges, T. J.; Knupp, P.; Kraftcheck, J. A.; Kim, H. J.

    2005-01-01

    Software components for representing and evaluating geometry (TSTTG/CGM) and finite element mesh (TSTTM/MOAB), and a higher-level component for relations between the two (TSTTR/LASSO), have been combined with electromagnetic modelling and optimization techniques, to form a SciDAC shape optimization application. The TSTT data model described in this paper allows components involved in the shape optimization application to be coupled at a variety of levels, from coarse black-box coupling (e.g. to generate a model accelerator cavity using TSTTG) to very fine-grained coupling (e.g. smoothing individual mesh elements based in part on geometric surface normals at mesh vertices). Despite this flexibility, the TSTT data model uses only four fundamental data types (entities, sets, tags, and the interface object itself). We elaborate on the design and implementation of effective components in the context of this application, and show how our simple but flexible data model facilitates these efforts.

  15. panMetaDocs, eSciDoc, and DOIDB - an infrastructure for the curation and publication of file-based datasets for 'GFZ Data Services'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulbricht, Damian; Elger, Kirsten; Bertelmann, Roland; Klump, Jens

    2016-04-01

    With the foundation of DataCite in 2009 and the technical infrastructure installed in the last six years it has become very easy to create citable dataset DOIs. Nowadays, dataset DOIs are increasingly accepted and required by journals in reference lists of manuscripts. In addition, DataCite provides usage statistics [1] of assigned DOIs and offers a public search API to make research data count. By linking related information to the data, they become more useful for future generations of scientists. For this purpose, several identifier systems, as ISBN for books, ISSN for journals, DOI for articles or related data, Orcid for authors, and IGSN for physical samples can be attached to DOIs using the DataCite metadata schema [2]. While these are good preconditions to publish data, free and open solutions that help with the curation of data, the publication of research data, and the assignment of DOIs in one software seem to be rare. At GFZ Potsdam we built a modular software stack that is made of several free and open software solutions and we established 'GFZ Data Services'. 'GFZ Data Services' provides storage, a metadata editor for publication and a facility to moderate minted DOIs. All software solutions are connected through web APIs, which makes it possible to reuse and integrate established software. Core component of 'GFZ Data Services' is an eSciDoc [3] middleware that is used as central storage, and has been designed along the OAIS reference model for digital preservation. Thus, data are stored in self-contained packages that are made of binary file-based data and XML-based metadata. The eSciDoc infrastructure provides access control to data and it is able to handle half-open datasets, which is useful in embargo situations when a subset of the research data are released after an adequate period. The data exchange platform panMetaDocs [4] makes use of eSciDoc's REST API to upload file-based data into eSciDoc and uses a metadata editor [5] to annotate the files

  16. Understanding Quality of Life in Adults with Spinal Cord Injury Via SCI-Related Needs and Secondary Complications

    PubMed Central

    Noreau, Luc; Leblond, Jean; Dumont, Frédéric S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Understanding the factors that can predict greater quality of life (QoL) is important for adults with spinal cord injury (SCI), given that they report lower levels of QoL than the general population. Objectives: To build a conceptual model linking SCI-related needs, secondary complications, and QoL in adults with SCI. Prior to testing the conceptual model, we aimed to develop and evaluate the factor structure for both SCI-related needs and secondary complications. Methods: Individuals with a traumatic SCI (N = 1,137) responded to an online survey measuring 13 SCI-related needs, 13 secondary complications, and the Life Satisfaction Questionnaire to assess QoL. The SCI-related needs and secondary complications were conceptualized into factors, tested with a confirmatory factor analysis, and subsequently evaluated in a structural equation model to predict QoL. Results: The confirmatory factor analysis supported a 2-factor model for SCI related needs, χ2(61, N = 1,137) = 250.40, P <.001, comparative fit index (CFI) = .93, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = .05, standardized root mean square residual (SRMR) = .04, and for 11 of the 13 secondary complications, χ2(44, N = 1,137) = 305.67, P < .001, CFI = .91, RMSEA = .060, SRMR = .033. The final 2 secondary complications were kept as observed constructs. In the structural model, both vital and personal development unmet SCI-related needs (β = -.22 and -.20, P < .05, respectively) and the neuro-physiological systems factor (β = -.45, P < .05) were negatively related with QoL. Conclusions: Identifying unmet SCI-related needs of individuals with SCI and preventing or managing secondary complications are essential to their QoL. PMID:25477745

  17. GeoSciML and EarthResourceML Update, 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, S. M.; Commissionthe Management; Application Inte, I.

    2012-12-01

    CGI Interoperability Working Group activities during 2012 include deployment of services using the GeoSciML-Portrayal schema, addition of new vocabularies to support properties added in version 3.0, improvements to server software for deploying services, introduction of EarthResourceML v.2 for mineral resources, and collaboration with the IUSS on a markup language for soils information. GeoSciML and EarthResourceML have been used as the basis for the INSPIRE Geology and Mineral Resources specifications respectively. GeoSciML-Portrayal is an OGC GML simple-feature application schema for presentation of geologic map unit, contact, and shear displacement structure (fault and ductile shear zone) descriptions in web map services. Use of standard vocabularies for geologic age and lithology enables map services using shared legends to achieve visual harmonization of maps provided by different services. New vocabularies have been added to the collection of CGI vocabularies provided to support interoperable GeoSciML services, and can be accessed through http://resource.geosciml.org. Concept URIs can be dereferenced to obtain SKOS rdf or html representations using the SISSVoc vocabulary service. New releases of the FOSS GeoServer application greatly improve support for complex XML feature schemas like GeoSciML, and the ArcGIS for INSPIRE extension implements similar complex feature support for ArcGIS Server. These improved server implementations greatly facilitate deploying GeoSciML services. EarthResourceML v2 adds features for information related to mining activities. SoilML provides an interchange format for soil material, soil profile, and terrain information. Work is underway to add GeoSciML to the portfolio of Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) specifications.

  18. Our Planet Earth. Teacher's Guide. Unit F1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities,…

  19. Reproducing by Flowers and Seeds. Study Guide. Unit E2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zesaguli, Josie

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and environmental laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide consists of…

  20. Living Things and Their Food. Study Guide. Unit G2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  1. Life, Beginning and Growing. Study Guide. Unit E1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide is a three-part unit…

  2. The Chemicals of the Earth. Study Guide. Unit F2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  3. Forces. 'O' Level Study Guide. Unit 1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udwin, Martin

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the third year of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide is a five-part unit…

  4. What Do You Know about Water? Study Guide. Unit D. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Peter

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide is a three-part unit…

  5. Atoms and Molecules. Study Guide. Unit 2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandizha, George

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the third year of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide is a four-part unit…

  6. Using Electricity. Study Guide. Unit I2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chidume, Kwashira

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  7. SCI1 is a component of the auxin-dependent control of cell proliferation in Arabidopsis upper pistil.

    PubMed

    DePaoli, Henrique Cestari; Dornelas, Marcelo Carnier; Goldman, Maria Helena S

    2014-12-01

    To characterize the recently described SCI1 (stigma/style cell cycle inhibitor 1) gene relationship with the auxin pathway, we have taken the advantage of the Arabidopsis model system and its available tools. At first, we have analyzed the At1g79200 T-DNA insertion mutants and constructed various transgenic plants. The loss- and gain-of-function plants displayed cell number alterations in upper pistils that were controlled by the amino-terminal domain of the protein. These data also confirmed that this locus holds the functional homolog (AtSCI1) of the Nicotiana tabacum SCI1 gene. Then, we have provided some evidences the auxin synthesis/signaling pathways are required for downstream proper AtSCI1 control of cell number: (a) its expression is downregulated in yuc2yuc6 and npy1 auxin-deficient mutants, (b) triple (yuc2yuc6sci1) and double (npy1sci1) mutants mimicked the auxin-deficient phenotypes, with no synergistic interactions, and (c) the increased upper pistil phenotype in these last mutants, which is a consequence of an increased cell number, was able to be complemented by AtSCI1 overexpression. Taken together, our data strongly suggests SCI1 as a component of the auxin signaling transduction pathway to control cell proliferation/differentiation in stigma/style, representing a molecular effector of this hormone on pistil development. PMID:25443839

  8. Sense from Senses. Study Guide. Unit J. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simango, Sam

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  9. Energy for Living. Study Guide. Unit G1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide includes activities and…

  10. Ranking Business and Economics Journals in South America Using the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Jennifer K.; Pradenas, Lorena; Parada, Victor; Scherer, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    Access to published research for knowledge creation and education in the administrative science disciplines in South America has been enhanced since the introduction of the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO). Although SciELO has been available as an online journal indexing and publication service since 1998, there have been no…

  11. Understanding Electricity. Study Guide. Unit I1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chidume, Kwashira

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  12. Forces in Action. Study Guide. Unit H1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Peter

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  13. Forces in Living Things. Study Guide. Unit H2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty; Zesaguli, Josie

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  14. Learning to be a Scientist. Study Guide. Unit A1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide introduces students to…

  15. The design of color spectrophotometer based on diffuse illumination and compatible SCE/SCI geometric condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Kun; Yan, Hui-min; Jin, Shang-zhong

    2013-12-01

    The geometric conditions of diffuse illumination, 8 degree observation, specular light include (SCI) and specular light exclude (SCE) often be employed to measure the surface color of material with different gloss value. The SCE condition is usually realized by setting light trap on the integrating sphere. However, the structure of light trap has its negative influence on the light intensity uniformity, and can led to the inaccuracy of the test results under SCE or SCI condition. Due to the different sizes of the light trap, structures of the measurement instrument will led to inter instrument agreement among the measurement of sample with different gloss. This paper designs a measuring structure to measure the SCE and SCI results simultaneously; proposes a method to calculate the 8 degree gloss value based on the SCE and SCI test result; proposes a computing modal to modify the SCI and SCE measure result based on the 8 degree gloss value, experimental verifying is also carried out. The experimental results demonstrate the structure and modified model effectively reduce the negative influence of light trap. The inter instrument disagreement caused by the geometric dimension of different light trap is significantly decreased.

  16. Local delivery of FTY720 in PCL membrane improves SCI functional recovery by reducing reactive astrogliosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junjuan; Wang, Jiaqiu; Lu, Ping; Cai, Youzhi; Wang, Yafei; Hong, Lan; Ren, Hao; Heng, Boon Chin; Liu, Hua; Zhou, Jing; Ouyang, Hongwei

    2015-09-01

    FTY720 has recently been approved as an oral drug for treating relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis, and exerts its therapeutic effect by acting as an immunological inhibitor targeting the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor subtype (S1P1) of T cells. Recently studies demonstrated positive efficacy of this drug on spinal cord injury (SCI) in animal models after systemic administration, albeit with significant adverse side effects. We hereby hypothesize that localized delivery of FTY720 can promote SCI recovery by reducing pathological astrogliosis. The mechanistic functions of FTY720 were investigated in vitro and in vivo utilizing immunofluorescence, histology, MRI and behavioral analysis. The in vitro study showed that FTY720 can reduce astrocyte migration and proliferation activated by S1P. FTY720 can prolong internalization of S1P1 and exert antagonistic effects on S1P1. In vivo study of SCI animal models demonstrated that local delivery of FTY720 with polycaprolactone (PCL) membrane significantly decreased S1P1 expression and glial scarring compared with the control group. Furthermore, FTY720-treated groups exhibited less cavitation volume and neuron loss, which significantly improved recovery of motor function. These findings demonstrated that localized delivery of FTY720 can promote SCI recovery by targeting the S1P1 receptor of astrocytes, provide a new therapeutic strategy for SCI treatment. PMID:26036174

  17. Charged-Current Neutral Pion production at SciBooNE

    SciTech Connect

    Catala-Perez, J.; /Valencia U., IFIC

    2009-10-01

    SciBooNE, located in the Booster Neutrino Beam at Fermilab, collected data from June 2007 to August 2008 to accurately measure muon neutrino and anti-neutrino cross sections on carbon below 1 GeV neutrino energy. SciBooNE is studying charged current interactions. Among them, neutral pion production interactions will be the focus of this poster. The experimental signature of neutrino-induced neutral pion production is constituted by two electromagnetic cascades initiated by the conversion of the {pi}{sup 0} decay photons, with an additional muon in the final state for CC processes. In this poster, I will present how we reconstruct and select charged-current muon neutrino interactions producing {pi}{sup 0}'s in SciBooNE.

  18. Bringing the SciBar detector to the booster neutrino beam

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A.A.; Alcaraz, J.; Andringa, S.; Brice, S.J.; Brown, B.C.; Bugel, L.; Catala, J.; Cervera, A.; Conrad, J.M.; Couce, E.; Dore, U.; Espinal, X.; Finley, D.A.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.J.; Hayato, Y.; Hiraide, K.; Ishii, T.; Jover, G.; Kobilarcik, T.; Kurimoto, Y.; Kurosawa, Y.; /Columbia U. /Fermilab /KEK, Tsukuba /Barcelona, IFAE /Tokyo U., ICRR /Valencia U., IFIC /Kyoto U. /Los Alamos /Louisiana State U. /Stratton Mountain Sch. /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Colorado U.

    2006-01-01

    This document presents the physics case for bringing SciBar, the fully active, finely segmented tracking detector at KEK, to the FNAL Booster Neutrino Beam (BNB) line. This unique opportunity arose with the termination of K2K beam operations in 2005. At that time, the SciBar detector became available for use in other neutrino beam lines, including the BNB, which has been providing neutrinos to the MiniBooNE experiment since late 2002. The physics that can be done with SciBar/BNB can be put into three categories, each involving several measurements. First are neutrino cross section measurements which are interesting in their own right, including analyses of multi-particle final states, with unprecedented statistics. Second are measurements of processes that represent the signal and primary background channels for the upcoming T2K experiment. Third are measurements which improve existing or planned MiniBooNE analyses and the understanding of the BNB, both in neutrino and antineutrino mode. For each of these proposed measurements, the SciBar/BNB combination presents a unique opportunity or will significantly improve upon current or near-future experiments for several reasons. First, the fine granularity of SciBar allows detailed reconstruction of final states not possible with the MiniBooNE detector. Additionally, the BNB neutrino energy spectrum is a close match to the expected T2K energy spectrum in a region where cross sections are expected to vary dramatically with energy. As a result, the SciBar/BNB combination will provide cross-section measurements in an energy range complementary to MINERvA and complete the knowledge of neutrino cross sections over the entire energy range of interest to the upcoming off-axis experiments.

  19. Spinal Cord Injury Community Survey: Understanding the Needs of Canadians with SCI

    PubMed Central

    Noonan, Vanessa K.; Cobb, John; Leblond, Jean; Dumont, Frédéric S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is a lack of literature regarding service needs of people with SCI living in the community. Better assessment of expressed and met and unmet needs would help in the development of effective service delivery. Objective: From a national SCI Community Survey in Canada, the aim was to identify the most critical service needs of people living in the community at least 1 year post discharge from rehabilitation and the support they received to meet their needs. Method: Data were collected mainly through a secure Web site and encompassed demographics, personal and household income, an SCI severity measure, and an SCI community needs measure containing information on 13 SCI-related needs. Results: A total of 1,549 persons with SCI (traumatic lesion, n = 1,137; nontraumatic lesion, n = 412) across Canada completed the survey. Most critical needs for community integration were expressed by a substantial proportion of survey participants, but significantly more expressed and met needs were reported by persons with a traumatic than a nontraumatic lesion. Personal and environmental characteristics influenced the probability of expressing and meeting needs (eg, severity of injury and household income). Help and support to meet expressed needs were received from government agencies, community organizations, and friends or family. Conclusion: Better assessment of expressed and met or unmet needs for services remains a challenge but will serve as a tool to optimize service delivery in the community. Environmental barriers to services, particularly the process of getting needs met and associated costs, remain an issue that requires a reconsideration of some aspects of access to services. PMID:25477740

  20. SCI Hospital in Home Program: Bringing Hospital Care Home for Veterans With Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Madaris, Linda L; Onyebueke, Mirian; Liebman, Janet; Martin, Allyson

    2016-01-01

    The complex nature of spinal cord injury (SCI) and the level of care required for health maintenance frequently result in repeated hospital admissions for recurrent medical complications. Prolonged hospitalizations of persons with SCI have been linked to the increased risk of hospital-acquired infections and development or worsening pressure ulcers. An evidence-based alternative for providing hospital-level care to patients with specific diagnoses who are willing to receive that level of care in the comfort of their home is being implemented in a Department of Veterans Affairs SCI Home Care Program. The SCI Hospital in Home (HiH) model is similar to a patient-centered interdisciplinary care model that was first introduced in Europe and later tested as part of a National Demonstration and Evaluation Study through Johns Hopkins School of Medicine and School of Public Health. This was funded by the John A. Hartford Foundation and the Department of Veterans Affairs. The objectives of the program are to support veterans' choice and access to patient-centered care, reduce the reliance on inpatient medical care, allow for early discharge, and decrease medical costs. Veterans with SCI who are admitted to the HiH program receive daily oversight by a physician, daily visits by a registered nurse, access to laboratory services, oxygen, intravenous medications, and nursing care in the home setting. In this model, patients may typically access HiH services either as an "early discharge" from the hospital or as a direct admit to the program from the emergency department or SCI clinic. Similar programs providing acute hospital-equivalent care in the home have been previously implemented and are successfully demonstrating decreased length of stay, improved patient access, and increased patient satisfaction. PMID:26938182

  1. SciDAC-Center for Plasma Edge Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Choong Seock

    2012-06-04

    The SciDAC ProtoFSP Center for Plasma Edge Simulation (CPES) [http://www.cims.nyu.edu/cpes/] was awarded to New York University, Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences in FY 2006. C.S. Chang was the institutional and national project PI. It’s mission was 1) to build kinetic simulation code applicable to tokamak edge region including magnetic divertor geometry, 2) to build a computer science framework which can integrate the kinetic code with MHD/fluid codes in multiscale, 3) to conduct scientific research using the developed tools. CPES has built two such edge kinetic codes XGC0 and XGC1, which are still the only working kinetic edge plasma codes capable of including the diverted magnetic field geometry. CPES has also built the code coupling framework EFFIS (End-to-end Framework for Fusion Integrated Simulation), which incubated and used the Adios (www.olcf.ornl.gov/center-projects/adios/) and eSiMon (http://www.olcf.ornl.gov/center-projects/esimmon/) technologies, together with the Kepler technology.

  2. STARtorialist: Astronomy Outreach via Fashion, Sci-Fi, & Pop Culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Emily L.; Ash, Summer

    2015-01-01

    Astronomical images in the public domain have increasingly been used as inspiration and patterns for clothing, accessories, and home decor. These 'AstroFashion' items are as diverse as DIY projects, handmade and boutique products, mass-produced commercial items, and haute couture. STARtorialist is a Tumblr-based blog that curates the proliferation of these products with the goal of celebrating the beauty of the universe and highlighting the science behind the images. The blog also includes sci-fi, space, and science-related aspects of popular culture. Each post features images and descriptions of the products, and often where/how we found them and/or the people wearing them, with links to the original astronomical images or other relevant science content. The popularity of each post is evident in the number of 'notes', including 'faves' (personal bookmarks) and 'reblogs' (shares with other users). Since launching the blog in December 2013, with an average of one post per day, we've attracted hundreds of followers on Tumblr and Twitter and thousands of notes on Tumblr. We will present our most popular posts and recommend how education, outreach, and press offices can add Tumblr to their social media repertoire.

  3. "Sci-Tech - Couldn't be without it !"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-03-01

    Launch of a Major European Outreach Programme Seven of Europe's leading Research Organizations [1] launch joint outreach programme for the European Science and Technology Week at the Technopolis Museum in Brussels on 22 March. Their aim is to show Europeans how today's society couldn't be without fundamental research . Could you imagine life without mobile phones, cars, CD players, TV, refrigerators, computers, the internet and the World Wide Web, antibiotics, vitamins, anaesthetics, vaccination, heating, pampers, nylon stockings, glue, bar codes, metal detectors, contact lenses, modems, laser printers, digital cameras, gameboys, play stations...? Technology is everywhere and used by everyone in today's society, but how many Europeans suspect that without studies on the structure of the atom, lasers would not exist, and neither would CD players? Most do not realise that most things they couldn't be without have required years of fundamental research . To fill this knowledge gap, the leading Research Organizations in Europe [1], with the support of the research directorate of the European Commission, have joined forces to inform Europeans how technology couldn't be without science, and how science can no longer progress without technology. The project is called...... Sci-Tech - Couldn't be without it! Sci-Tech - Couldn't be without it! invites Europeans to vote online in a survey to identify the top ten technologies they can't live without. It will show them through a dynamic and entertaining Web space where these top technologies really come from, and it will reveal their intimate links with research. Teaching kits will be developed to explain to students how their favourite gadgets actually work, and how a career in science can contribute to inventions that future generations couldn't be without. The results of the survey will be presented as a series of quiz shows live on the Internet during the Science Week, from 4 to 10 November. Sci-tech - Couldn't be without

  4. GeoSciML version 3: A GML application for geologic information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    International Union of Geological Sciences., I. C.; Richard, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    After 2 years of testing and development, XML schema for GeoSciML version 3 are now ready for application deployment. GeoSciML draws from many geoscience data modelling efforts to establish a common suite of feature types to represent information associated with geologic maps (materials, structures, and geologic units) and observations including structure data, samples, and chemical analyses. After extensive testing and use case analysis, in December 2008 the CGI Interoperability Working Group (IWG) released GeoSciML 2.0 as an application schema for basic geological information. GeoSciML 2.0 is in use to deliver geologic data by the OneGeology Europe portal, the Geological Survey of Canada Groundwater Information Network (wet GIN), and the Auscope Mineral Resources portal. GeoSciML to version 3.0 is updated to OGC Geography Markup Language v3.2, re-engineered patterns for association of element values with controlled vocabulary concepts, incorporation of ISO19156 Observation and Measurement constructs for representing numeric and categorical values and for representing analytical data, incorporation of EarthResourceML to represent mineral occurrences and mines, incorporation of the GeoTime model to represent GSSP and stratigraphic time scale, and refactoring of the GeoSciML namespace to follow emerging ISO practices for decoupling of dependencies between standardized namespaces. These changes will make it easier for data providers to link to standard vocabulary and registry services. The depth and breadth of GeoSciML remains largely unchanged, covering the representation of geologic units, earth materials and geologic structures. ISO19156 elements and patterns are used to represent sampling features such as boreholes and rock samples, as well as geochemical and geochronologic measurements. Geologic structures include shear displacement structures (brittle faults and ductile shears), contacts, folds, foliations, lineations and structures with no preferred

  5. CitSci.org: A New Model for Managing, Documenting, and Sharing Citizen Science Data

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yiwei; Kaplan, Nicole; Newman, Greg; Scarpino, Russell

    2015-01-01

    Citizen science projects have the potential to advance science by increasing the volume and variety of data, as well as innovation. Yet this potential has not been fully realized, in part because citizen science data are typically not widely shared and reused. To address this and related challenges, we built CitSci.org (see www.citsci.org), a customizable platform that allows users to collect and generate diverse datasets. We hope that CitSci.org will ultimately increase discoverability and confidence in citizen science observations, encouraging scientists to use such data in their own scientific research. PMID:26492521

  6. Final Report for DOE Project: Portal Web Services: Support of DOE SciDAC Collaboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Mary Thomas, PI; Geoffrey Fox, Co-PI; Gannon, D; Pierce, M; Moore, R; Schissel, D; Boisseau, J

    2007-10-01

    Grid portals provide the scientific community with familiar and simplified interfaces to the Grid and Grid services, and it is important to deploy grid portals onto the SciDAC grids and collaboratories. The goal of this project is the research, development and deployment of interoperable portal and web services that can be used on SciDAC National Collaboratory grids. This project has four primary task areas: development of portal systems; management of data collections; DOE science application integration; and development of web and grid services in support of the above activities.

  7. Scalable Earth-observation Analytics for Geoscientists: Spacetime Extensions to the Array Database SciDB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appel, Marius; Lahn, Florian; Pebesma, Edzer; Buytaert, Wouter; Moulds, Simon

    2016-04-01

    Today's amount of freely available data requires scientists to spend large parts of their work on data management. This is especially true in environmental sciences when working with large remote sensing datasets, such as obtained from earth-observation satellites like the Sentinel fleet. Many frameworks like SpatialHadoop or Apache Spark address the scalability but target programmers rather than data analysts, and are not dedicated to imagery or array data. In this work, we use the open-source data management and analytics system SciDB to bring large earth-observation datasets closer to analysts. Its underlying data representation as multidimensional arrays fits naturally to earth-observation datasets, distributes storage and computational load over multiple instances by multidimensional chunking, and also enables efficient time-series based analyses, which is usually difficult using file- or tile-based approaches. Existing interfaces to R and Python furthermore allow for scalable analytics with relatively little learning effort. However, interfacing SciDB and file-based earth-observation datasets that come as tiled temporal snapshots requires a lot of manual bookkeeping during ingestion, and SciDB natively only supports loading data from CSV-like and custom binary formatted files, which currently limits its practical use in earth-observation analytics. To make it easier to work with large multi-temporal datasets in SciDB, we developed software tools that enrich SciDB with earth observation metadata and allow working with commonly used file formats: (i) the SciDB extension library scidb4geo simplifies working with spatiotemporal arrays by adding relevant metadata to the database and (ii) the Geospatial Data Abstraction Library (GDAL) driver implementation scidb4gdal allows to ingest and export remote sensing imagery from and to a large number of file formats. Using added metadata on temporal resolution and coverage, the GDAL driver supports time-based ingestion of

  8. A new antimicrobial peptide SCY2 identified in Scylla Paramamosain exerting a potential role of reproductive immunity.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Kun; Xu, Wan-Fang; Chen, Hui-Yun; Peng, Hui; Zhang, Ya-Qun; Huang, Wen-Shu; Wang, Shu-Ping; An, Zhe; Shan, Zhong-Guo; Chen, Fang-Yi; Wang, Ke-Jian

    2016-04-01

    A new antimicrobial peptide named SCY2 with 65.08% identity in amino acid sequence to the known scygonadin (SCY1) was first characterized in Scylla paramamosain based on its cloned full-length cDNA and genomic DNA sequences. The SCY2 gene was dominantly expressed in the ejaculatory duct of male crabs and its mRNA transcripts were discerned mainly in the glandular epithelium of the inner wall and the secretion inside the ejaculatory duct. Although the SCY2 gene could not be induced with the challenge of the bacteria and fungi tested, its induction reached the highest level at the peak period of mating in mature male crabs either in June or November, suggesting its induction was likely related to seasonal reproduction changes. Moreover, it was interesting to note that, from analysis of its transcripts and protein, SCY2 was significantly expressed only in the ejaculatory duct of pre-copulatory males before mating, however it was clearly detected in the spermatheca of post-copulatory females after mating accompanied by the decreased level of SCY2 expression in the ejaculatory duct. These results suggested that the SCY2 was probably transferred from the male during mating action with the female for the purpose of protecting fertilization. The recombinant SCY2 was more active against the Gram-positive than the Gram-negative bacteria tested. It was further observed that the SCY2 transcripts were significantly increased with addition of exogenous progesterone in tissue cultures whereas the several other hormones tested had no any effect on SCY2 expression, indicating that there might be a relationship between the SCY2 expression and the induction of hormones in vivo. In summary, this study demonstrated that one role of SCY2 was likely to be involved in crab reproduction and it exerted its reproductive immune function through the mating action and the maintenance of inner sterility in the spermatheca of the female, thus leading to successful fertilization of S

  9. Antifungal Activities of SCY-078 (MK-3118) and Standard Antifungal Agents against Clinical Non-Aspergillus Mold Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Lamoth, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    The limited armamentarium of active and oral antifungal drugs against emerging non-Aspergillus molds is of particular concern. Current antifungal agents and the new orally available beta-1,3-d-glucan synthase inhibitor SCY-078 were tested in vitro against 135 clinical non-Aspergillus mold isolates. Akin to echinocandins, SCY-078 showed no or poor activity against Mucoromycotina and Fusarium spp. However, SCY-078 was highly active against Paecilomyces variotii and was the only compound displaying some activity against notoriously panresistant Scedosporium prolificans. PMID:25896696

  10. Data Sharing and Publication Using the SciDrive Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishin, D.; Medvedev, D.; Szalay, A. S.; Plante, R.; Graham, M.

    2014-05-01

    Despite all the progress made during the last years in the field of cloud data storage, the problem of fast and reliable data storage for the scientific community still remains open. The SciDrive project meets the need for a free open-source scientific data publishing platform. Having the primary target audience of astronomers as the largest data producers, the platform however is not bound to any scientific domain and can be used by different communities. Our current installation provides a free and safe storage platform for scientists to publish their data and share it with the community with the simplicity of Dropbox. The system allows service providers to harvest from the files and derive their broader context in a fairly automated fashion. Collecting various scientific data files in a single location or multiple connected sites allows building an intelligent system of metadata extractors. Our system is aimed at simplifying the cataloging and processing of large file collections for the long tail of scientific data. We propose an extensible plugin architecture for automatic metadata extraction and storage. The current implementation targets some of the data formats commonly used by the astronomy communities, including FITS, ASCII and Excel tables, TIFF images, and YT simulations data archives. Along with generic metadata, format-specific metadata is also processed. For example, basic information about celestial objects is extracted from FITS files and TIFF images, if present. This approach makes the simple BLOB storage a smart system providing access to various data in its own representation, such as a database for files containing tables, or providing additional search and access features such as full-text search, image pyramids or thumbnails creation, simulation dataset id extractor for fast search. A 100TB implementation has just been put into production at Johns Hopkins University.

  11. Measurement Properties of the Spinal Cord Injury-Functional Index (SCI-FI) Short Forms

    PubMed Central

    Heinemann, Allen W.; Dijkers, Marcel P.; Ni, Pengsheng; Tulsky, David S.; Jette, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the psychometric properties of the Spinal Cord Injury Functional Index (SCI-FI) short forms (Basic Mobility, Self-Care, Fine Motor, Ambulation, Manual Wheelchair, and Power Wheelchair) based on internal consistency, correlations between short- and full item bank forms, and a 10-item compute adaptive test version, magnitude of ceiling and floor effects, and test information functions. Design Cross-sectional cohort study. Participants 855 individuals with traumatic spinal cord injury recruited from 6 National Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems facilities. Interventions Not applicable. Main outcome measures SCI-FI full item bank, 10-item computer adaptive test, and parallel short form scores. Results The SCI-FI short forms (with separate versions for individuals with paraplegia and tetraplegia) demonstrate very good internal consistency, group-level reliability, excellent correlations between short forms and scores based on the total item bank, minimal ceiling and floor effects (except ceiling effects for persons with paraplegia on Self-Care, Fine Motor and Power Wheelchair ability, and floor effects for persons with tetraplegia on Self-Care, Fine Motor and Manual Wheelchair ability). The test information functions are acceptable across the range of scores where most persons in the sample performed. Conclusions clinicians and researchers should consider the SCI-FI short forms when computer adaptive testing is not feasible. PMID:24602551

  12. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome with spinal cord involvement (PRES-SCI): A case report.

    PubMed

    Khokhar, Harsh Vardhan; Choudhary, Pradeep; Saxena, Sangeeta; Arif, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome with spinal cord involvement (PRES-SCI) is a recently described entity with a handful of cases reported in literature. We describe a case of PRES in setting of Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) with involvement of brain stem and spinal cord. PMID:27011648

  13. G/T Identification and Sci-Fi Matchmaking: More Similar than They Should Be.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartek, Mary M.

    2003-01-01

    Using a sci-fi matchmaking scenario to illustrate the fallibility of technology, this article discusses the practice of reducing a student to a series of test scores for gifted identification. The limits of testing are addressed, and student performance and behavior are urged as additional categories for identifying aptitude and achievement.…

  14. SciEthics Interactive: Science and Ethics Learning in a Virtual Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadolny, Larysa; Woolfrey, Joan; Pierlott, Matthew; Kahn, Seth

    2013-01-01

    Learning in immersive 3D environments allows students to collaborate, build, and interact with difficult course concepts. This case study examines the design and development of the TransGen Island within the SciEthics Interactive project, a National Science Foundation-funded, 3D virtual world emphasizing learning science content in the context of…

  15. What is Matter? Teacher's Guide. Unit C1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  16. National Computational Infrastructure for Lattice Gauge Theory SciDAC-2 Closeout Report Indiana University Component

    SciTech Connect

    Gottlieb, Steven Arthur; DeTar, Carleton; Tousaint, Doug

    2014-07-24

    This is the closeout report for the Indiana University portion of the National Computational Infrastructure for Lattice Gauge Theory project supported by the United States Department of Energy under the SciDAC program. It includes information about activities at Indian University, the University of Arizona, and the University of Utah, as those three universities coordinated their activities.

  17. Performance Engineering Research Institute SciDAC-2 Enabling Technologies Institute Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, Robert

    2013-04-20

    Enhancing the performance of SciDAC applications on petascale systems had high priority within DOE SC at the start of the second phase of the SciDAC program, SciDAC-2, as it continues to do so today. Achieving expected levels of performance on high-end computing (HEC) systems is growing ever more challenging due to enormous scale, increasing architectural complexity, and increasing application complexity. To address these challenges, the University of Southern California?s Information Sciences Institute organized the Performance Engineering Research Institute (PERI). PERI implemented a unified, tripartite research plan encompassing: (1) performance modeling and prediction; (2) automatic performance tuning; and (3) performance engineering of high profile applications. Within PERI, USC?s primary research activity was automatic tuning (autotuning) of scientific software. This activity was spurred by the strong user preference for automatic tools and was based on previous successful activities such as ATLAS, which automatically tuned components of the LAPACK linear algebra library, and other recent work on autotuning domain-specific libraries. Our other major component was application engagement, to which we devoted approximately 30% of our effort to work directly with SciDAC-2 applications. This report is a summary of the overall results of the USC PERI effort.

  18. Microlithography and resist technology information at your fingertips via SciFinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konuk, Rengin; Macko, John R.; Staggenborg, Lisa

    1997-07-01

    Finding and retrieving the information you need about microlithography and resist technology in a timely fashion can make or break your competitive edge in today's business environment. Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) provides the most complete and comprehensive database of the chemical literature in the CAplus, REGISTRY, and CASREACT files including 13 million document references, 15 million substance records and over 1.2 million reactions. This includes comprehensive coverage of positive and negative resist formulations and processing, photoacid generation, silylation, single and multilayer resist systems, photomasks, dry and wet etching, photolithography, electron-beam, ion-beam and x-ray lithography technologies and process control, optical tools, exposure systems, radiation sources and steppers. Journal articles, conference proceedings and patents related to microlithography and resist technology are analyzed and indexed by scientific information analysts with strong technical background in these areas. The full CAS database, which is updated weekly with new information, is now available at your desktop, via a convenient, user-friendly tool called 'SciFinder.' Author, subject and chemical substance searching is simplified by SciFinder's smart search features. Chemical substances can be searched by chemical structure, chemical name, CAS registry number or molecular formula. Drawing chemical structures in SciFinder is easy and does not require compliance with CA conventions. Built-in intelligence of SciFinder enables users to retrieve substances with multiple components, tautomeric forms and salts.

  19. Evaluating soil organic C sequestration in the Cotton Belt with the soil conditioning index (SCI)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Simulation models that are sensitive to management, edaphic factors, and climate could provide insightful probes of how land owners and producers might be able to sequester soil organic C and engage in emerging carbon markets. We used the soil conditioning index (SCI) embedded in the RUSLE2 model t...

  20. Calibration of the soil conditioning index (SCI) to soil organic carbon in the southeastern USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prediction of soil organic C sequestration with adoption of various conservation agricultural management approaches is needed to meet the emerging market for environmental services provided by agricultural land stewardship. The soil conditioning index (SCI) is a relatively simple model used by the ...

  1. The SciELO Open Access: A Gold Way from the South

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Packer, Abel L.

    2009-01-01

    Open access has long emphasized access to scholarly materials. However, open access can also mean access to the means of producing visible and recognized journals. This issue is particularly important in developing and emergent countries. The SciELO (Scientific Electronic Library On-line) project, first started in Brazil and, shortly afterward, in…

  2. 76 FR 10395 - BreconRidge Manufacturing Solutions, Now Known as Sanmina-SCI Corporation, Division...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... published in the Federal Register on October 15, 2010 (75 FR 63511). At the request of the State agency, the... Employment and Training Administration BreconRidge Manufacturing Solutions, Now Known as Sanmina-SCI Corporation, Division Optoelectronic and Microelectronic Design and Manufacturing, a Subsidiary of...

  3. Cross section analyses in MiniBooNE and SciBooNE experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Katori, Teppei

    2015-05-15

    The MiniBooNE experiment (2002-2012) and the SciBooNE experiment (2007-2008) are modern high statistics neutrino experiments, and they developed many new ideas in neutrino cross section analyses. In this note, I discuss selected topics of these analyses.

  4. SciTech Clubs for Girls. [Final report], September 1, 1991--April 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Malamud, E.; Diaz, O.; Cox, J.

    1994-12-31

    The program of SciTech Clubs for Girls and its progress are described. This is a program that promotes the learning of science and mathematics by girls in the age range of 9 to 13 years through the process of building exhibits and learning from local professionals. A list of exhibits and a critique of the program are given.

  5. SciJourn is magic: construction of a science journalism community of practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholas, Celeste R.

    2016-01-01

    This article is the first to describe the discoursal construction of an adolescent community of practice (CoP) in a non-school setting. CoPs can provide optimal learning environments. The adolescent community centered around science journalism and positioned itself dichotomously in relationship to school literacy practices. The analysis focuses on recordings from a panel-style research interview from an early implementation of the Science Literacy Through Science Journalism (SciJourn) project. Researchers trained high school students participating in a youth development program to write science news articles. Students engaged in the authentic practices of professional science journalists, received feedback from a professional editor, and submitted articles for publication. I used a fine-grained critical discourse analysis of genre, discourse, and style to analyze student responses about differences between writing in SciJourn and in school. Students described themselves as agentic in SciJourn and passive in school, using an academic writing discourse of deficit to describe schooling experiences. They affiliated with and defined a SciJourn CoP, constructing positive journalistic identities therein. Educators are encouraged to develop similar CoPs. The discursive features presented may be used to monitor the development of communities of practice in a variety of settings.

  6. Transplantation of glial progenitors that overexpress glutamate transporter GLT1 preserves diaphragm function following cervical SCI.

    PubMed

    Li, Ke; Javed, Elham; Hala, Tamara J; Sannie, Daniel; Regan, Kathleen A; Maragakis, Nicholas J; Wright, Megan C; Poulsen, David J; Lepore, Angelo C

    2015-03-01

    Approximately half of traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) cases affect cervical regions, resulting in chronic respiratory compromise. The majority of these injuries affect midcervical levels, the location of phrenic motor neurons (PMNs) that innervate the diaphragm. A valuable opportunity exists following SCI for preventing PMN loss that occurs during secondary degeneration. One of the primary causes of secondary injury is excitotoxicity due to dysregulation of extracellular glutamate homeostasis. Astrocytes express glutamate transporter 1 (GLT1), which is responsible for the majority of CNS glutamate clearance. Given our observations of GLT1 dysfunction post-SCI, we evaluated intraspinal transplantation of Glial-Restricted Precursors (GRPs)--a class of lineage-restricted astrocyte progenitors--into ventral horn following cervical hemicontusion as a novel strategy for reconstituting GLT1 function, preventing excitotoxicity and protecting PMNs in the acutely injured spinal cord. We find that unmodified transplants express low levels of GLT1 in the injured spinal cord. To enhance their therapeutic properties, we engineered GRPs with AAV8 to overexpress GLT1 only in astrocytes using the GFA2 promoter, resulting in significantly increased GLT1 protein expression and functional glutamate uptake following astrocyte differentiation in vitro and after transplantation into C4 hemicontusion. Compared to medium-only control and unmodified GRPs, GLT1-overexpressing transplants reduced lesion size, diaphragm denervation and diaphragm dysfunction. Our findings demonstrate transplantation-based replacement of astrocyte GLT1 is a promising approach for SCI. PMID:25492561

  7. Research Report for GeSci Meta-Review of ICT in Education: Phase Two

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBaron, John; McDonough, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This second phase of a comprehensive meta-review of educational ICT research and practice addresses global developments reflected in the research and development literature appearing since 2006. Completed in April 2009, the Phase One (P1) report comprised a synopsis of research related to GeSci's five thematic inquiry priorities. Preliminary…

  8. MySci Advisors: Establishing a Peer-Mentoring Program for First Year Science Student Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poling, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Would you like to help your students adjust to university life? Perhaps you are simply interested in allowing them to feel more integrated into a department right from the start of their first year? These were the types of issues that we were hoping to address when we founded the MySci Advisors Program, a peer-mentoring group for first year…

  9. Looking at Life. Teacher's Guide. Unit A2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  10. A Program Design To Motivate Individuals with SCI for Self-Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scotzin, Martha

    The report compares a skin care education program with a standard rehabilitation program to determine whether the program improved the self care motivations of spinal cord injury (SCI) paraplegic and quadriplegic inpatients (N=42). Study findings suggest that the skin care educational program was successful in changing patients' thinking about…

  11. SciSpark's SRDD : A Scientific Resilient Distributed Dataset for Multidimensional Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palamuttam, R. S.; Wilson, B. D.; Mogrovejo, R. M.; Whitehall, K. D.; Mattmann, C. A.; McGibbney, L. J.; Ramirez, P.

    2015-12-01

    Remote sensing data and climate model output are multi-dimensional arrays of massive sizes locked away in heterogeneous file formats (HDF5/4, NetCDF 3/4) and metadata models (HDF-EOS, CF) making it difficult to perform multi-stage, iterative science processing since each stage requires writing and reading data to and from disk. We have developed SciSpark, a robust Big Data framework, that extends ApacheTM Spark for scaling scientific computations. Apache Spark improves the map-reduce implementation in ApacheTM Hadoop for parallel computing on a cluster, by emphasizing in-memory computation, "spilling" to disk only as needed, and relying on lazy evaluation. Central to Spark is the Resilient Distributed Dataset (RDD), an in-memory distributed data structure that extends the functional paradigm provided by the Scala programming language. However, RDDs are ideal for tabular or unstructured data, and not for highly dimensional data. The SciSpark project introduces the Scientific Resilient Distributed Dataset (sRDD), a distributed-computing array structure which supports iterative scientific algorithms for multidimensional data. SciSpark processes data stored in NetCDF and HDF files by partitioning them across time or space and distributing the partitions among a cluster of compute nodes. We show usability and extensibility of SciSpark by implementing distributed algorithms for geospatial operations on large collections of multi-dimensional grids. In particular we address the problem of scaling an automated method for finding Mesoscale Convective Complexes. SciSpark provides a tensor interface to support the pluggability of different matrix libraries. We evaluate performance of the various matrix libraries in distributed pipelines, such as Nd4jTM and BreezeTM. We detail the architecture and design of SciSpark, our efforts to integrate climate science algorithms, parallel ingest and partitioning (sharding) of A-Train satellite observations from model grids. These

  12. Science classroom inquiry (SCI) simulations: a novel method to scaffold science learning.

    PubMed

    Peffer, Melanie E; Beckler, Matthew L; Schunn, Christian; Renken, Maggie; Revak, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Science education is progressively more focused on employing inquiry-based learning methods in the classroom and increasing scientific literacy among students. However, due to time and resource constraints, many classroom science activities and laboratory experiments focus on simple inquiry, with a step-by-step approach to reach predetermined outcomes. The science classroom inquiry (SCI) simulations were designed to give students real life, authentic science experiences within the confines of a typical classroom. The SCI simulations allow students to engage with a science problem in a meaningful, inquiry-based manner. Three discrete SCI simulations were created as website applications for use with middle school and high school students. For each simulation, students were tasked with solving a scientific problem through investigation and hypothesis testing. After completion of the simulation, 67% of students reported a change in how they perceived authentic science practices, specifically related to the complex and dynamic nature of scientific research and how scientists approach problems. Moreover, 80% of the students who did not report a change in how they viewed the practice of science indicated that the simulation confirmed or strengthened their prior understanding. Additionally, we found a statistically significant positive correlation between students' self-reported changes in understanding of authentic science practices and the degree to which each simulation benefitted learning. Since SCI simulations were effective in promoting both student learning and student understanding of authentic science practices with both middle and high school students, we propose that SCI simulations are a valuable and versatile technology that can be used to educate and inspire a wide range of science students on the real-world complexities inherent in scientific study. PMID:25786245

  13. Antidepressants Are Effective in Decreasing Neuropathic Pain After SCI: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Guy, Stacey; Lam, Tracey; Teasell, Robert; Loh, Eldon

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To systematically review and assess the effectiveness and safety of antidepressants for neuropathic pain among individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods: A systematic search was conducted using multiple databases for relevant articles published from 1980 to April 2014. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving antidepressant treatment of neuropathic pain with ≥3 individuals and ≥50% of study population with SCI were included. Two independent reviewers selected studies based on inclusion criteria and then extracted data. Pooled analysis using Cohen’s d to calculate standardized mean difference, standard error, and 95% confidence interval for primary (pain) and other secondary outcomes was conducted. Results: Four RCTs met inclusion criteria. Of these, 2 studies assessed amitriptyline, 1 trazadone, and 1 duloxetine among individuals with neuropathic SCI pain. A small effect was seen in the effectiveness of antidepressants in decreasing pain among individuals with SCI (standardized mean difference = 0.34 ± 0.15; 95% CI, 0.05-0.62; P = .02). A number needed to treat of 3.4 for 30% or more pain relief was found by pooling 2 studies. Of these, significantly higher risk of experiencing constipation (risk ratio [RR] = 1.74; 95% CI, 1.09-2.78; P = .02) and dry mouth (RR = 1.39; 95% CI, 1.04-1.85; P = .02) was found amongst individuals receiving antidepressant treatment compared to those in the control group. Conclusion: The current meta-analysis demonstrates that antidepressants are effective in reducing neuropathic SCI pain. However, this should be interpreted with caution due to the limited number of studies. Further evaluation of long-term therapeutic options may be required. PMID:26364286

  14. Science Classroom Inquiry (SCI) Simulations: A Novel Method to Scaffold Science Learning

    PubMed Central

    Peffer, Melanie E.; Beckler, Matthew L.; Schunn, Christian; Renken, Maggie; Revak, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Science education is progressively more focused on employing inquiry-based learning methods in the classroom and increasing scientific literacy among students. However, due to time and resource constraints, many classroom science activities and laboratory experiments focus on simple inquiry, with a step-by-step approach to reach predetermined outcomes. The science classroom inquiry (SCI) simulations were designed to give students real life, authentic science experiences within the confines of a typical classroom. The SCI simulations allow students to engage with a science problem in a meaningful, inquiry-based manner. Three discrete SCI simulations were created as website applications for use with middle school and high school students. For each simulation, students were tasked with solving a scientific problem through investigation and hypothesis testing. After completion of the simulation, 67% of students reported a change in how they perceived authentic science practices, specifically related to the complex and dynamic nature of scientific research and how scientists approach problems. Moreover, 80% of the students who did not report a change in how they viewed the practice of science indicated that the simulation confirmed or strengthened their prior understanding. Additionally, we found a statistically significant positive correlation between students’ self-reported changes in understanding of authentic science practices and the degree to which each simulation benefitted learning. Since SCI simulations were effective in promoting both student learning and student understanding of authentic science practices with both middle and high school students, we propose that SCI simulations are a valuable and versatile technology that can be used to educate and inspire a wide range of science students on the real-world complexities inherent in scientific study. PMID:25786245

  15. Data publication and sharing using the SciDrive service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishin, Dmitry; Medvedev, D.; Szalay, A. S.; Plante, R. L.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the last years progress in scientific data storage, still remains the problem of public data storage and sharing system for relatively small scientific datasets. These are collections forming the “long tail” of power log datasets distribution. The aggregated size of the long tail data is comparable to the size of all data collections from large archives, and the value of data is significant. The SciDrive project's main goal is providing the scientific community with a place to reliably and freely store such data and provide access to it to broad scientific community. The primary target audience of the project is astoromy community, and it will be extended to other fields. We're aiming to create a simple way of publishing a dataset, which can be then shared with other people. Data owner controls the permissions to modify and access the data and can assign a group of users or open the access to everyone. The data contained in the dataset will be automaticaly recognized by a background process. Known data formats will be extracted according to the user's settings. Currently tabular data can be automatically extracted to the user's MyDB table where user can make SQL queries to the dataset and merge it with other public CasJobs resources. Other data formats can be processed using a set of plugins that upload the data or metadata to user-defined side services. The current implementation targets some of the data formats commonly used by the astronomy communities, including FITS, ASCII and Excel tables, TIFF images, and YT simulations data archives. Along with generic metadata, format-specific metadata is also processed. For example, basic information about celestial objects is extracted from FITS files and TIFF images, if present. A 100TB implementation has just been put into production at Johns Hopkins University. The system features public data storage REST service supporting VOSpace 2.0 and Dropbox protocols, HTML5 web portal, command-line client and Java

  16. 4-Fragment Gateway cloning format for MosSCI-compatible vectors integrating Promoterome and 3'UTRome libraries of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Kogame, Toshiaki

    2015-01-01

    The technique of Mos1-mediated Single Copy Insertion (MosSCI) now has become the essential technique which facilitates transgenic experiments for Caenohabditis elegans (C. elegans). Gateway system which is adopted to MosSCI-compatible vectors offers an advantage of simultaneous cloning with entry vectors cloned in the Gateway system format. On the other hand, the format for MosSCI-compatible vectors restricts flexibility in designing the vectors to only 3-fragment integration. Thus, construct of complex transgene such as the expression vector for translational gene fusion is tedious work even with Gateway system. We have developed the new recombination format called LeGaSCI (Library-enhanced Gateway for MosSCI) to expand the conventional 3-fragment to 4-fragment format which still retains the capacity to accept Promoterome and 3'UTRome libraries of C. elegans. In the new recombination format, 2 different Gateway format were combined. Cloning reaction for the tissue-specific expression vector of GFP-tagged protein with 3'UTR successfully occurred without any expected insertion, deletion or frame-shift mutation. Moreover, The MosSCI transgenic line was successfully generated with the construct. Collectively, we established the new Gateway system format which allows us to assemble 4-fragment insertion with the widest variety of entry clone vectors from C. elegans libraries. PMID:26399341

  17. Measuring stigma after spinal cord injury: Development and psychometric characteristics of the SCI-QOL Stigma item bank and short form

    PubMed Central

    Kisala, Pamela A.; Tulsky, David S.; Pace, Natalie; Victorson, David; Choi, Seung W.; Heinemann, Allen W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop a calibrated item bank and computer adaptive test (CAT) to assess the effects of stigma on health-related quality of life in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Design Grounded-theory based qualitative item development methods, large-scale item calibration field testing, confirmatory factor analysis, and item response theory (IRT)-based psychometric analyses. Setting Five SCI Model System centers and one Department of Veterans Affairs medical center in the United States. Participants Adults with traumatic SCI. Main Outcome Measures SCI-QOL Stigma Item Bank Results A sample of 611 individuals with traumatic SCI completed 30 items assessing SCI-related stigma. After 7 items were iteratively removed, factor analyses confirmed a unidimensional pool of items. Graded Response Model IRT analyses were used to estimate slopes and thresholds for the final 23 items. Conclusions The SCI-QOL Stigma item bank is unique not only in the assessment of SCI-related stigma but also in the inclusion of individuals with SCI in all phases of its development. Use of confirmatory factor analytic and IRT methods provide flexibility and precision of measurement. The item bank may be administered as a CAT or as a 10-item fixed-length short form and can be used for research and clinical applications. PMID:26010973

  18. GENESIS SciFlo: Enabling Multi-Instrument Atmospheric Science Using Grid Workflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, B. D.; Tang, B.; Manipon, G.; Yunck, T.; Fetzer, E.; Braverman, A.; Dobinson, E.

