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Sample records for acad sci issn

  1. ISSN Roundtable: FAQs About the ISSN.

    PubMed

    Antonio, Jose; Gann, Marc; Kalman, Douglas; Katch, Frank; Kleiner, Susan; Kreider, Richard; Willoughby, Darryn

    2005-01-01

    : MISSION STATEMENT OF THE ISSN : The mission of the International Society of Sports Nutrition is to be recognized as the leading professional organization in the study and application of sports nutrition. The ISSN is dedicated to promoting and supporting the study, practice, education, research and development of sports nutrition and the sports nutrition profession. All information disseminated by the ISSN is unbiased and scientifically supported. PMID:18500952

  2. Energy data base. Serial titles with ISSN listing

    SciTech Connect

    Hendricks, P.L.

    1984-03-01

    This issue of Serial Titles with ISSN Listing is the first revision of DOE/TIC-4579 to include the International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) for journals. The TIC journal authority was established to bring about conformity in citing the approximately 16,000 titles contained in this authority. It can prove to be a valuable tool in establishing the precise journal by ISSN and CODEN indication, especially for journals with the same title published in different locations. Serial Titles with ISSN Listing is comprised of two parts. Part 1 is an alphabetical listing by full title of the publication and also includes abbreviated title, CODEN, ISSN, coverage code, and country code. Part 2 is an ISSN-title correlation arranged in numeric order by ISSN and also includes the CODEN and full title.

  3. ISSN Exercise & Sport Nutrition Review: Research & Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Kreider, Richard B; Almada, Anthony L; Antonio, Jose; Broeder, Craig; Earnest, Conrad; Greenwood, Mike; Incledon, Thomas; Kalman, Douglas S; Kleiner, Susan M; Leutholtz, Brian; Lowery, Lonnie M; Mendel, Ron; Stout, Jeffrey R; Willoughby, Darryn S; Ziegenfuss, Tim N

    2004-01-01

    Sport nutrition is a constantly evolving field with literally thousands of research papers published annually. For this reason, keeping up to date with the literature is often difficult. This paper presents a well-referenced overview of the current state of the science related to how to optimize training through nutrition. More specifically, this article discusses: 1.) how to evaluate the scientific merit of nutritional supplements; 2.) general nutritional strategies to optimize performance and enhance recovery; and, 3.) our current understanding of the available science behind weight gain, weight loss, and performance enhancement supplements. Our hope is that ISSN members find this review useful in their daily practice and consultation with their clients.

  4. ISSN exercise & sport nutrition review: research & recommendations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Sports nutrition is a constantly evolving field with hundreds of research papers published annually. For this reason, keeping up to date with the literature is often difficult. This paper is a five year update of the sports nutrition review article published as the lead paper to launch the JISSN in 2004 and presents a well-referenced overview of the current state of the science related to how to optimize training and athletic performance through nutrition. More specifically, this paper provides an overview of: 1.) The definitional category of ergogenic aids and dietary supplements; 2.) How dietary supplements are legally regulated; 3.) How to evaluate the scientific merit of nutritional supplements; 4.) General nutritional strategies to optimize performance and enhance recovery; and, 5.) An overview of our current understanding of the ergogenic value of nutrition and dietary supplementation in regards to weight gain, weight loss, and performance enhancement. Our hope is that ISSN members and individuals interested in sports nutrition find this review useful in their daily practice and consultation with their clients. PMID:20181066

  5. ISSN exercise & sport nutrition review: research & recommendations.

    PubMed

    Kreider, Richard B; Wilborn, Colin D; Taylor, Lem; Campbell, Bill; Almada, Anthony L; Collins, Rick; Cooke, Mathew; Earnest, Conrad P; Greenwood, Mike; Kalman, Douglas S; Kerksick, Chad M; Kleiner, Susan M; Leutholtz, Brian; Lopez, Hector; Lowery, Lonnie M; Mendel, Ron; Smith, Abbie; Spano, Marie; Wildman, Robert; Willoughby, Darryn S; Ziegenfuss, Tim N; Antonio, Jose

    2010-01-01

    Sports nutrition is a constantly evolving field with hundreds of research papers published annually. For this reason, keeping up to date with the literature is often difficult. This paper is a five year update of the sports nutrition review article published as the lead paper to launch the JISSN in 2004 and presents a well-referenced overview of the current state of the science related to how to optimize training and athletic performance through nutrition. More specifically, this paper provides an overview of: 1.) The definitional category of ergogenic aids and dietary supplements; 2.) How dietary supplements are legally regulated; 3.) How to evaluate the scientific merit of nutritional supplements; 4.) General nutritional strategies to optimize performance and enhance recovery; and, 5.) An overview of our current understanding of the ergogenic value of nutrition and dietary supplementation in regards to weight gain, weight loss, and performance enhancement. Our hope is that ISSN members and individuals interested in sports nutrition find this review useful in their daily practice and consultation with their clients. PMID:20181066

  6. Energy Data Base: Serial titles with ISSN listing: Part 1, Alphabetic arrangement by title

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, J.H.

    1986-12-01

    ''Serial Titles with ISSN Listing'' lists periodical titles which have been included in the OSTI (Office of Scientific and Technical Information) Journal Authority. The OSTI Journal Authority was established to standardize the citing of the approximately 23,000 titles contained in this authority. It is also a valuable tool for identifying journals by ISSN and CODEN, especially for journals with the same title which are published in different locations. This Part 1 is an alphabetical listing by full title of the journal publication and also includes abbreviated title, CODEN, ISSN, coverage code, and country code.

  7. The International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) and Its Use by the United States Postal Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartley, Linda K.

    1980-01-01

    Describes the rationale and procedures for the implementation of the mandatory printing of ISSN on serials mailed at special rates through the United States mail. The article cites bibliographical, commercial, and managerial benefits for the information community. (Author/RAA)

  8. Linking Successive Entries Based upon the OCLC Control Number, ISSN, or LCCN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alan, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Describes a study that examined the feasibility of using machine links in an online catalog based on the presence of an OCLC control number, International Standard Serial Number (ISSN), or Library of Congress control number (LCCN) to link successive-entry serial bibliographic records that result from serial title changes. (Contains nine…

  9. Ready Reference. How To Obtain an ISBN; How To Obtain an ISSN; How To Obtain an SAN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koltay, Emery

    2003-01-01

    These three articles describe ISBNs (International Standard Book Numbers); ISSNs (International Standard Serial Numbers); and SANs (Standard Address Numbers), for organizations served by the book industry; and explains how to apply to obtain the appropriate numbers. (LRW)

  10. Complex I assembly function and fatty acid oxidation enzyme activity of ACAD9 both contribute to disease severity in ACAD9 deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Schiff, Manuel; Haberberger, Birgit; Xia, Chuanwu; Mohsen, Al-Walid; Goetzman, Eric S.; Wang, Yudong; Uppala, Radha; Zhang, Yuxun; Karunanidhi, Anuradha; Prabhu, Dolly; Alharbi, Hana; Prochownik, Edward V.; Haack, Tobias; Häberle, Johannes; Munnich, Arnold; Rötig, Agnes; Taylor, Robert W.; Nicholls, Robert D.; Kim, Jung-Ja; Prokisch, Holger; Vockley, Jerry

    2015-01-01

    Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase 9 (ACAD9) is an assembly factor for mitochondrial respiratory chain Complex I (CI), and ACAD9 mutations are recognized as a frequent cause of CI deficiency. ACAD9 also retains enzyme ACAD activity for long-chain fatty acids in vitro, but the biological relevance of this function remains controversial partly because of the tissue specificity of ACAD9 expression: high in liver and neurons and minimal in skin fibroblasts. In this study, we hypothesized that this enzymatic ACAD activity is required for full fatty acid oxidation capacity in cells expressing high levels of ACAD9 and that loss of this function is important in determining phenotype in ACAD9-deficient patients. First, we confirmed that HEK293 cells express ACAD9 abundantly. Then, we showed that ACAD9 knockout in HEK293 cells affected long-chain fatty acid oxidation along with Cl, both of which were rescued by wild type ACAD9. Further, we evaluated whether the loss of ACAD9 enzymatic fatty acid oxidation affects clinical severity in patients with ACAD9 mutations. The effects on ACAD activity of 16 ACAD9 mutations identified in 24 patients were evaluated using a prokaryotic expression system. We showed that there was a significant inverse correlation between residual enzyme ACAD activity and phenotypic severity of ACAD9-deficient patients. These results provide evidence that in cells where it is strongly expressed, ACAD9 plays a physiological role in fatty acid oxidation, which contributes to the severity of the phenotype in ACAD9-deficient patients. Accordingly, treatment of ACAD9 patients should aim at counteracting both CI and fatty acid oxidation dysfunctions. PMID:25721401

  11. Ready Reference. Publishers' Toll-Free Telephone Numbers and Web Sites; How To Obtain an ISBN; How To Obtain an ISSN; How To Obtain an SAN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koltay, Emery

    2002-01-01

    Includes four articles: one lists publishers' toll-free telephone numbers and Web sites; and the others explain how to obtain an ISBN (International Standard Book Number), an ISSN (International Standard Serial Number), and an SAN (Standard Address Number) for organizations involved in the book industry. (LRW)

  12. Evidence of a wide spectrum of cardiac involvement due to ACAD9 mutations: Report on nine patients.

    PubMed

    Dewulf, Joseph P; Barrea, Catherine; Vincent, Marie-Françoise; De Laet, Corinne; Van Coster, Rudy; Seneca, Sara; Marie, Sandrine; Nassogne, Marie-Cécile

    2016-07-01

    Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase 9 (ACAD9) is a mitochondrial protein involved in oxidative phosphorylation complex I biogenesis. This protein also exhibits acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACAD) activity. ACAD9-mutated patients have been reported to suffer from primarily heart, muscle, liver, and nervous system disorders. ACAD9 mutation is suspected in cases of elevated lactic acid levels combined with complex I deficiency, and confirmed by ACAD9 gene analysis. At least 18 ACAD9-mutated patients have previously been reported, usually displaying severe cardiac involvement. We retrospectively studied nine additional patients from three unrelated families with a wide spectrum of cardiac involvement between the families as well as the patients from the same families. All patients exhibited elevated lactate levels. Deleterious ACAD9 mutations were identified in all patients except one for whom it was not possible to recover DNA. To our knowledge, this is one of the first reports on isolated mild ventricular hypertrophy due to ACAD9 mutation in a family with moderate symptoms during adolescence. This report also confirms that dilated cardiomyopathy may occur in conjunction with ACAD9 mutation and that some patients may respond clinically to riboflavin treatment. Of note, several patients suffered from patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), with one exhibiting a complex congenital heart defect. It is yet unknown whether these cardiac manifestations were related to ACAD9 mutation. In conclusion, this disorder should be suspected in the presence of lactic acidosis, complex I deficiency, and any cardiac involvement, even mild. PMID:27233227

  13. Evidence of a wide spectrum of cardiac involvement due to ACAD9 mutations: Report on nine patients.

    PubMed

    Dewulf, Joseph P; Barrea, Catherine; Vincent, Marie-Françoise; De Laet, Corinne; Van Coster, Rudy; Seneca, Sara; Marie, Sandrine; Nassogne, Marie-Cécile

    2016-07-01

    Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase 9 (ACAD9) is a mitochondrial protein involved in oxidative phosphorylation complex I biogenesis. This protein also exhibits acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACAD) activity. ACAD9-mutated patients have been reported to suffer from primarily heart, muscle, liver, and nervous system disorders. ACAD9 mutation is suspected in cases of elevated lactic acid levels combined with complex I deficiency, and confirmed by ACAD9 gene analysis. At least 18 ACAD9-mutated patients have previously been reported, usually displaying severe cardiac involvement. We retrospectively studied nine additional patients from three unrelated families with a wide spectrum of cardiac involvement between the families as well as the patients from the same families. All patients exhibited elevated lactate levels. Deleterious ACAD9 mutations were identified in all patients except one for whom it was not possible to recover DNA. To our knowledge, this is one of the first reports on isolated mild ventricular hypertrophy due to ACAD9 mutation in a family with moderate symptoms during adolescence. This report also confirms that dilated cardiomyopathy may occur in conjunction with ACAD9 mutation and that some patients may respond clinically to riboflavin treatment. Of note, several patients suffered from patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), with one exhibiting a complex congenital heart defect. It is yet unknown whether these cardiac manifestations were related to ACAD9 mutation. In conclusion, this disorder should be suspected in the presence of lactic acidosis, complex I deficiency, and any cardiac involvement, even mild.

  14. Preface: SciDAC 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Horst

    2009-07-01

    By almost any measure, the SciDAC community has come a long way since DOE launched the SciDAC program back in 2001. At the time, we were grappling with how to efficiently run applications on terascale systems (the November 2001 TOP500 list was led by DOE's ASCI White IBM system at Lawrence Livermore achieving 7.2 teraflop/s). And the results stemming from the first round of SciDAC projects were summed up in two-page reports. The scientific results were presented at annual meetings, which were by invitation only and typically were attended by about 75 researchers. Fast forward to 2009 and we now have SciDAC Review, a quarterly magazine showcasing the scientific computing contributions of SciDAC projects and related programs, all focused on presenting a comprehensive look at Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing. That is also the motivation behind the annual SciDAC conference that in 2009 was held from June 14-18 in San Diego. The annual conference, which can also be described as a celebration of all things SciDAC, grew out those meetings organized in the early days of the program. In 2005, the meeting was held in San Francisco and attendance was opened up to all members of the SciDAC community. The schedule was also expanded to include a keynote address, plenary speakers and other features found in a conference format. This year marks the fifth such SciDAC conference, which now comprises four days of computational science presentations, multiple poster sessions and, since last year, an evening event showcasing simulations and modeling runs resulting from SciDAC projects. The fifth annual SciDAC conference was remarkable on several levels. The primary purpose, of course, is to showcase the research accomplishments resulting from SciDAC programs in particular and computational science in general. It is these accomplishments, represented in 38 papers and 52 posters, that comprise this set of conference proceedings. These proceedings can stand alone as

  15. Preface: SciDAC 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Horst

    2009-07-01

    By almost any measure, the SciDAC community has come a long way since DOE launched the SciDAC program back in 2001. At the time, we were grappling with how to efficiently run applications on terascale systems (the November 2001 TOP500 list was led by DOE's ASCI White IBM system at Lawrence Livermore achieving 7.2 teraflop/s). And the results stemming from the first round of SciDAC projects were summed up in two-page reports. The scientific results were presented at annual meetings, which were by invitation only and typically were attended by about 75 researchers. Fast forward to 2009 and we now have SciDAC Review, a quarterly magazine showcasing the scientific computing contributions of SciDAC projects and related programs, all focused on presenting a comprehensive look at Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing. That is also the motivation behind the annual SciDAC conference that in 2009 was held from June 14-18 in San Diego. The annual conference, which can also be described as a celebration of all things SciDAC, grew out those meetings organized in the early days of the program. In 2005, the meeting was held in San Francisco and attendance was opened up to all members of the SciDAC community. The schedule was also expanded to include a keynote address, plenary speakers and other features found in a conference format. This year marks the fifth such SciDAC conference, which now comprises four days of computational science presentations, multiple poster sessions and, since last year, an evening event showcasing simulations and modeling runs resulting from SciDAC projects. The fifth annual SciDAC conference was remarkable on several levels. The primary purpose, of course, is to showcase the research accomplishments resulting from SciDAC programs in particular and computational science in general. It is these accomplishments, represented in 38 papers and 52 posters, that comprise this set of conference proceedings. These proceedings can stand alone as

  16. Preface: SciDAC 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keyes, David E.

    2007-09-01

    It takes a village to perform a petascale computation—domain scientists, applied mathematicians, computer scientists, computer system vendors, program managers, and support staff—and the village was assembled during 24-28 June 2007 in Boston's Westin Copley Place for the third annual Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) 2007 Conference. Over 300 registered participants networked around 76 posters, focused on achievements and challenges in 36 plenary talks, and brainstormed in two panels. In addition, with an eye to spreading the vision for simulation at the petascale and to growing the workforce, 115 participants—mostly doctoral students and post-docs complementary to the conferees—were gathered on 29 June 2007 in classrooms of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology for a full day of tutorials on the use of SciDAC software. Eleven SciDAC-sponsored research groups presented their software at an introductory level, in both lecture and hands-on formats that included live runs on a local BlueGene/L. Computation has always been about garnering insight into the behavior of systems too complex to explore satisfactorily by theoretical means alone. Today, however, computation is about much more: scientists and decision makers expect quantitatively reliable predictions from simulations ranging in scale from that of the Earth's climate, down to quarks, and out to colliding black holes. Predictive simulation lies at the heart of policy choices in energy and environment affecting billions of lives and expenditures of trillions of dollars. It is also at the heart of scientific debates on the nature of matter and the origin of the universe. The petascale is barely adequate for such demands and we are barely established at the levels of resolution and throughput that this new scale of computation affords. However, no scientific agenda worldwide is pushing the petascale frontier on all its fronts as vigorously as SciDAC. The breadth of this conference

  17. Preface: SciDAC 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, William M., Dr.

    2006-01-01

    The second annual Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) Conference was held from June 25-29, 2006 at the new Hyatt Regency Hotel in Denver, Colorado. This conference showcased outstanding SciDAC-sponsored computational science results achieved during the past year across many scientific domains, with an emphasis on science at scale. Exciting computational science that has been accomplished outside of the SciDAC program both nationally and internationally was also featured to help foster communication between SciDAC computational scientists and those funded by other agencies. This was illustrated by many compelling examples of how domain scientists collaborated productively with applied mathematicians and computer scientists to effectively take advantage of terascale computers (capable of performing trillions of calculations per second) not only to accelerate progress in scientific discovery in a variety of fields but also to show great promise for being able to utilize the exciting petascale capabilities in the near future. The SciDAC program was originally conceived as an interdisciplinary computational science program based on the guiding principle that strong collaborative alliances between domain scientists, applied mathematicians, and computer scientists are vital to accelerated progress and associated discovery on the world's most challenging scientific problems. Associated verification and validation are essential in this successful program, which was funded by the US Department of Energy Office of Science (DOE OS) five years ago. As is made clear in many of the papers in these proceedings, SciDAC has fundamentally changed the way that computational science is now carried out in response to the exciting challenge of making the best use of the rapid progress in the emergence of more and more powerful computational platforms. In this regard, Dr. Raymond Orbach, Energy Undersecretary for Science at the DOE and Director of the OS has stated

  18. Preface: SciDAC 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Rick

    2008-07-01

    The fourth annual Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) Conference was held June 13-18, 2008, in Seattle, Washington. The SciDAC conference series is the premier communitywide venue for presentation of results from the DOE Office of Science's interdisciplinary computational science program. Started in 2001 and renewed in 2006, the DOE SciDAC program is the country's - and arguably the world's - most significant interdisciplinary research program supporting the development of advanced scientific computing methods and their application to fundamental and applied areas of science. SciDAC supports computational science across many disciplines, including astrophysics, biology, chemistry, fusion sciences, and nuclear physics. Moreover, the program actively encourages the creation of long-term partnerships among scientists focused on challenging problems and computer scientists and applied mathematicians developing the technology and tools needed to address those problems. The SciDAC program has played an increasingly important role in scientific research by allowing scientists to create more accurate models of complex processes, simulate problems once thought to be impossible, and analyze the growing amount of data generated by experiments. To help further the research community's ability to tap into the capabilities of current and future supercomputers, Under Secretary for Science, Raymond Orbach, launched the Innovative and Novel Computational Impact on Theory and Experiment (INCITE) program in 2003. The INCITE program was conceived specifically to seek out computationally intensive, large-scale research projects with the potential to significantly advance key areas in science and engineering. The program encourages proposals from universities, other research institutions, and industry. During the first two years of the INCITE program, 10 percent of the resources at NERSC were allocated to INCITE awardees. However, demand for supercomputing resources

  19. Learning by Creating and Exchanging Objects: The SCY Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Jong, Ton; Van Joolingen, Wouter R.; Giemza, Adam; Girault, Isabelle; Hoppe, Ulrich; Kindermann, Jorg; Kluge, Anders; Lazonder, Ard W.; Vold, Vibeke; Weinberger, Armin; Weinbrenner, Stefan; Wichmann, Astrid; Anjewierden, Anjo; Bodin, Marjolaine; Bollen, Lars; D'Ham, Cedric; Dolonen, Jan; Engler, Jan; Geraedts, Caspar; Grosskreutz, Henrik; Hovardas, Tasos; Julien, Rachel; Lechner, Judith; Ludvigsen, Sten; Matteman, Yuri; Meistadt, Oyvind; Naess, Bjorge; Ney, Muriel; Pedaste, Margus; Perritano, Anthony; Rinket, Marieke; Von Schlanbusch, Henrik; Sarapuu, Tago; Schulz, Florian; Sikken, Jakob; Slotta, Jim; Toussaint, Jeremy; Verkade, Alex; Wajeman, Claire; Wasson, Barbara; Zacharia, Zacharias C.; Van Der Zanden, Martine

    2010-01-01

    Science Created by You (SCY) is a project on learning in science and technology domains. SCY uses a pedagogical approach that centres around products, called "emerging learning objects" (ELOs) that are created by students. Students work individually and collaboratively in SCY-Lab (the general SCY learning environment) on "missions" that are guided…

  20. Preface: SciDAC 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezzacappa, Anthony

    2005-01-01

    On 26-30 June 2005 at the Grand Hyatt on Union Square in San Francisco several hundred computational scientists from around the world came together for what can certainly be described as a celebration of computational science. Scientists from the SciDAC Program and scientists from other agencies and nations were joined by applied mathematicians and computer scientists to highlight the many successes in the past year where computation has led to scientific discovery in a variety of fields: lattice quantum chromodynamics, accelerator modeling, chemistry, biology, materials science, Earth and climate science, astrophysics, and combustion and fusion energy science. Also highlighted were the advances in numerical methods and computer science, and the multidisciplinary collaboration cutting across science, mathematics, and computer science that enabled these discoveries. The SciDAC Program was conceived and funded by the US Department of Energy Office of Science. It is the Office of Science's premier computational science program founded on what is arguably the perfect formula: the priority and focus is science and scientific discovery, with the understanding that the full arsenal of `enabling technologies' in applied mathematics and computer science must be brought to bear if we are to have any hope of attacking and ultimately solving today's computational Grand Challenge problems. The SciDAC Program has been in existence for four years, and many of the computational scientists funded by this program will tell you that the program has given them the hope of addressing their scientific problems in full realism for the very first time. Many of these scientists will also tell you that SciDAC has also fundamentally changed the way they do computational science. We begin this volume with one of DOE's great traditions, and core missions: energy research. As we will see, computation has been seminal to the critical advances that have been made in this arena. Of course, to

  1. [SciELO: method for electronic publishing].

    PubMed

    Laerte Packer, A; Rocha Biojone, M; Antonio, I; Mayumi Takemaka, R; Pedroso García, A; Costa da Silva, A; Toshiyuki Murasaki, R; Mylek, C; Carvalho Reisl, O; Rocha F Delbucio, H C

    2001-01-01

    It describes the SciELO Methodology Scientific Electronic Library Online for electronic publishing of scientific periodicals, examining issues such as the transition from traditional printed publication to electronic publishing, the scientific communication process, the principles which founded the methodology development, its application in the building of the SciELO site, its modules and components, the tools use for its construction etc. The article also discusses the potentialities and trends for the area in Brazil and Latin America, pointing out questions and proposals which should be investigated and solved by the methodology. It concludes that the SciELO Methodology is an efficient, flexible and wide solution for the scientific electronic publishing.

  2. FAQs about Spinal Cord Injury (SCI)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Website Managing Bowel Function After Spinal Cord Injury Resilience, Depression and Bouncing Back after SCI Getting to ... a “complete” and “incomplete” spinal cord injury? What recovery is expected following spinal cord injury? Where is ...

  3. Accelerating Scientific Analysis with SciDB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerhardt, L.; Faham, C. H.; Yao, Y.

    2015-12-01

    SciDB is an open-source analytical database for scalable complex analytics on very large array or multi-structured data from a variety of sources, programmable from Python and R. It runs on HPC, commodity hardware grids, or in a cloud and can manage and analyze terabytes of array-structured data and do complex analytics in-database. We present an overall description of the SciDB framework and describe its implementation at NERSC at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. A case study using SciDB to analyze data from the LUX dark matter detector is described and future plans for a large SciDB array at NERSC are described.

  4. Preface: SciDAC 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Rick

    2008-07-01

    The fourth annual Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) Conference was held June 13-18, 2008, in Seattle, Washington. The SciDAC conference series is the premier communitywide venue for presentation of results from the DOE Office of Science's interdisciplinary computational science program. Started in 2001 and renewed in 2006, the DOE SciDAC program is the country's - and arguably the world's - most significant interdisciplinary research program supporting the development of advanced scientific computing methods and their application to fundamental and applied areas of science. SciDAC supports computational science across many disciplines, including astrophysics, biology, chemistry, fusion sciences, and nuclear physics. Moreover, the program actively encourages the creation of long-term partnerships among scientists focused on challenging problems and computer scientists and applied mathematicians developing the technology and tools needed to address those problems. The SciDAC program has played an increasingly important role in scientific research by allowing scientists to create more accurate models of complex processes, simulate problems once thought to be impossible, and analyze the growing amount of data generated by experiments. To help further the research community's ability to tap into the capabilities of current and future supercomputers, Under Secretary for Science, Raymond Orbach, launched the Innovative and Novel Computational Impact on Theory and Experiment (INCITE) program in 2003. The INCITE program was conceived specifically to seek out computationally intensive, large-scale research projects with the potential to significantly advance key areas in science and engineering. The program encourages proposals from universities, other research institutions, and industry. During the first two years of the INCITE program, 10 percent of the resources at NERSC were allocated to INCITE awardees. However, demand for supercomputing resources

  5. SciVal Experts: a collaborative tool.

    PubMed

    Vardell, Emily; Feddern-Bekcan, Tanya; Moore, Mary

    2011-01-01

    SciVal Experts is a resource for finding experts and fostering collaboration. The tool creates researcher profiles with automatically updated publication and grant information and faculty-inputted curriculum vitae, more fully capturing a researcher's body of work. SciVal Experts indexes campus-based "experts" by research topic, allowing faculty to find potential research partners and mentors, furthering translational research opportunities and dissemination of knowledge.

  6. Resource Letter Scy-3: Superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butch, N. P.; de Andrade, M. C.; Maple, M. B.

    2008-02-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on superconductivity. Since the last Resource Letter on superconductivity, Scy-2, was published in 1970, there have been dramatic advances in our basic understanding of superconductivity, discovery of new superconducting materials, and improved technological exploitation of superconductors. We review basic phenomenology, followed by concise descriptions of several main classes of superconductors recognized today. Journal articles and books are cited for the following topics: Conventional superconductors, paramagnetic impurities in superconductors, magnetically ordered superconductors, heavy fermion superconductors, high Tc superconductors, organic superconductors, applications of superconductivity, and laboratory demonstrations of superconductivity. Owing to the large volume of available literature on superconductivity, the journal articles and books we discuss constitute good starting points for further exploration of particular topics.

  7. Aging: a new opportunity to publish in SCI nursing.

    PubMed

    Thomason, Susan S

    2005-01-01

    Publishing in SCI Nursing is a rewarding experience in terms of professional growth and contributing to the body of knowledge of SCI nurses. "Guidelines for Contributors" are on the back, inside cover of each issue of SCI Nursing and on the AASCIN Web site. Collaborate with nursing colleagues, or interdisciplinary team members, to begin your manuscript today.

  8. SciDAC-2 software infrastructure for lattice QCD.

    SciTech Connect

    Balint Joo

    2007-06-01

    We present work carried out by the USQCD Collaboration on Software Infrastructure funded under SciDAC 2. We present successes of the software from the original SciDAC 1 project as well as ongoing and future work. We outline the various scientific collaborations SciDAC-2 has created.

  9. Riboflavin-responsive oxidative phosphorylation complex I deficiency caused by defective ACAD9: new function for an old gene.

    PubMed

    Gerards, Mike; van den Bosch, Bianca J C; Danhauser, Katharina; Serre, Valérie; van Weeghel, Michel; Wanders, Ronald J A; Nicolaes, Gerry A F; Sluiter, Wim; Schoonderwoerd, Kees; Scholte, Hans R; Prokisch, Holger; Rötig, Agnès; de Coo, Irenaeus F M; Smeets, Hubert J M

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondrial complex I deficiency is the most common oxidative phosphorylation defect. Mutations have been detected in mitochondrial and nuclear genes, but the genetics of many patients remain unresolved and new genes are probably involved. In a consanguineous family, patients presented easy fatigability, exercise intolerance and lactic acidosis in blood from early childhood. In muscle, subsarcolemmal mitochondrial proliferation and a severe complex I deficiency were observed. Exercise intolerance and complex I activity was improved by a supplement of riboflavin at high dosage. Homozygosity mapping revealed a candidate region on chromosome three containing six mitochondria-related genes. Four genes were screened for mutations and a homozygous substitution was identified in ACAD9 (c.1594 C>T), changing the highly conserved arginine-532 into tryptophan. This mutation was absent in 188 ethnically matched controls. Protein modelling suggested a functional effect due to the loss of a stabilizing hydrogen bond in an α-helix and a local flexibility change. To test whether the ACAD9 mutation caused the complex I deficiency, we transduced fibroblasts of patients with wild-type and mutant ACAD9. Wild-type, but not mutant, ACAD9 restored complex I activity. An unrelated patient with the same phenotype was compound heterozygous for c.380 G>A and c.1405 C>T, changing arginine-127 into glutamine and arginine-469 into tryptophan, respectively. These amino acids were highly conserved and the substitutions were not present in controls, making them very probably pathogenic. Our data support a new function for ACAD9 in complex I function, making this gene an important new candidate for patients with complex I deficiency, which could be improved by riboflavin treatment. PMID:20929961

  10. Family Fun at SCI-FEST.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Verilette

    1996-01-01

    Describes the SCI-FEST (Science Collaborative Initiative-Festival to Enhance Science and Technology) where community members worked together to put on a successful science festival for the whole family. Discusses the planning and implementation of the festival which included nearly 100 hands-on science activities, skits, puppet shows, and…

  11. Opening Comments: SciDAC 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strayer, Michael

    2008-07-01

    Welcome to Seattle and the 2008 SciDAC Conference. This conference, the fourth in the series, is a continuation of the PI meetings we first began under SciDAC-1. I would like to start by thanking the organizing committee, and Rick Stevens in particular, for organizing this year's meeting. This morning I would like to look briefly at SciDAC, to give you a brief history of SciDAC and also look ahead to see where we plan to go over the next few years. I think the best description of SciDAC, at least the simulation part, comes from a quote from Dr Ray Orbach, DOE's Under Secretary for Science and Director of the Office of Science. In an interview that appeared in the SciDAC Review magazine, Dr Orbach said, `SciDAC is unique in the world. There isn't any other program like it anywhere else, and it has the remarkable ability to do science by bringing together physical scientists, mathematicians, applied mathematicians, and computer scientists who recognize that computation is not something you do at the end, but rather it needs to be built into the solution of the very problem that one is addressing'. Of course, that is extended not just to physical scientists, but also to biological scientists. This is a theme of computational science, this partnership among disciplines, which goes all the way back to the early 1980s and Ken Wilson. It's a unique thread within the Department of Energy. SciDAC-1, launched around the turn of the millennium, created a new generation of scientific simulation codes. It advocated building out mathematical and computing system software in support of science and a new collaboratory software environment for data. The original concept for SciDAC-1 had topical centers for the execution of the various science codes, but several corrections and adjustments were needed. The ASCR scientific computing infrastructure was also upgraded, providing the hardware facilities for the program. The computing facility that we had at that time was the big 3

  12. Development and initial evaluation of the SCI-FI/AT

    PubMed Central

    Jette, Alan M.; Slavin, Mary D.; Ni, Pengsheng; Kisala, Pamela A.; Tulsky, David S.; Heinemann, Allen W.; Charlifue, Susie; Tate, Denise G.; Fyffe, Denise; Morse, Leslie; Marino, Ralph; Smith, Ian; Williams, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe the domain structure and calibration of the Spinal Cord Injury Functional Index for samples using Assistive Technology (SCI-FI/AT) and report the initial psychometric properties of each domain. Design Cross sectional survey followed by computerized adaptive test (CAT) simulations. Setting Inpatient and community settings. Participants A sample of 460 adults with traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) stratified by level of injury, completeness of injury, and time since injury. Interventions None Main outcome measure SCI-FI/AT Results Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and Item response theory (IRT) analyses identified 4 unidimensional SCI-FI/AT domains: Basic Mobility (41 items) Self-care (71 items), Fine Motor Function (35 items), and Ambulation (29 items). High correlations of full item banks with 10-item simulated CATs indicated high accuracy of each CAT in estimating a person's function, and there was high measurement reliability for the simulated CAT scales compared with the full item bank. SCI-FI/AT item difficulties in the domains of Self-care, Fine Motor Function, and Ambulation were less difficult than the same items in the original SCI-FI item banks. Conclusion With the development of the SCI-FI/AT, clinicians and investigators have available multidimensional assessment scales that evaluate function for users of AT to complement the scales available in the original SCI-FI. PMID:26010975

  13. Sci-Math: Applications in Proportional Problem Solving. Module One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodstein, Madeline P.

    Sci-Math is an interdisciplinary curriculum intended to help students develop the math skills needed for science, especially dimensional analysis, ratio, and the concept of proportion. Sci-Math is divided into two modules with each module having a student and teacher's guide. This module is a pre-algebra module dealing with the arithmetic and…

  14. Experiences using SciPy for computer vision research

    SciTech Connect

    Eads, Damian R; Rosten, Edward J

    2008-01-01

    SciPy is an effective tool suite for prototyping new algorithms. We share some of our experiences using it for the first time to support our research in object detection. SciPy makes it easy to integrate C code, which is essential when algorithms operating on large data sets cannot be vectorized. The universality of Python, the language in which SciPy was written, gives the researcher access to a broader set of non-numerical libraries to support GUI development, interface with databases, manipulate graph structures. render 3D graphics, unpack binary files, etc. Python's extensive support for operator overloading makes SciPy's syntax as succinct as its competitors, MATLAB, Octave, and R. More profoundly, we found it easy to rework research code written with SciPy into a production application, deployable on numerous platforms.

  15. 75 FR 24747 - SCI, LLC/Zener-Rectifier Operations Division A Wholly Owned Subsidiary of SCI, LLC/ON...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... of SCI, LLC/ON Semiconductor, Phoenix, Arizona. The notice was published in the Federal Register on December 11, 2009 (74 FR 65795). At the request of the petitioner, the Department reviewed the... of SCI, LLC/ON Semiconductor Including On-Site Leased Workers From Superior Technical...

  16. Opening Comments: SciDAC 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strayer, Michael

    2008-07-01

    Welcome to Seattle and the 2008 SciDAC Conference. This conference, the fourth in the series, is a continuation of the PI meetings we first began under SciDAC-1. I would like to start by thanking the organizing committee, and Rick Stevens in particular, for organizing this year's meeting. This morning I would like to look briefly at SciDAC, to give you a brief history of SciDAC and also look ahead to see where we plan to go over the next few years. I think the best description of SciDAC, at least the simulation part, comes from a quote from Dr Ray Orbach, DOE's Under Secretary for Science and Director of the Office of Science. In an interview that appeared in the SciDAC Review magazine, Dr Orbach said, `SciDAC is unique in the world. There isn't any other program like it anywhere else, and it has the remarkable ability to do science by bringing together physical scientists, mathematicians, applied mathematicians, and computer scientists who recognize that computation is not something you do at the end, but rather it needs to be built into the solution of the very problem that one is addressing'. Of course, that is extended not just to physical scientists, but also to biological scientists. This is a theme of computational science, this partnership among disciplines, which goes all the way back to the early 1980s and Ken Wilson. It's a unique thread within the Department of Energy. SciDAC-1, launched around the turn of the millennium, created a new generation of scientific simulation codes. It advocated building out mathematical and computing system software in support of science and a new collaboratory software environment for data. The original concept for SciDAC-1 had topical centers for the execution of the various science codes, but several corrections and adjustments were needed. The ASCR scientific computing infrastructure was also upgraded, providing the hardware facilities for the program. The computing facility that we had at that time was the big 3

  17. Opening Remarks: SciDAC 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strayer, Michael

    2007-09-01

    Good morning. Welcome to Boston, the home of the Red Sox, Celtics and Bruins, baked beans, tea parties, Robert Parker, and SciDAC 2007. A year ago I stood before you to share the legacy of the first SciDAC program and identify the challenges that we must address on the road to petascale computing—a road E E Cummins described as `. . . never traveled, gladly beyond any experience.' Today, I want to explore the preparations for the rapidly approaching extreme scale (X-scale) generation. These preparations are the first step propelling us along the road of burgeoning scientific discovery enabled by the application of X- scale computing. We look to petascale computing and beyond to open up a world of discovery that cuts across scientific fields and leads us to a greater understanding of not only our world, but our universe. As part of the President's America Competitiveness Initiative, the ASCR Office has been preparing a ten year vision for computing. As part of this planning the LBNL together with ORNL and ANL hosted three town hall meetings on Simulation and Modeling at the Exascale for Energy, Ecological Sustainability and Global Security (E3). The proposed E3 initiative is organized around four programmatic themes: Engaging our top scientists, engineers, computer scientists and applied mathematicians; investing in pioneering large-scale science; developing scalable analysis algorithms, and storage architectures to accelerate discovery; and accelerating the build-out and future development of the DOE open computing facilities. It is clear that we have only just started down the path to extreme scale computing. Plan to attend Thursday's session on the out-briefing and discussion of these meetings. The road to the petascale has been at best rocky. In FY07, the continuing resolution provided 12% less money for Advanced Scientific Computing than either the President, the Senate, or the House. As a consequence, many of you had to absorb a no cost extension for your

  18. Developmental and maladaptive plasticity in neonatal SCI.

    PubMed

    Pape, Karen E

    2012-06-01

    Babies and young children with early spinal cord injury (SCI) have evidence of an improved level of recovery over an extended time period. Enhanced neuroplasticity is well recognized in neonatal animal models. In the young human, developmental apraxia and learned early habitual movements mask expression of residual or recovered motor function. Techniques providing sensorimotor stimulation with threshold electrical stimulation (TES) and EMG triggered stimulation (ETS) act to increase awareness and useful function. Small cohort size and prolonged developmental maturation argue for the use of single subject research designs in this population. PMID:22306423

  19. SciDAC Advances and Applications in Computational Beam Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Ryne, R.; Abell, D.; Adelmann, A.; Amundson, J.; Bohn, C.; Cary, J.; Colella, P.; Dechow, D.; Decyk, V.; Dragt, A.; Gerber, R.; Habib, S.; Higdon, D.; Katsouleas, T.; Ma, K.-L.; McCorquodale, P.; Mihalcea, D.; Mitchell, C.; Mori, W.; Mottershead, C.T.; Neri, F.; Pogorelov, I.; Qiang, J.; Samulyak, R.; Serafini, D.; Shalf, J.; Siegerist, C.; Spentzouris, P.; Stoltz, P.; Terzic, B.; Venturini, M.; Walstrom, P.

    2005-06-26

    SciDAC has had a major impact on computational beam dynamics and the design of particle accelerators. Particle accelerators--which account for half of the facilities in the DOE Office of Science Facilities for the Future of Science 20 Year Outlook--are crucial for US scientific, industrial, and economic competitiveness. Thanks to SciDAC, accelerator design calculations that were once thought impossible are now carried routinely, and new challenging and important calculations are within reach. SciDAC accelerator modeling codes are being used to get the most science out of existing facilities, to produce optimal designs for future facilities, and to explore advanced accelerator concepts that may hold the key to qualitatively new ways of accelerating charged particle beams. In this poster we present highlights from the SciDAC Accelerator Science and Technology (AST) project Beam Dynamics focus area in regard to algorithm development, software development, and applications.

  20. What Are the Treatments for Spinal Cord Injury (SCI)?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources and Publications What are the treatments for spinal cord injury (SCI)? Skip sharing on social media links ... no known ways to reverse damage to the spinal cord. However, researchers are continually working on new treatments, ...

  1. Neonatal multiorgan failure due to ACAD9 mutation and complex I deficiency with mitochondrial hyperplasia in liver, cardiac myocytes, skeletal muscle, and renal tubules.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Nancy; Wang, Xinjian; Peng, Yanyan; Valencia, C Alexander; Khuchua, Zaza; Hata, Jessica; Witte, David; Huang, Taosheng; Bove, Kevin E

    2016-03-01

    Complex I deficiency causes Leigh syndrome, fatal infant lactic acidosis, and neonatal cardiomyopathy. Mutations in more than 100 nuclear DNA and mitochondrial DNA genes miscode for complex I subunits or assembly factors. ACAD9 is an acyl-CoA dehydrogenase with a novel function in assembly of complex I; biallelic mutations cause progressive encephalomyopathy, recurrent Reye syndrome, and fatal cardiomyopathy. We describe the first autopsy in fatal neonatal lethal lactic acidosis due to mutations in ACAD9 that reduced complex I activity. We identified mitochondrial hyperplasia in cardiac myocytes, diaphragm muscle, and liver and renal tubules in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue using immunohistochemistry for mitochondrial antigens. Whole-exome sequencing revealed compound heterozygous variants in the ACAD9 gene: c.187G>T (p.E63*) and c.941T>C (p.L314P). The nonsense mutation causes late infantile lethality; the missense variant is novel. Autopsy-derived fibroblasts had reduced complex I activity (53% of control) with normal activity in complexes II to IV, similar to reported cases of ACAD9 deficiency.

  2. Status of FNAL SciBooNE experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Nakajima, Yasuhiro; /Kyoto U.

    2007-12-01

    SciBooNE is a new experiment at FNAL which will make precision neutrino-nucleus cross section measurements in the one GeV region. These measurements are essential for the future neutrino oscillation experiments. We started data taking in the antineutrino mode on June 8, 2007, and collected 5.19 x 10{sup 19} protons on target (POT) before the accelerator shutdown in August. The first data from SciBooNE are reported in this article.

  3. Opening Remarks: SciDAC 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strayer, Michael

    2007-09-01

    Good morning. Welcome to Boston, the home of the Red Sox, Celtics and Bruins, baked beans, tea parties, Robert Parker, and SciDAC 2007. A year ago I stood before you to share the legacy of the first SciDAC program and identify the challenges that we must address on the road to petascale computing—a road E E Cummins described as `. . . never traveled, gladly beyond any experience.' Today, I want to explore the preparations for the rapidly approaching extreme scale (X-scale) generation. These preparations are the first step propelling us along the road of burgeoning scientific discovery enabled by the application of X- scale computing. We look to petascale computing and beyond to open up a world of discovery that cuts across scientific fields and leads us to a greater understanding of not only our world, but our universe. As part of the President's America Competitiveness Initiative, the ASCR Office has been preparing a ten year vision for computing. As part of this planning the LBNL together with ORNL and ANL hosted three town hall meetings on Simulation and Modeling at the Exascale for Energy, Ecological Sustainability and Global Security (E3). The proposed E3 initiative is organized around four programmatic themes: Engaging our top scientists, engineers, computer scientists and applied mathematicians; investing in pioneering large-scale science; developing scalable analysis algorithms, and storage architectures to accelerate discovery; and accelerating the build-out and future development of the DOE open computing facilities. It is clear that we have only just started down the path to extreme scale computing. Plan to attend Thursday's session on the out-briefing and discussion of these meetings. The road to the petascale has been at best rocky. In FY07, the continuing resolution provided 12% less money for Advanced Scientific Computing than either the President, the Senate, or the House. As a consequence, many of you had to absorb a no cost extension for your

  4. Combined SCI and TBI: Recovery of forelimb function after unilateral cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) is retarded by contralateral traumatic brain injury (TBI), and ipsilateral TBI balances the effects of SCI on paw placement

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Tomoo; Lin, Amity; Ma, Xiaokui; McKenna, Stephen L.; Creasey, Graham H.; Manley, Geoffrey T.; Ferguson, Adam R.; Bresnahan, Jacqueline C.; Beattie, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    A significant proportion (estimates range from 16–74%) of patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) have concomitant traumatic brain injury (TBI), and the combination often produces difficulties in planning and implementing rehabilitation strategies and drug therapies. For example, many of the drugs used to treat SCI may interfere with cognitive rehabilitation, and conversely drugs that are used to control seizures in TBI patients may undermine locomotor recovery after SCI. The current paper presents an experimental animal model for combined SCI and TBI to help drive mechanistic studies of dual diagnosis. Rats received a unilateral SCI (75 kdyn) at C5 vertebral level, a unilateral TBI (2.0 mm depth, 4.0 m/s velocity impact on the forelimb sensori-motor cortex), or both SCI + TBI. TBI was placed either contralateral or ipsilateral to the SCI. Behavioral recovery was examined using paw placement in a cylinder, grooming, open field locomotion, and the IBB cereal eating test. Over 6 weeks, in the paw placement test, SCI + contralateral TBI produced a profound deficit that failed to recover, but SCI + ipsilateral TBI increased the relative use of the paw on the SCI side. In the grooming test, SCI + contralateral TBI produced worse recovery than either lesion alone even though contralateral TBI alone produced no observable deficit. In the IBB forelimb test, SCI + contralateral TBI revealed a severe deficit that recovered in 3 weeks. For open field locomotion, SCI alone or in combination with TBI resulted in an initial deficit that recovered in 2 weeks. Thus, TBI and SCI affected forelimb function differently depending upon the test, reflecting different neural substrates underlying, for example, exploratory paw placement and stereotyped grooming. Concurrent SCI and TBI had significantly different effects on outcomes and recovery, depending upon laterality of the two lesions. Recovery of function after cervical SCI was retarded by the addition of a moderate TBI in the

  5. The impact of SciDAC on US climate change research and the IPCC AR4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehner, Michael

    2005-01-01

    SciDAC has invested heavily in climate change research. We offer a candid opinion as to the impact of the DOE laboratories' SciDAC projects on the upcoming Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

  6. SciDAC Institute for Ultrascale Visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Humphreys, Grigori R.

    2008-09-30

    The Institute for Ultrascale Visualization aims to address visualization needs of SciDAC science domains, including research topics in advanced scientific visualization architectures, algorithms, and interfaces for understanding large, complex datasets. During the current project period, the focus of the team at the University of Virginia has been interactive remote rendering for scientific visualization. With high-performance computing resources enabling increasingly complex simulations, scientists may desire to interactively visualize huge 3D datasets. Traditional large-scale 3D visualization systems are often located very close to the processing clusters, and are linked to them with specialized connections for high-speed rendering. However, this tight coupling of processing and display limits possibilities for remote collaboration, and prohibits scientists from using their desktop workstations for data exploration. In this project, we are developing a client/server system for interactive remote 3D visualization on desktop computers.

  7. Opening Comments: SciDAC 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strayer, Michael

    2009-07-01

    Welcome to San Diego and the 2009 SciDAC conference. Over the next four days, I would like to present an assessment of the SciDAC program. We will look at where we've been, how we got to where we are and where we are going in the future. Our vision is to be first in computational science, to be best in class in modeling and simulation. When Ray Orbach asked me what I would do, in my job interview for the SciDAC Director position, I said we would achieve that vision. And with our collective dedicated efforts, we have managed to achieve this vision. In the last year, we have now the most powerful supercomputer for open science, Jaguar, the Cray XT system at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). We also have NERSC, probably the best-in-the-world program for productivity in science that the Office of Science so depends on. And the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility offers architectural diversity with its IBM Blue Gene/P system as a counterbalance to Oak Ridge. There is also ESnet, which is often understated—the 40 gigabit per second dual backbone ring that connects all the labs and many DOE sites. In the President's Recovery Act funding, there is exciting news that ESnet is going to build out to a 100 gigabit per second network using new optical technologies. This is very exciting news for simulations and large-scale scientific facilities. But as one noted SciDAC luminary said, it's not all about the computers—it's also about the science—and we are also achieving our vision in this area. Together with having the fastest supercomputer for science, at the SC08 conference, SciDAC researchers won two ACM Gordon Bell Prizes for the outstanding performance of their applications. The DCA++ code, which solves some very interesting problems in materials, achieved a sustained performance of 1.3 petaflops, an astounding result and a mark I suspect will last for some time. The LS3DF application for studying nanomaterials also required the development of a

  8. panMetaDocs, eSciDoc, and DOIDB - an infrastructure for the curation and publication of file-based datasets for 'GFZ Data Services'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulbricht, Damian; Elger, Kirsten; Bertelmann, Roland; Klump, Jens

    2016-04-01

    With the foundation of DataCite in 2009 and the technical infrastructure installed in the last six years it has become very easy to create citable dataset DOIs. Nowadays, dataset DOIs are increasingly accepted and required by journals in reference lists of manuscripts. In addition, DataCite provides usage statistics [1] of assigned DOIs and offers a public search API to make research data count. By linking related information to the data, they become more useful for future generations of scientists. For this purpose, several identifier systems, as ISBN for books, ISSN for journals, DOI for articles or related data, Orcid for authors, and IGSN for physical samples can be attached to DOIs using the DataCite metadata schema [2]. While these are good preconditions to publish data, free and open solutions that help with the curation of data, the publication of research data, and the assignment of DOIs in one software seem to be rare. At GFZ Potsdam we built a modular software stack that is made of several free and open software solutions and we established 'GFZ Data Services'. 'GFZ Data Services' provides storage, a metadata editor for publication and a facility to moderate minted DOIs. All software solutions are connected through web APIs, which makes it possible to reuse and integrate established software. Core component of 'GFZ Data Services' is an eSciDoc [3] middleware that is used as central storage, and has been designed along the OAIS reference model for digital preservation. Thus, data are stored in self-contained packages that are made of binary file-based data and XML-based metadata. The eSciDoc infrastructure provides access control to data and it is able to handle half-open datasets, which is useful in embargo situations when a subset of the research data are released after an adequate period. The data exchange platform panMetaDocs [4] makes use of eSciDoc's REST API to upload file-based data into eSciDoc and uses a metadata editor [5] to annotate the files

  9. Opening Comments: SciDAC 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strayer, Michael

    2009-07-01

    Welcome to San Diego and the 2009 SciDAC conference. Over the next four days, I would like to present an assessment of the SciDAC program. We will look at where we've been, how we got to where we are and where we are going in the future. Our vision is to be first in computational science, to be best in class in modeling and simulation. When Ray Orbach asked me what I would do, in my job interview for the SciDAC Director position, I said we would achieve that vision. And with our collective dedicated efforts, we have managed to achieve this vision. In the last year, we have now the most powerful supercomputer for open science, Jaguar, the Cray XT system at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). We also have NERSC, probably the best-in-the-world program for productivity in science that the Office of Science so depends on. And the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility offers architectural diversity with its IBM Blue Gene/P system as a counterbalance to Oak Ridge. There is also ESnet, which is often understated—the 40 gigabit per second dual backbone ring that connects all the labs and many DOE sites. In the President's Recovery Act funding, there is exciting news that ESnet is going to build out to a 100 gigabit per second network using new optical technologies. This is very exciting news for simulations and large-scale scientific facilities. But as one noted SciDAC luminary said, it's not all about the computers—it's also about the science—and we are also achieving our vision in this area. Together with having the fastest supercomputer for science, at the SC08 conference, SciDAC researchers won two ACM Gordon Bell Prizes for the outstanding performance of their applications. The DCA++ code, which solves some very interesting problems in materials, achieved a sustained performance of 1.3 petaflops, an astounding result and a mark I suspect will last for some time. The LS3DF application for studying nanomaterials also required the development of a

  10. The End of Alchemy? The Repudiation and Persistence of Chrysopoeia at the Académie Royale des Sciences in the Eighteenth Century.

    PubMed

    Principe, Lawrence M

    2014-01-01

    The general abandonment of serious endeavor toward metallic transmutation represents a major development in the history of chemistry, yet its exact causes and timing remain unclear. This essay examines the fate of chrysopoeia at the eighteenth-century Académie Royale des Sciences. It reveals a long-standing tension between Académie chemists, who pursued transmutation, and administrators, who tried to suppress it. This tension provides background for Etienne-François Geoffroy's 1722 paper describing fraudulent practices around transmutation. Although transmutation seems to disappear after Geoffroy's paper, manuscripts reveal that most of the institution's chemists continued to pursue it privately until at least the 1760s, long after widely accepted dates for the "demise of alchemy" in learned circles. PMID:26103750

  11. The End of Alchemy? The Repudiation and Persistence of Chrysopoeia at the Académie Royale des Sciences in the Eighteenth Century.

    PubMed

    Principe, Lawrence M

    2014-01-01

    The general abandonment of serious endeavor toward metallic transmutation represents a major development in the history of chemistry, yet its exact causes and timing remain unclear. This essay examines the fate of chrysopoeia at the eighteenth-century Académie Royale des Sciences. It reveals a long-standing tension between Académie chemists, who pursued transmutation, and administrators, who tried to suppress it. This tension provides background for Etienne-François Geoffroy's 1722 paper describing fraudulent practices around transmutation. Although transmutation seems to disappear after Geoffroy's paper, manuscripts reveal that most of the institution's chemists continued to pursue it privately until at least the 1760s, long after widely accepted dates for the "demise of alchemy" in learned circles.

  12. The GeoSciML Logical Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laxton, J.; Wyborn, L.

    2007-12-01

    GeoSciML is being developed as an interchange language for geoscience. The initial scope has been designed to include the information generally shown on geological maps, and some observations, in particular using boreholes. The logical model has been built in UML and the model includes packages for mapped features, geologic units, earth material and geologic structures. The model inherits from GML, for spatial information, and observations and measurements (O&M) in particular. At present the scope of the model is largely interpreted information, but the intention is to extend it to include more observational data. A 'mapped feature' can be considered an occurrence, such as a polygon on a geologic map, of a real-world geologic feature the full extent of which is unknown. Geologic features are associated with geologic events for recording their age, process and environment of formation. The two main types of geologic feature modelled are geologic units and geologic structures. Geologic units have specialisations for lithostratigraphic units, lithodemic units, chronostratigraphic units and deformation units, but more will be added in the future as required. The model allows for composite geologic units, made up of other geologic units, to be described. Geologic structures include fractures, shear displacement structures, contacts, fold and foliation. The earth material package allows for the description of both individual components such as minerals and compound materials such as rocks or unconsolidated material. The model incorporates a structure for controlled concepts which can be defined in terms of normative descriptions of geologic units or earth materials. These can be built into geologic vocabularies, such as stratigraphic lexicons. Two data types of particular use in describing geologic properties have been defined: one allows properties to be recorded with term, number and range values along with a qualifier property for handling the 'fuzziness' of much

  13. Psychometric evaluation of the Spanish version of the MPI-SCI

    PubMed Central

    Soler, MD; Cruz-Almeida, Y; Saurí, J; Widerström-Noga, EG

    2013-01-01

    Study design Postal surveys. Objectives To confirm the factor structure of the Spanish version of the MPI-SCI (MPI-SCI-S, Multidimensional Pain Inventory in the SCI population) and to test its internal consistency and construct validity in a Spanish population. Setting Guttmann Institute, Barcelona, Spain. Methods The MPI-SCI-S along with Spanish measures of pain intensity (Numerical Rating Scale), pain interference (Brief Pain Inventory), functional independence (Functional Independence Measure), depression (Beck Depression Inventory), locus of control (Multidimensional health Locus of Control), support (Functional Social Support Questionnaire (Duke-UNC)), psychological well-being (Psychological Global Well-Being Index) and demographic/injury characteristics were assessed in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) and chronic pain (n = 126). Results Confirmatory factor analysis suggested an adequate factor structure for the MPI-SCI-S. The internal consistency of the MPI-SCI-S subscales ranged from acceptable (r = 0.66, Life Control) to excellent (r = 0.94, Life Interference). All MPI-SCI-S subscales showed adequate construct validity, with the exception of the Negative and Solicitous Responses subscales. Conclusions The Spanish version of the MPI-SCI is adequate for evaluating chronic pain impact following SCI in a Spanish-speaking population. Future studies should include additional measures of pain-related support in the Spanish-speaking SCI population. PMID:23608807

  14. SciDB and Geoinformatics Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Paul

    2015-04-01

    The SciDB project took as its design goals a list of features identified as being critical to scientific data management in a survey of working scientists (Stonebraker et al 2009). Earth scientists working with remote sensing data were well represented among those polled so it should come as no surprise that the platform has been embraced by that community. In this talk we focus on work done by researchers at NASA and INPE, and on applications created by commercial data providers in Korea and the United States. For each use-case, we will review the project team's objectives, the nature and quantity of the data involved, the their workload queries. As we discuss each use-case we will describe what is emerging as "best practice" for data management and analysis in this space. M. Stonebraker, J. Becla, D. J. DeWitt, K. T. Lim, D. Maier, O. Ratzesberger, and S. B. Zdonik. Requirements for science data bases and scidb. In CIDR 2009, Fourth Biennial Conference on Innovative Data Systems Research, Asilomar, CA, USA, January 4-7, 2009, Online Proceedings, 2009.

  15. Solving Large-scale Eigenvalue Problems in SciDACApplications

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Chao

    2005-06-29

    Large-scale eigenvalue problems arise in a number of DOE applications. This paper provides an overview of the recent development of eigenvalue computation in the context of two SciDAC applications. We emphasize the importance of Krylov subspace methods, and point out its limitations. We discuss the value of alternative approaches that are more amenable to the use of preconditioners, and report the progression using the multi-level algebraic sub-structuring techniques to speed up eigenvalue calculation. In addition to methods for linear eigenvalue problems, we also examine new approaches to solving two types of non-linear eigenvalue problems arising from SciDAC applications.

  16. Overview of the Spinal Cord Injury – Quality of Life (SCI-QOL) measurement system

    PubMed Central

    Tulsky, David S.; Kisala, Pamela A.; Victorson, David; Tate, Denise G.; Heinemann, Allen W.; Charlifue, Susan; Kirshblum, Steve C.; Fyffe, Denise; Gershon, Richard; Spungen, Ann M.; Bombardier, Charles H.; Dyson-Hudson, Trevor A.; Amtmann, Dagmar; Z. Kalpakjian, Claire; W. Choi, Seung; Jette, Alan M.; Forchheimer, Martin; Cella, David

    2015-01-01

    Context/Objective The Spinal Cord Injury – Quality of Life (SCI-QOL) measurement system was developed to address the shortage of relevant and psychometrically sound patient reported outcome (PRO) measures available for clinical care and research in spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation. Using a computer adaptive testing (CAT) approach, the SCI-QOL builds on the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) and the Quality of Life in Neurological Disorders (Neuro-QOL) initiative. This initial manuscript introduces the background and development of the SCI-QOL measurement system. Greater detail is presented in the additional manuscripts of this special issue. Design Classical and contemporary test development methodologies were employed. Qualitative input was obtained from individuals with SCI and clinicians through interviews, focus groups, and cognitive debriefing. Item pools were field tested in a multi-site sample (n = 877) and calibrated using item response theory methods. Initial reliability and validity testing was performed in a new sample of individuals with traumatic SCI (n = 245). Setting Five Model SCI System centers and one Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center across the United States. Participants Adults with traumatic SCI. Interventions n/a Outcome Measures n/a Results The SCI-QOL consists of 19 item banks, including the SCI-Functional Index banks, and 3 fixed-length scales measuring physical, emotional, and social aspects of health-related QOL (HRQOL). Conclusion The SCI-QOL measurement system consists of psychometrically sound measures for individuals with SCI. The manuscripts in this special issue provide evidence of the reliability and initial validity of this measurement system. The SCI-QOL also links to other measures designed for a general medical population. PMID:26010962

  17. Single Pion Measurement Capabilities at SciBooNE

    SciTech Connect

    Nakajima, Y.; /Kyoto U.

    2007-12-01

    The precise knowledge of the single pion production cross-section of neutrino around the {approx}1 GeV energy region is an essential ingredient in the interpretation of neutrino oscillation experiments. The unique opportunities and prospects of single pion measurements at SciBooNE are described.

  18. SciTech Clubs for Girls. [Annual] technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Nogal, A.M.

    1993-02-01

    Since January 1992, 9 exhibits have been constructed by the SciTech Clubs for Girls, which involved 63 girls, ages 10 to 14. These exhibits are: Bubble Shapes by the St. Charles Cadette Girl Scout Troop No. 109. Density Games by the South Elgin Cadette Girl Scout Troop No. 132. Electric Fleas by the Warrenville Junior Girl Scout Troop No. 305. Energy vs. Power by the Aurora Junior Girl Scout Troop No. 242. The Organ Pipe by the Bartlett Junior Girl Scout Troop No. 107. Ohm`s Law by the Geneva Junior Girl Scout Troop No. 401. What is Gravity by the Pilsen YMCA girls. Insulation at Work by the Algonquin Junior Girl Scout Troop No. 303. Series vs. Parallel by the Leland Junior Girl Scout Troop No. 50. The report is a description of each exhibit and the group that built the exhibit. Each group had a minimum of 10 hours of contact time at SciTech with the SciTech Clubs for Girls Program Coordinator. All mentors are female. Each exhibit building experience includes a trip to the hardware store to purchase supplies. After the exhibit is complete, the girls receive certificates of achievement and a SciTech Club Patch.

