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Sample records for acad sci paris

  1. Paris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    This image of Paris was acquired on July 23, 2000 and covers an area of 23 by 20 km. Known as the City of Light, Paris has been extolled for centuries as one of the great cities of the world. Its location on the Seine River, at a strategic crossroads of land and river routes, has been the key to its expansion since the Parisii tribe first settled here in the 3rd century BC. Paris is an alluring city boasting many monumental landmarks, such as the Cathedral of Notre Dame, the Louvre, and the Eiffel Tower. Its beautiful gardens, world-class cuisine, high fashion, sidewalk cafes, and intellectual endeavors are well known. The city's cultural life is centered on the Left Bank of the Seine, while business and commerce dominate the Right Bank. The image is located at 48.8 degrees north latitude and 2.3 degrees east longitude.

    In figure 1, the 4 enlarged areas zoom in to some of the major buildings. In the UPPER LEFT, the Eiffel Tower and its shadow are seen. Based on the length of the shadow and the solar elevation angle of 59 degrees, we can calculate its height as 324 m (1054 ft), compared to its actual height of 303 m (985 ft). In the UPPER RIGHT, the Arc de Triomphe is at the center of the Place de L'etoile, from which radiate 12 major boulevards. In the LOWER LEFT is the Tuileries Garden and the Louvre Museum art its eastern end. In the LOWER RIGHT is the Invalides, the burial place and monument of Napoleon Bonaparte.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  2. Magnetic Study of Paris Meteorite: a Partially Differentiated Parent Body?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cournède, C.; Gattacceca, J.; Rochette, P.; Zanda, B.

    2011-12-01

    existence of strong solar and nebular magnetic fields, the paleofield had to be generated by the parent body. In view of its intensity, this paleofield may have been an internally generated field, pointing to a partially differentiated parent body with a convecting metallic core. Such process has recently been proposed for the parent body of CV chondrites [4, 5]. [1] Zanda et al., 2010. Meteoritics Planetary Sci., 45, 222-222. [2] Gattacceca and Rochette, 2004. EPSL, 227, 377-393 [3] Petitat and Gounelle, 2010. LPSC, abstract #1673. [4] Carporzen et al., 2011. Proc. National Acad. Sci., 108, 6386-6389. [5] Elkins-Tanton et al., 2011. Earth Planet . Sci. Lett., 305, 1-10.

  3. Paris Noir.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vickers, Robert J.

    2003-01-01

    Describes a six-credit study abroad program open to undergraduate and graduate students through Syracuse University that explores historical, cultural, and intellectual connections between African Americans and Paris. (EV)

  4. ASTER Paris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Eiffel Tower and its shadow can be seen next to the Seine in the left middle of this ASTER image of Paris. Based on the length of the shadow and the solar elevation angle of 59 degrees, we can calculate its height as 324 meters (1,054 feet), compared to its actual height of 303 meters (985 feet). Acquired on July 23, 2000, this image covers an area 23 kilometers (15 miles) wide and 20 kilometers (13 miles) long in three bands of the reflected visible and infrared wavelength region. Known as the City of Light, Paris has been extolled for centuries as one of the great cities of the world. Its location on the Seine River, at a strategic crossroads of land and river routes, has been the key to its expansion since the Parisii tribe first settled here in the 3rd century B.C.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration

  5. Dental practice in Paris.

    PubMed

    Baron, Pierre

    2003-01-01

    This describes dental practice and the availability of dental patent remedies in Paris. Accounts of legal disputes, from original sources, illustrate the status and social history of some of the most wealthy dental practitioners in Paris during the Revolution.

  6. Study Abroad: Paris.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cholakian, Rouben

    1992-01-01

    Describes problems and attempted resolutions encountered in administering an effective study-abroad program in Paris, France, discussing program rationale, selection and preparation of students, academic life, and social life. (28 references) (CB)

  7. The Rome Paris collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Signore, M.

    2007-03-01

    Since the first "Twinning CEE Project" between the Group of Francesco Mechiorri and our Laboratory at Observatoire de Paris and Ecole Normale Supérieure, and then through several European Networks and NASA Collaborations on the Cosmic Microwave Background, a long-term and fruitful cooperation has existed between Rome and Paris. This contribution will focus on the human story, the principal results and the possible prospects of this wonderful collaboration.

  8. City of Paris, France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This highly detailed view of the City of Paris 49.0N, 0.0E) shows a varied land use pattern in great detail. Several airports are clearly seen such as the two major international airports of Orly and Le Bourget. Paris was founded in pre-Roman times on an island in the Seine River and continued as a Roman outpost. The easily defensible location was one of the keys to growth. Other factors include easy access by river and the productive hinterland.

  9. Geosciences after Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogelj, Joeri; Knutti, Reto

    2016-03-01

    The adoption of the Paris Agreement is a historic milestone for the global response to the threat of climate change. Scientists are now being challenged to investigate a 1.5 °C world -- which will require an accelerated effort from the geoscience community.

  10. Loss and damage post Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petherick, Anna

    2016-08-01

    The Paris Agreement gave the Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage a permanent and potentially prominent place in climate negotiations, but beyond that its impact remains wide open for interpretation.

  11. An Englishman abroad: Charles Blagden's visit to Paris in 1783.

    PubMed

    Fauque, Danielle M E

    2008-12-20

    Once the preliminaries of peace had been signed in January 1783, after the war of American independence, exchanges between British and French men of science resumed their normal course. On a visit to Paris in 1783, the francophile Charles Blagden (with the encouragement of Joseph Banks) made a number of contacts that fostered relations between the Royal Society and the Académie royale des sciences. In the course of this and several subsequent visits to France, Blagden became especially intimate with the chemist Claude-Louis Berthollet. His correspondence, now in the Royal Society, is a rich source for our understanding of some of the leading scientific debates of the day, in particular concerning the nature of water, which forms the main subject of this article.

  12. PARIS II: DESIGNING GREENER SOLVENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    PARIS II (the program for assisting the replacement of industrial solvents, version II), developed at the USEPA, is a unique software tool that can be used for customizing the design of replacement solvents and for the formulation of new solvents. This program helps users avoid ...

  13. Medical street names in Paris.

    PubMed

    Sykes, A H

    2004-02-01

    In Paris, the blue enamel signs for streets named after a person also bear the dates of birth and death, and a word or two to designate the person's field of activity. In this paper an alphabetical listing is given of 166 Parisian streets that have been named after medically qualified men who achieved distinction in medicine or elsewhere.

  14. A City of Libraries: Paris.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitten, Benjamin

    1983-01-01

    This overview of Parisian libraries includes descriptions of the Bibliotheque National, Bibliotheque Mazarine, Library of the Sorbonne, Bibliotheque Sainte Genevieve, Bibliotheque de l'Arsenal, Bibliotheque Historique de la Ville de Paris, Bibliotheque Forney, Library of the Opera, Bibliotheque Publique d'Information, and the forthcoming…

  15. Neurology outside Paris following Charcot.

    PubMed

    Moulin, Thierry; Clarac, François; Petit, Henri; Broussolle, Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    The Middle Ages saw the development of numerous universities in the different provinces that later became the kingdom of France. In 1794, Napoleon I established 3 medical schools in Paris, Montpellier and Strasbourg, which were transformed into medical faculties in 1808. France had always been a highly centralized country, but during the 19th century, this trend started to change with the creation of medical faculties in Nancy (1872), Lille (1877), Lyon (1878), Bordeaux (1879), Toulouse (1891), Algiers (1910) and Marseille (1930). Following the creation of the 12 foundation courses, specialized chairs were progressively established in Paris, but for a long time this remained restricted to the French capital. However, with the emergence of medicine as an academic discipline in several towns outside Paris, came the development of neurology. This was greatly influenced by former students of Jean-Martin Charcot, local personalities, and the interactions between the two. Leading figures included Albert Pitres in Bordeaux, Léon Ingelrans in Lille, Eugène Devic and Jules Froment in Lyon, Lucien Cornil in Marseille, Joseph Grasset in Montpellier, and Marcel Riser in Toulouse. The interaction between French and Germanic medical communities also developed at this turbulent time under the influence of several great physicians such as Wilhelm Waldeyer, Adolf Kussmaul, and later Jean Alexandre Barré in Strasbourg, and Hippolyte Bernheim in Nancy. There are a number of other university towns outside Paris in which the development of neurology was probably influenced by the same interactions with psychiatry. It would be worth carrying out a thorough analysis of these towns in order to present an exhaustive overview of the development of neurology in France.

  16. POP: Publications by the Observatoire de Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brocquet, C.; Henry, F.; Laurenceau, A.

    2015-04-01

    The paper presents "POP: Publications of the Observatoire de Paris," a project of the Observatoire de Paris, which was launched to keep record of its activity by indexing its publications. It also describes the aims and the challenges of the project and the features of Publesia, the software that was adopted for the project.

  17. Paris Commune Imagery in China's Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meiss, Guy T.

    The role of ideology in mass media practices is explored in an analysis of the relation between the Paris Commune of 1871 and the Shanghai Commune of 1967, two attempts to translate the philosophical concept of dictatorship of the proletariat into some political form. A review of the use of Paris Commune imagery by the Chinese to mobilize the…

  18. [Nurses with the Paris Fire Brigade].

    PubMed

    Le Boulleur, Thibaud; Damas, Cécile Rodrigues; Lefort, Hugues; Lamache, Christophe; Tourtier, Jean-Pierre; Domanski, Laurent

    2014-09-01

    The army nurses of the Paris Fire Brigade serve the population of Paris and three adjacent departments. They receive induction as well as continuous training and work within the mobile pre-hospital medical teams. In addition to their day-to-day support of firefighters, they train, teach and participate in clinical research and development.

  19. Space Science Lab at PARI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelaz, Michael W.; Blake, M.; Clavier, D.; Whitworth, C.; Cline, J. D.

    2006-12-01

    Native American, Hispanic, African American, and other underrepresented high school students in rural Western North Carolina have unprecedented opportunity as researchers in the Space Science Lab to conduct visible and radio observations of the Sun. The program involves 90 students over a three year period. The students conduct their own research and also interact with scientists around the world. The primary goal is to reach students who otherwise would not have this opportunity and motivate them to develop the critical thinking skills necessary for objective scientific inquiry. Students develop skills in electronics, computer sciences, astronomy, physics and earth sciences. Equally important is the hope that the students will become interested in pursuing careers in research or other science-related areas. The program objectives are aligned with the North Carolina Standard Course of Study for grades 9-12 in the areas of Earth/Environmental Science, Physical Science and Physics. The first group of 27 students spent a week in the Space Science Lab located on the campus of the Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI) during the Summer 2006. Students constructed their own JOVE radio telescopes that they took home to continue their observations. They share their results during four follow-up sessions throughout the school year. The students also have Internet access to radio telescopes and solar monitoring equipment at PARI. We expect their enthusiasm for science will increase by experiencing research investigations that are fun and relevant to their understanding of the world around them. We gratefully acknowledge support from the Burroughs Wellcome Fund Student Science Enrichment Program.

  20. Late abortion meeting, Paris / France.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, A

    1989-01-01

    On January 27 and 28, 1989 a workshop and a meeting were organized in Paris by Mouvement Francais pour le Planning Familial (MFPF/France) and the IPPF Europe Region. The workshop was held on the first day. 24 staff and volunteers from Planned Parenthood Associations of 15 countries attended, reviewing abortion laws, the definition of therapeutic abortion, and the incidence and problems of second trimester abortion. Second trimester abortion is available in only a few European countries. Second trimester abortions are rare in France (about 2000 per annum), and in 1986 1717 French women travelled to England in order to seek an abortion. All late abortions are performed for serious reasons. Older women may mistake signs of pregnancy for the onset of the menopause; and women fearful of social or familial punishment, especially teenagers, may be reluctant to consult a doctor. The experiences of Denmark and Sweden, where the problem is partially solved, suggest some strategies: optimize accessibility of contraceptive services, particularly for women at higher risk of late abortion; diminish the taboo surrounding abortion, so that women are less frightened to seek help at an early stage of pregnancy; make abortion services available in all regions of the country; avert time-consuming enforced waiting periods or consent for minors; and stimulate public information campaigns on the importance of seeking help early. On January 28 a meeting involving about 200 participants took place at the Universite Paris Dauphine, Salle Raymond Aron. Speakers at the meeting discussed the issue of late abortion in Europe, the difficulties of obtaining late abortions, counseling, medical problems, the woman's point of view, and possible solutions. At the close of the meeting, the MFPF called on the French government to modify some of the articles in the Penal Code that restrict women's access to safe and legal abortion.

  1. The Museum of Materia Medica of Paris.

    PubMed

    Delaveau, P; Paris, R R; Clair, G

    1986-09-01

    The Museum of Materia Medica of Paris is very rich with a collection of about 22,000 specimens. During the last few years, the efforts have been much more devoted to teaching by means of annotated displays and exhibits.

  2. Plasmic degradation of fibrinogen Paris I.

    PubMed

    Budzynski, A Z; Marder, V J

    1976-11-01

    Fibrin obtained from the plasma of a patient having abnormal fibrogen Paris I contains normal alpha, beta, and gamma polypeptide chains as well as an abnormal gamma-chain (gammaParis I) of approximately 51,000 daltons molecular weight. Plasmic digestion of Paris I fibrogen and noncrosslinked fibrin yields both normal and abnormal Fragment D molecules, the latter having a higher negative charge and molecular weight than that liberated from normal fibrinogen and noncorsslinked fibrin. After disulfide bond reduction, an abnormal polypeptide chain of approximately 40,500 +/- 2,000 daltons molecular weight was demonstrated in the Paris I digests by dodecyl sulfate (SDS) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Comparison with the electrophoretic pattern for reduced digests of normal substrates indicates that it is a gamma-chain remnant in the normal Fragment D. Although the carbohydrate content in the gamma-Paris I-chain is slightly higher than that in the normal gamma-chain, as measured by periodic acid-Schiff reagent (PAS) staining intensity, it is concluded that extra carbohydrate does not account for the high molecular weight of the gamma-Paris I-chain since the 40,500 dalton chain does not stain with PAS. Plasma digestion of Paris I crosslinked fibrin yields a large amount of Fragment D in addition to Fragment D-D ("D-dimer") and E molecules, in contrast to a digest of normal crosslinked fibrin, from which only the latter two fragments are formed. This finding suggests that the defect in fibrinogen Paris I derives from an abnormality in the carboxy-terminal region of the gammaParis I-chain, so that in the presence of Factor XIII, these chains are not crosslinked and Fragment D-D molecules are not liberated upon subsequent plasmic degradation. The data provide support for the previous conclusion that a longer than normal polypeptide chain sequence at the carboxy-terminal portion of the gammaParis I-chains accounts for the increased size of these chains relative to the

  3. GHG monitoring over Paris megacity and Orléans forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Te, Y. V.; Jeseck, P.; Zanon, T.; Boursier, C.; Janssen, C.; Deutscher, N. M.; Warneke, T.; Notholt, J.; Lac, C.; Dieudonné, E.; Lopez, M.; Schmidt, M.; Xueref-remy, I. C.

    2012-12-01

    In a growing world with more than 7 billion inhabitants and big emerging countries such as China, Brazil and India, emissions of anthropogenic pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHGs) are increasing continuously. Their monitoring and control in megacities have become a major challenge for scientists and public health authorities in environmental research area. The ground-based Fourier transform spectrometer (QualAir FTS[a], model IFS 125HR) of the QualAir platform located in downtown Paris at University Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC), is a scientific research instrument dedicated to the survey of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and urban air quality. Equipped with a sun-tracker, the remote sensing QualAir FTS relies on solar infrared absorption for monitoring trace gas concentrations and their variability in the Ile-de-France region[b]. Concentrations of atmospheric GHGs, especially CO2, CH4 and N2O, are retrieved by the radiative transfer model PROFFIT[c]. Because Paris is the third largest European megacity, the QualAir FTS can provide new and complementary measurements as compared to existing ground-based FTS network stations (NDACC and TCCON) located in unpolluted environments, such as the TCCON-Orléans station[d] situated in the forest of Orléans (100 km south of Paris). In the effort to integrate QualAir FTS into the TCCON network, simultaneous FTS measurements of GHGs at Paris and Orléans have been performed. We will emphasize on comparisons of CO2 from these two sites. Our comparison will be completed by high-resolved direct CO2 modeling outputs from the Meso-NH model, and ground in situ measurements at different sites (Orléans/Trainou, Paris/Jussieu, Paris/Eiffel Tower). Parts of the data were acquired in the framework of the French CO2-MEGAPARIS project[e, f], whose main goal is to quantify CO2 emissions from the Paris area. The present data intercomparison will help to reduce uncertainties in carbon cycle models and to better characterize regional GHG fluxes

  4. [Boulduc's dynasty, apothecaries in Paris in XVIIth an XVIIIth centuries (following the article published in Revue d'histoire de la pharmacie, 2001, no. 331, p. 339-354)].

    PubMed

    Warolin, Christian

    2002-01-01

    Like his father Simon Boulduc, Gilles-François Boulduc worked as a demonstrator in chemistry at the Jardin Royal. He was the apothecary of King Louis XIV and King Louis XV, a member of the Académie Royale des Sciences. In addition he was appointed alderman of the town of Paris. He worked in Paris rue des Boucheries and went into partnership with another apothecary, Claude Pia. He was also the drug supplier of the Duke de Saint-Simon who quoted him several times as a Royal apothecary in his Mémoires. Gilles-François Boulduc's main chemistry research work is presented in this article.

  5. Complex I assembly function and fatty acid oxidation enzyme activity of ACAD9 both contribute to disease severity in ACAD9 deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Schiff, Manuel; Haberberger, Birgit; Xia, Chuanwu; Mohsen, Al-Walid; Goetzman, Eric S.; Wang, Yudong; Uppala, Radha; Zhang, Yuxun; Karunanidhi, Anuradha; Prabhu, Dolly; Alharbi, Hana; Prochownik, Edward V.; Haack, Tobias; Häberle, Johannes; Munnich, Arnold; Rötig, Agnes; Taylor, Robert W.; Nicholls, Robert D.; Kim, Jung-Ja; Prokisch, Holger; Vockley, Jerry

    2015-01-01

    Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase 9 (ACAD9) is an assembly factor for mitochondrial respiratory chain Complex I (CI), and ACAD9 mutations are recognized as a frequent cause of CI deficiency. ACAD9 also retains enzyme ACAD activity for long-chain fatty acids in vitro, but the biological relevance of this function remains controversial partly because of the tissue specificity of ACAD9 expression: high in liver and neurons and minimal in skin fibroblasts. In this study, we hypothesized that this enzymatic ACAD activity is required for full fatty acid oxidation capacity in cells expressing high levels of ACAD9 and that loss of this function is important in determining phenotype in ACAD9-deficient patients. First, we confirmed that HEK293 cells express ACAD9 abundantly. Then, we showed that ACAD9 knockout in HEK293 cells affected long-chain fatty acid oxidation along with Cl, both of which were rescued by wild type ACAD9. Further, we evaluated whether the loss of ACAD9 enzymatic fatty acid oxidation affects clinical severity in patients with ACAD9 mutations. The effects on ACAD activity of 16 ACAD9 mutations identified in 24 patients were evaluated using a prokaryotic expression system. We showed that there was a significant inverse correlation between residual enzyme ACAD activity and phenotypic severity of ACAD9-deficient patients. These results provide evidence that in cells where it is strongly expressed, ACAD9 plays a physiological role in fatty acid oxidation, which contributes to the severity of the phenotype in ACAD9-deficient patients. Accordingly, treatment of ACAD9 patients should aim at counteracting both CI and fatty acid oxidation dysfunctions. PMID:25721401

  6. Polaris Instrument Development and PARI Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    At the Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI) in Rosman, NC I spent 8 weeks as the NC Space Grant/J. Donald Cline Astronomy Scholar. I developed multiple projects and assisted as a mentor to PARI Space Science Lab and Duke TIP high school gifted student program which both took place during my stay. My main focus was the development of the Polaris imaging telescope. This telescope is used to take images of the pulsating variable star Polaris. These readings are used to make seeing estimates for the air column above PARI. The system stores and archives images and analyzes them for magnitude change and movement of the stellar image. In addition to the Polaris project I developed a solar panel voltage and charge monitoring system which involved me working with charge controllers and photovoltaic technology. I developed a charging scheme using Flexmax 60 charge controller. Data is recorded and transmitted via optical fiber for analysis and correlation with solar zenith angle.

  7. Scientific Respiratory Symposium, Paris June 2010

    PubMed Central

    Dalglish, Gavin; Priestley, Graham

    2011-01-01

    At a 2010 Respiratory Symposium in Paris, chaired by Professors Bousquet and Roche of the University of Paris, recent trends in research, therapy and treatment guidelines for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were reviewed and discussed by a faculty of expert European and US respiratory physicians. This article reviews five key clinical presentations with particular emphasis given to the importance of small airways in the pathology and treatment of asthma and COPD. Further analysis of the economics of treatment in Europe and the US shows a wide variance in direct and indirect costs. PMID:21792320

  8. Fiches pratiques: Paris en vert; Analyse textuelle; C'est parti, mon kiki; Paris vu par (Practical Ideas: Paris in Green; Textual Analysis; It's Gone, My Kiki; Focusing on Paris).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caillet, Claudine; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Four activities for the French language classroom are described, including a discussion of greenery in Paris, a reading comprehension exercise, an activity focusing on language styles and familiar expressions, and a study of Paris as portrayed in films. (MSE)

  9. Drilling bits optimized for the Paris basin

    SciTech Connect

    Vennin, H.C. Pouyastruc )

    1989-07-31

    Paris basin wells have been successfully drilled using steel-body bits with stud-type cutters. These bits offer the possibility of optimizing the bit-face based on the strata to be drilled, as well as allowing replacement of worn cutters. This article discusses: bit manufacturing; bit repair; optimizing bits; hydraulics.

  10. Act Up-Paris: French Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakayama, Thomas K.

    2012-01-01

    The francophone world has always been at the center of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. From the mythical (French Canadian) "patient zero," Gaetan Dugas, to Rock Hudson's flight to Paris for medical treatment and the blaming of Haiti for AIDS, as well as the close relationships between Belgian and French and their former African colonies, underscores the…

  11. Paris as the First Day of Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ensz, Kathleen Y.

    1988-01-01

    Presents useful ideas for activities that get students involved, upon arrival abroad, in using their foreign language and in relating to their new cultural environment. A "linguistic scavenger hunt" in Paris, France, helps students gain the confidence they need to maximally benefit from their experience abroad. (Author/DJD)

  12. Porphyry of Russian Empires in Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulakh, Andrey

    2014-05-01

    Porphyry of Russian Empires in Paris A. G. Bulakh (St Petersburg State University, Russia) So called "Schokhan porphyry" from Lake Onega, Russia, belongs surely to stones of World cultural heritage. One can see this "porphyry" at facades of a lovely palace of Pavel I and in pedestal of the monument after Nicolas I in St Petersburg. There are many other cases of using this stone in Russia. In Paris, sarcophagus of Napoleon I Bonaparte is constructed of blocks of this stone. Really, it is Proterozoic quartzite. Geology situation, petrography and mineralogical characteristic will be reported too. Comparison with antique porphyre from the Egyptian Province of the Roma Empire is given. References: 1) A.G.Bulakh, N.B.Abakumova, J.V.Romanovsky. St Petersburg: a History in Stone. 2010. Print House of St Petersburg State University. 173 p.

  13. Sodomites and police in Paris, 1715.

    PubMed

    Merrick, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    The Archives of the Bastille in the Bibliothèque de l'Arsenal include hundreds of police reports, none of them currently available in English or even in print, about male same-sex relations in Paris during the first half of the eighteenth century. The documents translated here, interrogations of eight men arrested in 1715, provide information about networks and prostitution, age and class, surveillance and deception in the sodomitical subculture of the capital.

  14. Climate Impacts of the Paris Agreement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Andrei; Paltsev, Sergey; Chen, Henry; Monier, Erwan

    2016-04-01

    The UN agreement signed during the recent COP21 meeting in Paris defines policies which supposed to be implemented by different countries to reduce their anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Those agreed policies, however, only cover the period up to 2030 and they do not specify actions after 2030. As a result, projections of the long-term climate impact of the Paris agreement produced by different research groups differ significantly because they make different assumptions about the policies after 2030. In this study we estimate possible impacts using the MIT Integrated Global System Model, which consists of the human activity model, Economic Projection and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, and a climate model of intermediate complexity, the MIT Earth System Model (MESM). In addition to the "no climate policy" scenario, we consider a scenario that incorporates the emissions targets proposed by the international community to address the challenges of climate change based on the submissions to the COP21 process. For the post-2030 period we create several variations: a) no additional climate policy after 2030, but the proposed cuts are extended to 2100; b) reductions in emissions and emission intensities after 2030 at the same rate as in the 2020-2030 period; 3) in addition to the conditions in the previous no country increases its GHG emissions after 2050. Based on the emission scenarios, we simulate possible future climate changes. Our analysis shows that, for the climate parameters corresponding to the median strength of the climate system response to anthropogenic forcing, the Paris Agreement can reduce the global mean surface air temperature (SAT) in 2100 between 0.63 and 1.07oC relative to "no climate policy" case. At the same time, due to a large inertia of climate system, in 2050 the SAT reduced only by about 0.12oC under all three scenarios. Under all three variants of an extension of the Paris Agreement an increase in the SAT relative to an 1861

  15. Plaster of Paris: the orthopaedic surgeon heritage.

    PubMed

    Hernigou, Philippe

    2016-08-01

    Plastering is one of the most ancient of the building handicrafts. Plaster is the common name for calcium sulphate hemi hydrate made by heating the mineral gypsum, the common name for sulphate of lime. In the tenth century the Arabs used liquid plaster in orthopaedic treatment. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, patients with fractures of the lower extremities-and often of the upper extremities as well-were treated in bed with restriction of all activity for many weeks until the fractures united. It was the practice of surgeons to dress wounds and fractures at frequent intervals. The bandages, pads, and splints were removed, the fractures manipulated, and the dressings reapplied. The search for simpler, less cumbersome methods of treatment led to the development of occlusive dressings, stiffened at first with starch and later with plaster of Paris. The ambulatory treatment of fractures was the direct result of these innovations. Two military surgeons, Antonius Mathijsen of the Netherlands, and Nikolai Ivanovitch Pirogov of Russia, were responsible for the introduction of the new plaster bandage technique. At the beginning of the twentieth century the technique was improved by Jean-François Calot, a French surgeon, who invented the hand manufacture of plaster bandage as a roll. During the twentieth century, walking cast and ambulation for fresh fractures were developed with plaster and pin incorporated in plaster; the open fracture care concept was introduced with plaster of Paris by Trueta before the external fixation.

  16. Sociocultural Integration of Older American Residents of Paris.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taietz, Philip

    1987-01-01

    Interviewed 104 older American residents of Paris, France. Found that 70 percent had medium to high levels of sociocultural integration and 92 percent had adequate proficiency in French language. Concluded that congruence of Paris environment and individual values had implications for sociocultural integration; declines in health, income, and loss…

  17. PARIS II: Computer Aided Solvent Design for Pollution Prevention

    EPA Science Inventory

    This product is a summary of U.S. EPA researchers' work developing the solvent substitution software tool PARIS II (Program for Assisting the Replacement of Industrial Solvents, version 2.0). PARIS II finds less toxic solvents or solvent mixtures to replace more toxic solvents co...

  18. Aerosol Plume during a Polluted Event Occuring Over Paris Area and its Potential Photochemical Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randriamiarisoa, H.; Chazette, P.; Sanak, J.; Hauglustaine, D.

    2002-12-01

    As in many big cities, there are several pollution events in Paris area. A thorough understanding of the processes leading on the formation of pollutants and their transport during pollution episodes is necessary. One of the pertinent factors, which contributions on atmospheric chemistry and radiative effect are not yet well known, is the aerosol. ESQUIF (Etude et Simulation de la QUalité de l?air en Ile de France) is the first program dedicated to study such issues over the Paris area. It was carried out from summer 1998 to winter 2000 (Menut et al., 2000). To characterize all the properties of the urban aerosol, many campaigns were coordinated using both ground and airborne measurements (Chazette et al., 2000). We are focusing on the 31st of July 2000 where a well-defined polluted plume has been observed. Aerosol number concentrations in different size classes were measured and show that urban aerosol in Paris area is mainly submicronic. The absorbent part of the aerosol, mainly associated to the black carbon component, has been observed to be associated to particles with diameter less than 0.1 æm. The single scattering albedo has been assessed to be close to 0.85 leading to a significant influence on the photochemical chemistry. Indeed, a significant decrease of the daily maximum ozone concentration has been calculated using the INCA model and will be presented. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The Programme National de Chimie Atmosphérique, INSU supported this work. REFERENCES Chazette P., H. Randriamiarisoa, J. Sanak, C. Flamant, J. Pelon, M. Sicard, H. Cachier, F. Aulagnier, R. Sarda-Esteve, L. Gomes, S. Alfaro and A. Gaudichet (2001). ESQUIF 2000 : Aerosol survey over the Ile-de-France area, J. Aerosol Sci ., 32/suppl. 1, S439-S440. Menut, L., R. Vautard, C. Flamant, A. Abonnel, M. Beekmann, P. Chazette, P.H. Flamant, D. Gombert, D. Guédalia, D. Kley, M.P. Lefebvre, B. Lossec, D. Martin, G. Mégie, P. Perros, M. Sicard and G. Toupance (2000). Measurements and modelling

  19. The 1986 terrorist bombing experience in Paris.

    PubMed Central

    Rignault, D P; Deligny, M C

    1989-01-01

    Between December 7, 1985 and September 17, 1986, eleven terrorist bomb explosions took place in Paris. Thirteen people died immediately, 255 others were injured. Forty were treated on-site and were not hospitalized, 205 were subjected to triage and stabilization and were then hospitalized. These latter 205 patients are analyzed in this study. None of them died during transportation, and seven eventually died in hospitals. Forty-seven per cent of all victims suffered from multiple injuries. All deaths except one occurred in the polytraumatized group. The policy of subjecting victims of terrorist bomb explosions to triage and stabilization before hospitalization is compared to the so-called "scoop and run" technique, more generally applied in mass casualty situations. Its limitations and advantages are discussed. PMID:2647053

  20. Monitoring Polaris and Seeing Conditions at PARI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, April

    2016-01-01

    Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI) was originally built by NASA to track and collect data from satellites. The location in the Pisgah National Forest was chosen due to the excellent ability of the surrounding mountains to block radio interference and light pollution. The PARI observatory has been monitoring Polaris for over 10 years and has amassed a large collection of images of the star and those surrounding it. While several telescopes have been used throughout the project, we are currently using a Omni XLT Series Celestron and an SBIG ST-8300M CCD camera with a 0.70 arcsecond/pixel ratio. The software is run on Windows, however, we will be making a switch to Linux and implementing a new program to control the camera. The new images, once converted to a usable format (ST10 to FITS), can be automatically fed into an in-house Java program to track the variability of the star and simultaneously determine the seeing conditions experienced on the campus. Since we have several years worth of data, the program will also be used to provide a history of variability and seeing conditions. We ultimately hope to be able to track the possible changes in variability of Polaris, as it's current location on the HR diagram is being studied. The data could also prove valuable for our on-site scientists and many visiting students to study on campus. We are also developing a relative scale for our seeing conditions, accompanied by FWHM measurements in arcseconds that will can be compared to those of surrounding observatories in mountainous areas.

  1. Theatrical anatomy: Duverney in Paris, 1670-1720.

    PubMed

    Guerrini, Anita

    2009-03-01

    During the reign of Louis XIV, anatomical demonstrations became a public attraction in Paris. At the Jardin du Roi, the star performer was Joseph-Guichard Duverney, who attracted hundreds to his anatomy lectures. Simultaneously, Duverney also instructed the Dauphin and his courtiers, lectured to medical students at the Hôtel-Dieu hospital (making off with corpses in the process) and dissected before the Paris Academy of Sciences. Duverney's dramatic, rhetorical and anatomical skills made him the best-known man of science in Louis XIV's Paris.

  2. When did Louis Pasteur present his memoir on the discovery of molecular chirality to the Académie des sciences? Analysis of a discrepancy.

    PubMed

    Gal, Joseph

    2008-11-01

    Louis Pasteur presented his historic memoir on the discovery of molecular chirality to the Académie des sciences in Paris on May 22nd, 1848. The literature, however, nearly completely ignores this date, widely claiming instead May 15th, 1848, which first surfaced in 1922 in Pasteur's collected works edited by his grandson Louis Pasteur Vallery-Radot. On May 21st, 1848, i.e., one day before Pasteur's presentation in Paris, his mother died in Arbois, eastern France. Informed at an unknown point in time that she was "very ill," Pasteur left for Arbois only after his presentation. Biographies of Pasteur by his son-in-law René Vallery-Radot or the grandson, and Pasteur's collected correspondence edited by the grandson are incomprehensibly laconic or silent about the historic presentation. While no definite conclusions are possible, the evidence strongly suggests a deliberate alteration of the record by the biographer relatives, presumably for fear of adverse public judgment of Pasteur for a real or perceived insensitivity to a grave family medical emergency. Such fear would have been in accord with their hagiographic portrayal of Pasteur, and the findings raise questions concerning the extent of their zeal in protecting his "demigod" image. Universal recognition of the true date of Pasteur's announcement of molecular chirality is long overdue.

  3. Future Heat Waves in Paris Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaulant, A.; Lemonsu, A.; Somot, S.; Masson, V.

    2010-12-01

    Cities are particularly vulnerable to heat waves, firstly because they concentrate the majority of the population and, secondly because the heat island that characterizes the urban climate exacerbates heat wave effects. This work is part of the interdisciplinary VURCA project (Vulnerability of cities to heat waves), which deals with the evolution of heat wave events in the context of global warming, urban vulnerability and adaptation strategies. The aim of this study is to analyse urban heat wave events in present climate (1950-2009) and their evolution in an enhanced greenhouse gazes future climate (2010-2100). We used daily observations of temperature from several stations covering Paris metropolitan area and climate projections following three different IPCC-SRES scenarios (B1, A1B, A2) and issued from several ENSEMBLES regional climate models. The heat wave definition is based on the indexes of the operational French warning system. A heat wave is detected within observed or simulated time-series by a heat wave peak, when the temperatures exceed the value of the 99.9th percentile. Its duration is determined by all adjacent days to this peak, for which the temperatures are not durably smaller than the 99.9th percentile value minus 2 °C. The 99.9th percentile threshold is inferred from quantile-quantile plots produced for each climate model in comparison with observations for the reference period 1950-2000. Heat waves have been extracted within observations and 12 climatic simulations. The number of heat wave events and cumulated HW days per year have been calculated, the maximum being seven heat waves cumulating more than 60 HW days in one year in the case of the A2 scenario and until 50 days in the case of the more moderate A1B scenario. From 2050, the occurrence of three or four HW events per year is becoming the norm all scenarios taken together. The evolution of heat wave features has been analysed, highlighting the large variability of the climatic

  4. Paris [ital N[bar N

    SciTech Connect

    Pignone, M.; Lacombe, M.; Loiseau, B.; Vinh Mau, R. Division de Physique Theorique, Institut de Physique Nucleaire, 91406 Orsay Cedex LPTPE, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 )

    1994-12-01

    The inner part of the Paris nucleon-antinucleon optical potential has been reanalyzed in view of new experimental constraints. These are mainly provided by accurate measurements of the analyzing power in charge-exchange scattering, [ital [bar p]p][r arrow][ital [bar n]n], together with elastic [ital [bar p]p][r arrow][ital [bar p]p] polarization data, allowing a better determination of the isospin dependence of the short-range forces. The fit is performed with a set of 3632 data. The good quality of the fit is illustrated over a large sample of observables for laboratory momenta from 180 to 910 MeV/[ital c]. Curves of the potentials and of the phase shifts are shown as well as the parameters of the potentials and effective range formula coefficients for the [ital S] and [ital P] waves. The spectrum of resonances and bound states predicted by our potential is also displayed. In particular, a bound state having the [ital AX](1565) quantum numbers is found with the right mass.

  5. A dense Black Carbon network in the region of Paris, France: Implementation, objectives, and first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciare, Jean; Petit, Jean-Eudes; Sarda-Esteve, Roland; Bonnaire, Nicolas; Gros, Valérie; Pernot, Pierre; Ghersi, Véronique; Ampe, Christophe; Songeur, Charlotte; Brugge, Benjamin; Debert, Christophe; Favez, Olivier; Le Priol, Tiphaine; Mocnik, Grisa

    2013-04-01

    ://www.airparif.asso.fr/). Contribution of imported versus local EBC is calculated using the "Lenschow" methodology (Lenschow et al., 2001), whereas the influence of domestic wood burning EBC (vs traffic) over the region of Paris is evaluated using the Aethalometer model developed by Sandradewi et al. (2008). Results and discussion. First results of this BC network are presented here including the temporal variations of EBC from wood burning (domestic heating) and fossil fuel (traffic) for the various sites (1-year observation for rural background and traffic sites; 4-year observations for urban background). The local versus imported contributions of EBC are also presented and discussed for these 2 sources. References. Lenschow, P., et al., Some ideas about the sources of PM10, Atmospheric Environment 35 Supplement No. 1 (2001) S23-S33 Sandradewi, J., et al., Using aerosol light absorption measurements for the quantitative determination of wood burning and traffic emission contributions to particulate matter, Environ. Sci. Technol., 42, 3316-3323, 2008

  6. HYDROCARBON MATERIALS OF LIKELY INTERSTELLAR ORIGIN FROM THE PARIS METEORITE

    SciTech Connect

    Merouane, S.; Djouadi, Z.; D'Hendecourt, L. Le Sergeant; Borg, J.; Zanda, B. E-mail: zahia.djouadi@ias.u-psud.fr

    2012-09-10

    We have examined some grains from the Paris meteorite through infrared and Raman micro-spectroscopy in order to investigate their carbonaceous and mineralogical components. In the mid- as well as far-infrared regions, the raw and global spectra of Paris resemble those of CM meteorites. However, we have obtained rather peculiar infrared spectra for some aromatic-rich micron-sized fragments of Paris displaying a very good match between its organic signatures both in the 3.4 {mu}m and 6 {mu}m regions, and the ones observed from the diffuse interstellar medium infrared sources toward the Galactic center, suggesting that this meteorite may have indeed preserved some organic matter of interstellar origin.

  7. Digitising the Patrimonial Collections of the Paris Observatory Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurenceau, A.

    2015-04-01

    In the past few years, there have been many emerging digital library projects, and digitising heritage collections has become a major issue for libraries. Digitisation supports the preservation of collections and facilitates accessibility to the public. Furthermore, the richness and variety of the Paris Observatory's patrimonial collections, which includes ancient books, periodicals, manuscripts, archives, and iconographic documents, makes it an invaluable source for research on the history of astronomy. This is why the Paris Observatory library has started work on a digitisation policy and has since launched several digitisation projects.

  8. MIRIAM: the PACS project in Paris: overview and implementation.

    PubMed

    Primo, H; Picard, J E

    1997-08-01

    In this article the authors describe the Management Informatique de la Radiologie et de l'Imagerie Médicale (MIRIAM) major picture archiving and communication system (PACS) project in Paris, France. The Assistance Publique of Paris, France is a healthcare provider and took the initiative to start the largest PACS program in Europe to date. The MIRIAM project will start in 1997 and will be used in different, consecutive phases. A consortium of several companies is in charge of the implementation. Thirty-three hospitals with 54 imaging departments will be integrated in one system.

  9. The Cabaret in Paris Life "Fin-de-Siecle."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buzash, Michael D.

    College-level history courses can be improved by including instruction about social history, particularly the leisure time activities of the dominant cultural group. Paris of the late 19th century had the well-deserved reputation of being the pleasure capital of Europe. This reputation developed in spite of the disparity that existed between the…

  10. Managing Building Permits Files at the Archives de Paris, France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faivre d'Arcier, Louis

    2005-01-01

    Collecting bulky series of paper materials happens very often in an institution as large as the Archives de Paris. Questions arise of how to give access to those materials and how to produce finding aids well suited to their many diverse uses. The numerous specific application programs that are used by the offices of origin of the archives can…

  11. The Magic Factory: How MGM Made "An American in Paris."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, Donald

    This book covers the aesthetic and production aspects of the 1951 musical film, "An American in Paris," through interviews with many of the production specialists who helped make this motion picture. The film represents the genre of the color Hollywood musical. It was the winner of six Academy Awards, featured a major star and a developing star,…

  12. [History of the Journées Dermatologiques de Paris].

    PubMed

    Tilles, G

    2013-12-01

    Founded in 1801 at the Hôpital Saint-Louis, Paris, under Jean-Louis Alibert, the French School of Dermatology was initially structured around the French Society of Dermatology (1889) and the organization of two world congresses (Paris 1889, 1900). After World War I, the creation of dermatological societies in the provinces infused French dermatology with new energy. In 1922, the first congress of the French-speaking dermatologists further contributed to the public profile of dermatologists in France. The "Journées de Mars" were initiated in 1961 at the Hôpital Saint-Louis, and in 1975 they went on to become the "Journées dermatologiques de Paris". Pr. Jean Civatte played a key role in their creation and in their organization for 30 years. After 1979, since actual patients could no longer be presented, the organizers of the congress had to change the content of the meeting from clinical presentations to post-graduate teaching and clinical research. From its origins in the form of meetings of French dermatologists in an intimate setting at the Hôpital Saint-Louis, the "Journées dermatologiques de Paris" grew within the ensuing decades into a major scientific event of the French-speaking dermatological community, bringing together more than 4000 participants in December each year.

  13. The Computerization of the National Library in Paris.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerin, Christian; Bernard, Annick

    1986-01-01

    Describes the organization and automation plan of the Bibliotheque Nationale (Paris, France) that was begun in 1981. Highlights include the method of moving toward computerization; technical choices; the choosing procedure (pre-qualification, bench-mark test); short term and pilot operations; and preparation for the implementation of the…

  14. Paris-Barcelona: Invisible Interactions in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasquez, Ana; Martinez, Isabel

    1992-01-01

    Studied whether school culture is represented in common aspects within schools in different countries for one deaf child in Barcelona (Spain), one refugee child in Paris (France), and some of their classmates. Identical characteristics of student interactions found in both schools, and the importance of these interactions are discussed. (SLD)

  15. [Nepal earthquake: nursing missions in Paris and Kathmandu].

    PubMed

    Poux, Chrystel; Sergent, Jean-Louis

    2016-01-01

    A violent earthquake hit Nepal on 25th April 2015, injuring and killing thousands. A nurse manager and a nurse, both working in anaesthesia and reservists in the French Health Emergency Preparedness and Response Organisation, describe their mission: one working in the crisis centre in Paris, the other on the ground, providing assistance to French victims.

  16. Paris terrorist attack: early lessons from the intensivists.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    During the night of 13-14 November, the city of Paris was exposed, within a few hours, to three bomb explosions, four shooting scenes, and one 3-hour hostage-taking of several hundred people causing at least 130 deaths and more than 250 injured victims. Most unstable patients were transferred to the six trauma centers of the Paris area, all members of the TRAUMABASE Group. A rapid adaptation of the organization of trauma patients' admittance was required in all centers to face the particular needs of the situation. Everything went relatively well in all centers, with overall hospital mortality below 2 %. Nevertheless, most physicians nowadays agree that anticipation, teaching, and training are crucial to appropriately face such events. All of us have learned many additional issues from this experience. Following a meeting of the TRAUMABASE Group, the most relevant issues are detailed in the following. PMID:27056826

  17. The Paris meteorite, the least altered CM chondrite so far

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewins, Roger H.; Bourot-Denise, Michèle; Zanda, Brigitte; Leroux, Hugues; Barrat, Jean-Alix; Humayun, Munir; Göpel, Christa; Greenwood, Richard C.; Franchi, Ian A.; Pont, Sylvain; Lorand, Jean-Pierre; Cournède, Cécile; Gattacceca, Jérôme; Rochette, Pierre; Kuga, Maïa; Marrocchi, Yves; Marty, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    The Paris chondrite provides an excellent opportunity to study CM chondrules and refractory inclusions in a more pristine state than currently possible from other CMs, and to investigate the earliest stages of aqueous alteration captured within a single CM bulk composition. It was found in the effects of a former colonial mining engineer and may have been an observed fall. The texture, mineralogy, petrography, magnetic properties and chemical and isotopic compositions are consistent with classification as a CM2 chondrite. There are ∼45 vol.% high-temperature components mainly Type I chondrules (with olivine mostly Fa0-2, mean Fa0.9) with granular textures because of low mesostasis abundances. Type II chondrules contain olivine Fa7 to Fa76. These are dominantly of Type IIA, but there are IIAB and IIB chondrules, II(A)B chondrules with minor highly ferroan olivine, and IIA(C) with augite as the only pyroxene. The refractory inclusions in Paris are amoeboid olivine aggregates (AOAs) and fine-grained spinel-rich Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAIs). The CAI phases formed in the sequence hibonite, perovskite, grossite, spinel, gehlenite, anorthite, diopside/fassaite and forsterite. The most refractory phases are embedded in spinel, which also occurs as massive nodules. Refractory metal nuggets are found in many CAI and refractory platinum group element abundances (PGE) decrease following the observed condensation sequences of their host phases. Mn-Cr isotope measurements of mineral separates from Paris define a regression line with a slope of 53Mn/55Mn = (5.76 ± 0.76) × 106. If we interpret Cr isotopic systematics as dating Paris components, particularly the chondrules, the age is 4566.44 ± 0.66 Myr, which is close to the age of CAI and puts new constraints on the early evolution of the solar system. Eleven individual Paris samples define an O isotope mixing line that passes through CM2 and CO3 falls and indicates that Paris is a very fresh sample, with variation explained

  18. Vincenzo Neri and His Legacy in Paris and Bologna.

    PubMed

    Vanone, Federico; Lorusso, Lorenzo; Venturini, Simone

    2016-01-01

    Italian neurologist Vincenzo Neri was able to discover cinematography at the beginning of his career, when in 1908 he went to Paris to learn and improve his clinical background by following neurological cases at La Pitié with Joseph Babinski, who became his teacher and friend. While in Paris, Neri photographed and filmed several patients of famous neurologists, such as Babinski and Pierre Marie. His stills were published in several important French neurological journals and medical texts. He also collaborated with Georges Mendel, who helped Doyen film the first known surgical operation in the history of cinema. In 1910, when he came back to Bologna, he continued in his clinical activities and, for 50 years, slowly developed a huge archive of films, images, and prints of neurological, psychiatric, and orthopedic cases. This archive was extremely helpful to Neri, who especially needed to analyze neurological disorders and to differentiate them from functional conditions in order to understand clinical signs, rules, and mechanisms.

  19. PARIS to Hektor, A Mission to the Jovian Trojan Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gold, R. E.; Ensworth, C. B.; McNutt, R. L.; Ostdiek, P. H.; Prockter, L. M.

    2005-12-01

    PARIS (Planetary Access with Radioisotope Ion-drive System) spacecraft enable a new class of missions to the outer solar system. The high power-to-mass ratio of new radioisotope power systems enables New-Frontiers class missions that carry a significant a science payload to new destinations. The PARIS spacecraft take advantage of the high-efficiency of Stirling radioisotope generators (SRGs) or new thermoelectric converters to provide the power for an electric propulsion system. These low-thrust missions launched to a high C3 are especially effective for exploring objects in shallow gravity wells. The Jovian Trojan asteroids are very primitive bodies located near the Jovian L4 and L5 Lagrange points and are discussed as targets in the Solar System Decadal Survey. There are estimated to be more than 105 Jovian Trojans greater than 1 km in diameter. We consider a PARIS mission that can reach the asteroids in less than 5 years, orbit 624 Hektor, the largest of the Jovian Trojans, and go on to orbit at least one other nearby object. The candidate payload for this mission includes wide-field and narrow-field cameras, a UV-Vis-IR spectrograph, gamma-ray and neutron spectrometers, and plasma and energetic particle spectrometers. About 900 W of power are required. The launch mass would be slightly less than 1000 kg. The < 5 year trip time is dependent on having the next generation power sources with a specific power of > 8W/kg.

  20. The epileptic singers of belle époque Paris.

    PubMed

    Baxendale, Sallie; Marshall, Fiona

    2012-12-01

    In late 19th century Paris, people with epilepsy were treated alongside those with hysteria in the now famous Salpêtrière Hospital, where both conditions were deemed to have a neurological basis. When Jean Martin Charcot became chief physician at the Salpêtrière Hospital in 1862, he described himself 'in possession of a kind of museum of living pathology whose holdings were virtually inexhaustible'. He opened the doors of his 'living museum' and exhibited his prize specimens to all of Paris. By putting his patients on display, Charcot introduced a vogue for pathology that permeated well beyond the world of medical enquiry and into the public psyche and vernacular. Not only did Charcot's demonstrations provide the inspiration for high culture in the form of operas, plays and novels, they also provided the inspiration for the 'gommeuses epileptiques' (epileptic singers), who entertained the masses at the café concerts. This paper explores the foundations of our current medical approaches to mental illness and epilepsy, with a particular focus on the boundaries that emerged between hysteria and epilepsy in 19th century Paris. These clinical boundaries were both shaped by and reflected in the popular entertainments in the city.

  1. Evidence of a wide spectrum of cardiac involvement due to ACAD9 mutations: Report on nine patients.

    PubMed

    Dewulf, Joseph P; Barrea, Catherine; Vincent, Marie-Françoise; De Laet, Corinne; Van Coster, Rudy; Seneca, Sara; Marie, Sandrine; Nassogne, Marie-Cécile

    2016-07-01

    Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase 9 (ACAD9) is a mitochondrial protein involved in oxidative phosphorylation complex I biogenesis. This protein also exhibits acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACAD) activity. ACAD9-mutated patients have been reported to suffer from primarily heart, muscle, liver, and nervous system disorders. ACAD9 mutation is suspected in cases of elevated lactic acid levels combined with complex I deficiency, and confirmed by ACAD9 gene analysis. At least 18 ACAD9-mutated patients have previously been reported, usually displaying severe cardiac involvement. We retrospectively studied nine additional patients from three unrelated families with a wide spectrum of cardiac involvement between the families as well as the patients from the same families. All patients exhibited elevated lactate levels. Deleterious ACAD9 mutations were identified in all patients except one for whom it was not possible to recover DNA. To our knowledge, this is one of the first reports on isolated mild ventricular hypertrophy due to ACAD9 mutation in a family with moderate symptoms during adolescence. This report also confirms that dilated cardiomyopathy may occur in conjunction with ACAD9 mutation and that some patients may respond clinically to riboflavin treatment. Of note, several patients suffered from patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), with one exhibiting a complex congenital heart defect. It is yet unknown whether these cardiac manifestations were related to ACAD9 mutation. In conclusion, this disorder should be suspected in the presence of lactic acidosis, complex I deficiency, and any cardiac involvement, even mild. PMID:27233227

  2. Evidence of a wide spectrum of cardiac involvement due to ACAD9 mutations: Report on nine patients.

    PubMed

    Dewulf, Joseph P; Barrea, Catherine; Vincent, Marie-Françoise; De Laet, Corinne; Van Coster, Rudy; Seneca, Sara; Marie, Sandrine; Nassogne, Marie-Cécile

    2016-07-01

    Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase 9 (ACAD9) is a mitochondrial protein involved in oxidative phosphorylation complex I biogenesis. This protein also exhibits acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACAD) activity. ACAD9-mutated patients have been reported to suffer from primarily heart, muscle, liver, and nervous system disorders. ACAD9 mutation is suspected in cases of elevated lactic acid levels combined with complex I deficiency, and confirmed by ACAD9 gene analysis. At least 18 ACAD9-mutated patients have previously been reported, usually displaying severe cardiac involvement. We retrospectively studied nine additional patients from three unrelated families with a wide spectrum of cardiac involvement between the families as well as the patients from the same families. All patients exhibited elevated lactate levels. Deleterious ACAD9 mutations were identified in all patients except one for whom it was not possible to recover DNA. To our knowledge, this is one of the first reports on isolated mild ventricular hypertrophy due to ACAD9 mutation in a family with moderate symptoms during adolescence. This report also confirms that dilated cardiomyopathy may occur in conjunction with ACAD9 mutation and that some patients may respond clinically to riboflavin treatment. Of note, several patients suffered from patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), with one exhibiting a complex congenital heart defect. It is yet unknown whether these cardiac manifestations were related to ACAD9 mutation. In conclusion, this disorder should be suspected in the presence of lactic acidosis, complex I deficiency, and any cardiac involvement, even mild.

  3. Geological rally in the heart of Paris: How to find fossils in freestone buildings in Paris?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalaine, Stéphanie

    2014-05-01

    As a teacher in earth sciences, my challenge was to practise geology in an urban area. At the end of the school year, I organized a geological rally next to the Natural History Museum in the heart of Paris. The rally provided the opportunity to apply geological notions mentioned in class, and or a day out to my 16 years-old pupils. Just before this original session, students worked on different sedimentary stones such as limestone, sandstone, gypsum, and "meulière". They studied the conditions for the deposit of sediments and they identified different fossils (i.e: Cerithes, Nummulites, Milioles) in order to build "paleobackgrounds". This rally was a mean to improve with entertainment their knowledge in geology, and to discover the stones of the Parisian basin and their use as building materials. The rally was organized as follows: the pupils were divided into 4 teams of 8 students. Each team got a paper with 23 riddles. Each riddle led to a geological spot in the route of the rally. To attest their passing at each geological point the pupils had to take a picture of the characteristic fossil or the typical mark of each spot. Each team had a different itinerary to avoid pupils to meet during the rally. In order to motivate pupils and to ensure their safety, one teacher went with each team. Each riddle led to a stage. This rally comprised 23 steps which were geological spots. In case of pupils did not solve the enigma of one stage; they could open an envelope in which a map indicated the 23 geological spots. This rally lasted 2 hours. The purpose of this game was to obtain the most points thanks to the resolution of riddles. Timing and the quality of the pictures were also criterions used to evaluate the participants. At the end of this rally, pupils must be able to identify sedimentary stones, the conditions and the age of deposit of this stones (paleobackgrounds), the location of their extractions (carries), the interest of this stones in construction industry

  4. [From traditional to modern hospital--from Paris to Berlin].

    PubMed

    Murken, Axel Hinrich

    Discussions about the modernisation and reform of the Hôtel Dieu in Paris concerning the catastrophic fire of 1772 there were followed very closely in Prussia and other German countries, though for a long time this had only slight consequences for modernising developments in the hospitals of Berlin or other administrative capitals of Germany. In contrast to this, the Hôpital Lariboisière was praised as a model example in Germany soon after its completion in 1854 after the pre-revolutionary Parisian plans, was imitated in Berlin twenty years later. It must be added that in Prussia great importance was attached to stricter requirements for hygiene and ventilation than in Paris. This was clearly demonstrated barely in the construction of the pavilionhospital in Berlin-Friedrichshain (1868-1874) with an extremely decentralized layout. It was not until two generations later with the completion of the municipal hospital Westend in Charlottenburg (1904-1907), a suburb of Berlin, that a slightly modified "Lariboisière" in the Wilheminian brick Baroque style was built. Similarily the acceptance of high-rise construction was, compared with Paris, considerably delayed on the German hospital scene. Whereas in the USA and France plans had been made for high-rise hospitals from the 1920s on and realized by 1935, as with the Hôpital Beaujon in Paris (1932-1935), there were fundamental reservations about them in Germany. As a result, this conception of the structure, with an effective concentration of inpatient care in towers together with separate low-rise buildings for functions such as treatment and diagnosis, only gradually gained acceptance in Germany at the end of the 1960s. On the other hand, German architects such as Hermann Distel (1875-1946) or Ernst Kopp (1890-1962), had already, indeed before the Second World War, promoted the high-rise type for inpatient care on theoretical grounds. In addition, two hospitals providing medical care within in Berlin, Martin

  5. [FROM ULYSSES TO PARIS: JOURNEY TO THE MEDICALIZATION OF AGEING].

    PubMed

    Moreno, Belén; Pedace, Mariana; Matusevich, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In the following study we will be introducing the Paris Syndrome, taking as a departure stand the Ulises Syndrome described by Mercer Rang back in 1972. This syndrome is analyzed within the current context of medicalization that old people within Western societies are currently undergoing. We decided to present this topic by looking at the medical trajectories of four paradigmatic patients with the intention of capturing how they themselves experience this process. Through these cases, we would also like to further understand current medical practices toward the elderly. PMID:26966756

  6. [From traditional to modern hospital--from Paris to Berlin].

    PubMed

    Murken, Axel Hinrich

    Discussions about the modernisation and reform of the Hôtel Dieu in Paris concerning the catastrophic fire of 1772 there were followed very closely in Prussia and other German countries, though for a long time this had only slight consequences for modernising developments in the hospitals of Berlin or other administrative capitals of Germany. In contrast to this, the Hôpital Lariboisière was praised as a model example in Germany soon after its completion in 1854 after the pre-revolutionary Parisian plans, was imitated in Berlin twenty years later. It must be added that in Prussia great importance was attached to stricter requirements for hygiene and ventilation than in Paris. This was clearly demonstrated barely in the construction of the pavilionhospital in Berlin-Friedrichshain (1868-1874) with an extremely decentralized layout. It was not until two generations later with the completion of the municipal hospital Westend in Charlottenburg (1904-1907), a suburb of Berlin, that a slightly modified "Lariboisière" in the Wilheminian brick Baroque style was built. Similarily the acceptance of high-rise construction was, compared with Paris, considerably delayed on the German hospital scene. Whereas in the USA and France plans had been made for high-rise hospitals from the 1920s on and realized by 1935, as with the Hôpital Beaujon in Paris (1932-1935), there were fundamental reservations about them in Germany. As a result, this conception of the structure, with an effective concentration of inpatient care in towers together with separate low-rise buildings for functions such as treatment and diagnosis, only gradually gained acceptance in Germany at the end of the 1960s. On the other hand, German architects such as Hermann Distel (1875-1946) or Ernst Kopp (1890-1962), had already, indeed before the Second World War, promoted the high-rise type for inpatient care on theoretical grounds. In addition, two hospitals providing medical care within in Berlin, Martin

  7. Determinants of measles seroprevalence among pregnant women in Paris, France.

    PubMed

    Bodilis, H; Goffinet, F; Krivine, A; Andrieu, T; Anselem, O; Tsatsaris, V; Rozenberg, F; Launay, O

    2014-08-01

    Non-immune pregnant women are at risk of severe measles. As the measles vaccination is contraindicated during pregnancy, women should be vaccinated before conception or during the postpartum period. Nevertheless, measles serology is not recommended during pregnancy in France, and there are no data available concerning measles susceptibility and its associated risk factors among pregnant women. The socio-demographic determinants of measles seronegativity have been identified in a prospective cohort of 826 pregnant women in Paris, France. Measles seronegativity was 10.41% (95% CI 8.32-12.50). Women from higher socio-economic groups, born in France after 1980, were more frequently seronegative.

  8. Photosymbiotic ascidians from Pari Island (Thousand Islands, Indonesia).

    PubMed

    Hirose, Euichi; Iskandar, Budhi Hascaryo; Wardiatno, Yusli

    2014-01-01

    Photosymbiotic ascidian fauna were surveyed in the subtidal zone off Pari Island in the Thousand Islands (Java Sea, Indonesia). Nine species were recorded: Didemnum molle, Trididemnum miniatum, Lissoclinum patella, L. punctatum, L. timorense, Diplosoma gumavirens, D. simile, D. simileguwa, and D. virens. All of these species have been previously recorded in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Diplosoma gumavirens and D. simileguwa were originally described from the Ryukyu Archipelago in 2009 and 2005, respectively, and all of the observed species are potentially widely distributed in Indo-West Pacific coral reefs. PMID:25061385

  9. Poverty, gender and incarceration in sixteenth-century Paris.

    PubMed

    Broomhall, Susan

    2004-01-01

    The experience of prison remains a relatively little-studied aspect of late-medieval and early-modern criminalization of the activities of the poor. This study examines how poverty and gender influenced incarceration practices, treatment and release in sixteenth-century Paris. A study of the archives of the ecclesiastical gaol at Saint-Germain-des-Prés from 1537 to 1579 suggests that both poverty and gender affected the crimes for which women and men were imprisoned, the length of time they remained in detention and the reasons for their release.

  10. [FROM ULYSSES TO PARIS: JOURNEY TO THE MEDICALIZATION OF AGEING].

    PubMed

    Moreno, Belén; Pedace, Mariana; Matusevich, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In the following study we will be introducing the Paris Syndrome, taking as a departure stand the Ulises Syndrome described by Mercer Rang back in 1972. This syndrome is analyzed within the current context of medicalization that old people within Western societies are currently undergoing. We decided to present this topic by looking at the medical trajectories of four paradigmatic patients with the intention of capturing how they themselves experience this process. Through these cases, we would also like to further understand current medical practices toward the elderly.

  11. Langevin Theory of Anomalous Brownian Motion Made Simple

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tothova, Jana; Vasziova, Gabriela; Glod, Lukas; Lisy, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    During the century from the publication of the work by Einstein (1905 "Ann. Phys." 17 549) Brownian motion has become an important paradigm in many fields of modern science. An essential impulse for the development of Brownian motion theory was given by the work of Langevin (1908 "C. R. Acad. Sci.", Paris 146 530), in which he proposed an…

  12. Contribution of ozone to airborne aldehyde formation in Paris homes.

    PubMed

    Rancière, Fanny; Dassonville, Claire; Roda, Célina; Laurent, Anne-Marie; Le Moullec, Yvon; Momas, Isabelle

    2011-09-15

    Indoor aldehydes may result from ozone-initiated chemistry, mainly documented by experimental studies. As part of an environmental investigation included in the PARIS birth cohort, the aim of this study was to examine ozone contribution to airborne aldehyde formation in Paris homes. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and hexaldehyde levels, as well as styrene, nitrogen dioxide and nicotine concentrations, comfort parameters and carbon dioxide levels, were measured twice during the first year of life of the babies. Ambient ozone concentrations were collected from the closest background station of the regional air monitoring network. Traffic-related nitrogen oxide concentrations in front of the dwellings were estimated by an air pollution dispersion model. Home characteristics and families' way of life were described by questionnaires. Stepwise multiple linear regression models were used to link aldehyde levels with ambient ozone concentrations and a few aldehyde precursors involved in oxidation reactions, adjusting for other indoor aldehyde sources, comfort parameters and traffic-related nitrogen oxides. A 4 and 11% increase in formaldehyde and hexaldehyde levels was pointed out when 8-hour ozone concentrations increased by 20 μg/m(3). The influence of potential precursors such as indoor styrene level and frequent use of air fresheners, containing unsaturated volatile organic compounds as terpenes, was also found. Thus, our results suggest that ambient ozone can significantly impact indoor air quality, especially with regard to formaldehyde and hexaldehyde levels.

  13. Vincenzo Neri and His Legacy in Paris and Bologna.

    PubMed

    Vanone, Federico; Lorusso, Lorenzo; Venturini, Simone

    2016-01-01

    Italian neurologist Vincenzo Neri was able to discover cinematography at the beginning of his career, when in 1908 he went to Paris to learn and improve his clinical background by following neurological cases at La Pitié with Joseph Babinski, who became his teacher and friend. While in Paris, Neri photographed and filmed several patients of famous neurologists, such as Babinski and Pierre Marie. His stills were published in several important French neurological journals and medical texts. He also collaborated with Georges Mendel, who helped Doyen film the first known surgical operation in the history of cinema. In 1910, when he came back to Bologna, he continued in his clinical activities and, for 50 years, slowly developed a huge archive of films, images, and prints of neurological, psychiatric, and orthopedic cases. This archive was extremely helpful to Neri, who especially needed to analyze neurological disorders and to differentiate them from functional conditions in order to understand clinical signs, rules, and mechanisms. PMID:26684423

  14. Social mix policies in Paris: discourses, policies and social effects.

    PubMed

    Bacqué, Marie-Hélène; Fijalkow, Yankel; Launay, Lydie; Vermeersch, Stéphanie

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1980s, the issue of social mix has become a public policy category in France. Enshrined in legislation, yet remaining controversial, it represents a major premise on which housing policies have been reconfigured. The concept of social mix is essentially based on who lives where, but it is also evoked in the context of urban renewal schemes for social housing estates, as well as in relation to new-build developments. A study of the bases of social mix policies conducted in Paris since 2001 in the context of the embourgeoisement of the capital shows the fundamental role of social housing stock. The City Council has become involved in policy decisions about both the location and the allocation of social housing. Particular attention has been paid to the middle classes in the name of the principle of ‘balancing the population’. In order to measure the effects of the policy, this article relies on an analysis of two City of Paris schemes that have the stated intent of creating social mix. One of these schemes consists of redeveloping a working-class neighbourhood, Goutte d'Or, while the other involves the new acquisition of social housing in various more affluent neighbourhoods in the capital. This comparative study of the population shows that, whether in a neighbourhood poised for gentrification or in a more affluent neighbourhood, this policy has major effects on forms of local social cohesion, setting in motion individual trajectories and reshaping social and/or ethnic identities. PMID:21542203

  15. Gas loading apparatus for the Paris-Edinburgh press

    SciTech Connect

    Bocian, A.; Kamenev, K. V.; Bull, C. L.; Hamidov, H.; Loveday, J. S.; Nelmes, R. J.

    2010-09-15

    We describe the design and operation of an apparatus for loading gases into the sample volume of the Paris-Edinburgh press at room temperature and high pressure. The system can be used for studies of samples loaded as pure or mixed gases as well as for loading gases as pressure-transmitting media in neutron-scattering experiments. The apparatus consists of a high-pressure vessel and an anvil holder with a clamp mechanism. The vessel, designed to operate at gas pressures of up to 150 MPa, is used for applying the load onto the anvils located inside the clamp. This initial load is sufficient for sealing the pressurized gas inside the sample containing gasket. The clamp containing the anvils and the sample is then transferred into the Paris-Edinburgh press by which further load can be applied to the sample. The clamp has apertures for scattered neutron beams and remains in the press for the duration of the experiment. The performance of the gas loading system is illustrated with the results of neutron-diffraction experiments on compressed nitrogen.