    2004-12-01

    The General Earth Science Investigation Suite (GENESIS) project is a NASA-sponsored partnership between the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, academia, and NASA data centers to develop a new suite of web services tools to facilitate multi-sensor investigations in Earth System Science. The goal of GENESIS is to enable large-scale, multi-instrument atmospheric science using combined datasets from the AIRS, MODIS, MISR, and GPS sensors. Investigations will include cross-comparison of spaceborne climate sensors, cloud spectral analysis, study of upper troposphere-strato-sphere water transport, study of the aerosol indirect cloud effect, and global climate model validation. The challenges are to bring together very large datasets, reformat and understand the individual instrument retrievals, co-register or re-grid the retrieved physical parameters, perform computationally-intensive data fusion and data mining operations, and accumulate complex statistics over months to years of data. To meet these challenges, we are developing a Grid computing and dataflow framework, named SciFlo, in which we are deploying a set of versatile and reusable operators for data access, subsetting, registration, mining, fusion, compression, and advanced statistical analysis. SciFlo is a system for Scientific Knowledge Creation on the Grid using a Semantically-Enabled Dataflow Execution Environment. SciFlo leverages Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) Web Services and the Grid Computing standards (Globus Alliance toolkits), and enables scientists to do multi-instrument Earth Science by assembling reusable web services and executable operators into a distributed computing flow (operator tree). The SciFlo client & server engines optimize the execution of such distributed data flows and allow the user to transparently find and use datasets and operators without worrying about the actual location of the Grid resources. The scientist injects a distributed computation into the Grid by simply filling out

  19. GeoSciGraph: An Ontological Framework for EarthCube Semantic Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, A.; Schachne, A.; Condit, C.; Valentine, D.; Richard, S.; Zaslavsky, I.

    2015-12-01

    The CINERGI (Community Inventory of EarthCube Resources for Geosciences Interoperability) project compiles an inventory of a wide variety of earth science resources including documents, catalogs, vocabularies, data models, data services, process models, information repositories, domain-specific ontologies etc. developed by research groups and data practitioners. We have developed a multidisciplinary semantic framework called GeoSciGraph semantic ingration of earth science resources. An integrated ontology is constructed with Basic Formal Ontology (BFO) as its upper ontology and currently ingests multiple component ontologies including the SWEET ontology, GeoSciML's lithology ontology, Tematres controlled vocabulary server, GeoNames, GCMD vocabularies on equipment, platforms and institutions, software ontology, CUAHSI hydrology vocabulary, the environmental ontology (ENVO) and several more. These ontologies are connected through bridging axioms; GeoSciGraph identifies lexically close terms and creates equivalence class or subclass relationships between them after human verification. GeoSciGraph allows a community to create community-specific customizations of the integrated ontology. GeoSciGraph uses the Neo4J,a graph database that can hold several billion concepts and relationships. GeoSciGraph provides a number of REST services that can be called by other software modules like the CINERGI information augmentation pipeline. 1) Vocabulary services are used to find exact and approximate terms, term categories (community-provided clusters of terms e.g., measurement-related terms or environmental material related terms), synonyms, term definitions and annotations. 2) Lexical services are used for text parsing to find entities, which can then be included into the ontology by a domain expert. 3) Graph services provide the ability to perform traversal centric operations e.g., finding paths and neighborhoods which can be used to perform ontological operations like

  20. Simulations with SCI as a data carrier in data acquisition systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kristiansen, E.H. Univ. of Oslo . Dept. of Physics); Bothner, J.W.; Hulaas, T.I.; Skaali, T.B. ); Rongved, E. )

    1994-02-01

    Detailed simulations of processor networks based on the Scalable Coherent Interface (SCI) show that SCI is suitable as data carrier in data acquisition systems where the total bandwidth need is in the multi GBytes/s range and a low latency is required. The objective of these simulations was to find topologies with low latency and high bandwidth, but also with the cost of implementation in mind. A ring-to-ring bridge has been used as the building element for the networks. The simulations have been performed on regular k-ary n-cubes type topologies from a few tens of nodes and up to about 500 nodes under different load conditions. Among the parameters which has been manipulated in the simulations are the number of nodes, topology structure, number of outstanding requests and load in the system.

  1. Development and applications of single-cycle infectious influenza A virus (sciIAV).

    PubMed

    Nogales, Aitor; Baker, Steven F; Domm, William; Martínez-Sobrido, Luis

    2016-05-01

    The diverse host range, high transmissibility, and rapid evolution of influenza A viruses justify the importance of containing pathogenic viruses studied in the laboratory. Other than physically or mechanically changing influenza A virus containment procedures, modifying the virus to only replicate for a single round of infection similarly ensures safety and consequently decreases the level of biosafety containment required to study highly pathogenic members in the virus family. This biological containment is more ideal because it is less apt to computer, machine, or human error. With many necessary proteins that can be deleted, generation of single-cycle infectious influenza A viruses (sciIAV) can be achieved using a variety of approaches. Here, we review the recent burst in sciIAV generation and summarize the applications and findings on this important human pathogen using biocontained viral mimics. PMID:26220478

  2. SciFlo: Semantically-Enabled Grid Workflow for Collaborative Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yunck, T.; Wilson, B. D.; Raskin, R.; Manipon, G.

    2005-12-01

    SciFlo is a system for Scientific Knowledge Creation on the Grid using a Semantically-Enabled Dataflow Execution Environment. SciFlo leverages Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) Web Services and the Grid Computing standards (WS-* standards and the Globus Alliance toolkits), and enables scientists to do multi-instrument Earth Science by assembling reusable SOAP Services, native executables, local command-line scripts, and python codes into a distributed computing flow (a graph of operators). SciFlo's XML dataflow documents can be a mixture of concrete operators (fully bound operations) and abstract template operators (late binding via semantic lookup). All data objects and operators can be both simply typed (simple and complex types in XML schema) and semantically typed using controlled vocabularies (linked to OWL ontologies such as SWEET). By exploiting ontology-enhanced search and inference, one can discover (and automatically invoke) Web Services and operators that have been semantically labeled as performing the desired transformation, and adapt a particular invocation to the proper interface (number, types, and meaning of inputs and outputs). The SciFlo client & server engines optimize the execution of such distributed data flows and allow the user to transparently find and use datasets and operators without worrying about the actual location of the Grid resources. The scientist injects a distributed computation into the Grid by simply filling out an HTML form or directly authoring the underlying XML dataflow document, and results are returned directly to the scientist's desktop. A Visual Programming tool is also being developed, but it is not required. Once an analysis has been specified for a granule or day of data, it can be easily repeated with different control parameters and over months or years of data. SciFlo uses and preserves semantics, and also generates and infers new semantic annotations. Specifically, the SciFlo engine uses semantic metadata to

  3. A pilot study to evaluate the role of the Spinal Cord Impairment Pressure Ulcer Monitoring Tool (SCI-PUMT) in clinical decisions for pressure ulcer treatment.

    PubMed

    Thomason, Susan S; Graves, Barbara Ann; Madaris, Linda

    2014-12-01

    The Spinal Cord Impairment Pressure Ulcer Monitoring Tool (SCI-PUMT) was designed to assess pressure ulcer (PrU) healing in the spinal cord impaired (SCI) population. The tool contains 7 variables: wound surface area, depth, edges, tunneling, undermining, exudate type, and necrotic tissue amount. A 2-phased, quantitative pilot study based on the Theory of Reasoned Action and Theory of Planned Behavior was conducted at a large SCI/Disorders Center in the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). In the first phase of the study, a convenience sample of 5 physicians, 3 advanced practice registered nurses, and 3 certified wound care nurses (CWCN) was surveyed using a 2-part questionnaire to assess use of the SCI-PUMT instrument, its anticipated improvement in PrU assessment, and intent to use the SCI-PUMT in clinical practice. Attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral controls, and barriers related to the intent to use the SCI-PUMT were evaluated using a 5-point Likert scale (range: 1= extremely likely, 5 = extremely unlikely). In the second phase of the study, the electronic health records (EHR) of 24 veterans (with 30 PrUs) who had at least 2 completed SCI-PUMT scores during a 4-week period were used to evaluate whether an association existed between magnitudes of change of total SCI-PUMT scores and ordered changes in PrU treatment. The overall mean score for intent to use SCI-PUMT was 1.80 (SD 0.75). The least favorable scores were for convenience and motivation to use the SCI-PUMT. Analysis of EHR data showed no significant difference in magnitudes of change in the SCI-PUMT score and changes in PrU treatment recommendations made by the CWCNs. The significance was not affected regardless of an increase or no change in the score (χ2 with 1 degree of freedom = 1.158, P = 0.282) or for a decrease in the score (χ2 with 1 degree of freedom = 0.5, P = 0.478). In this pilot study, the expressed intent to use the SCI-PUMT in making clinical decisions was generally

  4. SciDB versus Spark: A Preliminary Comparison Based on an Earth Science Use Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clune, T.; Kuo, K. S.; Doan, K.; Oloso, A.

    2015-12-01

    We compare two Big Data technologies, SciDB and Spark, for performance, usability, and extensibility, when applied to a representative Earth science use case. SciDB is a new-generation parallel distributed database management system (DBMS) based on the array data model that is capable of handling multidimensional arrays efficiently but requires lengthy data ingest prior to analysis, whereas Spark is a fast and general engine for large scale data processing that can immediately process raw data files and thereby avoid the ingest process. Once data have been ingested, SciDB is very efficient in database operations such as subsetting. Spark, on the other hand, provides greater flexibility by supporting a wide variety of high-level tools including DBMS's. For the performance aspect of this preliminary comparison, we configure Spark to operate directly on text or binary data files and thereby limit the need for additional tools. Arguably, a more appropriate comparison would involve exploring other configurations of Spark which exploit supported high-level tools, but that is beyond our current resources. To make the comparison as "fair" as possible, we export the arrays produced by SciDB into text files (or converting them to binary files) for the intake by Spark and thereby avoid any additional file processing penalties. The Earth science use case selected for this comparison is the identification and tracking of snowstorms in the NASA Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) reanalysis data. The identification portion of the use case is to flag all grid cells of the MERRA high-resolution hourly data that satisfies our criteria for snowstorm, whereas the tracking portion connects flagged cells adjacent in time and space to form a snowstorm episode. We will report the results of our comparisons at this presentation.

  5. T-1025 IU SciBath-768 detector tests in MI-12

    SciTech Connect

    Tayloe, Rex; Cooper, R.; Garrison, L.; Thornton, T.; Rebenitsch, L.; DeJongh, Fritz; Loer, Benjamin; Ramberg, Erik; Yoo, Jonghee; /Fermilab

    2012-02-11

    This is a memorandum of understanding between the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) and the experimenters of Department of Physics and Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter, Indiana University, who have committed to participate in detector tests to be carried out during the 2012 Fermilab Neutrino program. The memorandum is intended solely for the purpose of recording expectations for budget estimates and work allocations for Fermilab, the funding agencies and the participating institutions. it reflects an arrangement that currently is satisfactory to the parties; however, it is recognized and anticipated that changing circumstances of the evolving research program will necessitate revisions. The parties agree to modify this memorandum to reflect such required adjustments. Actual contractual obligations will be set forth in separate documents. The experimenters propsoe to test their prototype 'SciBat-768' detector in the MI-12 building for 3 months (February-April) in Spring 2012. The major goal of this effort is to measure or limit the flux of beam-induced neutrons in a far-off-axis (> 45{sup o}) location of the Booster Neutrino Beamline (BNB). This flux is of interest for a proposed coherent neutral-current neutrino-argon elastic scattering experiment. A second goal is to collect more test data for the SciBath-768 to enable better understanding and calibration of the device. The SciBath-768 detector successfully ran for 3 months in the MINOS Underground Area in Fall 2011 as testbeam experiment T-1014 and is currently running above ground in the MINOS service building. For the run proposed here, the experiments are requesting: space in MI-12 in which to run the SciBath detector during February-April 2012 while the BNB is operating; technical support to help with moving the equipment on site; access to power, internet, and accelerator signals; and a small office space from which to run and monitor the experiment.

  6. SciDAC Visualization and Analytics Center for EnablingTechnology

    SciTech Connect

    Bethel, E. Wes; Johnson, Chris; Joy, Ken; Ahern, Sean; Pascucci,Valerio; Childs, Hank; Cohen, Jonathan; Duchaineau, Mark; Hamann, Bernd; Hansen, Charles; Laney, Dan; Lindstrom, Peter; Meredith, Jeremy; Ostrouchov, George; Parker, Steven; Silva, Claudio; Sanderson, Allen; Tricoche, Xavier

    2006-11-28

    The SciDAC2 Visualization and Analytics Center for EnablingTechnologies (VACET) began operation on 10/1/2006. This document, dated11/27/2006, is the first version of the VACET project management plan. Itwas requested by and delivered to ASCR/DOE. It outlines the Center'saccomplishments in the first six weeks of operation along with broadobjectives for the upcoming future (12-24 months).

  7. SciDAC Center for Gyrokinetic Particle Simulation of Turbulent Transport in Burning Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Zhihong

    2013-12-18

    During the first year of the SciDAC gyrokinetic particle simulation (GPS) project, the GPS team (Zhihong Lin, Liu Chen, Yasutaro Nishimura, and Igor Holod) at the University of California, Irvine (UCI) studied the tokamak electron transport driven by electron temperature gradient (ETG) turbulence, and by trapped electron mode (TEM) turbulence and ion temperature gradient (ITG) turbulence with kinetic electron effects, extended our studies of ITG turbulence spreading to core-edge coupling. We have developed and optimized an elliptic solver using finite element method (FEM), which enables the implementation of advanced kinetic electron models (split-weight scheme and hybrid model) in the SciDAC GPS production code GTC. The GTC code has been ported and optimized on both scalar and vector parallel computer architectures, and is being transformed into objected-oriented style to facilitate collaborative code development. During this period, the UCI team members presented 11 invited talks at major national and international conferences, published 22 papers in peer-reviewed journals and 10 papers in conference proceedings. The UCI hosted the annual SciDAC Workshop on Plasma Turbulence sponsored by the GPS Center, 2005-2007. The workshop was attended by about fifties US and foreign researchers and financially sponsored several gradual students from MIT, Princeton University, Germany, Switzerland, and Finland. A new SciDAC postdoc, Igor Holod, has arrived at UCI to initiate global particle simulation of magnetohydrodynamics turbulence driven by energetic particle modes. The PI, Z. Lin, has been promoted to the Associate Professor with tenure at UCI.

  8. SciDAC advances in beam dynamics simulation: from light sources to colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Qiang, Ji; Qiang, J.; Borland, M.; Kabel, A.; Li, R.; Ryne, R.; Stern, E.; Wang, Y.; Wasserman, H.; Zhang, Y.

    2008-06-16

    In this paper, we report on progress that has been made in beam dynamics simulation, from light sources to colliders, during the first year of SciDAC-II accelerator project,"Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation (ComPASS)." Several parallel computational tools for beam dynamics simulation will be described. A number of applications in current and future accelerator facilities, e.g., LCLS, RHIC, Tevatron, LHC, ELIC, are presented.

  9. SciDAC advances in beam dynamics simulation: from light sources to colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Qiang, J.; Borland, M.; Kabel, A.; Li, Rui; Ryne, Robert; Stern, E.; Wang, Y.; Wasserman, H.; Zhang, Y.

    2008-08-01

    In this paper, we report on progress that has been made in beam dynamics simulation, from light sources to colliders, during the first year of the SciDAC-2 accelerator project 'Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation (ComPASS).' Several parallel computational tools for beam dynamics simulation are described. Also presented are number of applications in current and future accelerator facilities (e.g., LCLS, RHIC, Tevatron, LHC, and ELIC).

  10. Medical informatics on the Internet: creating the sci.med. informatics newsgroup.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, A M; Sittig, D F

    1995-01-01

    A Usenet newsgroup, sci.med.informatics, has been created to serve as an international electronic forum for discussion of issues related to medical informatics. The creation process follows a set of administrative rules set out by the Usenet administration on the Internet and consists of five steps: 1) informal discussion, 2) request for formal discussion, 3) formal discussion, 4) voting, and 5) posting of results. The newsgroup can be accessed using any news reader via the Internet. PMID:7583645

  11. Improvement in Student Science Proficiency Through InSciEd Out

    PubMed Central

    Sonju, James D.; Leicester, Jean E.; Hoody, Maggie; LaBounty, Thomas J.; Frimannsdottir, Katrin R.; Ekker, Stephen C.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Integrated Science Education Outreach (InSciEd Out) is a collaboration formed between Mayo Clinic, Winona State University, and Rochester Public Schools (MN) with the shared vision of achieving excellence in science education. InSciEd Out employs an equitable partnership model between scientists, teachers, education researchers, and the community. Teams of teachers from all disciplines within a single school experience cutting-edge science using the zebrafish model system, as well as current pedagogical methods, during a summer internship at the Mayo Clinic. Within the internship, the teachers produce new curriculum that directly addresses opportunities for science education improvement at their own school. Zebrafish are introduced within the new curriculum to support a living model of the practice of science. Following partnership with the InSciEd Out program and 2 years of implementation in the classroom, teacher-interns from a K–8 public school reported access to local scientific technology and expertise they had not previously recognized. Teachers also reported improved integration of other disciplines into the scientific curriculum and a flow of concepts vertically from K through 8. Students more than doubled selection of an Honors science track in high school to nearly 90%. 98% of students who took the Minnesota Comprehensive Assessments in their 5th and 8th grade year (a span that includes 2 years of InSciEd Out) showed medium or high growth in science proficiency. These metrics indicate that cooperation between educators and scientists can result in positive change in student science proficiency and demonstrate that a higher expectation in science education can be achieved in US public schools. PMID:23244687

  12. Improvement in student science proficiency through InSciEd out.

    PubMed

    Pierret, Chris; Sonju, James D; Leicester, Jean E; Hoody, Maggie; LaBounty, Thomas J; Frimannsdottir, Katrin R; Ekker, Stephen C

    2012-12-01

    Integrated Science Education Outreach (InSciEd Out) is a collaboration formed between Mayo Clinic, Winona State University, and Rochester Public Schools (MN) with the shared vision of achieving excellence in science education. InSciEd Out employs an equitable partnership model between scientists, teachers, education researchers, and the community. Teams of teachers from all disciplines within a single school experience cutting-edge science using the zebrafish model system, as well as current pedagogical methods, during a summer internship at the Mayo Clinic. Within the internship, the teachers produce new curriculum that directly addresses opportunities for science education improvement at their own school. Zebrafish are introduced within the new curriculum to support a living model of the practice of science. Following partnership with the InSciEd Out program and 2 years of implementation in the classroom, teacher-interns from a K-8 public school reported access to local scientific technology and expertise they had not previously recognized. Teachers also reported improved integration of other disciplines into the scientific curriculum and a flow of concepts vertically from K through 8. Students more than doubled selection of an Honors science track in high school to nearly 90%. 98% of students who took the Minnesota Comprehensive Assessments in their 5(th) and 8(th) grade year (a span that includes 2 years of InSciEd Out) showed medium or high growth in science proficiency. These metrics indicate that cooperation between educators and scientists can result in positive change in student science proficiency and demonstrate that a higher expectation in science education can be achieved in US public schools. PMID:23244687

  13. Neuroinflammatory contributions to pain after SCI: roles for central glial mechanisms and nociceptor-mediated host defense.

    PubMed

    Walters, Edgar T

    2014-08-01

    Neuropathic pain after spinal cord injury (SCI) is common, often intractable, and can be severely debilitating. A number of mechanisms have been proposed for this pain, which are discussed briefly, along with methods for revealing SCI pain in animal models, such as the recently applied conditioned place preference test. During the last decade, studies of animal models have shown that both central neuroinflammation and behavioral hypersensitivity (indirect reflex measures of pain) persist chronically after SCI. Interventions that reduce neuroinflammation have been found to ameliorate pain-related behavior, such as treatment with agents that inhibit the activation states of microglia and/or astroglia (including IL-10, minocycline, etanercept, propentofylline, ibudilast, licofelone, SP600125, carbenoxolone). Reversal of pain-related behavior has also been shown with disruption by an inhibitor (CR8) and/or genetic deletion of cell cycle-related proteins, deletion of a truncated receptor (trkB.T1) for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), or reduction by antisense knockdown or an inhibitor (AMG9810) of the activity of channels (TRPV1 or Nav1.8) important for electrical activity in primary nociceptors. Nociceptor activity is known to drive central neuroinflammation in peripheral injury models, and nociceptors appear to be an integral component of host defense. Thus, emerging results suggest that spinal and systemic effects of SCI can activate nociceptor-mediated host defense responses that interact via neuroinflammatory signaling with complex central consequences of SCI to drive chronic pain. This broader view of SCI-induced neuroinflammation suggests new targets, and additional complications, for efforts to develop effective treatments for neuropathic SCI pain. PMID:25017887

  14. Restoring Walking after SCI: Operant Conditioning of Spinal Reflexes Can Help

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Aiko K.; Wolpaw, Jonathan R.

    2014-01-01

    People with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) frequently suffer motor disabilities due to spasticity and poor muscle control, even after conventional therapy. Abnormal spinal reflex activity often contributes to these problems. Operant conditioning of spinal reflexes, which can target plasticity to specific reflex pathways, can enhance recovery. In rats in which a right lateral column lesion had weakened right stance and produced an asymmetrical gait, up-conditioning of the right soleus H-reflex, which increased muscle spindle afferent excitation of soleus, strengthened right stance and eliminated the asymmetry. In people with hyperreflexia due to incomplete SCI, down-conditioning of the soleus H-reflex improved walking speed and symmetry. Furthermore, modulation of EMG activity during walking improved bilaterally, indicating that a protocol that targets plasticity to a specific pathway can trigger widespread plasticity that improves recovery far beyond that attributable to the change in the targeted pathway. These improvements were apparent to people in their daily lives. They reported walking faster and farther, and noted less spasticity and better balance. Operant conditioning protocols could be developed to modify other spinal reflexes or corticospinal connections; and could be combined with other therapies to enhance recovery in people with SCI or other neuromuscular disorders. PMID:24636954

  15. Do racial and ethnic minority patients fare worse after SCI?: a critical review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Gary, Kelli W; Nicholls, Elizabeth; Shamburger, Aisha; Stevens, Lillian F; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan C

    2011-01-01

    A number of researchers have identified differences in SCI outcomes between racial and ethnic groups, but findings have never been synthesized to give clinicians and researchers a coherent picture of the problem. The goals of the current project were to (1) conduct a critical literature review of studies specifically investigating racial and ethnic disparities in spinal cord injury care, services, and outcomes; (2) explore possible causative factors that may explain these disparities; (3) propose strategies that may reduce disparities and improve access, service, and outcomes for minority patients with SCI; and (4) generate ideas for future research in this area. A search using MEDLINE/PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and HealthSource resulted in 49 articles discussing hospital, mental health, physical functioning, employment, quality of life, and family outcomes. Results indicated that after an SCI, racial and ethnic minority groups have shorter hospital lengths of stay, higher rehospitalizations rates, higher levels of depression, more days in poor health, greater degrees of unemployment, more difficulties with mobility, lower self-reported subjective well-being and quality of life and life satisfaction, and greater risk of marital breakup. A variety of causative factors, intervention strategies, and directions for future research are presented. PMID:22142762

  16. SciBox, an end-to-end automated science planning and commanding system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choo, Teck H.; Murchie, Scott L.; Bedini, Peter D.; Steele, R. Josh; Skura, Joseph P.; Nguyen, Lillian; Nair, Hari; Lucks, Michael; Berman, Alice F.; McGovern, James A.; Turner, F. Scott

    2014-01-01

    SciBox is a new technology for planning and commanding science operations for Earth-orbital and planetary space missions. It has been incrementally developed since 2001 and demonstrated on several spaceflight projects. The technology has matured to the point that it is now being used to plan and command all orbital science operations for the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission to Mercury. SciBox encompasses the derivation of observing sequences from science objectives, the scheduling of those sequences, the generation of spacecraft and instrument commands, and the validation of those commands prior to uploading to the spacecraft. Although the process is automated, science and observing requirements are incorporated at each step by a series of rules and parameters to optimize observing opportunities, which are tested and validated through simulation and review. Except for limited special operations and tests, there is no manual scheduling of observations or construction of command sequences. SciBox reduces the lead time for operations planning by shortening the time-consuming coordination process, reduces cost by automating the labor-intensive processes of human-in-the-loop adjudication of observing priorities, reduces operations risk by systematically checking constraints, and maximizes science return by fully evaluating the trade space of observing opportunities to meet MESSENGER science priorities within spacecraft recorder, downlink, scheduling, and orbital-geometry constraints.

  17. Supporting Research using Satellite Data: A Framework for Spatiotemporal Queries in SciDB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, S. S.; Krcal, L.

    2015-12-01

    Natural phenomena such as haze, hurricane, and blizzard that evolve over time usually do not have well-defined boundaries. Their features may be captured by multiple satellites. To process and extract information from the large-scale satellite data, one needs a data-intensive architecture for distributed storage and computation resources. Such architecture allows end users such as scientists to effectively run their computation tasks with sharing computational resources and intermediate results, but without data replication. The satellite data is most conveniently represented using arrays, exploiting its multidimensional nature. For our investigation, we use the open-source distributed, array-based SciDB as a platform for our spatiotemporal framework. SciDB conforms with the data-intensive architecture, providing a highly effectively computational and data storage platform. Moreover, it provides standard extension points, i.e., user defined data types, operators and functions. Our current work focuses on more sophisticated indices including cartesian-coordinate indices, hierarchical triangular mesh and hybrid indices with data statistics and indexing. Furthermore, we introduce a spatiotemporal framework that allows us to generate and maintain indices according to given criteria and perform spatial and temporal operators and predicates. This framework overcomes weaknesses in SciDB where standard underlying array operations are less effective. We will demonstrate some examples (e.g., hurricane research using satellite data) of the functionalities in the proposed spatiotemporal framework.

  18. Public Data Set: Erratum: "Multi-point, high-speed passive ion velocity distribution diagnostic on the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment" [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 10D516 (2012)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Burke, Marcus G. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:0000000176193724); Fonck, Raymond J. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:0000000294386762); Bongard, Michael W. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:0000000231609746); Schlossberg, David J. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:0000000287139448); Winz, Gregory R. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:0000000177627184)

    2016-07-18

    This data set contains openly-documented, machine readable digital research data corresponding to figures published in M.G. Burke et al., 'Erratum: "Multi-point, high-speed passive ion velocity distribution diagnostic on the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment" [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 10D516 (2012)],' Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87, 079902 (2016).

  19. SCY-635, a Novel Nonimmunosuppressive Analog of Cyclosporine That Exhibits Potent Inhibition of Hepatitis C Virus RNA Replication In Vitro ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Sam; Scorneaux, Bernard; Huang, Zhuhui; Murray, Michael G.; Wring, Stephen; Smitley, Craig; Harris, Richard; Erdmann, Frank; Fischer, Gunter; Ribeill, Yves

    2010-01-01

    SCY-635 is a novel nonimmunosuppressive cyclosporine-based analog that exhibits potent suppression of hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication in vitro. SCY-635 inhibited the peptidyl prolyl isomerase activity of cyclophilin A at nanomolar concentrations but showed no detectable inhibition of calcineurin phosphatase activity at concentrations up to 2 μM. Metabolic studies indicated that SCY-635 did not induce the major cytochrome P450 enzymes 1A2, 2B6, and 3A4. SCY-635 was a weak inhibitor and a poor substrate for P-glycoprotein. Functional assays with stimulated Jurkat cells and stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells indicated that SCY-635 is a weaker inhibitor of interleukin-2 secretion than cyclosporine. A series of two-drug combination studies was performed in vitro. SCY-635 exhibited synergistic antiviral activity with alpha interferon 2b and additive antiviral activity with ribavirin. SCY-635 was shown to be orally bioavailable in multiple animal species and produced blood and liver concentrations of parent drug that exceeded the 50% effective dose determined in the bicistronic con1b-derived replicon assay. These results suggest that SCY-635 warrants further investigation as a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of individuals who are chronically infected with HCV. PMID:19933795

  20. SciNews: Incorporating Science Current Events in 21st Century Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiMaggio, E.

    2011-12-01

    Middle school students are instructed with the aid of textbooks, lectures, and activities to teach topics that satisfy state standards. However, teaching materials created to convey standard-aligned science concepts often leave students asking how the content relates to their lives and why they should be learning it. Conveying relevance is important for student learning and retention, especially in science where abstract concepts can often be incorrectly perceived as irrelevant. One way to create an educational link between classroom content and everyday life is through the use of scientific current events. Students read, hear, and watch media coverage of natural events (such as the 2011 earthquake and tsunami in Japan), but do not necessarily relate the scientific information from media sources to classroom studies. Taking advantage of these brief 'teachable moments'--when student interest is high--provides a valuable opportunity to make classroom-to-everyday life associations and to incorporate inquiry based learning. To address this need, I create pre-packaged current event materials for middle to high school teachers that align to state standards, and which are short, effective, and easy to implement in the classroom. Each lesson takes approximately 15-30 minutes to implement, allowing teachers time to facilitate brief but meaningful discussions. I assemble materials within approximately one week of the regional or global science event, consisting of short slide shows, maps, videos, pictures, and real-time data. I use a listserv to send biweekly emails to subscribed instructors containing the current event topic and a link to download the materials. All materials are hosted on the Arizona State University Education Outreach SciNews website (http://sese.asu.edu/teacher-resources) and are archived. Currently, 285 educators subscribe to the SciNews listserv, representing 36 states and 19 countries. In order to assess the effectiveness and usefulness of Sci

  1. sciS, an icmF Homolog in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium, Limits Intracellular Replication and Decreases Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Duncan A.; Heffron, Fred

    2005-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium utilizes macrophages to disseminate from the intestine to deeper tissues within the body. While S. enterica serovar Typhimurium has been shown to kill its host macrophage, it can persist intracellularly beyond 18 h postinfection. To identify factors involved in late stages of infection, we screened a transposon library made in S. enterica serovar Typhimurium for the ability to persist in J774 macrophages at 24 h postinfection. Through this screen, we identified a gene, sciS, found to be homologous to icmF in Legionella pneumophila. icmF, which is required for intracellular multiplication, is conserved in several gram-negative pathogens, and its homolog appears to have been acquired horizontally in S. enterica serovar Typhimurium. We found that an sciS mutant displayed increased intracellular numbers in J774 macrophages when compared to the wild-type strain at 24 h postinfection. sciS was maximally transcribed at 27 h postinfection and is repressed by SsrB, an activator of genes required for promoting intracellular survival. Finally, we demonstrate that an sciS mutant is hypervirulent in mice when administered intragastrically. Taken together, these data indicate a role for SciS in controlling intracellular bacterial levels at later stages of infection and attenuating virulence in a murine host PMID:15972528

  2. All the World's Our Stage: MarSci, a Web-Journal to Showcase Undergraduate Marine Science Research Online

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickard, S. R.; Williams, D. F.; Morris, W.; Eddins, S. N.

    2001-05-01

    Publishing is an essential component of scientific research. MarSci is the first totally online journal, from submission to peer review to publication, for showcasing undergraduate research in the Marine Sciences. MarSci recognizes that undergraduate research transforms students into scientists, and that the opportunity to publish helps undergraduates to become better scientists. The ultimate mission in the development of this journal is to engage students in the process of publishing. Utilizing the power of the Internet, MarSci can be read by anyone, anywhere, at anytime. The sophisticated web-journal design allows the submission of manuscripts and review by a student peer-editorial board to operate completely online, in addition to making the published articles available to the world at no cost. The web-journal also contains many other features such as news, a discussion forum, events calendar, student resumé post, and information on research and graduate opportunities in the Marine Sciences. Because MarSci was created and is managed by undergraduates, the web-journal provides unique opportunities for students to become involved in the editing, reporting, and publishing aspect of the scientific process. MarSci encourages undergraduates to shine as scientists and leaders.

  3. Social Competence Intervention for Parents (SCI-P): Comparing Outcomes for a Parent Education Program Targeting Adolescents with ASD

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Tia R.; Stichter, Janine P.; Herzog, Melissa J.; McGhee, Stephanie D.; Lierheimer, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that parent education programs can address some of the distinct challenges that parents of youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) encounter. This study examined the effectiveness of the Social Competence Intervention for Parents (SCI-P), a parent education program, administered in conjunction with a social competence intervention that targeted youth with ASD ages 11–14 (SCI-A). Using a quasi-experimental pre-post design, parents were assigned to either the SCI-P group (n = 16) or to the waitlist comparison group (n = 10). Analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) revealed a significant effect for parent education participation such that SCI-P participants experienced significantly greater reductions in levels of stress and a trend for increases in parenting sense of competence from pre- to post-intervention. Moreover, parents in the SCI-P group reported high satisfaction with the program. These findings suggest that parent education can result in positive outcomes for parents' well being. PMID:22934178

  4. Publishing datasets with eSciDoc and panMetaDocs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulbricht, D.; Klump, J.; Bertelmann, R.

    2012-04-01

    Currently serveral research institutions worldwide undertake considerable efforts to have their scientific datasets published and to syndicate them to data portals as extensively described objects identified by a persistent identifier. This is done to foster the reuse of data, to make scientific work more transparent, and to create a citable entity that can be referenced unambigously in written publications. GFZ Potsdam established a publishing workflow for file based research datasets. Key software components are an eSciDoc infrastructure [1] and multiple instances of the data curation tool panMetaDocs [2]. The eSciDoc repository holds data objects and their associated metadata in container objects, called eSciDoc items. A key metadata element in this context is the publication status of the referenced data set. PanMetaDocs, which is based on PanMetaWorks [3], is a PHP based web application that allows to describe data with any XML-based metadata schema. The metadata fields can be filled with static or dynamic content to reduce the number of fields that require manual entries to a minimum and make use of contextual information in a project setting. Access rights can be applied to set visibility of datasets to other project members and allow collaboration on and notifying about datasets (RSS) and interaction with the internal messaging system, that was inherited from panMetaWorks. When a dataset is to be published, panMetaDocs allows to change the publication status of the eSciDoc item from status "private" to "submitted" and prepare the dataset for verification by an external reviewer. After quality checks, the item publication status can be changed to "published". This makes the data and metadata available through the internet worldwide. PanMetaDocs is developed as an eSciDoc application. It is an easy to use graphical user interface to eSciDoc items, their data and metadata. It is also an application supporting a DOI publication agent during the process of

  5. Measuring depression after spinal cord injury: Development and psychometric characteristics of the SCI-QOL Depression item bank and linkage with PHQ-9

    PubMed Central

    Tulsky, David S.; Kisala, Pamela A.; Kalpakjian, Claire Z.; Bombardier, Charles H.; Pohlig, Ryan T.; Heinemann, Allen W.; Carle, Adam; Choi, Seung W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop a calibrated spinal cord injury-quality of life (SCI-QOL) item bank, computer adaptive test (CAT), and short form to assess depressive symptoms experienced by individuals with SCI, transform scores to the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) metric, and create a crosswalk to the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ)-9. Design We used grounded-theory based qualitative item development methods, large-scale item calibration field testing, confirmatory factor analysis, item response theory (IRT) analyses, and statistical linking techniques to transform scores to a PROMIS metric and to provide a crosswalk with the PHQ-9. Setting Five SCI Model System centers and one Department of Veterans Affairs medical center in the United States. Participants Adults with traumatic SCI. Main Outcome Measures Spinal Cord Injury – Quality of Life (SCI-QOL) Depression Item Bank Results Individuals with SCI were involved in all phases of SCI-QOL development. A sample of 716 individuals with traumatic SCI completed 35 items assessing depression, 18 of which were PROMIS items. After removing 7 non-PROMIS items, factor analyses confirmed a unidimensional pool of items. We used a graded response IRT model to estimate slopes and thresholds for the 28 retained items. The SCI-QOL Depression measure correlated 0.76 with the PHQ-9. Conclusions The SCI-QOL Depression item bank provides a reliable and sensitive measure of depressive symptoms with scores reported in terms of general population norms. We provide a crosswalk to the PHQ-9 to facilitate comparisons between measures. The item bank may be administered as a CAT or as a short form and is suitable for research and clinical applications. PMID:26010968

  6. Development and psychometric characteristics of the SCI-QOL Bladder Management Difficulties and Bowel Management Difficulties item banks and short forms and the SCI-QOL Bladder Complications scale

    PubMed Central

    Tulsky, David S.; Kisala, Pamela A.; Tate, Denise G.; Spungen, Ann M.; Kirshblum, Steven C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the development and psychometric properties of the Spinal Cord Injury – Quality of Life (SCI-QOL) Bladder Management Difficulties and Bowel Management Difficulties item banks and Bladder Complications scale. Design Using a mixed-methods design, a pool of items assessing bladder and bowel-related concerns were developed using focus groups with individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) and SCI clinicians, cognitive interviews, and item response theory (IRT) analytic approaches, including tests of model fit and differential item functioning. Setting Thirty-eight bladder items and 52 bowel items were tested at the University of Michigan, Kessler Foundation Research Center, the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, the University of Washington, Craig Hospital, and the James J. Peters VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY. Participants Seven hundred fifty-seven adults with traumatic SCI. Results The final item banks demonstrated unidimensionality (Bladder Management Difficulties CFI = 0.965; RMSEA = 0.093; Bowel Management Difficulties CFI = 0.955; RMSEA = 0.078) and acceptable fit to a graded response IRT model. The final calibrated Bladder Management Difficulties bank includes 15 items, and the final Bowel Management Difficulties item bank consists of 26 items. Additionally, 5 items related to urinary tract infections (UTI) did not fit with the larger Bladder Management Difficulties item bank but performed relatively well independently (CFI = 0.992, RMSEA = 0.050) and were thus retained as a separate scale. Conclusion The SCI-QOL Bladder Management Difficulties and Bowel Management Difficulties item banks are psychometrically robust and are available as computer adaptive tests or short forms. The SCI-QOL Bladder Complications scale is a brief, fixed-length outcomes instrument for individuals with a UTI. PMID:26010964

  7. Development of a PMT Readout System with Viking Chips for the SciFi Detector of CALET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, T.; Torii, S.; Hibino, K.; Yoshida, K.; Okuno, S.; Anraku, K.; Yamashita, T.; Uchihori, Y.; Kitamura, H.; Katayose, Y.; Inoue, T.; Kasahara, K.; Hubo, S.; Battiston, R.; Menichelli, M.

    2003-07-01

    The CALET (CALorimetric Electron telescope) experiment on the International Space Station (ISS) is designed to observe cosmic-ray electrons, γ -rays, and heavy nuclei. The CALET detector will comprise an imaging calorimeter (IMC) and a total absorption calorimeter (TASC). The IMC part will be assembled with several ten thousand scintillating fibers (SciFi). In order to read the SciFi's, we have been developing a readout system for multi-ano de PMT (MAPMT). We assembled a test detector using 512 SciFi's and a MA-PMT readout unit composed of "Viking" chips (VA32HDR2). We report the performance of the readout unit as proved by beam tests.

  8. Electron and Gamma Identification for the measurement of the neutral pion cross section in SciBooNE.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurimoto, Yoshinori

    2008-04-01

    The SciBooNE experiment is designed to measure neutrino cross sections on carbon in the one GeV region using the Booster Neutrino beam at Fermilab. Neutral pion production is important for future neutrino oscillation experiments, as it is one of the main backgrounds in electron neutrino appearance searches. Because the gamma ray from the neutral pion could be misidentified as an electron and mimic an electron neutrino interaction. It is possible to identify the electron and gamma with the fully active scintillator detector (SciBar) and the spaghetti calorimeter (Electron Cathcher).In this talk, I would like to show the performance of the identification of gamma rays using dE/dx and the track shape information in SciBar.

  9. SciNOvA: A Measurement of Neutrino-Nucleus Scattering in a Narrow-Band Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Paley, J.; Djurcic, Z.; Harris, D.; Tesarek, R.; Feldman, G.; Corwin, L.; Messier, M.D.; Mayer, N.; Musser, J.; Paley, J.; Tayloe, R.; /Indiana U. /Iowa State U. /Minnesota U. /South Carolina U. /Wichita State U. /William-Mary Coll.

    2010-10-15

    We propose to construct and deploy a fine-grained detector in the Fermilab NOvA 2 GeV narrow-band neutrino beam. In this beam, the detector can make unique contributions to the measurement of quasi-elastic scattering, neutral-current elastic scattering, neutral-current {pi}{sup 0} production, and enhance the NOvA measurements of electron neutrino appearance. To minimize cost and risks, the proposed detector is a copy of the SciBar detector originally built for the K2K long baseline experiment and used recently in the SciBooNE experiment.

  10. Measurement of the nu(mu)-CCQE cross-section in the SciBooNE experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Alcaraz-Aunion, Jose Luis; Walding, Joseph; /Imperial Coll., London

    2009-09-01

    SciBooNE is a neutrino and anti-neutrino cross-section experiment at Fermilab, USA. The SciBooNE experiment is summarized and two independent CCQE analyses are described. For one of the analyses, an absolute {nu}{sub {mu}}-CCQE cross section in the neutrino energy region (0.6-1.6) GeV is shown and the technique developed for such a purpose is also explained. The total cross section measured over this energy range agrees well with expectations, based on the NEUT event generator and using a value of 1.21 GeV for the CCQE axial mass.

  11. Collaborative Science Using Web Services and the SciFlo Grid Dataflow Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, B. D.; Manipon, G.; Xing, Z.; Yunck, T.

    2006-12-01

    The General Earth Science Investigation Suite (GENESIS) project is a NASA-sponsored partnership between the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, academia, and NASA data centers to develop a new suite of Web Services tools to facilitate multi-sensor investigations in Earth System Science. The goal of GENESIS is to enable large-scale, multi-instrument atmospheric science using combined datasets from the AIRS, MODIS, MISR, and GPS sensors. Investigations include cross-comparison of spaceborne climate sensors, cloud spectral analysis, study of upper troposphere-stratosphere water transport, study of the aerosol indirect cloud effect, and global climate model validation. The challenges are to bring together very large datasets, reformat and understand the individual instrument retrievals, co-register or re-grid the retrieved physical parameters, perform computationally-intensive data fusion and data mining operations, and accumulate complex statistics over months to years of data. To meet these challenges, we have developed a Grid computing and dataflow framework, named SciFlo, in which we are deploying a set of versatile and reusable operators for data access, subsetting, registration, mining, fusion, compression, and advanced statistical analysis. SciFlo leverages remote Web Services, called via Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) or REST (one-line) URLs, and the Grid Computing standards (WS-* &Globus Alliance toolkits), and enables scientists to do multi-instrument Earth Science by assembling reusable Web Services and native executables into a distributed computing flow (tree of operators). The SciFlo client &server engines optimize the execution of such distributed data flows and allow the user to transparently find and use datasets and operators without worrying about the actual location of the Grid resources. In particular, SciFlo exploits the wealth of datasets accessible by OpenGIS Consortium (OGC) Web Mapping Servers & Web Coverage Servers (WMS/WCS), and by Open Data

  12. The Fulldome Curriculum for the Spitz SciDome Digital Planetarium: Volume 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradstreet, David H.; Sanders, S. J.; Huggins, S.

    2014-01-01

    The Spitz Fulldome Curriculum (FDC) for the SciDome digital planetarium ushered in a new and innovative way to present astronomical pedagogy via its use of the unique teaching attributes of the digital planetarium. In the case of the FDC, which uses the ubiquitous Starry Night planetarium software as its driving engine, these engaging and novel teaching techniques have also been made usable to desktop computers and flat-screen video projectors for classroom use. Volume 2 of the FDC introduces exciting new classes and mini-lessons to further enlighten and invigorate students as they struggle with often difficult three dimensional astronomical concepts. Additionally, other topics with related astronomical ties have been created to integrate history into planetarium presentations. One of the strongest advantages of the SciDome is its use of Starry Night as its astronomical engine. With it students can create their own astronomical configurations in the computer lab or at home, using the PC or Mac version. They can then simply load their creations onto the SciDome planetarium system and display them for their classmates on the dome. This poster will discuss and illustrate some of the new content that has been developed for Volume 2. Topics covered in Volume 2 include eclipses, plotting planet locations on a curtate orbit chart by observing their positions in the sky, time and timekeeping (including sidereal day, hour angles, sidereal time, LAST, LMST, time zones and the International Date Line), teaching to the Boy Scout Merit Badge requirements, plotting scale analemmas on the surface of planets and interpreting them, precession, astronomical events in revolutionary Boston, the Lincoln Almanac Trial, eclipsing binaries, lunar librations, a trip through the universe, watching the speed of light move in real time, stellar sizes and the Milky Way.

  13. Studying the History of the Intergalactic Medium with the SCI-HI Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voytek, Tabitha Christine

    The Cosmic Dawn (z ˜ 15 -- 35) is the period in the history of our universe when stars first began to form in small Dark Matter minihalos. Light from these first stars is too dim for telescopes to see, which means that the Cosmic Dawn has never been directly measured. However, the first stars impacted the gas, or intergalactic medium (IGM), around them. The impact of the first stars was heating and eventual ionization of the IGM. The process of heating and ionization creates a spectrum that varies over redshift, namely the spatially averaged brightness temperature spectrum of 21-cm light from the IGM. Measurement of this spectrum will give us a first glimpse of the Cosmic Dawn. The "Sonda Cosmologica de las Islas para la Deteccion de Hidrogeno Neutro" (SCIHI) experiment is a collaboration between Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) and Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE) in Mexico and was designed to make this measurement. The SCI-HI experiment is a small-scale system which travels with the team to remote locations for deployments. These remote locations are necessary to avoid radio frequency interference and other environmental impacts on the system. This thesis describes the development and deployment of the SCI-HI experiment. It starts with the original design and covers development of the system over time. Deployment location selection is then discussed, including the results of site evaluations. In addition, the thesis outlines the data analysis process used for the system and shows results from data collected during the June 2013 deployment of the experiment. Finally, the thesis describes plans for the future of the SCI-HI experiment, including deployment to South Africa in 2015.