  19. Measurement of Bone: Diagnosis of SCI-Induced Osteoporosis and Fracture Risk Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Morse, Leslie R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is associated with a rapid loss of bone mass, resulting in severe osteoporosis and a 5- to 23-fold increase in fracture risk. Despite the seriousness of fractures in SCI, there are multiple barriers to osteoporosis diagnosis and wide variations in treatment practices for SCI-induced osteoporosis. Methods: We review the biological and structural changes that are known to occur in bone after SCI in the context of promoting future research to prevent or reduce risk of fracture in this population. We also review the most commonly used methods for assessing bone after SCI and discuss the strengths, limitations, and clinical applications of each method. Conclusions: Although dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry assessments of bone mineral density may be used clinically to detect changes in bone after SCI, 3-dimensional methods such as quantitative CT analysis are recommended for research applications and are explained in detail. PMID:26689691

  20. ScienceDirect through SciVerse: a new way to approach Elsevier.

    PubMed

    Bengtson, Jason

    2011-01-01

    SciVerse is the new combined portal from Elsevier that services their ScienceDirect collection, SciTopics, and their Scopus database. Using SciVerse to access ScienceDirect is the specific focus of this review. Along with advanced keyword searching and citation searching options, SciVerse also incorporates a very useful image search feature. The aim seems to be not only to create an interface that provides broad functionality on par with other database search tools that many searchers use regularly but also to create an open platform that could be changed to respond effectively to the needs of customers.

  1. Overview of the Scalable Coherent Interface, IEEE STD 1596 (SCI)

    SciTech Connect

    Gustavson, D.B.; James, D.V.; Wiggers, H.A.

    1992-10-01

    The Scalable Coherent Interface standard defines a new generation of interconnection that spans the full range from supercomputer memory `bus` to campus-wide network. SCI provides bus-like services and a shared-memory software model while using an underlying, packet protocol on many independent communication links. Initially these links are 1 GByte/s (wires) and 1 GBit/s (fiber), but the protocol scales well to future faster or lower-cost technologies. The interconnect may use switches, meshes, and rings. The SCI distributed-shared-memory model is simple and versatile, enabling for the first time a smooth integration of highly parallel multiprocessors, workstations, personal computers, I/O, networking and data acquisition.

  2. Methodology for the development and calibration of the SCI-QOL item banks

    PubMed Central

    Tulsky, David S.; Kisala, Pamela A.; Victorson, David; Choi, Seung W.; Gershon, Richard; Heinemann, Allen W.; Cella, David

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop a comprehensive, psychometrically sound, and conceptually grounded patient reported outcomes (PRO) measurement system for individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods Individual interviews (n = 44) and focus groups (n = 65 individuals with SCI and n = 42 SCI clinicians) were used to select key domains for inclusion and to develop PRO items. Verbatim items from other cutting-edge measurement systems (i.e. PROMIS, Neuro-QOL) were included to facilitate linkage and cross-population comparison. Items were field tested in a large sample of individuals with traumatic SCI (n = 877). Dimensionality was assessed with confirmatory factor analysis. Local item dependence and differential item functioning were assessed, and items were calibrated using the item response theory (IRT) graded response model. Finally, computer adaptive tests (CATs) and short forms were administered in a new sample (n = 245) to assess test-retest reliability and stability. Participants and Procedures A calibration sample of 877 individuals with traumatic SCI across five SCI Model Systems sites and one Department of Veterans Affairs medical center completed SCI-QOL items in interview format. Results We developed 14 unidimensional calibrated item banks and 3 calibrated scales across physical, emotional, and social health domains. When combined with the five Spinal Cord Injury – Functional Index physical function banks, the final SCI-QOL system consists of 22 IRT-calibrated item banks/scales. Item banks may be administered as CATs or short forms. Scales may be administered in a fixed-length format only. Conclusions The SCI-QOL measurement system provides SCI researchers and clinicians with a comprehensive, relevant and psychometrically robust system for measurement of physical-medical, physical-functional, emotional, and social outcomes. All SCI-QOL instruments are freely available on Assessment CenterSM. PMID:26010963

  3. Performance of the SciBar cosmic ray telescope (SciCRT) toward the detection of high-energy solar neutrons in solar cycle 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasai, Yoshinori; Nagai, Yuya; Itow, Yoshitaka; Matsubara, Yutaka; Sako, Takashi; Lopez, Diego; Itow, Tsukasa; Munakata, Kazuoki; Kato, Chihiro; Kozai, Masayoshi; Miyazaki, Takahiro; Shibata, Shoichi; Oshima, Akitoshi; Kojima, Hiroshi; Tsuchiya, Harufumi; Watanabe, Kyoko; Koi, Tatsumi; Valdés-Galicia, Jose Francisco; González, Luis Xavier; Ortiz, Ernesto; Musalem, Octavio; Hurtado, Alejandro; Garcia, Rocio; Anzorena, Marcos

    2014-12-01

    We plan to observe solar neutrons at Mt. Sierra Negra (4,600 m above sea level) in Mexico using the SciBar detector. This project is named the SciBar Cosmic Ray Telescope (SciCRT). The main aims of the SciCRT project are to observe solar neutrons to study the mechanism of ion acceleration on the surface of the sun and to monitor the anisotropy of galactic cosmic-ray muons. The SciBar detector, a fully active tracker, is composed of 14,848 scintillator bars, whose dimension is 300 cm × 2.5 cm × 1.3 cm. The structure of the detector enables us to obtain the particle trajectory and its total deposited energy. This information is useful for the energy reconstruction of primary neutrons and particle identification. The total volume of the detector is 3.0 m × 3.0 m × 1.7 m. Since this volume is much larger than the solar neutron telescope (SNT) in Mexico, the detection efficiency of the SciCRT for neutrons is highly enhanced. We performed the calibration of the SciCRT at Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE) located at 2,150 m above sea level in Mexico in 2012. We installed the SciCRT at Mt. Sierra Negra in April 2013 and calibrated this detector in May and August 2013. We started continuous observation in March 2014. In this paper, we report the detector performance as a solar neutron telescope and the current status of the SciCRT.

  4. a Study on the Document Information Service of the National Agricultural Library for Agricultural Sci-Tech Innovation in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qian; Meng, Xianxue

    This paper presents the significant function of the Chinese National Agricultural Library (CNAL) in the agricultural sci-tech innovation system in China, analyses the development of collection and service in the CNAL, explores the challenge towards sustain and develop information services for the agricultural sci-tech research and innovation, at last proposes the strategy for sci-tech document information service development.

  5. SCI: Present and Future Therapeutic Devices and Prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Giszter, Simon F.

    2008-01-01

    Summary A range of passive and active devices are under development, or are already in clinical use, to partially restore function after SCI (SCI). Prosthetic devices to promote host tissue regeneration and plasticity and reconnection are under development, comprising bioengineered bridging materials free of cells. Alternatively, artificial electrical stimulation and robotic bridges may be used, upon which we focus here. A range of neuroprostheses interfacing either with CNS or PNS both above and below the lesion are under investigation and are at different stages of development or translation to the clinic. In addition, there are orthotic and robotic devices which are being developed and tested in laboratory and clinic that can provide mechanical assistance, training or substitution after SCI. The range of different approaches employed draw on many different aspects of our current but limited understanding of neural regeneration and plasticity, and spinal cord function and interactions with cortex. The best therapeutic practice will ultimately likely depend on combinations of these approaches and technologies and on balancing the combined effects of these on the biological mechanisms and their interactions after injury. An increased understanding of plasticity of brain and spinal cord, and of the behavior of innate modular mechanisms in intact and injured systems, will likely assist future developments. We review the range of device designs under development and in use, the basic understanding of spinal cord organization and plasticity, the problems and design issues in device interactions with the nervous system, and the possible benefits of active motor devices. PMID:18164494

  6. AACR, ISBD(S) and ISSN: A Comment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasana, Paul

    1975-01-01

    The recommendation to abandon AACR 6 (Anglo-American Cataloging Rules) should be rejected because of the adverse impact it will have on the quality, integrity, and continuity of existing library catalogs and library collections. (Author)

  7. Detection of Abnormal Muscle Activations during Walking Following Spinal Cord Injury (SCI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ping; Low, K. H.; McGregor, Alison H.; Tow, Adela

    2013-01-01

    In order to identify optimal rehabilitation strategies for spinal cord injury (SCI) participants, assessment of impaired walking is required to detect, monitor and quantify movement disorders. In the proposed assessment, ten healthy and seven SCI participants were recruited to perform an over-ground walking test at slow walking speeds. SCI…

  8. Looking at Life. Study Guide. Unit A2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  9. Particles in Action. Study Guide. Unit C2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide is a four-part unit…

  10. What is Matter? Study Guide. Unit C1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide is a two-part unit…

  11. What Makes Things Happen? Study Guide. Unit B. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Peter

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  12. One Hundred Years of Sci-Tech Libraries: A Brief History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mount, Ellis; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Includes papers on: the history of academic, public, government, and corporate science and technology libraries; the past 35 years in information retrieval; and education for sci-tech librarianship. Other papers provide statistical data on science/engineering libraries and bibliographies of computer-aided design literature, sci-tech reference…

  13. Close Encounters of the Best Kind: The Latest Sci-Fi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunzel, Bonnie

    2008-01-01

    Not only is science fiction alive and well--it's flourishing. From the big screen (howdy, Wall-E) to the big books (like Suzanne Collins's The Hunger Games, which has attracted loads of prepublication praise), 2008 has been a great year for sci-fi. Publishers have released truckloads of new sci-fi titles this year, but what's particularly…

  14. 75 FR 19626 - Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive Patent License: SciTech Medical Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ... Department of the Navy Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive Patent License: SciTech Medical Inc. AGENCY... intent to grant a partially exclusive license to SciTech Medical Inc. The proposed license is a revocable... ownership interest in these inventions, and they are covered by U.S. Patent No. 7,128,714:...

  15. First time experiences using SciPy for computer vision research

    SciTech Connect

    Eads, Damian R; Rosten, Edward J

    2008-01-01

    SciPy is an effective tool suite for prototyping new algorithms. We share some of our experiences using it for the first time to support our research in object detection. SciPy makes it easy to integrate C code, which is essential when algorithms operating on large data sets cannot be vectorized. Python's extensive support for operator overloading makes SciPy's syntax as succinct as its competitors, MATLAB. Octave. and R. The universality of Python. the language in which SciPy was written, gives the researcher access to a broader set of non-numerical libraries to support GUI development. interface with databases, manipulate graph structures, render 3D graphics, unpack binary files, etc. More profoundly, we found it easy to rework research code written with SciPy into a production application, deployable on numerous platforms.

  16. The SciBooNE neutrino experiment at Fermilab: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Hide-Kazu

    2008-04-01

    The precise measurement of neutrino-nucleus cross-sections in the few GeV energy range is an essential ingredient in the interpretation of neutrino oscillation experiments. For the measurement of the cross-sections, a new experiment, SciBooNE, has been proposed and approved at Fermilab. From June 2007, SciBooNE has started operation and data taking. The experiment is carried out by installing the K2K SciBar detector in the FNAL Booster Neutrino Beamline. The marriage of a high rate, low energy neutrino beam and the fine granularity of SciBar detector is unique for precise measurements of neutrino cross sections since both the beamline and detectors have been built and operated successfully. We will present an overview of the SciBooNE physics program with emphasis on unique elements of the detector systems that allow for identification and measurement of several types of neutrino interactions.

  17. OPENING REMARKS: SciDAC: Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strayer, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Good morning. Welcome to SciDAC 2005 and San Francisco. SciDAC is all about computational science and scientific discovery. In a large sense, computational science characterizes SciDAC and its intent is change. It transforms both our approach and our understanding of science. It opens new doors and crosses traditional boundaries while seeking discovery. In terms of twentieth century methodologies, computational science may be said to be transformational. There are a number of examples to this point. First are the sciences that encompass climate modeling. The application of computational science has in essence created the field of climate modeling. This community is now international in scope and has provided precision results that are challenging our understanding of our environment. A second example is that of lattice quantum chromodynamics. Lattice QCD, while adding precision and insight to our fundamental understanding of strong interaction dynamics, has transformed our approach to particle and nuclear science. The individual investigator approach has evolved to teams of scientists from different disciplines working side-by-side towards a common goal. SciDAC is also undergoing a transformation. This meeting is a prime example. Last year it was a small programmatic meeting tracking progress in SciDAC. This year, we have a major computational science meeting with a variety of disciplines and enabling technologies represented. SciDAC 2005 should position itself as a new corner stone for Computational Science and its impact on science. As we look to the immediate future, FY2006 will bring a new cycle to SciDAC. Most of the program elements of SciDAC will be re-competed in FY2006. The re-competition will involve new instruments for computational science, new approaches for collaboration, as well as new disciplines. There will be new opportunities for virtual experiments in carbon sequestration, fusion, and nuclear power and nuclear waste, as well as collaborations

  18. Orthostatic Responses to Anticholinesterase Inhibition in Persons with SCI

    PubMed Central

    Wecht, Jill M.; Cirnigliaro, Christopher M.; Azarelo, Frank; Bauman, William A.; Kirshblum, Steven C.

    2015-01-01

    Acetylcholine (Ach) is the pre-synaptic neurotransmitter of the sympathetic nervous system. Increased pre-synaptic Ach may augment post-synaptic release of norepinephrine thereby increasing systemic blood pressure (BP). The primary objective of this investigation was to determine the hemodynamic effect of pyridostigmine bromide (PYRIDO: 60 mg), an Ach inhibitor (AchI), compared to no-drug (NO-D) during head-up tilt (HUT) in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Secondarily we aimed to determine the effects of PYRIDO compared to NO-D on symptoms of orthostatic intolerance (OI) and adverse event reporting (AE). Ten individuals with SCI (C4–C7) were studied on 2 occasions: visit 1) NO-D and visit 2) PYRIDO. On each visit subjects underwent a progressive HUT maneuver to 15°, 25°, 35° for 5 minutes at each angle and 45 minutes at 45°. Supine and orthostatic heart rate (HR), systolic and diastolic BP (SBP & DBP) were monitored and symptoms of OI and AE recorded. Supine hemodynamics did not differ between the trials. The significant fall in SBP during the NO-D trial was diminished with PYRIDO and five subjects had an increased DBP during HUT with PYRIDO compared to the NO-D trial. Individuals that responded to PYRIDO with an increase in orthostatic BP had significantly lower resting HR than non-responders (p<0.01), which suggests increased levels of pre-synaptic Ach. Subjective symptoms of OI and AE reporting did not differ between the two trials. These preliminary data suggest that PYRIDO is safe and may be effective at ameliorating the orthostatic fall in BP in select individuals with SCI. PMID:25916633

  19. Nuclear Physics in the SciDAC Era

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Edwards

    2009-08-01

    Lattice QCD currently provides our only means of solving QCD (Quantum Chromo Dynamics) -- the theory of the strong nuclear force -- in the low-energy regime, and thus of crucial importance for theoretical and experimental research programs in High Energy and Nuclear Physics. Under the SciDAC program, a software infrastructure has been developed for lattice QCD that effectively utilize the capabilities of the INCITE facilities. These developments have enabled a new generation of Nuclear Physics calculations investigating the spectrum and structure of matter, such as the origin of mass and spin. This software infrastructure is described and recent results are reviewed.

  20. Turbulence profiles of the future E-ELT with LuSci (Lunar Scintillometer)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Char, F.; Lombardi, G.; Sarazin, M.; González, C.; Navarrete, J.

    The Lunar Scintillometer (LuSci) is an instrument used to analyze the Surface Layer in all the candidate sites for the E-ELT. Currently is used in the monitoring of the chosen site, Cerro Armazones. LuSci has proved to be a portable and reliable tool, in the aim to estimate the distribution of the turbulence in the Ground Layer, when used in combination with several other turbulence profilers, such as MASS, DIMM and SLODAR. In this way, LuSci has provided valuable data in order to characterize the Ground Layer and the relevant portion of turbulence for the future largest optical/infrared observatory in the world.

  1. 76 FR 10395 - BreconRidge Manufacturing Solutions, Now Known as Sanmina-SCI Corporation, Division...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... Corporation, Division Optoelectronic and Microelectronic Design and Manufacturing, a Subsidiary of Sanmina-SCI Corporation, Including On- Site Leased Workers From Kelly Services, Penski, Inc., and Whitney Enterprises... Corporation, Division Optoelectronic and Microelectronic Design and Manufacturing, a subsidiary of...

  2. Complementary use of the SciSearch database for improved biomedical information searching.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, C M

    1998-01-01

    The use of at least two complementary online biomedical databases is generally considered critical for biomedical scientists seeking to keep fully abreast of recent research developments as well as to retrieve the highest number of relevant citations possible. Although the National Library of Medicine's MEDLINE is usually the database of choice, this paper illustrates the benefits of using another database, the Institute for Scientific Information's SciSearch, when conducting a biomedical information search. When a simple query about red wine consumption and coronary artery disease was posed simultaneously in both MEDLINE and SciSearch, a greater number of relevant citations were retrieved through SciSearch. This paper also provides suggestions for carrying out a comprehensive biomedical literature search in a rapid and efficient manner by using SciSearch in conjunction with MEDLINE. PMID:9549014

  3. SciServer Compute brings Analysis to Big Data in the Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raddick, Jordan; Medvedev, Dmitry; Lemson, Gerard; Souter, Barbara

    2016-06-01

    SciServer Compute uses Jupyter Notebooks running within server-side Docker containers attached to big data collections to bring advanced analysis to big data "in the cloud." SciServer Compute is a component in the SciServer Big-Data ecosystem under development at JHU, which will provide a stable, reproducible, sharable virtual research environment.SciServer builds on the popular CasJobs and SkyServer systems that made the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) archive one of the most-used astronomical instruments. SciServer extends those systems with server-side computational capabilities and very large scratch storage space, and further extends their functions to a range of other scientific disciplines.Although big datasets like SDSS have revolutionized astronomy research, for further analysis, users are still restricted to downloading the selected data sets locally – but increasing data sizes make this local approach impractical. Instead, researchers need online tools that are co-located with data in a virtual research environment, enabling them to bring their analysis to the data.SciServer supports this using the popular Jupyter notebooks, which allow users to write their own Python and R scripts and execute them on the server with the data (extensions to Matlab and other languages are planned). We have written special-purpose libraries that enable querying the databases and other persistent datasets. Intermediate results can be stored in large scratch space (hundreds of TBs) and analyzed directly from within Python or R with state-of-the-art visualization and machine learning libraries. Users can store science-ready results in their permanent allocation on SciDrive, a Dropbox-like system for sharing and publishing files. Communication between the various components of the SciServer system is managed through SciServer‘s new Single Sign-on Portal.We have created a number of demos to illustrate the capabilities of SciServer Compute, including Python and R scripts

  4. SciServer Compute brings Analysis to Big Data in the Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raddick, Jordan; Medvedev, Dmitry; Lemson, Gerard; Souter, Barbara

    2016-06-01

    SciServer Compute uses Jupyter Notebooks running within server-side Docker containers attached to big data collections to bring advanced analysis to big data "in the cloud." SciServer Compute is a component in the SciServer Big-Data ecosystem under development at JHU, which will provide a stable, reproducible, sharable virtual research environment.SciServer builds on the popular CasJobs and SkyServer systems that made the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) archive one of the most-used astronomical instruments. SciServer extends those systems with server-side computational capabilities and very large scratch storage space, and further extends their functions to a range of other scientific disciplines.Although big datasets like SDSS have revolutionized astronomy research, for further analysis, users are still restricted to downloading the selected data sets locally - but increasing data sizes make this local approach impractical. Instead, researchers need online tools that are co-located with data in a virtual research environment, enabling them to bring their analysis to the data.SciServer supports this using the popular Jupyter notebooks, which allow users to write their own Python and R scripts and execute them on the server with the data (extensions to Matlab and other languages are planned). We have written special-purpose libraries that enable querying the databases and other persistent datasets. Intermediate results can be stored in large scratch space (hundreds of TBs) and analyzed directly from within Python or R with state-of-the-art visualization and machine learning libraries. Users can store science-ready results in their permanent allocation on SciDrive, a Dropbox-like system for sharing and publishing files. Communication between the various components of the SciServer system is managed through SciServer‘s new Single Sign-on Portal.We have created a number of demos to illustrate the capabilities of SciServer Compute, including Python and R scripts

  5. [Analysis of the citation of the articles published in National Journal of Andrology by SCI periodicals from 2002 to 2008].

    PubMed

    Huang, Hai

    2009-03-01

    Science Citation Index (SCI) is one of the world's most important and influential information retrieval systems. Today Web of Science covers over 9000 international and regional journals and book series in every field of natural sciences, social sciences, and arts and humanities. More and more Chinese periodicals have been cited by SCI. This paper briefly introduces the SCI database and its selection process and analyzes the citation of the articles published in National Journal of Andrology (NJA) by SCI journals from 2002 to 2008, aiming to provide some information for the internationalization of NJA.

  6. Analysis of p53 transactivation domain mutants reveals Acad11 as a metabolic target important for p53 pro-survival function

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Dadi; LaGory, Edward L.; Brož, Daniela Kenzelmann; Bieging, Kathryn T.; Brady, Colleen A.; Link, Nichole; Abrams, John M.; Giaccia, Amato J.; Attardi, Laura D.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The p53 tumor suppressor plays a key role in maintaining cellular integrity. In response to diverse stress signals, p53 can trigger apoptosis to eliminate damaged cells or cell-cycle arrest to enable cells to cope with stress and survive. However, the transcriptional networks underlying p53 pro-survival function are incompletely understood. Here, we show that in oncogenic-Ras-expressing cells, p53 promotes oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and cell survival upon glucose starvation. Analysis of p53 transcriptional activation domain mutants reveals that these responses depend on p53 transactivation function. Using gene expression profiling and ChIP-seq analysis, we identify several p53-inducible fatty acid metabolism-related genes. One such gene, Acad11, encoding a protein involved in fatty acid oxidation, is required for efficient OXPHOS and cell survival upon glucose starvation. This study provides new mechanistic insight into the pro-survival function of p53 and suggests that targeting this pathway may provide a strategy for therapeutic intervention based on metabolic perturbation. PMID:25704813

  7. When did Louis Pasteur present his memoir on the discovery of molecular chirality to the Académie des sciences? Analysis of a discrepancy.

    PubMed

    Gal, Joseph

    2008-11-01

    Louis Pasteur presented his historic memoir on the discovery of molecular chirality to the Académie des sciences in Paris on May 22nd, 1848. The literature, however, nearly completely ignores this date, widely claiming instead May 15th, 1848, which first surfaced in 1922 in Pasteur's collected works edited by his grandson Louis Pasteur Vallery-Radot. On May 21st, 1848, i.e., one day before Pasteur's presentation in Paris, his mother died in Arbois, eastern France. Informed at an unknown point in time that she was "very ill," Pasteur left for Arbois only after his presentation. Biographies of Pasteur by his son-in-law René Vallery-Radot or the grandson, and Pasteur's collected correspondence edited by the grandson are incomprehensibly laconic or silent about the historic presentation. While no definite conclusions are possible, the evidence strongly suggests a deliberate alteration of the record by the biographer relatives, presumably for fear of adverse public judgment of Pasteur for a real or perceived insensitivity to a grave family medical emergency. Such fear would have been in accord with their hagiographic portrayal of Pasteur, and the findings raise questions concerning the extent of their zeal in protecting his "demigod" image. Universal recognition of the true date of Pasteur's announcement of molecular chirality is long overdue.

  8. Interoperable geometry and mesh components for SciDAC applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tautges, T. J.; Knupp, P.; Kraftcheck, J. A.; Kim, H. J.

    2005-01-01

    Software components for representing and evaluating geometry (TSTTG/CGM) and finite element mesh (TSTTM/MOAB), and a higher-level component for relations between the two (TSTTR/LASSO), have been combined with electromagnetic modelling and optimization techniques, to form a SciDAC shape optimization application. The TSTT data model described in this paper allows components involved in the shape optimization application to be coupled at a variety of levels, from coarse black-box coupling (e.g. to generate a model accelerator cavity using TSTTG) to very fine-grained coupling (e.g. smoothing individual mesh elements based in part on geometric surface normals at mesh vertices). Despite this flexibility, the TSTT data model uses only four fundamental data types (entities, sets, tags, and the interface object itself). We elaborate on the design and implementation of effective components in the context of this application, and show how our simple but flexible data model facilitates these efforts.

  9. GeoSciML and EarthResourceML Update, 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, S. M.; Commissionthe Management; Application Inte, I.

    2012-12-01

    CGI Interoperability Working Group activities during 2012 include deployment of services using the GeoSciML-Portrayal schema, addition of new vocabularies to support properties added in version 3.0, improvements to server software for deploying services, introduction of EarthResourceML v.2 for mineral resources, and collaboration with the IUSS on a markup language for soils information. GeoSciML and EarthResourceML have been used as the basis for the INSPIRE Geology and Mineral Resources specifications respectively. GeoSciML-Portrayal is an OGC GML simple-feature application schema for presentation of geologic map unit, contact, and shear displacement structure (fault and ductile shear zone) descriptions in web map services. Use of standard vocabularies for geologic age and lithology enables map services using shared legends to achieve visual harmonization of maps provided by different services. New vocabularies have been added to the collection of CGI vocabularies provided to support interoperable GeoSciML services, and can be accessed through http://resource.geosciml.org. Concept URIs can be dereferenced to obtain SKOS rdf or html representations using the SISSVoc vocabulary service. New releases of the FOSS GeoServer application greatly improve support for complex XML feature schemas like GeoSciML, and the ArcGIS for INSPIRE extension implements similar complex feature support for ArcGIS Server. These improved server implementations greatly facilitate deploying GeoSciML services. EarthResourceML v2 adds features for information related to mining activities. SoilML provides an interchange format for soil material, soil profile, and terrain information. Work is underway to add GeoSciML to the portfolio of Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) specifications.

  10. Using Electricity. Study Guide. Unit I2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chidume, Kwashira

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  11. Understanding Electricity. Study Guide. Unit I1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chidume, Kwashira

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  12. Life, Beginning and Growing. Study Guide. Unit E1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide is a three-part unit…

  13. Our Planet Earth. Teacher's Guide. Unit F1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities,…

  14. Atoms and Molecules. Study Guide. Unit 2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandizha, George

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the third year of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide is a four-part unit…

  15. The Chemicals of the Earth. Study Guide. Unit F2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  16. Forces in Living Things. Study Guide. Unit H2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty; Zesaguli, Josie

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  17. Reproducing by Flowers and Seeds. Study Guide. Unit E2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zesaguli, Josie

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and environmental laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide consists of…

  18. Ranking Business and Economics Journals in South America Using the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Jennifer K.; Pradenas, Lorena; Parada, Victor; Scherer, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    Access to published research for knowledge creation and education in the administrative science disciplines in South America has been enhanced since the introduction of the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO). Although SciELO has been available as an online journal indexing and publication service since 1998, there have been no…

  19. What Do You Know about Water? Study Guide. Unit D. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Peter

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide is a three-part unit…

  20. Learning to be a Scientist. Study Guide. Unit A1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide introduces students to…

  1. Living Things and Their Food. Study Guide. Unit G2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  2. Sense from Senses. Study Guide. Unit J. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simango, Sam

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  3. Energy for Living. Study Guide. Unit G1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide includes activities and…

  4. Forces in Action. Study Guide. Unit H1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Peter

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  5. Charged-Current Neutral Pion production at SciBooNE

    SciTech Connect

    Catala-Perez, J.; /Valencia U., IFIC

    2009-10-01

    SciBooNE, located in the Booster Neutrino Beam at Fermilab, collected data from June 2007 to August 2008 to accurately measure muon neutrino and anti-neutrino cross sections on carbon below 1 GeV neutrino energy. SciBooNE is studying charged current interactions. Among them, neutral pion production interactions will be the focus of this poster. The experimental signature of neutrino-induced neutral pion production is constituted by two electromagnetic cascades initiated by the conversion of the {pi}{sup 0} decay photons, with an additional muon in the final state for CC processes. In this poster, I will present how we reconstruct and select charged-current muon neutrino interactions producing {pi}{sup 0}'s in SciBooNE.

  6. SciReader enables reading of medical content with instantaneous definitions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A major problem patients encounter when reading about health related issues is document interpretation, which limits reading comprehension and therefore negatively impacts health care. Currently, searching for medical definitions from an external source is time consuming, distracting, and negatively impacts reading comprehension and memory of the material. Methods SciReader was built as a Java application with a Flex-based front-end client. The dictionary used by SciReader was built by consolidating data from several sources and generating new definitions with a standardized syntax. The application was evaluated by measuring the percentage of words defined in different documents. A survey was used to test the perceived effect of SciReader on reading time and comprehension. Results We present SciReader, a web-application that simplifies document interpretation by allowing users to instantaneously view medical, English, and scientific definitions as they read any document. This tool reveals the definitions of any selected word in a small frame at the top of the application. SciReader relies on a dictionary of ~750,000 unique Biomedical and English word definitions. Evaluation of the application shows that it maps ~98% of words in several different types of documents and that most users tested in a survey indicate that the application decreases reading time and increases comprehension. Conclusions SciReader is a web application useful for reading medical and scientific documents. The program makes jargon-laden content more accessible to patients, educators, health care professionals, and the general public. PMID:21266060

  7. Bringing the SciBar detector to the booster neutrino beam

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A.A.; Alcaraz, J.; Andringa, S.; Brice, S.J.; Brown, B.C.; Bugel, L.; Catala, J.; Cervera, A.; Conrad, J.M.; Couce, E.; Dore, U.; Espinal, X.; Finley, D.A.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.J.; Hayato, Y.; Hiraide, K.; Ishii, T.; Jover, G.; Kobilarcik, T.; Kurimoto, Y.; Kurosawa, Y.; /Columbia U. /Fermilab /KEK, Tsukuba /Barcelona, IFAE /Tokyo U., ICRR /Valencia U., IFIC /Kyoto U. /Los Alamos /Louisiana State U. /Stratton Mountain Sch. /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Colorado U.

    2006-01-01

    This document presents the physics case for bringing SciBar, the fully active, finely segmented tracking detector at KEK, to the FNAL Booster Neutrino Beam (BNB) line. This unique opportunity arose with the termination of K2K beam operations in 2005. At that time, the SciBar detector became available for use in other neutrino beam lines, including the BNB, which has been providing neutrinos to the MiniBooNE experiment since late 2002. The physics that can be done with SciBar/BNB can be put into three categories, each involving several measurements. First are neutrino cross section measurements which are interesting in their own right, including analyses of multi-particle final states, with unprecedented statistics. Second are measurements of processes that represent the signal and primary background channels for the upcoming T2K experiment. Third are measurements which improve existing or planned MiniBooNE analyses and the understanding of the BNB, both in neutrino and antineutrino mode. For each of these proposed measurements, the SciBar/BNB combination presents a unique opportunity or will significantly improve upon current or near-future experiments for several reasons. First, the fine granularity of SciBar allows detailed reconstruction of final states not possible with the MiniBooNE detector. Additionally, the BNB neutrino energy spectrum is a close match to the expected T2K energy spectrum in a region where cross sections are expected to vary dramatically with energy. As a result, the SciBar/BNB combination will provide cross-section measurements in an energy range complementary to MINERvA and complete the knowledge of neutrino cross sections over the entire energy range of interest to the upcoming off-axis experiments.

  8. STARtorialist: Astronomy Outreach via Fashion, Sci-Fi, & Pop Culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Emily L.; Ash, Summer

    2015-01-01

    Astronomical images in the public domain have increasingly been used as inspiration and patterns for clothing, accessories, and home decor. These 'AstroFashion' items are as diverse as DIY projects, handmade and boutique products, mass-produced commercial items, and haute couture. STARtorialist is a Tumblr-based blog that curates the proliferation of these products with the goal of celebrating the beauty of the universe and highlighting the science behind the images. The blog also includes sci-fi, space, and science-related aspects of popular culture. Each post features images and descriptions of the products, and often where/how we found them and/or the people wearing them, with links to the original astronomical images or other relevant science content. The popularity of each post is evident in the number of 'notes', including 'faves' (personal bookmarks) and 'reblogs' (shares with other users). Since launching the blog in December 2013, with an average of one post per day, we've attracted hundreds of followers on Tumblr and Twitter and thousands of notes on Tumblr. We will present our most popular posts and recommend how education, outreach, and press offices can add Tumblr to their social media repertoire.

  9. SciDAC-Center for Plasma Edge Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Choong Seock

    2012-06-04

    The SciDAC ProtoFSP Center for Plasma Edge Simulation (CPES) [http://www.cims.nyu.edu/cpes/] was awarded to New York University, Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences in FY 2006. C.S. Chang was the institutional and national project PI. It's mission was 1) to build kinetic simulation code applicable to tokamak edge region including magnetic divertor geometry, 2) to build a computer science framework which can integrate the kinetic code with MHD/fluid codes in multiscale, 3) to conduct scientific research using the developed tools. CPES has built two such edge kinetic codes XGC0 and XGC1, which are still the only working kinetic edge plasma codes capable of including the diverted magnetic field geometry. CPES has also built the code coupling framework EFFIS (End-to-end Framework for Fusion Integrated Simulation), which incubated and used the Adios (www.olcf.ornl.gov/center-projects/adios/) and eSiMon (http://www.olcf.ornl.gov/center-projects/esimmon/) technologies, together with the Kepler technology.

  10. "Sci-Tech - Couldn't be without it !"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-03-01

    Launch of a Major European Outreach Programme Seven of Europe's leading Research Organizations [1] launch joint outreach programme for the European Science and Technology Week at the Technopolis Museum in Brussels on 22 March. Their aim is to show Europeans how today's society couldn't be without fundamental research . Could you imagine life without mobile phones, cars, CD players, TV, refrigerators, computers, the internet and the World Wide Web, antibiotics, vitamins, anaesthetics, vaccination, heating, pampers, nylon stockings, glue, bar codes, metal detectors, contact lenses, modems, laser printers, digital cameras, gameboys, play stations...? Technology is everywhere and used by everyone in today's society, but how many Europeans suspect that without studies on the structure of the atom, lasers would not exist, and neither would CD players? Most do not realise that most things they couldn't be without have required years of fundamental research . To fill this knowledge gap, the leading Research Organizations in Europe [1], with the support of the research directorate of the European Commission, have joined forces to inform Europeans how technology couldn't be without science, and how science can no longer progress without technology. The project is called...... Sci-Tech - Couldn't be without it! Sci-Tech - Couldn't be without it! invites Europeans to vote online in a survey to identify the top ten technologies they can't live without. It will show them through a dynamic and entertaining Web space where these top technologies really come from, and it will reveal their intimate links with research. Teaching kits will be developed to explain to students how their favourite gadgets actually work, and how a career in science can contribute to inventions that future generations couldn't be without. The results of the survey will be presented as a series of quiz shows live on the Internet during the Science Week, from 4 to 10 November. Sci-tech - Couldn't be without

  11. CitSci.org: A New Model for Managing, Documenting, and Sharing Citizen Science Data.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yiwei; Kaplan, Nicole; Newman, Greg; Scarpino, Russell

    2015-10-01

    Citizen science projects have the potential to advance science by increasing the volume and variety of data, as well as innovation. Yet this potential has not been fully realized, in part because citizen science data are typically not widely shared and reused. To address this and related challenges, we built CitSci.org (see www.citsci.org), a customizable platform that allows users to collect and generate diverse datasets. We hope that CitSci.org will ultimately increase discoverability and confidence in citizen science observations, encouraging scientists to use such data in their own scientific research.

  12. GeoSciML version 3: A GML application for geologic information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    International Union of Geological Sciences., I. C.; Richard, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    After 2 years of testing and development, XML schema for GeoSciML version 3 are now ready for application deployment. GeoSciML draws from many geoscience data modelling efforts to establish a common suite of feature types to represent information associated with geologic maps (materials, structures, and geologic units) and observations including structure data, samples, and chemical analyses. After extensive testing and use case analysis, in December 2008 the CGI Interoperability Working Group (IWG) released GeoSciML 2.0 as an application schema for basic geological information. GeoSciML 2.0 is in use to deliver geologic data by the OneGeology Europe portal, the Geological Survey of Canada Groundwater Information Network (wet GIN), and the Auscope Mineral Resources portal. GeoSciML to version 3.0 is updated to OGC Geography Markup Language v3.2, re-engineered patterns for association of element values with controlled vocabulary concepts, incorporation of ISO19156 Observation and Measurement constructs for representing numeric and categorical values and for representing analytical data, incorporation of EarthResourceML to represent mineral occurrences and mines, incorporation of the GeoTime model to represent GSSP and stratigraphic time scale, and refactoring of the GeoSciML namespace to follow emerging ISO practices for decoupling of dependencies between standardized namespaces. These changes will make it easier for data providers to link to standard vocabulary and registry services. The depth and breadth of GeoSciML remains largely unchanged, covering the representation of geologic units, earth materials and geologic structures. ISO19156 elements and patterns are used to represent sampling features such as boreholes and rock samples, as well as geochemical and geochronologic measurements. Geologic structures include shear displacement structures (brittle faults and ductile shears), contacts, folds, foliations, lineations and structures with no preferred

  13. CitSci.org: A New Model for Managing, Documenting, and Sharing Citizen Science Data

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yiwei; Kaplan, Nicole; Newman, Greg; Scarpino, Russell

    2015-01-01

    Citizen science projects have the potential to advance science by increasing the volume and variety of data, as well as innovation. Yet this potential has not been fully realized, in part because citizen science data are typically not widely shared and reused. To address this and related challenges, we built CitSci.org (see www.citsci.org), a customizable platform that allows users to collect and generate diverse datasets. We hope that CitSci.org will ultimately increase discoverability and confidence in citizen science observations, encouraging scientists to use such data in their own scientific research. PMID:26492521

  14. Final Report for DOE Project: Portal Web Services: Support of DOE SciDAC Collaboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Mary Thomas, PI; Geoffrey Fox, Co-PI; Gannon, D; Pierce, M; Moore, R; Schissel, D; Boisseau, J

    2007-10-01

    Grid portals provide the scientific community with familiar and simplified interfaces to the Grid and Grid services, and it is important to deploy grid portals onto the SciDAC grids and collaboratories. The goal of this project is the research, development and deployment of interoperable portal and web services that can be used on SciDAC National Collaboratory grids. This project has four primary task areas: development of portal systems; management of data collections; DOE science application integration; and development of web and grid services in support of the above activities.

  15. Scalable Earth-observation Analytics for Geoscientists: Spacetime Extensions to the Array Database SciDB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appel, Marius; Lahn, Florian; Pebesma, Edzer; Buytaert, Wouter; Moulds, Simon

    2016-04-01

    Today's amount of freely available data requires scientists to spend large parts of their work on data management. This is especially true in environmental sciences when working with large remote sensing datasets, such as obtained from earth-observation satellites like the Sentinel fleet. Many frameworks like SpatialHadoop or Apache Spark address the scalability but target programmers rather than data analysts, and are not dedicated to imagery or array data. In this work, we use the open-source data management and analytics system SciDB to bring large earth-observation datasets closer to analysts. Its underlying data representation as multidimensional arrays fits naturally to earth-observation datasets, distributes storage and computational load over multiple instances by multidimensional chunking, and also enables efficient time-series based analyses, which is usually difficult using file- or tile-based approaches. Existing interfaces to R and Python furthermore allow for scalable analytics with relatively little learning effort. However, interfacing SciDB and file-based earth-observation datasets that come as tiled temporal snapshots requires a lot of manual bookkeeping during ingestion, and SciDB natively only supports loading data from CSV-like and custom binary formatted files, which currently limits its practical use in earth-observation analytics. To make it easier to work with large multi-temporal datasets in SciDB, we developed software tools that enrich SciDB with earth observation metadata and allow working with commonly used file formats: (i) the SciDB extension library scidb4geo simplifies working with spatiotemporal arrays by adding relevant metadata to the database and (ii) the Geospatial Data Abstraction Library (GDAL) driver implementation scidb4gdal allows to ingest and export remote sensing imagery from and to a large number of file formats. Using added metadata on temporal resolution and coverage, the GDAL driver supports time-based ingestion of

  16. Antifungal activities of SCY-078 (MK-3118) and standard antifungal agents against clinical non-Aspergillus mold isolates.

    PubMed

    Lamoth, Frédéric; Alexander, Barbara D

    2015-07-01

    The limited armamentarium of active and oral antifungal drugs against emerging non-Aspergillus molds is of particular concern. Current antifungal agents and the new orally available beta-1,3-d-glucan synthase inhibitor SCY-078 were tested in vitro against 135 clinical non-Aspergillus mold isolates. Akin to echinocandins, SCY-078 showed no or poor activity against Mucoromycotina and Fusarium spp. However, SCY-078 was highly active against Paecilomyces variotii and was the only compound displaying some activity against notoriously panresistant Scedosporium prolificans.

  17. A new antimicrobial peptide SCY2 identified in Scylla Paramamosain exerting a potential role of reproductive immunity.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Kun; Xu, Wan-Fang; Chen, Hui-Yun; Peng, Hui; Zhang, Ya-Qun; Huang, Wen-Shu; Wang, Shu-Ping; An, Zhe; Shan, Zhong-Guo; Chen, Fang-Yi; Wang, Ke-Jian

    2016-04-01

    A new antimicrobial peptide named SCY2 with 65.08% identity in amino acid sequence to the known scygonadin (SCY1) was first characterized in Scylla paramamosain based on its cloned full-length cDNA and genomic DNA sequences. The SCY2 gene was dominantly expressed in the ejaculatory duct of male crabs and its mRNA transcripts were discerned mainly in the glandular epithelium of the inner wall and the secretion inside the ejaculatory duct. Although the SCY2 gene could not be induced with the challenge of the bacteria and fungi tested, its induction reached the highest level at the peak period of mating in mature male crabs either in June or November, suggesting its induction was likely related to seasonal reproduction changes. Moreover, it was interesting to note that, from analysis of its transcripts and protein, SCY2 was significantly expressed only in the ejaculatory duct of pre-copulatory males before mating, however it was clearly detected in the spermatheca of post-copulatory females after mating accompanied by the decreased level of SCY2 expression in the ejaculatory duct. These results suggested that the SCY2 was probably transferred from the male during mating action with the female for the purpose of protecting fertilization. The recombinant SCY2 was more active against the Gram-positive than the Gram-negative bacteria tested. It was further observed that the SCY2 transcripts were significantly increased with addition of exogenous progesterone in tissue cultures whereas the several other hormones tested had no any effect on SCY2 expression, indicating that there might be a relationship between the SCY2 expression and the induction of hormones in vivo. In summary, this study demonstrated that one role of SCY2 was likely to be involved in crab reproduction and it exerted its reproductive immune function through the mating action and the maintenance of inner sterility in the spermatheca of the female, thus leading to successful fertilization of S

  18. Data Sharing and Publication Using the SciDrive Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishin, D.; Medvedev, D.; Szalay, A. S.; Plante, R.; Graham, M.

    2014-05-01

    Despite all the progress made during the last years in the field of cloud data storage, the problem of fast and reliable data storage for the scientific community still remains open. The SciDrive project meets the need for a free open-source scientific data publishing platform. Having the primary target audience of astronomers as the largest data producers, the platform however is not bound to any scientific domain and can be used by different communities. Our current installation provides a free and safe storage platform for scientists to publish their data and share it with the community with the simplicity of Dropbox. The system allows service providers to harvest from the files and derive their broader context in a fairly automated fashion. Collecting various scientific data files in a single location or multiple connected sites allows building an intelligent system of metadata extractors. Our system is aimed at simplifying the cataloging and processing of large file collections for the long tail of scientific data. We propose an extensible plugin architecture for automatic metadata extraction and storage. The current implementation targets some of the data formats commonly used by the astronomy communities, including FITS, ASCII and Excel tables, TIFF images, and YT simulations data archives. Along with generic metadata, format-specific metadata is also processed. For example, basic information about celestial objects is extracted from FITS files and TIFF images, if present. This approach makes the simple BLOB storage a smart system providing access to various data in its own representation, such as a database for files containing tables, or providing additional search and access features such as full-text search, image pyramids or thumbnails creation, simulation dataset id extractor for fast search. A 100TB implementation has just been put into production at Johns Hopkins University.

  19. G/T Identification and Sci-Fi Matchmaking: More Similar than They Should Be.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartek, Mary M.

    2003-01-01

    Using a sci-fi matchmaking scenario to illustrate the fallibility of technology, this article discusses the practice of reducing a student to a series of test scores for gifted identification. The limits of testing are addressed, and student performance and behavior are urged as additional categories for identifying aptitude and achievement.…

  20. Research Report for GeSci Meta-Review of ICT in Education: Phase Two

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBaron, John; McDonough, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This second phase of a comprehensive meta-review of educational ICT research and practice addresses global developments reflected in the research and development literature appearing since 2006. Completed in April 2009, the Phase One (P1) report comprised a synopsis of research related to GeSci's five thematic inquiry priorities. Preliminary…

  1. Measurement Properties of the Spinal Cord Injury-Functional Index (SCI-FI) Short Forms

    PubMed Central

    Heinemann, Allen W.; Dijkers, Marcel P.; Ni, Pengsheng; Tulsky, David S.; Jette, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the psychometric properties of the Spinal Cord Injury Functional Index (SCI-FI) short forms (Basic Mobility, Self-Care, Fine Motor, Ambulation, Manual Wheelchair, and Power Wheelchair) based on internal consistency, correlations between short- and full item bank forms, and a 10-item compute adaptive test version, magnitude of ceiling and floor effects, and test information functions. Design Cross-sectional cohort study. Participants 855 individuals with traumatic spinal cord injury recruited from 6 National Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems facilities. Interventions Not applicable. Main outcome measures SCI-FI full item bank, 10-item computer adaptive test, and parallel short form scores. Results The SCI-FI short forms (with separate versions for individuals with paraplegia and tetraplegia) demonstrate very good internal consistency, group-level reliability, excellent correlations between short forms and scores based on the total item bank, minimal ceiling and floor effects (except ceiling effects for persons with paraplegia on Self-Care, Fine Motor and Power Wheelchair ability, and floor effects for persons with tetraplegia on Self-Care, Fine Motor and Manual Wheelchair ability). The test information functions are acceptable across the range of scores where most persons in the sample performed. Conclusions clinicians and researchers should consider the SCI-FI short forms when computer adaptive testing is not feasible. PMID:24602551

  2. Performance Engineering Research Institute SciDAC-2 Enabling Technologies Institute Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, Robert

    2013-04-20

    Enhancing the performance of SciDAC applications on petascale systems had high priority within DOE SC at the start of the second phase of the SciDAC program, SciDAC-2, as it continues to do so today. Achieving expected levels of performance on high-end computing (HEC) systems is growing ever more challenging due to enormous scale, increasing architectural complexity, and increasing application complexity. To address these challenges, the University of Southern California?s Information Sciences Institute organized the Performance Engineering Research Institute (PERI). PERI implemented a unified, tripartite research plan encompassing: (1) performance modeling and prediction; (2) automatic performance tuning; and (3) performance engineering of high profile applications. Within PERI, USC?s primary research activity was automatic tuning (autotuning) of scientific software. This activity was spurred by the strong user preference for automatic tools and was based on previous successful activities such as ATLAS, which automatically tuned components of the LAPACK linear algebra library, and other recent work on autotuning domain-specific libraries. Our other major component was application engagement, to which we devoted approximately 30% of our effort to work directly with SciDAC-2 applications. This report is a summary of the overall results of the USC PERI effort.

  3. Looking at Life. Teacher's Guide. Unit A2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  4. SciEthics Interactive: Science and Ethics Learning in a Virtual Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadolny, Larysa; Woolfrey, Joan; Pierlott, Matthew; Kahn, Seth

    2013-01-01

    Learning in immersive 3D environments allows students to collaborate, build, and interact with difficult course concepts. This case study examines the design and development of the TransGen Island within the SciEthics Interactive project, a National Science Foundation-funded, 3D virtual world emphasizing learning science content in the context of…

  5. What is Matter? Teacher's Guide. Unit C1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  6. SciTech Clubs for Girls. [Final report], September 1, 1991--April 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Malamud, E.; Diaz, O.; Cox, J.

    1994-12-31

    The program of SciTech Clubs for Girls and its progress are described. This is a program that promotes the learning of science and mathematics by girls in the age range of 9 to 13 years through the process of building exhibits and learning from local professionals. A list of exhibits and a critique of the program are given.

  7. Microlithography and resist technology information at your fingertips via SciFinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konuk, Rengin; Macko, John R.; Staggenborg, Lisa

    1997-07-01

    Finding and retrieving the information you need about microlithography and resist technology in a timely fashion can make or break your competitive edge in today's business environment. Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) provides the most complete and comprehensive database of the chemical literature in the CAplus, REGISTRY, and CASREACT files including 13 million document references, 15 million substance records and over 1.2 million reactions. This includes comprehensive coverage of positive and negative resist formulations and processing, photoacid generation, silylation, single and multilayer resist systems, photomasks, dry and wet etching, photolithography, electron-beam, ion-beam and x-ray lithography technologies and process control, optical tools, exposure systems, radiation sources and steppers. Journal articles, conference proceedings and patents related to microlithography and resist technology are analyzed and indexed by scientific information analysts with strong technical background in these areas. The full CAS database, which is updated weekly with new information, is now available at your desktop, via a convenient, user-friendly tool called 'SciFinder.' Author, subject and chemical substance searching is simplified by SciFinder's smart search features. Chemical substances can be searched by chemical structure, chemical name, CAS registry number or molecular formula. Drawing chemical structures in SciFinder is easy and does not require compliance with CA conventions. Built-in intelligence of SciFinder enables users to retrieve substances with multiple components, tautomeric forms and salts.

  8. Transplantation of Glial Progenitors That Overexpress Glutamate Transporter GLT1 Preserves Diaphragm Function Following Cervical SCI

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ke; Javed, Elham; Hala, Tamara J; Sannie, Daniel; Regan, Kathleen A; Maragakis, Nicholas J; Wright, Megan C; Poulsen, David J; Lepore, Angelo C

    2015-01-01

    Approximately half of traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) cases affect cervical regions, resulting in chronic respiratory compromise. The majority of these injuries affect midcervical levels, the location of phrenic motor neurons (PMNs) that innervate the diaphragm. A valuable opportunity exists following SCI for preventing PMN loss that occurs during secondary degeneration. One of the primary causes of secondary injury is excitotoxicity due to dysregulation of extracellular glutamate homeostasis. Astrocytes express glutamate transporter 1 (GLT1), which is responsible for the majority of CNS glutamate clearance. Given our observations of GLT1 dysfunction post-SCI, we evaluated intraspinal transplantation of Glial-Restricted Precursors (GRPs)—a class of lineage-restricted astrocyte progenitors—into ventral horn following cervical hemicontusion as a novel strategy for reconstituting GLT1 function, preventing excitotoxicity and protecting PMNs in the acutely injured spinal cord. We find that unmodified transplants express low levels of GLT1 in the injured spinal cord. To enhance their therapeutic properties, we engineered GRPs with AAV8 to overexpress GLT1 only in astrocytes using the GFA2 promoter, resulting in significantly increased GLT1 protein expression and functional glutamate uptake following astrocyte differentiation in vitro and after transplantation into C4 hemicontusion. Compared to medium-only control and unmodified GRPs, GLT1-overexpressing transplants reduced lesion size, diaphragm denervation and diaphragm dysfunction. Our findings demonstrate transplantation-based replacement of astrocyte GLT1 is a promising approach for SCI. PMID:25492561

  9. What Makes Things Happen? Teacher's Guide. Unit B. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Peter

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  10. SciJourn is magic: construction of a science journalism community of practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholas, Celeste R.

    2016-01-01

    This article is the first to describe the discoursal construction of an adolescent community of practice (CoP) in a non-school setting. CoPs can provide optimal learning environments. The adolescent community centered around science journalism and positioned itself dichotomously in relationship to school literacy practices. The analysis focuses on recordings from a panel-style research interview from an early implementation of the Science Literacy Through Science Journalism (SciJourn) project. Researchers trained high school students participating in a youth development program to write science news articles. Students engaged in the authentic practices of professional science journalists, received feedback from a professional editor, and submitted articles for publication. I used a fine-grained critical discourse analysis of genre, discourse, and style to analyze student responses about differences between writing in SciJourn and in school. Students described themselves as agentic in SciJourn and passive in school, using an academic writing discourse of deficit to describe schooling experiences. They affiliated with and defined a SciJourn CoP, constructing positive journalistic identities therein. Educators are encouraged to develop similar CoPs. The discursive features presented may be used to monitor the development of communities of practice in a variety of settings.

  11. Particles in Action. Teacher's Guide. Unit C2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  12. MySci Advisors: Establishing a Peer-Mentoring Program for First Year Science Student Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poling, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Would you like to help your students adjust to university life? Perhaps you are simply interested in allowing them to feel more integrated into a department right from the start of their first year? These were the types of issues that we were hoping to address when we founded the MySci Advisors Program, a peer-mentoring group for first year…

  13. National Computational Infrastructure for Lattice Gauge Theory SciDAC-2 Closeout Report Indiana University Component

    SciTech Connect

    Gottlieb, Steven Arthur; DeTar, Carleton; Tousaint, Doug

    2014-07-24

    This is the closeout report for the Indiana University portion of the National Computational Infrastructure for Lattice Gauge Theory project supported by the United States Department of Energy under the SciDAC program. It includes information about activities at Indian University, the University of Arizona, and the University of Utah, as those three universities coordinated their activities.

  14. The SciELO Open Access: A Gold Way from the South

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Packer, Abel L.

    2009-01-01

    Open access has long emphasized access to scholarly materials. However, open access can also mean access to the means of producing visible and recognized journals. This issue is particularly important in developing and emergent countries. The SciELO (Scientific Electronic Library On-line) project, first started in Brazil and, shortly afterward, in…

  15. Cross section analyses in MiniBooNE and SciBooNE experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Katori, Teppei

    2015-05-15

    The MiniBooNE experiment (2002-2012) and the SciBooNE experiment (2007-2008) are modern high statistics neutrino experiments, and they developed many new ideas in neutrino cross section analyses. In this note, I discuss selected topics of these analyses.

  16. SciSpark's SRDD : A Scientific Resilient Distributed Dataset for Multidimensional Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palamuttam, R. S.; Wilson, B. D.; Mogrovejo, R. M.; Whitehall, K. D.; Mattmann, C. A.; McGibbney, L. J.; Ramirez, P.

    2015-12-01

    Remote sensing data and climate model output are multi-dimensional arrays of massive sizes locked away in heterogeneous file formats (HDF5/4, NetCDF 3/4) and metadata models (HDF-EOS, CF) making it difficult to perform multi-stage, iterative science processing since each stage requires writing and reading data to and from disk. We have developed SciSpark, a robust Big Data framework, that extends ApacheTM Spark for scaling scientific computations. Apache Spark improves the map-reduce implementation in ApacheTM Hadoop for parallel computing on a cluster, by emphasizing in-memory computation, "spilling" to disk only as needed, and relying on lazy evaluation. Central to Spark is the Resilient Distributed Dataset (RDD), an in-memory distributed data structure that extends the functional paradigm provided by the Scala programming language. However, RDDs are ideal for tabular or unstructured data, and not for highly dimensional data. The SciSpark project introduces the Scientific Resilient Distributed Dataset (sRDD), a distributed-computing array structure which supports iterative scientific algorithms for multidimensional data. SciSpark processes data stored in NetCDF and HDF files by partitioning them across time or space and distributing the partitions among a cluster of compute nodes. We show usability and extensibility of SciSpark by implementing distributed algorithms for geospatial operations on large collections of multi-dimensional grids. In particular we address the problem of scaling an automated method for finding Mesoscale Convective Complexes. SciSpark provides a tensor interface to support the pluggability of different matrix libraries. We evaluate performance of the various matrix libraries in distributed pipelines, such as Nd4jTM and BreezeTM. We detail the architecture and design of SciSpark, our efforts to integrate climate science algorithms, parallel ingest and partitioning (sharding) of A-Train satellite observations from model grids. These

  17. Science Classroom Inquiry (SCI) Simulations: A Novel Method to Scaffold Science Learning

    PubMed Central

    Peffer, Melanie E.; Beckler, Matthew L.; Schunn, Christian; Renken, Maggie; Revak, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Science education is progressively more focused on employing inquiry-based learning methods in the classroom and increasing scientific literacy among students. However, due to time and resource constraints, many classroom science activities and laboratory experiments focus on simple inquiry, with a step-by-step approach to reach predetermined outcomes. The science classroom inquiry (SCI) simulations were designed to give students real life, authentic science experiences within the confines of a typical classroom. The SCI simulations allow students to engage with a science problem in a meaningful, inquiry-based manner. Three discrete SCI simulations were created as website applications for use with middle school and high school students. For each simulation, students were tasked with solving a scientific problem through investigation and hypothesis testing. After completion of the simulation, 67% of students reported a change in how they perceived authentic science practices, specifically related to the complex and dynamic nature of scientific research and how scientists approach problems. Moreover, 80% of the students who did not report a change in how they viewed the practice of science indicated that the simulation confirmed or strengthened their prior understanding. Additionally, we found a statistically significant positive correlation between students’ self-reported changes in understanding of authentic science practices and the degree to which each simulation benefitted learning. Since SCI simulations were effective in promoting both student learning and student understanding of authentic science practices with both middle and high school students, we propose that SCI simulations are a valuable and versatile technology that can be used to educate and inspire a wide range of science students on the real-world complexities inherent in scientific study. PMID:25786245

  18. Science classroom inquiry (SCI) simulations: a novel method to scaffold science learning.

    PubMed

    Peffer, Melanie E; Beckler, Matthew L; Schunn, Christian; Renken, Maggie; Revak, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Science education is progressively more focused on employing inquiry-based learning methods in the classroom and increasing scientific literacy among students. However, due to time and resource constraints, many classroom science activities and laboratory experiments focus on simple inquiry, with a step-by-step approach to reach predetermined outcomes. The science classroom inquiry (SCI) simulations were designed to give students real life, authentic science experiences within the confines of a typical classroom. The SCI simulations allow students to engage with a science problem in a meaningful, inquiry-based manner. Three discrete SCI simulations were created as website applications for use with middle school and high school students. For each simulation, students were tasked with solving a scientific problem through investigation and hypothesis testing. After completion of the simulation, 67% of students reported a change in how they perceived authentic science practices, specifically related to the complex and dynamic nature of scientific research and how scientists approach problems. Moreover, 80% of the students who did not report a change in how they viewed the practice of science indicated that the simulation confirmed or strengthened their prior understanding. Additionally, we found a statistically significant positive correlation between students' self-reported changes in understanding of authentic science practices and the degree to which each simulation benefitted learning. Since SCI simulations were effective in promoting both student learning and student understanding of authentic science practices with both middle and high school students, we propose that SCI simulations are a valuable and versatile technology that can be used to educate and inspire a wide range of science students on the real-world complexities inherent in scientific study.

  19. Data publication and sharing using the SciDrive service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishin, Dmitry; Medvedev, D.; Szalay, A. S.; Plante, R. L.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the last years progress in scientific data storage, still remains the problem of public data storage and sharing system for relatively small scientific datasets. These are collections forming the “long tail” of power log datasets distribution. The aggregated size of the long tail data is comparable to the size of all data collections from large archives, and the value of data is significant. The SciDrive project's main goal is providing the scientific community with a place to reliably and freely store such data and provide access to it to broad scientific community. The primary target audience of the project is astoromy community, and it will be extended to other fields. We're aiming to create a simple way of publishing a dataset, which can be then shared with other people. Data owner controls the permissions to modify and access the data and can assign a group of users or open the access to everyone. The data contained in the dataset will be automaticaly recognized by a background process. Known data formats will be extracted according to the user's settings. Currently tabular data can be automatically extracted to the user's MyDB table where user can make SQL queries to the dataset and merge it with other public CasJobs resources. Other data formats can be processed using a set of plugins that upload the data or metadata to user-defined side services. The current implementation targets some of the data formats commonly used by the astronomy communities, including FITS, ASCII and Excel tables, TIFF images, and YT simulations data archives. Along with generic metadata, format-specific metadata is also processed. For example, basic information about celestial objects is extracted from FITS files and TIFF images, if present. A 100TB implementation has just been put into production at Johns Hopkins University. The system features public data storage REST service supporting VOSpace 2.0 and Dropbox protocols, HTML5 web portal, command-line client and Java

  20. Measuring stigma after spinal cord injury: Development and psychometric characteristics of the SCI-QOL Stigma item bank and short form

    PubMed Central

    Kisala, Pamela A.; Tulsky, David S.; Pace, Natalie; Victorson, David; Choi, Seung W.; Heinemann, Allen W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop a calibrated item bank and computer adaptive test (CAT) to assess the effects of stigma on health-related quality of life in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Design Grounded-theory based qualitative item development methods, large-scale item calibration field testing, confirmatory factor analysis, and item response theory (IRT)-based psychometric analyses. Setting Five SCI Model System centers and one Department of Veterans Affairs medical center in the United States. Participants Adults with traumatic SCI. Main Outcome Measures SCI-QOL Stigma Item Bank Results A sample of 611 individuals with traumatic SCI completed 30 items assessing SCI-related stigma. After 7 items were iteratively removed, factor analyses confirmed a unidimensional pool of items. Graded Response Model IRT analyses were used to estimate slopes and thresholds for the final 23 items. Conclusions The SCI-QOL Stigma item bank is unique not only in the assessment of SCI-related stigma but also in the inclusion of individuals with SCI in all phases of its development. Use of confirmatory factor analytic and IRT methods provide flexibility and precision of measurement. The item bank may be administered as a CAT or as a 10-item fixed-length short form and can be used for research and clinical applications. PMID:26010973

  1. GeoSciGraph: An Ontological Framework for EarthCube Semantic Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, A.; Schachne, A.; Condit, C.; Valentine, D.; Richard, S.; Zaslavsky, I.