  16. Science and policy characteristics of the Paris Agreement temperature goal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleussner, Carl-Friedrich; Rogelj, Joeri; Schaeffer, Michiel; Lissner, Tabea; Licker, Rachel; Fischer, Erich M.; Knutti, Reto; Levermann, Anders; Frieler, Katja; Hare, William

    2016-09-01

    The Paris Agreement sets a long-term temperature goal of holding the global average temperature increase to well below 2 °C, and pursuing efforts to limit this to 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels. Here, we present an overview of science and policy aspects related to this goal and analyse the implications for mitigation pathways. We show examples of discernible differences in impacts between 1.5 °C and 2 °C warming. At the same time, most available low emission scenarios at least temporarily exceed the 1.5 °C limit before 2100. The legacy of temperature overshoots and the feasibility of limiting warming to 1.5 °C, or below, thus become central elements of a post-Paris science agenda. The near-term mitigation targets set by countries for the 2020-2030 period are insufficient to secure the achievement of the temperature goal. An increase in mitigation ambition for this period will determine the Agreement's effectiveness in achieving its temperature goal.

  17. Preface: SciDAC 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Horst

    2009-07-01

    By almost any measure, the SciDAC community has come a long way since DOE launched the SciDAC program back in 2001. At the time, we were grappling with how to efficiently run applications on terascale systems (the November 2001 TOP500 list was led by DOE's ASCI White IBM system at Lawrence Livermore achieving 7.2 teraflop/s). And the results stemming from the first round of SciDAC projects were summed up in two-page reports. The scientific results were presented at annual meetings, which were by invitation only and typically were attended by about 75 researchers. Fast forward to 2009 and we now have SciDAC Review, a quarterly magazine showcasing the scientific computing contributions of SciDAC projects and related programs, all focused on presenting a comprehensive look at Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing. That is also the motivation behind the annual SciDAC conference that in 2009 was held from June 14-18 in San Diego. The annual conference, which can also be described as a celebration of all things SciDAC, grew out those meetings organized in the early days of the program. In 2005, the meeting was held in San Francisco and attendance was opened up to all members of the SciDAC community. The schedule was also expanded to include a keynote address, plenary speakers and other features found in a conference format. This year marks the fifth such SciDAC conference, which now comprises four days of computational science presentations, multiple poster sessions and, since last year, an evening event showcasing simulations and modeling runs resulting from SciDAC projects. The fifth annual SciDAC conference was remarkable on several levels. The primary purpose, of course, is to showcase the research accomplishments resulting from SciDAC programs in particular and computational science in general. It is these accomplishments, represented in 38 papers and 52 posters, that comprise this set of conference proceedings. These proceedings can stand alone as

  18. 76 FR 12399 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Paris: Life & Luxury”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-07

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Paris: Life & Luxury'' SUMMARY..., I hereby determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Paris: Life & Luxury... objects are imported pursuant to loan agreements with the foreign owners or custodians. I also...

  19. 75 FR 28303 - Setco Automotive, Inc., Paris, TN; Notice of Revised Determination on Reconsideration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ... Notice of determination was published in the Federal Register on April 23, 2010 (FR 75 21358). The... Employment and Training Administration Setco Automotive, Inc., Paris, TN; Notice of Revised Determination on... reconsideration, I determine that workers of Setco Automotive, Inc., Paris, Tennessee meet the worker...

  20. 77 FR 75450 - Request for Information (RFI): Use of National Science Foundation Overseas Offices in Paris...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Request for Information (RFI): Use of National Science Foundation Overseas Offices in Paris, Tokyo... UNESCO, opened in Paris and in 2006 the NSF Beijing office was opened. The major functions of these...

  1. Images of Paris: Big C Culture for the Nonspeaker of French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spangler, May; York, Holly U.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses a course offered in both French and English at Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia that is based on the study of representations of Paris from the Middle Ages to the present. It uses architecture as a point of departure and explores the myth of Paris as expressed through a profusion of images in literature, painting, and film.…

  2. Preface: SciDAC 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Horst

    2009-07-01

    By almost any measure, the SciDAC community has come a long way since DOE launched the SciDAC program back in 2001. At the time, we were grappling with how to efficiently run applications on terascale systems (the November 2001 TOP500 list was led by DOE's ASCI White IBM system at Lawrence Livermore achieving 7.2 teraflop/s). And the results stemming from the first round of SciDAC projects were summed up in two-page reports. The scientific results were presented at annual meetings, which were by invitation only and typically were attended by about 75 researchers. Fast forward to 2009 and we now have SciDAC Review, a quarterly magazine showcasing the scientific computing contributions of SciDAC projects and related programs, all focused on presenting a comprehensive look at Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing. That is also the motivation behind the annual SciDAC conference that in 2009 was held from June 14-18 in San Diego. The annual conference, which can also be described as a celebration of all things SciDAC, grew out those meetings organized in the early days of the program. In 2005, the meeting was held in San Francisco and attendance was opened up to all members of the SciDAC community. The schedule was also expanded to include a keynote address, plenary speakers and other features found in a conference format. This year marks the fifth such SciDAC conference, which now comprises four days of computational science presentations, multiple poster sessions and, since last year, an evening event showcasing simulations and modeling runs resulting from SciDAC projects. The fifth annual SciDAC conference was remarkable on several levels. The primary purpose, of course, is to showcase the research accomplishments resulting from SciDAC programs in particular and computational science in general. It is these accomplishments, represented in 38 papers and 52 posters, that comprise this set of conference proceedings. These proceedings can stand alone as

  3. A Paris-Edinburgh Cell for Liquid Silicate Structural Studies Using Monochromatic Diffraction and Soller Slits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Yu, T.; Prescher, C.; Prakapenka, V.; Eng, P. J.; Stubbs, J.; Kono, Y.; Shen, G.

    2014-12-01

    A Paris-Edinburgh Press (PEP) has been commissioned at the GSECARS beamline 13-ID-C, with a Si (311) high-energy monochromator and a multi-channel collimator (MC) assembly, which consists of two arrays of fine slits (WC blades) arranged in two concentric circular arcs. Both arrays consist of 75 slits with 0.8° separation and are located 50 and 200 mm, respectively, from the center. Slit widths of the inner and outer arrays are 0.05 and 0.20 mm, respectively. By oscillating the silts during data collection, background scattering can be effectively removed. Similar MC assemblies have been used extensively with PEP at ESRF for studying metallic liquids and low-Z materials [1]. The PEP is mounted on a general purpose diffractometer [2], with an area detector (MAR CCD) mounted on the two-theta arm. With unfocused incident monochromatic beam (65keV) collimated at 0.2 mm, 30 min is sufficient to collect weak signals of a 2 mm diameter amorphous silicate sample, with minimal background scatter from the surrounding solid pressure medium. An analysis shows that with a fine incident beam of 0.05 mm, a collimation depth of 0.5 mm can be achieved at two-theta angles above 10°. To increase pressure and temperature range, we have developed a cupped-toroidal Drickamer (CTD) anvil [3]. The anvil design, with a central depression, a toroidal groove and a small tapered angle, combines features of modified Drickamer anvil and the traditional PE anvil. By optimizing the parameters for the CTD anvil design, pressures corresponding to the mantle transition zone can be generated. Cell assemblies with thermally insulating materials have been developed and temperatures up to 2000°C have been maintained steadily over hours. In the future, the large horizontally focusing Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror will be applied to focus the incident beam, thus allowing samples with diameters below 0.5 mm in diameter to be studied. The excellent spatial selectivity provides an exciting opportunity for liquid

  4. LUTETIAN LIMESTONES IN THE PARIS REGION: PETROGRAPHIC AND COMPOSITIONAL EXAMINATION

    SciTech Connect

    BLANC,A.; HOLMES,L.L.; HARBOTTLE,G.

    1998-06-11

    Stone for building and decorating monuments in the Paris Basin from antiquity to the present came from numerous quarries in the Lutetian limestone formations of the region. To identify specific-stone sources used for masonry and sculptures in these monuments, a team of geologists and archaeologists has investigated 300 quarries and collected 2,300 limestone samples for study in a collaborative effort by geologists and chemists. Petrographic and paleontologic examinations of thin sections enable geologists to distinguish the Tertiary Lutetian limestones from similar stone in Jurassic and Cretaceous strata. The methods of the geologist have been supplemented by those of the chemist whose compositional studies by neutron activation analysis can differentiate among the fine-grained upper Lutetian limestones extracted from specific ancient quarries.

  5. Lutetian limestones in the Paris region: Petrographic and compositional examination

    SciTech Connect

    Blanc, A.; Holmes, L.L.; Harbottle, G.

    1998-12-31

    Stone for building and decorating monuments in the Paris Basin from antiquity to the present came from numerous quarries in the Lutetian limestone formations of the region. To identify specific stone sources used for masonry and sculptures in these monuments, a team of geologists and archaeologists have investigated 300 quarries and collected 2,300 limestone samples for study in a collaborative effort by geologists and chemists. Petrographic and paleontologic examinations of thin sections enable geologists to distinguish the Tertiary Lutetian limestones from similar stone in Jurassic and Cretaceous strata. The methods of the geologist have been supplemented by those of the chemistry whose compositional studies by neutron activation analysis can differentiate among the fine-grained upper Lutetian limestones extracted from specific ancient quarries.

  6. Planetary Science from Teaching Department of Paris Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arlot, J. E.; Roques, F.; Thuillot, W.

    2007-08-01

    The teaching department of Paris Observatory and the IMCCE (Institut de Mécanique Céleste et de Calcul des Ephemerides) provide several tools as for students at different levels as for general public concerning the Planetary Science. We provide: -cursus for general public, for teachers in high schools and for students before PhD; -cursus through Internet thanks to specific web sites and e-mails between students and teachers; -CD Rom for high schools, for teachers and for general public for the knowledge of the Solar system -web sites answering most of the questions of general public. For specific events, such as eclipses of the Sun or the Moon, the transit of Venus in front of the Sun, arrival of a space probe near a planet, we organize events or exhibits. Some of these tools are to be translated in several european languages.

  7. Variability of air ion concentrations in urban Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dos Santos, V. N.; Herrmann, E.; Manninen, H. E.; Hussein, T.; Hakala, J.; Nieminen, T.; Aalto, P. P.; Merkel, M.; Wiedensohler, A.; Kulmala, M.; Petäjä, T.; Hämeri, K.

    2015-12-01

    Air ion concentrations influence new particle formation and consequently the global aerosol as potential cloud condensation nuclei. We aimed to evaluate air ion concentrations and characteristics of new particle formation events (NPF) in the megacity of Paris, France, within the MEGAPOLI (Megacities: Emissions, urban, regional and Global Atmospheric Pollution and climate effects, and Integrated tools for assessment and mitigation) project. We measured air ion number size distributions (0.8-42 nm) with an air ion spectrometer and fine particle number concentrations (> 6 nm) with a twin differential mobility particle sizer in an urban site of Paris between 26 June 2009 and 4 October 2010. Air ions were size classified as small (0.8-2 nm), intermediate (2-7 nm), and large (7-20 nm). The median concentrations of small and large ions were 670 and 680 cm-3, respectively, (sum of positive and negative polarities), whereas the median concentration of intermediate ions was only 20 cm-3, as these ions were mostly present during new particle formation bursts, i.e. when gas-to-particle conversion produced fresh aerosol particles from gas phase precursors. During peaks in traffic-related particle number, the concentrations of small and intermediate ions decreased, whereas the concentrations of large ions increased. Seasonal variations affected the ion population differently, with respect to their size and polarity. NPF was observed in 13 % of the days, being most frequent in spring and late summer (April, May, July, and August). The results also suggest that NPF was favoured on the weekends in comparison to workdays, likely due to the lower levels of condensation sinks in the mornings of weekends (CS weekdays 09:00: 18 × 10-3 s-1; CS weekend 09:00: 8 × 10-3 s-1). The median growth rates (GR) of ions during the NPF events varied between 3 and 7 nm h-1, increasing with the ion size and being higher on workdays than on weekends for intermediate and large ions. The median GR of

  8. Gas Geochemistry of the Dogger Geothermal Aquifer (Paris Basin, France)

    SciTech Connect

    Criaud, A.; Fouillac, C.; Marty, B.; Brach, M.; Wei, H.F.

    1987-01-20

    The low enthalpy program developed in the Paris Basin provides the opportunity for studying the gas geochemistry of the calcareous aquifer of the Dogger. Hydrocarbons and CO{sub 2} are mainly biogenic, He displays high concentrations. He, Ar and N{sub 2} have multiple origins (radioactive decay, atmospheric migration, biochemical processes). The distribution of the gases in the zones of the basin varies in relation to the general chemistry, sedimentology and hydrodynamics. The gas geothermometers do not apply to this environment but useful estimations of the redox potential of the fluid can be derived from CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}/NH{sub 4}{sup +} ratios. H{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S are involved in corrosion processes and scaling in the pipes. 12 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. After some 350 years - zero declination again in Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandea, Mioara; Le Mouël, Jean-Louis

    2016-09-01

    The main part of the geomagnetic field - produced by a dynamo process in the Earth's outer core - changes its direction and strength in time, over timescales from months to centuries, even millennia. Its temporal variations, known as secular variation and secular acceleration, are crucial ingredients for understanding the physics of the deep Earth. Very long series of measurements therefore play an important role. Here, we provide an updated series of geomagnetic declination in Paris, shortly after a very special occasion: its value has reached zero after some 350 years of westerly values. Indeed, during October and November 2013, the declination at the Chambon la Forêt geomagnetic observatory changed from westerly to easterly values, the agonic line then passing through this place. We take this occasion to emphasize the importance of long series of continuous measurements.

  10. Paris Valley Combination Thermal Drive Pilot Demonstration Test. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Shipley, R.G. Jr.; Meldau, R.F.; White, P.D.

    1980-09-01

    A wet combustion pilot within the Paris Valley Field, Monterey County, California was initiated in January, 1975 in order to determine the technical and economic feasibility of this enhanced recovery process within a sandstone reservoir having a very viscous crude. Cyclic steaming was also performed and evaluated. Due to the low oil production rates, which were not capable of offsetting the high operating costs, the pilot was terminated during March, 1979. Eighteen producing wells, five air injectors, and one water disposal well were drilled. Primary oil production averaged less than 3 BOPD per well and initial water production ranged from 30 to 100 BWPD per well. Cumulative oil produced during the pilot was 120,623 STBO. Over 90% of the oil produced was due to response from cyclic steaming.

  11. HIV type 1 diversity in northern Paris, France.

    PubMed

    Simon, F; Loussert-Ajaka, I; Damond, F; Saragosti, S; Barin, F; Brun-Vézinet, F

    1996-10-10

    During a 6-month period, we studied the diversity of HIV-1 subtypes in 392 adult patients seen in Bichat-Claude Bernard Hospital, northern Paris, France. All the samples were serotyped and a subset was genotyped by means of HMA. Serotyping was performed with a new peptide subtype-specific EIA (SSEIA), based on in vitro competition for antibody binding between the representative V3 peptides of the different clades (A to E). HMA with plasmids from clades A to H gave unambiguous results on 105 of the 116 samples tested. The agreement between SSEIA and HMA was 36/41 for subtype B, 2/2 for subtype D, and 4/5 for subtype E. We found a discrepancy in the results between clade A and C: the patients with sera reacting to peptide C were confirmed by HMA as being infected by clade A strains. Three patients reactive with peptide A were infected by a subtype F. These results indicate that peptide cross-reactivity, even in the SSEIA format, hinders serotyping. In 11 samples, all from African patients, the subtype remained indeterminate because PCR or HMA failed. Caucasian patients (n = 223) were mainly infected by subtype B. HMA and/or SSEIA revealed non-subtype B infection in 14 Caucasians, who were infected by the sexual route overseas or in France. Patients originating from other countries (mainly in Africa) exhibited a broad strain diversity, with most of the different subtypes so far described being represented. This study confirms the frequency of subtype B strains in Caucasians living in France, but emphasizes the emergence of the different HIV-1 subtypes in Paris, together with the extent of strain trafficking. Discordances between serotype and genotype assays confirm that both tests require additional development.

  12. [Alfred Lacroix (Macon, 1863 - Paris, 1948), Chemist, Mineralogist, Volcanologist].

    PubMed

    Chaigneau, M

    1998-01-01

    His grandfather and his father were chemists in Macon. It was then natural for him to adopt such profession. After his studies at the Superior School of Chemistry of Paris (Ecole superieure de pharmacie de Paris), he passed as a first class chemist on december the seventh 1887. His passion for mineralogy, displayed since his youngest years, leads him to frequent scientists specialized in the earth's science, amongst who is Ferdinand Fouque, from the College of France (College de France), whom he used to accompany in his travels through the world between 1888 - the year when he parted from his pharmacy - and 1902. This very year, the eight of may, the terrifying eruption of the montagne Pelee on the isle of la Martinique annihilated in few minutes the town and the port of Saint-Pierre, leaving only two survivors, He sejourned there a second time, in august 1902 after the second eruption. A. Lacroix explained, for the first time, phenomena he designated as nuees ardentes. His knowledge in volcanology and mineralogy made him an expert who has been solicitated to observe various volcanos through out the world. Amongst his principal writings are the treaty of mineralogy (5 vol.), the 2 volumes of his conclusions about his observations of the montagne Pelee and one about the Piton de la Fournaise, to which must be added more than 650 notes and communications. Great officer of the Legion d'Honneur, the chemist Alfred Lacroix, professor at the Museum of natural history since the first of april 1893, carried on the function of perpetual secretary of the Academy of Sciences during 34 years. PMID:11625479

  13. Preface: SciDAC 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keyes, David E.

    2007-09-01

    It takes a village to perform a petascale computation—domain scientists, applied mathematicians, computer scientists, computer system vendors, program managers, and support staff—and the village was assembled during 24-28 June 2007 in Boston's Westin Copley Place for the third annual Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) 2007 Conference. Over 300 registered participants networked around 76 posters, focused on achievements and challenges in 36 plenary talks, and brainstormed in two panels. In addition, with an eye to spreading the vision for simulation at the petascale and to growing the workforce, 115 participants—mostly doctoral students and post-docs complementary to the conferees—were gathered on 29 June 2007 in classrooms of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology for a full day of tutorials on the use of SciDAC software. Eleven SciDAC-sponsored research groups presented their software at an introductory level, in both lecture and hands-on formats that included live runs on a local BlueGene/L. Computation has always been about garnering insight into the behavior of systems too complex to explore satisfactorily by theoretical means alone. Today, however, computation is about much more: scientists and decision makers expect quantitatively reliable predictions from simulations ranging in scale from that of the Earth's climate, down to quarks, and out to colliding black holes. Predictive simulation lies at the heart of policy choices in energy and environment affecting billions of lives and expenditures of trillions of dollars. It is also at the heart of scientific debates on the nature of matter and the origin of the universe. The petascale is barely adequate for such demands and we are barely established at the levels of resolution and throughput that this new scale of computation affords. However, no scientific agenda worldwide is pushing the petascale frontier on all its fronts as vigorously as SciDAC. The breadth of this conference

  14. Application of microscopy in authentication and distinguishing of 11 Paris species in West Sichuan.

    PubMed

    Xue, Dan; Yin, Hongxiang; Li, Jie; Liu, Xianbo; Zhang, Hao; Peng, Cheng

    2009-10-01

    In the trade and raw drug market, the medicinal plants of genus Paris are available in the form of rhizomes without any vouchers, thus making it difficult to identify and distinguish the different species of Genus Paris. Recent studies have shown that the species of Paris possess different chemical constituents, pharmacological activities, and efficiencies in clinical application. To distinguish 11 species of Paris collected from the western Sichuan province of China and ensure their safety and efficacy, in the present work, the microscopic characteristics of rhizomes and the crude drug powder of the 11 species of Paris were compared using a light microscope according to the usual microscopic techniques. The results of the microscopic features were systematically described and illustrated. The differences among these species are great enough that the identity of most material can be easily determined. Also, semiquantitative and quantitative micrographic parameter tables were simultaneously presented. Further, the key authentication parameters based on these anatomic characteristics analyzed was drawn up and presented for the Paris species studied. The study indicated that light microscopy and related techniques could provide a method that is convenient, feasible, and can be unambiguously applied in the authentication of species of Paris. This information is required not only for the identification procedures that guarantee the utilization of the appropriate raw material, but also for the quality control standards demanded.

  15. Stanley Paris Award Lecture. Reflections on the history and future of orthopaedic physical therapy.

    PubMed

    Wadsworth, C

    1998-09-01

    Carolyn Wadsworth, MS, PT, CHT, OCS, deliver the 1998 Paris Distinguished Service Award Lecture at the Combined Sections Meeting in Boston in February. Wadsworth is the fifth recipient of the Paris Award, which is the Orthopaedic Section's highest honor given to commemorate a member's exceptional and enduring service. The Paris Distinguished Service Award was established in 1990 and is named after Stanley V. Paris, PhD, PT, founder and first president of the Orthopaedic Section. Born in Dunedin, New Zealand, Paris immigrated to the U.S. in 1966. He developed physical therapy practices in Boston, Hamilton, Bermuda, and Atlanta; established the Institute of Graduate Health Sciences in Atlanta, GA; and is currently president of the University of St. Augustine, St. Augustine, FL. Paris is a strong advocate of assertive professional practice, clinical specialization, and strengthening leadership in physical therapy. He also champions wellness, exemplified by his personal achievements in sailing the Atlantic Ocean, swimming the English Channel, and completing the Ironman Triathlon. Carolyn Wadsworth, recipient of the 1998 Paris Award, has served as secretary and president of the Orthopaedic Section and is currently editor of the Orthopaedic Section's Home Study Course. She owns a private practice, teaches nationally, and has written two books, Examination and Mobilization of the Spine and Extremities (1988) and Orthopedic Review for Physical Therapists (1998). Major components of the speech she presented at the Orthopaedic Section Awards Ceremony are highlighted in this article.

  16. Preface: SciDAC 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, William M., Dr.

    2006-01-01

    The second annual Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) Conference was held from June 25-29, 2006 at the new Hyatt Regency Hotel in Denver, Colorado. This conference showcased outstanding SciDAC-sponsored computational science results achieved during the past year across many scientific domains, with an emphasis on science at scale. Exciting computational science that has been accomplished outside of the SciDAC program both nationally and internationally was also featured to help foster communication between SciDAC computational scientists and those funded by other agencies. This was illustrated by many compelling examples of how domain scientists collaborated productively with applied mathematicians and computer scientists to effectively take advantage of terascale computers (capable of performing trillions of calculations per second) not only to accelerate progress in scientific discovery in a variety of fields but also to show great promise for being able to utilize the exciting petascale capabilities in the near future. The SciDAC program was originally conceived as an interdisciplinary computational science program based on the guiding principle that strong collaborative alliances between domain scientists, applied mathematicians, and computer scientists are vital to accelerated progress and associated discovery on the world's most challenging scientific problems. Associated verification and validation are essential in this successful program, which was funded by the US Department of Energy Office of Science (DOE OS) five years ago. As is made clear in many of the papers in these proceedings, SciDAC has fundamentally changed the way that computational science is now carried out in response to the exciting challenge of making the best use of the rapid progress in the emergence of more and more powerful computational platforms. In this regard, Dr. Raymond Orbach, Energy Undersecretary for Science at the DOE and Director of the OS has stated

  17. Preface: SciDAC 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Rick

    2008-07-01

    The fourth annual Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) Conference was held June 13-18, 2008, in Seattle, Washington. The SciDAC conference series is the premier communitywide venue for presentation of results from the DOE Office of Science's interdisciplinary computational science program. Started in 2001 and renewed in 2006, the DOE SciDAC program is the country's - and arguably the world's - most significant interdisciplinary research program supporting the development of advanced scientific computing methods and their application to fundamental and applied areas of science. SciDAC supports computational science across many disciplines, including astrophysics, biology, chemistry, fusion sciences, and nuclear physics. Moreover, the program actively encourages the creation of long-term partnerships among scientists focused on challenging problems and computer scientists and applied mathematicians developing the technology and tools needed to address those problems. The SciDAC program has played an increasingly important role in scientific research by allowing scientists to create more accurate models of complex processes, simulate problems once thought to be impossible, and analyze the growing amount of data generated by experiments. To help further the research community's ability to tap into the capabilities of current and future supercomputers, Under Secretary for Science, Raymond Orbach, launched the Innovative and Novel Computational Impact on Theory and Experiment (INCITE) program in 2003. The INCITE program was conceived specifically to seek out computationally intensive, large-scale research projects with the potential to significantly advance key areas in science and engineering. The program encourages proposals from universities, other research institutions, and industry. During the first two years of the INCITE program, 10 percent of the resources at NERSC were allocated to INCITE awardees. However, demand for supercomputing resources

  18. Non Destructive IR Micro-Imaging of Whole Grains of the Paris Meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dionnet, Z.; Aleon-Toppani, A.; Borondics, F.; Brunetto, R.; Djouadi, Z.; Troadec, D.

    2016-08-01

    Here, we report the results of high-resolution Fourier Transform IR spectral imaging experiments at micron scale using FPA (Focal Plan Array) and synchroton radiation of the Paris meteorite (carbonaceous chondrite,CM )with a new sample preparation.

  19. Science Education at the National Institute for Pedagogical Research, Paris, France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Host, Victor

    1979-01-01

    Discusses three major areas of research in science education which take place at the National Institute for Pedagogical Research (INRP), Paris, France. European cooperation, future prospects and a list of publications of the INRP are also presented. (HM)

  20. GREEN CATALYZED OXIDATION OF HYDROCARBONS IN ALTERNATIVE SOLVENT SYSTEMS GENERATED BY PARIS II

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green Catalyzed Oxidation of Hydrocarbons in Alternative Solvent Systems Generated by PARIS II

    Michael A. Gonzalez*, Thomas M. Becker, and Paul F. Harten; Sustainable Technology Division, Office of Research and Development; United States Environmental Protection Agency, 26...

  1. [The anatomy collections of the Paris V University: their role in medical teaching for two centuries].

    PubMed

    Saban, R; Lassau, J P; Delmas, V; Iba-Zizen, M T; Cabanis, E

    2001-11-01

    The Museum of anatomy of the University Paris V exhibits a collection of ancient and high quality dissections and waxworks, very well preserved, which were used for teaching anatomy and have been classified historic monument since 1992.

  2. Annoyance from light aircraft investigation carried out around four airports near Paris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    An opinion survey was carried out on residents living near four airports in the Paris, France area. An evaluation of their responses concerning noise pollution and possible expansion of airport activity is presented.

  3. Biological effects of particles from the paris subway system.

    PubMed

    Bachoual, Rafik; Boczkowski, Jorge; Goven, Delphine; Amara, Nadia; Tabet, Lyes; On, Dinhill; Leçon-Malas, Véronique; Aubier, Michel; Lanone, Sophie

    2007-10-01

    Particulate matter (PM) from atmospheric pollution can easily deposit in the lungs and induce recruitment of inflammatory cells, a source of inflammatory cytokines, oxidants, and matrix metalloproteases (MMPs), which are important players in lung structural homeostasis. In many large cities, the subway system is a potent source of PM emission, but little is known about the biological effects of PM from this source. We performed a comprehensive study to evaluate the biological effects of PM sampled at two sites (RER and Metro) in the Paris subway system. Murine macrophages (RAW 264.7) and C57Bl/6 mice, respectively, were exposed to 0.01-10 microg/cm2 and 5-100 microg/mouse subway PM or reference materials [carbon black (CB), titanium dioxide (TiO2), or diesel exhaust particles (DEPs)]. We analyzed cell viability, production of cellular and lung proinflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP-2), KC (the murin analog of interleukin-8), and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF)], and mRNA or protein expression of MMP-2, -9, and -12 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Deferoxamine and polymixin B were used to evaluate the roles of iron and endotoxin, respectively. Noncytotoxic concentrations of subway PM (but not CB, TiO2, or DEPs) induced a time- and dose-dependent increase in TNFalpha and MIP-2 production by RAW 264.7 cells, in a manner involving, at least in part, PM iron content (34% inhibition of TNF production 8 h after stimulation of RAW 264.7 cells with 10 microg/cm2 RER particles pretreated with deferoxamine). Similar increased cytokine production was transiently observed in vivo in mice and was accompanied by an increased neutrophil cellularity of bronchoalveolar lavage (84.83+/-0.98% of polymorphonuclear neutrophils for RER-treated mice after 24 h vs 7.33+/-0.99% for vehicle-treated animals). Subway PM induced an increased expression of MMP-12 and HO-1 both in vitro and in vivo. PM from the

  4. Experience of the Paris Research Consortium Climate-Environment-Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joussaume, Sylvie; Pacteau, Chantal; Vanderlinden, Jean Paul

    2016-04-01

    It is now widely recognized that the complexity of climate change issues translates itself into a need for interdisciplinary approaches to science. This allows to first achieve a more comprehensive vision of climate change and, second, to better inform the decision-making processes. However, it seems that willingness alone is rarely enough to implement interdisciplinarity. The purpose of this presentation is to mobilize reflexivity to revisit and analyze the experience of the Paris Consortium for Climate-Environment-Society. The French Consortium Climate-Environment-Society aims to develop, fund and coordinate interdisciplinary research into climate change and its impacts on society and environment. Launched in 2007, the consortium relies on the research expertise of 17 laboratories and federation in the Paris area working mainly in the fields of climatology, hydrology, ecology, health sciences, and the humanities and social sciences. As examples, economists and climatologists have studied greenhouse gas emission scenarios compatible with climate stabilization goals. Historical records have provided both knowledge about past climate change and vulnerability of societies. Some regions, as the Mediterranean and the Sahel, are particularly vulnerable and already have to cope with water availability, agricultural production and even health issues. A project showed that millet production in West Africa is expected to decline due to warming in a higher proportion than observed in recent decades. Climate change also raises many questions concerning health: combined effects of warming and air quality, impacts on the production of pollens and allergies, impacts on infectious diseases. All these issues lead to a need for approaches integrating different disciplines. Furthermore, climate change impacts many ecosystems which, in turn, affect its evolution. Our experience shows that interdisciplinarity supposes, in order to take shape, the conjunction between programming

  5. [An epidemic of typhoid fever among the German troops in Paris, Christmas 1941].

    PubMed

    Brumpt, Lucien; Petithory, Jean-Claude; Ardoin, Françoise

    2008-01-01

    In 1941, at Christmastime more than 600 German soldiers visited Paris and were infected with the bacillus of Eberth, the agent of typhoid fever. All of the infections occurred at the Brasserie La Brune situated in the center of Paris. It was, in fact, an act of Resistance. The proof of the infection was rapidly given by Lucien Brumpt using a home-made hemodiagnostic method. This quick hemodiagnostic technique is easy to perform, inexpensive and still could be used.

  6. Lorenz Oken and Naturphilosophie in Jena, Paris and London.

    PubMed

    Breidbach, Olaf; Ghiselin, Michael T

    2002-01-01

    Although Lorenz Oken is a classic example of Naturphilosophie as applied to biology, his views have been imperfectly understood. He is best viewed as a follower of Schelling who consistently attempted to apply Schelling's ideas to biological data. His version of Naturphilosophic, however, was strongly influenced by older pseudoscience traditions, especially alchemy and numerology as they had been presented by Robert Fludd, whose works were current in Jena and available to him. According to those influences, parts of Oken's philosophical conception were communicable even in a non-idealistic scientific culture, for example in Paris, where Oken met Etienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire. Geoffroy however was embedded in a French intellectual tradition, and the correspondence between his views and those of Oken was only superficial. The English anatomist Richard Owen attempted to incorporate the views of Oken and Geoffroy within his own, idiosyncratic system. Although Darwin knew of Oken's ideas, it was Geoffroy who really affected his evolutionary biology, and any influence of Oken must have been attenuated to the point of triviality. PMID:12961766

  7. What would it take to achieve the Paris temperature targets?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanderson, Benjamin M.; O'Neill, Brian C.; Tebaldi, Claudia

    2016-07-01

    The 2015 Paris Agreement aims to limit warming to 2 or 1.5°C above preindustrial level, although combined Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) are likely insufficient to achieve these targets. We propose a set of idealized emission pathways consistent with the targets. If countries reduce emissions in line with their INDCs, the 2°C threshold could be avoided only if net zero greenhouse gas emissions (GHGEs) are achieved by 2085 and late century negative emissions are considerably in excess of those assumed in Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 2.6 (net -5 Gt CO2/yr, compared with -1.5 Gt CO2/yr in RCP2.6). More aggressive near-term reductions would allow 2°C to be avoided with less end-of-century carbon removal capacity. A 10% cut in GHGEs by 2030 (relative to 2015) could likely achieve 2°C with RCP2.6 level negative emissions. The 1.5°C target requires GHGEs to be reduced by almost a third by 2030 and net zero by 2050, while a 50 year overshoot of 1.5°C allows net zero GHGEs by 2060.

  8. Lorenz Oken and Naturphilosophie in Jena, Paris and London.

    PubMed

    Breidbach, Olaf; Ghiselin, Michael T

    2002-01-01

    Although Lorenz Oken is a classic example of Naturphilosophie as applied to biology, his views have been imperfectly understood. He is best viewed as a follower of Schelling who consistently attempted to apply Schelling's ideas to biological data. His version of Naturphilosophic, however, was strongly influenced by older pseudoscience traditions, especially alchemy and numerology as they had been presented by Robert Fludd, whose works were current in Jena and available to him. According to those influences, parts of Oken's philosophical conception were communicable even in a non-idealistic scientific culture, for example in Paris, where Oken met Etienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire. Geoffroy however was embedded in a French intellectual tradition, and the correspondence between his views and those of Oken was only superficial. The English anatomist Richard Owen attempted to incorporate the views of Oken and Geoffroy within his own, idiosyncratic system. Although Darwin knew of Oken's ideas, it was Geoffroy who really affected his evolutionary biology, and any influence of Oken must have been attenuated to the point of triviality.

  9. Vaccine knowledge in students in Paris, France, and surrounding regions

    PubMed Central

    Mellon, Guillaume; Rigal, Laurent; Partouche, Henri; Aoun, Olivier; Jaury, Philippe; Joannard, Nathalie; Guthmann, Jean Paul; Cochereau, Delphine; Caumes, Eric; Bricaire, Francois; Salmon-Céron, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In France, young adults are legally freed from parental authority at the age of 18 years and are, thus, responsible for their own vaccine record. This young adult population is more frequently exposed to vaccine-preventable infectious diseases. OBJECTIVE: To determine the factors associated with students’ knowledge of the interval between two antitetanus boosters and their report of having up-to-date vaccinations. METHODS: In April 2009, a survey was conducted involving a random sample of students between 18 and 25 years of age eating lunch at university dining facilities in Paris and its suburbs (Ile de France). RESULTS: Among the 677 students approached, 583 agreed to participate. Only 207 (36%) of respondents knew the recommended dosing interval between two doses of tetanus vaccine booster (10 years). The majority of students (69%) reported having up-to-date vaccinations. Declaring having up-to-date vaccinations was significantly associated with having a general practitioner (OR 3.03 [95% CI 1.69 to 5.55]). Health care students were significantly more likely to know the decennial interval between two antitetanus boosters (OR 2 [95% CI 1.28 to 3.25]). Most of responding students (n=519 [89%]) believed that vaccines were very useful. CONCLUSIONS: An overall lack of knowledge of vaccines was observed among this student population. Health care providers, such as GPs and university medical practice staff, who interact with these young individuals have an essential role to promote better vaccination coverage in this population. PMID:25285109

  10. Learning by Creating and Exchanging Objects: The SCY Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Jong, Ton; Van Joolingen, Wouter R.; Giemza, Adam; Girault, Isabelle; Hoppe, Ulrich; Kindermann, Jorg; Kluge, Anders; Lazonder, Ard W.; Vold, Vibeke; Weinberger, Armin; Weinbrenner, Stefan; Wichmann, Astrid; Anjewierden, Anjo; Bodin, Marjolaine; Bollen, Lars; D'Ham, Cedric; Dolonen, Jan; Engler, Jan; Geraedts, Caspar; Grosskreutz, Henrik; Hovardas, Tasos; Julien, Rachel; Lechner, Judith; Ludvigsen, Sten; Matteman, Yuri; Meistadt, Oyvind; Naess, Bjorge; Ney, Muriel; Pedaste, Margus; Perritano, Anthony; Rinket, Marieke; Von Schlanbusch, Henrik; Sarapuu, Tago; Schulz, Florian; Sikken, Jakob; Slotta, Jim; Toussaint, Jeremy; Verkade, Alex; Wajeman, Claire; Wasson, Barbara; Zacharia, Zacharias C.; Van Der Zanden, Martine

    2010-01-01

    Science Created by You (SCY) is a project on learning in science and technology domains. SCY uses a pedagogical approach that centres around products, called "emerging learning objects" (ELOs) that are created by students. Students work individually and collaboratively in SCY-Lab (the general SCY learning environment) on "missions" that are guided…

  11. Seismic imaging a carbonate reservoir: The Paris Basin Dogger

    SciTech Connect

    Mougenot, D.

    1995-08-01

    Within the Dogger project, seven partners joined forces (CGG, DHYCA, EAP, ESSO-REP, IFP, TOTAL, TRITON France) to develop an appropriate seismic acquisition, processing and interpretation methodology in order to improve the description of the main oil reservoir (30 m) lying at the top of the Dogger carbonates in the Paris Basin, at a depth of 1900 m. High-resolution 2D Vibroseismic is used to record high frequencies (up to 100 Hz) at the level of the target, and provides sufficiently adequate vertical resolution for the reflections at the top and at the base of the reservoir not to interfere. The upper frequency content of the 3D seismic (70 Hz) is more difficult to enhance. Yet the essential contribution made by the 3D is to evidence, via horizon attributes, sub-meridian lineaments corresponding to faults with throw of several meters which is too weak to be detected on vertical sections. The distribution of these faults, via which water tends to invade the reservoir, and the organization of the amplitudes at the top reservoir reflector, which seems to suggest lateral variations in porosity, are a valuable guide for setting up wells. Three-component seismic (2D-3c) and S-wave emissions did not produce any reflections beyond 30 Hz at the level of the target which is a poor reflector (PS & SS). Only borehole seismic (VSP, offset VSP), where high frequencies are much less attenuated than with surface seismic, provides detailed imaging of the reservoir in converted mode (up to 110 Hz in PP and in PS). The combination of a continuous spatial sampling, such as that obtained in 3D, and of a Vibroseis emission adapted to frequency attenuation, such as that used in 2D, can supply useful information about the thin and discontinuous Dogger reservoir which cannot he provided by mere correlation of the borehole data.

  12. Paris basin petroleum systems revisited by two-dimensional modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Gaulier, J.M.; Burrus, J.; Poulet, M. ); Barlier, J. , Pau )

    1991-03-01

    The authors investigate the history of petroleum generation, expulsion, and migration along two E-W and N-W cross sections in the Paris basin. Source rocks, represented by Liassic marine shales (merely Hetangian-Sinemurian and Toarcian) reach the top of the oil window around 2,000 m and begin effective expulsion around 2,400 m. Reservoirs are essentially found in the subtle structures in the Dogger (carbonates) and Triassic (sandstones). These levels are normally separated from the source rocks by several hundred meters of impervious marls or shales. Regional faults are often viewed as major conduits that allow both expulsion and migration to the reservoirs. This petroleum system is seen by the use of two-dimensional modeling techniques: (1) The generation history is derived from an investigation of thermal history and kinetic modeling. They show that the present subsurface temperatures are influenced by regional convective discharge linked to the uplift of eastern and southeastern basin edges and that this cooling postdates the maturity. They also show that, in the eastern basin, the basement heat flow could have been increased since the Tertiary, at a time when Tertiary erosion had nearly frozen the maturity development. (2) The expulsion and migration are analyzed by coupling numerically the compaction history, the generation history, and the regional hydrodynamics. They show that expulsion efficiency is very much dependent on parameters not well constrained, but a sensitivity analysis confirms the prominent role of vertical faults as well as the influence of regional water flow on the distribution of accumulations.

  13. Is there a remnant Variscan subducted slab in the mantle beneath the Paris basin? Implications for the late Variscan lithospheric delamination process and the Paris basin formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averbuch, O.; Piromallo, C.

    2012-08-01

    The Paris basin (northern France) is a Late Paleozoic-Mesozoic intracratonic basin that settled upon the collapsed Variscan collisional belt. The lithospheric roots of the Variscan orogenic system, below the Paris basin, have been investigated using a European-scale P-wave velocity tomographic model. Tomography points out the existence of a significant high velocity anomaly in the upper mantle below the western part of the basin. At ~ 150-200 km depth, the anomaly extends with a NW-SE trend along the buried Northern France trace of the Northern Variscan Suture Zone i.e. the Bray segment of the Upper Carboniferous Lizard-Rhenohercynian (LRH) suture. Moreover, the high-velocity anomaly is spatially correlated with the prominent Paris Basin Magnetic Anomaly. Its downdip extent reaches depths greater than 200 km below the southern margin of the Paris basin. As suggested in previous tomographic studies below ancient suture zones, these data argue for such anomaly being the remnant of a Variscan subducted slab that escaped the extensive late orogenic delamination process affecting the lithospheric roots by Late Carboniferous-Early Permian times and that was preserved stable over 300 Ma at the base of the lithosphere. On a general geodynamical perspective, these results provide a new insight into the long-term evolution of subducted lithosphere into the mantle. In the case of the Western European Variscan orogenic belt, they suggest that the subduction of the LRH slab below the previously thickened Variscan crust, and its final detachment from the orogenic root, have played an important role in the collapse of the belt, inducing thermal erosion and extension of the overriding lithosphere. The spatial evolution of late orogenic extension across the belt and of subsequent thermal subsidence in the Paris basin is suggested to result from the heterogeneous delamination of the lithospheric roots along strike and from the resultant pattern of asthenospheric rise.

  14. Preface: SciDAC 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezzacappa, Anthony

    2005-01-01

    On 26-30 June 2005 at the Grand Hyatt on Union Square in San Francisco several hundred computational scientists from around the world came together for what can certainly be described as a celebration of computational science. Scientists from the SciDAC Program and scientists from other agencies and nations were joined by applied mathematicians and computer scientists to highlight the many successes in the past year where computation has led to scientific discovery in a variety of fields: lattice quantum chromodynamics, accelerator modeling, chemistry, biology, materials science, Earth and climate science, astrophysics, and combustion and fusion energy science. Also highlighted were the advances in numerical methods and computer science, and the multidisciplinary collaboration cutting across science, mathematics, and computer science that enabled these discoveries. The SciDAC Program was conceived and funded by the US Department of Energy Office of Science. It is the Office of Science's premier computational science program founded on what is arguably the perfect formula: the priority and focus is science and scientific discovery, with the understanding that the full arsenal of `enabling technologies' in applied mathematics and computer science must be brought to bear if we are to have any hope of attacking and ultimately solving today's computational Grand Challenge problems. The SciDAC Program has been in existence for four years, and many of the computational scientists funded by this program will tell you that the program has given them the hope of addressing their scientific problems in full realism for the very first time. Many of these scientists will also tell you that SciDAC has also fundamentally changed the way they do computational science. We begin this volume with one of DOE's great traditions, and core missions: energy research. As we will see, computation has been seminal to the critical advances that have been made in this arena. Of course, to

  15. [SciELO: method for electronic publishing].

    PubMed

    Laerte Packer, A; Rocha Biojone, M; Antonio, I; Mayumi Takemaka, R; Pedroso García, A; Costa da Silva, A; Toshiyuki Murasaki, R; Mylek, C; Carvalho Reisl, O; Rocha F Delbucio, H C

    2001-01-01

    It describes the SciELO Methodology Scientific Electronic Library Online for electronic publishing of scientific periodicals, examining issues such as the transition from traditional printed publication to electronic publishing, the scientific communication process, the principles which founded the methodology development, its application in the building of the SciELO site, its modules and components, the tools use for its construction etc. The article also discusses the potentialities and trends for the area in Brazil and Latin America, pointing out questions and proposals which should be investigated and solved by the methodology. It concludes that the SciELO Methodology is an efficient, flexible and wide solution for the scientific electronic publishing.

  16. Messier, Copernicus, Flamsteed: The SAF Rare-Book Collection in Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.

    2014-01-01

    The historic books belonging to the Société Astronomique de France, founded by Camille Flammarion in 1887, are located partly in Paris and partly at the Flammarion site in Juvisy, a Paris suburb. Their holdings include first editions of Copernicus's De Revolutionibus and of Flamsteed's star atlas, as well as Messier's own copy of his 1783 and 1784 papers with his handwritten comments and additions. I will describe the fruitless search for a Bevis atlas and the circumstances that led me to inspect these treasures. I thank David Valls-Gabaud and Philippe Morel of the Société Astronomique de France for their hospitality in Paris, Jean-Claude Pecker, and Owen Gingerich for his prior work on Messier's catalogue.

  17. Infant Mortality and Income in 4 World Cities: New York, London, Paris, and Tokyo

    PubMed Central

    Rodwin, Victor G.; Neuberg, Leland G.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated the association between average income or deprivation and infant mortality rate across neighborhoods of 4 world cities. Methods. Using a maximum likelihood negative binomial regression model that controls for births, we analyzed data for 1988–1992 and 1993–1997. Results. In Manhattan, for both periods, we found an association (.05% significance level) between income and infant mortality. In Tokyo, for both periods, and in Paris and London for period 1, we found none (5% significance level). For period 2, the association just missed statistical significance for Paris, whereas for London it was significant (5% level). Conclusions. In stark contrast to Tokyo, Paris, and London, the association of income and infant mortality rate was strongly evident in Manhattan. PMID:15623865

  18. [Jacques Clarion (1776-1844), professor of l'Ecole de pharmacie de Paris].

    PubMed

    Trépardoux, Francis

    2006-11-01

    Engaged in military campaigns from 1793 to 1797, he then studied medicine in Paris, as well as pharmacy, specialised in chemistry and botany. Supported by Deyeux and Corvisart, he was nominated as pharmacist of the emperor. From 1819 to 1844, he taught botany at the School of pharmacy of Paris. In 1823, the authority gave him a second chair for the medical botany at the Faculty of medicine, but after the 1830 revolution, he was dismissed. He mainly worked in taxonomy, contributing to several publications with Palisot and de Candolle for Graminaceae. He was a member of the academy of medicine.

  19. FAQs about Spinal Cord Injury (SCI)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Website Managing Bowel Function After Spinal Cord Injury Resilience, Depression and Bouncing Back after SCI Getting to ... a “complete” and “incomplete” spinal cord injury? What recovery is expected following spinal cord injury? Where is ...

  20. Accelerating Scientific Analysis with SciDB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerhardt, L.; Faham, C. H.; Yao, Y.

    2015-12-01

    SciDB is an open-source analytical database for scalable complex analytics on very large array or multi-structured data from a variety of sources, programmable from Python and R. It runs on HPC, commodity hardware grids, or in a cloud and can manage and analyze terabytes of array-structured data and do complex analytics in-database. We present an overall description of the SciDB framework and describe its implementation at NERSC at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. A case study using SciDB to analyze data from the LUX dark matter detector is described and future plans for a large SciDB array at NERSC are described.

  1. 75 FR 41523 - Paris Accessories, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Job Connections, New Smithville...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ... on May 27, 2010. The Notice was published in the Federal Register on June 16, 2010 (75 FR 34180). The... Employment and Training Administration Paris Accessories, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Job Connections, New Smithville, PA; Paris Accessories, Inc., Allentown, PA; Amended Certification...

  2. SUMOylation of the KRAB zinc-finger transcription factor PARIS/ZNF746 regulates its transcriptional activity.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Tamotsu; Yamada, Yoshiji

    2016-05-13

    Parkin-interacting substrate (PARIS), a member of the family of Krüppel-associated box (KRAB)-containing zinc-finger transcription factors, is a substrate of the ubiquitin E3 ligase parkin. PARIS represses the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), although the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. In the present study, we demonstrate that PARIS can be SUMOylated, and its SUMOylation plays a role in the repression of PGC-1a promoter activity. Protein inhibitor of activated STAT y (PIASy) was identified as an interacting protein of PARIS and shown to enhance its SUMOylation. PIASy repressed PGC-1a promoter activity, and this effect was attenuated by PARIS in a manner dependent on its SUMOylation status. Co-expression of SUMO-1 with PIASy completely repressed PGC-1a promoter activity independently of PARIS expression. PARIS-mediated PGC-1a promoter repression depended on the activity of histone deacetylases (HDAC), whereas PIASy repressed the PGC-1a promoter in an HDAC-independent manner. Taken together, these results suggest that PARIS and PIASy modulate PGC-1a gene transcription through distinct molecular mechanisms.

  3. 25 CFR 542.11 - What are the minimum internal control standards for pari-mutuel wagering?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., and breakage for each day's play and recalculate the net amount due to or from the systems operator on... equipment standards. (1) All pari-mutuel wagers shall be transacted through the pari-mutuel satellite system... be immediately entered into the system. (7) Future wagers shall be accepted and processed in the...

  4. 25 CFR 542.11 - What are the minimum internal control standards for pari-mutuel wagering?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., and breakage for each day's play and recalculate the net amount due to or from the systems operator on... equipment standards. (1) All pari-mutuel wagers shall be transacted through the pari-mutuel satellite system... be immediately entered into the system. (7) Future wagers shall be accepted and processed in the...

  5. 25 CFR 542.11 - What are the minimum internal control standards for pari-mutuel wagering?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., and breakage for each day's play and recalculate the net amount due to or from the systems operator on... equipment standards. (1) All pari-mutuel wagers shall be transacted through the pari-mutuel satellite system... be immediately entered into the system. (7) Future wagers shall be accepted and processed in the...

  6. Preface: SciDAC 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Rick

    2008-07-01

    The fourth annual Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) Conference was held June 13-18, 2008, in Seattle, Washington. The SciDAC conference series is the premier communitywide venue for presentation of results from the DOE Office of Science's interdisciplinary computational science program. Started in 2001 and renewed in 2006, the DOE SciDAC program is the country's - and arguably the world's - most significant interdisciplinary research program supporting the development of advanced scientific computing methods and their application to fundamental and applied areas of science. SciDAC supports computational science across many disciplines, including astrophysics, biology, chemistry, fusion sciences, and nuclear physics. Moreover, the program actively encourages the creation of long-term partnerships among scientists focused on challenging problems and computer scientists and applied mathematicians developing the technology and tools needed to address those problems. The SciDAC program has played an increasingly important role in scientific research by allowing scientists to create more accurate models of complex processes, simulate problems once thought to be impossible, and analyze the growing amount of data generated by experiments. To help further the research community's ability to tap into the capabilities of current and future supercomputers, Under Secretary for Science, Raymond Orbach, launched the Innovative and Novel Computational Impact on Theory and Experiment (INCITE) program in 2003. The INCITE program was conceived specifically to seek out computationally intensive, large-scale research projects with the potential to significantly advance key areas in science and engineering. The program encourages proposals from universities, other research institutions, and industry. During the first two years of the INCITE program, 10 percent of the resources at NERSC were allocated to INCITE awardees. However, demand for supercomputing resources

  7. SciVal Experts: a collaborative tool.

    PubMed

    Vardell, Emily; Feddern-Bekcan, Tanya; Moore, Mary

    2011-01-01

    SciVal Experts is a resource for finding experts and fostering collaboration. The tool creates researcher profiles with automatically updated publication and grant information and faculty-inputted curriculum vitae, more fully capturing a researcher's body of work. SciVal Experts indexes campus-based "experts" by research topic, allowing faculty to find potential research partners and mentors, furthering translational research opportunities and dissemination of knowledge.

  8. Resource Letter Scy-3: Superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butch, N. P.; de Andrade, M. C.; Maple, M. B.

    2008-02-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on superconductivity. Since the last Resource Letter on superconductivity, Scy-2, was published in 1970, there have been dramatic advances in our basic understanding of superconductivity, discovery of new superconducting materials, and improved technological exploitation of superconductors. We review basic phenomenology, followed by concise descriptions of several main classes of superconductors recognized today. Journal articles and books are cited for the following topics: Conventional superconductors, paramagnetic impurities in superconductors, magnetically ordered superconductors, heavy fermion superconductors, high Tc superconductors, organic superconductors, applications of superconductivity, and laboratory demonstrations of superconductivity. Owing to the large volume of available literature on superconductivity, the journal articles and books we discuss constitute good starting points for further exploration of particular topics.

  9. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Paris Basin, France, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Le, Phoung A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Leathers, Heidi M.

    2015-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 222 million barrels of unconventional oil; 2,092 billion cubic feet of unconventional gas; 18 million barrels of conventional oil; and 47 billion cubic feet of conventional gas resources in the Paris Basin of France.

  10. The 2015 Paris Climate Conference: A turning point in the world's energy history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimenko, V. V.; Mikushina, O. V.; Tereshin, A. G.

    2016-06-01

    It has been established that the consistent implementation of the 2015 Paris Climate Conference implies the quick retire of coal from the global energy balance and its replacement with the energy from unconventional and renewable sources. It is shown that even the full-scale implementation of the agreement will not keep global warming within 2°C.

  11. 1.5 °C and climate research after the Paris Agreement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hulme, Mike

    2016-03-01

    The Paris Agreement contains an ambition to limit global warming to no more than 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels, changing the context for policy-relevant research and extending a challenge to the IPCC and researchers.

  12. [Stories and drawings by children after the 2015 terrorist attacks in Paris].

    PubMed

    Poget, Marc; Bouaziz, Nora; Apter, Gisèle

    2016-01-01

    Through the stories and drawings of children in a medical-psychological centre, it is possible to explore their psychological representations of the terrorist attacks which took place in Paris in January 2015. This work highlights the need to rethink the methods of care provided to these children in order to adapt them to their specific needs.

  13. Synthesis of Experimental and Model Results From The Esquif Project Over The Paris Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menut, L.; Esquif Team

    The ESQUIF research project follows mainly two goals: (i) To built a complete database of observations related to pollutants as all other parameters linked to the origin of this regional Paris area pollution, (ii) To improve our knowledge on regional atmospheric pollution events, focusing on the Paris area ("Ile de France", a zone of 150x150km, centered on the Paris city). The experimental part of the project (1998- 2000) is now over and the database freely available. The project now turns to improve and validate existing models dedicated to pollution analysis, scenarii and forecasting. From the whole set of studied topics, we will focus on some results: 1. The importance of the local "Paris area" emissions on the photochemical pollution, compared to long-range transport of polluted air mass, for which the source may be external to the studied area. A contrario the impact of parisian sources on the neigh- bouring areas and the potential extent of this influence (study of the parisian "plume"). 2. The sensitivity of photooxidant concentrations to the meteorology (local and synop- tic) and to emissions of primary pollutants by the way of modelling: it includes direct, adjoint and Monte-Carlo methodologies. 3. Some preliminary results on urban aerosols, estimated from numerous measure- ments during summer 2000. It includes the radiative impact of aerosols and cloudiness on photooxidant pollution. 4. A coupled approach, using chemistry-transport model and aircraft data, is presented for surface emissions optimization.

  14. Progress from Specificity: How to Monitor the Paris Declaration in the Malawi Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Laura

    2009-01-01

    At the time of writing, it is not possible to measure progress accurately, or even assess the baseline status of aid effectiveness in the education sector. Twelve targets en route to the five objectives of the Paris Declaration were set and agreed by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD); they were to be measured…

  15. The Moment of No Return: The University of Paris and the Death of Aristotelianism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brockliss, Laurence

    2006-01-01

    Aristotelianism remained the dominant influence on the course of natural philosophy taught at the University of Paris until the 1690s, when it was swiftly replaced by Cartesianism. The change was not one wanted by church or state and can only be understood by developments within the wider University. On the one hand, the opening of a new college,…

  16. Local Belonging and "Geographies of Emotions": Immigrant Children's Experience of Their Neighbourhoods in Paris and Berlin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    den Besten, Olga

    2010-01-01

    This article argues that a sense of local belonging and emotional attitudes to one's neighbourhood are inherently interconnected. It explores immigrant children's emotional experiences of their neighbourhoods in Paris and Berlin through subjective maps drawn by the children. The article highlights the social and spatial nature of immigrant…

  17. Colloquium of Directors of Educational Research Organizations (2nd, Paris, November 7-9, 1973).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France). Documentation Center for Education in Europe.

    This volume presents information on research practices used to stimulate discussion during the Second European Colloquium of Directors of Educational Research Organizations, November 7-9, 1973 in Paris, France. Most of the information is presented in the form of case studies that deal with the following questions: a) How were the problems defined…

  18. Rough Journal Page Documenting Ratification and Final Page of the Treaty of Paris, 1783

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2008-01-01

    The 1783 Treaty of Paris formally ended the American Revolution and established the United States as an independent and sovereign nation. In words reminiscent of those in the resolution presented by Richard Henry Lee to Congress in June 1776, and later included in the Declaration of Independence, Article I of the treaty stated that the king now…

  19. A decade of drilling innovation and progress in the Paris basin

    SciTech Connect

    Canter, D.B. ); Simon, J.M. )

    1991-03-01

    Since 1979, Esso Rep has drilled more than 150 exploration and development wells in the Paris basin. A cost-per-foot reduction of more than 40% was achieved despite a near doubling of rig rates. This paper discusses the unique directional drilling approach used and the drilling, formation evaluation, and contracting techniques.

  20. An Apprenticeship in Resistance May '68 and the Power of Vincennes (Universite de Paris VIII)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolphijn, Rick

    2007-01-01

    Background: The riots in Paris '68 marked among others, the creation of a "Centre universitaire experimental" in Vincennes of which especially the philosophy faculty became the testing laboratory for educational reform. There, scholars like Michel Foucault, Gilles Deleuze, Alain Badiou and Jean-Francois Lyotard developed new ideas on education…

  1. Merchants of Light: The Paris Library School, Internationalism, and the Globalization of a Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witt, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Amid growing isolationism after World War I, the American Library Association transferred its wartime programs to train librarians in Europe and promote the American model of public libraries. Working in collaboration with American philanthropists and members of the French library community, ALA established a permanent library school in Paris that…

  2. Program for Assisting the Replacement of Industrial Solvents PARIS III User’s Guide

    EPA Science Inventory

    PARIS III is a third generation Windows-based computer software to assist the design of less harmful solvent replacements by estimating values of the solvent properties that characterize the static, dynamic, performance, and environmental behavior of the original solvent mixture ...

  3. [Stories and drawings by children after the 2015 terrorist attacks in Paris].

    PubMed

    Poget, Marc; Bouaziz, Nora; Apter, Gisèle

    2016-01-01

    Through the stories and drawings of children in a medical-psychological centre, it is possible to explore their psychological representations of the terrorist attacks which took place in Paris in January 2015. This work highlights the need to rethink the methods of care provided to these children in order to adapt them to their specific needs. PMID:27015702

  4. [Sugar's sold by apothecaries and grocers in Paris in XVII century].

    PubMed

    Warolin, C

    1999-01-01

    Until the XVIth century Paris apothecaries and grocers sold sugars but from the beginning of the XVIIth century the former leaved the sale to the latter initiating the separation of both trades officialized by a Declaration royale, in 1777. PMID:11625525

  5. Aging: a new opportunity to publish in SCI nursing.

    PubMed

    Thomason, Susan S

    2005-01-01

    Publishing in SCI Nursing is a rewarding experience in terms of professional growth and contributing to the body of knowledge of SCI nurses. "Guidelines for Contributors" are on the back, inside cover of each issue of SCI Nursing and on the AASCIN Web site. Collaborate with nursing colleagues, or interdisciplinary team members, to begin your manuscript today.

  6. SciDAC-2 software infrastructure for lattice QCD.

    SciTech Connect

    Balint Joo

    2007-06-01

    We present work carried out by the USQCD Collaboration on Software Infrastructure funded under SciDAC 2. We present successes of the software from the original SciDAC 1 project as well as ongoing and future work. We outline the various scientific collaborations SciDAC-2 has created.

  7. Establishing a Seismometer at PARI and Designing a Switching Circuit Utilizing Fiber Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritchie, Justin

    2007-12-01

    At Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI) in Rosman, NC I spent ten weeks as the first NC Space Grant/Cline Astronomy Scholar developing multiple projects that helped to establish PARI as a resource for the scientific community. The first project that I worked on was establishing PARI's seismometer which serves as a resource for the region and utilizes sensitive equipment to measure 2.8 magnitude earthquakes occurring anywhere on earth. After basic seismometer operating principles were studied, multiple locations were surveyed to find an ideal location with little ambient noise and no disturbance from human or mechanical sources. Disturbances were generated at several locations identified as potential sites for the seismometer at 10, 20 and 30 feet by dropping a basketball and by driving a car around the location in an established pattern. Noise response was analyzed using the WinSDR software package which generates digital records of analog seismometer data and an ideal location was identified. The second project involved designing a circuit around the specific needs of the PARI optical telescope ridge. This ridge is susceptible to equipment that is damaged or improperly reset due to lightning. The circuit utilized the insulated properties of optical fiber to transmit a switching signal to the weather stations on the PARI optical ridge. This signal reset those stations that transmitted asynchronously after a lightning strike. Fiber optic transmitters were incorporated into the circuit along with TTL logic to provide a solid system that met the necessary specifications. After a rewarding an interesting summer I will follow up on my work next year for ten more weeks.

  8. Riboflavin-responsive oxidative phosphorylation complex I deficiency caused by defective ACAD9: new function for an old gene.

    PubMed

    Gerards, Mike; van den Bosch, Bianca J C; Danhauser, Katharina; Serre, Valérie; van Weeghel, Michel; Wanders, Ronald J A; Nicolaes, Gerry A F; Sluiter, Wim; Schoonderwoerd, Kees; Scholte, Hans R; Prokisch, Holger; Rötig, Agnès; de Coo, Irenaeus F M; Smeets, Hubert J M

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondrial complex I deficiency is the most common oxidative phosphorylation defect. Mutations have been detected in mitochondrial and nuclear genes, but the genetics of many patients remain unresolved and new genes are probably involved. In a consanguineous family, patients presented easy fatigability, exercise intolerance and lactic acidosis in blood from early childhood. In muscle, subsarcolemmal mitochondrial proliferation and a severe complex I deficiency were observed. Exercise intolerance and complex I activity was improved by a supplement of riboflavin at high dosage. Homozygosity mapping revealed a candidate region on chromosome three containing six mitochondria-related genes. Four genes were screened for mutations and a homozygous substitution was identified in ACAD9 (c.1594 C>T), changing the highly conserved arginine-532 into tryptophan. This mutation was absent in 188 ethnically matched controls. Protein modelling suggested a functional effect due to the loss of a stabilizing hydrogen bond in an α-helix and a local flexibility change. To test whether the ACAD9 mutation caused the complex I deficiency, we transduced fibroblasts of patients with wild-type and mutant ACAD9. Wild-type, but not mutant, ACAD9 restored complex I activity. An unrelated patient with the same phenotype was compound heterozygous for c.380 G>A and c.1405 C>T, changing arginine-127 into glutamine and arginine-469 into tryptophan, respectively. These amino acids were highly conserved and the substitutions were not present in controls, making them very probably pathogenic. Our data support a new function for ACAD9 in complex I function, making this gene an important new candidate for patients with complex I deficiency, which could be improved by riboflavin treatment. PMID:20929961

  9. The amino acid and hydrocarbon contents of the Paris meteorite, the most primitive CM chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Zita; Modica, Paola; Zanda, Brigitte; Le Sergeant d'Hendecourt, Louis

    2015-04-01

    The Paris meteorite is reported to be the least aqueously altered CM chondrite [1,2], and to have experienced only weak thermal metamorphism [2-5]. The IR spectra of some of Paris' fragments suggest a primitive origin for the organic matter in this meteorite, similar to the spectra from solid-state materials in molecular clouds [6]. Most of the micron-sized organic particles present in the Paris matrix exhibit 0 < δD <2000‰ [7,8]. In order to understand the effect of aqueous alteration and thermal metamorphism on the abundance and distribution of meteoritic soluble organic matter, we have analyzed for the first time the amino acid and hydrocarbon contents of the Paris meteorite [9]. Extensive aqueous alteration in the parent body of carbonaceous meteorites may result in the decomposition of α-amino acids and the synthesis of β- and γ-amino acids. When plotted with several CM chondrites, Paris has the lowest relative abundance of β-alanine/glycine (0.15) for a CM chondrite, which fits with the relative abundance of β-alanine/glycine increasing with increasing aqueous alteration [10,11]. In addition, our results show that the isovaline detected in this meteorite is racemic (D/L= 0.99 ± 0.08; L-enantiomer excess (%) = 0.35 ± 0.5; corrected D/L = 1.03; corrected L-enantiomer excess (%) = -1.4 ± 2.6). Although aqueous alteration does not create by itself an isovaline asymmetry, it may amplify a small enantiomeric excess. Therefore, our data may support the hypothesis that aqueous alteration is responsible for the high L-enantiomer excess of isovaline observed in the most aqueously altered carbonaceous meteorites [12,13]. Paris has n-alkanes ranging from C16 to C25 and 3- to 5-ring non-alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The lack of alkylated PAHs in Paris seems to be related to the low degree of aqueous alteration on its parent body [9,14]. The extra-terrestrial aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon content of Paris may have an interstellar origin

  10. The first college of medical illustration in Paris (France)--two years' experience.

    PubMed

    Barnaud, A

    1994-10-01

    In September 1992, the first College Programme of Medical Illustration in Paris began at the Ecole Supérieure des Arts et Industries Graphiques Estienne. There had previously been only one College of Medical Illustration in France-founded in 1969 in Strasbourg. Paris, at the centre of the French scientific and medical environment, had only a few medical artists, the situation was therefore propitious to the creation of the College. How could a freelance medical artist establish a medical illustration college in a National Arts School? This is the account of the School's first two years' experience, in which a number of the problems faced by both students and tutors are discussed.