  14. Lower Extremity Strength Is Correlated with Walking Function After Incomplete SCI

    PubMed Central

    DiPiro, Nicole D.; Holthaus, Katy D.; Morgan, Patrick J.; Embry, Aaron E.; Perry, Lindsay A.; Bowden, Mark G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lower extremity strength has been reported to relate to walking ability, however, the relationship between voluntary lower extremity muscle function as measured by isokinetic dynamometry and walking have not been thoroughly examined in individuals with incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI). Objective: To determine the extent to which measures of maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) and rate of torque development (RTD) in the knee extensor (KE) and plantar flexor (PF) muscle groups correlate with self-selected overground walking speed and spatiotemporal characteristics of walking. Methods: Twenty-two subjects with chronic (>6 months) iSCI participated in a cross-sectional study. Values for MVIC and RTD in the KE and PF muscle groups were determined by isokinetic dynamometry. Walking speed and spatiotemporal characteristics of walking were measured during overground walking. Results: MVIC in the KE and PF muscle groups correlated significantly with walking speed. RTD was significantly correlated with walking speed in both muscle groups, the more-involved PF muscle group showing the strongest correlation with walking speed (r = 0.728). RTD in the KE and PF muscle groups of the more-involved limb was significantly correlated with single support time of the more-involved limb. Conclusion: These data demonstrate that lower extremity strength is associated with walking ability after iSCI. Correlations for the muscle groups of the move-involved side were stronger compared to the less-involved limb. In addition, PF function is highlighted as a potential limiting factor to walking speed along with the importance of RTD. PMID:26364282

  15. Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation–Induced Resistance Training After SCI: A Review of the Dudley Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Yarar-Fisher, Ceren; Mahoney, Edward T.; McCully, Kevin K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES), often referred to as functional electrical stimulation (FES), has been used to activate paralyzed skeletal muscle in people with spinal cord injury (SCI). The goal of NMES has been to reverse some of the dramatic losses in skeletal muscle mass, to stimulate functional improvements in people with incomplete paralysis, and to produce some of the health benefits associated with exercise. Objective: The purpose of this brief review is to describe a quantifiable resistance training form of NMES developed by Gary A. Dudley. Methods: People with motor complete SCI were first tested to confirm that an NMES-induced muscle contraction of the quadriceps muscle could be achieved. The contraction stimulus consisted of biphasic pulses at 35 Hz performed with increasing current up to what was needed to produce full knee extension. Four sets of 10 knee extensions were elicited, if possible. Training occurred biweekly for 3 to 6 months, with ankle weights being increased up to an added weight of 9.1 kg if the 40 repetitions could be performed successfully for 2 sessions. Results: Many participants have performed this protocol without adverse events, and all participants showed progression in the number of repetitions and/or the amount of weight lifted. Large increases in muscle mass occur, averaging 30% to 40%. Additional physiological adaptations to stimulated muscle have also been reported. Conclusions: These results demonstrate that the affected skeletal muscle after SCI responds robustly to progressive resistance training many years after injury. Future work with NMES should determine whether gains in lean mass translate to improved health, function, and quality of life. PMID:26689694

  16. Effects of Functional Electric Stimulation Cycle Ergometry Training on Lower Limb Musculature in Acute Sci Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Demchak, Timothy J.; Linderman, Jon K.; Mysiw, W. Jerry; Jackson, Rebecca; Suun, Jihong; Devor, Steven T.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare three different intervals for a between sets rest period during a common isokinetic knee extension strength-testing protocol of twenty older Brazilian men (66.30 ± 3.92 yrs). The volunteers underwent unilateral knee extension (Biodex System 3) testing to determine their individual isokinetic peak torque at 60, 90, and 120° ·s-1. The contraction speeds and the rest periods between sets (30, 60 and 90 s) were randomly performed in three different days with a minimum rest period of 48 hours. Significant differences between and within sets were analyzed using a One Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures. Although, at angular velocity of 60°·s-1 produced a higher peak torque, there were no significant differences in peak torque among any of the rest periods. Likewise, there were no significant differences between mean peak torque among all resting periods (30, 60 and 90s) at angular velocities of 90 and 120°·s-1. The results showed that during a common isokinetic strength testing protocol a between set rest period of at least 30 s is sufficient for recovery before the next test set in older men. Key Points Muscle fiber cross sectional area (CSAf ) decreased 38% following spinal cord injury (SCI). Early intervention with functional electric stimulation cycle ergometry (FES-CE) prevented further loss of CSAf in SCI patients and increased power output. Muscle myosin heavy chain (MHC) and myonuclear density were unaffected by SCI or FES-CE PMID:24453530

  17. Effects of functional electric stimulation cycle ergometry training on lower limb musculature in acute sci individuals.

    PubMed

    Demchak, Timothy J; Linderman, Jon K; Mysiw, W Jerry; Jackson, Rebecca; Suun, Jihong; Devor, Steven T

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare three different intervals for a between sets rest period during a common isokinetic knee extension strength-testing protocol of twenty older Brazilian men (66.30 ± 3.92 yrs). The volunteers underwent unilateral knee extension (Biodex System 3) testing to determine their individual isokinetic peak torque at 60, 90, and 120° ·s-1. The contraction speeds and the rest periods between sets (30, 60 and 90 s) were randomly performed in three different days with a minimum rest period of 48 hours. Significant differences between and within sets were analyzed using a One Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures. Although, at angular velocity of 60°·s-1 produced a higher peak torque, there were no significant differences in peak torque among any of the rest periods. Likewise, there were no significant differences between mean peak torque among all resting periods (30, 60 and 90s) at angular velocities of 90 and 120°·s-1. The results showed that during a common isokinetic strength testing protocol a between set rest period of at least 30 s is sufficient for recovery before the next test set in older men. Key PointsMuscle fiber cross sectional area (CSAf ) decreased 38% following spinal cord injury (SCI).Early intervention with functional electric stimulation cycle ergometry (FES-CE) prevented further loss of CSAf in SCI patients and increased power output.Muscle myosin heavy chain (MHC) and myonuclear density were unaffected by SCI or FES-CE. PMID:24453530

  18. A Characterization Of The GNAT SciTech STAR Class 0.5m Prototype Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barentine, J. C.; Culver, R. B.

    2002-05-01

    In 1995 the Global Network of Automated Telescopes (GNAT) acquired an option to purchase a 0.5m "STAR" class telescope, manufactured by SciTech Corporation of Forresthill, CA, contingent upon its attainment of performance specifications published by SciTech. In spite of a concerted, and protracted effort, the telescope has not yet approached the manufacturer's specifications, and has proven largely unusable for its intended purpose. In light of the difficult history of commercial development of true automated telescopes (see Sinnott 1996 and Henry 1994) it is important to understand the current state of such commercial systems. We present results of a characterization of this telescope and recommendations for how to proceed in light of its failure to attain specifications. Principle failings of the telescope can be summarized as follows: 1) the mechanical structure was inadequately designed and built, yielding large and unacceptable pointing and tracking errors, 2) the autoguider system was never successfully implemented, limiting the system to very short integrations, 3) the autofocus mechanism was never successfully implemented, resulting in periodic, unacceptable focus drifts during automatic operation, 4) the telescope control system as provided with the telescope did not work and ultimately had to be developed by an independent contractor recommended by GNAT and contracted through SciTech, and 5) the telescope optical system design did not adequately accommodate scattered light issues, yielding significant scattered light contributions to the images under certain conditions. Based on analyses of these issues, we present recommendations for improvements in this system. Support of this work has been provided by Colorado State University and GNAT. REFERENCES Sinnott, R.W. Sky And Telescope vol.91, no.6, p.38 (1996) Henry, G.W. IAPPP Communication No.57, Autumn 1994, p.57

  19. SCI1, the first member of the tissue-specific inhibitors of CDK (TIC) class, is probably connected to the auxin signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    DePaoli, Henrique; Goldman, Gustavo; Goldman, Maria-Helena

    2012-01-01

    The recent finding of a tissue-specific cell cycle regulator (SCI1) that inhibits cell proliferation/differentiation in the upper pistil points to an unanticipated way of controlling plant morphogenesis. The similarity between the SCI1 RNAi-silenced plants and some auxin-related phenotypes suggested that SCI1 could be involved in the auxin signaling pathway. To address this hypothesis, we analyzed the expression of three auxin-related genes in transgenic plants in which SCI1 was silenced and overexpressed. The results showed that the expression levels of the auxin-related genes largely correlated with the SCI1 expression level. Additionally, we analyzed the Arabidopsis SCI1 upstream regulatory region and found putative cis-acting elements also present in the AtCYCB1;1 AtYUC1, AtYUC2 and AtYUC4 URRs, suggesting a cell cycle- and auxin-related transcriptional regulation. Based on our previous and the current studies, we propose SCI1 as a signal transducer engaging auxin signaling and cell division/differentiation. PMID:22301969

  20. Measurement of Neutron and Muon Fluxes 100~m Underground with the SciBath Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Garrison, Lance

    2014-01-01

    The SciBath detector is an 80 liter liquid scintillator detector read out by a three dimensional grid of 768 wavelength-shifting fibers. Initially conceived as a fine-grained charged particle detector for neutrino studies that could image charged particle tracks in all directions, it is also sensitive to fast neutrons (15-200 MeV). In fall of 2011 the apparatus performed a three month run to measure cosmic-induced muons and neutrons 100~meters underground in the FNAL MINOS near-detector area. Data from this run has been analyzed and resulted in measurements of the cosmic muon flux as \

  1. SciSpark: Highly Interactive and Scalable Model Evaluation and Climate Metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, B. D.; Mattmann, C. A.; Waliser, D. E.; Kim, J.; Loikith, P.; Lee, H.; McGibbney, L. J.; Whitehall, K. D.

    2014-12-01

    Remote sensing data and climate model output are multi-dimensional arrays of massive sizes locked away in heterogeneous file formats (HDF5/4, NetCDF 3/4) and metadata models (HDF-EOS, CF) making it difficult to perform multi-stage, iterative science processing since each stage requires writing and reading data to and from disk. We are developing a lightning fast Big Data technology called SciSpark based on ApacheTM Spark. Spark implements the map-reduce paradigm for parallel computing on a cluster, but emphasizes in-memory computation, "spilling" to disk only as needed, and so outperforms the disk-based ApacheTM Hadoop by 100x in memory and by 10x on disk, and makes iterative algorithms feasible. SciSpark will enable scalable model evaluation by executing large-scale comparisons of A-Train satellite observations to model grids on a cluster of 100 to 1000 compute nodes. This 2nd generation capability for NASA's Regional Climate Model Evaluation System (RCMES) will compute simple climate metrics at interactive speeds, and extend to quite sophisticated iterative algorithms such as machine-learning (ML) based clustering of temperature PDFs, and even graph-based algorithms for searching for Mesocale Convective Complexes. The goals of SciSpark are to: (1) Decrease the time to compute comparison statistics and plots from minutes to seconds; (2) Allow for interactive exploration of time-series properties over seasons and years; (3) Decrease the time for satellite data ingestion into RCMES to hours; (4) Allow for Level-2 comparisons with higher-order statistics or PDF's in minutes to hours; and (5) Move RCMES into a near real time decision-making platform. We will report on: the architecture and design of SciSpark, our efforts to integrate climate science algorithms in Python and Scala, parallel ingest and partitioning (sharding) of A-Train satellite observations from HDF files and model grids from netCDF files, first parallel runs to compute comparison statistics and PDF

  2. SciSpark: Highly Interactive and Scalable Model Evaluation and Climate Metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, B. D.; Palamuttam, R. S.; Mogrovejo, R. M.; Whitehall, K. D.; Mattmann, C. A.; Verma, R.; Waliser, D. E.; Lee, H.

    2015-12-01

    Remote sensing data and climate model output are multi-dimensional arrays of massive sizes locked away in heterogeneous file formats (HDF5/4, NetCDF 3/4) and metadata models (HDF-EOS, CF) making it difficult to perform multi-stage, iterative science processing since each stage requires writing and reading data to and from disk. We are developing a lightning fast Big Data technology called SciSpark based on ApacheTM Spark under a NASA AIST grant (PI Mattmann). Spark implements the map-reduce paradigm for parallel computing on a cluster, but emphasizes in-memory computation, "spilling" to disk only as needed, and so outperforms the disk-based ApacheTM Hadoop by 100x in memory and by 10x on disk. SciSpark will enable scalable model evaluation by executing large-scale comparisons of A-Train satellite observations to model grids on a cluster of 10 to 1000 compute nodes. This 2nd generation capability for NASA's Regional Climate Model Evaluation System (RCMES) will compute simple climate metrics at interactive speeds, and extend to quite sophisticated iterative algorithms such as machine-learning based clustering of temperature PDFs, and even graph-based algorithms for searching for Mesocale Convective Complexes. We have implemented a parallel data ingest capability in which the user specifies desired variables (arrays) as several time-sorted lists of URL's (i.e. using OPeNDAP model.nc?varname, or local files). The specified variables are partitioned by time/space and then each Spark node pulls its bundle of arrays into memory to begin a computation pipeline. We also investigated the performance of several N-dim. array libraries (scala breeze, java jblas & netlib-java, and ND4J). We are currently developing science codes using ND4J and studying memory behavior on the JVM. On the pyspark side, many of our science codes already use the numpy and SciPy ecosystems. The talk will cover: the architecture of SciSpark, the design of the scientific RDD (sRDD) data structure, our

  3. Our Planet Earth. Study Guide. Unit F1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  4. Reproducing by Flowers and Seeds. Teacher's Guide. Unit E2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zesaguli, Josie

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  5. Forces. Teacher's Guide. Units H1 and H2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dock, Alan; Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  6. Atoms and Molecules. 'O' Level. Teacher's Guide. Unit 2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandizha, George

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the third year of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be used in…

  7. Using Electricity. Teacher's Guide. Unit I2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chidume, Kwashira

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be used in…

  8. Sense from Senses. Teacher's Guide. Unit J. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simango, Sam

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  9. Observing Some Life Cycles. Teacher's Guide. Unit E3. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitepo, Thoko; And Others

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide contains instructional…

  10. Energy for Living. Teacher's Guide. Unit G1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  11. Living Things and Their Food. Teacher's Guide. Unit G2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  12. The Chemicals of the Earth. Teacher's Guide. Unit F2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  13. A Comprehensive Evaluation of H2SO4 formation from OH and sCI pathways in high BVOC environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.; Seco, R.; Park, J. H.; Guenther, A. B.; Smith, J. N.; Kuang, C.; Bustillos, J. O. V.; Tota, J.; Souza, R. A. F. D.

    2014-12-01

    The recently highlighted importance of stabilized Criegee intermediates (sCI) as an oxidant for atmospheric SO2 triggered a number of studies to assess the atmospheric implications of H2SO4 formation from the sCI reaction pathway. In addition, it has not been clear why new particle formation events are not observed in the Amazon rain forest. The mostly widely speculated reason has been a very low H2SO4 level. We will present quantitative assessments of SO2 oxidation by sCI leading to the H2SO4 production using a comprehensive observational dataset from a tropical rainforest study during the GOAmazon field campaign at the T3 site in Manacapuru, Amazonas, Brazil. To our best knowledge, this is the first observation of H2SO4 and OH in Amazon and is unique for all tropical sites due to the accompanying comprehensive gas and aerosol observations such as CO, NOX, SO2, VOCs, and physical and chemical characteristics of aerosols. We will discuss observed H2SO4 levels during the GOAmazon field campaigns to demonstrate 1) H2SO4 formation potential from OH and sCI oxidation pathways by contrasting extremely clean and relatively polluted air masses and 2) the Implications of the observed H2SO4 levels in new particle formation and particle growth events.

  14. Reactions of the rat musculoskeletal system to compressive spinal cord injury (SCI) and whole body vibration (WBV) therapy.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, A; Pick, C; Harrach, R; Stein, G; Bendella, H; Ozsoy, O; Ozsoy, U; Schoenau, E; Jaminet, P; Sarikcioglu, L; Dunlop, S; Angelov, D N

    2015-06-01

    Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) causes a loss of locomotor function with associated compromise of the musculo-skeletal system. Whole body vibration (WBV) is a potential therapy following SCI, but little is known about its effects on the musculo-skeletal system. Here, we examined locomotor recovery and the musculo-skeletal system after thoracic (T7-9) compression SCI in adult rats. Daily WBV was started at 1, 7, 14 and 28 days after injury (WBV1-WBV28 respectively) and continued over a 12-week post-injury period. Intact rats, rats with SCI but no WBV (sham-treated) and a group that received passive flexion and extension (PFE) of their hind limbs served as controls. Compared to sham-treated rats, neither WBV nor PFE improved motor function. Only WBV14 and PFE improved body support. In line with earlier studies we failed to detect signs of soleus muscle atrophy (weight, cross sectional diameter, total amount of fibers, mean fiber diameter) or bone loss in the femur (length, weight, bone mineral density). One possible explanation is that, despite of injury extent, the preservation of some axons in the white matter, in combination with quadripedal locomotion, may provide sufficient trophic and neuronal support for the musculoskeletal system. PMID:26032204

  15. Understanding Electricity. Teacher's Guide. Unit I1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chidume, Kwashira

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  16. Life, Beginning and Growing. Teacher's Guide. Unit E1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  17. Validity and reliability of the Structured Clinical Interview for Depersonalization–Derealization Spectrum (SCI-DER)

    PubMed Central

    Mula, Marco; Pini, Stefano; Calugi, Simona; Preve, Matteo; Masini, Matteo; Giovannini, Ilaria; Conversano, Ciro; Rucci, Paola; Cassano, Giovanni B

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluates the validity and reliability of a new instrument developed to assess symptoms of depersonalization: the Structured Clinical Interview for the Depersonalization-Derealization Spectrum (SCI-DER). The instrument is based on a spectrum model that emphasizes soft-signs, sub-threshold syndromes as well as clinical and subsyndromal manifestations. Items of the interview include, in addition to DSM-IV criteria for depersonalization, a number of features derived from clinical experience and from a review of phenomenological descriptions. Study participants included 258 consecutive patients with mood and anxiety disorders, 16.7% bipolar I disorder, 18.6% bipolar II disorder, 32.9% major depression, 22.1% panic disorder, 4.7% obsessive compulsive disorder, and 1.5% generalized anxiety disorder; 2.7% patients were also diagnosed with depersonalization disorder. A comparison group of 42 unselected controls was enrolled at the same site. The SCI-DER showed excellent reliability and good concurrent validity with the Dissociative Experiences Scale. It significantly discriminated subjects with any diagnosis of mood and anxiety disorders from controls and subjects with depersonalization disorder from controls. The hypothesized structure of the instrument was confirmed empirically. PMID:19183789

  18. SciDAC Advances in Beam Dynamics Simulation: From Light Sources to Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Qiang, J.; Borland, M.; Kabel, A.; Li, R.; Ryne, R.; Stern, E.; Wang, Y.; Wasserman, H.; Zhang, Y.; /SLAC

    2011-11-14

    In this paper, we report on progress that has been made in beam dynamics simulation, from light sources to colliders, during the first year of the SciDAC-2 accelerator project 'Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation (ComPASS).' Several parallel computational tools for beam dynamics simulation are described. Also presented are number of applications in current and future accelerator facilities (e.g., LCLS, RHIC, Tevatron, LHC, and ELIC). Particle accelerators are some of most important tools of scientific discovery. They are widely used in high-energy physics, nuclear physics, and other basic and applied sciences to study the interaction of elementary particles, to probe the internal structure of matter, and to generate high-brightness radiation for research in materials science, chemistry, biology, and other fields. Modern accelerators are complex and expensive devices that may be several kilometers long and may consist of thousands of beamline elements. An accelerator may transport trillions of charged particles that interact electromagnetically among themselves, that interact with fields produced by the accelerator components, and that interact with beam-induced fields. Large-scale beam dynamics simulations on massively parallel computers can help provide understanding of these complex physical phenomena, help minimize design cost, and help optimize machine operation. In this paper, we report on beam dynamics simulations in a variety of accelerators ranging from next generation light sources to high-energy ring colliders that have been studied during the first year of the SciDAC-2 accelerator project.

  19. Building a Universal Nuclear Energy Density Functional (UNEDF). SciDAC-2 Project

    SciTech Connect

    Vary, James P.; Carlson, Joe; Furnstahl, Dick; Horoi, Mihai; Lusk, Rusty; Nazarewicz, Witek; Ng, Esmond; Thompson, Ian

    2012-09-29

    An understanding of the properties of atomic nuclei is crucial for a complete nuclear theory, for element formation, for properties of stars, and for present and future energy and defense applications. During the period of Dec. 1 2006 – Jun. 30, 2012, the UNEDF collaboration carried out a comprehensive study of all nuclei, based on the most accurate knowledge of the strong nuclear interaction, the most reliable theoretical approaches, the most advanced algorithms, and extensive computational resources, with a view towards scaling to the petaflop platforms and beyond. Until recently such an undertaking was hard to imagine, and even at the present time such an ambitious endeavor would be far beyond what a single researcher or a traditional research group could carry out. The UNEDF SciDAC project has developed several key computational codes and algorithms for reaching the goal of solving the nuclear quantum many-body problem throughout the chart of nuclei. Without such developments, scientific progress would not be possible. In addition the UNEDF SciDAC successfully applied these developments to solve many forefront research problems.

  20. SciDAC - The Scientific Data Management Center (http://sdmcenter.lbl.gov)

    SciTech Connect

    Ling Liu Calton Pu

    2005-06-20

    In SciDAC SDM project, the main assignment to the Georgia Institute of Technology team (according to the proposed work) is to develop advanced information extraction and information integration technologies on top of the XWRAP technology originated from Georgia Tech [LPH01]. We have developed XWRAPComposer technology to enable the XWRAP code generator to generate Java information wrappers that are capable of extraction of data from multiple linked pages. These information wrappers are used as gateways or adaptors for scientific information mediators to access and fuse interesting data and answering complex queries over a large collection of heterogeneous scientific information sources. Our accomplishments over the SciDAC sponsored years (July 2001 to July 2004) can be summarized along two dimensions. Technically, we have produced a number of major software releases and published over 30 research papers in both international conferences and international journals. The planned software releases include 1. Five Java wrappers and five WDSL-enabled wrappers for SDM Pilot scenarios, which were released in early 2003, 2. The XWRAPComposer toolkit (command line version) which was first released in late 2003 and then released in Summer 2004, 3. Five Ptolemy wrapper actors which were released first in Summer 2003, and then released again in Fall 2005. 4. The decomposable XWRAPComposer actor in Ptolemy, which we have made it available as open source in end of 2004 and tested it in early 2005.

  1. Performance Engineering Research Institute SciDAC-2 Enabling Technologies Institute Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Mary

    2014-09-19

    Enhancing the performance of SciDAC applications on petascale systems has high priority within DOE SC. As we look to the future, achieving expected levels of performance on high-end com-puting (HEC) systems is growing ever more challenging due to enormous scale, increasing archi-tectural complexity, and increasing application complexity. To address these challenges, PERI has implemented a unified, tripartite research plan encompassing: (1) performance modeling and prediction; (2) automatic performance tuning; and (3) performance engineering of high profile applications. The PERI performance modeling and prediction activity is developing and refining performance models, significantly reducing the cost of collecting the data upon which the models are based, and increasing model fidelity, speed and generality. Our primary research activity is automatic tuning (autotuning) of scientific software. This activity is spurred by the strong user preference for automatic tools and is based on previous successful activities such as ATLAS, which has automatically tuned components of the LAPACK linear algebra library, and other re-cent work on autotuning domain-specific libraries. Our third major component is application en-gagement, to which we are devoting approximately 30% of our effort to work directly with Sci-DAC-2 applications. This last activity not only helps DOE scientists meet their near-term per-formance goals, but also helps keep PERI research focused on the real challenges facing DOE computational scientists as they enter the Petascale Era.

  2. Scientific support of SciTech museum exhibits and outreach programs

    SciTech Connect

    Peshkin, M.

    1995-08-01

    SciTech (Science and Technology Interactive Center) is a small hands-on science museum located in Aurora, Illinois, not far from Argonne National Laboratory. Its constituency includes prosperous suburbs and economically disadvantaged minority communities in Aurora and Chicago. Its mission is to contribute to the country`s scientific literacy initiative by offering hands-on experiences on the museum floor and through outreach programs extended to school children, their teachers, and other groups. Argonne`s participation is focused mainly on the development of exhibits to carry the ideas of modern science and technology to the public. This is an area in which traditional museums are weak, but in which SciTech has become a nationally recognized leader with the assistance of Argonne, Fermilab, nearby technological companies, and many volunteer scientists and engineers. We also participate in development and improvement of the museum`s general exhibits and outreach programs. Argonne`s Director, Alan Schriesheim, serves as a member of the museum`s Board of Directors. Murray Peshkin serves part-time as the museum`s Senior Scientist. Dale Henderson serves part-time as an exhibit developer. That work is supported by the Laboratory Director`s discretionary funds. In addition, several members of the Physics Division voluntarily assist with exhibit development and the Division makes facilities available for that effort.

  3. What's Manifest in the History of SciTech: Reflections on The History Manifesto.

    PubMed

    Kevles, Daniel J

    2016-06-01

    Making nuts-and-bolts public policy is not--and never has been--the long suit of professional historians, but general historical work, whatever its durée, has done a good deal to shape discourse on public issues. Jo Guldi and David Armitage neglect that fact, as well as the opinion-shaping influence of history conveyed via nonprint media. They also ignore the large body of scholarship produced in all media during recent decades in the history of science, technology, and science-related medicine (SciTech), even though SciTech itself looms enormously large in the modern era as an instrument of national and international security, a driver of the economy, and a transformer of medicine, public health, and the environment. Much of this scholarship, even though of short durée, can illuminate salient contemporary issues, including innovation; patronage and practice; government and policy; imperialism and globalization; intellectual property; science and religion; and human rights, environment, energy, and disasters. PMID:27439289

  4. An exploration of SciDB in the context of emerging technologies for data stores in particle physics and cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malon, D.; van Gemmeren, P.; Weinstein, J.

    2012-06-01

    Traditional relational databases have not always been well matched to the needs of data-intensive sciences, but efforts are underway within the database community to attempt to address many of the requirements of large-scale scientific data management. One such effort is the open-source project SciDB. Since its earliest incarnations, SciDB has been designed for scalability in parallel and distributed environments, with a particular emphasis upon native support for array constructs and operations. Such scalability is of course a requirement of any strategy for large-scale scientific data handling, and array constructs are certainly useful in many contexts, but these features alone do not suffice to qualify a database product as an appropriate technology for hosting particle physics or cosmology data. In what constitutes its 1.0 release in June 2011, SciDB has extended its feature set to address additional requirements of scientific data, with support for user-defined types and functions, for data versioning, and more. This paper describes an evaluation of the capabilities of SciDB for two very different kinds of physics data: event-level metadata records from proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), and the output of cosmological simulations run on very-large-scale supercomputers. This evaluation exercises the spectrum of SciDB capabilities in a suite of tests that aim to be representative and realistic, including, for example, definition of four-vector data types and natural operations thereon, and computational queries that match the natural use cases for these data.

  5. Measurement of the absolute vμ-CCQE cross section at the SciBooNE experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Aunion, Jose Luis Alcaraz

    2010-07-01

    This thesis presents the measurement of the charged current quasi-elastic (CCQE) neutrino-nucleon cross section at neutrino energies around 1 GeV. This measurement has two main physical motivations. On one hand, the neutrino-nucleon interactions at few GeV is a region where existing old data are sparse and with low statistics. The current measurement populates low energy regions with higher statistics and precision than previous experiments. On the other hand, the CCQE interaction is the most useful interaction in neutrino oscillation experiments. The CCQE channel is used to measure the initial and final neutrino fluxes in order to determine the neutrino fraction that disappeared. The neutrino oscillation experiments work at low neutrino energies, so precise measurement of CCQE interactions are essential for flux measurements. The main goal of this thesis is to measure the CCQE absolute neutrino cross section from the SciBooNE data. The SciBar Booster Neutrino Experiment (SciBooNE) is a neutrino and anti-neutrino scattering off experiment. The neutrino energy spectrum works at energies around 1 GeV. SciBooNE was running from June 8th 2007 to August 18th 2008. In that period, the experiment collected a total of 2.65 x 1020 protons on target (POT). This thesis has used full data collection in neutrino mode 0.99 x 1020 POT. A CCQE selection cut has been performed, achieving around 70% pure CCQE sample. A fit method has been exclusively developed to determine the absolute CCQE cross section, presenting results in a neutrino energy range from 0.2 to 2 GeV. The results are compatible with the NEUT predictions. The SciBooNE measurement has been compared with both Carbon (MiniBoonE) and deuterium (ANL and BNL) target experiments, showing a good agreement in both cases.

  6. Bibliometric Analysis of the Korean Journal of Parasitology: Measured from SCI, PubMed, Scopus, and Synapse Databases

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The Korean Journal of Parasitology (KJP) is the official journal of the Korean Society for Parasitology which is celebrating its 50th anniversary in 2009. To assess the contributions and achievements of the KJP, bibliometric analysis was conducted based on the citation data retrieved from 4 major databases; SCI, PubMed, Synapse, and Scopus. It was found that the KJP articles were constantly cited by the articles published in major international journals represented in these databases. More than 60% of 1,370 articles published in the KJP from 1963 to June 2009 were cited at least once by SCI articles. The overall average times cited by SCI articles are 2.6. The rate is almost 3 times higher for the articles published in the last 10 years compared to 1.0 for the articles of the 1960s. The SCI journal impact factor for 2008 is calculated as 0.871. It is increasing and it is expected to increase further with the introduction of the KJP in the database in 2008. The more realistic h-indixes were measured from the study data set covering all the citations to the KJP; 17 for SCI, 6 for PubMed, 19 for Synapse, and 17 for Scopus. Synapse extensively picked up the citations to the earlier papers not retrievable from the other 3 databases. It identified many papers published in the 1960s and in the 1980s which have been cited heavily, proving the central role of the KJP in the dissemination of the important research findings over the last 5 decades. PMID:19885331

  7. Comment on ``MEMS-based high speed scanning probe microscopy'' [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 043702 (2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degertekin, F. Levent; Torun, Hamdi

    2010-11-01

    In a recent article, Disseldorp et al. [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 043702 (2010)] present a micromachined z-scanner for scanning probe microscopy (SPM). The scanner comprises a micromachined electrostatically actuated membrane anchored to its substrate with crab-leg flexures. This structure is used as a fast actuator specifically for atomic force microscope and scanning tunneling microscope. The authors present topographic images acquired using the scanner in this paper and elsewhere [F. C. Tabak et al., Ultramicroscopy 110, 599 (2010)]. Although the work is clearly described, it does not appear to be placed in proper context. For example, the authors claim that previous work on microelectromechanical systems SPM has not been focused on high-speed imaging with feedback, which is not supported by the existing literature. In addition, similar actuator structures, albeit slightly larger scale, have been designed and used for SPM applications. Here, we would like comment briefly on the existing literature to clarify the significance of the work.

  8. The Virtual Earth-Solar Observatory of the SCiESMEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De la Luz, V.; Gonzalez-Esparza, A.; Cifuentes-Nava, G.

    2015-12-01

    The Mexican Space Weather Service (SCiESMEX, http://www.sciesmex.unam.mx) started operations in October 2014. The project includes the Virtual Earth-Solar Observatory (VESO, http://www.veso.unam.mx). The VESO is a improved project wich objetive is integrate the space weather instrumentation network from the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM). The network includes the Mexican Array Radiotelescope (MEXART), the Callisto receptor (MEXART), a Neutron Telescope, a Cosmic Ray Telescope. the Schumann Antenna, the National Magnetic Service, and the mexican GPS network (TlalocNet). The VESO facility is located at the Geophysics Institute campus Michoacan (UNAM). We offer the service of data store, real-time data, and quasi real-time data. The hardware of VESO includes a High Performance Computer (HPC) dedicated specially to big data storage.

  9. ScyFlow: An Environment for the Visual Specification and Execution of Scientific Workflows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCann, Karen M.; Yarrow, Maurice; DeVivo, Adrian; Mehrotra, Piyush

    2004-01-01

    With the advent of grid technologies, scientists and engineers are building more and more complex applications to utilize distributed grid resources. The core grid services provide a path for accessing and utilizing these resources in a secure and seamless fashion. However what the scientists need is an environment that will allow them to specify their application runs at a high organizational level, and then support efficient execution across any given set or sets of resources. We have been designing and implementing ScyFlow, a dual-interface architecture (both GUT and APT) that addresses this problem. The scientist/user specifies the application tasks along with the necessary control and data flow, and monitors and manages the execution of the resulting workflow across the distributed resources. In this paper, we utilize two scenarios to provide the details of the two modules of the project, the visual editor and the runtime workflow engine.

  10. VACET: Proposed SciDAC2 Visualization and Analytics Center forEnabling Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Bethel, W.; Johnson, Chris; Hansen, Charles; Parker, Steve; Sanderson, Allen; Silva, Claudio; Tricoche, Xavier; Pascucci, Valerio; Childs, Hank; Cohen, Jonathon; Duchaineau, Mark; Laney, Dan; Lindstrom,Peter; Ahern, Sean; Meredith, Jeremy; Ostrouchov, George; Joy, Ken; Hamann, Bernd

    2006-06-19

    This paper accompanies a poster that is being presented atthe SciDAC 2006 meeting in Denver, CO. This project focuses on leveragingscientific visualization and analytics software technology as an enablingtechnology for increasing scientific productivity and insight. Advancesincomputational technology have resultedin an "information big bang,"which in turn has createda significant data understanding challenge. Thischallenge is widely acknowledged to be one of the primary bottlenecks incontemporary science. The vision for our Center is to respond directly tothat challenge by adapting, extending, creating when necessary anddeploying visualization and data understanding technologies for ourscience stakeholders. Using an organizational model as a Visualizationand Analytics Center for Enabling Technologies (VACET), we are wellpositioned to be responsive to the needs of a diverse set of scientificstakeholders in a coordinated fashion using a range of visualization,mathematics, statistics, computer and computational science and datamanagement technologies.

  11. PACIFIC: the readout ASIC for the SciFi Tracker of the upgraded LHCb detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazorra, J.; Chanal, H.; Comerma, A.; Gascón, D.; Gómez, S.; Han, X.; Pillet, N.; Vandaele, R.

    2016-02-01

    The LHCb detector will be upgraded during the Long Shutdown 2 (LS2) of the LHC in order to cope with higher instantaneous luminosities and will switch to a 40 MHz readout rate using a trigger-less software based system. All front-end electronics will be replaced and several sub-detectors must be redesigned to cope with the higher detector occupancy and radiation damage. The current tracking detectors downstream of the LHCb dipole magnet will be replaced by the Scintillating Fibre (SciFi) Tracker. The SciFi Tracker will use scintillating fibres read out by Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs). State-of-the-art multi-channel SiPM arrays are being developed and a custom ASIC, called the low-Power ASIC for the sCIntillating FIbres traCker (PACIFIC), will be used to digitise the signals from the SiPMs. This article presents an overview of the R&D for the PACIFIC. It is a 64-channel ASIC implemented in 130 nm CMOS technology, aiming at a radiation tolerant design with a power consumption below 10 mW per channel. It interfaces directly with the SiPM anode through a current mode input, and provides a configurable non-linear 2-bit per channel digital output. The SiPM signal is acquired by a current conveyor and processed with a fast shaper and a gated integrator. The digitization is performed using a three threshold non-linear flash ADC operating at 40 MHz. Simulation and test results show the PACIFIC chip prototypes functioning well.

  12. Extraordinary Tools for Extraordinary Science: The Impact ofSciDAC on Accelerator Science&Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Ryne, Robert D.

    2006-08-10

    Particle accelerators are among the most complex and versatile instruments of scientific exploration. They have enabled remarkable scientific discoveries and important technological advances that span all programs within the DOE Office of Science (DOE/SC). The importance of accelerators to the DOE/SC mission is evident from an examination of the DOE document, ''Facilities for the Future of Science: A Twenty-Year Outlook''. Of the 28 facilities listed, 13 involve accelerators. Thanks to SciDAC, a powerful suite of parallel simulation tools has been developed that represent a paradigm shift in computational accelerator science. Simulations that used to take weeks or more now take hours, and simulations that were once thought impossible are now performed routinely. These codes have been applied to many important projects of DOE/SC including existing facilities (the Tevatron complex, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider), facilities under construction (the Large Hadron Collider, the Spallation Neutron Source, the Linac Coherent Light Source), and to future facilities (the International Linear Collider, the Rare Isotope Accelerator). The new codes have also been used to explore innovative approaches to charged particle acceleration. These approaches, based on the extremely intense fields that can be present in lasers and plasmas, may one day provide a path to the outermost reaches of the energy frontier. Furthermore, they could lead to compact, high-gradient accelerators that would have huge consequences for US science and technology, industry, and medicine. In this talk I will describe the new accelerator modeling capabilities developed under SciDAC, the essential role of multi-disciplinary collaboration with applied mathematicians, computer scientists, and other IT experts in developing these capabilities, and provide examples of how the codes have been used to support DOE/SC accelerator projects.

  13. Reactivity of stabilized Criegee intermediates (sCI) from isoprene and monoterpene ozonolysis toward SO2 and organic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sipilä, M.; Jokinen, T.; Berndt, T.; Richters, S.; Makkonen, R.; Donahue, N. M.; Mauldin, R. L., III; Kurten, T.; Paasonen, P.; Sarnela, N.; Ehn, M.; Junninen, H.; Rissanen, M. P.; Thornton, J.; Stratmann, F.; Herrmann, H.; Worsnop, D. R.; Kulmala, M.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Petäjä, T.

    2014-01-01

    Oxidation processes in Earth's atmosphere are tightly connected to many environmental and human health issues and are essential drivers for biogeochemistry. Until the recent discovery of the atmospheric relevance of stabilized Criegee intermediates (sCI), atmospheric oxidation processes were thought to be dominated by few main oxidants: ozone, hydroxyl radicals (OH), nitrate radicals and, e.g. over oceans, halogen atoms such as chlorine. Here, we report results from laboratory experiments at 293 K and atmospheric pressure focusing on sCI formation from the ozonolysis of isoprene and the most abundant monoterpenes (α-pinene and limonene), and subsequent reactions of the resulting sCIs with SO2 producing sulphuric acid (H2SO4). The measured sCI yields were (0.15 ± 0.07), (0.27 ± 0.12) and (0.58 ± 0.26) for the ozonolysis of α-pinene, limonene and isoprene, respectively. The ratio between the rate coefficient for the sCI loss (including thermal decomposition and the reaction with water vapour) and the rate coefficient for the reaction of sCI with SO2, k(loss) / k(sCI + SO2), was determined at relative humidities of 10% and 50%. Observed values represent the average reactivity of all sCIs produced from the individual alkene used in the ozonolysis. For the monoterpene derived sCIs, the relative rate coefficients k(loss) / k(sCI + SO2) were in the range (2.0-2.4) × 1012 molecule cm-3 and nearly independent on the relative humidity. This fact points to a minor importance of the sCI + H2O reaction in the case of the sCI arising from α-pinene and limonene. For the isoprene sCIs, however, the ratio k(loss) / k(sCI + SO2) was strongly dependent on the relative humidity. To explore whether sCIs could have a more general role in atmospheric oxidation, we investigated as an example the reactivity of acetone oxide (sCI from the ozonolysis of 2,3-dimethyl-2-butene) toward small organic acids, i.e. formic and acetic acid. Acetone oxide was found to react faster with the

  14. [Letters to the editor published in Peruvian biomedical journals indexed in SciELO-Peru 2006-2013].

    PubMed

    Montenegro-Idrogo, Juan José; Mejía-Dolores, Jhon William; Chalco-Huamán, Joel L

    2015-01-01

    This bibliometric study describes the characteristics of letters to the editor published between 2006-2013 in biomedical journals indexed in SciELO-Peru.253 letters (10.3% of total publications) were collected. Most letters (139) were in the Peruvian Journal of Experimental Medicine and Public Health, with marked increase throughout those years. 25% of letters submitted included medical student participation. 14% of authors presented with international affiliations and 27% with endogenous affiliation - common in university journals (Anales de la Facultad de Medicina, Revista Médica Herediana).The usual criteria justifying the publication of letters were: opinion of medical fact or public domain (35.6%) and discussion of results, methodological flaws or interpretation (22.9%). In biomedical journals indexed in SciELO Peru the letters to the editor comprise a percentage of publications that has increased in recent years, with low publication of letters of findings or primary data, compared with opinion or criticism. PMID:26102113

  15. Exploring Earth and the Solar System: Educational Outreach Through NASA's Space Place, SciJinks, and Climate Kids Websites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meneses, Joseph Chistopher

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Space Place team publishes engaging content and creates an effective environment to inspire a young audience to dare mighty things. NASA uses the Space Place, Climate Kids, and SciJinks websites to cultivate interest among elementary-school-aged children in both science and technology. During my summer internship at Jet Propulsion Laboratory I used Adobe Flash and ActionScript 3 to develop content for the Space Place, Climate Kids, and SciJinks sites. In addition, I was involved in the development process for ongoing and new projects during my internship. My involvement allowed me to follow a project from concept to design, implementation, and release. I personally worked on three projects this summer, two of which are currently in deployment. The first is a scrambled letter-tile guessing game titled Solar System Scramble. The second, Butterfrog Mix-Up, is a rotating-tile puzzle game. The third project is a unfinished prototype for a maze game.

  16. Challenges of animal models in SCI research: Effects of pre-injury task-specific training in adult rats before lesion.

    PubMed

    May, Zacnicte; Fouad, Karim; Shum-Siu, Alice; Magnuson, David S K

    2015-09-15

    A rarely explored subject in animal research is the effect of pre-injury variables on behavioral outcome post-SCI. Low reporting of such variables may underlie some discrepancies in findings between laboratories. Particularly, intensive task-specific training before a SCI might be important, considering that sports injuries are one of the leading causes of SCI. Thus, individuals with SCI often underwent rigorous training before their injuries. In the present study, we asked whether training before SCI on a grasping task or a swimming task would influence motor recovery in rats. Swim pre-training impaired recovery of swimming 2 and 4 weeks post-injury. This result fits with the idea of motor learning interference, which posits that learning something new may disrupt learning of a new task; in this case, learning strategies to compensate for functional loss after SCI. In contrast to swimming, grasp pre-training did not influence grasping ability after SCI at any time point. However, grasp pre-trained rats attempted to grasp more times than untrained rats in the first 4 weeks post-injury. Also, lesion volume of grasp pre-trained rats was greater than that of untrained rats, a finding which may be related to stress or activity. The increased participation in rehabilitative training of the pre-trained rats in the early weeks post-injury may have potentiated spontaneous plasticity in the spinal cord and counteracted the deleterious effect of interference and bigger lesions. Thus, our findings suggest that pre-training plays a significant role in recovery after CNS damage and needs to be carefully controlled for. PMID:25975172

  17. Musculoskeletal model-guided, customizable selection of shoulder and elbow muscles for a C5 SCI neuroprosthesis.

    PubMed

    Hincapie, Juan Gabriel; Blana, Dimitra; Chadwick, Edward K; Kirsch, Robert F

    2008-06-01

    Individuals with C5/C6 spinal cord injury (SCI) have a number of paralyzed muscles in their upper extremities that can be electrically activated in a coordinated manner to restore function. The selection of a practical subset of paralyzed muscles for stimulation depends on the specific condition of the individual, the functions targeted for restoration, and surgical considerations. This paper presents a musculoskeletal model-based approach for optimizing the muscle set used for functional electrical stimulation (FES) of the shoulder and elbow in this population. Experimentally recorded kinematics from able-bodied subjects served as inputs to a musculoskeletal model of the shoulder and elbow, which was modified to reflect the reduced muscle force capacities of an individual with C5 SCI but also the potential of using FES to activate paralyzed muscles. A large number of inverse dynamic simulations mimicking typical activities of daily living were performed that included 1) muscles with retained voluntary control and 2) many different combinations of stimulated paralyzed muscles. These results indicate that a muscle set consisting of the serratus anterior, infraspinatus and triceps would enable the greatest range of relevant movements. This set will become the initial target in a C5SCI neuroprosthesis to restore shoulder and elbow function. PMID:18586604

  18. Quantum transport of injected electrons in an asymmetric FM/I 1/SC/I 2/FM junction: Directional dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soodchomshom, Bumned; Tang, I.-Ming; Hoonsawat, Rassmidara

    2008-07-01

    We have studied the directional dependence of the spin dependent coherent quantum transport in an asymmetric nano layer FM/I1/SC/I2/FM junction. We have used the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations to describe the quasiparticles in the different layers in the junction. The two ferromagnetic layers are taken to be the same material, while the SC is taken to be a s-wave superconductor, I1 and I2 are taken to be thin insulating layers made with different materials. Both the effects of parallel (P) and anti parallel (AP) alignments of the magnetizations in the different FM layers are studied. We find that the probabilities for the Andreev and normal reflections and for the transmission of the particles into the ferromagnetic layers are dependent on the spins. We also find that the transports of the particles injected from the left side into the FM/I1/SC/I2/FM and into the FM/I2/SC/I1/FM junctions are different. When the I1 and I2 are removed (resulting in the formation of a trilayer FM/SC/FM junction) and the thickness of the SC layer is made small, the probability for the Andreev reflection is seen to depend on the spins of the particles in contradiction to the results obtained by Bozovic and Radovic [M. Bozovic, Z. Radovic, Phys. Rev. B 66 (2002) 134524].

  19. Musculoskeletal Model-Guided, Customizable Selection of Shoulder and Elbow Muscles for a C5 SCI Neuroprosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Hincapie, Juan Gabriel; Blana, Dimitra; Chadwick, Edward K.; Kirsch, Robert F.

    2010-01-01

    Individuals with C5/C6 spinal cord injury (SCI) have a number of paralyzed muscles in their upper extremities that can be electrically activated in a coordinated manner to restore function. The selection of a practical subset of paralyzed muscles for stimulation depends on the specific condition of the individual, the functions targeted for restoration, and surgical considerations. This paper presents a musculoskeletal model-based approach for optimizing the muscle set used for functional electrical stimulation (FES) of the shoulder and elbow in this population. Experimentally recorded kinematics from able-bodied subjects served as inputs to a musculoskeletal model of the shoulder and elbow, which was modified to reflect the reduced muscle force capacities of an individual with C5 SCI but also the potential of using FES to activate paralyzed muscles. A large number of inverse dynamic simulations mimicking typical activities of daily living were performed that included 1) muscles with retained voluntary control and 2) many different combinations of stimulated paralyzed muscles. These results indicate that a muscle set consisting of the serratus anterior, infraspinatus and triceps would enable the greatest range of relevant movements. This set will become the initial target in a C5 SCI neuroprosthesis to restore shoulder and elbow function. PMID:18586604

  20. Hydrogen and the First Stars: First Results from the SCI-HI 21-cm all-sky spectrum experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voytek, Tabitha; Peterson, Jeffrey; Lopez-Cruz, Omar; Jauregui-Garcia, Jose-Miguel; SCI-HI Experiment Team

    2015-01-01

    The 'Sonda Cosmologica de las Islas para la Deteccion de Hidrogeno Neutro' (SCI-HI) experiment is an all-sky 21-cm brightness temperature spectrum experiment studying the cosmic dawn (z~15-35). The experiment is a collaboration between Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) and Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica (INAOE) in Mexico. Initial deployment of the SCI-HI experiment occurred in June 2013 on Guadalupe; a small island about 250 km off of the Pacific coast of Baja California in Mexico. Preliminary measurements from this deployment have placed the first observational constraints on the 21-cm all-sky spectrum around 70 MHz (z~20), see Voytek et al (2014).Neutral Hydrogen (HI) is found throughout the universe in the cold gas that makes up the intergalactic medium (IGM). HI can be observed through the spectral line at 21 cm (1.4 GHz) due to hyperfine structure. Expansion of the universe causes the wavelength of this spectral line to stretch at a rate defined by the redshift z, leading to a signal which can be followed through time.Now the strength of the 21-cm signal in the IGM is dependent only on a small number of variables; the temperature and density of the IGM, the amount of HI in the IGM, the UV energy density in the IGM, and the redshift. This means that 21-cm measurements teach us about the history and structure of the IGM. The SCI-HI experiment focuses on the spatially averaged 21-cm spectrum, looking at the temporal evolution of the IGM during the cosmic dawn before reionization.Although the SCI-HI experiment placed first constraints with preliminary data, this data was limited to a narrow frequency regime around 60-85 MHz. This limitation was caused by instrumental difficulties and the presence of residual radio frequency interference (RFI) in the FM radio band (~88-108 MHz). The SCI-HI experiment is currently undergoing improvements and we plan to have another deployment soon. This deployment would be to Socorro and Clarion, two

  1. Measuring resilience after spinal cord injury: Development, validation and psychometric characteristics of the SCI-QOL Resilience item bank and short form

    PubMed Central

    Victorson, David; Tulsky, David S.; Kisala, Pamela A.; Kalpakjian, Claire Z.; Weiland, Brian; Choi, Seung W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the development and psychometric properties of the Spinal Cord Injury - Quality of Life (SCI-QOL) Resilience item bank and short form. Design Using a mixed-methods design, we developed and tested a resilience item bank through the use of focus groups with individuals with SCI and clinicians with expertise in SCI, cognitive interviews, and item-response theory based analytic approaches, including tests of model fit and differential item functioning (DIF). Setting We tested a 32-item pool at several medical institutions across the United States, including the University of Michigan, Kessler Foundation, the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, the University of Washington, Craig Hospital and the James J. Peters/Bronx Department of Veterans Affairs medical center. Participants A total of 717 individuals with SCI completed the Resilience items. Results A unidimensional model was observed (CFI = 0.968; RMSEA = 0.074) and measurement precision was good (theta range between −3.1 and 0.9). Ten items were flagged for DIF, however, after examination of effect sizes we found this to be negligible with little practical impact on score estimates. The final calibrated item bank resulted in 21 retained items. Conclusion This study indicates that the SCI-QOL Resilience item bank represents a psychometrically robust measurement tool. Short form items are also suggested and computer adaptive tests are available. PMID:26010971

  2. Measuring self-esteem after spinal cord injury: Development, validation and psychometric characteristics of the SCI-QOL Self-esteem item bank and short form

    PubMed Central

    Kalpakjian, Claire Z.; Tate, Denise G.; Kisala, Pamela A.; Tulsky, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the development and psychometric properties of the Spinal Cord Injury-Quality of Life (SCI-QOL) Self-esteem item bank. Design Using a mixed-methods design, we developed and tested a self-esteem item bank through the use of focus groups with individuals with SCI and clinicians with expertise in SCI, cognitive interviews, and item-response theory- (IRT) based analytic approaches, including tests of model fit, differential item functioning (DIF) and precision. Setting We tested a pool of 30 items at several medical institutions across the United States, including the University of Michigan, Kessler Foundation, the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, the University of Washington, Craig Hospital, and the James J. Peters/Bronx Department of Veterans Affairs hospital. Participants A total of 717 individuals with SCI completed the self-esteem items. Results A unidimensional model was observed (CFI = 0.946; RMSEA = 0.087) and measurement precision was good (theta range between −2.7 and 0.7). Eleven items were flagged for DIF; however, effect sizes were negligible with little practical impact on score estimates. The final calibrated item bank resulted in 23 retained items. Conclusion This study indicates that the SCI-QOL Self-esteem item bank represents a psychometrically robust measurement tool. Short form items are also suggested and computer adaptive tests are available. PMID:26010972

  3. Therapeutic effects of anti-spastic medication on neuromuscular abnormalities in SCI: a system identification approach.