    2015-12-01

    The CINERGI (Community Inventory of EarthCube Resources for Geosciences Interoperability) project compiles an inventory of a wide variety of earth science resources including documents, catalogs, vocabularies, data models, data services, process models, information repositories, domain-specific ontologies etc. developed by research groups and data practitioners. We have developed a multidisciplinary semantic framework called GeoSciGraph semantic ingration of earth science resources. An integrated ontology is constructed with Basic Formal Ontology (BFO) as its upper ontology and currently ingests multiple component ontologies including the SWEET ontology, GeoSciML's lithology ontology, Tematres controlled vocabulary server, GeoNames, GCMD vocabularies on equipment, platforms and institutions, software ontology, CUAHSI hydrology vocabulary, the environmental ontology (ENVO) and several more. These ontologies are connected through bridging axioms; GeoSciGraph identifies lexically close terms and creates equivalence class or subclass relationships between them after human verification. GeoSciGraph allows a community to create community-specific customizations of the integrated ontology. GeoSciGraph uses the Neo4J,a graph database that can hold several billion concepts and relationships. GeoSciGraph provides a number of REST services that can be called by other software modules like the CINERGI information augmentation pipeline. 1) Vocabulary services are used to find exact and approximate terms, term categories (community-provided clusters of terms e.g., measurement-related terms or environmental material related terms), synonyms, term definitions and annotations. 2) Lexical services are used for text parsing to find entities, which can then be included into the ontology by a domain expert. 3) Graph services provide the ability to perform traversal centric operations e.g., finding paths and neighborhoods which can be used to perform ontological operations like

  2. GENESIS SciFlo: Enabling Multi-Instrument Atmospheric Science Using Grid Workflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, B. D.; Tang, B.; Manipon, G.; Yunck, T.; Fetzer, E.; Braverman, A.; Dobinson, E.

    2004-12-01

    The General Earth Science Investigation Suite (GENESIS) project is a NASA-sponsored partnership between the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, academia, and NASA data centers to develop a new suite of web services tools to facilitate multi-sensor investigations in Earth System Science. The goal of GENESIS is to enable large-scale, multi-instrument atmospheric science using combined datasets from the AIRS, MODIS, MISR, and GPS sensors. Investigations will include cross-comparison of spaceborne climate sensors, cloud spectral analysis, study of upper troposphere-strato-sphere water transport, study of the aerosol indirect cloud effect, and global climate model validation. The challenges are to bring together very large datasets, reformat and understand the individual instrument retrievals, co-register or re-grid the retrieved physical parameters, perform computationally-intensive data fusion and data mining operations, and accumulate complex statistics over months to years of data. To meet these challenges, we are developing a Grid computing and dataflow framework, named SciFlo, in which we are deploying a set of versatile and reusable operators for data access, subsetting, registration, mining, fusion, compression, and advanced statistical analysis. SciFlo is a system for Scientific Knowledge Creation on the Grid using a Semantically-Enabled Dataflow Execution Environment. SciFlo leverages Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) Web Services and the Grid Computing standards (Globus Alliance toolkits), and enables scientists to do multi-instrument Earth Science by assembling reusable web services and executable operators into a distributed computing flow (operator tree). The SciFlo client & server engines optimize the execution of such distributed data flows and allow the user to transparently find and use datasets and operators without worrying about the actual location of the Grid resources. The scientist injects a distributed computation into the Grid by simply filling out

  3. Simulations with SCI as a data carrier in data acquisition systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kristiansen, E.H. Univ. of Oslo . Dept. of Physics); Bothner, J.W.; Hulaas, T.I.; Skaali, T.B. ); Rongved, E. )

    1994-02-01

    Detailed simulations of processor networks based on the Scalable Coherent Interface (SCI) show that SCI is suitable as data carrier in data acquisition systems where the total bandwidth need is in the multi GBytes/s range and a low latency is required. The objective of these simulations was to find topologies with low latency and high bandwidth, but also with the cost of implementation in mind. A ring-to-ring bridge has been used as the building element for the networks. The simulations have been performed on regular k-ary n-cubes type topologies from a few tens of nodes and up to about 500 nodes under different load conditions. Among the parameters which has been manipulated in the simulations are the number of nodes, topology structure, number of outstanding requests and load in the system.

  4. Characterizing Optical Turbulence at the GMT Site with MooSci and MASS-DIMM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas-Osip, J. E.; Prieto, G.; Berdja, A.; Cook, K. W.; Villanueva, S.; DePoy, D. L.; Marshall, J. L.; Rheault, J. P.; Allen, R. D.; Carona, D. W.

    2012-01-01

    In order to guide the adaptive optics design and aid in performance predictions, optical turbulence at the site of the future Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) is characterized using MooSci, a lunar scintillometer, and MASS-DIMM, a combination differential image motion monitor and multiaperture scintillation sensor. As a new instrument, MooSci, is verified as a reliable ground-layer turbulence profiler. The GMT can expect an improvement of approximately 0.1'' over the site testing results as measured with a DIMM. Turbulence below 30 m is horizontally nonhomogeneous, dependent on wind speed and direction, and on average accounts for 60% of the full ground-layer (up to 500 m) turbulence.

  5. SciFlo: Semantically-Enabled Grid Workflow for Collaborative Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yunck, T.; Wilson, B. D.; Raskin, R.; Manipon, G.

    2005-12-01

    SciFlo is a system for Scientific Knowledge Creation on the Grid using a Semantically-Enabled Dataflow Execution Environment. SciFlo leverages Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) Web Services and the Grid Computing standards (WS-* standards and the Globus Alliance toolkits), and enables scientists to do multi-instrument Earth Science by assembling reusable SOAP Services, native executables, local command-line scripts, and python codes into a distributed computing flow (a graph of operators). SciFlo's XML dataflow documents can be a mixture of concrete operators (fully bound operations) and abstract template operators (late binding via semantic lookup). All data objects and operators can be both simply typed (simple and complex types in XML schema) and semantically typed using controlled vocabularies (linked to OWL ontologies such as SWEET). By exploiting ontology-enhanced search and inference, one can discover (and automatically invoke) Web Services and operators that have been semantically labeled as performing the desired transformation, and adapt a particular invocation to the proper interface (number, types, and meaning of inputs and outputs). The SciFlo client & server engines optimize the execution of such distributed data flows and allow the user to transparently find and use datasets and operators without worrying about the actual location of the Grid resources. The scientist injects a distributed computation into the Grid by simply filling out an HTML form or directly authoring the underlying XML dataflow document, and results are returned directly to the scientist's desktop. A Visual Programming tool is also being developed, but it is not required. Once an analysis has been specified for a granule or day of data, it can be easily repeated with different control parameters and over months or years of data. SciFlo uses and preserves semantics, and also generates and infers new semantic annotations. Specifically, the SciFlo engine uses semantic metadata to

  6. Assembling Large, Multi-Sensor Climate Datasets Using the SciFlo Grid Workflow System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, B. D.; Manipon, G.; Xing, Z.; Fetzer, E.

    2008-12-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) is the world's most ambitious facility for studying global climate change. The mandate now is to combine measurements from the instruments on the A-Train platforms (AIRS, AMSR-E, MODIS, MISR, MLS, and CloudSat) and other Earth probes to enable large-scale studies of climate change over periods of years to decades. However, moving from predominantly single-instrument studies to a multi-sensor, measurement-based model for long-duration analysis of important climate variables presents serious challenges for large-scale data mining and data fusion. For example, one might want to compare temperature and water vapor retrievals from one instrument (AIRS) to another instrument (MODIS), and to a model (ECMWF), stratify the comparisons using a classification of the cloud scenes from CloudSat, and repeat the entire analysis over years of AIRS data. To perform such an analysis, one must discover & access multiple datasets from remote sites, find the space/time matchups between instruments swaths and model grids, understand the quality flags and uncertainties for retrieved physical variables, and assemble merged datasets for further scientific and statistical analysis. To meet these large-scale challenges, we are utilizing a Grid computing and dataflow framework, named SciFlo, in which we are deploying a set of versatile and reusable operators for data query, access, subsetting, co-registration, mining, fusion, and advanced statistical analysis. SciFlo is a semantically-enabled ("smart") Grid Workflow system that ties together a peer-to-peer network of computers into an efficient engine for distributed computation. The SciFlo workflow engine enables scientists to do multi-instrument Earth Science by assembling remotely-invokable Web Services (SOAP or http GET URLs), native executables, command-line scripts, and Python codes into a distributed computing flow. A scientist visually authors the graph of operation in the VizFlow GUI, or uses a

  7. Assembling Large, Multi-Sensor Climate Datasets Using the SciFlo Grid Workflow System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, B.; Manipon, G.; Xing, Z.; Fetzer, E.

    2009-04-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) is an ambitious facility for studying global climate change. The mandate now is to combine measurements from the instruments on the "A-Train" platforms (AIRS, AMSR-E, MODIS, MISR, MLS, and CloudSat) and other Earth probes to enable large-scale studies of climate change over periods of years to decades. However, moving from predominantly single-instrument studies to a multi-sensor, measurement-based model for long-duration analysis of important climate variables presents serious challenges for large-scale data mining and data fusion. For example, one might want to compare temperature and water vapor retrievals from one instrument (AIRS) to another instrument (MODIS), and to a model (ECMWF), stratify the comparisons using a classification of the "cloud scenes" from CloudSat, and repeat the entire analysis over years of AIRS data. To perform such an analysis, one must discover & access multiple datasets from remote sites, find the space/time "matchups" between instruments swaths and model grids, understand the quality flags and uncertainties for retrieved physical variables, assemble merged datasets, and compute fused products for further scientific and statistical analysis. To meet these large-scale challenges, we are utilizing a Grid computing and dataflow framework, named SciFlo, in which we are deploying a set of versatile and reusable operators for data query, access, subsetting, co-registration, mining, fusion, and advanced statistical analysis. SciFlo is a semantically-enabled ("smart") Grid Workflow system that ties together a peer-to-peer network of computers into an efficient engine for distributed computation. The SciFlo workflow engine enables scientists to do multi-instrument Earth Science by assembling remotely-invokable Web Services (SOAP or http GET URLs), native executables, command-line scripts, and Python codes into a distributed computing flow. A scientist visually authors the graph of operation in the Viz

  8. A pilot study to evaluate the role of the Spinal Cord Impairment Pressure Ulcer Monitoring Tool (SCI-PUMT) in clinical decisions for pressure ulcer treatment.

    PubMed

    Thomason, Susan S; Graves, Barbara Ann; Madaris, Linda

    2014-12-01

    The Spinal Cord Impairment Pressure Ulcer Monitoring Tool (SCI-PUMT) was designed to assess pressure ulcer (PrU) healing in the spinal cord impaired (SCI) population. The tool contains 7 variables: wound surface area, depth, edges, tunneling, undermining, exudate type, and necrotic tissue amount. A 2-phased, quantitative pilot study based on the Theory of Reasoned Action and Theory of Planned Behavior was conducted at a large SCI/Disorders Center in the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). In the first phase of the study, a convenience sample of 5 physicians, 3 advanced practice registered nurses, and 3 certified wound care nurses (CWCN) was surveyed using a 2-part questionnaire to assess use of the SCI-PUMT instrument, its anticipated improvement in PrU assessment, and intent to use the SCI-PUMT in clinical practice. Attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral controls, and barriers related to the intent to use the SCI-PUMT were evaluated using a 5-point Likert scale (range: 1= extremely likely, 5 = extremely unlikely). In the second phase of the study, the electronic health records (EHR) of 24 veterans (with 30 PrUs) who had at least 2 completed SCI-PUMT scores during a 4-week period were used to evaluate whether an association existed between magnitudes of change of total SCI-PUMT scores and ordered changes in PrU treatment. The overall mean score for intent to use SCI-PUMT was 1.80 (SD 0.75). The least favorable scores were for convenience and motivation to use the SCI-PUMT. Analysis of EHR data showed no significant difference in magnitudes of change in the SCI-PUMT score and changes in PrU treatment recommendations made by the CWCNs. The significance was not affected regardless of an increase or no change in the score (χ2 with 1 degree of freedom = 1.158, P = 0.282) or for a decrease in the score (χ2 with 1 degree of freedom = 0.5, P = 0.478). In this pilot study, the expressed intent to use the SCI-PUMT in making clinical decisions was generally

  9. A pilot study to evaluate the role of the Spinal Cord Impairment Pressure Ulcer Monitoring Tool (SCI-PUMT) in clinical decisions for pressure ulcer treatment.

    PubMed

    Thomason, Susan S; Graves, Barbara Ann; Madaris, Linda

    2014-12-01

    The Spinal Cord Impairment Pressure Ulcer Monitoring Tool (SCI-PUMT) was designed to assess pressure ulcer (PrU) healing in the spinal cord impaired (SCI) population. The tool contains 7 variables: wound surface area, depth, edges, tunneling, undermining, exudate type, and necrotic tissue amount. A 2-phased, quantitative pilot study based on the Theory of Reasoned Action and Theory of Planned Behavior was conducted at a large SCI/Disorders Center in the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). In the first phase of the study, a convenience sample of 5 physicians, 3 advanced practice registered nurses, and 3 certified wound care nurses (CWCN) was surveyed using a 2-part questionnaire to assess use of the SCI-PUMT instrument, its anticipated improvement in PrU assessment, and intent to use the SCI-PUMT in clinical practice. Attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral controls, and barriers related to the intent to use the SCI-PUMT were evaluated using a 5-point Likert scale (range: 1= extremely likely, 5 = extremely unlikely). In the second phase of the study, the electronic health records (EHR) of 24 veterans (with 30 PrUs) who had at least 2 completed SCI-PUMT scores during a 4-week period were used to evaluate whether an association existed between magnitudes of change of total SCI-PUMT scores and ordered changes in PrU treatment. The overall mean score for intent to use SCI-PUMT was 1.80 (SD 0.75). The least favorable scores were for convenience and motivation to use the SCI-PUMT. Analysis of EHR data showed no significant difference in magnitudes of change in the SCI-PUMT score and changes in PrU treatment recommendations made by the CWCNs. The significance was not affected regardless of an increase or no change in the score (χ2 with 1 degree of freedom = 1.158, P = 0.282) or for a decrease in the score (χ2 with 1 degree of freedom = 0.5, P = 0.478). In this pilot study, the expressed intent to use the SCI-PUMT in making clinical decisions was generally

  10. The Small Carry-on Impactor (SCI) and the Hayabusa2 Impact Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiki, T.; Imamura, H.; Arakawa, M.; Wada, K.; Takagi, Y.; Hayakawa, M.; Shirai, K.; Yano, H.; Okamoto, C.

    2016-10-01

    Hayabusa2 is a sample return mission of JAXA launched on 3 December 2014. Hayabusa2 is the successor of Hayabusa, which returned samples from the asteroid Itokawa to the Earth. Although the design of Hayabusa2 follows that of Hayabusa, the former is equipped with some new components. The small carry-on impactor (SCI) is one of those components. The SCI is a compact kinetic impactor designed to remove the asteroid surface regolith locally and create an artificial crater. One of the most important scientific objectives of Hayabusa2 is to investigate the chemical and physical properties of the internal materials and structures of the target body, asteroid Ryugu. Hayabusa2 will attempt to observe the resultant crater with some scientific instruments and to get samples from around the crater. High kinetic energy is required to create a meaningful crater, however, the impact system design needs to fit within strict constraints. Complicated functions, such as a guidance and control system, are not permitted. A special type of shaped charge is used for the acceleration of the impactor of the SCI in order to make system simpler. Using this explosion technique makes it possible to accelerate the impactor very quickly and to hit the asteroid without a guidance system. However, the impact operation will be complicated because the explosive is very powerful and it scatters high-speed debris at the detonation. This paper describes an overview of the SCI system, the results of the development testing and an outline of the impact experiment of the Hayabusa2 mission.

  11. SciDAC advances in beam dynamics simulation: from light sources to colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Qiang, Ji; Qiang, J.; Borland, M.; Kabel, A.; Li, R.; Ryne, R.; Stern, E.; Wang, Y.; Wasserman, H.; Zhang, Y.

    2008-06-16

    In this paper, we report on progress that has been made in beam dynamics simulation, from light sources to colliders, during the first year of SciDAC-II accelerator project,"Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation (ComPASS)." Several parallel computational tools for beam dynamics simulation will be described. A number of applications in current and future accelerator facilities, e.g., LCLS, RHIC, Tevatron, LHC, ELIC, are presented.

  12. Improvement in student science proficiency through InSciEd out.

    PubMed

    Pierret, Chris; Sonju, James D; Leicester, Jean E; Hoody, Maggie; LaBounty, Thomas J; Frimannsdottir, Katrin R; Ekker, Stephen C

    2012-12-01

    Integrated Science Education Outreach (InSciEd Out) is a collaboration formed between Mayo Clinic, Winona State University, and Rochester Public Schools (MN) with the shared vision of achieving excellence in science education. InSciEd Out employs an equitable partnership model between scientists, teachers, education researchers, and the community. Teams of teachers from all disciplines within a single school experience cutting-edge science using the zebrafish model system, as well as current pedagogical methods, during a summer internship at the Mayo Clinic. Within the internship, the teachers produce new curriculum that directly addresses opportunities for science education improvement at their own school. Zebrafish are introduced within the new curriculum to support a living model of the practice of science. Following partnership with the InSciEd Out program and 2 years of implementation in the classroom, teacher-interns from a K-8 public school reported access to local scientific technology and expertise they had not previously recognized. Teachers also reported improved integration of other disciplines into the scientific curriculum and a flow of concepts vertically from K through 8. Students more than doubled selection of an Honors science track in high school to nearly 90%. 98% of students who took the Minnesota Comprehensive Assessments in their 5(th) and 8(th) grade year (a span that includes 2 years of InSciEd Out) showed medium or high growth in science proficiency. These metrics indicate that cooperation between educators and scientists can result in positive change in student science proficiency and demonstrate that a higher expectation in science education can be achieved in US public schools.

  13. T-1025 IU SciBath-768 detector tests in MI-12

    SciTech Connect

    Tayloe, Rex; Cooper, R.; Garrison, L.; Thornton, T.; Rebenitsch, L.; DeJongh, Fritz; Loer, Benjamin; Ramberg, Erik; Yoo, Jonghee; /Fermilab

    2012-02-11

    This is a memorandum of understanding between the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) and the experimenters of Department of Physics and Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter, Indiana University, who have committed to participate in detector tests to be carried out during the 2012 Fermilab Neutrino program. The memorandum is intended solely for the purpose of recording expectations for budget estimates and work allocations for Fermilab, the funding agencies and the participating institutions. it reflects an arrangement that currently is satisfactory to the parties; however, it is recognized and anticipated that changing circumstances of the evolving research program will necessitate revisions. The parties agree to modify this memorandum to reflect such required adjustments. Actual contractual obligations will be set forth in separate documents. The experimenters propsoe to test their prototype 'SciBat-768' detector in the MI-12 building for 3 months (February-April) in Spring 2012. The major goal of this effort is to measure or limit the flux of beam-induced neutrons in a far-off-axis (> 45{sup o}) location of the Booster Neutrino Beamline (BNB). This flux is of interest for a proposed coherent neutral-current neutrino-argon elastic scattering experiment. A second goal is to collect more test data for the SciBath-768 to enable better understanding and calibration of the device. The SciBath-768 detector successfully ran for 3 months in the MINOS Underground Area in Fall 2011 as testbeam experiment T-1014 and is currently running above ground in the MINOS service building. For the run proposed here, the experiments are requesting: space in MI-12 in which to run the SciBath detector during February-April 2012 while the BNB is operating; technical support to help with moving the equipment on site; access to power, internet, and accelerator signals; and a small office space from which to run and monitor the experiment.

  14. Medical informatics on the Internet: creating the sci.med. informatics newsgroup.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, A M; Sittig, D F

    1995-01-01

    A Usenet newsgroup, sci.med.informatics, has been created to serve as an international electronic forum for discussion of issues related to medical informatics. The creation process follows a set of administrative rules set out by the Usenet administration on the Internet and consists of five steps: 1) informal discussion, 2) request for formal discussion, 3) formal discussion, 4) voting, and 5) posting of results. The newsgroup can be accessed using any news reader via the Internet. PMID:7583645

  15. SciDB versus Spark: A Preliminary Comparison Based on an Earth Science Use Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clune, T.; Kuo, K. S.; Doan, K.; Oloso, A.

    2015-12-01

    We compare two Big Data technologies, SciDB and Spark, for performance, usability, and extensibility, when applied to a representative Earth science use case. SciDB is a new-generation parallel distributed database management system (DBMS) based on the array data model that is capable of handling multidimensional arrays efficiently but requires lengthy data ingest prior to analysis, whereas Spark is a fast and general engine for large scale data processing that can immediately process raw data files and thereby avoid the ingest process. Once data have been ingested, SciDB is very efficient in database operations such as subsetting. Spark, on the other hand, provides greater flexibility by supporting a wide variety of high-level tools including DBMS's. For the performance aspect of this preliminary comparison, we configure Spark to operate directly on text or binary data files and thereby limit the need for additional tools. Arguably, a more appropriate comparison would involve exploring other configurations of Spark which exploit supported high-level tools, but that is beyond our current resources. To make the comparison as "fair" as possible, we export the arrays produced by SciDB into text files (or converting them to binary files) for the intake by Spark and thereby avoid any additional file processing penalties. The Earth science use case selected for this comparison is the identification and tracking of snowstorms in the NASA Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) reanalysis data. The identification portion of the use case is to flag all grid cells of the MERRA high-resolution hourly data that satisfies our criteria for snowstorm, whereas the tracking portion connects flagged cells adjacent in time and space to form a snowstorm episode. We will report the results of our comparisons at this presentation.

  16. A Measurement of Underground Cosmic Neutron Fluxes with SciBath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornton, Remington; SciBath Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    Designed as a neutrino prototype detector, SciBath is an 80 liter liquid scintillator detector with a three dimensional grid of 768 wavelength-shifting fibers and is sensitive to neutrons above 10 MeV. A data run at Fermilab near the MINOS detector (100 m underground) in fall of 2011 was taken to demonstrate neutral particle detection. An overview of the detector performance during this run, the measured cosmic neutron flux, and comparisons to predictions will be presented.

  17. SciDAC advances in beam dynamics simulation: from light sources to colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Qiang, J.; Borland, M.; Kabel, A.; Li, Rui; Ryne, Robert; Stern, E.; Wang, Y.; Wasserman, H.; Zhang, Y.

    2008-08-01

    In this paper, we report on progress that has been made in beam dynamics simulation, from light sources to colliders, during the first year of the SciDAC-2 accelerator project 'Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation (ComPASS).' Several parallel computational tools for beam dynamics simulation are described. Also presented are number of applications in current and future accelerator facilities (e.g., LCLS, RHIC, Tevatron, LHC, and ELIC).

  18. SciDAC Center for Gyrokinetic Particle Simulation of Turbulent Transport in Burning Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Zhihong

    2013-12-18

    During the first year of the SciDAC gyrokinetic particle simulation (GPS) project, the GPS team (Zhihong Lin, Liu Chen, Yasutaro Nishimura, and Igor Holod) at the University of California, Irvine (UCI) studied the tokamak electron transport driven by electron temperature gradient (ETG) turbulence, and by trapped electron mode (TEM) turbulence and ion temperature gradient (ITG) turbulence with kinetic electron effects, extended our studies of ITG turbulence spreading to core-edge coupling. We have developed and optimized an elliptic solver using finite element method (FEM), which enables the implementation of advanced kinetic electron models (split-weight scheme and hybrid model) in the SciDAC GPS production code GTC. The GTC code has been ported and optimized on both scalar and vector parallel computer architectures, and is being transformed into objected-oriented style to facilitate collaborative code development. During this period, the UCI team members presented 11 invited talks at major national and international conferences, published 22 papers in peer-reviewed journals and 10 papers in conference proceedings. The UCI hosted the annual SciDAC Workshop on Plasma Turbulence sponsored by the GPS Center, 2005-2007. The workshop was attended by about fifties US and foreign researchers and financially sponsored several gradual students from MIT, Princeton University, Germany, Switzerland, and Finland. A new SciDAC postdoc, Igor Holod, has arrived at UCI to initiate global particle simulation of magnetohydrodynamics turbulence driven by energetic particle modes. The PI, Z. Lin, has been promoted to the Associate Professor with tenure at UCI.

  19. Improvement in Student Science Proficiency Through InSciEd Out

    PubMed Central

    Sonju, James D.; Leicester, Jean E.; Hoody, Maggie; LaBounty, Thomas J.; Frimannsdottir, Katrin R.; Ekker, Stephen C.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Integrated Science Education Outreach (InSciEd Out) is a collaboration formed between Mayo Clinic, Winona State University, and Rochester Public Schools (MN) with the shared vision of achieving excellence in science education. InSciEd Out employs an equitable partnership model between scientists, teachers, education researchers, and the community. Teams of teachers from all disciplines within a single school experience cutting-edge science using the zebrafish model system, as well as current pedagogical methods, during a summer internship at the Mayo Clinic. Within the internship, the teachers produce new curriculum that directly addresses opportunities for science education improvement at their own school. Zebrafish are introduced within the new curriculum to support a living model of the practice of science. Following partnership with the InSciEd Out program and 2 years of implementation in the classroom, teacher-interns from a K–8 public school reported access to local scientific technology and expertise they had not previously recognized. Teachers also reported improved integration of other disciplines into the scientific curriculum and a flow of concepts vertically from K through 8. Students more than doubled selection of an Honors science track in high school to nearly 90%. 98% of students who took the Minnesota Comprehensive Assessments in their 5th and 8th grade year (a span that includes 2 years of InSciEd Out) showed medium or high growth in science proficiency. These metrics indicate that cooperation between educators and scientists can result in positive change in student science proficiency and demonstrate that a higher expectation in science education can be achieved in US public schools. PMID:23244687

  20. SciDAC Visualization and Analytics Center for EnablingTechnology

    SciTech Connect

    Bethel, E. Wes; Johnson, Chris; Joy, Ken; Ahern, Sean; Pascucci,Valerio; Childs, Hank; Cohen, Jonathan; Duchaineau, Mark; Hamann, Bernd; Hansen, Charles; Laney, Dan; Lindstrom, Peter; Meredith, Jeremy; Ostrouchov, George; Parker, Steven; Silva, Claudio; Sanderson, Allen; Tricoche, Xavier

    2006-11-28

    The SciDAC2 Visualization and Analytics Center for EnablingTechnologies (VACET) began operation on 10/1/2006. This document, dated11/27/2006, is the first version of the VACET project management plan. Itwas requested by and delivered to ASCR/DOE. It outlines the Center'saccomplishments in the first six weeks of operation along with broadobjectives for the upcoming future (12-24 months).

  1. [Analysis on acupuncture literature in Science Citation Index (SCI) periodicals in 2007].

    PubMed

    Gao, Liang; Tian, Li-xin; Guo, Yi

    2009-06-01

    To grasp the international developing tendency of acupuncture research and provide some references for promoting acupuncture and moxibustion internationalization process, the articles about acupuncture in Science Citation Index (SCI) periodicals in 2007 were retrieved by adopting the retrieval tactics on line in combination with database searching. Results indicate that 257 articles about acupuncture had been retrived from the SCI Web databases. These articles were published in 125 journals respectively, most of which were Euramerican journals. Among these journals, the impact factor of the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), 25. 547, is the highest one. It is shown that the impact factors of the SCI periodicals, in which acupuncture articles embodied are increased, the quality of these articles are improved obviously and the types of the articles are various in 2007, but there is obvious difference in the results of these studies due to the difference of experimental methods, the subjects of these experiments and acupuncture manipulations. Therefore, standardization of many problems arising from the researches on acupuncture is extremely imminent.

  2. SciBox, an end-to-end automated science planning and commanding system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choo, Teck H.; Murchie, Scott L.; Bedini, Peter D.; Steele, R. Josh; Skura, Joseph P.; Nguyen, Lillian; Nair, Hari; Lucks, Michael; Berman, Alice F.; McGovern, James A.; Turner, F. Scott

    2014-01-01

    SciBox is a new technology for planning and commanding science operations for Earth-orbital and planetary space missions. It has been incrementally developed since 2001 and demonstrated on several spaceflight projects. The technology has matured to the point that it is now being used to plan and command all orbital science operations for the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission to Mercury. SciBox encompasses the derivation of observing sequences from science objectives, the scheduling of those sequences, the generation of spacecraft and instrument commands, and the validation of those commands prior to uploading to the spacecraft. Although the process is automated, science and observing requirements are incorporated at each step by a series of rules and parameters to optimize observing opportunities, which are tested and validated through simulation and review. Except for limited special operations and tests, there is no manual scheduling of observations or construction of command sequences. SciBox reduces the lead time for operations planning by shortening the time-consuming coordination process, reduces cost by automating the labor-intensive processes of human-in-the-loop adjudication of observing priorities, reduces operations risk by systematically checking constraints, and maximizes science return by fully evaluating the trade space of observing opportunities to meet MESSENGER science priorities within spacecraft recorder, downlink, scheduling, and orbital-geometry constraints.

  3. [SciELO: A cooperative project for the dissemination of science].

    PubMed

    Bojo Canales, C; Fraga Medín, C; Hernández Villegas, S; Primo Peña, E

    2009-10-01

    The article describes the SciELO (Scientific Electronic Library Online) model for the electronic publication and dissemination of scientific journals, its origin and evolution, methodology, components, services and potential, and its implantation in Spain. It consists of thirteen participant countries with eight certified web portals, with another 5 under development and another two thematic ones. In February 2009 Scielo.org had 611 magazines and 195,789 articles of which 46% were about health sciences. Spain became a project member in 1999 and launched the SciELO web portal in 2001, as well as 4 magazines. It currently has 39 titles in the field of Health Sciences; one of which is the Revista Española de Sanidad Penitenciaria, which joined the project in 2007 and which currently has 6 issues from 2007 and 2008 available. This makes it one of the most important open access initiatives existing. The report concludes by stating that the SciELO model contributes to the development of research and science by offering an effective and efficient method of promoting and increasing the dissemination of scientific publications in Latin America.

  4. Supporting Research using Satellite Data: A Framework for Spatiotemporal Queries in SciDB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, S. S.; Krcal, L.

    2015-12-01

    Natural phenomena such as haze, hurricane, and blizzard that evolve over time usually do not have well-defined boundaries. Their features may be captured by multiple satellites. To process and extract information from the large-scale satellite data, one needs a data-intensive architecture for distributed storage and computation resources. Such architecture allows end users such as scientists to effectively run their computation tasks with sharing computational resources and intermediate results, but without data replication. The satellite data is most conveniently represented using arrays, exploiting its multidimensional nature. For our investigation, we use the open-source distributed, array-based SciDB as a platform for our spatiotemporal framework. SciDB conforms with the data-intensive architecture, providing a highly effectively computational and data storage platform. Moreover, it provides standard extension points, i.e., user defined data types, operators and functions. Our current work focuses on more sophisticated indices including cartesian-coordinate indices, hierarchical triangular mesh and hybrid indices with data statistics and indexing. Furthermore, we introduce a spatiotemporal framework that allows us to generate and maintain indices according to given criteria and perform spatial and temporal operators and predicates. This framework overcomes weaknesses in SciDB where standard underlying array operations are less effective. We will demonstrate some examples (e.g., hurricane research using satellite data) of the functionalities in the proposed spatiotemporal framework.

  5. Public Data Set: Erratum: "Multi-point, high-speed passive ion velocity distribution diagnostic on the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment" [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 10D516 (2012)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Burke, Marcus G. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:0000000176193724); Fonck, Raymond J. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:0000000294386762); Bongard, Michael W. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:0000000231609746); Schlossberg, David J. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:0000000287139448); Winz, Gregory R. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:0000000177627184)

    2016-07-18

    This data set contains openly-documented, machine readable digital research data corresponding to figures published in M.G. Burke et al., 'Erratum: "Multi-point, high-speed passive ion velocity distribution diagnostic on the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment" [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 10D516 (2012)],' Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87, 079902 (2016).

  6. SciNews: Incorporating Science Current Events in 21st Century Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiMaggio, E.

    2011-12-01

    Middle school students are instructed with the aid of textbooks, lectures, and activities to teach topics that satisfy state standards. However, teaching materials created to convey standard-aligned science concepts often leave students asking how the content relates to their lives and why they should be learning it. Conveying relevance is important for student learning and retention, especially in science where abstract concepts can often be incorrectly perceived as irrelevant. One way to create an educational link between classroom content and everyday life is through the use of scientific current events. Students read, hear, and watch media coverage of natural events (such as the 2011 earthquake and tsunami in Japan), but do not necessarily relate the scientific information from media sources to classroom studies. Taking advantage of these brief 'teachable moments'--when student interest is high--provides a valuable opportunity to make classroom-to-everyday life associations and to incorporate inquiry based learning. To address this need, I create pre-packaged current event materials for middle to high school teachers that align to state standards, and which are short, effective, and easy to implement in the classroom. Each lesson takes approximately 15-30 minutes to implement, allowing teachers time to facilitate brief but meaningful discussions. I assemble materials within approximately one week of the regional or global science event, consisting of short slide shows, maps, videos, pictures, and real-time data. I use a listserv to send biweekly emails to subscribed instructors containing the current event topic and a link to download the materials. All materials are hosted on the Arizona State University Education Outreach SciNews website (http://sese.asu.edu/teacher-resources) and are archived. Currently, 285 educators subscribe to the SciNews listserv, representing 36 states and 19 countries. In order to assess the effectiveness and usefulness of Sci

  7. All the World's Our Stage: MarSci, a Web-Journal to Showcase Undergraduate Marine Science Research Online

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickard, S. R.; Williams, D. F.; Morris, W.; Eddins, S. N.

    2001-05-01

    Publishing is an essential component of scientific research. MarSci is the first totally online journal, from submission to peer review to publication, for showcasing undergraduate research in the Marine Sciences. MarSci recognizes that undergraduate research transforms students into scientists, and that the opportunity to publish helps undergraduates to become better scientists. The ultimate mission in the development of this journal is to engage students in the process of publishing. Utilizing the power of the Internet, MarSci can be read by anyone, anywhere, at anytime. The sophisticated web-journal design allows the submission of manuscripts and review by a student peer-editorial board to operate completely online, in addition to making the published articles available to the world at no cost. The web-journal also contains many other features such as news, a discussion forum, events calendar, student resumé post, and information on research and graduate opportunities in the Marine Sciences. Because MarSci was created and is managed by undergraduates, the web-journal provides unique opportunities for students to become involved in the editing, reporting, and publishing aspect of the scientific process. MarSci encourages undergraduates to shine as scientists and leaders.

  8. Regulation of nitrite resistance of the cytochrome cbb3 oxidase by cytochrome c ScyA in Shewanella oneidensis.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jianhua; Jin, Miao; Zhang, Haiyan; Ju, Lili; Zhang, Lili; Gao, Haichun

    2015-02-01

    Cytochrome c proteins, as enzymes to exchange electrons with substrates or as pure electron carriers to shuttle electrons, play vital roles in bacterial respiration and photosynthesis. In Shewanella oneidensis, a research model for the respiratory diversity, at least 42 c-type cytochromes are predicted to be encoded in the genome and are regarded to be the foundation of its highly branched electron transport pathways. However, only a small number of c-type cytochromes have been extensively studied. In this study, we identify soluble cytochrome c ScyA as an important factor influencing the nitrite resistance of a strain devoid of the bd oxidase by utilizing a newly developed transposon mutagenesis vector, which enables overexpression of the gene(s) downstream of the insertion site. We show that when in overabundance ScyA facilitates growth against nitrite inhibition by enhancing nitrite resistance of the cbb3 oxidase. Based on the data presented in this study, we suggest two possible mechanisms underlying the observed effect of ScyA: (1) ScyA increases electron flow to the cbb3 oxidase; (2) ScyA promotes nitrite resistance of the cbb3 oxidase, possibly by direct interaction.

  9. Transporter Protein-Coupled DPCPX Nanoconjugates Induce Diaphragmatic Recovery after SCI by Blocking Adenosine A1 Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Minic, Zeljka; Zhang, Yanhua; Mao, Guangzhao

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory complications in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) are common and have a negative impact on the quality of patients' lives. Systemic administration of drugs that improve respiratory function often cause deleterious side effects. The present study examines the applicability of a novel nanotechnology-based drug delivery system, which induces recovery of diaphragm function after SCI in the adult rat model. We developed a protein-coupled nanoconjugate to selectively deliver by transsynaptic transport small therapeutic amounts of an A1 adenosine receptor antagonist to the respiratory centers. A single administration of the nanoconjugate restored 75% of the respiratory drive at 0.1% of the systemic therapeutic drug dose. The reduction of the systemic dose may obviate the side effects. The recovery lasted for 4 weeks (the longest period studied). These findings have translational implications for patients with respiratory dysfunction after SCI. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The leading causes of death in humans following SCI are respiratory complications secondary to paralysis of respiratory muscles. Systemic administration of methylxantines improves respiratory function but also leads to the development of deleterious side effects due to actions of the drug on nonrespiratory sites. The importance of the present study lies in the novel drug delivery approach that uses nanotechnology to selectively deliver recovery-inducing drugs to the respiratory centers exclusively. This strategy allows for a reduction in the therapeutic drug dose, which may reduce harmful side effects and markedly improve the quality of life for SCI patients. PMID:27013674

  10. Publishing datasets with eSciDoc and panMetaDocs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulbricht, D.; Klump, J.; Bertelmann, R.

    2012-04-01

    Currently serveral research institutions worldwide undertake considerable efforts to have their scientific datasets published and to syndicate them to data portals as extensively described objects identified by a persistent identifier. This is done to foster the reuse of data, to make scientific work more transparent, and to create a citable entity that can be referenced unambigously in written publications. GFZ Potsdam established a publishing workflow for file based research datasets. Key software components are an eSciDoc infrastructure [1] and multiple instances of the data curation tool panMetaDocs [2]. The eSciDoc repository holds data objects and their associated metadata in container objects, called eSciDoc items. A key metadata element in this context is the publication status of the referenced data set. PanMetaDocs, which is based on PanMetaWorks [3], is a PHP based web application that allows to describe data with any XML-based metadata schema. The metadata fields can be filled with static or dynamic content to reduce the number of fields that require manual entries to a minimum and make use of contextual information in a project setting. Access rights can be applied to set visibility of datasets to other project members and allow collaboration on and notifying about datasets (RSS) and interaction with the internal messaging system, that was inherited from panMetaWorks. When a dataset is to be published, panMetaDocs allows to change the publication status of the eSciDoc item from status "private" to "submitted" and prepare the dataset for verification by an external reviewer. After quality checks, the item publication status can be changed to "published". This makes the data and metadata available through the internet worldwide. PanMetaDocs is developed as an eSciDoc application. It is an easy to use graphical user interface to eSciDoc items, their data and metadata. It is also an application supporting a DOI publication agent during the process of

  11. Development and psychometric characteristics of the SCI-QOL Bladder Management Difficulties and Bowel Management Difficulties item banks and short forms and the SCI-QOL Bladder Complications scale

    PubMed Central

    Tulsky, David S.; Kisala, Pamela A.; Tate, Denise G.; Spungen, Ann M.; Kirshblum, Steven C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the development and psychometric properties of the Spinal Cord Injury – Quality of Life (SCI-QOL) Bladder Management Difficulties and Bowel Management Difficulties item banks and Bladder Complications scale. Design Using a mixed-methods design, a pool of items assessing bladder and bowel-related concerns were developed using focus groups with individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) and SCI clinicians, cognitive interviews, and item response theory (IRT) analytic approaches, including tests of model fit and differential item functioning. Setting Thirty-eight bladder items and 52 bowel items were tested at the University of Michigan, Kessler Foundation Research Center, the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, the University of Washington, Craig Hospital, and the James J. Peters VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY. Participants Seven hundred fifty-seven adults with traumatic SCI. Results The final item banks demonstrated unidimensionality (Bladder Management Difficulties CFI = 0.965; RMSEA = 0.093; Bowel Management Difficulties CFI = 0.955; RMSEA = 0.078) and acceptable fit to a graded response IRT model. The final calibrated Bladder Management Difficulties bank includes 15 items, and the final Bowel Management Difficulties item bank consists of 26 items. Additionally, 5 items related to urinary tract infections (UTI) did not fit with the larger Bladder Management Difficulties item bank but performed relatively well independently (CFI = 0.992, RMSEA = 0.050) and were thus retained as a separate scale. Conclusion The SCI-QOL Bladder Management Difficulties and Bowel Management Difficulties item banks are psychometrically robust and are available as computer adaptive tests or short forms. The SCI-QOL Bladder Complications scale is a brief, fixed-length outcomes instrument for individuals with a UTI. PMID:26010964

  12. SciNOvA: A Measurement of Neutrino-Nucleus Scattering in a Narrow-Band Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Paley, J.; Djurcic, Z.; Harris, D.; Tesarek, R.; Feldman, G.; Corwin, L.; Messier, M.D.; Mayer, N.; Musser, J.; Paley, J.; Tayloe, R.; /Indiana U. /Iowa State U. /Minnesota U. /South Carolina U. /Wichita State U. /William-Mary Coll.

    2010-10-15

    We propose to construct and deploy a fine-grained detector in the Fermilab NOvA 2 GeV narrow-band neutrino beam. In this beam, the detector can make unique contributions to the measurement of quasi-elastic scattering, neutral-current elastic scattering, neutral-current {pi}{sup 0} production, and enhance the NOvA measurements of electron neutrino appearance. To minimize cost and risks, the proposed detector is a copy of the SciBar detector originally built for the K2K long baseline experiment and used recently in the SciBooNE experiment.

  13. Collaborative Science Using Web Services and the SciFlo Grid Dataflow Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, B. D.; Manipon, G.; Xing, Z.; Yunck, T.

    2006-12-01

    The General Earth Science Investigation Suite (GENESIS) project is a NASA-sponsored partnership between the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, academia, and NASA data centers to develop a new suite of Web Services tools to facilitate multi-sensor investigations in Earth System Science. The goal of GENESIS is to enable large-scale, multi-instrument atmospheric science using combined datasets from the AIRS, MODIS, MISR, and GPS sensors. Investigations include cross-comparison of spaceborne climate sensors, cloud spectral analysis, study of upper troposphere-stratosphere water transport, study of the aerosol indirect cloud effect, and global climate model validation. The challenges are to bring together very large datasets, reformat and understand the individual instrument retrievals, co-register or re-grid the retrieved physical parameters, perform computationally-intensive data fusion and data mining operations, and accumulate complex statistics over months to years of data. To meet these challenges, we have developed a Grid computing and dataflow framework, named SciFlo, in which we are deploying a set of versatile and reusable operators for data access, subsetting, registration, mining, fusion, compression, and advanced statistical analysis. SciFlo leverages remote Web Services, called via Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) or REST (one-line) URLs, and the Grid Computing standards (WS-* &Globus Alliance toolkits), and enables scientists to do multi-instrument Earth Science by assembling reusable Web Services and native executables into a distributed computing flow (tree of operators). The SciFlo client &server engines optimize the execution of such distributed data flows and allow the user to transparently find and use datasets and operators without worrying about the actual location of the Grid resources. In particular, SciFlo exploits the wealth of datasets accessible by OpenGIS Consortium (OGC) Web Mapping Servers & Web Coverage Servers (WMS/WCS), and by Open Data

  14. Studying the History of the Intergalactic Medium with the SCI-HI Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voytek, Tabitha Christine

    The Cosmic Dawn (z ˜ 15 -- 35) is the period in the history of our universe when stars first began to form in small Dark Matter minihalos. Light from these first stars is too dim for telescopes to see, which means that the Cosmic Dawn has never been directly measured. However, the first stars impacted the gas, or intergalactic medium (IGM), around them. The impact of the first stars was heating and eventual ionization of the IGM. The process of heating and ionization creates a spectrum that varies over redshift, namely the spatially averaged brightness temperature spectrum of 21-cm light from the IGM. Measurement of this spectrum will give us a first glimpse of the Cosmic Dawn. The "Sonda Cosmologica de las Islas para la Deteccion de Hidrogeno Neutro" (SCIHI) experiment is a collaboration between Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) and Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE) in Mexico and was designed to make this measurement. The SCI-HI experiment is a small-scale system which travels with the team to remote locations for deployments. These remote locations are necessary to avoid radio frequency interference and other environmental impacts on the system. This thesis describes the development and deployment of the SCI-HI experiment. It starts with the original design and covers development of the system over time. Deployment location selection is then discussed, including the results of site evaluations. In addition, the thesis outlines the data analysis process used for the system and shows results from data collected during the June 2013 deployment of the experiment. Finally, the thesis describes plans for the future of the SCI-HI experiment, including deployment to South Africa in 2015.

  15. The Fulldome Curriculum for the Spitz SciDome Digital Planetarium: Volume 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradstreet, David H.; Sanders, S. J.; Huggins, S.

    2014-01-01

    The Spitz Fulldome Curriculum (FDC) for the SciDome digital planetarium ushered in a new and innovative way to present astronomical pedagogy via its use of the unique teaching attributes of the digital planetarium. In the case of the FDC, which uses the ubiquitous Starry Night planetarium software as its driving engine, these engaging and novel teaching techniques have also been made usable to desktop computers and flat-screen video projectors for classroom use. Volume 2 of the FDC introduces exciting new classes and mini-lessons to further enlighten and invigorate students as they struggle with often difficult three dimensional astronomical concepts. Additionally, other topics with related astronomical ties have been created to integrate history into planetarium presentations. One of the strongest advantages of the SciDome is its use of Starry Night as its astronomical engine. With it students can create their own astronomical configurations in the computer lab or at home, using the PC or Mac version. They can then simply load their creations onto the SciDome planetarium system and display them for their classmates on the dome. This poster will discuss and illustrate some of the new content that has been developed for Volume 2. Topics covered in Volume 2 include eclipses, plotting planet locations on a curtate orbit chart by observing their positions in the sky, time and timekeeping (including sidereal day, hour angles, sidereal time, LAST, LMST, time zones and the International Date Line), teaching to the Boy Scout Merit Badge requirements, plotting scale analemmas on the surface of planets and interpreting them, precession, astronomical events in revolutionary Boston, the Lincoln Almanac Trial, eclipsing binaries, lunar librations, a trip through the universe, watching the speed of light move in real time, stellar sizes and the Milky Way.

  16. Effects of Functional Electric Stimulation Cycle Ergometry Training on Lower Limb Musculature in Acute Sci Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Demchak, Timothy J.; Linderman, Jon K.; Mysiw, W. Jerry; Jackson, Rebecca; Suun, Jihong; Devor, Steven T.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare three different intervals for a between sets rest period during a common isokinetic knee extension strength-testing protocol of twenty older Brazilian men (66.30 ± 3.92 yrs). The volunteers underwent unilateral knee extension (Biodex System 3) testing to determine their individual isokinetic peak torque at 60, 90, and 120° ·s-1. The contraction speeds and the rest periods between sets (30, 60 and 90 s) were randomly performed in three different days with a minimum rest period of 48 hours. Significant differences between and within sets were analyzed using a One Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures. Although, at angular velocity of 60°·s-1 produced a higher peak torque, there were no significant differences in peak torque among any of the rest periods. Likewise, there were no significant differences between mean peak torque among all resting periods (30, 60 and 90s) at angular velocities of 90 and 120°·s-1. The results showed that during a common isokinetic strength testing protocol a between set rest period of at least 30 s is sufficient for recovery before the next test set in older men. Key Points Muscle fiber cross sectional area (CSAf ) decreased 38% following spinal cord injury (SCI). Early intervention with functional electric stimulation cycle ergometry (FES-CE) prevented further loss of CSAf in SCI patients and increased power output. Muscle myosin heavy chain (MHC) and myonuclear density were unaffected by SCI or FES-CE PMID:24453530

  17. Effects of functional electric stimulation cycle ergometry training on lower limb musculature in acute sci individuals.

    PubMed

    Demchak, Timothy J; Linderman, Jon K; Mysiw, W Jerry; Jackson, Rebecca; Suun, Jihong; Devor, Steven T

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare three different intervals for a between sets rest period during a common isokinetic knee extension strength-testing protocol of twenty older Brazilian men (66.30 ± 3.92 yrs). The volunteers underwent unilateral knee extension (Biodex System 3) testing to determine their individual isokinetic peak torque at 60, 90, and 120° ·s-1. The contraction speeds and the rest periods between sets (30, 60 and 90 s) were randomly performed in three different days with a minimum rest period of 48 hours. Significant differences between and within sets were analyzed using a One Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures. Although, at angular velocity of 60°·s-1 produced a higher peak torque, there were no significant differences in peak torque among any of the rest periods. Likewise, there were no significant differences between mean peak torque among all resting periods (30, 60 and 90s) at angular velocities of 90 and 120°·s-1. The results showed that during a common isokinetic strength testing protocol a between set rest period of at least 30 s is sufficient for recovery before the next test set in older men. Key PointsMuscle fiber cross sectional area (CSAf ) decreased 38% following spinal cord injury (SCI).Early intervention with functional electric stimulation cycle ergometry (FES-CE) prevented further loss of CSAf in SCI patients and increased power output.Muscle myosin heavy chain (MHC) and myonuclear density were unaffected by SCI or FES-CE. PMID:24453530

  18. Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation–Induced Resistance Training After SCI: A Review of the Dudley Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Yarar-Fisher, Ceren; Mahoney, Edward T.; McCully, Kevin K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES), often referred to as functional electrical stimulation (FES), has been used to activate paralyzed skeletal muscle in people with spinal cord injury (SCI). The goal of NMES has been to reverse some of the dramatic losses in skeletal muscle mass, to stimulate functional improvements in people with incomplete paralysis, and to produce some of the health benefits associated with exercise. Objective: The purpose of this brief review is to describe a quantifiable resistance training form of NMES developed by Gary A. Dudley. Methods: People with motor complete SCI were first tested to confirm that an NMES-induced muscle contraction of the quadriceps muscle could be achieved. The contraction stimulus consisted of biphasic pulses at 35 Hz performed with increasing current up to what was needed to produce full knee extension. Four sets of 10 knee extensions were elicited, if possible. Training occurred biweekly for 3 to 6 months, with ankle weights being increased up to an added weight of 9.1 kg if the 40 repetitions could be performed successfully for 2 sessions. Results: Many participants have performed this protocol without adverse events, and all participants showed progression in the number of repetitions and/or the amount of weight lifted. Large increases in muscle mass occur, averaging 30% to 40%. Additional physiological adaptations to stimulated muscle have also been reported. Conclusions: These results demonstrate that the affected skeletal muscle after SCI responds robustly to progressive resistance training many years after injury. Future work with NMES should determine whether gains in lean mass translate to improved health, function, and quality of life. PMID:26689694

  19. A Characterization Of The GNAT SciTech STAR Class 0.5m Prototype Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barentine, J. C.; Culver, R. B.

    2002-05-01

    In 1995 the Global Network of Automated Telescopes (GNAT) acquired an option to purchase a 0.5m "STAR" class telescope, manufactured by SciTech Corporation of Forresthill, CA, contingent upon its attainment of performance specifications published by SciTech. In spite of a concerted, and protracted effort, the telescope has not yet approached the manufacturer's specifications, and has proven largely unusable for its intended purpose. In light of the difficult history of commercial development of true automated telescopes (see Sinnott 1996 and Henry 1994) it is important to understand the current state of such commercial systems. We present results of a characterization of this telescope and recommendations for how to proceed in light of its failure to attain specifications. Principle failings of the telescope can be summarized as follows: 1) the mechanical structure was inadequately designed and built, yielding large and unacceptable pointing and tracking errors, 2) the autoguider system was never successfully implemented, limiting the system to very short integrations, 3) the autofocus mechanism was never successfully implemented, resulting in periodic, unacceptable focus drifts during automatic operation, 4) the telescope control system as provided with the telescope did not work and ultimately had to be developed by an independent contractor recommended by GNAT and contracted through SciTech, and 5) the telescope optical system design did not adequately accommodate scattered light issues, yielding significant scattered light contributions to the images under certain conditions. Based on analyses of these issues, we present recommendations for improvements in this system. Support of this work has been provided by Colorado State University and GNAT. REFERENCES Sinnott, R.W. Sky And Telescope vol.91, no.6, p.38 (1996) Henry, G.W. IAPPP Communication No.57, Autumn 1994, p.57

  20. [Analysis on acupuncture related articles published in periodicals in science citation index (SCI) in 2008].

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; He, Wen-Ju; Guo, Yi

    2010-09-01

    Acupuncture related articles published in periodicals in Science Citation Index (SCI) in 2008 were summarized and analyzed. About 583 articles were collected using "acupuncture" and "in 2008" as keywords in the Web of Science data base by information retrieval. These papers were summarized and analyzed from various aspects of country, language, subject category, literature type, publication sources, impact factor, research method, acupoints, disease category and needling methods by using Excel software combined with manual sorting of the literature, the aim is to provide a reference for domestic acupuncture research.

  1. SciSpark: Highly Interactive and Scalable Model Evaluation and Climate Metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, B. D.; Palamuttam, R. S.; Mogrovejo, R. M.; Whitehall, K. D.; Mattmann, C. A.; Verma, R.; Waliser, D. E.; Lee, H.

    2015-12-01

    Remote sensing data and climate model output are multi-dimensional arrays of massive sizes locked away in heterogeneous file formats (HDF5/4, NetCDF 3/4) and metadata models (HDF-EOS, CF) making it difficult to perform multi-stage, iterative science processing since each stage requires writing and reading data to and from disk. We are developing a lightning fast Big Data technology called SciSpark based on ApacheTM Spark under a NASA AIST grant (PI Mattmann). Spark implements the map-reduce paradigm for parallel computing on a cluster, but emphasizes in-memory computation, "spilling" to disk only as needed, and so outperforms the disk-based ApacheTM Hadoop by 100x in memory and by 10x on disk. SciSpark will enable scalable model evaluation by executing large-scale comparisons of A-Train satellite observations to model grids on a cluster of 10 to 1000 compute nodes. This 2nd generation capability for NASA's Regional Climate Model Evaluation System (RCMES) will compute simple climate metrics at interactive speeds, and extend to quite sophisticated iterative algorithms such as machine-learning based clustering of temperature PDFs, and even graph-based algorithms for searching for Mesocale Convective Complexes. We have implemented a parallel data ingest capability in which the user specifies desired variables (arrays) as several time-sorted lists of URL's (i.e. using OPeNDAP model.nc?varname, or local files). The specified variables are partitioned by time/space and then each Spark node pulls its bundle of arrays into memory to begin a computation pipeline. We also investigated the performance of several N-dim. array libraries (scala breeze, java jblas & netlib-java, and ND4J). We are currently developing science codes using ND4J and studying memory behavior on the JVM. On the pyspark side, many of our science codes already use the numpy and SciPy ecosystems. The talk will cover: the architecture of SciSpark, the design of the scientific RDD (sRDD) data structure, our

  2. Measurement of Neutron and Muon Fluxes 100~m Underground with the SciBath Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Garrison, Lance

    2014-01-01

    The SciBath detector is an 80 liter liquid scintillator detector read out by a three dimensional grid of 768 wavelength-shifting fibers. Initially conceived as a fine-grained charged particle detector for neutrino studies that could image charged particle tracks in all directions, it is also sensitive to fast neutrons (15-200 MeV). In fall of 2011 the apparatus performed a three month run to measure cosmic-induced muons and neutrons 100~meters underground in the FNAL MINOS near-detector area. Data from this run has been analyzed and resulted in measurements of the cosmic muon flux as \

  3. SciSpark: Highly Interactive and Scalable Model Evaluation and Climate Metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, B. D.; Mattmann, C. A.; Waliser, D. E.; Kim, J.; Loikith, P.; Lee, H.; McGibbney, L. J.; Whitehall, K. D.

    2014-12-01

    Remote sensing data and climate model output are multi-dimensional arrays of massive sizes locked away in heterogeneous file formats (HDF5/4, NetCDF 3/4) and metadata models (HDF-EOS, CF) making it difficult to perform multi-stage, iterative science processing since each stage requires writing and reading data to and from disk. We are developing a lightning fast Big Data technology called SciSpark based on ApacheTM Spark. Spark implements the map-reduce paradigm for parallel computing on a cluster, but emphasizes in-memory computation, "spilling" to disk only as needed, and so outperforms the disk-based ApacheTM Hadoop by 100x in memory and by 10x on disk, and makes iterative algorithms feasible. SciSpark will enable scalable model evaluation by executing large-scale comparisons of A-Train satellite observations to model grids on a cluster of 100 to 1000 compute nodes. This 2nd generation capability for NASA's Regional Climate Model Evaluation System (RCMES) will compute simple climate metrics at interactive speeds, and extend to quite sophisticated iterative algorithms such as machine-learning (ML) based clustering of temperature PDFs, and even graph-based algorithms for searching for Mesocale Convective Complexes. The goals of SciSpark are to: (1) Decrease the time to compute comparison statistics and plots from minutes to seconds; (2) Allow for interactive exploration of time-series properties over seasons and years; (3) Decrease the time for satellite data ingestion into RCMES to hours; (4) Allow for Level-2 comparisons with higher-order statistics or PDF's in minutes to hours; and (5) Move RCMES into a near real time decision-making platform. We will report on: the architecture and design of SciSpark, our efforts to integrate climate science algorithms in Python and Scala, parallel ingest and partitioning (sharding) of A-Train satellite observations from HDF files and model grids from netCDF files, first parallel runs to compute comparison statistics and PDF

  4. Observing Some Life Cycles. Teacher's Guide. Unit E3. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitepo, Thoko; And Others

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide contains instructional…

  5. Using Electricity. Teacher's Guide. Unit I2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chidume, Kwashira

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be used in…

  6. Understanding Electricity. Teacher's Guide. Unit I1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chidume, Kwashira

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  7. Life, Beginning and Growing. Teacher's Guide. Unit E1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  8. Our Planet Earth. Study Guide. Unit F1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  9. Living Things and Their Food. Teacher's Guide. Unit G2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  10. Atoms and Molecules. 'O' Level. Teacher's Guide. Unit 2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandizha, George

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the third year of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be used in…

  11. The Chemicals of the Earth. Teacher's Guide. Unit F2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  12. Reactions of the rat musculoskeletal system to compressive spinal cord injury (SCI) and whole body vibration (WBV) therapy.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, A; Pick, C; Harrach, R; Stein, G; Bendella, H; Ozsoy, O; Ozsoy, U; Schoenau, E; Jaminet, P; Sarikcioglu, L; Dunlop, S; Angelov, D N

    2015-06-01

    Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) causes a loss of locomotor function with associated compromise of the musculo-skeletal system. Whole body vibration (WBV) is a potential therapy following SCI, but little is known about its effects on the musculo-skeletal system. Here, we examined locomotor recovery and the musculo-skeletal system after thoracic (T7-9) compression SCI in adult rats. Daily WBV was started at 1, 7, 14 and 28 days after injury (WBV1-WBV28 respectively) and continued over a 12-week post-injury period. Intact rats, rats with SCI but no WBV (sham-treated) and a group that received passive flexion and extension (PFE) of their hind limbs served as controls. Compared to sham-treated rats, neither WBV nor PFE improved motor function. Only WBV14 and PFE improved body support. In line with earlier studies we failed to detect signs of soleus muscle atrophy (weight, cross sectional diameter, total amount of fibers, mean fiber diameter) or bone loss in the femur (length, weight, bone mineral density). One possible explanation is that, despite of injury extent, the preservation of some axons in the white matter, in combination with quadripedal locomotion, may provide sufficient trophic and neuronal support for the musculoskeletal system. PMID:26032204

  13. "Publish SCI Papers or No Degree": Practices of Chinese Doctoral Supervisors in Response to the Publication Pressure on Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yongyan

    2016-01-01

    Publishing English papers in journals listed in Science Citation Index (SCI) has become a requirement for degree conferment for doctoral science students at many universities in China. The publication requirement engenders high pressure for doctoral students and their supervisors and shapes the politics of the relationship between the two parties.…

  14. Reproducing by Flowers and Seeds. Teacher's Guide. Unit E2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zesaguli, Josie

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  15. What Do You Know about Water? Teacher's Guide. Unit D. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Peter

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  16. Sense from Senses. Teacher's Guide. Unit J. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simango, Sam

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  17. Energy for Living. Teacher's Guide. Unit G1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  18. A Comprehensive Evaluation of H2SO4 formation from OH and sCI pathways in high BVOC environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.; Seco, R.; Park, J. H.; Guenther, A. B.; Smith, J. N.; Kuang, C.; Bustillos, J. O. V.; Tota, J.; Souza, R. A. F. D.

    2014-12-01

    The recently highlighted importance of stabilized Criegee intermediates (sCI) as an oxidant for atmospheric SO2 triggered a number of studies to assess the atmospheric implications of H2SO4 formation from the sCI reaction pathway. In addition, it has not been clear why new particle formation events are not observed in the Amazon rain forest. The mostly widely speculated reason has been a very low H2SO4 level. We will present quantitative assessments of SO2 oxidation by sCI leading to the H2SO4 production using a comprehensive observational dataset from a tropical rainforest study during the GOAmazon field campaign at the T3 site in Manacapuru, Amazonas, Brazil. To our best knowledge, this is the first observation of H2SO4 and OH in Amazon and is unique for all tropical sites due to the accompanying comprehensive gas and aerosol observations such as CO, NOX, SO2, VOCs, and physical and chemical characteristics of aerosols. We will discuss observed H2SO4 levels during the GOAmazon field campaigns to demonstrate 1) H2SO4 formation potential from OH and sCI oxidation pathways by contrasting extremely clean and relatively polluted air masses and 2) the Implications of the observed H2SO4 levels in new particle formation and particle growth events.

  19. Performance Engineering Research Institute SciDAC-2 Enabling Technologies Institute Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Mary

    2014-09-19

    Enhancing the performance of SciDAC applications on petascale systems has high priority within DOE SC. As we look to the future, achieving expected levels of performance on high-end com-puting (HEC) systems is growing ever more challenging due to enormous scale, increasing archi-tectural complexity, and increasing application complexity. To address these challenges, PERI has implemented a unified, tripartite research plan encompassing: (1) performance modeling and prediction; (2) automatic performance tuning; and (3) performance engineering of high profile applications. The PERI performance modeling and prediction activity is developing and refining performance models, significantly reducing the cost of collecting the data upon which the models are based, and increasing model fidelity, speed and generality. Our primary research activity is automatic tuning (autotuning) of scientific software. This activity is spurred by the strong user preference for automatic tools and is based on previous successful activities such as ATLAS, which has automatically tuned components of the LAPACK linear algebra library, and other re-cent work on autotuning domain-specific libraries. Our third major component is application en-gagement, to which we are devoting approximately 30% of our effort to work directly with Sci-DAC-2 applications. This last activity not only helps DOE scientists meet their near-term per-formance goals, but also helps keep PERI research focused on the real challenges facing DOE computational scientists as they enter the Petascale Era.