  11. [Pierre Bayen (Chalons-sur-Marne 1725-Paris 1798), organizer of military pharmacy, chemist].

    PubMed

    Labrude, P

    1999-01-01

    Pierre Bayen was born in Chalons in 1725. Pupil in pharmacy in Reims and in Paris, he begun his military career during the "Expedition de Minorque". After the "Guerre de Sept-Ans", named major apothecary, he had to organize the military pharmacy. At the end of his life, he was named general inspector of the medical corps. Member of the College de pharmacie, he devoted a great deal of his time to chemical research and he was named as a member of the Institut national de France when it was created. Bayen is one of the founders of analytical chemistry and of mineralogy. His results on the toxicology of pewter plates were famous. He is one of the precursors of the discovery of oxygen and one of the creators of modern chemistry. Bayen died in Paris in 1798.

  12. [Pierre Bayen (Chalons-sur-Marne 1725-Paris 1798), organizer of military pharmacy, chemist].

    PubMed

    Labrude, P

    1999-01-01

    Pierre Bayen was born in Chalons in 1725. Pupil in pharmacy in Reims and in Paris, he begun his military career during the "Expedition de Minorque". After the "Guerre de Sept-Ans", named major apothecary, he had to organize the military pharmacy. At the end of his life, he was named general inspector of the medical corps. Member of the College de pharmacie, he devoted a great deal of his time to chemical research and he was named as a member of the Institut national de France when it was created. Bayen is one of the founders of analytical chemistry and of mineralogy. His results on the toxicology of pewter plates were famous. He is one of the precursors of the discovery of oxygen and one of the creators of modern chemistry. Bayen died in Paris in 1798. PMID:11625658

  13. [EPIDEMIOLOGY OF SUDDEN CARDIAC DEATH: DATA FROM THE PARIS SUDDEN DEATH EXPERTISE CENTER REGISTRY].

    PubMed

    Jouven, Xavier; Bougouin, Wulfran; Karam, Nicole; Marijon, Eloi

    2015-09-01

    Sudden cardiac death is an unexpected cardiac arrest without obvious extra-cardiac cause. Epidemiology of sudden cardiac death has been poorly documented in France, mainly because of challenging requirement in order to capture all cases in a specific area. The Parisian registry (Sudden Death Expertise Center, European Georges Pompidou Hospital, Paris) was initiated in May 2011 and analyzed data of all sudden death in Paris and suburbs (6.6 millions inhabitants). Over 3 years, the annual incidence estimated to 50-70 per 100,000. Those occurred mainly in men (69%), with a mean age of 65 year, and at home (75%). The event was witnessed in 80% of cases, but bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation was initiated in only half of cases. Initial cardiac rhythm was ventricular fibrillation in 25%. Survival to hospital discharge remains low (8%).

  14. [Knud Faber and the Paris medicine in the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Jensen, Niels Kristoffer

    2007-01-01

    The socalled "Paris medicine" in the beginning of the 19th century initiated by the French revolution has always been regarded as something special and of great importance for the development in the medical field and this period has attracted many authors and historians for interpretation. Foucault and Ackerknecht are the latest authors that have given an estimation. A need, however, was felt for a new reinterpretation. The papers of a conference at the College of Physicians in 1992 was published in The Wellcome Institute Series in the History of Medicine in 1998 under the name of "Constructing Paris Medicine" that should elucidate the problem. In Denmark we have a rather early estimation due to professor Knud Fabers book from 1919, which was translated into English in 1923 and 1930.

  15. Influence of thermohaline effects on groundwater modelling - Application to the Paris sedimentary Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Hoyos, Amélie; Viennot, Pascal; Ledoux, Emmanuel; Matray, Jean-Michel; Rocher, Muriel; Certes, Catherine

    2012-09-01

    SummaryIn the framework of evaluating the safety of a radioactive waste disposal in deep argillaceous formations and its assessment by the implementer, IRSN and MINES ParisTech built a hydrogeological model of the Paris Basin aquifer system with the aim of identifying radionuclide pathways, estimating transfer times associated with those pathways and locating potential outlets. Such modelling of fluid and mass transport through a sedimentary basin is a recurrent applied geology study. However, recent research shows that in a deep and saline environment, density effects induced by both temperature (to a small extent) and particularly salt concentration can play a major role in the predicted groundwater flow pathways. The present study highlights the relevance of building a hydrogeological model from the measured hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical parameters by combining the calibration of the piezometric levels and the salinity values simultaneously. The application of this strategy to the Paris Basin shows that the Keuper halite formation (Triassic), located in the eastern part of the basin, can be considered as the unique salt source, provided that the density effects are taken into account in the flow and transport modelling. The calibration requires, in particular, to also take into account some of the basin's major tectonic faults, which allow vertical hydraulic connections between aquifers and thus allow salt water fluxes toward the shallower formations. The results presented in this paper show that when considering “thermohaline” effects, the model effectively reproduces the observed hydraulic heads and salinity values throughout the entire Paris Basin, whilst at the same time outlining the role of faults and of the geometry of geological formations on salt transport.

  16. [The teaching of history of medicine in Paris in the 19th century (1794-1914)].

    PubMed

    Galanopoulos, Philippe

    2010-06-01

    The defeat of the erudition which characterised the teaching of history of medicine at the end of the 19th Century, was a sign of the passing of one culture to another. This article examines two aspects of Parisian teaching, the institutional and the educational. In addition the question of the usefulness of this teaching is examined, both in relation to Paris and also to the whole field of French medicine.

  17. Intense Particulate Pollution Events Observed with Lidar over the Paris Megalopolis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chazette, Patrick; Royer, Philippe

    2016-06-01

    The great particulate pollution event that affected the Paris Megalopolis in March 2014 was due to long-range transport from the northern-northeastern Europe. Although this phenomenon has appeared as exceptional in the media, this is not an exception and similar events have already been observed by lidar measurements. Here we will briefly describe and illustrate the origin of this intense pollution obviously harmful to health.

  18. Thermal structure of the Paris Basin from tectonic-Heat Flow modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonté, Damien; van Wees, Jan-Diederik; Guillou-Frottier, Laurent; Cloetingh, Sierd

    2015-04-01

    Located on the inner part of the Variscan Orogen, the Paris Basin has evolved from the Permo-Carboniferous as an intracratonic basin. The usual description of the sediments in the Paris Basin involves imbricated bowl shaped layers, starting from the Triassic. Due to their discontinuity, depth and complexity the Permian and Carboniferous layers have been commonly left aside. Fortunately, recent studies have been completed to looks specifically at these deeper sedimentary layers. With the development of geothermal energy and the widely use shallow medium enthalpy geothermal resources in the Paris Basin (Dogger) these pre-Mesozoic sediments are of a lot of interest. In this work, we use a tectonic-heat flow modelling methodology to model the present day thermal structure of the Paris Basin. The modelling takes into account the geometry of the layering and the petrophysical parameters (i.e., thermal conductivity, the radiogenic heat production of the sedimentary layers in relation with their facies). In addition, the upper part of the basement is closely considered to allow the description of magmatic intrusions that could have a major impact on the present day temperature (i.e., the variation of the radiogenic heat production). To assess the result of our thermal modelling, the obtained temperature is compared to BHT's (Bottom Hole Temperature) and DST's (Drill Stem Test) values when available. As a result of this modelling, we are able to present present-day temperature within the basin as well as in the shallower part of the basement. The aim of this work is identify the sources of the temperature perturbation. The impact of the sediment's thermal conductivity has already been assed on a previous work, in this work the deeper source of perturbation are of great interest (thermal conductivity and heat production of the pre-Mesozoic sedimentary layers, heat production of magmatic intrusion in the basement, and regional faults in the sediments and basement).

  19. Paris Observatory Analysis Center (OPAR): Report on Activities, January - December 2012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Sebastien; Barache, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    We report on activities of the Paris Observatory VLBI Analysis Center (OPAR) for calendar year 2012 concerning the development of operational tasks, the development of our Web site, and various other activities: monitoring of the Earth's free core nutation, measuring of the post-seismic displacements of some stations, and the analysis of the recent IVS R&D sessions, including observations of quasars close to the Sun.

  20. Long-term damage to glass in Paris in a changing environment.

    PubMed

    Ionescu, Anda; Lefèvre, Roger-Alexandre; Brimblecombe, Peter; Grossi, Carlota M

    2012-08-01

    Glass weathering depends mainly on its chemical composition: Si-Ca-K mediaeval glass is low durable, while Si-Ca-Na Roman as well as modern glass are very durable. Mediaeval glass is subject to the superficial leaching of K and Ca ions leading to the formation of a hydrated silica-gel layer. Both types of glass develop a superficial stratum of deposited atmospheric particles cemented by crystals of gypsum (and syngenite in the case of Si-Ca-K glass), leading to an impairment of the optical properties: decrease of transparency and increase of haze. Dose-response functions established for the two types of glass reveal that haze depends only on pollution parameters (PM, SO(2), NO(2)), while leaching depends both on pollution and climate parameters (RH, T, SO(2), NO(2)). Instrumental records are available for temperature in Paris from 1800. Air pollution in Paris was estimated from statistics of fuel use from 1875 to 1943, measurements that started in the 1950s and projections across the 21st century. The estimated annual rate of haze development indicates a gradual rise from the 16th century. The increasing importance of coal as a fuel through the 19th century and enhanced sulphur dioxide concentration make a rapid increase in haze formation, which reaches a peak about 1950. The likely damage to mediaeval glass follows a rather similar pattern. The period of damage from aggressive pollutants looks later and for a briefer time in Paris than in London.

  1. Three-dimensional modeling of the mixing state of particles over Greater Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Shupeng; Sartelet, Karine; Zhang, Yang; Nenes, Athanasios

    2016-05-01

    A size-composition resolved aerosol model (SCRAM) is coupled to the Polyphemus air quality platform and evaluated over Greater Paris. SCRAM simulates the particle mixing state and solves the aerosol dynamic evolution taking into account the processes of coagulation, condensation/evaporation, and nucleation. Both the size and mass fractions of chemical components of particles are discretized. The performance of SCRAM to model air quality over Greater Paris is evaluated by comparison to PM2.5, PM10, and Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) measurements. Because air quality models usually assume that particles are internally mixed, the impact of the mixing state on aerosols formation, composition, optical properties, and their ability to be activated as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) is investigated. The simulation results show that more than half (up to 80% during rush hours) of black carbon particles are barely mixed at the urban site of Paris, while they are more mixed with organic species at a rural site. The comparisons between the internal-mixing simulation and the mixing state-resolved simulation show that the internal-mixing assumption leads to lower nitrate and higher ammonium concentrations in the particulate phase. Moreover, the internal-mixing assumption leads to lower single scattering albedo, and the difference of aerosol optical depth caused by the mixing state assumption can be as high as 72.5%. Furthermore, the internal-mixing assumption leads to lower CCN activation percentage at low supersaturation, but higher CCN activation percentage at high supersaturation.

  2. [Interuniversity Medical Library in Paris (BIUM) Collection of the Polish theses for doctor degrees].

    PubMed

    Pruszyńska, A

    2001-01-01

    The study consist of two parts. The first refers to the history and the present of Medical Library in Paris - one of the richest European medical book libraries, containing among others collection gathered by Medical Faculty and the Royal Medical Society since 1391. An abridged description of its edifice in the University of René Descartes, interior decorations of its main hall and opened quarters, as well as exhibits of the Museum of Medicine History is given. Author rises merits of professor Pierre Süe - surgeon and librarian - rendered by rescue of the library dismembered during the revolution of 1789. Here we shall find references of the most valuable incunabula and rare prints of the collection, distinctive for particular periods of progress in medicine and printing art. The second part of study contains information about unique collection of doctor theses presented in Medical Faculty since 1539 to 1778, and dissertations from Montpellier, Strasbourg and universities abroad - up to 1778. Particularly important seem to be titles of 32 theses prepared by the Polish authors awarding doctor degrees in Paris in the years 1890-1900 retrieved by the author, as completing in this field the Stanislas Konopka's Polish Medical Bibliography of XIX century (vol. IX, article: Doctor Theses - Paris).

  3. Containment system for experiments on radioactive and other hazardous materials in a Paris-Edinburgh press

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobsen, M. K.; Velisavljevic, N.

    2015-11-20

    Recent technical developments using the large volume Paris-Edinburgh press platform have enabled x-ray synchrotron studies at high pressure and temperature conditions. However, its application to some materials of interest, such as high hazard materials that require special handling due to safety issues, reactivity, or other challenges, has not been feasible without the introduction of special containment systems to eliminate the hazards. However, introduction of a containment system is challenging due to the requirement to provide full safety containment for operation in the variety of environments available, while not hindering any of the experimental probes that are available for inert sample measurement. In this work, we report on the development and implementation of a full safety enclosure for a Paris-Edinburgh type press. During the initial development and subsequent application stage of work, experiments were performed on both cerium dioxide (CeO2) and uranium (U). As a result, this device allows for full implementation of all currently available experimental probes involving the Paris-Edinburgh press at the High Pressure Collaborative Access Team sector of the Advanced Photon Source.

  4. Containment system for experiments on radioactive and other hazardous materials in a Paris-Edinburgh press

    DOE PAGES

    Jacobsen, M. K.; Velisavljevic, N.

    2015-11-20

    Recent technical developments using the large volume Paris-Edinburgh press platform have enabled x-ray synchrotron studies at high pressure and temperature conditions. However, its application to some materials of interest, such as high hazard materials that require special handling due to safety issues, reactivity, or other challenges, has not been feasible without the introduction of special containment systems to eliminate the hazards. However, introduction of a containment system is challenging due to the requirement to provide full safety containment for operation in the variety of environments available, while not hindering any of the experimental probes that are available for inert samplemore » measurement. In this work, we report on the development and implementation of a full safety enclosure for a Paris-Edinburgh type press. During the initial development and subsequent application stage of work, experiments were performed on both cerium dioxide (CeO2) and uranium (U). As a result, this device allows for full implementation of all currently available experimental probes involving the Paris-Edinburgh press at the High Pressure Collaborative Access Team sector of the Advanced Photon Source.« less

  5. Simulating gas and aerosol concentrations in the Paris area using different land surface models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khvorostyanov, Dmitry; Menut, Laurent; Dupont, Jean-Charles; Morille, Yoann; Haeffelin, Martial

    2010-05-01

    Regional air quality forecasting depends on the performance of weather forecast models used to drive chemistry-transport models. The widely used Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model provides a few land surface schemes (LSMs) to compute heat and moisture fluxes over land surface. The LSMs differ in complexity and approaches used. We performed WRF simulations for 15 and 5 km resolution nested domains over the North of France and Paris, respectively, for summer 2008. We used the four LSMs provided with WRF: 6-layer Rapid Update Cycle (RUC), 5-layer thermal diffusion, 2-layer Pleim-Xiu scheme (together with the Pleim-Xiu surface layer and the ACM boundary layer models), and 4-layer Noah scheme. The SIRTA atmospheric observatory located in Paris area provides in situ data of measurements for a number of meteorological parameters, as well as vertical profiles measured by a lidar. The simulation results were compared to the SIRTA measurement data. In order to quantify possible impacts of the LSMs to simulated gas and aerosol concentrations in the Paris region, we use a chemistry-transport model CHIMERE forced by the corresponding WRF meteorological fields. Implications for the regional air quality forecasting will be discussed.

  6. Inversions of CO2 Emissions from the Paris Area Using Yearlong Measurement Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staufer, J.; Broquet, G.; Bréon, F. M.; Puygrenier, V.; Xueref-Remy, I.; Ramonet, M.; Perrussel, O.; Chevallier, F.; Dieudonné, E.; Lopez, M.; Schmidt, M.; Ciais, P.

    2014-12-01

    Estimates of fossil fuel CO2 emission from urban areas rely on inventories that are based upon energy-use consumption for different fuel types, various socio-economic activity data and emission factors. There is growing interest in improving those estimates by using an atmospheric inversion approach based on transport modeling and CO2 measurements. Bréon et al. (ACPD, 2014) have recently developed a Bayesian inversion framework to control the daily CO2 fluxes of the Paris urban area during a 2 months period. The inversion framework relies on the transport model CHIMERE with a 2 km spatial resolution and uses atmospheric CO2 concentrations measurements obtained from three monitoring stations at the edge of the Paris urban area, installed as part of the CO2-MEGAPARIS and ICOS-France projects. The method relies on the measured daytime CO2 gradients between up- and downwind stations to correct the prior 6-hour mean emissions of the Paris area, given by the AIRPARIF regional air quality monitoring agency. The system, however, relies on the spatial distribution of the AIRPARIF inventory and does not attempt at correcting it. Here, we apply the inversion framework to one year of atmospheric CO2 observations (August 2010 - July 2011). We show that the results for the monthly budgets exhibit a reasonable seasonal cycle. We check that the sensitivity to the prior estimates of the monthly budgets and to the meteorological forcing to CHIMERE is low, which demonstrates that the system is strongly controlled by observations.

  7. Alkylphenolic compounds and bisphenol A contamination within a heavily urbanized area: case study of Paris.

    PubMed

    Cladière, Mathieu; Gasperi, Johnny; Lorgeoux, Catherine; Bonhomme, Céline; Rocher, Vincent; Tassin, Bruno

    2013-05-01

    This study evaluates the influence of a heavily urbanized area (Paris Metropolitan area), on receiving water contamination by both bisphenol A (BPA) and alkylphenol ethoxylate (APE) biodegradation product. The study began by investigating concentrations within urban sources. In addition to the more commonly studied wastewater treatment plant effluent, wet weather urban sources (including combined sewer overflows, urban runoff, and total atmospheric fallout) were considered. The initial results highlight a significant contamination of all urban sources (from a few nanograms per liter in atmospheric fallout to several micrograms per liter in the other sources) with clearly distinguishable distribution patterns. Secondly, concentration changes along the Seine River from upstream of the Paris Metropolitan area to downstream were investigated. While the concentrations of BPA and nonylphenoxy acetic acid (NP₁EC) increase substantially due to urban sources, the 4-nonylphenol concentrations remain homogeneous along the Seine. These results suggest a broad dissemination of 4-nonylphenol at the scale of the Seine River basin. Moreover, the relationship between pollutant concentrations and Seine River flow was assessed both upstream and downstream of the Paris conurbation. Consequently, a sharp decrease in dissolved NP1EC concentrations relative to Seine River flow underscores the influence of single-point urban pollution on Seine River contamination. Conversely, dissolved 4-nonylphenol concentrations serve to reinforce the hypothesis of its widespread presence at the Seine River basin scale.

  8. What Does It Mean to be Central? A Botanical Geography of Paris 1830-1848.

    PubMed

    Hoquet, Thierry

    2016-02-01

    This paper focuses on the geography of the botanical community in Paris, under the July Monarchy (1830-1848). At that time, the Muséum d'Histoire naturelle (MHN) was at its institutional acme and, under the impulse of François Guizot, its budget was increasing dramatically. However, closer attention to manuscript sources (correspondence, travel diaries) reveals that the botanists of the time favoured other private institutions, located both on the Right and Left Banks of the Seine. The MHN was prestigious for its collections and professors but it was relatively remote from the centre of Paris, and its plant samples were sometimes difficult to access. Several other first-class private herbaria granted liberal access to botanists: those of Jacques Gay, Phillip Barker Webb, and Benjamin Delessert. Thanks to their wealth, these plant amateurs had ownership of historical herbaria consisting of species types alongside rich botanical libraries. Botanists visiting Paris from foreign countries or other provinces of France also spent some time studying less general plant collections, like those of Count Jaubert, or specialized collections, like Montagne's or Léveillé's on cryptogams. Other botanists also enjoyed renown at the time, although they published little, if anything (like Maire). Living in crammed apartments, literally in the middle of their plant samples, these botanists were key nodes in botanical networks, although they had no relation with the prestigious MHN.

  9. Containment system for experiments on radioactive and other hazardous materials in a Paris-Edinburgh press

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobsen, M. K. Velisavljevic, N.

    2015-11-15

    Recent technical developments using the large volume Paris-Edinburgh press platform have enabled x-ray synchrotron studies at high pressure and temperature conditions. However, its application to some materials of interest, such as high hazard materials that require special handling due to safety issues, reactivity, or other challenges, has not been feasible without the introduction of special containment systems to eliminate the hazards. However, introduction of a containment system is challenging due to the requirement to provide full safety containment for operation in the variety of environments available, while not hindering any of the experimental probes that are available for inert sample measurement. In this work, we report on the development and implementation of a full safety enclosure for a Paris-Edinburgh type press. During the initial development and subsequent application stage of work, experiments were performed on both cerium dioxide (CeO{sub 2}) and uranium (U). This device allows for full implementation of all currently available experimental probes involving the Paris-Edinburgh press at the High Pressure Collaborative Access Team sector of the Advanced Photon Source.

  10. Alkylphenolic compounds and bisphenol A contamination within a heavily urbanized area: case study of Paris.

    PubMed

    Cladière, Mathieu; Gasperi, Johnny; Lorgeoux, Catherine; Bonhomme, Céline; Rocher, Vincent; Tassin, Bruno

    2013-05-01

    This study evaluates the influence of a heavily urbanized area (Paris Metropolitan area), on receiving water contamination by both bisphenol A (BPA) and alkylphenol ethoxylate (APE) biodegradation product. The study began by investigating concentrations within urban sources. In addition to the more commonly studied wastewater treatment plant effluent, wet weather urban sources (including combined sewer overflows, urban runoff, and total atmospheric fallout) were considered. The initial results highlight a significant contamination of all urban sources (from a few nanograms per liter in atmospheric fallout to several micrograms per liter in the other sources) with clearly distinguishable distribution patterns. Secondly, concentration changes along the Seine River from upstream of the Paris Metropolitan area to downstream were investigated. While the concentrations of BPA and nonylphenoxy acetic acid (NP₁EC) increase substantially due to urban sources, the 4-nonylphenol concentrations remain homogeneous along the Seine. These results suggest a broad dissemination of 4-nonylphenol at the scale of the Seine River basin. Moreover, the relationship between pollutant concentrations and Seine River flow was assessed both upstream and downstream of the Paris conurbation. Consequently, a sharp decrease in dissolved NP1EC concentrations relative to Seine River flow underscores the influence of single-point urban pollution on Seine River contamination. Conversely, dissolved 4-nonylphenol concentrations serve to reinforce the hypothesis of its widespread presence at the Seine River basin scale. PMID:23054786

  11. Parkin loss leads to PARIS-dependent declines in mitochondrial mass and respiration

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Daniel A.; Lee, Yunjong; Kang, Ho Chul; Lee, Byoung Dae; Lee, Yun-Il; Bower, Aaron; Jiang, Haisong; Kang, Sung-Ung; Andrabi, Shaida A.; Dawson, Valina L.; Shin, Joo-Ho; Dawson, Ted M.

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in parkin lead to early-onset autosomal recessive Parkinson’s disease (PD) and inactivation of parkin is thought to contribute to sporadic PD. Adult knockout of parkin in the ventral midbrain of mice leads to an age-dependent loss of dopamine neurons that is dependent on the accumulation of parkin interacting substrate (PARIS), zinc finger protein 746 (ZNF746), and its transcriptional repression of PGC-1α. Here we show that adult knockout of parkin in mouse ventral midbrain leads to decreases in mitochondrial size, number, and protein markers consistent with a defect in mitochondrial biogenesis. This decrease in mitochondrial mass is prevented by short hairpin RNA knockdown of PARIS. PARIS overexpression in mouse ventral midbrain leads to decreases in mitochondrial number and protein markers and PGC-1α–dependent deficits in mitochondrial respiration. Taken together, these results suggest that parkin loss impairs mitochondrial biogenesis, leading to declining function of the mitochondrial pool and cell death. PMID:26324925

  12. Containment system for experiments on radioactive and other hazardous materials in a Paris-Edinburgh press.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, M K; Velisavljevic, N

    2015-11-01

    Recent technical developments using the large volume Paris-Edinburgh press platform have enabled x-ray synchrotron studies at high pressure and temperature conditions. However, its application to some materials of interest, such as high hazard materials that require special handling due to safety issues, reactivity, or other challenges, has not been feasible without the introduction of special containment systems to eliminate the hazards. However, introduction of a containment system is challenging due to the requirement to provide full safety containment for operation in the variety of environments available, while not hindering any of the experimental probes that are available for inert sample measurement. In this work, we report on the development and implementation of a full safety enclosure for a Paris-Edinburgh type press. During the initial development and subsequent application stage of work, experiments were performed on both cerium dioxide (CeO2) and uranium (U). This device allows for full implementation of all currently available experimental probes involving the Paris-Edinburgh press at the High Pressure Collaborative Access Team sector of the Advanced Photon Source. PMID:26628148

  13. Containment system for experiments on radioactive and other hazardous materials in a Paris-Edinburgh press

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobsen, M. K.; Velisavljevic, N.

    2015-11-01

    Recent technical developments using the large volume Paris-Edinburgh press platform have enabled x-ray synchrotron studies at high pressure and temperature conditions. However, its application to some materials of interest, such as high hazard materials that require special handling due to safety issues, reactivity, or other challenges, has not been feasible without the introduction of special containment systems to eliminate the hazards. However, introduction of a containment system is challenging due to the requirement to provide full safety containment for operation in the variety of environments available, while not hindering any of the experimental probes that are available for inert sample measurement. In this work, we report on the development and implementation of a full safety enclosure for a Paris-Edinburgh type press. During the initial development and subsequent application stage of work, experiments were performed on both cerium dioxide (CeO2) and uranium (U). As a result, this device allows for full implementation of all currently available experimental probes involving the Paris-Edinburgh press at the High Pressure Collaborative Access Team sector of the Advanced Photon Source.

  14. FOOD SHOPPING BEHAVIORS AND SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS INFLUENCE OBESITY RATES IN SEATTLE AND IN PARIS

    PubMed Central

    Drewnowski, Adam; Moudon, Anne Vernez; Jiao, Junfeng; Aggarwal, Anju; Charreire, Helene; Chaix, Basile

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the associations between food environment at the individual level, socioeconomic status (SES) and obesity rates in two cities: Seattle and Paris. Methods Analyses of the SOS (Seattle Obesity Study) were based on a representative sample of 1340 adults in metropolitan Seattle and King County. The RECORD (Residential Environment and Coronary Heart Disease) cohort analyses were based on 7,131 adults in central Paris and suburbs. Data on socio-demographics, health and weight were obtained from a telephone survey (SOS) and from in-person interviews (RECORD). Both studies collected data on and geocoded home addresses and food shopping locations. Both studies calculated GIS network distances between home and the supermarket that study respondents listed as their primary food source. Supermarkets were further stratified into three categories by price. Modified Poisson regression models were used to test the associations among food environment variables, SES and obesity. Results Physical distance to supermarkets was unrelated to obesity risk. By contrast, lower education and incomes, lower surrounding property values, and shopping at lower-cost stores were consistently associated with higher obesity risk. Conclusion Lower SES was linked to higher obesity risk in both Paris and Seattle, despite differences in urban form, the food environments, and in the respective systems of health care. Cross-country comparisons can provide new insights into the social determinants of weight and health. PMID:23736365

  15. Paris NN potential constrained by recent antiprotonic-atom data and np total cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    El-Bennich, B.; Lacombe, M.; Loiseau, B.; Wycech, S.

    2009-05-15

    We report on an updated Paris NN optical potential. The long- and intermediate-range real parts are obtained by G-parity transformation of the Paris NN potential based on a theoretical dispersion-relation treatment of the correlated and uncorrelated two-pion exchange. The short-range imaginary potential parametrization results from the calculation of the NN annihilation box diagram into two mesons with a nucleon-antinucleon intermediate state in the crossed channel. The parametrized real and imaginary short range parts are determined by fitting not only the existing experimental data included in the 1999 version of the Paris NN potential, but also the recent antiprotonic-hydrogen data and np total cross sections. The description of these new observables is improved. Only this readjusted potential generates an isospin zero {sup 1}S{sub 0}, 52 MeV broad quasibound state at 4.8 MeV below the threshold. Recent BES data on J/{psi} decays could support the existence of such a state.

  16. Family Fun at SCI-FEST.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Verilette

    1996-01-01

    Describes the SCI-FEST (Science Collaborative Initiative-Festival to Enhance Science and Technology) where community members worked together to put on a successful science festival for the whole family. Discusses the planning and implementation of the festival which included nearly 100 hands-on science activities, skits, puppet shows, and…

  17. Formation of secondary organic aerosol in the Paris pollution plume and its impact on surrounding regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Q. J.; Beekmann, M.; Freney, E.; Sellegri, K.; Pichon, J. M.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Colomb, A.; Bourrianne, T.; Michoud, V.; Borbon, A.

    2015-12-01

    Secondary pollutants such as ozone, secondary inorganic aerosol, and secondary organic aerosol formed in the plumes of megacities can affect regional air quality. In the framework of the FP7/EU MEGAPOLI (Megacities: Emissions, urban, regional and Global Atmospheric POLlution and climate effects, and Integrated tools for assessment and mitigation) project, an intensive campaign was launched in the greater Paris region in July 2009. The major objective was to quantify different sources of organic aerosol (OA) within a megacity and in its plume. In this study, we use airborne measurements aboard the French ATR-42 aircraft to evaluate the regional chemistry-transport model CHIMERE within and downwind of the Paris region. Two mechanisms of secondary OA (SOA) formation are used, both including SOA formation from oxidation and chemical aging of primary semivolatile and intermediate volatility organic compounds (SI-SOA) in the volatility basis set (VBS) framework. As for SOA formed from traditional VOC (volatile organic compound) precursors (traditional SOA), one applies chemical aging in the VBS framework adopting different SOA yields for high- and low-NOx environments, while another applies a single-step oxidation scheme without chemical aging. Two emission inventories are used for discussion of emission uncertainties. The slopes of the airborne OA levels versus Ox (i.e., O3 + NO2) show SOA formation normalized with respect to photochemical activity and are used for specific evaluation of the OA scheme in the model. The simulated slopes were overestimated slightly by factors of 1.1, 1.7 and 1.3 with respect to those observed for the three airborne measurements, when the most realistic "high-NOx" yields for traditional SOA formation in the VBS scheme are used in the model. In addition, these slopes are relatively stable from one day to another, which suggests that they are characteristic for the given megacity plume environment. The configuration with increased primary

  18. Opening Comments: SciDAC 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strayer, Michael

    2008-07-01

    Welcome to Seattle and the 2008 SciDAC Conference. This conference, the fourth in the series, is a continuation of the PI meetings we first began under SciDAC-1. I would like to start by thanking the organizing committee, and Rick Stevens in particular, for organizing this year's meeting. This morning I would like to look briefly at SciDAC, to give you a brief history of SciDAC and also look ahead to see where we plan to go over the next few years. I think the best description of SciDAC, at least the simulation part, comes from a quote from Dr Ray Orbach, DOE's Under Secretary for Science and Director of the Office of Science. In an interview that appeared in the SciDAC Review magazine, Dr Orbach said, `SciDAC is unique in the world. There isn't any other program like it anywhere else, and it has the remarkable ability to do science by bringing together physical scientists, mathematicians, applied mathematicians, and computer scientists who recognize that computation is not something you do at the end, but rather it needs to be built into the solution of the very problem that one is addressing'. Of course, that is extended not just to physical scientists, but also to biological scientists. This is a theme of computational science, this partnership among disciplines, which goes all the way back to the early 1980s and Ken Wilson. It's a unique thread within the Department of Energy. SciDAC-1, launched around the turn of the millennium, created a new generation of scientific simulation codes. It advocated building out mathematical and computing system software in support of science and a new collaboratory software environment for data. The original concept for SciDAC-1 had topical centers for the execution of the various science codes, but several corrections and adjustments were needed. The ASCR scientific computing infrastructure was also upgraded, providing the hardware facilities for the program. The computing facility that we had at that time was the big 3

  19. Co-occurrence of Arum- and Paris-type morphologies of arbuscular mycorrhizae in cucumber and tomato.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Mayumi; McGonigle, Terence P; Hyakumachi, Mitsuro

    2005-03-01

    Colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi was investigated in cucumber (Cucumis sativus), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and Clethra barbinervis (Ericales) grown in field-collected soil known from previous studies to generate Paris-type arbuscular mycorrhizae in C. barbinervis. Spores of Paraglomus, Acaulospora, Glomus, and Gigaspora were found in the soil. Formation of hyphal coils and arbusculate coils of Paris-type mycorrhizae and of arbuscules of Arum-type mycorrhizae in roots raised in this soil in the growth chamber were compared with the detection of DNA of AM fungi from the same root systems using Glomales-specific primers. Only Paris-type mycorrhizae with extensive arbusculate coils developed in C. barbinervis, but cucumber and tomato developed both Paris- and Arum-types in the same root systems. Glomaceae and Archaeosporaceae and/or Paraglomaceae were detected strongly in the DNA from both cucumber and tomato roots, in which Arum-type mycorrhizae were observed. In contrast, DNA of Glomaceae was detected more sparingly in C. barbinervis, in which Paris-type mycorrhizae dominated. Acaulosporaceae and Gigasporaceae were strongly detected in the DNA from both C. barbinervis and tomato, whereas they were more weakly detected in cucumber. These results indicate that the morphology of colonization is strongly influenced by the selection of fungi to colonize the host plant from among those in the soil environment.

  20. Climate change and heat waves in Paris and London metropolitan areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dousset, B.

    2010-12-01

    Summer warming trends in Western and Central Europe and in Mediterranean regions are increasing the incidence, intensity, and duration of heat waves. Those extreme events are especially deadly in large cities, owing to high population densities, surface characteristics, heat island effects, anthropogenic heat and pollutants. In August 2003, a persistent anticyclone over Western Europe generated a heat wave of exceptional strength and duration with an estimated death toll of 70,000, including 4678 in the Paris region. A series of NOAA-AVHRR satellite thermal images over the Paris and London metropolitan areas, were used to analyze Land Surface Temperature (LST) and its related mortality. In the Paris region, LSTs were merged with land use and cover data to identify risk areas, and thermal indicators were produced at the addresses of ~ 500 elderly people to assess diurnal heat exposure. Results indicate: (i) contrasting night time and daytime heat island patterns related to land use and surface characteristics; (ii) the relation between night-time heat islands and heat waves intensity; (iii) the impact of elevated minimal temperatures on excess mortality, with a 0.5 °C increase doubling the risk of death, (in the temperature range of the heatwave); iv) the correlation between the spatial distribution of highest night-time LSTs and that of highest mortality ratios; and v) the significant impact of urban parks in the partitioning between latent and sensible surface heat fluxes, despite a prior warm and dry spring. Near-real time satellite monitoring of heat waves in urban areas improve our understanding of the LST processes and spatial variability, and of the related heat stress and mortality. These observations provide criteria for warning systems, contingency policies and planning, and climate adaptation and mitigation strategies.

  1. Formation of secondary organic aerosol in the Paris pollution plume and its impact on surrounding regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Q. J.; Beekmann, M.; Freney, E.; Sellegri, K.; Pichon, J. M.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Colomb, A.; Bourrianne, T.; Michoud, V.; Borbon, A.

    2015-03-01

    Secondary pollutants such as ozone, secondary inorganic aerosol, and secondary organic aerosol formed in the plume of megacities can affect regional air quality. In the framework of the FP7/EU MEGAPOLI project, an intensive campaign was launched in the Greater Paris Region in July 2009. The major objective was to quantify different sources of organic aerosol (OA) within a megacity and in its plume. In this study, we use airborne measurements aboard the French ATR-42 aircraft to evaluate the regional chemistry-transport model CHIMERE within and downwind the Paris region. Slopes of the plume OA levels vs. Ox (= O3 + NO2) show secondary OA (SOA) formation normalized with respect to photochemical activity and are used for specific evaluation of the OA scheme in the model. Simulated and observed slopes are in good agreement, when the most realistic "high-NOx" yields are used in the Volatility-Basis-Set scheme implemented into the model. In addition, these slopes are relatively stable from one day to another, which suggest that they are characteristic for the given megacity plume environment. Since OA within the plume is mainly formed from anthropogenic precursors (VOC and primary OA, POA), this work allows a specific evaluation of anthropogenic SOA and SOA formed from primary semi-volatile and intermediate volatile VOCs (SI-SOA) formation scheme in a model. For specific plumes, this anthropogenic OA build-up can reach about 10 μg m-3. For the average of the month of July 2009, maximum increases occur close to the agglomeration for primary OA are noticed at several tens (for POA) to hundred (for SI-SOA) kilometers of distance from the Paris agglomeration.

  2. Traffic induced particle resuspension in Paris: Emission factors and source contributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amato, F.; Favez, O.; Pandolfi, M.; Alastuey, A.; Querol, X.; Moukhtar, S.; Bruge, B.; Verlhac, S.; Orza, J. A. G.; Bonnaire, N.; Le Priol, T.; Petit, J.-F.; Sciare, J.

    2016-03-01

    Gaining knowledge on the process of particle resuspension from urban paved roads is of particular importance considering the increasing relevance of this source in urban air quality management and the lack of basic information on emission factors and source contributions. In this study we performed extensive field measurements for the quantification of the emission factors from different types of road in the city of Paris, and investigated the causes of their variability and the contributions to the ambient air PM10 observed across one year at one traffic monitoring site in the ring road of Paris. Results show agreement between lower road dust loadings (RD10: 0.7-2.2 mg m-2) and emission factors (5.4-9.0 mg vehicle-1 km-1) at inner-roads of Paris, compared to the ring road (2.4 mg m-2 and 17 mg vehicle-1 km-1, respectively), where the two parameters are estimated independently. The higher values in the ring road were likely caused by the poor state of pavement and higher share of heavy duty vehicles. Road wear, brake wear and a carbonaceous source, were almost equally responsible for 96% of RD10. At the traffic monitoring site located at the ring road (220,000 vehicle/day), the contributions of road dust emissions were estimated by receptor modeling to be 13% of PM10 on an annual mean (6.3 μg m-3), while the sum of vehicle exhaust and wear accounted for 47% resulting in a total traffic contribution of 60% of PM10. Road salting resulted to be a minor contributor (1% of annual mean) also in winter time (2%).

  3. The contribution of Paris to limit global warming to 2 °C

    SciTech Connect

    Iyer, Gokul C.; Edmonds, James A.; Fawcett, Allen A.; Hultman, Nathan; Alsalam, Jameel; Asrar, Ghassem R.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Clarke, Leon E.; Creason, Jared; Jeong, Minji; McFarland, Jim; Mundra, Anupriya; Patel, Pralit L.; Shi, Wenjing; McJeon, Haewon C.

    2015-11-24

    International negotiators have clearly articulated a goal to limit global warming to 2°C. In preparation for the 21st Conference of Parties (COP21) in Paris in December 2015, countries are submitting their Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change indicating their emissions reduction commitments through 2025 or 2030. Limiting global warming to 2°C is a challenging goal and will entail a dramatic transformation of the global energy system, largely complete by 2040. The deliberations in Paris will help determine the balance of challenges faced in the near-term and long-term. We use GCAM, a global integrated assessment model, to analyze the energy and economic-cost implications of INDCs. The INDCs imply near-term actions that reduce the level of mitigation needed in the post-2030 period, particularly when compared with an alternative path, in which nations are unable to undertake emissions mitigation until after 2030. We find that the latter case could require up to 2300 GW of premature retirements of fossil fuel power plants and up to 2900 GW of additional low-carbon power capacity installations within a five-year period of 2031 to 2035. INDCs have the effect of reducing premature retirements and new-capacity installations after 2030 by 50% and 34% respectively. However, if presently announced INDCs were strengthened to achieve greater near-term emissions mitigation, the 2031-2035 transformation could be tempered to require 84% fewer premature retirements of power generation capacity and 56% fewer new-capacity additions. Our results suggest that the ensuing COP21 in Paris will be critical in shaping the challenges of limiting global warming to 2°C.

  4. Pressure transient tests on geothermal wells in the Dogger aquifer, Paris Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    giuglaris, elodie; hamm, virginie

    2014-05-01

    In this work, we propose a new interpretation of pressure transient tests conducted in more than sixty wells targeting the Dogger formation in the Paris basin. The most part of these wells were drilled during the eighties over a very short period of time in an urban area. The transient tests were only recorded during a pressure buildup and show that contrary to what has long been assumed the Dogger aquifer behavior is not homogeneous. The interpretation of the obtained data was mainly done with Horner's method, independently for each well, and assuming generally that the aquifer is homogeneous. Available data from pressure transient tests are limited because of the precision of the tools used, and because pressure buildup was only recorded during eight to twelve hours. The objective was to determine the average transmissivity and the skin factor in order to obtain the productivity of the wells. We gather all available data, including those obtained on the thirteen recent wells, and propose a new interpretation in terms of aquifer model. We use the pressure derivative method developed in the nineties for oil reservoirs which allows a better visualization of the model and of the heterogeneity of the aquifer. Most of the well tests have a derivative pressure curve with a slope equal to zero, that does not change after the well bore effects, confirming that the aquifer is relatively homogenous. However on a dozen of wells, data from pressure transient tests display singular behaviors that can be related to a double porosity or double permeability model for some wells and to a composite model for others. These observations question the validity of a homogeneous model for the Dogger aquifer in the Paris basin and the currently used parameters for the thermal and hydrodynamic predictive model of geothermal exploitation. Finally, this work increases our understanding of the Dogger aquifer in the Paris basin and will allow the optimization of the ongoing hydraulic tests and

  5. Structural style and hydrocarbon habitat of the English Channel and Paris basin

    SciTech Connect

    Vining, B.A.; Errat, D. )

    1991-03-01

    The structural style and hydrocarbon habitat of the English Channel and Paris basin are reviewed, and selected case histories are discussed. A new model for structural evolution invokes, in part, a detachment surface within the Early Jurassic sediments that differentiates the structural style of the Jurassic and younger sections from the underlying Triassic reservoirs. Compressional reactivation of certain faults in the Early Tertiary has resulted in the cessation of the generative capacity of Pliensbachian-Toarcian source rocks. A history of source rock maturation and migration is presented for Jurassic and Carboniferous source horizons that addresses structural configuration, fault profile analyses, and geologic timing.

  6. Raphaël Blanchard, parasitology, and the positioning of medical entomology in Paris.

    PubMed

    Osborne, M A

    2008-12-01

    The histories of medical entomology and parasitology are entwined. Raphaël Blanchard (1857-1919), Chair of Medical Natural History and Parasitology at the Faculty of Medicine in Paris, organized the teaching of medical entomology and civilian colonial medicine. He also founded and edited the journal Archives de Parasitologie and started the Institute de Médecine Coloniale where he mentored many foreign students and researchers. Additionally, Blanchard is important for his scientific internationalism and medical historical work on the cultural location of parasitology and for training the future professors of parasitology Jules Guiart, Emile Brumpt, and Charles Joyeux.

  7. Effects of Plaster of Paris waste on the mechanical properties of pottery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badarulzaman, N. A.; Nawi, A. M.; Ibrahim, M.

    2015-05-01

    Ceramic waste may come from ceramics industry such as Plaster of Paris(POP) mould waste. The purpose of this study is to investigate the possibility of using POP as filler in the manufacturing of pottery. The different weight percentage of filler (0 wt.%, 2 wt.%,4 wt.%, 6wt.%, 8wt.%) content were added into the composition of pottery. The samples were characterized via viscosity test and bending test. The result of the study revealed that the weight percent of waste POP increase affects the physical properties with increasing the strength values.

  8. Tackling air pollution and extreme climate changes in China: Implementing the Paris climate change agreement.

    PubMed

    Tambo, Ernest; Duo-Quan, Wang; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2016-10-01

    China still depends on coal for more than 60% of its power despite big investments in the process of shifting to nuclear, solar and wind power renewable energy resources alignment with Paris climate change agreement (Paris CCA). Chinese government through the Communist Party Central Committee (CPCC) ascribes great importance and commitment to Paris CCA legacy and history landmark implementation at all levels. As the world's biggest carbon dioxide emitter, China has embarked on "SMART" pollution and climate changes programs and measures to reduce coal-fired power plants to less than 50% in the next five years include: new China model of energy policies commitment on CO2 and greenhouse gas emissions reductions to less than 20% non-fossil energy use by 2030 without undermining their economic growth, newly introduced electric vehicles transportation benefits, interactive and sustained air quality index (AQI) monitoring systems, decreasing reliance on fossil fuel economic activities, revision of energy price reforms and renewable energy to less energy efficient technologies development. Furthermore, ongoing CPCC improved environmental initiatives, implemented strict regulations and penalties on local companies and firms' pollution production management, massive infrastructures such as highways to reduce CO2 expansion of seven regional emissions trading markets and programs for CO2 emissions and other pollutants are being documented. Maximizing on the centralized nature of the China's government, implemented Chinese pollution, climate changes mitigation and adaptation initiatives, "SMART" strategies and credible measures are promising. A good and practical example is the interactive and dynamic website and database covering 367 Chinese cities and providing real time information on environmental and pollution emissions AQI. Also, water quality index (WQI), radiation and nuclear safety monitoring and management systems over time and space. These are ongoing Chinese

  9. The cosmos of the Paris apartment: working-class family life in the nineteenth century.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Eliza

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on Bachelard's notion of “cosmicity” this article investigates the living conditions of Parisian working-class families in the second half of the nineteenth century. Nineteenth-century social critics claimed that the lack of privacy in urban apartments made decent family life impossible. However, evidence from judicial dossiers concerning attentat à la pudeur (intimate assault against children) illuminates the lived experience of children and their families in Paris apartments. Rather than a sharp divide between public and private, children experienced their apartment homes as the core of a social and spatial world under the surveillance of parents, neighbors, and other children.

  10. Henry B. Stallard, MD: The 1924 Paris Olympics, and Chariots of Fire.

    PubMed

    Bullock, John D

    2011-01-01

    Hyla Bristow Stallard was one of the greatest middle-distance runners in British athletic history. While an English medical student, he won the bronze medal in the 1500-meter run at the 1924 Paris Olympics, immortalized in the critically acclaimed 1981 epic British film, Chariots of Fire. He later became one of the most famous ophthalmologists in the world for his pioneering work in radiation therapy of malignant eye disease. He was an inspiring role model for both athletes and physicians. As a gifted individual who enjoyed two international careers, he is worthy of great admiration and emulation.

  11. a New Design for Diamond Window Equipped Paris-Edinburgh — First Tests and Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burchard, M.; Glasmacher, U. A.; Dedera, S.; Trautmann, C.

    2012-12-01

    High pressure cells of the Paris-Edinburgh type are important tools for experimental high pressure studies in material science. Although these cells were originally developed for use in neutron diffraction, today they are also applied in alternative experimental high pressure fields. Their main advantages are their small construction size, limited weight and the relative high reachable pressures with a maximized sample volume. The small construction size also results in very good cost efficiency. The major drawback of these cells is that due to their simple squeezer geometry pressure extrapolations are nearly impossible and, hence, the use of internal standard is mandatory. Consequently, the normal use of Paris-Edinburgh cells is mostly limited to experiments with neutron or synchrotron radiation, during which pressure and temperature are determined by using an internal diffraction standard. To overcome this problem, tone may combine the advantages of diamond anvil cells with those of Paris-Edinburgh-cells by integrating diamond windows into the upper and / or the lower anvil. With such a cell it is possible to retrieve pressure and / or temperature data by measuring the shift of Raman bands or fluorescence lines by spectroscopic methods. Several attempts have been made to build such a cell ([1] and Klotz pers. communication) using different window materials. Until now no final setup has been published. We present a new Paris-Edinburgh cell design especially constructed for use within high energy relativistic heavy ion radiation experiments. This design uses conventional diamond anvils as spectroscopic windows in conjunction with specially designed hardened steel anvils. We have performed first feasibility studies up to 2.5 GPa with a standard Raman spectrometer using a special adapted Raman glass fiber probe. We present results of several mechanical test runs and one experiment with relativistic heavy ion radiation at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum f

  12. Tackling air pollution and extreme climate changes in China: Implementing the Paris climate change agreement.

    PubMed

    Tambo, Ernest; Duo-Quan, Wang; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2016-10-01

    China still depends on coal for more than 60% of its power despite big investments in the process of shifting to nuclear, solar and wind power renewable energy resources alignment with Paris climate change agreement (Paris CCA). Chinese government through the Communist Party Central Committee (CPCC) ascribes great importance and commitment to Paris CCA legacy and history landmark implementation at all levels. As the world's biggest carbon dioxide emitter, China has embarked on "SMART" pollution and climate changes programs and measures to reduce coal-fired power plants to less than 50% in the next five years include: new China model of energy policies commitment on CO2 and greenhouse gas emissions reductions to less than 20% non-fossil energy use by 2030 without undermining their economic growth, newly introduced electric vehicles transportation benefits, interactive and sustained air quality index (AQI) monitoring systems, decreasing reliance on fossil fuel economic activities, revision of energy price reforms and renewable energy to less energy efficient technologies development. Furthermore, ongoing CPCC improved environmental initiatives, implemented strict regulations and penalties on local companies and firms' pollution production management, massive infrastructures such as highways to reduce CO2 expansion of seven regional emissions trading markets and programs for CO2 emissions and other pollutants are being documented. Maximizing on the centralized nature of the China's government, implemented Chinese pollution, climate changes mitigation and adaptation initiatives, "SMART" strategies and credible measures are promising. A good and practical example is the interactive and dynamic website and database covering 367 Chinese cities and providing real time information on environmental and pollution emissions AQI. Also, water quality index (WQI), radiation and nuclear safety monitoring and management systems over time and space. These are ongoing Chinese

  13. Development and initial evaluation of the SCI-FI/AT

    PubMed Central

    Jette, Alan M.; Slavin, Mary D.; Ni, Pengsheng; Kisala, Pamela A.; Tulsky, David S.; Heinemann, Allen W.; Charlifue, Susie; Tate, Denise G.; Fyffe, Denise; Morse, Leslie; Marino, Ralph; Smith, Ian; Williams, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe the domain structure and calibration of the Spinal Cord Injury Functional Index for samples using Assistive Technology (SCI-FI/AT) and report the initial psychometric properties of each domain. Design Cross sectional survey followed by computerized adaptive test (CAT) simulations. Setting Inpatient and community settings. Participants A sample of 460 adults with traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) stratified by level of injury, completeness of injury, and time since injury. Interventions None Main outcome measure SCI-FI/AT Results Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and Item response theory (IRT) analyses identified 4 unidimensional SCI-FI/AT domains: Basic Mobility (41 items) Self-care (71 items), Fine Motor Function (35 items), and Ambulation (29 items). High correlations of full item banks with 10-item simulated CATs indicated high accuracy of each CAT in estimating a person's function, and there was high measurement reliability for the simulated CAT scales compared with the full item bank. SCI-FI/AT item difficulties in the domains of Self-care, Fine Motor Function, and Ambulation were less difficult than the same items in the original SCI-FI item banks. Conclusion With the development of the SCI-FI/AT, clinicians and investigators have available multidimensional assessment scales that evaluate function for users of AT to complement the scales available in the original SCI-FI. PMID:26010975

  14. Sci-Math: Applications in Proportional Problem Solving. Module One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodstein, Madeline P.

    Sci-Math is an interdisciplinary curriculum intended to help students develop the math skills needed for science, especially dimensional analysis, ratio, and the concept of proportion. Sci-Math is divided into two modules with each module having a student and teacher's guide. This module is a pre-algebra module dealing with the arithmetic and…

  15. Discrimination of Wild Paris Based on Near Infrared Spectroscopy and High Performance Liquid Chromatography Combined with Multivariate Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yanli; Zhang, Ji; Yuan, Tianjun; Shen, Tao; Li, Wei; Yang, Shihua; Hou, Ying; Wang, Yuanzhong; Jin, Hang

    2014-01-01

    Different geographical origins and species of Paris obtained from southwestern China were discriminated by near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) combined with multivariate analysis. The NIR parameter settings were scanning (64 times), resolution (4 cm−1), scanning range (10000 cm−1∼4000 cm−1) and parallel collection (3 times). NIR spectrum was optimized by TQ 8.6 software, and the ranges 7455∼6852 cm−1 and 5973∼4007 cm−1 were selected according to the spectrum standard deviation. The contents of polyphyllin I, polyphyllin II, polyphyllin VI, and polyphyllin VII and total steroid saponins were detected by HPLC. The contents of chemical components data matrix and spectrum data matrix were integrated and analyzed by partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). From the PLS-DA model of NIR spectrum, Paris samples were separated into three groups according to the different geographical origins. The R2X and Q2Y described accumulative contribution rates were 99.50% and 94.03% of the total variance, respectively. The PLS-DA model according to 12 species of Paris described 99.62% of the variation in X and predicted 95.23% in Y. The results of the contents of chemical components described differences among collections quantitatively. A multivariate statistical model of PLS-DA showed geographical origins of Paris had a much greater influence on Paris compared with species. NIR and HPLC combined with multivariate analysis could discriminate different geographical origins and different species. The quality of Paris showed regional dependence. PMID:24558477

  16. The amino acid and hydrocarbon contents of the Paris meteorite: Insights into the most primitive CM chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Zita; Modica, Paola; Zanda, Brigitte; D'Hendecourt, Louis Le Sergeant

    2015-05-01

    The Paris meteorite is one of the most primitive carbonaceous chondrites. It is reported to be the least aqueously altered CM chondrite, and to have experienced only weak thermal metamorphism. We have analyzed for the first time the amino acid and hydrocarbon contents of this pristine meteorite by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). When plotting the relative amino acids abundances of several CM chondrites according to the increasing hydrothermal scale (petrologic subtypes), from the CM2.7/2.8 Paris to the CM2.0 MET 01070, Paris has the lowest relative abundance of β-alanine/glycine (0.15), which fits with the relative abundances of β-alanine/glycine increasing with increasing aqueous alteration for CM chondrites. These results confirm the influence of aqueous alteration on the amino acid abundances and distribution. The amino acid analysis shows that the isovaline detected in this meteorite is racemic (D/L = 0.99 ± 0.08; L-enantiomer excess = 0.35 ± 0.5%; corrected D/L = 1.03; corrected L-enantiomer excess = -1.4 ± 2.6%). The identified hydrocarbons show that Paris has n-alkanes ranging from C16 to C25 and 3- to 5-ring nonalkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The lack of alkylated PAHs in Paris seems to be also related to this low degree of aqueous alteration on its parent body. The extraterrestrial hydrocarbon content, suggested by the absence of any biomarker, may well have a presolar origin. The chemistry of the Paris meteorite may thus be closely related to the early stages of the solar nebula with a contribution from interstellar (molecular cloud) precursors.

  17. Comparison between the atmospheric boundary layer in Paris and its rural suburbs during the ECLAP experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupont, E.; Menut, L.; Carissimo, B.; Pelon, J.; Flamant, P.

    The ECLAP experiment has been performed during the winter of 1995 in order to study the influence of the urban area of Paris on the vertical structure and diurnal evolution of the atmospheric boundary layer, in situations favourable to intense urban heat island and pollution increase. One urban site and one rural site have been instrumented with sodars, lidars and surface measurements. Additional radiosondes, 100 m masts and Eiffel Tower data were also collected. This paper gives a general overview of this experiment, and presents results of the analysis of four selected days, characterized by various wind directions and temperature inversion strengths. This analysis, which consists in a comparison between data obtained in the two sites, has been focused on three parameters of importance to the ABL dynamics: the standard deviation of vertical velocity, the surface sensible heat flux, and the boundary layer height. The vertical component of turbulence is shown to be enhanced by the urban area, the amplitude of this effect strongly depending on the meteorological situation. The sensible heat flux in Paris is generally found larger than in the rural suburbs. The most frequent differences range from 25-65 W m -2, corresponding to relative differences of 20-60%. The difference of unstable boundary layer height between both sites are most of the time less than 100 m. However, sodar and temperature data show that the urban influence is enhanced during night-time and transitions between stable and unstable regimes.

  18. 'A thorn in the side of European geodesy': measuring Paris-Greenwich longitude by electric telegraph.

    PubMed

    Kershaw, Michael

    2014-12-01

    The difference in longitude between the observatories of Paris and Greenwich was long of fundamental importance to geodesy, navigation and timekeeping. Measured many times and by many different means since the seventeenth century, the preferred method of the later nineteenth and early twentieth centuries made use of the electric telegraph. I describe here for the first time the four Paris-Greenwich telegraphic longitude determinations made between 1854 and 1902. Despite contemporary faith in the new technique, the first was soon found to be inaccurate; the second was a failure, ending in Anglo-French dispute over whose result was to be trusted; the third failed in exactly the same way; and when eventually the fourth was presented as a success, the evidence for that success was far from clear-cut. I use this as a case study in precision measurement, showing how mutual grounding between different measurement techniques, in the search for agreement between them, was an important force for change and improvement. I also show that better precision had more to do with the gradually improving methods of astronomical, time determination than with the singular innovation of the telegraph, thus emphasizing the importance of what have been described as 'observatory techniques' to nineteenth-century practices of precision measurement.

  19. Hygroscopic properties of the Paris urban aerosol in relation to its chemical composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamilli, K. A.; Poulain, L.; Held, A.; Nowak, A.; Birmili, W.; Wiedensohler, A.

    2014-01-01

    Aerosol hygroscopic growth factors and chemical properties were measured as part of the MEGAPOLI "Megacities Plume Case Study" at the urban site Laboratoire d'Hygiène de la Ville de Paris (LHVP) in the city center of Paris from June to August 2009, and from January to February 2010. Descriptive hygroscopic growth factors (DGF) were derived in the diameter range from 25 to 350 nm at relative humidities of 30, 55, 75, and 90% by applying the summation method on humidified and dry aerosol size distributions measured simultaneously with a humidified differential mobility particle sizer (HDMPS) and a twin differential mobility particle sizer (TDMPS). For 90% relative humidity, the DGF varied from 1.06 to 1.46 in summer, and from 1.06 to 1.66 in winter. Temporal variations in the observed mean DGF could be well explained with a simple growth model based on the aerosol chemical composition measured by aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS) and black carbon photometry (MAAP). In particular, good agreement was observed when sulfate was the predominant inorganic factor. A clear overestimation of the predicted growth factor was found when the nitrate mass concentration exceeded values of 10 μg m-3, e.g., during winter.

  20. Feeding the city: food consumption and flow of nitrogen, Paris, 1801-1914.

    PubMed

    Barles, Sabine

    2007-04-01

    The flows of foodstuffs (and the nitrogen they contain) through the city of Paris in the 19th and early 20th century were evaluated. Between 1801 and 1914, the fivefold increase in the population of Paris, as well as the threefold increase in the number of horses used in urban transport, gave rise to increased needs for food and feed. The corresponding inputs of nitrogen increased from 6000 tN/year in 1817 to 25,000 tN/year from the rural hinterland to the city. The corresponding per capita inflows were relatively stable throughout the period and may be divided into four more or less equal parts (flour, meat, other human foodstuffs, forage), each representing about 6 gN per inhabitant per day. In total, the demand for foodstuffs was of the order of 24 gN per inhabitant per day, one quarter of which was for transport. The fate of this dietary nitrogen after consumption changed a lot with the techniques used for exploiting urban excreta of all kinds, particularly of nitrogen, which was in great demand until the development of synthetic fertilizers. Dietary nitrogen flow diagrams are established for the years 1817, 1869 and 1913, and reveal an increasing improvement of the agricultural reuse (from 20 to 40% of the inflowing N).

  1. Palaeocommunities, diversity and sea-level change from middle Eocene shell beds of the Paris Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominici, Stefano; Zuschin, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The middle Eocene, a time of global transition from greenhouse to icehouse climate, was approached through high-resolution stratigraphy at a few classic localities of the Paris Basin. Quantitative data on the distribution of molluscan species abundance, collected at 12 different shell beds representative of the middle Lutetian and the lower Bartonian, formed the basis for a palaeoecological study. The succession can be subdivided into a hierarchy of depositional sequences, interpreted as the product of relative sea-level change. Abundance distributions are better correlated with 5th-order depositional sequences than geographic locality, suggesting that sea-level played an important role in the distribution of palaeocommunities. Rarefied diversities were measured and compared with analogous data from modern tropical and warm-temperate intertidal and subtidal communities. The palaeoecological analysis shows that sea-level variation is responsible for a major change in the upper part of the middle Lutetian, leading from high-diversity subtidal to low-diversity intertidal and shallow subtidal palaeocommunities. The study did not confirm that the stage-level drop in species richness documented in this basin is related to the global climatic deterioration. Instead, the global climatic signal might be obscured in the Paris Basin by facies control.

  2. Sound quality indicators for urban places in Paris cross-validated by Milan data.

    PubMed

    Ricciardi, Paola; Delaitre, Pauline; Lavandier, Catherine; Torchia, Francesca; Aumond, Pierre

    2015-10-01

    A specific smartphone application was developed to collect perceptive and acoustic data in Paris. About 3400 questionnaires were analyzed, regarding the global sound environment characterization, the perceived loudness of some emergent sources and the presence time ratio of sources that do not emerge from the background. Sound pressure level was recorded each second from the mobile phone's microphone during a 10-min period. The aim of this study is to propose indicators of urban sound quality based on linear regressions with perceptive variables. A cross validation of the quality models extracted from Paris data was carried out by conducting the same survey in Milan. The proposed sound quality general model is correlated with the real perceived sound quality (72%). Another model without visual amenity and familiarity is 58% correlated with perceived sound quality. In order to improve the sound quality indicator, a site classification was performed by Kohonen's Artificial Neural Network algorithm, and seven specific class models were developed. These specific models attribute more importance on source events and are slightly closer to the individual data than the global model. In general, the Parisian models underestimate the sound quality of Milan environments assessed by Italian people.

  3. Who still eats three meals a day? Findings from a quantitative survey in the Paris area.

    PubMed

    Lhuissier, Anne; Tichit, Christine; Caillavet, France; Cardon, Philippe; Masullo, Ana; Martin-Fernandez, Judith; Parizot, Isabelle; Chauvin, Pierre

    2013-04-01

    In France, mealtimes constitute a strong cultural trait, especially the three-meal pattern. The aim of our study was to test whether this pattern is still prevailing and to what extent familial structure, gender, poverty and migration have an effect on meal frequency. This study is based on a cross-sectional analysis of data collected in 2010 in the SIRS cohort study among a representative sample of 3006 adults in the Paris metropolitan area. We developed simple logistic models and multinomial logistic models. Results confirmed that the three-meal pattern remains strongly rooted in food habits in the Paris area. For three meals a day, the presence of a partner was more significant than the presence of children in the household. However, the study highlighted that one out of four inhabitants declared eating two meals a day only. The results emphasized gender differences in eating two meals a day, as being less frequent but more distinctive for women than for men. For women indeed, it was mainly linked to economic and social vulnerability (women below the poverty line, foreigners, in single parent families). In this respect, the paper provides new insights into the social differentiation of meal patterns, and calls for further analysis.

  4. Evaluating BC and NOx emission inventories for the Paris region from MEGAPOLI aircraft measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petetin, H.; Beekmann, M.; Colomb, A.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Dupont, J.-C.; Honoré, C.; Michoud, V.; Morille, Y.; Perrussel, O.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Sciare, J.; Wiedensohler, A.; Zhang, Q. J.

    2015-09-01

    High uncertainties affect black carbon (BC) emissions, and, despite its important impact on air pollution and climate, very few BC emissions evaluations are found in the literature. This paper presents a novel approach, based on airborne measurements across the Paris, France, plume, developed in order to evaluate BC and NOx emissions at the scale of a whole agglomeration. The methodology consists in integrating, for each transect, across the plume observed and simulated concentrations above background. This allows for several error sources (e.g., representativeness, chemistry, plume lateral dispersion) to be minimized in the model used. The procedure is applied with the CHIMERE chemistry-transport model to three inventories - the EMEP inventory and the so-called TNO and TNO-MP inventories - over the month of July 2009. Various systematic uncertainty sources both in the model (e.g., boundary layer height, vertical mixing, deposition) and in observations (e.g., BC nature) are discussed and quantified, notably through sensitivity tests. Large uncertainty values are determined in our results, which limits the usefulness of the method to rather strongly erroneous emission inventories. A statistically significant (but moderate) overestimation is obtained for the TNO BC emissions and the EMEP and TNO-MP NOx emissions, as well as for the BC / NOx emission ratio in TNO-MP. The benefit of the airborne approach is discussed through a comparison with the BC / NOx ratio at a ground site in Paris, which additionally suggests a spatially heterogeneous error in BC emissions over the agglomeration.

  5. The Pristane Formation Index, a molecular maturity parameter. Confirmation in samples from the Paris Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Goossens, H.; De Lange, F.; De Leeuw, J.W.; Schenck, P.A. )

    1988-10-01

    The value of the recently proposed molecular maturity parameter PFI (Pristane Formation Index) is evaluated by analysis of a suite of samples from the Paris Basin with known values of the molecular maturity parameters based on the sterane and hopane isomerization (SI and HI) and sterane aromatization (SA) reactions. The values of the pseudo-kinetic parameters E and A of the Arrhenius equation k = A exp({minus}E/RT), calculated for pristane formation in the Mahakam Delta, were used to compare the observed PFI values with calculated ones. The results indicate that the samples from the eastern part of the Paris Basin, which are at the surface at present, have been at higher temperatures for about 10-30 Ma, whereas the deeper samples, located around the center of the Basin, have not undergone considerable temperature changes in the past. These results are in agreement with the conclusions based on SI, SA and HI alone. Thus, the values of the pseudo-kinetic parameters E (59 kJ mol{sup minus 1}) and A (2.2*10{sup minus 7} s{sup minus 1}) for the pristane formation reaction can be applied in a different basin with a different type of kerogen. This confirms the value of PFI as a molecular maturity parameter.