    PubMed

    Mirbagheri, M M; Kindig, M; Niu, X; Varoqui, D

    2013-01-01

    Previous attempts to investigate the effects of antispastic medications are limited to clinical studies using that use clinical evaluations to assess. Since these measures are neither objective nor quantitative, the therapeutic effects of such medications on neuromuscular properties have not been fully evaluated. In this study, as a first attempt, we examined the effect of tizanidine, an anti-spastic medication, on modification of the neuromuscular properties of patients with chronic incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI). Each patient was administered 2 mg of tizanidine four times per day for four weeks. The spastic ankle of each patient was evaluated at baseline (prior to any medication, and then 1, 2, and 4 weeks after the start of medication. The ankle was perturbed with a small-amplitude Pseudo-Random Binary Sequence (PRBS) perturbation at various positions over the ankle range-of-motion. A parallel-cascade system identification technique, which provides an objective and quantitative measure of neuromuscular properties, was used to calculate the intrinsic and reflex stiffness. The stiffness vs. joint angle trends were then calculated for each evaluation; these curves were compared across the intervention time to determine the recovery pattern (i.e. change over time) due to the tizanidine intervention. All patients exhibited decreases in reflex stiffness (which abnormally increase after SCI) due to the medication; however, patients were observed to exhibit multiple recovery patterns. For some patients, the reflex stiffness continuously reduced over the four-week intervention period, while for other patients, the decrease during the first week (i.e. between the baseline and 1-Week evaluations) was most pronounced. Also, some patients presented a significant decrease with time, while others presented no improvement in the intrinsic stiffness. These findings suggest that tizanidine may be effective in reducing not only reflex stiffness, but also the subject

  4. NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. XXVII - Knowledge diffusion and U.S. government technology policy: Issues and opportunities for sci/tech librarians

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Hannah, Stan; Lawrence, Barbara; Kennedy, John M.

    1992-01-01

    Federal involvement in stimulating economic growth through the development and application of technology policy is currently the subject of serious debate. A recession and the recognition that an internationally competitive economy is a prerequisite for the attainment of national goals have fostered a number of technology policy initiatives aimed at improving the economic competitiveness of American industry. This paper suggests that the successful implementation of U.S. technology policy will require the adoption of a knowledge diffusion model, the development of user oriented information products and services, and a more 'activist' approach on the part of sci/tech librarians in the provision of scientific and technical information (STI). These changes will have a dramatic impact on the sci/tech library of the future and the preparation of sci/tech librarians.

  5. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 27: Knowledge diffusion and US government technology policy: Issues and opportunities for sci/tech librarians

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Hannah, Stan; Lawrence, Barbara; Kennedy, John M.

    1992-01-01

    Federal involvement in simulating economic growth through the development and application of technology policy is currently the subject of serious debate. A recession and the recognition that an internationally competitive economy is a prerequisite for the attainment of national goals have fostered a number of technology policy initiatives aimed at improving the economic competitiveness of American industry. This paper suggests that the successful implementation of U.S. technology policy will require the adoption of a knowledge diffusion model, the development of user oriented information products and services, and a more 'activist' approach on the part of sci/tech librarians in the provision of scientific and technical information (STI). These changes will have a dramatic impact on the sci/tech library of the future and the preparation of sci/tech librarians.

  6. Assessment of Attention to Clothing and Impact of Its Restrictive Factors in Iranian Patients with Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury (ACIRF-SCI): Introduction of a New Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Laleh, Leila; Koushki, Davood; Matin, Marzieh; Javidan, Abbas Norouzi; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) deal with various restrictive factors regarding their clothing, such as disability and difficulty with access to shopping centers. Objectives: We designed a questionnaire to assess attention to clothing and impact of its restrictive factors among Iranian patients with SCI (ACIRF-SCI). Methods: The ACIRF-SCI has 5 domains: functional, medical, attitude, aesthetic, and emotional. The first 3 domains reflect the impact of restrictive factors (factors that restrict attention to clothing), and the last 2 domains reflect attention to clothing and fashion. Functional restrictive factors include disability and dependence. Medical restrictive factors include existence of specific medical conditions that interfere with clothing choice. Construct validity was assessed by factorial analysis, and reliability was expressed by Cronbach’s alpha. Results: A total of 100 patients (75 men and 25 women) entered this study. Patients with a lower injury level had a higher total score (P < .0001), and similarly, patients with paraplegia had higher scores than those with tetraplegia (P < .0001), which illustrates an admissible discriminant validity. Postinjury duration was positively associated with total scores (r = 0.21, P = .04). Construct validity was 0.97, and Cronbach’s alpha was 0.61. Conclusion: Iranian patients with SCI who have greater ability and independence experience a lower impact of restrictive factors related to clothing. The ACIRF-SCI reveals that this assumption is statistically significant, which shows its admissible discriminant validity. The measured construct validity (0.97) and reliability (internal consistency expressed by alpha = 0.61) are acceptable. PMID:26363593

  7. Measurement of neutrino induced charged current neutral pion production cross section at SciBooNE

    SciTech Connect

    Catala-Perez, Juan

    2014-01-01

    SciBooNE is a neutrino scattering experiment located in the Booster Neutrino Beam at Fermilab. It collected data from June 2007 to August 2008 to accurately measure muon neutrino and anti-neutrino cross sections on carbon around 1 GeV neutrino energy. In this thesis we present the results on the measurement of the muon neutrino cross section resulting in a μ- plus a single π0 final state (CC- π0 channel). The present work will show the steps taken to achieve this result: from the reconstruction improvements to the background extraction. The flux-averaged CC - π0 production cross section measurement obtained in this thesis < σCC- π0 > Φ = (5.6 ± 1.9fit ± 0.7beam ± 0.5int - 0.7det) × 10-40 cm2/N at an average energy of 0.89 GeV is found to agree well both with the expectation from the Monte Ca

  8. GroundWater Markup Language (GWML): Extending GeoSciML for Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisvert, E.; Brodaric, B.

    2007-12-01

    The emerging growth of OGC web services in the groundwater domain is likely to follow trends in other disciplines and result in a rich supply of groundwater data in heterogeneous and complex GML formats (Geography Markup Language), even within a single organization. The Geological Survey of Canada (GSC) has developed the Groundwater Markup Language (GWML) to overcome barriers to the use of the data in such environments. GWML is a common format for exchanging groundwater data. It extends two advanced GML standards, GeoSciML and Observations & Measurements, by adding entities such as hydrogeologic units (e.g. aquifers), properties (e.g. storativity), water wells, and water budget entities. Due to this firm grounding in OGC standards, GWML can be used with several OGC services such as WFS, WMS, WCS, and SOS, to enable exchange of a wide spectrum of groundwater data. The design, development and intended use of GWML will be discussed, including its relation to the other GML standards and its role as an integral part of GSC's emerging groundwater information system.

  9. Assessing ComSciCon 2013: A science communication workshop for STEM graduate students (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, S.; Ranjan, S.; Sanders, N.; Morey, S.

    2013-12-01

    We report on the efficacy of Communicating Science 2013, a science communication workshop for graduate students. Effective science communication is imperative for the sharing of scientific ideas, continued funding and support from policy makers, and education of the public. Science graduate students are a prime group to target for communication training, as they will be our future scientists, educators, and EPO professionals. To this end, Communicating Science 2013 (ComSciCon), a workshop organized by and for STEM graduate students, was held in June of this year. This workshop taught graduate students from around the nation to effectively communicate science to both their peers and the public. To learn about grad students' attitudes toward science communication and establish the workshop's efficacy, we surveyed the participants both before and after the workshop. This assessment probed topics such as communication preparation the participants have already received, how science communication is perceived in their home department, and what participants gained from the workshop. We report the results here.

  10. SciDBMaker: new software for computer-aided design of specialized biological databases

    PubMed Central

    Hammami, Riadh; Zouhir, Abdelmajid; Naghmouchi, Karim; Ben Hamida, Jeannette; Fliss, Ismail

    2008-01-01

    Background The exponential growth of research in molecular biology has brought concomitant proliferation of databases for stocking its findings. A variety of protein sequence databases exist. While all of these strive for completeness, the range of user interests is often beyond their scope. Large databases covering a broad range of domains tend to offer less detailed information than smaller, more specialized resources, often creating a need to combine data from many sources in order to obtain a complete picture. Scientific researchers are continually developing new specific databases to enhance their understanding of biological processes. Description In this article, we present the implementation of a new tool for protein data analysis. With its easy-to-use user interface, this software provides the opportunity to build more specialized protein databases from a universal protein sequence database such as Swiss-Prot. A family of proteins known as bacteriocins is analyzed as 'proof of concept'. Conclusion SciDBMaker is stand-alone software that allows the extraction of protein data from the Swiss-Prot database, sequence analysis comprising physicochemical profile calculations, homologous sequences search, multiple sequence alignments and the building of new and more specialized databases. It compiles information with relative ease, updates and compares various data relevant to a given protein family and could solve the problem of dispersed biological search results. PMID:18298861

  11. What Is Required In Uganda? The 2007 Report Of The Japan Sci-edu. Support Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, Tatsuhiro

    2010-07-01

    The development of ability for technology and invention is required as self-sustaining growth of science and technology in Asian and African developing countries. Science education that connects to the real world is the required education for the self-sustaining growth. But in fact, it is very common to study for the entrance examination. According to C. Camilla, S. and Sjo/berg, [The Re-emergence of Values in the Science Curriculum. Rotterdam, 2007, Sense Publishers], Ugandan students are the most interested ones in science and technology (I would like to be a scientist, I would like to get a job in technology) in the world. Science education should mortgages future of youth. Especially science education of developing countries should be directly connected to the real world. Because they need a lot of engineers as skilled worker, we implemented physics education that was directly connected with manufacturing by the sci-edu. support project in Uganda. The best results were achieved by contrivance in spite of poverty area. Our education method gave one form of New Science Education in Asia and Africa.

  12. Standardizing geologic data interchange: GeoSciML from the IUGS/CGI datamodel collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, S. J.; Boisvert, E.; Brodaric, B.; Duffy, T. R.; Johnson, B. R.; Laxton, J. L.; Richard, S. H.; Simons, B.

    2005-12-01

    GeoSciML is a harmonised information model and XML encoding for the exchange of geologic data. It is unique in its breadth of inputs and content, drawing from precursory national geoscience data model efforts in North America, Europe, Australia and Japan. The common suite of feature types is based on geological criteria (units, structures) artefacts of geological investigations (specimens, sections, boreholes, observations), along with supporting elements required as classifiers for the primary objects (material description, timescale, lexicons, etc). The data model design accommodates the short-term goal of representing information associated with geologic maps and boreholes, as well as being extensible in the long-term to other feature types. The initial version does not include portrayal and cartographic elements associated with a map itself. The model uses patterns designed for implementation as a GML Application Schema, which ensures compatibility with standard web-service interfaces from the Open Geospatial Consortium. The meta-model is based on features and properties, and leads to a rich information-oriented transfer encoding. The availability of standard patterns for mapping from UML provides a convenient bridge to existing conceptual models available from several sources. The project is being undertaken under the auspices of the IUGS Commission for Geoscience Information. As the development team is geographically scattered, a web-based collaborative environment has been essential to progress. The results are intended for widespread use, so project documentation, including the current state of the model and schema, is openly accessible.

  13. A fiber optic probe for measurement of an autonomic dysreflexia event on SCI patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramella-Roman, J. C.; Hidler, J. M.

    2008-02-01

    Autonomic Dysreflexia (AD) is an inappropriate response of the sympathetic nervous system that often occurs in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI ) at or above the sixth thoracic vertebrae (T6) level when a noxius stimulus is applied below the level of injury. An AD event can be put into motion by something as simple as an ingrown toenail or a full bladder, with symptoms such as headache, elevated blood pressure, reduced heart rate, decreases in blood flow below the level of injury, and in extreme cases, stroke. We have developed a quantitative method of measuring skin oxygen levels during AD using a fiber optics based probe. Two such probes were located above and below the injury level (on the patient forearm and thigh respectively) and were connected to a dual channel spectrophotometer. Oxygen saturation was calculated using the reflectance spectra and an algorithm based on melanin and hemoglobin absorption. We found that during an AD event, the amount of oxygen in the skin below the injury level drops by as much as 40%, while above the injury level skin oxygenation remains constant. Additionally, we observed elevated persperation levels below the injury level. We hypothesize that the combination of AD-related ischemia with pressure related ischemia and increased perspiration places individuals with injury level at T6 or above at significant risk for developing a pressure sore below the injury site.

  14. Lambda Station: Alternate network path forwarding for production SciDAC applications

    SciTech Connect

    Grigoriev, Maxim; Bobyshev, Andrey; Crawford, Matt; DeMar, Phil; Grigaliunas, Vyto; Moibenko, Alexander; Petravick, Don; Newman, Harvey; Steenberg, Conrad; Thomas, Michael; /Caltech

    2007-09-01

    The LHC era will start very soon, creating immense data volumes capable of demanding allocation of an entire network circuit for task-driven applications. Circuit-based alternate network paths are one solution to meeting the LHC high bandwidth network requirements. The Lambda Station project is aimed at addressing growing requirements for dynamic allocation of alternate network paths. Lambda Station facilitates the rerouting of designated traffic through site LAN infrastructure onto so-called 'high-impact' wide-area networks. The prototype Lambda Station developed with Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) approach in mind will be presented. Lambda Station has been successfully integrated into the production version of the Storage Resource Manager (SRM), and deployed at US CMS Tier1 center at Fermilab, as well as at US-CMS Tier-2 site at Caltech. This paper will discuss experiences using the prototype system with production SciDAC applications for data movement between Fermilab and Caltech. The architecture and design principles of the production version Lambda Station software, currently being implemented as Java based web services, will also be presented in this paper.

  15. Final Technical Report - SciDAC Cooperative Agreement: Center for Wave Interactions with Magnetohydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Schnack, Dalton D.

    2012-07-01

    Final technical report for research performed by Dr. Thomas G. Jenkins in collaboration with Professor Dalton D. Schnack on SciDAC Cooperative Agreement: Center for Wave Interactions with Magnetohydrodyanics, DE-FC02-06ER54899, for the period of 8/15/06 - 8/14/11. This report centers on the Slow MHD physics campaign work performed by Dr. Jenkins while at UW-Madison and then at Tech-X Corporation. To make progress on the problem of RF induced currents affect magnetic island evolution in toroidal plasmas, a set of research approaches are outlined. Three approaches can be addressed in parallel. These are: (1) Analytically prescribed additional term in Ohm's law to model the effect of localized ECCD current drive; (2) Introduce an additional evolution equation for the Ohm's law source term. Establish a RF source 'box' where information from the RF code couples to the fluid evolution; and (3) Carry out a more rigorous analytic calculation treating the additional RF terms in a closure problem. These approaches rely on the necessity of reinvigorating the computation modeling efforts of resistive and neoclassical tearing modes with present day versions of the numerical tools. For the RF community, the relevant action item is - RF ray tracing codes need to be modified so that general three-dimensional spatial information can be obtained. Further, interface efforts between the two codes require work as well as an assessment as to the numerical stability properties of the procedures to be used.

  16. GENESIS SciFlo: Scientific Knowledge Creation on the Grid Using a Semantically-Enabled Dataflow Execution Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, B. D.; Manipon, G.; Tang, B.; Mazzoni, D.; Fetzer, E.; Dobinson, E.; Yunck, T.

    2005-12-01

    The General Earth Science Investigation Suite (GENESIS) project is a NASA-sponsored partnership between the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, academia, and NASA data centers to develop a new suite of Web Services tools to facilitate multi-sensor investigations in Earth System Science. The goal of GENESIS is to enable large-scale, multi-instrument atmospheric science using combined datasets from the AIRS, MODIS, MISR, and GPS sensors. Investigations include cross-comparison of spaceborne climate sensors, cloud spectral analysis, study of upper troposphere-stratosphere water transport, study of the aerosol indirect cloud effect, and global climate model validation. The challenges are to bring together very large datasets, reformat and understand the individual instrument retrievals, co-register or re-grid the retrieved physical parameters, perform computationally-intensive data fusion and data mining operations, and accumulate complex statistics over months to years of data. To meet these challenges, we have developed a Grid computing and dataflow framework, named SciFlo, in which we are deploying a set of versatile and reusable operators for data access, subsetting, registration, mining, fusion, compression, and advanced statistical analysis. SciFlo is a system for Scientific Knowledge Creation on the Grid using a Semantically-Enabled Dataflow Execution Environment. SciFlo leverages Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) Web Services and the Grid Computing standards (WS-* & Globus Alliance toolkits), and enables scientists to do multi-instrument Earth Science by assembling reusable Web Services and native executables into a distributed computing flow (tree of operators). The SciFlo client & server engines optimize the execution of such distributed data flows and allow the user to transparently find and use datasets and operators without worrying about the actual location of the Grid resources. The scientist injects a distributed computation into the Grid by simply filling

  17. GENESIS SciFlo: Choreographing Interoperable Web Services on the Grid using a Semantically-Enabled Dataflow Execution Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, B. D.; Manipon, G.; Xing, Z.

    2007-12-01

    The General Earth Science Investigation Suite (GENESIS) project is a NASA-sponsored partnership between the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, academia, and NASA data centers to develop a new suite of Web Services tools to facilitate multi-sensor investigations in Earth System Science. The goal of GENESIS is to enable large-scale, multi-instrument atmospheric science using combined datasets from the AIRS, MODIS, MISR, and GPS sensors. Investigations include cross-comparison of spaceborne climate sensors, cloud spectral analysis, study of upper troposphere-stratosphere water transport, study of the aerosol indirect cloud effect, and global climate model validation. The challenges are to bring together very large datasets, reformat and understand the individual instrument retrievals, co-register or re-grid the retrieved physical parameters, perform computationally-intensive data fusion and data mining operations, and accumulate complex statistics over months to years of data. To meet these challenges, we have developed a Grid computing and dataflow framework, named SciFlo, in which we are deploying a set of versatile and reusable operators for data access, subsetting, registration, mining, fusion, compression, and advanced statistical analysis. SciFlo leverages remote Web Services, called via Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) or REST (one-line) URLs, and the Grid Computing standards (WS-* & Globus Alliance toolkits), and enables scientists to do multi- instrument Earth Science by assembling reusable Web Services and native executables into a distributed computing flow (tree of operators). The SciFlo client & server engines optimize the execution of such distributed data flows and allow the user to transparently find and use datasets and operators without worrying about the actual location of the Grid resources. In particular, SciFlo exploits the wealth of datasets accessible by OpenGIS Consortium (OGC) Web Mapping Servers & Web Coverage Servers (WMS/WCS), and by Open Data

  18. DOE's SciDAC Visualization and Analytics Center for EnablingTechnologies -- Strategy for Petascale Visual Data Analysis Success

    SciTech Connect

    Bethel, E Wes; Johnson, Chris; Aragon, Cecilia; Rubel, Oliver; Weber, Gunther; Pascucci, Valerio; Childs, Hank; Bremer, Peer-Timo; Whitlock, Brad; Ahern, Sean; Meredith, Jeremey; Ostrouchov, George; Joy, Ken; Hamann, Bernd; Garth, Christoph; Cole, Martin; Hansen, Charles; Parker, Steven; Sanderson, Allen; Silva, Claudio; Tricoche, Xavier

    2007-10-01

    The focus of this article is on how one group of researchersthe DOE SciDAC Visualization and Analytics Center for EnablingTechnologies (VACET) is tackling the daunting task of enabling knowledgediscovery through visualization and analytics on some of the world slargest and most complex datasets and on some of the world's largestcomputational platforms. As a Center for Enabling Technology, VACET smission is the creation of usable, production-quality visualization andknowledge discovery software infrastructure that runs on large, parallelcomputer systems at DOE's Open Computing facilities and that providessolutions to challenging visual data exploration and knowledge discoveryneeds of modern science, particularly the DOE sciencecommunity.

  19. Towards flash flood disaster prevention: the SciNetNat Haz proposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantinos, Papatheodorou; Elena, Tzanou; Carmen, Maftei; Ozgur, Kirca; Hafzullah, Aksoy

    2015-04-01

    Floods occur with a continuously increasing frequency due to climatic changes and cause serious damage in the wider Black Sea area, endangering human life and property. As societies continuously expand, these phenomena are expected to play an increasingly important role, blocking sustainable development unless properly tackled. Flash flood prevention seems at this point, to be the target of effectively mitigating the potential threat. Since in many cases, there is a cross-border character of the problem, collaborative efforts have to be made involving cooperation between countries. To this end, a variety of problems exist, including the "information gap" related to the unavailability of data and the multitude of methodologies used to assess flood hazard; a fact that renders comparison of hazard assessment results and cross border cooperation ineffective. An effort made within the context of the SciNetNatHaz project, suggests a two step approach to produce reliable the results which can lead to decision making regarding designing preventive measures. The first step aims at defining the flood prone areas on a regional scale, using geomorphometric models and readily available topographic data; thus overcoming the problem of data availability for any region of interest. The second step follows a vulnerability and risk assessment of the flood prone areas of interest and focuses on the calculation of flood parameters on a local scale using hydraulic models. Implementation of the full process is based on Open Source software tools so that it can be implemented with minimal costs by anyone interested. Implementation of the proposed procedure in three different cases in Greece and in Romania shows that it can provide accurate and reliable results to support decision making regarding the design of preventive measures. Keywords: Flash floods, hazard assessment, flood disaster prevention, HEC-RAS, SAGA GIS . Acknowledgements: This work is partially funded by the EU through the

  20. The Case of the Physical Fitness Challenge: An Educator Guide with Activities in Mathematics, Science, and Technology. The NASA SCI Files. EG-2005-10-09-LARC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricles, Shannon; Jaramillo, Becky; Fargo, Michelle

    2005-01-01

    In this companion to the "NASA SCI Files[TM]" episode "The Case of the Physical Fitness Challenge," the tree house detectives learn about anatomy, fitness and nutrition in preparation for the President's Challenge. The guide is divided into four segments aimed at grades 3-5, each of which includes an overview, a set of objectives, vocabulary to be…

  1. Comments on "Fuzzy fractional order sliding mode controller for nonlinear systems" [Commun Nonlinear Sci Numer Simulat 15 (2010) 963-978

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghababa, Mohammad Pourmahmood

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this note is to point out some comments to the article [Delavari H, Ghaderi R, Ranjbar A, Momani S. Fuzzy fractional order sliding mode controller for nonlinear systems, Commun Nonlinear Sci Numer Simulat 15 (2010) 963-978].

  2. Comment to: A. Baraldi et al., Surf. Sci. 367 (1997) L67. Temperature programmed X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy: a new technique for the study of surface kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nettesheim, S.; Handschuh, M.; Zenobi, R.

    1998-04-01

    It is possible to record time-resolved XPS spectra with standard equipment, provided a modern computer-interfaced energy analyzer is used. A high emissivity beamline, as stipulated by Baraldi et al. [Surf. Sci. 367 (1997) L67] is not always necessary. This is demonstrated by a study on thermal desorption of thin poly-(ethylene glycol) films on silica.

  3. Comment to: A. Baraldi et al., Surf. Sci. 367 (1996) L67. Temperature programmed X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy: a new technique for the study of surface kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nettesheim, S.; Handschuh, M.; Zenobi, R.

    1997-11-01

    It is possible to record time-resolved XPS spectra with standard equipment, provided a modern computer-interfaced energy analyzer is used. A high emissivity beamline, as stipulated by Baraldi et al. [Surf. Sci. 367 (1997) L67] is not always necessary. This is demonstrated by a study on thermal desorption of thin poly-(ethylene glycol) films on silica.

  4. The NASA SCI Files[TM]: The Case of the Shaky Quake. A Lesson Guide with Activities in Mathematics, Science, and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricles, Shannon

    The NASA SCI Files is a series of instructional programs consisting of broadcast, print, and online elements emphasizing standards-based instruction, problem-based learning, and science as inquiry. The series seeks to motivate students in grades 3-5 to become critical thinkers and active problem solvers. In this program, the tree house detectives…

  5. Measurement of K+ production cross section by 8 GeV protons using high energy neutrino interactions in the SciBooNE detector

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, G.

    2011-07-28

    The SciBooNE Collaboration reports K+ production cross section and rate measurements using high energy daughter muon neutrino scattering data off the SciBar polystyrene (C8H8) target in the SciBooNE detector. The K+ mesons are produced by 8 GeV protons striking a beryllium target in Fermilab Booster Neutrino Beam line (BNB). Using observed neutrino and antineutrino events in SciBooNE, we measure d2σ/dpdΩ = (5.34 ±0.76) mb/(GeV/c x sr) for p + Be =K+ + X at mean K+ energy of 3.9 GeV and angle (with respect to the proton beam direction) of 3.7 degrees, corresponding to the selected K+ sample. Compared to Monte Carlo predictions using previous higher energy K+ production measurements, this measurement, which uses the NUANCE neutrino interaction generator, is consistent with a normalization factor of 0.85 ± 0.12. This agreement is evidence that the extrapolation of the higher energy K+ measurements to an 8 GeV beam energy using Feynman scaling is valid. This measurement reduces the error on the K+ production cross section from 40% to 14%.

  6. The NASA SCI Files[TM]: The Case of the Powerful Pulleys. A Lesson Guide with Activities in Mathematics, Science, and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricles, Shannon

    This teacher's guide, with accompanying videotape, presents an episode of the NASA SCI Files. In this episode, one of the tree house detectives has had an accident and cannot get into the tree house. Using problem-based learning, the rest of the gang investigates the world of simple machines and physical science and "pull" together to get everyone…

  7. Erratum: “Multi-point, high-speed passive ion velocity distribution diagnostic on the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment” [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 10D516 (2012)

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Burke, Marcus G.; Fonck, Raymond J.; Bongard, Michael W.; Schlossberg, David J.; Winz, Gregory R.

    2016-07-18

    This article corrects an error in M.G. Burke et al., 'Multi-point, high-speed passive ion velocity distribution diagnostic on the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment,' Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 10D516 (2012) pertaining to ion temperature. The conclusions of this paper are not altered by the revised ion temperature measurements.

  8. The Case of the Great Space Exploration: An Educator Guide with Activities in Mathematics, Science, and Technology. The NASA SCI Files. EG-2004-09-12-LARC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricles, Shannon; Jaramillo, Becky; Fargo, Michelle

    2004-01-01

    In this companion to the "NASA SCI Files" episode "The Case of the Great Space Exploration," the tree house detectives learn about NASA's new vision for exploring space. In four segments aimed at grades 3-5, students learn about a variety of aspects of space exploration. Each segment of the guide includes an overview, a set of objectives,…

  9. Measurement of K+ production cross section by 8 GeV protons using high energy neutrino interactions in the SciBooNE detector

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Cheng, G.

    2011-07-28

    The SciBooNE Collaboration reports K+ production cross section and rate measurements using high energy daughter muon neutrino scattering data off the SciBar polystyrene (C8H8) target in the SciBooNE detector. The K+ mesons are produced by 8 GeV protons striking a beryllium target in Fermilab Booster Neutrino Beam line (BNB). Using observed neutrino and antineutrino events in SciBooNE, we measure d2σ/dpdΩ = (5.34 ±0.76) mb/(GeV/c x sr) for p + Be =K+ + X at mean K+ energy of 3.9 GeV and angle (with respect to the proton beam direction) of 3.7 degrees, corresponding to the selected K+ sample. Compared tomore » Monte Carlo predictions using previous higher energy K+ production measurements, this measurement, which uses the NUANCE neutrino interaction generator, is consistent with a normalization factor of 0.85 ± 0.12. This agreement is evidence that the extrapolation of the higher energy K+ measurements to an 8 GeV beam energy using Feynman scaling is valid. This measurement reduces the error on the K+ production cross section from 40% to 14%.« less

  10. Measurement of Neutrino-Nucleon Neutral-Current Elastic Scattering Cross-section at SciBooNE

    SciTech Connect

    Takei, Hideyuki; /Tokyo Inst. Tech.

    2009-02-01

    In this thesis, results of neutrino-nucleon neutral current (NC) elastic scattering analysis are presented. Neutrinos interact with other particles only with weak force. Measurement of cross-section for neutrino-nucleon reactions at various neutrino energy are important for the study of nucleon structure. It also provides data to be used for beam flux monitor in neutrino oscillation experiments. The cross-section for neutrino-nucleon NC elastic scattering contains the axial vector form factor G{sub A}(Q{sup 2}) as well as electromagnetic form factors unlike electromagnetic interaction. G{sub A} is propotional to strange part of nucleon spin ({Delta}s) in Q{sup 2} {yields} 0 limit. Measurement of NC elastic cross-section with smaller Q{sup 2} enables us to access {Delta}s. NC elastic cross-sections of neutrino-nucleon and antineutrino-nucleon were measured earlier by E734 experiment at Brookheaven National Laboratory (BNL) in 1987. In this experiment, cross-sections were measured in Q{sup 2} > 0.4 GeV{sup 2} region. Result from this experiment was the only published data for NC elastic scattering cross-section published before our experiment. SciBooNE is an experiment for the measurement of neutrino-nucleon scattering cross-secitons using Booster Neutrino Beam (BNB) at FNAL. BNB has energy peak at 0.7 GeV. In this energy region, NC elastic scattering, charged current elastic scattering, charged current pion production, and neutral current pion production are the major reaction branches. SciBar, electromagnetic calorimeter, and Muon Range Detector are the detectors for SciBooNE. The SciBar consists of finely segmented scintillators and 14336 channels of PMTs. It has a capability to reconstruct particle track longer than 8 cm and separate proton from muons and pions using energy deposit information. Signal of NC elastic scattering is a single proton track. In {nu}p {yields} {nu}p process, the recoil proton is detected. On the other hand, most of {nu}n {yields} {nu

  11. Toward Sci-φ: a lightweight Cloud PaaS for developing embarrassingly parallel applications based on Jini.

    PubMed

    Dazzi, Patrizio

    2014-01-01

    Embarrassingly parallel problems are characterised by a very small amount of information to be exchanged among the parts they are split in, during their parallel execution. As a consequence they do not require sophisticated, low-latency, high-bandwidth interconnection networks but can be efficiently computed in parallel by exploiting commodity hardware. Basically, this means cheap clusters, networks of workstations and desktops, and Computational Clouds. This computational model can be exploited to compute a quite large range of problems. This paper describes Sci-φ, an almost complete redesign of a previous tool of ours aimed at developing task parallel applications based on Java and Jini that were shown to be an effective and efficient solution in environments like clusters and networks of workstations and desktops. PMID:24701174

  12. Toward Sci-φ: A Lightweight Cloud PaaS for Developing Embarrassingly Parallel Applications Based on Jini

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Embarrassingly parallel problems are characterised by a very small amount of information to be exchanged among the parts they are split in, during their parallel execution. As a consequence they do not require sophisticated, low-latency, high-bandwidth interconnection networks but can be efficiently computed in parallel by exploiting commodity hardware. Basically, this means cheap clusters, networks of workstations and desktops, and Computational Clouds. This computational model can be exploited to compute a quite large range of problems. This paper describes Sci-φ, an almost complete redesign of a previous tool of ours aimed at developing task parallel applications based on Java and Jini that were shown to be an effective and efficient solution in environments like clusters and networks of workstations and desktops. PMID:24701174

  13. Influence of different rehabilitation therapy models on patient outcomes: Hand function therapy in individuals with incomplete SCI

    PubMed Central

    Kapadia, Naaz M.; Bagher, Shaghayegh; Popovic, Milos R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The primary objective was to compare the benefits of single (COT1) versus double (COT2) dose of conventional occupational therapy (COT) in improving voluntary hand function in individuals with incomplete, sub-acute C3–C7 spinal cord injury (SCI). The secondary objective was to compare these two interventions versus functional electrical stimulation therapy plus COT (FES + COT). Design Retrospective analysis. Setting Inpatient spinal cord rehabilitation center, Toronto. Participants Individuals with traumatic incomplete sub-acute SCI. Interventions Data from Phases I and II (ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT00221117) randomized control trials were pooled together for the purpose of this study. Participants in the COT1 group received 45 hours of therapy, the COT2 group received 80 hours of therapy, and the FES + COT group received 40 hours of COT therapy +40 hours of FES therapy. Outcome measures We analyzed the functional independence measure (FIM) and the spinal cord independence measure (SCIM) self-care sub-scores. Results The mean change scores on the FIM self-care sub-score for the COT1, COT2, and FES + COT groups were 12.8, 10, and 20.1 points, respectively. Similarly, the mean change scores on the SCIM self-care sub-score for the COT1, COT2, and FES + COT groups were, 2.6, 3.16, and 10.2 points, respectively. Conclusion Increased rehabilitation intensity alone may not always be beneficial. The type of intervention plays a significant role in determining functional changes. In this instance, receiving one (COT1) or two (COT2) doses of COT resulted in similar outcomes, however, FES + COT therapy yielded much better outcomes compared to COT1 and COT2 interventions. PMID:24968955

  14. Results of a Telephone Survey of Television Station Managers Concerning the NASA SCI Files(TM) and NASA CONNECT(TM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Perry, Jeannine

    2004-01-01

    A telephone survey of television station managers concerning 2 instructional television programs, the NASA SCI Files(TM) and NASA CONNECT(TM), offered by the NASA Langley Center for Distance Learning (CDL) was conducted. Using a 4-point scale, with 4 being very satisfied, survey participants reported that they were either very satisfied (77.1 percent) or satisfied (19.9 percent) with the overall (educational and technical) quality of the NASA SCI Files(TM). Using a 4-point scale, with 4 being very satisfied, survey participants reported that they were either very satisfied (77.9 percent) or satisfied (19.1 percent) with the overall (educational and technical) quality of NASA CONNECT(TM) .

  15. SciDAC's Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies Semi-Annual Progress Report for the Period October 1, 2009 through March 31, 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Dean N.; Foster, I. T.; Middleton, D. E.; Ananthakrishnan, R.; Siebenlist, F.; Shoshani, A.; Sim, A.; Bell, G.; Drach, R.; Ahrens, J.; Jones, P.; Brown, D.; Chastang, J.; Cinquini, L.; Fox, P.; Harper, D.; Hook, N.; Nienhouse, E.; Strand, G.; West, P.; Wilcox, H.; Wilhelmi, N.; Zednik, S.; Hankin, S.; Schweitzer, R.; Bernholdt, D.; Chen, M.; Miller, R.; Shipman, G.; Wang, F.; Bharathi, S.; Chervenak, A.; Schuler, R.; Su, M.

    2010-04-21

    This report summarizes work carried out by the ESG-CET during the period October 1, 2009 through March 31, 2009. It includes discussion of highlights, overall progress, period goals, collaborations, papers, and presentations. To learn more about our project, and to find previous reports, please visit the Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies (ESG-CET) website. This report will be forwarded to the DOE SciDAC program management, the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (OBER) program management, national and international collaborators and stakeholders (e.g., the Community Climate System Model (CCSM), the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 5th Assessment Report (AR5), the Climate Science Computational End Station (CCES), the SciDAC II: A Scalable and Extensible Earth System Model for Climate Change Science, the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP), and other wide-ranging climate model evaluation activities).

  16. Measuring psychological trauma after spinal cord injury: Development and psychometric characteristics of the SCI-QOL Psychological Trauma item bank and short form

    PubMed Central

    Kisala, Pamela A.; Victorson, David; Pace, Natalie; Heinemann, Allen W.; Choi, Seung W.; Tulsky, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the development and psychometric properties of the SCI-QOL Psychological Trauma item bank and short form. Design Using a mixed-methods design, we developed and tested a Psychological Trauma item bank with patient and provider focus groups, cognitive interviews, and item response theory based analytic approaches, including tests of model fit, differential item functioning (DIF) and precision. Setting We tested a 31-item pool at several medical institutions across the United States, including the University of Michigan, Kessler Foundation, Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, the University of Washington, Craig Hospital and the James J. Peters/Bronx Veterans Administration hospital. Participants A total of 716 individuals with SCI completed the trauma items Results The 31 items fit a unidimensional model (CFI=0.952; RMSEA=0.061) and demonstrated good precision (theta range between 0.6 and 2.5). Nine items demonstrated negligible DIF with little impact on score estimates. The final calibrated item bank contains 19 items Conclusion The SCI-QOL Psychological Trauma item bank is a psychometrically robust measurement tool from which a short form and a computer adaptive test (CAT) version are available. PMID:26010967

  17. Measuring grief and loss after spinal cord injury: Development, validation and psychometric characteristics of the SCI-QOL Grief and Loss item bank and short form

    PubMed Central

    Kalpakjian, Claire Z.; Tulsky, David S.; Kisala, Pamela A.; Bombardier, Charles H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop an item response theory (IRT) calibrated Grief and Loss item bank as part of the Spinal Cord Injury – Quality of Life (SCI-QOL) measurement system. Design A literature review guided framework development of grief/loss. New items were created from focus groups. Items were revised based on expert review and patient feedback and were then field tested. Analyses included confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), graded response IRT modeling and evaluation of differential item functioning (DIF). Setting We tested a 20-item pool at several rehabilitation centers across the United States, including the University of Michigan, Kessler Foundation, Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, the University of Washington, Craig Hospital and the James J. Peters/Bronx Department of Veterans Affairs hospital. Participants A total of 717 individuals with SCI answered the grief and loss questions. Results The final calibrated item bank resulted in 17 retained items. A unidimensional model was observed (CFI = 0.976; RMSEA = 0.078) and measurement precision was good (theta range between −1.48 to 2.48). Ten items were flagged for DIF, however, after examination of effect sizes found this to be negligible with little practical impact on score estimates. Conclusions This study indicates that the SCI-QOL Grief and Loss item bank represents a psychometrically robust measurement tool. Short form items are also suggested and computer adaptive tests are available. PMID:26010969

  18. Product and market study for Los Alamos National Laboratory. Building resources for technology commercialization: The SciBus Analytical, Inc. paradigm

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The study project was undertaken to investigate how entrepreneurial small businesses with technology licenses can develop product and market strategies sufficiently persuasive to attract resources and exploit commercialization opportunities. The study attempts to answer two primary questions: (1) What key business development strategies are likely to make technology transfers successful, and (2) How should the plan best be presented in order to attract resources (e.g., personnel, funding, channels of distribution)? In the opinion of the investigator, Calidex Corporation, if the business strategies later prove to be successful, then the plan model has relevance for any technology licensee attempting to accumulate resources and bridge from technology resident in government laboratories to the commercial marketplace. The study utilized SciBus Analytical, Inc. (SciBus), a Los Alamos National Laboratory CRADA participant, as the paradigm small business technology licensee. The investigator concluded that the optimum value of the study lay in the preparation of an actual business development plan for SciBus that might then have, hopefully, broader relevance and merit for other private sector technology transfer licensees working with various Government agencies.

  19. Serving Geochemical Data Using GeoSciML Compliant Web Services: Next Step in Developing a Generic GeoChemical Database Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djapic, B.; Vinayagamoorthy, S.; Lehnert, K. A.

    2006-12-01

    The Geochemical Database Model (GCDM) has been developed under the Geoinformatics for Geochemistry Program (www.geoinfogeochem.org) to provide a generic relational database structure for the broadest range of geochemical data collections. GCDM vastly extends the capabilities of the PetDB data model (Lehnert et al., G3, volume 1, 2000), on which it is based, with respect to applicability, flexibility, and comprehensiveness. For example, GCDM accommodates any type of analytical measurement (`observed value'), including time-series data, in-situ sensor measurements, and derived (model) data such as end-member compositions for seafloor hydrothermal springs or age models; data for any type of sample and material (rock, sediment, porewater, water, etc.); and analytical metadata at the level of individual measurements. It tracks relationships between `parent' samples andany number and levels of subsamples. GCDM can easily respond to the frequently changing requirements for geochemical databases and is modular so various components of the model can be developed independently. Currently, the model is being implemented for SedDB, an information system for marine sediment geochemistry (www.seddb.org), and will be applied to other geochemical databases (PetDB, EarthChem, and VentDB) in the near future. The data model represents a multidimensional cube with the observed value as the basic building block that is described by five basic independent components in the data model, each multidimensional in itself: Data Source, GeoObject (sample), Observed Item, Observation Point, and Method. The data model provides for an easy top-down application of metadata and corrections. Observed values can be grouped logically into `:eoModels' that can be used to generate new data such as the end-member compositions for hydrothermal vents. This way, both actual and derived data can be stored together in a fully integrated model. Almost all attributes found in GCDM are defined in GeoSciML, a

  20. Experiences with Using the SciFlo Grid Workflow System to Construct a Generic Data Subsetting and Reformatting System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, R. J.; Rinsland, P. L.

    2009-12-01

    NASA’s Atmospheric Science Data Center (ASDC) at the NASA Langley Research Center archives and distributes a multitude of different Earth science data sets. Many of these data sets are quite sizable, contain multiple parameters, and have large spatial or temporal extents. Many users are only interested in a subset of the parameters, a small geographic region, or some combination of these. Furthermore, most data sets archived at the ASDC are stored in HDF or HDF-EOS format. Many users prefer to work with data in another format such as netCDF. Consequently, there is a strong demand from ASDC users and data providers for data subsetting and reformatting services. Existing legacy software and systems that currently support this functionality at ASDC are difficult to maintain and modify, not scalable, and unable to adequately meet current demands. In order to meet the growing throughput and functionality requirements for existing missions and also be able to accommodate the unknown requirements of future missions and data sets, a new and flexible system is needed. ASDC selected SciFlo as the foundation for constructing a prototype data subsetting and reformatting system. SciFlo is a semantically-enabled grid workflow management system developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. It was designed to enable scientists to locate and use data sets and services from distributed locations and assemble them into workflows without actually having to be aware of their physical location. The ability to assemble discrete, reusable operators into independent workflows and manage the execution of those workflows will be useful in the implementation of a flexible and scalable data subsetting and reformatting system. In this system there will be two categories of operators. The first category consists of the system level operators, which include functions such as request management, data location and acquisition, execution management, resource management, and distribution of results

  1. DOE SciDAC's Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Dean N.

    2011-09-27

    report at the end of project funding. To continue to serve the climate-science community, we are currently seeking additional funding. Such funding would allow us to maintain and enhance ESGF production and operation of this vital endeavor of cataloging, serving, and analyzing ultra-scale climate science data. At this time, the entire ESG-CET team would like to take this opportunity to sincerely thank our funding agencies in the DOE Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) program and the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (OBER) - as well as our national and international collaborators, stakeholders, and partners - for allowing us to work with you and serve the community these past several years.

  2. Impact of locomotion training with a neurologic controlled hybrid assistive limb (HAL) exoskeleton on neuropathic pain and health related quality of life (HRQoL) in chronic SCI: a case study (.).

    PubMed

    Cruciger, Oliver; Schildhauer, Thomas A; Meindl, Renate C; Tegenthoff, Martin; Schwenkreis, Peter; Citak, Mustafa; Aach, Mirko

    2016-08-01

    Chronic neuropathic pain (CNP) is a common condition associated with spinal cord injury (SCI) and has been reported to be severe, disabling and often treatment-resistant and therefore remains a clinical challenge for the attending physicians. The treatment usually includes pharmacological and/or nonpharmacological approaches. Body weight supported treadmill training (BWSTT) and locomotion training with driven gait orthosis (DGO) have evolved over the last decades and are now considered to be an established part in the rehabilitation of SCI patients. Conventional locomotion training goes along with improvements of the patients' walking abilities in particular speed and gait pattern. The neurologic controlled hybrid assistive limb (HAL®, Cyberdyne Inc., Ibraki, Japan) exoskeleton, however, is a new tailored approach to support motor functions synchronously to the patient's voluntary drive. This report presents two cases of severe chronic and therapy resistant neuropathic pain due to chronic SCI and demonstrates the beneficial effects of neurologic controlled exoskeletal intervention on pain severity and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Both of these patients were engaged in a 12 weeks period of daily HAL®-supported locomotion training. In addition to improvements in motor functions and walking abilities, both show significant reduction in pain severity and improvements in all HRQoL domains. Although various causal factors likely contribute to abatement of CNP, the reported results occurred due to a new approach in the rehabilitation of chronic spinal cord injury patients. These findings suggest not only the feasibility of this new approach but in conclusion, demonstrate the effectiveness of neurologic controlled locomotion training in the long-term management of refractory neuropathic pain. Implications for Rehabilitation CNP remains a challenge in the rehabilitation of chronic SCI patients. Locomotion training with the HAL exoskeleton seems to improve CNP

  3. ReSciPE for Scientific Inquiry: Professional Development for Scientists to Support Their Work With Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, L. K.; Laursen, S.; Schott, C.

    2006-12-01

    Funders and institutions are asking scientists to become more involved in communicating the "broader impacts" of their work with the public. Many scientists also wish to contribute to public science literacy and high-quality science education in schools. The ReSciPE Project--Resources for Scientists in Partnership with Education--is providing professional development workshops and other resources to scientists who are involved in education as volunteers or through professional commitments. As of fall 2006, we have presented 16 workshops on "Scientific Inquiry in the K-12 Classroom" to over 350 scientists and science educators at professional meetings, laboratories, and universities from Massachusetts to Hawaii. We will describe the project goals and our model for helping scientists to become more effective in working with students and teachers. Evaluation results from pre- and post-workshop surveys of over 200 workshop participants demonstrate that we are reaching an audience of working scientists as well as science educators and E/PO specialists, that our audience is diverse in gender, ethnicity, and career stage, and that the workshops are effective in broadening participants' ideas of their potential role in education. However, they also have ongoing needs for both knowledge and support. We argue that working with education or other public audiences is an increasingly important professional skill for scientists and offer this project as one experiment in providing appropriate professional development for this work.

  4. Astrobites and GeoSciBites: Using Online Research Digests for Outreach to Undergraduates and the Broader Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjan, S.; Kohler, S.; Sanders, N.; Morey, S.

    2013-12-01

    Effective science communication is imperative for the sharing of scientific ideas, continued funding and support from policy makers, and education of the public. As future researchers and educators, it is particularly important to engage graduate students in science communication. Astrobites (http://astrobites.org) is an innovative education initiative developed by graduate students in planetary science, astronomy, and astrophysics. Our goal is to help undergraduates make the transition from the classroom to careers in research by introducing them to the astronomical literature in a pedagogical, approachable, and comprehensible way. Every day we select one new journal article posted to the astrophysics preprint server (arXiv.org/astro-ph) and prepare a brief summary describing methods and results, explain jargon, and provide context. We also write regular blog posts containing career advice, such as tips for applying for fellowships or demystifying the publishing process. The articles are written by 30 graduate students in astrophysics from throughout the US and Europe and are read by 1000 daily readers worldwide, including undergraduates, researchers, and interested non-scientists. We describe lessons learned in starting, sustaining, and expanding science outreach blogs like Astrobites. We survey our readership and present analysis summarizing our reader base and impact. We report on the foundation of other ';bites blogs, focusing on the foundation of GeoSciBites, a geophysical sciences outreach blog. We discuss future opportunities for additional outreach initiatives in new disciplines.

  5. Astrobites and GeoSciBites: Using Online Research Digests for Outreach to Undergraduates and the Broader Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjan, S.; Kohler, S.; Sanders, N.; Morey, S.

    2011-12-01

    Effective science communication is imperative for the sharing of scientific ideas, continued funding and support from policy makers, and education of the public. As future researchers and educators, it is particularly important to engage graduate students in science communication. Astrobites (http://astrobites.org) is an innovative education initiative developed by graduate students in planetary science, astronomy, and astrophysics. Our goal is to help undergraduates make the transition from the classroom to careers in research by introducing them to the astronomical literature in a pedagogical, approachable, and comprehensible way. Every day we select one new journal article posted to the astrophysics preprint server (arXiv.org/astro-ph) and prepare a brief summary describing methods and results, explain jargon, and provide context. We also write regular blog posts containing career advice, such as tips for applying for fellowships or demystifying the publishing process. The articles are written by 30 graduate students in astrophysics from throughout the US and Europe and are read by 1000 daily readers worldwide, including undergraduates, researchers, and interested non-scientists. We describe lessons learned in starting, sustaining, and expanding science outreach blogs like Astrobites. We survey our readership and present analysis summarizing our reader base and impact. We report on the foundation of other ';bites blogs, focusing on the foundation of GeoSciBites, a geophysical sciences outreach blog. We discuss future opportunities for additional outreach initiatives in new disciplines.