  20. SciDAC Advances in Beam Dynamics Simulation: From Light Sources to Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Qiang, J.; Borland, M.; Kabel, A.; Li, R.; Ryne, R.; Stern, E.; Wang, Y.; Wasserman, H.; Zhang, Y.; /SLAC

    2011-11-14

    In this paper, we report on progress that has been made in beam dynamics simulation, from light sources to colliders, during the first year of the SciDAC-2 accelerator project 'Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation (ComPASS).' Several parallel computational tools for beam dynamics simulation are described. Also presented are number of applications in current and future accelerator facilities (e.g., LCLS, RHIC, Tevatron, LHC, and ELIC). Particle accelerators are some of most important tools of scientific discovery. They are widely used in high-energy physics, nuclear physics, and other basic and applied sciences to study the interaction of elementary particles, to probe the internal structure of matter, and to generate high-brightness radiation for research in materials science, chemistry, biology, and other fields. Modern accelerators are complex and expensive devices that may be several kilometers long and may consist of thousands of beamline elements. An accelerator may transport trillions of charged particles that interact electromagnetically among themselves, that interact with fields produced by the accelerator components, and that interact with beam-induced fields. Large-scale beam dynamics simulations on massively parallel computers can help provide understanding of these complex physical phenomena, help minimize design cost, and help optimize machine operation. In this paper, we report on beam dynamics simulations in a variety of accelerators ranging from next generation light sources to high-energy ring colliders that have been studied during the first year of the SciDAC-2 accelerator project.

  1. SciDAC - The Scientific Data Management Center (http://sdmcenter.lbl.gov)

    SciTech Connect

    Ling Liu Calton Pu

    2005-06-20

    In SciDAC SDM project, the main assignment to the Georgia Institute of Technology team (according to the proposed work) is to develop advanced information extraction and information integration technologies on top of the XWRAP technology originated from Georgia Tech [LPH01]. We have developed XWRAPComposer technology to enable the XWRAP code generator to generate Java information wrappers that are capable of extraction of data from multiple linked pages. These information wrappers are used as gateways or adaptors for scientific information mediators to access and fuse interesting data and answering complex queries over a large collection of heterogeneous scientific information sources. Our accomplishments over the SciDAC sponsored years (July 2001 to July 2004) can be summarized along two dimensions. Technically, we have produced a number of major software releases and published over 30 research papers in both international conferences and international journals. The planned software releases include 1. Five Java wrappers and five WDSL-enabled wrappers for SDM Pilot scenarios, which were released in early 2003, 2. The XWRAPComposer toolkit (command line version) which was first released in late 2003 and then released in Summer 2004, 3. Five Ptolemy wrapper actors which were released first in Summer 2003, and then released again in Fall 2005. 4. The decomposable XWRAPComposer actor in Ptolemy, which we have made it available as open source in end of 2004 and tested it in early 2005.

  2. Validity and reliability of the Structured Clinical Interview for Depersonalization–Derealization Spectrum (SCI-DER)

    PubMed Central

    Mula, Marco; Pini, Stefano; Calugi, Simona; Preve, Matteo; Masini, Matteo; Giovannini, Ilaria; Conversano, Ciro; Rucci, Paola; Cassano, Giovanni B

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluates the validity and reliability of a new instrument developed to assess symptoms of depersonalization: the Structured Clinical Interview for the Depersonalization-Derealization Spectrum (SCI-DER). The instrument is based on a spectrum model that emphasizes soft-signs, sub-threshold syndromes as well as clinical and subsyndromal manifestations. Items of the interview include, in addition to DSM-IV criteria for depersonalization, a number of features derived from clinical experience and from a review of phenomenological descriptions. Study participants included 258 consecutive patients with mood and anxiety disorders, 16.7% bipolar I disorder, 18.6% bipolar II disorder, 32.9% major depression, 22.1% panic disorder, 4.7% obsessive compulsive disorder, and 1.5% generalized anxiety disorder; 2.7% patients were also diagnosed with depersonalization disorder. A comparison group of 42 unselected controls was enrolled at the same site. The SCI-DER showed excellent reliability and good concurrent validity with the Dissociative Experiences Scale. It significantly discriminated subjects with any diagnosis of mood and anxiety disorders from controls and subjects with depersonalization disorder from controls. The hypothesized structure of the instrument was confirmed empirically. PMID:19183789

  3. What's Manifest in the History of SciTech: Reflections on The History Manifesto.

    PubMed

    Kevles, Daniel J

    2016-06-01

    Making nuts-and-bolts public policy is not--and never has been--the long suit of professional historians, but general historical work, whatever its durée, has done a good deal to shape discourse on public issues. Jo Guldi and David Armitage neglect that fact, as well as the opinion-shaping influence of history conveyed via nonprint media. They also ignore the large body of scholarship produced in all media during recent decades in the history of science, technology, and science-related medicine (SciTech), even though SciTech itself looms enormously large in the modern era as an instrument of national and international security, a driver of the economy, and a transformer of medicine, public health, and the environment. Much of this scholarship, even though of short durée, can illuminate salient contemporary issues, including innovation; patronage and practice; government and policy; imperialism and globalization; intellectual property; science and religion; and human rights, environment, energy, and disasters. PMID:27439289

  4. Building a Universal Nuclear Energy Density Functional (UNEDF). SciDAC-2 Project

    SciTech Connect

    Vary, James P.; Carlson, Joe; Furnstahl, Dick; Horoi, Mihai; Lusk, Rusty; Nazarewicz, Witek; Ng, Esmond; Thompson, Ian

    2012-09-29

    An understanding of the properties of atomic nuclei is crucial for a complete nuclear theory, for element formation, for properties of stars, and for present and future energy and defense applications. During the period of Dec. 1 2006 – Jun. 30, 2012, the UNEDF collaboration carried out a comprehensive study of all nuclei, based on the most accurate knowledge of the strong nuclear interaction, the most reliable theoretical approaches, the most advanced algorithms, and extensive computational resources, with a view towards scaling to the petaflop platforms and beyond. Until recently such an undertaking was hard to imagine, and even at the present time such an ambitious endeavor would be far beyond what a single researcher or a traditional research group could carry out. The UNEDF SciDAC project has developed several key computational codes and algorithms for reaching the goal of solving the nuclear quantum many-body problem throughout the chart of nuclei. Without such developments, scientific progress would not be possible. In addition the UNEDF SciDAC successfully applied these developments to solve many forefront research problems.

  5. What's Manifest in the History of SciTech: Reflections on The History Manifesto.

    PubMed

    Kevles, Daniel J

    2016-06-01

    Making nuts-and-bolts public policy is not--and never has been--the long suit of professional historians, but general historical work, whatever its durée, has done a good deal to shape discourse on public issues. Jo Guldi and David Armitage neglect that fact, as well as the opinion-shaping influence of history conveyed via nonprint media. They also ignore the large body of scholarship produced in all media during recent decades in the history of science, technology, and science-related medicine (SciTech), even though SciTech itself looms enormously large in the modern era as an instrument of national and international security, a driver of the economy, and a transformer of medicine, public health, and the environment. Much of this scholarship, even though of short durée, can illuminate salient contemporary issues, including innovation; patronage and practice; government and policy; imperialism and globalization; intellectual property; science and religion; and human rights, environment, energy, and disasters.

  6. Scientific support of SciTech museum exhibits and outreach programs

    SciTech Connect

    Peshkin, M.

    1995-08-01

    SciTech (Science and Technology Interactive Center) is a small hands-on science museum located in Aurora, Illinois, not far from Argonne National Laboratory. Its constituency includes prosperous suburbs and economically disadvantaged minority communities in Aurora and Chicago. Its mission is to contribute to the country`s scientific literacy initiative by offering hands-on experiences on the museum floor and through outreach programs extended to school children, their teachers, and other groups. Argonne`s participation is focused mainly on the development of exhibits to carry the ideas of modern science and technology to the public. This is an area in which traditional museums are weak, but in which SciTech has become a nationally recognized leader with the assistance of Argonne, Fermilab, nearby technological companies, and many volunteer scientists and engineers. We also participate in development and improvement of the museum`s general exhibits and outreach programs. Argonne`s Director, Alan Schriesheim, serves as a member of the museum`s Board of Directors. Murray Peshkin serves part-time as the museum`s Senior Scientist. Dale Henderson serves part-time as an exhibit developer. That work is supported by the Laboratory Director`s discretionary funds. In addition, several members of the Physics Division voluntarily assist with exhibit development and the Division makes facilities available for that effort.

  7. Measurement of the absolute vμ-CCQE cross section at the SciBooNE experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Aunion, Jose Luis Alcaraz

    2010-07-01

    This thesis presents the measurement of the charged current quasi-elastic (CCQE) neutrino-nucleon cross section at neutrino energies around 1 GeV. This measurement has two main physical motivations. On one hand, the neutrino-nucleon interactions at few GeV is a region where existing old data are sparse and with low statistics. The current measurement populates low energy regions with higher statistics and precision than previous experiments. On the other hand, the CCQE interaction is the most useful interaction in neutrino oscillation experiments. The CCQE channel is used to measure the initial and final neutrino fluxes in order to determine the neutrino fraction that disappeared. The neutrino oscillation experiments work at low neutrino energies, so precise measurement of CCQE interactions are essential for flux measurements. The main goal of this thesis is to measure the CCQE absolute neutrino cross section from the SciBooNE data. The SciBar Booster Neutrino Experiment (SciBooNE) is a neutrino and anti-neutrino scattering off experiment. The neutrino energy spectrum works at energies around 1 GeV. SciBooNE was running from June 8th 2007 to August 18th 2008. In that period, the experiment collected a total of 2.65 x 1020 protons on target (POT). This thesis has used full data collection in neutrino mode 0.99 x 1020 POT. A CCQE selection cut has been performed, achieving around 70% pure CCQE sample. A fit method has been exclusively developed to determine the absolute CCQE cross section, presenting results in a neutrino energy range from 0.2 to 2 GeV. The results are compatible with the NEUT predictions. The SciBooNE measurement has been compared with both Carbon (MiniBoonE) and deuterium (ANL and BNL) target experiments, showing a good agreement in both cases.

  8. Bibliometric analysis of the Korean Journal of Parasitology: measured from SCI, PubMed, Scopus, and Synapse databases.

    PubMed

    Lee, Choon Shil

    2009-10-01

    The Korean Journal of Parasitology (KJP) is the official journal of the Korean Society for Parasitology which is celebrating its 50th anniversary in 2009. To assess the contributions and achievements of the KJP, bibliometric analysis was conducted based on the citation data retrieved from 4 major databases; SCI, PubMed, Synapse, and Scopus. It was found that the KJP articles were constantly cited by the articles published in major international journals represented in these databases. More than 60% of 1,370 articles published in the KJP from 1963 to June 2009 were cited at least once by SCI articles. The overall average times cited by SCI articles are 2.6. The rate is almost 3 times higher for the articles published in the last 10 years compared to 1.0 for the articles of the 1960s. The SCI journal impact factor for 2008 is calculated as 0.871. It is increasing and it is expected to increase further with the introduction of the KJP in the database in 2008. The more realistic h-indices were measured from the study data set covering all the citations to the KJP; 17 for SCI, 6 for PubMed, 19 for Synapse, and 17 for Scopus. Synapse extensively picked up the citations to the earlier papers not retrievable from the other 3 databases. It identified many papers published in the 1960s and in the 1980s which have been cited heavily, proving the central role of the KJP in the dissemination of the important research findings over the last 5 decades.

  9. Observation of cosmic ray hadrons at the top of the Sierra Negra volcano in Mexico with the SciCRT prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, E.; Valdés-Galicia, J. F.; Matsubara, Y.; Nagai, Y.; Hurtado, A.; Musalem, O.; García, R.; Anzorena, M. A.; González, L. X.; Itow, Y.; Sako, T.; Lopez, D.; Sasai, Y.; Munakata, K.; Kato, C.; Kozai, M.; Shibata, S.; Takamaru, H.; Kojima, H.; Watanabe, K.; Tsuchiya, H.; Koi, T.

    2016-11-01

    In this work we report the flux of protons and neutral emission measured at the top of the Sierra Negra volcano at 4600 m.a.s.l. (575 g/cm2), in Eastern Mexico. As an example of the capability of the mini-SciCR as a cosmic ray detector we present the Forbush decrease recorded on March 7, 2012. These data were obtained with a cosmic ray detector prototype called mini-SciCR that was operating from October 2010 to July 2012. Our main aims were to measure the hadronic component flux of the secondary cosmic ray and to show the appropriate performance of all system of the detector. To separate the signals of protons from other charged particles we obtained the energy deposition pattern when they cross the detector using a Monte Carlo simulation, and to separate the signals of neutral emission we used an anticoincidence system between the edge bars and the internal bars of the detector. The mini-SciCR is a prototype of a new cosmic ray detector called SciBar Cosmic Ray Telescope (SciCRT) installed in the same place, which is in the process of calibration. The SciCRT will work mainly as a Solar Neutron and Muon Telescope, it is designed to achieve: (1) larger effective area than the current Solar Neutron Telescope, (2) higher energy resolution to determine the energy spectrum of solar neutrons, (3) lower energy threshold, and (4) higher particle identification ability.

  10. ScyFlow: An Environment for the Visual Specification and Execution of Scientific Workflows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCann, Karen M.; Yarrow, Maurice; DeVivo, Adrian; Mehrotra, Piyush

    2004-01-01

    With the advent of grid technologies, scientists and engineers are building more and more complex applications to utilize distributed grid resources. The core grid services provide a path for accessing and utilizing these resources in a secure and seamless fashion. However what the scientists need is an environment that will allow them to specify their application runs at a high organizational level, and then support efficient execution across any given set or sets of resources. We have been designing and implementing ScyFlow, a dual-interface architecture (both GUT and APT) that addresses this problem. The scientist/user specifies the application tasks along with the necessary control and data flow, and monitors and manages the execution of the resulting workflow across the distributed resources. In this paper, we utilize two scenarios to provide the details of the two modules of the project, the visual editor and the runtime workflow engine.

  11. The Virtual Earth-Solar Observatory of the SCiESMEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De la Luz, V.; Gonzalez-Esparza, A.; Cifuentes-Nava, G.

    2015-12-01

    The Mexican Space Weather Service (SCiESMEX, http://www.sciesmex.unam.mx) started operations in October 2014. The project includes the Virtual Earth-Solar Observatory (VESO, http://www.veso.unam.mx). The VESO is a improved project wich objetive is integrate the space weather instrumentation network from the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM). The network includes the Mexican Array Radiotelescope (MEXART), the Callisto receptor (MEXART), a Neutron Telescope, a Cosmic Ray Telescope. the Schumann Antenna, the National Magnetic Service, and the mexican GPS network (TlalocNet). The VESO facility is located at the Geophysics Institute campus Michoacan (UNAM). We offer the service of data store, real-time data, and quasi real-time data. The hardware of VESO includes a High Performance Computer (HPC) dedicated specially to big data storage.

  12. VACET: Proposed SciDAC2 Visualization and Analytics Center forEnabling Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Bethel, W.; Johnson, Chris; Hansen, Charles; Parker, Steve; Sanderson, Allen; Silva, Claudio; Tricoche, Xavier; Pascucci, Valerio; Childs, Hank; Cohen, Jonathon; Duchaineau, Mark; Laney, Dan; Lindstrom,Peter; Ahern, Sean; Meredith, Jeremy; Ostrouchov, George; Joy, Ken; Hamann, Bernd

    2006-06-19

    This paper accompanies a poster that is being presented atthe SciDAC 2006 meeting in Denver, CO. This project focuses on leveragingscientific visualization and analytics software technology as an enablingtechnology for increasing scientific productivity and insight. Advancesincomputational technology have resultedin an "information big bang,"which in turn has createda significant data understanding challenge. Thischallenge is widely acknowledged to be one of the primary bottlenecks incontemporary science. The vision for our Center is to respond directly tothat challenge by adapting, extending, creating when necessary anddeploying visualization and data understanding technologies for ourscience stakeholders. Using an organizational model as a Visualizationand Analytics Center for Enabling Technologies (VACET), we are wellpositioned to be responsive to the needs of a diverse set of scientificstakeholders in a coordinated fashion using a range of visualization,mathematics, statistics, computer and computational science and datamanagement technologies.

  13. Extraordinary Tools for Extraordinary Science: The Impact ofSciDAC on Accelerator Science&Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Ryne, Robert D.

    2006-08-10

    Particle accelerators are among the most complex and versatile instruments of scientific exploration. They have enabled remarkable scientific discoveries and important technological advances that span all programs within the DOE Office of Science (DOE/SC). The importance of accelerators to the DOE/SC mission is evident from an examination of the DOE document, ''Facilities for the Future of Science: A Twenty-Year Outlook''. Of the 28 facilities listed, 13 involve accelerators. Thanks to SciDAC, a powerful suite of parallel simulation tools has been developed that represent a paradigm shift in computational accelerator science. Simulations that used to take weeks or more now take hours, and simulations that were once thought impossible are now performed routinely. These codes have been applied to many important projects of DOE/SC including existing facilities (the Tevatron complex, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider), facilities under construction (the Large Hadron Collider, the Spallation Neutron Source, the Linac Coherent Light Source), and to future facilities (the International Linear Collider, the Rare Isotope Accelerator). The new codes have also been used to explore innovative approaches to charged particle acceleration. These approaches, based on the extremely intense fields that can be present in lasers and plasmas, may one day provide a path to the outermost reaches of the energy frontier. Furthermore, they could lead to compact, high-gradient accelerators that would have huge consequences for US science and technology, industry, and medicine. In this talk I will describe the new accelerator modeling capabilities developed under SciDAC, the essential role of multi-disciplinary collaboration with applied mathematicians, computer scientists, and other IT experts in developing these capabilities, and provide examples of how the codes have been used to support DOE/SC accelerator projects.

  14. PACIFIC: the readout ASIC for the SciFi Tracker of the upgraded LHCb detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazorra, J.; Chanal, H.; Comerma, A.; Gascón, D.; Gómez, S.; Han, X.; Pillet, N.; Vandaele, R.

    2016-02-01

    The LHCb detector will be upgraded during the Long Shutdown 2 (LS2) of the LHC in order to cope with higher instantaneous luminosities and will switch to a 40 MHz readout rate using a trigger-less software based system. All front-end electronics will be replaced and several sub-detectors must be redesigned to cope with the higher detector occupancy and radiation damage. The current tracking detectors downstream of the LHCb dipole magnet will be replaced by the Scintillating Fibre (SciFi) Tracker. The SciFi Tracker will use scintillating fibres read out by Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs). State-of-the-art multi-channel SiPM arrays are being developed and a custom ASIC, called the low-Power ASIC for the sCIntillating FIbres traCker (PACIFIC), will be used to digitise the signals from the SiPMs. This article presents an overview of the R&D for the PACIFIC. It is a 64-channel ASIC implemented in 130 nm CMOS technology, aiming at a radiation tolerant design with a power consumption below 10 mW per channel. It interfaces directly with the SiPM anode through a current mode input, and provides a configurable non-linear 2-bit per channel digital output. The SiPM signal is acquired by a current conveyor and processed with a fast shaper and a gated integrator. The digitization is performed using a three threshold non-linear flash ADC operating at 40 MHz. Simulation and test results show the PACIFIC chip prototypes functioning well.

  15. SciVis: Domain Customized, Scalable Visualization Software for Space Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loring, B.; Karimabadi, H.

    2009-12-01

    The primary visualization issues of large data are remote interactivity, visualization scalability, and domain applicability of available algorithms. Large data necessitates the need for scalability. Without scalable components in the visualization pipeline interactive exploration is not possible. Scalable components are not the end of the story though. As data to be visualized is often too large to move, it must be visualized in place at a remote site and this necessitate the need for highly optimized client-server delivery layer. Another issue is that most visualization software only have generic functionality and often significant customization is required on the part of the user. Many scientists do not have the time or resources for such customization. The purpose of the SciVis toolkit is to address these issues within the context of the open source ParaView framework. We are currently collecting visualization requirements from members of the community and working with individuals to get them up and running with their visualization needs. In this presentation, we will demonstrate some of the unique capabilities of SciViz including a scalability study of ParaView's IO subsystem that compares performance of existing IO layer to our new parallel file system optimized layer and a case study showing how remote interaction can degrade quickly even when the pipeline scales and how we re-factored ParaView to boost interactivity during remote visualization over networks ranging from Gigabit to consumer grade broadband. We also show an example of domain customization by demonstrating our new magnetic field topology visualization tool and its application to analysis of global MHD simulations.

  16. [The negative consequences of the joint session of the 2 Academies in Soviet biological psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Kostandov, E A

    1990-12-01

    The liquidation of the scientific school in the brain pathology based by distinguished psychiatrist A. S. Shmar'ian, serves as an example of the negative role in the development of Soviet psychiatry played by the joint session of the USSR Acad. Sci. and Acad. Med. Sci. dedicated to the problems of I. P. Pavlov's physiological theory (June-July, 1950), and the joint session of the Presidium of the USSR Acad. Med. Sci. and the National Society of Neurologists and Psychiatrists (October, 1951). The absurd fight against dissidence in science harmed the studies in neuropsychiatry, where Soviet school had been among the most advanced world schools.

  17. Exploring Earth and the Solar System: Educational Outreach Through NASA's Space Place, SciJinks, and Climate Kids Websites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meneses, Joseph Chistopher

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Space Place team publishes engaging content and creates an effective environment to inspire a young audience to dare mighty things. NASA uses the Space Place, Climate Kids, and SciJinks websites to cultivate interest among elementary-school-aged children in both science and technology. During my summer internship at Jet Propulsion Laboratory I used Adobe Flash and ActionScript 3 to develop content for the Space Place, Climate Kids, and SciJinks sites. In addition, I was involved in the development process for ongoing and new projects during my internship. My involvement allowed me to follow a project from concept to design, implementation, and release. I personally worked on three projects this summer, two of which are currently in deployment. The first is a scrambled letter-tile guessing game titled Solar System Scramble. The second, Butterfrog Mix-Up, is a rotating-tile puzzle game. The third project is a unfinished prototype for a maze game.

  18. [Letters to the editor published in Peruvian biomedical journals indexed in SciELO-Peru 2006-2013].

    PubMed

    Montenegro-Idrogo, Juan José; Mejía-Dolores, Jhon William; Chalco-Huamán, Joel L

    2015-01-01

    This bibliometric study describes the characteristics of letters to the editor published between 2006-2013 in biomedical journals indexed in SciELO-Peru.253 letters (10.3% of total publications) were collected. Most letters (139) were in the Peruvian Journal of Experimental Medicine and Public Health, with marked increase throughout those years. 25% of letters submitted included medical student participation. 14% of authors presented with international affiliations and 27% with endogenous affiliation - common in university journals (Anales de la Facultad de Medicina, Revista Médica Herediana).The usual criteria justifying the publication of letters were: opinion of medical fact or public domain (35.6%) and discussion of results, methodological flaws or interpretation (22.9%). In biomedical journals indexed in SciELO Peru the letters to the editor comprise a percentage of publications that has increased in recent years, with low publication of letters of findings or primary data, compared with opinion or criticism.

  19. Assessing Forelimb Function after Unilateral Cervical SCI using Novel Tasks: Limb Step-alternation, Postural Instability and Pasta Handling

    PubMed Central

    Schallert, Timothy; Schmidt, Christine E.

    2013-01-01

    Cervical spinal cord injury (cSCI) can cause devastating neurological deficits, including impairment or loss of upper limb and hand function. A majority of the spinal cord injuries in humans occur at the cervical levels. Therefore, developing cervical injury models and developing relevant and sensitive behavioral tests is of great importance. Here we describe the use of a newly developed forelimb step-alternation test after cervical spinal cord injury in rats. In addition, we describe two behavioral tests that have not been used after spinal cord injury: a postural instability test (PIT), and a pasta-handling test. All three behavioral tests are highly sensitive to injury and are easy to use. Therefore, we feel that these behavioral tests can be instrumental in investigating therapeutic strategies after cSCI. PMID:24084700

  20. Reactivity of stabilized Criegee intermediates (sCI) from isoprene and monoterpene ozonolysis toward SO2 and organic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sipilä, M.; Jokinen, T.; Berndt, T.; Richters, S.; Makkonen, R.; Donahue, N. M.; Mauldin, R. L., III; Kurten, T.; Paasonen, P.; Sarnela, N.; Ehn, M.; Junninen, H.; Rissanen, M. P.; Thornton, J.; Stratmann, F.; Herrmann, H.; Worsnop, D. R.; Kulmala, M.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Petäjä, T.

    2014-01-01

    Oxidation processes in Earth's atmosphere are tightly connected to many environmental and human health issues and are essential drivers for biogeochemistry. Until the recent discovery of the atmospheric relevance of stabilized Criegee intermediates (sCI), atmospheric oxidation processes were thought to be dominated by few main oxidants: ozone, hydroxyl radicals (OH), nitrate radicals and, e.g. over oceans, halogen atoms such as chlorine. Here, we report results from laboratory experiments at 293 K and atmospheric pressure focusing on sCI formation from the ozonolysis of isoprene and the most abundant monoterpenes (α-pinene and limonene), and subsequent reactions of the resulting sCIs with SO2 producing sulphuric acid (H2SO4). The measured sCI yields were (0.15 ± 0.07), (0.27 ± 0.12) and (0.58 ± 0.26) for the ozonolysis of α-pinene, limonene and isoprene, respectively. The ratio between the rate coefficient for the sCI loss (including thermal decomposition and the reaction with water vapour) and the rate coefficient for the reaction of sCI with SO2, k(loss) / k(sCI + SO2), was determined at relative humidities of 10% and 50%. Observed values represent the average reactivity of all sCIs produced from the individual alkene used in the ozonolysis. For the monoterpene derived sCIs, the relative rate coefficients k(loss) / k(sCI + SO2) were in the range (2.0-2.4) × 1012 molecule cm-3 and nearly independent on the relative humidity. This fact points to a minor importance of the sCI + H2O reaction in the case of the sCI arising from α-pinene and limonene. For the isoprene sCIs, however, the ratio k(loss) / k(sCI + SO2) was strongly dependent on the relative humidity. To explore whether sCIs could have a more general role in atmospheric oxidation, we investigated as an example the reactivity of acetone oxide (sCI from the ozonolysis of 2,3-dimethyl-2-butene) toward small organic acids, i.e. formic and acetic acid. Acetone oxide was found to react faster with the

  1. Challenges of animal models in SCI research: Effects of pre-injury task-specific training in adult rats before lesion

    PubMed Central

    May, Zacnicte; Fouad, Karim; Shum-Siu, Alice; Magnuson, David S. K.

    2015-01-01

    A rarely explored subject in animal research is the effect of pre-injury variables on behavioural outcome post-SCI. Low reporting of such variables may underlie some discrepancies in findings between laboratories. Particularly, intensive task-specific training before a SCI might be important, considering that sports injuries are one of the leading causes of SCI. Thus, individuals with SCI often underwent rigorous training before their injuries. In the present study, we asked whether training before SCI on a grasping task or a swimming task would influence motor recovery in rats. Swim pre-training impaired recovery of swimming 2 and 4 weeks post-injury. This result fits with the idea of motor learning interference, which posits that learning something new may disrupt learning of a new task; in this case, learning strategies to compensate for functional loss after SCI. In contrast to swimming, grasp pre-training did not influence grasping ability after SCI at any time point. However, grasp pre-trained rats attempted to grasp more times than untrained rats in the first 4 weeks post-injury. Also, lesion volume of grasp pretrained rats was greater than that of untrained rats, a finding which may be related to stress or activity. The increased participation in rehabilitative training of the pre-trained rats in the early weeks post-injury may have potentiated spontaneous plasticity in the spinal cord and counteracted the deleterious effect of interference and bigger lesions. Thus, our findings suggest that pre-training plays a significant role in recovery after CNS damage and needs to be carefully controlled for. PMID:25975172

  2. Quantum transport of injected electrons in an asymmetric FM/I 1/SC/I 2/FM junction: Directional dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soodchomshom, Bumned; Tang, I.-Ming; Hoonsawat, Rassmidara

    2008-07-01

    We have studied the directional dependence of the spin dependent coherent quantum transport in an asymmetric nano layer FM/I1/SC/I2/FM junction. We have used the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations to describe the quasiparticles in the different layers in the junction. The two ferromagnetic layers are taken to be the same material, while the SC is taken to be a s-wave superconductor, I1 and I2 are taken to be thin insulating layers made with different materials. Both the effects of parallel (P) and anti parallel (AP) alignments of the magnetizations in the different FM layers are studied. We find that the probabilities for the Andreev and normal reflections and for the transmission of the particles into the ferromagnetic layers are dependent on the spins. We also find that the transports of the particles injected from the left side into the FM/I1/SC/I2/FM and into the FM/I2/SC/I1/FM junctions are different. When the I1 and I2 are removed (resulting in the formation of a trilayer FM/SC/FM junction) and the thickness of the SC layer is made small, the probability for the Andreev reflection is seen to depend on the spins of the particles in contradiction to the results obtained by Bozovic and Radovic [M. Bozovic, Z. Radovic, Phys. Rev. B 66 (2002) 134524].

  3. Musculoskeletal Model-Guided, Customizable Selection of Shoulder and Elbow Muscles for a C5 SCI Neuroprosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Hincapie, Juan Gabriel; Blana, Dimitra; Chadwick, Edward K.; Kirsch, Robert F.

    2010-01-01

    Individuals with C5/C6 spinal cord injury (SCI) have a number of paralyzed muscles in their upper extremities that can be electrically activated in a coordinated manner to restore function. The selection of a practical subset of paralyzed muscles for stimulation depends on the specific condition of the individual, the functions targeted for restoration, and surgical considerations. This paper presents a musculoskeletal model-based approach for optimizing the muscle set used for functional electrical stimulation (FES) of the shoulder and elbow in this population. Experimentally recorded kinematics from able-bodied subjects served as inputs to a musculoskeletal model of the shoulder and elbow, which was modified to reflect the reduced muscle force capacities of an individual with C5 SCI but also the potential of using FES to activate paralyzed muscles. A large number of inverse dynamic simulations mimicking typical activities of daily living were performed that included 1) muscles with retained voluntary control and 2) many different combinations of stimulated paralyzed muscles. These results indicate that a muscle set consisting of the serratus anterior, infraspinatus and triceps would enable the greatest range of relevant movements. This set will become the initial target in a C5 SCI neuroprosthesis to restore shoulder and elbow function. PMID:18586604

  4. Hydrogen and the First Stars: First Results from the SCI-HI 21-cm all-sky spectrum experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voytek, Tabitha; Peterson, Jeffrey; Lopez-Cruz, Omar; Jauregui-Garcia, Jose-Miguel; SCI-HI Experiment Team

    2015-01-01

    The 'Sonda Cosmologica de las Islas para la Deteccion de Hidrogeno Neutro' (SCI-HI) experiment is an all-sky 21-cm brightness temperature spectrum experiment studying the cosmic dawn (z~15-35). The experiment is a collaboration between Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) and Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica (INAOE) in Mexico. Initial deployment of the SCI-HI experiment occurred in June 2013 on Guadalupe; a small island about 250 km off of the Pacific coast of Baja California in Mexico. Preliminary measurements from this deployment have placed the first observational constraints on the 21-cm all-sky spectrum around 70 MHz (z~20), see Voytek et al (2014).Neutral Hydrogen (HI) is found throughout the universe in the cold gas that makes up the intergalactic medium (IGM). HI can be observed through the spectral line at 21 cm (1.4 GHz) due to hyperfine structure. Expansion of the universe causes the wavelength of this spectral line to stretch at a rate defined by the redshift z, leading to a signal which can be followed through time.Now the strength of the 21-cm signal in the IGM is dependent only on a small number of variables; the temperature and density of the IGM, the amount of HI in the IGM, the UV energy density in the IGM, and the redshift. This means that 21-cm measurements teach us about the history and structure of the IGM. The SCI-HI experiment focuses on the spatially averaged 21-cm spectrum, looking at the temporal evolution of the IGM during the cosmic dawn before reionization.Although the SCI-HI experiment placed first constraints with preliminary data, this data was limited to a narrow frequency regime around 60-85 MHz. This limitation was caused by instrumental difficulties and the presence of residual radio frequency interference (RFI) in the FM radio band (~88-108 MHz). The SCI-HI experiment is currently undergoing improvements and we plan to have another deployment soon. This deployment would be to Socorro and Clarion, two

  5. Measuring self-esteem after spinal cord injury: Development, validation and psychometric characteristics of the SCI-QOL Self-esteem item bank and short form

    PubMed Central

    Kalpakjian, Claire Z.; Tate, Denise G.; Kisala, Pamela A.; Tulsky, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the development and psychometric properties of the Spinal Cord Injury-Quality of Life (SCI-QOL) Self-esteem item bank. Design Using a mixed-methods design, we developed and tested a self-esteem item bank through the use of focus groups with individuals with SCI and clinicians with expertise in SCI, cognitive interviews, and item-response theory- (IRT) based analytic approaches, including tests of model fit, differential item functioning (DIF) and precision. Setting We tested a pool of 30 items at several medical institutions across the United States, including the University of Michigan, Kessler Foundation, the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, the University of Washington, Craig Hospital, and the James J. Peters/Bronx Department of Veterans Affairs hospital. Participants A total of 717 individuals with SCI completed the self-esteem items. Results A unidimensional model was observed (CFI = 0.946; RMSEA = 0.087) and measurement precision was good (theta range between −2.7 and 0.7). Eleven items were flagged for DIF; however, effect sizes were negligible with little practical impact on score estimates. The final calibrated item bank resulted in 23 retained items. Conclusion This study indicates that the SCI-QOL Self-esteem item bank represents a psychometrically robust measurement tool. Short form items are also suggested and computer adaptive tests are available. PMID:26010972

  6. Measuring resilience after spinal cord injury: Development, validation and psychometric characteristics of the SCI-QOL Resilience item bank and short form

    PubMed Central

    Victorson, David; Tulsky, David S.; Kisala, Pamela A.; Kalpakjian, Claire Z.; Weiland, Brian; Choi, Seung W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the development and psychometric properties of the Spinal Cord Injury - Quality of Life (SCI-QOL) Resilience item bank and short form. Design Using a mixed-methods design, we developed and tested a resilience item bank through the use of focus groups with individuals with SCI and clinicians with expertise in SCI, cognitive interviews, and item-response theory based analytic approaches, including tests of model fit and differential item functioning (DIF). Setting We tested a 32-item pool at several medical institutions across the United States, including the University of Michigan, Kessler Foundation, the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, the University of Washington, Craig Hospital and the James J. Peters/Bronx Department of Veterans Affairs medical center. Participants A total of 717 individuals with SCI completed the Resilience items. Results A unidimensional model was observed (CFI = 0.968; RMSEA = 0.074) and measurement precision was good (theta range between −3.1 and 0.9). Ten items were flagged for DIF, however, after examination of effect sizes we found this to be negligible with little practical impact on score estimates. The final calibrated item bank resulted in 21 retained items. Conclusion This study indicates that the SCI-QOL Resilience item bank represents a psychometrically robust measurement tool. Short form items are also suggested and computer adaptive tests are available. PMID:26010971

  7. SciQuest and the complete archive of the NZVJ launched online.

    PubMed

    Jolly, P D

    2003-02-01

    The complete archive of the New Zealand Veterinary Journal went online on 1 January 2003 on SciQuest (www.sciquest.org.nz), an innovative new e-publishing website developed by the New Zealand Veterinary Association (NZVA). This follows hot on the heels of the CD-Rom version released from the same platform in June last year. Subscribers in 2003 will be able to search and retrieve, online, the full text of any article published in the journal since its inception in 1952. To date, few veterinary science journals are able to offer such a complete and comprehensive resource. SciQuest's mission is to provide high-speed access to science and continuing education articles to scientists and veterinarians in a fully indexed and searchable format, both online (via the internet) and offline (via CD-Rom). Searching and browsing the archive online is free and abstracts are available for all articles published from 1972 onwards. Access to full text, which is presented in PDF format exactly as published, is restricted to journal subscribers. The site will be updated with each issue of the journal as it is published. The online format will largely suit institutional users and casual enquiries, whereas the offline version is designed to be loaded onto computer hard drives for immediate access, any-time, and is better suited to frequent users and veterinary practitioners. A major advantage of the offline resource is its speed and immediacy, returning search results and full text much faster than the online version, without the need for internet access. The search engine has been designed to suit specific problem-oriented enquiries, and great effort has been expended to ensure the archive is both complete and accurate. The same search engine and interface has been provided on both versions, which allows for fast and highly specific searching of titles and full text of all articles for the occurrence of any word or combinations of words, as well as indexes of author, volume, year

  8. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 27: Knowledge diffusion and US government technology policy: Issues and opportunities for sci/tech librarians

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Hannah, Stan; Lawrence, Barbara; Kennedy, John M.

    1992-01-01

    Federal involvement in simulating economic growth through the development and application of technology policy is currently the subject of serious debate. A recession and the recognition that an internationally competitive economy is a prerequisite for the attainment of national goals have fostered a number of technology policy initiatives aimed at improving the economic competitiveness of American industry. This paper suggests that the successful implementation of U.S. technology policy will require the adoption of a knowledge diffusion model, the development of user oriented information products and services, and a more 'activist' approach on the part of sci/tech librarians in the provision of scientific and technical information (STI). These changes will have a dramatic impact on the sci/tech library of the future and the preparation of sci/tech librarians.

  9. NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. XXVII - Knowledge diffusion and U.S. government technology policy: Issues and opportunities for sci/tech librarians

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Hannah, Stan; Lawrence, Barbara; Kennedy, John M.

    1992-01-01

    Federal involvement in stimulating economic growth through the development and application of technology policy is currently the subject of serious debate. A recession and the recognition that an internationally competitive economy is a prerequisite for the attainment of national goals have fostered a number of technology policy initiatives aimed at improving the economic competitiveness of American industry. This paper suggests that the successful implementation of U.S. technology policy will require the adoption of a knowledge diffusion model, the development of user oriented information products and services, and a more 'activist' approach on the part of sci/tech librarians in the provision of scientific and technical information (STI). These changes will have a dramatic impact on the sci/tech library of the future and the preparation of sci/tech librarians.

  10. Exploration tools for drug discovery and beyond: applying SciFinder to interdisciplinary research.

    PubMed

    Haldeman, Margaret; Vieira, Barbara; Winer, Fred; Knutsen, Lars J S

    2005-06-01

    Chemists have long recognized the value of online databases for surveying the literature of their field. Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) databases covering almost a century's worth of journal articles and patent documents are among the best known and widely used for searching information on compounds. Today's research presents a new challenge, however, as the boundaries of chemistry and biological sciences overlap increasingly. This trend is especially true in the drug discovery field where published findings relating to both chemical and biological entities and their interactions are examined. CAS has expanded its resources to meet the requirements of the new, interdisciplinary challenges faced by today's researchers. This is evident both in the content of CAS databases, which have been expanded to include more biology-related information, and in the technology of the search tools now available to researchers on their desktop. It is the integration of content and search-and-retrieval technology that enables new insights to be made in the vast body of accumulated information. CAS's SciFinder is a widely used research tool for this purpose. PMID:16472231

  11. [Systematic review of studies on quality of life indexed on the SciELO database].

    PubMed

    Landeiro, Graziela Macedo Bastos; Pedrozo, Celine Cristina Raimundo; Gomes, Maria José; Oliveira, Elizabete Regina de Araújo

    2011-10-01

    Interest in the quality of life construct has increased in the same proportion as the output of instruments to measure it. In order to analyze the scientific literature on the subject to provide a reflection on this construct in Brazil, a systematic review of the SciELO database covering the period from January 2001 to December 2006 was conducted. It was divided into 3 phases: the first involving 180 publications, the second 124, and the third 10. Of the 180 publications, 77.4% consisted of production in the last three years, with growth of 32.4% from 2001 to 2006. Of these, 124 were selected for methodological analysis in accordance with the category of the study: 79 (63.9%) instrument application articles; 25 (20.1%) translation, validation, adaptation and construction of a QOL instrument; 10 (8%) qualitative studies on QOL; 5 (4%) bibliographical review, 5 (4%) on the quality of life concept. The next stage involved the use of questionnaires and/or interview scripts in order to obtain a broader consensus on perceived quality of life from the interviewees. It was seen that there was significant scientific output in the period under scrutiny, with diversification of approaches and methodologies, highlighting the complexity of the quality of life construct.

  12. [Analysis on moxibustion papers in SCI journals during the recent 5 years].

    PubMed

    Meng, Ying-chun; Jiang, Xiu-li

    2014-11-01

    The papers regarding moxibustion published in science citation index (SCI) journals for the recent 5 years were searched to explore the international tendency of moxibustion researches, which provided references for moxibustion to have a better internationalization. With methods of internet search and database search, a total of 116 papers regarding moxibustion were included. These papers were published in 40 kinds of journals, mostly in Britain and the United States. The journal with the highest impact factor was Stroke, which had 5729 points. The number and impact factor of these journals were inferior to those of acupuncture journal. Compared among these journals, the depth and width of moxibustion research were increasing year by year. The category of diseases related with moxibustion is mainly digestive system diseases, motor system diseases and urinary-genital system diseases. The type of papers was characterized with clinical observation and mechanism research. Researches related with moxibustion included moxibustion dose and safety. It was believed that the international recognition of moxibustion effectiveness, standardization of moxibustion manipulation, standardization research, etc. were needed to be solved in the further. PMID:25675578

  13. What Is Required In Uganda? The 2007 Report Of The Japan Sci-edu. Support Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, Tatsuhiro

    2010-07-01

    The development of ability for technology and invention is required as self-sustaining growth of science and technology in Asian and African developing countries. Science education that connects to the real world is the required education for the self-sustaining growth. But in fact, it is very common to study for the entrance examination. According to C. Camilla, S. and Sjo/berg, [The Re-emergence of Values in the Science Curriculum. Rotterdam, 2007, Sense Publishers], Ugandan students are the most interested ones in science and technology (I would like to be a scientist, I would like to get a job in technology) in the world. Science education should mortgages future of youth. Especially science education of developing countries should be directly connected to the real world. Because they need a lot of engineers as skilled worker, we implemented physics education that was directly connected with manufacturing by the sci-edu. support project in Uganda. The best results were achieved by contrivance in spite of poverty area. Our education method gave one form of New Science Education in Asia and Africa.

  14. GeoSciML: Development of a generic GeoScience Markup Language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Marcus; Duffy, Tim

    2005-11-01

    The use of eXtensible Markup Language (XML) schema for geoscience data exchange is an improvement on non XML data formats because the XML format is partially self-documenting and provides common methods for parsing files, obtaining their structure and transforming them to alternative formats. The British Geological Survey (BGS) believes it is important to develop some common ML for the exchange of generic geoscience information. If communities share a common data transfer model for their domains of interest, data exchange becomes even easier and more likely to take place efficiently. To address this need the BGS is proposing the development of GeoSciML, a geoscience information markup language, as an application of the OpenGIS Consortium's (OGC) Geography Markup Language (GML), building upon the applied geoscience domain focused eXploration and Mining Markup Language (XMML). We are aiming for an open standard with the support of bodies such as the International Union of Geological Sciences' (IUGS) Commission for the Management and Application of Geoscience Information and the OGC. This paper illustrates the proposed approach with some initial development work to cover geoscientific domains of particular interest, such as boreholes, text and structural geology. The development process has been iterative, with successive prototypes incorporating the comments of experts in each geoscientific domain. We propose that development be extended to the wider geoscience community with the developing schemas and documentation available on a collaborative web site.

  15. Final Technical Report - SciDAC Cooperative Agreement: Center for Wave Interactions with Magnetohydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Schnack, Dalton D.

    2012-07-01

    Final technical report for research performed by Dr. Thomas G. Jenkins in collaboration with Professor Dalton D. Schnack on SciDAC Cooperative Agreement: Center for Wave Interactions with Magnetohydrodyanics, DE-FC02-06ER54899, for the period of 8/15/06 - 8/14/11. This report centers on the Slow MHD physics campaign work performed by Dr. Jenkins while at UW-Madison and then at Tech-X Corporation. To make progress on the problem of RF induced currents affect magnetic island evolution in toroidal plasmas, a set of research approaches are outlined. Three approaches can be addressed in parallel. These are: (1) Analytically prescribed additional term in Ohm's law to model the effect of localized ECCD current drive; (2) Introduce an additional evolution equation for the Ohm's law source term. Establish a RF source 'box' where information from the RF code couples to the fluid evolution; and (3) Carry out a more rigorous analytic calculation treating the additional RF terms in a closure problem. These approaches rely on the necessity of reinvigorating the computation modeling efforts of resistive and neoclassical tearing modes with present day versions of the numerical tools. For the RF community, the relevant action item is - RF ray tracing codes need to be modified so that general three-dimensional spatial information can be obtained. Further, interface efforts between the two codes require work as well as an assessment as to the numerical stability properties of the procedures to be used.

  16. Lambda Station: Alternate network path forwarding for production SciDAC applications

    SciTech Connect

    Grigoriev, Maxim; Bobyshev, Andrey; Crawford, Matt; DeMar, Phil; Grigaliunas, Vyto; Moibenko, Alexander; Petravick, Don; Newman, Harvey; Steenberg, Conrad; Thomas, Michael; /Caltech

    2007-09-01

    The LHC era will start very soon, creating immense data volumes capable of demanding allocation of an entire network circuit for task-driven applications. Circuit-based alternate network paths are one solution to meeting the LHC high bandwidth network requirements. The Lambda Station project is aimed at addressing growing requirements for dynamic allocation of alternate network paths. Lambda Station facilitates the rerouting of designated traffic through site LAN infrastructure onto so-called 'high-impact' wide-area networks. The prototype Lambda Station developed with Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) approach in mind will be presented. Lambda Station has been successfully integrated into the production version of the Storage Resource Manager (SRM), and deployed at US CMS Tier1 center at Fermilab, as well as at US-CMS Tier-2 site at Caltech. This paper will discuss experiences using the prototype system with production SciDAC applications for data movement between Fermilab and Caltech. The architecture and design principles of the production version Lambda Station software, currently being implemented as Java based web services, will also be presented in this paper.

  17. A fiber optic probe for measurement of an autonomic dysreflexia event on SCI patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramella-Roman, J. C.; Hidler, J. M.

    2008-02-01

    Autonomic Dysreflexia (AD) is an inappropriate response of the sympathetic nervous system that often occurs in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI ) at or above the sixth thoracic vertebrae (T6) level when a noxius stimulus is applied below the level of injury. An AD event can be put into motion by something as simple as an ingrown toenail or a full bladder, with symptoms such as headache, elevated blood pressure, reduced heart rate, decreases in blood flow below the level of injury, and in extreme cases, stroke. We have developed a quantitative method of measuring skin oxygen levels during AD using a fiber optics based probe. Two such probes were located above and below the injury level (on the patient forearm and thigh respectively) and were connected to a dual channel spectrophotometer. Oxygen saturation was calculated using the reflectance spectra and an algorithm based on melanin and hemoglobin absorption. We found that during an AD event, the amount of oxygen in the skin below the injury level drops by as much as 40%, while above the injury level skin oxygenation remains constant. Additionally, we observed elevated persperation levels below the injury level. We hypothesize that the combination of AD-related ischemia with pressure related ischemia and increased perspiration places individuals with injury level at T6 or above at significant risk for developing a pressure sore below the injury site.

  18. SciClone: Inferring Clonal Architecture and Tracking the Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Tumor Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Dees, Nathan D.; Griffith, Malachi; Welch, John S.; Griffith, Obi L.; Vij, Ravi; Tomasson, Michael H.; Graubert, Timothy A.; Walter, Matthew J.; Ellis, Matthew J.; Schierding, William; DiPersio, John F.; Ley, Timothy J.; Mardis, Elaine R.; Wilson, Richard K.; Ding, Li

    2014-01-01

    The sensitivity of massively-parallel sequencing has confirmed that most cancers are oligoclonal, with subpopulations of neoplastic cells harboring distinct mutations. A fine resolution view of this clonal architecture provides insight into tumor heterogeneity, evolution, and treatment response, all of which may have clinical implications. Single tumor analysis already contributes to understanding these phenomena. However, cryptic subclones are frequently revealed by additional patient samples (e.g., collected at relapse or following treatment), indicating that accurately characterizing a tumor requires analyzing multiple samples from the same patient. To address this need, we present SciClone, a computational method that identifies the number and genetic composition of subclones by analyzing the variant allele frequencies of somatic mutations. We use it to detect subclones in acute myeloid leukemia and breast cancer samples that, though present at disease onset, are not evident from a single primary tumor sample. By doing so, we can track tumor evolution and identify the spatial origins of cells resisting therapy. PMID:25102416

  19. Measurement of neutrino induced charged current neutral pion production cross section at SciBooNE

    SciTech Connect

    Catala-Perez, Juan

    2014-01-01

    SciBooNE is a neutrino scattering experiment located in the Booster Neutrino Beam at Fermilab. It collected data from June 2007 to August 2008 to accurately measure muon neutrino and anti-neutrino cross sections on carbon around 1 GeV neutrino energy. In this thesis we present the results on the measurement of the muon neutrino cross section resulting in a μ- plus a single π0 final state (CC- π0 channel). The present work will show the steps taken to achieve this result: from the reconstruction improvements to the background extraction. The flux-averaged CC - π0 production cross section measurement obtained in this thesis < σCC- π0 > Φ = (5.6 ± 1.9fit ± 0.7beam ± 0.5int - 0.7det) × 10-40 cm2/N at an average energy of 0.89 GeV is found to agree well both with the expectation from the Monte Ca

  20. GENESIS SciFlo: Scientific Knowledge Creation on the Grid Using a Semantically-Enabled Dataflow Execution Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, B. D.; Manipon, G.; Tang, B.; Mazzoni, D.; Fetzer, E.; Dobinson, E.; Yunck, T.

    2005-12-01

    The General Earth Science Investigation Suite (GENESIS) project is a NASA-sponsored partnership between the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, academia, and NASA data centers to develop a new suite of Web Services tools to facilitate multi-sensor investigations in Earth System Science. The goal of GENESIS is to enable large-scale, multi-instrument atmospheric science using combined datasets from the AIRS, MODIS, MISR, and GPS sensors. Investigations include cross-comparison of spaceborne climate sensors, cloud spectral analysis, study of upper troposphere-stratosphere water transport, study of the aerosol indirect cloud effect, and global climate model validation. The challenges are to bring together very large datasets, reformat and understand the individual instrument retrievals, co-register or re-grid the retrieved physical parameters, perform computationally-intensive data fusion and data mining operations, and accumulate complex statistics over months to years of data. To meet these challenges, we have developed a Grid computing and dataflow framework, named SciFlo, in which we are deploying a set of versatile and reusable operators for data access, subsetting, registration, mining, fusion, compression, and advanced statistical analysis. SciFlo is a system for Scientific Knowledge Creation on the Grid using a Semantically-Enabled Dataflow Execution Environment. SciFlo leverages Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) Web Services and the Grid Computing standards (WS-* & Globus Alliance toolkits), and enables scientists to do multi-instrument Earth Science by assembling reusable Web Services and native executables into a distributed computing flow (tree of operators). The SciFlo client & server engines optimize the execution of such distributed data flows and allow the user to transparently find and use datasets and operators without worrying about the actual location of the Grid resources. The scientist injects a distributed computation into the Grid by simply filling

  1. GENESIS SciFlo: Choreographing Interoperable Web Services on the Grid using a Semantically-Enabled Dataflow Execution Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, B. D.; Manipon, G.; Xing, Z.

    2007-12-01

    The General Earth Science Investigation Suite (GENESIS) project is a NASA-sponsored partnership between the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, academia, and NASA data centers to develop a new suite of Web Services tools to facilitate multi-sensor investigations in Earth System Science. The goal of GENESIS is to enable large-scale, multi-instrument atmospheric science using combined datasets from the AIRS, MODIS, MISR, and GPS sensors. Investigations include cross-comparison of spaceborne climate sensors, cloud spectral analysis, study of upper troposphere-stratosphere water transport, study of the aerosol indirect cloud effect, and global climate model validation. The challenges are to bring together very large datasets, reformat and understand the individual instrument retrievals, co-register or re-grid the retrieved physical parameters, perform computationally-intensive data fusion and data mining operations, and accumulate complex statistics over months to years of data. To meet these challenges, we have developed a Grid computing and dataflow framework, named SciFlo, in which we are deploying a set of versatile and reusable operators for data access, subsetting, registration, mining, fusion, compression, and advanced statistical analysis. SciFlo leverages remote Web Services, called via Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) or REST (one-line) URLs, and the Grid Computing standards (WS-* & Globus Alliance toolkits), and enables scientists to do multi- instrument Earth Science by assembling reusable Web Services and native executables into a distributed computing flow (tree of operators). The SciFlo client & server engines optimize the execution of such distributed data flows and allow the user to transparently find and use datasets and operators without worrying about the actual location of the Grid resources. In particular, SciFlo exploits the wealth of datasets accessible by OpenGIS Consortium (OGC) Web Mapping Servers & Web Coverage Servers (WMS/WCS), and by Open Data

  2. The Fulldome Curriculum for the Spitz SciDome Digital Planetarium: A New Age for Planetarium Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradstreet, David H.; Huggins, S. L.

    2010-01-01

    Astronomy education received a huge boost from the Space Program in the 1960's and early 1970's as evidenced by a large increase in school planetariums built nationwide at that time. But with the waning of manned explorations so also went the push for astronomy in the schools, and many school planetariums are underutilized or not used at all. This poster will discuss and illustrate some of the new Fulldome Curriculum that has been developed specifically for the Spitz SciDome digital planetarium powered by Starry Night. It is now possible to teach astronomical concepts in new and exciting ways and present topics that were extremely difficult to convey to lay audiences in the past. One of the strongest advantages of the SciDome is that, since it uses Starry Night as its astronomical engine, students can create their own astronomical configurations in the computer lab or at home using the PC or Mac version and then simply load them onto the SciDome planetarium system and display them for the class on the dome. Additionally, the instructor can create artificial bodies to pose "What if” scenarios, for example, "What would the Moon look like if it didn't rotate synchronously?", or "What would the analemma look like if the Earth's orbit were circular and not an ellipse?" Topics covered in the series include The Moon, Seasons, Coordinate Systems, Roemer's Method of Measuring the Speed of Light, Analemmas in the Solar System, Precession, Mimas and the Cassini Division, Halley's Comet in 1910, Dog Days, Galactic Distributions of Celestial Bodies, Retrograde Paths of Mars, Mercury's Orbit and the Length of the Mercurian Day, Altitude of the North Celestial Pole, Why Polaris Appears Mostly Stationary, Circumpolar Contellations, Planet Definition, Scale of the Solar System, Stonehenge, The Changing Aspect of Saturn's Appearance and Scorpio's Claws.

  3. The effect of complex rehabilitation training for 12 weeks on trunk muscle function and spine deformation of patients with SCI

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Dong-Hun; Yoon, Seong-Deok; Park, Gi Duck

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] It is important for patients with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) to strengthen their muscle strength and return to the work force one of the ultimate objectives of rehabilitation. This study reports how a single patient with SCI became stabilized in terms of abdominal muscles and back extension muscles, as well as returning the back to the neutral position from spinal deformation, as result of complex exercises performed for 12 weeks. [Subjects] The degree of damage of the subject was rated as C grade. The subject of this study had unstable posture due to paralysis in the lower extremities of the left side after removal of a malignant tumor by surgical operation, and tilting and torsion in the pelvis increased followed by increase of kyphosis in the thoracolumbar spine. The subject was more than two years since diagnosis of incomplete SCI after surgery. [Methods] Using isokinetic lumbar muscle strength measurement equipment, peak torque/weight, total work and average power in flexion and extension of the lumbar region were measured. A trunk measurement system (Formetric 4D, DIERS, Germany), which is a 3D image processing apparatus with high resolution for vertebrae, was used in order to measure 3D vertebrae and pelvis deformation as well as static balance abilities. As an exercise method, a foam roller was used to conduct fascia relaxation massage for warming-up, and postural kyphosis was changed into postural lordosis by lat pull-down using equipment, performed in 5 sets of 15 times preset at 60% intensity of 1RM 4 set of 10 crunch exercises per set using Togu’s were done while sitting at the end of Balance pad, and 4 sets of 15 bridge exercises. [Results] All angular speed tests showed a gradual increase in muscle strength. Flexion and extension showed 10% and 3% improvements, respectively. The spine deformation test showed that isokinetic exercise and lat pull-down exercise for 12 weeks resulted in improved spinal shape. [Conclusion] In this

  4. DOE's SciDAC Visualization and Analytics Center for EnablingTechnologies -- Strategy for Petascale Visual Data Analysis Success

    SciTech Connect

    Bethel, E Wes; Johnson, Chris; Aragon, Cecilia; Rubel, Oliver; Weber, Gunther; Pascucci, Valerio; Childs, Hank; Bremer, Peer-Timo; Whitlock, Brad; Ahern, Sean; Meredith, Jeremey; Ostrouchov, George; Joy, Ken; Hamann, Bernd; Garth, Christoph; Cole, Martin; Hansen, Charles; Parker, Steven; Sanderson, Allen; Silva, Claudio; Tricoche, Xavier

    2007-10-01

    The focus of this article is on how one group of researchersthe DOE SciDAC Visualization and Analytics Center for EnablingTechnologies (VACET) is tackling the daunting task of enabling knowledgediscovery through visualization and analytics on some of the world slargest and most complex datasets and on some of the world's largestcomputational platforms. As a Center for Enabling Technology, VACET smission is the creation of usable, production-quality visualization andknowledge discovery software infrastructure that runs on large, parallelcomputer systems at DOE's Open Computing facilities and that providessolutions to challenging visual data exploration and knowledge discoveryneeds of modern science, particularly the DOE sciencecommunity.

  5. The effect of complex rehabilitation training for 12 weeks on trunk muscle function and spine deformation of patients with SCI.

    PubMed

    Sung, Dong-Hun; Yoon, Seong-Deok; Park, Gi Duck

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] It is important for patients with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) to strengthen their muscle strength and return to the work force one of the ultimate objectives of rehabilitation. This study reports how a single patient with SCI became stabilized in terms of abdominal muscles and back extension muscles, as well as returning the back to the neutral position from spinal deformation, as result of complex exercises performed for 12 weeks. [Subjects] The degree of damage of the subject was rated as C grade. The subject of this study had unstable posture due to paralysis in the lower extremities of the left side after removal of a malignant tumor by surgical operation, and tilting and torsion in the pelvis increased followed by increase of kyphosis in the thoracolumbar spine. The subject was more than two years since diagnosis of incomplete SCI after surgery. [Methods] Using isokinetic lumbar muscle strength measurement equipment, peak torque/weight, total work and average power in flexion and extension of the lumbar region were measured. A trunk measurement system (Formetric 4D, DIERS, Germany), which is a 3D image processing apparatus with high resolution for vertebrae, was used in order to measure 3D vertebrae and pelvis deformation as well as static balance abilities. As an exercise method, a foam roller was used to conduct fascia relaxation massage for warming-up, and postural kyphosis was changed into postural lordosis by lat pull-down using equipment, performed in 5 sets of 15 times preset at 60% intensity of 1RM 4 set of 10 crunch exercises per set using Togu's were done while sitting at the end of Balance pad, and 4 sets of 15 bridge exercises. [Results] All angular speed tests showed a gradual increase in muscle strength. Flexion and extension showed 10% and 3% improvements, respectively. The spine deformation test showed that isokinetic exercise and lat pull-down exercise for 12 weeks resulted in improved spinal shape. [Conclusion] In this study

  6. Towards flash flood disaster prevention: the SciNetNat Haz proposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantinos, Papatheodorou; Elena, Tzanou; Carmen, Maftei; Ozgur, Kirca; Hafzullah, Aksoy

    2015-04-01

    Floods occur with a continuously increasing frequency due to climatic changes and cause serious damage in the wider Black Sea area, endangering human life and property. As societies continuously expand, these phenomena are expected to play an increasingly important role, blocking sustainable development unless properly tackled. Flash flood prevention seems at this point, to be the target of effectively mitigating the potential threat. Since in many cases, there is a cross-border character of the problem, collaborative efforts have to be made involving cooperation between countries. To this end, a variety of problems exist, including the "information gap" related to the unavailability of data and the multitude of methodologies used to assess flood hazard; a fact that renders comparison of hazard assessment results and cross border cooperation ineffective. An effort made within the context of the SciNetNatHaz project, suggests a two step approach to produce reliable the results which can lead to decision making regarding designing preventive measures. The first step aims at defining the flood prone areas on a regional scale, using geomorphometric models and readily available topographic data; thus overcoming the problem of data availability for any region of interest. The second step follows a vulnerability and risk assessment of the flood prone areas of interest and focuses on the calculation of flood parameters on a local scale using hydraulic models. Implementation of the full process is based on Open Source software tools so that it can be implemented with minimal costs by anyone interested. Implementation of the proposed procedure in three different cases in Greece and in Romania shows that it can provide accurate and reliable results to support decision making regarding the design of preventive measures. Keywords: Flash floods, hazard assessment, flood disaster prevention, HEC-RAS, SAGA GIS . Acknowledgements: This work is partially funded by the EU through the

  7. Stimulation parameter optimization for FES supported standing up and walking in SCI patients.

    PubMed

    Bijak, Manfred; Rakos, Monika; Hofer, Christian; Mayr, Winfried; Strohhofer, Maria; Raschka, Doris; Kern, Helmut

    2005-03-01

    Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) to restore leg movement for standing up and walking (stepping) in SCI patients with intact lower motor neuron is used by several groups. Usually quadriceps muscles are stimulated for hip and knee extension, gluteus muscles for hip stabilization, and the common peroneal nerve to elicit the flexion reflex. The requirement to get a natural movement would need a huge number of stimulation channels--a request that could be easily fulfillled from the engineer's point of view but not from the point of practicability since each stimulated muscle requires two skin-attached electrodes resulting in a prolonged time for donning and doffing. In the described project a newly developed eight channel stimulator that can vary the stimulation parameters in many ways and over a wide range is used. The goal is to achieve a natural movement with a minimum of surface electrodes by optimizing the stimulation parameters. Seven experienced FES users and five unexperienced persons (all between Th4-Th11) participate in this study. Standing up can be significantly improved by optimizing the time delay between the onset of quadriceps and gluteus muscles (0.2-0.4 s) and the duration of the ramp. A 0.2 s delay gives good results in heavy patients while slower ramps (0.4 s) are required in slim patients. During stepping, gluteus muscle timing is not very crucial. Gluteus stimulation is turned off 0.1-0.2 s before quadriceps muscle and with the same delay turned on again. Of major influence on the gait quality is the timing during heel strike when peroneal stimulation is switched off and quadriceps stimulation is turned on. Six patients require 0.0-0.1 s where neither peroneal nor quadriceps stimulation is applied, the others require an overlap of 0.1-0.2 s. Activation of adductor muscles during standing up and during the swing phase helps to avoid hip abduction and improves knee trajectories.