  6. Helium isotope fluxes and groundwater ages in the Dogger aquifer, Paris Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Marty, B.; Torgersen, T.; Meynier, V.; Marsily, G. De ); O'Nions, R.K. )

    1993-04-01

    The Dogger aquifer of the Paris Basin has been shown to be first-order homogeneous in its helium concentration and its helium isotopic ratio, although slight differences are noted in relation to specific chemical water types. The helium isotopic composition of the Dogger aquifer contains a small component of mantle helium that is associated with a magmatic input, although the heat accompanying this magma is small. Constraints on the age of the overlying Albien aquifer are used to calculate the flux of helium out of the Dogger. This constraint allows a calculation of the residence time of waters in the Dogger aquifer of 4 Myr (+, - 50%), which is significantly longer than estimates derived from hydrologic models and hydrologic testing. It is possible that the hydrologic ages and the helium ages can be reconciled by a vertically layered Dogger aquifer with gradients in He, salinity, and fluid flow. Vertical profiles of fluid composition, helium concentration, and permeability are required in the Paris Basin to resolve this question.

  7. Extinction of Light during the Fog Life Cycle: a Result from the ParisFog Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Elias, T.; Haeffelin, M.; Drobinski, P.

    2009-03-11

    Data set acquired by five particle-dedicated instruments set up on the SIRTA experimental site during the ParisFog field campaign are exploited to document microphysical properties of particles contributing to extinction of visible radiation in variable situations. The case study is a 48-hour period when atmospheric conditions are highly variable: relative humidity changes between 50 and 100%, visibility ranges between 35000 and 65 m, the site is either downwind Paris area either under maritime influence. A dense and homogeneous fog formed by radiative cooling during the 18-19 February night. In 7 hours, visibility decreases from 26 000 m to 65 m, because of transported pollution (factor 3 in visibility reduction), aerosol hydration (factor 20) and aerosol activation (factor 6). According to Mie theory, extinction in clear-sky polluted and unpolluted regimes is due equally to Aitken and accumulation modes. Extinction in haze is due to hydrated aerosols distributed in the accumulation mode, for diameter smaller than 2 {mu}m. Hydrated aerosols of the accumulation mode still contribute to 20-30% extinction in the fog. Measurements show that fog droplets, with diameter included between 2 and 10 {mu}m, contribute to 40% extinction during the first hours of the fog.

  8. Study of nano-architecture of the wings of Paris Peacock butterfly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghate, Ekata; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Kulkarni, G. R.

    Butterflies are one of the most colorful creatures in animal Kingdom. Wings of the male butterfly are brilliantly colored to attract females. Color of the wings plays an important role in camouflage. Study of structural colors in case of insects and butterflies are important for their biomimic and biophotonic applications. Structural color is the color which is produced by physical structures and their interaction with light. Paris Peacock or Papilio paris butterfly belongs to the family Papilionidae. The basis of structural color of this butterfly is investigated in the present study. The upper surface of the wings in this butterfly is covered with blue, green and brown colored scales. Nano-architecture of these scales was investigated with scanning electron microscope (SEM) and environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM). Photomicrographs were analyzed using image analysis software. Goniometric color or iridescence in blue and green colored scales of this butterfly was observed and studied with the help of gonio spectrophotometer in the visible range. No iridescence was observed in brown colored scales of the butterfly. Hues of the blue and green color were measured with spectrophotometer and were correlated with nano-architecture of the wing. Results of electron microscopy and reflection spectroscopy are used to explain the iridescent nature of blue and green scales. Sinusoidal grating like structures of these scales were prominently seen in the blue scales. It is possible that the structure of these wings can act as a template for the fabrication of sinusoidal gratings using nano-imprint technology.

  9. [Moyse Charas, apothecary and medical doctor (Uzés 1619 - Paris 1698)].

    PubMed

    Felix, Fred W

    2002-01-01

    Some new information, based on many unedited documents is presented, in order to complete the biography of Moyse Charas, as published in this revue by Dorveaux (1929) and Bouvet (1949). The origin of the protestant family Charas lies in Pont-Saint-Espirt, from where the parents of Moyse Charas, passing Uzés, moved to Orange, where he took up the profession of apothecary and was declared Master by Frederick Henry, prince of Orange. Later, in Paris, he had contacts with the Dutch diplomat Constantijn Huygens and his son, the scientist Christiaan Huygens, and with the English physician and philosopher John Locke. After shorter visits to London and the Royal Society he lived there for a certain time, being called to contribute to cure King Charles II. He revisited Orange to get his promotion as a doctor of medicine. After having practised for some time in Holland he went to Spain for five years, as a physician of the embassy of the States General in Madrid and later in Galice. The last six months he suffered imprisonment by the Inquisition. Liberated after his conversion to Catholicism, he could finally return to Paris.

  10. French Ministry of Health's response to Paris attacks of 13 November 2015.

    PubMed

    Philippe, Jean-Marc; Brahic, Olivier; Carli, Pierre; Tourtier, Jean-Pierre; Riou, Bruno; Vallet, Benoit

    2016-01-01

    On Friday November 13th at 9:20 pm, three kamikaze bombs went off around the Stade de France a stadium in Saint-Denis just outside Paris, 4 different shootings took place and bombings in Paris and hundreds of people were held hostage in a theater.This multi-site terrorist attack was the first of this magnitude in France. Drawing the lessons of these attacks and those which occurred in other countries from a health perspective is essential to continuously adapt and improve the French response to possible future attacks. Several issues would need to be further explored: Management of uncertainties: When to trigger the plans: after the 1st attack, the 2nd? When do attacks end and when to release mobilized resources? Management of victims: How to ensure that all victims are secured or taken care of? How to provide assistance when attacks are ongoing? Management of teams: Proper follow-up of persons involved in the response: health professionals, police and firemen, emergency call centers but also civil servants within administration that contributed to the response. Communication: Reactivity of all is a key element to secure appropriate resource is mobilized for the response. All actors have to be able to communicate quickly in a secured way. PMID:27039082

  11. 'A thorn in the side of European geodesy': measuring Paris-Greenwich longitude by electric telegraph.

    PubMed

    Kershaw, Michael

    2014-12-01

    The difference in longitude between the observatories of Paris and Greenwich was long of fundamental importance to geodesy, navigation and timekeeping. Measured many times and by many different means since the seventeenth century, the preferred method of the later nineteenth and early twentieth centuries made use of the electric telegraph. I describe here for the first time the four Paris-Greenwich telegraphic longitude determinations made between 1854 and 1902. Despite contemporary faith in the new technique, the first was soon found to be inaccurate; the second was a failure, ending in Anglo-French dispute over whose result was to be trusted; the third failed in exactly the same way; and when eventually the fourth was presented as a success, the evidence for that success was far from clear-cut. I use this as a case study in precision measurement, showing how mutual grounding between different measurement techniques, in the search for agreement between them, was an important force for change and improvement. I also show that better precision had more to do with the gradually improving methods of astronomical, time determination than with the singular innovation of the telegraph, thus emphasizing the importance of what have been described as 'observatory techniques' to nineteenth-century practices of precision measurement. PMID:25546999

  12. Experiences using SciPy for computer vision research

    SciTech Connect

    Eads, Damian R; Rosten, Edward J

    2008-01-01

    SciPy is an effective tool suite for prototyping new algorithms. We share some of our experiences using it for the first time to support our research in object detection. SciPy makes it easy to integrate C code, which is essential when algorithms operating on large data sets cannot be vectorized. The universality of Python, the language in which SciPy was written, gives the researcher access to a broader set of non-numerical libraries to support GUI development, interface with databases, manipulate graph structures. render 3D graphics, unpack binary files, etc. Python's extensive support for operator overloading makes SciPy's syntax as succinct as its competitors, MATLAB, Octave, and R. More profoundly, we found it easy to rework research code written with SciPy into a production application, deployable on numerous platforms.

  13. 75 FR 24747 - SCI, LLC/Zener-Rectifier Operations Division A Wholly Owned Subsidiary of SCI, LLC/ON...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... of SCI, LLC/ON Semiconductor, Phoenix, Arizona. The notice was published in the Federal Register on December 11, 2009 (74 FR 65795). At the request of the petitioner, the Department reviewed the... of SCI, LLC/ON Semiconductor Including On-Site Leased Workers From Superior Technical...

  14. Extending non-fatigue Mode I subcritical crack growth data to subcritical fatigue crack growth: Demonstration of the equivalence of the Charles' law and Paris law exponents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keanini, Russell; Eppes, Martha-Cary

    2016-04-01

    Paris's law connects fatigue-induced subcritical crack growth and fatigue loading. Environmentally-driven subcritical crack growth, while a random process, can be decomposed into a spectrum of cyclic processes, where each spectral component is governed by Paris's law. Unfortunately, almost no data exists concerning the Paris law exponent, m; rather, the great majority of existing sub-critical crack growth measurements on rock have been carried out via Mode I tensile tests, where corresponding data are generally correlated using Charles' law, and where the latter, similar to Paris's law, exposes a power law relationship between crack growth rate and stress intensity. In this study, a statistical argument is used to derive a simple, rigorous relationship between the all-important Paris law and Charles law exponents, m and n. This result has a significant practical implication: subcritical fatigue crack growth in rock, driven by various random environmental weathering processes can now be predicted using available Mode I stress corrosion indices, n.

  15. Opening Comments: SciDAC 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strayer, Michael

    2008-07-01

    Welcome to Seattle and the 2008 SciDAC Conference. This conference, the fourth in the series, is a continuation of the PI meetings we first began under SciDAC-1. I would like to start by thanking the organizing committee, and Rick Stevens in particular, for organizing this year's meeting. This morning I would like to look briefly at SciDAC, to give you a brief history of SciDAC and also look ahead to see where we plan to go over the next few years. I think the best description of SciDAC, at least the simulation part, comes from a quote from Dr Ray Orbach, DOE's Under Secretary for Science and Director of the Office of Science. In an interview that appeared in the SciDAC Review magazine, Dr Orbach said, `SciDAC is unique in the world. There isn't any other program like it anywhere else, and it has the remarkable ability to do science by bringing together physical scientists, mathematicians, applied mathematicians, and computer scientists who recognize that computation is not something you do at the end, but rather it needs to be built into the solution of the very problem that one is addressing'. Of course, that is extended not just to physical scientists, but also to biological scientists. This is a theme of computational science, this partnership among disciplines, which goes all the way back to the early 1980s and Ken Wilson. It's a unique thread within the Department of Energy. SciDAC-1, launched around the turn of the millennium, created a new generation of scientific simulation codes. It advocated building out mathematical and computing system software in support of science and a new collaboratory software environment for data. The original concept for SciDAC-1 had topical centers for the execution of the various science codes, but several corrections and adjustments were needed. The ASCR scientific computing infrastructure was also upgraded, providing the hardware facilities for the program. The computing facility that we had at that time was the big 3

  16. CO2 dispersion modelling over Paris region within the CO2-MEGAPARIS project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lac, C.; Donnelly, R. P.; Masson, V.; Pal, S.; Donier, S.; Queguiner, S.; Tanguy, G.; Ammoura, L.; Xueref-Remy, I.

    2012-10-01

    Accurate simulation of the spatial and temporal variability of tracer mixing ratios over urban areas is challenging, but essential in order to utilize CO2 measurements in an atmospheric inverse framework to better estimate regional CO2 fluxes. This study investigates the ability of a high-resolution model to simulate meteorological and CO2 fields around Paris agglomeration, during the March field campaign of the CO2-MEGAPARIS project. The mesoscale atmospheric model Meso-NH, running at 2 km horizontal resolution, is coupled with the Town-Energy Balance (TEB) urban canopy scheme and with the Interactions between Soil, Biosphere and Atmosphere CO2-reactive (ISBA-A-gs) surface scheme, allowing a full interaction of CO2 between the surface and the atmosphere. Statistical scores show a good representation of the Urban Heat Island (UHI) and urban-rural contrasts. Boundary layer heights (BLH) at urban, sub-urban and rural sites are well captured, especially the onset time of the BLH increase and its growth rate in the morning, that are essential for tall tower CO2 observatories. Only nocturnal BLH at sub-urban sites are slightly underestimated a few nights, with a bias less than 50 m. At Eiffel tower, the observed spikes of CO2 maxima occur every morning exactly at the time at which the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) growth reaches the measurement height. The timing of the CO2 cycle is well captured by the model, with only small biases on CO2 concentrations, mainly linked to the misrepresentation of anthropogenic emissions, as the Eiffel site is at the heart of trafic emission sources. At sub-urban ground stations, CO2 measurements exhibit maxima at the beginning and at the end of each night, when the ABL is fully contracted, with a very strong spatio-temporal variability. The CO2 cycle at these sites is generally well reproduced by the model, even if some biases on the nocturnal maxima appear in the Paris plume parly due to small errors on the vertical transport, or in

  17. The PCNA-associated protein PARI negatively regulates homologous recombination via the inhibition of DNA repair synthesis.

    PubMed

    Burkovics, Peter; Dome, Lili; Juhasz, Szilvia; Altmannova, Veronika; Sebesta, Marek; Pacesa, Martin; Fugger, Kasper; Sorensen, Claus Storgaard; Lee, Marietta Y W T; Haracska, Lajos; Krejci, Lumir

    2016-04-20

    Successful and accurate completion of the replication of damage-containing DNA requires mainly recombination and RAD18-dependent DNA damage tolerance pathways. RAD18 governs at least two distinct mechanisms: translesion synthesis (TLS) and template switching (TS)-dependent pathways. Whereas TS is mainly error-free, TLS can work in an error-prone manner and, as such, the regulation of these pathways requires tight control to prevent DNA errors and potentially oncogenic transformation and tumorigenesis. In humans, the PCNA-associated recombination inhibitor (PARI) protein has recently been shown to inhibit homologous recombination (HR) events. Here, we describe a biochemical mechanism in which PARI functions as an HR regulator after replication fork stalling and during double-strand break repair. In our reconstituted biochemical system, we show that PARI inhibits DNA repair synthesis during recombination events in a PCNA interaction-dependent way but independently of its UvrD-like helicase domain. In accordance, we demonstrate that PARI inhibits HR in vivo, and its knockdown suppresses the UV sensitivity of RAD18-depleted cells. Our data reveal a novel human regulatory mechanism that limits the extent of HR and represents a new potential target for anticancer therapy.

  18. Choosing the Local School: Middle Class Parents' Values and Social and Ethnic Mix in London and Paris

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raveaud, Maroussia; Zanten, Agnes Van

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses a specific kind of choice, choice of the local school, by a specific middle class group, characterized by its high cultural capital, its "caring" perspective and liberal political orientation, in two cosmopolitan, "mixed" settings, London and Paris, with a focus on values and how ethical dilemmas raised by confrontation with…

  19. EPA's science blog: "It All Starts with Science"; Article title: "EPA's Solvent Substitution Software Tool, PARIS III"

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's solvent substitution software tool, PARIS III is provided by the EPA for free, and can be effective and efficiently used to help environmentally-conscious individuals find better and greener solvent mixtures for many different common industrial processes. People can downlo...

  20. Increased incidence of Campylobacter jejuni-associated Guillain-Barré syndromes in the Greater Paris area.

    PubMed

    Sivadon-Tardy, V; Porcher, R; Orlikowski, D; Ronco, E; Gault, E; Roussi, J; Durand, M-C; Sharshar, T; Annane, D; Raphael, J-C; Megraud, F; Gaillard, J-L

    2014-08-01

    The role of Campylobacter jejuni as the triggering agent of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) has not been reassessed since the end of the 1990s in France. We report that the number of C. jejuni-related GBS cases increased continuously between 1996 and 2007 in the Paris region (mean annual increment: 7%, P = 0·007).

  1. Powered two-wheelers road accidents and their risk perception in dense urban areas: case of Paris.

    PubMed

    Maestracci, Marion; Prochasson, François; Geffroy, Aurélie; Peccoud, Florian

    2012-11-01

    For a few years, the use of powered two-wheelers has taken off in Paris. It then became critical for the City of Paris to understand both the mechanisms leading to traffic accidents involving at least one powered two-wheelers user and the perception of their risk when riding in dense urban areas. In so doing, two studies were carried out along similar lines so that their results could be compared. The first study focused on the perception of situations where accidents are most likely to occur. The second one was an analysis of police reports of accidents involving at least one powered two-wheelers and the drawing-up of prototypical accident scenarios. Comparing the results of the two studies revealed a gap between perceived and objective risks of these users. In fact, they rather fear the situations during which a car driver is changing lanes, while accidents involving them occur more often when a car driver turns (right, left or U). Knowledge of this dissonance in terms of awareness of road risks for powered two-wheelers and equally, other road users, will give the City of Paris food for thought. The promising results of this study have encouraged the City of Paris to extend it to other types of users, such as cyclists or elderly pedestrians.

  2. 75 FR 34180 - Paris Accessories, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Job Connections, New Smithsville...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... Register on April 23, 2010 (75 FR 21363). In the request for reconsideration, the petitioner stated that... Employment and Training Administration Paris Accessories, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Job... workers from Job Connections, who are engaged in employment related to the assembly and packaging...

  3. Theoretical value of Newtonian constant G confirmed by the International Bureau of Weights & Measures in Paris, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omerbashich, Mensur

    2015-01-01

    World oldest authority for scientific constants and the keeper of the original metre standard, the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM) in Paris, France has accomplished a historic confirmation of the Omerbashich's (first-ever) scientific prediction of value of the Newtonian gravitational constant G.

  4. Wintertime aerosol chemical composition and source apportionment of the organic fraction in the metropolitan area of Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crippa, M.; DeCarlo, P. F.; Slowik, J. G.; Mohr, C.; Heringa, M. F.; Chirico, R.; Poulain, L.; Freutel, F.; Sciare, J.; Cozic, J.; Di Marco, C. F.; Elsasser, M.; Nicolas, J. B.; Marchand, N.; Abidi, E.; Wiedensohler, A.; Drewnick, F.; Schneider, J.; Borrmann, S.; Nemitz, E.; Zimmermann, R.; Jaffrezo, J.-L.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Baltensperger, U.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of a post-industrial megacity on local and regional air quality was assessed via a month-long field measurement campaign in the Paris metropolitan area during winter 2010. Here we present source apportionment results from three aerosol mass spectrometers and two aethalometers deployed at three measurement stations within the Paris region. Submicron aerosol composition is dominated by the organic fraction (30-36%) and nitrate (28-29%), with lower contributions from sulfate (14-16%), ammonium (12-14%) and black carbon (7-13%). Organic source apportionment was performed using positive matrix factorization, resulting in a set of organic factors corresponding both to primary emission sources and secondary production. The dominant primary sources are traffic (11-15% of organic mass), biomass burning (13-15%) and cooking (up to 35% during meal hours). Secondary organic aerosol contributes more than 50% to the total organic mass and includes a highly oxidized factor from indeterminate and/or diverse sources and a less oxidized factor related to wood burning emissions. Black carbon was apportioned to traffic and wood burning sources using a model based on wavelength-dependent light absorption of these two combustion sources. The time series of organic and black carbon factors from related sources were strongly correlated. The similarities in aerosol composition, total mass and temporal variation between the three sites suggest that particulate pollution in Paris is dominated by regional factors, and that the emissions from Paris itself have a relatively low impact on its surroundings.

  5. Opening Remarks: SciDAC 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strayer, Michael

    2007-09-01

    Good morning. Welcome to Boston, the home of the Red Sox, Celtics and Bruins, baked beans, tea parties, Robert Parker, and SciDAC 2007. A year ago I stood before you to share the legacy of the first SciDAC program and identify the challenges that we must address on the road to petascale computing—a road E E Cummins described as `. . . never traveled, gladly beyond any experience.' Today, I want to explore the preparations for the rapidly approaching extreme scale (X-scale) generation. These preparations are the first step propelling us along the road of burgeoning scientific discovery enabled by the application of X- scale computing. We look to petascale computing and beyond to open up a world of discovery that cuts across scientific fields and leads us to a greater understanding of not only our world, but our universe. As part of the President's America Competitiveness Initiative, the ASCR Office has been preparing a ten year vision for computing. As part of this planning the LBNL together with ORNL and ANL hosted three town hall meetings on Simulation and Modeling at the Exascale for Energy, Ecological Sustainability and Global Security (E3). The proposed E3 initiative is organized around four programmatic themes: Engaging our top scientists, engineers, computer scientists and applied mathematicians; investing in pioneering large-scale science; developing scalable analysis algorithms, and storage architectures to accelerate discovery; and accelerating the build-out and future development of the DOE open computing facilities. It is clear that we have only just started down the path to extreme scale computing. Plan to attend Thursday's session on the out-briefing and discussion of these meetings. The road to the petascale has been at best rocky. In FY07, the continuing resolution provided 12% less money for Advanced Scientific Computing than either the President, the Senate, or the House. As a consequence, many of you had to absorb a no cost extension for your

  6. Developmental and maladaptive plasticity in neonatal SCI.

    PubMed

    Pape, Karen E

    2012-06-01

    Babies and young children with early spinal cord injury (SCI) have evidence of an improved level of recovery over an extended time period. Enhanced neuroplasticity is well recognized in neonatal animal models. In the young human, developmental apraxia and learned early habitual movements mask expression of residual or recovered motor function. Techniques providing sensorimotor stimulation with threshold electrical stimulation (TES) and EMG triggered stimulation (ETS) act to increase awareness and useful function. Small cohort size and prolonged developmental maturation argue for the use of single subject research designs in this population. PMID:22306423

  7. [Innovations in medical undergraduate pathology education: The Paris Descartes medicine faculty experience].

    PubMed

    Just, Pierre-Alexandre; Verkarre, Virginie; Mansuet-Lupo, Audrey; Rabant, Marion; Daniliuc, Cristina; Radenen, Brigitte; Harent, Marion; Cassanelli, Lucien; Cherel, Éric; Javaux, Hubert; Tesniere, Antoine; Terris, Benoît; Badoual, Cécile

    2016-08-01

    At the Paris Descartes medicine faculty, we tested some newly developed tools to enhance the pedagogic value of the pathology teaching. In our faculty, this teaching is largely multidisciplinary and integrated in various teaching units; a large part is dedicated to practice works with thirteen 90min sessions. Virtual slides have been used for years in numerous medicine faculties; we successfully implemented this tool by adding contextual annotations, which facilitate students revising. We showed that rewarding students' assiduity enhanced their exam success. To do so, we now propose a short continuous assessment exam at the beginning of each practice session in the form of electronic multi-choice questions. Finally, we now propose a completely computerized final exam, on touchpads, that enhanced its docimologic value. PMID:27475003

  8. Telephone survey of hospital staff knowledge of medical device surveillance in a Paris hospital.

    PubMed

    Mazeau, Valérie; Grenier-Sennelier, Catherine; Paturel, Denys Xavier; Mokhtari, Mostafa; Vidal-Trecan, Gwenaëlle

    2004-12-01

    Reporting of incidents or near incidents because of medical devices in French hospitals relies on procedures following European and national guidelines. The authors intend to evaluate hospital staff knowledge on these surveillance procedures as a marker of appropriate application. A telephone survey is conducted on a sample of Paris University hospital staff (n = 327) using a structured questionnaire. Two-hundred sixteen persons completed the questionnaire. The response rate was lower among physicians, especially surgeons paid on an hourly basis. Rates of correct answers were different according to age, seniority, job, and department categories. Physicians and nurses correctly answered questions on theoretical knowledge more often than the other job categories. However, on questions dealing with actual practice conditions, correct answers depended more on age and seniority with a U-shaped distribution (minimum rates in intermediate categories of age and seniority). PMID:15492050

  9. Hearing Pygmalion's Kiss: A Scientific Object at the Paris Opéra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, Kevin

    2014-12-01

    In 1748, in his acte de ballet Pygmalion, composer and music theorist Jean-Philippe Rameau arranged the Paris Opéra orchestra to play "nature's chord," harmonies that reproduced the overtones an expert ear could detect in every natural musical vibrating body. The following year Rameau presented his music theory to the French Royal Academy of Sciences for their endorsement. Disillusionment with the promise of Cartesian mechanics as a source of a unified understanding of nature opened up the possibility that matter might have properties beyond extension and motion, such as aversion, desire, and memory. Speculations about this material sensibility also coincided with increasing claims about the authority of spontaneous emotion and feeling. The experience of music at the opera was a significant resource for claims about the cultural authority of sensibility.

  10. Beyond the genomics blueprint: the 4th Human Variome Project Meeting, UNESCO, Paris, 2012.

    PubMed

    Kohonen-Corish, Maija R J; Smith, Timothy D; Robinson, Helen M

    2013-07-01

    The 4th Biennial Meeting of the Human Variome Project Consortium was held at the headquarters of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) in Paris, 11-15 June 2012. The Human Variome Project, a nongovernmental organization and an official partner of UNESCO, enables the routine collection, curation, interpretation, and sharing of information on all human genetic variation. This meeting was attended by more than 180 delegates from 39 countries and continued the theme of addressing issues of implementation in this unique project. The meeting was structured around the four main themes of the Human Variome Project strategic plan, "Project Roadmap 2012-2016": setting normative function, behaving ethically, sharing knowledge, and building capacity. During the meeting, the members held extensive discussions to formulate an action plan in the key areas of the Human Variome Project. The actions agreed on were promulgated at the Project's two Advisory Council and Scientific Advisory Committee postconference meetings.

  11. Allergic contact dermatitis due to benzalkonium chloride in plaster of Paris.

    PubMed

    Wong, D A; Watson, A B

    2001-02-01

    Plaster of Paris (POP) bandages are extensively used for splinting and casting injured or surgically repaired body parts. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by POP has been reported only rarely in the medical literature. An 81-year-old woman developed multiple large, tense, haemorrhagic bullae on the palm, and an acute vesicular eczematous eruption on the forearm, after the application of a POP splint. Subsequent patch testing revealed positive reactions to both the POP bandage used and to benzalkonium chloride, a component of the POP formulation. Patch tests to two other POP products without benzalkonium chloride were negative. These results confirm those of previous studies which have implicated the quaternary ammonium compound benzalkonium chloride as the allergen responsible for POP-induced allergic contact dermatitis.

  12. New characterization aspects of carbonate accumulation horizons in Chalky Champagne (NE of the Paris Basin, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linoir, Damien; Thomachot-Schneider, Céline; Gommeaux, Maxime; Fronteau, Gilles; Barbin, Vincent

    2016-05-01

    The soil profiles of the Champagne area (NE of Paris Basin, France) occasionally show carbonate accumulation horizons (CAHs). From the top to the bottom, these soil profiles include a rendic leptosol horizon, a Quaternary cryoturbated paleosol (QCP), and a chalky substratum. The CAHs are located in the top part of the QCP. This study is aimed at highlighting the specific characteristics of CAHs compared to other soil profile horizons using geophysics, geochemistry, micromorphology, and mercury injection porosimetry. It is the first essential step for understanding the impact of CAHs on water transfers into the Champagne soil profiles. Our analyses show that Champagne CAHs are not systematically characterized by a typical induration unlike generally put forward in the regional literature. They are more porous and heterogeneous than their parent material (QCP). Carbonate accumulation horizons are also characterized by singular colorimetric parameters that are linked to their geochemical specific content, even if they bear a signature of the initial QCP before the pedogenic modification.

  13. Social suffering and anxiety: deciphering coughs and colds at Akan anti-witchcraft shrines in Paris.

    PubMed

    Parish, Jane

    2011-12-01

    In treating illness and suffering, the Akan anti-witchcraft shrine is often presented as a model of unchanging, tightly bounded and antiquated ideals. This fails to acknowledge the extensive repertoire of Ghanaian witchcraft discourses and contemporary divinatory practices uncovered at Akan anti-witchcraft shrines. This paper analyses how one of the most popular Akan anti-witchcraft shrine in Europe, in an eastern banlieue of Paris, diagnoses the seemingly common and innocuous coughs and colds suffered by recently arrived, unskilled female Ghanaian migrants as something more socially and economically malignant, witchcraft. Successful treatment combines divinatory techniques, paracetamol medicines and positive thinking in order to empower clients and present them with the possibility of new social and gainful employment prospects.

  14. Steroidal saponins from stems and leaves of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xu-Jie; Yu, Mu-Yuan; Ni, Wei; Yan, Huan; Chen, Chang-Xiang; Cheng, Yung-Chi; He, Li; Liu, Hai-Yang

    2016-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the stems and leaves of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis led to isolation of 12 steroidal saponins, chonglouosides SL-9-SL-20, which had not been described previously, along with 13 known compounds. Their structures were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis and chemical methods. Four of the twelve steroidal saponins possessed three steroidal aglycones which have not been reported in nature. Steroidal saponins were also evaluated for their cytotoxicities against two human cancer cell lines (HepG2 and HEK293) and anti-HCV effects. One known steroidal saponin was the most cytotoxic compound overall with IC50 values of 2.9 ± 0.5 μM and 5.0 ± 0.6 μM against HepG2 and HEK293 cell lines, respectively, while none showed anti-HCV activity at a concentration of 20 μM.

  15. Fossil echinoid (Echinoidea, Echinodermata) diversity of the Early Cretaceous (Hauterivian) in the Paris Basin (France).

    PubMed

    Benetti, Sophie; Saucède, Thomas; David, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    This dataset inventories occurrence records of fossil echinoid specimens collected in the Calcaires à Spatangues Formation (CSF) that crops out in the southeast of the Paris Basin (France), and is dated from the Acanthodiscus radiatus chronozone (ca. 132 Ma, early Hauterivian, Early Cretaceous). Fossil richness and abundance of the CSF has attracted the attention of palaeontologists since the middle of the nineteenth century. This dataset compiles occurrence data (referenced by locality names and geographic coordinates with decimal numbers) of fossil echinoids both collated from the literature published over a century and a half, and completed by data from collection specimens. The dataset also gives information on taxonomy (from species to order and higher taxonomic levels), which has been checked for reliability and consistency. It compiles a total of 628 georeferenced occurrence data of 26 echinoid species represented by 22 genera, 14 families, and 9 orders. PMID:24003321

  16. Atrioventricular valves development in human heart: the Paris embryological collection revisited.

    PubMed

    Mandarim-de-Lacerda, C A

    1989-01-01

    29 human embryos staging from stage 15 to stage 23 (post-somitic period, collection of the UER Biomedicale des Saints-Péres, Université René Descartes Paris V) have been studied. The most important morphological events of the atrioventricular valves development have been reinvestigated and photographed. This is a complementary information about cardiac development analysing this french collection of human embryos (Mandarim-de-Lacerda, in press). At stage 15, we can observe the gelatinous reticulum well organized when cardiac valves will become established; progressively the fused endocardial cushions and right and left lateral cushions encircle the atrioventricular channels indicating the site of the tricuspid valves. These cushions, however, have a temporary influence being replaced gradually by atrial and ventricular myocardium. At stage 23, the heart presents a complete atrioventricular valvular structure.

  17. An Account of the Inaugural Tessier Skull Exhibition at the University of Paris Descartes.

    PubMed

    Dusseldorp, Joseph Richard; Firmin, Françoise

    2015-10-01

    Paul Tessier is widely regarded as the father of modern craniofacial surgery. Upon his passing in 2008, his private collection of human skulls was purchased by the French Association of Facial Surgeons to ensure the collection would remain in France. The first public exhibition of the skulls was held in the medical museum of the University of Paris Descartes in April 2014. From this collection of skulls and the imagination of Tessier an entirely new specialty was created. Modern craniofacial surgery, now is an integral part of any pediatric plastic surgery department. Cranial and facial osteotomies have also become commonplace in both traumatic and aesthetic surgery. The goals for craniofacial deformity are now a return to completely normal appearance and function, as Tessier always believed they should be.

  18. Breakthrough in cardiac arrest: reports from the 4th Paris International Conference.

    PubMed

    Kudenchuk, Peter J; Sandroni, Claudio; Drinhaus, Hendrik R; Böttiger, Bernd W; Cariou, Alain; Sunde, Kjetil; Dworschak, Martin; Taccone, Fabio Silvio; Deye, Nicolas; Friberg, Hans; Laureys, Steven; Ledoux, Didier; Oddo, Mauro; Legriel, Stéphane; Hantson, Philippe; Diehl, Jean-Luc; Laterre, Pierre-Francois

    2015-12-01

    Jean-Luc Diehl The French Intensive Care Society organized on 5th and 6th June 2014 its 4th "Paris International Conference in Intensive Care", whose principle is to bring together the best international experts on a hot topic in critical care medicine. The 2014 theme was "Breakthrough in cardiac arrest", with many high-quality updates on epidemiology, public health data, pre-hospital and in-ICU cares. The present review includes short summaries of the major presentations, classified into six main chapters: Epidemiology of CA Pre-hospital management Post-resuscitation management: targeted temperature management Post-resuscitation management: optimizing organ perfusion and metabolic parameters Neurological assessment of brain damages Public healthcare. PMID:26380990

  19. School Choice in London and Paris – A Comparison of Middle-class Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Michaela; Bridge, Gary; Wilson, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Education is one major public service in which quasi-markets and other choice-based mechanisms are now established methods of delivery. The types of school people choose, and the extent to which their choices are realized, have a fundamental impact on the outcomes of any mechanism of school choice. In this article, we provide a comparative analysis of the school choice strategies of middle-class families in London and Paris. We draw on approximately 200 in-depth interviews carried out across the two cities. This enables us to investigate the extent to which middle-class school choice strategies transcend the institutional context provided by both the local (state and private) schools market and national education policy in England and France. We discuss these findings in the context of current school choice policy and consider their implications for future policy design. PMID:25750467

  20. Astronomy and Astrophysics at the Observatoire de Paris in the Belle Epoque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Débarbat, Suzanne

    The Belle Epoque considered at the Paris Observatory lies from about two decades before 1900 up to the beginning of World War I. Four directors were at its head during those years: Admiral Ernest Barthélémy Mouchez (1821-1892) from 1878 up to 1892, François-Félix Tisserand (1845-1896) during only four years between 1892 and 1896, Maurice Loewy (1833-1907) from 1897 to 1907, and Benjamin Baillaud (1848-1934) from 1908 up to 1926, a long mandate which which ended seven years after the end of World War I. All of them have marked the Observatory and its activities in different fields.

  1. Fossil echinoid (Echinoidea, Echinodermata) diversity of the Early Cretaceous (Hauterivian) in the Paris Basin (France)

    PubMed Central

    Benetti, Sophie; Saucède, Thomas; David, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This dataset inventories occurrence records of fossil echinoid specimens collected in the Calcaires à Spatangues Formation (CSF) that crops out in the southeast of the Paris Basin (France), and is dated from the Acanthodiscus radiatus chronozone (ca. 132 Ma, early Hauterivian, Early Cretaceous). Fossil richness and abundance of the CSF has attracted the attention of palaeontologists since the middle of the nineteenth century. This dataset compiles occurrence data (referenced by locality names and geographic coordinates with decimal numbers) of fossil echinoids both collated from the literature published over a century and a half, and completed by data from collection specimens. The dataset also gives information on taxonomy (from species to order and higher taxonomic levels), which has been checked for reliability and consistency. It compiles a total of 628 georeferenced occurrence data of 26 echinoid species represented by 22 genera, 14 families, and 9 orders. PMID:24003321

  2. New steroidal saponins from the rhizomes of Paris delavayi and their cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Tian, Xiangrong; Hua, Dong; Cheng, Guang; Wang, Kaixing; Zhang, Lihan; Tang, Haifeng; Wang, Minchang

    2016-06-01

    Four new furostanol saponins, named padelaosides C-F (1-4), together with four known spirostanol saponins 5-8 were isolated from the rhizomes of Paris delavayi Franchet. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis and chemical evidences. The discovery of the new compounds 1-4 extended the diversity and complexity of this furostanol saponin family. The cytotoxicity of all the saponins was evaluated for their cytotoxicity against human glioblastoma U87MG and human hepatocellular carcinoma Hep-G2 cell lines. The known spirostanol saponins 7 and 8 exhibited notable cytotoxicity against the two tumor cell lines with IC50 values of 1.13 and 3.42μM, respectively, while the new furostanol saponins 3 and 4 showed moderate cytotoxicity with IC50 values of 15.28 to 16.98μM. PMID:27118322

  3. Antinucleon-nucleus interaction near threshold from the Paris N bar N potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, E.; Gal, A.; Loiseau, B.; Wycech, S.

    2015-11-01

    A general algorithm for handling the energy dependence of hadron-nucleon amplitudes in the nuclear medium, consistently with their density dependence, has been recently applied to antikaons, eta mesons and pions interacting with nuclei. Here we apply this approach to antiprotons below threshold, analyzing experimental results for antiprotonic atoms across the periodic table. It is also applied to antiproton and antineutron interactions with nuclei up to 400 MeV/c, comparing with elastic scattering and annihilation cross sections. The underlying p bar N scattering amplitudes are derived from the Paris N bar N potential, including in-medium modifications. Emphasis is placed on the role of the P-wave amplitudes with respect to the repulsive S-wave amplitudes.

  4. Dominance of Paris-type morphology on mycothallus of Lunularia cruciata colonised by Glomus proliferum

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Henrique M.A.C.; Ferreira, Joana I.L.; Berbara, Ricardo L.L.; Zatorre, Natalia P.

    2009-01-01

    Microscopic evidence confirms that L. cruciata hosting G. proliferum shows major anatomical traits (arbuscules, coils, arbusculate coils and vesicles) generally associated arbuscular mycorrhizal roots and the anatomical morphology of intra-thalli mycelium is predominantly of the Paris-type. Colonised L. cruciata showed a reduction of biomass when compared with axenic plants suggesting a drain of resources towards the fungus and depletion of nutrients required for optimum plant growth. The behaviour of mycothalli regarding available KH2PO4 indicates that the nutritional stress threshold for phosphorus (P) is above the residual amount of P already present in PhytagelTM and in plant inoculum. These raise the possibility that in certain circumstances the relationship between L. cruciata and G. proliferum be parasitic rather than symbiotic and open the door for future studies to ascertain the nature of liverwort-AM fungi relationships. PMID:24031325

  5. Job accessibility, residential segregation and risk of long-term unemployment in the Paris region.

    PubMed

    Korsu, Emre; Wenglenski, Sandrine

    2010-01-01

    The research presented in this paper explores, in the French context, the hypothesis that employment problems experienced by low-skilled jobseekers are partially caused by spatial urban factors. Many low-skilled workers live in poor neighbourhoods where they are exposed to a distressed social environment and/or weak job accessibility. For reasons discussed in this article, living in such neighbourhoods may increase the duration of unemployment for jobseekers. On the basis of an empirical study, this hypothesis is tested in the Paris-Ile-de-France metropolitan area and addresses the question: all other things being equal, are low-skilled workers living in high-poverty neighbourhoods and/or neighbourhoods with low job accessibility exposed to a greater risk of long-term unemployment? PMID:20845591

  6. [Comunities of knowledge. Schools and colleges in Paris in the XIIIth century].

    PubMed

    Mews, Constant J

    2008-01-01

    The social and institutional history of the university of Paris still frequently remains detached from the study of the intellectual dynamics which were produced in its midst. The concept of "communities of knowledge" allows us to fill this gap by narrowly associating the history of knowledge to its concrete conditions of production and teaching. This model permits us to give attention to the maintenance, in the midst of the Parisian university of diverse "schools" endowed with orientations and specific programmes of research. The appearance of colleges can equally be situated in this perspective, which permits us to better grasp the interaction between the political and intellectual stakes which lay stress on the history of the university in the XIIIth century. Finally, it neveals the image of an institution more fragmented than unified. PMID:19391382

  7. The research school of Marie Curie in the Paris faculty, 1907-14.

    PubMed

    Davis, J L

    1995-07-01

    As the most famous woman scientist of the twentieth century, there has been no shortage of books and articles on the life and career of Marie Curie (1867-1934). Her role as director of a laboratory-based research school in the new scientific field of radioactivity, a field which embraced both chemistry and physics, however, has never been examined. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the question of research schools, and Morrell, Ravetz, Geison, and Klosterman, amongst others, have written on this subject. Using, in part, the methodology of Morrell, this paper investigates the role of Marie Curie as a school director in the Paris Faculty in the years 1907-14, examining the work and characteristics of her school and assessing her effectiveness as a director.

  8. Homicide followed by suicide: Paris and its suburbs, 1991-1996.

    PubMed

    Lecomte, D; Fornes, P

    1998-07-01

    Homicide-suicides (HS) are relatively infrequent events. Yet, they are of great concern because they often result in the death of family members, young children, and cause additional morbidity, family disruption and childhood psychological trauma. The aims of our study were (a) to examine the sociodemographic, clinical, and autopsy characteristics of HS in Paris and its suburbs from 1991 through 1996, and (b) to analyze the psychodynamic determinants leading up to the onset of HS. Our findings are compared with those obtained in other international studies. For the purpose of the present study. HS was defined as a violent event in which an individual committed homicide and subsequently committed suicide within a few hours. The main results are as follows. During the six-year study period, 56 HS involving 133 victims were investigated at the Institute of Forensic Medicine of Paris. Seventeen events occurred in Paris and 39 in its suburbs. Paris has a population of approximately 2,200,000 while its suburbs are home to another 8,5000,000. Of the 56 offenders, 48 (85%) were males. The mean age of offenders was 51 years in males (range, 24 to 83) and 40.5 years in females (range, 33 to 56). In 45 events (80%), the offenders used a gun for both the homicide and suicide. A knife was used in only 4 murders, strangulation in 4 other cases, with poisoning, arson, or beating occurring in one case each. In 9 cases, the offender used a different weapon for homicide and suicide. Among firearms, handguns were more likely to be used (26 cases) than shotguns (6 cases) or rifles (13 cases). In 40 cases the offender killed one victim, in 11 cases 2 victims, and in 5 cases 3 victims. The homicide victims consisted of 34 children (21 boys), mean age 8 years (range, 1 to 16), 29 spouses (26 females), 2 girlfriends, 10 strangers, and 2 relatives. Five pets were killed. HS were most likely to be committed in the home. A suicide note was found near the victims in 29 cases (50% of events

  9. An Account of the Inaugural Tessier Skull Exhibition at the University of Paris Descartes.

    PubMed

    Dusseldorp, Joseph Richard; Firmin, Françoise

    2015-10-01

    Paul Tessier is widely regarded as the father of modern craniofacial surgery. Upon his passing in 2008, his private collection of human skulls was purchased by the French Association of Facial Surgeons to ensure the collection would remain in France. The first public exhibition of the skulls was held in the medical museum of the University of Paris Descartes in April 2014. From this collection of skulls and the imagination of Tessier an entirely new specialty was created. Modern craniofacial surgery, now is an integral part of any pediatric plastic surgery department. Cranial and facial osteotomies have also become commonplace in both traumatic and aesthetic surgery. The goals for craniofacial deformity are now a return to completely normal appearance and function, as Tessier always believed they should be. PMID:26468782

  10. [Innovations in medical undergraduate pathology education: The Paris Descartes medicine faculty experience].

    PubMed

    Just, Pierre-Alexandre; Verkarre, Virginie; Mansuet-Lupo, Audrey; Rabant, Marion; Daniliuc, Cristina; Radenen, Brigitte; Harent, Marion; Cassanelli, Lucien; Cherel, Éric; Javaux, Hubert; Tesniere, Antoine; Terris, Benoît; Badoual, Cécile

    2016-08-01

    At the Paris Descartes medicine faculty, we tested some newly developed tools to enhance the pedagogic value of the pathology teaching. In our faculty, this teaching is largely multidisciplinary and integrated in various teaching units; a large part is dedicated to practice works with thirteen 90min sessions. Virtual slides have been used for years in numerous medicine faculties; we successfully implemented this tool by adding contextual annotations, which facilitate students revising. We showed that rewarding students' assiduity enhanced their exam success. To do so, we now propose a short continuous assessment exam at the beginning of each practice session in the form of electronic multi-choice questions. Finally, we now propose a completely computerized final exam, on touchpads, that enhanced its docimologic value.

  11. Quantification of palaeoclimatic effects on heat flow in the Paris basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dentzer, Jacques; Lopez, Simon; Violette, Sophie; Bruel, Dominique

    2015-04-01

    Deep geothermal resources of the Paris basin have been harnessed for more than 40 years with nearly 40 operating plants supplying heat to district networks in the Parisian suburbs. The target of all these operations is the deep "Dogger" aquifer. Though these areas are densely exploited, no thermal breakthrough has been observed yet, except for a few isolated cases. As new geothermal projects are currently scheduled, heat transfers and thermal anomalies are now quantified considering the whole sedimentary pile. At this scale, thermal profiles are particularly relevant to discriminate different possible causes for the observed temperature and heat flow anomalies. Based on 10 thermal profiles in the centre of the Paris basin, a mean heat flow profile is reassessed. For each geological formation, a mean thermal gradient is estimated and heat flow is calculated with an averaged formation thermal conductivity. A simple 1D conductive numerical model is then set up with 19 sedimentary layers and a bedrock layer. Palaeoclimatic effects are quantified by testing different published temperature scenarios. These scenarios cover time scales ranging from 65 ky to 5 My. Although the uncertainty on heat flow derived from thermal profiles is around +/- 15 mW/m2, the model reproduces satisfactorily the main heat flow anomaly present in the upper part of the basin, with heat flow decreasing from 85 mW/m2 at 1200 m depth to less than 60 mW/m2 at the surface. Consequently, climatic variations over a long period of time (5 My scenario) seem enough to reproduce this anomaly correctly, which was previously attributed to convective effects. Yet, smaller scale heat flow fluctuations match aquifer levels exactly and are probably related to (relatively) short time convective water transfers at the basin scale.

  12. Surveys, Fields, and Collections in the Astronomical Photographic Data Archive at PARI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cline, J. D.; Castelaz, M. W.; Barker, T.

    2014-01-01

    A diverse set of photometric, astrometric, spectral and surface brightness data exist on more than 100 years of photographic glass plates. About 20 percent of the plates in North America are located in the Astronomical Photographic Data Archive (APDA) at the Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI). APDA was established in November 2007 and is dedicated to the task of collecting, restoring, preserving and storing astronomical photographic data and PARI continues to accept collections. APDA is also tasked with scanning each image and establishing a database of images that can be accessed via the Internet by the global community of scientists, researchers and students. APDA is a new type of astronomical observatory - one that harnesses analog data of the night sky taken for more than a century and making that data available in a digital format. APDA currently has 50 collections with more than 250,000 plates taken for QSO identification, parallax measurements, spectral classification and monitoring, Magellanic Cloud studies, H-alpha emission star surveys, novae evolution, and astrometry of asteroids, outer planet satellites and Pluto. Some examples of collections include the complete set of the Henize H-alpha Southern Survey plates taken between 1949 and 1952 (Henize 1954, AJ, 59, 325), the Case Western Objective Prism All Sky Survey from 1958-1976 (e.g. Pesch, Sanduleak, and Stephenson 1996, ApJS, 103, 513), and QSO Survey from 1980 to 1991 (e.g. Pesch and Stephenson 1983, ApJS, 51, 171). We feature the contents of the APDA collections to provide the opportunity to the astronomical community to advance new and established areas of study.

  13. An attempt at estimating Paris area CO2 emissions from atmospheric concentration measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bréon, F. M.; Broquet, G.; Puygrenier, V.; Chevallier, F.; Xueref-Rémy, I.; Ramonet, M.; Dieudonné, E.; Lopez, M.; Schmidt, M.; Perrussel, O.; Ciais, P.

    2014-04-01

    Atmospheric concentration measurements are used to adjust the daily to monthly budget of CO2 emissions from the AirParif inventory of the Paris agglomeration. We use 5 atmospheric monitoring sites including one at the top of the Eiffel tower. The atmospheric inversion is based on a Bayesian approach, and relies on an atmospheric transport model with a spatial resolution of 2 km with boundary conditions from a global coarse grid transport model. The inversion tool adjusts the CO2 fluxes (anthropogenic and biogenic) with a temporal resolution of 6 h, assuming temporal correlation of emissions uncertainties within the daily cycle and from day to day, while keeping the a priori spatial distribution from the emission inventory. The inversion significantly improves the agreement between measured and modelled concentrations. However, the amplitude of the atmospheric transport errors is often large compared to the CO2 gradients between the sites that are used to estimate the fluxes, in particular for the Eiffel tower station. In addition, we sometime observe large model-measurement differences upwind from the Paris agglomeration, which confirms the large and poorly constrained contribution from distant sources and sinks included in the prescribed CO2 boundary conditions These results suggest that (i) the Eiffel measurements at 300 m above ground cannot be used with the current system and (ii) the inversion shall rely on the measured upwind-downwind gradients rather than the raw mole fraction measurements. With such setup, realistic emissions are retrieved for two 30 day periods. Similar inversions over longer periods are necessary for a proper evaluation of the results.

  14. Link between aerosol optical, microphysical and chemical measurements in an underground railway station in Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raut, J.-C.; Chazette, P.; Fortain, A.

    Measurements carried out in Paris Magenta railway station in April-May 2006 underlined a repeatable diurnal cycle of aerosol concentrations and optical properties. The average daytime PM 10 and PM 2.5 concentrations in such a confined space were approximately 5-30 times higher than those measured in Paris streets. Particles are mainly constituted of dust, with high concentrations of iron and other metals, but are also composed of black and organic carbon. Aerosol levels are linked to the rate at which rain and people pass through the station. Concentrations are also influenced by ambient air from the nearby streets through tunnel ventilation. During daytime approximately 70% of aerosol mass concentrations are governed by coarse absorbing particles with a low Angström exponent (˜0.8) and a low single-scattering albedo (˜0.7). The corresponding aerosol density is about 2 g cm -3 and their complex refractive index at 355 nm is close to 1.56-0.035 i. The high absorption properties are linked to the significant proportion of iron oxides together with black carbon in braking systems. During the night, particles are mostly submicronic, thus presenting a greater Angström exponent (˜2). The aerosol density is lower (1.8 g cm -3) and their complex refractive index presents a lower imaginary part (1.58-0.013 i), associated to a stronger single-scattering albedo (˜0.85-0.90), mostly influenced by the ambient air. For the first time we have assessed the emission (deposition) rates in an underground station for PM 10, PM 2.5 and black carbon concentrations to be 3314 ± 781(-1164 ± 160), 1186 ± 358(-401 ± 66) and 167 ± 46(-25 ± 9) μg m -2 h -1, respectively.

  15. Urban metabolism and river systems: an historical perspective - Paris and the Seine, 1790-1970

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barles, S.

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse interaction between Paris and the Seine during the industrial era, 1790-1970, a period marked by strong population growth, changes in techniques, and the absence of specific legislation on environmental issues. The viewpoint focuses on exchanges of waters and wastes between city and river, quantifying them and tracing evolution in the light of the strategies implemented by the stakeholders in charge. The study combines industrial ecology, local history and the history of technology. From 1790 to 1850, waste matters, and especially excreta, were considered as raw materials, not refuse: they generated real profits. The removal of human excreta aimed not only at improving urban hygiene, but at producing the fertilizers needed in rural areas. Discharging them into the river was out of the question. But after the 1860s, several factors upset this exploitation, notably domestic water supply. Even so, Parisian engineers continued to process sewage using techniques that would not only ensure hygiene but also conciliate economic and agricultural interests. Both of these early periods are thus noteworthy for a relative limitation of the river's deterioration by urban wastes. Not until the 1920s, when domestic water supply had become the rule and excreta came to be considered as worthless waste, was the principle of valorisation abandoned. This led to important and long-lasting pollution of the Seine, aggravating the industrial pollution that had been in evidence since the 1840s. Analysing the priorities that led to the adoption of one principle or another in matters of urban hygiene and techniques, with the causes and consequences of such changes, enables us to understand the complex relations between Paris and the Seine. From raw material to waste matter, from river to drain, the concept of quality in environment remains the underlying theme.

  16. Deformations during uppermost Cretaceous-Early Eocene in NW Europe - The record of the Paris basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briais, Justine; Guillocheau, François; Robin, Cécile; Lasseur, Eric; Serrano, Olivier

    2014-05-01

    The uppermost Cretaceous to Early Paleocene is, in NW Europe, a period of major deformations with significant inversions during Turonian to Campanian times and during Early Paleocene. The mechanism of those inversions is still debated. Later on, a major uplift coeval with the Faroe-Shetland volcanic province occurred with a deformation regime still poorly understood. The objective of this study is to better constrain those deformations in the Paris Basin and to discuss their implications on the palaeogeography and the sedimentary systems. This study is based on well-dated wells and outcrops, correlated using the technique of "stacking pattern". In a second step, accommodation space measurements were performed from isopaches and facies maps. (1) The paroxysm of the deformation and the sharp decrease of the subsidence occurred between Late Campanian (with probably deposition of part of the Maastrichtian) and Early Danian, with the growth of a middle wavelength fold controlled by the Bray Fault. Danian carbonate platforms, mainly preserved south-west of Paris, are growing on unstable slightly consolidated chalk (numerous slumps). (2) A hiatus characterized part of the Danian, the Selandian and the base Thanetian. (3) Thanetian initiate a major change of sedimentary system (silicilastic) and of subsidence pattern, now located north of the Bray Fault, above the Early Liassic highly subsiding domains. (4) The Thanetian - Ypresian sediments do not record the eustatic signal, using the Zachos world sea temperature curve as a proxy (Haq's curve cannot be used anymore). This means that a significant deformation event overprints this signal, here the reactivation of the Seine Fault with inversion of some upper crust heterogeneities.

  17. The Impact of Heat Islands on Mortality in Paris during the August 2003 Heat Wave

    PubMed Central

    Zeghnoun, Abdelkrim; Dousset, Bénédicte; Bretin, Philippe; Vandentorren, Stéphanie; Giraudet, Emmanuel; Beaudeau, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    Background: Heat waves have a drastic impact on urban populations, which could increase with climate change. Objectives: We evaluated new indicators of elderly people’s exposure to heat in Paris, from a public health prevention perspective, using satellite thermal images. Methods: We used a time series of 61 images from the satellites of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) taken from 1 to 13 August 2003 to produce thermal indicators of minimum, maximum, and mean surface temperatures and diurnal temperature amplitude, with different lags between the meteorological data and the health impact. Health data came from a case–control study involving 241 people ≥ 65 years of age who died in the city of Paris or the nearby suburban area of Val-de-Marne during the August 2003 heat wave, and 241 controls who were matched to cases on age, sex, and residential zone. For each person, we integrated the thermal indicators in a conditional logistic regression model, adjusted for age and other potential confounders. We computed odds ratios (ORs) comparing the 90th and 50th percentiles of the temperature differences between cases and controls for various indicators. Results: Mortality risk was significantly associated with exposure for two indicators: minimum temperatures averaged for 1–13 August [for a 0.41°C increase, OR = 2.17; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.14, 4.16] and minimum temperature averaged on the day of death and the 6 preceding days (for a 0.51°C increase: OR = 2.24; 95% CI: 1.03, 4.87). Conclusions: Our results support the influence of night temperatures on the health impact of heat waves in urban areas. Urban heat exposure indicators based on satellite imagery have the potential to identify areas with higher risk of death, which could inform intervention decisions by key stakeholders. PMID:21885383

  18. The contribution of Paris to limit global warming to 2 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyer, Gokul C.; Edmonds, James A.; Fawcett, Allen A.; Hultman, Nathan E.; Alsalam, Jameel; Asrar, Ghassem R.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Clarke, Leon E.; Creason, Jared; Jeong, Minji; Kyle, Page; McFarland, James; Mundra, Anupriya; Patel, Pralit; Shi, Wenjing; McJeon, Haewon C.

    2015-12-01

    The international community has set a goal to limit global warming to 2 °C. Limiting global warming to 2 °C is a challenging goal and will entail a dramatic transformation of the global energy system, largely complete by 2040. As part of the work toward this goal, countries have been submitting their Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, indicating their emissions reduction commitments through 2025 or 2030, in advance of the 21st Conference of the Parties (COP21) in Paris in December 2015. In this paper, we use the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) to analyze the near versus long-term energy and economic-cost implications of these INDCs. The INDCs imply near-term actions that reduce the level of mitigation needed in the post-2030 period, particularly when compared with an alternative path in which nations are unable to undertake emissions mitigation until after 2030. We find that the latter case could require up to 2300 GW of premature retirements of fossil fuel power plants and up to 2900 GW of additional low-carbon power capacity installations within a five-year period of 2031-2035. INDCs have the effect of reducing premature retirements and new-capacity installations after 2030 by 50% and 34%, respectively. However, if presently announced INDCs were strengthened to achieve greater near-term emissions mitigation, the 2031-2035 transformation could be tempered to require 84% fewer premature retirements of power generation capacity and 56% fewer new-capacity additions. Our results suggest that the INDCs delivered for COP21 in Paris will have important contributions in reducing the challenges of achieving the goal of limiting global warming to 2 °C.

  19. Highly time-resolved trace element concentrations in aerosols during the Megapoli Paris campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furger, Markus; Visser, Suzanne; Slowik, Jay G.; Crippa, Monica; Poulain, Laurent; Appel, Karen; Flechsig, Uwe; Prevot, Andre S. H.; Baltensperger, Urs

    2014-05-01

    Trace elements contribute typically only a few percent to the total mass of air pollutants, however, they can affect the environment in significant ways, especially those that are toxic. Furthermore, they are advantageous with respect to a refinement of source apportionment when measured with high time resolution and appropriate size segregation. This approach is especially advantageous in an urban environment with numerous time-variant emission sources distributed across a relatively narrow space, as is typically the setting of a megacity. Two 1-month long field campaigns took place in the framework of the Megapoli project in Paris, France, in the summer of 2009 and in the winter of 2010. Rotating drum impactors (RDI) were operated at two sites in each campaign, one urban, the other one suburban. The RDI segregated the aerosols into three size ranges (PM10-2.5, PM2.5-1 and PM1-0.1) and sampled with 2-hour time resolution. The samples were analyzed with synchrotron radiation induced X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (SR-XRF) at the synchrotron facilities of Paul Scherrer Institute (SLS) and Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (HASYLAB), where a broad range of elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Sr, Zr, Cd, Sn, Sb, Ba, Pb) was analyzed for each size range. Time series of the analyzed elements for the different sites and campaigns were prepared to characterize the aerosol trace element composition and temporal behavior for the different weather situations and urban environments. They allow for the distinction of regional vs. local sources and transport, and provide a basis for source apportionment calculations. Local and regional contributions of traffic, including re-suspension, break wear and exhaust, wood burning, marine and other sources will be discussed. Indications of long-range transport from Polish coal emissions in the city center of Paris were also found.

  20. Fate and spatial variations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the deposition within a heavily urbanized area: case of Paris (France).

    PubMed

    Muresan, B; Lorgeoux, C; Gasperi, J; Moilleron, R

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present the first results on the geochemical cycle of PolyBrominated Diphenyl Ethers (or PBDE) in the Paris Region (France). In order to provide information about the distribution and mobility of eight PBDE congeners, we first determined the level of contamination of different environmental compartments: i.e. atmosphere, soils and waters. Atmospheric PBDE deposition was estimated from a site located in the centre of Paris. Surface soils (0-10 cm) were collected from multiple wooded, rural and urban locations through the Paris Region (12,000 km²). To complete our investigation, we measured PBDE concentrations/contents in the runoff from an urban catchment and settleable particles from the Seine River. Hence, gained results showed that in the superficial soils, the highest concentrations of highly brominated congeners were measured in the vicinity of the most urbanized areas whereas less brominated congeners were widespread in the whole Paris Region. This could be explained by the higher affinity of highly brominated congeners for the solid phase substrata coupled with the fact that the atmospheric deposition occurred mainly through particle deposition (close to 90% of the total atmospheric deposition). To the opposite, the less brominated congeners from the superficial soils were readily transferred to the dissolved phase of runoff and could reach more distant terrestrial and aquatic systems. Finally, a mass transfer was established at the scale of the Paris metropolitan city (105 km²). It showed that the cycle of PBDE in this particular urban area is highly dynamic with multiple sources and sinks, and rapid transfers between the ecosystem compartments.

  1. Arum- and Paris-type arbuscular mycorrhizas in a mixed pine forest on sand dune soil in Niigata Prefecture, central Honshu, Japan.

    PubMed

    Matekwor Ahulu, Evelyn; Nakata, Makoto; Nonaka, Masanori

    2005-03-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM) are the most widespread mycorrhiza in nature and form two morphologies, Arum- and Paris-type. The determining factors defining the two different morphologies are not well understood. In this study, the distribution of Arum- and Paris-type AM was determined in a mixed pine forest. A total of 35 plant species belonging to 20 families and 32 genera were identified and examined for AM colonization and morphological types. AM morphological types in 14 families were confirmed as follows: Arum-type in Rosaceae, Oleaceae, Lauraceae, Vitaceae and Compositae, Paris-type in Aquifoliaceae, Ulmaceae, Araliaceae, Theaceae, Magnoliaceae, Rubiaceae and Dioscoraceae, and both and/or intermediate types in Caprifoliaceae and Gramineae. Plant families whose AM morphological status was previously unknown were clarified as follows: Polygonaceae and Commelinaceae showed Arum-type morphology; Celastraceae, Menispermaceae and Elaeagnaceae had typical Paris-type morphology. The proportion of Arum-type to Paris-type species decreased in the following order: annuals > perennials > deciduous species > evergreen species, and pioneer group > early successional group > late successional group. Evergreen plants had a higher tendency to form Paris-type AM than annuals, perennials and deciduous plants. The results indicate that environmental changes, such as shade during plant succession, control the distribution of plant growth forms in mixed pine forest and may also play a part in the distribution of Arum- and Paris-type morphology. The identity of the plant seems to strongly influence AM morphology, though control by the fungal genome cannot be ruled out.

  2. SciDAC Advances and Applications in Computational Beam Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Ryne, R.; Abell, D.; Adelmann, A.; Amundson, J.; Bohn, C.; Cary, J.; Colella, P.; Dechow, D.; Decyk, V.; Dragt, A.; Gerber, R.; Habib, S.; Higdon, D.; Katsouleas, T.; Ma, K.-L.; McCorquodale, P.; Mihalcea, D.; Mitchell, C.; Mori, W.; Mottershead, C.T.; Neri, F.; Pogorelov, I.; Qiang, J.; Samulyak, R.; Serafini, D.; Shalf, J.; Siegerist, C.; Spentzouris, P.; Stoltz, P.; Terzic, B.; Venturini, M.; Walstrom, P.

    2005-06-26

    SciDAC has had a major impact on computational beam dynamics and the design of particle accelerators. Particle accelerators--which account for half of the facilities in the DOE Office of Science Facilities for the Future of Science 20 Year Outlook--are crucial for US scientific, industrial, and economic competitiveness. Thanks to SciDAC, accelerator design calculations that were once thought impossible are now carried routinely, and new challenging and important calculations are within reach. SciDAC accelerator modeling codes are being used to get the most science out of existing facilities, to produce optimal designs for future facilities, and to explore advanced accelerator concepts that may hold the key to qualitatively new ways of accelerating charged particle beams. In this poster we present highlights from the SciDAC Accelerator Science and Technology (AST) project Beam Dynamics focus area in regard to algorithm development, software development, and applications.

  3. What Are the Treatments for Spinal Cord Injury (SCI)?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources and Publications What are the treatments for spinal cord injury (SCI)? Skip sharing on social media links ... no known ways to reverse damage to the spinal cord. However, researchers are continually working on new treatments, ...

  4. Neonatal multiorgan failure due to ACAD9 mutation and complex I deficiency with mitochondrial hyperplasia in liver, cardiac myocytes, skeletal muscle, and renal tubules.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Nancy; Wang, Xinjian; Peng, Yanyan; Valencia, C Alexander; Khuchua, Zaza; Hata, Jessica; Witte, David; Huang, Taosheng; Bove, Kevin E

    2016-03-01

    Complex I deficiency causes Leigh syndrome, fatal infant lactic acidosis, and neonatal cardiomyopathy. Mutations in more than 100 nuclear DNA and mitochondrial DNA genes miscode for complex I subunits or assembly factors. ACAD9 is an acyl-CoA dehydrogenase with a novel function in assembly of complex I; biallelic mutations cause progressive encephalomyopathy, recurrent Reye syndrome, and fatal cardiomyopathy. We describe the first autopsy in fatal neonatal lethal lactic acidosis due to mutations in ACAD9 that reduced complex I activity. We identified mitochondrial hyperplasia in cardiac myocytes, diaphragm muscle, and liver and renal tubules in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue using immunohistochemistry for mitochondrial antigens. Whole-exome sequencing revealed compound heterozygous variants in the ACAD9 gene: c.187G>T (p.E63*) and c.941T>C (p.L314P). The nonsense mutation causes late infantile lethality; the missense variant is novel. Autopsy-derived fibroblasts had reduced complex I activity (53% of control) with normal activity in complexes II to IV, similar to reported cases of ACAD9 deficiency.

  5. Status of FNAL SciBooNE experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Nakajima, Yasuhiro; /Kyoto U.

    2007-12-01

    SciBooNE is a new experiment at FNAL which will make precision neutrino-nucleus cross section measurements in the one GeV region. These measurements are essential for the future neutrino oscillation experiments. We started data taking in the antineutrino mode on June 8, 2007, and collected 5.19 x 10{sup 19} protons on target (POT) before the accelerator shutdown in August. The first data from SciBooNE are reported in this article.