  6. Final Report on DOE SciDAC project on Next Generation of Multi-Scale Quantum Simulation Software for Strongly Correlated Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Zhaojun; Scalettar, Richard; Savrasov, Sergey

    2012-07-01

    This report summarizes the accomplishments of the University of California Davis team which is part of a larger SciDAC collaboration including Mark Jarrell of Louisiana State University, Karen Tomko of the Ohio Supercomputer Center, and Eduardo F. D'Azevedo and Thomas A. Maier of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In this report, we focus on the major UCD accomplishments. As the paper authorship list emphasizes, much of our work is the result of a tightly integrated effort; hence this compendium of UCD efforts of necessity contains some overlap with the work at our partner institutions.

  7. Interoperability Using Lightweight Metadata Standards: Service & Data Casting, OpenSearch, OPM Provenance, and Shared SciFlo Workflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, B. D.; Manipon, G.; Hua, H.; Fetzer, E.

    2011-12-01

    Under several NASA grants, we are generating multi-sensor merged atmospheric datasets to enable the detection of instrument biases and studies of climate trends over decades of data. For example, under a NASA MEASURES grant we are producing a water vapor climatology from the A-Train instruments, stratified by the Cloudsat cloud classification for each geophysical scene. The generation and proper use of such multi-sensor climate data records (CDR's) requires a high level of openness, transparency, and traceability. To make the datasets self-documenting and provide access to full metadata and traceability, we have implemented a set of capabilities and services using known, interoperable protocols. These protocols include OpenSearch, OPeNDAP, Open Provenance Model, service & data casting technologies using Atom feeds, and REST-callable analysis workflows implemented as SciFlo (XML) documents. We advocate that our approach can serve as a blueprint for how to openly "document and serve" complex, multi-sensor CDR's with full traceability. The capabilities and services provided include: - Discovery of the collections by keyword search, exposed using OpenSearch protocol; - Space/time query across the CDR's granules and all of the input datasets via OpenSearch; - User-level configuration of the production workflows so that scientists can select additional physical variables from the A-Train to add to the next iteration of the merged datasets; - Efficient data merging using on-the-fly OPeNDAP variable slicing & spatial subsetting of data out of input netCDF and HDF files (without moving the entire files); - Self-documenting CDR's published in a highly usable netCDF4 format with groups used to organize the variables, CF-style attributes for each variable, numeric array compression, & links to OPM provenance; - Recording of processing provenance and data lineage into a query-able provenance trail in Open Provenance Model (OPM) format, auto-captured by the workflow engine

  8. SciDAC's Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies Semiannual Progress Report October 1, 2010 through March 31, 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Dean N.

    2011-04-02

    This report summarizes work carried out by the Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies (ESG-CET) from October 1, 2010 through March 31, 2011. It discusses ESG-CET highlights for the reporting period, overall progress, period goals, and collaborations, and lists papers and presentations. To learn more about our project and to find previous reports, please visit the ESG-CET Web sites: http://esg-pcmdi.llnl.gov/ and/or https://wiki.ucar.edu/display/esgcet/Home. This report will be forwarded to managers in the Department of Energy (DOE) Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) program and the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (OBER), as well as national and international collaborators and stakeholders (e.g., those involved in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, phase 5 (CMIP5) for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 5th Assessment Report (AR5); the Community Earth System Model (CESM); the Climate Science Computational End Station (CCES); SciDAC II: A Scalable and Extensible Earth System Model for Climate Change Science; the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP); the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program; the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)), and also to researchers working on a variety of other climate model and observation evaluation activities. The ESG-CET executive committee consists of Dean N. Williams, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Ian Foster, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); and Don Middleton, National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). The ESG-CET team is a group of researchers and scientists with diverse domain knowledge, whose home institutions include eight laboratories and two universities: ANL, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), LLNL, NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), NCAR, Oak Ridge National

  9. Ontological Encoding of GeoSciML and INSPIRE geological standard vocabularies and schemas: application to geological mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardo, Vincenzo; Piana, Fabrizio; Mimmo, Dario; Fubelli, Giandomenico; Giardino, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Encoding of geologic knowledge in formal languages is an ambitious task, aiming at the interoperability and organic representation of geological data, and semantic characterization of geologic maps. Initiatives such as GeoScience Markup Language (last version is GeoSciML 4, 2015[1]) and INSPIRE "Data Specification on Geology" (an operative simplification of GeoSciML, last version is 3.0 rc3, 2013[2]), as well as the recent terminological shepherding of the Geoscience Terminology Working Group (GTWG[3]) have been promoting information exchange of the geologic knowledge. There have also been limited attempts to encode the knowledge in a machine-readable format, especially in the lithology domain (see e.g. the CGI_Lithology ontology[4]), but a comprehensive ontological model that connect the several knowledge sources is still lacking. This presentation concerns the "OntoGeonous" initiative, which aims at encoding the geologic knowledge, as expressed through the standard vocabularies, schemas and data models mentioned above, through a number of interlinked computational ontologies, based on the languages of the Semantic Web and the paradigm of Linked Open Data. The initiative proceeds in parallel with a concrete case study, concerning the setting up of a synthetic digital geological map of the Piemonte region (NW Italy), named "GEOPiemonteMap" (developed by the CNR Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources, CNR IGG, Torino), where the description and classification of GeologicUnits has been supported by the modeling and implementation of the ontologies. We have devised a tripartite ontological model called OntoGeonous that consists of: 1) an ontology of the geologic features (in particular, GeologicUnit, GeomorphologicFeature, and GeologicStructure[5], modeled from the definitions and UML schemata of CGI vocabularies[6], GeoScienceML and INSPIRE, and aligned with the Planetary realm of NASA SWEET ontology[7]), 2) an ontology of the Earth materials (as defined by the

  10. Final Report for "Tech-X Corporation work for the SciDAC Center for Simulation of RF Wave Interactions with Magnetohydrodynamics (SWIM)"

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, Thomas G.; Kruger, Scott E.

    2013-03-25

    Work carried out by Tech-X Corporation for the DoE SciDAC Center for Simulation of RF Wave Interactions with Magnetohydrodynamics (SWIM; U.S. DoE Office of Science Award Number DE-FC02-06ER54899) is summarized and is shown to fulfil the project objectives. The Tech-X portion of the SWIM work focused on the development of analytic and computational approaches to study neoclassical tearing modes and their interaction with injected electron cyclotron current drive. Using formalism developed by Hegna, Callen, and Ramos [Phys. Plasmas 16, 112501 (2009); Phys. Plasmas 17, 082502 (2010); Phys. Plasmas 18, 102506 (2011)], analytic approximations for the RF interaction were derived and the numerical methods needed to implement these interactions in the NIMROD extended MHD code were developed. Using the SWIM IPS framework, NIMROD has successfully coupled to GENRAY, an RF ray tracing code; additionally, a numerical control system to trigger the RF injection, adjustment, and shutdown in response to tearing mode activity has been developed. We discuss these accomplishments, as well as prospects for ongoing future research that this work has enabled (which continue in a limited fashion under the SciDAC Center for Extended Magnetohydrodynamic Modeling (CEMM) project and under a baseline theory grant). Associated conference presentations, published articles, and publications in progress are also listed.

  11. Sterilization-CO2-Injection (SCI) BaPS: Establishment of a new method to measure rates of soil respiration and gross nitrification in calcareous agricultural soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrads, Hannah; Ingwersen, Joachim; Streck, Thilo

    2013-04-01

    Soil respiration and nitrification are key processes in carbon and nitrogen cycling in soil. An exact measurement of these two processes is a prerequisite for understanding the release of trace gases from soils. During the last decades the Barometric Process Separation (BaPS) method has become a widely used method to measure the turnover rates of these two processes. Its application, however, is currently limited to acidic to slightly acidic soils. In calcareous soils huge amounts of CO2 from soil respiration are dissolved in the soil solution, and the application of the BaPS method is hampered by the exact quantification of this flux. Small errors in this flux may result in huge errors in the calculation of the nitrification and respiration rates. In order to overcome this shortcoming and to extend the applicability of the method to a wider range of soils (especially agricultural soils) we developed a new adaptive method, the Sterilization-CO2-Injection (SCI) method, which aims to determine the CO2 dissolution flux (CO2,aq) experimentally. Therefore, an additional measuring step is introduced in which a sterilized soil subsample is incubated in the BaPS apparatus and known amounts of a pure CO2 gas are injected into the system while CO2 partial pressure is monitored. After each injection peak CO2 partial pressure decreases until a new stable equilibrium concentration is reached. This behavior is used to compute the amount of CO2 transferred to the soil solution applying simple mass balance calculation. The paired information about CO2 and CO2,aq is used to derive a regression equation, which gives CO2,aq as a function of the CO2 partial pressure. This relation is further used within the standard BaPS method. Results of the SCI-BaPS method for gross nitrification rates will be presented and compared to data measured by the 15N pool dilution method (Kirkham and Bartholomew, 1954). Results were obtained with calcareous and acidic agricultural soil samples. It turned

  12. The psychometric properties of Chinese version of SCI Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale in patients with stroke

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xiaofang; Liu, Yanjin; Wang, Aixia; Wang, Min

    2016-01-01

    Objective To test the Chinese version of the SCI Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale (C-ESES) in stroke patients and evaluate its validity and reliability. Background Physical inactivity is a well established and changeable risk factor for stroke, and regular exercise of 3–7 days per week is essential for stroke survivors and the general population. Though regular exercise is beneficial, it has been proved that duration, frequency, and intensity of exercise are generally low in stroke survivors. Methods The performance of the instrument was assessed in 350 Chinese stroke survivors and repeated in 50 patients to examine test–retest reliability. Questionnaires included a form on demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, C-ESES, and the Chinese version of the General Self-Efficacy Scale. The AMOS 20.0 and SPSS 17.0 were chosen to evaluate their validity and reliability. Results Even though 350 participants answered the questionnaires in the present study, useful data were obtained from 321 participants (response rate: 91.71%). Correlation between item and the total scale score (Item–Total Correlation) ranged from 0.551 to 0.718, indicating that no item needed to be omitted; two factors, with factor loading 0.620 and 0.806, were obtained from an exploratory principal components analysis, assuming 59.745% of the total variance. The two factors were named internal motivation and external motivation. A confirmatory factor analysis supported the results with a suitable model (χ5=291.157; df=185; P<0.001; root mean square error of approximation =0.044; goodness-of-fit index =0.938; adjusted goodness-of-fit index =0.914; comparative fit index =0.858). The C-ESES correlated well with the validated General Self-Efficacy Scale (r=0.827, P<0.01). Good internal consistency (Cronbach’s α=0.757 to 0.879) and test–retest reliability (r=0.750, P<0.01) were obtained. Conclusion The C-ESES is a short, easy to understand, and psychometrically sound measurement to evaluate

  13. PROBING THE DARK AGES AT z ∼ 20: THE SCI-HI 21 cm ALL-SKY SPECTRUM EXPERIMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Voytek, Tabitha C.; Natarajan, Aravind; Peterson, Jeffrey B.; Jáuregui García, José Miguel; López-Cruz, Omar

    2014-02-10

    We present first results from the SCI-HI experiment, which we used to measure the all-sky-averaged 21 cm brightness temperature in the redshift range 14.8 < z < 22.7. The instrument consists of a single broadband sub-wavelength size antenna and a sampling system for real-time data processing and recording. Preliminary observations were completed in 2013 June at Isla Guadalupe, a Mexican biosphere reserve located in the Pacific Ocean. The data was cleaned to excise channels contaminated by radio frequency interference, and the system response was calibrated by comparing the measured brightness temperature to the Global Sky Model of the Galaxy and by independent measurement of Johnson noise from a calibration terminator. We present our results, discuss the cosmological implications, and describe plans for future work.

  14. Improvement of the method to search low-melting solvents for the crystals MBaNa(BO3)2 (M = Sc,Y) growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutsyk, Vasily; Zelenaya, Anna

    2012-11-01

    Matrix interrelation of subsystems coordinates in M-Ba-Na-B-O (M = Sc,Y) system with the compound MBANa(BO3)2 are derived. Imitation of quaternary eutectic points search by a set of one-dimensional tetrahedron sections (nonplanar tie-lines method) is performed in system (KCl)2-R1-R2-(LiBO2)2 (R1 = LiKWO4, R2 = LiKSO4), which separates the pentatops (KCl)2-K2SO4-R1--R2-(LiBO2)2 and (KCl)2-(LiBO2)2-R1-R2-Li2WO4 of system Li,K||Cl,SO4,WO4,BO2. Triangulation of systems A,B,C||X,Y with binary compounds by new algorithms has been considered.

  15. Evaluation of unique identifiers used as keys to match identical publications in Pure and SciVal – a case study from health science

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Heidi Holst; Madsen, Dicte; Gauffriau, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Unique identifiers (UID) are seen as an effective key to match identical publications across databases or identify duplicates in a database. The objective of the present study is to investigate how well UIDs work as match keys in the integration between Pure and SciVal, based on a case with publications from the health sciences. We evaluate the matching process based on information about coverage, precision, and characteristics of publications matched versus not matched with UIDs as the match keys. We analyze this information to detect errors, if any, in the matching process. As an example we also briefly discuss how publication sets formed by using UIDs as the match keys may affect the bibliometric indicators number of publications, number of citations, and the average number of citations per publication.  The objective is addressed in a literature review and a case study. The literature review shows that only a few studies evaluate how well UIDs work as a match key. From the literature we identify four error types: Duplicate digital object identifiers (DOI), incorrect DOIs in reference lists and databases, DOIs not registered by the database where a bibliometric analysis is performed, and erroneous optical or special character recognition. The case study explores the use of UIDs in the integration between the databases Pure and SciVal. Specifically journal publications in English are matched between the two databases. We find all error types except erroneous optical or special character recognition in our publication sets. In particular the duplicate DOIs constitute a problem for the calculation of bibliometric indicators as both keeping the duplicates to improve the reliability of citation counts and deleting them to improve the reliability of publication counts will distort the calculation of average number of citations per publication. The use of UIDs as a match key in citation linking is implemented in many settings, and the availability of UIDs may become

  16. Synthesis and SHG properties of two new cyanurates: Sr3(O3C3N3)2 (SCY) and Eu3(O3C3N3)2 (ECY).

    PubMed

    Kalmutzki, Markus; Ströbele, Markus; Wackenhut, Frank; Meixner, Alfred J; Meyer, H-Jürgen

    2014-12-01

    The new cyanurates Sr3(O3C3N3)2 (SCY) and Eu3(O3C3N3)2 (ECY) were prepared via exothermic solid state metathesis reactions from MCl2 (M = Sr, Eu) and K(OCN) in silica tubes at 525 °C. Both structures were characterized by means of powder and single crystal X-ray diffraction, and their structures are shown to crystallize with the noncentrosymmetric space group R3c (No. 161). Infrared spectra and nonlinear optical properties (NLO) of SCY and ECY are reported in comparison to those of CCY and β-BaB2O4 (β-BBO). PMID:25380049

  17. Correction: Cecotti, H. and Rivet, B. Subject Combination and Electrode Selection in Cooperative Brain-Computer Interface Based on Event Related Potentials. Brain Sci. 2014, 4, 335–355

    PubMed Central

    Cecotti, Hubert; Rivet, Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    The authors wish to make the following correction to this paper (Cecotti, H.; Rivet, B. Subject Combination and Electrode Selection in Cooperative Brain-Computer Interface Based on Event Related Potentials. Brain Sci. 2014, 4, 335–355): Due to an internal error, the reference numbers in the original published paper were not shown, and the error was not due to the authors. The former main text should be replaced as below. PMID:25243772

  18. Response to "using of 'pseudo-second-order model' in adsorption", comment letter on "phenol removal from wastewater by adsorption on zeolitic composite" [Bizerea Spiridon et al., Environ Sci Pollut Res (2013) 20:6367-6381].

    PubMed

    Bizerea Spiridon, Otilia; Pitulice, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This letter is a response to the issues put forth by Dr. Y.S. Ho with regard to the article "Phenol removal from wastewater by adsorption on zeolitic composite" as reported by Bizerea Spiridon et al. (Environ Sci Pollut Res 20:6367-6381, 2013). The response proposes to clarify the error slipped in the typewritten linearized equation of the pseudo-second-kinetic model and the reason for using secondary reference regarding this model. PMID:24638835

  19. Sci-Fi Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freudenrich, Craig C.

    2000-01-01

    Recommends using science fiction television episodes, novels, and films for teaching science and motivating students. Studies Newton's Law of Motion, principles of relativity, journey to Mars, interplanetary trajectories, artificial gravity, and Martian geology. Discusses science fiction's ability to capture student interest and the advantages of…

  20. Sci-Fi Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nauman, Ann K.; Shaw, Edward L.

    1994-01-01

    In today's rapidly changing world, science fiction can provide a bridge and a stimulus to the imagination of children. Provides an annotated bibliography of 25 science fiction titles for grades 1-3, 4-6, and 7-9. Suggests classroom applications including individual assignments, group discussion topics, and other activities. (LZ)

  1. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... need to learn first? What's the most important thing for families to know right away? How do you answer the question: "Will I ever walk again?" What's the most common misconception about life after a spinal cord injury? What's important to ...

  2. Spinal Cord Injury (SCI)

    MedlinePlus

    ... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Error processing SSI file Error processing SSI file Error processing SSI file Share Compartir This Page has Moved or ... gov/TraumaticBrainInjury/index.html . Print page Error processing SSI file Error processing SSI file Error processing SSI ...

  3. Sci-Vis Framework

    2015-03-11

    SVF is a full featured OpenGL 3d framework that allows for rapid creation of complex visualizations. The SVF framework handles much of the lifecycle and complex tasks required for a 3d visualization. Unlike a game framework SVF was designed to use fewer resources, work well in a windowed environment, and only render when necessary. The scene also takes advantage of multiple threads to free up the UI thread as much as possible. Shapes (actors) inmore » the scene are created by adding or removing functionality (through support objects) during runtime. This allows a highly flexible and dynamic means of creating highly complex actors without the code complexity (it also helps overcome the lack of multiple inheritance in Java.) All classes are highly customizable and there are abstract classes which are intended to be subclassed to allow a developer to create more complex and highly performant actors. There are multiple demos included in the framework to help the developer get started and shows off nearly all of the functionality. Some simple shapes (actors) are already created for you such as text, bordered text, radial text, text area, complex paths, NURBS paths, cube, disk, grid, plane, geometric shapes, and volumetric area. It also comes with various camera types for viewing that can be dragged, zoomed, and rotated. Picking or selecting items in the scene can be accomplished in various ways depending on your needs (raycasting or color picking.) The framework currently has functionality for tooltips, animation, actor pools, color gradients, 2d physics, text, 1d/2d/3d textures, children, blending, clipping planes, view frustum culling, custom shaders, and custom actor states« less

  4. Sci-Vis Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur Bleeker, PNNL

    2015-03-11

    SVF is a full featured OpenGL 3d framework that allows for rapid creation of complex visualizations. The SVF framework handles much of the lifecycle and complex tasks required for a 3d visualization. Unlike a game framework SVF was designed to use fewer resources, work well in a windowed environment, and only render when necessary. The scene also takes advantage of multiple threads to free up the UI thread as much as possible. Shapes (actors) in the scene are created by adding or removing functionality (through support objects) during runtime. This allows a highly flexible and dynamic means of creating highly complex actors without the code complexity (it also helps overcome the lack of multiple inheritance in Java.) All classes are highly customizable and there are abstract classes which are intended to be subclassed to allow a developer to create more complex and highly performant actors. There are multiple demos included in the framework to help the developer get started and shows off nearly all of the functionality. Some simple shapes (actors) are already created for you such as text, bordered text, radial text, text area, complex paths, NURBS paths, cube, disk, grid, plane, geometric shapes, and volumetric area. It also comes with various camera types for viewing that can be dragged, zoomed, and rotated. Picking or selecting items in the scene can be accomplished in various ways depending on your needs (raycasting or color picking.) The framework currently has functionality for tooltips, animation, actor pools, color gradients, 2d physics, text, 1d/2d/3d textures, children, blending, clipping planes, view frustum culling, custom shaders, and custom actor states

  5. The SCIentinel study - prospective multicenter study to define the spinal cord injury-induced immune depression syndrome (SCI-IDS) - study protocol and interim feasibility data

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Infections are the leading cause of death in the acute phase following spinal cord injury and qualify as independent risk factor for poor neurological outcome (“disease modifying factor”). The enhanced susceptibility for infections is not stringently explained by the increased risk of aspiration in tetraplegic patients, neurogenic bladder dysfunction, or by high-dose methylprednisolone treatment. Experimental and clinical pilot data suggest that spinal cord injury disrupts the balanced interplay between the central nervous system and the immune system. The primary hypothesis is that the Spinal Cord Injury-induced Immune Depression Syndrome (SCI-IDS) is 'neurogenic’ including deactivation of adaptive and innate immunity with decreased HLA-DR expression on monocytes as a key surrogate parameter. Secondary hypotheses are that the Immune Depression Syndrome is i) injury level- and ii) severity-dependent, iii) triggers transient lymphopenia, and iv) causes qualitative functional leukocyte deficits, which may endure the post-acute phase after spinal cord injury. Methods/Design SCIentinel is a prospective, international, multicenter study aiming to recruit about 118 patients with acute spinal cord injury or control patients with acute vertebral fracture without neurological deficits scheduled for spinal surgery. The assessment points are: i) <31 hours, ii) 31–55 hours, iii) 7 days, iv) 14 days, and v) 10 weeks post-trauma. Assessment includes infections, concomitant injury, medication and neurological classification using American Spinal Injury Association impairment scale (AIS) and neurological level. Laboratory analyses comprise haematological profiling, immunophenotyping, including HLA-DR expression on monocytes, cytokines and gene expression of immune modulators. We provide an administrative interim analysis of the recruitment schedule of the trial. Discussion The objectives are to characterize the dysfunction of the innate and adaptive immune

  6. SciDAC's Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies Semi-Annual Progress Report for the Period April 1, 2009 through September 30, 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Dean N.; Foster, I. T.; Middleton, D. E.

    2009-10-15

    This report summarizes work carried out by the ESG-CET during the period April 1, 2009 through September 30, 2009. It includes discussion of highlights, overall progress, period goals, collaborations, papers, and presentations. To learn more about our project, and to find previous reports, please visit the Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies (ESG-CET) website. This report will be forwarded to the DOE SciDAC program management, the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (OBER) program management, national and international collaborators and stakeholders (e.g., the Community Climate System Model (CCSM), the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 5th Assessment Report (AR5), the Climate Science Computational End Station (CCES), the SciDAC II: A Scalable and Extensible Earth System Model for Climate Change Science, the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP), and other wide-ranging climate model evaluation activities). During this semi-annual reporting period, the ESG-CET team continued its efforts to complete software components needed for the ESG Gateway and Data Node. These components include: Data Versioning, Data Replication, DataMover-Lite (DML) and Bulk Data Mover (BDM), Metrics, Product Services, and Security, all joining together to form ESG-CET's first beta release. The launch of the beta release is scheduled for late October with the installation of ESG Gateways at NCAR and LLNL/PCMDI. Using the developed ESG Data Publisher, the ESG II CMIP3 (IPCC AR4) data holdings - approximately 35 TB - will be among the first datasets to be published into the new ESG enterprise system. In addition, the NCAR's ESG II data holdings will also be published into the new system - approximately 200 TB. This period also saw the testing of the ESG Data Node at various collaboration sites, including: the British Atmospheric Data Center (BADC), the Max-Planck-Institute for Meteorology, the University of Tokyo Center for

  7. GeochronML - O&M, GeoSciML and the Age of the Earth: Developing a geochronology data model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sircombe, K. N.; Ardlie, N.; Sullivan, L.; Wyborn, L. A.

    2007-12-01

    Geochronology is the vital fourth dimension for geological knowledge. It provides the temporal framework for understanding and modelling geological processes and rates of change. Incorporating geochronological 'observations and measurements' into interoperable geological data systems is thus a critical pursuit. Although there are several resources for storing and accessing geochronological data, there is no standard format for exchanging such data among users. Current systems are a mixture of comma-delimited text files, Excel spreadsheets and PDFs that assume prior specialist knowledge and frequently force the user to laboriously, and potentially erroneously, extract the required data manually. Geoscience Australia and partners are developing a standard data exchange format for geochronological data (`geochronML') within the broader framework of Observations and Measurements and GeoSciML that are an important facet of emerging international geoscience data transfer standards. Geochronology analytical processes and resulting data present some challenging issues as a rock `age' is typically not a direct measurement, but rather the interpretation of a statistical amalgam of several measurements chosen with the aid of prior geological knowledge and analytical metadata. The level at which these data need to be exposed to a user varies greatly, even to the same user over the course of a project. GeochronML is also attempting to provide a generic pattern that will support as wide as range of radioisotopic systems as possible. This presentation will discuss developments at Geoscience Australia and the opportunities for collaboration.

  8. DOLCE ROCKS: Integrating Foundational and Geoscience Ontologies--Preliminary Results for the Integration of Concepts from DOLCE, GeoSciML, and SWEET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodaric, B.; Probst, F.

    2007-12-01

    Ontologies are being developed bottom-up in many geoscience domains to aid semantic-enabled computing. The contents of these ontologies are typically partitioned along domain boundaries, such as geology, geophsyics, hydrology, or are developed for specific data sets or processing needs. At the same time, very general foundational ontologies are being independently developed top-down to help facilitate integration of knowledge across such domains, and to provide homogeneity to the organization of knowledge within the domains. In this work we investigate the suitability of integrating the DOLCE foundational ontology with concepts from two prominent geoscience knowledge representations, GeoSciML and SWEET, to investigate the alignment of the concepts found within the foundational and domain representations. The geoscience concepts are partially mapped to each other and to those in the foundational ontology, via the subclass and other relations, resulting in an integrated OWL-based ontology called DOLCE ROCKS. These preliminary results demonstrate variable alignment between the foundational and domain concepts, and also between the domain concepts. Further work is required to ascertain the impact of this integrated ontology approach on broader geoscience ontology design, on the unification of domain ontologies, as well as their use within semantic-enabled geoscience applications.

  9. [SciELO Public Health: the performance of Cadernos de Saúde Pública and Revista de Saúde Pública].

    PubMed

    Barata, Rita Barradas

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this paper was to analyze two Brazilian scientific journals included in the SciELO Library of Public Health, using a group of bibliometric indicators and scrutinizing the articles most viewed. Cadernos de Saúde Pública was accessed 3,743.59 times per month, with an average of 30.31 citations per article. The 50 articles most viewed (6.72 to 524.5 views) were mostly published in Portuguese (92%). 42% were theoretical essays, 20% surveys, and 16% descriptive studies. 42% used argumentative techniques, 34% quantitative techniques, 18% qualitative techniques, and 6% mathematical modeling. The most common themes were: health and work (50%), epidemiology (22%), and environmental health (8%). Revista de Saúde Pública was accessed 1,590.97 times per month, with an average of 26.27 citations per article. The 50 articles most viewed (7.33 and 56.50 views) were all published in Portuguese: 46% were surveys, 14% databases analysis, and 12% systematic reviews. Quantitative techniques were adopted in 66% of such articles, while mathematical modeling was the same as observed in Cadernos de Saúde Pública, as were qualitative techniques. The most common themes were health services organization (22%), nutrition (22%), health and work (18%), epidemiology (12%), and environmental health (12%). PMID:18157346

  10. PMEL contributions to the collaboration: SCALING THE EARTH SYSTEM GRID TO PETASCALE DATA for the DOE SciDACs Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Hankin, Steve

    2012-06-01

    Drawing to a close after five years of funding from DOE's ASCR and BER program offices, the SciDAC-2 project called the Earth System Grid (ESG) Center for Enabling Technologies has successfully established a new capability for serving data from distributed centers. The system enables users to access, analyze, and visualize data using a globally federated collection of networks, computers and software. The ESG software now known as the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) has attracted a broad developer base and has been widely adopted so that it is now being utilized in serving the most comprehensive multi-model climate data sets in the world. The system is used to support international climate model intercomparison activities as well as high profile U.S. DOE, NOAA, NASA, and NSF projects. It currently provides more than 25,000 users access to more than half a petabyte of climate data (from models and from observations) and has enabled over a 1,000 scientific publications.

  11. OCCURRENCE AND ORIENTATION OF PARALICHTHID FLOUNDERS (BOTHIDAE: PARALICHTYS) ON AN INTERTIDAL BEACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Middaugh, Douglas P. and Charles L. McKenney, Jr. 2003. Occurrence and Orientation of Flounders (Bothidae: Paralichthys) on an Intertidal Beach. J. North Carol. Acad. Sci. 119(4):157-171. (ERL,GB 1172).

    The intertidal movement and burying pattern of paralichthid flounders...

  12. Genetics Home Reference: McCune-Albright syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Weinstein LS, Chen M, Liu J. Gs(alpha) mutations and imprinting defects in human disease. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002 Jun;968:173-97. Review. Citation on PubMed Weinstein LS, Liu J, Sakamoto ... LS. G(s)alpha mutations in fibrous dysplasia and McCune-Albright syndrome. J ...

  13. New Organisational Structures and the Transformation of Academic Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyhagen, Gigliola Mathisen; Baschung, Lukas

    2013-01-01

    This article will particularly focus on Norway and the consequences for academic work. Frequently in studies of academic work, focus has been on academics' individual autonomy and to what extent the latter is challenged (Altbach in "Ann Am Acad Pol Soc Sci" 448:1-14, 1980; Shattock in "High Educ" 41:27-47, 2001). One of…

  14. Langevin Theory of Anomalous Brownian Motion Made Simple

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tothova, Jana; Vasziova, Gabriela; Glod, Lukas; Lisy, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    During the century from the publication of the work by Einstein (1905 "Ann. Phys." 17 549) Brownian motion has become an important paradigm in many fields of modern science. An essential impulse for the development of Brownian motion theory was given by the work of Langevin (1908 "C. R. Acad. Sci.", Paris 146 530), in which he proposed an…

  15. Genetics Home Reference: pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyperkalaemic acidosis, pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1. Nat Genet. 1996 Mar;12(3):248-53. Citation on PubMed Chen ... sgk. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Mar 2;96(5):2514-9. Citation on PubMed ...

  16. 78 FR 18354 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... patent applications. Infectious Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 3 Recombinants--Prospective Vaccine Candidates... Hepatitis E virus (HEV) that has been adapted to grow in cell culture and can potentially be used to develop... cells by hepatitis E virus and discovery of an infectious virus-host recombinant. Proc Natl Acad Sci U...

  17. Hybridization and evolution of invasiveness in plants and other organisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Less than a decade ago, we proposed that hybridization could serve as a stimulus for the evolution of invasiveness in plants (Ellstrand and Schierenbeck Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 97:7043–7050, 2000). A substantial amount of research has taken place on that topic since the publication of that paper, stim...

  18. Adiabatic single scan two-dimensional NMR spectrocopy.

    PubMed

    Pelupessy, Philippe

    2003-10-01

    New excitation schemes, based on the use adiabatic pulses, for single scan two-dimensional NMR experiments (Frydman et al., Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 2002, 99, 15 858-15 862) are introduced. The advantages are discussed. Applications in homo- and heteronuclear experiments are presented. PMID:14519020

  19. Measuring positive affect and well-being after spinal cord injury: Development and psychometric characteristics of the SCI-QOL Positive Affect and Well-being bank and short form

    PubMed Central

    Bertisch, Hilary; Kalpakjian, Claire Z.; Kisala, Pamela A.; Tulsky, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop an item response theory (IRT)-calibrated spinal cord injury (SCI)-specific Positive Affect and Well-being (PAWB) item bank with flexible options for administration. Design Qualitative feedback from patient and provider focus groups was used to expand on the Neurological Disorders and Quality of Life (Neuro-QOL) positive affect & well-being item bank for use in SCI. New items were created and revised based on expert review and patient feedback and were then field tested. Analyses included confirmatory factor analysis, graded response IRT modeling and evaluation of differential item functioning (DIF). Setting We tested a 32-item pool at several rehabilitation centers across the United States, including the University of Michigan, Kessler Foundation, Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, the University of Washington, Craig Hospital and the James J. Peters/Bronx Department of Veterans Affairs hospital. Participants A total of 717 individuals with SCI answered the PAWB questions. Results A unidimensional model was observed (Confirmatory Fit Index = 0.947; Root Mean Square Error of Approximation = 0.094) and measurement precision was good (reliability in theta of –2.9 to 1.2 is roughly equivalent to classical reliability of 0.95 or above). Twelve items were flagged for DIF, however, after examination of effect sizes, the DIF was determined to be negligible and would have little practical impact on score estimates. The final calibrated item bank resulted in 28 retained items Conclusions This study indicates that the Spinal Cord Injury – Quality of Life PAWB bank represents a psychometrically robust measurement tool. Short form items are also suggested and a computer adaptive test is available. PMID:26010970

  20. The SciELO Brazilian Scientific Journal Gateway and Open Archives; Usability of Hypermedia Educational e-Books; Building Upon the MyLibrary Concept To Better Meet the Information Needs of College Students; Open Archives and UK Institutions; The Utah Digital Newspapers Project; Examples of Practical Digital Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcondes, Carlos Henrique; Sayao, Luis Fernando; Diaz, Paloma; Gibbons, Susan; Pinfield, Stephen; Kenning, Arlitsch; Edge, Karen; Yapp, L.; Witten, Ian H.

    2003-01-01

    Includes six articles that focus on practical uses of technologies developed from digital library research in the areas of education and scholarship reflecting the international impact of digital library research initiatives. Includes the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO) (Brazil); the National Science Foundation (NSF) (US); the Joint…

  1. Comment on ‘Correlating metastable-atom density, reduced electric field, and electron energy distribution in the post-transient stage of a 1 Torr argon discharge’ (2015 Plasma Source Sci. Technol. 24 034009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, N.

    2016-06-01

    Several important errors and misinterpretations present in a recent publication by Franek et al (2015 Plasma Source Sci. Technol. 24 034009) are pointed out and discussed. In particular, it is shown that the electron densities deduced by the resonance cavity frequency shift technique are highly underestimated. So the conclusion of authors on validity of the method for the estimate of argon metastable density from the 420.1/419.8 nm emission intensity ratio is not justified. In a recent publication, hereafter referred as (Franek et al 2015 Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 24 034009), Franek et al have studied the correlation existing in argon plasma between 420.1/419.8 nm emission intensity ratio and combined metastable atoms density (Arm), electron density (n e) and reduced electric field (E/N). Experiments were carried out in a 1 Torr argon plasma afterglow, during which Arm was measured by Diode-Laser absorption and n e by frequency shift of a μ-wave resonance cavity into which the plasma tube was inserted. Authors concluded that in any argon plasma Arm can be deduced, without directly measuring it, from the 420.1/419.8 nm emission intensity ratio, provided that n e and E/N are known. The purpose of this comment is to point out several important errors present in that paper, dealing mostly with electron density measurement.

  2. Final Report- "An Algorithmic and Software Framework for Applied Partial Differential Equations (APDEC): A DOE SciDAC Integrated Software Infrastructure Center (ISIC)

    SciTech Connect

    Elbridge Gerry Puckett

    2008-05-13

    been a Deputy Section Head at the National Center for Atmospheric Research in Colorado. My understanding is that Chris Algieri is the first person that Bill hired after coming to LBNL. The plan is that Chris Algieri will finish his PhD thesis while employed as a staff scientist in Bill's group. Both Sarah and Chris were supported in part with funds from DE-FC02-01ER25473. In Sarah's case she received support both while at U.C. Davis (UCD) taking classes and writing an MS thesis and during some of the time she was living in Berkeley, working at LBNL and finishing her PhD thesis. In Chris' case he was at U.C. Davis during the entire time he received support from DE-FC02-01ER25473. More specific details of their work are included in the report below. Finally my own research conducted under the auspices of DE-FC02-01ER25473 either involved direct collaboration with researchers at LBNL - Phil Colella and Peter Schwartz who is a member of Phil's Applied Numerical Algorithms Group - or was on problems that are closely related to research that has been and continues to be conducted by researchers at LBNL. Specific details of this work can be found below. Finally, I would like to note that the work conducted by my students and me under the auspices of this contract is closely related to work that I have performed with funding from my DOE MICS contract DE-FC02-03ER25579 'Development of High-Order Accurate Interface Tracking Algorithms and Improved Constitutive Models for Problems in Continuum Mechanics with Applications to Jetting' and with my CoPI on that grant Professor Greg Miller of the Department of Applied Science at UCD. In theory I tried to use funds from the SciDAC grant DE-FC02-01ER25473 to support work that directly involved implementing algorithms developed by my research group at U.C. Davis in software that was developed and is maintained by my SciDAC CoPI's at LBNL.

  3. Fairy-Tale Physics Farewell to Reality Bankrupting Physics: Baggott-Unzicker-Jones Critiques Shame Physics' Shameless Media-Hype P.R. Spin-Doctoring Touting Sci-Fi Veracity-Abandonment ``Show-Biz'' Spectacle: Caveat Emptor!!!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, Edward

    2014-03-01

    Baggott[Farewell to Reality: How Fairy-Tale Physics Betrayed Search For Scientific Truth]-Unzicker [Bankrupting Physics: How Top Scientists Are Gambling Away Credibility] shame physics shameless rock-star media-hype P.R. spin-doctoring veracity-abandoning touting sci-fi show-biz aided by online proliferation of uncritical pop-sci science-writers verbal diarrhea, all spectacle vs little truth, lacking Kant-Popper skepticism/falsification, lemming-like stampedes to truth abandonment, qualified by vague adverbs: might, could, should, may,...vs factual is! Physics, motivated by financial greed, swept up in its very own hype, touts whatever next big thing/cutting-edge bombast ad infinitum/ad nauseum, turning it into mere trendy carney sideshow, full of fury(FOF) but signifying absolutely nothing! Witness: GIGO claims string-theory holographic-universe causes cuprates optical conductivity; failed Anderson RVB cuprates theory vs. Keimer discovery all cuprates ``paramagnons'' bosons aka Overhauser SDWs; Overbye NYT holographic-universe jargonial-obfuscation comments including one from APS journals editor-in-chief re. its unintelligibility, FOF but signifying absolutely nothing INTELLIGIBLE!; Bak/BNL SOC tad late rediscovery of F =ma mere renaming of Siegel acoustic-emission!; 2007 physics Nobel-prize Fert-Gruenberg rediscovery of Siegel[JMMM 7,312(78); https://www.flickr.com/search/?q=GIANT-MAGNETORESISTANCE] GMR. Each trendy latest big thing modulo lack of prior attribution aka out and out bombastic chicanery! Siegel caveat emptor ``Buzzwordism, Bandwagonism, Sloganeering for Fun Profit Survival Ego'' sociological-dysfunctionality thrives!

  4. Fairy-Tale Physics Farewell to Reality Bankrupting Physics: Baggott-Unzicker-Jones Critiques Shame Physics' Shameless Media-Hype P.R. Spin-Doctoring Touting Sci-Fi Veracity-Abandonment ``Show-Biz'' Spectacle: Caveat Emptor!!!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, Edward

    2014-03-01

    Baggott[Farewell to Reality: How Fairy-Tale Physics Betrayed Search For Scientific Truth]-Unzicker [Bankrupting Physics: How Top Scientists Are Gambling Away Credibility] shame physics shameless rock-star media-hype P.R. spin-doctoring veracity-abandoning touting sci-fi show-biz aided by online proliferation of uncritical pop-sci science-writers verbal diarrhea, all spectacle vs little truth, lacking Kant-Popper skepticism/ falsification, lemming-like stampedes to truth abandonment, qualified by vague adverbs: might, could, should, may,...vs factual is! Physics, motivated by financial greed, swept up in its very own hype, touts whatever next big thing/cutting-edge bombast ad infinitum/ad nauseum, turning it into mere trendy carney sideshow, full of fury(FOF) but signifying absolutely nothing! Witness: GIGO claims string-theory holographic-universe causes cuprates optical conductivity; failed Anderson RVB cuprates theory vs. Keimer discovery all cuprates ``paramagnons'' bosons aka Overhauser SDWs; Overbye NYT holographic-universe jargonial-obfuscation comments including one from APS journals editor-in-chief re. its unintelligibility, FOF but signifying absolutely nothing INTELLIGIBLE!; Bak/BNL SOC tad late rediscovery of F =ma mere renaming of Siegel acoustic-emission!; 2007 physics Nobel-prize Fert-Gruenberg rediscovery of Siegel[JMMM 7,312(78); https://www.flickr.com/search/?q = GIANT-MAGNETORESISTANCE] GMR. Each trendy latest big thing modulo lack of prior attribution aka out and out bombastic chicanery! Siegel caveat emptor ``Buzzwordism, Bandwagonism, Sloganeering for Fun Profit Survival Ego'' sociological-dysfunctionality thrives!

  5. SciDAC Fusiongrid Project--A National Collaboratory to Advance the Science of High Temperature Plasma Physics for Magnetic Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    SCHISSEL, D.P.; ABLA, G.; BURRUSS, J.R.; FEIBUSH, E.; FREDIAN, T.W.; GOODE, M.M.; GREENWALD, M.J.; KEAHEY, K.; LEGGETT, T.; LI, K.; McCUNE, D.C.; PAPKA, M.E.; RANDERSON, L.; SANDERSON, A.; STILLERMAN, J.; THOMPSON, M.R.; URAM, T.; WALLACE, G.

    2006-08-31

    This report summarizes the work of the National Fusion Collaboratory (NFC) Project funded by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) under the Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing Program (SciDAC) to develop a persistent infrastructure to enable scientific collaboration for magnetic fusion research. A five year project that was initiated in 2001, it built on the past collaborative work performed within the U.S. fusion community and added the component of computer science research done with the USDOE Office of Science, Office of Advanced Scientific Computer Research. The project was a collaboration itself uniting fusion scientists from General Atomics, MIT, and PPPL and computer scientists from ANL, LBNL, Princeton University, and the University of Utah to form a coordinated team. The group leveraged existing computer science technology where possible and extended or created new capabilities where required. Developing a reliable energy system that is economically and environmentally sustainable is the long-term goal of Fusion Energy Science (FES) research. In the U.S., FES experimental research is centered at three large facilities with a replacement value of over $1B. As these experiments have increased in size and complexity, there has been a concurrent growth in the number and importance of collaborations among large groups at the experimental sites and smaller groups located nationwide. Teaming with the experimental community is a theoretical and simulation community whose efforts range from applied analysis of experimental data to fundamental theory (e.g., realistic nonlinear 3D plasma models) that run on massively parallel computers. Looking toward the future, the large-scale experiments needed for FES research are staffed by correspondingly large, globally dispersed teams. The fusion program will be increasingly oriented toward the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) where even now, a decade before operation begins, a large

  6. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    MedlinePlus

    Experts \\ Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Topics Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 Spinal Cord Injury 101 ... Spasticity, Physical Therapy-Lokomat Spasticity, Physical Therapy-Lokomat Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Sex and ...

  7. Reconciling disagreement over climate–conflict results in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Hsiang, Solomon M.; Meng, Kyle C.

    2014-01-01

    A recent study by Burke et al. [Burke M, Miguel E, Satyanath S, Dykema J, Lobell D (2009) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106(49):20670–20674] reports statistical evidence that the likelihood of civil wars in African countries was elevated in hotter years. A following study by Buhaug [Buhaug H (2010) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107(38):16477–16482] reports that a reexamination of the evidence overturns Burke et al.’s findings when alternative statistical models and alternative measures of conflict are used. We show that the conclusion by Buhaug is based on absent or incorrect statistical tests, both in model selection and in the comparison of results with Burke et al. When we implement the correct tests, we find there is no evidence presented in Buhaug that rejects the original results of Burke et al. PMID:24520173

  8. Submit and disulfide structure of monomeric and dimeric forms of detergent-soluble HLA antigens.

    PubMed

    Springer, T A; Robb, R J; Terhorst, C; Strominger, J L

    1977-07-10

    The structure of monomeric and disulfide-bonded dimeric forms of HLA antigens has been studied. Detergent-soluble HLA antigen heavy chains contain one or two easily reduced sulfhydryl groups not found in papain-solubilized HLA antigens, as demonstrated by amino acid analysis (Springer, T. A., and Strominger, J.L. (1976) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 73, 2481-2485, and Terhorst, C., Parham, P., Mann, D.L., and Strominger, J.L. (1976) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 73, 910-914) and by labeling with iodo[3H]acetate. Dimer formation occurred during purification, since it was prevented by pretreatment of membranes containing HLA antigen with iodoacetamide. Cross-linking studies showed that the non-disulfide-bonded form of HLA antigens contains one subunit each of the Mr = 44,000 heavy chain and the Mr = 12,000 light chain (beta2-microglobulin). PMID:873911

  9. Sustaining and Extending the Open Science Grid: Science Innovation on a PetaScale Nationwide Facility (DE-FC02-06ER41436) SciDAC-2 Closeout Report

    SciTech Connect

    Livny, Miron; Shank, James; Ernst, Michael; Blackburn, Kent; Goasguen, Sebastien; Tuts, Michael; Gibbons, Lawrence; Pordes, Ruth; Sliz, Piotr; Deelman, Ewa; Barnett, William; Olson, Doug; McGee, John; Cowles, Robert; Wuerthwein, Frank; Gardner, Robert; Avery, Paul; Wang, Shaowen; Lincoln, David Swanson

    2015-02-11

    Under this SciDAC-2 grant the project’s goal w a s t o stimulate new discoveries by providing scientists with effective and dependable access to an unprecedented national distributed computational facility: the Open Science Grid (OSG). We proposed to achieve this through the work of the Open Science Grid Consortium: a unique hands-on multi-disciplinary collaboration of scientists, software developers and providers of computing resources. Together the stakeholders in this consortium sustain and use a shared distributed computing environment that transforms simulation and experimental science in the US. The OSG consortium is an open collaboration that actively engages new research communities. We operate an open facility that brings together a broad spectrum of compute, storage, and networking resources and interfaces to other cyberinfrastructures, including the US XSEDE (previously TeraGrid), the European Grids for ESciencE (EGEE), as well as campus and regional grids. We leverage middleware provided by computer science groups, facility IT support organizations, and computing programs of application communities for the benefit of consortium members and the US national CI.

  10. Supercompact cardinals, sets of reals, and weakly homogeneous trees.

    PubMed

    Woodin, W H

    1988-09-01

    It is shown that if there exists a supercompact cardinal then every set of reals, which is an element of L(R), is the projection of a weakly homogeneous tree. As a consequence of this theorem and recent work of Martin and Steel [Martin, D. A. & Steel, J. R. (1988) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 6582-6586], it follows that (if there is a supercompact cardinal) every set of reals in L(R) is determined. PMID:16593979

  11. Unobserved time effects confound the identification of climate change impacts.

    PubMed

    Auffhammer, Maximilian; Vincent, Jeffrey R

    2012-07-24

    A recent study by Feng et al. [Feng S, Krueger A, Oppenheimer M (2010) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107:14257-14262] in PNAS reported statistical evidence of a weather-driven causal effect of crop yields on human migration from Mexico to the United States. We show that this conclusion is based on a different statistical model than the one stated in the paper. When we correct for this mistake, there is no evidence of a causal link. PMID:22783021

  12. Memory neuron: synapse microchemistry for the memory component of a neuroconnective brain model.

    PubMed Central

    Wooldridge, D E

    1980-01-01

    This paper examines the synaptic microchemistry required if a memory neuron is to have the operating characteristics previously attributed to it [Wooldridge, D.E. (1980) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 77,2305-2308]. It is concluded that the requirements can be met by a combination of membrane mechanisms not very different from those that are commonly postulated to explain the properties of known types of neurons. PMID:6248883

  13. Selection-mutation process of RNA viruses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aafif, Amal; Lin, Juan

    1998-02-01

    RNA viruses mutate at a rate 105-106 times faster than their DNA counterparts. This process can be simulated by a continuous stochastic model on a smooth one-dimensional fitness landscape where selection forces the viral quasispecies to climb uphill to higher fitness values. Theoretical results of the model with drift velocity proportional to fitness are fitted to the experimental observations made by Novella et al. [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 92, 5841 (1995)].

  14. Life in a ligand sphere.

    PubMed Central

    Wächtershäuser, G

    1994-01-01

    The most fundamental divide in biology is that between heterotrophic and autotrophic ways of life. Two of the leading proponents of a heterotrophic origin of life ("hetero-origin") in a prebiotic broth, C. de Duve and S. L. Miller, have criticized my theory of a pyrite-pulled chemo-autotrophic origin of life ("auto-origin") [De Duve, C. & Miller, S. L. (1991) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 10014-10017]. This criticism is now answered. PMID:8183902

  15. Non-Existence of Global Solutions For a Quasilinear Benney System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antontsev, S.; Dias, J. P.; Figueira, M.; Oliveira, F.

    2011-06-01

    Benney introduced in 1977 (cf. Stud Appl Math 56:81-94, 1977) a general strategy for deriving systems of nonlinear PDEs describing the interaction between long and short waves. In Dias et al. (CR Acad Sci Paris I 344:493-496, 2007) we have studied the local existence and unicity of solutions to a quasilinear version of these systems. In the present paper we prove that in some important cases global strong solutions do not exist.

  16. Network analysis of human heartbeat dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Zhi-Gang

    2010-02-01

    We construct the complex networks of human heartbeat dynamics and investigate their statistical properties, using the visibility algorithm proposed by Lacasa and co-workers [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105, 4972 (2008)]. Our results show that the associated networks for the time series of heartbeat interval are always scale-free, high clustering, hierarchy, and assortative mixing. In particular, the assortative coefficient of associated networks could distinguish between healthy subjects and patients with congestive heart failure.