  8. Sexual adjustment after spinal cord injury (SCI) focusing on partner experiences.

    PubMed

    Kreuter, M; Sullivan, M; Siösteen, A

    1994-04-01

    In addition to the physical disability, a spinal cord injury affects self esteem and partner relationships. This study addressed partner experiences in relation to sexual interest, behaviour and satisfaction. A measure of satisfaction within relationships was also included. Forty-nine partners of SCI persons completed a comprehensive survey including an 80 item questionnaire and a VAS quality-of-life measure. Partner ages ranged from 18 to 79 years (median 34 years). Thirty-nine partners were women and 10 partners were men. Significance testing of relationships included bivariate, partial and multiple correlation procedures. Sixty-one per cent of the partners appreciated the quality of their sexual relationship and most partners (84%) considered their relationship overall to be satisfying. Half of the couples engaged in sex, with or without intercourse, once a week or more. Fifty-five per cent of the partners reported being content with the frequency of their sexual interaction while one third would have wished more frequent activity. Almost half of the partners (45%) considered their current sex life to be as good as or even better than their previous sex life. High general satisfaction with life, a varied repertoire of rewarding sexual expressions, including intercourse and concern about the able bodied partner's sexual pleasure were positive predictors of an active and fulfilling sexual relationship. From the partner's perspective, feelings of emotional closeness, mutual concerns and willingness to engage in a variety of sexual activities seem to be more important for sexual fulfilment than the physiological aspects of sexuality. PMID:8022632

  9. Erratum: “Multi-point, high-speed passive ion velocity distribution diagnostic on the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment” [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 10D516 (2012)

    DOE PAGES

    Burke, Marcus G.; Fonck, Raymond J.; Bongard, Michael W.; Schlossberg, David J.; Winz, Gregory R.

    2016-07-18

    This article corrects an error in M.G. Burke et al., 'Multi-point, high-speed passive ion velocity distribution diagnostic on the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment,' Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 10D516 (2012) pertaining to ion temperature. The conclusions of this paper are not altered by the revised ion temperature measurements.

  10. The NASA SCI Files[TM]: The Case of the Powerful Pulleys. A Lesson Guide with Activities in Mathematics, Science, and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricles, Shannon

    This teacher's guide, with accompanying videotape, presents an episode of the NASA SCI Files. In this episode, one of the tree house detectives has had an accident and cannot get into the tree house. Using problem-based learning, the rest of the gang investigates the world of simple machines and physical science and "pull" together to get everyone…

  11. The Case of the Great Space Exploration: An Educator Guide with Activities in Mathematics, Science, and Technology. The NASA SCI Files. EG-2004-09-12-LARC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricles, Shannon; Jaramillo, Becky; Fargo, Michelle

    2004-01-01

    In this companion to the "NASA SCI Files" episode "The Case of the Great Space Exploration," the tree house detectives learn about NASA's new vision for exploring space. In four segments aimed at grades 3-5, students learn about a variety of aspects of space exploration. Each segment of the guide includes an overview, a set of objectives,…

  12. The Case of the Physical Fitness Challenge: An Educator Guide with Activities in Mathematics, Science, and Technology. The NASA SCI Files. EG-2005-10-09-LARC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricles, Shannon; Jaramillo, Becky; Fargo, Michelle

    2005-01-01

    In this companion to the "NASA SCI Files[TM]" episode "The Case of the Physical Fitness Challenge," the tree house detectives learn about anatomy, fitness and nutrition in preparation for the President's Challenge. The guide is divided into four segments aimed at grades 3-5, each of which includes an overview, a set of objectives, vocabulary to be…

  13. Measurement of K+ production cross section by 8 GeV protons using high energy neutrino interactions in the SciBooNE detector

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, G.

    2011-07-28

    The SciBooNE Collaboration reports K+ production cross section and rate measurements using high energy daughter muon neutrino scattering data off the SciBar polystyrene (C8H8) target in the SciBooNE detector. The K+ mesons are produced by 8 GeV protons striking a beryllium target in Fermilab Booster Neutrino Beam line (BNB). Using observed neutrino and antineutrino events in SciBooNE, we measure d2σ/dpdΩ = (5.34 ±0.76) mb/(GeV/c x sr) for p + Be =K+ + X at mean K+ energy of 3.9 GeV and angle (with respect to the proton beam direction) of 3.7 degrees, corresponding to the selected K+ sample. Compared to Monte Carlo predictions using previous higher energy K+ production measurements, this measurement, which uses the NUANCE neutrino interaction generator, is consistent with a normalization factor of 0.85 ± 0.12. This agreement is evidence that the extrapolation of the higher energy K+ measurements to an 8 GeV beam energy using Feynman scaling is valid. This measurement reduces the error on the K+ production cross section from 40% to 14%.

  14. The NASA SCI Files[TM]: The Case of the Shaky Quake. A Lesson Guide with Activities in Mathematics, Science, and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricles, Shannon

    The NASA SCI Files is a series of instructional programs consisting of broadcast, print, and online elements emphasizing standards-based instruction, problem-based learning, and science as inquiry. The series seeks to motivate students in grades 3-5 to become critical thinkers and active problem solvers. In this program, the tree house detectives…

  15. Measurement of K+ production cross section by 8 GeV protons using high-energy neutrino interactions in the SciBooNE detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, G.; Mariani, C.; Alcaraz-Aunion, J. L.; Brice, S. J.; Bugel, L.; Catala-Perez, J.; Conrad, J. M.; Djurcic, Z.; Dore, U.; Finley, D. A.; Franke, A. J.; Giganti, C.; Gomez-Cadenas, J. J.; Guzowski, P.; Hanson, A.; Hayato, Y.; Hiraide, K.; Jover-Manas, G.; Karagiorgi, G.; Katori, T.; Kobayashi, Y. K.; Kobilarcik, T.; Kubo, H.; Kurimoto, Y.; Louis, W. C.; Loverre, P. F.; Ludovici, L.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Masuike, S.; Matsuoka, K.; McGary, V. T.; Metcalf, W.; Mills, G. B.; Mitsuka, G.; Miyachi, Y.; Mizugashira, S.; Moore, C. D.; Nakajima, Y.; Nakaya, T.; Napora, R.; Nienaber, P.; Orme, D.; Otani, M.; Russell, A. D.; Sanchez, F.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Shibata, T.-A.; Sorel, M.; Stefanski, R. J.; Takei, H.; Tanaka, H.-K.; Tanaka, M.; Tayloe, R.; Taylor, I. J.; Tesarek, R. J.; Uchida, Y.; van de Water, R.; Walding, J. J.; Wascko, M. O.; White, H. B.; Yokoyama, M.; Zeller, G. P.; Zimmerman, E. D.

    2011-07-01

    The SciBooNE Collaboration reports K+ production cross section and rate measurements using high-energy daughter muon neutrino scattering data off the SciBar polystyrene (C8H8) target in the SciBooNE detector. The K+ mesons are produced by 8 GeV protons striking a beryllium target in Fermilab Booster Neutrino Beam line (BNB). Using observed neutrino and antineutrino events in SciBooNE, we measure (d2σ)/(dpdΩ)=(5.34±0.76)mb/(GeV/c×sr) for p+Be→K++X at mean K+ energy of 3.9 GeV and angle (with respect to the proton beam direction) of 3.7 degrees, corresponding to the selected K+ sample. Compared to Monte Carlo predictions using previous higher energy K+ production measurements, this measurement, which uses the NUANCE neutrino interaction generator, is consistent with a normalization factor of 0.85±0.12. This agreement is evidence that the extrapolation of the higher energy K+ measurements to an 8 GeV beam energy using Feynman scaling is valid. This measurement reduces the error on the K+ production cross section from 40% to 14%.

  16. Measurement of K+ production cross section by 8 GeV protons using high energy neutrino interactions in the SciBooNE detector

    DOE PAGES

    Cheng, G.

    2011-07-28

    The SciBooNE Collaboration reports K+ production cross section and rate measurements using high energy daughter muon neutrino scattering data off the SciBar polystyrene (C8H8) target in the SciBooNE detector. The K+ mesons are produced by 8 GeV protons striking a beryllium target in Fermilab Booster Neutrino Beam line (BNB). Using observed neutrino and antineutrino events in SciBooNE, we measure d2σ/dpdΩ = (5.34 ±0.76) mb/(GeV/c x sr) for p + Be =K+ + X at mean K+ energy of 3.9 GeV and angle (with respect to the proton beam direction) of 3.7 degrees, corresponding to the selected K+ sample. Compared tomore » Monte Carlo predictions using previous higher energy K+ production measurements, this measurement, which uses the NUANCE neutrino interaction generator, is consistent with a normalization factor of 0.85 ± 0.12. This agreement is evidence that the extrapolation of the higher energy K+ measurements to an 8 GeV beam energy using Feynman scaling is valid. This measurement reduces the error on the K+ production cross section from 40% to 14%.« less

  17. High resolution digital terrain models and orthorectified images of Mars from HiRISE and HiSCI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattson, S.; McEwen, A. S.; Ojha, L.; Heyd, R.; Howington-Kraus, E.; Kirk, R. L.

    2011-10-01

    Stereo images acquired from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera currently operating on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter are being used to generate high resolution Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) and orthorectified images [1]. Orthorectified images of repeat coverage over a given DTM can now be created, providing a powerful research tool for investigating active surface processes on Mars. New discoveries of surface changes on Mars have been made that would not have been possible without stereo images [e.g. 2]. The methods and products developed for HiRISE DTM and orthoimage processing will be leveraged for the planned High-resolution Stereo Color Imager (HiSCI) instrument to fly on the joint NASA-ESA ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) mission, planned to launch in 2016 [3]. The HiRISE team releases DTMs and orthoimages to the Planetary Data System (PDS) on nearly a monthly frequency [1]. A similar schedule for DTM/orthoimage production and public release is planned for HiSCI [3].

  18. Metabolic demand and muscle activation during different forms of bodyweight supported locomotion in men with incomplete SCI.

    PubMed

    Fenuta, Alyssa M; Hicks, Audrey L

    2014-01-01

    Body weight supported locomotor training uses neuroplasticity principles to improve recovery following a spinal cord injury (SCI). Steady state locomotion using the same body weight support (BWS) percent was compared in 7 males (42.6 ± 4.29 years) with incomplete SCI and matched (gender, age) noninjured controls (42.7 ± 5.4 years) using the Lokomat, Manual Treadmill, and ZeroG. The VO2000, Polar Heart Rate (HR) Monitor, and lower limb electromyography (EMG) electrodes were worn during the 2-minute sessions. Oxygen uptake (VO2) and HR were expressed as percentage of peak values obtained using progressive arm ergometry; VO2 was also expressed relative to resting metabolic equivalents (METS). Filtered EMG signals from tibialis anterior (TA), rectus femoris (RF), biceps femoris (BF), and medial gastrocnemius (MG) were normalized to ZeroG stepping. The Lokomat required 30% of VO2 peak (2METS) compared to ~54% (3METS) for Manual Treadmill and ZeroG sessions. HR was 67% of peak during Lokomat sessions compared to ~83% for Manual Treadmill and ZeroG. Muscle activation was higher in treadmill conditions compared to the ZeroG primarily due to increased BF activity. At the same level of BWS, locomotion using the Manual Treadmill or the ZeroG is more aerobically demanding than the Lokomat. Treadmill modalities encourage greater hip extensor activation compared to overground locomotion.

  19. [A literature review on acupuncture and moxibustion for prevention and treatment of lung cancer in SCI iournals (2003-2013)].

    PubMed

    Xu, Linling; Xu, Tianshu

    2015-06-01

    To explore the status of acupuncture and moxibustion for prevention and treatment of lung cancer in current years; literature regarding acupuncture and moxibustion for prevention and treatment of lung cancer between 2003 and 2013 from SCI journals was retrieved and analyzed. As a result, 20 papers were included, which were published in 17 journals including Journal of Clinical Oncology, Chest, Respirology and Lung Cancer, etc. Of them, 3 papers discussed the effects of acupuncture on progressing of lung cancer; 4 articles confirmed that acupuncture could reduce myelosuppression and digestive tract reactions induced by radiotherapy and chemotherapy; 6 papers showed that acupuncture could relieve pain or fatigue of lung cancer; 3 papers indicated that acupuncture could palliate dyspnea in lung cancer patients. It is concluded by domestic and overseas researches that acupuncture and moxibustion are effective and safe for symptoms of lung cancer, which is worthy of further study.

  20. Toward Sci-φ: a lightweight Cloud PaaS for developing embarrassingly parallel applications based on Jini.

    PubMed

    Dazzi, Patrizio

    2014-01-01

    Embarrassingly parallel problems are characterised by a very small amount of information to be exchanged among the parts they are split in, during their parallel execution. As a consequence they do not require sophisticated, low-latency, high-bandwidth interconnection networks but can be efficiently computed in parallel by exploiting commodity hardware. Basically, this means cheap clusters, networks of workstations and desktops, and Computational Clouds. This computational model can be exploited to compute a quite large range of problems. This paper describes Sci-φ, an almost complete redesign of a previous tool of ours aimed at developing task parallel applications based on Java and Jini that were shown to be an effective and efficient solution in environments like clusters and networks of workstations and desktops.

  1. Measurement of Neutrino-Nucleon Neutral-Current Elastic Scattering Cross-section at SciBooNE

    SciTech Connect

    Takei, Hideyuki

    2009-02-01

    In this thesis, results of neutrino-nucleon neutral current (NC) elastic scattering analysis are presented. Neutrinos interact with other particles only with weak force. Measurement of cross-section for neutrino-nucleon reactions at various neutrino energy are important for the study of nucleon structure. It also provides data to be used for beam flux monitor in neutrino oscillation experiments. The cross-section for neutrino-nucleon NC elastic scattering contains the axial vector form factor GA(Q2) as well as electromagnetic form factors unlike electromagnetic interaction. GA is propotional to strange part of nucleon spin (Δs) in Q2 → 0 limit. Measurement of NC elastic cross-section with smaller Q2 enables us to access Δs. NC elastic cross-sections of neutrino-nucleon and antineutrino-nucleon were measured earlier by E734 experiment at Brookheaven National Laboratory (BNL) in 1987. In this experiment, cross-sections were measured in Q2 > 0.4 GeV2 region. Result from this experiment was the only published data for NC elastic scattering cross-section published before our experiment. SciBooNE is an experiment for the measurement of neutrino-nucleon scattering cross-secitons using Booster Neutrino Beam (BNB) at FNAL. BNB has energy peak at 0.7 GeV. In this energy region, NC elastic scattering, charged current elastic scattering, charged current pion production, and neutral current pion production are the major reaction branches. SciBar, electromagnetic calorimeter, and Muon Range Detector are the detectors for SciBooNE. The SciBar consists of finely segmented scintillators and 14336 channels of PMTs. It has a capability to reconstruct particle track longer than 8 cm and separate proton from muons and pions using energy deposit information. Signal of NC elastic scattering is a single proton track. In vp → vp process, the recoil proton is detected. On the other hand, most of vn → vn is

  2. Influence of different rehabilitation therapy models on patient outcomes: Hand function therapy in individuals with incomplete SCI

    PubMed Central

    Kapadia, Naaz M.; Bagher, Shaghayegh; Popovic, Milos R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The primary objective was to compare the benefits of single (COT1) versus double (COT2) dose of conventional occupational therapy (COT) in improving voluntary hand function in individuals with incomplete, sub-acute C3–C7 spinal cord injury (SCI). The secondary objective was to compare these two interventions versus functional electrical stimulation therapy plus COT (FES + COT). Design Retrospective analysis. Setting Inpatient spinal cord rehabilitation center, Toronto. Participants Individuals with traumatic incomplete sub-acute SCI. Interventions Data from Phases I and II (ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT00221117) randomized control trials were pooled together for the purpose of this study. Participants in the COT1 group received 45 hours of therapy, the COT2 group received 80 hours of therapy, and the FES + COT group received 40 hours of COT therapy +40 hours of FES therapy. Outcome measures We analyzed the functional independence measure (FIM) and the spinal cord independence measure (SCIM) self-care sub-scores. Results The mean change scores on the FIM self-care sub-score for the COT1, COT2, and FES + COT groups were 12.8, 10, and 20.1 points, respectively. Similarly, the mean change scores on the SCIM self-care sub-score for the COT1, COT2, and FES + COT groups were, 2.6, 3.16, and 10.2 points, respectively. Conclusion Increased rehabilitation intensity alone may not always be beneficial. The type of intervention plays a significant role in determining functional changes. In this instance, receiving one (COT1) or two (COT2) doses of COT resulted in similar outcomes, however, FES + COT therapy yielded much better outcomes compared to COT1 and COT2 interventions. PMID:24968955

  3. Results of a Telephone Survey of Television Station Managers Concerning the NASA SCI Files(TM) and NASA CONNECT(TM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Perry, Jeannine

    2004-01-01

    A telephone survey of television station managers concerning 2 instructional television programs, the NASA SCI Files(TM) and NASA CONNECT(TM), offered by the NASA Langley Center for Distance Learning (CDL) was conducted. Using a 4-point scale, with 4 being very satisfied, survey participants reported that they were either very satisfied (77.1 percent) or satisfied (19.9 percent) with the overall (educational and technical) quality of the NASA SCI Files(TM). Using a 4-point scale, with 4 being very satisfied, survey participants reported that they were either very satisfied (77.9 percent) or satisfied (19.1 percent) with the overall (educational and technical) quality of NASA CONNECT(TM) .

  4. SciDAC's Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies Semi-Annual Progress Report for the Period October 1, 2009 through March 31, 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Dean N.; Foster, I. T.; Middleton, D. E.; Ananthakrishnan, R.; Siebenlist, F.; Shoshani, A.; Sim, A.; Bell, G.; Drach, R.; Ahrens, J.; Jones, P.; Brown, D.; Chastang, J.; Cinquini, L.; Fox, P.; Harper, D.; Hook, N.; Nienhouse, E.; Strand, G.; West, P.; Wilcox, H.; Wilhelmi, N.; Zednik, S.; Hankin, S.; Schweitzer, R.; Bernholdt, D.; Chen, M.; Miller, R.; Shipman, G.; Wang, F.; Bharathi, S.; Chervenak, A.; Schuler, R.; Su, M.

    2010-04-21

    This report summarizes work carried out by the ESG-CET during the period October 1, 2009 through March 31, 2009. It includes discussion of highlights, overall progress, period goals, collaborations, papers, and presentations. To learn more about our project, and to find previous reports, please visit the Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies (ESG-CET) website. This report will be forwarded to the DOE SciDAC program management, the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (OBER) program management, national and international collaborators and stakeholders (e.g., the Community Climate System Model (CCSM), the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 5th Assessment Report (AR5), the Climate Science Computational End Station (CCES), the SciDAC II: A Scalable and Extensible Earth System Model for Climate Change Science, the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP), and other wide-ranging climate model evaluation activities).

  5. Development and psychometric characteristics of the SCI-QOL Ability to Participate and Satisfaction with Social Roles and Activities item banks and short forms

    PubMed Central

    Heinemann, Allen W.; Kisala, Pamela A.; Hahn, Elizabeth A.; Tulsky, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop a spinal cord injury (SCI)-focused version of PROMIS and Neuro-QOL social domain item banks; evaluate the psychometric properties of items developed for adults with SCI; and report information to facilitate clinical and research use. Design We used a mixed-methods design to develop and evaluate Ability to Participate in Social Roles and Activities and Satisfaction with Social Roles and Activities items. Focus groups helped define the constructs; cognitive interviews helped revise items; and confirmatory factor analysis and item response theory methods helped calibrate item banks and evaluate differential item functioning related to demographic and injury characteristics. Setting Five SCI Model System sites and one Veterans Administration medical center. Participants The calibration sample consisted of 641 individuals; a reliability sample consisted of 245 individuals residing in the community. Results A subset of 27 Ability to Participate and 35 Satisfaction items demonstrated good measurement properties and negligible differential item functioning related to demographic and injury characteristics. The SCI-specific measures correlate strongly with the PROMIS and Neuro-QOL versions. Ten item short forms correlate >0.96 with the full banks. Variable-length CATs with a minimum of 4 items, variable-length CATs with a minimum of 8 items, fixed-length CATs of 10 items, and the 10-item short forms demonstrate construct coverage and measurement error that is comparable to the full item bank. Conclusion The Ability to Participate and Satisfaction with Social Roles and Activities CATs and short forms demonstrate excellent psychometric properties and are suitable for clinical and research applications. PMID:26010974

  6. Measuring psychological trauma after spinal cord injury: Development and psychometric characteristics of the SCI-QOL Psychological Trauma item bank and short form

    PubMed Central

    Kisala, Pamela A.; Victorson, David; Pace, Natalie; Heinemann, Allen W.; Choi, Seung W.; Tulsky, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the development and psychometric properties of the SCI-QOL Psychological Trauma item bank and short form. Design Using a mixed-methods design, we developed and tested a Psychological Trauma item bank with patient and provider focus groups, cognitive interviews, and item response theory based analytic approaches, including tests of model fit, differential item functioning (DIF) and precision. Setting We tested a 31-item pool at several medical institutions across the United States, including the University of Michigan, Kessler Foundation, Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, the University of Washington, Craig Hospital and the James J. Peters/Bronx Veterans Administration hospital. Participants A total of 716 individuals with SCI completed the trauma items Results The 31 items fit a unidimensional model (CFI=0.952; RMSEA=0.061) and demonstrated good precision (theta range between 0.6 and 2.5). Nine items demonstrated negligible DIF with little impact on score estimates. The final calibrated item bank contains 19 items Conclusion The SCI-QOL Psychological Trauma item bank is a psychometrically robust measurement tool from which a short form and a computer adaptive test (CAT) version are available. PMID:26010967

  7. Product and market study for Los Alamos National Laboratory. Building resources for technology commercialization: The SciBus Analytical, Inc. paradigm

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The study project was undertaken to investigate how entrepreneurial small businesses with technology licenses can develop product and market strategies sufficiently persuasive to attract resources and exploit commercialization opportunities. The study attempts to answer two primary questions: (1) What key business development strategies are likely to make technology transfers successful, and (2) How should the plan best be presented in order to attract resources (e.g., personnel, funding, channels of distribution)? In the opinion of the investigator, Calidex Corporation, if the business strategies later prove to be successful, then the plan model has relevance for any technology licensee attempting to accumulate resources and bridge from technology resident in government laboratories to the commercial marketplace. The study utilized SciBus Analytical, Inc. (SciBus), a Los Alamos National Laboratory CRADA participant, as the paradigm small business technology licensee. The investigator concluded that the optimum value of the study lay in the preparation of an actual business development plan for SciBus that might then have, hopefully, broader relevance and merit for other private sector technology transfer licensees working with various Government agencies.

  8. DOE SciDAC's Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Dean N.

    2011-09-27

    report at the end of project funding. To continue to serve the climate-science community, we are currently seeking additional funding. Such funding would allow us to maintain and enhance ESGF production and operation of this vital endeavor of cataloging, serving, and analyzing ultra-scale climate science data. At this time, the entire ESG-CET team would like to take this opportunity to sincerely thank our funding agencies in the DOE Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) program and the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (OBER) - as well as our national and international collaborators, stakeholders, and partners - for allowing us to work with you and serve the community these past several years.

  9. A preliminary comparison of myoelectric and cyclic control of an implanted neuroprosthesis to modulate gait speed in incomplete SCI

    PubMed Central

    Lombardo, Lisa M.; Bailey, Stephanie N.; Foglyano, Kevin M.; Miller, Michael E.; Pinault, Gilles; Triolo, Ronald J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Explore whether electromyography (EMG) control of electrical stimulation for walking after incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) can affect ability to modulate speed and alter gait spatial-temporal parameters compared to cyclic repetition of pre-programmed stimulation. Design Single case study with subject acting as own concurrent control. Setting Hospital-based biomechanics laboratory. Participants Single subject with C6 AIS D SCI using an implanted neuroprosthesis for walking. Interventions Lower extremity muscle activation via an implanted system with two different control methods: (1) pre-programmed pattern of stimulation, and (2) EMG-controlled stimulation based on signals from the gastrocnemius and quadriceps. Outcome measures Gait speed, distance, and subjective rating of difficulty during 2-minute walks. Range of walking speeds and associated cadences, stride lengths, stride times, and double support times during quantitative gait analysis. Results EMG control resulted in statistically significant increases in both walking speed and distance (P < 0.001) over cyclic stimulation during 2-minute walks. Maximum walking speed with EMG control (0.48 m/second) was significantly (P < 0.001) faster than the fastest automatic pattern (0.39 m/second), with increased cadence and decreased stride and double support times (P < 0.000) but no change in stride length (z = −0.085; P = 0.932). The slowest walking with EMG control (0.25 m/second) was virtually indistinguishable from the slowest with automatic cycling (z = −0.239; P = 0.811). Conclusion EMG control can increase the ability to modulate comfortable walking speed over pre-programmed cyclic stimulation. While control methods did not differ at the lowest speed, EMG-triggered stimulation allowed significantly faster walking than cyclic stimulation. The expanded range of available walking speeds could permit users to better avoid obstacles and naturally adapt to various environments

  10. Leg joint power output during progressive resistance FES-LCE cycling in SCI subjects: developing an index of fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Haapala, Stephenie A; Faghri, Pouran D; Adams, Douglas J

    2008-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the biomechanics of the hip, knee and ankle during a progressive resistance cycling protocol in an effort to detect and measure the presence of muscle fatigue. It was hypothesized that knee power output can be used as an indicator of fatigue in order to assess the cycling performance of SCI subjects. Methods Six spinal cord injured subjects (2 incomplete, 4 complete) between the ages of twenty and fifty years old and possessing either a complete or incomplete spinal cord injury at or below the fourth cervical vertebra participated in this study. Kinematic data and pedal forces were recorded during cycling at increasing levels of resistance. Ankle, knee and hip power outputs and resultant pedal force were calculated. Ergometer cadence and muscle stimulation intensity were also recorded. Results The main findings of this study were: (a) ankle and knee power outputs decreased, whereas hip power output increased with increasing resistance, (b) cadence, stimulation intensity and resultant pedal force in that combined order were significant predictors of knee power output and (c) knowing the value of these combined predictors at 10 rpm, an index of fatigue can be developed, quantitatively expressing the power capacity of the knee joint with respect to a baseline power level defined as fatigue. Conclusion An index of fatigue was successfully developed, proportionalizing knee power capacity during cycling to a predetermined value of fatigue. The fatigue index value at 0/8th kp, measured 90 seconds into active, unassisted pedaling was 1.6. This indicates initial power capacity at the knee to be 1.6 times greater than fatigue. The fatigue index decreased to 1.1 at 2/8th kp, representing approximately a 30% decrease in the knee's power capacity within a 4 minute timespan. These findings suggest that the present cycling protocol is not sufficient for a rider to gain the benefits of FES and thus raises speculation as to

  11. Impact of locomotion training with a neurologic controlled hybrid assistive limb (HAL) exoskeleton on neuropathic pain and health related quality of life (HRQoL) in chronic SCI: a case study (.).

    PubMed

    Cruciger, Oliver; Schildhauer, Thomas A; Meindl, Renate C; Tegenthoff, Martin; Schwenkreis, Peter; Citak, Mustafa; Aach, Mirko

    2016-08-01

    Chronic neuropathic pain (CNP) is a common condition associated with spinal cord injury (SCI) and has been reported to be severe, disabling and often treatment-resistant and therefore remains a clinical challenge for the attending physicians. The treatment usually includes pharmacological and/or nonpharmacological approaches. Body weight supported treadmill training (BWSTT) and locomotion training with driven gait orthosis (DGO) have evolved over the last decades and are now considered to be an established part in the rehabilitation of SCI patients. Conventional locomotion training goes along with improvements of the patients' walking abilities in particular speed and gait pattern. The neurologic controlled hybrid assistive limb (HAL®, Cyberdyne Inc., Ibraki, Japan) exoskeleton, however, is a new tailored approach to support motor functions synchronously to the patient's voluntary drive. This report presents two cases of severe chronic and therapy resistant neuropathic pain due to chronic SCI and demonstrates the beneficial effects of neurologic controlled exoskeletal intervention on pain severity and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Both of these patients were engaged in a 12 weeks period of daily HAL®-supported locomotion training. In addition to improvements in motor functions and walking abilities, both show significant reduction in pain severity and improvements in all HRQoL domains. Although various causal factors likely contribute to abatement of CNP, the reported results occurred due to a new approach in the rehabilitation of chronic spinal cord injury patients. These findings suggest not only the feasibility of this new approach but in conclusion, demonstrate the effectiveness of neurologic controlled locomotion training in the long-term management of refractory neuropathic pain. Implications for Rehabilitation CNP remains a challenge in the rehabilitation of chronic SCI patients. Locomotion training with the HAL exoskeleton seems to improve CNP

  12. Astrobites and GeoSciBites: Using Online Research Digests for Outreach to Undergraduates and the Broader Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjan, S.; Kohler, S.; Sanders, N.; Morey, S.

    2013-12-01

    Effective science communication is imperative for the sharing of scientific ideas, continued funding and support from policy makers, and education of the public. As future researchers and educators, it is particularly important to engage graduate students in science communication. Astrobites (http://astrobites.org) is an innovative education initiative developed by graduate students in planetary science, astronomy, and astrophysics. Our goal is to help undergraduates make the transition from the classroom to careers in research by introducing them to the astronomical literature in a pedagogical, approachable, and comprehensible way. Every day we select one new journal article posted to the astrophysics preprint server (arXiv.org/astro-ph) and prepare a brief summary describing methods and results, explain jargon, and provide context. We also write regular blog posts containing career advice, such as tips for applying for fellowships or demystifying the publishing process. The articles are written by 30 graduate students in astrophysics from throughout the US and Europe and are read by 1000 daily readers worldwide, including undergraduates, researchers, and interested non-scientists. We describe lessons learned in starting, sustaining, and expanding science outreach blogs like Astrobites. We survey our readership and present analysis summarizing our reader base and impact. We report on the foundation of other ';bites blogs, focusing on the foundation of GeoSciBites, a geophysical sciences outreach blog. We discuss future opportunities for additional outreach initiatives in new disciplines.

  13. Astrobites and GeoSciBites: Using Online Research Digests for Outreach to Undergraduates and the Broader Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjan, S.; Kohler, S.; Sanders, N.; Morey, S.

    2011-12-01

    Effective science communication is imperative for the sharing of scientific ideas, continued funding and support from policy makers, and education of the public. As future researchers and educators, it is particularly important to engage graduate students in science communication. Astrobites (http://astrobites.org) is an innovative education initiative developed by graduate students in planetary science, astronomy, and astrophysics. Our goal is to help undergraduates make the transition from the classroom to careers in research by introducing them to the astronomical literature in a pedagogical, approachable, and comprehensible way. Every day we select one new journal article posted to the astrophysics preprint server (arXiv.org/astro-ph) and prepare a brief summary describing methods and results, explain jargon, and provide context. We also write regular blog posts containing career advice, such as tips for applying for fellowships or demystifying the publishing process. The articles are written by 30 graduate students in astrophysics from throughout the US and Europe and are read by 1000 daily readers worldwide, including undergraduates, researchers, and interested non-scientists. We describe lessons learned in starting, sustaining, and expanding science outreach blogs like Astrobites. We survey our readership and present analysis summarizing our reader base and impact. We report on the foundation of other ';bites blogs, focusing on the foundation of GeoSciBites, a geophysical sciences outreach blog. We discuss future opportunities for additional outreach initiatives in new disciplines.

  14. Final Report on DOE SciDAC project on Next Generation of Multi-Scale Quantum Simulation Software for Strongly Correlated Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Zhaojun; Scalettar, Richard; Savrasov, Sergey

    2012-07-01

    This report summarizes the accomplishments of the University of California Davis team which is part of a larger SciDAC collaboration including Mark Jarrell of Louisiana State University, Karen Tomko of the Ohio Supercomputer Center, and Eduardo F. D'Azevedo and Thomas A. Maier of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In this report, we focus on the major UCD accomplishments. As the paper authorship list emphasizes, much of our work is the result of a tightly integrated effort; hence this compendium of UCD efforts of necessity contains some overlap with the work at our partner institutions.

  15. Ontological Encoding of GeoSciML and INSPIRE geological standard vocabularies and schemas: application to geological mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardo, Vincenzo; Piana, Fabrizio; Mimmo, Dario; Fubelli, Giandomenico; Giardino, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Encoding of geologic knowledge in formal languages is an ambitious task, aiming at the interoperability and organic representation of geological data, and semantic characterization of geologic maps. Initiatives such as GeoScience Markup Language (last version is GeoSciML 4, 2015[1]) and INSPIRE "Data Specification on Geology" (an operative simplification of GeoSciML, last version is 3.0 rc3, 2013[2]), as well as the recent terminological shepherding of the Geoscience Terminology Working Group (GTWG[3]) have been promoting information exchange of the geologic knowledge. There have also been limited attempts to encode the knowledge in a machine-readable format, especially in the lithology domain (see e.g. the CGI_Lithology ontology[4]), but a comprehensive ontological model that connect the several knowledge sources is still lacking. This presentation concerns the "OntoGeonous" initiative, which aims at encoding the geologic knowledge, as expressed through the standard vocabularies, schemas and data models mentioned above, through a number of interlinked computational ontologies, based on the languages of the Semantic Web and the paradigm of Linked Open Data. The initiative proceeds in parallel with a concrete case study, concerning the setting up of a synthetic digital geological map of the Piemonte region (NW Italy), named "GEOPiemonteMap" (developed by the CNR Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources, CNR IGG, Torino), where the description and classification of GeologicUnits has been supported by the modeling and implementation of the ontologies. We have devised a tripartite ontological model called OntoGeonous that consists of: 1) an ontology of the geologic features (in particular, GeologicUnit, GeomorphologicFeature, and GeologicStructure[5], modeled from the definitions and UML schemata of CGI vocabularies[6], GeoScienceML and INSPIRE, and aligned with the Planetary realm of NASA SWEET ontology[7]), 2) an ontology of the Earth materials (as defined by the

  16. Interoperability Using Lightweight Metadata Standards: Service & Data Casting, OpenSearch, OPM Provenance, and Shared SciFlo Workflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, B. D.; Manipon, G.; Hua, H.; Fetzer, E.

    2011-12-01

    Under several NASA grants, we are generating multi-sensor merged atmospheric datasets to enable the detection of instrument biases and studies of climate trends over decades of data. For example, under a NASA MEASURES grant we are producing a water vapor climatology from the A-Train instruments, stratified by the Cloudsat cloud classification for each geophysical scene. The generation and proper use of such multi-sensor climate data records (CDR's) requires a high level of openness, transparency, and traceability. To make the datasets self-documenting and provide access to full metadata and traceability, we have implemented a set of capabilities and services using known, interoperable protocols. These protocols include OpenSearch, OPeNDAP, Open Provenance Model, service & data casting technologies using Atom feeds, and REST-callable analysis workflows implemented as SciFlo (XML) documents. We advocate that our approach can serve as a blueprint for how to openly "document and serve" complex, multi-sensor CDR's with full traceability. The capabilities and services provided include: - Discovery of the collections by keyword search, exposed using OpenSearch protocol; - Space/time query across the CDR's granules and all of the input datasets via OpenSearch; - User-level configuration of the production workflows so that scientists can select additional physical variables from the A-Train to add to the next iteration of the merged datasets; - Efficient data merging using on-the-fly OPeNDAP variable slicing & spatial subsetting of data out of input netCDF and HDF files (without moving the entire files); - Self-documenting CDR's published in a highly usable netCDF4 format with groups used to organize the variables, CF-style attributes for each variable, numeric array compression, & links to OPM provenance; - Recording of processing provenance and data lineage into a query-able provenance trail in Open Provenance Model (OPM) format, auto-captured by the workflow engine

  17. SciDAC's Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies Semiannual Progress Report October 1, 2010 through March 31, 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Dean N.

    2011-04-02

    This report summarizes work carried out by the Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies (ESG-CET) from October 1, 2010 through March 31, 2011. It discusses ESG-CET highlights for the reporting period, overall progress, period goals, and collaborations, and lists papers and presentations. To learn more about our project and to find previous reports, please visit the ESG-CET Web sites: http://esg-pcmdi.llnl.gov/ and/or https://wiki.ucar.edu/display/esgcet/Home. This report will be forwarded to managers in the Department of Energy (DOE) Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) program and the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (OBER), as well as national and international collaborators and stakeholders (e.g., those involved in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, phase 5 (CMIP5) for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 5th Assessment Report (AR5); the Community Earth System Model (CESM); the Climate Science Computational End Station (CCES); SciDAC II: A Scalable and Extensible Earth System Model for Climate Change Science; the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP); the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program; the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)), and also to researchers working on a variety of other climate model and observation evaluation activities. The ESG-CET executive committee consists of Dean N. Williams, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Ian Foster, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); and Don Middleton, National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). The ESG-CET team is a group of researchers and scientists with diverse domain knowledge, whose home institutions include eight laboratories and two universities: ANL, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), LLNL, NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), NCAR, Oak Ridge National

  18. Understanding Scientists' Involvement in Education--Their Interests, Activities, and Needs: Research Results from the ReSciPE Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiry, H.; Hunter, A.; Laursen, S.; Melton, G.

    2006-12-01

    The involvement of scientists in education has been cited by national leaders as essential for strengthening US science education at the K-12 and higher levels. While many individuals and groups have developed expertise in designing and implementing programs that engage scientists with students or teachers, there is little research evidence that helps us understand what motivates or discourages scientists from such involvement, the benefits and costs to them of participating, and the barriers they face that must be addressed to involve them effectively. The ReSciPE Project (Resources for Scientists in Partnership with Education) has offered a workshop on "Scientific Inquiry in the K-12 Classroom" to over 300 scientists and science educators across the US. These workshops have reached a wide audience of science professionals who undertake activities in science education, whether individual or institution-based work, for work or as a volunteer. The project aims to help these "education-engaged scientists" pursue their education work more effectively, but has also drawn on this group as a research sample for an evaluation-with-research study to investigate scientists' involvement in education. Pre- and post-surveys have enabled us to characterize the demographics of the participants and measure their self-reported knowledge and learning about education, especially inquiry-based science. Follow- up interviews have provided insight into their education activities, motivations, interests, difficulties, and needs. We will report on recent research findings from this study and place them in context of national needs and efforts to engage scientists in education.

  19. Comment on ``Implementing of a precision fast thermoelectric cooler using a personal computer parallel port connection and ADN8830 controller'' [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 3862 (2003)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sloman, A. W.

    2004-03-01

    Eli Flaxer has described a feedback controlled circuit to drive a Peltier junction to control the temperature of a specimen in the range 0 to 50 °C in a room temperature environment [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 3862 (2003)]. The amount of heat transferred per unit current by a Peltier junction varies substantially with the temperature difference across the Peltier junction. Flaxer's circuit does not provide any mechanism to compensate for this variation. This means that if the proportional-integral-differential control loop he uses is optimized at any particular temperature differential, the control loop with be over-damped at lower specimen temperatures, and under-damped at higher specimen temperatures. A circuit using a second thermistor to monitor the temperature of the exhaust side of the Peltier junction, and a digital control loop, can minimize this problem [A. W. Sloman, Paul Buggs, James Molloy, and Douglas Stewart, Meas. Sci. Technol. 7, 1653 (1996)]. This circuit has the incidental advantage of offering ten times better temperature stability.

  20. Final Report for "Tech-X Corporation work for the SciDAC Center for Simulation of RF Wave Interactions with Magnetohydrodynamics (SWIM)"

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, Thomas G.; Kruger, Scott E.

    2013-03-25

    Work carried out by Tech-X Corporation for the DoE SciDAC Center for Simulation of RF Wave Interactions with Magnetohydrodynamics (SWIM; U.S. DoE Office of Science Award Number DE-FC02-06ER54899) is summarized and is shown to fulfil the project objectives. The Tech-X portion of the SWIM work focused on the development of analytic and computational approaches to study neoclassical tearing modes and their interaction with injected electron cyclotron current drive. Using formalism developed by Hegna, Callen, and Ramos [Phys. Plasmas 16, 112501 (2009); Phys. Plasmas 17, 082502 (2010); Phys. Plasmas 18, 102506 (2011)], analytic approximations for the RF interaction were derived and the numerical methods needed to implement these interactions in the NIMROD extended MHD code were developed. Using the SWIM IPS framework, NIMROD has successfully coupled to GENRAY, an RF ray tracing code; additionally, a numerical control system to trigger the RF injection, adjustment, and shutdown in response to tearing mode activity has been developed. We discuss these accomplishments, as well as prospects for ongoing future research that this work has enabled (which continue in a limited fashion under the SciDAC Center for Extended Magnetohydrodynamic Modeling (CEMM) project and under a baseline theory grant). Associated conference presentations, published articles, and publications in progress are also listed.

  1. Sterilization-CO2-Injection (SCI) BaPS: Establishment of a new method to measure rates of soil respiration and gross nitrification in calcareous agricultural soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrads, Hannah; Ingwersen, Joachim; Streck, Thilo

    2013-04-01

    Soil respiration and nitrification are key processes in carbon and nitrogen cycling in soil. An exact measurement of these two processes is a prerequisite for understanding the release of trace gases from soils. During the last decades the Barometric Process Separation (BaPS) method has become a widely used method to measure the turnover rates of these two processes. Its application, however, is currently limited to acidic to slightly acidic soils. In calcareous soils huge amounts of CO2 from soil respiration are dissolved in the soil solution, and the application of the BaPS method is hampered by the exact quantification of this flux. Small errors in this flux may result in huge errors in the calculation of the nitrification and respiration rates. In order to overcome this shortcoming and to extend the applicability of the method to a wider range of soils (especially agricultural soils) we developed a new adaptive method, the Sterilization-CO2-Injection (SCI) method, which aims to determine the CO2 dissolution flux (CO2,aq) experimentally. Therefore, an additional measuring step is introduced in which a sterilized soil subsample is incubated in the BaPS apparatus and known amounts of a pure CO2 gas are injected into the system while CO2 partial pressure is monitored. After each injection peak CO2 partial pressure decreases until a new stable equilibrium concentration is reached. This behavior is used to compute the amount of CO2 transferred to the soil solution applying simple mass balance calculation. The paired information about CO2 and CO2,aq is used to derive a regression equation, which gives CO2,aq as a function of the CO2 partial pressure. This relation is further used within the standard BaPS method. Results of the SCI-BaPS method for gross nitrification rates will be presented and compared to data measured by the 15N pool dilution method (Kirkham and Bartholomew, 1954). Results were obtained with calcareous and acidic agricultural soil samples. It turned

  2. The psychometric properties of Chinese version of SCI Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale in patients with stroke

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xiaofang; Liu, Yanjin; Wang, Aixia; Wang, Min

    2016-01-01

    Objective To test the Chinese version of the SCI Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale (C-ESES) in stroke patients and evaluate its validity and reliability. Background Physical inactivity is a well established and changeable risk factor for stroke, and regular exercise of 3–7 days per week is essential for stroke survivors and the general population. Though regular exercise is beneficial, it has been proved that duration, frequency, and intensity of exercise are generally low in stroke survivors. Methods The performance of the instrument was assessed in 350 Chinese stroke survivors and repeated in 50 patients to examine test–retest reliability. Questionnaires included a form on demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, C-ESES, and the Chinese version of the General Self-Efficacy Scale. The AMOS 20.0 and SPSS 17.0 were chosen to evaluate their validity and reliability. Results Even though 350 participants answered the questionnaires in the present study, useful data were obtained from 321 participants (response rate: 91.71%). Correlation between item and the total scale score (Item–Total Correlation) ranged from 0.551 to 0.718, indicating that no item needed to be omitted; two factors, with factor loading 0.620 and 0.806, were obtained from an exploratory principal components analysis, assuming 59.745% of the total variance. The two factors were named internal motivation and external motivation. A confirmatory factor analysis supported the results with a suitable model (χ5=291.157; df=185; P<0.001; root mean square error of approximation =0.044; goodness-of-fit index =0.938; adjusted goodness-of-fit index =0.914; comparative fit index =0.858). The C-ESES correlated well with the validated General Self-Efficacy Scale (r=0.827, P<0.01). Good internal consistency (Cronbach’s α=0.757 to 0.879) and test–retest reliability (r=0.750, P<0.01) were obtained. Conclusion The C-ESES is a short, easy to understand, and psychometrically sound measurement to evaluate

  3. Comment on "Calibration-independent measurement of complex permittivity of liquids using a coaxial transmission line" [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 014704 (2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasar, U. C.; Barroso, J. J.

    2015-07-01

    In this letter, we comment on the applicability of the derived characteristic equation (Eq. (7)) in a recently published article of Guoxin [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 014704 (2015)]. To validate our comment, we first derive another characteristic function for determination of complex permittivity of dielectric materials for the configurations considered in the above article using calibration-independent uncorrected S-parameters for transmission-line measurements (coaxial-line, waveguide, free-space, etc). Unlike the characteristic equation in this article, the characteristic equation derived here for determination of the complex permittivity of liquid samples does not require any knowledge about the complex permittivity of plugs, used for holding liquid samples in place. We then performed 3-D full-wave simulations for the measurement configurations presented in Guoxin's article for substantiation of the characteristic equation derived in this letter.

  4. PROBING THE DARK AGES AT z ∼ 20: THE SCI-HI 21 cm ALL-SKY SPECTRUM EXPERIMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Voytek, Tabitha C.; Natarajan, Aravind; Peterson, Jeffrey B.; Jáuregui García, José Miguel; López-Cruz, Omar

    2014-02-10

    We present first results from the SCI-HI experiment, which we used to measure the all-sky-averaged 21 cm brightness temperature in the redshift range 14.8 < z < 22.7. The instrument consists of a single broadband sub-wavelength size antenna and a sampling system for real-time data processing and recording. Preliminary observations were completed in 2013 June at Isla Guadalupe, a Mexican biosphere reserve located in the Pacific Ocean. The data was cleaned to excise channels contaminated by radio frequency interference, and the system response was calibrated by comparing the measured brightness temperature to the Global Sky Model of the Galaxy and by independent measurement of Johnson noise from a calibration terminator. We present our results, discuss the cosmological implications, and describe plans for future work.

  5. Comment on ``Comments on the use of asymmetric monochromators for x-ray diffraction on a synchrotron source'' [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2174 (1995)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez del Rio, M.; Cerrina, F.

    1996-10-01

    In the article ``Comments on the use of asymmetric monochromators for x-ray diffraction on a synchrotron source,'' by Colin Nave, Ana Gonzalez, Graham Clark, Sean McSweeney, Stewart Cummings, and Michael Hart, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2174 (1995), paragraph II, the authors' unfamiliarity with our modeling codes leads them to claim that our approach to treat bent-asymmetrically cut crystals in ray tracing calculations is incorrect. Since SHADOW is a widely used code, it is important to correct any misunderstandings, and we give here arguments to demonstrate that our approach is perfectly valid, and the arguments used by the authors to criticize our method are based on an unwarranted conclusion extracted from one of our previous articles. We show that SHADOW, when properly run, treats the cases raised exactly. Indeed, their arguments provide a nice benchmark test for verifying the accuracy of SHADOW

  6. Evaluation of unique identifiers used as keys to match identical publications in Pure and SciVal - a case study from health science.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Heidi Holst; Madsen, Dicte; Gauffriau, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Unique identifiers (UID) are seen as an effective key to match identical publications across databases or identify duplicates in a database. The objective of the present study is to investigate how well UIDs work as match keys in the integration between Pure and SciVal, based on a case with publications from the health sciences. We evaluate the matching process based on information about coverage, precision, and characteristics of publications matched versus not matched with UIDs as the match keys. We analyze this information to detect errors, if any, in the matching process. As an example we also briefly discuss how publication sets formed by using UIDs as the match keys may affect the bibliometric indicators number of publications, number of citations, and the average number of citations per publication.  The objective is addressed in a literature review and a case study. The literature review shows that only a few studies evaluate how well UIDs work as a match key. From the literature we identify four error types: Duplicate digital object identifiers (DOI), incorrect DOIs in reference lists and databases, DOIs not registered by the database where a bibliometric analysis is performed, and erroneous optical or special character recognition. The case study explores the use of UIDs in the integration between the databases Pure and SciVal. Specifically journal publications in English are matched between the two databases. We find all error types except erroneous optical or special character recognition in our publication sets. In particular the duplicate DOIs constitute a problem for the calculation of bibliometric indicators as both keeping the duplicates to improve the reliability of citation counts and deleting them to improve the reliability of publication counts will distort the calculation of average number of citations per publication. The use of UIDs as a match key in citation linking is implemented in many settings, and the availability of UIDs may become

  7. Evaluation of unique identifiers used as keys to match identical publications in Pure and SciVal - a case study from health science.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Heidi Holst; Madsen, Dicte; Gauffriau, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Unique identifiers (UID) are seen as an effective key to match identical publications across databases or identify duplicates in a database. The objective of the present study is to investigate how well UIDs work as match keys in the integration between Pure and SciVal, based on a case with publications from the health sciences. We evaluate the matching process based on information about coverage, precision, and characteristics of publications matched versus not matched with UIDs as the match keys. We analyze this information to detect errors, if any, in the matching process. As an example we also briefly discuss how publication sets formed by using UIDs as the match keys may affect the bibliometric indicators number of publications, number of citations, and the average number of citations per publication.  The objective is addressed in a literature review and a case study. The literature review shows that only a few studies evaluate how well UIDs work as a match key. From the literature we identify four error types: Duplicate digital object identifiers (DOI), incorrect DOIs in reference lists and databases, DOIs not registered by the database where a bibliometric analysis is performed, and erroneous optical or special character recognition. The case study explores the use of UIDs in the integration between the databases Pure and SciVal. Specifically journal publications in English are matched between the two databases. We find all error types except erroneous optical or special character recognition in our publication sets. In particular the duplicate DOIs constitute a problem for the calculation of bibliometric indicators as both keeping the duplicates to improve the reliability of citation counts and deleting them to improve the reliability of publication counts will distort the calculation of average number of citations per publication. The use of UIDs as a match key in citation linking is implemented in many settings, and the availability of UIDs may become

  8. Evaluation of unique identifiers used as keys to match identical publications in Pure and SciVal – a case study from health science

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Heidi Holst; Madsen, Dicte; Gauffriau, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Unique identifiers (UID) are seen as an effective key to match identical publications across databases or identify duplicates in a database. The objective of the present study is to investigate how well UIDs work as match keys in the integration between Pure and SciVal, based on a case with publications from the health sciences. We evaluate the matching process based on information about coverage, precision, and characteristics of publications matched versus not matched with UIDs as the match keys. We analyze this information to detect errors, if any, in the matching process. As an example we also briefly discuss how publication sets formed by using UIDs as the match keys may affect the bibliometric indicators number of publications, number of citations, and the average number of citations per publication.  The objective is addressed in a literature review and a case study. The literature review shows that only a few studies evaluate how well UIDs work as a match key. From the literature we identify four error types: Duplicate digital object identifiers (DOI), incorrect DOIs in reference lists and databases, DOIs not registered by the database where a bibliometric analysis is performed, and erroneous optical or special character recognition. The case study explores the use of UIDs in the integration between the databases Pure and SciVal. Specifically journal publications in English are matched between the two databases. We find all error types except erroneous optical or special character recognition in our publication sets. In particular the duplicate DOIs constitute a problem for the calculation of bibliometric indicators as both keeping the duplicates to improve the reliability of citation counts and deleting them to improve the reliability of publication counts will distort the calculation of average number of citations per publication. The use of UIDs as a match key in citation linking is implemented in many settings, and the availability of UIDs may become

  9. Evaluation of unique identifiers used as keys to match identical publications in Pure and SciVal – a case study from health science

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Heidi Holst; Madsen, Dicte; Gauffriau, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Unique identifiers (UID) are seen as an effective key to match identical publications across databases or identify duplicates in a database. The objective of the present study is to investigate how well UIDs work as match keys in the integration between Pure and SciVal, based on a case with publications from the health sciences. We evaluate the matching process based on information about coverage, precision, and characteristics of publications matched versus not matched with UIDs as the match keys. We analyze this information to detect errors, if any, in the matching process. As an example we also briefly discuss how publication sets formed by using UIDs as the match keys may affect the bibliometric indicators number of publications, number of citations, and the average number of citations per publication.  The objective is addressed in a literature review and a case study. The literature review shows that only a few studies evaluate how well UIDs work as a match key. From the literature we identify four error types: Duplicate digital object identifiers (DOI), incorrect DOIs in reference lists and databases, DOIs not registered by the database where a bibliometric analysis is performed, and erroneous optical or special character recognition. The case study explores the use of UIDs in the integration between the databases Pure and SciVal. Specifically journal publications in English are matched between the two databases. We find all error types except erroneous optical or special character recognition in our publication sets. In particular the duplicate DOIs constitute a problem for the calculation of bibliometric indicators as both keeping the duplicates to improve the reliability of citation counts and deleting them to improve the reliability of publication counts will distort the calculation of average number of citations per publication. The use of UIDs as a match key in citation linking is implemented in many settings, and the availability of UIDs may become

  10. Synthesis and SHG properties of two new cyanurates: Sr3(O3C3N3)2 (SCY) and Eu3(O3C3N3)2 (ECY).

    PubMed

    Kalmutzki, Markus; Ströbele, Markus; Wackenhut, Frank; Meixner, Alfred J; Meyer, H-Jürgen

    2014-12-01

    The new cyanurates Sr3(O3C3N3)2 (SCY) and Eu3(O3C3N3)2 (ECY) were prepared via exothermic solid state metathesis reactions from MCl2 (M = Sr, Eu) and K(OCN) in silica tubes at 525 °C. Both structures were characterized by means of powder and single crystal X-ray diffraction, and their structures are shown to crystallize with the noncentrosymmetric space group R3c (No. 161). Infrared spectra and nonlinear optical properties (NLO) of SCY and ECY are reported in comparison to those of CCY and β-BaB2O4 (β-BBO).

  11. Response to "using of 'pseudo-second-order model' in adsorption", comment letter on "phenol removal from wastewater by adsorption on zeolitic composite" [Bizerea Spiridon et al., Environ Sci Pollut Res (2013) 20:6367-6381].

    PubMed

    Bizerea Spiridon, Otilia; Pitulice, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This letter is a response to the issues put forth by Dr. Y.S. Ho with regard to the article "Phenol removal from wastewater by adsorption on zeolitic composite" as reported by Bizerea Spiridon et al. (Environ Sci Pollut Res 20:6367-6381, 2013). The response proposes to clarify the error slipped in the typewritten linearized equation of the pseudo-second-kinetic model and the reason for using secondary reference regarding this model.

  12. Correction: Cecotti, H. and Rivet, B. Subject Combination and Electrode Selection in Cooperative Brain-Computer Interface Based on Event Related Potentials. Brain Sci. 2014, 4, 335–355

    PubMed Central

    Cecotti, Hubert; Rivet, Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    The authors wish to make the following correction to this paper (Cecotti, H.; Rivet, B. Subject Combination and Electrode Selection in Cooperative Brain-Computer Interface Based on Event Related Potentials. Brain Sci. 2014, 4, 335–355): Due to an internal error, the reference numbers in the original published paper were not shown, and the error was not due to the authors. The former main text should be replaced as below. PMID:25243772

  13. Scientific Objectives of Small Carry-on Impactor (SCI) and Deployable Camera 3 Digital (DCAM3-D): Observation of an Ejecta Curtain and a Crater Formed on the Surface of Ryugu by an Artificial High-Velocity Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arakawa, M.; Wada, K.; Saiki, T.; Kadono, T.; Takagi, Y.; Shirai, K.; Okamoto, C.; Yano, H.; Hayakawa, M.; Nakazawa, S.; Hirata, N.; Kobayashi, M.; Michel, P.; Jutzi, M.; Imamura, H.; Ogawa, K.; Sakatani, N.; Iijima, Y.; Honda, R.; Ishibashi, K.; Hayakawa, H.; Sawada, H.

    2016-10-01

    The Small Carry-on Impactor (SCI) equipped on Hayabusa2 was developed to produce an artificial impact crater on the primitive Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) 162173 Ryugu (Ryugu) in order to explore the asteroid subsurface material unaffected by space weathering and thermal alteration by solar radiation. An exposed fresh surface by the impactor and/or the ejecta deposit excavated from the crater will be observed by remote sensing instruments, and a subsurface fresh sample of the asteroid will be collected there. The SCI impact experiment will be observed by a Deployable CAMera 3-D (DCAM3-D) at a distance of ˜1 km from the impact point, and the time evolution of the ejecta curtain will be observed by this camera to confirm the impact point on the asteroid surface. As a result of the observation of the ejecta curtain by DCAM3-D and the crater morphology by onboard cameras, the subsurface structure and the physical properties of the constituting materials will be derived from crater scaling laws. Moreover, the SCI experiment on Ryugu gives us a precious opportunity to clarify effects of microgravity on the cratering process and to validate numerical simulations and models of the cratering process.

  14. Sci-Fi Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nauman, Ann K.; Shaw, Edward L.

    1994-01-01

    In today's rapidly changing world, science fiction can provide a bridge and a stimulus to the imagination of children. Provides an annotated bibliography of 25 science fiction titles for grades 1-3, 4-6, and 7-9. Suggests classroom applications including individual assignments, group discussion topics, and other activities. (LZ)

  15. Sci-Vis Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur Bleeker, PNNL

    2015-03-11

    SVF is a full featured OpenGL 3d framework that allows for rapid creation of complex visualizations. The SVF framework handles much of the lifecycle and complex tasks required for a 3d visualization. Unlike a game framework SVF was designed to use fewer resources, work well in a windowed environment, and only render when necessary. The scene also takes advantage of multiple threads to free up the UI thread as much as possible. Shapes (actors) in the scene are created by adding or removing functionality (through support objects) during runtime. This allows a highly flexible and dynamic means of creating highly complex actors without the code complexity (it also helps overcome the lack of multiple inheritance in Java.) All classes are highly customizable and there are abstract classes which are intended to be subclassed to allow a developer to create more complex and highly performant actors. There are multiple demos included in the framework to help the developer get started and shows off nearly all of the functionality. Some simple shapes (actors) are already created for you such as text, bordered text, radial text, text area, complex paths, NURBS paths, cube, disk, grid, plane, geometric shapes, and volumetric area. It also comes with various camera types for viewing that can be dragged, zoomed, and rotated. Picking or selecting items in the scene can be accomplished in various ways depending on your needs (raycasting or color picking.) The framework currently has functionality for tooltips, animation, actor pools, color gradients, 2d physics, text, 1d/2d/3d textures, children, blending, clipping planes, view frustum culling, custom shaders, and custom actor states

  16. Spinal Cord Injury (SCI)

    MedlinePlus

    ... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Error processing SSI file Error processing SSI file Error processing SSI file Share Compartir This Page has Moved or ... gov/TraumaticBrainInjury/index.html . Print page Error processing SSI file Error processing SSI file Error processing SSI ...

  17. Sci-Fi Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freudenrich, Craig C.

    2000-01-01

    Recommends using science fiction television episodes, novels, and films for teaching science and motivating students. Studies Newton's Law of Motion, principles of relativity, journey to Mars, interplanetary trajectories, artificial gravity, and Martian geology. Discusses science fiction's ability to capture student interest and the advantages of…

  18. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Therapy Creates Independence Physical Therapy After Spinal Cord Injury Physical Therapy After Spinal Cord Injury The Role of ... Physical Therapist Physical Therapy Support After Spinal Cord Injury Physical Therapy Support After Spinal Cord Injury Recreational Therapy ...

  19. Sci-Vis Framework

    2015-03-11

    SVF is a full featured OpenGL 3d framework that allows for rapid creation of complex visualizations. The SVF framework handles much of the lifecycle and complex tasks required for a 3d visualization. Unlike a game framework SVF was designed to use fewer resources, work well in a windowed environment, and only render when necessary. The scene also takes advantage of multiple threads to free up the UI thread as much as possible. Shapes (actors) inmore » the scene are created by adding or removing functionality (through support objects) during runtime. This allows a highly flexible and dynamic means of creating highly complex actors without the code complexity (it also helps overcome the lack of multiple inheritance in Java.) All classes are highly customizable and there are abstract classes which are intended to be subclassed to allow a developer to create more complex and highly performant actors. There are multiple demos included in the framework to help the developer get started and shows off nearly all of the functionality. Some simple shapes (actors) are already created for you such as text, bordered text, radial text, text area, complex paths, NURBS paths, cube, disk, grid, plane, geometric shapes, and volumetric area. It also comes with various camera types for viewing that can be dragged, zoomed, and rotated. Picking or selecting items in the scene can be accomplished in various ways depending on your needs (raycasting or color picking.) The framework currently has functionality for tooltips, animation, actor pools, color gradients, 2d physics, text, 1d/2d/3d textures, children, blending, clipping planes, view frustum culling, custom shaders, and custom actor states« less

  20. SciDAC's Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies Semi-Annual Progress Report for the Period April 1, 2009 through September 30, 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Dean N.; Foster, I. T.; Middleton, D. E.