  6. Opening Remarks: SciDAC 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strayer, Michael

    2007-09-01

    Good morning. Welcome to Boston, the home of the Red Sox, Celtics and Bruins, baked beans, tea parties, Robert Parker, and SciDAC 2007. A year ago I stood before you to share the legacy of the first SciDAC program and identify the challenges that we must address on the road to petascale computing—a road E E Cummins described as `. . . never traveled, gladly beyond any experience.' Today, I want to explore the preparations for the rapidly approaching extreme scale (X-scale) generation. These preparations are the first step propelling us along the road of burgeoning scientific discovery enabled by the application of X- scale computing. We look to petascale computing and beyond to open up a world of discovery that cuts across scientific fields and leads us to a greater understanding of not only our world, but our universe. As part of the President's America Competitiveness Initiative, the ASCR Office has been preparing a ten year vision for computing. As part of this planning the LBNL together with ORNL and ANL hosted three town hall meetings on Simulation and Modeling at the Exascale for Energy, Ecological Sustainability and Global Security (E3). The proposed E3 initiative is organized around four programmatic themes: Engaging our top scientists, engineers, computer scientists and applied mathematicians; investing in pioneering large-scale science; developing scalable analysis algorithms, and storage architectures to accelerate discovery; and accelerating the build-out and future development of the DOE open computing facilities. It is clear that we have only just started down the path to extreme scale computing. Plan to attend Thursday's session on the out-briefing and discussion of these meetings. The road to the petascale has been at best rocky. In FY07, the continuing resolution provided 12% less money for Advanced Scientific Computing than either the President, the Senate, or the House. As a consequence, many of you had to absorb a no cost extension for your

  7. The London and Paris Daily Pressure Series, 1692-2007: the development of two new data series.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornes, R.; Jones, P.; Briffa, K.; Osborn, T.

    2009-04-01

    It has been known for some time that the potential exists to create long daily series of pressure for the cities of London and Paris by piecing together the barometer readings from various observers and institutions. However, most of the readings prior to 1920 have not previously been digitized or converted to modern units. To rectify this, work began in 2006 to locate and digitize these observations and then to correct the data to form homogeneous series of pressure. Observations have been located to span the years 1670-2007 for Paris and 1692-2007 for London, although significant gaps exist for the periods 1726-47 (Paris) and 1717-22 (London) where no daily pressure observations appear to have survived. The barometer observations were subjected to a detailed quality control procedure before being corrected to represent daily means of sea-level pressure at standard conditions. Monthly and annual means were calculated from the daily data and the homogeneity of these data series over the period 1780-2007 was assessed by using the Penalized Maximal t test through the use of several reference series. The homogeneity of the pre-1780 period, in the absence of highly correlated reference series, was tested by using the Penalized Maximal F test. Both of these tests were implemented through the RHtest V2 software package and it thus appears to be one of the first applications of this software to the homogenization of long pressure series. During this homogenization procedure, the London and Paris series were kept separate to avoid the introduction of circular relationships in subsequent analyses. In addition to the increased resolution and the extended length of these new series, the data are considered to be an improvement in terms of homogeneity over the monthly resolution London and Paris pressure series previously developed under the ADVICE project. In particular, the overall mean of the new London series is approximately 1hPa lower than that of the ADVICE London

  8. Combined SCI and TBI: Recovery of forelimb function after unilateral cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) is retarded by contralateral traumatic brain injury (TBI), and ipsilateral TBI balances the effects of SCI on paw placement

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Tomoo; Lin, Amity; Ma, Xiaokui; McKenna, Stephen L.; Creasey, Graham H.; Manley, Geoffrey T.; Ferguson, Adam R.; Bresnahan, Jacqueline C.; Beattie, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    A significant proportion (estimates range from 16–74%) of patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) have concomitant traumatic brain injury (TBI), and the combination often produces difficulties in planning and implementing rehabilitation strategies and drug therapies. For example, many of the drugs used to treat SCI may interfere with cognitive rehabilitation, and conversely drugs that are used to control seizures in TBI patients may undermine locomotor recovery after SCI. The current paper presents an experimental animal model for combined SCI and TBI to help drive mechanistic studies of dual diagnosis. Rats received a unilateral SCI (75 kdyn) at C5 vertebral level, a unilateral TBI (2.0 mm depth, 4.0 m/s velocity impact on the forelimb sensori-motor cortex), or both SCI + TBI. TBI was placed either contralateral or ipsilateral to the SCI. Behavioral recovery was examined using paw placement in a cylinder, grooming, open field locomotion, and the IBB cereal eating test. Over 6 weeks, in the paw placement test, SCI + contralateral TBI produced a profound deficit that failed to recover, but SCI + ipsilateral TBI increased the relative use of the paw on the SCI side. In the grooming test, SCI + contralateral TBI produced worse recovery than either lesion alone even though contralateral TBI alone produced no observable deficit. In the IBB forelimb test, SCI + contralateral TBI revealed a severe deficit that recovered in 3 weeks. For open field locomotion, SCI alone or in combination with TBI resulted in an initial deficit that recovered in 2 weeks. Thus, TBI and SCI affected forelimb function differently depending upon the test, reflecting different neural substrates underlying, for example, exploratory paw placement and stereotyped grooming. Concurrent SCI and TBI had significantly different effects on outcomes and recovery, depending upon laterality of the two lesions. Recovery of function after cervical SCI was retarded by the addition of a moderate TBI in the

  9. The impact of SciDAC on US climate change research and the IPCC AR4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehner, Michael

    2005-01-01

    SciDAC has invested heavily in climate change research. We offer a candid opinion as to the impact of the DOE laboratories' SciDAC projects on the upcoming Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

  10. GREEN CATALYZED OXIDATION OF HYDROCARBONS IN ALTERNATIVE SOLVENT SYSTEMS GENERATED BY PARIS II DECHEMA; GREEN SOLVENTS FOR CATALYSIS - ENVIRONMENTALLY BENIGN REACTION MEDIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green catalyzed oxidation of hydrocarbons in alternative solvent systems generated by PARIS II
    Thomas M. Becker, Michael A. Gonzalez, Paul F. Harten; Sustainable Technology Division, Office of Research and Development; United States Environmental Protection Agency, 26 West Mar...

  11. An attempt at estimating Paris area CO2 emissions from atmospheric concentration measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bréon, F. M.; Broquet, G.; Puygrenier, V.; Chevallier, F.; Xueref-Remy, I.; Ramonet, M.; Dieudonné, E.; Lopez, M.; Schmidt, M.; Perrussel, O.; Ciais, P.

    2015-02-01

    Atmospheric concentration measurements are used to adjust the daily to monthly budget of fossil fuel CO2 emissions of the Paris urban area from the prior estimates established by the Airparif local air quality agency. Five atmospheric monitoring sites are available, including one at the top of the Eiffel Tower. The atmospheric inversion is based on a Bayesian approach, and relies on an atmospheric transport model with a spatial resolution of 2 km with boundary conditions from a global coarse grid transport model. The inversion adjusts prior knowledge about the anthropogenic and biogenic CO2 fluxes from the Airparif inventory and an ecosystem model, respectively, with corrections at a temporal resolution of 6 h, while keeping the spatial distribution from the emission inventory. These corrections are based on assumptions regarding the temporal autocorrelation of prior emissions uncertainties within the daily cycle, and from day to day. The comparison of the measurements against the atmospheric transport simulation driven by the a priori CO2 surface fluxes shows significant differences upwind of the Paris urban area, which suggests a large and uncertain contribution from distant sources and sinks to the CO2 concentration variability. This contribution advocates that the inversion should aim at minimising model-data misfits in upwind-downwind gradients rather than misfits in mole fractions at individual sites. Another conclusion of the direct model-measurement comparison is that the CO2 variability at the top of the Eiffel Tower is large and poorly represented by the model for most wind speeds and directions. The model's inability to reproduce the CO2 variability at the heart of the city makes such measurements ill-suited for the inversion. This and the need to constrain the budgets for the whole city suggests the assimilation of upwind-downwind mole fraction gradients between sites at the edge of the urban area only. The inversion significantly improves the agreement

  12. Urban metabolism and river systems: an historical perspective - Paris and the Seine, 1790-1970

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barles, S.

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse metabolic interaction between Paris and the Seine during the industrial era, 1790-1970, a period marked by strong population growth, technological changes, and the absence of specific legislation on environmental issues. The viewpoint focuses on exchanges of waters and wastes between city and river, quantifying them and tracing their evolution in the light of the strategies implemented by the stakeholders in charge. The study combines industrial ecology, local history and the history of technology. From 1790 to 1850, waste matters, and especially excreta, were considered as raw materials, not refuse: they generated real profits. The removal of human excreta aimed not only at improving urban hygiene, but at producing the fertilizers needed in rural areas. Discharging them into the river was out of the question. But after the 1860s, several factors upset this exploitation, notably domestic water supply: night soil became more and more liquid, difficult to handle and to turn into fertilizer; once utilised, the water had to be removed from the house; at the same time, the sewerage system developed and had negative impacts on the river. Even so, Parisian engineers continued to process sewage using techniques that would not only ensure hygiene but also conciliate economic and agricultural interests: combined sewerage system and sewage farms. Both of these early periods are thus noteworthy for a relative limitation of the river's deterioration by urban wastes. Not until the 1920s, when domestic water supply had become the standard and excreta came to be considered as worthless waste, was the principle of valorisation abandoned. This led to important and long-lasting pollution of the Seine (despite the construction of a treatment plant), aggravating the industrial pollution that had been in evidence since the 1840s. Analysing the priorities that led to the adoption of one principle or another in matters of urban hygiene and techniques

  13. La radiologie est entree avant l'electricite dans les hopitaux de Paris.

    PubMed

    Pallardy, G

    1999-01-01

    The paper looks at the period from 1896 to the beginning of the 20th century and uses as example the installation of radiological equipment by Antoine Beclere, at his own cost, in his department of medicine at the Hopital Tenon, and later at the Hopital Saint-Antoine. The important role of Antoine Beclere in French radiology is recalled as well as his visionary concept of the medical applications of X-rays. The solutions found to ensure the running of the indispensable high tension generators in the two hospitals without electricity are evoked: first, a hand operated electrostatic machine, then an induction coil energized by an accumulator battery that had to be recharched outside. At the end of 1899 at Saint-Antoine, the situation is improved by the decision of the "Conseil de Surveillance" (the Safety Committee) to hook up the radiological equipment to the dynamos which produces electricity for the maternity ward. The problem is definitively solved in 1904, eight years after the first radiological examinations, by the construction of an electric power plant in the hospital. An overview of the electricity available in the Paris region at that time, with the multiplicity of electric power plants, and the great variety of currents provided, largely explains why the hospitals hesitated to use those services. Finally, diverse solutions adopted by other hospitals using radiology are examined, which include the uniting of radiology and photography departments run by "radiographers" who were not physicians, such as A. Londe at the Hopital La Salpetriere, G. Contremoulins at Necker, and Ch. Vaillant at Beaudelocque. In conclusion, the author explains why Antoine Beclere is chosen to illustrate this presentation. His name has been left to posterity because of his considerable accomplishments, which led to French diagnostic and therapeutic radiology being recognized as a medical speciality. His teaching of French and foreign physicians and his seminal work in the field

  14. An Astronomer In The Classroom: Observatoire de Paris's Partnership Between Teachers and Astronomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doressoundiram, A.; Barban, C.

    2006-08-01

    The Observatoire de Paris is offering a partnership between teachers and astronomers. The principle is simple: any teacher wishing to undertake a pedagogical project in astronomy, in the classroom or involving the entire school, can request the help of a mentor. An astronomer from the Observatoire de Paris will then follow the teacher's project progress and offer advice and scientific support throughout the school year. The projects may take different forms: construction projects (models, instruments), lectures, posters, exhibitions, etc. The type of assistance offered is as varied as the projects: lecture(s) in class, telephone and e-mail exchanges, visits to the Observatoire; an almost made-to-measure approach that delighted the thirty or so groups that benefited such partnership in the 2005-2006 academic year. And this number is continuously growing. There was a rich variety of projects undertaken, from mounting a show and building a solar clock to visiting a high altitude observatory, or resolving the mystery of Jupiter's great red spot. The Universe and its mysteries fascinate the young (and the not so- young) and provide a multitude of scientific topics that can be exploited in class. Astronomy offers the added advantage of being a multidisciplinary field. Thus, if most projects are generally initiated by a motivated teacher, they are often taken over by teachers in other subjects: Life and Earth Sciences (SVT), history, mathematics, French, and so forth. The project may consist in an astronomy workshop or be part of the school curriculum. Whatever the case, the astronomer's task is not to replace the teacher or the textbooks, but to propose activities or experiments that are easy to implement. Representing the Solar system on a school-yard scale, for instance, is a perfect way to make youngsters realize that the Universe consists mostly of empty space. There is no shortage of topics, and the students' enthusiasm, seldom absent, is the best reward for the

  15. SciDAC Institute for Ultrascale Visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Humphreys, Grigori R.

    2008-09-30

    The Institute for Ultrascale Visualization aims to address visualization needs of SciDAC science domains, including research topics in advanced scientific visualization architectures, algorithms, and interfaces for understanding large, complex datasets. During the current project period, the focus of the team at the University of Virginia has been interactive remote rendering for scientific visualization. With high-performance computing resources enabling increasingly complex simulations, scientists may desire to interactively visualize huge 3D datasets. Traditional large-scale 3D visualization systems are often located very close to the processing clusters, and are linked to them with specialized connections for high-speed rendering. However, this tight coupling of processing and display limits possibilities for remote collaboration, and prohibits scientists from using their desktop workstations for data exploration. In this project, we are developing a client/server system for interactive remote 3D visualization on desktop computers.

  16. Decrease of atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in an urban area from 1994 to 2002 (Paris, France).

    PubMed

    Azimi, Sam; Rocher, Vincent; Garnaud, Stéphane; Varrault, Gilles; Thevenot, Daniel R

    2005-11-01

    Total atmospheric deposition, i.e. both wet and dry ones, was sampled during three different sampling periods between 1994 and 2002. The aim of this study is to determine the temporal variation of the atmospheric deposition fluxes of four heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) in an urban area (Paris region, France). The global pattern shows a decrease of the fluxes for most of elements during this period. Indeed, the atmospheric deposition fluxes measured in 2001-2002 were lower than those measured during the 1994-1997 period by factors reaching 16, 2.5, 4 and 7.5 at Créteil and 7, 1, 6 and 4.5 at Chatou for Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn, respectively. At the Paris site, the decreasing factors were 2.5 and 3 for Cd and Pb, respectively while Cu and Zn fluxes were nearly similar during the whole studied period.

  17. [Formalizing observation: The emergence of the modern patient record exemplified by Berlin and Paris medicine, 1725-1830].

    PubMed

    Hess, Volker

    2010-01-01

    The paper focuses on the material basis of the development of modern clinical documentation. With the examples of Berlin and Paris medicine, it analyzes the various ways of recording clinical data in the 18th century, from where they came, and how they were introduced into bedside observations. Particular interest is given to the interrelation between administrative techniques (registration, book-keeping etc.) and the practices of medical recording developed within the hospitals. Comparing Berlin and Paris makes it possible to work out the differences in writing cultures and to consider the local interdependencies. With this approach it can be demonstrated that the "patient record" was already established as a patient related recording system in the form of loose files in the early 19th century.

  18. On the Influence of a Simple Microphysics Parametrization on Radiation Fog Modelling: A Case Study During ParisFog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaojing; Musson-Genon, Luc; Dupont, Eric; Milliez, Maya; Carissimo, Bertrand

    2014-05-01

    A detailed numerical simulation of a radiation fog event with a single column model is presented, which takes into account recent developments in microphysical parametrizations. One-dimensional simulations are performed using the computational fluid dynamics model Code_Saturne and the results are compared to a very detailed in situ dataset collected during the ParisFog campaign, which took place near Paris, France, during the winter 2006-2007. Special attention is given to the detailed and complete diurnal simulations and to the role of microphysics in the fog life cycle. The comparison between the simulated and the observed visibility, in the single-column model case study, shows that the evolution of radiation fog is correctly simulated. Sensitivity simulations show that fog development and dissipation are sensitive to the droplet-size distribution through sedimentation/deposition processes but the aerosol number concentration in the coarse mode has a low impact on the time of fog formation.

  19. [Charles-Henri Fialon (1846-1933), creator of the Museum of the Faculty of Pharmacy of Paris. His family and professional life].

    PubMed

    Flahaut, Jean

    2004-01-01

    Henri Fialon was pharmacist in 1871, and worked in the family apothecary, at Rueil near Paris. At 46 years, he stopped his pharmaceutical activity, and livre quietly, being specially interested by the ancient pharmaceutical pots. He realized a very important collection, which he gave to the French Society of Pharmaceutical History. A museum was installed at the Faculty of Pharmacy of Paris which is presently in the Guillaume Valette Gallery and contains more than 500 pieces. PMID:15981391

  20. Opening Comments: SciDAC 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strayer, Michael

    2009-07-01

    Welcome to San Diego and the 2009 SciDAC conference. Over the next four days, I would like to present an assessment of the SciDAC program. We will look at where we've been, how we got to where we are and where we are going in the future. Our vision is to be first in computational science, to be best in class in modeling and simulation. When Ray Orbach asked me what I would do, in my job interview for the SciDAC Director position, I said we would achieve that vision. And with our collective dedicated efforts, we have managed to achieve this vision. In the last year, we have now the most powerful supercomputer for open science, Jaguar, the Cray XT system at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). We also have NERSC, probably the best-in-the-world program for productivity in science that the Office of Science so depends on. And the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility offers architectural diversity with its IBM Blue Gene/P system as a counterbalance to Oak Ridge. There is also ESnet, which is often understated—the 40 gigabit per second dual backbone ring that connects all the labs and many DOE sites. In the President's Recovery Act funding, there is exciting news that ESnet is going to build out to a 100 gigabit per second network using new optical technologies. This is very exciting news for simulations and large-scale scientific facilities. But as one noted SciDAC luminary said, it's not all about the computers—it's also about the science—and we are also achieving our vision in this area. Together with having the fastest supercomputer for science, at the SC08 conference, SciDAC researchers won two ACM Gordon Bell Prizes for the outstanding performance of their applications. The DCA++ code, which solves some very interesting problems in materials, achieved a sustained performance of 1.3 petaflops, an astounding result and a mark I suspect will last for some time. The LS3DF application for studying nanomaterials also required the development of a

  1. How to estimate exposure when studying the temperature-mortality relationship? A case study of the Paris area.

    PubMed

    Schaeffer, Laura; de Crouy-Chanel, Perrine; Wagner, Vérène; Desplat, Julien; Pascal, Mathilde

    2016-01-01

    Time series studies assessing the effect of temperature on mortality generally use temperatures measured by a single weather station. In the Paris region, there is a substantial measurement network, and a variety of exposure indicators created from multiple stations can be tested. The aim of this study is to test the influence of exposure indicators on the temperature-mortality relationship in the Paris region. The relationship between temperature and non-accidental mortality was assessed based on a time series analysis using Poisson regression and a generalised additive model. Twenty-five stations in Paris and its three neighbouring departments were used to create four exposure indicators. These indicators were (1) the temperature recorded by one reference station, (2) a simple average of the temperatures of all stations, (3) an average weighted on the departmental population and (4) a classification of the stations based on land use and an average weighted on the population in each class. The relative risks and the Akaike criteria were similar for all the exposure indicators. The estimated temperature-mortality relationship therefore did not appear to be significantly affected by the indicator used, regardless of study zone (departments or region) or age group. The increase in temperatures from the 90(th) to the 99(th) percentile of the temperature distribution led to a significant increase in mortality over 75 years (RR = 1.10 [95% CI, 1.07; 1.14]). Conversely, the decrease in temperature between the 10(th) and 1(st) percentile had a significant effect on the mortality under 75 years (RR = 1.04 [95% CI, 1.01; 1.06]). In the Paris area, there is no added value in taking multiple climatic stations into account when estimating exposure in time series studies. Methods to better represent the subtle temperature variations in densely populated areas in epidemiological studies are needed.

  2. The Paris Declaration in practice: challenges of health sector aid coordination at the district level in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Sundewall, Jesper; Forsberg, Birger C; Jönsson, Kristina; Chansa, Collins; Tomson, Göran

    2009-01-01

    Background The increasing resources available for and number of partners providing health sector aid have stimulated innovations, notably, the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness, which aim to improve aid coordination. In this, one of the first studies to analyse implementation of aid coordination below national level, the aim was to investigate the effect of the Paris Declaration on coordination of health sector aid at the district level in Zambia. Methods The study was carried out in three districts of Zambia. Data were collected via interviews with health centre staff, district managers and officials from the Ministry of Health, and from district action plans, financial reports and accounts, and health centre ledger cards. Four indicators of coordination related to external-partner activity, common arrangements used by external partners and predictability of funding were analysed and assessed in relation to the 2010 targets set by the Paris Declaration. Findings While the activity of external partners at the district level has increased, funding and activities provided by these partners are often not included in local plans. HIV/AIDS support show better integration in planning and implementation at the district level than other support. Regarding common arrangements used for fund disbursement, the share of resources provided as programme-based support is not increasing. The predictability of funds coming from outside the government financing mechanism is low. Conclusion Greater efforts to integrate partners in district level planning and implementation are needed. External partners must improve the predictability of their support and be more proactive in informing the districts about their intended contributions. With the deadline for achieving the targets set by the Paris Declaration fast approaching, it is time for the signatories to accelerate its implementation. PMID:19505300

  3. [The meetings of the Société de Pharmacie de Paris during troubled periods (1803-1946)].

    PubMed

    Storck, J

    1997-01-01

    With newly found archives and other already usable documents, it was possible to study the repercussions of several troubled periods in France on the meetings of the Société de Pharmacie de Paris (1803-1946). It seems that only three meetings were cancelled for 143 years. As a matter of fact, the number of attending members decreased widely in the troubled times. Allusions to contemporary events are not scarce in the minutes and have been reported.

  4. A comparison of soil moisture characteristics predicted by the Arya-Paris model with laboratory-measured data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arya, L. M.; Richter, J. C.; Davidson, S. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Soil moisture characteristics predicted by the Arya-Paris model were compared with the laboratory measured data for 181 New Jersey soil horizons. For a number of soil horizons, the predicted and the measured moisture characteristic curves are almost coincident; for a large number of other horizons, despite some disparity, their shapes are strikingly similar. Uncertainties in the model input and laboratory measurement of the moisture characteristic are indicated, and recommendations for additional experimentation and testing are made.

  5. [Review of the proceedings of the congress "Controversies and updates in vascular surgery" (Paris, France, January 22-24, 2015)].

    PubMed

    Kalmykov, E L

    2015-01-01

    The article is a brief review of the papers presented at the Congress "Controversies and Updates in Vascular Surgery - CACVS) held in Paris (France) on January 22-24, 2015. An emphasis is placed upon the problems of open and endovascular interventions for aortic aneurysms, lower-limb ischaemia, infection in vascular surgery, pathology of the venous system, choosing an approach for endovascular operations and a vascular access for haemodialysis.

  6. [Stays in Paris of professors and students from the Faculty of Pharmacy of Santiago de Compostela (Spain), 1900-1936].

    PubMed

    Beatriz Arias, Brasa; Landín Pérez, Mariana

    2011-10-01

    In the early twentieth century, if there were an European Capital of biomedical research, it was definitely Paris. It was in this city where microbiology was born in the 19th century due to the crucial influence of Louis Pasteur. In 1888 he founded the Pasteur Institute in Paris where the rabies vaccine, that Pasteur himself had discovered in 1885, was administrated. This institution was also a place to continue his research on infectious diseases and to disseminate its findings. It is a private non-profit state-approved foundation that has attracted along the years many scientists from France and abroad who have been traditionally called "pasteuriens". So it was a world reference centre which has produced important scientific discoveries at a rapid pace and where resources both material and human, were abundant. The Pasteur institute therefore became one of the favourite research facilities of teachers and students from Spanish universities during the first third of the twentieth century, thanks to new regulations that encouraged training abroad. Scholarship policy promoted by the Spanish Government by an organization called Junta para la Ampliación de Estudios e Investigaciones Científicas (Council for Higher Studies and Scientific Research from, 1907 to 1936) formed scientists abroad. The Faculty of Pharmacy of Santiago de Compostela sent some of its members to the French capital between 1905 and 1933. We found that the vast majority chose the Pasteur Institute to conduct the studies of biological chemistry and drug synthesis, but always dependent of the Faculty of Pharmacy of Paris. Our study focuses on teachers and students who went to Paris, the dates, the course of their scientific stay and how these studies influenced their later work, once they returned to the Faculty of Pharmacy of Santiago de Compostela.

  7. [The apothecaries of the quartier de la Harpe in Paris in the 16th and 17th centuries].

    PubMed

    Warolin, Christian

    2015-09-01

    Large families of apothecaries, some of them very famous, lived in the Quartier de la Harpe in Paris, on the left bank of Seine, from the 16th to the 17th century. The study confirms a well-established fact that apothecaries practised endogamy, in others words marriage within the same social class. The biographical research includes ten apothecaries, most of whom lived in the rue Saint-André-des-Arts.

  8. Mapping of a buried basement combining aeromagnetic, gravity and petrophysical data: The substratum of southwest Paris Basin, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptiste, Julien; Martelet, Guillaume; Faure, Michel; Beccaletto, Laurent; Reninger, Pierre-Alexandre; Perrin, José; Chen, Yan

    2016-06-01

    Aeromagnetic and gravity data have proven to be among the most effective methods for mapping deeply buried basin/basement interfaces. However, the data interpretation generally suffers from ambiguities, due to the non-uniqueness of the gravity and magnetic signatures. Here, we tie the gravity and magnetic signatures with a petrophysical characterization of the lithologies outcropping around the French Paris Basin. Our methodology investigates the lithology and structure of its hidden Variscan substratum at the junction between the Armorican Massif and Massif Central. Our approach is based on the combination of potential field data, magnetic susceptibilities measured in the field, density values of sample rocks and information documented in boreholes, in order to propose a new interpretative geological map of the buried substratum of the Paris Basin. The petrophysical description is combined with geophysical patterns of the substratum, mapped through statistical unsupervised classification of suitably selected magnetic and gravity maps. The first step of interpretation consists in extending the outcropping major structures below the Meso-Cenozoic sedimentary cover of the Paris Basin. The litho-structural units, in between these major structures, are then interpreted separately. The second step consists in assigning lithologies within each unit, with respect to its magnetization and density (as derived from the petrophysical compilation), and mapping its extension under cover, integrating punctual borehole information. Overall, with a special emphasis on relating geophysical signatures and petrophysical characteristics of litho-structural units, this methodology permits a precise structural and lithological cartography of a segment of the buried Variscan substratum. In the southwestern part of the Paris Basin, this approach reveals: i) the limited eastward extension of Central Brittany, ii) the eastward extension of the major Cholet fault, iii) the emphasis on N150E

  9. Assessing the ammonium nitrate formation regime in the Paris megacity and its representation in the CHIMERE model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petetin, Hervé; Sciare, Jean; Bressi, Michael; Gros, Valérie; Rosso, Amandine; Sanchez, Olivier; Sarda-Estève, Roland; Petit, Jean-Eudes; Beekmann, Matthias

    2016-08-01

    Secondary inorganic compounds represent a major fraction of fine aerosol in the Paris megacity. The thermodynamics behind their formation is now relatively well constrained but, due to sparse direct measurements of their precursors (in particular NH3 and HNO3), uncertainties remain on their concentrations and variability as well as the formation regime of ammonium nitrate (in terms of limited species among NH3 and HNO3) in urban environments such as Paris. This study presents the first urban background measurements of both inorganic aerosol compounds and their gaseous precursors during several months within the city of Paris. Intense agriculture-related NH3 episodes are observed in spring/summer while HNO3 concentrations remain relatively low, even during summer, which leads to a NH3-rich regime in Paris. The local formation of ammonium nitrate within the city appears low, despite high NOx emissions. The data set also allows evaluating the CHIMERE chemistry-transport model (CTM). Interestingly, the rather good results obtained on ammonium nitrates hide significant errors on gaseous precursors (e.g., mean bias of -75 and +195 % for NH3 and HNO3, respectively). This leads to a misrepresentation of the nitrate formation regime through a highly underestimated gas ratio metric (introduced by Ansari and Pandis, 1998) and a much higher sensitivity of nitrate concentrations to ammonia changes. Several uncertainty sources are investigated, pointing out the importance of better assessing both NH3 agricultural emissions and OH concentrations in the future. These results remind us of the caution required when using of CTMs for emission scenario analysis, highlighting the importance of prior diagnostic and dynamic evaluations.

  10. How to estimate exposure when studying the temperature-mortality relationship? A case study of the Paris area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeffer, Laura; de Crouy-Chanel, Perrine; Wagner, Vérène; Desplat, Julien; Pascal, Mathilde

    2016-01-01

    Time series studies assessing the effect of temperature on mortality generally use temperatures measured by a single weather station. In the Paris region, there is a substantial measurement network, and a variety of exposure indicators created from multiple stations can be tested. The aim of this study is to test the influence of exposure indicators on the temperature-mortality relationship in the Paris region. The relationship between temperature and non-accidental mortality was assessed based on a time series analysis using Poisson regression and a generalised additive model. Twenty-five stations in Paris and its three neighbouring departments were used to create four exposure indicators. These indicators were (1) the temperature recorded by one reference station, (2) a simple average of the temperatures of all stations, (3) an average weighted on the departmental population and (4) a classification of the stations based on land use and an average weighted on the population in each class. The relative risks and the Akaike criteria were similar for all the exposure indicators. The estimated temperature-mortality relationship therefore did not appear to be significantly affected by the indicator used, regardless of study zone (departments or region) or age group. The increase in temperatures from the 90th to the 99th percentile of the temperature distribution led to a significant increase in mortality over 75 years (RR = 1.10 [95 % CI, 1.07; 1.14]). Conversely, the decrease in temperature between the 10th and 1st percentile had a significant effect on the mortality under 75 years (RR = 1.04 [95 % CI, 1.01; 1.06]). In the Paris area, there is no added value in taking multiple climatic stations into account when estimating exposure in time series studies. Methods to better represent the subtle temperature variations in densely populated areas in epidemiological studies are needed.

  11. Opening Comments: SciDAC 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strayer, Michael

    2009-07-01

    Welcome to San Diego and the 2009 SciDAC conference. Over the next four days, I would like to present an assessment of the SciDAC program. We will look at where we've been, how we got to where we are and where we are going in the future. Our vision is to be first in computational science, to be best in class in modeling and simulation. When Ray Orbach asked me what I would do, in my job interview for the SciDAC Director position, I said we would achieve that vision. And with our collective dedicated efforts, we have managed to achieve this vision. In the last year, we have now the most powerful supercomputer for open science, Jaguar, the Cray XT system at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). We also have NERSC, probably the best-in-the-world program for productivity in science that the Office of Science so depends on. And the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility offers architectural diversity with its IBM Blue Gene/P system as a counterbalance to Oak Ridge. There is also ESnet, which is often understated—the 40 gigabit per second dual backbone ring that connects all the labs and many DOE sites. In the President's Recovery Act funding, there is exciting news that ESnet is going to build out to a 100 gigabit per second network using new optical technologies. This is very exciting news for simulations and large-scale scientific facilities. But as one noted SciDAC luminary said, it's not all about the computers—it's also about the science—and we are also achieving our vision in this area. Together with having the fastest supercomputer for science, at the SC08 conference, SciDAC researchers won two ACM Gordon Bell Prizes for the outstanding performance of their applications. The DCA++ code, which solves some very interesting problems in materials, achieved a sustained performance of 1.3 petaflops, an astounding result and a mark I suspect will last for some time. The LS3DF application for studying nanomaterials also required the development of a

  12. Intracratonic basins : subtle records of long wavelength deformations and eustasy - the case example of the Paris Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robin, Cecile; Guillocheau, Francois

    2014-05-01

    Subtle vertical movements, major constraints for lithospheric and mantle dynamics models, are difficult to quantify and to date. In sedimentary basins, this quantification is based on subsidence measurements by backstripping. The error bars on this technique can be high, mainly in the low subsiding domains were dates, water depths and eustasy are important data. We developed a 3D high-resolution method of accommodation space measurement at the scale of intracratonic basins, with a precise quantification of the water depth. Based on this 3D quantification of the accommodation, it was possible to discriminate the deformation and the eustatic controls based on the principle that the basin-scale signal contain the eustasy and the local control is of tectonic origin. (1) The application of this technique to the Paris Basin questioned the importance of the long term subsidence signal versus major deformation events of at least European-scale (Mid and Neo-Cimmerian, Austrian, Senonian deformations..) that control, in the Paris Basin, major subsidence centers reorganization. (2) The stratigraphic record of the Paris Basin, with those excellent datings (inheritance of 2 centuries of biostratigraphy), is also a unique place for constraining eustasy, its timing (with now a good knowledge of the sea water temperatures since the Jurassic) and the order of magnitude of the sea level variations. Back, those sea level amplitude constraints can be inputs for a better quantification of the vertical movements.

  13. Localising the nitrogen imprint of the Paris food supply: the potential of organic farming and changes in human diet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billen, G.; Garnier, J.; Thieu, V.; Silvestre, M.; Barles, S.; Chatzimpiros, P.

    2012-01-01

    The Seine watershed has long been the food-supplying hinterland of Paris, providing most of the animal and vegetal protein consumed in the city. Nowadays, the shift from manure-based to synthetic nitrogen fertilisation, has made possible a strong land specialisation of agriculture in the Seine watershed: it still provides most of the cereal consumed by the Paris agglomeration, but exports 80% of its huge cereal production. On the other hand the meat and milk supply originates mainly from regions in the North and West of France, specialised in animal farming and importing about 30% of their feed from South America. As it works today, this system is responsible for a severe nitrate contamination of surface and groundwater resources. Herein two scenarios of re-localising Paris's food supply are explored, based on organic farming and local provision of animal feed. We show that for the Seine watershed it is technically possible to design an agricultural system able to provide all the plant- and animal-based food required by the population, to deliver sub-root water meeting the drinking water standards and still to export a significant proportion of its production to areas less suitable for cereal cultivation. Decreasing the share of animal products in the human diet has a strong impact on the nitrogen imprint of urban food supply.

  14. Localising the nitrogen imprint of the Paris food supply: the potential of organic farming and changes in human diet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billen, G.; Garnier, J.; Thieu, V.; Silvestre, M.; Barles, S.; Chatzimpiros, P.

    2011-11-01

    The Seine watershed has long been the food-supplying hinterland of Paris, providing most of the animal and vegetal protein consumed in the city. Nowadays, because of the land specialisation of agriculture made possible by the shift from manure-based to synthetic nitrogen fertilisation, the Seine watershed, although it exports 80% of its huge cereal production, still provides most of the cereal consumed by the Paris agglomeration. The meat and milk supply originate, however, mainly from regions in the North and West of France, specialised in animal farming and importing about 30% of their feed from South America. As it works today, this system is responsible for a severe nitrate contamination of surface groundwater resources. Herein two scenarios of re-localising Paris's food supply are explored, based on organic farming and local provision of animal feed. We show that for the Seine watershed it is technically possible to design an agricultural system able to provide all the plant- and animal-based food required by the population, to deliver sub-root water meeting the drinking water standards and still to export a significant proportion of its production to areas less suitable for cereal cultivation. Decreasing the share of animal products in the human diet has a strong impact on the nitrogen imprint of urban food supply.

  15. [Poisoning with Jatropha curcas: 24 cases reported to Paris and Marseille Poisons Centers].

    PubMed

    Langrand, J; Médernach, C; Schmitt, C; Blanc-Brisset, I; Villa, A F; de Haro, L; Garnier, R

    2015-03-01

    Jatropha curcas L. is an inedible plant belonging to the Euphorbiaceae family that is growing in subtropical zones of all continents. We report a series of 24 cases of poisoning with J. curcas seeds or fruits reported to poison centers in Paris and Marseille between December 2000 and June 2014. Fifteen adults and 9 children ingested J. curcas seeds or fruits. All patients experienced gastrointestinal disorders, within the first hours following ingestion: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal pain. Laboratory investigations performed in 10 patients revealed minor abnormalities: CK elevation (8 cases), dehydration (5 cases) with moderate elevation of serum creatinine levels (3 cases), and mildly increased serum bilirubin (8 cases). Complete remission of all clinical signs was observed within 48 hours in the 20 cases for which the outcome was known. Previously published cases of J. curcas poisoning were very similar to ours: As in our series, gastrointestinal disorders were always present. They were sometimes associated with neurological or cardiovascular signs, and hepatic or renal disorders; these were generally interpreted as complications of severe gastroenteritis, although direct toxic effects could not be formally excluded. In most cases, simple supportive measures were sufficient to ensure complete recovery within 24-48 hours. J Curcas poisoning incidence is certainly increasing because the plant is cultivated to produce biodiesel and is now largely present in most subtropical countries. As a consequence, local health professionals should be informed of the toxic properties of this plant. PMID:25925815

  16. Paris NN¯ potential and recent proton-antiproton low energy data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pignone, M.; Lacombe, M.; Loiseau, B.; Vinh Mau, R.

    1994-12-01

    The inner part of the Paris nucleon-antinucleon optical potential has been reanalyzed in view of new experimental constraints. These are mainly provided by accurate measurements of the analyzing power in charge-exchange scattering, p¯p-->n¯n, together with elastic p¯p-->p¯p polarization data, allowing a better determination of the isospin dependence of the short-range forces. The fit is performed with a set of 3632 data. The good quality of the fit is illustrated over a large sample of observables for laboratory momenta from 180 to 910 MeV/c. Curves of the potentials and of the phase shifts are shown as well as the parameters of the potentials and effective range formula coefficients for the S and P waves. The spectrum of resonances and bound states predicted by our potential is also displayed. In particular, a bound state having the AX(1565) quantum numbers is found with the right mass.

  17. Glacier mass change projections and commitments resulting from the Paris Agreement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzeion, Ben; Kaser, Georg; Maussion, Fabien

    2016-04-01

    At COP21, the UNFCCC agreed to hold "the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels and to pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels". Using an ensemble of global glacier model integrations, we estimate the glacier mass change commitment and its temporal evolution resulting from a hypothesized success of the Paris Agreement. Our preliminary results indicate that under 1.5°C global mean temperature increase, glaciers will eventually lose mass corresponding to 133 mm SLE (90 % confidence interval: 83 to 154 mm SLE), compared to 164 mm SLE (110 to 184 mm SLE) under 2.0°C warming. In order to stabilize glaciers at their current global mass, a temperature of 0.17°C (-0.13 to 0.43°C) above pre-industrial would be required. Only a fraction of the long-term mass loss would be realized within the 21st century. Based on scaling existing GCM integrations under the RCP2.6 scenario to 1.5°C global warming, 21st century mass loss of glaciers would correspond to 84 mm SLE (64 to 110 mm SLE). Under the original RCP2.6 scenario, this number climbs to 100 mm SLE (67 to 137 mm SLE).

  18. Implication of Paris Agreement in the context of long-term climate mitigation goals.

    PubMed

    Fujimori, Shinichiro; Su, Xuanming; Liu, Jing-Yu; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Masui, Toshihiko; Takimi, Maho

    2016-01-01

    The Paris Agreement confirmed the global aim to achieve a long-term climate goal, in which the global increase in mean temperature is kept below 2 °C compared to the preindustrial level. We investigated the implications of the near-term emissions targets (for around the year 2030) in the context of the long-term climate mitigation goal using the Asia-Pacific Integrated Model framework. To achieve the 2 °C goal, a large greenhouse gas emissions reduction is required, either in the early or latter half of this century. In the mid-term (from 2030 to 2050), it may be necessary to consider rapid changes to the existing energy or socioeconomic systems, while long-term measures (after 2050) will rely on the substantial use of biomass combined with carbon capture and storage technology or afforestation, which will eventually realize so-called negative CO2 emissions. With respect to the policy context, two suggestions are provided here. The first is the review and revision of the nationally determined contributions (NDCs) in 2020, with an additional reduction target to the current NDCs being one workable alternative. The second suggestion is a concrete and numerical mid-term emissions reduction target, for example to be met by 2040 or 2050, which could also help to achieve the long-term climate goal.

  19. Fine-scale urbanization affects Odonata species diversity in ponds of a megacity (Paris, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeanmougin, Martin; Leprieur, Fabien; Loïs, Grégoire; Clergeau, Philippe

    2014-08-01

    Current developments in urban ecology include very few studies focused on pond ecosystems, though ponds are recognized as biodiversity hotspots. Using Odonata as an indicator model, we explored changes in species composition in ponds localized along an urban gradient of a megacity (Paris, France). We then assessed the relative importance of local- and landscape-scale variables in shaping Odonata α-diversity patterns using a model-averaging approach. Analyses were performed for adult (A) and adult plus exuviae (AE) census data. At 26 ponds, we recorded 657 adults and 815 exuviae belonging to 17 Odonata species. The results showed that the Odonata species assemblage composition was not determined by pond localization along the urban gradient. Similarly, pond characteristics were found to be similar among urban, suburban and periurban ponds. The analyses of AE census data revealed that fine-scale urbanization (i.e., increased density of buildings surrounding ponds) negatively affects Odonata α-diversity. In contrast, pond localization along the urban gradient weakly explained the α-diversity patterns. Several local-scale variables, such as the coverage of submerged macrophytes, were found to be significant drivers of Odonata α-diversity. Together, these results show that the degree of urbanization around ponds must be considered instead of pond localization along the urban gradient when assessing the potential impacts of urbanization on Odonata species diversity. This work also indicates the importance of exuviae sampling in understanding the response of Odonata to urbanization.

  20. Health hazard evaluation report HETA 85-308-1829, Kardon Industries, St. Paris, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Zey, J.N.; Todd, W.F.

    1987-09-01

    In response to a request by the factory manager and United Paperworkers Union local 1467 to investigate employee complaints of headaches and eye and throat irritation associated with operation of hand and automatic wax lines, an evaluation was made at Kardon Industries Composite Can and Tube Division, St. Paris, Ohio. The study focused on an amorphous polypropylene wax used on wax lines along with air samples for organic vapors, aldehydes, ketones, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. Relatively low levels of several hydrocarbons were found, with n-hexane present in highest concentrations relative to occupational hygiene criteria, being measured at 28.7mg/m3. While no furfural was detected, all samples contained formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Both aldehydes were also detected as decomposition products of the wax. The supplier of the wax stated that it gave off ketones, aldehydes, and eventually carboxylic acids when it was heated. Employees reported symptoms of headache, burning eyes, throat and nose irritation, dizziness, and an altered sense of taste and nausea. Aldehydes were considered to be the causative agents of these conditions.

  1. Health-hazard-evaluation report HETA 88-279-2026, Kardon Industries, St. Paris, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Kinnes, G.M.

    1990-03-01

    In response to a request from a production manager, an evaluation was conducted of the effectiveness of ventilation system modifications made to reduce worker exposures at the waxing unit at Kardon Industries (SIC-2655), St. Paris, Ohio. NIOSH investigators had visited the site previously and collected personal and area air samples for acetaldehyde (75070) and formaldehyde (50000) determinations. This particular facility produced cardboard caulking tubes, employing a workforce of 100 hourly employees with some departments operating three shifts per day. Some of the tubes were manufactured with an inner wax coating, sprayed on by the auto wax unit. Environmental sampling did not detect any aldehydes initially, but a more sensitive test did reveal the presence of formaldehyde in concentrations ranging from 0.024 to 0.029 parts per million. During the first visit, problems in the ventilation system had been identified. Modifications made subsequent to this initial visit had improved the working conditions. Even though reported symptoms of headache, burning eyes, throat and nose irritation, dizziness and an altered taste sensation and nausea, were not readily explained by the documented exposure levels, the symptoms might possibly have come from a combined effect of the low levels of airborne substances measured. The author concludes that improvements made to the local exhaust ventilation system and the auto wax unit have reduced the potential for work related exposures. The author recommends further improvements.

  2. [Photosynthetic parameters and physiological indexes of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis influenced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi].

    PubMed

    Wei, Zheng-xin; Guo, Dong-qin; Li, Hai-feng; Ding, Bo; Zhang, Jie; Zhou, Nong; Yu, Jie

    2015-10-01

    Through potted inoculation test at room temperature and indoor analysis, the photosynthetic parameters and physiological and biochemical indexes of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis were observed after 28 arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi were injected into the P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis growing in a sterile soil environment. The results showed that AM fungi established a good symbiosis with P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. The AM fungi influenced the photosynthetic parameters and physiological and biochemical indexes of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. And the influences were varied depending on different AM fungi. The application of AM fungi improved photosynthesis intensity of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis mesophyll cells, the contents of soluble protein and soluble sugar, protective enzyme activity of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis leaf, which was beneficial to resist the adverse environment and promote the growth of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. Otherwise, there was a certain mutual selectivity between P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis and AM fungi. From the comprehensive effect of inoculation, Racocetra coralloidea, Scutellospora calospora, Claroideoglomus claroideum, S. pellucida and Rhizophagus clarus were the most suitable AM fungi to P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis when P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis was planted in the field.

  3. [Isolation and diversity analyses of endophytic fungi from Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Shen, Shi-Kang; Zhang, Ai-Li; Wu, Chun-Yan; Wu, Fu-Qin; Zhang, Xin-Jun; Wang, Yue-Hua

    2013-11-01

    The paper is aimed at studying the diversity of endophytic fungi community from Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis, and to provide a scientific basis for the utilization value of the endophytic fungi as bioactive material resources. In the present study, endophytic fungi were isolated from roots, rhizomes and leaves of wild P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis collected from Baoshan, Heqing county and Songming city of Yunnan province, and identified and classified by morphological methods together with its ITS sequence analysis. Seven and forty-nine strains of endophytic fungi were isolated from P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. They were identified belonging to 41 genus. In these 41 genus, 3 genus exist in root only, 12 genus only exist in rhizome and 8 genus only exist in leaf. There was difference in endophytic fungi isolated from different sample sites. Endophytic fungi diversity from rhizomes of Heqing site was the highest. Endophytic fungi similarity coefficient was low among different sites and tissues. Based on these results, it is reasonable to propose that endophytic fungi of P. polyphylla var. yannanensis from different tissue and different sample sites has a certain difference which is possibly relate to their different habitats, different structure and composition of each tissue.

  4. Exploding cities: housing the masses in Paris, Chicago, and Mexico City, 1850-2000.

    PubMed

    Platt, Harold L

    2010-01-01

    In The Mystery of Capitalism , the darling of neoliberalism, Hernando de Soto posits that secure property titles explain “why capitalism triumphs in the West and fails everywhere else.” While social scientists have taken him to task for an oversimplification of the causes and remedies of poverty, historians have contributed little to this important policy debate. Applying comparative methods across time and space, such a retrospective analysis exposes serious flaws in de Soto’s thesis. Case studies of Paris, Chicago, and Mexico City covering successive, fifty-year periods support his contention that property law was the single most important factor in determining the fate of rural migrants trying to find a place to live in these exploding cities. But in each case, residential property played a far more complex role in creating the social and physical geography of the city than its simple exchange value. This article illuminates some of these alternative economic uses and embedded cultural meanings of identities of place. It also shows how urban growth machines create capital value in property for some by creating environmental injustice of substandard conditions of everyday life for others. PMID:20827834

  5. Genetic diversity of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis, a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, detected by ISSR markers.

    PubMed

    He, Jun; Wang, Hong; Li, De-Zhu; Chen, Shao-Feng

    2007-10-01

    Paris polyphylla Smith var. yunnanensis (Franch.) Hand.-Mazz. is an important Chinese medicinal herb. Because of overharvesting, the wild populations of this herb have greatly declined and become fragmentized. In this paper, ISSR markers were used to determine the genetic diversity and genetic structure of this variety represented by a total of 153 individuals from three natural populations and three cultivated populations. Fourteen primers produced a total of 251 bands, of which 227 were polymorphic (PPB=90.44%). For the natural populations, the results showed that genetic differentiation was mainly within populations (GST=0.1952), with low genetic diversity at the population level. At the population level, genetic diversity of the cultivated populations was relatively higher than that of the natural populations (PPB=57.24% vs. 53.38%, HE=0.153 vs. 0.151, HO=0.241 vs. 0.235). This pattern can be explained by the recent introduction and artificial selection of cultivars from comparatively wide areas of origin, and subsequent gene flow among populations in cultivation. Although the neighbour-joining cluster analysis seemed to suggest that there was conspicuous genetic differentiation between the natural and cultivated populations, the AMOVA showed that only 4.84% of the total variance existed between groups of natural and cultivated populations, while 67.51% of the variance occurred within populations. In the end, some suggestions for conservation of this important herb are proposed. PMID:17973204

  6. Figures and institutions of the neurological sciences in Paris from 1800 to 1950. Part III: neurology.

    PubMed

    Broussolle, E; Poirier, J; Clarac, F; Barbara, J-G

    2012-04-01

    We present a short historical review of the major figures, their administrative functions and their works that contributed to make Paris a renowned centre of physiology and neurology during the xixth and the first half of the xxth century. We purposely chose to focus on the period 1800-1950, as 1800 corresponds to the actual beginning of neurosciences, and 1950 marks their exponential rise. Our presentation is divided into four chapters, matching the main disciplines which have progressed and contributed the most to the knowledge we have of the brain sciences: anatomy, physiology, neurology, and psychiatry-psychology. The present article is the third of four parts of this review, and deals with neurology. A special credit should be given to Jean-Martin Charcot who founded the Salpêtrière School of neurology and became one of the world's most important neurologists of the xixth century. We provide below the biographical sketches of Armand Trousseau, Guillaume Benjamin Amand Duchenne, Jean-Martin Charcot, Alfred Vulpian, Désiré-Magloire Bourneville, Paul Richer, Henri Parinaud, Albert Pitres, Jules Joseph Dejerine, Mrs. Augusta Dejerine-Klumpke, Édouard Brissaud, Pierre Marie, Georges Édouard Brutus Gilles de la Tourette, Joseph Babinski, André Thomas, Georges Marinesco, Achille Alexandre Souques, Georges Guillain and Charles Foix.

  7. [From "morbus democraticus" to passionate idealism. Different reactions of French alienists after the Commune of Paris].

    PubMed

    Caire, M

    1990-04-01

    Literary and medical works published immediately after the fall of the Commune of Paris purport an analysis which deserves a critical reading: the study of the influence that alcoholism and the federate movement had on each other, easily naïve and not without excess, stamped with obviously reactionary emotions, appears as historically and scientifically questionable as the proposals towards an interpretation of the event in terms of mental pathology. The search of cases of insanity among the rebels, the idea that their acts could only express some kind of phrenopathic disorder opens the debate on the very existence of some morbid types such as Falret's and Pottier's "reasoning, inexhaustible and proselyte lunatics", the "many characters with fanciful projects, including reformists of the human race, and various utopists" that Morel includes in his classification of hereditary insanity, Serieux's and Capgras "idealists concerned with justice" found amongst delusions related to altruistic claims, Dide's and Guiraud's "idealistic passions, social reformers, anarchists" appear to us as very outdated classifications, on the border of the psychiatric field.

  8. Development of the coronary arteries in staged human embryos (the Paris Embryological Collection revisited).

    PubMed

    Mandarim-de-Lacerda, C A

    1990-03-01

    Twenty seven human embryos from stages 15 to 23 (postsomitic period), belonging to the collection of the "UFR Biomédicale des Saints-Pères, Université René Descartes Paris V", were studied. Details of the aorticopulmonary cleavage were analysed specially aortic valve development and origin of the coronary artery. At stage 18 the aortic valve was clearly distinguished (cup-shaped) presenting semilunar valves and aortic sinus (Valsalvae); at this stage the left coronary artery was detected in 66.7 per cent of the cases as an endothelial epicardial invagination. At stage 19, the left and right coronary arteries were detected simultaneously in 100 per cent of the cases. At stage 20, the coronary arteries showed greater structural complexity with a coat of mesenchymal cells. These results agree with previous data from different embryological collections. These findings suggest that the left coronary artery has a tendency to develop earlier than the right. We found no evidence of the coronary origin from the aortic lumen. This work provides additional information about the embryological development of the heart, obtained from the analyses of a French collection of human embryos.

  9. Infestation by pyrethroids resistant bed bugs in the suburb of Paris, France

    PubMed Central

    Durand, R.; Cannet, A.; Berdjane, Z.; Bruel, C.; Haouchine, D.; Delaunay, P.; Izri, A.

    2012-01-01

    Bed bugs are hematophagous insects responsible for a re-emerging and challenging indoor pest in many countries. Bed bugs infestations may have health consequences including nuisance biting, cutaneous and systemic reactions. This resurgence can probably be attributed to factors such as increased international travel and development of resistance against insecticides. Resistance against pyrethroids has been reported several times from the USA and rarely in Europe. In France, very few data on bed bugs are available. The present study aimed to assess the infestation by bed bugs of a complex of two high-rise apartment buildings in the suburb of Paris and to evaluate their susceptibility to pyrethroid insecticides. We inspected for bed bugs 192 out of 198 apartments units (97%) and interviewed their residents. 76 (39.6%) apartments were infested. Among the 97 residents living in infested apartments, 53 (54.6%) reported bed bug bites. A total of 564 bed bugs were collected in the infested units. Bioassays showed that 54 out of 143 bed bugs were resistant to pyrethroids (37.8%; 95% confidence interval: 29.9-45.7%). DNA sequencing showed that all bed bugs tested (n = 124) had homozygous L925I kdr-like gene mutation. The level of pyrethroid resistance found indicates that this phenomenon was already established in the site and prompts the need to reevaluate the wide use of pyrethroids to control bed bugs. PMID:23193523

  10. [Poisoning with Jatropha curcas: 24 cases reported to Paris and Marseille Poisons Centers].

    PubMed

    Langrand, J; Médernach, C; Schmitt, C; Blanc-Brisset, I; Villa, A F; de Haro, L; Garnier, R

    2015-03-01

    Jatropha curcas L. is an inedible plant belonging to the Euphorbiaceae family that is growing in subtropical zones of all continents. We report a series of 24 cases of poisoning with J. curcas seeds or fruits reported to poison centers in Paris and Marseille between December 2000 and June 2014. Fifteen adults and 9 children ingested J. curcas seeds or fruits. All patients experienced gastrointestinal disorders, within the first hours following ingestion: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal pain. Laboratory investigations performed in 10 patients revealed minor abnormalities: CK elevation (8 cases), dehydration (5 cases) with moderate elevation of serum creatinine levels (3 cases), and mildly increased serum bilirubin (8 cases). Complete remission of all clinical signs was observed within 48 hours in the 20 cases for which the outcome was known. Previously published cases of J. curcas poisoning were very similar to ours: As in our series, gastrointestinal disorders were always present. They were sometimes associated with neurological or cardiovascular signs, and hepatic or renal disorders; these were generally interpreted as complications of severe gastroenteritis, although direct toxic effects could not be formally excluded. In most cases, simple supportive measures were sufficient to ensure complete recovery within 24-48 hours. J Curcas poisoning incidence is certainly increasing because the plant is cultivated to produce biodiesel and is now largely present in most subtropical countries. As a consequence, local health professionals should be informed of the toxic properties of this plant.

  11. Annual metallic flows in roof runoff from different materials: test-bed scale in Paris conurbation.

    PubMed

    Robert-Sainte, P; Gromaire, M C; De Gouvello, B; Saad, M; Chebbo, G

    2009-08-01

    A substantial database of annual metal runoff loads, obtained from a 14-month field exposure campaign on 12 different metal roofing materials at two sites within Paris conurbation, is presented herein. Thirteen metallic species have been considered. A comparison among the various roofing materials yields a ranking of their runoff pollution potential, which highlights that aluminum, coated products, and stainless steel display the lower emission levels, before zinc and copper materials. Lead materials appear to release more metallic species, and tend to do so in quite large quantities. Whatever the material family considered, older materials apparently release more metallic species with higher levels of emission. In considering zinc emissions from zinc-based materials, it is clear that surface coatings significantly reduce zinc emissions (40% less for the Zn3(PO4)2 surface-treated Anthra zinc, compared to natural zinc; and 99% less for prepainted galvanized steel compared to standard galvanized steel). In the case of Anthra zinc however, surface treatment induces the release of Ni into the runoff, and Ni constitutes a priority pollutant in the European Water Framework Directive (2000/60 CE). A high level of consistency with literature data has been found for Zn runoff when considering runoff rates reported at the same inclination.

  12. [Correlation between distribution of rhizospheric microorganisms and contents of steroidal saponins of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Nong; Qi, Wen-hua; Xiao, Guo-sheng; Ding, Bo; Zhang, Hua; Guo, Dong-qin; Shen, Wei

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, the varying pattern of the amount of rhizospheric microorganisms, including bacteria, actinomycetes and fungus, was observed during the cultivation of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis. And the correlations between number of rhizospheric microorganisms and the quality of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis were also studied. The results showed that the rhizospheric microorganism source of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis was rich. The distribution of rhizospheric microorganisms (soil bacteria, fungus, actinomycetes, potassium-solubilizing bacteria, inorganic phosphorus-solubilizing bacteria, organic phosphorus-solubilizing bacteria) collected from different origin places existed significant difference (P < 0.05). The varying pattern for the amount of rhizospheric microorganisms was showed as following: the amount of bacteria > the amount of actinomycetes > the amount of fungus. The medicinal quality of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis was influenced by their habits, and the increase of cultivation years caused the obvious decrease of the quality of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. Therefore, the increase of cultivation years will cause the variation of the soil micro-ecology flora, and decrease the nutrient absorption and the utilization of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis, which will make the decrease of the medical quality of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis.

  13. Characterizing fractured reservoir by multicomponent reflection data and VSPs in the Paris basin

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xiang-Yang; MacBeth, C.; Lefeuvre, F.

    1995-12-31

    We process and interpret nine-component (9C, three component recordings of two horizontal and one vertical sources) surface seismic data and two nearby VSPs to characterize the fractured carbonate reservoir in the Dogger Formation in the Paris Basin. This is achieved by analysing differential changes in the various attributes of the vector wavefield: velocity ratios, polarizations, amplitudes and differential travel times. Careful processing is required to preserve and recover these attributes which have diagnostic anomalies associated with the Dogger formation. The interval shear-anisotropy within the Dogger shows an average of 4% with significant lateral variations, which might be interpreted as lateral changes in porosity and permeability. The differential shear-wave amplitude from the top of the Dogger shows an overall dimming. The shear-wave polarization section reveals detailed internal layering, up to six intervals, within the Dogger, which is not visible in the P-wave section. The information inferred from these wavefield attributes can be broadly correlated with the reservoir properties at the inter-well scale in Duval but with more detailed lateral variations.

  14. A non-tectonic origin for the present day stress field in the sedimentary Paris Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornet, Francois; Magnenet, Vincent

    2016-04-01

    The large scale stress patterns observed in intraplate area is generally considered to result from far-field boundary forces that drive plate tectonics. However, no present day deformation has been detected in the Paris Basin, yet significant deviatoric stresses are measured in limestone formations observed above soft argillite layers encountered in this region at depths close to 500m. Further, the pore pressure measured in the argillite is larger than that measured in the surrounding permeable zones. These observations suggest a presently active source of stress in this sedimentary system. We propose that this stress is not related to tectonics but to pressure solution effects activated by pore pressure transients. These transients develop in the natural fracture system that affects the limestone formations. They are linked to climatic variations and involve periods that range from thousands to hundreds of thousands years. This mechanism generates time-dependent shear stresses in soft formations and explains overpressures observed in the very low permeability argillite. This mechanism may be modeled by different visco-elastic behaviors for the various formations. It outlines the influence of time dependent material properties on the present day stress field. These results imply that the viscoelastic properties of sedimentary formations raise a strong difficulty for extrapolating measured surface deformations to basement rocks in domains of very slow tectonics.

  15. Paris Saponin II induced apoptosis via activation of autophagy in human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lili; Man, Shuli; Wang, Yongshuai; Liu, Jing; Liu, Zhen; Yu, Peng; Gao, Wenyuan

    2016-06-25

    Paris Saponin II (PSII) has been shown anticancer activity against several cancer lines through the pro-apoptotic pathway. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between apoptosis and autophagy taking part in the anti-cancer mechanisms of PSII. In this study, PSII induced autophagy and apoptosis in dose- and time-dependent manners. Meanwhile, it induced autophagy as early as 2 h after exposure to 1 μM of PSII accompanying with apoptosis. Blockade of autophagy with chloroquine (CQ) attenuated apoptosis, while regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), gallic acid (GA) and H2O2 could not influence autophagy. In addition, PSII induced apoptosis via activation of autophagy, which might be associated with the activation of JNK and inhibition of PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. All in all, our research increased the understanding of the role of PSII regulating autophagy and apoptosis, which would hopefully provide prospective strategies for cancer therapy. PMID:27180204

  16. Genetic diversity of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis, a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, detected by ISSR markers.

    PubMed

    He, Jun; Wang, Hong; Li, De-Zhu; Chen, Shao-Feng

    2007-10-01

    Paris polyphylla Smith var. yunnanensis (Franch.) Hand.-Mazz. is an important Chinese medicinal herb. Because of overharvesting, the wild populations of this herb have greatly declined and become fragmentized. In this paper, ISSR markers were used to determine the genetic diversity and genetic structure of this variety represented by a total of 153 individuals from three natural populations and three cultivated populations. Fourteen primers produced a total of 251 bands, of which 227 were polymorphic (PPB=90.44%). For the natural populations, the results showed that genetic differentiation was mainly within populations (GST=0.1952), with low genetic diversity at the population level. At the population level, genetic diversity of the cultivated populations was relatively higher than that of the natural populations (PPB=57.24% vs. 53.38%, HE=0.153 vs. 0.151, HO=0.241 vs. 0.235). This pattern can be explained by the recent introduction and artificial selection of cultivars from comparatively wide areas of origin, and subsequent gene flow among populations in cultivation. Although the neighbour-joining cluster analysis seemed to suggest that there was conspicuous genetic differentiation between the natural and cultivated populations, the AMOVA showed that only 4.84% of the total variance existed between groups of natural and cultivated populations, while 67.51% of the variance occurred within populations. In the end, some suggestions for conservation of this important herb are proposed.

  17. 3-D seismic improves structural mapping of a gas storage reservoir (Paris basin)

    SciTech Connect

    Huguet, F. ); Pinson, C. )

    1993-09-01

    In the Paris basin, anticlinal structures with closure of no more than 80 m and surface area of a few km[sup 2] are used for underground gas storage. At Soings-en-Sologne, a three-dimensional (3-D) survey (13 km[sup 2]) was carried out over such a structure to establish its exact geometry and to detail its fault network. Various reflectors were picked automatically on the migrated data: the top of the Kimmeridgian, the top of the Bathoinian and the base of the Hettangian close to the top of the reservoir. The isochron maps were converted into depth using data from 12 wells. Horizon attributes (amplitude, dip, and azimuth) were used to reconstruct the fault's pattern with much greater accuracy than that supplied by interpretation from previous two-dimensional seismic. The Triassic and the Jurassic are affected by two systems of conjugate faults (N10-N110, inherited from the Hercynian basement and N30-N120). Alternating clay and limestone are the cause of numerous structural disharmonies, particularly on both sides of the Bathonian. Ridges associated with N30-N120 faults suggest compressive movements contemporaneous with the tertiary events. The northern structure in Soings-en-Sologne thus appear to be the result of polyphased tectonics. Its closure (25 m), which is associated either with dips or faults, is described in detail by 3-D seismic, permitting more accurate forecast of the volume available for gas storage.

  18. Will international emissions trading help achieve the objectives of the Paris Agreement?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimori, Shinichiro; Kubota, Izumi; Dai, Hancheng; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Liu, Jing-Yu; Hijioka, Yasuaki; Masui, Toshihiko; Takimi, Maho

    2016-10-01

    Under the Paris Agreement, parties set and implement their own emissions targets as nationally determined contributions (NDCs) to tackle climate change. International carbon emissions trading is expected to reduce global mitigation costs. Here, we show the benefit of emissions trading under both NDCs and a more ambitious reduction scenario consistent with the 2 °C goal. The results show that the global welfare loss, which was measured based on estimated household consumption change in 2030, decreased by 75% (from 0.47% to 0.16%), as a consequence of achieving NDCs through emissions trading. Furthermore, achieving the 2 °C targets without emissions trading led to a global welfare loss of 1.4%–3.4%, depending on the burden-sharing scheme used, whereas emissions trading reduced the loss to around 1.5% (from 1.4% to 1.7%). These results indicate that emissions trading is a valuable option for the international system, enabling NDCs and more ambitious targets to be achieved in a cost-effective manner.

  19. Lead isotopes decipher multiple origins within single PM10 samples in the atmosphere of Paris.

    PubMed

    Widory, David

    2006-03-01

    The atmospheric concentration of lead (Pb) in France has strongly decreased since its legal reduction in gasoline in 2000. Pb-isotope ratios are effective tracers of its origin. Pb in atmospheric particulate matter with a diameter <10 microm (PM10) in Paris is shown to have a dual origin: (1) an intrinsic fraction (leached by hydrofluoric acid) forms the cores of particles and (2) a labile fraction (complexation with hydrobromic acid) represents generally >90 % (mass) of the bulk Pb and aggregates on pre-existing particles in the atmosphere. Characterisation of the emissions from different pollution sources, however, indicates that Pb is entirely contained in the labile fraction. Our results show that, in air, the intrinsic fraction is consistently more radiogenic (the degree of enrichment being greater in summer), hinting at different origins. The labile fraction clearly identifies industrial activity as its main source, but the intrinsic fraction may result from either a different industrial-pollution source or, more likely, from a natural end-member (i.e. pre-industrial sediment).

  20. [Photosynthetic parameters and physiological indexes of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis influenced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi].

    PubMed

    Wei, Zheng-xin; Guo, Dong-qin; Li, Hai-feng; Ding, Bo; Zhang, Jie; Zhou, Nong; Yu, Jie

    2015-10-01

    Through potted inoculation test at room temperature and indoor analysis, the photosynthetic parameters and physiological and biochemical indexes of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis were observed after 28 arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi were injected into the P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis growing in a sterile soil environment. The results showed that AM fungi established a good symbiosis with P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. The AM fungi influenced the photosynthetic parameters and physiological and biochemical indexes of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. And the influences were varied depending on different AM fungi. The application of AM fungi improved photosynthesis intensity of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis mesophyll cells, the contents of soluble protein and soluble sugar, protective enzyme activity of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis leaf, which was beneficial to resist the adverse environment and promote the growth of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. Otherwise, there was a certain mutual selectivity between P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis and AM fungi. From the comprehensive effect of inoculation, Racocetra coralloidea, Scutellospora calospora, Claroideoglomus claroideum, S. pellucida and Rhizophagus clarus were the most suitable AM fungi to P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis when P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis was planted in the field. PMID:27062807

  1. Hygroscopic properties of the Paris urban aerosol in relation to its chemical composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamilli, K. A.; Poulain, L.; Held, A.; Nowak, A.; Birmili, W.; Wiedensohler, A.