  17. Comment on "Nonparametric forecasting of low-dimensional dynamical systems ".

    PubMed

    Kondrashov, Dmitri; Chekroun, Mickaël D; Ghil, Michael

    2016-03-01

    The comparison performed in Berry et al. [Phys. Rev. E 91, 032915 (2015)] between the skill in predicting the El Niño-Southern Oscillation climate phenomenon by the prediction method of Berry et al. and the "past-noise" forecasting method of Chekroun et al. [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 11766 (2011)] is flawed. Three specific misunderstandings in Berry et al. are pointed out and corrected. PMID:27078490

  18. An alternative technique for the computation of the designator in the retinex theory of color vision.

    PubMed

    Land, E H

    1986-05-01

    Accepting the first postulate of the retinex theory of color vision that there are three independent lightness-determining mechanisms (one for long waves, one for middle waves, and one for short waves), each operative with less than a millisecond exposure and each served by its own retinal pigment, a basic task of retinex theory becomes the determination of the nature of these mechanisms. Earlier references proposed several workable algorithms. [Land, E. H. (1959) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 45, 115-129; Land, E. H. (1959) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 45, 636-644; Land, E. H. (1983) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 80, 5163-5169; Land, E. H. & McCann, J. J. (1971) J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1-11; Land, E. H. (1986) Vision Res. 26, 7-21.] The present paper describes a relatively simple alternative technique for the computation of the designator in retinex theory and reports the general operational effectiveness of the new technique, including the competence, not possessed by earlier algorithms, for generating Mach bands. PMID:3458165

  19. Community detection algorithms: A comparative analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lancichinetti, Andrea; Fortunato, Santo

    2009-11-01

    Uncovering the community structure exhibited by real networks is a crucial step toward an understanding of complex systems that goes beyond the local organization of their constituents. Many algorithms have been proposed so far, but none of them has been subjected to strict tests to evaluate their performance. Most of the sporadic tests performed so far involved small networks with known community structure and/or artificial graphs with a simplified structure, which is very uncommon in real systems. Here we test several methods against a recently introduced class of benchmark graphs, with heterogeneous distributions of degree and community size. The methods are also tested against the benchmark by Girvan and Newman [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 7821 (2002)] and on random graphs. As a result of our analysis, three recent algorithms introduced by Rosvall and Bergstrom [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104, 7327 (2007); Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105, 1118 (2008)], Blondel [J. Stat. Mech.: Theory Exp. (2008), P10008], and Ronhovde and Nussinov [Phys. Rev. E 80, 016109 (2009)] have an excellent performance, with the additional advantage of low computational complexity, which enables one to analyze large systems.

  20. Environment International, Special Issue, "Future Directions in Air Quality Research Ecological, Atmospheric, Regulatory/Policy/Economic, and Educational Issues", Volume 29, #2-3. June 2003. ISSN 0160 4120

    SciTech Connect

    Alcock, Ruth E; Heck, Walter W; Chappelka, Arthur H; Hunt, William F; Innes, John L; and Unsworth, Michael

    2003-06-01

    The Air Resources Consortium sponsored a Conference entitled "Future Directions in Air Quality Research". The Conference was held on February 12-15, 2001 at the Sheraton Imperial Hotel and Conference Center in the Research Triangle Park, NC. This was an international conference that had wide interest in both the scientific and regulatory communities at both State and Federal levels in the U.S. and in the international community. Attendance over the four days of the Conference was over 200 with excellent international participation. The primary purpose of the Conference was to highlight future directions in air quality research based on our current knowledge and ongoing research. Three atmospheric contaminates (ozone, carbon dioxide and species of nitrogen) as the primary focus for the Conference, since they would likely be of continuing concern to the international community over the next several decades. Speakers focused on ways that research could support regulatory, policy and environmental needs of federal, state and local government as well as the concerns of both industrial and environmental groups. Economic impacts were considered when covering policy implications. The program was developed around ecological effects, atmospheric processes and their relationships. Conference speakers were asked to develop their papers for inclusion in a Conference Proceedings. The proceedings were published in the Journal "Environment International" as Volume 29, Numbers 2-3, in June of 2003. Copies of the Proceedings have been sent to DOE.

  1. Geomorphology and anthropogenic impact including military constraints in a microtidal wave-dominated embayment in south western Sardinia (Porto Pino beach, SCI ITB040025, Mediterranean Sea). Implications for beach management.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Muro, Sandro; Buosi, Carla; Pusceddu, Nicola; Frongia, Paolo; Passarella, Marinella; Ibba, Angelo

    2016-04-01

    The coastal zones of the Mediterranean have undergone increasing pressure over the last century. The intensifying coastal development and the increasing tourist impact have led to an intense transformation of the coastlines and adjacent marine areas. The beach and the coastal dune play an important role in protecting the coastline. Thus, the study of its geomorphological evolution and of its anthropic modification is fundamental in order to adopt the best management practices. In this regard, the LIFE Project (LIFE13NAT/IT/001013) SOSS DUNES (Safeguard and management Of South-western Sardinian Dunes) aims to safeguard the dune habitats and the beach system in a site belonging to the Natura 2000 network, an EUwide network of nature protection areas established under the 1992 Habitats Directive. This project is focused on a microtidal wave-dominated embayment located in south western Sardinia (Italy, Mediterranean Sea) called Porto Pino beach comprised in the SCI (Site of Community Importance) "Promontory, dunes and wetland of Porto Pino (ITB040025)". This research aims to investigate the geomorphological processes, the evolution and the main human impacts on Porto Pino beach as an useful tool for both conservation and coastal management. The coastal area of Porto Pino is represented by sandy shorelines extending for a total length of 5 km characterized by a wide primary and secondary dune systems, a backshore wetland lagoon and marsh area arranged parallel to the coastline. This littoral area can be ideally divided into three parts: the first, about 600 m long, in the north-west part characterized by the highest human pressure due to touristic activity on the foredunes and deposition of beach wrack; the second part in the south-east, about 1100 m long, characterized by a complex dune system (primary and secondary foredunes); and the third southernmost part included in a military area, about 3300 m long, characterized by transgressive dune system with low human

  2. Evidence for an intense solar outburst in prehistory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peratt, A. L.; Yao, W. F.

    2008-10-01

    A past intense solar outburst and its effect on Earth was proposed by Gold (1962 Pontificiae Acad. Sci. Scr. Varia 25 159) who, along with others, based his hypotheses on strong astronomical and geophysical evidence. The discovery that objects from the Neolithic or Early Bronze Age carry patterns associated with high-current Z-pinches, as would result from an intense plasma impinging Earth, provides a possible insight into the origin and meaning of these ancient symbols produced by humans. Peratt (2003 Trans. Plasma Sci. 31 1192) dealt with the comparison of graphical and radiation data from high-current Z-pinches to petroglyphs, geoglyphs and megaliths. Peratt (2007 Trans. Plasma Sci. 35 778) focused primarily, but not exclusively, on petroglyphs of some 84 different morphologies; pictures found in laboratory experiments and carved on rock. These corresponded to mankind's visual observations of ancient aurora as might be produced if the solar wind had increased at times between one and two orders of magnitude, millennia ago (Gold 1962 Pontificiae Acad. Sci. Scr. Varia 25 159). In Peratt (2007 Trans. Plasma Sci. 35 778), the data were given on the source of light and its temporal change from a current-increasing Z-pinch or dense plasma focus aurora. Orientation and field-of-view data are given as surveyed and contributed from 139 countries, from sites and fields containing several millions of these objects, the latest data coming from a 300 km survey along the Orinoco river basin in Venezuela. In this paper, we include additional petroglyph figures derivable from experiment and computer. This information allows a reconstruction of the auroral form presumably associated with extreme geomagnetic storms and shows, based on existent geophysical evidence, relativistic electron flow inward at Earth's south polar axis and hypervelocity proton impacts around the north polar axis.

  3. Magnetic Tests For Magnetosome Chains In Martian Meteorite ALH84001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, B. P.; Kim, S.; Kirschvink, J. L.; Sankaran, M.; Kobayashi, A.; Komeili, A.

    2003-12-01

    Transmission electron microscopy studies have been used to argue that magnetites in carbonates from Martian meteorite ALH84001 have a composition and morphology indistinguishable from that of magnetotactic bacteria and their magnetofossils (1). It has even been claimed from scanning electron microscopy imaging that some ALH84001 magnetites are aligned in chains (2). If true, this would provide dramatic support for the magnetofossil hypothesis because alignment in chains is perhaps the most distinctive of the six crystallographic properties thought to be collectively unique to magnetosomes. The leading alternative hypothesis is that the ALH84001 magnetites are the inorganic products of shock-heating of the carbonates (3, 4). Here we use three rock magnetic techniques-low-temperature cycling, the Moskowitz test (5), and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR)-to demonstrate that most or all of the magnetites in ALH84001 are unusually pure and fine-grained but are not arranged in magnetosome chains. 1. K. L. Thomas-Keprta et al., Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 64, 4049-4081 (2000). 2. I. E. Friedmann, J. Wierzchos, C. Ascaso, M. Winklhofer, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98, 2176-2181 (2001). 3. D. C. Golden et al., Am. Mineral. 83, 370-375 (2001). 4. D. J. Barber, E. R. D. Scott, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 6556-6561 (2002). 5. B. M. Moskowitz, R. B. Frankel, D. A. Bazylinski, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 120, 283-300 (1993).

  4. Viscosity Solutions for the One-Body Liouville Equation in Yang-Mills Charged Bianchi Models with Non-Zero Mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayissi, Raoul Domingo; Noutchegueme, Norbert; Etoua, Remy Magloire; Tchagna, Hugues Paulin Mbeutcha

    2015-09-01

    Recently in 2005, Briani and Rampazzo (Nonlinear Differ Equ Appl 12:71-91, 2005) gave, using results of Crandall and Lions (Ill J Math 31:665-688, 1987), Ishii (Indiana Univ Math J 33: 721-748, 1984, Bull Fac Sci Eng 28: 33-77, 1985) and Ley (Adv Diff Equ 6:547-576, 2001) a density approach to Hamilton-Jacobi equations with t-measurable Hamiltonians. In this paper we show, using an important result of Briani and Rampazzo (Nonlinear Differ Equ Appl 12:71-91, 2005) the existence and uniqueness of viscosity solutions to the one-body Liouville relativistic equation in Yang-Mills charged Bianchi space times with non-zero mass. To our knowledge, the method used here is original and thus, totally different from those used in Alves (C R Acad Sci Paris Sér A 278:1151-1154, 1975), Choquet-Bruhat and Noutchegueme (C R Acad Sci Paris Sér I 311, 1973), Choquet-Bruhat and Noutchegueme (Ann Inst Henri Poincaré 55:759-787, 1991), Choquet-Bruhat and Noutchegueme (Pitman Res Notes Math Ser 253:52-71, 1992), Noutchegueme and Noundjeu (Ann Inst Henri Poincaré 1:385-404, 2000), Wollman (J Math Anal Appl 127:103-121, 1987) and Choquet-Bruhat (Existence and uniqueness for the Einstein-Maxwell-Liouville system. Volume dedicated to Petrov, Moscow, 1971) who have studied the same equation.

  5. Le Carbonifère du Maroc central : les formations de Migoumess, de Tirhela et d'Idmarrach. Lithologie, biostratigraphie et conséquences géodynamiquesThe Carboniferous formations of Migoumess, Tirhela and Idmarrach (central Morocco): lithology, biostratigraphy and geodynamic consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkhli, Mostafa; Vachard, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    New biostratigraphical data based on foraminifers, algae and pseudo-algae indicate that the limestone pebbles of the channelized polygenic conglomerates of the Migoumess formation contain Late Visean (V3b γ-V3c) assemblages. That confirms the Westphalian age attributed to this formation by Hollard [Zdt. Geol. Ges. 129 (1978) 495-512]. The Tournaisian age assigned to it by palynology [C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, série II 310 (1990) 1573-1576] cannot be retained. The Tirhela formation, Late Visean and Serpukhovian (E1) in age, is coeval with the Akerchi formation [Berkhli, thèse d'État, 1999; Berkhli et al., J. Afr. Earth Sci. (accepté)]. The Idmarrach formation, mapped as a thrust sheet [C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, série II 310 (1990) 1573-1576], is dated as Serpukhovian (E1) and its thrusting is consequently post-Serpukhovian. Palaeogeographic and geodynamic consequences are listed. To cite this article: M. Berkhli, D. Vachard, C. R. Geoscience 334 (2002) 67-72

  6. Best Sci-Tech Books of 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapp, Gregg

    2009-01-01

    In tight economic times, the concerns and issues of science, viewed as not having enough practical value, can get pushed aside. But the top science books of 2008 demonstrate how science more often than not pays for itself. What's more practical than food (Tomorrow's Table), health (Our Daily Meds), the environment (The Hot Topics), or even--sex…

  7. Best of 2009 Sci-Tech Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapp, Gregg

    2010-01-01

    Science often reflects society's concerns, and a number of the top books of 2009 address two of the biggest headline-grabbing topics--climate change and health-care reform. This article presents a list of 35 titles that address climate change and health-care reform. Some titles cover the entirety of the global-warming threat (James Lovelock's "The…

  8. How Is Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... five classification levels, ranging from complete loss of neural function in the affected area to completely normal ... Reviewed: 05/28/2013 Related A-Z Topics Neural Tube Defects (NTDs) Rehabilitation Medicine NICHD News and ...

  9. Sci-Tech Archives and Manuscript Collections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mount, Ellis, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Selected collections of scientific and technical archives and manuscripts described in eight articles include the Edison Archives; American Museum of Natural History Library; MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) Institute Archives and Special Collections; National Archives; Dard Hunter Paper Museum; American Zoo and Aquarium Archives; and…

  10. Weight Management Following SCI (Spinal Cord Injury)

    MedlinePlus

    ... and family can be a wonderful source of reinforcement if you give them suggestions on ways they ... Do not try to predict future. • Keep a positive attitude. • Do not be self-critical. • Recognize the ...

  11. Training-Induced Functional Gains following SCI.

    PubMed

    Ward, P J; Herrity, A N; Harkema, S J; Hubscher, C H

    2016-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that daily, hour-long training sessions significantly improved both locomotor (limb kinematics, gait, and hindlimb flexor-extensor bursting patterns) and nonlocomotor (bladder function and at-level mechanical allodynia) functions following a moderate contusive spinal cord injury. The amount of training needed to achieve this recovery is unknown. Furthermore, whether this recovery is induced primarily by neuronal activity below the lesion or other aspects related to general exercise is unclear. Therefore, the current study objectives were to (1) test the efficacy of 30 minutes of step training for recovery following a clinically relevant contusion injury in male Wistar rats and (2) test the efficacy of training without hindlimb engagement. The results indicate that as little as 30 minutes of step training six days per week enhances overground locomotion in male rats with contusive spinal cord injury but does not alter allodynia or bladder function. Thirty minutes of forelimb-only exercise did not alter locomotion, allodynia, or bladder function, and neither training protocol altered the amount of in-cage activity. Taken together, locomotor improvements were facilitated by hindlimb step training for 30 minutes, but longer durations of training are required to affect nonlocomotor systems. PMID:27403345

  12. Training-Induced Functional Gains following SCI

    PubMed Central

    Ward, P. J.; Herrity, A. N.; Harkema, S. J.; Hubscher, C. H.

    2016-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that daily, hour-long training sessions significantly improved both locomotor (limb kinematics, gait, and hindlimb flexor-extensor bursting patterns) and nonlocomotor (bladder function and at-level mechanical allodynia) functions following a moderate contusive spinal cord injury. The amount of training needed to achieve this recovery is unknown. Furthermore, whether this recovery is induced primarily by neuronal activity below the lesion or other aspects related to general exercise is unclear. Therefore, the current study objectives were to (1) test the efficacy of 30 minutes of step training for recovery following a clinically relevant contusion injury in male Wistar rats and (2) test the efficacy of training without hindlimb engagement. The results indicate that as little as 30 minutes of step training six days per week enhances overground locomotion in male rats with contusive spinal cord injury but does not alter allodynia or bladder function. Thirty minutes of forelimb-only exercise did not alter locomotion, allodynia, or bladder function, and neither training protocol altered the amount of in-cage activity. Taken together, locomotor improvements were facilitated by hindlimb step training for 30 minutes, but longer durations of training are required to affect nonlocomotor systems. PMID:27403345

  13. Estimating maximum global wind power availability and associated climatic consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Lee; Gans, Fabian; Kleidon, Axel

    2010-05-01

    Natl Acad Sci, 106. [3] Liu, W.T., W. Tang, and X. Xie, (2008) Wind power distribution over the ocean, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35 L13808. [4] IPCC, (2008) IPCC scoping meeting on renewable energy sources - proceedings, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [5] U.S. Department of Energy, (2008) 20% wind energy by 2030: increasing wind energy's contribution to U.S. electricity supply, U.S. Dept. of Energy - Energy Information Administration. [6] EEA, (2009) Europe's onshore and offshore wind energy potential, European Environment Agency, ISSN 1725-2237.

  14. From gene expressions to genetic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieplak, Marek

    2009-03-01

    A method based on the principle of entropy maximization is used to identify the gene interaction network with the highest probability of giving rise to experimentally observed transcript profiles [1]. In its simplest form, the method yields the pairwise gene interaction network, but it can also be extended to deduce higher order correlations. Analysis of microarray data from genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae chemostat cultures exhibiting energy metabollic oscillations identifies a gene interaction network that reflects the intracellular communication pathways. These pathways adjust cellular metabolic activity and cell division to the limiting nutrient conditions that trigger metabolic oscillations. The success of the present approach in extracting meaningful genetic connections suggests that the maximum entropy principle is a useful concept for understanding living systems, as it is for other complex, nonequilibrium systems. The time-dependent behavior of the genetic network is found to involve only a few fundamental modes [2,3]. [4pt] REFERENCES:[0pt] [1] T. R. Lezon, J. R. Banavar, M. Cieplak, A. Maritan, and N. Fedoroff, Using the principle of entropy maximization to infer genetic interaction networks from gene expression patterns, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 103, 19033-19038 (2006) [0pt] [2] N. S. Holter, M. Mitra, A. Maritan, M. Cieplak, J. R. Banavar, and N. V. Fedoroff, Fundamental patterns underlying gene expression profiles: simplicity from complexity, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 8409-8414 (2000) [0pt] [3] N. S. Holter, A. Maritan, M. Cieplak, N. V. Fedoroff, and J. R. Banavar, Dynamic modeling of gene expression data, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98, 1693-1698 (2001)

  15. The nucleotide sequence at the termini of adenovirus type 5 DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Steenbergh, P H; Maat, J; van Ormondt, H; Sussenbach, J S

    1977-01-01

    The sequences of the first 194 base pairs at both termini of adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) DNA have been determined, using the chemical degradation technique developed by Maxam and Gilbert (Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 74 (1977), pp. 560-564). The nucleotide sequences 1-75 were confirmed by analysis of labeled RNA transcribed from the terminal HhaI fragments in vitro. The sequence data show that Ad5 DNA has a perfect inverted terminal repetition of 103 base pairs long. Images PMID:600799

  16. Fractional Hamiltonian monodromy from a Gauss-Manin monodromy

    SciTech Connect

    Sugny, D.; Jauslin, H. R.; Mardesic, P.; Pelletier, M.; Jebrane, A.

    2008-04-15

    Fractional Hamiltonian monodromy is a generalization of the notion of Hamiltonian monodromy, recently introduced by [Nekhoroshev, Sadovskii, and Zhilinskii, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, Ser. 1 335, 985 (2002); and Ann. Henri Poincare 7, 1099 (2006)] for energy-momentum maps whose image has a particular type of nonisolated singularities. In this paper, we analyze the notion of fractional Hamiltonian monodromy in terms of the Gauss-Manin monodromy of a Riemann surface constructed from the energy-momentum map and associated with a loop in complex space which bypasses the line of singularities. We also prove some propositions on fractional Hamiltonian monodromy for 1:-n and m:-n resonant systems.

  17. Default taxonomy: Ernst Mayr's view of the microbial world.

    PubMed

    Woese, C R

    1998-09-15

    This perspective is a response to a taxonomic proposal by E. Mayr ["Two empires or three?" (1998) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 9720-9723]. Mayr has suggested that the now accepted classification of life into three primary domains, Archaea, Bacteria, and Eucarya-originally proposed by myself and others--be abandoned in favor of the earlier Prokaryote-Eukaryote classification. Although the matter appears a taxonomic quibble, it is not that simple. At issue here are differing views as to the nature of biological classification, which are underlain by differing views as to what biology is and will be--matters of concern to all biologists. PMID:9736686

  18. A simplified method for extracting androgens from avian egg yolks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kozlowski, C.P.; Bauman, J.E.; Hahn, D.C.

    2009-01-01

    Female birds deposit significant amounts of steroid hormones into the yolks of their eggs. Studies have demonstrated that these hormones, particularly androgens, affect nestling growth and development. In order to measure androgen concentrations in avian egg yolks, most authors follow the extraction methods outlined by Schwabl (1993. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 90:11446-11450). We describe a simplified method for extracting androgens from avian egg yolks. Our method, which has been validated through recovery and linearity experiments, consists of a single ethanol precipitation that produces substantially higher recoveries than those reported by Schwabl.

  19. On Rank One Convex Functions that are Homogeneous of Degree One

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchheim, Bernd; Kristensen, Jan

    2016-07-01

    We show that positively 1-homogeneous rank one convex functions are convex at 0 and at matrices of rank one. The result is a special case of an abstract convexity result that we establish for positively 1-homogeneous directionally convex functions defined on an open convex cone in a finite dimensional vector space. From these results we derive a number of consequences including various generalizations of the Ornstein L1 non inequalities. Most of the results were announced in ( C R Acad Sci Paris Ser I 349:407-409, 2011).

  20. Purification and characterization of a Na+, K+ ATPase inhibitor found in an endotoxin of Leptospira interrogans.

    PubMed Central

    Burth, P; Younes-Ibrahim, M; Gonçalez, F H; Costa, E R; Faria, M V

    1997-01-01

    We showed previously that the glycolipoprotein fraction prepared from Leptospira interrogans inhibited the Na+,K+ ATPase enzyme purified from brain or kidney and in isolated nephron segments (M. Younes-Ibrahim, P. Burth, M. V. Castro Faria, B. Buffin-Meyer, S. Marsy, C. Barlet-Bas, L. Cheval, and A. Doucet, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris Ser. III 318:619-625, 1995). In the present communication, we have demonstrated that unsaturated fatty acids such as oleic and palmitoleic acids, which are adsorbed to this fraction, are effective inhibitors of the enzyme. PMID:9119504

  1. The road to understanding an ion pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyoshima, Chikashi

    2016-04-01

    In the past 25 years or so I have been working almost exclusively on two proteins: the Ca2+-ATPase of muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum, and the Na+, K+-ATPase expressed in all animal cells, both are membrane ion pumps representing P-type ion translocating ATPases. My ambition as a scientist is to completely understand the meaning of their atomic structures. How I became a scientist is described elsewhere (Nuzzo R 2006 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103 1165-7), and focus here is given to my struggle towards a deep understanding of Ca2+-ATPase. This is a long but very fascinating and rewarding journey.

  2. Nanoscale hydrodynamics in the cell: balancing motorized transport with diffusion

    PubMed Central

    Austin, Robert H.

    2008-01-01

    One of the central problems in the cell is how to transport molecules around the cell to desired locations. Since low Reynolds number conditions apply and diffusional times are large, without the aid of molecular motors to transport the fluid quickly cells could not survive, yet diffusion is still essential for the ultimate delivery of the goods. This paradox of low Reynolds number∕large Peclet number has been solved by the algal weed Chara corallina in ingenious ways, as the recent paper by Goldstein, et al. [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 105, 3663–3667 (2008)] discusses at a deep but accessible way using modern hydrodynamic modeling. PMID:19404437

  3. L'affleurement triasique du Debadib Ben Gasseur (Nord-Ouest de la Tunisie) : diapir enraciné à épanchements latéraux dans la mer Albienne, replissé au cours des phases de compression tertiairesThe Triassic rocks of the Debadib Ben Gasseur area (northwestern Tunisia): diapir with overhangs spreading downslope in the Albian Sea and deformed during the Tertiary compressional deformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikhaoui, Mongi; Jallouli, Chokri; Turki, Mohamed Moncef; Soussi, Mohamed; Braham, Ahmed; Zaghbib-Turki, Dalia

    2002-12-01

    The Triassic outcrops of the Debadib-Ben Gasseur area, located in the Kef area (northwestern Tunisia) have recently been interpreted as submarine 'salt glaciers' interbedded within the Albian deposits (J.-M. Vila et al., C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, Ser. II 318 (1994) 1661-1667). New cartographic, drills and gravimetric data recognised evidence for an Albian diapiric stage for the Triassic rocks. The Triassic rocks as pulling out of the sedimentary cover could spread laterally as small size 'salt glaciers' before they have been deformed during the Tertiary compressional deformations. To cite this article: M. Chikhaoui et al., C. R. Geoscience 334 (2002) 1129-1133.

  4. Periodicity of mass extinctions without an extraterrestrial cause

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipowski, Adam

    2005-05-01

    We study a lattice model of a multispecies prey-predator system. Numerical results show that for a small mutation rate the model develops irregular long-period oscillatory behavior with sizeable changes in a number of species. The periodicity of extinctions on Earth was suggested by Raup and Sepkoski [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 81, 801 (1984)], but thus far is lacking a satisfactory explanation. Our model indicates that this might be a natural consequence of the ecosystem dynamics and not the result of any extraterrestrial cause.

  5. Comment on "Nonparametric forecasting of low-dimensional dynamical systems "

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondrashov, Dmitri; Chekroun, Mickaël D.; Ghil, Michael

    2016-03-01

    The comparison performed in Berry et al. [Phys. Rev. E 91, 032915 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevE.91.032915] between the skill in predicting the El Niño-Southern Oscillation climate phenomenon by the prediction method of Berry et al. and the "past-noise" forecasting method of Chekroun et al. [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 11766 (2011), 10.1073/pnas.1015753108] is flawed. Three specific misunderstandings in Berry et al. are pointed out and corrected.

  6. Default taxonomy: Ernst Mayr's view of the microbial world

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woese, C. R.

    1998-01-01

    This perspective is a response to a taxonomic proposal by E. Mayr ["Two empires or three?" (1998) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 9720-9723]. Mayr has suggested that the now accepted classification of life into three primary domains, Archaea, Bacteria, and Eucarya-originally proposed by myself and others--be abandoned in favor of the earlier Prokaryote-Eukaryote classification. Although the matter appears a taxonomic quibble, it is not that simple. At issue here are differing views as to the nature of biological classification, which are underlain by differing views as to what biology is and will be--matters of concern to all biologists.

  7. Nanoscale hydrodynamics in the cell: balancing motorized transport with diffusion.

    PubMed

    Austin, Robert H

    2008-10-01

    One of the central problems in the cell is how to transport molecules around the cell to desired locations. Since low Reynolds number conditions apply and diffusional times are large, without the aid of molecular motors to transport the fluid quickly cells could not survive, yet diffusion is still essential for the ultimate delivery of the goods. This paradox of low Reynolds numberlarge Peclet number has been solved by the algal weed Chara corallina in ingenious ways, as the recent paper by Goldstein, et al. [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 105, 3663-3667 (2008)] discusses at a deep but accessible way using modern hydrodynamic modeling. PMID:19404437

  8. Amino acid sequence of a vitamin K-dependent Ca2+-binding peptide from bovine prothrombin.

    PubMed

    Howard, J B; Fausch, M D

    1975-08-10

    The amino acid sequence of a 31-residue peptide from bovine prothrombin has been determined. This peptide has been shown to contain the vitamin K-dependent modification required for Ca2+ binding (Nelsestuen, G. L., and Suttie, J. W. (1973) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 70, 3366-3370) and the modified amino acid, gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Nelsestuen, G. L., Zytkovicz, T., and Howard, J. B. (1974) J. Biol. Chem. 249, 6347-6350). The peptide was shown to correspond to residues 12 to 42 of prothrombin. PMID:807581

  9. Identifying the occurrence time of mainshocks by means of Natural Time Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarlis, Nicholas V.; Skordas, Efthimios S.; Lazaridou, Mary S.; Varotsos, Panayiotis A.

    2016-04-01

    By employing the new view of time, termed natural time [1], recent advances on the natural time analysis of a seismic catalogue [2] include: First, the fluctuations of the order parameter κ1 of seismicity exhibit a minimum almost simultaneous with the initiation of a Seismic Electric Signals (SES) activity [3,4]. This opens the window of a deeper understanding of the critical nature of preseismic process [5]. Second, a spatiotemporal study of the fluctuations of the order parameter of seismicity leads to an estimate of the epicentral area of a major impending mainshock [6]. Third, by starting the natural time analysis of the seismicity in the candidate epicentral area at the initiation time of the SES activity, we find that the κ1 values converge to the critical value [7-9] κ_1=0.070 a few days to one week before a mainshock. Recent applications of this procedure are presented for mainshocks that occurred close to Athens [10] during the last few years. References [1] P. A. Varotsos, N. V. Sarlis and E. S. Skordas, Phys. Rev. E {66} (2002) 011902; Practica of Athens Academy {76} (2001) 294. [2] P.A.Varotsos, N.V. Sarlis, H.K. Tanaka and E.S. Skordas, Phys. Rev. E {72} (2005) 041103. [3] P. Varotsos and M. Lazaridou, Tectonophysics {188} (1991) 321. [4] P. A. Varotsos, N. V. Sarlis, E. S. Skordas, and M. S. Lazaridou, Tectonophysics {589} (2013) 116. [5] P. Varotsos, K. Alexopoulos and M. Lazaridou, Tectonophysics {224} (1993) 1. [6] N.V. Sarlis, E.S. Skordas, P.A. Varotsos, T. Nagao, M. Kamogawa, and S. Uyeda Proc Natl Acad Sci USA {112} (2015) 986. [7] P. Varotsos, N.V. Sarlis, E.S. Skordas, S. Uyeda, and M. Kamogawa, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA {108} (2011) 11361. [8] N.V. Sarlis, E.S. Skordas, P.A. Varotsos, T. Nagao, M. Kamogawa, H. Tanaka and S. Uyeda Proc Natl Acad Sci USA {110} (2013) 13734. [9] N.V. Sarlis, E.S. Skordas, M.S. Lazaridou, and P.A. Varotsos, Proc Japan Acad Ser. ? {84} (2008) 331. [10] P.A. Varotsos, N.V. Sarlis, E.S. Skordas, S.-R. G

  10. The protein translocation machinery of the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Walter, P; Gilmore, R; Müller, M; Blobel, G

    1982-12-24

    The rough endoplasmic reticulum (r.e.r.) has been postulated to possess a single translation-coupled translocation system (in multiple copies) that effects signal sequence-mediated translocation of all secretory and lysosomal proteins and integration of all integral membrane proteins whose port of entry is the rough endoplasmic reticulum (G. Blobel 1980 Proc. natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77, 1496-1500). Two proteins have been isolated that are components of the r.e.r. translocation system. Their properties and function in protein translocation across and integration into membranes are discussed. PMID:6131460

  11. Generalized Klein-Kramers equation: solution and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sau Fa, Kwok; Wang, K. G.

    2013-09-01

    A generalized Klein-Kramers equation based on the continuous time random walk model is investigated. The equation generalizes the ordinary and fractional Klein-Kramers equations. Analytic solutions for the probability density and first two moments (for the force-free case) are obtained, and their dynamic behaviors are investigated in detail. The model is used to describe the cell migration of two migrating transformed renal epithelial Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK-F) cell strains: wild-type (NHE+) and NHE-deficient (NHE-) cells. Our theoretical predictions are in good agreement with experimental work in the paper (Dieterich et al 2008 Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 105 459).

  12. Comment on “Magnetostratigraphic study of the Kuche Depression, Tarim Basin, and Cenozoic uplift of the Tian Shan Range, Western China” Baochun Huang, John D.A. Piper, Shoutao Peng, Tao Liu, Zhong Li, Qingchen Wang, Rixiang Zhu [Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 2006, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2006.09.020

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charreau, Julien; Chen, Yan; Gilder, Stuart; Barier, Laurie

    2008-04-01

    The recent publication of "Magnetostratigraphic study of the Kuche Depression, Tarim Basin, and Cenozoic uplift of the Tian Shan Range,Western China" by B.C. Huang, J.D.A. Piper, S.T. Peng, T. Liu, Z. Li, Q.C. Wang, R.X. Zhu [Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 2006, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2006.09.020] discusses the Cenozoic uplift history of the Tianshan Mountains by studying the magnetostratigraphy of Paleogene to Neogene continental sediments from two sections located in the Kuche basin at the northern edge of the Tarim basin. To support their conclusion they reinterpreted a magnetostratigraphic study of the Yaha section, which lies ~ 10 km south of their sections, we previously published [J. Charreau, S. Gilder, Y. Chen, S. Dominguez, J.-P. Avouac, S. Sen, M. Jolivet, Y. Li and W. Wang, Magnetostratigraphy of the Yaha section, Tarim Basin (China): 11 Ma acceleration in erosion and uplift of the Tianshan Mountains, Geology 34(3), 2006, 181­184.]. Here, (1) we argue that the interpretations of the sedimentation rate changes they proposed for the Kuche sections are partially invalid, (2) we disagree with their reinterpretation of the age of the Yaha section, and (3) we think that the way they interpret their AMS data is incorrect.

  13. Finite Time Extinction for Stochastic Sign Fast Diffusion and Self-Organized Criticality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gess, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    We prove finite time extinction for stochastic sign fast diffusion equations driven by linear multiplicative space-time noise, corresponding to the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld model for self-organized criticality. This solves a problem posed and left open in several works: (Barbu, Methods Appl Sci 36:1726-1733, 2013; Röckner and Wang, J Lond Math Soc (2) 87:545-560, 2013; Barbu et al. J Math Anal Appl 389:147-164, 2012; Barbu and Röckner, Comm Math Phys 311:539-555, 2012; Barbu et al., Comm Math Phys 285:901-923, 2009, C R Math Acad Sci Paris 347(1-2):81-84, 2009). The highly singular-degenerate nature of the drift in interplay with the stochastic perturbation causes the need for new methods in the analysis of mass diffusion, and several new estimates and techniques are introduced.

  14. Entanglement properties of positive operators with ranges in completely entangled subspaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, R.; Arvind, Singh, Ajit Iqbal

    2014-12-01

    We prove that the projection on a completely entangled subspace S of maximum dimension obtained by Parthasarathy [K. R. Parthasarathy, Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. Math. Sci. 114, 365 (2004), 10.1007/BF02829441] in a multipartite quantum system is not positive under partial transpose. We next show that a large number of positive operators with a range in S also have the same property. In this process we construct an orthonormal basis for S and provide a theorem to link the constructions of completely entangled subspaces due to Parthasarathy (as cited above), Bhat [B. V. R. Bhat, Int. J. Quantum Inf. 4, 325 (2006), 10.1142/S0219749906001797], and Johnston [N. Johnston, Phys. Rev. A 87, 064302 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevA.87.064302].

  15. Neandertal nasal structures and upper respiratory tract "specialization".

    PubMed

    Franciscus, R G

    1999-02-16

    Schwartz and Tattersall [Schwartz, J. H. & Tattersall, I. (1996) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 10852-10854] have argued for a previously unrecognized suite of autapomorphies in the internal nasal region of Neandertals that make them unique, not only among hominids, but possibly among all other terrestrial mammals. These purported autapomorphies include (i) the development of an internal nasal margin bearing a well developed and vertically oriented medial projection; (ii) a pronounced medial swelling of the lateral nasal wall into the posterior nasal cavity; and (iii) the lack of an ossified roof over the lacrimal groove. In addition, Laitman et al. [Laitman, J. T., Reidenberg, J. S., Marquez, S. & Gannon, P. J. (1996) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 10543-10545] pointed to these features as evidence for upper respiratory tract specializations among the Neandertals, indicating potential differences in behavior compared with modern humans. Critically reviewing the anatomical basis for Schwartz and Tattersall's contentions reveals several serious problems with their analysis, including (i) reliance on specimens with damaged, incomplete, or, in some cases, entirely absent relevant anatomy; (ii) failure to consider primary vs. secondary spatial consequences in nasal trait conceptualization; and (iii) failure to consider actual ranges of variation in these traits in both fossil and recent humans. Accordingly, the unique phylogenetic and adaptive "specializations" attributed to Neandertal internal nasal structures are unwarranted. PMID:9990106

  16. Edge ratio and community structure in networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cafieri, Sonia; Hansen, Pierre; Liberti, Leo

    2010-02-01

    A hierarchical divisive algorithm is proposed for identifying communities in complex networks. To that effect, the definition of community in the weak sense of Radicchi [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 2658 (2004)] is extended into a criterion for a bipartition to be optimal: one seeks to maximize the minimum for both classes of the bipartition of the ratio of inner edges to cut edges. A mathematical program is used within a dichotomous search to do this in an optimal way for each bipartition. This includes an exact solution of the problem of detecting indivisible communities. The resulting hierarchical divisive algorithm is compared with exact modularity maximization on both artificial and real world data sets. For two problems of the former kind optimal solutions are found; for five problems of the latter kind the edge ratio algorithm always appears to be competitive. Moreover, it provides additional information in several cases, notably through the use of the dendrogram summarizing the resolution. Finally, both algorithms are compared on reduced versions of the data sets of Girvan and Newman [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 7821 (2002)] and of Lancichinetti [Phys. Rev. E 78, 046110 (2008)]. Results for these instances appear to be comparable.

  17. General topology meets model theory, on and

    PubMed Central

    Malliaris, Maryanthe; Shelah, Saharon

    2013-01-01

    Cantor proved in 1874 [Cantor G (1874) J Reine Angew Math 77:258–262] that the continuum is uncountable, and Hilbert’s first problem asks whether it is the smallest uncountable cardinal. A program arose to study cardinal invariants of the continuum, which measure the size of the continuum in various ways. By Gödel [Gödel K (1939) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 25(4):220–224] and Cohen [Cohen P (1963) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 50(6):1143–1148], Hilbert’s first problem is independent of ZFC (Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory with the axiom of choice). Much work both before and since has been done on inequalities between these cardinal invariants, but some basic questions have remained open despite Cohen’s introduction of forcing. The oldest and perhaps most famous of these is whether “,” which was proved in a special case by Rothberger [Rothberger F (1948) Fund Math 35:29–46], building on Hausdorff [Hausdorff (1936) Fund Math 26:241–255]. In this paper we explain how our work on the structure of Keisler’s order, a large-scale classification problem in model theory, led to the solution of this problem in ZFC as well as of an a priori unrelated open question in model theory. PMID:23836659

  18. Significance of endangered and threatened plant natural products in the control of human disease

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Mohamed Ali; Na, MinKyun; Oh, Joonseok; Schinazi, Raymond F.; McBrayer, Tami R.; Whitaker, Tony; Doerksen, Robert J.; Newman, David J.; Zachos, Louis G.; Hamann, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    One in five of the world’s plant species is threatened with extinction according to the 2010 first global analysis of extinction risk. Tilman et al. predicted a massive ecological change to terrestrial plants within the next 50–100 y, accompanied by an increase in the number of global plant species facing extinction [Tilman D, et al. (2001) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98(10):5433–5440]. Most of the drug-producing plant families contain endangered species never previously studied for their utility to human health, which strongly validates the need to prioritize protection and assessment of these fragile and endangered groups [Zhu F, et al. (2011) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108(31):12943–12948]. With little prior attention given to endangered and rare plant species, this report provides strong justification for conservation of the rare plant Diplostephium rhododendroides Hieron., as well as other potential drug-producing endangered species in this and other groups. PMID:24082148

  19. Neandertal nasal structures and upper respiratory tract “specialization”

    PubMed Central

    Franciscus, Robert G.

    1999-01-01

    Schwartz and Tattersall [Schwartz, J. H. & Tattersall, I. (1996) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 10852–10854] have argued for a previously unrecognized suite of autapomorphies in the internal nasal region of Neandertals that make them unique, not only among hominids, but possibly among all other terrestrial mammals. These purported autapomorphies include (i) the development of an internal nasal margin bearing a well developed and vertically oriented medial projection; (ii) a pronounced medial swelling of the lateral nasal wall into the posterior nasal cavity; and (iii) the lack of an ossified roof over the lacrimal groove. In addition, Laitman et al. [Laitman, J. T., Reidenberg, J. S., Marquez, S. & Gannon, P. J. (1996) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 10543–10545] pointed to these features as evidence for upper respiratory tract specializations among the Neandertals, indicating potential differences in behavior compared with modern humans. Critically reviewing the anatomical basis for Schwartz and Tattersall’s contentions reveals several serious problems with their analysis, including (i) reliance on specimens with damaged, incomplete, or, in some cases, entirely absent relevant anatomy; (ii) failure to consider primary vs. secondary spatial consequences in nasal trait conceptualization; and (iii) failure to consider actual ranges of variation in these traits in both fossil and recent humans. Accordingly, the unique phylogenetic and adaptive “specializations” attributed to Neandertal internal nasal structures are unwarranted. PMID:9990106

  20. The chimeric VirA-tar receptor protein is locked into a highly responsive state.

    PubMed

    Turk, S C; van Lange, R P; Sonneveld, E; Hooykaas, P J

    1993-09-01

    The wild-type VirA protein is known to be responsive not only to phenolic compounds but also to sugars via the ChvE protein (G. A. Cangelosi, R. G. Ankenbauer, and E. W. Nester, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87:6708-6712, 1990, and N. Shimoda, A. Toyoda-Yamamoto, J. Nagamine, S. Usami, M. Katayama, Y. Sakagami, and Y. Machida, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87:6684-6688, 1990). It is shown here that the mutant VirA(Ser-44, Arg-45) protein and the chimeric VirA-Tar protein are no longer responsive to sugars and the ChvE protein. However, whereas the chimeric VirA-Tar protein was found to be locked in a highly responsive state, the VirA(Ser-44, Arg-45) mutant protein appeared to be locked in a low responsive state. This difference turned out to be important for tumorigenicity of the host strains in virulence assays on Kalanchoë daigremontiana. PMID:8366057

  1. Accurate force spectroscopy in tapping mode atomic force microscopy in liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xin; Melcher, John; Raman, Arvind

    2010-01-01

    Existing force spectroscopy methods in tapping mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) such as higher harmonic inversion [M. Stark, R. W. Stark, W. M. Heckl, and R. Guckenberger, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 8473 (2002)] or scanning probe acceleration microscopy [J. Legleiter, M. Park, B. Cusick, and T. Kowalewski, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103, 4813 (2006)] or integral relations [M. Lee and W. Jhe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 036104 (2006); S. Hu and A. Raman, Nanotechnology 19, 375704 (2008); H. Hölscher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 123109 (2006); A. J. Katan, Nanotechnology 20, 165703 (2009)] require and assume as an observable the tip dynamics in a single eigenmode of the oscillating microcantilever. We demonstrate that this assumption can distort significantly the extracted tip-sample interaction forces when applied to tapping mode AFM with soft cantilevers in liquid environments. This exception is due to the fact that under these conditions the second eigenmode is momentarily excited and the observed tip dynamics clearly contains contributions from the fundamental and second eigenmodes. To alleviate this problem, a simple experimental method is proposed to screen the second eigenmode contributions in the observed tip deflection signal to allow accurate tip-sample force reconstruction in liquids. The method is implemented experimentally to reconstruct interaction forces on polymer, bacteriorhodopsin membrane, and mica samples in buffer solutions.

  2. Transdominant genetic analysis of a growth control pathway

    PubMed Central

    Caponigro, Giordano; Abedi, Majid R.; Hurlburt, Anthony P.; Maxfield, Andrew; Judd, Weston; Kamb, Alexander

    1998-01-01

    Genetic selections that use proteinaceous transdominant inhibitors encoded by DNA libraries to cause mutant phenocopies may facilitate genetic analysis in traditionally nongenetic organisms. We performed a selection for random short peptides and larger protein fragments (collectively termed “perturbagens”) that inhibit the yeast pheromone response pathway. Peptide and protein fragment perturbagens that permit cell division in the presence of pheromone were recovered. Two perturbagens were derived from proteins required for pheromone response, and an additional two were derived from proteins that may negatively influence the pheromone response pathway. Furthermore, three known components of the pathway were identified as probable perturbagen targets based on physical interaction assays. Thus, by selection for transdominant inhibitors of pheromone response, multiple pathway components were identified either directly as gene fragments or indirectly as the likely targets of specific perturbagens. These results, combined with the results of previous work [Holzmayer, T. A., Pestov, D. G. & Roninson, I. B. (1992) Nucl. Acids. Res. 20, 711–717; Whiteway, M., Dignard, D. & Thomas, D. Y. (1992) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89, 9410–9414; and Gudkov, A. V., Kazarov, A. R., Thimmapaya, R., Axenovich, S. A., Mazo, I. A. & Roninson, I. B. (1994) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 3744–3748], suggest that transdominant genetic analysis of the type described here will be broadly applicable. PMID:9636180

  3. Boolean networks with veto functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebadi, Haleh; Klemm, Konstantin

    2014-08-01

    Boolean networks are discrete dynamical systems for modeling regulation and signaling in living cells. We investigate a particular class of Boolean functions with inhibiting inputs exerting a veto (forced zero) on the output. We give analytical expressions for the sensitivity of these functions and provide evidence for their role in natural systems. In an intracellular signal transduction network [Helikar et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 1913 (2008), 10.1073/pnas.0705088105], the functions with veto are over-represented by a factor exceeding the over-representation of threshold functions and canalyzing functions in the same system. In Boolean networks for control of the yeast cell cycle [Li et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 4781 (2004), 10.1073/pnas.0305937101; Davidich et al., PLoS ONE 3, e1672 (2008), 10.1371/journal.pone.0001672], no or minimal changes to the wiring diagrams are necessary to formulate their dynamics in terms of the veto functions introduced here.

  4. Methane concentrations in water wells unrelated to proximity to existing oil and gas wells in northeastern Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Donald I; Azzolina, Nicholas A; Smith, Bert J; Perry, A Elizabeth; Bothun, Rikka L

    2015-04-01

    Recent studies in northeastern Pennsylvania report higher concentrations of dissolved methane in domestic water wells associated with proximity to nearby gas-producing wells [ Osborn et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 2011 , 108 , 8172 ] and [ Jackson et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. , 2013 , 110 , 11250 ]. We test this possible association by using Chesapeake Energy's baseline data set of over 11,300 dissolved methane analyses from domestic water wells, densely arrayed in Bradford and nearby counties (Pennsylvania), and near 661 pre-existing oil and gas wells. The majority of these, 92%, were unconventional wells, drilled with horizontal legs and hydraulically fractured. Our data set is hundreds of times larger than data sets used in prior studies. In contrast to prior findings, we found no statistically significant relationship between dissolved methane concentrations in groundwater from domestic water wells and proximity to pre-existing oil or gas wells. Previous analyses used small sample sets compared to the population of domestic wells available, which may explain the difference in prior findings compared to ours. PMID:25764141

  5. Reexamination of magnetic isotope and field effects on adenosine triphosphate production by creatine kinase

    PubMed Central

    Crotty, Darragh; Silkstone, Gary; Poddar, Soumya; Ranson, Richard; Prina-Mello, Adriele; Wilson, Michael T.; Coey, J. M. D.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of isotopically enriched magnesium on the creatine kinase catalyzed phosphorylation of adenosine diphosphate is examined in two independent series of experiments where adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentrations were determined by a luciferase-linked luminescence end-point assay or a real-time spectrophotometric assay. No increase was observed between the rates of ATP production with natural Mg, 24Mg, and 25Mg, nor was any significant magnetic field effect observed in magnetic fields from 3 to 1,000 mT. Our results are in conflict with those reported by Buchachenko et al. [J Am Chem Soc 130:12868–12869 (2008)], and they challenge these authors’ general claims that a large (two- to threefold) magnetic isotope effect is “universally observable” for ATP-producing enzymes [Her Russ Acad Sci 80:22–28 (2010)] and that “enzymatic phosphorylation is an ion-radical, electron-spin-selective process” [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101:10793–10796 (2005)]. PMID:22198842

  6. Adult pallium transcriptomes surprise in not reflecting predicted homologies across diverse chicken and mouse pallial sectors

    PubMed Central

    Belgard, T. Grant; Montiel, Juan F.; Wang, Wei Zhi; García-Moreno, Fernando; Ponting, Chris P.; Molnár, Zoltán

    2013-01-01

    The thorniest problem in comparative neurobiology is the identification of the particular brain region of birds and reptiles that corresponds to the mammalian neocortex [Butler AB, Reiner A, Karten HJ (2011) Ann N Y Acad Sci 1225:14–27; Wang Y, Brzozowska-Prechtl A, Karten HJ (2010) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107(28):12676–12681]. We explored which genes are actively transcribed in the regions of controversial ancestry in a representative bird (chicken) and mammal (mouse) at adult stages. We conducted four analyses comparing the expression patterns of their 5,130 most highly expressed one-to-one orthologous genes that considered global patterns of expression specificity, strong gene markers, and coexpression networks. Our study demonstrates transcriptomic divergence, plausible convergence, and, in two exceptional cases, conservation between specialized avian and mammalian telencephalic regions. This large-scale study potentially resolves the complex relationship between developmental homology and functional characteristics on the molecular level and settles long-standing evolutionary debates. PMID:23878249

  7. Adult pallium transcriptomes surprise in not reflecting predicted homologies across diverse chicken and mouse pallial sectors.