    2009-10-15

    This report summarizes work carried out by the ESG-CET during the period April 1, 2009 through September 30, 2009. It includes discussion of highlights, overall progress, period goals, collaborations, papers, and presentations. To learn more about our project, and to find previous reports, please visit the Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies (ESG-CET) website. This report will be forwarded to the DOE SciDAC program management, the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (OBER) program management, national and international collaborators and stakeholders (e.g., the Community Climate System Model (CCSM), the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 5th Assessment Report (AR5), the Climate Science Computational End Station (CCES), the SciDAC II: A Scalable and Extensible Earth System Model for Climate Change Science, the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP), and other wide-ranging climate model evaluation activities). During this semi-annual reporting period, the ESG-CET team continued its efforts to complete software components needed for the ESG Gateway and Data Node. These components include: Data Versioning, Data Replication, DataMover-Lite (DML) and Bulk Data Mover (BDM), Metrics, Product Services, and Security, all joining together to form ESG-CET's first beta release. The launch of the beta release is scheduled for late October with the installation of ESG Gateways at NCAR and LLNL/PCMDI. Using the developed ESG Data Publisher, the ESG II CMIP3 (IPCC AR4) data holdings - approximately 35 TB - will be among the first datasets to be published into the new ESG enterprise system. In addition, the NCAR's ESG II data holdings will also be published into the new system - approximately 200 TB. This period also saw the testing of the ESG Data Node at various collaboration sites, including: the British Atmospheric Data Center (BADC), the Max-Planck-Institute for Meteorology, the University of Tokyo Center for

  1. Intermittent catheterization in the management of post spinal cord injury (SCI) neurogenic bladder using new hydrophilic, with lubrication in close circuit devices – our own preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    Spinu, A; Onose, G; Daia, C; Panţu, C; Anghelescu, A; Onose, L; Mihăescu, A

    2012-01-01

    This article is a review of the related approaches in the field – including the newest ones associated with a specific retrospective study on in-patients from our Clinic Division (preliminary results). Aim. Study design : To objectively assess whether there are significant differences regarding some specific key biological and psychometric parameters related to the use of hydrophilic catheters vs. non-hydrophilic ones. Materials and Methods: We have evaluated the outcomes of long term IC using by comparatively using the afore-mentioned two different types of catheters, on two lots (totally 45 patients with mainly retention type of neurogenic bladder): 30 post SCI patients, using exclusively hydrophilic catheters and respectively, 10 same kinds of patients that used exclusively non-hydrophilic catheters. Additionally, there were 5 patients included in both lots as they have started IC with non-hydrophilic catheters and since 2008 they have switched on using hydrophilic ones. The methods used were primary data acquisition based on a unitary questionnaire and statistical analyses. Results and discussion : Mainly: the patients that used exclusively hydrophilic type of catheters (median: “None”) vs. those using exclusively non-hydrophilic type of catheters (median: “One every 4 months”) presented: a significantly lower number of inflammatory episodes at scrotal level (p-value: 0.0001 WT), a significantly lower number of post/intra/inter catheterization bleeding episodes (p-value: 0.0001 WT), a very slightly lower number of UTI activations and expressed a significant higher satisfaction level (p-value <0.0001 WT). However, speculating a conceptual relation with the lower number of inflammatory episodes at scrotal level, it is to be thought that bigger lots of patients could provide, in this respect, significant results too. This study is to be continued, in order to further validate these preliminary, quite promising results, on bigger lots through the complex

  2. Optical information processing based on an associative-memory model of neural nets with thresholding and feedback.

    PubMed

    Psaltis, D; Farhat, N

    1985-02-01

    The remarkable collective computational properties of the Hopfield model for neural networks [Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 79, 2554 (1982)] are reviewed. These include recognition from partial input, robustness, and error-correction capability. Features of the model that make its optical implementation attractive are discussed, and specific optical implementation schemes are given.

  3. OCCURRENCE AND ORIENTATION OF PARALICHTHID FLOUNDERS (BOTHIDAE: PARALICHTYS) ON AN INTERTIDAL BEACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Middaugh, Douglas P. and Charles L. McKenney, Jr. 2003. Occurrence and Orientation of Flounders (Bothidae: Paralichthys) on an Intertidal Beach. J. North Carol. Acad. Sci. 119(4):157-171. (ERL,GB 1172).

    The intertidal movement and burying pattern of paralichthid flounders...

  4. New Organisational Structures and the Transformation of Academic Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyhagen, Gigliola Mathisen; Baschung, Lukas

    2013-01-01

    This article will particularly focus on Norway and the consequences for academic work. Frequently in studies of academic work, focus has been on academics' individual autonomy and to what extent the latter is challenged (Altbach in "Ann Am Acad Pol Soc Sci" 448:1-14, 1980; Shattock in "High Educ" 41:27-47, 2001). One of…

  5. Spike-forming model of the neural membrane: Improvement in the parameter values

    PubMed Central

    Wooldridge, Dean E.

    1976-01-01

    A new set of values is presented for the reaction rate and ionic conductance parameters that determine the properties of the previously developed model of the neural membrane [Wooldridge, D.E. (1975) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 72, 3468-3471]. The resulting improvement in the extent of the agreement between theory and experiment is briefly described. PMID:1065874

  6. Langevin Theory of Anomalous Brownian Motion Made Simple

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tothova, Jana; Vasziova, Gabriela; Glod, Lukas; Lisy, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    During the century from the publication of the work by Einstein (1905 "Ann. Phys." 17 549) Brownian motion has become an important paradigm in many fields of modern science. An essential impulse for the development of Brownian motion theory was given by the work of Langevin (1908 "C. R. Acad. Sci.", Paris 146 530), in which he proposed an…

  7. Genetics Home Reference: pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyperkalaemic acidosis, pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1. Nat Genet. 1996 Mar;12(3):248-53. Citation on PubMed Chen ... sgk. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Mar 2;96(5):2514-9. Citation on PubMed ...

  8. Estimating maximum global wind power availability and associated climatic consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Lee; Gans, Fabian; Kleidon, Axel

    2010-05-01

    Natl Acad Sci, 106. [3] Liu, W.T., W. Tang, and X. Xie, (2008) Wind power distribution over the ocean, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35 L13808. [4] IPCC, (2008) IPCC scoping meeting on renewable energy sources - proceedings, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [5] U.S. Department of Energy, (2008) 20% wind energy by 2030: increasing wind energy's contribution to U.S. electricity supply, U.S. Dept. of Energy - Energy Information Administration. [6] EEA, (2009) Europe's onshore and offshore wind energy potential, European Environment Agency, ISSN 1725-2237.

  9. [SciELO Public Health: the performance of Cadernos de Saúde Pública and Revista de Saúde Pública].

    PubMed

    Barata, Rita Barradas

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this paper was to analyze two Brazilian scientific journals included in the SciELO Library of Public Health, using a group of bibliometric indicators and scrutinizing the articles most viewed. Cadernos de Saúde Pública was accessed 3,743.59 times per month, with an average of 30.31 citations per article. The 50 articles most viewed (6.72 to 524.5 views) were mostly published in Portuguese (92%). 42% were theoretical essays, 20% surveys, and 16% descriptive studies. 42% used argumentative techniques, 34% quantitative techniques, 18% qualitative techniques, and 6% mathematical modeling. The most common themes were: health and work (50%), epidemiology (22%), and environmental health (8%). Revista de Saúde Pública was accessed 1,590.97 times per month, with an average of 26.27 citations per article. The 50 articles most viewed (7.33 and 56.50 views) were all published in Portuguese: 46% were surveys, 14% databases analysis, and 12% systematic reviews. Quantitative techniques were adopted in 66% of such articles, while mathematical modeling was the same as observed in Cadernos de Saúde Pública, as were qualitative techniques. The most common themes were health services organization (22%), nutrition (22%), health and work (18%), epidemiology (12%), and environmental health (12%).

  10. Muscle fiber regeneration in human permanent lower motoneuron denervation: relevance to safety and effectiveness of FES-training, which induces muscle recovery in SCI subjects.

    PubMed

    Carraro, Ugo; Rossini, Katia; Mayr, Winfried; Kern, Helmut

    2005-03-01

    Morphologic characteristics of the long-term denervated muscle in animals suggest that some original fibers are lost and some of those seen are the result of repeated cycles of fiber regeneration. Muscle biopsies from lower motoneuron denervated patients enrolled in the EU Project RISE show the characteristics of long-term denervation. They present a few atrophic or severely atrophic myofibers dispersed among adipocytes and connective tissue (denervated degenerated muscle, DDM). Monoclonal antibody for embryonic myosin shows that regenerative events are present from 1- to 37-years postspinal cord injury (SCI). After 2- to 10-years FES-training the muscle cryosections present mainly large round myofibers. In the FES-trained muscles the regenerative events are present, but at a lower rate than long-term denervated muscles (myofiber per mm2 of cryosection area: 0.8 +/- 1.3 in FES vs. 2.3 +/- 2.3 in DDM, mean +/- SD, P = 0.011). In our opinion this is a sound additional evidence of effectiveness of the Kern's electrical stimulation protocol for FES of DDM. In any case, the overall results demonstrate that the FES-training is safe: at least it does not induce more myofiber damage/regeneration than denervation per se.

  11. PMEL contributions to the collaboration: SCALING THE EARTH SYSTEM GRID TO PETASCALE DATA for the DOE SciDACs Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Hankin, Steve

    2012-06-01

    Drawing to a close after five years of funding from DOE's ASCR and BER program offices, the SciDAC-2 project called the Earth System Grid (ESG) Center for Enabling Technologies has successfully established a new capability for serving data from distributed centers. The system enables users to access, analyze, and visualize data using a globally federated collection of networks, computers and software. The ESG software now known as the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) has attracted a broad developer base and has been widely adopted so that it is now being utilized in serving the most comprehensive multi-model climate data sets in the world. The system is used to support international climate model intercomparison activities as well as high profile U.S. DOE, NOAA, NASA, and NSF projects. It currently provides more than 25,000 users access to more than half a petabyte of climate data (from models and from observations) and has enabled over a 1,000 scientific publications.

  12. Measuring positive affect and well-being after spinal cord injury: Development and psychometric characteristics of the SCI-QOL Positive Affect and Well-being bank and short form

    PubMed Central

    Bertisch, Hilary; Kalpakjian, Claire Z.; Kisala, Pamela A.; Tulsky, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop an item response theory (IRT)-calibrated spinal cord injury (SCI)-specific Positive Affect and Well-being (PAWB) item bank with flexible options for administration. Design Qualitative feedback from patient and provider focus groups was used to expand on the Neurological Disorders and Quality of Life (Neuro-QOL) positive affect & well-being item bank for use in SCI. New items were created and revised based on expert review and patient feedback and were then field tested. Analyses included confirmatory factor analysis, graded response IRT modeling and evaluation of differential item functioning (DIF). Setting We tested a 32-item pool at several rehabilitation centers across the United States, including the University of Michigan, Kessler Foundation, Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, the University of Washington, Craig Hospital and the James J. Peters/Bronx Department of Veterans Affairs hospital. Participants A total of 717 individuals with SCI answered the PAWB questions. Results A unidimensional model was observed (Confirmatory Fit Index = 0.947; Root Mean Square Error of Approximation = 0.094) and measurement precision was good (reliability in theta of –2.9 to 1.2 is roughly equivalent to classical reliability of 0.95 or above). Twelve items were flagged for DIF, however, after examination of effect sizes, the DIF was determined to be negligible and would have little practical impact on score estimates. The final calibrated item bank resulted in 28 retained items Conclusions This study indicates that the Spinal Cord Injury – Quality of Life PAWB bank represents a psychometrically robust measurement tool. Short form items are also suggested and a computer adaptive test is available. PMID:26010970

  13. Biomaterial bridges enable regeneration and re-entry of corticospinal tract axons into the caudal spinal cord after SCI: Association with recovery of forelimb function.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Kiran; Cummings, Brian J; Thomas, Aline; Shea, Lonnie D; Levine, Ariel; Pfaff, Sam; Anderson, Aileen J

    2015-10-01

    Severed axon tracts fail to exhibit robust or spontaneous regeneration after spinal cord injury (SCI). Regeneration failure reflects a combination of factors, including the growth state of neuronal cell bodies and the regeneration-inhibitory environment of the central nervous system. However, while spared circuitry can be retrained, target reinnervation depends on longitudinally directed regeneration of transected axons. This study describes a biodegradable implant using poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) bridges as a carrier scaffold to support regeneration after injury. In order to detect regeneration of descending neuronal tracts into the bridge, and beyond into intact caudal parenchyma, we developed a mouse cervical implantation model and employed Crym:GFP transgenic mice. Characterization of Crym:GFP mice revealed that descending tracts, including the corticospinal tract, were labeled by green fluorescent protein (GFP), while ascending sensory neurons and fibers were not. Robust co-localization between GFP and neurofilament-200 (NF-200) as well as GFP and GAP-43 was observed at both the rostral and caudal bridge/tissue interface. No evidence of similar regeneration was observed in mice that received gelfoam at the lesion site as controls. Minimal co-localization between GFP reporter labeling and macrophage markers was observed. Taken together, these data suggest that axons originating from descending fiber tracts regenerated, entered into the PLG bridge at the rostral margin, continued through the bridge site, and exited to re-enter host tissue at the caudal edge of the intact bridge. Finally, regeneration through implanted bridges was associated with a reduction in ipsilateral forelimb errors on a horizontal ladder task. PMID:26134079

  14. The SciELO Brazilian Scientific Journal Gateway and Open Archives; Usability of Hypermedia Educational e-Books; Building Upon the MyLibrary Concept To Better Meet the Information Needs of College Students; Open Archives and UK Institutions; The Utah Digital Newspapers Project; Examples of Practical Digital Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcondes, Carlos Henrique; Sayao, Luis Fernando; Diaz, Paloma; Gibbons, Susan; Pinfield, Stephen; Kenning, Arlitsch; Edge, Karen; Yapp, L.; Witten, Ian H.

    2003-01-01

    Includes six articles that focus on practical uses of technologies developed from digital library research in the areas of education and scholarship reflecting the international impact of digital library research initiatives. Includes the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO) (Brazil); the National Science Foundation (NSF) (US); the Joint…

  15. Final Report- "An Algorithmic and Software Framework for Applied Partial Differential Equations (APDEC): A DOE SciDAC Integrated Software Infrastructure Center (ISIC)

    SciTech Connect

    Elbridge Gerry Puckett

    2008-05-13

    been a Deputy Section Head at the National Center for Atmospheric Research in Colorado. My understanding is that Chris Algieri is the first person that Bill hired after coming to LBNL. The plan is that Chris Algieri will finish his PhD thesis while employed as a staff scientist in Bill's group. Both Sarah and Chris were supported in part with funds from DE-FC02-01ER25473. In Sarah's case she received support both while at U.C. Davis (UCD) taking classes and writing an MS thesis and during some of the time she was living in Berkeley, working at LBNL and finishing her PhD thesis. In Chris' case he was at U.C. Davis during the entire time he received support from DE-FC02-01ER25473. More specific details of their work are included in the report below. Finally my own research conducted under the auspices of DE-FC02-01ER25473 either involved direct collaboration with researchers at LBNL - Phil Colella and Peter Schwartz who is a member of Phil's Applied Numerical Algorithms Group - or was on problems that are closely related to research that has been and continues to be conducted by researchers at LBNL. Specific details of this work can be found below. Finally, I would like to note that the work conducted by my students and me under the auspices of this contract is closely related to work that I have performed with funding from my DOE MICS contract DE-FC02-03ER25579 'Development of High-Order Accurate Interface Tracking Algorithms and Improved Constitutive Models for Problems in Continuum Mechanics with Applications to Jetting' and with my CoPI on that grant Professor Greg Miller of the Department of Applied Science at UCD. In theory I tried to use funds from the SciDAC grant DE-FC02-01ER25473 to support work that directly involved implementing algorithms developed by my research group at U.C. Davis in software that was developed and is maintained by my SciDAC CoPI's at LBNL.

  16. Fairy-Tale Physics Farewell to Reality Bankrupting Physics: Baggott-Unzicker-Jones Critiques Shame Physics' Shameless Media-Hype P.R. Spin-Doctoring Touting Sci-Fi Veracity-Abandonment ``Show-Biz'' Spectacle: Caveat Emptor!!!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, Edward

    2014-03-01

    Baggott[Farewell to Reality: How Fairy-Tale Physics Betrayed Search For Scientific Truth]-Unzicker [Bankrupting Physics: How Top Scientists Are Gambling Away Credibility] shame physics shameless rock-star media-hype P.R. spin-doctoring veracity-abandoning touting sci-fi show-biz aided by online proliferation of uncritical pop-sci science-writers verbal diarrhea, all spectacle vs little truth, lacking Kant-Popper skepticism/ falsification, lemming-like stampedes to truth abandonment, qualified by vague adverbs: might, could, should, may,...vs factual is! Physics, motivated by financial greed, swept up in its very own hype, touts whatever next big thing/cutting-edge bombast ad infinitum/ad nauseum, turning it into mere trendy carney sideshow, full of fury(FOF) but signifying absolutely nothing! Witness: GIGO claims string-theory holographic-universe causes cuprates optical conductivity; failed Anderson RVB cuprates theory vs. Keimer discovery all cuprates ``paramagnons'' bosons aka Overhauser SDWs; Overbye NYT holographic-universe jargonial-obfuscation comments including one from APS journals editor-in-chief re. its unintelligibility, FOF but signifying absolutely nothing INTELLIGIBLE!; Bak/BNL SOC tad late rediscovery of F =ma mere renaming of Siegel acoustic-emission!; 2007 physics Nobel-prize Fert-Gruenberg rediscovery of Siegel[JMMM 7,312(78); https://www.flickr.com/search/?q = GIANT-MAGNETORESISTANCE] GMR. Each trendy latest big thing modulo lack of prior attribution aka out and out bombastic chicanery! Siegel caveat emptor ``Buzzwordism, Bandwagonism, Sloganeering for Fun Profit Survival Ego'' sociological-dysfunctionality thrives!

  17. Fairy-Tale Physics Farewell to Reality Bankrupting Physics: Baggott-Unzicker-Jones Critiques Shame Physics' Shameless Media-Hype P.R. Spin-Doctoring Touting Sci-Fi Veracity-Abandonment ``Show-Biz'' Spectacle: Caveat Emptor!!!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, Edward

    2014-03-01

    Baggott[Farewell to Reality: How Fairy-Tale Physics Betrayed Search For Scientific Truth]-Unzicker [Bankrupting Physics: How Top Scientists Are Gambling Away Credibility] shame physics shameless rock-star media-hype P.R. spin-doctoring veracity-abandoning touting sci-fi show-biz aided by online proliferation of uncritical pop-sci science-writers verbal diarrhea, all spectacle vs little truth, lacking Kant-Popper skepticism/falsification, lemming-like stampedes to truth abandonment, qualified by vague adverbs: might, could, should, may,...vs factual is! Physics, motivated by financial greed, swept up in its very own hype, touts whatever next big thing/cutting-edge bombast ad infinitum/ad nauseum, turning it into mere trendy carney sideshow, full of fury(FOF) but signifying absolutely nothing! Witness: GIGO claims string-theory holographic-universe causes cuprates optical conductivity; failed Anderson RVB cuprates theory vs. Keimer discovery all cuprates ``paramagnons'' bosons aka Overhauser SDWs; Overbye NYT holographic-universe jargonial-obfuscation comments including one from APS journals editor-in-chief re. its unintelligibility, FOF but signifying absolutely nothing INTELLIGIBLE!; Bak/BNL SOC tad late rediscovery of F =ma mere renaming of Siegel acoustic-emission!; 2007 physics Nobel-prize Fert-Gruenberg rediscovery of Siegel[JMMM 7,312(78); https://www.flickr.com/search/?q=GIANT-MAGNETORESISTANCE] GMR. Each trendy latest big thing modulo lack of prior attribution aka out and out bombastic chicanery! Siegel caveat emptor ``Buzzwordism, Bandwagonism, Sloganeering for Fun Profit Survival Ego'' sociological-dysfunctionality thrives!

  18. SciDAC Fusiongrid Project--A National Collaboratory to Advance the Science of High Temperature Plasma Physics for Magnetic Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    SCHISSEL, D.P.; ABLA, G.; BURRUSS, J.R.; FEIBUSH, E.; FREDIAN, T.W.; GOODE, M.M.; GREENWALD, M.J.; KEAHEY, K.; LEGGETT, T.; LI, K.; McCUNE, D.C.; PAPKA, M.E.; RANDERSON, L.; SANDERSON, A.; STILLERMAN, J.; THOMPSON, M.R.; URAM, T.; WALLACE, G.

    2006-08-31

    This report summarizes the work of the National Fusion Collaboratory (NFC) Project funded by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) under the Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing Program (SciDAC) to develop a persistent infrastructure to enable scientific collaboration for magnetic fusion research. A five year project that was initiated in 2001, it built on the past collaborative work performed within the U.S. fusion community and added the component of computer science research done with the USDOE Office of Science, Office of Advanced Scientific Computer Research. The project was a collaboration itself uniting fusion scientists from General Atomics, MIT, and PPPL and computer scientists from ANL, LBNL, Princeton University, and the University of Utah to form a coordinated team. The group leveraged existing computer science technology where possible and extended or created new capabilities where required. Developing a reliable energy system that is economically and environmentally sustainable is the long-term goal of Fusion Energy Science (FES) research. In the U.S., FES experimental research is centered at three large facilities with a replacement value of over $1B. As these experiments have increased in size and complexity, there has been a concurrent growth in the number and importance of collaborations among large groups at the experimental sites and smaller groups located nationwide. Teaming with the experimental community is a theoretical and simulation community whose efforts range from applied analysis of experimental data to fundamental theory (e.g., realistic nonlinear 3D plasma models) that run on massively parallel computers. Looking toward the future, the large-scale experiments needed for FES research are staffed by correspondingly large, globally dispersed teams. The fusion program will be increasingly oriented toward the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) where even now, a decade before operation begins, a large

  19. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Blog Facing Disability Jeff Shannon Donate Experts \\ Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Topics Adult ... Spasticity, Physical Therapy-Lokomat Spasticity, Physical Therapy-Lokomat Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Sex and ...

  20. Computing Beyond the Church-Turing Limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Robert

    2009-05-01

    Dershowitz and Gurevich claim to have proven the Church-Turing theorem starting from a set of 4 reasonable postulates. (Bulletin of Symbolic Logic, vol. 14, num. 3, Sept. 2008, pg. 299) But their postulate II assumes fixed vocabulary. Humans, however, change their vocabulary words (and concepts) over time. My Asa H artificial intelligence also changes its vocabulary. (Trans. of the Kansas Acad. of Sci., vol. 109, no. 3/4, pg 159, 2006, www.bioone.org/archive/0022- 8443/109/3/pdf/i0022-8443-109-3-159.pdf) Their postulate I excludes nondeterministic transitions between states. I don't know how often humans flip a coin but my Asa H does employ random transitions under certain circumstances. Perhaps humans and Asa H go beyond the Church-Turing limit. (Trans. Kansas Acad. of Sci., 108, 3/4, pg. 169, 2005)

  1. Reconciling disagreement over climate–conflict results in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Hsiang, Solomon M.; Meng, Kyle C.

    2014-01-01

    A recent study by Burke et al. [Burke M, Miguel E, Satyanath S, Dykema J, Lobell D (2009) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106(49):20670–20674] reports statistical evidence that the likelihood of civil wars in African countries was elevated in hotter years. A following study by Buhaug [Buhaug H (2010) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107(38):16477–16482] reports that a reexamination of the evidence overturns Burke et al.’s findings when alternative statistical models and alternative measures of conflict are used. We show that the conclusion by Buhaug is based on absent or incorrect statistical tests, both in model selection and in the comparison of results with Burke et al. When we implement the correct tests, we find there is no evidence presented in Buhaug that rejects the original results of Burke et al. PMID:24520173

  2. Debye Shielding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Robert

    2011-10-01

    We usually expect that a biased electrode in contact with a plasma will effect only its immediate surroundings. The plasma will tend to shield itself from the applied electric potential, the characteristic shielding distance being the Debye length. This is not the case for biased gun electrodes which can project a nonneutral plasma beam relatively long distances across a magnetically confined plasma (Controlling the plasma potential across a magnetic field, Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci., vol 93, pg 125, R. Jones, 1990 and Plasma heating with electrically biased plasma guns, Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci., vol 97, pg 136, R. Jones, 1994) See also my website www.robert-w-jones.com and blog www.robertwilliamjones.blogspot.com.

  3. Stomatocyte–discocyte–echinocyte sequence of the human red blood cell: Evidence for the bilayer– couple hypothesis from membrane mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Lim H. W., Gerald; Wortis, Michael; Mukhopadhyay, Ranjan

    2002-01-01

    Red-cell shape is encoded in the mechanical properties of the membrane. The plasma membrane contributes bending rigidity; the protein-based membrane skeleton contributes stretch and shear elasticity. When both effects are included, membrane mechanics can reproduce in detail the full stomatocyte–discocyte–echinocyte sequence by variation of a single parameter related to the bilayer couple originally introduced by Sheetz and Singer [Sheetz, M. P. & Singer, S. J. (1974) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 71, 4457–4461]. PMID:12471152

  4. RNA Virus Evolution via a Fitness-Space Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsimring, Lev S.; Levine, Herbert; Kessler, David A.

    1996-06-01

    We present a mean-field theory for the evolution of RNA virus populations. The theory operates with a distribution of the population in a one-dimensional fitness space, and is valid for sufficiently smooth fitness landscapes. Our approach explains naturally the recent experimental observation [I. S. Novella et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 92, 5841-5844 (1995)] of two distinct stages in the growth of virus fitness.

  5. Selection-mutation process of RNA viruses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aafif, Amal; Lin, Juan

    1998-02-01

    RNA viruses mutate at a rate 105-106 times faster than their DNA counterparts. This process can be simulated by a continuous stochastic model on a smooth one-dimensional fitness landscape where selection forces the viral quasispecies to climb uphill to higher fitness values. Theoretical results of the model with drift velocity proportional to fitness are fitted to the experimental observations made by Novella et al. [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 92, 5841 (1995)].

  6. Unobserved time effects confound the identification of climate change impacts.

    PubMed

    Auffhammer, Maximilian; Vincent, Jeffrey R

    2012-07-24

    A recent study by Feng et al. [Feng S, Krueger A, Oppenheimer M (2010) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107:14257-14262] in PNAS reported statistical evidence of a weather-driven causal effect of crop yields on human migration from Mexico to the United States. We show that this conclusion is based on a different statistical model than the one stated in the paper. When we correct for this mistake, there is no evidence of a causal link. PMID:22783021

  7. Memory neuron: synapse microchemistry for the memory component of a neuroconnective brain model.

    PubMed Central

    Wooldridge, D E

    1980-01-01

    This paper examines the synaptic microchemistry required if a memory neuron is to have the operating characteristics previously attributed to it [Wooldridge, D.E. (1980) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 77,2305-2308]. It is concluded that the requirements can be met by a combination of membrane mechanisms not very different from those that are commonly postulated to explain the properties of known types of neurons. PMID:6248883

  8. Study protocol: münster tinnitus randomized controlled clinical trial-2013 based on tailor-made notched music training (TMNMT)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Tinnitus is a result of hyper-activity/hyper-synchrony of auditory neurons coding the tinnitus frequency, which has developed to synchronous mass activity owing the lack of inhibition. We assume that removal of exactly these frequency components from an auditory stimulus will cause the brain to reorganize around tonotopic regions coding the tinnitus frequency. Based on this assumption a novel treatment for tonal tinnitus - tailor-made notched music training (TMNMT) (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107:1207–1210, 2010; Ann N Y Acad Sci 1252:253–258, 2012; Frontiers Syst Neurosci 6:50, 2012) has been introduced and will be tested in this clinical trial on a large number of tinnitus patients. Methods and design A randomized controlled trial (RCT) in parallel group design will be performed in a double-blinded manner. The choice of the intervention we are going to apply is based on two “proof of concept” studies in humans (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107:1207–1210, 2010; Ann N Y Acad Sci 1252:253–258, 2012; Frontiers Syst Neurosci 6:50, 2012; PloS One 6(9):e24685, 2011) and on a recent animal study (Front Syst Neurosci 7:21, 2013). The RCT includes 100 participants with chronic, tonal tinnitus who listened to tailor-made notched music (TMNM) for two hours a day for three months. The effect of TMNMT is assessed by the tinnitus handicap questionnaire and visual analogue scales (VAS) measuring perceived tinnitus loudness, distress and handicap. Discussion This is the first randomized controlled trial applying TMNMT on a larger number of patients with tonal tinnitus. Our data will verify more securely and reliably the effectiveness of this kind of completely non-invasive and low-cost treatment approach on tonal tinnitus. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN04840953 PMID:24581050

  9. Network analysis of human heartbeat dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Zhi-Gang

    2010-02-01

    We construct the complex networks of human heartbeat dynamics and investigate their statistical properties, using the visibility algorithm proposed by Lacasa and co-workers [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105, 4972 (2008)]. Our results show that the associated networks for the time series of heartbeat interval are always scale-free, high clustering, hierarchy, and assortative mixing. In particular, the assortative coefficient of associated networks could distinguish between healthy subjects and patients with congestive heart failure.

  10. Supercompact cardinals, sets of reals, and weakly homogeneous trees.

    PubMed

    Woodin, W H

    1988-09-01

    It is shown that if there exists a supercompact cardinal then every set of reals, which is an element of L(R), is the projection of a weakly homogeneous tree. As a consequence of this theorem and recent work of Martin and Steel [Martin, D. A. & Steel, J. R. (1988) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 6582-6586], it follows that (if there is a supercompact cardinal) every set of reals in L(R) is determined. PMID:16593979

  11. An alternative technique for the computation of the designator in the retinex theory of color vision.

    PubMed

    Land, E H

    1986-05-01

    Accepting the first postulate of the retinex theory of color vision that there are three independent lightness-determining mechanisms (one for long waves, one for middle waves, and one for short waves), each operative with less than a millisecond exposure and each served by its own retinal pigment, a basic task of retinex theory becomes the determination of the nature of these mechanisms. Earlier references proposed several workable algorithms. [Land, E. H. (1959) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 45, 115-129; Land, E. H. (1959) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 45, 636-644; Land, E. H. (1983) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 80, 5163-5169; Land, E. H. & McCann, J. J. (1971) J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1-11; Land, E. H. (1986) Vision Res. 26, 7-21.] The present paper describes a relatively simple alternative technique for the computation of the designator in retinex theory and reports the general operational effectiveness of the new technique, including the competence, not possessed by earlier algorithms, for generating Mach bands. PMID:3458165

  12. Discussion on the article "Paleoseismological analysis of an intraplate extensional structure: the Concud fault (Iberian Chain, Eastern Spain)" by P. Lafuente, L. E. Arlegui, C. L. Liesa, and J. L. Simón (Int J Earth Sci)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, Francisco; Lucha, Pedro; Guerrero, Jesús; Gutiérrez, Mateo; Carbonel, Domingo

    2012-03-01

    This discussion is focused on three aspects of the paper published by Lafuente et al. (Int J Earth Sci, doi: 10.1007/s00531-010-0542-1 , 2010) on Concud Fault, constitute the fundamental basis to assess the seismic potential of this capable structure: (1) A slip rate estimated for the Concud Fault based on an erroneous displacement value and a questionable correlation, obviating previously published datings, markedly different to those used by the authors. The wrong displacement value introduces an error of more than 25% in the calculated Quaternary slip rate. (2) A new paleoseismological interpretation of the outcrop of Condud Fault at Los Baños, adding two improperly justified paleoearthquakes to the four events previously inferred. (3) The attribution of faults affecting a young terrace to the most recent recorded earthquake on Concud Fault, ruling out implicitly the likely option of a gravitational origin for them, either landsliding or subsidence due to evaporite dissolution.

  13. Response to ``Comment on `Elastic incoherent neutron scattering operating by varying instrumental energy resolution: Principle, simulations, and experiments of the resolution elastic neutron scattering (RENS)''' [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 107101 (2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magazó, Salvatore; Migliardo, Federica; Benedetto, Antonio

    2012-10-01

    Recently [S. Magazù et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 105115 (2011), 10.1063/1.3641870] we have proposed a new method for characterizing, by neutron scattering, the dynamical properties of complex material systems, such as, the ones of interest in the biophysical field. This approach called Resolution Elastic Neutron Scattering, in short RENS, is based on the detection of the elastically scattered neutron intensity as a function of the instrumental energy resolution. By experimental, theoretical, and numerical findings, we have pointed out that an inflection point occurs in the elastic intensity when the system relaxation time approaches the instrumental energy resolution time. This approach, differently from quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS), gives the chance to evaluate the system relaxation times without using pre-defined models that can be wrong and/or misleading. Here, we reply to a Comment on the above-mentioned main paper in which Wuttke proposes a different approach to evaluate the above-mentioned inflection point; on this regard, it should be noticed that the existence of the inflection point, which is the main topic of our work, is not questioned and that the approach proposed by Wuttke in the Comment, although valid for a class of dynamical processes, is not applicable when different and distinct processes occur simultaneously at different time scale.

  14. Sustaining and Extending the Open Science Grid: Science Innovation on a PetaScale Nationwide Facility (DE-FC02-06ER41436) SciDAC-2 Closeout Report

    SciTech Connect

    Livny, Miron; Shank, James; Ernst, Michael; Blackburn, Kent; Goasguen, Sebastien; Tuts, Michael; Gibbons, Lawrence; Pordes, Ruth; Sliz, Piotr; Deelman, Ewa; Barnett, William; Olson, Doug; McGee, John; Cowles, Robert; Wuerthwein, Frank; Gardner, Robert; Avery, Paul; Wang, Shaowen; Lincoln, David Swanson

    2015-02-11

    Under this SciDAC-2 grant the project’s goal w a s t o stimulate new discoveries by providing scientists with effective and dependable access to an unprecedented national distributed computational facility: the Open Science Grid (OSG). We proposed to achieve this through the work of the Open Science Grid Consortium: a unique hands-on multi-disciplinary collaboration of scientists, software developers and providers of computing resources. Together the stakeholders in this consortium sustain and use a shared distributed computing environment that transforms simulation and experimental science in the US. The OSG consortium is an open collaboration that actively engages new research communities. We operate an open facility that brings together a broad spectrum of compute, storage, and networking resources and interfaces to other cyberinfrastructures, including the US XSEDE (previously TeraGrid), the European Grids for ESciencE (EGEE), as well as campus and regional grids. We leverage middleware provided by computer science groups, facility IT support organizations, and computing programs of application communities for the benefit of consortium members and the US national CI.

  15. Correcting for the effects of pupil discontinuities with the ACAD method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazoyer, Johan; Pueyo, Laurent; N'Diaye, Mamadou; Mawet, Dimitri; Soummer, Rémi; Norman, Colin

    2016-07-01

    The current generation of ground-based coronagraphic instruments uses deformable mirrors to correct for phase errors and to improve contrast levels at small angular separations. Improving these techniques, several space and ground based instruments are currently developed using two deformable mirrors to correct for both phase and amplitude errors. However, as wavefront control techniques improve, more complex telescope pupil geometries (support structures, segmentation) will soon be a limiting factor for these next generation coronagraphic instruments. The technique presented in this proceeding, the Active Correction of Aperture Discontinuities method, is taking advantage of the fact that most future coronagraphic instruments will include two deformable mirrors, and is proposing to find the shapes and actuator movements to correct for the effect introduced by these complex pupil geometries. For any coronagraph previously designed for continuous apertures, this technique allow to obtain similar performance in contrast with a complex aperture (with segmented and secondary mirror support structures), with high throughput and flexibility to adapt to changing pupil geometry (e.g. in case of segment failure or maintenance of the segments). We here present the results of the parametric analysis realized on the WFIRST pupil for which we obtained high contrast levels with several deformable mirror setups (size, separation between them), coronagraphs (Vortex charge 2, vortex charge 4, APLC) and spectral bandwidths. However, because contrast levels and separation are not the only metrics to maximize the scientific return of an instrument, we also included in this study the influence of these deformable mirror shapes on the throughput of the instrument and sensitivity to pointing jitters. Finally, we present results obtained on another potential space based telescope segmented aperture. The main result of this proceeding is that we now obtain comparable performance than the coronagraphs previously designed for WFIRST. First result from the parametric analysis strongly suggest that the 2 deformable mirror set up (size and distance between them) have a important impact on the performance in contrast and throughput of the final instrument.

  16. A bibliography for the conclusions to the special issue of Science of the Total Environment concerning 'The water quality of UK rivers entering the North Sea'. Sci. Tot. Environ., this volume.

    PubMed

    Neal, C; Turner, H

    2000-05-01

    In this document, a bibliography for the conclusions to the special issue of Science of the Total Environment concerning 'The water quality of UK rivers entering the North Sea'. Sci. Tot. Environ., this volume, is presented. It comprises a list of the papers presented in five special issues in learned journals, three in Science of the Total Environment (this volume and volumes 194/195, 1997 and 210/211, 1998) as well as Hydrological Processes (1999, vol 13: Special Issue, River Basin Sediment Dynamics, eds. Anderson, M.G., Peters, N.E. and Walling, D.E.) and Marine Pollution Bulletin [1999, vol 37(3-7) Special Issue: Flux of Materials between Rivers and Coastal Waters, eds. Stebbing, A.R.D., Huntley, D. and Leeks, G.J.L.]. The bibliography comprises six main sections with subsections for specific water quality issues. These are as follows: Section 1 deals with the introduction to LOIS and contained in this section is background material over the nature of the programme, the study area, remit, water quality issues and international context. Section 2 provides the main meat to the bibliography and it splits into Section 2.1 historical and Section 2.2 current water quality issues. Within Section 2.2 there are subsections dealing with specific current aspects of water quality (Section 2.2.1, major ions; Section 2.2.2, pH, dissolved carbon dioxide and dissolved oxygen; Section 2.2.3 nutrients; Section 2.2.4, trace elements; Section 2.2.5 micro-organics; Section 2.2.6 sediments; Section 2.2.7 biology). Section 3 deals with hydrology and climate variability, Section 4, modelling, Section 5 load estimation and Section 6 conclusions. A full listing of the LOIS programme is available from the LOIS programme office, CCMS, Plymouth Laboratory, Prospect Place, West Hoe, Plymouth, PL1 3DH, UK (e-mail lois@ccms.ac.uk).

  17. Environment International, Special Issue, "Future Directions in Air Quality Research Ecological, Atmospheric, Regulatory/Policy/Economic, and Educational Issues", Volume 29, #2-3. June 2003. ISSN 0160 4120

    SciTech Connect

    Alcock, Ruth E; Heck, Walter W; Chappelka, Arthur H; Hunt, William F; Innes, John L; and Unsworth, Michael

    2003-06-01

    The Air Resources Consortium sponsored a Conference entitled "Future Directions in Air Quality Research". The Conference was held on February 12-15, 2001 at the Sheraton Imperial Hotel and Conference Center in the Research Triangle Park, NC. This was an international conference that had wide interest in both the scientific and regulatory communities at both State and Federal levels in the U.S. and in the international community. Attendance over the four days of the Conference was over 200 with excellent international participation. The primary purpose of the Conference was to highlight future directions in air quality research based on our current knowledge and ongoing research. Three atmospheric contaminates (ozone, carbon dioxide and species of nitrogen) as the primary focus for the Conference, since they would likely be of continuing concern to the international community over the next several decades. Speakers focused on ways that research could support regulatory, policy and environmental needs of federal, state and local government as well as the concerns of both industrial and environmental groups. Economic impacts were considered when covering policy implications. The program was developed around ecological effects, atmospheric processes and their relationships. Conference speakers were asked to develop their papers for inclusion in a Conference Proceedings. The proceedings were published in the Journal "Environment International" as Volume 29, Numbers 2-3, in June of 2003. Copies of the Proceedings have been sent to DOE.

  18. Evidence for an intense solar outburst in prehistory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peratt, A. L.; Yao, W. F.

    2008-10-01

    A past intense solar outburst and its effect on Earth was proposed by Gold (1962 Pontificiae Acad. Sci. Scr. Varia 25 159) who, along with others, based his hypotheses on strong astronomical and geophysical evidence. The discovery that objects from the Neolithic or Early Bronze Age carry patterns associated with high-current Z-pinches, as would result from an intense plasma impinging Earth, provides a possible insight into the origin and meaning of these ancient symbols produced by humans. Peratt (2003 Trans. Plasma Sci. 31 1192) dealt with the comparison of graphical and radiation data from high-current Z-pinches to petroglyphs, geoglyphs and megaliths. Peratt (2007 Trans. Plasma Sci. 35 778) focused primarily, but not exclusively, on petroglyphs of some 84 different morphologies; pictures found in laboratory experiments and carved on rock. These corresponded to mankind's visual observations of ancient aurora as might be produced if the solar wind had increased at times between one and two orders of magnitude, millennia ago (Gold 1962 Pontificiae Acad. Sci. Scr. Varia 25 159). In Peratt (2007 Trans. Plasma Sci. 35 778), the data were given on the source of light and its temporal change from a current-increasing Z-pinch or dense plasma focus aurora. Orientation and field-of-view data are given as surveyed and contributed from 139 countries, from sites and fields containing several millions of these objects, the latest data coming from a 300 km survey along the Orinoco river basin in Venezuela. In this paper, we include additional petroglyph figures derivable from experiment and computer. This information allows a reconstruction of the auroral form presumably associated with extreme geomagnetic storms and shows, based on existent geophysical evidence, relativistic electron flow inward at Earth's south polar axis and hypervelocity proton impacts around the north polar axis.

  19. Geomorphology and anthropogenic impact including military constraints in a microtidal wave-dominated embayment in south western Sardinia (Porto Pino beach, SCI ITB040025, Mediterranean Sea). Implications for beach management.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Muro, Sandro; Buosi, Carla; Pusceddu, Nicola; Frongia, Paolo; Passarella, Marinella; Ibba, Angelo

    2016-04-01

    The coastal zones of the Mediterranean have undergone increasing pressure over the last century. The intensifying coastal development and the increasing tourist impact have led to an intense transformation of the coastlines and adjacent marine areas. The beach and the coastal dune play an important role in protecting the coastline. Thus, the study of its geomorphological evolution and of its anthropic modification is fundamental in order to adopt the best management practices. In this regard, the LIFE Project (LIFE13NAT/IT/001013) SOSS DUNES (Safeguard and management Of South-western Sardinian Dunes) aims to safeguard the dune habitats and the beach system in a site belonging to the Natura 2000 network, an EUwide network of nature protection areas established under the 1992 Habitats Directive. This project is focused on a microtidal wave-dominated embayment located in south western Sardinia (Italy, Mediterranean Sea) called Porto Pino beach comprised in the SCI (Site of Community Importance) "Promontory, dunes and wetland of Porto Pino (ITB040025)". This research aims to investigate the geomorphological processes, the evolution and the main human impacts on Porto Pino beach as an useful tool for both conservation and coastal management. The coastal area of Porto Pino is represented by sandy shorelines extending for a total length of 5 km characterized by a wide primary and secondary dune systems, a backshore wetland lagoon and marsh area arranged parallel to the coastline. This littoral area can be ideally divided into three parts: the first, about 600 m long, in the north-west part characterized by the highest human pressure due to touristic activity on the foredunes and deposition of beach wrack; the second part in the south-east, about 1100 m long, characterized by a complex dune system (primary and secondary foredunes); and the third southernmost part included in a military area, about 3300 m long, characterized by transgressive dune system with low human

  20. Magnetic Tests For Magnetosome Chains In Martian Meteorite ALH84001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, B. P.; Kim, S.; Kirschvink, J. L.; Sankaran, M.; Kobayashi, A.; Komeili, A.

    2003-12-01

    Transmission electron microscopy studies have been used to argue that magnetites in carbonates from Martian meteorite ALH84001 have a composition and morphology indistinguishable from that of magnetotactic bacteria and their magnetofossils (1). It has even been claimed from scanning electron microscopy imaging that some ALH84001 magnetites are aligned in chains (2). If true, this would provide dramatic support for the magnetofossil hypothesis because alignment in chains is perhaps the most distinctive of the six crystallographic properties thought to be collectively unique to magnetosomes. The leading alternative hypothesis is that the ALH84001 magnetites are the inorganic products of shock-heating of the carbonates (3, 4). Here we use three rock magnetic techniques-low-temperature cycling, the Moskowitz test (5), and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR)-to demonstrate that most or all of the magnetites in ALH84001 are unusually pure and fine-grained but are not arranged in magnetosome chains. 1. K. L. Thomas-Keprta et al., Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 64, 4049-4081 (2000). 2. I. E. Friedmann, J. Wierzchos, C. Ascaso, M. Winklhofer, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98, 2176-2181 (2001). 3. D. C. Golden et al., Am. Mineral. 83, 370-375 (2001). 4. D. J. Barber, E. R. D. Scott, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 6556-6561 (2002). 5. B. M. Moskowitz, R. B. Frankel, D. A. Bazylinski, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 120, 283-300 (1993).

  1. Le Carbonifère du Maroc central : les formations de Migoumess, de Tirhela et d'Idmarrach. Lithologie, biostratigraphie et conséquences géodynamiquesThe Carboniferous formations of Migoumess, Tirhela and Idmarrach (central Morocco): lithology, biostratigraphy and geodynamic consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkhli, Mostafa; Vachard, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    New biostratigraphical data based on foraminifers, algae and pseudo-algae indicate that the limestone pebbles of the channelized polygenic conglomerates of the Migoumess formation contain Late Visean (V3b γ-V3c) assemblages. That confirms the Westphalian age attributed to this formation by Hollard [Zdt. Geol. Ges. 129 (1978) 495-512]. The Tournaisian age assigned to it by palynology [C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, série II 310 (1990) 1573-1576] cannot be retained. The Tirhela formation, Late Visean and Serpukhovian (E1) in age, is coeval with the Akerchi formation [Berkhli, thèse d'État, 1999; Berkhli et al., J. Afr. Earth Sci. (accepté)]. The Idmarrach formation, mapped as a thrust sheet [C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, série II 310 (1990) 1573-1576], is dated as Serpukhovian (E1) and its thrusting is consequently post-Serpukhovian. Palaeogeographic and geodynamic consequences are listed. To cite this article: M. Berkhli, D. Vachard, C. R. Geoscience 334 (2002) 67-72

  2. Viscosity Solutions for the One-Body Liouville Equation in Yang-Mills Charged Bianchi Models with Non-Zero Mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayissi, Raoul Domingo; Noutchegueme, Norbert; Etoua, Remy Magloire; Tchagna, Hugues Paulin Mbeutcha

    2015-09-01

    Recently in 2005, Briani and Rampazzo (Nonlinear Differ Equ Appl 12:71-91, 2005) gave, using results of Crandall and Lions (Ill J Math 31:665-688, 1987), Ishii (Indiana Univ Math J 33: 721-748, 1984, Bull Fac Sci Eng 28: 33-77, 1985) and Ley (Adv Diff Equ 6:547-576, 2001) a density approach to Hamilton-Jacobi equations with t-measurable Hamiltonians. In this paper we show, using an important result of Briani and Rampazzo (Nonlinear Differ Equ Appl 12:71-91, 2005) the existence and uniqueness of viscosity solutions to the one-body Liouville relativistic equation in Yang-Mills charged Bianchi space times with non-zero mass. To our knowledge, the method used here is original and thus, totally different from those used in Alves (C R Acad Sci Paris Sér A 278:1151-1154, 1975), Choquet-Bruhat and Noutchegueme (C R Acad Sci Paris Sér I 311, 1973), Choquet-Bruhat and Noutchegueme (Ann Inst Henri Poincaré 55:759-787, 1991), Choquet-Bruhat and Noutchegueme (Pitman Res Notes Math Ser 253:52-71, 1992), Noutchegueme and Noundjeu (Ann Inst Henri Poincaré 1:385-404, 2000), Wollman (J Math Anal Appl 127:103-121, 1987) and Choquet-Bruhat (Existence and uniqueness for the Einstein-Maxwell-Liouville system. Volume dedicated to Petrov, Moscow, 1971) who have studied the same equation.

  3. Training-Induced Functional Gains following SCI.

    PubMed

    Ward, P J; Herrity, A N; Harkema, S J; Hubscher, C H

    2016-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that daily, hour-long training sessions significantly improved both locomotor (limb kinematics, gait, and hindlimb flexor-extensor bursting patterns) and nonlocomotor (bladder function and at-level mechanical allodynia) functions following a moderate contusive spinal cord injury. The amount of training needed to achieve this recovery is unknown. Furthermore, whether this recovery is induced primarily by neuronal activity below the lesion or other aspects related to general exercise is unclear. Therefore, the current study objectives were to (1) test the efficacy of 30 minutes of step training for recovery following a clinically relevant contusion injury in male Wistar rats and (2) test the efficacy of training without hindlimb engagement. The results indicate that as little as 30 minutes of step training six days per week enhances overground locomotion in male rats with contusive spinal cord injury but does not alter allodynia or bladder function. Thirty minutes of forelimb-only exercise did not alter locomotion, allodynia, or bladder function, and neither training protocol altered the amount of in-cage activity. Taken together, locomotor improvements were facilitated by hindlimb step training for 30 minutes, but longer durations of training are required to affect nonlocomotor systems. PMID:27403345

  4. Sci-Tech Archives and Manuscript Collections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mount, Ellis, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Selected collections of scientific and technical archives and manuscripts described in eight articles include the Edison Archives; American Museum of Natural History Library; MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) Institute Archives and Special Collections; National Archives; Dard Hunter Paper Museum; American Zoo and Aquarium Archives; and…

  5. Weight Management Following SCI (Spinal Cord Injury)

    MedlinePlus

    ... and family can be a wonderful source of reinforcement if you give them suggestions on ways they ... Do not try to predict future. • Keep a positive attitude. • Do not be self-critical. • Recognize the ...

  6. Best Sci-Tech Books of 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapp, Gregg

    2009-01-01

    In tight economic times, the concerns and issues of science, viewed as not having enough practical value, can get pushed aside. But the top science books of 2008 demonstrate how science more often than not pays for itself. What's more practical than food (Tomorrow's Table), health (Our Daily Meds), the environment (The Hot Topics), or even--sex…

  7. How Is Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... five classification levels, ranging from complete loss of neural function in the affected area to completely normal ... Reviewed: 05/28/2013 Related A-Z Topics Neural Tube Defects (NTDs) Rehabilitation Medicine NICHD News and ...

  8. Best of 2009 Sci-Tech Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapp, Gregg

    2010-01-01

    Science often reflects society's concerns, and a number of the top books of 2009 address two of the biggest headline-grabbing topics--climate change and health-care reform. This article presents a list of 35 titles that address climate change and health-care reform. Some titles cover the entirety of the global-warming threat (James Lovelock's "The…

  9. Treatment of Post-SCI Hypotension

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-27

    Spinal Cord Injury; Autonomic Dysreflexia; Orthostatic Hypotension; Baroreceptor Integrity; Sympathetic Integrity; Vagal Integrity; Hypotension; Cerebral Blood Flow; Blood Pressure; Venous Occlusion Plethysmography

  10. Training-Induced Functional Gains following SCI

    PubMed Central

    Ward, P. J.; Herrity, A. N.; Harkema, S. J.; Hubscher, C. H.

    2016-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that daily, hour-long training sessions significantly improved both locomotor (limb kinematics, gait, and hindlimb flexor-extensor bursting patterns) and nonlocomotor (bladder function and at-level mechanical allodynia) functions following a moderate contusive spinal cord injury. The amount of training needed to achieve this recovery is unknown. Furthermore, whether this recovery is induced primarily by neuronal activity below the lesion or other aspects related to general exercise is unclear. Therefore, the current study objectives were to (1) test the efficacy of 30 minutes of step training for recovery following a clinically relevant contusion injury in male Wistar rats and (2) test the efficacy of training without hindlimb engagement. The results indicate that as little as 30 minutes of step training six days per week enhances overground locomotion in male rats with contusive spinal cord injury but does not alter allodynia or bladder function. Thirty minutes of forelimb-only exercise did not alter locomotion, allodynia, or bladder function, and neither training protocol altered the amount of in-cage activity. Taken together, locomotor improvements were facilitated by hindlimb step training for 30 minutes, but longer durations of training are required to affect nonlocomotor systems. PMID:27403345

  11. [Analysis of the continuity, circulation and productivity of the Revista Española de Quimioterapia].

    PubMed

    Gimeno Sieres, E

    2007-06-01

    The primary objective of this study was to compare some of the bibliometric indicators of the continuity, circulation and productivity of the Revista Espanola de Quimioterapia up to 2003 with other spanish journals of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. This was done by reviewing periodicals directories, such as the ISSN (International Standard Serial Number/Número Internacional Normalizado de Publicaciones Seriadas) and ULRICH'S (Periodicals Directory), as well as the CDU (Classification Universal Decimal), national and international databases including IME (Indice Médico Español), ICYT (Indice Espanol de Ciencia y Tecnologia), IPA (International Pharmaceutical Abstracts), SCI Expanded (Science Citation Index Expanded), MEDLINE (Index Medicus), EMBASE (Excerpta Medica), BIOSIS PREVIEWS, ANALYTICAL ABSTRACTS, FSTA (Food Science and Technology Abstracts), SCIFINDER SCHOLAR and CHEMISTRY CITATION INDEX. According to the results, the Revista Española de Quimioterapia, in publication for 15 years, is widely distributed and has a good rating among other scientific journals of the same discipline. PMID:17893754

  12. [Analysis of the continuity, circulation and productivity of the Revista Española de Quimioterapia].

    PubMed

    Gimeno Sieres, E

    2007-06-01

    The primary objective of this study was to compare some of the bibliometric indicators of the continuity, circulation and productivity of the Revista Espanola de Quimioterapia up to 2003 with other spanish journals of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. This was done by reviewing periodicals directories, such as the ISSN (International Standard Serial Number/Número Internacional Normalizado de Publicaciones Seriadas) and ULRICH'S (Periodicals Directory), as well as the CDU (Classification Universal Decimal), national and international databases including IME (Indice Médico Español), ICYT (Indice Espanol de Ciencia y Tecnologia), IPA (International Pharmaceutical Abstracts), SCI Expanded (Science Citation Index Expanded), MEDLINE (Index Medicus), EMBASE (Excerpta Medica), BIOSIS PREVIEWS, ANALYTICAL ABSTRACTS, FSTA (Food Science and Technology Abstracts), SCIFINDER SCHOLAR and CHEMISTRY CITATION INDEX. According to the results, the Revista Española de Quimioterapia, in publication for 15 years, is widely distributed and has a good rating among other scientific journals of the same discipline.

  13. From gene expressions to genetic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieplak, Marek

    2009-03-01

    A method based on the principle of entropy maximization is used to identify the gene interaction network with the highest probability of giving rise to experimentally observed transcript profiles [1]. In its simplest form, the method yields the pairwise gene interaction network, but it can also be extended to deduce higher order correlations. Analysis of microarray data from genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae chemostat cultures exhibiting energy metabollic oscillations identifies a gene interaction network that reflects the intracellular communication pathways. These pathways adjust cellular metabolic activity and cell division to the limiting nutrient conditions that trigger metabolic oscillations. The success of the present approach in extracting meaningful genetic connections suggests that the maximum entropy principle is a useful concept for understanding living systems, as it is for other complex, nonequilibrium systems. The time-dependent behavior of the genetic network is found to involve only a few fundamental modes [2,3]. [4pt] REFERENCES:[0pt] [1] T. R. Lezon, J. R. Banavar, M. Cieplak, A. Maritan, and N. Fedoroff, Using the principle of entropy maximization to infer genetic interaction networks from gene expression patterns, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 103, 19033-19038 (2006) [0pt] [2] N. S. Holter, M. Mitra, A. Maritan, M. Cieplak, J. R. Banavar, and N. V. Fedoroff, Fundamental patterns underlying gene expression profiles: simplicity from complexity, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 8409-8414 (2000) [0pt] [3] N. S. Holter, A. Maritan, M. Cieplak, N. V. Fedoroff, and J. R. Banavar, Dynamic modeling of gene expression data, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98, 1693-1698 (2001)

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: HII regions of the Northern Milky Way (Dubout-Crillon+ 1976)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubout-Crillon, R.

    2011-04-01

    The photographs were made at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence at the end of 1969, throughout 1970, and then again in 1972. A 5cm refractor was used with a very selective interference filter (Δλ=10Å) centered on Hα, and a focal reducer took the f/5 beam down to f/1.25. Exposures were made using flashed 103-aE plates. The catalogue includes also the HII regions discovered by Sivan 1974 (Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris 278, 127; 1974A&AS...16..163S). (1 data file).

  15. Default taxonomy: Ernst Mayr's view of the microbial world

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woese, C. R.

    1998-01-01

    This perspective is a response to a taxonomic proposal by E. Mayr ["Two empires or three?" (1998) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 9720-9723]. Mayr has suggested that the now accepted classification of life into three primary domains, Archaea, Bacteria, and Eucarya-originally proposed by myself and others--be abandoned in favor of the earlier Prokaryote-Eukaryote classification. Although the matter appears a taxonomic quibble, it is not that simple. At issue here are differing views as to the nature of biological classification, which are underlain by differing views as to what biology is and will be--matters of concern to all biologists.

  16. Design of molecular control mechanisms and the demand for gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Savageau, M A

    1977-01-01

    Regulation by a repressor protein is the mechanism selected when, in the organism's natural environment, there is low demand for expression of the regulated structural genes. Regulation by an activator protein is selected when there is high demand for expression of the regulated structural genes. These general conclusions are useful in relating physiological function to underlying molecular determinants in a wide variety of systems that includes repressible biosynthetic pathways, inducible biosynthetic enzymes, inducible drug resistance, and prophage induction, as well as inducible catabolic pathways, for which a special case of this prediction previously was reported [Savageau, M. A. (1974) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 71, 2453-2455]. PMID:271992

  17. The road to understanding an ion pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyoshima, Chikashi

    2016-04-01

    In the past 25 years or so I have been working almost exclusively on two proteins: the Ca2+-ATPase of muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum, and the Na+, K+-ATPase expressed in all animal cells, both are membrane ion pumps representing P-type ion translocating ATPases. My ambition as a scientist is to completely understand the meaning of their atomic structures. How I became a scientist is described elsewhere (Nuzzo R 2006 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103 1165-7), and focus here is given to my struggle towards a deep understanding of Ca2+-ATPase. This is a long but very fascinating and rewarding journey.

  18. Identifying the occurrence time of mainshocks by means of Natural Time Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarlis, Nicholas V.; Skordas, Efthimios S.; Lazaridou, Mary S.; Varotsos, Panayiotis A.

    2016-04-01

    By employing the new view of time, termed natural time [1], recent advances on the natural time analysis of a seismic catalogue [2] include: First, the fluctuations of the order parameter κ1 of seismicity exhibit a minimum almost simultaneous with the initiation of a Seismic Electric Signals (SES) activity [3,4]. This opens the window of a deeper understanding of the critical nature of preseismic process [5]. Second, a spatiotemporal study of the fluctuations of the order parameter of seismicity leads to an estimate of the epicentral area of a major impending mainshock [6]. Third, by starting the natural time analysis of the seismicity in the candidate epicentral area at the initiation time of the SES activity, we find that the κ1 values converge to the critical value [7-9] κ_1=0.070 a few days to one week before a mainshock. Recent applications of this procedure are presented for mainshocks that occurred close to Athens [10] during the last few years. References [1] P. A. Varotsos, N. V. Sarlis and E. S. Skordas, Phys. Rev. E {66} (2002) 011902; Practica of Athens Academy {76} (2001) 294. [2] P.A.Varotsos, N.V. Sarlis, H.K. Tanaka and E.S. Skordas, Phys. Rev. E {72} (2005) 041103. [3] P. Varotsos and M. Lazaridou, Tectonophysics {188} (1991) 321. [4] P. A. Varotsos, N. V. Sarlis, E. S. Skordas, and M. S. Lazaridou, Tectonophysics {589} (2013) 116. [5] P. Varotsos, K. Alexopoulos and M. Lazaridou, Tectonophysics {224} (1993) 1. [6] N.V. Sarlis, E.S. Skordas, P.A. Varotsos, T. Nagao, M. Kamogawa, and S. Uyeda Proc Natl Acad Sci USA {112} (2015) 986. [7] P. Varotsos, N.V. Sarlis, E.S. Skordas, S. Uyeda, and M. Kamogawa, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA {108} (2011) 11361. [8] N.V. Sarlis, E.S. Skordas, P.A. Varotsos, T. Nagao, M. Kamogawa, H. Tanaka and S. Uyeda Proc Natl Acad Sci USA {110} (2013) 13734. [9] N.V. Sarlis, E.S. Skordas, M.S. Lazaridou, and P.A. Varotsos, Proc Japan Acad Ser. ? {84} (2008) 331. [10] P.A. Varotsos, N.V. Sarlis, E.S. Skordas, S.-R. G

  19. Central limit theorems and suppression of anomalous diffusion for systems with symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottwald, Georg A.; Melbourne, Ian

    2016-10-01

    We give general conditions for the central limit theorem and weak convergence to Brownian motion (the weak invariance principle/functional central limit theorem) to hold for observables of compact group extensions of nonuniformly expanding maps. In particular, our results include situations where the central limit theorem would fail, and anomalous behaviour would prevail, if the compact group were not present. This has important consequences for systems with noncompact Euclidean symmetry and provides the rigorous proof for a conjecture made in our paper: a Huygens principle for diffusion and anomalous diffusion in spatially extended systems. Gottwald and Melbourne (2013 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 110 8411-6).