    2013-05-01

    Aerosol hygroscopic growth factors and chemical properties were measured as part of the MEGAPOLI "Megacities Plume Case Study" at the urban site LHVP in the city center of Paris from June to August 2009, and from January to February 2010. Descriptive hygroscopic growth factors (DGF) were derived in the diameter range from 25 to 350 nm at relative humidities of 30, 55, 75, and 90% by applying the summation method on humidified and dry aerosol size distributions measured simultaneously with a humidified differential mobility particle sizer (HDMPS) and a twin differential mobility particle sizer (TDMPS). For 90% relative humidity, the DGF varied from 1.06 to 1.46 in summer, and from 1.06 to 1.66 in winter. Temporal variations in the observed mean DGF could be well explained with a simple growth model based on the aerosol chemical composition measured by aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS) and black carbon photometry (MAAP). In particular, good agreement was observed when sulfate was the predominant inorganic factor. A clear overestimation of the predicted growth factor was found when the nitrate mass concentration exceeded values of 10 μg m3, e.g. during winter.

  2. A molecular and isotopic study of the organic matter from the Paris Basin, France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichtfouse, E.; Albrecht, P.; Behar, F.; Hayes, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    Thirteen Liassic sedimentary rocks of increasing depth and three petroleums from the Paris Basin were studied for 13C/12C isotopic compositions and biological markers, including steranes, sterenes, methylphenanthrenes, methylanthracenes, and triaromatic steroids. The isotopic compositions of n-alkanes from mature sedimentary rocks and petroleums fall in a narrow range (2%), except for the deepest Hettangian rock and the Trias petroleum, for which the short-chain n-alkanes are enriched and depleted in 13C, respectively. Most of the molecular parameters increase over the 2000-2500 m depth range, reflecting the transformation of the organic matter at the onset of petroleum generation. In this zone, carbonate content and carbon isotopic composition of carbonates, as well as molecular parameters, are distinct for the Toarcian and Hettangian source rocks and suggest a migration of organic matter from these two formations. Two novel molecular parameters were defined for this task: one using methyltriaromatic steroids from organic extracts; the other using 1-methylphenanthrene and 2-methylanthracene from kerogen pyrolysates. The anomalous high maturity of the Dogger petroleum relative to the maturity-depth trend of the source rocks is used to estimate the minimal vertical distance of migration of the organic matter from the source rock to the reservoir.

  3. A molecular and isotopic study of the organic matter from the Paris Basin, France.

    PubMed

    Lichtfouse, E; Albrecht, P; Behar, F; Hayes, J M

    1994-01-01

    Thirteen Liassic sedimentary rocks of increasing depth and three petroleums from the Paris Basin were studied for 13C/12C isotopic compositions and biological markers, including steranes, sterenes, methylphenanthrenes, methylanthracenes, and triaromatic steroids. The isotopic compositions of n-alkanes from mature sedimentary rocks and petroleums fall in a narrow range (2%), except for the deepest Hettangian rock and the Trias petroleum, for which the short-chain n-alkanes are enriched and depleted in 13C, respectively. Most of the molecular parameters increase over the 2000-2500 m depth range, reflecting the transformation of the organic matter at the onset of petroleum generation. In this zone, carbonate content and carbon isotopic composition of carbonates, as well as molecular parameters, are distinct for the Toarcian and Hettangian source rocks and suggest a migration of organic matter from these two formations. Two novel molecular parameters were defined for this task: one using methyltriaromatic steroids from organic extracts; the other using 1-methylphenanthrene and 2-methylanthracene from kerogen pyrolysates. The anomalous high maturity of the Dogger petroleum relative to the maturity-depth trend of the source rocks is used to estimate the minimal vertical distance of migration of the organic matter from the source rock to the reservoir.

  4. Implication of Paris Agreement in the context of long-term climate mitigation goals.

    PubMed

    Fujimori, Shinichiro; Su, Xuanming; Liu, Jing-Yu; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Masui, Toshihiko; Takimi, Maho

    2016-01-01

    The Paris Agreement confirmed the global aim to achieve a long-term climate goal, in which the global increase in mean temperature is kept below 2 °C compared to the preindustrial level. We investigated the implications of the near-term emissions targets (for around the year 2030) in the context of the long-term climate mitigation goal using the Asia-Pacific Integrated Model framework. To achieve the 2 °C goal, a large greenhouse gas emissions reduction is required, either in the early or latter half of this century. In the mid-term (from 2030 to 2050), it may be necessary to consider rapid changes to the existing energy or socioeconomic systems, while long-term measures (after 2050) will rely on the substantial use of biomass combined with carbon capture and storage technology or afforestation, which will eventually realize so-called negative CO2 emissions. With respect to the policy context, two suggestions are provided here. The first is the review and revision of the nationally determined contributions (NDCs) in 2020, with an additional reduction target to the current NDCs being one workable alternative. The second suggestion is a concrete and numerical mid-term emissions reduction target, for example to be met by 2040 or 2050, which could also help to achieve the long-term climate goal. PMID:27652193

  5. The End of Alchemy? The Repudiation and Persistence of Chrysopoeia at the Académie Royale des Sciences in the Eighteenth Century.

    PubMed

    Principe, Lawrence M

    2014-01-01

    The general abandonment of serious endeavor toward metallic transmutation represents a major development in the history of chemistry, yet its exact causes and timing remain unclear. This essay examines the fate of chrysopoeia at the eighteenth-century Académie Royale des Sciences. It reveals a long-standing tension between Académie chemists, who pursued transmutation, and administrators, who tried to suppress it. This tension provides background for Etienne-François Geoffroy's 1722 paper describing fraudulent practices around transmutation. Although transmutation seems to disappear after Geoffroy's paper, manuscripts reveal that most of the institution's chemists continued to pursue it privately until at least the 1760s, long after widely accepted dates for the "demise of alchemy" in learned circles. PMID:26103750

  6. The End of Alchemy? The Repudiation and Persistence of Chrysopoeia at the Académie Royale des Sciences in the Eighteenth Century.

    PubMed

    Principe, Lawrence M

    2014-01-01

    The general abandonment of serious endeavor toward metallic transmutation represents a major development in the history of chemistry, yet its exact causes and timing remain unclear. This essay examines the fate of chrysopoeia at the eighteenth-century Académie Royale des Sciences. It reveals a long-standing tension between Académie chemists, who pursued transmutation, and administrators, who tried to suppress it. This tension provides background for Etienne-François Geoffroy's 1722 paper describing fraudulent practices around transmutation. Although transmutation seems to disappear after Geoffroy's paper, manuscripts reveal that most of the institution's chemists continued to pursue it privately until at least the 1760s, long after widely accepted dates for the "demise of alchemy" in learned circles.

  7. The GeoSciML Logical Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laxton, J.; Wyborn, L.

    2007-12-01

    GeoSciML is being developed as an interchange language for geoscience. The initial scope has been designed to include the information generally shown on geological maps, and some observations, in particular using boreholes. The logical model has been built in UML and the model includes packages for mapped features, geologic units, earth material and geologic structures. The model inherits from GML, for spatial information, and observations and measurements (O&M) in particular. At present the scope of the model is largely interpreted information, but the intention is to extend it to include more observational data. A 'mapped feature' can be considered an occurrence, such as a polygon on a geologic map, of a real-world geologic feature the full extent of which is unknown. Geologic features are associated with geologic events for recording their age, process and environment of formation. The two main types of geologic feature modelled are geologic units and geologic structures. Geologic units have specialisations for lithostratigraphic units, lithodemic units, chronostratigraphic units and deformation units, but more will be added in the future as required. The model allows for composite geologic units, made up of other geologic units, to be described. Geologic structures include fractures, shear displacement structures, contacts, fold and foliation. The earth material package allows for the description of both individual components such as minerals and compound materials such as rocks or unconsolidated material. The model incorporates a structure for controlled concepts which can be defined in terms of normative descriptions of geologic units or earth materials. These can be built into geologic vocabularies, such as stratigraphic lexicons. Two data types of particular use in describing geologic properties have been defined: one allows properties to be recorded with term, number and range values along with a qualifier property for handling the 'fuzziness' of much

  8. Carbonate Geochemistry and Organic Biomarkers Evolutions During the Early Toarcian in the Paris Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermoso, M.; Le Callonnec, L.; Hautevelle, Y.; Minoletti, F.; Renard, M.

    2006-12-01

    Within the Early Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic event, isotopic perturbations (C, O, Sr, Os, Mo and S) are now well described. Their worldwide occurrences and synchronicity are still under debate and oppose locally controlled mechanisms to global events such as methane hydrates release. We present an integrated study for understanding palaeoceanographical records in the Paris Basin. In order to test the influence of the redox status of the environment, the sedimentological, mineralogical and geochemical (carbonate and organic biomarkers) evolutions of two Early Toarcian sites are studied: Bascharage (Luxemburg) and Sancerre (center of France. A sedimentary particles isolation technique was performed to quantify the contribution of primary calcite (calcareous nannoflora) and diagenetic calcareous particles. The respective isotopic signatures of these particles enable to validate the bulk record and discuss the link between photic-zone and interstitial fluids (water-mass stratification, intensity of DIC remineralization, interstitial fluid migrations). It is demonstrated that both biogenic calcareous particles and early diagenetic macrocrystals record the C-isotope negative shift with similar magnitudes. Molecular biomarkers of the organic matter studied by GC-MS enable to characterize the paleoredox conditions in the photic-zone and the bottom water. The Bascharage section is characterized by permanant anoxic conditions in the photic zone (as shown by the presence of gammacerane, 2,3,6- trimethylalkylbenzenes and isorenieratane typical of Chlorobiaceae and reducing conditions in the sediment: Pr/Ph<1, large amount of perylene, C 35hopanes>C 34hopanes. The Earliest Toarcian Sancerre deposits are dysoxic and transient euxinic conditions are observed from the second step of the C-isotope decrease in carbonates. This level is also highlighted by generalized reducing conditions (Mn- rich carbonate) due to oxides phase destabilization, beginning of Black Shales deposits and

  9. Psychometric evaluation of the Spanish version of the MPI-SCI

    PubMed Central

    Soler, MD; Cruz-Almeida, Y; Saurí, J; Widerström-Noga, EG

    2013-01-01

    Study design Postal surveys. Objectives To confirm the factor structure of the Spanish version of the MPI-SCI (MPI-SCI-S, Multidimensional Pain Inventory in the SCI population) and to test its internal consistency and construct validity in a Spanish population. Setting Guttmann Institute, Barcelona, Spain. Methods The MPI-SCI-S along with Spanish measures of pain intensity (Numerical Rating Scale), pain interference (Brief Pain Inventory), functional independence (Functional Independence Measure), depression (Beck Depression Inventory), locus of control (Multidimensional health Locus of Control), support (Functional Social Support Questionnaire (Duke-UNC)), psychological well-being (Psychological Global Well-Being Index) and demographic/injury characteristics were assessed in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) and chronic pain (n = 126). Results Confirmatory factor analysis suggested an adequate factor structure for the MPI-SCI-S. The internal consistency of the MPI-SCI-S subscales ranged from acceptable (r = 0.66, Life Control) to excellent (r = 0.94, Life Interference). All MPI-SCI-S subscales showed adequate construct validity, with the exception of the Negative and Solicitous Responses subscales. Conclusions The Spanish version of the MPI-SCI is adequate for evaluating chronic pain impact following SCI in a Spanish-speaking population. Future studies should include additional measures of pain-related support in the Spanish-speaking SCI population. PMID:23608807

  10. Seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 antibodies in an STD clinic in Paris.

    PubMed

    Janier, M; Lassau, F; Bloch, J; Spindler, E; Morel, P; Gérard, P; Aufrère, A

    1999-08-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus (HSV)-2 and HSV-1 in a population of men and women attending the STD clinic of Hôpital St-Louis (Paris, France). Four hundred and eighty-seven patients (264 men and 223 women) were tested for HSV-2 and HSV-1 antibodies by specific enzyme immunoassay (EIA) (Smithkline-Beecham Biologicals). Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out for correlations with clinical, socio-epidemiological and behavioural data. HSV-2 seroprevalence was 55% (44.7% in men, 67.3% in women). HSV-1 seroprevalence was 93% (94.7% in men, 91% in women). The predictive factors of HSV-2 seropositivity being female (OR: 3.37), age (OR: 1.04), country of origin (Central Africa OR: 3.52, North Africa OR: 1.36), history of genital herpes (OR: 10.97), hepatitis B virus (HBV) markers (OR: 1.92) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) markers (OR: 3.96). The only protective factor was HSV-1 seropositivity (OR: 0.25). The predictive factors of HSV-1 seropositivity were only the country of origin (Central Africa OR: 2.95, North Africa OR: 1.83) and the absence of genital herpes (OR: 11.01). Only 23 (8.6%) HSV-2 seropositive patients had a history of genital herpes. This study underlines the very high HSV-2 seroprevalence of patients with STDs, only a few of whom have a history of genital herpes. Detection and counselling is urgently needed for these patients. PMID:10471101

  11. Airborne mineral components and trace metals in Paris region: spatial and temporal variability.

    PubMed

    Poulakis, E; Theodosi, C; Bressi, M; Sciare, J; Ghersi, V; Mihalopoulos, N

    2015-10-01

    A variety of mineral components (Al, Fe) and trace metals (V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb) were simultaneously measured in PM2.5 and PM10 fractions at three different locations (traffic, urban, and suburban) in the Greater Paris Area (GPA) on a daily basis throughout a year. Mineral species and trace metal levels measured in both fractions are in agreement with those reported in the literature and below the thresholds defined by the European guidelines for toxic metals (Cd, Ni, Pb). Size distribution between PM2.5 and PM10 fractions revealed that mineral components prevail in the coarse mode, while trace metals are mainly confined in the fine one. Enrichment factor analysis, statistical analysis, and seasonal variability suggest that elements such as Mn, Cr, Zn, Fe, and Cu are attributed to traffic, V and Ni to oil combustion while Cd and Pb to industrial activities with regional origin. Meteorological parameters such as rain, boundary layer height (BLH), and air mass origin were found to significantly influence element concentrations. Periods with high frequency of northern and eastern air masses (from high populated and industrialized areas) are characterized by high metal concentrations. Finally, inner city and traffic emissions were also evaluated in PM2.5 fraction. Significant contributions (>50 %) were measured in the traffic site for Mn, Fe, Cr, Zn, and Cu, confirming that vehicle emissions contribute significantly to their levels, while in the urban site, the lower contributions (18 to 33 %) for all measured metals highlight the influence of regional sources on their levels.

  12. [Access to health care for destitute persons at Public Assistance Hospitals in Paris].

    PubMed

    Brücker, G; Nguyen, D T; Lebas, J

    1997-11-01

    All legal French residents are entitled to health care. The 1992 regulatory measures, which create a contractual agreement between the government and public medical institutions, aim at facilitating access to health care by resolving the financial obstacles to accessing health care. The Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP) has set up a medical reception center in several hospitals since 1993. This system is integrated in the general structure of each hospital: in some cases, there is a single and centralized unit; in other cases, all departments of the hospital, including the emergency room, are involved in caring for destitute patients. Whatever the type of the structure may be, social workers are a key element to helping the patients recover their social rights. Thirty to seventy-percent of patients visiting these centers regain access to social and health care coverage. The epidemiological survey of the active file of patients revealed that 70% are male, more than 50% are non-French nationals, half of which do not have legal immigration status in France. Homeless people represent 40 to 80% of the population. The average age is around 35. The number of medical visits varies greatly from one hospital to another and range from 20 to 60 per month. The reasons for visiting the center and the identified medical disorders are strongly related to the patients' life conditions and vary significantly with the risk factors related to the social and economic situation. The frequency of some diseases (psychiatric disorders, tuberculosis, infections by the HIV and HCV) is higher in this population than in general population. Delayed visits to the medical center represents a severity factor. The hospitals' mission statement is not only to ensure that patients facing a precarious social and professional situation have equal access to health care, but also to help such patients recover their social rights, facilitate their integration in the society and fight against

  13. Stress inversion and basement-cover stress transmission across weak layers in the Paris basin, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunzburger, Yann; Magnenet, Vincent

    2014-03-01

    We investigate the source of non-purely gravitational horizontal stresses in the Paris basin, a nowadays tectonically quiet intracratonic basin, in its eastern border of which outstandingly dense stress measurements are available. Based on a synthesis of published data, the stress state in the basin is first shown to be very close to the one that may be extrapolated for the underlying basement, in terms of principal stress orientations and horizontal to vertical stress ratios. This is in favour of a mechanical coupling between the basement and its sedimentary cover, which may seem contradictory to the presence of several weak rock layers in the basin fill, e.g. an argillite layer that was shown to bear low deviatoric stresses, and salt layers that are implicated in a major décollement elsewhere. To unravel this apparent contradiction, a 3D-numerical modelling is performed, following a rigorous inverse problem approach, to determine the long-term elastic properties of both the basement and the basin rocks. The objective is to find the set of elastic constants that provides the best fit between the calculated stress state in the basin and the in situ data, by assuming that the stress state in the basement is known. This methodology provides a realistic set of mechanical parameters, in agreement with previous studies, which leads to the conclusion that the horizontal stresses in the basin constitute its mechanical response to the stresses that developed in the underlying basement during and since the last tectonic event (Alpine phase). The fact that horizontal stresses could be transmitted across the weak horizons, contrary to what may be expected at first glance, is explained both by the geometry of the basin and the fact that, over the long term, the stiffnesses of the various sedimentary rocks are only slightly different from each other.

  14. Volatility of organic aerosol and its components in the Megacity of Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paciga, A.; Karnezi, E.; Kostenidou, E.; Hildebrandt, L.; Psichoudaki, M.; Engelhart, G. J.; Lee, B.-H.; Crippa, M.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Baltensperger, U.; Pandis, S. N.

    2015-08-01

    Using a mass transfer model and the volatility basis set, we estimate the volatility distribution for the organic aerosol (OA) components during summer and winter in Paris, France as part of the collaborative project MEGAPOLI. The concentrations of the OA components as a function of temperature were measured combining data from a thermodenuder and an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) with Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis. The hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) had similar volatility distributions for the summer and winter campaigns with half of the material in the saturation concentration bin of 10 μg m-3 and another 35-40 % consisting of low and extremely low volatility organic compounds (LVOCs and ELVOCs, respectively). The winter cooking OA (COA) was more than an order of magnitude less volatile than the summer COA. The low volatility oxygenated OA (LV-OOA) factor detected in the summer had the lowest volatility of all the derived factors and consisted almost exclusively of ELVOCs. The volatility for the semi-volatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA) was significantly higher than that of the LV-OOA, containing both semi-volatile organic components (SVOCs) and LVOCs. The oxygenated OA (OOA) factor in winter consisted of SVOCs (45 %), LVOCs (25 %) and ELVOCs (30 %). The volatility of marine OA (MOA) was higher than that of the other factors containing around 60 % SVOCs. The biomass burning OA (BBOA) factor contained components with a wide range of volatilities with significant contributions from both SVOCs (50 %) and LVOCs (30 %). Finally, combining the O : C ratio and volatility distributions of the various factors, we incorporated our results into the two-dimensional volatility basis set (2D-VBS). Our results show that the factors cover a broad spectrum of volatilities with no direct link between the average volatility and average O : C of the OA components. Agreement between our findings and previous publications is encouraging for our understanding of the

  15. Bronchial obstructive phenotypes in the first year of life among Paris birth cohort infants.

    PubMed

    Clarisse, Bénédicte; Demattei, Christophe; Nikasinovic, Lydia; Just, Jocelyne; Daures, Jean-Pierre; Momas, Isabelle

    2009-03-01

    As the natural history of respiratory and allergic manifestations is unclear, our ongoing Paris birth cohort study prospectively assesses the onset of these symptoms in early childhood. Data were collected by five questionnaires sent at regular intervals during the first year of life. Partitioning around medoids (PAM) was used to classify infants according to their bronchial obstructive symptoms. A polytomous logistic regression was performed to assess the eventual predictable power of various respiratory events and perinatal factors. Results are given for 2698 infants. Atopic dermatitis occurred in 17.9% of infants. The main respiratory symptoms in infancy were wheeze in the chest (22%), dyspnoea responsible for sleep disturbance (23.7%), nocturnal dry cough (14.5%) and shortness of breath (4.2%). The PAM method identified three groups of infants. Apart from the G0 group of infants mostly asymptomatic, two distinct clinical phenotypes (G1 and G2: 8.7% and 23.5% of total infants respectively) emerged. G2 was defined by severe bronchial obstructive disorders as all cases of dyspnoea with sleep disturbance were included in this group, while all infants assigned in G1 suffered from nocturnal dry cough. G2 group infants had significantly higher rates of respiratory events while a parental history of asthma, symptoms suggestive of rhino-conjunctivitis and birth season clearly differentiated the G1 group. Finally, G1 and G2 group infants should be closely followed up as they are expected to develop allergic and asthmatic phenotypes, possibly in relation to environmental and behavioural risk factors. PMID:18346096

  16. Ambient aerosol chlorine concentrations and artefacts during the MEGAPOLI Paris campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furger, Markus; Visser, Suzanne; Slowik, Jay; Crippa, Monica; Poulain, Laurent; Sciare, Jean; Flechsig, Uwe; Prévôt, André; Baltensperger, Urs

    2015-04-01

    Trace elements, especially those that are toxic, can affect the environment in significant ways. Studying them is advantageous with respect to a refinement of source apportionment when measured with high time resolution and appropriate size segregation. This approach is especially useful in urban environments with numerous time-variant emission sources distributed across a relatively narrow space. Two field campaigns took place in the framework of the MEGAPOLI project in Paris, France: one in the summer of 2009 (1-31 July), the other in the winter of 2010 (11 Jan - 10 Feb). Rotating drum impactors (RDI) were operated at an urban and a suburban site in each campaign. The RDI segregated the aerosols into three size ranges (PM10-2.5, PM2.5-1.0 and PM1.0-0.3) and sampled with 2-hour time resolution. The samples were analyzed with synchrotron radiation-induced X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (SR-XRF) at the synchrotron facility of the Paul Scherrer Institute (SLS), where a broad range of elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn) was analyzed for each size range. Time series of the analyzed elements for the different sites and campaigns were prepared to characterize the aerosol trace element composition and temporal behavior for different weather situations and urban environments. Quality assurance was performed partly by intercomparison with independent measurements. An exceptional behavior was observed for chlorine (Cl), where periods with zero RDI concentration alternated with periods of normal load. Zero concentrations were not observed in particle-into-liquid (PILS) measurements. This identifies the observed behavior as a RDI sampling artefact. Nevertheless, the non-zero periods of Cl concentrations are still a gain in information compared to conventional sampling techniques, mainly due to the high time resolution.

  17. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorobiphenyls in wastewaters and sewage sludges from the Paris area (France).

    PubMed

    Blanchard, M; Teil, M J; Ollivon, D; Legenti, L; Chevreuil, M

    2004-06-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) were investigated during 1999-2000 in the sewerage system to the Seine Aval treatment plant which drains the Paris area (France). Contamination of sludges from storage chambers indicated a local origin typical of motor car traffic with PAH concentrations (Sigma16) ranging from 14 to 31 mg kg(-1) of dry weight, pyrene/fluoranthene ratios ranging between 1.12 and 1.48 and PCB concentrations (Sigma7) ranging from 0.07 to 0.65 mg kg(-1) of dry weight. In the same way, sludges from sand removal tanks displayed PAH values related to the importance of traffic whereas PCBs were rather characteristic of a diffuse origin. Among the five sewers entering the Seine Aval treatment plant, Clichy Argenteuil, which drains a large industrial area, was the most polluted one (PAHs as Sigma3, 10 kg year(-1); PCBs as Sigma7, 3.5 kg year(-1)). Seasonal variations were observed for PAHs with higher levels in winter in relation with the occurrence of combustion processes. Ninety-eight percent of the PAHs and 76% of the PCBs were extracted during the treatment plant processes, the primary clarifier of which retained 50% of the pollutants. Fluoranthene and PCB concentrations in the final dehydrated sludge (mean values) were 1.07 and 0.623 mg kg(-1) of dry weight, respectively. For PCBs, a significant correlation was found (r=0.668, P<0.001) between wastewater and dehydrated sludge concentrations. Yearly measured amounts of PAHs (Sigma3) were twice higher in sludges (76.3 kg) than in precipitations (37.7 kg) whereas those of PCBs (Sigma7) brought by total atmospheric fallout (17.6 kg) and sludges (21.1 kg) did not differ significantly.

  18. Three centuries of heavy metal pollution in Paris (France) recorded by urban speleothems.

    PubMed

    Pons-Branchu, Edwige; Ayrault, Sophie; Roy-Barman, Matthieu; Bordier, Louise; Borst, Wolfgang; Branchu, Philippe; Douville, Eric; Dumont, Emmanuel

    2015-06-15

    The first record of urban speleothems used to reconstruct the history of heavy metal pollution of shallow groundwaters is presented. Two speleothems grew during the last 300 years in an underground aqueduct in the north-eastern part of Paris. They display high Pb, Mn V, Cu, Cd and Al concentrations since 1900 due to the urbanization of the site which triggered anthropogenic contamination of the water feeding the speleothems. Surprisingly, these heavy metal concentrations are also high in the oldest part. This early pollution could come from the use of Parisian waste as fertilizers in the orchards and vineyards cultivated above the aqueduct before urbanization. Lead isotopes were measured in these carbonates as well as in lead artifacts from the 17th-18th centuries ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.180+/-0.003). The mean (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratio, for one of the speleothems is 1.181+/-0.003 unvarying with time. These lead signatures are close to those of coal and old lead from northern European mines, lower than the natural background signature. It confirms that the high metal concentrations found come from anthropogenic pollution. Conversely, the lead isotopic composition of the second speleothem presents two temporal trends: for the oldest levels, the mean value (1.183+/-0.003) is similar to the first speleothem. For the youngest part, a lower value (1.172+/-0.005) is recorded, evidencing the contribution of a new lead source at the beginning of the industrial revolution. Pb isotopes were also measured in recent samples from a nearby superficial site. The first sample is a recent (AD 1975+/-15 years) deposit ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.148+/-0.003), and the second, a thin subactual layer ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.181+/-0.002). These data are compatible with the adding of anthropogenic sources (leaded gasoline and industrial lead from Rio Tinto ore).

  19. Phthalates and alkylphenols in industrial and domestic effluents: case of Paris conurbation (France).

    PubMed

    Bergé, A; Gasperi, J; Rocher, V; Gras, L; Coursimault, A; Moilleron, R

    2014-08-01

    Phthalates and alkylphenols are toxics classified as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). They are of particular concern due to their ubiquity and generally higher levels found in the environment comparatively to other EDCs. Industrial and domestic discharges might affect the quality of receiving waters by discharging organic matter and contaminants through treated waters and combined sewer overflows. Historically, industrial discharges are often considered as the principal vector of pollution in urban areas. If this observation was true in the past for some contaminants, no current data are today available to compare the quality of industrial and domestic discharges as regards EDCs. In this context, a total of 45 domestic samples as well as 101 industrial samples were collected from different sites, including 14 residential and 33 industrial facilities. This study focuses more specifically on 4 phthalates and 2 alkylphenols, among the most commonly studied congeners. A particular attention was also given to routine wastewater quality parameters. For most substances, wastewaters from the different sites were heavily contaminated; they display concentrations up to 1200 μg/l for di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and between 10 and 100 μg/l for diethyl phthalate and nonylphenol. Overall, for the majority of compounds, the industrial contribution to the flux of contaminant reaching the wastewater treatment plants ranges between 1 and 3%. The data generated during this work constitutes one of the first studies conducted in Europe on industrial fluxes for a variety of sectors of activity. The study of the wastewater contribution was used to better predict the industrial and domestic contributions at the scale of a huge conurbation heavily urbanized but with a weak industrial cover, illustrated by Paris. Our results indicate that specific investigations on domestic discharges are necessary in order to reduce the release of phthalates and alkylphenols in the sewer systems

  20. Atmospheric fate of phthalate esters in an urban area (Paris-France).

    PubMed

    Teil, M J; Blanchard, M; Chevreuil, M

    2006-02-01

    The atmospheric fate of six phthalate esters was investigated in the urban area of Paris (France). Total atmospheric levels (ng m-3) were as follows: DMP, 0.5; DEP, 10.7; DnBP, 22.2; BBP, 4.6; DEHP, 18.9; and DnOP, 0.5 ng m-3, showing a predominance of DnBP and next, DEHP. They are mainly present in the vapour phase, from 93.8% to 64.9%, particularly for the esters with alkyl chain length of less than six C. An inverse correlation was found between the vapour phase concentrations and the molecular weight and also a direct correlation between the vapour phase concentrations and the log [vapour pressure] of the compounds. Seasonal variations were displayed by principal component analysis (PCA), due to significant correlation between phthalate concentrations and air temperature. Rain water concentrations (ng L-1) were as follows: DMP, 116; DEP, 333; DnBP, 592; BBP, 81; DEHP, 423; and DnOP, 10. PCA analysis showed a seasonal variation of these concentrations correlated to the air temperature. The experimental water/air scavenging ratio was calculated and was in accordance with the theoretical one obtained from the vapour pressure and the Henry's law constant for each phthalate ester. The global trend was a decrease of the washout coefficient in relation with the rise of alkyl chain length. Yearly balances for rainwater and bulk deposition allowed the estimation of dry deposits that represented about half of total. Our findings highlight the major part played by particles in atmospheric deposition processes.

  1. Diagenesis and pore water evolution in the Keuper reservoir, Paris Basin (France)

    SciTech Connect

    Spotl, C.; Matter, A. . Geologisches Inst.); Brevart, O. . Centre Scientifique et Technique Jean Feger)

    1993-09-01

    Keuper (Upper Triassic) fluvial sandstones and nonmarine carbonate rocks form a major oil reservoir in the western Paris Basin at burial depths of [approximately] 2km. Early-diagenetic processes comprise red-bed-type diagenesis and extensive dolocrete formation both in fluvial channels and in fine-grained over-bank sediments. Locally significant paleokarst created vuggy dissolution porosity in the carbonate units and probably also caused leaching of detrital alkali feldspar grains. Oxygen, carbon, and strontium isotope analyses of various eogenetic cements indicate a nonmarine pore-water composition. Ferroan carbonates, authigenic albite and potassium feldspar, quartz, sulfates, sulfides, and clay minerals formed subsequent to major mechanical compaction. Their isotopic compositions record significant changes in the chemistry of the parent pore water. Cl-Br relationships of the present-day pore water reveal that fluids saturated with respect to halite flushed the reservoir during burial. Based on radiogenic dating of illite cements, influx of warm brines into the reservoir most likely occurred during the earliest Cretaceous. The authors suggest that uplift of the Vosges crustal block created a hydraulic head in the eastern part of the basin and established a gravity-driven fluid flow system, displacing interstitial brines from the Keuper evaporites from the eastern part towards the western part of the basin. A second gravity-driven fluid flow system was established during the Oligocene by major uplift, and freshwater flushed the Keuper reservoir, causing brine dilution. The present-day pore water in the study area is still saline and mass-balance calculations indicate that the ratio of basinal brines to Tertiary meteoric water is about 1:2.

  2. Microbial diversity in Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis rhizomes of varying ages.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y; Yang, S C; Zhao, J; Udikeri, S; Liu, T

    2015-01-01

    Endophyte microorganisms live inside plants without causing them any apparent damage. Recently, endophytic microorganisms have attracted attention because they can produce bioactive compounds of biotechnological interest. The endophytic microorganisms in Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis (Liliaceae) - a species used since antiquity in traditional Chinese medicine - are under scrutiny because they may be responsible for producing the bioactive metabolites associated with the plant. The levels of bioactive metabolites in the rhizomes of P. polyphylla increase with rhizome age. To elucidate the roles played by endophytes in the accumulation of bioactive metabolites, we investigated the community structure and diversity of the endophytic microorganisms in P. polyphylla rhizomes of different ages (4, 6, and 8 years) using 16S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analysis. 16S rDNA amplicon pyrosequencing revealed that the number of operational taxonomic units was lower in the 8-year-old samples than in the other samples. A total of 28 phyla were observed in the P. polyphylla samples and the predominant bacteria were of the Cyanobacteria and Proteobacteria phyla. Moreover, the percentage of Cyanobacteria increased with rhizome age. Similarly, ITS1 amplicon pyrosequencing identified developmental changes in the most abundant fungal classes; some classes were more prevalent in the 8-year-old rhizomes than in younger rhizomes, indicating the importance in secondary metabolism in older rhizomes. Our study showed that endophyte microorganism diversity and prevalence depend on P. polyphylla rhizome age. There was also an indication that some endophyte microorganisms contribute to the higher saponin content in older P. polyphylla specimens. PMID:26782406

  3. SciDB and Geoinformatics Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Paul

    2015-04-01

    The SciDB project took as its design goals a list of features identified as being critical to scientific data management in a survey of working scientists (Stonebraker et al 2009). Earth scientists working with remote sensing data were well represented among those polled so it should come as no surprise that the platform has been embraced by that community. In this talk we focus on work done by researchers at NASA and INPE, and on applications created by commercial data providers in Korea and the United States. For each use-case, we will review the project team's objectives, the nature and quantity of the data involved, the their workload queries. As we discuss each use-case we will describe what is emerging as "best practice" for data management and analysis in this space. M. Stonebraker, J. Becla, D. J. DeWitt, K. T. Lim, D. Maier, O. Ratzesberger, and S. B. Zdonik. Requirements for science data bases and scidb. In CIDR 2009, Fourth Biennial Conference on Innovative Data Systems Research, Asilomar, CA, USA, January 4-7, 2009, Online Proceedings, 2009.

  4. Solving Large-scale Eigenvalue Problems in SciDACApplications

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Chao

    2005-06-29

    Large-scale eigenvalue problems arise in a number of DOE applications. This paper provides an overview of the recent development of eigenvalue computation in the context of two SciDAC applications. We emphasize the importance of Krylov subspace methods, and point out its limitations. We discuss the value of alternative approaches that are more amenable to the use of preconditioners, and report the progression using the multi-level algebraic sub-structuring techniques to speed up eigenvalue calculation. In addition to methods for linear eigenvalue problems, we also examine new approaches to solving two types of non-linear eigenvalue problems arising from SciDAC applications.

  5. Investigation of characteristics and transformation processes of megacity emission plumes using a mobile laboratory in the Paris metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von der Weiden-Reinmüller, S.-L.; Drewnick, F.; Zhang, Q.; Meleux, F.; Beekmann, M.; Borrmann, S.

    2012-04-01

    A growing fraction of the world's population is living in urban agglomerations of increasing size. Currently, 20 cities worldwide qualify as so-called megacities, having more than 10 million inhabitants. These intense pollution hot-spots cause a number of scientific questions concerning their influence on local and regional air quality, which is connected with human health, flora and fauna. In the framework of the European Union FP7 MEGAPOLI project (Megacities: Emissions, urban, regional and Global Atmospheric POLlution and climate effects, and Integrated tools for assessment and mitigation) two major field campaigns were carried out in the greater Paris region in July 2009 and January/February 2010. This work presents results from mobile particulate and gas phase measurements with focus on the characteristics of the Paris emission plume and its impact on the regional air quality and on aerosol transformation processes within this plume as it travels away from its source. In addition differences between summer and winter conditions are discussed. The mobile laboratory was equipped with high time resolution instrumentation to measure particle number concentrations (dP > 2.5 nm), size distributions (dP ~ 5 nm - 32 μm), sub-micron chemical composition (non-refractory species using Aerodyne HR-ToF-AMS, PAH and black carbon) as well as major trace gases (CO2, SO2, O3, NOx) and standard meteorological parameters. On-board webcam and GPS allow detailed monitoring of traffic situation and vehicle track. In a total of 29 mobile and 25 stationary measurements with the mobile laboratory the Paris emission plume as well as the atmospheric background was characterized under various meteorological conditions. This allows investigating the influence of external factors like temperature, solar radiation or precipitation on the plume characteristics. Three measurement strategies were applied to investigate the emission plume. First, circular mobile measurements around Paris

  6. Figures and Institutions of the neurological sciences in Paris from 1800 to 1950. Part IV: Psychiatry and psychology.

    PubMed

    Poirier, J; Clarac, F; Barbara, J-G; Broussolle, E

    2012-05-01

    We present a short historical review on the major institutions and figures who contributed to make Paris a renowned centre of physiology and neurology during the XIXth and the first half of the XXth century. We purposely chose to focus on the period 1800-1950, as 1800 corresponds to the actual beginning of neurosciences, and as 1950 marks their exponential rise. Our presentation is divided into four chapters, matching the main disciplines that have progressed and contributed most to the knowledge we have of the brain sciences: anatomy, physiology, neurology, and psychiatry-psychology. The present article is the fourth of the four parts of this review, which deals with the chapter on psychiatry and psychology. When the French Revolution occurred, only a few institutions were taking care of the mentally ill. In the Paris area, these included Maison Royale de Charenton, Les Petites Maisons, and one of the departments of larger hospitals such as Hôtel-Dieu, the Salpêtrière Hospital and Bicêtre Hospital. One of the founders of psychiatry in Paris at that time and thereafter was Philippe Pinel (1745-1826) who was the first to distinguish insane/alienated patients from misfits, beggars, and other vagabonds. During the first half of the XIXth century, his student Jean-Étienne Esquirol (1772-1840) also played a major role with his treatise on mental diseases and the 1838 law and the creation of asylums in all parts of France. Alienists were in general caregivers and learned by themselves. In contrast, at the academic level, the emerging disciplines psychiatry and neurology were very close to each other in the second half of the XIXth century, the best example being Jules Baillarger (1809-1890). The actual development of psychiatry and psychology and the foundation of psychoanalysis later in the XIXth century and in the first half of the XXth century owed much to several European doctors and scientists, particularly those from British institutions and from German

  7. Simulating the formation of carbonaceous aerosol in a European Megacity (Paris) during the MEGAPOLI summer and winter campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fountoukis, C.; Megaritis, A. G.; Skyllakou, K.; Charalampidis, P. E.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Crippa, M.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Freutel, F.; Wiedensohler, A.; Pilinis, C.; Pandis, S. N.

    2015-09-01

    We use a three dimensional regional chemical transport model (PMCAMx) with high grid resolution and high resolution emissions (4 km × 4 km) over the Paris greater area to simulate the formation of carbonaceous aerosol during a summer (July 2009) and a winter (January/February 2010) period as part of the MEGAPOLI (Megacities: Emissions, urban, regional, and Global Atmospheric POLlution and climate effects, and Integrated tools for assessment and mitigation) campaigns. Model predictions of carbonaceous aerosol are compared against Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer and black carbon (BC) high time resolution measurements from three ground sites. PMCAMx predicts BC concentrations reasonably well reproducing the majority (70 %) of the hourly data within a factor of two during both periods. The agreement for the summertime secondary organic aerosol (OA) concentrations is also encouraging (mean bias = 0.1 μg m-3) during a photochemically intense period. The model tends to underpredict the summertime primary OA concentrations in the Paris greater area (by approximately 0.8 μg m-3) mainly due to missing primary OA emissions from cooking activities. The total cooking emissions are estimated to be approximately 80 mg d-1 per capita and have a distinct diurnal profile in which 50 % of the daily cooking OA is emitted during lunch time (12:00-14:00 LT) and 20 % during dinner time (20:00-22:00 LT). Results also show a large underestimation of secondary OA in the Paris greater area during wintertime (mean bias = -2.3 μg m-3) pointing towards a secondary OA formation process during low photochemical activity periods that is not simulated in the model.

  8. Simulating the formation of carbonaceous aerosol in a European Megacity (Paris) during the MEGAPOLI summer and winter campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fountoukis, Christos; Megaritis, Athanasios G.; Skyllakou, Ksakousti; Charalampidis, Panagiotis E.; Denier van der Gon, Hugo A. C.; Crippa, Monica; Prévôt, André S. H.; Fachinger, Friederike; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Pilinis, Christodoulos; Pandis, Spyros N.

    2016-03-01

    We use a three-dimensional regional chemical transport model (PMCAMx) with high grid resolution and high-resolution emissions (4 × 4 km2) over the Paris greater area to simulate the formation of carbonaceous aerosol during a summer (July 2009) and a winter (January/February 2010) period as part of the MEGAPOLI (megacities: emissions, urban, regional, and global atmospheric pollution and climate effects, and Integrated tools for assessment and mitigation) campaigns. Model predictions of carbonaceous aerosol are compared against Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer and black carbon (BC) high time resolution measurements from three ground sites. PMCAMx predicts BC concentrations reasonably well reproducing the majority (70 %) of the hourly data within a factor of two during both periods. The agreement for the summertime secondary organic aerosol (OA) concentrations is also encouraging (mean bias = 0.1 µg m-3) during a photochemically intense period. The model tends to underpredict the summertime primary OA concentrations in the Paris greater area (by approximately 0.8 µg m-3) mainly due to missing primary OA emissions from cooking activities. The total cooking emissions are estimated to be approximately 80 mg d-1 per capita and have a distinct diurnal profile in which 50 % of the daily cooking OA is emitted during lunch time (12:00-14:00 LT) and 20 % during dinner time (20:00-22:00 LT). Results also show a large underestimation of secondary OA in the Paris greater area during wintertime (mean bias = -2.3 µg m-3) pointing towards a secondary OA formation process during low photochemical activity periods that is not simulated in the model.

  9. Long-term hydrodynamic response induced by past climatic and geomorphologic forcing: The case of the Paris basin, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jost, A.; Violette, S.; Gonçalvès, J.; Ledoux, E.; Guyomard, Y.; Guillocheau, F.; Kageyama, M.; Ramstein, G.; Suc, J.-P.

    In the framework of safe underground storage of radioactive waste in low-permeability layers, it is essential to evaluate the mobility of deep groundwaters over timescales of several million years. On these timescales, the environmental evolution of a repository should depend upon a range of natural processes that are primarily driven by climate and geomorphologic variations. In this paper, the response of the Paris basin groundwater system to variations in its hydrodynamic boundary conditions induced by past climate and geodynamic changes over the last five million years is investigated. A three-dimensional transient modelling of the Paris basin aquifer/aquitard system was developed using the code NEWSAM (Ecole des Mines de Paris, ENSMP). The geometry and hydrodynamic parameters of the model originate from a basin model, NEWBAS (ENSMP), built to simulate the geological history of the basin. Geomorphologic evolution is deduced from digital elevation model analysis, which allows to estimate river-valley incision and alpine surrection. Climate forcing results from palaeoclimate modelling experiments using the LMDz atmospheric general circulation model (Institut Pierre Simon Laplace) with a refined spatial resolution, for the present, the Last Glacial Maximum (21 ka) and the Middle Pliocene Warmth (∼3 Ma). The water balance is computed by the distributed hydrological model MODSUR (ENSMP). Results about the simulated evolution of piezometric heads in the system in response to the altered boundary conditions are presented, in particular in the vicinity of ANDRA’s Bure potential repository site within the Callovo-Oxfordian argillaceous layer. For the present, the comparison of head patterns between steady state and time dependent simulation shows little differences for aquifer layers close to the surface but suggests a transient state of the current system in the main aquitards of the basin and in the deep aquifers, characterized by abnormally low fluid potentials

  10. [Pharmaceutical, medical and cosmetic advertising in the revue "A Illustração (Paris, 1884-1892)].

    PubMed

    Pereira, A L; Pita, J R

    1996-01-01

    Edited by a Portuguese publisher in Paris, in 15.000 copies, to be sold in Portugal and in Brazil, the revue A Illustração propagated the progress accomplished by French science and industry in the pharmaceutical, medical and cosmetic domaine. It followed with particular interest the work of Pasteur and nearly every advertisement that is published on the subject of health made reference to either medicine or products of French origin. Such advertisements reflect the great concern of the times with matters of hygiene, both public and private. PMID:11624820

  11. Evaluation of PARIS performance in the South Central Coast Air Basin. Volume 2. Technical report. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, S.G.; Daly, C.; Moore, G.E.; Myers, T.C.

    1991-12-01

    The primary goal of the study was to compare PARIS model performance in simulating ozone in the South Central Coast Air Basin (SCCAB) for 22-24 September 1985 using alternative wind fields. One wind field was generated by the Diagnostic Wind Model (DWM), and the other by the Colorado State University Mesoscale Model (CSUMM). The overall objective of the South Central Coast Cooperative Aerometric Monitoring Program (SCCCAMP) project was to develop a means of assessing the aggregate impact of offshore petroleum industry sources on onshore ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations.

  12. Evaluation of PARIS performance in the South Central Coast Air Basin. Volume 1. Executive Summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, S.G.; Daly, C.; Moore, G.E.; Myers, T.C.

    1991-12-01

    The primary goal of the study was to compare PARIS model performance in simulating ozone in the South Central Coast Air Basin (SCCAB) for 22-24 September 1985 using alternative wind fields. One wind field was generated by the Diagnostic Wind Model (DWM), and the other by the Colorado State University Mesoscale Model (CSUMM). The overall objective of the South Central Coast Cooperative Aerometric Monitoring Program (SCCCAMP) project was to develop a means of assessing the aggregate impact of offshore petroleum industry sources on onshore ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations.

  13. Origin of particulate matter and gaseous precursors in the Paris Megacity: Results from intensive campaigns, long term measurements and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beekmann, Matthias; Petetin, Hervé; Zhang, Qijie; Prevot, André S. H.; Sciare, Jean; Gros, Valérie; Ghersi, Véronique; Rosso, Amandine; Crippa, Monica; Zotter, Peter; Freutel, Fredericke; Poulain, Laurent; Freney, Evelyne; Sellegri, Karine; Drewnick, Frank; Borbon, Agnès; Wiedensohler, Aflred; Pandis, Spyros N.; Baltensperger, Urs

    2016-04-01

    Uncertainties on the origin of primary and secondary particulate matter and its gaseous precursors in megacities is still large and needs to be reduced. A detailed characterization of air quality in Paris (France), a megacity of more than 10 million inhabitants, during two one month intensive campaigns (MEGAPOLI) and from additional one year observations (PARTICULATE and FRANCIPOL), revealed that about 70% of the fine particulate matter (PM) at urban background is transported on average into the megacity from upwind regions. While advection of sulfate is well documented for other megacities, there was a surprisingly high contribution from long-range transport for both nitrate and organic aerosol. The data set of urban local and advected PM concentrations in the Paris area were used for a thorough evaluation of the CHIMERE model and revealed error compensation for the local and advected components of organic matter and nitrate. During spring time, CHIMERE simulations overestimate the sensitivity of ammonium nitrate peaks to NH3, because (i) they underestimate the urban background NH3 levels, probably due to neglecting enhanced NH3 emissions for larger temperatures, and because they overestimate HNO3. However, from an ensemble of mobile Max-DOAS NO2 column and airborne NOy measurements around Paris, no clear sign on a NOx emission bias in the TNO-Airparif data set was made evident. The origin of organic PM was investigated by a comprehensive analysis of aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), radiocarbon and tracer measurements during two intensive campaigns. Primary fossil fuel combustion emissions contributed less than 20% in winter and 40% in summer to carbonaceous fine PM, unexpectedly little for a megacity. Cooking activities and, during winter, residential wood burning are the major primary organic PM sources. This analysis suggests that the major part of secondary organic aerosol is of modern origin, i.e. from biogenic precursors and from wood burning. Implementation

  14. Contributions to the history of psychology: LXXXV. Jean Piaget, student of Pierre Janet (Paris 1919-1921).

    PubMed

    Amann-Gainotti, M

    1992-06-01

    This article provides information about an important period of Piaget's formative years, those he spent in Paris from 1919 to 1921, during which he came into contact with eminent members of the French scientific and philosophical community of the time. Among these was the psychiatrist and psychologist Pierre Janet, whose genetic approach to the psychology of behaviour and ideas about the hierarchical organization of psychological functions converged with Piaget's early scientific interests and provided Piaget a conceptual framework within which to work and develop his own project of studying the genesis of knowledge.

  15. Contributions to the history of psychology: LXXXV. Jean Piaget, student of Pierre Janet (Paris 1919-1921).

    PubMed

    Amann-Gainotti, M

    1992-06-01

    This article provides information about an important period of Piaget's formative years, those he spent in Paris from 1919 to 1921, during which he came into contact with eminent members of the French scientific and philosophical community of the time. Among these was the psychiatrist and psychologist Pierre Janet, whose genetic approach to the psychology of behaviour and ideas about the hierarchical organization of psychological functions converged with Piaget's early scientific interests and provided Piaget a conceptual framework within which to work and develop his own project of studying the genesis of knowledge. PMID:1501961

  16. [The symbol of the three reigns of nature on the pharmacy China vases in "porcelaine de Paris"].

    PubMed

    Bourrinet, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    The use by the apotharies of the symbol of three reigns of nature: the snake, the palm-tree and the rocks, together with the motto "In his tribus versantur" was fort them away to illustrate their scope of competence. This symbol cannot be seen on many delft-wan, but it illustrates many China-vases, made of "porcelaine de Paris" during the XIXth century. Palm-tree, snake and rocks constitute the main kind of adornment on the pots made by the various manufacturers.

  17. Le Carbonifère du Maroc central : les formations de Migoumess, de Tirhela et d'Idmarrach. Lithologie, biostratigraphie et conséquences géodynamiquesThe Carboniferous formations of Migoumess, Tirhela and Idmarrach (central Morocco): lithology, biostratigraphy and geodynamic consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkhli, Mostafa; Vachard, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    New biostratigraphical data based on foraminifers, algae and pseudo-algae indicate that the limestone pebbles of the channelized polygenic conglomerates of the Migoumess formation contain Late Visean (V3b γ-V3c) assemblages. That confirms the Westphalian age attributed to this formation by Hollard [Zdt. Geol. Ges. 129 (1978) 495-512]. The Tournaisian age assigned to it by palynology [C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, série II 310 (1990) 1573-1576] cannot be retained. The Tirhela formation, Late Visean and Serpukhovian (E1) in age, is coeval with the Akerchi formation [Berkhli, thèse d'État, 1999; Berkhli et al., J. Afr. Earth Sci. (accepté)]. The Idmarrach formation, mapped as a thrust sheet [C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, série II 310 (1990) 1573-1576], is dated as Serpukhovian (E1) and its thrusting is consequently post-Serpukhovian. Palaeogeographic and geodynamic consequences are listed. To cite this article: M. Berkhli, D. Vachard, C. R. Geoscience 334 (2002) 67-72

  18. Viscosity Solutions for the One-Body Liouville Equation in Yang-Mills Charged Bianchi Models with Non-Zero Mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayissi, Raoul Domingo; Noutchegueme, Norbert; Etoua, Remy Magloire; Tchagna, Hugues Paulin Mbeutcha

    2015-09-01

    Recently in 2005, Briani and Rampazzo (Nonlinear Differ Equ Appl 12:71-91, 2005) gave, using results of Crandall and Lions (Ill J Math 31:665-688, 1987), Ishii (Indiana Univ Math J 33: 721-748, 1984, Bull Fac Sci Eng 28: 33-77, 1985) and Ley (Adv Diff Equ 6:547-576, 2001) a density approach to Hamilton-Jacobi equations with t-measurable Hamiltonians. In this paper we show, using an important result of Briani and Rampazzo (Nonlinear Differ Equ Appl 12:71-91, 2005) the existence and uniqueness of viscosity solutions to the one-body Liouville relativistic equation in Yang-Mills charged Bianchi space times with non-zero mass. To our knowledge, the method used here is original and thus, totally different from those used in Alves (C R Acad Sci Paris Sér A 278:1151-1154, 1975), Choquet-Bruhat and Noutchegueme (C R Acad Sci Paris Sér I 311, 1973), Choquet-Bruhat and Noutchegueme (Ann Inst Henri Poincaré 55:759-787, 1991), Choquet-Bruhat and Noutchegueme (Pitman Res Notes Math Ser 253:52-71, 1992), Noutchegueme and Noundjeu (Ann Inst Henri Poincaré 1:385-404, 2000), Wollman (J Math Anal Appl 127:103-121, 1987) and Choquet-Bruhat (Existence and uniqueness for the Einstein-Maxwell-Liouville system. Volume dedicated to Petrov, Moscow, 1971) who have studied the same equation.

  19. Chronology of the Early Toarcian environmental crisis in the Lorraine Sub-Basin (NE Paris Basin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruebsam, Wolfgang; Münzberger, Petra; Schwark, Lorenz

    2014-10-01

    Early Toarcian (Jurassic; ∼183 Ma) sediments recorded profound environmental changes, including mass extinction, global warming, marine transgression as well as widespread bottom water anoxia and organic matter accumulation on the Western Tethyan shelf. Enhanced organic matter accumulation was accompanied by a positive carbon isotope excursion (CIE) in pelagic carbonate, which marks the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event. These environmental changes were accompanied by a major perturbation of the global carbon cycle, expressed by negative CIE, interrupting the positive trend. The duration of the carbon cycle perturbation is still debated, with estimates for the negative CIE range from ∼200 to ∼600 kyr. Here we present ultra high-resolution (<1 kyr) measurements of magnetic susceptibility and sediment color from a marine section located in the Lorraine Sub-Basin (NE Paris Basin) documenting Milankovitch-controlled fluctuations in depositional conditions that occurred superimposed onto the overall sea level evolution. Differences in the wavelength of the sedimentary cycles indicate variable sediment accumulation rates that mainly resulted from rapid sea level fluctuations. The most pronounced sea level rise that took place within the uppermost tenuicostatum zone resulted in a strong condensation of the basal Schistes Carton formation. Strong condensation can explain the discrepancy between durations previously calculated for the CIE placed at this stratigraphic interval. Our data support durations of ∼900 kyr and ∼600 kyr for the positive and negative CIE, respectively. The cyclostratigraphy-based timescale further proposes a duration of >555 kyr for the tenuicostatum zone and 1310 kyr for the serpentinum zone. The durations of the elegantulum and falciferum subzones can be estimated to ∼790 kyr and ∼520 kyr, respectively. A change in the orbital response from eccentricity- to obliquity-forcing, evident from other locations, is well-expressed in the Lorraine

  20. Seasonal variability and source apportionment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the Paris megacity (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudic, Alexia; Gros, Valérie; Sauvage, Stéphane; Locoge, Nadine; Sanchez, Olivier; Sarda-Estève, Roland; Kalogridis, Cerise; Petit, Jean-Eudes; Bonnaire, Nicolas; Baisnée, Dominique; Favez, Olivier; Albinet, Alexandre; Sciare, Jean; Bonsang, Bernard

    2016-09-01

    Within the framework of air quality studies at the megacity scale, highly time-resolved volatile organic compound (C2-C8) measurements were performed in downtown Paris (urban background sites) from January to November 2010. This unique dataset included non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and aromatic/oxygenated species (OVOCs) measured by a GC-FID (gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector) and a PTR-MS (proton transfer reaction - mass spectrometer), respectively. This study presents the seasonal variability of atmospheric VOCs being monitored in the French megacity and their various associated emission sources. Clear seasonal and diurnal patterns differed from one VOC to another as the result of their different origins and the influence of environmental parameters (solar radiation, temperature). Source apportionment (SA) was comprehensively conducted using a multivariate mathematical receptor modeling. The United States Environmental Protection Agency's positive matrix factorization tool (US EPA, PMF) was used to apportion and quantify ambient VOC concentrations into six different sources. The modeled source profiles were identified from near-field observations (measurements from three distinct emission sources: inside a highway tunnel, at a fireplace and from a domestic gas flue, hence with a specific focus on road traffic, wood-burning activities and natural gas emissions) and hydrocarbon profiles reported in the literature. The reconstructed VOC sources were cross validated using independent tracers such as inorganic gases (NO, NO2, CO), black carbon (BC) and meteorological data (temperature). The largest contributors to the predicted VOC concentrations were traffic-related activities (including motor vehicle exhaust, 15 % of the total mass on the annual average, and evaporative sources, 10 %), with the remaining emissions from natural gas and background (23 %), solvent use (20 %), wood-burning (18 %) and a biogenic source (15 %). An important finding of

  1. Occupational exposure and 12-year spirometric changes among Paris area workers.

    PubMed Central

    Kauffmann, F; Drouet, D; Lellouch, J; Brille, D

    1982-01-01

    A follow-up study over 12 years was conducted among 556 men aged 30 to 54 in 1960 and working at that time in factories around Paris (France). Various occupational exposures were recorded at the time of the 1960 survey after a technical study of each workplace. The annual rate of decline of FEV1 during 12 years was estimated for each subject from the measurements in 1960 and 1972. This rate (the FEV1 slope) was related independently of FEV1 level (which reflects the loss since the beginning of adult life) and of smoking habits to occupational exposure to dust, gases, and heat. FEV1 slope was significantly related to inhalation of mineral dust (even in the absence of silica) as well as to grain dust, and the slope was steeper with increased intensity of exposure to dust. Analysis of job changes showed that among heavily exposed subjects, those who changed jobs had a less steep slope than those who did not. Our results support the hypothesis of a causal role of exposure to dust in the development of chronic airflow obstruction and of a benefit when exposure to dust ceases. Exposure to dust, gas, and heat usually occurred together so data on gas and heat were analysed after taking account of exposure to dust. The influence of heat on FEV1 decline showed a clear trend. Results suggest that exposure to gases associated with exposure to dust or heat or both had a deleterious effect. After adjusting for age, smoking, and FEV1 level (ASLA) the following average slopes were obtained: 44 ml/a (for exposure to none or to only a slight amount of dust, or to gases alone), 51 ml/a (heat), 53 ml/a (noticeable dust), 55 ml/a (noticeable dust and heat), 60 ml/a (noticeable dust, heat, and high concentration of gases). Independently of the occupational exposures, ASLA FEV1 slopes among manual workers were related to skill, being 44 ml/a for skilled and 51 ml/a for unskilled men. Independently of social class and occupational exposures recorded, there were differences in FEV1 slopes

  2. CO2 dispersion modelling over Paris region within the CO2-MEGAPARIS project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lac, C.; Donnelly, R. P.; Masson, V.; Pal, S.; Riette, S.; Donier, S.; Queguiner, S.; Tanguy, G.; Ammoura, L.; Xueref-Remy, I.

    2013-05-01

    Accurate simulation of the spatial and temporal variability of tracer mixing ratios over urban areas is a challenging and interesting task needed to be performed in order to utilise CO2 measurements in an atmospheric inverse framework and to better estimate regional CO2 fluxes. This study investigates the ability of a high-resolution model to simulate meteorological and CO2 fields around Paris agglomeration during the March field campaign of the CO2-MEGAPARIS project. The mesoscale atmospheric model Meso-NH, running at 2 km horizontal resolution, is coupled with the Town Energy Balance (TEB) urban canopy scheme and with the Interactions between Soil, Biosphere and Atmosphere CO2-reactive (ISBA-A-gs) surface scheme, allowing a full interaction of CO2 modelling between the surface and the atmosphere. Statistical scores show a good representation of the urban heat island (UHI) with stronger urban-rural contrasts on temperature at night than during the day by up to 7 °C. Boundary layer heights (BLH) have been evaluated on urban, suburban and rural sites during the campaign, and also on a suburban site over 1 yr. The diurnal cycles of the BLH are well captured, especially the onset time of the BLH increase and its growth rate in the morning, which are essential for tall tower CO2 observatories. The main discrepancy is a small negative bias over urban and suburban sites during nighttime (respectively 45 m and 5 m), leading to a few overestimations of nocturnal CO2 mixing ratios at suburban sites and a bias of +5 ppm. The diurnal CO2 cycle is generally well captured for all the sites. At the Eiffel tower, the observed spikes of CO2 maxima occur every morning exactly at the time at which the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) growth reaches the measurement height. At suburban ground stations, CO2 measurements exhibit maxima at the beginning and at the end of each night, when the ABL is fully contracted, with a strong spatio-temporal variability. A sensitivity test without

  3. Theory of cyclic creep of concrete based on Paris law for fatigue growth of subcritical microcracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazant, Zdenek P.; Hubler, Mija H.

    2014-02-01

    Recent investigations prompted by a disaster in Palau revealed that worldwide there are 69 long-span segmental prestressed-concrete box-girder bridges that suffered excessive multi-decade deflections, while many more surely exist. Although the excessive deflections were shown to be caused mainly by obsolescence of design recommendations or codes for static creep, some engineers suspect that cyclic creep might have been a significant additional cause. Many investigators explored the cyclic creep of concrete experimentally, but a rational mathematical model that would be anchored in the microstructure and would allow extrapolation to a 100-year lifetime is lacking. Here it is assumed that the cause of cyclic creep is the fatigue growth of pre-existing microcracks in hydrated cement. The resulting macroscopic strain is calculated by applying fracture mechanics to the microcracks considered as either tensile or, in the form of a crushing band, as compressive. This leads to a mathematical model for cyclic creep in compression, which is verified and calibrated by laboratory test data from the literature. The cyclic creep is shown to be proportional to the time average of stress and to the 4th power of the ratio of the stress amplitude to material strength. The power of 4 is supported by the recent finding that, on the atomistic scale, the Paris law should have the exponent of 2 and that the exponent must increase due to scale bridging. Exponent 4 implies that cyclic creep deflections are enormously sensitive to the relative amplitude of the applied cyclic stress. Calculations of the effects of cyclic creep in six segmental prestressed concrete box girders indicate that, because of self-weight dominance, the effect on deflections absolutely negligible for large spans (>150m). For small spans (<40m) the cyclic creep deflections are not negligible but do not matter since the static creep causes in such bridges upward deflections. However, the cyclic creep is shown to cause

  4. Predictive Factors of Cytomegalovirus Seropositivity among Pregnant Women in Paris, France

    PubMed Central

    N’Diaye, Dieynaba S.; Yazdanpanah, Yazdan; Krivine, Anne; Andrieu, Thibaut; Rozenberg, Flore; Picone, Olivier; Tsatsaris, Vassilis; Goffinet, François; Launay, Odile

    2014-01-01

    Background Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most frequent cause of congenital infection. The objective of this study was to evaluate predictive factors for CMV seronegativity in a cohort of pregnant women in Paris, France. Methods Pregnant women enrolled in a prospective cohort during the 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic were tested for CMV IgG antibodies. Variables collected were age, geographic origin, lifestyle, work characteristics, socioeconomic status, gravidity, parity and number of children at home. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to identify independent predictive factors for CMV seropositivity. Results Among the 826 women enrolled, 389 (47.1%) were primiparous, and 552 (67.1%) had Metropolitan France as a geographic origin. Out of these, 355 (i.e. 57.0%, 95% confidence interval (CI): [53.6%–60.4%]) were CMV seropositive: 43.7% (95% CI:[39.5%–47.9%]) in those whose geographic origin was Metropolitan France and 84.1% in those with other origins (95% CI:[79.2%–88.3%]). Determinants associated with CMV seropositivity in a multivariate logistic regression model were: (i) geographic origin (p<0.001(compared with Metropolitan France, geographic origins of Africa adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 21.2, 95% CI:[9.7–46.5], French overseas departments and territories and other origin, aOR 7.5, 95% CI:[3.9–14.6], and Europe or Asia, aOR 2.2, 95% CI: [1.3–3.7]); and (ii) gravidity (p = 0.019), (compared with gravidity = 1, if gravidity≥3, aOR = 1.5, 95% CI: [1.1–2.2]; if gravidity = 2, aOR = 1.0, 95% CI: [0.7–1.4]). Work characteristics and socioeconomic status were not independently associated with CMV seropositivity. Conclusions In this cohort of pregnant women, a geographic origin of Metropolitan France and a low gravidity were predictive factors for CMV low seropositivity. Such women are therefore the likely target population for prevention of CMV infection during pregnancy in France. PMID:24587077

  5. Volatility of organic aerosol and its components in the megacity of Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paciga, Andrea; Karnezi, Eleni; Kostenidou, Evangelia; Hildebrandt, Lea; Psichoudaki, Magda; Engelhart, Gabriella J.; Lee, Byong-Hyoek; Crippa, Monica; Prévôt, André S. H.; Baltensperger, Urs; Pandis, Spyros N.