    PubMed

    Belgard, T Grant; Montiel, Juan F; Wang, Wei Zhi; García-Moreno, Fernando; Margulies, Elliott H; Ponting, Chris P; Molnár, Zoltán

    2013-08-01

    The thorniest problem in comparative neurobiology is the identification of the particular brain region of birds and reptiles that corresponds to the mammalian neocortex [Butler AB, Reiner A, Karten HJ (2011) Ann N Y Acad Sci 1225:14-27; Wang Y, Brzozowska-Prechtl A, Karten HJ (2010) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107(28):12676-12681]. We explored which genes are actively transcribed in the regions of controversial ancestry in a representative bird (chicken) and mammal (mouse) at adult stages. We conducted four analyses comparing the expression patterns of their 5,130 most highly expressed one-to-one orthologous genes that considered global patterns of expression specificity, strong gene markers, and coexpression networks. Our study demonstrates transcriptomic divergence, plausible convergence, and, in two exceptional cases, conservation between specialized avian and mammalian telencephalic regions. This large-scale study potentially resolves the complex relationship between developmental homology and functional characteristics on the molecular level and settles long-standing evolutionary debates. PMID:23878249

  8. The roles of language processing in a spoken language interface.

    PubMed Central

    Hirschman, L

    1995-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the colloquium's discussion session on natural language understanding, which followed presentations by M. Bates [Bates, M. (1995) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92, 9977-9982] and R. C. Moore [Moore, R. C. (1995) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92, 9983-9988]. The paper reviews the dual role of language processing in providing understanding of the spoken input and an additional source of constraint in the recognition process. To date, language processing has successfully provided understanding but has provided only limited (and computationally expensive) constraint. As a result, most current systems use a loosely coupled, unidirectional interface, such as N-best or a word network, with natural language constraints as a postprocess, to filter or resort the recognizer output. However, the level of discourse context provides significant constraint on what people can talk about and how things can be referred to; when the system becomes an active participant, it can influence this order. But sources of discourse constraint have not been extensively explored, in part because these effects can only be seen by studying systems in the context of their use in interactive problem solving. This paper argues that we need to study interactive systems to understand what kinds of applications are appropriate for the current state of technology and how the technology can move from the laboratory toward real applications. PMID:7479811

  9. See Also:Mechanics of Cohesive-frictional MaterialsCopyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Get Sample Copy

  10. Recommend to Your Librarian
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  1. Try Sci Fi for Reading That's Out of This World!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Robert; Zjawin, Dorothy

    1983-01-01

    Teachers can capitalize on children's interest in recent science fiction movies by using books based on the films in their classrooms. Books taken from "E. T.,""Star Wars,""The Empire Strikes Back," and "The Wrath of Khan" are summarized, and learning activities to be used in conjunction with the books are suggested. (PP)

  2. Final report for Utah State's SciDAC CEMM contribution

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Eric Held

    2008-05-13

    This document represents a summary of work carried out at Utah State University in conjunction with the Center for Extended Magnetohyrodynamic Modeling (CEMM). The principal investigator, Dr. Eric Held, was aided in this work by two former graduate students, Drs. John James and Michael Addae-Kagyah, who completed their PhD's while being partially funded by CEMM monies. In addtion, Dr. Jeong-Young Ji, a postdoctoral researcher and Mukta Sharma, a graduate student were supported. The work associated with this grant focused on developing an efficient, hybrid fluid/kinetic model for fusion plasmas. Specifically, expressions for the parallel heat fluxes and stresses in magnetized plasmas were implemented and exercised in the NIMROD plasma fluid code.

  3. SciDAC-Center for Plasma Edge Simulation Report

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Steven

    2013-12-24

    The Common Component Architecture (CCA) effort is the embodiment of a long-range program of research and development into the formulation, roles, and use of component technologies in high-performance scientific computing. CCA components can interoperate with other components in a variety of frameworks, including SCIRun2 from the University of Utah. The SCIRun2 framework is also developing the ability to connect components from a variety of different models through a mechanism called meta-components. The meta component model operates by providing a plugin architecture for component models. Abstract components are manipulated and managed by the SCIRun2 framework, while concrete component models perform the actual work and communicate with each other directly. We will leverage the SCIRun2 framework and the Kepler system to orchestrate components in the Fusion Simulation Project (FSP) and to provide a CCA-based interface with Kepler. The groundwork for this functionality is being performed with the Scientific Data Management center. The SDM center is developing CCA-compliant interfaces for expressing and executing workflows and create workflow components based on SCIRun and Ptolemy (Kepler) execution engines, including development of uniform interfaces for selecting, starting, and monitoring scientific workflows. Accomplishments include Introduction to CCA and Simulation Software Systems, Introduction into SCIRun2 and Bridging within SCIRun2, CCALoop: A scalable design for a distributed component framework, and Combining Workflow methodologies with Component Architectures.

  4. Walking the Integration Talk: An ArtSci Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Astrid; Ashworth, Elizabeth L.

    2013-01-01

    As teacher educators, we help prepare elementary generalist teacher-candidates (TCs) for traditional classrooms. In those classrooms, subjects are often taught in isolation rather than as integrated concepts and this practice is reflected in the program at the university where we teach art and science education. Because the world is…

  5. Sci-Tech Feature: Plutonium. Fuel for Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iikubo, Ryuko

    1993-01-01

    Despite opposition by environmental organizations, Japan plans to import plutonium from France and Great Britain. Interviews Toichi Sakata, director of the nuclear fuel division of the Science and Technology Agency, who explains why Japan needs the radioactive substance. (MDH)

  6. Revisiting the developmental stage and age-at-death of the "Mrs. Ples" (Sts 5) and Sts 14 specimens from Sterkfontein (South Africa): do they belong to the same individual?

    PubMed

    Bonmatí, Alejandro; Arsuaga, Juan-Luis; Lorenzo, Carlos

    2008-12-01

    During the 1947 fieldwork season, Member 4 (2-3 My) of the South African Sterkfontein site yielded two important Australopithecus africanus fossils: a cranium popularly nicknamed "Mrs. Ples" (Sts 5), and a partial skeleton (Sts 14). Previous reports have proposed that Sts 5 was a nonfully grown adolescent individual (Thackeray et al., S Afr J Sci 2002a;98:21-22), and that Sts 14 was a sub-adult specimen (according to various signs of immaturity in the skeleton) (Berge and Gommery, C R Acad Sci Paris, Sciences de la terre et des planètes 1999;329:227-232; Häusler and Berger, J Hum Evol, 2001;40:411-417; Thackeray et al., S Afr J Sci, 2002b;98:211-212). It was subsequently proposed that these fossils actually belonged to the same individual (Thackeray et al., S Afr J Sci, 2002b;98:211-212), a proposition supported by their spatial positions within the site. The present work attempts to revise these different assertions. The results obtained: (i) show that the Sts 5 fossil represents a fully grown adult cranium; (ii) provide new evidence of immaturity in the Sts 14 skeletal elements (sustaining the proposed young adult age of this specimen), and (iii) suggest that although the revised ages-at-death for these fossils are partially compatible, there is no evidence to support the idea that they represent a single individual. Finally, the encephalization quotient associated with a hypothetical union of Sts 5 and Sts 14 (calculated using data from both specimens) lies between the upper and lower limits of the currently estimated range for this species and H. habilis, respectively. PMID:18951512

  7. On uniqueness and stability of Sobolev's solution in scattering by wedges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komech, A. I.; Merzon, A. E.; la Paz Méndez, J. E. De

    2015-10-01

    We prove that the solution of the scattering problem of pulses, constructed by Sobolev (Proc Seismol Inst Acad Sci URSS 41:1-15, 1934), coincides with the solution obtained by our method of complex characteristics. The coincidence holds for the DD- and NN-boundary conditions. The method of complex characteristics has been developed by Komech and Merzon in 2002-2007. Its main advantage is that it provides (a) the existence and uniqueness of the solutions in suitable functional classes and (b) the limiting amplitude principle. The uniqueness in the Sobolev approach was not considered. Our result means that Sobolev's solution belongs to our functional classes and agrees with the limiting amplitude principle.

  8. 5p Deletions: Current Knowledge and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Joanne M.; Qualmann, Krista J.; Okashah, Rebecca; Reilly, Amysue; Alexeyev, Mikhail F.; Campbell, Dennis J.

    2016-01-01

    Disorders resulting from 5p deletions (5p–) were first recognized by Lejeune et al. in 1963 [Lejeune et al. (1963); C R Hebd Seances Acad Sci 257:3098-3102]. 5p– is caused by partial or total deletion of the short arm of chromosome 5. The most recognizable phenotype is characterized by a high-pitched cry, dysmorphic features, poor growth, and developmental delay. This report reviews 5p– disorders and their molecular basis. Hemizygosity for genes located within this region have been implicated in contributing to the phenotype. A review of the genes on 5p which may be dosage sensitive is summarized. Because of the growing knowledge of these specific genes, future directions to explore potential targeted therapies for individuals with 5p– are discussed. PMID:26235846

  9. Penetration of Action Potentials During Collision in the Median and Lateral Giant Axons of Invertebrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Perez, Alfredo; Budvytyte, Rima; Mosgaard, Lars D.; Nissen, Søren; Heimburg, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    The collisions of two simultaneously generated impulses in the giant axons of both earthworms and lobsters propagating in orthodromic and antidromic direction are investigated. The experiments have been performed on the extracted ventral cords of Lumbricus terrestris and the abdominal ventral cord of a lobster, Homarus americanus, by using external stimulation and recording. The collision of two nerve impulses of orthodromic and antidromic propagation did not result in the annihilation of the two signals, contrary to the common notion that is based on the existence of a refractory period in the well-known Hodgkin-Huxley theory. However, the results are in agreement with the electromechanical soliton theory for nerve-pulse propagation, as suggested by Heimburg and Jackson [On Soliton Propagation in Biomembranes and Nerves, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 9790 (2005).].

  10. How are static magnetic fields detected biologically?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finegold, Leonard

    2009-03-01

    There is overwhelming evidence that life, from bacteria to birds to bats, detects magnetic fields, using the fields for orientation or navigation. Indeed there are recent reports (based on Google Earth imagery) that cattle and deer align themselves with the earth's magnetic field. [1]. The development of frog and insect eggs are changed by high magnetic fields, probably through known physical mechanisms. However, the mechanisms for eukaryotic navigation and alignment are not clear. Persuasive published models will be discussed. Evidence, that static magnetic fields might produce therapeutic effects, will be updated [2]. [4pt] [1] S. Begall, et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 105:13451 (2008). [0pt] [2] L. Finegold and B.L. Flamm, BMJ, 332:4 (2006).

  11. Automated shimming of B0 for spectroscopic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tropp, James; Derby, Kevin A.; Hawryszko, Christine; Sugiura, Satoshi; Yamagata, Hitoshi

    A method for automated shimming of B0 in whole body imaging magnets is demonstrated. The method employs spectroscopic imaging [ T. R. Brown, B. M. Kincaid, and K. Ugurbil, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 79, 3532, 1982 ] of 1H to map the B0 field of the region of interest with the subject in situ. Correction currents for the shims, based on prior measurement of shim fields versus shim currents, are then calculated and applied by computer. The chief application of the method is shimming for multivoxel spectroscopy examinations in vivo wherein it is shown to produce marked improvement of 31P spectra from spectroscopic imaging exams of brain and calf muscle, in normal and diseased subjects.

  12. Controlling Viral Capsid Assembly with Templating

    PubMed Central

    Hagan, Michael F.

    2009-01-01

    We develop coarse-grained models that describe the dynamic encapsidation of functionalized nanoparticles by viral capsid proteins. We find that some forms of cooperative interactions between protein subunits and nanoparticles can dramatically enhance rates and robustness of assembly, as compared to the spontaneous assembly of subunits into empty capsids. For large core-subunit interactions, subunits adsorb onto core surfaces en masse in a disordered manner, and then undergo a cooperative rearrangement into an ordered capsid structure. These assembly pathways are unlike any identified for empty capsid formation. Our models can be directly applied to recent experiments in which viral capsid proteins assemble around the functionalized inorganic nanoparticles [Sun et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci (2007) 104, 1354]. In addition, we discuss broader implications for understanding the dynamic encapsidation of single-stranded genomic molecules during viral replication and for developing multicomponent nanostructured materials. PMID:18643099

  13. Calculation of the wetting parameter from a cluster model in the framework of nanothermodynamics.

    PubMed

    García-Morales, V; Cervera, J; Pellicer, J

    2003-06-01

    The critical wetting parameter omega(c) determines the strength of interfacial fluctuations in critical wetting transitions. In this Brief Report, we calculate omega(c) from considerations on critical liquid clusters inside a vapor phase. The starting point is a cluster model developed by Hill and Chamberlin in the framework of nanothermodynamics [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 12779 (1998)]. Our calculations yield results for omega(c) between 0.52 and 1.00, depending on the degrees of freedom considered. The findings are in agreement with previous experimental results and give an idea of the universal dynamical behavior of the clusters when approaching criticality. We suggest that this behavior is a combination of translation and vortex rotational motion (omega(c)=0.84). PMID:16241275

  14. Fractional Hamiltonian monodromy from a Gauss-Manin monodromy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugny, D.; Mardešić, P.; Pelletier, M.; Jebrane, A.; Jauslin, H. R.

    2008-04-01

    Fractional Hamiltonian monodromy is a generalization of the notion of Hamiltonian monodromy, recently introduced by [Nekhoroshev, Sadovskií, and Zhilinskií, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, Ser. 1 335, 985 (2002); Nekhoroshev, Sadovskií, and Zhilinskií, Ann. Henri Poincare 7, 1099 (2006)] for energy-momentum maps whose image has a particular type of nonisolated singularities. In this paper, we analyze the notion of fractional Hamiltonian monodromy in terms of the Gauss-Manin monodromy of a Riemann surface constructed from the energy-momentum map and associated with a loop in complex space which bypasses the line of singularities. We also prove some propositions on fractional Hamiltonian monodromy for 1:-n and m :-n resonant systems.

  15. On the ability of the Viking gas chromatograph–mass spectrometer to detect organic matter

    PubMed Central

    Biemann, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    A recent paper by Navarro-Gonzalez et al. [Navarro-Gonzalez R, Navarro KF, de la Rosa J, Iniguez E, Molina P, Miranda LD, Morales P, Cienfuegos E, Coll P, Raulin F, et al. (2006) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103:16089–16094] claims to show that the Viking GCMS (gas chromatograph–mass spectrometer) experiment, which carried out a search for organic matter at the surface of Mars in 1976, “may have been blind to low levels of organics.” To rebut this assertion, the Viking experiment, test data, and results on Mars are reviewed, and the fallacies in the design, execution, and interpretation of the new experiments presented by Navarro-Gonzalez et al. are critically examined. PMID:17548829

  16. On a question of Gross

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Abhijit

    2007-03-01

    Using the notion of weighted sharing of sets we prove two uniqueness theorems which improve the results proved by Fang and Qiu [H. Qiu, M. Fang, A unicity theorem for meromorphic functions, Bull. Malaysian Math. Sci. Soc. 25 (2002) 31-38], Lahiri and Banerjee [I. Lahiri, A. Banerjee, Uniqueness of meromorphic functions with deficient poles, Kyungpook Math. J. 44 (2004) 575-584] and Yi and Lin [H.X. Yi, W.C. Lin, Uniqueness theorems concerning a question of Gross, Proc. Japan Acad. Ser. A 80 (2004) 136-140] and thus provide an answer to the question of Gross [F. Gross, Factorization of meromorphic functions and some open problems, in: Proc. Conf. Univ. Kentucky, Lexington, KY, 1976, in: Lecture Notes in Math., vol. 599, Springer, Berlin, 1977, pp. 51-69], under a weaker hypothesis.

  17. Once more: The continuous spectrum of ideal magnetohydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goedbloed, J. P.

    1998-09-01

    A controversy on the existence of continuous spectra of ideal magnetohydrodynamics in addition to the well-known Alfvén and slow continua, dating back to a conjecture by Grad [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 70, 3377 (1973)] and revived by Lashmore-Davies, Thyagaraja, and Cairns [Phys. Plasmas 4, 3243 (1997)], is once more resolved by demonstrating that the resolvent operator is bounded in the relevant domain: There are no additional continua. In addition, the solution of the initial value problem is constructed in terms of the three-dimensional Green's dyadic, which is free of apparent singularities and clearly exhibits the classical continua as δ functions on the diagonal. This construction provides the connection with the proper and improper normal modes and shows that the local dynamics on the magnetic surfaces is described by the classical continua.

  18. Thermodynamics of information processing based on enzyme kinetics: An exactly solvable model of an information pump.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yuansheng; Gong, Zongping; Quan, H T

    2015-06-01

    Motivated by the recent proposed models of the information engine [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109, 11641 (2012)] and the information refrigerator [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 030602 (2013)], we propose a minimal model of the information pump and the information eraser based on enzyme kinetics. This device can either pump molecules against the chemical potential gradient by consuming the information to be encoded in the bit stream or (partially) erase the information initially encoded in the bit stream by consuming the Gibbs free energy. The dynamics of this model is solved exactly, and the "phase diagram" of the operation regimes is determined. The efficiency and the power of the information machine is analyzed. The validity of the second law of thermodynamics within our model is clarified. Our model offers a simple paradigm for the investigating of the thermodynamics of information processing involving the chemical potential in small systems. PMID:26172671

  19. Structure of common pili from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    McMichael, J C; Ou, J T

    1979-01-01

    Several important properties of the common pili from Escherichia coli are discussed. These pili were resistant to the gentle Folin-Ciocalteau reagent methods for protein detection and were not readily solubilized by sodium dodecyl sulfate. They were found to contain a reducing sugar but not peptidoglycan. The pilin had multiple conformations in sodium dodecyl sulfate solution, and the appearance of multiple bands on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels did not necessarily indicate heterogeneity of the preparation. The ilus subunit was found to be a different protein than outer membrane III, which has the same apparent molecular weight. In addition, we conformed the results of Brinton (Trans. N.Y. Acad. Sci 27:1003-1054, 1965): that there is a dramatic change in the properties of pili after they are heated at pH values below 2. Images PMID:37233

  20. The Murray Springs Clovis site, Pleistocene extinction, and the question of extraterrestrial impact

    PubMed Central

    Haynes, C. Vance; Boerner, J.; Domanik, K.; Lauretta, D.; Ballenger, J.; Goreva, J.

    2010-01-01

    Some of the evidence for the recent hypothesis of an extraterrestrial impact that caused late Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions [Firestone et al. (2007) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:16016–16021] was based upon samples collected at Murray Springs, a Clovis archaeological site in southeastern Arizona. Here we describe sampling and analyses of magnetic separates from within, above, and below the lower Younger Dryas boundary (LYDB) black mat at Murray Springs, as well as radiation measurements from the LYDB at Murray Springs and two other well-stratified Clovis sites. The main magnetic fraction at Murray Springs is maghemite. Magnetic microspherules have terrestrial origins but also occur as cosmic dust particles. We failed to find iridium or radiation anomalies. The evidence for massive biomass burning at Murray Springs is addressed and found to be lacking. We could not substantiate some of the claims by Firestone and others, but our findings do not preclude a terminal Pleistocene cosmic event. PMID:20160115

  1. Physical constraints on charge transport through bacterial nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Polizzi, Nicholas F.; Skourtis, Spiros S.

    2012-01-01

    Extracellular appendages of the dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 were recently shown to sustain currents of 1010 electrons per second over distances of 0.5 microns [El-Naggar et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 2010, 107, 18127]. However, the identity of the charge localizing sites and their organization along the “nanowire” remain unknown. We use theory to predict redox cofactor separation distances that would permit charge flow at rates of 1010 electrons per second over 0.5 microns for voltage biases of ≤1V, using a steady-state analysis governed by a non-adiabatic electron transport mechanism. We find the observed currents necessitate a multi-step hopping transport mechanism, with charge localizing sites separated by less than 1 nm and reorganization energies that rival the lowest known in biology. PMID:22470966

  2. Simple combined model for nonlinear excitations in DNA.

    PubMed

    Hien, D L; Nhan, N T; Ngo, V Thanh; Viet, N A

    2007-08-01

    We propose a simple model for DNA denaturation bases on the pendulum model of Englander [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77, 7222 (1980)] and the microscopic model of Peyrard and Bishop [Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2755 (1989)], so-called "combined model." The main parameters of our model are the coupling constant k along each strand, the mean stretching y* of the hydrogen bonds, the ratio of the damping constant and driven force gamma/F. We show that both the length L of unpaired bases and the velocity v of kinks depend on not only the coupling constant k but also the temperature T. Our results are in good agreement with previous works. PMID:17930079

  3. Influence of disorder on viscosity of undercooled melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avramov, I.

    1991-09-01

    The influence of disorder on shear viscosity of undercooled melts is described by the formula η=η0ṡexp(θ/T )a. It is shown that this expression reproduces the existing experimental data with a reasonable accuracy for a broad range of substances of various nature (silicates, borates, germanates, phosphates, Se, glucose, glycerin, As2Se3, etc.). Angell and Sichina [Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 279, 53 (1976)] distinguish between ``strong'' and ``fragile'' liquids on the basis of their heat capacity. The present model provides a physical ground for such classification. Also the isostructural viscosity of glasses is easily described. The present approach gives a natural explanation to the empirical rule of Bimen and Kauzmann.

  4. Geometric measure of entanglement and applications to bipartite and multipartite quantum states

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, T.-C.; Goldbart, Paul M.

    2003-10-01

    The degree to which a pure quantum state is entangled can be characterized by the distance or angle to the nearest unentangled state. This geometric measure of entanglement, already present in a number of settings [A. Shimony, Ann. NY. Acad. Sci. 755, 675 (1995); H. Barnum and N. Linden, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 34, 6787 (2001)], is explored for bipartite and multipartite pure and mixed states. The measure is determined analytically for arbitrary two-qubit mixed states and for generalized Werner and isotropic states, and is also applied to certain multipartite mixed states. In particular, a detailed analysis is given for arbitrary mixtures of three-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger, W, and inverted-W states. Along the way, we point out connections of the geometric measure of entanglement with entanglement witnesses and with the Hartree approximation method.

  5. Three-qubit thermal entanglement via entanglement swapping on two-qubit Heisenberg XY chains

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, Zi Chong; Ng, Jezreel; Yeo, Ye

    2005-12-15

    In this paper, we consider the generation of a three-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-like thermal state by applying the entanglement swapping scheme of Zukowski et al. [Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 755, 91 (1995)] to three pairs of two-qubit Heisenberg XY chains. The quality of the resulting three-qubit entanglement is studied by analyzing the teleportation fidelity, when it is used as a resource in the teleportation protocol of Karlsson et al. [Phys. Rev. A 58, 4394 (1998)]. We show that even though thermal noise in the original two-qubit states is amplified by the entanglement swapping process, we are still able to achieve nonclassical fidelities for the anisotropic Heisenberg XY chains at finitely higher and higher temperatures by adjusting the strengths of an external magnetic field. This has a positive implication on the solid-state realization of a quantum computer.

  6. An extension of the steepest descent method for Riemann-Hilbert problems: the small dispersion limit of the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation.

    PubMed

    Deift, P; Venakides, S; Zhou, X

    1998-01-20

    This paper extends the steepest descent method for Riemann-Hilbert problems introduced by Deift and Zhou in a critical new way. We present, in particular, an algorithm, to obtain the support of the Riemann-Hilbert problem for leading asymptotics. Applying this extended method to small dispersion KdV (Korteweg-de Vries) equation, we (i) recover the variational formulation of P. D. Lax and C. D. Levermore [(1979) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA76, 3602-3606] for the weak limit of the solution, (ii) derive, without using an ansatz, the hyperelliptic asymptotic solution of S. Venakides that describes the oscillations; and (iii) are now able to compute the phase shifts, integrating the modulation equations exactly. The procedure of this paper is a version of fully nonlinear geometrical optics for integrable systems. With some additional analysis the theory can provide rigorous error estimates between the solution and its computed asymptotic expression. PMID:11038618

  7. Plant biotechnology for food security and bioeconomy.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Jihong Liu; Zhang, Peng

    2013-09-01

    This year is a special year for plant biotechnology. It was 30 years ago, on January 18 1983, one of the most important dates in the history of plant biotechnology, that three independent groups described Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation at the Miami Winter Symposium, leading to the production of normal, fertile transgenic plants (Bevan et al. in Nature 304:184-187, 1983; Fraley et al. in Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 80:4803-4807, 1983; Herrera-Estrella et al. in EMBO J 2:987-995, 1983; Vasil in Plant Cell Rep 27:1432-1440, 2008). Since then, plant biotechnology has rapidly advanced into a useful and valuable tool and has made a significant impact on crop production, development of a biotech industry and the bio-based economy worldwide. PMID:23860797

  8. Ion flow through a membrane: effect of chemical reaction on time dependence.

    PubMed Central

    Hays, T R; Lin, S H; Eyring, H

    1978-01-01

    The membrane model previously described [Hays, T.R., Buckwalter, C.Q., Lin S.H. & Eyring, H. (1978) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 75, 1612-1615] for ion flow through a membrane is expanded to include the effect of binding of the mobile ion at the occupiable sites in the membrane. Two different effects were investigated: alteration of the association-dissociation rates at constant equilibrium constant and alteration of the equilibrium constant at constant dissociation constant. Increasing the rates of association and dissociation initially causes an increased slowing of the relaxation to the final steady state, though ultimately the curves for the faster rates cross those for the slower states. Increasing the equilibrium constant causes a greater delay in the relaxation curve, with the curves for different equilibrium constants not crossing. Overall, the effect of binding is not very great unless the equilibrium constant for binding is quite large. PMID:276852

  9. Asymptotic properties of a HIV-1 infection model with time delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dan; Ma, Wanbiao

    2007-11-01

    Based on some important biological meanings, a class of more general HIV-1 infection models with time delay is proposed in the paper. In the HIV-1 infection model, time delay is used to describe the time between infection of uninfected target cells and the emission of viral particles on a cellular level as proposed by Herz et al. [A.V.M. Herz, S. Bonhoeffer, R.M. Anderson, R.M. May, M.A. Nowak, Viral dynamics in vivo: Limitations on estimates of intracellular delay and virus decay, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93 (1996) 7247-7251]. Then, the effect of time delay on stability of the equilibria of the HIV-1 infection model has been studied and sufficient criteria for local asymptotic stability of the infected equilibrium and global asymptotic stability of the viral free equilibrium are given.

  10. Electron spin resonance dating of human teeth from Toca da Santa shelter of São Raimundo Nonato, Piauí, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, A.; Figueiredo, A. M. G.; Felice, G. D.; Lage, M. C. S. M.; Guidon, N.; Baffa, O.

    2008-02-01

    Results of the dating of fossil human teeth excavated from a shelter in the surroundings areas of the Serra da Capivara National Park, São Raimundo Nonato, Piauí, Brazil are presented. This shelter was partially excavated to search for more data that could improve the archaeological context of the Garrincho’s limestone hill sites, where the Toca do Gordo do Garrincho shelter provided two human teeth dated by conventional C-14 in (12,170 ± 40) yBP (years before present) and calibrated age (2 Sigma, 95% probability) 15,245 14,690 yBP (Beta 136204) [E. Peyre, C. Guérin, N. Guidon, I. Coppens, CR Acad. Sci. Paris, Sciences de la terre et des planètes/ Earth & Planetary Sciences 327 (1998) 335, [1

  11. Information filtering via biased heat conduction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian-Guo; Zhou, Tao; Guo, Qiang

    2011-09-01

    The process of heat conduction has recently found application in personalized recommendation [Zhou et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 4511 (2010)], which is of high diversity but low accuracy. By decreasing the temperatures of small-degree objects, we present an improved algorithm, called biased heat conduction, which could simultaneously enhance the accuracy and diversity. Extensive experimental analyses demonstrate that the accuracy on MovieLens, Netflix, and Delicious datasets could be improved by 43.5%, 55.4% and 19.2%, respectively, compared with the standard heat conduction algorithm and also the diversity is increased or approximately unchanged. Further statistical analyses suggest that the present algorithm could simultaneously identify users' mainstream and special tastes, resulting in better performance than the standard heat conduction algorithm. This work provides a creditable way for highly efficient information filtering. PMID:22060533

  12. Information filtering via biased heat conduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jian-Guo; Zhou, Tao; Guo, Qiang

    2011-09-01

    The process of heat conduction has recently found application in personalized recommendation [Zhou , Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA PNASA60027-842410.1073/pnas.1000488107107, 4511 (2010)], which is of high diversity but low accuracy. By decreasing the temperatures of small-degree objects, we present an improved algorithm, called biased heat conduction, which could simultaneously enhance the accuracy and diversity. Extensive experimental analyses demonstrate that the accuracy on MovieLens, Netflix, and Delicious datasets could be improved by 43.5%, 55.4% and 19.2%, respectively, compared with the standard heat conduction algorithm and also the diversity is increased or approximately unchanged. Further statistical analyses suggest that the present algorithm could simultaneously identify users' mainstream and special tastes, resulting in better performance than the standard heat conduction algorithm. This work provides a creditable way for highly efficient information filtering.

  13. An item-oriented recommendation algorithm on cold-start problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Tian; Chen, Guang; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Zhou, Tao

    2011-09-01

    Based on a hybrid algorithm incorporating the heat conduction and probability spreading processes (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 107 (2010) 4511), in this letter, we propose an improved method by introducing an item-oriented function, focusing on solving the dilemma of the recommendation accuracy between the cold and popular items. Differently from previous works, the present algorithm does not require any additional information (e.g., tags). Further experimental results obtained in three real datasets, RYM, Netflix and MovieLens, show that, compared with the original hybrid method, the proposed algorithm significantly enhances the recommendation accuracy of the cold items, while it keeps the recommendation accuracy of the overall and the popular items. This work might shed some light on both understanding and designing effective methods for long-tailed online applications of recommender systems.

  14. Identification of a putative yeast homolog of the mammalian beta chains of the clathrin-associated protein complexes.

    PubMed Central

    Kirchhausen, T

    1990-01-01

    The clathrin-associated protein complexes are heterotetrameric structures believed to interact with clathrin and with membrane components of mammalian coated pits and coated vesicles. I have identified a yeast homolog of the mammalian beta-type large chains, suggesting the existence in yeast cells of clathrin-associated protein complexes. A sequence comparison between the putative yeast beta-type chain and its mammalian counterparts shows that their amino-terminal domains are related over their entire length and that their carboxyl-terminal domains diverge completely. This observation is consistent with our earlier proposal (T. Kurchhausen et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86:2612-2616, 1989) for the bifunctional-domain organization of the large chains, in which the invariant amino-terminal region interacts with conserved proteins of the coat while the variable carboxyl-terminal domain interacts with different membrane components of coated pits and coated vesicles. PMID:2122239

  15. Nonadditive entropy reconciles the area law in quantum systems with classical thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Filippo; Tsallis, Constantino

    2008-08-01

    The Boltzmann-Gibbs-von Neumann entropy of a large part (of linear size L ) of some (much larger) d -dimensional quantum systems follows the so-called area law (as for black holes), i.e., it is proportional to Ld-1. Here we show, for d=1,2 , that the (nonadditive) entropy Sq satisfies, for a special value of q not equal to 1, the classical thermodynamical prescription for the entropy to be extensive, i.e., Sq proportional variant Ld. Therefore, we reconcile with classical thermodynamics the area law widespread in quantum systems. Recently, a similar behavior was exhibited in mathematical models with scale-invariant correlations [C. Tsallis, M. Gell-Mann, and Y. Sato, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.102 15377 (2005)]. Finally, we find that the system critical features are marked by a maximum of the special entropic index q. PMID:18850781

  16. « Les fleurs du MAL » une méthode d'ondelettes adaptive de lignes arbitraires I : problèmes de convection diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Xiaoan; Xanthis, Leonidas S.

    2004-01-01

    Baudelaire's 'les fleurs du mal' refers to various new developments ('les fleurs') of the method ofarbitrarylines ( mal), since it was first published (in C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, Sér. I, in 1991). Here we revisit the basic mal (semi-discretization) methodology for stationary convection-diffusion problems and develop an adaptive, wavelet-based solver that is capable of capturing the thin layers that arise in such problems. We show the efficacy and high accuracy of the wavelet-mal solver by applying it to a challenging 2D problem involving both boundary and interior layers. To cite this article: X. Ren, L.S. Xanthis, C. R. Mecanique 332 (2004).

  17. Temperature derivative spectroscopy to monitor the autoxidation decay of cytochromes P450.

    PubMed

    Luthra, Abhinav; Denisov, Ilia G; Sligar, Stephen G

    2011-07-01

    Temperature derivative spectroscopy (TDS), a type of relaxation spectroscopy, is a powerful tool to study protein dynamics (Berendzen, J.; Braunstein, D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 1990, 87, 1). We developed the version of temperature derivative spectroscopy to monitor kinetics of autoxidation of cytochromes P450 and applied it to study the properties of the oxy-ferrous complex of a human membrane bound P450, CYP19A1 (aromatase), and that of a bacterial soluble P450, CYP101 when bound with their most common substrates, androstenedione (AD) and camphor, respectively. TDS extends the panel of methods that can be used to monitor heme protein kinetics, providing a rapid measurement technique and enabling measurement of the autoxidation rate over a wide range of temperatures, yielding the activation energy as well as absolute reaction rate in a single experiment. PMID:21615185

  18. Hubble's diagram and cosmic expansion

    PubMed Central

    Kirshner, Robert P.

    2004-01-01

    Edwin Hubble's classic article on the expanding universe appeared in PNAS in 1929 [Hubble, E. P. (1929) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 15, 168–173]. The chief result, that a galaxy's distance is proportional to its redshift, is so well known and so deeply embedded into the language of astronomy through the Hubble diagram, the Hubble constant, Hubble's Law, and the Hubble time, that the article itself is rarely referenced. Even though Hubble's distances have a large systematic error, Hubble's velocities come chiefly from Vesto Melvin Slipher, and the interpretation in terms of the de Sitter effect is out of the mainstream of modern cosmology, this article opened the way to investigation of the expanding, evolving, and accelerating universe that engages today's burgeoning field of cosmology. PMID:14695886

  19. Targeted and robust amplification of mitochondrial DNA in the presence of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial pseudogenes using Φ29 DNA polymerases.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Jonci N

    2014-01-01

    Accidental co-amplification of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial pseudogenes (numts) in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analyses is a common problem in biological and medical research alike [Yao et al., J Med Genet 45:769-772, 2008; Song et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:13486-13491, 2008]. A wealth of strategies have been developed to evade the contamination of mtDNA data sets with numts, but time- and cost-effective protocols of general applicability are scarce [Wolff et al., PLoS One 7:e37142, 2012]. The protocol presented here closes this gap by combining serial dilution with standard and rolling circle DNA amplification. This strategy leads to selective enrichment of mtDNA and removal of nuclear DNA (nuDNA) from template solutions, enabling mtDNA analyses in a virtually numt-free environment. PMID:24823783

  20. Is There an Optimal Level of Open-Endedness in Prebiotic Evolution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markovitch, Omer; Sorek, Daniel; Lui, Leong Ting; Lancet, Doron; Krasnogor, Natalio

    2012-10-01

    In this paper we explore the question of whether there is an optimal set up for a putative prebiotic system leading to open-ended evolution (OEE) of the events unfolding within this system. We do so by proposing two key innovations. First, we introduce a new index that measures OEE as a function of the likelihood of events unfolding within a universe given its initial conditions. Next, we apply this index to a variant of the graded autocatalysis replication domain (GARD) model, Segre et al. (P Natl Acad Sci USA 97(8):4112-4117, 2000; Markovitch and Lancet Artif Life 18(3), 2012), and use it to study - under a unified and concise prebiotic evolutionary framework - both a variety of initial conditions of the universe and the OEE of species that evolve from them.

  1. Is there an optimal level of open-endedness in prebiotic evolution?

    PubMed

    Markovitch, Omer; Sorek, Daniel; Lui, Leong Ting; Lancet, Doron; Krasnogor, Natalio

    2012-10-01

    In this paper we explore the question of whether there is an optimal set up for a putative prebiotic system leading to open-ended evolution (OEE) of the events unfolding within this system. We do so by proposing two key innovations. First, we introduce a new index that measures OEE as a function of the likelihood of events unfolding within a universe given its initial conditions. Next, we apply this index to a variant of the graded autocatalysis replication domain (GARD) model, Segre et al. (P Natl Acad Sci USA 97(8):4112-4117, 2000; Markovitch and Lancet Artif Life 18(3), 2012), and use it to study--under a unified and concise prebiotic evolutionary framework--both a variety of initial conditions of the universe and the OEE of species that evolve from them. PMID:23114973

  2. Preface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, Stan; Basu, Asish

    Publication of this monograph will coincide, to a precision of a few per mil, with the centenary of Henri Becquerel's discovery of "radiations actives" (C. R. Acad. Sci., Feb. 24, 1896). In 1896 the Earth was only 40 million years old according to Lord Kelvin. Eleven years later, Boltwood had pushed the Earth's age past 2000 million years, based on the first U/Pb chemical dating results. In exciting progression came discovery of isotopes by J. J. Thomson in 1912, invention of the mass spectrometer by Dempster (1918) and Aston (1919), the first measurement of the isotopic composition of Pb (Aston, 1927) and the final approach, using Pb-Pb isotopic dating, to the correct age of the Earth: close—2.9 Ga (Gerling, 1942), closer—3.0 Ga (Holmes, 1949) and closest—4.50 Ga (Patterson, Tilton and Inghram, 1953).

  3. Earth Processes: Reading the Isotopic Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Asish; Hart, Stan

    Publication of this monograph will coincide, to a precision of a few per mil, with the centenary of Henri Becquerel's discovery of "radiations actives" (C. R. Acad. Sci., Feb. 24, 1896). In 1896 the Earth was only 40 million years old according to Lord Kelvin. Eleven years later, Boltwood had pushed the Earth's age past 2000 million years, based on the first U/Pb chemical dating results. In exciting progression came discovery of isotopes by J. J. Thomson in 1912, invention of the mass spectrometer by Dempster (1918) and Aston (1919), the first measurement of the isotopic composition of Pb (Aston, 1927) and the final approach, using Pb-Pb isotopic dating, to the correct age of the Earth: close—2.9 Ga (Gerling, 1942), closer—3.0 Ga (Holmes, 1949) and closest—4.50 Ga (Patterson, Tilton and Inghram, 1953).

  4. ADAR proteins: structure and catalytic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Rena A; Macbeth, Mark R; Beal, Peter A

    2012-01-01

    Since the discovery of the adenosine deaminase (ADA) acting on RNA (ADAR) family of proteins in 1988 (Bass and Weintraub, Cell 55:1089-1098, 1988) (Wagner et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 86:2647-2651, 1989), we have learned much about their structure and catalytic mechanism. However, much about these enzymes is still unknown, particularly regarding the selective recognition and processing of specific adenosines within substrate RNAs. While a crystal structure of the catalytic domain of human ADAR2 has been solved, we still lack structural data for an ADAR catalytic domain bound to RNA, and we lack any structural data for other ADARs. However, by analyzing the structural data that is available along with similarities to other deaminases, mutagenesis and other biochemical experiments, we have been able to advance the understanding of how these fascinating enzymes function. PMID:21769729

  5. Spin-dependent electron transport in protein-like single-helical molecules

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Ai-Min; Sun, Qing-Feng

    2014-01-01

    We report on a theoretical study of spin-dependent electron transport through single-helical molecules connected by two nonmagnetic electrodes, and explain the experiment of significant spin-selective phenomenon observed in α-helical protein and the contradictory results between the protein and single-stranded DNA. Our results reveal that the α-helical protein is an efficient spin filter and the spin polarization is robust against the disorder. These results are in excellent agreement with recent experiments [Mishra D, et al. (2013) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 110(37):14872–14876; Göhler B, et al. (2011) Science 331(6019):894–897] and may facilitate engineering of chiral-based spintronic devices. PMID:25071198

  6. Evolution of new functions de novo and from preexisting genes.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Dan I; Jerlström-Hultqvist, Jon; Näsvall, Joakim

    2015-06-01

    How the enormous structural and functional diversity of new genes and proteins was generated (estimated to be 10(10)-10(12) different proteins in all organisms on earth [Choi I-G, Kim S-H. 2006. Evolution of protein structural classes and protein sequence families. Proc Natl Acad Sci 103: 14056-14061] is a central biological question that has a long and rich history. Extensive work during the last 80 years have shown that new genes that play important roles in lineage-specific phenotypes and adaptation can originate through a multitude of different mechanisms, including duplication, lateral gene transfer, gene fusion/fission, and de novo origination. In this review, we focus on two main processes as generators of new functions: evolution of new genes by duplication and divergence of pre-existing genes and de novo gene origination in which a whole protein-coding gene evolves from a noncoding sequence. PMID:26032716

  7. The Murray Springs Clovis site, Pleistocene extinction, and the question of extraterrestrial impact.

    PubMed

    Haynes, C Vance; Boerner, J; Domanik, K; Lauretta, D; Ballenger, J; Goreva, J

    2010-03-01

    Some of the evidence for the recent hypothesis of an extraterrestrial impact that caused late Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions [Firestone et al. (2007) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:16016-16021] was based upon samples collected at Murray Springs, a Clovis archaeological site in southeastern Arizona. Here we describe sampling and analyses of magnetic separates from within, above, and below the lower Younger Dryas boundary (LYDB) black mat at Murray Springs, as well as radiation measurements from the LYDB at Murray Springs and two other well-stratified Clovis sites. The main magnetic fraction at Murray Springs is maghemite. Magnetic microspherules have terrestrial origins but also occur as cosmic dust particles. We failed to find iridium or radiation anomalies. The evidence for massive biomass burning at Murray Springs is addressed and found to be lacking. We could not substantiate some of the claims by Firestone and others, but our findings do not preclude a terminal Pleistocene cosmic event. PMID:20160115

  8. The Condensation Phase Transition in Random Graph Coloring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bapst, Victor; Coja-Oghlan, Amin; Hetterich, Samuel; Raßmann, Felicia; Vilenchik, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Based on a non-rigorous formalism called the "cavity method", physicists have put forward intriguing predictions on phase transitions in diluted mean-field models, in which the geometry of interactions is induced by a sparse random graph or hypergraph. One example of such a model is the graph coloring problem on the Erdős-Renyi random graph G( n, d/ n), which can be viewed as the zero temperature case of the Potts antiferromagnet. The cavity method predicts that in addition to the k-colorability phase transition studied intensively in combinatorics, there exists a second phase transition called the condensation phase transition (Krzakala et al. in Proc Natl Acad Sci 104:10318-10323, 2007). In fact, there is a conjecture as to the precise location of this phase transition in terms of a certain distributional fixed point problem. In this paper we prove this conjecture for k exceeding a certain constant k 0.

  9. Physical analysis of light-scattering changes in bovine photoreceptor membrane suspensions.

    PubMed Central

    Michel-Villaz, M; Brisson, A; Chapron, Y; Saibil, H

    1984-01-01

    We have used electron microscopy and model calculations to analyze the physical basis of light-scattering signals from suspensions of photoreceptor membranes. These signals have previously been used to probe interactions between photoactivated rhodopsin (R*) and the peripheral membrane enzyme, GTP-binding protein (G) (Kühn et al., 1981, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA., 78:6873-6877). Although there is no unique physical interpretation of these signals, we have shown in this study that they were qualitatively unchanged when the rod outer segment fragments (containing stacked disks) were fragmented by sonication or osmotic shock to produce spherical disk membrane vesicles. An exact treatment of the scattering process for spherical vesicles enabled us to evaluate the effects of changing membrane thickness, refractive index, or vesicle diameter. We present a particular redistribution of mass upon R*-G interaction that fits the experimental data. Images FIGURE 4 PMID:6498278

  10. The Observation of Highly Ordered Domains in Membranes with Cholesterol

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, Clare L; Marquardt, Drew; Dies, Hannah; Kucerka, Norbert; Yamani, Zahra; Harroun, Thad; Katsaras, John; Shi, A-C; Rheinstadter, Maikel C

    2013-01-01

    Rafts, or functional domains, are transient nano- or mesoscopic structures in the exoplasmic leaflet of the plasma membrane, and are thought to be essential for many cellular processes. Using neutron diffraction and computer modelling, we present evidence for the existence of highly ordered lipid domains in the cholesterol-rich (32.5 mol%) liquid-ordered (lo) phase of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine membranes. The liquid ordered phase in one-component lipid membranes has previously been thought to be a homogeneous phase. The presence of highly ordered lipid domains embedded in a disordered lipid matrix implies non-uniform distribution of cholesterol between the two phases. The experimental results are in excellent agreement with recent computer simulations of DPPC/cholesterol complexes [Meinhardt, Vink and Schmid (2013). Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 110(12): 4476 4481], which reported the existence of nanometer size lo domains in a liquid disordered lipid environment.

  11. Alternative approach to community detection in networks.

    PubMed

    Medus, A D; Dorso, C O

    2009-06-01

    The problem of community detection is relevant in many disciplines of science and modularity optimization is the widely accepted method for this purpose. It has recently been shown that this approach presents a resolution limit by which it is not possible to detect communities with sizes smaller than a threshold, which depends on the network size. Moreover, it might happen that the communities resulting from such an approach do not satisfy the usual qualitative definition of commune; i.e., nodes in a commune are more connected among themselves than to nodes outside the commune. In this paper we present a different method for community detection in complex networks. We define merit factors based on the weak and strong community definitions formulated by Radicchi [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 2658 (2004)] and we show that these local definitions avoid the resolution limit problem found in the modularity optimization approach. PMID:19658568

  12. Nano-Optics for Chemical and Materials Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beversluis, Michael; Stranick, Stephan

    2007-03-01

    Light microscopy can provide non-destructive, real-time, three-dimensional imaging with chemically-specific contrast, but diffraction frequently limits the resolution to roughly 200 nm. Recently, structured illumination techniques have allowed fluorescence imaging to reach 50 nm resolution [1]. Since these fluorescence techniques were developed for use in microbiology, a key challenge is to take the resolution-enhancing features and apply them to contrast mechanisms like vibrational spectroscopy (e.g., Raman and CARS microscopy) that provide morphological and chemically specific imaging.. We are developing a new hybrid technique that combines the resolution enhancement of structured illumination microscopy with scanning techniques that can record hyperspectral images with 100 nm spatial resolution. We will show such superresolving images of semiconductor nanostructures and discuss the advantages and requirements for this technique. Referenence: 1. M. G. L. Gustafsson, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 13081-13086 (2005).

  13. Particle ordering in inertially focused microfluidic flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphry, Katherine; Kulkarni, Pandurang; di Carlo, Dino; Edd, Jon; Toner, Mehmet; Morris, Jeffrey; Weitz, David; Stone, Howard

    2008-11-01

    We study inertially driven focusing of particles [1], which has recently been exploited in a controlled fashion in microfluidic devices [2]. In particular, we characterize the focusing as a function of particle and channel Reynolds number by reporting particle position in directions perpendicular to the flow, and a large distance from the fluid inlet. Focusing of dilute suspensions leads to a linear arrangement of particles whose spacing is primarily a function of concentration and channel aspect ratio. All results are compared with simulations, which provide mechanistic insights into particle behavior.[1] G. Segré and A. Silberberg, Nature 189, 209 (1961). [2] D. Di Carlo, D. Irimia, R. G. Tompkins, and M. Toner, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104, 18892 (2007).

  14. Crystal Structure in the Vivo-Assembled Bacillus subtilis Spx/RNA Polymerase alpha Subunit C-Terminal Domain Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Lamour, V.; Westblade, L; Campbell, E; Darst, S

    2009-01-01

    The Bacillus subtilis Spx protein is a global transcription factor that interacts with the C-terminal domain of the RNA polymerase {alpha} subunit ({alpha}CTD) and regulates transcription of genes involved in thiol-oxidative stress, sporulation, competence, and organosulfur metabolism. Here we determined the X-ray crystal structure of the Spx/{alpha}CTD complex from an entirely new crystal form than previously reported [Newberry, K.J., Nakano, S., Zuber, P., Brennan, R.G., 2005. Crystal structure of the Bacillus subtilis anti-alpha, global transcriptional regulator, Spx, in complex with the alpha C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 15839-15844]. Comparison of the previously reported sulfate-bound complex and our sulfate-free complex reveals subtle conformational changes that may be important for the role of Spx in regulating organosulfur metabolism.

  15. Spectral tripartitioning of networks.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Thomas; Mucha, Peter J; Porter, Mason A

    2009-09-01

    We formulate a spectral graph-partitioning algorithm that uses the two leading eigenvectors of the matrix corresponding to a selected quality function to split a network into three communities in a single step. In so doing, we extend the recursive bipartitioning methods developed by Newman [M. E. J. Newman, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103, 8577 (2006); Phys. Rev. E 74, 036104 (2006)] to allow one to consider the best available two-way and three-way divisions at each recursive step. We illustrate the method using simple "bucket brigade" examples and then apply the algorithm to examine the community structures of the coauthorship graph of network scientists and of U. S. Congressional networks inferred from roll call voting similarities. PMID:19905184

  16. Composition fluctuations, correlated response, and protein solvation in membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnell, Harden

    2010-05-01

    Membrane composition fluctuations are deduced from the deuterium NMR relaxation data of S. L. Veatch et al. [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104, 17650 (2007)]. A theoretical model for these fluctuations is used to determine the parameters of a correlation function. A fluctuation-response relation is then derived to infer the response of a lipid bilayer membrane to perturbations, such as the presence of a protein. The energy of the correlated response is shown to decrease as a bilayer miscibility critical point is approached from higher temperatures. Near the critical temperature the low energy of the composition response facilitates the lipid solvation of membrane proteins and minimizes lipid-mediated nonspecific protein-protein interactions. This facilitated lipid solvation of membrane proteins may be the basis of reports that at the growth temperature, the lipids of animal cell membranes have compositions such that they are within ˜10° of a miscibility critical point.