  20. Association of phorbol ester-induced hyperphosphorylation and reversible regulation of transferrin membrane receptors in HL60 cells.

    PubMed Central

    May, W S; Jacobs, S; Cuatrecasas, P

    1984-01-01

    Phorbol diesters are tumor-promoting agents that cause differentiation of HL60 human leukemic cells and concomitantly alter surface transferrin-receptor expression [Rovera, G., Ferreo, D., Pagliardi, G. L., Vartikar, J., Pessano, S., Bottero, L., Abraham, S. & Lebman, D. (1982) Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 397, 211-220]. Transferrin-receptor regulation is shown here to result from a rapid and reversible internalization process that is temporally associated with reversible increased phosphorylation (hyperphosphorylation) of the transferrin receptor. Such a reversible mechanism involving regulation of these surface proteins could result in the rapid generation of an early signal for HL60 cellular differentiation. Images PMID:6326098

  1. Stabilization of Isolated Photosystem II Reaction Center Complex in the Dark and in the Light Using Polyethylene Glycol and an Oxygen-Scrubbing System 1

    PubMed Central

    McTavish, Hugh; Picorel, Rafael; Seibert, Michael

    1989-01-01

    The photosystem II reaction center as isolated (O Nanba, K Satoh [1987] Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 84: 109-112) is quite dilute and very unstable. Precipitating the complex with polyethylene glycol and resuspending it in buffer without detergent concentrates the reaction center and greatly improves its stability at 4°C in the dark as judged by light-induced electron transport activity. Furthermore, a procedure was developed to minimize photodestruction of polyethylene-glycol-concentrated material at room temperature in the light. The ability to stabilize the photosystem II reaction center should facilitate future photophysical, biochemical, and structural studies of the complex. Images Figure 1 PMID:16666564

  2. On Rank One Convex Functions that are Homogeneous of Degree One

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchheim, Bernd; Kristensen, Jan

    2016-07-01

    We show that positively 1-homogeneous rank one convex functions are convex at 0 and at matrices of rank one. The result is a special case of an abstract convexity result that we establish for positively 1-homogeneous directionally convex functions defined on an open convex cone in a finite dimensional vector space. From these results we derive a number of consequences including various generalizations of the Ornstein L1 non inequalities. Most of the results were announced in ( C R Acad Sci Paris Ser I 349:407-409, 2011).

  3. Nanoscale hydrodynamics in the cell: balancing motorized transport with diffusion

    PubMed Central

    Austin, Robert H.

    2008-01-01

    One of the central problems in the cell is how to transport molecules around the cell to desired locations. Since low Reynolds number conditions apply and diffusional times are large, without the aid of molecular motors to transport the fluid quickly cells could not survive, yet diffusion is still essential for the ultimate delivery of the goods. This paradox of low Reynolds number∕large Peclet number has been solved by the algal weed Chara corallina in ingenious ways, as the recent paper by Goldstein, et al. [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 105, 3663–3667 (2008)] discusses at a deep but accessible way using modern hydrodynamic modeling. PMID:19404437

  4. A simplified method for extracting androgens from avian egg yolks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kozlowski, C.P.; Bauman, J.E.; Hahn, D.C.

    2009-01-01

    Female birds deposit significant amounts of steroid hormones into the yolks of their eggs. Studies have demonstrated that these hormones, particularly androgens, affect nestling growth and development. In order to measure androgen concentrations in avian egg yolks, most authors follow the extraction methods outlined by Schwabl (1993. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 90:11446-11450). We describe a simplified method for extracting androgens from avian egg yolks. Our method, which has been validated through recovery and linearity experiments, consists of a single ethanol precipitation that produces substantially higher recoveries than those reported by Schwabl.

  5. Fractional Hamiltonian monodromy from a Gauss-Manin monodromy

    SciTech Connect

    Sugny, D.; Jauslin, H. R.; Mardesic, P.; Pelletier, M.; Jebrane, A.

    2008-04-15

    Fractional Hamiltonian monodromy is a generalization of the notion of Hamiltonian monodromy, recently introduced by [Nekhoroshev, Sadovskii, and Zhilinskii, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, Ser. 1 335, 985 (2002); and Ann. Henri Poincare 7, 1099 (2006)] for energy-momentum maps whose image has a particular type of nonisolated singularities. In this paper, we analyze the notion of fractional Hamiltonian monodromy in terms of the Gauss-Manin monodromy of a Riemann surface constructed from the energy-momentum map and associated with a loop in complex space which bypasses the line of singularities. We also prove some propositions on fractional Hamiltonian monodromy for 1:-n and m:-n resonant systems.

  6. The nucleotide sequence at the termini of adenovirus type 5 DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Steenbergh, P H; Maat, J; van Ormondt, H; Sussenbach, J S

    1977-01-01

    The sequences of the first 194 base pairs at both termini of adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) DNA have been determined, using the chemical degradation technique developed by Maxam and Gilbert (Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 74 (1977), pp. 560-564). The nucleotide sequences 1-75 were confirmed by analysis of labeled RNA transcribed from the terminal HhaI fragments in vitro. The sequence data show that Ad5 DNA has a perfect inverted terminal repetition of 103 base pairs long. Images PMID:600799

  7. The protein translocation machinery of the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Walter, P; Gilmore, R; Müller, M; Blobel, G

    1982-12-24

    The rough endoplasmic reticulum (r.e.r.) has been postulated to possess a single translation-coupled translocation system (in multiple copies) that effects signal sequence-mediated translocation of all secretory and lysosomal proteins and integration of all integral membrane proteins whose port of entry is the rough endoplasmic reticulum (G. Blobel 1980 Proc. natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77, 1496-1500). Two proteins have been isolated that are components of the r.e.r. translocation system. Their properties and function in protein translocation across and integration into membranes are discussed. PMID:6131460

  8. Finite Time Extinction for Stochastic Sign Fast Diffusion and Self-Organized Criticality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gess, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    We prove finite time extinction for stochastic sign fast diffusion equations driven by linear multiplicative space-time noise, corresponding to the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld model for self-organized criticality. This solves a problem posed and left open in several works: (Barbu, Methods Appl Sci 36:1726-1733, 2013; Röckner and Wang, J Lond Math Soc (2) 87:545-560, 2013; Barbu et al. J Math Anal Appl 389:147-164, 2012; Barbu and Röckner, Comm Math Phys 311:539-555, 2012; Barbu et al., Comm Math Phys 285:901-923, 2009, C R Math Acad Sci Paris 347(1-2):81-84, 2009). The highly singular-degenerate nature of the drift in interplay with the stochastic perturbation causes the need for new methods in the analysis of mass diffusion, and several new estimates and techniques are introduced.

  9. A remarkable cranium of Plesiopithecus teras (Primates, Prosimii) from the Eocene of Egypt.

    PubMed Central

    Simons, E L; Rasmussen, D T

    1994-01-01

    Between 1991 and 1993 specimens of a highly distinctive primate, named Plesiopithecus teras [Simons, E.L. (1992) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89, 10743-10747], were found at site L-41 in late Eocene deposits of the Fayum Depression, Egypt. The most important of these specimens consists of a nearly complete skull, which facilitates the evaluation of affinities of this primate. Characteristics of the known material now demonstrate that Plesiopithecus is a prosimian, although mandibular molar morphology, in particular, bears similarity to that in molars of archaic members of Anthropoidea. Plesiopithecus has a postorbital bar but lacks postorbital closure, it has upper molars without hypocones, and it may retain four lower premolars. Its familial rank was considered incertae sedis by Simons [Simons, E.L. (1992) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89, 10743-10747]; it can now be demonstrated that Plesiopithecus justifies establishment of a new family and superfamily. The new superfamily apparently lies closer to the toothcomb prosimians (strepsirhines) than to any other known primate group. Under this interpretation the enlarged, procumbent tooth in the jaw of Plesiopithecus is homologous to either the lateral incisor or the canine of the prosimian toothcomb. Images PMID:7937923

  10. Endocytic uptake of nonenzymatically glycosylated proteins is mediated by a scavenger receptor for aldehyde-modified proteins.

    PubMed

    Takata, K; Horiuchi, S; Araki, N; Shiga, M; Saitoh, M; Morino, Y

    1988-10-15

    Long term incubation of proteins with glucose, named the Maillard reaction (Maillard, L. C. (1912) C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 154, 66-68), gives rise to advanced glycosylation end product (AGE) with fluorescence, color, as well as cross-linked properties. The receptor-mediated endocytosis of AGE-proteins by macrophages was reported (Vlassara, H., Brownlee, M., and Cerami, A. (1985) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 82, 5588-5592). The present study on the binding of AGE-bovine serum albumin (BSA) to rat peritoneal macrophages and sinusoidal liver cells demonstrated the presence of a saturable, high affinity receptor for AGE-BSA with Kd = 2.4 x 10(-7) M (macrophages) and 2.1 x 10(-7) M (sinusoidal cells). The cellular binding of AGE-BSA and its endocytic uptake by these cells were competitively inhibited by BSA preparations modified with aliphatic aldehydes such as formaldehyde or glycolaldehyde, ligands known to be specific for a scavenger receptor for aldehyde-modified proteins (Horiuchi, S., Murakami, M., Takata, K., and Morino, Y. (1986). J. Biol. Chem. 261, 4962-4966). These ligands also had a profound in vivo effect on the plasma clearance of 125I-AGE-BSA as well as its hepatic uptake. Thus, endocytic uptake of AGE-proteins by macrophages appeared to be mediated by a scavenger receptor for aldehyde-modified proteins. This provides evidence for the biological importance of the scavenger receptor in eliminating senescent macromolecules from the circulation.

  11. Neandertal nasal structures and upper respiratory tract “specialization”

    PubMed Central

    Franciscus, Robert G.

    1999-01-01

    Schwartz and Tattersall [Schwartz, J. H. & Tattersall, I. (1996) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 10852–10854] have argued for a previously unrecognized suite of autapomorphies in the internal nasal region of Neandertals that make them unique, not only among hominids, but possibly among all other terrestrial mammals. These purported autapomorphies include (i) the development of an internal nasal margin bearing a well developed and vertically oriented medial projection; (ii) a pronounced medial swelling of the lateral nasal wall into the posterior nasal cavity; and (iii) the lack of an ossified roof over the lacrimal groove. In addition, Laitman et al. [Laitman, J. T., Reidenberg, J. S., Marquez, S. & Gannon, P. J. (1996) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 10543–10545] pointed to these features as evidence for upper respiratory tract specializations among the Neandertals, indicating potential differences in behavior compared with modern humans. Critically reviewing the anatomical basis for Schwartz and Tattersall’s contentions reveals several serious problems with their analysis, including (i) reliance on specimens with damaged, incomplete, or, in some cases, entirely absent relevant anatomy; (ii) failure to consider primary vs. secondary spatial consequences in nasal trait conceptualization; and (iii) failure to consider actual ranges of variation in these traits in both fossil and recent humans. Accordingly, the unique phylogenetic and adaptive “specializations” attributed to Neandertal internal nasal structures are unwarranted. PMID:9990106

  12. Edge ratio and community structure in networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cafieri, Sonia; Hansen, Pierre; Liberti, Leo

    2010-02-01

    A hierarchical divisive algorithm is proposed for identifying communities in complex networks. To that effect, the definition of community in the weak sense of Radicchi [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 2658 (2004)] is extended into a criterion for a bipartition to be optimal: one seeks to maximize the minimum for both classes of the bipartition of the ratio of inner edges to cut edges. A mathematical program is used within a dichotomous search to do this in an optimal way for each bipartition. This includes an exact solution of the problem of detecting indivisible communities. The resulting hierarchical divisive algorithm is compared with exact modularity maximization on both artificial and real world data sets. For two problems of the former kind optimal solutions are found; for five problems of the latter kind the edge ratio algorithm always appears to be competitive. Moreover, it provides additional information in several cases, notably through the use of the dendrogram summarizing the resolution. Finally, both algorithms are compared on reduced versions of the data sets of Girvan and Newman [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 7821 (2002)] and of Lancichinetti [Phys. Rev. E 78, 046110 (2008)]. Results for these instances appear to be comparable.

  13. Reexamination of magnetic isotope and field effects on adenosine triphosphate production by creatine kinase

    PubMed Central

    Crotty, Darragh; Silkstone, Gary; Poddar, Soumya; Ranson, Richard; Prina-Mello, Adriele; Wilson, Michael T.; Coey, J. M. D.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of isotopically enriched magnesium on the creatine kinase catalyzed phosphorylation of adenosine diphosphate is examined in two independent series of experiments where adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentrations were determined by a luciferase-linked luminescence end-point assay or a real-time spectrophotometric assay. No increase was observed between the rates of ATP production with natural Mg, 24Mg, and 25Mg, nor was any significant magnetic field effect observed in magnetic fields from 3 to 1,000 mT. Our results are in conflict with those reported by Buchachenko et al. [J Am Chem Soc 130:12868–12869 (2008)], and they challenge these authors’ general claims that a large (two- to threefold) magnetic isotope effect is “universally observable” for ATP-producing enzymes [Her Russ Acad Sci 80:22–28 (2010)] and that “enzymatic phosphorylation is an ion-radical, electron-spin-selective process” [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101:10793–10796 (2005)]. PMID:22198842

  14. Accurate force spectroscopy in tapping mode atomic force microscopy in liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xin; Melcher, John; Raman, Arvind

    2010-01-01

    Existing force spectroscopy methods in tapping mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) such as higher harmonic inversion [M. Stark, R. W. Stark, W. M. Heckl, and R. Guckenberger, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 8473 (2002)] or scanning probe acceleration microscopy [J. Legleiter, M. Park, B. Cusick, and T. Kowalewski, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103, 4813 (2006)] or integral relations [M. Lee and W. Jhe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 036104 (2006); S. Hu and A. Raman, Nanotechnology 19, 375704 (2008); H. Hölscher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 123109 (2006); A. J. Katan, Nanotechnology 20, 165703 (2009)] require and assume as an observable the tip dynamics in a single eigenmode of the oscillating microcantilever. We demonstrate that this assumption can distort significantly the extracted tip-sample interaction forces when applied to tapping mode AFM with soft cantilevers in liquid environments. This exception is due to the fact that under these conditions the second eigenmode is momentarily excited and the observed tip dynamics clearly contains contributions from the fundamental and second eigenmodes. To alleviate this problem, a simple experimental method is proposed to screen the second eigenmode contributions in the observed tip deflection signal to allow accurate tip-sample force reconstruction in liquids. The method is implemented experimentally to reconstruct interaction forces on polymer, bacteriorhodopsin membrane, and mica samples in buffer solutions.

  15. Adult pallium transcriptomes surprise in not reflecting predicted homologies across diverse chicken and mouse pallial sectors

    PubMed Central

    Belgard, T. Grant; Montiel, Juan F.; Wang, Wei Zhi; García-Moreno, Fernando; Ponting, Chris P.; Molnár, Zoltán

    2013-01-01

    The thorniest problem in comparative neurobiology is the identification of the particular brain region of birds and reptiles that corresponds to the mammalian neocortex [Butler AB, Reiner A, Karten HJ (2011) Ann N Y Acad Sci 1225:14–27; Wang Y, Brzozowska-Prechtl A, Karten HJ (2010) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107(28):12676–12681]. We explored which genes are actively transcribed in the regions of controversial ancestry in a representative bird (chicken) and mammal (mouse) at adult stages. We conducted four analyses comparing the expression patterns of their 5,130 most highly expressed one-to-one orthologous genes that considered global patterns of expression specificity, strong gene markers, and coexpression networks. Our study demonstrates transcriptomic divergence, plausible convergence, and, in two exceptional cases, conservation between specialized avian and mammalian telencephalic regions. This large-scale study potentially resolves the complex relationship between developmental homology and functional characteristics on the molecular level and settles long-standing evolutionary debates. PMID:23878249

  16. Methane concentrations in water wells unrelated to proximity to existing oil and gas wells in northeastern Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Donald I; Azzolina, Nicholas A; Smith, Bert J; Perry, A Elizabeth; Bothun, Rikka L

    2015-04-01

    Recent studies in northeastern Pennsylvania report higher concentrations of dissolved methane in domestic water wells associated with proximity to nearby gas-producing wells [ Osborn et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 2011 , 108 , 8172 ] and [ Jackson et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. , 2013 , 110 , 11250 ]. We test this possible association by using Chesapeake Energy's baseline data set of over 11,300 dissolved methane analyses from domestic water wells, densely arrayed in Bradford and nearby counties (Pennsylvania), and near 661 pre-existing oil and gas wells. The majority of these, 92%, were unconventional wells, drilled with horizontal legs and hydraulically fractured. Our data set is hundreds of times larger than data sets used in prior studies. In contrast to prior findings, we found no statistically significant relationship between dissolved methane concentrations in groundwater from domestic water wells and proximity to pre-existing oil or gas wells. Previous analyses used small sample sets compared to the population of domestic wells available, which may explain the difference in prior findings compared to ours.

  17. A geometric approach to the synchronization of a pair of two-state switching rowers interacting hydrodynamically

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leoni, M.

    2012-10-01

    Two-state switching rowers, or simply rowers, are model self-sustained oscillators in a fluid at a low Reynolds number, introduced in Cosentino Lagomarsino et al (2003 Phys. Rev. E 68 021908) and realized experimentally in Kotar et al (2010 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 107 7669-73). Here we present a new approach for investigating the hydrodynamic synchronization of a pair of rowers with the same and different frequencies. Our analysis is geometrical, in the spirit of the qualitative theory of dynamical systems. By taking advantage of the separation of timescales in the model, the dynamics can be decomposed into a sequence of fast changes followed by slow relaxations. In this framework we discuss how synchronization is determined by the dominant mode of the relaxation dynamics. For rowers with the same frequencies, our analysis recovers naturally the anti-phase synchronized motion, its stability and the basin of attraction (Cosentino Lagomarsino et al 2003 Phys. Rev. E 68 021908; Kotar et al 2010 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 107 7669-73) in the case of rowers with different frequencies we are able to provide upper bounds for the phase-locked solution and to determine a critical value of the frequency mismatch after which the coordination is lost. Our estimates are in good agreement with numerical simulations. In this way we provide a simple and robust explanation for the transition from the phase-locked state to the loss of synchrony.

  18. Boolean networks with veto functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebadi, Haleh; Klemm, Konstantin

    2014-08-01

    Boolean networks are discrete dynamical systems for modeling regulation and signaling in living cells. We investigate a particular class of Boolean functions with inhibiting inputs exerting a veto (forced zero) on the output. We give analytical expressions for the sensitivity of these functions and provide evidence for their role in natural systems. In an intracellular signal transduction network [Helikar et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 1913 (2008), 10.1073/pnas.0705088105], the functions with veto are over-represented by a factor exceeding the over-representation of threshold functions and canalyzing functions in the same system. In Boolean networks for control of the yeast cell cycle [Li et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 4781 (2004), 10.1073/pnas.0305937101; Davidich et al., PLoS ONE 3, e1672 (2008), 10.1371/journal.pone.0001672], no or minimal changes to the wiring diagrams are necessary to formulate their dynamics in terms of the veto functions introduced here.

  19. General topology meets model theory, on p and t.

    PubMed

    Malliaris, Maryanthe; Shelah, Saharon

    2013-08-13

    Cantor proved in 1874 [Cantor G (1874) J Reine Angew Math 77:258-262] that the continuum is uncountable, and Hilbert's first problem asks whether it is the smallest uncountable cardinal. A program arose to study cardinal invariants of the continuum, which measure the size of the continuum in various ways. By Gödel [Gödel K (1939) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 25(4):220-224] and Cohen [Cohen P (1963) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 50(6):1143-1148], Hilbert's first problem is independent of ZFC (Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory with the axiom of choice). Much work both before and since has been done on inequalities between these cardinal invariants, but some basic questions have remained open despite Cohen's introduction of forcing. The oldest and perhaps most famous of these is whether " p = t," which was proved in a special case by Rothberger [Rothberger F (1948) Fund Math 35:29-46], building on Hausdorff [Hausdorff (1936) Fund Math 26:241-255]. In this paper we explain how our work on the structure of Keisler's order, a large-scale classification problem in model theory, led to the solution of this problem in ZFC as well as of an a priori unrelated open question in model theory.

  20. Adult pallium transcriptomes surprise in not reflecting predicted homologies across diverse chicken and mouse pallial sectors.

    PubMed

    Belgard, T Grant; Montiel, Juan F; Wang, Wei Zhi; García-Moreno, Fernando; Margulies, Elliott H; Ponting, Chris P; Molnár, Zoltán

    2013-08-01

    The thorniest problem in comparative neurobiology is the identification of the particular brain region of birds and reptiles that corresponds to the mammalian neocortex [Butler AB, Reiner A, Karten HJ (2011) Ann N Y Acad Sci 1225:14-27; Wang Y, Brzozowska-Prechtl A, Karten HJ (2010) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107(28):12676-12681]. We explored which genes are actively transcribed in the regions of controversial ancestry in a representative bird (chicken) and mammal (mouse) at adult stages. We conducted four analyses comparing the expression patterns of their 5,130 most highly expressed one-to-one orthologous genes that considered global patterns of expression specificity, strong gene markers, and coexpression networks. Our study demonstrates transcriptomic divergence, plausible convergence, and, in two exceptional cases, conservation between specialized avian and mammalian telencephalic regions. This large-scale study potentially resolves the complex relationship between developmental homology and functional characteristics on the molecular level and settles long-standing evolutionary debates.

  1. Methane concentrations in water wells unrelated to proximity to existing oil and gas wells in northeastern Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Donald I; Azzolina, Nicholas A; Smith, Bert J; Perry, A Elizabeth; Bothun, Rikka L

    2015-04-01

    Recent studies in northeastern Pennsylvania report higher concentrations of dissolved methane in domestic water wells associated with proximity to nearby gas-producing wells [ Osborn et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 2011 , 108 , 8172 ] and [ Jackson et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. , 2013 , 110 , 11250 ]. We test this possible association by using Chesapeake Energy's baseline data set of over 11,300 dissolved methane analyses from domestic water wells, densely arrayed in Bradford and nearby counties (Pennsylvania), and near 661 pre-existing oil and gas wells. The majority of these, 92%, were unconventional wells, drilled with horizontal legs and hydraulically fractured. Our data set is hundreds of times larger than data sets used in prior studies. In contrast to prior findings, we found no statistically significant relationship between dissolved methane concentrations in groundwater from domestic water wells and proximity to pre-existing oil or gas wells. Previous analyses used small sample sets compared to the population of domestic wells available, which may explain the difference in prior findings compared to ours. PMID:25764141

  2. Ancestral major histocompatibility complex DRB genes beget conserved patterns of localized polymorphisms.

    PubMed Central

    Gaur, L K; Nepom, G T

    1996-01-01

    Genes within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are characterized by extensive polymorphism within species and also by a remarkable conservation of contemporary human allelic sequences in evolutionarily distant primates. Mechanisms proposed to account for strict nucleotide conservation in the context of highly variable genes include the suggestion that intergenic exchange generates repeated sets of MHC DRB polymorphisms [Gyllensten, U. B., Sundvall, M. & Erlich, H. A. (1991) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 3686-3690; Lundberg, A. S. & McDevitt, H. 0. (1992) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89, 6545-6549]. We analyzed over 50 primate MHC DRB sequences, and identified nucleotide elements within macaque and baboon DRB6-like sequences with deletions corresponding to specific exon 2 hypervariable regions, which encode a discrete alpha helical segment of the MHC antigen combining site. This precisely localized deletion provides direct evidence implicating segmental exchange of MHC-encoded DRB gene fragments as one of the evolutionary mechanisms both generating and maintaining MHC diversity. Intergenic exchange at this site may be fundamental to the diversification of immune protection in populations by permitting alteration in the specificity of the MHC that determines the repertoire of antigens bound. Images Fig. 2 PMID:8643583

  3. See Also:Mechanics of Cohesive-frictional MaterialsCopyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Get Sample Copy

  4. Recommend to Your Librarian
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  1. Try Sci Fi for Reading That's Out of This World!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Robert; Zjawin, Dorothy

    1983-01-01

    Teachers can capitalize on children's interest in recent science fiction movies by using books based on the films in their classrooms. Books taken from "E. T.,""Star Wars,""The Empire Strikes Back," and "The Wrath of Khan" are summarized, and learning activities to be used in conjunction with the books are suggested. (PP)

  2. SciDAC Center for Plasma Edge Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Zhihong

    2013-12-17

    This project with a total funding of $592,998 for six years has partially supported four postdoctoral researchers at the University of California, Irvine (UCI). The UCI team has formulated electrostatic and electromagnetic global gyrokinetic particle simulation models with kinetic electrons, implemented these models in the edge code XGC1, performed benchmark between GTC and XGC1, developed computational tools for gyrokinetic particle simulation in tokamak edge geometry, and initiated preparatory study of edge turbulence using GTC code. The research results has been published in 12 papers and presented at many international and national conferences.

  3. Q&A: The sci-fi adviser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Jascha

    2011-07-01

    Richard Berendzen is director of NASA's Space Grant Consortium in Washington DC, and advised on the science-fiction film Another Earth, winner of the Alfred P. Sloan Feature Film Prize for science at this year's Sundance Film Festival. On the film's North American release, he talks to Nature about parallel worlds and the future of human space exploration.

  4. Sci-Tech Feature: Plutonium. Fuel for Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iikubo, Ryuko

    1993-01-01

    Despite opposition by environmental organizations, Japan plans to import plutonium from France and Great Britain. Interviews Toichi Sakata, director of the nuclear fuel division of the Science and Technology Agency, who explains why Japan needs the radioactive substance. (MDH)

  5. SciDAC - Center for Plasma Edge Simulation - Project Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Scott

    2014-11-03

    Final Technical Report: Center for Plasma Edge Simulation (CPES) Principal Investigator: Scott Parker, University of Colorado, Boulder Description/Abstract First-principle simulations of edge pedestal micro-turbulence are performed with the global gyrokinetic turbulence code GEM for both low and high confinement tokamak plasmas. The high confinement plasmas show a larger growth rate, but nonlinearly a lower particle and heat flux. Numerical profiles are obtained from the XGC0 neoclassical code. XGC0/GEM code coupling is implemented under the EFFIS (“End-to-end Framework for Fusion Integrated Simulation”) framework. Investigations are underway to clearly identify the micro-instabilities in the edge pedestal using global and flux-tube gyrokinetic simulation with realistic experimental high confinement profiles. We use both experimental profiles and those obtained using the EFFIS XGC0/GEM coupled code framework. We find there are three types of instabilities at the edge: a low-n, high frequency electron mode, a high-n, low frequency ion mode, and possibly an ion mode like kinetic ballooning mode (KBM). Investigations are under way for the effects of the radial electric field. Finally, we have been investigating how plasmas dominated by ion-temperature gradient (ITG) driven turbulence, how cold Deuterium and Tritium ions near the edge will naturally pinch radially inward towards the core. We call this mechanism “natural fueling.” It is due to the quasi-neutral heat flux dominated nature of the turbulence and still applies when trapped and passing kinetic electron effects are included. To understand this mechanism, examine the situation where the electrons are adiabatic, and there is an ion heat flux. In such a case, lower energy particles move inward and higher energy particles move outward. If a trace amount of cold particles are added, they will move inward.

  6. Hydrodynamic collective effects of active proteins in biological membranes.

    PubMed

    Koyano, Yuki; Kitahata, Hiroyuki; Mikhailov, Alexander S

    2016-08-01

    Lipid bilayers forming biological membranes are known to behave as viscous two-dimensional fluids on submicrometer scales; usually they contain a large number of active protein inclusions. Recently, it was shown [A. S. Mikhailov and R. Kapral, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 112, E3639 (2015)PNASA60027-842410.1073/pnas.1506825112] that such active proteins should induce nonthermal fluctuating lipid flows leading to diffusion enhancement and chemotaxislike drift for passive inclusions in biomembranes. Here, a detailed analytical and numerical investigation of such effects is performed. The attention is focused on the situations when proteins are concentrated within lipid rafts. We demonstrate that passive particles tend to become attracted by active rafts and are accumulated inside them. PMID:27627343

  7. Calcium wave propagation by calcium-induced calcium release: an unusual excitable system.

    PubMed

    Sneyd, J; Girard, S; Clapham, D

    1993-03-01

    We discuss in detail the behaviour of a model, proposed by Goldbeter et al. (1990. Proc. natn. Acad. Sci. 87, 1461-1465), for intracellular calcium wave propagation by calcium-induced calcium release, focusing our attention on excitability and the propagation of waves in one spatial dimension. The model with no diffusion behaves like a generic excitable system, and threshold behaviour, excitability and oscillations can be understood within this general framework. However, when diffusion is included, the model no longer behaves like a generic excitable system; the fast and slow variables are not distinct and previous results on excitable systems do not necessarily apply. We consider a piecewise linear simplification of the model, and construct travelling pulse and periodic plane wave solutions to the simplified model. The analogous behaviour in the full model is studied numerically. Goldbeter's model for calcium-induced calcium release is an excitable system of a type not previously studied in detail.

  8. Evolution of new functions de novo and from preexisting genes.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Dan I; Jerlström-Hultqvist, Jon; Näsvall, Joakim

    2015-06-01

    How the enormous structural and functional diversity of new genes and proteins was generated (estimated to be 10(10)-10(12) different proteins in all organisms on earth [Choi I-G, Kim S-H. 2006. Evolution of protein structural classes and protein sequence families. Proc Natl Acad Sci 103: 14056-14061] is a central biological question that has a long and rich history. Extensive work during the last 80 years have shown that new genes that play important roles in lineage-specific phenotypes and adaptation can originate through a multitude of different mechanisms, including duplication, lateral gene transfer, gene fusion/fission, and de novo origination. In this review, we focus on two main processes as generators of new functions: evolution of new genes by duplication and divergence of pre-existing genes and de novo gene origination in which a whole protein-coding gene evolves from a noncoding sequence. PMID:26032716

  9. How are static magnetic fields detected biologically?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finegold, Leonard

    2009-03-01

    There is overwhelming evidence that life, from bacteria to birds to bats, detects magnetic fields, using the fields for orientation or navigation. Indeed there are recent reports (based on Google Earth imagery) that cattle and deer align themselves with the earth's magnetic field. [1]. The development of frog and insect eggs are changed by high magnetic fields, probably through known physical mechanisms. However, the mechanisms for eukaryotic navigation and alignment are not clear. Persuasive published models will be discussed. Evidence, that static magnetic fields might produce therapeutic effects, will be updated [2]. [4pt] [1] S. Begall, et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 105:13451 (2008). [0pt] [2] L. Finegold and B.L. Flamm, BMJ, 332:4 (2006).

  10. Demonstration of the amphiphilic character of hormone-sensitive lipase by temperature-induced phase separation in Triton X-114 and charge-shift electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Holm, C; Fredrikson, G; Belfrage, P

    1986-11-25

    Temperature-induced phase separation in Triton X-114 (Bordier, C. (1981) J. Biol. Chem. 256, 1604-1607) and charge-shift electrophoresis (Helenius, A., and Simons, K. (1977) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 74, 529-532) were used to examine the amphiphilic character of hormone-sensitive lipase, purified from rat adipose tissue. In contrast to ATP-citrate lyase, a reference hydrophilic protein, the lipase was shown to partition predominantly (approximately 80%) into the detergent-rich phase upon phase separation in Triton X-114. Furthermore, its electrophoretic mobility was markedly shifted anodally and cathodally upon charge-shift electrophoresis in the presence of sodium taurodeoxycholate and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, respectively. The results demonstrate that hormone-sensitive lipase possesses detergent-binding hydrophobic domain(s) and exhibits the same amphiphilicity as typical intrinsic membrane proteins.

  11. Weighing the deep continental biosphere.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Sean; Parnell, John

    2014-01-01

    There is abundant evidence for widespread microbial activity in deep continental fractures and aquifers, with important implications for biogeochemical cycling on Earth and the habitability of other planetary bodies. Whitman et al. (P Natl Acad Sci USA, 95, 1998, 6578) estimated a continental subsurface biomass on the order of 10(16) -10(17) g C. We reassess this value in the light of more recent data including over 100 microbial population density measurements from groundwater around the world. Making conservative assumptions about cell carbon content and the ratio of attached and free-living microorganisms, we find that the evidence continues to support a deep continental biomass estimate of 10(16) -10(17) g C, or 2-19% of Earth's total biomass.

  12. Parole terms for a killer: directing caspase3/CAD induced DNA strand breaks to coordinate changes in gene expression.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Brian D; Megeney, Lynn A

    2010-08-01

    In a series of discoveries over the preceding decade, a number of laboratories have unequivocally established that apoptotic proteins and pathways are well conserved cell fate determinants, which act independent of a cell death response. Within this context, the role for apoptotic proteins in the induction of cell differentiation has been widely documented. Despite these discoveries, little information has been forthcoming regarding a conserved mechanism by which apoptotic proteins achieve this non-death outcome. In the following discussion, we will explore the premise that the penultimate step in apoptosis, genome wide DNA damage/strand breaks act as a conserved genomic reprogramming event necessary for cell differentiation (Larsen et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2010; 107:4230-5). Moreover, we hypothesis that directed DNA damage, as mediated by known apoptotic proteins, may participate in numerous forms of regulated gene expression.

  13. Antiviral activity of squalamine: Role of electrostatic membrane binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckerman, Bernard; Qu, Wei; Mishra, Abhijit; Zasloff, Michael; Wong, Gerard; Luijten, Erik

    2012-02-01

    Recent workootnotetextM. Zasloff et al., Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA) 108, 15978 (2011). has demonstrated that squalamine, a molecule found in the liver of sharks, exhibits broad-spectrum antiviral properties. It has been proposed that this activity results from the charge-density matching of squalamine and phospholipid membranes, causing squalamine to bind to membranes and displace proteins such as Rac1 that are crucial for the viral replication cycle. Here we investigate this hypothesis by numerical simulation of a coarse-grained model for the competition between Rac1 and squalamine in binding affinity to a flat lipid bilayer. We perform free-energy calculations to test the ability of squalamine to condense stacked bilayer systems and thereby displace bulkier Rac1 molecules. We directly compare our findings to small-angle x-ray scattering results for the same setup.

  14. Simple molecular model for the binding of antibiotic molecules to bacterial ion channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mafé, Salvador; Ramírez, Patricio; Alcaraz, Antonio

    2003-10-01

    A molecular model aimed at explaining recent experimental data by Nestorovich et al. [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 9789 (2002)] on the interaction of ampicillin molecules with the constriction zone in a channel of the general bacterial porin, OmpF (outer membrane protein F), is presented. The model extends T. L. Hill's theory for intermolecular interactions in a pair of binding sites [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 78, 3330 (1956)] by incorporating two binding ions and two pairs of interacting sites. The results provide new physical insights on the role of the complementary pattern of the charge distributions in the ampicillin molecule and the narrowest part of the channel pore. Charge matching of interacting sites facilitates drug binding. The dependence of the number of ampicillin binding events per second with the solution pH and salt concentration is explained qualitatively using a reduced number of fundamental concepts.

  15. Formaldehyde photodissociation: Dependence on total angular momentum and rotational alignment of the CO product

    SciTech Connect

    Farnum, John D.; Zhang, Xiubin; Bowman, Joel M.

    2007-04-07

    Quasiclassical trajectory calculations are reported to investigate the effects of rotational excitation of formaldehyde on the branching ratios of the fragmentation products, H{sub 2}+CO and H+HCO. The results of tens of thousands of trajectories show that increased rotational excitation causes suppression of the radical channel and enhancement of the molecular channel. Decomposing the molecular channel into ''direct'' and ''roaming'' channels shows that increased rotation switches from suppressing to enhancing the roaming products across our chosen energy range. However, decomposition into these pathways is difficult because the difference between them does not appear to have a distinct boundary. A vector correlation investigation of the CO rotation shows different characteristics in the roaming versus direct channels and this difference is a potentially useful signature of the roaming mechanism, as first speculated by Kable and Houston in their experimental study of photodissociation of acetaldehyde [P. L. Houston and S. H. Kable, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 103, 16079 (2006)].

  16. Fructan synthesis in transgenic tobacco and chicory plants expressing barley sucrose: fructan 6-fructosyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Sprenger, N; Schellenbaum, L; van Dun, K; Boller, T; Wiemken, A

    1997-01-01

    We have recently cloned a cDNA encoding sucrose:fructan 6-fructosyltransferase (6-SFT), a key enzyme of fructan synthesis forming the beta-2,6 linkages typical of the grass fructans, graminans and phleins [Sprenger et al. (1995) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92, 11652-11656]. Here we report functional expression of 6-SFT from barley in transgenic tobacco and chicory. Transformants of tobacco, a plant naturally unable to form fructans, synthesized the trisaccharide kestose and a series of unbranched fructans of the phlein type (beta-2,6 linkages). Transformants of chicory, a plant naturally producing only unbranched fructans of the inulin type (beta-2,1 linkages), synthesized in addition branched fructans of the graminan type, particularly the tetrasaccharide bifurcose which is also a main fructan in barley leaves.

  17. The Observation of Highly Ordered Domains in Membranes with Cholesterol

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, Clare L; Marquardt, Drew; Dies, Hannah; Kucerka, Norbert; Yamani, Zahra; Harroun, Thad; Katsaras, John; Shi, A-C; Rheinstadter, Maikel C

    2013-01-01

    Rafts, or functional domains, are transient nano- or mesoscopic structures in the exoplasmic leaflet of the plasma membrane, and are thought to be essential for many cellular processes. Using neutron diffraction and computer modelling, we present evidence for the existence of highly ordered lipid domains in the cholesterol-rich (32.5 mol%) liquid-ordered (lo) phase of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine membranes. The liquid ordered phase in one-component lipid membranes has previously been thought to be a homogeneous phase. The presence of highly ordered lipid domains embedded in a disordered lipid matrix implies non-uniform distribution of cholesterol between the two phases. The experimental results are in excellent agreement with recent computer simulations of DPPC/cholesterol complexes [Meinhardt, Vink and Schmid (2013). Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 110(12): 4476 4481], which reported the existence of nanometer size lo domains in a liquid disordered lipid environment.

  18. The kinetics of heterogeneous nucleation and growth: an approach based on a grain explicit model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouet-Leduc, B.; Maillet, J.-B.; Denoual, C.

    2014-04-01

    A model for phase transitions initiated on grain boundaries is proposed and tested against numerical simulations: this approach, based on a grain explicit model, allows us to consider the granular structure, resulting in accurate predictions for a wide span of nucleation processes. Comparisons are made with classical models of homogeneous (JMAK: Johnson and Mehl 1939 Trans. Am. Inst. Min. Eng. 135 416; Avrami 1939 J. Chem. Phys. 7 1103; Kolmogorov 1937 Bull. Acad. Sci. USSR, Mat. Ser. 1 335) as well as heterogeneous (Cahn 1996 Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Phase Transformations Im et al (Pittsburgh: Materials Research Society)) nucleation. A transition scale based on material properties is proposed, allowing us to discriminate between random and site-saturated regimes. Finally, we discuss the relationship between an Avrami-type exponent and the transition regime, establishing conditions for its extraction from experiments.

  19. Role of DNA gyrase in phiX replicative-form replication in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Marians, K J; Ikeda, J E; Schlagman, S; Hurwitz, J

    1977-01-01

    Preparations containing DNA gyrase activity Gellert, M., Mizuchi, K., O'Dea, M.H. & Nash, H.A. (1976) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 73, 3872-3876] have been extensively purified from Escherichia coli. Such fractions, in the presence of ATP and Mg2+, catalyze supertwisting of relaxed circular double-stranded DNA replicative forms of a number of DNAs that results in the formation of superhelical replicative forms. Relaxed phiX174 replicative form (phiX RFIV) is not attacked by the A protein endonuclease coded for by the phiX DNA genome. After exposure to preparations of DNA gyrase, the relaxed phiX174 replicative form is converted to phiX RFI which can then be attacked by the phiX gene A protein and participate in replication of duplex phiX DNA. PMID:266716

  20. Post-stishovite transition in AlOOH-incorporated SiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, K.; Umemoto, K.; Wentzcovitch, R. M.; Hirose, K.

    2010-12-01

    In 2007, Lakshtanov et al. [Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 104, 13588 (2007)] demonstrated that the incorporation of AlOOH into SiO2 significantly reduces the transition pressure between stishovite and CaCl2-type phases. In the present paper, we investigate theoretically the effect of hydrogen (and aluminum) on this transition. First-principles calculations show that aluminum has no effect on the transition pressure. However, hydrogen bonds play a crucial role, suggesting that a cooperative redistribution of hydrogens aids the post-stishovite transition. Large-scale molecular dynamics simulations using model potentials confirm this effect and reveal the nature of the hydrogen motion. This effect produces a strong temperature dependence on the transition pressure and should make the latter sensitive to hydrogen content in the material. This work was supported by NSF under ATM-0428774 (VLab), EAR-0757903, and EAR-1019853. The computations were performed at the Minnesota Supercomputing Institute (MSI).

  1. Electron spin resonance dating of human teeth from Toca da Santa shelter of São Raimundo Nonato, Piauí, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, A.; Figueiredo, A. M. G.; Felice, G. D.; Lage, M. C. S. M.; Guidon, N.; Baffa, O.

    2008-02-01

    Results of the dating of fossil human teeth excavated from a shelter in the surroundings areas of the Serra da Capivara National Park, São Raimundo Nonato, Piauí, Brazil are presented. This shelter was partially excavated to search for more data that could improve the archaeological context of the Garrincho’s limestone hill sites, where the Toca do Gordo do Garrincho shelter provided two human teeth dated by conventional C-14 in (12,170 ± 40) yBP (years before present) and calibrated age (2 Sigma, 95% probability) 15,245 14,690 yBP (Beta 136204) [E. Peyre, C. Guérin, N. Guidon, I. Coppens, CR Acad. Sci. Paris, Sciences de la terre et des planètes/ Earth & Planetary Sciences 327 (1998) 335, [1

  2. Physical constraints on charge transport through bacterial nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Polizzi, Nicholas F.; Skourtis, Spiros S.; Beratan, David N.

    2012-01-01

    Extracellular appendages of the dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 were recently shown to sustain currents of 10{sup 10} electrons per second over distances of 0.5 microns [El-Naggar et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 2010, 107, 18127]. However, the identity of the charge localizing sites and their organization along the “nanowire” remain unknown. We use theory to predict redox cofactor separation distances that would permit charge flow at rates of 10{sup 10} electrons per second over 0.5 microns for voltage biases of ≤1V, using a steady-state analysis governed by a non-adiabatic electron transport mechanism. We find the observed currents necessitate a multi-step hopping transport mechanism, with charge localizing sites separated by less than 1 nm and reorganization energies that rival the lowest known in biology.

  3. Physical constraints on charge transport through bacterial nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Polizzi, Nicholas F.; Skourtis, Spiros S.; Beratan, David N.

    2011-10-17

    Extracellular appendages of the dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 were recently shown to sustain currents of 10¹⁰ electrons per second over distances of 0.5 microns [El-Naggar et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 2010, 107, 18127]. However, the identity of the charge localizing sites and their organization along the “nanowire” remain unknown. We use theory to predict redox cofactor separation distances that would permit charge flow at rates of 10¹⁰ electrons per second over 0.5 microns for voltage biases of ≤1V, using a steady-state analysis governed by a non-adiabatic electron transport mechanism. We find the observed currents necessitate a multi-step hopping transport mechanism, with charge localizing sites separated by less than 1 nm and reorganization energies that rival the lowest known in biology.

  4. Magnetic circular dichroism study of the selenium-substituted form (Fe3Se4) of bovine heart aconitase.

    PubMed Central

    Breton, J L; Farrar, J A; Kennedy, M C; Beinert, H; Thomson, A J

    1995-01-01

    The selenium-substituted inactive form of mitochondrial aconitase contains one [3Fe-4Se]1+/0 cluster [Surerus, Kennedy, Beinert and Münck (1989) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87, 9846-9850]. This cluster was studied in both oxidized and reduced states by magnetic CD (MCD) and EPR spectroscopy. In the MCD spectra, intensity and transition wavelength shifts are observed when compared with the spectra of the native [3Fe-4S]1+/0 cluster. These changes are used to differentiate between the charge-transfer transitions originating from inorganic and cysteinyl sulphur. Using also the data from the EPR spectra, the spin ground state is assigned as S = 1/2 for the oxidized [3Fe-4Se]1+ cluster and S = 2 for the reduced [3Fe-4Se]0 cluster. PMID:7575454

  5. Relativistic electromagnetic mass models in spherically symmetric spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurya, S. K.; Gupta, Y. K.; Ray, Saibal; Chatterjee, Vikram

    2016-10-01

    Under the static spherically symmetric Einstein-Maxwell spacetime of embedding class one we explore possibility of constructing electromagnetic mass model where mass and other physical parameters have purely electromagnetic origin (Lorentz in Proc. Acad. Sci. Amst. 6, 1904). This work is in continuation of our earlier investigation of Maurya et al. (Eur. Phys. J. C 75:389, 2015a) where we developed an algorithm and found out three new solutions of electromagnetic mass model. In the present work we consider different metric potentials ν and λ and have analyzed them in a systematic way. It is observed that some of the previous solutions related to electromagnetic mass model are nothing but special cases of the presently obtained generalized solution set. We further verify the solution set and especially show that these are extremely applicable in the case of compact stars.

  6. Hubble's diagram and cosmic expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirshner, Robert P.

    2004-01-01

    Edwin Hubble's classic article on the expanding universe appeared in PNAS in 1929 [Hubble, E. P. (1929) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 15, 168-173]. The chief result, that a galaxy's distance is proportional to its redshift, is so well known and so deeply embedded into the language of astronomy through the Hubble diagram, the Hubble constant, Hubble's Law, and the Hubble time, that the article itself is rarely referenced. Even though Hubble's distances have a large systematic error, Hubble's velocities come chiefly from Vesto Melvin Slipher, and the interpretation in terms of the de Sitter effect is out of the mainstream of modern cosmology, this article opened the way to investigation of the expanding, evolving, and accelerating universe that engages today's burgeoning field of cosmology.

  7. Hubble's diagram and cosmic expansion.

    PubMed

    Kirshner, Robert P

    2004-01-01

    Edwin Hubble's classic article on the expanding universe appeared in PNAS in 1929 [Hubble, E. P. (1929) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 15, 168-173]. The chief result, that a galaxy's distance is proportional to its redshift, is so well known and so deeply embedded into the language of astronomy through the Hubble diagram, the Hubble constant, Hubble's Law, and the Hubble time, that the article itself is rarely referenced. Even though Hubble's distances have a large systematic error, Hubble's velocities come chiefly from Vesto Melvin Slipher, and the interpretation in terms of the de Sitter effect is out of the mainstream of modern cosmology, this article opened the way to investigation of the expanding, evolving, and accelerating universe that engages today's burgeoning field of cosmology. PMID:14695886

  8. Earthquake triggering and large-scale geologic storage of carbon dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Zoback, Mark D.; Gorelick, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite its enormous cost, large-scale carbon capture and storage (CCS) is considered a viable strategy for significantly reducing CO2 emissions associated with coal-based electrical power generation and other industrial sources of CO2 [Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2005) IPCC Special Report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage. Prepared by Working Group III of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, eds Metz B, et al. (Cambridge Univ Press, Cambridge, UK); Szulczewski ML, et al. (2012) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109:5185–5189]. We argue here that there is a high probability that earthquakes will be triggered by injection of large volumes of CO2 into the brittle rocks commonly found in continental interiors. Because even small- to moderate-sized earthquakes threaten the seal integrity of CO2 repositories, in this context, large-scale CCS is a risky, and likely unsuccessful, strategy for significantly reducing greenhouse gas emissions. PMID:22711814

  9. Thermodynamics of information processing based on enzyme kinetics: An exactly solvable model of an information pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yuansheng; Gong, Zongping; Quan, H. T.

    2015-06-01

    Motivated by the recent proposed models of the information engine [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109, 11641 (2012), 10.1073/pnas.1204263109] and the information refrigerator [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 030602 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.030602], we propose a minimal model of the information pump and the information eraser based on enzyme kinetics. This device can either pump molecules against the chemical potential gradient by consuming the information to be encoded in the bit stream or (partially) erase the information initially encoded in the bit stream by consuming the Gibbs free energy. The dynamics of this model is solved exactly, and the "phase diagram" of the operation regimes is determined. The efficiency and the power of the information machine is analyzed. The validity of the second law of thermodynamics within our model is clarified. Our model offers a simple paradigm for the investigating of the thermodynamics of information processing involving the chemical potential in small systems.

  10. Involvement of thioredoxin on the scaffold activity of NifU in heterocyst cells of the diazotrophic cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120.

    PubMed

    Nomata, Jiro; Maeda, Maki; Isu, Atsuko; Inoue, Kazuhito; Hisabori, Toru

    2015-09-01

    The diazotrophic cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 (A.7120) differentiates into specialized heterocyst cells that fix nitrogen under nitrogen starvation conditions. Although reducing equivalents are essential for nitrogen fixation, little is known about redox systems in heterocyst cells. In this study, we investigated thioredoxin (Trx) networks in Anabaena using TrxM, and identified 16 and 38 candidate target proteins in heterocysts and vegetative cells, respectively, by Trx affinity chromatography (Motohashi et al. (Comprehensive survey of proteins targeted by chloroplast thioredoxin. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 2001; 98: , 11224-11229)). Among these, the Fe-S cluster scaffold protein NifU that facilitates functional expression of nitrogenase in heterocysts was found to be a potential TrxM target. Subsequently, we observed that the scaffold activity of N-terminal catalytic domain of NifU is enhanced in the presence of Trx-system, suggesting that TrxM is involved in the Fe-S cluster biogenesis.

  11. Structure of mutagen nucleic acid complexes in solution. Proton chemical shifts in 9-aminoacridine complexes with dG-dC, dC-dG, and dA-dT-dG-dC-dA-dT.

    PubMed

    Reuben, J; Baker, B M; Kallenbach, N R

    1978-07-11

    The influence of self-complementary oligodeoxynucleotides on the chemical shifts of protons of the mutagenic acridine dye 9-aminoacridine has been measured. Upfield shifts indicative of intercalative binding are found in the cases of dG-dC, dC-dG, and dA-dT-dG-dC-dA-dT but not in dA-dT. Geometries for the complexes that are compatibile with the chemical-shift data and the X-ray structure of the complex between ri5C-rG and 9-aminoacridine determined by Sakore et al. [Sakore, T.D., Jain, S.C., Tsai, C., and Sobell, H.M. (1977), Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 74, 188--192] can be identified using recent theoretical estimates of shifts induced by nucleotide bases.

  12. Stochastic model for scale-free networks with cutoffs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simas, Tiago; Rocha, Luis M.

    2008-12-01

    We propose and analyze a stochastic model which explains, analytically, the cutoff behavior of real scale-free networks previously modeled computationally by Amaral [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97, 11149 (2000)] and others. We present a mathematical model that can explain several existing computational scale-free network generation models. This yields a theoretical basis to understand cutoff behavior in complex networks, previously treated only with simulations using distinct models. Therefore, ours is an integrative approach that unifies the existing literature on cutoff behavior in scale-free networks. Furthermore, our mathematical model allows us to reach conclusions not hitherto possible with computational models: the ability to predict the equilibrium point of active vertices and to relate the growth of networks with the probability of aging. We also discuss how our model introduces a useful way to classify scale free behavior of complex networks.

  13. 5p deletions: Current knowledge and future directions.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Joanne M; Qualmann, Krista J; Okashah, Rebecca; Reilly, AmySue; Alexeyev, Mikhail F; Campbell, Dennis J

    2015-09-01

    Disorders resulting from 5p deletions (5p-) were first recognized by Lejeune et al. in 1963 [Lejeune et al. (1963); C R Hebd Seances Acad Sci 257:3098-3102]. 5p- is caused by partial or total deletion of the short arm of chromosome 5. The most recognizable phenotype is characterized by a high-pitched cry, dysmorphic features, poor growth, and developmental delay. This report reviews 5p- disorders and their molecular basis. Hemizygosity for genes located within this region have been implicated in contributing to the phenotype. A review of the genes on 5p which may be dosage sensitive is summarized. Because of the growing knowledge of these specific genes, future directions to explore potential targeted therapies for individuals with 5p- are discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26235846

  14. CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURE, MECHANICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES: A Method to Design Synthetic Cell-Cycle Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Ke-Ke

    2009-07-01

    The interactions among proteins, DNA and RNA in an organism form elaborate cell-cycle networks which govern cell growth and proliferation. Understanding the common structure of cell-cycle networks will be of great benefit to science research. Here, inspired by the importance of the cell-cycle regulatory network of yeast which has been studied intensively, we focus on small networks with 11 nodes, equivalent to that of the cell-cycle regulatory network used by Li et al. [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101(2004)4781] Using a Boolean model, we study the correlation between structure and function, and a possible common structure. It is found that cascade-like networks with a great number of interactions between nodes are stable. Based on these findings, we are able to construct synthetic networks that have the same functions as the cell-cycle regulatory network.

  15. RS cyclophilins: identification of an NK-TR1-related cyclophilin.

    PubMed

    Nestel, F P; Colwill, K; Harper, S; Pawson, T; Anderson, S K

    1996-11-21

    We report the isolation of a large cyclophilin protein containing RS (arginine-serine) repeats from a yeast two-hybrid screen using ClK (CDC28/cdc2-like kinase) as a probe. This Clk associating RS-cyclophilin (CARS-Cyp) possesses 39% homology to the NK-TR1 (natural killer tumor recognition protein-1) we have previously characterized (Anderson et al. (1993) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90 (1993) 542-546). CARS-Cyp is expressed in a variety of tissues and cell types, and codes for a protein with a predicted mass of 89 kDa containing a cyclophilin-related domain, two Nopp140 (nucleolar phosphoprotein of 140 kDa)-related domains, and a large RS domain. The RS-cyclophilins, a novel class of proteins, may play an important role in the regulation of pre-mRNA splicing.

  16. Nano-Optics for Chemical and Materials Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beversluis, Michael; Stranick, Stephan

    2007-03-01

    Light microscopy can provide non-destructive, real-time, three-dimensional imaging with chemically-specific contrast, but diffraction frequently limits the resolution to roughly 200 nm. Recently, structured illumination techniques have allowed fluorescence imaging to reach 50 nm resolution [1]. Since these fluorescence techniques were developed for use in microbiology, a key challenge is to take the resolution-enhancing features and apply them to contrast mechanisms like vibrational spectroscopy (e.g., Raman and CARS microscopy) that provide morphological and chemically specific imaging.. We are developing a new hybrid technique that combines the resolution enhancement of structured illumination microscopy with scanning techniques that can record hyperspectral images with 100 nm spatial resolution. We will show such superresolving images of semiconductor nanostructures and discuss the advantages and requirements for this technique. Referenence: 1. M. G. L. Gustafsson, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 13081-13086 (2005).

  17. Theoretical analysis of the coherence-brightened laser in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Luqi; Hokr, Brett H.; Traverso, Andrew J.; Voronine, Dmitri V.; Rostovtsev, Yuri; Sokolov, Alexei V.; Scully, Marlan O.

    2013-02-01

    We present a detailed theoretical study of a recent experiment [A. J. Traverso , Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USAPNASA60027-842410.1073/pnas.1211481109 109, 15185 (2012)] in which a laserlike source is created in air by pumping with a nanosecond pulse. The source generates radiation in the forward and backward directions. The temporal behavior of the emitted pulses is investigated for different pump shapes and durations. Our analysis indicates that the spiky emission is due to quantum coherence via cooperation between atoms of an ensemble, which leads to strong-oscillatory superfluorescence. We show that these cooperative nonadiabatic coherence effects cannot be described by rate equations and instead a full set of the Maxwell-Bloch equations must be used. We consider a range of parameters and study transitions between various regimes. Understanding these coherence-brightened processes in air should lead to improvements in environmental, atmospheric remote sensing and other applications.

  18. Hubble's diagram and cosmic expansion

    PubMed Central

    Kirshner, Robert P.

    2004-01-01

    Edwin Hubble's classic article on the expanding universe appeared in PNAS in 1929 [Hubble, E. P. (1929) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 15, 168–173]. The chief result, that a galaxy's distance is proportional to its redshift, is so well known and so deeply embedded into the language of astronomy through the Hubble diagram, the Hubble constant, Hubble's Law, and the Hubble time, that the article itself is rarely referenced. Even though Hubble's distances have a large systematic error, Hubble's velocities come chiefly from Vesto Melvin Slipher, and the interpretation in terms of the de Sitter effect is out of the mainstream of modern cosmology, this article opened the way to investigation of the expanding, evolving, and accelerating universe that engages today's burgeoning field of cosmology. PMID:14695886

  19. Taste bud leptin: sweet dampened at initiation site.

    PubMed

    Travers, Susan P; Frank, Marion E

    2015-05-01

    The intriguing observation that leptin decreases sweet-evoked peripheral gustatory responses has aroused much interest (Kawai K, Sugimoto K, Nakashima K, Miura H, Ninomiya Y. 2000. Leptin as a modulator of sweet taste sensitivities in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 97(20):11044-11049.) due to its implied importance in controlling appetite. The effects of this anorexic hormone, however, appear more conditional than originally believed. In this issue of Chemical Senses, a careful study by Glendinning and colleagues, find no effects of leptin on sweet-evoked chorda tympani responses, whereas an equally careful study by Meredith and colleagues, find decreased release of ATP and increased release of 5-HT from taste buds in response to sweet stimuli.

  20. A theory for depletion-induced colloidal membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Louis; Lubensky, Tom C.

    2014-03-01

    Depletion-induced formation of colloidal membranes has been recently observed in suspensions of hard rods [E. Barry and Z. Dogic, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107, 10348 (2010); T. Gibaud et al., Nature 481, 348 (2012)]. These membranes exhibit a variety of rich behaviors that must ultimately be driven by entropy alone. We propose an entropic model that can capture certain features of these membranes, including their curved edge shape and the presence of twist even with achiral rods. We calculate phenomenological parameters, such as the Frank twist constant and the Helfrich bending modulus, from physical quantities. Finally, we describe novel behaviors predicted by our model. We acknowledge support by NSF grant DMR-1104707.

  1. « Les fleurs du MAL » une méthode d'ondelettes adaptive de lignes arbitraires I : problèmes de convection diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Xiaoan; Xanthis, Leonidas S.

    2004-01-01

    Baudelaire's 'les fleurs du mal' refers to various new developments ('les fleurs') of the method ofarbitrarylines ( mal), since it was first published (in C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, Sér. I, in 1991). Here we revisit the basic mal (semi-discretization) methodology for stationary convection-diffusion problems and develop an adaptive, wavelet-based solver that is capable of capturing the thin layers that arise in such problems. We show the efficacy and high accuracy of the wavelet-mal solver by applying it to a challenging 2D problem involving both boundary and interior layers. To cite this article: X. Ren, L.S. Xanthis, C. R. Mecanique 332 (2004).

  2. Fractional Hamiltonian monodromy from a Gauss-Manin monodromy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugny, D.; Mardešić, P.; Pelletier, M.; Jebrane, A.; Jauslin, H. R.

    2008-04-01

    Fractional Hamiltonian monodromy is a generalization of the notion of Hamiltonian monodromy, recently introduced by [Nekhoroshev, Sadovskií, and Zhilinskií, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, Ser. 1 335, 985 (2002); Nekhoroshev, Sadovskií, and Zhilinskií, Ann. Henri Poincare 7, 1099 (2006)] for energy-momentum maps whose image has a particular type of nonisolated singularities. In this paper, we analyze the notion of fractional Hamiltonian monodromy in terms of the Gauss-Manin monodromy of a Riemann surface constructed from the energy-momentum map and associated with a loop in complex space which bypasses the line of singularities. We also prove some propositions on fractional Hamiltonian monodromy for 1:-n and m :-n resonant systems.

  3. Penetration of Action Potentials During Collision in the Median and Lateral Giant Axons of Invertebrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Perez, Alfredo; Budvytyte, Rima; Mosgaard, Lars D.; Nissen, Søren; Heimburg, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    The collisions of two simultaneously generated impulses in the giant axons of both earthworms and lobsters propagating in orthodromic and antidromic direction are investigated. The experiments have been performed on the extracted ventral cords of Lumbricus terrestris and the abdominal ventral cord of a lobster, Homarus americanus, by using external stimulation and recording. The collision of two nerve impulses of orthodromic and antidromic propagation did not result in the annihilation of the two signals, contrary to the common notion that is based on the existence of a refractory period in the well-known Hodgkin-Huxley theory. However, the results are in agreement with the electromechanical soliton theory for nerve-pulse propagation, as suggested by Heimburg and Jackson [On Soliton Propagation in Biomembranes and Nerves, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 9790 (2005).].

  4. Calculation of the wetting parameter from a cluster model in the framework of nanothermodynamics.

    PubMed

    García-Morales, V; Cervera, J; Pellicer, J

    2003-06-01

    The critical wetting parameter omega(c) determines the strength of interfacial fluctuations in critical wetting transitions. In this Brief Report, we calculate omega(c) from considerations on critical liquid clusters inside a vapor phase. The starting point is a cluster model developed by Hill and Chamberlin in the framework of nanothermodynamics [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 12779 (1998)]. Our calculations yield results for omega(c) between 0.52 and 1.00, depending on the degrees of freedom considered. The findings are in agreement with previous experimental results and give an idea of the universal dynamical behavior of the clusters when approaching criticality. We suggest that this behavior is a combination of translation and vortex rotational motion (omega(c)=0.84). PMID:16241275

  5. Differential conductance and defect states in the heavy-fermion superconductor CeCoIn5

    DOE PAGES

    John S. Van Dyke; Davis, James C.; Morr, Dirk K.