    2016-02-01

    Using a mass transfer model and the volatility basis set, we estimate the volatility distribution for the organic aerosol (OA) components during summer and winter in Paris, France as part of the collaborative project MEGAPOLI. The concentrations of the OA components as a function of temperature were measured combining data from a thermodenuder and an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) with Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis. The hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) had similar volatility distributions for the summer and winter campaigns with half of the material in the saturation concentration bin of 10 µg m-3 and another 35-40 % consisting of low and extremely low volatility organic compounds (LVOCs with effective saturation concentrations C* of 10-3-0.1 µg m-3 and ELVOCs C* less or equal than 10-4 µg m-3, respectively). The winter cooking OA (COA) was more than an order of magnitude less volatile than the summer COA. The low-volatility oxygenated OA (LV-OOA) factor detected in the summer had the lowest volatility of all the derived factors and consisted almost exclusively of ELVOCs. The volatility for the semi-volatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA) was significantly higher than that of the LV-OOA, containing both semi-volatile organic components (SVOCs with C* in the 1-100 µg m-3 range) and LVOCs. The oxygenated OA (OOA) factor in winter consisted of SVOCs (45 %), LVOCs (25 %) and ELVOCs (30 %). The volatility of marine OA (MOA) was higher than that of the other factors containing around 60 % SVOCs. The biomass burning OA (BBOA) factor contained components with a wide range of volatilities with significant contributions from both SVOCs (50 %) and LVOCs (30 %). Finally, combining the bulk average O : C ratios and volatility distributions of the various factors, our results are placed into the two-dimensional volatility basis set (2D-VBS) framework. The OA factors cover a broad spectrum of volatilities with no direct link between the average volatility and

  6. Overview of the Spinal Cord Injury – Quality of Life (SCI-QOL) measurement system

    PubMed Central

    Tulsky, David S.; Kisala, Pamela A.; Victorson, David; Tate, Denise G.; Heinemann, Allen W.; Charlifue, Susan; Kirshblum, Steve C.; Fyffe, Denise; Gershon, Richard; Spungen, Ann M.; Bombardier, Charles H.; Dyson-Hudson, Trevor A.; Amtmann, Dagmar; Z. Kalpakjian, Claire; W. Choi, Seung; Jette, Alan M.; Forchheimer, Martin; Cella, David

    2015-01-01

    Context/Objective The Spinal Cord Injury – Quality of Life (SCI-QOL) measurement system was developed to address the shortage of relevant and psychometrically sound patient reported outcome (PRO) measures available for clinical care and research in spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation. Using a computer adaptive testing (CAT) approach, the SCI-QOL builds on the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) and the Quality of Life in Neurological Disorders (Neuro-QOL) initiative. This initial manuscript introduces the background and development of the SCI-QOL measurement system. Greater detail is presented in the additional manuscripts of this special issue. Design Classical and contemporary test development methodologies were employed. Qualitative input was obtained from individuals with SCI and clinicians through interviews, focus groups, and cognitive debriefing. Item pools were field tested in a multi-site sample (n = 877) and calibrated using item response theory methods. Initial reliability and validity testing was performed in a new sample of individuals with traumatic SCI (n = 245). Setting Five Model SCI System centers and one Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center across the United States. Participants Adults with traumatic SCI. Interventions n/a Outcome Measures n/a Results The SCI-QOL consists of 19 item banks, including the SCI-Functional Index banks, and 3 fixed-length scales measuring physical, emotional, and social aspects of health-related QOL (HRQOL). Conclusion The SCI-QOL measurement system consists of psychometrically sound measures for individuals with SCI. The manuscripts in this special issue provide evidence of the reliability and initial validity of this measurement system. The SCI-QOL also links to other measures designed for a general medical population. PMID:26010962

  7. Single Pion Measurement Capabilities at SciBooNE

    SciTech Connect

    Nakajima, Y.; /Kyoto U.

    2007-12-01

    The precise knowledge of the single pion production cross-section of neutrino around the {approx}1 GeV energy region is an essential ingredient in the interpretation of neutrino oscillation experiments. The unique opportunities and prospects of single pion measurements at SciBooNE are described.

  8. SciTech Clubs for Girls. [Annual] technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Nogal, A.M.

    1993-02-01

    Since January 1992, 9 exhibits have been constructed by the SciTech Clubs for Girls, which involved 63 girls, ages 10 to 14. These exhibits are: Bubble Shapes by the St. Charles Cadette Girl Scout Troop No. 109. Density Games by the South Elgin Cadette Girl Scout Troop No. 132. Electric Fleas by the Warrenville Junior Girl Scout Troop No. 305. Energy vs. Power by the Aurora Junior Girl Scout Troop No. 242. The Organ Pipe by the Bartlett Junior Girl Scout Troop No. 107. Ohm`s Law by the Geneva Junior Girl Scout Troop No. 401. What is Gravity by the Pilsen YMCA girls. Insulation at Work by the Algonquin Junior Girl Scout Troop No. 303. Series vs. Parallel by the Leland Junior Girl Scout Troop No. 50. The report is a description of each exhibit and the group that built the exhibit. Each group had a minimum of 10 hours of contact time at SciTech with the SciTech Clubs for Girls Program Coordinator. All mentors are female. Each exhibit building experience includes a trip to the hardware store to purchase supplies. After the exhibit is complete, the girls receive certificates of achievement and a SciTech Club Patch.

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: HII regions of the Northern Milky Way (Dubout-Crillon+ 1976)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubout-Crillon, R.

    2011-04-01

    The photographs were made at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence at the end of 1969, throughout 1970, and then again in 1972. A 5cm refractor was used with a very selective interference filter (Δλ=10Å) centered on Hα, and a focal reducer took the f/5 beam down to f/1.25. Exposures were made using flashed 103-aE plates. The catalogue includes also the HII regions discovered by Sivan 1974 (Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris 278, 127; 1974A&AS...16..163S). (1 data file).

  10. On Rank One Convex Functions that are Homogeneous of Degree One

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchheim, Bernd; Kristensen, Jan

    2016-07-01

    We show that positively 1-homogeneous rank one convex functions are convex at 0 and at matrices of rank one. The result is a special case of an abstract convexity result that we establish for positively 1-homogeneous directionally convex functions defined on an open convex cone in a finite dimensional vector space. From these results we derive a number of consequences including various generalizations of the Ornstein L1 non inequalities. Most of the results were announced in ( C R Acad Sci Paris Ser I 349:407-409, 2011).

  11. Fractional Hamiltonian monodromy from a Gauss-Manin monodromy

    SciTech Connect

    Sugny, D.; Jauslin, H. R.; Mardesic, P.; Pelletier, M.; Jebrane, A.

    2008-04-15

    Fractional Hamiltonian monodromy is a generalization of the notion of Hamiltonian monodromy, recently introduced by [Nekhoroshev, Sadovskii, and Zhilinskii, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, Ser. 1 335, 985 (2002); and Ann. Henri Poincare 7, 1099 (2006)] for energy-momentum maps whose image has a particular type of nonisolated singularities. In this paper, we analyze the notion of fractional Hamiltonian monodromy in terms of the Gauss-Manin monodromy of a Riemann surface constructed from the energy-momentum map and associated with a loop in complex space which bypasses the line of singularities. We also prove some propositions on fractional Hamiltonian monodromy for 1:-n and m:-n resonant systems.

  12. Paris Agreement climate proposals need a boost to keep warming well below 2 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogelj, Joeri; den Elzen, Michel; Höhne, Niklas; Fransen, Taryn; Fekete, Hanna; Winkler, Harald; Schaeffer, Roberto; Sha, Fu; Riahi, Keywan; Meinshausen, Malte

    2016-06-01

    The Paris climate agreement aims at holding global warming to well below 2 degrees Celsius and to “pursue efforts” to limit it to 1.5 degrees Celsius. To accomplish this, countries have submitted Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) outlining their post-2020 climate action. Here we assess the effect of current INDCs on reducing aggregate greenhouse gas emissions, its implications for achieving the temperature objective of the Paris climate agreement, and potential options for overachievement. The INDCs collectively lower greenhouse gas emissions compared to where current policies stand, but still imply a median warming of 2.6-3.1 degrees Celsius by 2100. More can be achieved, because the agreement stipulates that targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions are strengthened over time, both in ambition and scope. Substantial enhancement or over-delivery on current INDCs by additional national, sub-national and non-state actions is required to maintain a reasonable chance of meeting the target of keeping warming well below 2 degrees Celsius.

  13. Occupational Practitioner’s Role in the Management of a Crisis: Lessons Learned from the Paris November 2015 Terrorist Attack

    PubMed Central

    Descatha, Alexis; Huynh Tuong, Alice; Coninx, Pierre; Baer, Michel; Loeb, Thomas; Despréaux, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In massive catastrophic events, occupational health practitioners are more and more frequently involved in the management of such situations. We aim to describe the multiple aspects of the role that occupational health practitioners might play, by focusing on the recent example of the Paris terrorist attack of November 2015. During and after the Paris attack, occupational practitioners, in collaboration with emergency and security professionals, were involved in psychological care, assembling information, follow-up, return-to-work, and improving in-company safety plans. Based on this experience and other industrial disasters, we distinguish three phases: the critical phase, the post-critical phase, and the anticipation phase. In the critical phase, the occupational practitioner cares for patients before the emergency professionals take charge, initiates the psychological management, and may also play an organizational role for company health aspects. In the post-critical phase, he or she would be involved in monitoring those affected by the events and participate in preventing, to the extent possible, posttraumatic stress disorder, helping victims in the return-to-work process, and improving procedures and organizing drills. In addition to their usual work of primary prevention, occupational practitioners should endeavor to improve preparedness in the anticipation phase, by taking part in contingency planning, training in first aid, and defining immediately applicable protocols. In conclusion, recent events have highlighted the essential role of occupational health services in anticipation of a crisis, management during the crisis, and follow-up. PMID:27703965

  14. [The nerves of the face: anatomical sample in wax in the Delmas-Orfila-Rouvière Museum in Paris].

    PubMed

    Drifi, F; Le Floch-Prigent, P

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to check the anatomical veracity of the model of wax no. 262, from the Delmas, Orfila and Rouvière museums, 45, rue des Saints Pères, Paris 6th, made by Tramond M.D., entitled "nerves of the face". We successively took several numerical photographs with several view angles; anatomically described the nerves of the face as they were represented on this model; correlated the anatomical veracity of this representation with the classical, textbooks' data; approached the technical bases of fabrication; and collected successive photographs of the model every 5 degrees , all along 180 degrees , thus allowing an animated rotation on computer, using the QuickTime Virtual Reality program. The oversize of the model excluded a set on a real human skeleton. The building technique of the model was deduced from known data but could not be completely reported. The anatomical veracity of the sample was excellent. The difficulties of realization in wax of an oversized model of the nerves of the human face were solved in the late 19th century, in Paris by Tramond's factory. They remained unequalled.

  15. Effect of the thermal gradient variation through geological time on basin modeling; a case study: The Paris basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amir, L.; Martinez, L.; Disnar, J. R.; Vigneresse, J.-L.; Michels, R.; Guillocheau, F.; Robin, C.

    2005-05-01

    Many studies investigated the thermal modeling of the Paris basin for petroleum interests during the 1970s. Most of the softwares developed by oil companies or research centers were based on the assumption of a constant thermal gradient. In order to take into consideration the variation of the thermal gradient during basin evolution, we developed the TherMO's Visual Basic 1D program. We applied our model to twenty boreholes located along a cross-section roughly running EW over 150 km in the center of the Paris basin. The numerical results were calibrated with organic matter maturity data. TherMO's simulates the amount of heat provided to the sedimentary organic matter. The heat parameter simulated shows lateral variation along the cross-section. It decreases from Rambouillet to Trou Aux Loups boreholes (87-66 mW/m 2) at about 100 km more to the east whereas the heat flux value simulated is 73 mW/m 2 in St. Loup borehole. The mean thermal gradient calculated for liassic horizons at 87 My for the Rambouillet well is 50.4 °C/km. This value is similar to previously published results. By integrating the calculation of the thermal gradients and conductivities related to the burial of each stratigraphic sequence, our approach points out variations in the thermal regimes the sedimentary organic matter (SOM) has been subjected to through geological time.

  16. Development and Exploitation of Low Enthalpy Geothermal Systems, Example of "The Dogger" in the Paris Basin, France

    SciTech Connect

    Rojas, J.; Menjoz, A.; Martin, J.C.; Criaud, A.; Fouillac, C.

    1987-01-20

    A feature of French geothermal engineering is the development of industrial projects in normal gradient, non-convective areas. The economic feasibility of exploiting wells producing between 150 and 350 m{sup 3}/h at temperatures from 55° to 85° from depths of 1,500 to 2,000 meters, in sedimentary basins with normal gradient, for direct heat production has been proved by 50 plants providing heating for over 500,000 people during the last few years. This opens new possibilities for geothermal energy development the world over, in particular for areas where heat consumption is higher than 2,500 Tons oil equivalent (Toe)/year over several square kilometers. The recent and rapid development of geothermal projects in France, in particular in the Paris Basin has provided much more information on the characteristics of the Jurassic Dogger, which is the unit tapped by geothermal doublets (one production and one injection well). Detailed study of the Dogger reservoir in the Paris Basin is one of the main objectives of the IMRG research and development program drawn up in 1983. The preliminary results presented here are oriented towards (1) improved knowledge of the potential geothermal resources, and (2) analysis of optimum development conditions. 1 tab., 7 refs., 9 figs.

  17. [Pierre Fauchard (1677?-1761). Dental expert and master surgeon of Saint-Côme of Paris].

    PubMed

    Angot, J L

    1983-03-01

    Pierre Fauchard has raised enigmas namely as regards his professional life which we try to elucidate by the analysis of his book. He began his dental training with a naval surgeon who did not sail anymore and he started practicing at the age of 19 with some dangerous interventions in the mouth of a friend. He benefited from the imbroglio of his time when the dental practice was not much supervised. In 1699 there was a compulsory examination to receive the title of 'Dental expert' which Fauchard obtained around 1708 in Paris. A short time afterwards it appeared that he undertook studies to become a Master-Surgeon, which title he obtained around 1714-1717, if one follows the 'Observations' in his book. As a matter of fact he operated already before 1715 with the great master-surgeons of his time, which would have been paradoxical if he had been only an Expert whose surgical operations described were not allowed by the strict regulations of the College Saint-Côme. His position as master-surgeon is revealed in the 1758 register of this company. The title-page of his book indicates it too by its presentation, as one reads 'by Pierre Fauchard surgeon' and at the next line: 'dentist in Paris'. The present paper intends to show that P. Fauchard was a practitioner with serious and long medical and surgical studies behind him.

  18. Paris Agreement climate proposals need a boost to keep warming well below 2 °C.

    PubMed

    Rogelj, Joeri; den Elzen, Michel; Höhne, Niklas; Fransen, Taryn; Fekete, Hanna; Winkler, Harald; Schaeffer, Roberto; Sha, Fu; Riahi, Keywan; Meinshausen, Malte

    2016-06-30

    The Paris climate agreement aims at holding global warming to well below 2 degrees Celsius and to "pursue efforts" to limit it to 1.5 degrees Celsius. To accomplish this, countries have submitted Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) outlining their post-2020 climate action. Here we assess the effect of current INDCs on reducing aggregate greenhouse gas emissions, its implications for achieving the temperature objective of the Paris climate agreement, and potential options for overachievement. The INDCs collectively lower greenhouse gas emissions compared to where current policies stand, but still imply a median warming of 2.6-3.1 degrees Celsius by 2100. More can be achieved, because the agreement stipulates that targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions are strengthened over time, both in ambition and scope. Substantial enhancement or over-delivery on current INDCs by additional national, sub-national and non-state actions is required to maintain a reasonable chance of meeting the target of keeping warming well below 2 degrees Celsius. PMID:27357792

  19. An Automated Grass-Based Procedure to Assess the Geometrical Accuracy of the Openstreetmap Paris Road Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brovelli, M. A.; Minghini, M.; Molinari, M. E.

    2016-06-01

    OpenStreetMap (OSM) is the largest spatial database of the world. One of the most frequently occurring geospatial elements within this database is the road network, whose quality is crucial for applications such as routing and navigation. Several methods have been proposed for the assessment of OSM road network quality, however they are often tightly coupled to the characteristics of the authoritative dataset involved in the comparison. This makes it hard to replicate and extend these methods. This study relies on an automated procedure which was recently developed for comparing OSM with any road network dataset. It is based on three Python modules for the open source GRASS GIS software and provides measures of OSM road network spatial accuracy and completeness. Provided that the user is familiar with the authoritative dataset used, he can adjust the values of the parameters involved thanks to the flexibility of the procedure. The method is applied to assess the quality of the Paris OSM road network dataset through a comparison against the French official dataset provided by the French National Institute of Geographic and Forest Information (IGN). The results show that the Paris OSM road network has both a high completeness and spatial accuracy. It has a greater length than the IGN road network, and is found to be suitable for applications requiring spatial accuracies up to 5-6 m. Also, the results confirm the flexibility of the procedure for supporting users in carrying out their own comparisons between OSM and reference road datasets.

  20. The sulphur stable isotope compositions of urban sources and atmospheric particles (PM2.5 & PM10) from Paris (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widory, D.; Landry, J.; Helie, J.; Ravelomanantsoa, H.

    2013-12-01

    Sulphur (S) in atmospheric particles in the environment can be derived from a variety of primary sources and cycled through numerous secondary processes, complicating identification of its origin. Using the PM10 fraction of aerosols from Paris and its vicinity, we are investigating the suitability of sulphur stable isotope compositions (δ34S) as tracers of origins and processes affecting the atmospheric S budget. Characterization of S isotope compositions of emissions from the different potential sources (e.g. waste incinerators, coal-fired power plants, metal refining plants, road traffic and heating sources) shows these are clearly discriminated by specific coupled S-δ34S isotope signatures. While S concentrations vary from 0.7 to 11.5%, δ34S display a large range of values from -2.2 and 13.4‰. PM10 samples from Paris and its vicinity show that S is usually present at low levels, around 1 μg.m-3 in average, but that concentrations as high as 100 μg.m-3 can punctually be observed. By the time of the conference, we will have analysed and interpreted the corresponding δ34S in order to help elucidate the origin(s) of sulphur in the atmosphere of the city.

  1. X-ray imaging for studying behavior of liquids at high pressures and high temperatures using Paris-Edinburgh press

    SciTech Connect

    Kono, Yoshio; Kenney-Benson, Curtis; Park, Changyong; Shen, Guoyin; Shibazaki, Yuki; Wang, Yanbin

    2015-07-15

    Several X-ray techniques for studying structure, elastic properties, viscosity, and immiscibility of liquids at high pressures have been integrated using a Paris-Edinburgh press at the 16-BM-B beamline of the Advanced Photon Source. Here, we report the development of X-ray imaging techniques suitable for studying behavior of liquids at high pressures and high temperatures. White X-ray radiography allows for imaging phase separation and immiscibility of melts at high pressures, identified not only by density contrast but also by phase contrast imaging in particular for low density contrast liquids such as silicate and carbonate melts. In addition, ultrafast X-ray imaging, at frame rates up to ∼10{sup 5} frames/second (fps) in air and up to ∼10{sup 4} fps in Paris-Edinburgh press, enables us to investigate dynamics of liquids at high pressures. Very low viscosities of melts similar to that of water can be reliably measured. These high-pressure X-ray imaging techniques provide useful tools for understanding behavior of liquids or melts at high pressures and high temperatures.

  2. The Itteville Oil Field: An example of a stratigraphic trap in mid-Jurassic carbonates of the Paris Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Bez, M.; Sambet, G.

    1995-08-01

    The Itteville Oil Field is located 30 km south of Paris. The top of the reservoir lies at an average depth of 1450 m below sealevel. The field is situated on a large scale monocline dipping gently toward the present center of the Paris Basin. At reservoir level, no anticline closure is seen to explain the oil accumulation. The reservoir is composed of oolitic, peloidal and bioclastic carbonates of Lower Callovian age, regionally known as {open_quotes}Dalle Nacree{close_quotes}. These carbonate sands were deposited by storm-dominated processes during a phase of major sealevel fall which caused the emersion of the main Burgundy Platform. This shoal is completely isolated from the main platform and surrounded by coeval marine shales. Marls corresponding to the Mid-Callovian major flooding event seal the reservoir. The occurrence of these shoals appears to be tectonically controlled. The Itteville Field is situated on a Liassic faulted block seated on the eastern flank of the so-called {open_quotes}Deep Magnetic Anomaly{close_quotes}. Sedimentological studies and high resolution sequential analysis, carried out on cores from 17 wells of the field, help define three main tabular correlable units within the reservoir. Geochemical studies, including cathodo-luminescence and isotope analysis, help define the diagenetic history. Original poroperm properties are strongly enhanced by contemporaneous dissolution events related to high frequency sealevel fluctuations.

  3. [Pollen content of the Paris air: comparison of the results obtained by two samplers for the year 2003].

    PubMed

    Distigny, C; Polenne, J P; Bordenave, L; Bex, V; Squinazi, F

    2004-09-01

    During the 2003 season, a second pollen collector has been established in Paris city (Audubon site) to study the representativeness of the initial collector situated on the roof of the Pasteur Institute. The Hygiene Laboratory of Paris followed the pollen counts from the two collectors, during the period going from May to September. Both the samplers are Lanzoni model with a flow rate of 10 l x min(-1). The quantitative results show that no statistical difference exists between the pollen counts obtained from the 2 sites (Mann-Withney test, p > .05). The dominant species are Urticaceae, Poacae and Castenea species for the 2 collectors. Their counts are similar except for Poacae whose results are higher at the Audubon site. The collection period do not take into account the pollen production period of many trees species because of the late installation of the collector on the Audubon site. The results show that the two sites chosen for the study of pollen distribution are comparable. Nevertheless, the comparative study should be maintained on the next year to get more details about the observed differences and to collect the early trees pollen.

  4. Paris Agreement climate proposals need a boost to keep warming well below 2 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogelj, Joeri; den Elzen, Michel; Höhne, Niklas; Fransen, Taryn; Fekete, Hanna; Winkler, Harald; Schaeffer, Roberto; Sha, Fu; Riahi, Keywan; Meinshausen, Malte

    2016-06-01

    The Paris climate agreement aims at holding global warming to well below 2 degrees Celsius and to “pursue efforts” to limit it to 1.5 degrees Celsius. To accomplish this, countries have submitted Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) outlining their post-2020 climate action. Here we assess the effect of current INDCs on reducing aggregate greenhouse gas emissions, its implications for achieving the temperature objective of the Paris climate agreement, and potential options for overachievement. The INDCs collectively lower greenhouse gas emissions compared to where current policies stand, but still imply a median warming of 2.6–3.1 degrees Celsius by 2100. More can be achieved, because the agreement stipulates that targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions are strengthened over time, both in ambition and scope. Substantial enhancement or over-delivery on current INDCs by additional national, sub-national and non-state actions is required to maintain a reasonable chance of meeting the target of keeping warming well below 2 degrees Celsius.

  5. [Pollen content of the Paris air: comparison of the results obtained by two samplers for the year 2003].

    PubMed

    Distigny, C; Polenne, J P; Bordenave, L; Bex, V; Squinazi, F

    2004-09-01

    During the 2003 season, a second pollen collector has been established in Paris city (Audubon site) to study the representativeness of the initial collector situated on the roof of the Pasteur Institute. The Hygiene Laboratory of Paris followed the pollen counts from the two collectors, during the period going from May to September. Both the samplers are Lanzoni model with a flow rate of 10 l x min(-1). The quantitative results show that no statistical difference exists between the pollen counts obtained from the 2 sites (Mann-Withney test, p > .05). The dominant species are Urticaceae, Poacae and Castenea species for the 2 collectors. Their counts are similar except for Poacae whose results are higher at the Audubon site. The collection period do not take into account the pollen production period of many trees species because of the late installation of the collector on the Audubon site. The results show that the two sites chosen for the study of pollen distribution are comparable. Nevertheless, the comparative study should be maintained on the next year to get more details about the observed differences and to collect the early trees pollen. PMID:15529829

  6. Contribution of logging tools to understanding helium porewater data across the Mesozoic sequence of the East of the Paris Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battani, Anne; Smith, Thomas; Robinet, Jean Charles; Brulhet, Jacques; Lavielle, Bernard; Coelho, Daniel

    2011-12-01

    Helium concentration measurements made on water and rock samples collected at various depths along a 2000 m depth borehole drilled in the eastern part of the Paris basin and reaching the Triassic conglomerates were used to establish a vertical profile of dissolved helium concentration throughout the entire Mesozoic sedimentary pile. Wireline logging tools were used to measure rock density, porosity and U and Th contents every 15 cm in the various formations. Samples from the deepest Muschelkalk and Buntsandstein show a very good agreement between measured and calculated 4He porewater contents. Shallower levels show lower and lower 4He concentrations compared to calculated values when going upwards. The data set obtained by wireline logging measurements was used as inputs for numerical simulations of 1D He production/diffusion throughout the 2000 m profile. Several assumptions regarding the transport properties in the various sedimentary layers were tested and all were found to yield fairly good agreement between modeled and measured He concentrations. There is no need to invoke either a transient regime or a deep crustal He flux in this "quiet" (seismically inactive) part of the Paris basin. Moreover, the modeling results suggest that the Keuper massive halite level associated with the upper Muschelkalk pre-evaporitic series efficiently isolates the overlying layers from any input from deeper formations in the Meuse/Haute Marne area.

  7. Paris Agreement climate proposals need a boost to keep warming well below 2 °C.

    PubMed

    Rogelj, Joeri; den Elzen, Michel; Höhne, Niklas; Fransen, Taryn; Fekete, Hanna; Winkler, Harald; Schaeffer, Roberto; Sha, Fu; Riahi, Keywan; Meinshausen, Malte

    2016-06-29

    The Paris climate agreement aims at holding global warming to well below 2 degrees Celsius and to "pursue efforts" to limit it to 1.5 degrees Celsius. To accomplish this, countries have submitted Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) outlining their post-2020 climate action. Here we assess the effect of current INDCs on reducing aggregate greenhouse gas emissions, its implications for achieving the temperature objective of the Paris climate agreement, and potential options for overachievement. The INDCs collectively lower greenhouse gas emissions compared to where current policies stand, but still imply a median warming of 2.6-3.1 degrees Celsius by 2100. More can be achieved, because the agreement stipulates that targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions are strengthened over time, both in ambition and scope. Substantial enhancement or over-delivery on current INDCs by additional national, sub-national and non-state actions is required to maintain a reasonable chance of meeting the target of keeping warming well below 2 degrees Celsius.

  8. Measurement of Bone: Diagnosis of SCI-Induced Osteoporosis and Fracture Risk Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Morse, Leslie R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is associated with a rapid loss of bone mass, resulting in severe osteoporosis and a 5- to 23-fold increase in fracture risk. Despite the seriousness of fractures in SCI, there are multiple barriers to osteoporosis diagnosis and wide variations in treatment practices for SCI-induced osteoporosis. Methods: We review the biological and structural changes that are known to occur in bone after SCI in the context of promoting future research to prevent or reduce risk of fracture in this population. We also review the most commonly used methods for assessing bone after SCI and discuss the strengths, limitations, and clinical applications of each method. Conclusions: Although dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry assessments of bone mineral density may be used clinically to detect changes in bone after SCI, 3-dimensional methods such as quantitative CT analysis are recommended for research applications and are explained in detail. PMID:26689691

  9. Sources and mixing state of size-resolved elemental carbon particles in a European megacity: Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Healy, R. M.; Sciare, J.; Poulain, L.; Kamili, K.; Merkel, M.; Müller, T.; Wiedensohler, A.; Eckhardt, S.; Stohl, A.; Sarda-Estève, R.; McGillicuddy, E.; O'Connor, I. P.; Sodeau, J. R.; Wenger, J. C.

    2011-11-01

    An Aerosol Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (ATOFMS) was deployed to investigate the size-resolved chemical composition of single particles at an urban background site in Paris, France, as part of the MEGAPOLI winter campaign in January/February 2010. ATOFMS particle counts were scaled to match coincident Twin Differential Mobility Particle Sizer (TDMPS) data in order to generate hourly size-resolved mass concentrations for the single particle classes observed. The total scaled ATOFMS particle mass concentration in the size range 150-1067 nm was found to agree very well with the sum of concurrent High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP) mass concentration measurements of organic carbon (OC), inorganic ions and black carbon (BC) (R2 = 0.91). Clustering analysis of the ATOFMS single particle mass spectra allowed the separation of elemental carbon (EC) particles into four classes: (i) EC attributed to biomass burning (ECbiomass), (ii) EC attributed to traffic (ECtraffic), (iii) EC internally mixed with OC and ammonium sulfate (ECOCSOx), and (iv) EC internally mixed with OC and ammonium nitrate (ECOCNOx). Average hourly mass concentrations for EC-containing particles detected by the ATOFMS were found to agree reasonably well with semi-continuous quantitative thermal/optical EC and optical BC measurements (r2 = 0.61 and 0.65-0.68, respectively, n = 552). The EC particle mass assigned to fossil fuel and biomass burning sources also agreed reasonably well with BC mass fractions assigned to the same sources using seven-wavelength aethalometer data (r2 = 0.60 and 0.48, respectively, n = 568). Agreement between the ATOFMS and other instrumentation improved noticeably when a period influenced by significantly aged, internally mixed EC particles was removed from the intercomparison. 88 % and 12 % of EC particle mass was apportioned to fossil fuel and biomass burning respectively using the ATOFMS data

  10. Sources and mixing state of size-resolved elemental carbon particles in a European megacity: Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Healy, R. M.; Sciare, J.; Poulain, L.; Kamili, K.; Merkel, M.; Müller, T.; Wiedensohler, A.; Eckhardt, S.; Stohl, A.; Sarda-Estève, R.; McGillicuddy, E.; O'Connor, I. P.; Sodeau, J. R.; Wenger, J. C.

    2012-02-01

    An Aerosol Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (ATOFMS) was deployed to investigate the size-resolved chemical composition of single particles at an urban background site in Paris, France, as part of the MEGAPOLI winter campaign in January/February 2010. ATOFMS particle counts were scaled to match coincident Twin Differential Mobility Particle Sizer (TDMPS) data in order to generate hourly size-resolved mass concentrations for the single particle classes observed. The total scaled ATOFMS particle mass concentration in the size range 150-1067 nm was found to agree very well with the sum of concurrent High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP) mass concentration measurements of organic carbon (OC), inorganic ions and black carbon (BC) (R2 = 0.91). Clustering analysis of the ATOFMS single particle mass spectra allowed the separation of elemental carbon (EC) particles into four classes: (i) EC attributed to biomass burning (ECbiomass), (ii) EC attributed to traffic (ECtraffic), (iii) EC internally mixed with OC and ammonium sulfate (ECOCSOx), and (iv) EC internally mixed with OC and ammonium nitrate (ECOCNOx). Average hourly mass concentrations for EC-containing particles detected by the ATOFMS were found to agree reasonably well with semi-continuous quantitative thermal/optical EC and optical BC measurements (r2 = 0.61 and 0.65-0.68 respectively, n = 552). The EC particle mass assigned to fossil fuel and biomass burning sources also agreed reasonably well with BC mass fractions assigned to the same sources using seven-wavelength aethalometer data (r2 = 0.60 and 0.48, respectively, n = 568). Agreement between the ATOFMS and other instrumentation improved noticeably when a period influenced by significantly aged, internally mixed EC particles was removed from the intercomparison. 88% and 12% of EC particle mass was apportioned to fossil fuel and biomass burning respectively using the ATOFMS data

  11. ScienceDirect through SciVerse: a new way to approach Elsevier.

    PubMed

    Bengtson, Jason

    2011-01-01

    SciVerse is the new combined portal from Elsevier that services their ScienceDirect collection, SciTopics, and their Scopus database. Using SciVerse to access ScienceDirect is the specific focus of this review. Along with advanced keyword searching and citation searching options, SciVerse also incorporates a very useful image search feature. The aim seems to be not only to create an interface that provides broad functionality on par with other database search tools that many searchers use regularly but also to create an open platform that could be changed to respond effectively to the needs of customers.

  12. GEMS-like material in the matrix of the Paris meteorite and the early stages of alteration of CM chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroux, H.; Cuvillier, P.; Zanda, B.; Hewins, R. H.

    2015-12-01

    The Paris meteorite is a weakly altered CM chondrite that has been discovered recently (Hewins et al., 2014). Its matrix offers the opportunity to search for well-preserved pristine pre-accretional material, as well as to study the earliest stages of aqueous alteration in the CM parent body. The study of the matrix of Paris has been conducted by analytical transmission electron microscopy on focused ion beam sections extracted from matrix areas showing different degrees of aqueous alteration. The least altered matrix sample consists of amorphous silicate grains, a few hundreds of nm in size, separated from one another by an abundant porosity. The amorphous silicates enclose numerous Fe-sulfide nanograins and their average composition is close to the chondritic composition. They share many similarities with GEMS (glass with embedded metal and sulfides) grains present in chondritic-porous interplanetary dust particles and with primitive type 3.0 carbonaceous chondrites. This first discovery of GEMS-like texture in a CM chondrite suggests that GEMS grains could have been the building blocks of the CM matrices. In more aqueously altered samples, pronounced microstructural heterogeneities were detected at the micrometer scale. The matrix consists mostly of a mixture of amorphous material and Fe-rich, spongy to fine-fibrous, poorly crystalline phyllosilicates. The porosity fraction is significantly reduced and the mixed amorphous-fibrous material frequently forms a continuous groundmass. The close association between these two material types suggests a replacement mechanism due to aqueous alteration. Chemical compositions correlate strongly with the microstructure. The amorphous material has a composition close to the chondritic value while the fine-fibrous phyllosilicate material is Fe-enriched. This Fe enrichment is found to be continuous from weakly to more heavily altered areas, in which the fibrous morphology is coarser and better crystalline. Cronstedtite with

  13. Volatile and intermediate-volatility organic compounds in sub-urban Paris: variability, origin and importance for SOA formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ait-Helal, W.; Borbon, A.; Sauvage, S.; de Gouw, J. A.; Colomb, A.; Gros, V.; Freutel, F.; Crippa, M.; Afif, C.; Baltensperger, U.; Beekmann, M.; Doussin, J.-F.; Durand-Jolibois, R.; Fronval, I.; Grand, N.; Leonardis, T.; Lopez, M.; Michoud, V.; Miet, K.; Perrier, S.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Schneider, J.; Siour, G.; Zapf, P.; Locoge, N.

    2014-02-01

    Measurements of gaseous and particulate organic carbon were performed during the MEGAPOLI experiments, in July 2009 and January-February 2010, at the SIRTA observatory in sub-urban Paris. Measurements of primary and secondary volatile organic compounds (VOCs), of both anthropogenic and biogenic origins, including for the first time C12-C16 n-alkanes of intermediate volatility (IVOCs), suspected to be efficient precursors of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). The time series of gaseous carbon are generally consistent with times series of particulate organic carbon at regional scales and are clearly affected by meteorology and air mass origin. Concentration levels of anthropogenic VOCs in urban and sub-urban Paris were surprisingly low (2-963 ppt) compared to other megacities worldwide and to rural continental sites. Urban enhancement ratios of anthropogenic VOC pairs agree well between the urban and sub-urban Paris sites, showing the regional extent of anthropogenic sources of similar composition. Contrary to other primary anthropogenic VOCs (aromatics and alkanes), IVOCs showed lower concentrations in winter (< 5 ppt) compared to summer (13-27 ppt) in agreement with a gas-particle partitioning in favor of their transfer to the particle phase in winter. Higher concentrations of most oxygenated VOCs in winter (18-5984 ppt) suggest their dominant primary anthropogenic origin. The respective role of primary anthropogenic gaseous compounds in regional SOA formation was investigated by estimating the SOA mass concentration expected from the anthropogenic VOCs and IVOCs (I / VOCs) measured at SIRTA. From an approach based on emissions inferred from the I / VOC concentrations times the SOA formation yields', the so-called integrated approach conducted in this study, 46% of the SOA measured at SIRTA is explained by our measured concentrations of I / VOC, with 10% explained by only C12-C16 IVOCs. From results of an alternative time-resolved approach, the explained variability

  14. Les abcès froids pariétaux thoraciques chez les sujets immunocompétents

    PubMed Central

    Benjelloun, Hanane; Morad, Sanaa; Zaghba, Nahid; Bakhatar, Abdelaziz; Yassine, Najiba; Bahlaoui, Abdelkrim

    2015-01-01

    Les abcès froids de la paroi thoracique représentent une forme rare et inhabituelle de tuberculose extrapulmonaire. Sa fréquence est estimée à moins de 5% des tuberculoses ostéoarticulaires, évaluées elles-mêmes à 15% des tuberculoses extrapulmonaires. L'objectif de ce travail est de rapporter la prise en charge diagnostique et thérapeutique de cette localisation dans notre structure. Etude rétrospective portant sur 18 cas colligés au service des maladies respiratoires du centre hospitalier universitaire Ibn Rochd de Casablanca, sur une période de 13 ans. La moyenne d’âge était de 34 ans (21-57). Un antécédent de tuberculose traitée était relevé dans un cas. Le tableau clinique était révélé par l'apparition insidieuse d'une masse pariétale de taille, de consistance et de siège variables. A l'imagerie thoracique, l'abcès pariétal était associé à une lyse osseuse dans sept cas, une atteinte parenchymateuse et pleurale dans quatre cas chacune et des adénopathies médiastinales dans deux cas. La confirmation diagnostique était bactériologique et/ou histologique dans tous les cas. La sérologie du virus de l'immunodéficience humaineétait négative chez tous nos malades. L’évolution sous traitement antibacillaire couplé ou non à une résection chirurgicale était favorable chez tous nos malades. Malgré la fréquence de la tuberculose dans notre contexte, la localisation pariétale thoracique reste rare, survenant chez une population non immunodéprimée et non toxicomane, contrairement à ce qui est souvent rapporté dans la littérature. Les abcès froids tuberculeux représentent une forme rare de tuberculose extrapulmonaire dont l’évolution reste favorable sous traitement précoce et bien conduit. PMID:26113904

  15. An American on Paris: Extent of aqueous alteration of a CM chondrite and the petrography of its refractory and amoeboid olivine inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Alan E.

    2015-09-01

    Paris is the least aqueously altered CM chondrite identified to date, classified as subtype 2.7; however, literature data indicate that some regions of this apparently brecciated meteorite may be subtype 2.9. The suite of CAIs in Paris includes 19% spinel-pyroxene inclusions, 19% spinel inclusions, 8% spinel-pyroxene-olivine inclusions, 43% pyroxene inclusions, 8% pyroxene-olivine inclusions, and 3% hibonite-bearing inclusions. Both simple and complex inclusions are present; some have nodular, banded, or distended structures. No melilite was identified in any of the inclusions in the present suite, but other recent studies have found a few rare occurrences of melilite in Paris CAIs. Because melilite is highly susceptible to aqueous alteration, it is likely that it was mostly destroyed during early-stage parent-body alteration. Two of the CAIs in this study are part of compound CAI-chondrule objects. Their presence suggests that there were transient heating events (probably associated with chondrule formation) in the nebula after chondrules and CAIs were admixed. Also present in Paris are a few amoeboid olivine inclusions (AOI) consisting of relatively coarse forsterite rims surrounding fine-grained, porous zones containing diopside and anorthite. The interior regions of the AOIs may represent fine-grained rimless CAIs that were incorporated into highly porous forsterite-rich dustballs. These assemblages were heated by an energy pulse that collapsed and coarsened their rims, but failed to melt their interiors.

  16. The impact of area residential property values on self-rated health: A cross-sectional comparative study of Seattle and Paris.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Junfeng; Drewnowski, Adam; Moudon, Anne Vernez; Aggarwal, Anju; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Charreire, Helene; Chaix, Basile

    2016-12-01

    This study analyzed the impact of area residential property values, an objective measure of socioeconomic status (SES), on self-rated health (SRH) in Seattle, Washington and Paris, France. This study brings forth a valuable comparison of SRH between cities that have contrasting urban forms, population compositions, residential segregation, food systems and transportation modes. The SOS (Seattle Obesity Study) was based on a representative sample of 1394 adult residents of Seattle and King County in the United States. The RECORD Study (Residential Environment and Coronary Heart Disease) was based on 7131 adult residents of Paris and its suburbs in France. Socio-demographics, SRH and body weights were obtained from telephone surveys (SOS) and in-person interviews (RECORD). All home addresses were geocoded using ArcGIS 9.3.1 (ESRI, Redlands, CA). Residential property values were obtained from tax records (Seattle) and from real estate sales (Paris). Binary logistic regression models were used to test the associations among demographic and SES variables and SRH. Higher area property values significantly associated with better SRH, adjusting for age, gender, individual education, incomes, and BMI. The associations were significant for both cities. A one-unit increase in body mass index (BMI) was more detrimental to SRH in Seattle than in Paris. In both cities, higher area residential property values were related to a significantly lower obesity risk and better SRH. Ranked residential property values can be useful for health and weight studies, including those involving social inequalities and cross-country comparisons.

  17. Intergovernmental Conference of Experts on the Scientific Basis for Rational Use and Conservation of the Resources of the Biosphere (Paris, France, September 4-13, 1968), Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This document contains twenty recommendations put forth at the Intergovernmental Conference of Experts on the Scientific Basis for Rational Use and Conservation of the Resources of the Biosphere under the direction of UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization). The conference was held at the UNESCO House, Paris,…

  18. [The evolution of the vocational training of apothecaries and the pharmacists through the < Salle des Actes> of the faculty of pharmacy of Paris].

    PubMed

    Bzoura, Elie

    2005-01-01

    The visit of la of the faculty of pharmacy of Paris brings important knowledge on the evolution of the vocational training of the apothecaries and the pharmacists during nearly five centuries. The characters represented on the portraits played a major role in the formation and dissemination of knowledge.

  19. Curriculum Revision: A Methodological Approach. Main Conclusions of the Study. Studies in Institutional Management in Higher Education, Universite de Paris X-Nanterre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordier, G.; And Others

    In its unabridged French version this document reviews research resulting from cooperation between university teachers, students, and representatives of industrial and commercial firms in the Paris area. The research was carried out at a period when the aims and organization of higher education in economic science in French universities had become…

  20. The Social Function of the Law Faculty: Demographics, Republican Reform, and Professional Training at the Paris Law Faculty, 1870-1914

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, John

    2008-01-01

    Even before the legal integration of the Parisian faculties into the single entity of the "Universite de Paris" in 1896, the law faculty stood out as the most recalcitrant and resistant to the spirit of reform. In the years that followed, far from embodying republican ideals, it became known as a site of anti-republican ideological fervor. Even as…

  1. Influence of the water quality improvement on fish population in the Seine River (Paris, France) over the 1990-2013 period.

    PubMed

    Azimi, Sam; Rocher, Vincent

    2016-01-15

    Over the past 20 years, rules concerning wastewater treatment and quality of water discharged into the environment have changed considerably. Huge investments have been made in Paris conurbation to improve waste water treatment processes in accordance with the European Water Framework Directive. The interdepartmental association for sewage disposal in Paris conurbation (SIAAP) carried out a monitoring of both fish assemblages and water quality in the Seine River around the Paris conurbation (France) since the early 90's. The main goal of this study was to estimate the influence of the water quality improvement on fish. On one hand, the study confirmed the improvement of the water quality (dissolved oxygen, ammonia nitrogen, organic matter) in the Seine River, mostly focused downstream of Paris conurbation. On the other hand, an increase of the number of species occurred from 1990 (14) to 2013 (21). Moreover, changes in the river Seine assemblages happened over that 23-year period with emergence of sensitive species (ruffe, scalpin and pike-perch). The improvement of the water quality was also reported with respect to the Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI). However, no variation of pollutant concentrations in roach, eel and chub muscles has been observed. An exceedance of the environmental quality standards have even been reported all over this period as regards mercury and organochlorine.

  2. Towards an Authentic Development: The Role of Adult Education. Report on the International Council for Adult Education Conference (Paris, France, October 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, Patrick, Ed.

    This report of the Paris conference of the International Council for Adult Education (ICAE) consists of edited versions of all the written reports of the various sessions of the conference, together with a general introduction and other supporting material. The eight chapters of the report contain 31 speeches, policy group working reports,…

  3. Population Growth and Demographic Structure. Proceedings of the United Nations Expert Group Meeting on Population Growth and Demographic Structure (Paris, France, November 16-20, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations, New York, NY. Dept. of Economic and Social Affairs.

    This volume contains the report and recommendations of the United Nations-sponsored meeting on population growth and demographic structure which was held in Paris, November 1992. Materials in the volume can serve as useful tools for future research on the relations between population, environment, and development and further the work of the United…

  4. Power, Identity, and Organizational Structure as Reflected in Schools for Minority Groups: A Case Study of Jewish Schools in Paris, Brussels, and Geneva

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Zehavit

    2006-01-01

    This article compares the linkages between organizational structure, power relations, and group identities within the private schools operated by the francophone Jewish communities of Brussels, Paris, and Geneva. A school's organizational structure and balance of power reflect its identity and its conceptual world. That is, its organizational…

  5. The impact of area residential property values on self-rated health: A cross-sectional comparative study of Seattle and Paris.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Junfeng; Drewnowski, Adam; Moudon, Anne Vernez; Aggarwal, Anju; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Charreire, Helene; Chaix, Basile

    2016-12-01

    This study analyzed the impact of area residential property values, an objective measure of socioeconomic status (SES), on self-rated health (SRH) in Seattle, Washington and Paris, France. This study brings forth a valuable comparison of SRH between cities that have contrasting urban forms, population compositions, residential segregation, food systems and transportation modes. The SOS (Seattle Obesity Study) was based on a representative sample of 1394 adult residents of Seattle and King County in the United States. The RECORD Study (Residential Environment and Coronary Heart Disease) was based on 7131 adult residents of Paris and its suburbs in France. Socio-demographics, SRH and body weights were obtained from telephone surveys (SOS) and in-person interviews (RECORD). All home addresses were geocoded using ArcGIS 9.3.1 (ESRI, Redlands, CA). Residential property values were obtained from tax records (Seattle) and from real estate sales (Paris). Binary logistic regression models were used to test the associations among demographic and SES variables and SRH. Higher area property values significantly associated with better SRH, adjusting for age, gender, individual education, incomes, and BMI. The associations were significant for both cities. A one-unit increase in body mass index (BMI) was more detrimental to SRH in Seattle than in Paris. In both cities, higher area residential property values were related to a significantly lower obesity risk and better SRH. Ranked residential property values can be useful for health and weight studies, including those involving social inequalities and cross-country comparisons. PMID:27413663

  6. Getting Its Ducks in a Row? Qatar Foundation's Agreement with HEC Paris and the Launch of the Qatar Foundation Management, Education and Research Centre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Observatory on Borderless Higher Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Last week, private, non-profit organisation the Qatar Foundation (QF) announced a partnership agreement with French business institution HEC Paris to offer executive education programmes. According to the terms of the agreement, a full-time faculty will provide executive and short certificate programmes and corporate-specific training, including…

  7. French Video Cassettes Produced by the Ecole Commerciale de la Chambre de Commerce et d'Industrie de Paris: Maximizing the Cultural and Linguistic Returns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Charlotte P.

    This paper discusses the use of videotapes furnished with the "Valise du Francais des Affaires" from the Chambre de Commerce et d'Industrie de Paris to teach business French. In the videotapes, French employers discuss the type of employee they would like to hire, and the problems they have encountered in some of the interviews they have conducted…

  8. Overview of the Scalable Coherent Interface, IEEE STD 1596 (SCI)

    SciTech Connect

    Gustavson, D.B.; James, D.V.; Wiggers, H.A.

    1992-10-01

    The Scalable Coherent Interface standard defines a new generation of interconnection that spans the full range from supercomputer memory `bus` to campus-wide network. SCI provides bus-like services and a shared-memory software model while using an underlying, packet protocol on many independent communication links. Initially these links are 1 GByte/s (wires) and 1 GBit/s (fiber), but the protocol scales well to future faster or lower-cost technologies. The interconnect may use switches, meshes, and rings. The SCI distributed-shared-memory model is simple and versatile, enabling for the first time a smooth integration of highly parallel multiprocessors, workstations, personal computers, I/O, networking and data acquisition.

  9. Methodology for the development and calibration of the SCI-QOL item banks

    PubMed Central

    Tulsky, David S.; Kisala, Pamela A.; Victorson, David; Choi, Seung W.; Gershon, Richard; Heinemann, Allen W.; Cella, David

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop a comprehensive, psychometrically sound, and conceptually grounded patient reported outcomes (PRO) measurement system for individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods Individual interviews (n = 44) and focus groups (n = 65 individuals with SCI and n = 42 SCI clinicians) were used to select key domains for inclusion and to develop PRO items. Verbatim items from other cutting-edge measurement systems (i.e. PROMIS, Neuro-QOL) were included to facilitate linkage and cross-population comparison. Items were field tested in a large sample of individuals with traumatic SCI (n = 877). Dimensionality was assessed with confirmatory factor analysis. Local item dependence and differential item functioning were assessed, and items were calibrated using the item response theory (IRT) graded response model. Finally, computer adaptive tests (CATs) and short forms were administered in a new sample (n = 245) to assess test-retest reliability and stability. Participants and Procedures A calibration sample of 877 individuals with traumatic SCI across five SCI Model Systems sites and one Department of Veterans Affairs medical center completed SCI-QOL items in interview format. Results We developed 14 unidimensional calibrated item banks and 3 calibrated scales across physical, emotional, and social health domains. When combined with the five Spinal Cord Injury – Functional Index physical function banks, the final SCI-QOL system consists of 22 IRT-calibrated item banks/scales. Item banks may be administered as CATs or short forms. Scales may be administered in a fixed-length format only. Conclusions The SCI-QOL measurement system provides SCI researchers and clinicians with a comprehensive, relevant and psychometrically robust system for measurement of physical-medical, physical-functional, emotional, and social outcomes. All SCI-QOL instruments are freely available on Assessment CenterSM. PMID:26010963

  10. Performance of the SciBar cosmic ray telescope (SciCRT) toward the detection of high-energy solar neutrons in solar cycle 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasai, Yoshinori; Nagai, Yuya; Itow, Yoshitaka; Matsubara, Yutaka; Sako, Takashi; Lopez, Diego; Itow, Tsukasa; Munakata, Kazuoki; Kato, Chihiro; Kozai, Masayoshi; Miyazaki, Takahiro; Shibata, Shoichi; Oshima, Akitoshi; Kojima, Hiroshi; Tsuchiya, Harufumi; Watanabe, Kyoko; Koi, Tatsumi; Valdés-Galicia, Jose Francisco; González, Luis Xavier; Ortiz, Ernesto; Musalem, Octavio; Hurtado, Alejandro; Garcia, Rocio; Anzorena, Marcos

    2014-12-01

    We plan to observe solar neutrons at Mt. Sierra Negra (4,600 m above sea level) in Mexico using the SciBar detector. This project is named the SciBar Cosmic Ray Telescope (SciCRT). The main aims of the SciCRT project are to observe solar neutrons to study the mechanism of ion acceleration on the surface of the sun and to monitor the anisotropy of galactic cosmic-ray muons. The SciBar detector, a fully active tracker, is composed of 14,848 scintillator bars, whose dimension is 300 cm × 2.5 cm × 1.3 cm. The structure of the detector enables us to obtain the particle trajectory and its total deposited energy. This information is useful for the energy reconstruction of primary neutrons and particle identification. The total volume of the detector is 3.0 m × 3.0 m × 1.7 m. Since this volume is much larger than the solar neutron telescope (SNT) in Mexico, the detection efficiency of the SciCRT for neutrons is highly enhanced. We performed the calibration of the SciCRT at Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE) located at 2,150 m above sea level in Mexico in 2012. We installed the SciCRT at Mt. Sierra Negra in April 2013 and calibrated this detector in May and August 2013. We started continuous observation in March 2014. In this paper, we report the detector performance as a solar neutron telescope and the current status of the SciCRT.

  11. [Anisakids and human anisakiasis. 2. Investigation of the anisakids of commercial fish in the district of Paris].

    PubMed

    Huang, W Y

    1988-01-01

    1,173 fish belonging to 13 species were examined during 1986-1987, during a survey conducted among commercial marine fish in the Paris area (France). Anisakis simplex L3 were found in 10 different species, and most frequently in herring (Clupea harengus) 82.55% of 682 fish, red fish (Sebastes marinus) 86.11% of 36 fish, and hake (Merluccius merluccius) 88.57% of 35 fish, and in high number (average 8.8, 18.4 and 31 L3 per fish). Pseudoterranova decipiens L3 were recovered from 7 different species of fish but always in small amounts. Hysterothylacium spp. larvae were found in very high number out of 11 species of fish. They were inoculated to adult rats, but failed to develop. A 30 degree C temperature killed these larvae, avoiding any risk of human infestation. Few Contracaecum larvae were found in whiting (Merlangus merlangus). PMID:3190121

  12. [The birth of the international conference "Biology and the future of man", Paris, 18-24 September 1974].

    PubMed

    Galperin, Charles

    2015-01-01

    In 1974, a symposium was organized in Paris entitled "Biology and the future of man". It was focused on the analysis of "new powers of science and new duties of man" in the field of medically assisted procreation, agriculture, demography, and environmental issues. This small introductory text begins by describing the circumstances that led to the organization of this prestigious conference. Then, in order to go further than the silent framework of the presentation of the themes, we will focus on the report of Dr. Robert Edwards on medically assisted procreation, we will recall the duel between Jacques Monod and Jérôme Lejeune on abortion, then we will give center stage to physicians like Jean Bernard and Alexandre Minkowski about the right to die, and finally we will remind the conclusion brought to the conference by Georges Canguilhem. PMID:26184345

  13. How much drinking water can be saved by using rainwater harvesting on a large urban area? application to Paris agglomeration.

    PubMed

    Belmeziti, Ali; Coutard, Olivier; de Gouvello, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    This paper is based on a prospective scenario of development of rainwater harvesting (RWH) on a given large urban area (such as metropolitan area or region). In such a perspective, a new method is proposed to quantify the related potential of potable water savings (PPWS) indicator on this type of area by adapting the reference model usually used on the building level. The method is based on four setting-up principles: gathering (definition of buildings-types and municipalities-types), progressing (use of an intermediate level), increasing (choice of an upper estimation) and prioritizing (ranking the stakes of RWH). Its application to the Paris agglomeration shows that is possible to save up to 11% of the total current potable water through the use of RWH. It also shows that the residential sector offers the most important part because it holds two-thirds of the agglomeration PPWS.

  14. From the "Phoenix of Legends" to the "Ultimate Monument" of the times: stadia, spectators, and urban development in postwar Paris.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Robert W

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes the renovation and construction of the Parc des Princes and the Stade de France in post-Second World War Paris. The history of the two stadia testifies to a shift in the envisioned role of stadia in the Parisian basin between the late 1960s and the end of the twentieth century and stands as evidence for the emergence of new urban planning actors. Both stadia were also critiqued as symbols of broader problems with Parisian urbanization, notably as manifestations of anti-democratic planning processes. At the same time, the Parc and the Stade also reflected an emerging consensus over the role of spectator sport in society, accompanied by attempts to re-envision mass sporting spectatorship as a more democratic and familial practice. This article thus situates the two stadia within the history of Parisian urbanization and within broader global urbanizing processes.

  15. [The apothecaries of the rue de l'Arbre-Sec in Paris in the 17th century].

    PubMed

    Warolin, Christian

    2014-06-01

    The mud tax imposed by the king in 1637 to pay for street-cleaning is a useful tool for identifying the people who were liable for the tax, their profession, and whether they were owners or tenants. The survey of the Rue de l'Arbre-Sec, a very old street in Paris close to the Louvre, reveals that seven apothecaries lived there in 1637. Two of them were particularly important: Hiérosme Lambert, who had an apothecary'shop near the church of Saint-Germain-l'Auxerrois, and Michel Dansse, apothecary to Queen Anne of Austria. The two families established links through the marriage of Marie Lambert, the daughter of Hiérosme Lambert and Marie Gauche, to Michel Dansse. One of their sons, Jean Dansse, was also apothecary to Anne of Austria and then to Queen Marie-Thérèse.

  16. Effects of the Pays de Bray'' fault on fluid paleocirculations in the Paris Basin Dogger reservoir, France

    SciTech Connect

    Bril, H. . Lab. d'Analyse Structurale et Hydrothermalisme); Velde, B.; Iqdari, A. . Dept. Geologie); Meunier, A. . Lab. Petrologie des Alterations Hydrothermales)

    1994-06-01

    Clay fractions and fluid inclusions were studied in the Aulnay sous Bois and Cerneaux (CER-1 and CER-P6) wells located 10 km, 1.3 and 0.6 km, respectively, from the Pays de Bray'' fault (Paris Basin, France). It was shown that a connection was probably established between the Dogger and Triassic reservoirs during the active period of the fault. Chemical and heat transfers have locally modified the diagenesis conditions in the Dogger formation, inducing an overmaturation of clay minerals. These effects, although attenuated, are still identifiable in the Aulnay and CER-1 wells. A maximum temperature of about 90 C was maintained in CER-P6 site even during the uplift stage of the basin.

  17. SARSAT emergency locator transmitter - Practical experiences during the Paris-Dakar car rally and a North-Canadian expedition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohn, P.; Gal, C.; Salmon, C.

    1984-10-01

    The results of operational and ambient environmental tests of mobile emergency locator transmitter (ELT) interfacing with the SARSAT system are reported. A total of 11 beacons were deployed on a Paris-Dakar car rally and two for a north Canadian dog-sledge expedition. The beacons emitted 121.5 and 243 MHz signals which can be pinpointed through the Doppler effect after satellite reception. The SARSAT system comprises the COSPOS 1383 and 1447 spacecraft and the NOAA E satellite. The satellites broadcast 406 MHz signals and perform four location measurements during each pass. The constellation covers the whole earth with no more than a 2 hr delay at any point. Very high accuracies were obtained whenever the ELTs were operated a sufficient number of hours per day in locations with good line of sight contact with a satellite. Plans to expand the SARSAT system with two additional satellites are indicated.

  18. [The apothecaries of the rue de l'Arbre-Sec in Paris in the 17th century].

    PubMed

    Warolin, Christian

    2014-06-01

    The mud tax imposed by the king in 1637 to pay for street-cleaning is a useful tool for identifying the people who were liable for the tax, their profession, and whether they were owners or tenants. The survey of the Rue de l'Arbre-Sec, a very old street in Paris close to the Louvre, reveals that seven apothecaries lived there in 1637. Two of them were particularly important: Hiérosme Lambert, who had an apothecary'shop near the church of Saint-Germain-l'Auxerrois, and Michel Dansse, apothecary to Queen Anne of Austria. The two families established links through the marriage of Marie Lambert, the daughter of Hiérosme Lambert and Marie Gauche, to Michel Dansse. One of their sons, Jean Dansse, was also apothecary to Anne of Austria and then to Queen Marie-Thérèse. PMID:25090837

  19. Sedimentation and palaeogeography of the eastern part of the Paris Basin (France) at the Middle Upper Jurassic boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collin, Pierre-Yves; Courville, Philippe

    2006-10-01

    The Middle-Upper Jurassic boundary corresponds to a period of far-reaching changes in sedimentation patterns related to alterations in the palaeoclimate and in the global carbon cycle. Marl deposits were laid down in the east of the Paris Basin at this time and ANDRA has selected these lithological units as the site for an underground study laboratory. The build-up of these marls is the result, among other things, of the area long having been a shelf and of more rapid subsidence from the Early Callovian to the Early Oxfordian. Changes are detected between areas on either side of the Vittel Fault from the onset of the mid-Oxfordian onwards. To cite this article: P.-Y. Collin, P. Courville, C. R. Geoscience ••• (••••).

  20. [The birth of the international conference "Biology and the future of man", Paris, 18-24 September 1974].

    PubMed

    Galperin, Charles

    2015-01-01

    In 1974, a symposium was organized in Paris entitled "Biology and the future of man". It was focused on the analysis of "new powers of science and new duties of man" in the field of medically assisted procreation, agriculture, demography, and environmental issues. This small introductory text begins by describing the circumstances that led to the organization of this prestigious conference. Then, in order to go further than the silent framework of the presentation of the themes, we will focus on the report of Dr. Robert Edwards on medically assisted procreation, we will recall the duel between Jacques Monod and Jérôme Lejeune on abortion, then we will give center stage to physicians like Jean Bernard and Alexandre Minkowski about the right to die, and finally we will remind the conclusion brought to the conference by Georges Canguilhem.

  1. a Study on the Document Information Service of the National Agricultural Library for Agricultural Sci-Tech Innovation in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qian; Meng, Xianxue

    This paper presents the significant function of the Chinese National Agricultural Library (CNAL) in the agricultural sci-tech innovation system in China, analyses the development of collection and service in the CNAL, explores the challenge towards sustain and develop information services for the agricultural sci-tech research and innovation, at last proposes the strategy for sci-tech document information service development.

  2. Application of mobile aerosol and trace gas measurements for the investigation of megacity air pollution emissions: the Paris metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von der Weiden-Reinmüller, S.-L.; Drewnick, F.; Crippa, M.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Meleux, F.; Baltensperger, U.; Beekmann, M.; Borrmann, S.

    2014-01-01

    For the investigation of megacity emission development and the impact outside the source region, mobile aerosol and trace gas measurements were carried out in the Paris metropolitan area between 1 July and 31 July 2009 (summer conditions) and 15 January and 15 February 2010 (winter conditions) in the framework of the European Union FP7 MEGAPOLI project. Two mobile laboratories, MoLa and MOSQUITA, were deployed, and here an overview of these measurements and an investigation of the applicability of such measurements for the analysis of megacity emissions are presented. Both laboratories measured physical and chemical properties of fine and ultrafine aerosol particles as well as gas phase constituents of relevance for urban pollution scenarios. The applied measurement strategies include cross-section measurements for the investigation of plume structure and quasi-Lagrangian measurements axially along the flow of the city's pollution plume to study plume aging processes. Results of intercomparison measurements between the two mobile laboratories represent the adopted data quality assurance procedures. Most of the compared measurement devices show sufficient agreement for combined data analysis. For the removal of data contaminated by local pollution emissions a video tape analysis method was applied. Analysis tools like positive matrix factorization and peak integration by key analysis applied to high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer data are used for in-depth data analysis of the organic particulate matter. Several examples, including a combination of MoLa and MOSQUITA measurements on a cross section through the Paris emission plume, are provided to demonstrate how such mobile measurements can be used to investigate the emissions of a megacity. A critical discussion of advantages and limitations of mobile measurements for the investigation of megacity emissions completes this work.

  3. Application of mobile aerosol and trace gas measurements for the investigation of megacity air pollution emissions: the Paris metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von der Weiden-Reinmüller, S.-L.; Drewnick, F.; Crippa, M.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Meleux, F.; Baltensperger, U.; Beekmann, M.; Borrmann, S.

    2013-08-01

    For the investigation of megacity emission development and impact outside the source region mobile aerosol and trace gas measurements were carried out in the Paris metropolitan area between 1 July and 31 July 2009 (summer conditions) and 15 January and 15 February 2010 (winter conditions) in the framework of the European Union FP7 MEGAPOLI project. Two mobile laboratories, MoLa and MOSQUITA, were deployed, and here an overview of these measurements and an investigation of the applicability of such measurements for the analysis of megacity emissions are presented. Both laboratories measured physical and chemical properties of fine and ultrafine aerosol particles as well as gas phase constituents of relevance for urban pollution scenarios. The applied measurement strategies include cross section measurements for the investigation of plume structure and quasi-Lagrangian measurements radially away from the city center to study plume aging processes. Results of intercomparison measurements between the two mobile laboratories represent the adopted data quality assurance procedures. Most of the compared measurement devices show sufficient agreement for combined data analysis. For the removal of data contaminated by local pollution emissions a video tape analysis method was applied. Analysis tools like positive matrix factorization and peak integration by key analysis applied to high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer data are used for in-depth data analysis of the organic particulate matter. Several examples, including a combination of MoLa and MOSQUITA measurements on a cross section through the Paris emission plume are provided to demonstrate how such mobile measurements can be used to investigate the emissions of a megacity. A critical discussion of advantages and limitations of mobile measurements for the investigation of megacity emissions completes this work.

  4. Overweight according to geographical origin and time spent in France: a cross sectional study in the Paris metropolitan area

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background For the first time in France in a population-based survey, this study sought to investigate the potential impact of migration origin and the proportion of lifetime spent in mainland France on body mass index (BMI) and overweight in adults living in the Paris metropolitan area. Methods A representative, population-based, random sample of the adult, French speaking population of the Paris metropolitan area was interviewed in 2005. Self-reported BMI (BMI = weight/height2) and overweight (BMI ≥ 25) were our 2 outcomes of interest. Two variables were constructed to estimate individuals’ migration origin: parental nationality and the proportion of lifetime spent in mainland France, as declared by the participants. We performed multilevel regression models among different gender and age groups, adjusted for demographics and socioeconomic status. Results In women, a parental origin in the Middle East or North Africa (MENA) was associated with a higher risk of being overweight (especially before the age of 55) and a higher BMI (between 35 and 54 years of age), and so were women of Sub-Sahara African parental origin in the middle age category. Only in the youngest men (< 35 years of age) did we observe any association with parental nationality, with a higher BMI when having a MENA parentage. Regarding the association between the proportion of lifetime spent in France and overweight, we observed that, in women, a proportion of 50% to 99% appeared to be associated with overweight, especially after the age of 35. In men, having spent more than half of one’s lifetime in France was associated with a higher risk of overweight among oldest men. Conclusions Our results plea for potential cultural determinants of overweight in the migrant and migrants-born populations in the French context of the capital region. Taking into account the people’ family and personal migration histories may be an important issue in public health research and policies on overweight and

  5. Magnetostratigraphy of Mesozoic shallow-water carbonates: Preliminary results from the Middle Jurassic of the Paris basin

    SciTech Connect

    Aissaoui, D.M.; Kirschvink, J.L. )

    1991-03-01

    The use of sedimentary paleomagnetism has enhanced greatly our understanding of the timing of deposition and diagenesis of Cenozoic platform and reefal carbonates. Its application to similar but older deposits will have direct implications for economic exploration and development. The authors report here preliminary paleomagnetic results from the Middle Jurassic limestones of the Paris basin (France). The samples consist mainly of bioclastic and oolitic limestones deposited in ancient counterpart of the shallow-water environments of the Bahama platform. The Jurassic samples are stable to progressive, incremental demagnetization and exhibit magnetization patterns identical to Cenozoic rocks from the Bahama platform or Mururoa Atoll. The natural remanent magnetization of these limestones is weak and comprised between 7.7 x 10{sup {minus}9} to 1.8 x 10{sup {minus}8} AM{sup 2}/kg. Magnetic components of both normal and reversed polarity are observed. Paired isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) and alternating field demagnetization experiments show that most of the remanence is lost between 20 and 45 mT, which is typical of single-domain biogenic magnetite or maghemite. The ratio of IRM at H{sub RG} to the saturation IRM ranges from 35 to 42% indicating a moderate to low interparticle interaction. This is confirmed by the anhysteretic remanent magnetization as compared with intact, freeze-dried cells of magnetotactic bacteria and chiton teeth. Magnetic minerals extracted from the Jurassic samples are examined to further confirm the occurrence of SD magnetite within the Middle Jurassic limestones of the Paris basin. The preliminary results suggest that the strata should be good for the paleomagnetic investigation of Mesozoic shallow-water carbonates.