  17. Intermediate binding of phycocyanobilin to the lyase, CpeS1, and transfer to apoprotein.

    PubMed

    Tu, Jun-Ming; Kupka, Michaela; Böhm, Stephan; Plöscher, Matthias; Eichacker, Lutz; Zhao, Kai-Hong; Scheer, Hugo

    2008-01-01

    The phycobilin: Cysteine-84-phycobiliprotein lyase, CpeS1, catalyzes phycocyanobilin (PCB) and phycoerythrobilin attachment to nearly all cysteine-84 (consensus sequence) binding sites of phycoerythrin, phycoerythrocyanin, phycocyanin and allophycocyanin (Zhao et al. (2007) Proc Natl Acad Sci 104:14300-14305). We now show that CpeS1 can bind PCB, as assayed by Ni(2+) chelating affinity chromatography. Binding is rapid, and the chromophore is bound in an extended conformation similar to that in phycobiliproteins but only poorly fluorescent. Upon addition of apo-biliproteins, the chromophore is transferred to the latter much slower ( approximately 1 h), indicating that chromophorylated CpeS1 is an intermediate in the enzymatic reaction. In addition, imidazole is bound to PCB, as shown by mass spectroscopy of tryptic digests of the intermediate CpeS1-PCB complex. PMID:17912606

  18. Method to find community structures based on information centrality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortunato, Santo; Latora, Vito; Marchiori, Massimo

    2004-11-01

    Community structures are an important feature of many social, biological, and technological networks. Here we study a variation on the method for detecting such communities proposed by Girvan and Newman and based on the idea of using centrality measures to define the community boundaries [M. Girvan and M. E. J. Newman, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 7821 (2002)]. We develop an algorithm of hierarchical clustering that consists in finding and removing iteratively the edge with the highest information centrality. We test the algorithm on computer generated and real-world networks whose community structure is already known or has been studied by means of other methods. We show that our algorithm, although it runs to completion in a time O(n4) , is very effective especially when the communities are very mixed and hardly detectable by the other methods.

  19. Using PET H2O15 brain imaging to study the functional-anatomical correlates of non-human primate communication.

    PubMed

    Gil-da-Costa, Ricardo; Braun, Allen; Martin, Alex

    2006-03-01

    In this article, we describe methods for using oxygen-15 water (H2O15) positron emission tomography (PET) to explore the functional neuroanatomy of cognition in awake, non-human primates. The discussion is based on a recent study designed to identify regions in the monkey brain associated with perceiving auditory stimuli, and species-specific calls, in particular [Gil-da-Costa et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101 (2004) 17516-17521]. Details are provided concerning critical aspects of the experimental paradigm, including pre-scanning habituation sessions to acclimate the animals to the PET scanner environment, and details of a pilot study to determine the auditory stimulus parameters necessary to produce robust activity in brain regions known to process auditory information (belt and parabelt regions of monkey auditory cortex). Methods for acquiring and analyzing PET data to identify significant regions of brain activity in single animals are also presented. PMID:16466931

  20. Earthquake triggering and large-scale geologic storage of carbon dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Zoback, Mark D.; Gorelick, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite its enormous cost, large-scale carbon capture and storage (CCS) is considered a viable strategy for significantly reducing CO2 emissions associated with coal-based electrical power generation and other industrial sources of CO2 [Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2005) IPCC Special Report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage. Prepared by Working Group III of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, eds Metz B, et al. (Cambridge Univ Press, Cambridge, UK); Szulczewski ML, et al. (2012) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109:5185–5189]. We argue here that there is a high probability that earthquakes will be triggered by injection of large volumes of CO2 into the brittle rocks commonly found in continental interiors. Because even small- to moderate-sized earthquakes threaten the seal integrity of CO2 repositories, in this context, large-scale CCS is a risky, and likely unsuccessful, strategy for significantly reducing greenhouse gas emissions. PMID:22711814

  1. Induction of entropic segregation: the first step is the hardest.

    PubMed

    Minina, Elena; Arnold, Axel

    2014-08-21

    In confinement, overlapping polymers experience entropic segregating forces that tend to demix them. This plays a role during cell replication, where it facilitates the segregation of daughter chromosomes. It has been argued that these forces are strong enough to explain chromosome segregation in elongated bacteria such as E. coli without the need for additional active mechanisms [S. Jun and B. Mulder, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 2006, 103, 12388]. However, entropic segregation can only set in after the initial symmetry has been broken. We demonstrate that the timescale for this induction phase is exponentially growing in the chain length, while the actual segregation time scales only quadratically in the chain length. Thus the induction quickly becomes the dominating, slow process, and makes entropic segregation much less efficient than previously thought. The slow induction might also explain the long delay in chromosome segregation observed in experiments on E. coli. PMID:24974935

  2. Earthquake triggering and large-scale geologic storage of carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Zoback, Mark D; Gorelick, Steven M

    2012-06-26

    Despite its enormous cost, large-scale carbon capture and storage (CCS) is considered a viable strategy for significantly reducing CO(2) emissions associated with coal-based electrical power generation and other industrial sources of CO(2) [Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2005) IPCC Special Report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage. Prepared by Working Group III of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, eds Metz B, et al. (Cambridge Univ Press, Cambridge, UK); Szulczewski ML, et al. (2012) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109:5185-5189]. We argue here that there is a high probability that earthquakes will be triggered by injection of large volumes of CO(2) into the brittle rocks commonly found in continental interiors. Because even small- to moderate-sized earthquakes threaten the seal integrity of CO(2) repositories, in this context, large-scale CCS is a risky, and likely unsuccessful, strategy for significantly reducing greenhouse gas emissions. PMID:22711814

  3. Alternative perspective on the control of transpiration by radiation.

    PubMed

    Mott, Keith A; Peak, David

    2011-12-01

    Stomatal responses to light are important determinants for plant water use efficiency and for general circulation models, but a mechanistic understanding of these responses remains elusive. A recent study [Pieruschka R, Huber G, Berry JA (2010) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107:13372-13377] concluded that stomata respond to total absorbed radiation rather than red and blue light as previously thought. We tested this idea by reexamining stomatal responses to red and blue light and to IR radiation. We show that responses to red and blue light are not consistent with a response to total absorbed radiation and that apparent stomatal responses to IR radiation are explainable as experimental artifacts. In addition, our data and analysis provide a method for accurately determining the internal temperature of a leaf. PMID:22106306

  4. In vitro formation of multimeric DNA structures mediated by purified simian virus 40 chromatin.

    PubMed Central

    Waldeck, W; Zentgraf, H; Sauer, G

    1982-01-01

    Simian virus 40 chromatin was incubated after purification by sucrose density-gradient centrifugation with various circular double-stranded DNA substrates. Monomeric rings were converted in the presence of Mg2+ to structures possessing a higher degree of complexity. Dimeric catenanes, as well as multimeric linear structures and concatemers, were generated, indicating that recombination events had occurred in vitro involving covalent linkage between different DNA molecules. Furthermore, apparently fused dimeric rings were observed. Their structures suggest that they may be recombination intermediates such as those described in a prokaryotic system [Potter, H. & Dressler, D. (1976) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 73, 3000-3004]. Recombination did not take place between heterologous DNA substrates, as exclusively homologous multimeric DNA structures were observed. Images PMID:6280162

  5. Hydrodynamic collective effects of active proteins in biological membranes.

    PubMed

    Koyano, Yuki; Kitahata, Hiroyuki; Mikhailov, Alexander S

    2016-08-01

    Lipid bilayers forming biological membranes are known to behave as viscous two-dimensional fluids on submicrometer scales; usually they contain a large number of active protein inclusions. Recently, it was shown [A. S. Mikhailov and R. Kapral, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 112, E3639 (2015)PNASA60027-842410.1073/pnas.1506825112] that such active proteins should induce nonthermal fluctuating lipid flows leading to diffusion enhancement and chemotaxislike drift for passive inclusions in biomembranes. Here, a detailed analytical and numerical investigation of such effects is performed. The attention is focused on the situations when proteins are concentrated within lipid rafts. We demonstrate that passive particles tend to become attracted by active rafts and are accumulated inside them. PMID:27627343

  6. Differential conductance and defect states in the heavy-fermion superconductor CeCoIn5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Dyke, John S.; Davis, J. C. Séamus; Morr, Dirk K.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that the electronic band structure extracted from quasiparticle interference spectroscopy [Nat. Phys. 9, 468 (2013), 10.1038/nphys2671] and the theoretically computed form of the superconducting gaps [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, 11663 (2014), 10.1073/pnas.1409444111] can be used to understand the d I /d V line shape measured in the normal and superconducting state of CeCoIn5 [Nat. Phys. 9, 474 (2013), 10.1038/nphys2672]. In particular, the d I /d V line shape, and the spatial structure of defect-induced impurity states, reflects the existence of multiple superconducting gaps of dx2-y2 symmetry. These results strongly support a recently proposed microscopic origin of the unconventional superconducting state.

  7. A generalized front marching algorithm for the solution of the eikonal equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covello, Paul; Rodrigue, Garry

    2003-07-01

    A new front marching algorithm for solving the eikonal equation is presented. An important property of the algorithm is that it can be used on nodes that are located on highly distorted grids or on nodes that are randomly located. When the nodes are located on an orthogonal grid, the method is first-order accurate and is shown to be a generalization of the front marching algorithm in (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 93 (4) (1996) 1591). The accuracy of the method is also shown to be dependent on the principle curvature of the wave front solution. Numerical results on a variety of node configurations as well as on shadow, nonconvex and nondifferentiable solutions are presented.

  8. Compatibility between shape equation and boundary conditions of lipid membranes with free edges.

    PubMed

    Tu, Z C

    2010-02-28

    Only some special open surfaces satisfying the shape equation of lipid membranes can be compatible with the boundary conditions. As a result of this compatibility, the first integral of the shape equation should vanish for axisymmetric lipid membranes, from which two theorems of nonexistence are verified: (i) there is no axisymmetric open membrane being a part of torus satisfying the shape equation; (ii) there is no axisymmetric open membrane being a part of a biconcave discodal surface satisfying the shape equation. Additionally, the shape equation is reduced to a second-order differential equation while the boundary conditions are reduced to two equations due to this compatibility. Numerical solutions to the reduced shape equation and boundary conditions agree well with the experimental data [A. Saitoh et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 95, 1026 (1998)]. PMID:20192294

  9. Presence of Both Photosystems in Guard Cells of Vicia faba L

    PubMed Central

    Outlaw, William H.; Mayne, Berger C.; Zenger, Vincent E.; Manchester, Jill

    1981-01-01

    A new procedure is reported for high-yield isolation of guard cell protoplasts from Vicia faba L. Delayed light emission and P700 content plus absorption and fluorescence emission spectra of these protoplast extracts are reported. It is concluded that both photosystems are present. The presence of photosystem II and the absence of the reductive-step enzyme of the Calvin-Benson Cycle (Outlaw WH Jr, J Manchester, CH DiCamelli, DD Randall, B Rapp, GM Veith 1979 Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 76: 6371-6375) in a cell has no precedent in the literature. It is speculated that noncyclic photosynthetic electron flow is an environmental sensor which causes stomata to remain open in light. Images PMID:16661609

  10. Characterization of the heartworm Acanthocheilonema spirocauda (Leidy, 1858) Anderson, 1992 (Nematoda: Onchocercidae) in Scandinavia.

    PubMed

    Leidenberger, Sonja; Boström, Sven

    2008-12-01

    The heartworm Acanthocheilonema spirocauda (Leidy, Proc Acad Nat Sci Philadelphia 10:110-112, 1858) Anderson, 1992 is described from material collected from harbour seals in Scandinavia and compared with types and other specimens described by Anderson (Can J Zool 37:481-493, 1959) from harbour seals in eastern USA. Most morphometric characters of the material from USA fall within the ranges established for the Scandinavian one. Some intraspecific variability in the organisation of papillae on the male tail was detected among the Scandinavian specimens. Differences between the specimens from Scandinavia and Eastern USA are also found in the organisation of papillae on the tail of males and females. An excretory pore was not discernible, but a clearly hemizonid-like structure is described. For the first time, scanning electron micrographs present external morphological structures of the species. PMID:18762981

  11. Configurations of an Articulated Arm and Singularities of Special Multi-Flags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelletier, Fernand; Slayman, Mayada

    2014-06-01

    P. Mormul has classified the singularities of special multi-flags in terms of "EKR class" encoded by sequences j_1,dots, j_k of integers (see [Singularity Theory Seminar, Warsaw University of Technology, Vol. 8, 2003, 87-100] and [Banach Center Publ., Vol. 65, Polish Acad. Sci., Warsaw, 2004, 157-178]). However, A.L. Castro and R. Montgomery have proposed in I>Israel J. Math. 192 (2012), 381-427] a codification of singularities of multi-flags by RC and RVT codes. The main results of this paper describe a decomposition of each ''EKR'' set of depth 1 in terms of RVT codes as well as characterize such a set in terms of configurations of an articulated arm. Indeed, an analogue description for some ''EKR'' sets of depth 2 is provided. All these results give rise to a complete characterization of all ''EKR'' sets for 1≤ k≤ 4.

  12. 1H-NMR study of the three low temperature phases of DPPC-water systems.

    PubMed

    Trahms, L; Klabe, W D; Boroske, E

    1983-06-01

    The three phases of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine-water dispersions, occurring below the main transition are studied by a moment analysis of 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. The subtransition, recently detected by Chen, S. C., J. M. Sturtevant, and B. J. Gaffney, 1980, Pro. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 77:5060-5063, is characterized by a sharp drop in the second moment at 12 degrees C as a result of increasing the temperature. Interesting features of this phase transition are a hysteresis of 11 K and extremely slow kinetics. It is interpreted as the onset of a flip-flop of the hydrocarbon chains about their long axis. At the pretransition, this type of motion is assumed to change into a fast rotation. The proposed models for the three phases are confirmed by computer calculations of theoretical values for the second and fourth moments of the corresponding NMR signals. PMID:6688190

  13. Formaldehyde photodissociation: Dependence on total angular momentum and rotational alignment of the CO product

    SciTech Connect

    Farnum, John D.; Zhang, Xiubin; Bowman, Joel M.

    2007-04-07

    Quasiclassical trajectory calculations are reported to investigate the effects of rotational excitation of formaldehyde on the branching ratios of the fragmentation products, H{sub 2}+CO and H+HCO. The results of tens of thousands of trajectories show that increased rotational excitation causes suppression of the radical channel and enhancement of the molecular channel. Decomposing the molecular channel into ''direct'' and ''roaming'' channels shows that increased rotation switches from suppressing to enhancing the roaming products across our chosen energy range. However, decomposition into these pathways is difficult because the difference between them does not appear to have a distinct boundary. A vector correlation investigation of the CO rotation shows different characteristics in the roaming versus direct channels and this difference is a potentially useful signature of the roaming mechanism, as first speculated by Kable and Houston in their experimental study of photodissociation of acetaldehyde [P. L. Houston and S. H. Kable, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 103, 16079 (2006)].

  14. Note: Recombination of H{sup +} and OH{sup -} ions along water wires

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Song Hi; Rasaiah, Jayendran C.

    2013-07-21

    Transport and recombination of hydrogen and hydroxide ions along a hydrogen-bonded water wire are studied by molecular dynamics simulation using a dissociating model for water. The results are compared with a recent CP-MD study of neutralization in bulk water [A. Hassanali, M. K. Prakrash, H. Eshet, and M. Parrinello, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108, 20410 (2011)]. The translocation of H{sup +} and OH{sup -} along the wire is faster than in the bulk water, followed by compression of the water wire when two water molecules separate the transported ions. Neutralization occurs with the concerted transfer of three protons as in the bulk water, followed by energy dissipation along the water chain.

  15. Content-based network model with duplication and divergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şengün, Yasemin; Erzan, Ayşe

    2006-06-01

    We construct a minimal content-based realization of the duplication and divergence model of genomic networks introduced by Wagner [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 91 (1994) 4387] and investigate the scaling properties of the directed degree distribution and clustering coefficient. We find that the content-based network exhibits crossover between two scaling regimes, with log-periodic oscillations for large degrees. These features are not present in the original gene duplication model, but inherent in the content-based model of Balcan and Erzan. The scaling form of the degree distribution of the content-based model turns out to be robust under duplication and divergence, with some re-adjustment of the scaling exponents, while the out-clustering coefficient goes over from a weak power-law dependence on the degree, to an exponential decay under mutations which include splitting and merging of strings.

  16. The Observation of Highly Ordered Domains in Membranes with Cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Clare L.; Marquardt, Drew; Dies, Hannah; Kučerka, Norbert; Yamani, Zahra; Harroun, Thad A.; Katsaras, John; Shi, An-Chang; Rheinstädter, Maikel C.

    2013-01-01

    Rafts, or functional domains, are transient nano- or mesoscopic structures in the exoplasmic leaflet of the plasma membrane, and are thought to be essential for many cellular processes. Using neutron diffraction and computer modelling, we present evidence for the existence of highly ordered lipid domains in the cholesterol-rich (32.5 mol%) liquid-ordered () phase of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine membranes. The liquid ordered phase in one-component lipid membranes has previously been thought to be a homogeneous phase. The presence of highly ordered lipid domains embedded in a disordered lipid matrix implies non-uniform distribution of cholesterol between the two phases. The experimental results are in excellent agreement with recent computer simulations of DPPC/cholesterol complexes [Meinhardt, Vink and Schmid (2013). Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 110(12): 4476–4481], which reported the existence of nanometer size domains in a liquid disordered lipid environment. PMID:23823623

  17. The J gene of bacteriophage phi X174: in vitro analysis of J protein function.

    PubMed Central

    Hamatake, R K; Aoyama, A; Hayashi, M

    1985-01-01

    The J protein of phi X174 is a small, highly basic protein and is a component of the phage capsid. We have investigated the role of J protein during single-stranded viral DNA synthesis and phage morphogenesis by using an in vitro system composed of purified viral and host components (Aoyama et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 80:4195-4199, 1983). The characterization of the products made in the presence and absence of J protein shows that J protein is not required for viral DNA synthesis, but is required for the packaging of DNA into infectious phage. The ability of J protein to bind to double-stranded DNA as well as single-stranded DNA and other interactions with DNA suggest a model in which J protein binds to double-stranded, replicative form DNA and enters the phage prohead by remaining bound to viral DNA as it is encapsidated. PMID:3157804

  18. Large-scale Individual-based Models of Pandemic Influenza Mitigation Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadau, Kai; Germann, Timothy; Longini, Ira; Macken, Catherine

    2007-03-01

    We have developed a large-scale stochastic simulation model to investigate the spread of a pandemic strain of influenza virus through the U.S. population of 281 million people, to assess the likely effectiveness of various potential intervention strategies including antiviral agents, vaccines, and modified social mobility (including school closure and travel restrictions) [1]. The heterogeneous population structure and mobility is based on available Census and Department of Transportation data where available. Our simulations demonstrate that, in a highly mobile population, restricting travel after an outbreak is detected is likely to delay slightly the time course of the outbreak without impacting the eventual number ill. For large basic reproductive numbers R0, we predict that multiple strategies in combination (involving both social and medical interventions) will be required to achieve a substantial reduction in illness rates. [1] T. C. Germann, K. Kadau, I. M. Longini, and C. A. Macken, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 103, 5935-5940 (2006).

  19. Solid-state NMR of the Yersinia pestis outer membrane protein Ail in lipid bilayer nanodiscs sedimented by ultracentrifugation.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yi; Fujimoto, L Miya; Yao, Yong; Marassi, Francesca M

    2015-04-01

    Solid-state NMR studies of sedimented soluble proteins has been developed recently as an attractive approach for overcoming the size limitations of solution NMR spectroscopy while bypassing the need for sample crystallization or precipitation (Bertini et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108(26):10396-10399, 2011). Inspired by the potential benefits of this method, we have investigated the ability to sediment lipid bilayer nanodiscs reconstituted with a membrane protein. In this study, we show that nanodiscs containing the outer membrane protein Ail from Yersinia pestis can be sedimented for solid-state NMR structural studies, without the need for precipitation or lyophilization. Optimized preparations of Ail in phospholipid nanodiscs support both the structure and the fibronectin binding activity of the protein. The same sample can be used for solution NMR, solid-state NMR and activity assays, facilitating structure-activity correlation experiments across a wide range of timescales. PMID:25578899

  20. Interactions of Avocado (Persea americana) Cytochrome P-450 with Monoterpenoids

    PubMed Central

    Hallahan, David L.; Nugent, Jonathan H. A.; Hallahan, Beverly J.; Dawson, Glenn W.; Smiley, Diane W.; West, Jevon M.; Wallsgrove, Roger M.

    1992-01-01

    The microsomal fraction of avocado (Persea americana) mesocarp is a rich source of cytochrome P-450 active in the demethylation of xenobiotics. Cytochrome P-450 from this tissue has been purified and well characterized at the molecular level (DP O'Keefe, KJ Leto [1989] Plant Physiol 89: 1141-1149; KR Bozak, H Yu, R Sirevag, RE Christoffersen [1990] Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87: 3904-3908). Despite this extensive characterization, the role of the enzyme in vivo was not established. Optical and electron paramagnetic resonance binding studies described here suggest that the monoterpenoids, nerol and geraniol, are substrates of avocado cytochrome P-450 (spectral dissociation constant of 7.2 and 35 micromolar, respectively). Avocado microsomes have been shown to catalyze the hydroxylation of these monoterpenoids, and both nerol and geraniol have been shown to inhibit the activity of avocado cytochrome P-450 toward the artificial substrate 7-ethoxycoumarin, with nerol a competitive inhibitor of this activity. PMID:16668790

  1. Dynamical Transition of Protein-Hydration Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doster, W.; Busch, S.; Gaspar, A. M.; Appavou, M.-S.; Wuttke, J.; Scheer, H.

    2010-03-01

    Thin layers of water on biomolecular and other nanostructured surfaces can be supercooled to temperatures not accessible with bulk water. Chen et al. [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103, 9012 (2006)]PNASA60027-842410.1073/pnas.0602474103 suggested that anomalies near 220 K observed by quasielastic neutron scattering can be explained by a hidden critical point of bulk water. Based on more sensitive measurements of water on perdeuterated phycocyanin, using the new neutron backscattering spectrometer SPHERES, and an improved data analysis, we present results that show no sign of such a fragile-to-strong transition. The inflection of the elastic intensity at 220 K has a dynamic origin that is compatible with a calorimetric glass transition at 170 K. The temperature dependence of the relaxation times is highly sensitive to data evaluation; it can be brought into perfect agreement with the results of other techniques, without any anomaly.

  2. Differential conductance and defect states in the heavy-fermion superconductor CeCoIn5

    DOE PAGESBeta

    John S. Van Dyke; Davis, James C.; Morr, Dirk K.

    2016-01-22

    We demonstrate that the electronic band structure extracted from quasiparticle interference spectroscopy [Nat. Phys. 9, 468 (2013)] and the theoretically computed form of the superconducting gaps [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, 11663 (2014)] can be used to understand the dI/dV line shape measured in the normal and superconducting state of CeCoIn5 [Nat. Phys. 9, 474 (2013)]. In particular, the dI/dV line shape, and the spatial structure of defect-induced impurity states, reflects the existence of multiple superconducting gaps of dx2–y2 symmetry. As a result, these results strongly support a recently proposed microscopic origin of the unconventional superconducting state.

  3. A cylinder-to-sphere Fourier view factor model for azimuthal asymmetry studies in cylindrical hohlraums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giorla, J.; Poggi, F.; Paillard, D.

    2002-01-01

    This work addresses the analytical calculation of the irradiation coming from a cylindrical surface to a spherical one. This exact solution of the x-ray transport equation allows one to connect the emitted and the received fluxes, expanded as Fourier modes, by coefficients called Fourier view factors. Such a calculation is well suited to a symmetry study in the Laser Megajoule configuration [P.-A. Holstein, M. André, M. Casanova et al., C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 1, 693 (2000)] where a cylindrical hohlraum and a spherical capsule are irradiated. Indeed, this 60 quad laser system induces an azimuthal asymmetry of the hohlraum lighting depending on the laser focal spot size. Thus, the Fourier view factors allow one to express the modes of the capsule irradiation as functions of the elliptic spot dimensions.

  4. Antiviral activity of squalamine: Role of electrostatic membrane binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckerman, Bernard; Qu, Wei; Mishra, Abhijit; Zasloff, Michael; Wong, Gerard; Luijten, Erik

    2012-02-01

    Recent workootnotetextM. Zasloff et al., Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA) 108, 15978 (2011). has demonstrated that squalamine, a molecule found in the liver of sharks, exhibits broad-spectrum antiviral properties. It has been proposed that this activity results from the charge-density matching of squalamine and phospholipid membranes, causing squalamine to bind to membranes and displace proteins such as Rac1 that are crucial for the viral replication cycle. Here we investigate this hypothesis by numerical simulation of a coarse-grained model for the competition between Rac1 and squalamine in binding affinity to a flat lipid bilayer. We perform free-energy calculations to test the ability of squalamine to condense stacked bilayer systems and thereby displace bulkier Rac1 molecules. We directly compare our findings to small-angle x-ray scattering results for the same setup.

  5. Treating leukemia at the risk of inducing severe anemia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wendy S; Zhu, Helen He; Feng, Gen-Sheng

    2016-05-01

    Anemia is a frequently observed adverse effect in cancer patients who receive chemotherapy or drugs designed to block specific oncogenic signaling pathways, although the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. An article first published online (Zhu HH, Luo X, Zhang K, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2015;112:13342-13347) presented data indicating that cell type-specific pathway cross-talk is likely an important mechanism to consider. Shp2 and Pten, two master regulators of central cytoplasmic signaling pathways, oppose each other in myeloproliferation and leukemogenesis, but cooperate in promoting erythropoiesis. Thus, genetic ablation or pharmacologic inhibition of Shp2 suppresses the leukemogenic effect of Pten loss, yet simultaneously induces severe anemia in mice with Pten deficiency in blood cells. PMID:26826310

  6. Factors Affecting Academic Resilience in Middle School Students: A Case Study (Factores que Afectan la Resiliencia Académica en Estudiantes de Bachillerato)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojas Flórez, Luisa Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    This research was carried out with the purpose of identifying how and which risk and protective factors affect academic outcomes. The study explored how different family and individual environmental factors foster academic resilience. The exploratory study took place with a group of six students from a public school in Bogotá, Colombia. The school…

  7. NaNoWriMo in the AcadLib: A Case Study of National Novel Writing Month Activities in an Academic Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Alex P.

    2012-01-01

    The J. D. Williams Library at the University of Mississippi launched a pilot program during the 2010 National Novel Writing Month, hosting related events to determine community demand and how such efforts could be quantified. Using participant-submitted word counts and the event's own tools, researchers were able to ascertain that such events had…

  8. Synaptic plasticity with discrete state synapses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abarbanel, Henry D. I.; Talathi, Sachin S.; Gibb, Leif; Rabinovich, M. I.

    2005-09-01

    Experimental observations on synaptic plasticity at individual glutamatergic synapses from the CA3 Shaffer collateral pathway onto CA1 pyramidal cells in the hippocampus suggest that the transitions in synaptic strength occur among discrete levels at individual synapses [C. C. H. Petersen , Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4732 (1998); O’Connor, Wittenberg, and Wang, D. H. O’Connor , Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (to be published); J. M. Montgomery and D. V. Madison, Trends Neurosci. 27, 744 (2004)]. This happens for both long term potentiation (LTP) and long term depression (LTD) induction protocols. O’Connor, Wittenberg, and Wang have argued that three states would account for their observations on individual synapses in the CA3-CA1 pathway. We develop a quantitative model of this three-state system with transitions among the states determined by a competition between kinases and phosphatases shown by D. H. O’Connor , to be determinant of LTP and LTD, respectively. Specific predictions for various plasticity protocols are given by coupling this description of discrete synaptic α -amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor ligand gated ion channel conductance changes to a model of postsynaptic membrane potential and associated intracellular calcium fluxes to yield the transition rates among the states. We then present various LTP and LTD induction protocols to the model system and report the resulting whole cell changes in AMPA conductance. We also examine the effect of our discrete state synaptic plasticity model on the synchronization of realistic oscillating neurons. We show that one-to-one synchronization is enhanced by the plasticity we discuss here and the presynaptic and postsynaptic oscillations are in phase. Synaptic strength saturates naturally in this model and does not require artificial upper or lower cutoffs, in contrast to earlier models of plasticity.

  9. PNAS Plus: Independent evaluation of conflicting microspherule results from different investigations of the Younger Dryas impact hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeCompte, Malcolm A.; Goodyear, Albert C.; Demitroff, Mark N.; Batchelor, Dale; Vogel, Edward K.; Mooney, Charles; Rock, Barrett N.; Seidel, Alfred W.

    2012-10-01

    Firestone et al. sampled sedimentary sequences at many sites across North America, Europe, and Asia [Firestone RB, et al. (2007) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106:16016-16021]. In sediments dated to the Younger Dryas onset or Boundary (YDB) approximately 12,900 calendar years ago, Firestone et al. reported discovery of markers, including nanodiamonds, aciniform soot, high-temperature melt-glass, and magnetic microspherules attributed to cosmic impacts/airbursts. The microspherules were explained as either cosmic material ablation or terrestrial ejecta from a hypothesized North American impact that initiated the abrupt Younger Dryas cooling, contributed to megafaunal extinctions, and triggered human cultural shifts and population declines. A number of independent groups have confirmed the presence of YDB spherules, but two have not. One of them [Surovell TA, et al. (2009) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:18155-18158] collected and analyzed samples from seven YDB sites, purportedly using the same protocol as Firestone et al., but did not find a single spherule in YDB sediments at two previously reported sites. To examine this discrepancy, we conducted an independent blind investigation of two sites common to both studies, and a third site investigated only by Surovell et al. We found abundant YDB microspherules at all three widely separated sites consistent with the results of Firestone et al. and conclude that the analytical protocol employed by Surovell et al. deviated significantly from that of Firestone et al. Morphological and geochemical analyses of YDB spherules suggest they are not cosmic, volcanic, authigenic, or anthropogenic in origin. Instead, they appear to have formed from abrupt melting and quenching of terrestrial materials.

  10. Biomineral formation as a biosignature for microbial activities Precambrian cherts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rincón Tomás, Blanca; Mühlen, Dominik; Hoppert, Michael; Reitner, Joachim

    2015-04-01

    In recent anoxic sediments manganese(II)carbonate minerals (e.g., rhodochrosite, kutnohorite) derive mainly from the reduction of manganese(IV) compounds by microbial anaerobic respiration. Small particles of rhodochrosite in stromatolite-like features in the Dresser chert Fm (Pilbara supergroup, W-Australia), associated with small flakes of kerogen, account for biogenic formation of the mineral in this early Archaean setting. Contrastingly, the formation of huge manganese-rich (carbonate) deposits requires effective manganese redox cycling, also conducted by various microbial processes, mainly requiring conditions of the early and late Proterozoic (Kirschvink et al., 2000; Nealson and Saffrani 1994). However, putative anaerobic pathways like microbial nitrate-dependent manganese oxidation (Hulth et al., 1999), anoxygenic photosynthesis (Johnson et al., 2013) and oxidation in UV light may facilitate manganese cycling even in a reducing atmosphere. Thus manganese redox cycling might have been possible even before the onset of oxygenic photosynthesis. Hence, there are several ways how manganese carbonates could have been formed biogenically and deposited in Precambrian sediments. Thus, the minerals may be suitable biosignatures for microbial redox processes in many respects. The hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrobaculum islandicum produces rhodochrosite during growth on hydrogen and organic compounds and may be a putative model organism for the reduction of Mn(IV). References Hulth S, Aller RC, Gilbert F. (1999) Geochim Cosmochim Acta, 63, 49-66. Johnson JE, Webb SM, Thomas K, Ono S, Kirschvink JL, Fischer WW. (2013) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 110, 11238-11243. Kirschvink JL, Gaidos EJ, Bertani LE, Beukes NJ, Gutzmer J, Maepa LN, Steinberger LE. (2000) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 97, 1400-1405. Nealson KH, Saffarini D. (1994). Annu Rev Microbiol, 48, 311-343.

  11. Mechanism of cooperative behaviour in systems of slow and fast molecular motors.

    PubMed

    Larson, Adam G; Landahl, Eric C; Rice, Sarah E

    2009-06-28

    Two recent theoretical advances have described cargo transport by multiple identical motors and by multiple oppositely directed, but otherwise identical motors [M. J. Muller, S. Klumpp and R. Lipowsky, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 2008, 105(12), 4609-4614; S. Klumpp and R. Lipowsky, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 2005, 102(48), 17284-17289]. Here, we combine a similar theoretical approach with a simple experiment to describe the behaviour of a system comprised of slow and fast molecular motors having the same directionality. We observed the movement of microtubules by mixtures of slow and fast kinesin motors attached to a glass coverslip in a classic sliding filament assay. The motors are identical, except that the slow ones contain five point mutations that collectively reduce their velocity approximately 15-fold without compromising maximal ATPase activity. Our results indicate that a small fraction of fast motors are able to accelerate the dissociation of slow motors from microtubules. Because of this, a sharp, highly cooperative transition occurs from slow to fast microtubule movement as the relative number of fast motors in the assay is increased. Microtubules move at half-maximal velocity when only 15% of the motors in the assay are fast. Our model indicates that this behaviour depends primarily on the relative motor velocities and the asymmetry between their forward and backward dissociation forces. It weakly depends on the number of motors and their processivity. We predict that movement of cargoes bound to two types of motors having very different velocities will be dominated by one or the other motor. Therefore, cargoes can potentially undergo abrupt changes in movement in response to regulatory mechanisms acting on only a small fraction of motors. PMID:19506764

  12. Effects of the cFMS kinase inhibitor 5-(3-methoxy-4-((4-methoxybenzyl)oxy)benzyl)pyrimidine-2,4-diamine (GW2580) in normal and arthritic rats.

    PubMed

    Conway, James G; Pink, Heather; Bergquist, Mandy L; Han, Bajin; Depee, Scott; Tadepalli, Sarva; Lin, Peiyuan; Crumrine, R Christian; Binz, Jane; Clark, Richard L; Selph, Jeffrey L; Stimpson, Stephen A; Hutchins, Jeff T; Chamberlain, Stanley D; Brodie, Thomas A

    2008-07-01

    The cFMS (cellular homolog of the V-FMS oncogene product of the Susan McDonough strain of feline sarcoma virus) (Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 83:3331-3335, 1986) kinase inhibitor 5-(3-methoxy-4-((4-methoxybenzyl)oxy)benzyl)pyrimidine-2,4-diamine (GW2580) inhibits colony-stimulating factor (CSF)-1-induced monocyte growth and bone degradation in vitro and inhibits CSF-1 signaling through cFMS kinase in 4-day models in mice (Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:16078, 2005). In the present study, the kinase selectivity of GW2580 was further characterized, and the effects of chronic treatment were evaluated in normal and arthritic rats. GW2580 selectively inhibited cFMS kinase compared with 186 other kinases in vitro and completely inhibited CSF-1-induced growth of rat monocytes, with an IC(50) value of 0.2 microM. GW2580 dosed orally at 25 and 75 mg/kg 1 and 5 h before the injection of lipopolysaccharide inhibited tumor necrosis factor-alpha production by 60 to 85%, indicating a duration of action of at least 5 h. In a 21-day adjuvant arthritis model, GW2580 dosed twice a day (b.i.d.) from days 0 to 21, 7 to 21, or 14 to 21 inhibited joint connective tissue and bone destruction as assessed by radiology, histology and bone mineral content measurements. In contrast, GW2580 did not affect ankle swelling in the adjuvant model nor did it affect ankle swelling in a model where local arthritis is reactivated by peptidoglycan polysaccharide polymers. GW2580 administered to normal rats for 21 days showed no effects on tissue histology and only modest changes in serum clinical chemistry and blood hematology. In conclusion, GW2580 was effective in preserving joint integrity in the adjuvant arthritis model while showing minimal effects in normal rats. PMID:18434589

  13. Anomalous behavior of water inside the SecY translocon.

    PubMed

    Capponi, Sara; Heyden, Matthias; Bondar, Ana-Nicoleta; Tobias, Douglas J; White, Stephen H

    2015-07-21

    The heterotrimeric SecY translocon complex is required for the cotranslational assembly of membrane proteins in bacteria and archaea. The insertion of transmembrane (TM) segments during nascent-chain passage through the translocon is generally viewed as a simple partitioning process between the water-filled translocon and membrane lipid bilayer, suggesting that partitioning is driven by the hydrophobic effect. Indeed, the apparent free energy of partitioning of unnatural aliphatic amino acids on TM segments is proportional to accessible surface area, which is a hallmark of the hydrophobic effect [Öjemalm K, et al. (2011) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108(31):E359-E364]. However, the apparent partitioning solvation parameter is less than one-half the value expected for simple bulk partitioning, suggesting that the water in the translocon departs from bulk behavior. To examine the state of water in a SecY translocon complex embedded in a lipid bilayer, we carried out all-atom molecular-dynamics simulations of the Pyrococcus furiosus SecYE, which was determined to be in a "primed" open state [Egea PF, Stroud RM (2010) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107(40):17182-17187]. Remarkably, SecYE remained in this state throughout our 450-ns simulation. Water molecules within SecY exhibited anomalous diffusion, had highly retarded rotational dynamics, and aligned their dipoles along the SecY transmembrane axis. The translocon is therefore not a simple water-filled pore, which raises the question of how anomalous water behavior affects the mechanism of translocon function and, more generally, the partitioning of hydrophobic molecules. Because large water-filled cavities are found in many membrane proteins, our findings may have broader implications. PMID:26139523

  14. Two-photon fluorescence coincidence analysis: rapid measurements of enzyme kinetics.

    PubMed Central

    Heinze, Katrin G; Rarbach, Markus; Jahnz, Michael; Schwille, Petra

    2002-01-01

    Dual-color fluorescence cross-correlation analysis is a powerful tool for probing interactions of different fluorescently labeled molecules in aqueous solution. The concept is the selective observation of coordinated spontaneous fluctuations in two separate detection channels that unambiguously reflect the existence of physical or chemical linkages among the different fluorescent species. It has previously been shown that the evaluation of cross-correlation amplitudes, i.e., coincidence factors, is sufficient to extract essential information about the kinetics of formation or cleavage of chemical or physical bonds. Confocal fluorescence coincidence analysis (CFCA) (Winkler et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96:1375-1378, 1999) emphasizes short analysis times and simplified data evaluation and is thus particularly useful for screening applications or measurements on live cells where small illumination doses need to be applied. The recent use of two-photon fluorescence excitation has simplified dual- or multicolor measurements by enabling the simultaneous excitation of largely different dye molecules by a single infra-red laser line (Heinze et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97:10377-10382, 2000). It is demonstrated here that a combination of CFCA with two-photon excitation allows for minimization of analysis times for multicomponent systems down to some hundreds of milliseconds, while preserving all known advantages of two-photon excitation. By introducing crucial measurement parameters, experimental limits for the reduction of sampling times are discussed for the special case of distinguishing positive from negative samples in an endonucleolytic cleavage assay. PMID:12202390

  15. Chemical Analysis of a "Miller-Type" Complex Prebiotic Broth. Part I: Chemical Diversity, Oxygen and Nitrogen Based Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wollrab, Eva; Scherer, Sabrina; Aubriet, Frédéric; Carré, Vincent; Carlomagno, Teresa; Codutti, Luca; Ott, Albrecht

    2016-06-01

    In a famous experiment Stanley Miller showed that a large number of organic substances can emerge from sparking a mixture of methane, ammonia and hydrogen in the presence of water (Miller, Science 117:528-529, 1953). Among these substances Miller identified different amino acids, and he concluded that prebiotic events may well have produced many of Life's molecular building blocks. There have been many variants of the original experiment since, including different gas mixtures (Miller, J Am Chem Soc 77:2351-2361, 1955; Oró Nature 197:862-867, 1963; Schlesinger and Miller, J Mol Evol 19:376-382, 1983; Miyakawa et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci 99:14,628-14,631, 2002). Recently some of Miller's remaining original samples were analyzed with modern equipment (Johnson et al. Science 322:404-404, 2008; Parker et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci 108:5526-5531, 2011) and a total of 23 racemic amino acids were identified. To give an overview of the chemical variety of a possible prebiotic broth, here we analyze a "Miller type" experiment using state of the art mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. We identify substances of a wide range of saturation, which can be hydrophilic, hydrophobic or amphiphilic in nature. Often the molecules contain heteroatoms, with amines and amides being prominent classes of molecule. In some samples we detect ethylene glycol based polymers. Their formation in water requires the presence of a catalyst. Contrary to expectations, we cannot identify any preferred reaction product. The capacity to spontaneously produce this extremely high degree of molecular variety in a very simple experiment is a remarkable feature of organic chemistry and possibly prerequisite for Life to emerge. It remains a future task to uncover how dedicated, organized chemical reaction pathways may have arisen from this degree of complexity.

  16. Jensen's inequality for filtration consistent nonlinear expectation without domination condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Sheng-Jun

    2008-09-01

    In this paper, the general filtration consistent nonlinear expectation defined on the integrable variable space is considered, based on the results in [F. Coquet, Y. Hu, J. Memin, S. Peng, Filtration consistent nonlinear expectations and related g-expectation, Probab. Theory Related Fields 123 (2002) 1-27]. Under a natural continuous assumption for the nonlinear expectation, which weakens the domination assumption in [F. Coquet, Y. Hu, J. Memin, S. Peng, Filtration consistent nonlinear expectations and related g-expectation, Probab. Theory Related Fields 123 (2002) 1-27], the author obtains the necessary and sufficient conditions under which Jensen's inequality for filtration consistent nonlinear expectation holds in general, respectively on scalar function and bivariate function. These two results generalize the known results on Jensen's inequality for g-expectation in [Z. Chen, R. Kulperger, L. Jiang, Jensen's inequality for g-expectation: Part 1, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris Ser. I 337 (11) (2003) 725-730; Z. Chen, R. Kulperger, L. Jiang, Jensen's inequality for g-expectation: Part 2, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris Ser. I 337 (12) (2003) 797-800; L. Jiang, On Jensen's inequality of bivariate function for g-expectation, J. Shandong Univ. 38 (5) (2003) 13-22 (in Chinese); L. Jiang, Z. Chen, On Jensen's inequality for g-expectation, Chinese Ann. Math. Ser. B 25 (3) (2004) 401-412; L. Jiang, Jensen's inequality for backward stochastic differential equation, Chinese Ann. Math. Ser. B 27 (5) (2006) 553-564; S. Fan, Jensen's inequality for g-expectation on convex (concave) function, Chinese Ann. Math. Ser. A 27 (5) (2006) 635-644 (in Chinese)].

  17. Geometric origin of scaling in large traffic networks.

    PubMed

    Popović, Marko; Štefančić, Hrvoje; Zlatić, Vinko

    2012-11-16

    Large scale traffic networks are an indispensable part of contemporary human mobility and international trade. Networks of airport travel and cargo ship movements are invaluable for the understanding of human mobility patterns [R. Guimera et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 7794 (2005))], epidemic spreading [V. Colizza et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103, 2015 (2006)], global trade [International Maritime Organization, http://www.imo.org/], and spread of invasive species [G. M. Ruiz et al., Nature (London) 408, 49 (2000)]. Different studies [M. Barthelemy, Phys. Rept. 499, 1 (2011)] point to the universal character of some of the exponents measured in such networks. Here we show that exponents which relate (i) the strength of nodes to their degree and (ii) weights of links to degrees of nodes that they connect have a geometric origin. We present a simple robust model which exhibits the observed power laws and relates exponents to the dimensionality of 2D space in which traffic networks are embedded. We show that the relation between weight strength and degree is s(k)~k(3/2), the relation between distance strength and degree is s(d)(k)~k(3/2), and the relation between weight of link and degrees of linked nodes is w(ij)~(k(i)k(j))(1/2) on the plane 2D surface. We further analyze the influence of spherical geometry, relevant for the whole planet, on exact values of these exponents. Our model predicts that these exponents should be found in future studies of port networks and it imposes constraints on more refined models of port networks. PMID:23215527

  18. Anomalous behavior of water inside the SecY translocon

    PubMed Central

    Capponi, Sara; Heyden, Matthias; Bondar, Ana-Nicoleta; Tobias, Douglas J.; White, Stephen H.

    2015-01-01

    The heterotrimeric SecY translocon complex is required for the cotranslational assembly of membrane proteins in bacteria and archaea. The insertion of transmembrane (TM) segments during nascent-chain passage through the translocon is generally viewed as a simple partitioning process between the water-filled translocon and membrane lipid bilayer, suggesting that partitioning is driven by the hydrophobic effect. Indeed, the apparent free energy of partitioning of unnatural aliphatic amino acids on TM segments is proportional to accessible surface area, which is a hallmark of the hydrophobic effect [Öjemalm K, et al. (2011) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108(31):E359–E364]. However, the apparent partitioning solvation parameter is less than one-half the value expected for simple bulk partitioning, suggesting that the water in the translocon departs from bulk behavior. To examine the state of water in a SecY translocon complex embedded in a lipid bilayer, we carried out all-atom molecular-dynamics simulations of the Pyrococcus furiosus SecYE, which was determined to be in a “primed” open state [Egea PF, Stroud RM (2010) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107(40):17182–17187]. Remarkably, SecYE remained in this state throughout our 450-ns simulation. Water molecules within SecY exhibited anomalous diffusion, had highly retarded rotational dynamics, and aligned their dipoles along the SecY transmembrane axis. The translocon is therefore not a simple water-filled pore, which raises the question of how anomalous water behavior affects the mechanism of translocon function and, more generally, the partitioning of hydrophobic molecules. Because large water-filled cavities are found in many membrane proteins, our findings may have broader implications. PMID:26139523

  19. Calorie restriction reduces the incidence of myeloid leukemia induced by a single whole-body radiation in C3H/He mice.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, K; Inoue, T; Nojima, K; Hirabayashi, Y; Sado, T

    1997-03-18

    Dietary restriction, especially caloric restriction, is a major modifier in experimental carcinogenesis and is known to decrease significantly the incidence of neoplasms. Gross and Dreyfuss [Gross, L. & Dreyfuss, Y. (1984) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81, 7596-7598; Gross, L. & Dreyfuss, Y. (1986) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83, 7928-7931] reported that a 36% restriction in caloric intake dramatically decreased the radiation-induced solid tumors and/or leukemias. Their protocol predominantly produced lymphatic neoplasms. It is of interest to observe the effect of caloric restriction on radiation-induced myeloid leukemia, because the disease was observed to have been increased in the survivors of the atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The spontaneous incidence of myeloid leukemia in C3H/He male mice is 1%, and the incidence increased to 23.3% when 3 Gy of whole-body x-ray irradiation was given. However, the incidence of myeloid leukemia was found to be significantly decreased by caloric restriction; it was reduced to 7.9% and 10.7% when restriction was started before (6 weeks old) and after (10 weeks old) irradiation, respectively. In addition, the onset of the myeloid leukemia in both restricted groups was prolonged to a greater extent as compared with the control diet group. Caloric restriction demonstrated a significant prolongation of the life span in the groups on a restricted diet after having been exposed to irradiation, either before or after dietary restriction, in comparison with mice that were only irradiated. PMID:9122244

  20. Chemical Analysis of a "Miller-Type" Complex Prebiotic Broth: Part I: Chemical Diversity, Oxygen and Nitrogen Based Polymers.

    PubMed

    Wollrab, Eva; Scherer, Sabrina; Aubriet, Frédéric; Carré, Vincent; Carlomagno, Teresa; Codutti, Luca; Ott, Albrecht

    2016-06-01

    In a famous experiment Stanley Miller showed that a large number of organic substances can emerge from sparking a mixture of methane, ammonia and hydrogen in the presence of water (Miller, Science 117:528-529, 1953). Among these substances Miller identified different amino acids, and he concluded that prebiotic events may well have produced many of Life's molecular building blocks. There have been many variants of the original experiment since, including different gas mixtures (Miller, J Am Chem Soc 77:2351-2361, 1955; Oró Nature 197:862-867, 1963; Schlesinger and Miller, J Mol Evol 19:376-382, 1983; Miyakawa et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci 99:14,628-14,631, 2002). Recently some of Miller's remaining original samples were analyzed with modern equipment (Johnson et al. Science 322:404-404, 2008; Parker et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci 108:5526-5531, 2011) and a total of 23 racemic amino acids were identified. To give an overview of the chemical variety of a possible prebiotic broth, here we analyze a "Miller type" experiment using state of the art mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. We identify substances of a wide range of saturation, which can be hydrophilic, hydrophobic or amphiphilic in nature. Often the molecules contain heteroatoms, with amines and amides being prominent classes of molecule. In some samples we detect ethylene glycol based polymers. Their formation in water requires the presence of a catalyst. Contrary to expectations, we cannot identify any preferred reaction product. The capacity to spontaneously produce this extremely high degree of molecular variety in a very simple experiment is a remarkable feature of organic chemistry and possibly prerequisite for Life to emerge. It remains a future task to uncover how dedicated, organized chemical reaction pathways may have arisen from this degree of complexity. PMID:26508401