    2016-01-22

    We demonstrate that the electronic band structure extracted from quasiparticle interference spectroscopy [Nat. Phys. 9, 468 (2013)] and the theoretically computed form of the superconducting gaps [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, 11663 (2014)] can be used to understand the dI/dV line shape measured in the normal and superconducting state of CeCoIn5 [Nat. Phys. 9, 474 (2013)]. In particular, the dI/dV line shape, and the spatial structure of defect-induced impurity states, reflects the existence of multiple superconducting gaps of dx2–y2 symmetry. As a result, these results strongly support a recently proposed microscopic origin of the unconventional superconducting state.

  6. A finite element model for ice ball evolution in a multi-probe cryosurgery.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhihong; Muldrew, Ken; Wan, Richard; Rewcastle, John

    2003-06-01

    The ice formation in a water body is examined for the computation of temperature field, phase change and a moving ice-water interface whose location is not known á priori. This is classically referred to as the Stefan problem [Rubinstein, L.I. (1971) The Stefan Problem (American Mathematical Society, Providence, Rhode Island 02904]. Based on the Duvaut [Duvaut, G. (1973) "Résolution d'un probléme Stefan" C.R. Acad Sci. Paris 276, 1461-1463] transformation, the governing equations for heat conduction are formulated within a variational principle that is readily amenable to a standard finite element solution without remeshing. Numerical simulation results pertaining to the freezing of tumour tissue in a multi-cryoprobe cryosurgery are presented. These results lend both quantitative and graphical support to the current empirical standards of "effective therapy" in view of refining clinical applications.

  7. Calculation of the wetting parameter from a cluster model in the framework of nanothermodynamics.

    PubMed

    García-Morales, V; Cervera, J; Pellicer, J

    2003-06-01

    The critical wetting parameter omega(c) determines the strength of interfacial fluctuations in critical wetting transitions. In this Brief Report, we calculate omega(c) from considerations on critical liquid clusters inside a vapor phase. The starting point is a cluster model developed by Hill and Chamberlin in the framework of nanothermodynamics [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 12779 (1998)]. Our calculations yield results for omega(c) between 0.52 and 1.00, depending on the degrees of freedom considered. The findings are in agreement with previous experimental results and give an idea of the universal dynamical behavior of the clusters when approaching criticality. We suggest that this behavior is a combination of translation and vortex rotational motion (omega(c)=0.84).

  8. Hydrodynamic collective effects of active proteins in biological membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyano, Yuki; Kitahata, Hiroyuki; Mikhailov, Alexander S.

    2016-08-01

    Lipid bilayers forming biological membranes are known to behave as viscous two-dimensional fluids on submicrometer scales; usually they contain a large number of active protein inclusions. Recently, it was shown [A. S. Mikhailov and R. Kapral, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 112, E3639 (2015), 10.1073/pnas.1506825112] that such active proteins should induce nonthermal fluctuating lipid flows leading to diffusion enhancement and chemotaxislike drift for passive inclusions in biomembranes. Here, a detailed analytical and numerical investigation of such effects is performed. The attention is focused on the situations when proteins are concentrated within lipid rafts. We demonstrate that passive particles tend to become attracted by active rafts and are accumulated inside them.

  9. Large-scale Individual-based Models of Pandemic Influenza Mitigation Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadau, Kai; Germann, Timothy; Longini, Ira; Macken, Catherine

    2007-03-01

    We have developed a large-scale stochastic simulation model to investigate the spread of a pandemic strain of influenza virus through the U.S. population of 281 million people, to assess the likely effectiveness of various potential intervention strategies including antiviral agents, vaccines, and modified social mobility (including school closure and travel restrictions) [1]. The heterogeneous population structure and mobility is based on available Census and Department of Transportation data where available. Our simulations demonstrate that, in a highly mobile population, restricting travel after an outbreak is detected is likely to delay slightly the time course of the outbreak without impacting the eventual number ill. For large basic reproductive numbers R0, we predict that multiple strategies in combination (involving both social and medical interventions) will be required to achieve a substantial reduction in illness rates. [1] T. C. Germann, K. Kadau, I. M. Longini, and C. A. Macken, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 103, 5935-5940 (2006).

  10. Controlling viral capsid assembly with templating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagan, Michael F.

    2008-05-01

    We develop coarse-grained models that describe the dynamic encapsidation of functionalized nanoparticles by viral capsid proteins. We find that some forms of cooperative interactions between protein subunits and nanoparticles can dramatically enhance rates and robustness of assembly, as compared to the spontaneous assembly of subunits into empty capsids. For large core-subunit interactions, subunits adsorb onto core surfaces en masse in a disordered manner, and then undergo a cooperative rearrangement into an ordered capsid structure. These assembly pathways are unlike any identified for empty capsid formation. Our models can be directly applied to recent experiments in which viral capsid proteins assemble around functionalized inorganic nanoparticles [Sun , Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104, 1354 (2007)]. In addition, we discuss broader implications for understanding the dynamic encapsidation of single-stranded genomic molecules during viral replication and for developing multicomponent nanostructured materials.

  11. An extension of the steepest descent method for Riemann-Hilbert problems: the small dispersion limit of the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation.

    PubMed

    Deift, P; Venakides, S; Zhou, X

    1998-01-20

    This paper extends the steepest descent method for Riemann-Hilbert problems introduced by Deift and Zhou in a critical new way. We present, in particular, an algorithm, to obtain the support of the Riemann-Hilbert problem for leading asymptotics. Applying this extended method to small dispersion KdV (Korteweg-de Vries) equation, we (i) recover the variational formulation of P. D. Lax and C. D. Levermore [(1979) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA76, 3602-3606] for the weak limit of the solution, (ii) derive, without using an ansatz, the hyperelliptic asymptotic solution of S. Venakides that describes the oscillations; and (iii) are now able to compute the phase shifts, integrating the modulation equations exactly. The procedure of this paper is a version of fully nonlinear geometrical optics for integrable systems. With some additional analysis the theory can provide rigorous error estimates between the solution and its computed asymptotic expression. PMID:11038618

  12. Physical constraints on charge transport through bacterial nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Polizzi, Nicholas F.; Skourtis, Spiros S.

    2012-01-01

    Extracellular appendages of the dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 were recently shown to sustain currents of 1010 electrons per second over distances of 0.5 microns [El-Naggar et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 2010, 107, 18127]. However, the identity of the charge localizing sites and their organization along the “nanowire” remain unknown. We use theory to predict redox cofactor separation distances that would permit charge flow at rates of 1010 electrons per second over 0.5 microns for voltage biases of ≤1V, using a steady-state analysis governed by a non-adiabatic electron transport mechanism. We find the observed currents necessitate a multi-step hopping transport mechanism, with charge localizing sites separated by less than 1 nm and reorganization energies that rival the lowest known in biology. PMID:22470966

  13. Note: Recombination of H{sup +} and OH{sup -} ions along water wires

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Song Hi; Rasaiah, Jayendran C.

    2013-07-21

    Transport and recombination of hydrogen and hydroxide ions along a hydrogen-bonded water wire are studied by molecular dynamics simulation using a dissociating model for water. The results are compared with a recent CP-MD study of neutralization in bulk water [A. Hassanali, M. K. Prakrash, H. Eshet, and M. Parrinello, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108, 20410 (2011)]. The translocation of H{sup +} and OH{sup -} along the wire is faster than in the bulk water, followed by compression of the water wire when two water molecules separate the transported ions. Neutralization occurs with the concerted transfer of three protons as in the bulk water, followed by energy dissipation along the water chain.

  14. Shock waves in virus fitness evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalhaes, Fernando Goldenstein; Goldman, Carla

    2007-06-01

    We consider a nonlinear partial differential equation of conservation type to describe the dynamics of transmission with sampling of viral populations observed in aliquots of fixed particle number taken from an evolving clone at periodic intervals of time [I.S. Novella, E.A. Duarte, S.F. Elena, A. Moya, E. Domingo, Exponential increases of RNA virus fitness during large population transmissions, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92 (1995) 5841-5844]. The fast processes of mutation and natural selection that occur within each transmission are incorporated into the conservation equation as parameters. With this, the changes in time behavior of fitness function noticed in experimental data are related to a crossover exhibited by the solutions to this equation in the transient regime for pulse-like initial conditions. As a consequence, the average replication rate of the population is predicted to reach a plateau as a power t.

  15. Plant biotechnology for food security and bioeconomy.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Jihong Liu; Zhang, Peng

    2013-09-01

    This year is a special year for plant biotechnology. It was 30 years ago, on January 18 1983, one of the most important dates in the history of plant biotechnology, that three independent groups described Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation at the Miami Winter Symposium, leading to the production of normal, fertile transgenic plants (Bevan et al. in Nature 304:184-187, 1983; Fraley et al. in Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 80:4803-4807, 1983; Herrera-Estrella et al. in EMBO J 2:987-995, 1983; Vasil in Plant Cell Rep 27:1432-1440, 2008). Since then, plant biotechnology has rapidly advanced into a useful and valuable tool and has made a significant impact on crop production, development of a biotech industry and the bio-based economy worldwide.

  16. Functional methods and effective potentials for non-linear composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellegrini, Yves-Patrick; Barthélémy, Marc; Perrin, Gilles

    2000-03-01

    A formulation of variational principles in terms of functional integrals is proposed for any type of local plastic potentials. The minimization problem is reduced to the computation of a path integral. This integral can be used as a starting point for different approximations. As a first application, it is shown how to compute to second order the weak-disorder perturbative expansion of the effective potentials in random composite. The three-dimensional results of Suquet and Ponte-Castañeda (Suquet, P., Ponte-Castañeda, P., 1993. Small-contrast perturbation expansions for the effective properties of nonlinear composites. C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) Ser. II 317, 1515-1522) for the plastic dissipation potential with uniform applied tractions are retrieved and extended to any space dimension, taking correlations into account. In addition, the viscoplastic potential is also computed for uniform strain rates.

  17. Configurations of an Articulated Arm and Singularities of Special Multi-Flags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelletier, Fernand; Slayman, Mayada

    2014-06-01

    P. Mormul has classified the singularities of special multi-flags in terms of "EKR class" encoded by sequences j_1,dots, j_k of integers (see [Singularity Theory Seminar, Warsaw University of Technology, Vol. 8, 2003, 87-100] and [Banach Center Publ., Vol. 65, Polish Acad. Sci., Warsaw, 2004, 157-178]). However, A.L. Castro and R. Montgomery have proposed in I>Israel J. Math. 192 (2012), 381-427] a codification of singularities of multi-flags by RC and RVT codes. The main results of this paper describe a decomposition of each ''EKR'' set of depth 1 in terms of RVT codes as well as characterize such a set in terms of configurations of an articulated arm. Indeed, an analogue description for some ''EKR'' sets of depth 2 is provided. All these results give rise to a complete characterization of all ''EKR'' sets for 1≤ k≤ 4.

  18. Three-qubit thermal entanglement via entanglement swapping on two-qubit Heisenberg XY chains

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, Zi Chong; Ng, Jezreel; Yeo, Ye

    2005-12-15

    In this paper, we consider the generation of a three-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-like thermal state by applying the entanglement swapping scheme of Zukowski et al. [Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 755, 91 (1995)] to three pairs of two-qubit Heisenberg XY chains. The quality of the resulting three-qubit entanglement is studied by analyzing the teleportation fidelity, when it is used as a resource in the teleportation protocol of Karlsson et al. [Phys. Rev. A 58, 4394 (1998)]. We show that even though thermal noise in the original two-qubit states is amplified by the entanglement swapping process, we are still able to achieve nonclassical fidelities for the anisotropic Heisenberg XY chains at finitely higher and higher temperatures by adjusting the strengths of an external magnetic field. This has a positive implication on the solid-state realization of a quantum computer.

  19. Einstein-Weyl spaces and third-order differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tod, K. P.

    2000-08-01

    The three-dimensional null-surface formalism of Tanimoto [M. Tanimoto, "On the null surface formalism," Report No. gr-qc/9703003 (1997)] and Forni et al. [Forni et al., "Null surfaces formation in 3D," J. Math Phys. (submitted)] are extended to describe Einstein-Weyl spaces, following Cartan [E. Cartan, "Les espaces généralisées et l'integration de certaines classes d'equations différentielles," C. R. Acad. Sci. 206, 1425-1429 (1938); "La geometria de las ecuaciones diferenciales de tercer order," Rev. Mat. Hispano-Am. 4, 1-31 (1941)]. In the resulting formalism, Einstein-Weyl spaces are obtained from a particular class of third-order differential equations. Some examples of the construction which include some new Einstein-Weyl spaces are given.

  20. Spectral tripartitioning of networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Thomas; Mucha, Peter J.; Porter, Mason A.

    2009-09-01

    We formulate a spectral graph-partitioning algorithm that uses the two leading eigenvectors of the matrix corresponding to a selected quality function to split a network into three communities in a single step. In so doing, we extend the recursive bipartitioning methods developed by Newman [M. E. J. Newman, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103, 8577 (2006); Phys. Rev. E 74, 036104 (2006)] to allow one to consider the best available two-way and three-way divisions at each recursive step. We illustrate the method using simple “bucket brigade” examples and then apply the algorithm to examine the community structures of the coauthorship graph of network scientists and of U. S. Congressional networks inferred from roll call voting similarities.

  1. Information filtering via biased heat conduction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian-Guo; Zhou, Tao; Guo, Qiang

    2011-09-01

    The process of heat conduction has recently found application in personalized recommendation [Zhou et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 4511 (2010)], which is of high diversity but low accuracy. By decreasing the temperatures of small-degree objects, we present an improved algorithm, called biased heat conduction, which could simultaneously enhance the accuracy and diversity. Extensive experimental analyses demonstrate that the accuracy on MovieLens, Netflix, and Delicious datasets could be improved by 43.5%, 55.4% and 19.2%, respectively, compared with the standard heat conduction algorithm and also the diversity is increased or approximately unchanged. Further statistical analyses suggest that the present algorithm could simultaneously identify users' mainstream and special tastes, resulting in better performance than the standard heat conduction algorithm. This work provides a creditable way for highly efficient information filtering.

  2. Information filtering via biased heat conduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jian-Guo; Zhou, Tao; Guo, Qiang

    2011-09-01

    The process of heat conduction has recently found application in personalized recommendation [Zhou , Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA PNASA60027-842410.1073/pnas.1000488107107, 4511 (2010)], which is of high diversity but low accuracy. By decreasing the temperatures of small-degree objects, we present an improved algorithm, called biased heat conduction, which could simultaneously enhance the accuracy and diversity. Extensive experimental analyses demonstrate that the accuracy on MovieLens, Netflix, and Delicious datasets could be improved by 43.5%, 55.4% and 19.2%, respectively, compared with the standard heat conduction algorithm and also the diversity is increased or approximately unchanged. Further statistical analyses suggest that the present algorithm could simultaneously identify users' mainstream and special tastes, resulting in better performance than the standard heat conduction algorithm. This work provides a creditable way for highly efficient information filtering.

  3. An item-oriented recommendation algorithm on cold-start problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Tian; Chen, Guang; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Zhou, Tao

    2011-09-01

    Based on a hybrid algorithm incorporating the heat conduction and probability spreading processes (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 107 (2010) 4511), in this letter, we propose an improved method by introducing an item-oriented function, focusing on solving the dilemma of the recommendation accuracy between the cold and popular items. Differently from previous works, the present algorithm does not require any additional information (e.g., tags). Further experimental results obtained in three real datasets, RYM, Netflix and MovieLens, show that, compared with the original hybrid method, the proposed algorithm significantly enhances the recommendation accuracy of the cold items, while it keeps the recommendation accuracy of the overall and the popular items. This work might shed some light on both understanding and designing effective methods for long-tailed online applications of recommender systems.

  4. Induction of entropic segregation: the first step is the hardest.

    PubMed

    Minina, Elena; Arnold, Axel

    2014-08-21

    In confinement, overlapping polymers experience entropic segregating forces that tend to demix them. This plays a role during cell replication, where it facilitates the segregation of daughter chromosomes. It has been argued that these forces are strong enough to explain chromosome segregation in elongated bacteria such as E. coli without the need for additional active mechanisms [S. Jun and B. Mulder, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 2006, 103, 12388]. However, entropic segregation can only set in after the initial symmetry has been broken. We demonstrate that the timescale for this induction phase is exponentially growing in the chain length, while the actual segregation time scales only quadratically in the chain length. Thus the induction quickly becomes the dominating, slow process, and makes entropic segregation much less efficient than previously thought. The slow induction might also explain the long delay in chromosome segregation observed in experiments on E. coli. PMID:24974935

  5. Response of Biomolecules to Ultrafast Laser Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Roland; Dou, Yusheug; Dumitrica, Traian; Xie, John R. H.

    2005-03-01

    Using two complementary techniques -- semiclassical electron-radiation-ion dynamics (SERID) and time- dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) -- we are studying the response of various biologically relevant molecules to femtosecond-scale laser pulses. Our simulations provide microscopic information on mechanisms for photoisomerization [1] and other molecular transformations [2] and on spectroscopic identification of pathogens with schemes like FAST CARS [3]. The coupled dynamics of electrons and nuclei is determined by solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation and using Ehrenfest's theorem, with a 30 attosecond time step. Results will be shown for molecules including stilbene, benzene, and dipicloninc acid. [1] Y. Dou and R. E. Allen, Chemical Physics Letters 378, 323 (2003).2] B. Torralva and R. E. Allen, Journal of Modern Optics 49, 593 - 625 (2002).3] M. O. Scully et al., Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 99, 10994 (2002).

  6. Isolation and characterization of phosphorylated oligosaccharides from alpha-N-acetylglucosaminidase that are recognized by cell-surface receptors.

    PubMed

    von Figura, K; Klein, U

    1979-03-01

    Adsorptive endocytosis of lysosomal enzymes by fibroblasts and hepatocytes involves binding to cell surface receptors that recognize on lysosomal enzymes a phosphorylated carbohydrate, most likely a mannose 6-phosphate residue [Kaplan et al. (1977) Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 74, 2026-2030; Ullrich et al. (1978) Hoppe-Seyler's Z. Physiol. Chem. 359, 1591-1598]. Loss of alpha-N-acetylglucosaminidase endocytosis after treatment with endoglucosaminidase H indicated that the recognition site of alpha-N-acetylglucosaminidase is located on N-glycosidically linked oligosaccharides of the high mannose type. Acidic oligosaccharides with an average molecular weight of 2200 were liberated from alpha-N-acetylglucosaminidase by endoglucosaminidase H. These oligosaccharides were susceptible to degradation by alkaline phosphatase, alpha-mannosidase and beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase. At the non-reducing terminal these oligosaccharides bear phosphorylated mannose and/or N-acetylglucosamine residues. PMID:428391

  7. Symmetry and Size of Membrane Protein Polyhedral Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Di; Kahraman, Osman; Haselwandter, Christoph A.

    2016-09-01

    In recent experiments [T. Basta et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111, 670 (2014)] lipids and membrane proteins were observed to self-assemble into membrane protein polyhedral nanoparticles (MPPNs) with a well-defined polyhedral protein arrangement and characteristic size. We develop a model of MPPN self-assembly in which the preferred symmetry and size of MPPNs emerge from the interplay of protein-induced lipid bilayer deformations, topological defects in protein packing, and thermal effects. With all model parameters determined directly from experiments, our model correctly predicts the observed symmetry and size of MPPNs. Our model suggests how key lipid and protein properties can be modified to produce a range of MPPN symmetries and sizes in experiments.

  8. Spreading of block copolymer films and domain alignment at moving terrace steps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyi, Vladimir A.; Witten, Thomas A.

    2004-03-01

    We investigate spreading of phase separated copolymer films, where domain walls and thickness steps influence polymer flow. We show that at early stages of spreading its rate is determined by slow activated flow at terrace steps (i.e., thickness steps). At late stages of spreading, on the other hand, the rate is determined by the flow along terraces, with diffusionlike time dependence t-1/2. This dependence is similar to de Gennes and Cazabat's prediction for generic layered liquids [P. G. de Gennes and A. M. Cazabat, C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris II 310, 1601 (1990)], as opposed to the classical Tanner's law of drop spreading. We also argue that chain hopping at the spreading terrace steps should lead to the formation of aligned, defect-free domain patterns on the growing terraces.

  9. 5p Deletions: Current Knowledge and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Joanne M.; Qualmann, Krista J.; Okashah, Rebecca; Reilly, Amysue; Alexeyev, Mikhail F.; Campbell, Dennis J.

    2016-01-01

    Disorders resulting from 5p deletions (5p–) were first recognized by Lejeune et al. in 1963 [Lejeune et al. (1963); C R Hebd Seances Acad Sci 257:3098-3102]. 5p– is caused by partial or total deletion of the short arm of chromosome 5. The most recognizable phenotype is characterized by a high-pitched cry, dysmorphic features, poor growth, and developmental delay. This report reviews 5p– disorders and their molecular basis. Hemizygosity for genes located within this region have been implicated in contributing to the phenotype. A review of the genes on 5p which may be dosage sensitive is summarized. Because of the growing knowledge of these specific genes, future directions to explore potential targeted therapies for individuals with 5p– are discussed. PMID:26235846

  10. Biomineral formation as a biosignature for microbial activities Precambrian cherts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rincón Tomás, Blanca; Mühlen, Dominik; Hoppert, Michael; Reitner, Joachim

    2015-04-01

    In recent anoxic sediments manganese(II)carbonate minerals (e.g., rhodochrosite, kutnohorite) derive mainly from the reduction of manganese(IV) compounds by microbial anaerobic respiration. Small particles of rhodochrosite in stromatolite-like features in the Dresser chert Fm (Pilbara supergroup, W-Australia), associated with small flakes of kerogen, account for biogenic formation of the mineral in this early Archaean setting. Contrastingly, the formation of huge manganese-rich (carbonate) deposits requires effective manganese redox cycling, also conducted by various microbial processes, mainly requiring conditions of the early and late Proterozoic (Kirschvink et al., 2000; Nealson and Saffrani 1994). However, putative anaerobic pathways like microbial nitrate-dependent manganese oxidation (Hulth et al., 1999), anoxygenic photosynthesis (Johnson et al., 2013) and oxidation in UV light may facilitate manganese cycling even in a reducing atmosphere. Thus manganese redox cycling might have been possible even before the onset of oxygenic photosynthesis. Hence, there are several ways how manganese carbonates could have been formed biogenically and deposited in Precambrian sediments. Thus, the minerals may be suitable biosignatures for microbial redox processes in many respects. The hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrobaculum islandicum produces rhodochrosite during growth on hydrogen and organic compounds and may be a putative model organism for the reduction of Mn(IV). References Hulth S, Aller RC, Gilbert F. (1999) Geochim Cosmochim Acta, 63, 49-66. Johnson JE, Webb SM, Thomas K, Ono S, Kirschvink JL, Fischer WW. (2013) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 110, 11238-11243. Kirschvink JL, Gaidos EJ, Bertani LE, Beukes NJ, Gutzmer J, Maepa LN, Steinberger LE. (2000) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 97, 1400-1405. Nealson KH, Saffarini D. (1994). Annu Rev Microbiol, 48, 311-343.

  11. Geometric origin of scaling in large traffic networks.

    PubMed

    Popović, Marko; Štefančić, Hrvoje; Zlatić, Vinko

    2012-11-16

    Large scale traffic networks are an indispensable part of contemporary human mobility and international trade. Networks of airport travel and cargo ship movements are invaluable for the understanding of human mobility patterns [R. Guimera et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 7794 (2005))], epidemic spreading [V. Colizza et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103, 2015 (2006)], global trade [International Maritime Organization, http://www.imo.org/], and spread of invasive species [G. M. Ruiz et al., Nature (London) 408, 49 (2000)]. Different studies [M. Barthelemy, Phys. Rept. 499, 1 (2011)] point to the universal character of some of the exponents measured in such networks. Here we show that exponents which relate (i) the strength of nodes to their degree and (ii) weights of links to degrees of nodes that they connect have a geometric origin. We present a simple robust model which exhibits the observed power laws and relates exponents to the dimensionality of 2D space in which traffic networks are embedded. We show that the relation between weight strength and degree is s(k)~k(3/2), the relation between distance strength and degree is s(d)(k)~k(3/2), and the relation between weight of link and degrees of linked nodes is w(ij)~(k(i)k(j))(1/2) on the plane 2D surface. We further analyze the influence of spherical geometry, relevant for the whole planet, on exact values of these exponents. Our model predicts that these exponents should be found in future studies of port networks and it imposes constraints on more refined models of port networks.

  12. A proposed essential gene discovery pipeline: a Campylobacter jejuni case study.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Mark; Gaskin, Duncan J H; Metris, Aline

    2015-01-01

    Genes required for an organism's growth and survival are termed essential and represent potential intervention targets. Following in the footsteps of the genomics era, the "next-gen" genomic era provides vast amounts of genetic information. Sequencing of a representative bacterial pathogen genome has been superseded by sequencing of whole strain collections, whether from environmental or clinical sources (Harris et al., Science 327:469-474, 2010; Lewis et al., J Hosp Infect 75:37-41, 2010; Beres et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:4371-4376, 2010; Qi et al., PLoS Pathog 5:e1000580, 2009; He et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:7527-7532, 2010; Barrick et al., Nature 461:1243-1247, 2009; Sheppard et al., Mol Ecol 22:1051-1064, 2013). However, the challenge of using this information to gain biological insight remains. Nonetheless, this information, in combination with experimental data from the literature, can serve as the framework for gaining a better understanding of an organism's biology. Generic metabolic pathways have long been known, and a number of websites (e.g., KEGG and BioCyc) attempt to map information from genome annotation to metabolic pathways (Kanehisa et al., Nucleic Acids Res 40:D109-D114, 2010; Karp et al., Nucleic Acids Res 33:6083-6089, 2005). Extending this analysis to incorporate metabolic flux models further allows in silico prediction of potential essential genes. Such efforts are of value, either to highlight novel generic antimicrobials or to seek novel treatments for non-paradigm organisms. Such in silico approaches are attractive as they can highlight pathways and genes that would otherwise only be identified by costly and time-consuming laboratory methods. PMID:25636619

  13. Mössbauer hyperfine parameters of iron species in the course of Geobacter-mediated magnetite mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yi-Liang; Zhu, San-Yuan; Deng, Kun

    2011-10-01

    Amorphous ferric iron species (ferrihydrite or akaganeite of <5 nm in size) is the only known solid ferric iron oxide that can be reductively transformed by dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria to magnetite completely. The lepidocrocite crystallite can be transformed into magnetite in the presence of abiotic Fe(II) at elevated pH or biogenic Fe(II) with particular growth conditions. The reduction of lepidocrocite by dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria has been widely investigated showing varying results. Vali et al. (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101:16121-16126, 2004) captured a unique biologically mediated mineralization pathway where the amorphous hydrous ferric oxide transformed to lepidocrocite was followed by the complete reduction of lepidocrocite to single-domain magnetite. Here, we report the 57Fe Mössbauer hyperfine parameters of the time-course samples reported in Vali et al. (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101:16121-16126, 2004). Both the quadrupole splittings and linewidths of Fe(III) ions decrease consistently with the change of aqueous Fe(II) and transformations of mineral phases, showing the Fe(II)-mediated gradual regulation of the distorted coordination polyhedrons of Fe3+ during the biomineralization process. The aqueous Fe(II) catalyzes the transformations of Fe(III) minerals but does not enter the mineral structures until the mineralization of magnetite. The simulated abiotic reaction between Fe(II) and lepidocrocite in pH-buffered, anaerobic media shows the simultaneous formation of green rust and its gradual transformation to magnetite plus a small fraction of goethite. We suggested that the dynamics of Fe(II) supply is a critical factor for the mineral transformation in the dissimilatory iron-reducing cultures.

  14. Chemical Analysis of a "Miller-Type" Complex Prebiotic Broth: Part I: Chemical Diversity, Oxygen and Nitrogen Based Polymers.

    PubMed

    Wollrab, Eva; Scherer, Sabrina; Aubriet, Frédéric; Carré, Vincent; Carlomagno, Teresa; Codutti, Luca; Ott, Albrecht

    2016-06-01

    In a famous experiment Stanley Miller showed that a large number of organic substances can emerge from sparking a mixture of methane, ammonia and hydrogen in the presence of water (Miller, Science 117:528-529, 1953). Among these substances Miller identified different amino acids, and he concluded that prebiotic events may well have produced many of Life's molecular building blocks. There have been many variants of the original experiment since, including different gas mixtures (Miller, J Am Chem Soc 77:2351-2361, 1955; Oró Nature 197:862-867, 1963; Schlesinger and Miller, J Mol Evol 19:376-382, 1983; Miyakawa et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci 99:14,628-14,631, 2002). Recently some of Miller's remaining original samples were analyzed with modern equipment (Johnson et al. Science 322:404-404, 2008; Parker et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci 108:5526-5531, 2011) and a total of 23 racemic amino acids were identified. To give an overview of the chemical variety of a possible prebiotic broth, here we analyze a "Miller type" experiment using state of the art mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. We identify substances of a wide range of saturation, which can be hydrophilic, hydrophobic or amphiphilic in nature. Often the molecules contain heteroatoms, with amines and amides being prominent classes of molecule. In some samples we detect ethylene glycol based polymers. Their formation in water requires the presence of a catalyst. Contrary to expectations, we cannot identify any preferred reaction product. The capacity to spontaneously produce this extremely high degree of molecular variety in a very simple experiment is a remarkable feature of organic chemistry and possibly prerequisite for Life to emerge. It remains a future task to uncover how dedicated, organized chemical reaction pathways may have arisen from this degree of complexity.

  15. Anomalous behavior of water inside the SecY translocon.

    PubMed

    Capponi, Sara; Heyden, Matthias; Bondar, Ana-Nicoleta; Tobias, Douglas J; White, Stephen H

    2015-07-21

    The heterotrimeric SecY translocon complex is required for the cotranslational assembly of membrane proteins in bacteria and archaea. The insertion of transmembrane (TM) segments during nascent-chain passage through the translocon is generally viewed as a simple partitioning process between the water-filled translocon and membrane lipid bilayer, suggesting that partitioning is driven by the hydrophobic effect. Indeed, the apparent free energy of partitioning of unnatural aliphatic amino acids on TM segments is proportional to accessible surface area, which is a hallmark of the hydrophobic effect [Öjemalm K, et al. (2011) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108(31):E359-E364]. However, the apparent partitioning solvation parameter is less than one-half the value expected for simple bulk partitioning, suggesting that the water in the translocon departs from bulk behavior. To examine the state of water in a SecY translocon complex embedded in a lipid bilayer, we carried out all-atom molecular-dynamics simulations of the Pyrococcus furiosus SecYE, which was determined to be in a "primed" open state [Egea PF, Stroud RM (2010) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107(40):17182-17187]. Remarkably, SecYE remained in this state throughout our 450-ns simulation. Water molecules within SecY exhibited anomalous diffusion, had highly retarded rotational dynamics, and aligned their dipoles along the SecY transmembrane axis. The translocon is therefore not a simple water-filled pore, which raises the question of how anomalous water behavior affects the mechanism of translocon function and, more generally, the partitioning of hydrophobic molecules. Because large water-filled cavities are found in many membrane proteins, our findings may have broader implications. PMID:26139523

  16. Chemical Analysis of a "Miller-Type" Complex Prebiotic Broth. Part I: Chemical Diversity, Oxygen and Nitrogen Based Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wollrab, Eva; Scherer, Sabrina; Aubriet, Frédéric; Carré, Vincent; Carlomagno, Teresa; Codutti, Luca; Ott, Albrecht

    2016-06-01

    In a famous experiment Stanley Miller showed that a large number of organic substances can emerge from sparking a mixture of methane, ammonia and hydrogen in the presence of water (Miller, Science 117:528-529, 1953). Among these substances Miller identified different amino acids, and he concluded that prebiotic events may well have produced many of Life's molecular building blocks. There have been many variants of the original experiment since, including different gas mixtures (Miller, J Am Chem Soc 77:2351-2361, 1955; Oró Nature 197:862-867, 1963; Schlesinger and Miller, J Mol Evol 19:376-382, 1983; Miyakawa et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci 99:14,628-14,631, 2002). Recently some of Miller's remaining original samples were analyzed with modern equipment (Johnson et al. Science 322:404-404, 2008; Parker et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci 108:5526-5531, 2011) and a total of 23 racemic amino acids were identified. To give an overview of the chemical variety of a possible prebiotic broth, here we analyze a "Miller type" experiment using state of the art mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. We identify substances of a wide range of saturation, which can be hydrophilic, hydrophobic or amphiphilic in nature. Often the molecules contain heteroatoms, with amines and amides being prominent classes of molecule. In some samples we detect ethylene glycol based polymers. Their formation in water requires the presence of a catalyst. Contrary to expectations, we cannot identify any preferred reaction product. The capacity to spontaneously produce this extremely high degree of molecular variety in a very simple experiment is a remarkable feature of organic chemistry and possibly prerequisite for Life to emerge. It remains a future task to uncover how dedicated, organized chemical reaction pathways may have arisen from this degree of complexity.

  17. Inactivation of Escherichia coli glutamine synthetase by xanthine oxidase, nicotinate hydroxylase, horseradish peroxidase, or glucose oxidase: effects of ferredoxin, putidaredoxin, and menadione.

    PubMed

    Stadtman, E R; Wittenberger, M E

    1985-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that several mixed-function oxidation (MFO) systems are capable of catalyzing the inactivation of glutamine synthetase (GS) [R.L. Levine, C. N. Oliver, R. M. Fulks, and E. R. Stadtman (1978) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78, 2120-2124] and a number of the other enzymes [L. Fucci, C. N. Oliver, M. J. Coon, and E. R. Stadtman (1983) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 80, 1521-1525]. It has now been found that in the presence of Fe(III), O2, and an appropriate electron donor (hypoxanthine or NADPH, respectively) glutamine synthetase is also inactivated by either milk xanthine oxidase or Clostridial nicotinate hydroxylase. Inactivation of glutamine synthetase by either of these flavoproteins is greatly stimulated by the presence of electron carrier proteins possessing nonheme-iron-sulfur (NHIS) clusters (i.e., ferredoxin or putidaredoxin) or by the presence of menadione. The inactivation reactions are partially inhibited by free radical scavengers, superoxide dismutase, (SOD), histidine, mannitol, dimethyl sulfoxide, and dimethylthiourea, and are inhibited completely by either Mn(II), EDTA, or catalase. The sensitivity to SOD inhibition is greatly suppressed when the xanthine oxidase system is supplemented with either ferredoxin or redoxin. In the presence of the latter NHIS-proteins (and only when they are present), MFO systems, comprised of either horseradish peroxidase and H2O2 or glucose oxidase, O2, and glucose, can also catalyze the inactivation of GS. The ability of ferredoxin and putidaredoxin to promote oxidation modification of GS by any one of these MFO systems suggests that proteins with NHIS centers may mediate the generation (or stabilization) of highly reactive radical intermediates.

  18. Inactivation of enzymes and oxidative modification of proteins by stimulated neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Oliver, C N

    1987-02-15

    Differentiated, stimulated HL-60 cells and freshly isolated, stimulated neutrophils inactivate glutamine synthetase (L-glutamate:ammonia ligase (ADP-forming), EC 6.3.1.2) either inside or outside of Escherichia coli. Stimulated neutrophils also inactivate at least four endogenous enzymes which are inactivated by mixed-function oxidation (MFO) systems in vitro (L. Fucci, C.N. Oliver, M.J. Coon, and E.R. Stadtman (1983) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 80, 1521-1525). The inactivation of glutamine synthetase by stimulated neutrophils exhibits characteristics similar to those previously described using both enzymic and nonenzymic MFO systems (R.L. Levine, C.N. Oliver, R.M. Fulks, and E.R. Stadtman (1981) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78, 2120-2124). Although the reaction occurs in the absence of Fe(III), it is stimulated by added Fe (III). Inactivation required molecular oxygen and is partially inhibited by Mn(II), catalase, superoxide dismutase, and metal chelators, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and o-phenanthroline. Both the kinetics and the extent of glutamine synthetase inactivation differ when neutrophils are stimulated with phorbol esters compared with formylated peptides. Glutamine synthetase inactivation catalyzed by MFO systems is accompanied by the formation of protein carbonyl derivatives which form stable hydrazones when treated with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. Multiple carbonyl derivatives are formed in the soluble protein fraction of stimulated neutrophils and these derivatives collectively exhibit an absorbance spectrum similar to that of glutamine synthetase inactivated by liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 MFO system (K. Nakamura, C.N. Oliver, and E.R. Stadtman (1985) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 240, 319-329).

  19. Hydrophobic effect in protein folding and other noncovalent processes involving proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Spolar, R S; Ha, J H; Record, M T

    1989-01-01

    Large negative standard heat capacity changes (delta CP degree much less than 0) are the hallmark of processes that remove nonpolar surface from water, including the transfer of nonpolar solutes from water to a nonaqueous phase and the folding, aggregation/association, and ligand-binding reactions of proteins [Sturtevant, J. M. (1977) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 74, 2236-2240]. More recently, Baldwin [Baldwin, R. L. (1986) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83, 8069-8072] proposed that the delta CP degree of protein folding could be used to quantify the contribution of the burial of nonpolar surface (the hydrophobic effect) to the stability of a globular protein. We demonstrate that identical correlations between the delta CP degree and the change in water-accessible nonpolar surface area (delta Anp) are obtained for both the transfer of nonpolar solutes from water to the pure liquid phase and the folding of small globular proteins: delta CP degree/delta Anp = -(0.28 +/- 0.05) (where delta Anp is expressed in A2 and delta CP degree is expressed in cal.mol-1.K-1; 1 cal = 4.184 J). The fact that these correlations are identical validates the proposals by both Sturtevant and Baldwin that the hydrophobic effect is in general the dominant contributor to delta CP degree and provides a straightforward means of estimating the contribution of the hydrophobic driving force (delta Ghyd degree) to the standard free energy change of a noncovalent process characterized by a large negative delta CP degree in the physiological temperature range: delta Ghyd degree congruent to (80 +/- 10)delta CP degree. PMID:2813394

  20. U1 snRNA as an effective vector for stable expression of antisense molecules and for the inhibition of the splicing reaction.

    PubMed

    Martone, Julie; De Angelis, Fernanda Gabriella; Bozzoni, Irene

    2012-01-01

    We report the use of the U1 snRNA as a vector for the stable expression of antisense molecules against the splice junctions of specific dystrophin exons. The single-stranded 5' terminus of U1 can be replaced by unrelated sequences as long as 50 nucleotides without affecting both the stability and the ability to assemble into snRNP particles. Effective exon skipping has been obtained for different dystrophin exons by antisense sequences against 5' and 3' splice sites alone or in combination with ESE sequences. The efficacy of these molecules has been studied both in in vitro systems and in animals. In both cases the chimeric molecules, delivered as part of lentiviral or AAV vectors (De Angelis et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99:9456-9461, 2002; Denti et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103: 3758-3763, 2006; Denti et al. Hum Gene Ther 17: 565-743, 2006; Denti et al. Hum Gene Ther 19: 601-608, 2008; Incitti et al. Mol Ther 18: 1675-1682, 2010), provided high skipping activity and efficient rescue of dystrophin synthesis. Moreover, the U1-antisense molecules, delivered to mice via systemic injection of recombinant AAV viruses, displayed body wide transduction, long-term expression, dystrophin rescue as well as morphological and functional benefit (Denti et al. Hum Gene Ther 19: 601-608, 2008). In this Chapter we report methods for producing U1-antisense expression cassettes in the backbone of lentiviral constructs and for testing their activity both in patients' derived myoblasts as well as in fibroblasts reprogrammed to muscle differentiation.

  1. Benzene and human health: A historical review and appraisal of associations with various diseases.

    PubMed

    Galbraith, David; Gross, Sherilyn A; Paustenbach, Dennis

    2010-11-01

    Over the last century, benzene has been a well-studied chemical, with some acute and chronic exposures being directly associated with observed hematologic effects in humans and animals. Chronic heavy exposures to benzene have also been associated with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) in humans. Other disease processes have also been studied, but have generally not been supported by epidemiologic studies of workers using benzene in the workplace. Within occupational cohorts with large populations and very low airborne benzene exposures (less than 0.1–1.0 ppm), it can be difficult to separate background disease incidence from those occurring due to occupational exposures. In the last few decades, some scientists and physicians have suggested that chronic exposures to various airborne concentrations of benzene may increase the risk of developing non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) (Savitz and Andrews, 1997, Am J Ind Med 31:287–295; Smith et al., 2007, Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 16:385–391), multiple myeloma (MM) (Goldstein, 1990, Ann NY Acad Sci 609:225–230; Infante, 2006, Ann NY Acad Sci 1076:90–109), and various other hematopoietic disorders. We present a state-of-the-science review of the medical and regulatory aspects regarding the hazards of occupational exposure to benzene. We also review the available scientific and medical evidence relating to benzene and the risk of developing various disorders following specific levels of exposure. Our evaluation indicates that the only malignant hematopoietic disease that has been clearly linked to benzene exposure is AML. Information from the recent "Benzene 2009," a symposium of international experts focusing on the health effects and mechanisms of toxicity of benzene, hosted by the Technical University of Munich, has been incorporated and referenced.

  2. The glycosylated androgenic hormone of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Grève, Pierre; Braquart-Varnier, Christine; Strub, Jean-Marc; Félix, Christine; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Martin, Gilbert

    2004-05-01

    It appears from grafting experiments that the androgenic hormone (AH) of terrestrial isopods has a narrow species-specificity [J. Crust. Biol. 19 (1999) 684], even if AH of different species shared common epitopes [Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 125 (2002) 218]. To date only the glycosylated AH of the woodlouse Armadillidium vulgare has been deciphered by us [Ann. New York Acad. Sci. 839 (1998) 111; Eur. J. Biochem. 262 (1999) 727] and [Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 264 (1999) 419] have confirmed the primary structure of this protein. We reported in the present paper the characterization of the AH in another species Porcellio scaber by a combination of microsequencing, mass spectrometry, and molecular cloning. We found only one glycoform which consisted of two peptide chains, A and B, of 31 and 44 amino acids, respectively, with A chain carrying on Asn18 a N-glycosylated moiety, size of which has been determined by MALDI-MS measurements. The expected structure of the glycosylation was proposed. The deduced amino acid sequence of the AH precursor was mainly identical to the one obtained independently by another group [Zool. Sci. 20 (2003) 75]. We also showed that AH gene is exclusively expressed in androgenic glands. Sequence comparison with A. vulgare and P. scaber (population of Japan) AH was discussed. PMID:15081839

  3. The glycosylated androgenic hormone of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Grève, Pierre; Braquart-Varnier, Christine; Strub, Jean-Marc; Félix, Christine; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Martin, Gilbert

    2004-05-01

    It appears from grafting experiments that the androgenic hormone (AH) of terrestrial isopods has a narrow species-specificity [J. Crust. Biol. 19 (1999) 684], even if AH of different species shared common epitopes [Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 125 (2002) 218]. To date only the glycosylated AH of the woodlouse Armadillidium vulgare has been deciphered by us [Ann. New York Acad. Sci. 839 (1998) 111; Eur. J. Biochem. 262 (1999) 727] and [Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 264 (1999) 419] have confirmed the primary structure of this protein. We reported in the present paper the characterization of the AH in another species Porcellio scaber by a combination of microsequencing, mass spectrometry, and molecular cloning. We found only one glycoform which consisted of two peptide chains, A and B, of 31 and 44 amino acids, respectively, with A chain carrying on Asn18 a N-glycosylated moiety, size of which has been determined by MALDI-MS measurements. The expected structure of the glycosylation was proposed. The deduced amino acid sequence of the AH precursor was mainly identical to the one obtained independently by another group [Zool. Sci. 20 (2003) 75]. We also showed that AH gene is exclusively expressed in androgenic glands. Sequence comparison with A. vulgare and P. scaber (population of Japan) AH was discussed.

  4. Understanding anomalous delays in a model of intracellular calcium dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, Emily; Kirk, Vivien; Osinga, Hinke M.; Sneyd, James; Wechselberger, Martin

    2010-12-01

    In many cell types, oscillations in the concentration of free intracellular calcium ions are used to control a variety of cellular functions. It has been suggested [J. Sneyd et al., "A method for determining the dependence of calcium oscillations on inositol trisphosphate oscillations," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103, 1675-1680 (2006)] that the mechanisms underlying the generation and control of such oscillations can be determined by means of a simple experiment, whereby a single exogenous pulse of inositol trisphosphate (IP3) is applied to the cell. However, more detailed mathematical investigations [M. Domijan et al., "Dynamical probing of the mechanisms underlying calcium oscillations," J. Nonlinear Sci. 16, 483-506 (2006)] have shown that this is not necessarily always true, and that the experimental data are more difficult to interpret than first thought. Here, we use geometric singular perturbation techniques to study the dynamics of models that make different assumptions about the mechanisms underlying the calcium oscillations. In particular, we show how recently developed canard theory for singularly perturbed systems with three or more slow variables [M. Wechselberger, "A propos de canards (Apropos canards)," Preprint, 2010] applies to these calcium models and how the presence of a curve of folded singularities and corresponding canards can result in anomalous delays in the response of these models to a pulse of IP3.

  5. On the Chemical Emergence of Phosphate-Based Biochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kee, Terence

    Contemporary organisms use orthophosphate derivatives (PO43-) in their cell biochemistry,1 yet questions remain as to how Nature was able to accumulate, activate and exploit the or-thophosphate group from geological sources with both poorly solubility and low chemical activ-ity.2 Gulick argued3 a central role for reduced oxidation state phosphorus (P) oxyacids such as H-phosphonates (H2PO3-) and especially H-phosphinates (H2PO2-) in prebiotic chemistry on account of the greater water solubility of their metal salts and, with the presence of P-H bonds, a different reactivity profile to that expected of orthophosphate. The recent demonstration that hydrothermal corrosion of P-rich mineral phases such as schreibersite (Fe,Ni)3P within iron meteorites leads to production of various P-oxyacids including H-phosphonic (H3PO3)4 and H-phosphinic5 acids as well as orthophosphate has reignited interest in reduced oxida-tion state P chemistry in prebiotic environments. We are examining the prebiotic potential of reduced oxidation state P-chemistry through reactions with carbonyl substrates with rea-sonable prebiotic provenance including formaldehyde glycolaldehyde, both intimately involved in the formose reaction for sugar synthesis6 and pyruvic acid,7 a product of glycolysis and feed-stock for the citric acid cycle, a fundamental cellular metablic process whose heritage is considered an ancient one. In this contribution we present some of our latest results on the H-phosphinate-pyruvate system. References: [1] Lodish H et al. (2000) Molecular Cell Biology, 4th Ed., W. H. Freeman Co., New York. [2] Gulick A. (1955) Am. Sci., 43, 479. [3] Gulick A. (1957) Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 69, 309. [4] Pasek M. A. (2008) Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA, 105, 853. [5] Bryant D. E.and Kee T. P. (2006) Chem. Commun. 2344. [6] Weber A. L. (2000) Origins of Life and Evol. Biosph., 30, 33. [7] Cody G. D. et. al. (2000) Science 289, 1337.

  6. Sea-level variability in tide-gauge and geological records: An empirical Bayesian analysis (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, R. E.; Hay, C.; Morrow, E.; Mitrovica, J. X.; Horton, B.; Kemp, A.

    2013-12-01

    melt [5]. We end by presenting preliminary results from such an analysis. [1] Sallenger et al. (2012), Nat. Clim. Change 2: 884-888. [2] Kopp (in press),Geophys. Res. Lett. [3] Engelhart and Horton (2011), Quat. Sci. Rev. 54: 12-25. [4] Kemp et al. (2011), Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 108: 11017-11022. [5] Hay et al. (2013). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 110: 3692-3699.

  7. Greening of the Sahara - a paleo perspective on the history of water in the Middle East and North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Matthews, M.

    2012-04-01

    humans and animals who enjoyed a variety of ecological niches for living (Frumkin et al., 2011). Almogi-Labin, A. et a.l (2009) Quat. Sci. Rev. 28, 2882-2896. Bar-Matthews, M. et al (2003 Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 67, 3181-99. Fleitmann, D. et al. (2011). Quat. Sci. Rev. 30, 783-787. Frumkin, et al. A. (2011). Jour. Human Evol. 60, 437-451 Lisker et al, (2010). Quat. Sci. Rev 29, 1201-1211. Osborne A.H. et al. (2008). Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 105, 16444-16447 Vaks et al. (2010). Quat. Sci. Rev. 29, 2647-2662.

  8. Sub- and Superluminal Propagation of Intense Pulses in Media with Saturated and Reverse Absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, G. S.; Dey, Tarak Nath

    2004-05-01

    We develop models for the propagation of intense pulses in solid state media which can have either saturated absorption or reverse absorption. We model subluminal propagation in ruby and superluminal propagation in alexandrite as three and four level systems, respectively, coupled to Maxwell's equations. We present results well beyond the traditional pump-probe approach and explain the experiments of Bigelow et al. [

    Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO<issn>0031-9007issn> 90, 113903 (2003); 10.1103/PhysRevLett.90.113903
    ScienceSCIEAS<issn>0036-8075issn> 301, 200 (2003)
    ] on solid state materials.

  9. Teaching Astronomy Really Dynamically Involving Sci-Fi, or the Other TARDISTeaching Astronomy Really Dynamically Involving Sci-Fi, or the Other TARDIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, K.

    2014-07-01

    Teaching science through science fiction films, series, and novels is not a new phenomenon; however, how many of us are still stuck using the original Star Trek (or even The Next Generation), Contact, and Deep Impact? These works often predate our current students' births by many years. Faculty members may still find them exciting and relevant, but we should periodically re-evaluate their relevance and effectiveness. In addition, there are works of popular culture in other genres, such as comedy and cartoons, that feature references to astronomical topics. A new generation of students should be taught through a new generation of media. This hands-on workshop introduced timely examples of popular culture that can be utilized to make astronomical concepts come alive in the introductory classroom, as well as methods for fishing for future examples as new media continues to be released.

  10. Intermittently Decreased Beat-To-Beat Variability in Congestive Heart Failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessel, Niels; Schirdewan, Alexander; Kurths, Jürgen

    2003-09-01

    A Comment on the Letter by

    Madalena Costa, Ary L. Goldberger, and C.-K. Peng, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO<issn>0031-9007issn> 89, 068102 (2002)
    . The authors of the Letter offer a Reply.

  11. Extreme events of 2012, 2013 and 2014 linked to planetary wave resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petoukhov, Vladimir; Coumou, Dim; Rahmstorf, Stefan; Stadtherr, Lisa; Kornhuber, Kai; Petri, Stefan; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim

    2016-04-01

    Croatia. We have analysed this event in some detail and demonstrate a linkage to planetary wave resonance (Stadtherr et al., in revision). References Coumou D, Petoukhov V, Rahmstorf S, Petri S, and Schellnhuber HJ (2014) Quasi-resonant circulation regimes and hemispheric synchronization of extreme weather in boreal summer. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 111: 12331-12336. Petoukhov V, Rahmstorf S, Petri S, Schellnhuber HJ (2013) Quasiresonant amplification of planetary waves and recent Northern Hemisphere weather extremes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 110(14): 5336-5341. Petoukhov V, Petri S, Rahmstorf S, Coumou D, Kornhuber K, Schellnhuber HJ (submitted) The role of quasi-resonant planetary wave dynamics in recent boreal spring-to-autumn extreme events. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. Stadtherr L, Coumou D, Petoukhov V, Petri S, Rahmstorf S (in revision) Record Balkan floods of 2014 linked to planetary wave resonance. Science Advances.

  12. Study of minima of the fluctuations of the order parameter of seismicity using GCMT catalogue in global scale.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christopoulos, Stavros-Richard G.; Sarlis, Nicholas V.; Skordas, Efthimios S.

    2016-04-01

    It has been recently shown [1,2] that earthquakes of magnitude M greater or equal to 7 are globally correlated. The identification of this correlation became possible when studying the variance κ1 of natural time which has been proposed as an order parameter for seismicity[3,4]. In the present study, we focus on the behaviour of the fluctuations of κ1 before major earthquakes using the Global Centroid Moment Tensor catalogue for a magnitude threshold Mthres=5.0 as in Ref.[5]. Natural time analysis reveals that distinct minima of the fluctuations κ1of seismicity appear within almost five and a half months on average before all major earthquakes of magnitude larger than M8.4. This phenomenon corroborates the recent finding [6] that similar minima of seismicity order parameter fluctuations had been observed before all major shallow earthquakes in Japan. Finally, we examine the statistical significance of the results by using ROC graphs [7,8] and the proposed prediction method has a p-value to occur by chance well below 0.1%. The hit rate is 100% with a false alarm rate only 6.67%. An attempt to lower the target earthquake magnitude threshold will be also presented. REFERENCES [1] N. V. Sarlis, Phys. Rev. E 84, 022101 (2011). [2] N. V. Sarlis and S.-R. G. Christopoulos, Chaos 22, 023123 (2012) [3] P. A. Varotsos, N. V. Sarlis, and E. S. Skordas, Practica of Athens Acad. 76, 294 (2001). [4] P. A. Varotsos, N. V. Sarlis, and E. S. Skordas, Phys. Rev. E 66, 011902 (2002). [5] N.V. Sarlis, S.-R. G. Christopoulos, and E. S. Skordas, Chaos 25, 063110 (2015) [6] N. V. Sarlis et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110, 13734 (2013) [7] T. Fawcett, Pattern Recognit. Lett. 27, 861 (2006). [8] N. V. Sarlis and S.-R. G. Christopoulos, Comput. Phys. Commun. 185, 1172 (2014).

  13. Developing Academic Literacy and Voice: Challenges Faced by a Mature ESL Student and Her Instructors (Desarrollo del discurso académico y la voz: retos de una estudiante de inglés como segunda lengua y sus profesores)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Correa, Doris

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on critical, socio-cultural and sociolinguistic theories of writing, text and voice, this ethnographic study examines the challenges that a mature ESL student and her instructors in a university course on Spanish Language Media face as they co-construct a common understanding of academic literacy and voice in an undergraduate General…

  14. Publishing and Academic Writing: Experiences of Authors Who Have Published in "PROFILE" (Publicación y escritura académica: experiencias de autores que han publicado en "PROFILE")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cárdenas, Melba L.

    2014-01-01

    The increase in the publication of academic journals is closely related to the growing interest of research communities as well as of institutional policies that demand visibility of the work done by their staff through publications in highly-ranked journals. The purpose of this paper is to portray the experiences of some authors who published…

  15. Struggling Authorial Identity of Second Language University Academic Writers in Mexico (La lucha de identidad de escritores académicos universitarios de segunda lengua en México)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Troy; Mora Pablo, Irasema; Lengeling, M. Martha

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the different factors that appear to affect the on-going construction of second language authorial identity in a professional academic environment in Mexico. Through narrative research methodology from a qualitative paradigm, the everyday struggles of two university professors to maintain their professional status in second…

  16. Teaching EFL Academic Writing in Colombia: Reflections in Contrastive Rhetoric (La enseñanza de escritura académica en Colombia: reflexiones en retórica contrastiva)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gómez, Juan D.

    2011-01-01

    This essay relates observations to the reasons that advanced students of English as a foreign language in Colombia struggle with English composition. It identifies some cultural, academic, and disciplinary influences that may obfuscate their assimilation of the conventions of written English. It concludes by proposing that the teaching of context…

  17. Renewal-reward process formulation of motor protein dynamics.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Arjun; Epureanu, Bogdan I

    2011-10-01

    Renewal-reward processes are used to provide a framework for the mathematical description of single-molecule bead-motor assays for processive motor proteins. The formulation provides a more powerful, general approach to the fluctuation analysis of bead-motor assays begun by Svoboda et al. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91(25):11782, 1994). Fluctuation analysis allows one to gain insight into the mechanochemical cycle of motor proteins purely by measuring the statistics of the displacement of the cargo (e.g., bead) the protein transports. The statistical parameters of interest are shown to be the steady-state slopes (in time) of the cumulants of the bead (the cumulant rates). The first two cumulant rates are the steady-state velocity and slope of the variance. The cumulant rates are shown to be insensitive to experimental disturbances such as the initial state of the enzyme and from the viewpoint of modeling, unaffected by substeps. Two existing models--Elston (J. Math. Biol. 41(3):189-206, 2000) and Peskin and Oster (Biophys. J. 68(4):202S-211S, 1995)--are formulated as renewal-reward processes to demonstrate the insight that the formulation affords. A key contribution of the approach is the possibility of accounting for wasted hydrolyses and backward steps in the fluctuation analysis. For example, the randomness parameter defined in the first fluctuation analysis of optical trap based bead-motor assays (Svoboda et al. in Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91(25):11782, 1994), loses its original purpose of estimating the number of rate-determining steps in the chemical cycle when backward steps and wasted hydrolyses are present. As a simple application of our formulation, we extend the randomness parameter's scope by showing how it can be used to infer the presence of wasted hydrolyses and backward steps with certainty. A more powerful fluctuation analysis using higher cumulant rate measurements is proposed: the method allows one to estimates the number of intermediate

  18. Free energy and information contents of conformons in proteins and DNA.

    PubMed

    Ji, S

    2000-01-01

    Sequence-specific conformational strains (SSCS) of biopolymers that carry free energy and genetic information have been called conformons, a term coined independently by two groups over two and a half decades ago [Green, D.E., Ji, S., 1972. The electromechanochemical model of mitochondrial structure and function. In: Schultz, J., Cameron, B.F. (Eds.), Molecular Basis of Electron Transport. Academic Press, New York, pp. 1-44; Volkenstein, M.V., 1972. The Conformon. J. Theor. Biol. 34, 193-195]. Conformons provide the molecular mechanisms necessary and sufficient to account for all biological processes in the living cell on the molecular level in principle--including the origin of life, enzymic catalysis, control of gene expression, oxidative phosphorylation, active transport, and muscle contraction. A clear example of SSCS is provided by SIDD (strain-induced duplex destabilization) in DNA recently reported by Benham [Benham, C.J., 1996a. Duplex destabilization in superhelical DNA is predicted to occur at specific transcriptional regulatory regions. J. Mol. Biol. 255, 425-434; Benham, C.J., 1996b. Computation of DNA structural variability--a new predictor of DNA regulatory regions. CABIOS 12(5), 375-381]. Experimental as well as theoretical evidence indicates that conformons in proteins carry 8-16 kcal/mol of free energy and 40-200 bits of information, while those in DNA contain 500-2500 kcal/mol of free energy and 200-600 bits of information. The similarities and differences between conformons and solitons have been analyzed on the basis of the generalized Franck-Condon principle [Ji, S., 1974a. A general theory of ATP synthesis and utilization. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 227, 211-226; Ji, S., 1974b. Energy and negentropy in enzymic catalysis. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 227, 419-437]. To illustrate a practical application, the conformon theory was applied to the molecular-clamp model of DNA gyrase proposed by Berger and Wang [Berger, J.M., Wang, J.C., 1996. Recent developments

  19. The role of genomics in conservation and reproductive sciences.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Warren E; Koepfli, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    maintaining functional ecosystems, evolutionary process and will impact future food supplies, human health, biomaterial development and geopolitics (Myers and Knoll Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:5389-5392, 2001; Templeton et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:5426-5432, 2001). Therefore, conservation of genetic diversity is a social, cultural, scientific, and economic prerogative and is the key to adaptation in the uncertain future of a human-dominated environment. Once lost, genetic resources are nearly impossible to regain, increasing the urgency of fundamental global approaches (e.g. www.cbd.int/sp/targets ).In this chapter we provide a review of current research and recent advances in biotechnology and genomic approaches for animal conservation and the management of genetic resources, with an emphasis on reproductive sciences. It is intended to provide information and insights for research and to provoke thoughts on how to take advantage of these opportunities. PMID:25091907

  20. Quaternary structure of carbonmonoxyhemoglobins in solution: structural changes induced by the allosteric effector inositol hexaphosphate.

    PubMed

    Gong, Qingguo; Simplaceanu, Virgil; Lukin, Jonathan A; Giovannelli, Janel L; Ho, Nancy T; Ho, Chien

    2006-04-25

    We have applied the residual dipolar coupling (RDC) method to investigate the solution quaternary structures of (2)H- and (15)N-labeled human normal adult recombinant hemoglobin (rHb A) and a low-oxygen-affinity mutant recombinant hemoglobin, rHb(alpha96Val-->Trp), both in the carbonmonoxy form, in the absence and presence of an allosteric effector, inositol hexaphosphate (IHP), using a stretched polyacrylamide gel as the alignment medium. Our recent RDC results [Lukin, J. A., Kontaxis, G., Simplaceanu, V., Yuan, Y., Bax, A., and Ho, C. (2003) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 517-520] indicate that the quaternary structure of HbCO A in solution is a dynamic ensemble between two previously determined crystal structures, R (crystals grown under high-salt conditions) and R2 (crystals grown under low-salt conditions). On the basis of a comparison of the geometric coordinates of the T, R, and R2 structures, it has been suggested that the oxygenation of Hb A follows the transition pathway from T to R and then to R2, with R being the intermediate structure [Srinivasan, R., and Rose, G. D. (1994) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 91, 11113-11117]. The results presented here suggest that IHP can shift the solution quaternary structure of HbCO A slightly toward the R structure. The solution quaternary structure of rHbCO(alpha96Val-->Trp) in the absence of IHP is similar to that of HbCO A in the presence of IHP, consistent with rHbCO(alpha96Val-->Trp) having an affinity for oxygen lower than that of Hb A. Moreover, IHP has a much stronger effect in shifting the solution quaternary structure of rHbCO(alpha96Val-->Trp) toward the R structure and toward the T structure, consistent with IHP causing a more pronounced decrease in its oxygen affinity. The results presented in this work, as well as other results recently reported in the literature, clearly indicate that there are multiple quaternary structures for the ligated form of hemoglobin. These results also provide new insights