  6. SCI: Present and Future Therapeutic Devices and Prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Giszter, Simon F.

    2008-01-01

    Summary A range of passive and active devices are under development, or are already in clinical use, to partially restore function after SCI (SCI). Prosthetic devices to promote host tissue regeneration and plasticity and reconnection are under development, comprising bioengineered bridging materials free of cells. Alternatively, artificial electrical stimulation and robotic bridges may be used, upon which we focus here. A range of neuroprostheses interfacing either with CNS or PNS both above and below the lesion are under investigation and are at different stages of development or translation to the clinic. In addition, there are orthotic and robotic devices which are being developed and tested in laboratory and clinic that can provide mechanical assistance, training or substitution after SCI. The range of different approaches employed draw on many different aspects of our current but limited understanding of neural regeneration and plasticity, and spinal cord function and interactions with cortex. The best therapeutic practice will ultimately likely depend on combinations of these approaches and technologies and on balancing the combined effects of these on the biological mechanisms and their interactions after injury. An increased understanding of plasticity of brain and spinal cord, and of the behavior of innate modular mechanisms in intact and injured systems, will likely assist future developments. We review the range of device designs under development and in use, the basic understanding of spinal cord organization and plasticity, the problems and design issues in device interactions with the nervous system, and the possible benefits of active motor devices. PMID:18164494

  7. Detection of Abnormal Muscle Activations during Walking Following Spinal Cord Injury (SCI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ping; Low, K. H.; McGregor, Alison H.; Tow, Adela

    2013-01-01

    In order to identify optimal rehabilitation strategies for spinal cord injury (SCI) participants, assessment of impaired walking is required to detect, monitor and quantify movement disorders. In the proposed assessment, ten healthy and seven SCI participants were recruited to perform an over-ground walking test at slow walking speeds. SCI…

  8. Looking at Life. Study Guide. Unit A2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  9. Particles in Action. Study Guide. Unit C2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide is a four-part unit…

  10. What is Matter? Study Guide. Unit C1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide is a two-part unit…

  11. What Makes Things Happen? Study Guide. Unit B. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Peter

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  12. One Hundred Years of Sci-Tech Libraries: A Brief History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mount, Ellis; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Includes papers on: the history of academic, public, government, and corporate science and technology libraries; the past 35 years in information retrieval; and education for sci-tech librarianship. Other papers provide statistical data on science/engineering libraries and bibliographies of computer-aided design literature, sci-tech reference…

  13. Close Encounters of the Best Kind: The Latest Sci-Fi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunzel, Bonnie

    2008-01-01

    Not only is science fiction alive and well--it's flourishing. From the big screen (howdy, Wall-E) to the big books (like Suzanne Collins's The Hunger Games, which has attracted loads of prepublication praise), 2008 has been a great year for sci-fi. Publishers have released truckloads of new sci-fi titles this year, but what's particularly…

  14. 75 FR 19626 - Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive Patent License: SciTech Medical Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ... Department of the Navy Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive Patent License: SciTech Medical Inc. AGENCY... intent to grant a partially exclusive license to SciTech Medical Inc. The proposed license is a revocable... ownership interest in these inventions, and they are covered by U.S. Patent No. 7,128,714:...

  15. First time experiences using SciPy for computer vision research

    SciTech Connect

    Eads, Damian R; Rosten, Edward J

    2008-01-01

    SciPy is an effective tool suite for prototyping new algorithms. We share some of our experiences using it for the first time to support our research in object detection. SciPy makes it easy to integrate C code, which is essential when algorithms operating on large data sets cannot be vectorized. Python's extensive support for operator overloading makes SciPy's syntax as succinct as its competitors, MATLAB. Octave. and R. The universality of Python. the language in which SciPy was written, gives the researcher access to a broader set of non-numerical libraries to support GUI development. interface with databases, manipulate graph structures, render 3D graphics, unpack binary files, etc. More profoundly, we found it easy to rework research code written with SciPy into a production application, deployable on numerous platforms.

  16. The SciBooNE neutrino experiment at Fermilab: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Hide-Kazu

    2008-04-01

    The precise measurement of neutrino-nucleus cross-sections in the few GeV energy range is an essential ingredient in the interpretation of neutrino oscillation experiments. For the measurement of the cross-sections, a new experiment, SciBooNE, has been proposed and approved at Fermilab. From June 2007, SciBooNE has started operation and data taking. The experiment is carried out by installing the K2K SciBar detector in the FNAL Booster Neutrino Beamline. The marriage of a high rate, low energy neutrino beam and the fine granularity of SciBar detector is unique for precise measurements of neutrino cross sections since both the beamline and detectors have been built and operated successfully. We will present an overview of the SciBooNE physics program with emphasis on unique elements of the detector systems that allow for identification and measurement of several types of neutrino interactions.

  17. Undocumented Youth Living Between the Lines: Urban Governance, Social Policy, and the Boundaries of Legality in New York City and Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruszczyk, Stephen P.

    This dissertation compares the transition to adulthood of undocumented youth in New York and Paris, along with analysis of the construction of illegality in each city. In both the United States and France, national restrictions against undocumented immigrants increasingly take the form of deportations and limiting access to social rights. New York City and Paris, however, mitigate the national restrictions in important but different ways. They construct "illegality" differently, leading to different young adult outcomes and lived experiences of "illegality." This project uses seven years of multi-site ethnographic data to trace the effects of these mitigated "illegalities" on two dozen (male) youth. We can begin to understand the variation in these undocumented young men's social lives within and between cities by centering on (1) governance structure, the labyrinth of obtaining rights associated with citizenship, (2) citizenship, the possibility of gaining a legal status, steered in particular by civil society actors, and (3) identity, here centered on youths' negotiation of social mobility with the fear of enforcement. Biographical narratives show the shifts in social memberships as youth transition to new countries, new restrictions at adulthood, and new, limiting work. In New York, most social prospects are flattened as future possibilities are whittled down to ones focusing on family and wages. Undocumented status propels New York informants into an accelerated transition to adulthood, as they take on adult responsibilities of work, paying bills, and developing families. In Paris, youth experience more divergent processes of transitioning to adulthood. Those who are more socially integrated use a civil society actor to garner a (temporary) legal status, which does not lead to work opportunities. Those who are less socially integrated face isolation as they wait to gain status and access to better jobs. Paris undocumented youth are thus characterized by a

  18. Keuper stratigraphic cycles in the Paris basin and comparison with cycles in other peritethyan basins (German basin and Bresse-Jura basin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourquin, Sylvie; Guillocheau, François

    1996-09-01

    High-resolution sequence stratigraphy of the Keuper, Paris Basin, is used to establish correlations between the basin-centre evaporite series and the basin-margin clastics series. The high-resolution correlations show stratigraphic cycle geometries. The Keuper consists of five minor base-level cycles whth occur in the upper portion of the Scythian-Carnian major base-level cycle and the lower part of the Carnian-Liassic major base-level cycle. The maximum relative rate of subsidence for the base-level fall phase of the Scythian-Carnian major cycle occurs in the eastern part of the Paris Basin. During the base-level rise phase of the Carnian-Liassic major cycle, the area of highest rate of subsidence shifted westwards and northwards. This shift records the first occurrence of an independent Paris Basin which was no longer merely the western margin of the German Basin. Two phases of tectonic movement influenced evaporite sedimentation and sequence geometries by creating areas of subsidence where halite could accumulate. The second, within the 'Marnes irisées supérieures', induced a general westward and northward tilt of the basin. Concurrent migration of depocentres to the west and north produced an intra-'Marnes irisées supérieures' truncation. Comparison of the stratigraphic records of the Paris Basin and of other Triassic Peritethyan basins (German Basin, Bresse-Jura Basin and South-East Basin) reveals numerous similarities. The coastal onlap curve of the German Keuper (Aigner and Bachmann, 1992) exhibits many similarities with the sequence evolution of the Paris Basin. But the Triassic succession is more complete in the German Basin and more cycles are observed. The major difference between these two basins during the Keuper is that the 'Marnes irisées inférieures' minor base-level cycle does not occur in the German Basin. In the Bresse-Jura Basin, the major difference concerns the Lettenkohle. One minor base-level cycle is recorded in the Paris Basin while

  19. Mid-21st century air quality at the urban scale under the influence of changed climate and emissions - case studies for Paris and Stockholm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markakis, Konstantinos; Valari, Myrto; Engardt, Magnuz; Lacressonniere, Gwendoline; Vautard, Robert; Andersson, Camilla

    2016-02-01

    Ozone, PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations over Paris, France and Stockholm, Sweden were modelled at 4 and 1 km horizontal resolutions respectively for the present and 2050 periods employing decade-long simulations. We account for large-scale global climate change (RCP-4.5) and fine-resolution bottom-up emission projections developed by local experts and quantify their impact on future pollutant concentrations. Moreover, we identify biases related to the implementation of regional-scale emission projections by comparing modelled pollutant concentrations between the fine- and coarse-scale simulations over the study areas. We show that over urban areas with major regional contribution (e.g. the city of Stockholm) the bias related to coarse-scale projections may be significant and lead to policy misclassification. Our results stress the need to better understand the mechanism of bias propagation across the modelling scales in order to design more successful local-scale strategies. We find that the impact of climate change is spatially homogeneous in both regions, implying strong regional influence. The climate benefit for ozone (daily mean and maximum) is up to -5 % for Paris and -2 % for Stockholm city. The climate benefit on PM2.5 and PM10 in Paris is between -5 and -10 %, while for Stockholm we estimate mixed trends of up to 3 % depending on season and size class. In Stockholm, emission mitigation leads to concentration reductions up to 15 % for daily mean and maximum ozone and 20 % for PM. Through a sensitivity analysis we show that this response is entirely due to changes in emissions at the regional scale. On the contrary, over the city of Paris (VOC-limited photochemical regime), local mitigation of NOx emissions increases future ozone concentrations due to ozone titration inhibition. This competing trend between the respective roles of emission and climate change, results in an increase in 2050 daily mean ozone by 2.5 % in Paris. Climate and not emission change

  20. Mid-21st century air quality at the urban scale under the influence of changed climate and emissions: case studies for Paris and Stockholm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markakis, K.; Valari, M.; Engardt, M.; Lacressonnière, G.; Vautard, R.; Andersson, C.

    2015-10-01

    Ozone, PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations over Paris, France and Stockholm, Sweden were modeled at 4 and 1 \\unit{km} horizontal resolutions respectively for the present and 2050 periods employing decade-long simulations. We account for large-scale global climate change (RCP-4.5) and fine resolution bottom-up emission projections developed by local experts and quantify their impact on future pollutant concentrations. Moreover, we identify biases related to the implementation of regional scale emission projections over the study areas by comparing modeled pollutant concentrations between the fine and coarse scale simulations. We show that over urban areas with major regional contribution (e.g., the city of Stockholm) the bias due to coarse emission inventory may be significant and lead to policy misclassification. Our results stress the need to better understand the mechanism of bias propagation across the modeling scales in order to design more successful local-scale strategies. We find that the impact of climate change is spatially homogeneous in both regions, implying strong regional influence. The climate benefit for ozone (daily average and maximum) is up to -5 % for Paris and -2 % for Stockholm city. The joined climate benefit on PM2.5 and PM10 in Paris is between -10 and -5 % while for Stockholm we observe mixed trends up to 3 % depending on season and size class. In Stockholm, emission mitigation leads to concentration reductions up to 15 % for daily average and maximum ozone and 20 % for PM and through a sensitivity analysis we show that this response is entirely due to changes in emissions at the regional scale. On the contrary, over the city of Paris (VOC-limited photochemical regime), local mitigation of NOx emissions increases future ozone concentrations due to ozone titration inhibition. This competing trend between the respective roles of emission and climate change, results in an increase in 2050 daily average ozone by 2.5 % in Paris. Climate and not

  1. OPENING REMARKS: SciDAC: Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strayer, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Good morning. Welcome to SciDAC 2005 and San Francisco. SciDAC is all about computational science and scientific discovery. In a large sense, computational science characterizes SciDAC and its intent is change. It transforms both our approach and our understanding of science. It opens new doors and crosses traditional boundaries while seeking discovery. In terms of twentieth century methodologies, computational science may be said to be transformational. There are a number of examples to this point. First are the sciences that encompass climate modeling. The application of computational science has in essence created the field of climate modeling. This community is now international in scope and has provided precision results that are challenging our understanding of our environment. A second example is that of lattice quantum chromodynamics. Lattice QCD, while adding precision and insight to our fundamental understanding of strong interaction dynamics, has transformed our approach to particle and nuclear science. The individual investigator approach has evolved to teams of scientists from different disciplines working side-by-side towards a common goal. SciDAC is also undergoing a transformation. This meeting is a prime example. Last year it was a small programmatic meeting tracking progress in SciDAC. This year, we have a major computational science meeting with a variety of disciplines and enabling technologies represented. SciDAC 2005 should position itself as a new corner stone for Computational Science and its impact on science. As we look to the immediate future, FY2006 will bring a new cycle to SciDAC. Most of the program elements of SciDAC will be re-competed in FY2006. The re-competition will involve new instruments for computational science, new approaches for collaboration, as well as new disciplines. There will be new opportunities for virtual experiments in carbon sequestration, fusion, and nuclear power and nuclear waste, as well as collaborations

  2. Relationships between petrophysical, sedimentological and microstructural properties of the Oolithes Blanche formation, a saline aquifer in the Paris Basin.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casteleyn, Lisa; Robion, Philippe; Collin, Pierry-Yves; Menéndez, Beatriz; David, Christian; Fernandes, Nathalie; Desaubliaux, Guy; Dreux, Rémi; Rigollet, Christophe; Badinier, Guillaume

    2010-05-01

    The Paris Basin appears to be appropriate in terms of CO2 capture and storage when considering both the amount of CO2 produced and the availability of depleted fields and deep saline aquifers. The purpose of this study is to investigate the petrophysical properties in relation with the sedimento-diagenetic environment of the "Oolithe Blanche" formation (Dogger), a deep saline aquifer considered as a potential candidate for CO2 storage. Regarding the scarcity of the core data in the Paris Basin, our investigation was firstly based on the study of field analogs in the south-east of the Paris Basin. The Oolithe Blanche Formation is composed of very shallow marine oolitic and bioclastic limestones, mainly grainstones. Three main sedimentological fabrics were defined: tide-dominated, wave-dominated (oolitic shoal) and prograding oolitic shoal fabrics. These three fabrics show subtle variations in composition (ooliths vs bioclasts) and in the distribution of the carbonate textures. The Oolithe Blanche Formation (Bathonian) is 70-80 meters thick and water salinity ranges from 1 to 4 g NaCl/l. 18 oriented blocks were collected on outcrops selected for the different sedimentological facies recognised in the formation: 9 blocks in the Bierry Lès Belles Fontaines quarry (Yonne), 5 blocks in the Ravières quarries (Côte d'Or) and 4 blocks in the Massangis quarry (Yonne). On each block, several petrophysical properties were measured on three perpendicular plugs: porosity, pore size distribution derived from mercury injection tests, permeability, capillary imbibition parameters, electrical conductivity and acoustic velocities. The sedimento-diagenetic fabric and microstructural analysis was defined by using optical microscope and scanning electron microscopy, coupled with image analysis on thin sections. The porosity measured using the water saturation triple weight method ranges from 6% to 34%. The permeability values are low, between 0.1 mD and 9 mD. The data from the

  3. Size-dependent particle activation properties in fog during the ParisFog 2012/13 field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, E.; Gysel, M.; Roberts, G. C.; Elias, T.; Hofer, J.; Hoyle, C. R.; Bukowiecki, N.; Dupont, J.-C.; Burnet, F.; Baltensperger, U.; Weingartner, E.

    2014-10-01

    Fog-induced visibility reduction is responsible for a variety of hazards in the transport sector. Therefore there is a large demand for an improved understanding of fog formation and thus improved forecasts. Improved fog forecasts require a better understanding of the numerous complex mechanisms during the fog life cycle. During winter 2012/13 a field campaign called ParisFog aiming at fog research took place at SIRTA (Instrumented Site for Atmospheric Remote Sensing Research). SIRTA is located about 20 km southwest of the Paris city center, France, in a semi-urban environment. In situ activation properties of the prevailing fog were investigated by measuring (1) total and interstitial (non-activated) dry particle number size distributions behind two different inlet systems; (2) interstitial hydrated aerosol and fog droplet size distributions at ambient conditions; and (3) cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentration at different supersaturations (SS) with a CCN counter. The aerosol particles were characterized regarding their hygroscopic properties, fog droplet activation behavior and contribution to light scattering for 17 developed fog events. Low particle hygroscopicity with an overall median of the hygroscopicity parameter, κ, of 0.14 was found, likely caused by substantial influence from local traffic and wood burning emissions. Measurements of the aerosol size distribution at ambient RH revealed that the critical wet diameter, above which the hydrated aerosols activate to fog droplets, is rather large (with a median value of 2.6μm) and is highly variable (ranging from 1 to 5μm) between the different fog events. Thus, the number of activated fog droplets was very small and the non-activated hydrated particles were found to contribute significantly to the observed light scattering and thus to the reduction in visibility. Combining all experimental data, the effective peak supersaturation, SSpeak, a measure of the peak supersaturation during the fog

  4. Megacity emission plume characteristics in summer and winter investigated by mobile aerosol and trace gas measurements: the Paris metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von der Weiden-Reinmüller, S.-L.; Drewnick, F.; Zhang, Q. J.; Freutel, F.; Beekmann, M.; Borrmann, S.

    2014-12-01

    For the investigation of megacity emission plume characteristics mobile aerosol and trace gas measurements were carried out in the greater Paris region in July 2009 and January-February 2010 within the EU FP7 MEGAPOLI project (Megacities: Emissions, urban, regional and Global Atmospheric POLlution and climate effects, and Integrated tools for assessment and mitigation). The deployed instruments measured physical and chemical properties of sub-micron aerosol particles, gas phase constituents of relevance for urban air pollution studies and meteorological parameters. The emission plume was identified based on fresh pollutant (e.g., particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, black carbon, CO2 and NOx) concentration changes in combination with wind direction data. The classification into megacity influenced and background air masses allowed a characterization of the emission plume during summer and winter environmental conditions. On average, a clear increase of fresh pollutant concentrations in plume compared to background air masses was found for both seasons. For example, an average increase of 190% (+ 8.8 ng m-3) in summer and of 130% (+ 18.1 ng m-3) in winter was found for particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in plume air masses. The aerosol particle size distribution in plume air masses was influenced by nucleation and growth due to coagulation and condensation in summer, while in winter only the latter process (i.e., particle growth) seemed to be initiated by urban pollution. The observed distribution of fresh pollutants in the emission plume - its cross sectional Gaussian-like profile and the exponential decrease of pollutant concentrations with increasing distance to the megacity - are in agreement with model results. Differences between model and measurements were found for plume center location, plume width and axial plume extent. In general, dilution was identified as the dominant process determining the axial variations within the Paris

  5. Size-dependent particle activation properties in fog during the ParisFog 2012/13 field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, E.; Gysel, M.; Roberts, G. C.; Elias, T.; Hofer, J.; Hoyle, C. R.; Bukowiecki, N.; Dupont, J.-C.; Burnet, F.; Baltensperger, U.; Weingartner, E.

    2014-04-01

    Fog causes a variety of hazards in road traffic, maritime navigation, as well as in air traffic and railway traffic. There is a great demand, e.g. from airports, for more reliable fog forecasts to prevent fog related accidents. Improved fog forecasts require a better understanding of the numerous complex mechanisms during the fog life cycle. During winter 2012/13 a field campaign called ParisFog aiming at fog research took place at SIRTA (Instrumented Site for Atmospheric Remote Sensing Research). SIRTA is located about 20 km southwest of the Paris city centre, France in a semi-urban environment. In situ activation properties of the prevailing fog were investigated by measuring: (1) total and interstitial (non-activated) dry particle number size distributions behind two different inlet systems; (2) interstitial hydrated aerosol and fog droplet size distributions at ambient conditions; (3) cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentration at different supersaturations (SS) with a CCN counter. The aerosol particles were characterized regarding their hygroscopic properties, fog droplet activation behavior and contribution to light scattering for 17 developed fog events. Low particle hygroscopicity with an overall median of hygroscopicity parameter, κ, of 0.14 was found, likely caused by substantial influence from local traffic and wood burning emissions. Measurements of the aerosol size distribution at ambient RH revealed that the critical wet diameter, above which the hydrated aerosols activate to fog droplets, is rather large with a median value of 2.4 μm and is highly variable (ranging from 1 to 5 μm) between the different fog events. Thus, the number of activated fog droplets was very small and the non-activated hydrated particles were found to contribute siginificantly to the observed light scattering and thus to the reduction in visibility. Combining all experimental data, the effective peak supersaturation, SSpeak, a measure of the peak supersaturation

  6. Megacity emission plume characteristics in summer and winter investigated by mobile aerosol and trace gas measurements: the Paris metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von der Weiden-Reinmüller, S.-L.; Drewnick, F.; Zhang, Q. J.; Freutel, F.; Beekmann, M.; Borrmann, S.

    2014-05-01

    For the investigation of megacity emission plume characteristics mobile aerosol and trace gas measurements were carried out in the greater Paris region in July 2009 and January/February 2010 within the EU FP7 MEGAPOLI project. The deployed instruments measured physical and chemical properties of sub-micron aerosol particles, gas phase constituents of relevance for urban air pollution studies and meteorological parameters. The emission plume was identified based on fresh pollutant (e.g. particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, black carbon, CO2 and NOx) concentration changes in combination with wind direction data. The classification into megacity influenced and background air masses allowed a characterization of the emission plume during summer and winter environmental conditions. On average, a clear increase of fresh pollutant concentrations in plume compared to background air masses was found for both seasons. For example, an average increase of 190% (+8.8 ng m-3) in summer and of 130% (+18.1 ng m-3) in winter was found for particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in plume air masses. The aerosol particle size distribution in plume air masses was influenced by nucleation and growth due to coagulation and condensation in summer, while in winter only the second process seemed to be initiated by urban pollution. The observed distribution of fresh pollutants in the emission plume - its cross sectional Gaussian-like profile and the exponential decrease of pollutant concentrations with increasing distance to the megacity - are in agreement with model results. Differences between model and measurements were found for plume center location, plume width and axial plume extent. In general, dilution was identified as the dominant process determining the axial variations within the Paris emission plume. For in-depth analysis of transformation processes occurring in the advected plume, simultaneous measurements at a suburban measurement site and a stationary

  7. Isotopic mass independent signature of black crusts: a proxy for atmospheric aerosols formation in the Paris area (France).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genot, Isabelle; Martin, Erwan; Yang, David Au; De Rafelis, Marc; Cartigny, Pierre; Wing, Boswell; Le Gendre, Erwann; Bekki, Slimane

    2016-04-01

    In view of the negative forcing of the sulfate aerosols on climate, a more accurate understanding of the formation of these particles is crucial. Indeed, despite the knowledge of their effects, uncertainties remain regarding the formation of sulfate aerosols, particularly the oxidation processes of S-bearing gases. Since the discovery of oxygen and sulfur mass independent fractionation (O- and S-MIF) processes on Earth, the sulfate isotopic composition became essential to investigate the atmospheric composition evolution and its consequences on the climate and the biosphere. Large amount of S-bearing compounds (SO2 mainly) is released into the atmosphere by anthropogenic and natural sources. Their oxidation in the atmosphere generates sulfate aerosols, H2SO4, which precipitate on the earth surface mainly as acid rain. One consequence of this precipitation is the formation of black crust on buildings made of carbonate stones. Indeed the chemical alteration of CaCO3 by H2SO4 leads to gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) concretions on building walls. Associated to other particles, gypsum forms black-crusts. Therefore, black crusts acts as 'sulfate aerosol traps', meaning that their isotopic composition reveals the composition and thus the source and formation processes of sulfate aerosols in the atmosphere in a specific region. In this study we collected 37 black crusts on a 300km NW-SE profile centered on Paris (France). In our samples, sulfate represent 40wt.% and other particles 60wt.% of the black crusts. After sulfate extraction from each samples we measured their O- and S-isotopes composition. Variations of about 10‰ in δ18O and δ34S are observed and both O-MIF (Δ17O from 0 to 1.4‰) and S-MIF (Δ33S from 0 to -0.3‰) compositions have been measured. In regards to these compositions we can discuss the source and formation (oxidation pathways) of the sulfate aerosols in troposphere above the Paris region that covers urban, rural and coastal environments. Furthermore

  8. Geochemical and palynological records for the end-Triassic Mass-Extinction Event in the NE Paris Basin (Luxemburg)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhlmann, Natascha; van de Schootbrugge, Bas; Thein, Jean; Fiebig, Jens; Franz, Sven-Oliver; Hanzo, Micheline; Colbach, Robert; Faber, Alain

    2016-04-01

    The End-Triassic mass-extinction event is one of the "big five" mass extinctions in Earth's history. Large scale flood basalt volcanism associated with the break-up of Pangaea, which resulted in the opening of the central Atlantic Ocean, is considered as the leading cause. In addition, an asteroid impact in Rochechouart (France; 201 ± 2 Ma) may have had a local influence on ecosystems and sedimentary settings. The Luxembourg Embayment, in the NE Paris Basin, offers a rare chance to study both effects in a range of settings from deltaic to lagoonal. A multidisciplinary study (sedimentology, geochemistry, palynology) has been carried out on a number of outcrops and cores that span from the Norian to lower Hettangian. Combined geochemical and palynological records from the Boust core drilled in the NE Paris Basin, provide evidence for paleoenvironmental changes associated with the end-Triassic mass-extinction event. The Triassic-Jurassic stratigraphy of the Boust core is well constrained by palynomorphs showing the disappaerance of typical Triassic pollen taxa (e.g. Ricciisporites tuberculates) and the occurrence of the marker species Polypodiisporites polymicroforatus within the uppermost Rhaetian, prior to the Hettangian dominance of Classopollis pollen. The organic carbon stable isotope record (δ13Corg) spanning the Norian to Hettangian, shows a series of prominent negative excursions within the middle Rhaetian, followed by a trend towards more positive values (approx -24 per mille) within the uppermost Rhaetian Argiles de Levallois Member. The lowermost Hettangian is characterized by a major negative excursion, reaching - 30 per mille that occurs in organic-rich sediments. This so-called "main negative excursion" is well-known from other locations, for example from Mariental in Northern Germany and from St Audrie's Bay in England, and Stenlille in Denmark. Based on redox-sensitive trace element records (V, Cr, Ni, Co, Th, U) the lowermost Hettangian in most of

  9. Paris saponin II inhibits human ovarian cancer cell-induced angiogenesis by modulating NF-κB signaling.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mei; Zou, Juan; Zhu, Hongmei; Liu, Shanling; Wang, He; Bai, Peng; Xiao, Xue

    2015-05-01

    The clinical applications of Rhizoma paridis in traditional Chinese medicine are well known. However, the therapeutic potential of Rhizoma paridis and its active component such as Paris saponin I (polyphyllin D) and Paris saponin II (PSII) (formosanin C) in cancer treatments have not yet been fully explored. Recent studies have demonstrated that PSII and chemoagents exhibit comparable inhibitory affects against human ovarian cancer cell growth. Since NF-κB, a ubiquitous transcription factor that plays an important role in cancer biology, is often associated with gynecological cancers, in the present study, we evaluated the possibility that PSII modulates NF-κB activity and VEGF-mediated angiogenesis and elucidated the molecular mechanisms underlying such effects. We assessed the effects of PSII on NF-κB activity in SKOV3 tumor cells and on tumor cell induced-angiogenesis using standardized angiogenesis in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo assays, western blot analysis and kinase assay. We also assessed the effect of the super-engineered repressor of IĸBα and its effect, in combination with PSII treatment on tumor growth and angiogenesis in xenograft athymic mouse models of ovarian cancer (SKOV3 and SKOV3/mutant IĸBα cells) using color Doppler ultrasound and traditional immunohistochemistry. We showed that PSII suppressed NF-κB activation as a result of the reduction in IKKβ kinase activity on its substrate IκBα and the expression of IKKβ. Compromising NF-κB activation reduced the expression of NF-κB-downstream targets such as VEGF, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. Such inhibitory effects at molecular levels appear to compromise tumor growth and angiogenesis. Most importantly, the combination of PSII treatment and constitutive repression of IĸBα activity exhibited marked inhibitory effects against human ovarian cancer cell growth in a xenograft mouse model of ovarian cancer. For the first time, we provide evidence showing that PSII potently inhibits angiogenesis

  10. [The family relationships of Antoine Brulon, apothecary to the king, and his wife, Anne de Furnes, in Auvergne and Paris in the 17th century. Anne de Furnes and Molière in Paris and the village of Auteuil].

    PubMed

    Warolin, Christian

    2011-07-01

    This article presents the biography of Anne de Fumes, wife of Antoine Brulon, the king's apothecary. Due to the successive deaths of her husband and her only daughter, Geneviève, her sisters-in-law, Géraude and Anne Brulon, living in Auvergne, inherited the property of their niece. Anne de Fumes, who inherited the movable assets, carried out a series of transactions to acquire the totality of the property rights, which she obtained, but at the considerable cost of 100,000 pounds. After her death, her five nephews and nieces, her sole legatees, inherited her estate. From 1666, Molière was the tenant of an apartment in a building in the Rue Saint-Thomas-du-Louvre, Place du Palais-Royal, in Paris, which belonged to Anne de Fumes. She lived in the neighbouring house in the Rue Saint-Honoré of which she was also the owner. Three apothecaries, Philibert Boudin, Jean Morel and Pierre Frapin, successively rented the shop and entresol of the house in the Rue Saint-Thomas-du-Louvre. Pierre Frapin, tenant of the shop from 1668, supplied Molière with medicine. Like Molière, Anne de Fumes rented accommodation in a house in the village of Auteuil belonging to Jacques de Grout de Beaufort and his wife Marie Filz. Reports show that the famous actor and Anne de Fumes cohabited in Auteuil during the period 1667 to 1672. PMID:21998974

  11. [The family relationships of Antoine Brulon, apothecary to the king, and his wife, Anne de Furnes, in Auvergne and Paris in the 17th century. Anne de Furnes and Molière in Paris and the village of Auteuil].

    PubMed

    Warolin, Christian

    2011-07-01

    This article presents the biography of Anne de Fumes, wife of Antoine Brulon, the king's apothecary. Due to the successive deaths of her husband and her only daughter, Geneviève, her sisters-in-law, Géraude and Anne Brulon, living in Auvergne, inherited the property of their niece. Anne de Fumes, who inherited the movable assets, carried out a series of transactions to acquire the totality of the property rights, which she obtained, but at the considerable cost of 100,000 pounds. After her death, her five nephews and nieces, her sole legatees, inherited her estate. From 1666, Molière was the tenant of an apartment in a building in the Rue Saint-Thomas-du-Louvre, Place du Palais-Royal, in Paris, which belonged to Anne de Fumes. She lived in the neighbouring house in the Rue Saint-Honoré of which she was also the owner. Three apothecaries, Philibert Boudin, Jean Morel and Pierre Frapin, successively rented the shop and entresol of the house in the Rue Saint-Thomas-du-Louvre. Pierre Frapin, tenant of the shop from 1668, supplied Molière with medicine. Like Molière, Anne de Fumes rented accommodation in a house in the village of Auteuil belonging to Jacques de Grout de Beaufort and his wife Marie Filz. Reports show that the famous actor and Anne de Fumes cohabited in Auteuil during the period 1667 to 1672.

  12. The AIRPARIF-AEROSOL project: A comprehensive source apportionment study of fine aerosols (PM2.5) in the region of Paris (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciare, Jean; Ghersi, Veronique; Bressi, Michael; Lameloise, Philippe; Bonnaire, Nicolas; Rosso, Amandine; Nicolas, Jose; Moukhtar, Sophie; Ferron, Anais; Baumier, Dominique

    2010-05-01

    With a population of about 12 millions inhabitants (20% of the French population), Greater Paris (France) is one of the most populated megacity in Europe and among the few located in developed countries. Due to its favorable geographical situation (far from other big European cities and influenced very often by clean oceanic air masses), it may be considered as a good candidate for investigating the build-up of urban air pollution from temperate industrialized countries. Particulate mass of fine aerosols with aerodynamic diameter below 2.5μm (PM2.5) is continuously monitored at several stations from great Paris for almost 8 years by the local air quality network (AIRPARIF), using a conventional on-line automatic system (R&P TEOM; see Patashnik and Rupprecht, 1991). During the period 2000-2006, levels of PM2.5 in the region of Paris have shown rather stable yearly mean values ranging 13 to 16?g/m3 whereas most of the other pollutants monitored by AIRPARIF have shown a net decrease during this period (http:\\www.airparif.asso.fr). Since the year 2007, this situation has becoming worse for particulate pollution with a net increase of the yearly mean concentration of PM2.5 (up to 21?g/m3), which increase is partly due to the use of a new PM2.5 measurement technique (R&P TEOM-FDMS instrument) enabling a proper determination of the semi-volatile fraction of fine aerosols. Although this new method greatly improves the determination of PM2.5, it has also brought PM2.5 levels in the region of Paris closer to the 25?g/m3 yearly mean targeted value recommended by Europe for 2010 (limit value for 2015). Efficient abatement policies aiming at reducing levels of PM2.5 in the region of Paris will have to be fed by preliminary PM2.5 source apportionment studies and exhaustive aerosol chemistry studies (chemical mass balance) allowing a better separation between regional to continental aerosol sources. The objective of the AIRPARIF-AEROSOL project aims to perform a spatially- and

  13. Orthostatic Responses to Anticholinesterase Inhibition in Persons with SCI

    PubMed Central

    Wecht, Jill M.; Cirnigliaro, Christopher M.; Azarelo, Frank; Bauman, William A.; Kirshblum, Steven C.

    2015-01-01

    Acetylcholine (Ach) is the pre-synaptic neurotransmitter of the sympathetic nervous system. Increased pre-synaptic Ach may augment post-synaptic release of norepinephrine thereby increasing systemic blood pressure (BP). The primary objective of this investigation was to determine the hemodynamic effect of pyridostigmine bromide (PYRIDO: 60 mg), an Ach inhibitor (AchI), compared to no-drug (NO-D) during head-up tilt (HUT) in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Secondarily we aimed to determine the effects of PYRIDO compared to NO-D on symptoms of orthostatic intolerance (OI) and adverse event reporting (AE). Ten individuals with SCI (C4–C7) were studied on 2 occasions: visit 1) NO-D and visit 2) PYRIDO. On each visit subjects underwent a progressive HUT maneuver to 15°, 25°, 35° for 5 minutes at each angle and 45 minutes at 45°. Supine and orthostatic heart rate (HR), systolic and diastolic BP (SBP & DBP) were monitored and symptoms of OI and AE recorded. Supine hemodynamics did not differ between the trials. The significant fall in SBP during the NO-D trial was diminished with PYRIDO and five subjects had an increased DBP during HUT with PYRIDO compared to the NO-D trial. Individuals that responded to PYRIDO with an increase in orthostatic BP had significantly lower resting HR than non-responders (p<0.01), which suggests increased levels of pre-synaptic Ach. Subjective symptoms of OI and AE reporting did not differ between the two trials. These preliminary data suggest that PYRIDO is safe and may be effective at ameliorating the orthostatic fall in BP in select individuals with SCI. PMID:25916633

  14. The horizontal and vertical semi-diameters of the Sun observed at the Cape of Good Hope (1834 - 1887) and Paris (1837 - 1906): A report on work in progress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, C.; Messina, D.

    1981-01-01

    Cape and Paris meridian observations of the solar limbs which permit an estimate to be made of the solar semi-diameter were surveyed, sampled, and compared with Greenwich and U.S. Naval Observatory observations. Significant systematic errors were found in the Paris work and have been correlated with changes of instruments and observers. Results from the Cape series indicate that work should continue on the compilation of data from Cape observations of the Sun.

  15. [Results of 16-year use of the 06-Paris-LA-66 program in the treatment of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia].

    PubMed

    Mendeleev, I M; Kovrigina, T I; Polezhaev, Iu N

    1991-01-01

    The treatment of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia was conducted with the use of 06-Paris-LA-66 program modified by the authors. Complete remission was obtained in 91.8% of cases. Recovery was achieved and the therapy was discontinued in 16 out of 34 patients who had strictly adhered the program treatment, the treatment of 7 patients in complete remission is continued. The authors consider the program as high efficient and recommend its use.

  16. [Updates from the 45th Congress of French College for Vascular Disease (CFPV) Paris, March the 16th-18th, 2011].

    PubMed

    Lazareth, I; Priollet, P

    2011-12-01

    The 45(th) Congress of the French College of Vascular Disease (CFPV) has been held in Paris in March 2011. Scientific sessions covered many fields of vascular diseases. A short synthesis is proposed there. A large part of the programme is related to new treatments for venous thrombo-embolic disease, healing factors of chronic leg ulcers, medical networks, hormones and atherothrombosis, cardiovascular risk in connective tissue diseases, vascular treatment and elderly, vascular compression syndromes, nailfold capillary microscopy.

  17. Seasonal variability of surface and column carbon monoxide over the megacity Paris, high-altitude Jungfraujoch and Southern Hemispheric Wollongong stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Té, Yao; Jeseck, Pascal; Franco, Bruno; Mahieu, Emmanuel; Jones, Nicholas; Paton-Walsh, Clare; Griffith, David W. T.; Buchholz, Rebecca R.; Hadji-Lazaro, Juliette; Hurtmans, Daniel; Janssen, Christof

    2016-09-01

    This paper studies the seasonal variation of surface and column CO at three different sites (Paris, Jungfraujoch and Wollongong), with an emphasis on establishing a link between the CO vertical distribution and the nature of CO emission sources. We find the first evidence of a time lag between surface and free tropospheric CO seasonal variations in the Northern Hemisphere. The CO seasonal variability obtained from the total columns and free tropospheric partial columns shows a maximum around March-April and a minimum around September-October in the Northern Hemisphere (Paris and Jungfraujoch). In the Southern Hemisphere (Wollongong) this seasonal variability is shifted by about 6 months. Satellite observations by the IASI-MetOp (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer) and MOPITT (Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere) instruments confirm this seasonality. Ground-based FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) measurements provide useful complementary information due to good sensitivity in the boundary layer. In situ surface measurements of CO volume mixing ratios at the Paris and Jungfraujoch sites reveal a time lag of the near-surface seasonal variability of about 2 months with respect to the total column variability at the same sites. The chemical transport model GEOS-Chem (Goddard Earth Observing System chemical transport model) is employed to interpret our observations. GEOS-Chem sensitivity runs identify the emission sources influencing the seasonal variation of CO. At both Paris and Jungfraujoch, the surface seasonality is mainly driven by anthropogenic emissions, while the total column seasonality is also controlled by air masses transported from distant sources. At Wollongong, where the CO seasonality is mainly affected by biomass burning, no time shift is observed between surface measurements and total column data.

  18. Nuclear Physics in the SciDAC Era

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Edwards

    2009-08-01

    Lattice QCD currently provides our only means of solving QCD (Quantum Chromo Dynamics) -- the theory of the strong nuclear force -- in the low-energy regime, and thus of crucial importance for theoretical and experimental research programs in High Energy and Nuclear Physics. Under the SciDAC program, a software infrastructure has been developed for lattice QCD that effectively utilize the capabilities of the INCITE facilities. These developments have enabled a new generation of Nuclear Physics calculations investigating the spectrum and structure of matter, such as the origin of mass and spin. This software infrastructure is described and recent results are reviewed.

  19. Finite Time Extinction for Stochastic Sign Fast Diffusion and Self-Organized Criticality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gess, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    We prove finite time extinction for stochastic sign fast diffusion equations driven by linear multiplicative space-time noise, corresponding to the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld model for self-organized criticality. This solves a problem posed and left open in several works: (Barbu, Methods Appl Sci 36:1726-1733, 2013; Röckner and Wang, J Lond Math Soc (2) 87:545-560, 2013; Barbu et al. J Math Anal Appl 389:147-164, 2012; Barbu and Röckner, Comm Math Phys 311:539-555, 2012; Barbu et al., Comm Math Phys 285:901-923, 2009, C R Math Acad Sci Paris 347(1-2):81-84, 2009). The highly singular-degenerate nature of the drift in interplay with the stochastic perturbation causes the need for new methods in the analysis of mass diffusion, and several new estimates and techniques are introduced.

  20. The letters of Alix Joffroy (1844-1908), a medical intern at Lariboisière's Hospital at the time of the Commune of Paris.

    PubMed

    Tiberghien, Denis

    2016-02-01

    Since opening in 1848, Lariboisière's Hospital was strongly associated with the history of Paris and especially with the terrible days of the siege of Paris and the fights of the Commune. On the day after the surrender, Alix Joffroy wrote his first letter to his mother. He described the events as he experienced them, expressing his feelings about the causes of this political and military disaster and his experience there as an intern. Some weeks after the defeat of France by the Prussians, humbled Parisians attacked governmental troops. From March to May 1871 an improvised insurrectionary movement, The Commune of Paris, had taken power in the capital During the Bloody Week from 21 to 28 May 1871; this movement was suppressed by the Versaillaise Army. In his second letter, Joffroy related with great realism the tooth and nail fighting at the barricades and then the savage repression by the Army of the Communards around Lariboisière's Hospital. Two letters preciously preserved by Alix Joffroy's descendants give this man's unique direct account of a tragic period of the 19th century.

  1. Sexism and anatomy, as discerned in textbooks and as perceived by medical students at Cardiff University and University of Paris Descartes.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Susan; Plaisant, Odile; Lignier, Baptiste; Moxham, Bernard J

    2014-03-01

    Contemporary textbooks of anatomy and surface anatomy were evaluated to ascertain whether they were gender-neutral. The evidence of this, and previous studies, suggests that, both in terms of imagery and text, many textbooks lack neutrality. To further investigate such matters, we provided second-year medical students studying at Cardiff University (n = 293) and at the Paris Descartes University (n = 142) during the 2011-2012 academic year with a questionnaire inviting them to address the possibility that social/gender factors hinder the dispassionate representation of anatomy. Ethical approval was obtained from both Cardiff and Paris universities. Eighty-six percent of the students at Cardiff and 39% at Paris Descartes responded and provided data for analysis. The hypothesis tested is that medical students perceive a gender bias that is reflected in the books they read and the tuition they receive. Our findings suggest that, while students recognise the importance of gender issues and do not wish to associate with sexism, most are unaware of the possible negative aspects of sexism within anatomy. In this respect, the findings do not support our hypothesis. Nevertheless, we recommended that teachers of anatomy and authors of anatomy textbooks should be aware of the possibility of adverse effects on professional matters relating to equality and diversity issues.

  2. Anticancer Effects of Paris Saponins by Apoptosis and PI3K/AKT Pathway in Gefitinib-Resistant Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xinhai; Jiang, Hao; Li, Jinhui; Xu, Ji; Fei, Zhenghua

    2016-01-01

    Background Paris saponins have been studied for their anticancer effects in various cancer types, but the mechanisms underlying the cytotoxic effects, especially in EGFR-TKI-resistant cells, are still unclear. We explored the potential mechanism of the antitumor effects of PSI, II, VI, VII in EGFR-TKI-resistant cells and attempted to develop PSI, II, VI, VII as a systemic treatment strategy for EGFR-TKI-resistant lung cancer. Material/Methods Growth inhibition was detected by MTT assay. The apoptosis assay was detected using annexin-V/PI and Hoechst staining. The level of PI3K, pAKT, Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-3, and caspase-9 protein expression were detected using Western blot analysis. Results The results revealed that PSI, II, VI, VII inhibited the proliferation of PC-9-ZD cells. Furthermore, PSI, II, VI, VII induced significant cell apoptosis. The levels of PI3K, pAKT, Bcl-2 protein decreased, while the Bax, caspase-3, and caspase-9 protein was increased by PSI, II, PSVI, PSVII treatment and resulted in increased sensitivity to gefitinib in PC-9-ZD cells. Conclusions The underlying mechanism of Paris saponins may be related to targeting the PI3K/AKT pathways to cause apoptosis. Our results suggest a therapeutic potential of Paris saponins in clinical settings for gefitinib-resistant NSCLC. PMID:27125283

  3. Anticancer Effects of Paris Saponins by Apoptosis and PI3K/AKT Pathway in Gefitinib-Resistant Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhu, XinHai; Jiang, Hao; Li, Jinhui; Xu, Ji; Fei, Zhenghua

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Paris saponins have been studied for their anticancer effects in various cancer types, but the mechanisms underlying the cytotoxic effects, especially in EGFR-TKI-resistant cells, are still unclear. We explored the potential mechanism of the antitumor effects of PSI, II, VI, VII in EGFR-TKI-resistant cells and attempted to develop PSI, II, VI, VII as a systemic treatment strategy for EGFR-TKI-resistant lung cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS Growth inhibition was detected by MTT assay. The apoptosis assay was detected using annexin-V/PI and Hoechst staining. The level of PI3K, pAKT, Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-3, and caspase-9 protein expression were detected using Western blot analysis. RESULTS The results revealed that PSI, II, VI, VII inhibited the proliferation of PC-9-ZD cells. Furthermore, PSI, II, VI, VII induced significant cell apoptosis. The levels of PI3K, pAKT, Bcl-2 protein decreased, while the Bax, caspase-3, and caspase-9 protein was increased by PSI, II, PSVI, PSVII treatment and resulted in increased sensitivity to gefitinib in PC-9-ZD cells. CONCLUSIONS The underlying mechanism of Paris saponins may be related to targeting the PI3K/AKT pathways to cause apoptosis. Our results suggest a therapeutic potential of Paris saponins in clinical settings for gefitinib-resistant NSCLC. PMID:27125283

  4. The PARIS cluster coupled to the BaFPro electronic module: data analysis from the NRF experiment at the γELBE facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasilewska, B.; Bednarczyk, P.; Boiano, C.; Brambilla, S.; Camera, F.; Ciemała, M.; Dorvaux, O.; Giaz, A.; Jastrzab, M.; Kihel, S.; Kmiecik, M.; Maj, A.; Matea, I.; Massarczyk, R.; Mazumdar, I.; Mentana, A.; Napiorkowski, P.; Sowicki, B.; Schwengner, R.; Riboldi, S.; Ziebliński, M.; PARIS Collaboration

    2015-06-01

    The first cluster of the constructed PARIS calorimeter was assembled and tested at the γELBE facility at HZDR, Dresden, Germany. The experiment was aimed at the evaluation of the performance of each detector separately as well as the whole PARIS cluster with discrete γ-ray energies seen by the PARIS ranging up to 8.9 MeV. As the detectors use phoswich configuration, with 2" × 2" × 2" LaBr3(Ce) crystal coupled to 2" × 2" × 6" NaI(Tl) one, great care must be taken during the data analysis process to obtain the best possible values for energy resolution. Two algorithms for data transformation from matrices created with slow vs fast pulse shaping to energy spectra were tested from which one was chosen for further analysis. An algorithm for adding back energies of γ-rays scattered inside the cluster was prepared, as well. Energy resolution for γ-rays in 2-8 MeV range was estimated and is presented in this paper.

  5. A new method for estimating emission ratios in the urban atmosphere: examples of ratios to CO2, CO and volatile organic compounds in Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammoura, L.; Xueref-Remy, I.; Vogel, F.; Gros, V.; Baudic, A.; Bonsang, B.; Delmotte, M.; Té, Y.; Chevallier, F.

    2015-09-01

    We propose a new approach to estimate urban emission ratios that takes advantage of the enhanced local urban signal in the atmosphere at low wind speed. We apply it to estimate monthly ratios between CO2, CO and some VOCs from several atmospheric concentration measurement datasets acquired in the centre of Paris between 2010 and 2014. We find that this approach is little sensitive to the regional background level definition and that, in the case of Paris, it samples all days (weekdays and weekends) and all hours of the day evenly. A large seasonal variability of the ΔCO/ΔCO2 ratio in Paris is shown, with a difference of around 60 % between the extreme values and a strong anti-correlation (r2 = 0.75) with atmospheric temperature. The comparison of the ratios obtained for two short measurement campaigns conducted in two different districts and two different periods (fall and winter) shows differences ranging from -120 to +63 %. A comparison with a highly resolved regional emission inventory suggests some spatial variations of the ratio within the city, although most of these differences seem to be rather driven by the seasonal variability.

  6. [The adventures of doctor Jean Matuszinski, friend of Frédéric Chopin, from Warsaw in 1808 to Paris in 1842].

    PubMed

    Hazard, Jean

    2005-01-01

    Jean Matuszinski, a Pole born in Warsaw, happened to be the student of a Frenchman who had emigrated to Poland: Nicolas Chopin. French was still widely spoken at that time in Matuszinski's native land. For a while, Matsuzinski was even a boarder in Warsaw, lived with this Franco-Polish family and became a close friend to Nicolas' son, Frederic Chopin. He was the only one who kept in touch with Chopin, despite the many international dramatic events of the time: an insurrection in Poland rapidly squashed by the Russians. Paris became the heart of the intellectual and artistic life for Polish citizens who took refuge there. After spending some time in Germany where Jean Matuszinski received a doctorate in medicine from the university of Tubingen in 1834, he went to Paris where he was delighted to meet again with Frederic Chopin, and received another doctorate from the Faculty of Medicine of Paris. During his short medical career, he was able to observe several forms of tuberculsis: an acute that killed Frederic's younger sister, and a chronic one that affected Frederic for more than fifteen years. But Matuszinski could take care of Chopin only during the first six years of the latter's illness because himself died from a severe subacute form of tuberculosis, when he was only 33 years old.

  7. Evidence for a significant contribution of wood burning aerosols to PM 2.5 during the winter season in Paris, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favez, Olivier; Cachier, Hélène; Sciare, Jean; Sarda-Estève, Roland; Martinon, Laurent

    Although particulate emissions from residential wood burning have become a subject of great scientific concern for a few years, data related to their impact on the air quality of large European urban centres are still missing. In the present study, we investigated the chemical and optical properties of fine (PM 2.5) carbonaceous aerosols in Paris during the 2005 winter season in order to track the presence of wood burning emissions in such a large city. The use of a seven wavelength Aethalometer allowed us to document shortwave light absorption by brown-carbon-containing organic aerosols of biomass burning origin. In particular, a well-marked diurnal pattern of the spectral dependence of light absorption, with maxima during the night, could be observed every day of the campaign and attributed to wood burning emissions. Relatively high absorption Ångstrom exponents and WSOC/OC ratios (respectively 1.25 and 0.35 on average for the period of study) also indicated the importance of biomass burning aerosols in the Paris atmosphere in winter. Finally, a rough estimate of the contribution of wood burning carbonaceous aerosols to PM 2.5 could be achieved. This contribution was found to be as high as 20 ± 10% on average at the Paris background site investigated here.

  8. How to catch all those mutations--the report of the third Human Variome Project Meeting, UNESCO Paris, May 2010.

    PubMed

    Kohonen-Corish, Maija R J; Al-Aama, Jumana Y; Auerbach, Arleen D; Axton, Myles; Barash, Carol Isaacson; Bernstein, Inge; Béroud, Christophe; Burn, John; Cunningham, Fiona; Cutting, Garry R; den Dunnen, Johan T; Greenblatt, Marc S; Kaput, Jim; Katz, Michael; Lindblom, Annika; Macrae, Finlay; Maglott, Donna; Möslein, Gabriela; Povey, Sue; Ramesar, Raj; Richards, Sue; Seminara, Daniela; Sobrido, María-Jesús; Tavtigian, Sean; Taylor, Graham; Vihinen, Mauno; Winship, Ingrid; Cotton, Richard G H

    2010-12-01

    The third Human Variome Project (HVP) Meeting "Integration and Implementation" was held under UNESCO Patronage in Paris, France, at the UNESCO Headquarters May 10-14, 2010. The major aims of the HVP are the collection, curation, and distribution of all human genetic variation affecting health. The HVP has drawn together disparate groups, by country, gene of interest, and expertise, who are working for the common good with the shared goal of pushing the boundaries of the human variome and collaborating to avoid unnecessary duplication. The meeting addressed the 12 key areas that form the current framework of HVP activities: Ethics; Nomenclature and Standards; Publication, Credit and Incentives; Data Collection from Clinics; Overall Data Integration and Access-Peripheral Systems/Software; Data Collection from Laboratories; Assessment of Pathogenicity; Country Specific Collection; Translation to Healthcare and Personalized Medicine; Data Transfer, Databasing, and Curation; Overall Data Integration and Access-Central Systems; and Funding Mechanisms and Sustainability. In addition, three societies that support the goals and the mission of HVP also held their own Workshops with the view to advance disease-specific variation data collection and utilization: the International Society for Gastrointestinal Hereditary Tumours, the Micronutrient Genomics Project, and the Neurogenetics Consortium.

  9. The in/visible women: Mariangela Ardinghelli and the circulation of knowledge between Paris and Naples in the eighteenth century.

    PubMed

    Bertucci, Paola

    2013-06-01

    Mariangela Ardinghelli (1730-1825) is remembered as the Italian translator of two texts by the Newtonian physiologist Stephen Hales, Haemastaticks and Vegetable Staticks. This essay shows that her role in the Republic of Letters was by no means limited to such work. At a time of increasing interest in the natural history of the areas around Naples, she became a reliable cultural mediator for French travelers and naturalists. She also acted as an informal foreign correspondent for the Paris Academy of Sciences, connecting scientific communities in Naples and France. Unlike other learned women of the time, Ardinghelli was neither an aristocrat nor a member of the ascendant middle class. The essay discusses the strategies she devised to build her authority and her choice of anonymity at the apex of her popularity, when she translated scientific texts by contemporary celebrities such as the abbé Nollet and the comte de Buffon. It argues that, in spite of Ardinghelli's historical invisibility, for her contemporaries she never became an "invisible assistant": she constructed layers of selective visibility that allowed her authorship to be identified by specific audiences, while protecting herself from social isolation or derision. PMID:23961687

  10. Novel experimental design for high pressure-high temperature electrical resistance measurements in a "Paris-Edinburgh" large volume press.

    PubMed

    Matityahu, Shlomi; Emuna, Moran; Yahel, Eyal; Makov, Guy; Greenberg, Yaron

    2015-04-01

    We present a novel experimental design for high sensitivity measurements of the electrical resistance of samples at high pressures (0-6 GPa) and high temperatures (300-1000 K) in a "Paris-Edinburgh" type large volume press. Uniquely, the electrical measurements are carried out directly on a small sample, thus greatly increasing the sensitivity of the measurement. The sensitivity to even minor changes in electrical resistance can be used to clearly identify phase transitions in material samples. Electrical resistance measurements are relatively simple and rapid to execute and the efficacy of the present experimental design is demonstrated by measuring the electrical resistance of Pb, Sn, and Bi across a wide domain of temperature-pressure phase space and employing it to identify the loci of phase transitions. Based on these results, the phase diagrams of these elements are reconstructed to high accuracy and found to be in excellent agreement with previous studies. In particular, by mapping the locations of several well-studied reference points in the phase diagram of Sn and Bi, it is demonstrated that a standard calibration exists for the temperature and pressure, thus eliminating the need for direct or indirect temperature and pressure measurements. The present technique will allow simple and accurate mapping of phase diagrams under extreme conditions and may be of particular importance in advancing studies of liquid state anomalies.

  11. The Fate of Polyol-Made ZnO and CdS Nanoparticles in Seine River Water (Paris, France).

    PubMed

    da Rocha, Alice; Sivry, Yann; Gelabert, Alexandre; Beji, Zyed; Benedetti, Marc F; Menguy, Nicolas; Brayner, Roberta

    2015-05-01

    This study aims to characterize nanoparticles with different compositions and structures as well as seeing their evolutions over time in a natural environment such as Seine river water (Paris, France). Face centered cubic (fcc) and hexagonal (hcp) CdS as well as hexagonal (hcp) ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by the Polyol method. CdS nanoparticles (i) cfc structure: are agglomerated, present 100 nm length with heterogeneous diameter and 10 m2 g(-1) specific surface area (S(g)) from Brunauer Emett and Teller (BET) measurements; (ii) hcp structure: 20 nm and S(g) = 67 m2 g(-1). ZnO hcp nanoparticles presents 50 nm length and 15 nm diameter and S(g) = 54 m2 g(-1). These results are in agreement with X-ray diffraction (XRD), and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXs). After 48 h interaction with Seine river water, cryo-TEM analysis showed that ZnO nanoparticles form spherical agglomerates with 300 nm diameter; CdS nanoparticles (fcc) are agglomerated presenting large diameters (> 500 nm); and CdS nanoparticles (hcp) are not agglomerated and present the same characteristics of the starting material. After 168h of contact with Seine river water, CdS (fcc) presents only 14% of dissolution, CdS (hcp) presents both 60% dissolution and 30% reprecipitation in a cadmium carbonate form and finally almost 90% of ZnO nanoparticles are dissolved.

  12. Assessing the ammonium nitrate formation regime in the Paris megacity and its representation in the CHIMERE model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petetin, Hervé; Sciare, Jean; Beekmann, Matthias; Sanchez, Olivier; Rosso, Amandine; Denier van der Gon, Hugo

    2014-05-01

    Ammonium nitrates significantly contribute to the fine particulate matter load, in particular in the Paris agglomeration where two measurement campaigns, PARTICULES and FRANCIPOL, have recently made available a large database on this compound and its gaseous precursors, nitric acid and ammonia. These new observations give the opportunity (for the first time in France) to assess the ammonium nitrate formation regime (in terms of limited species) as well as the ability of the CHIMERE chemistry-transport model to simulate each species and to reproduce in fine the observed regime. Quite satisfactory results are obtained on nitrates, mainly due to a significant contribution of imports from outside the agglomeration. However, significant biases affect both gaseous precursors. Various uncertainty sources are discussed, including those relative to ammonia trafic and agricultural emissions, thermodynamic equilibria or oxidative capacity of the atmosphere. Despite these errors, CHIMERE manages to simulate a HNO3-limited regime, in agreement with observations, at least at the daily scale. This study especially confirms that further work on the OH radical characterization in the CHIMERE model and agricultural ammonia emissions are required to improve the simulation of the ammonium nitrate formation regime.

  13. Novel experimental design for high pressure-high temperature electrical resistance measurements in a "Paris-Edinburgh" large volume press

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matityahu, Shlomi; Emuna, Moran; Yahel, Eyal; Makov, Guy; Greenberg, Yaron

    2015-04-01

    We present a novel experimental design for high sensitivity measurements of the electrical resistance of samples at high pressures (0-6 GPa) and high temperatures (300-1000 K) in a "Paris-Edinburgh" type large volume press. Uniquely, the electrical measurements are carried out directly on a small sample, thus greatly increasing the sensitivity of the measurement. The sensitivity to even minor changes in electrical resistance can be used to clearly identify phase transitions in material samples. Electrical resistance measurements are relatively simple and rapid to execute and the efficacy of the present experimental design is demonstrated by measuring the electrical resistance of Pb, Sn, and Bi across a wide domain of temperature-pressure phase space and employing it to identify the loci of phase transitions. Based on these results, the phase diagrams of these elements are reconstructed to high accuracy and found to be in excellent agreement with previous studies. In particular, by mapping the locations of several well-studied reference points in the phase diagram of Sn and Bi, it is demonstrated that a standard calibration exists for the temperature and pressure, thus eliminating the need for direct or indirect temperature and pressure measurements. The present technique will allow simple and accurate mapping of phase diagrams under extreme conditions and may be of particular importance in advancing studies of liquid state anomalies.

  14. How to Catch All Those Mutations—The Report of the Third Human Variome Project Meeting, UNESCO Paris, May 2010

    PubMed Central

    Kohonen-Corish, Maija R.J.; Al-Aama, Jumana Y.; Auerbach, Arleen D.; Axton, Myles; Barash, Carol Isaacson; Bernstein, Inge; Béroud, Christophe; Burn, John; Cunningham, Fiona; Cutting, Garry R.; den Dunnen, Johan T.; Greenblatt, Marc S.; Kaput, Jim; Katz, Michael; Lindblom, Annika; Macrae, Finlay; Maglott, Donna; Möslein, Gabriela; Povey, Sue; Ramesar, Raj; Richards, Sue; Seminara, Daniela; Sobrido, María-Jesús; Tavtigian, Sean; Taylor, Graham; Vihinen, Mauno; Winship, Ingrid; Cotton, Richard G.H.

    2011-01-01

    The third Human Variome Project (HVP) Meeting “Integration and Implementation” was held under UNESCO Patronage in Paris, France, at the UNESCO Headquarters May 10–14, 2010. The major aims of the HVP are the collection, curation, and distribution of all human genetic variation affecting health. The HVP has drawn together disparate groups, by country, gene of interest, and expertise, who are working for the common good with the shared goal of pushing the boundaries of the human variome and collaborating to avoid unnecessary duplication. The meeting addressed the 12 key areas that form the current framework of HVP activities: Ethics; Nomenclature and Standards; Publication, Credit and Incentives; Data Collection from Clinics; Overall Data Integration and Access—Peripheral Systems/Software; Data Collection from Laboratories; Assessment of Pathogenicity; Country Specific Collection; Translation to Healthcare and Personalized Medicine; Data Transfer, Databasing, and Curation; Overall Data Integration and Access—Central Systems; and Funding Mechanisms and Sustainability. In addition, three societies that support the goals and the mission of HVP also held their own Workshops with the view to advance disease-specific variation data collection and utilization: the International Society for Gastrointestinal Hereditary Tumours, the Micronutrient Genomics Project, and the Neurogenetics Consortium. PMID:20960468

  15. Applying Multivariate Clustering Techniques to Health Data: The 4 Types of Healthcare Utilization in the Paris Metropolitan Area

    PubMed Central

    Lefèvre, Thomas; Rondet, Claire; Parizot, Isabelle; Chauvin, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Background Cost containment policies and the need to satisfy patients’ health needs and care expectations provide major challenges to healthcare systems. Identification of homogeneous groups in terms of healthcare utilisation could lead to a better understanding of how to adjust healthcare provision to society and patient needs. Methods This study used data from the third wave of the SIRS cohort study, a representative, population-based, socio-epidemiological study set up in 2005 in the Paris metropolitan area, France. The data were analysed using a cross-sectional design. In 2010, 3000 individuals were interviewed in their homes. Non-conventional multivariate clustering techniques were used to determine homogeneous user groups in data. Multinomial models assessed a wide range of potential associations between user characteristics and their pattern of healthcare utilisation. Results We identified four distinct patterns of healthcare use. Patterns of consumption and the socio-demographic characteristics of users differed qualitatively and quantitatively between these four profiles. Extensive and intensive use by older, wealthier and unhealthier people contrasted with narrow and parsimonious use by younger, socially deprived people and immigrants. Rare, intermittent use by young healthy men contrasted with regular targeted use by healthy and wealthy women. Conclusion The use of an original technique of massive multivariate analysis allowed us to characterise different types of healthcare users, both in terms of resource utilisation and socio-demographic variables. This method would merit replication in different populations and healthcare systems. PMID:25506916

  16. [Effects of mycorrhizal colonization and medicine quality of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis inoculated by different foreign AM fungi species].

    PubMed

    Zhou Nong; Ding, Bo; Feng, Yuan; Qi, Wen-hua; Zhang, Hua; Guo, Dong-qin; Xiang, Jun

    2015-08-01

    After 28 foreign species of AM fungi were inoculated in sterilized soil, the effects of the AM mycorrhizal colonization and the medicine quality of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis were observed by combination of inoculation test in pot at room temperature and instrumental analysis. The results showed that, compared with control group (CK), the inoculation of foreign AM fungi in the soil influenced the spore density, mycorrhizal infection rate, and colonization intensity of AM fungi in root system of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. The inoculation of foreign AM fungi enhanced the mycorrhiza viability of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis by increasing the activity of succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in intraradical hyphae. The content of single steroid saponin in rhizome of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis showed variation after P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis was inoculated by different foreign species of AM fungi, which was beneficial for increasing the medicine quality; however, the kinds of steroid saponin showed no difference. In a degree, there was a selectivity of symbiosis between P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis and foreign AM fungi. And we found that the Claroideoglomus claroideum and Racocetra coralloidea were best foreign AM fungi species for cultivating P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis under field condition.

  17. The Myriapoda and Onychophora collection (MY) of the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle (MNHN, Paris).

    PubMed

    Bras, Gwenaël Le; Geoffroy, Jean-Jacques; Albenga, Laurent; Mauriès, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    The Myriapoda and Onychophora collection dataset inventories the occurrence records of the collection of myriapods and onychophorans in the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris. The dataset currently consists of 202 lots of onychophorans, representing all of those present, and almost ten thousand (9 795) lots of myriapods, representing 33 to 40% of the MNHN Myriapoda collection. This collection, which is of key historic importance, represents the results of two centuries of myriapod and onychophoran studies. The sources of the collection are worldwide, with a high representation for metropolitan France for the myriapods. None of the occurrences are yet georeferenced. Access to the dataset via the data portals of the MNHN and the GBIF has been made possible through the e-ReColNat project (ANR-11-INBS-0004). The Myriapoda and Onychophora collection of MNHN is actively expanding, hence both the collection and dataset are in continuous growth. The dataset can be accessed through the portals of GBIF at http://www.gbif.org/dataset/3287044c-8c48-4ad6-81d4-4908071bc8db and the MNHN at http://science.mnhn.fr/institution/mnhn/collection/my/item/search/form. PMID:26448704

  18. Highlights from the 2016 WIN Symposium, 27–29 June 2016, Paris: personalised therapy beyond next-generation sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Schilsky, Richard; Davies, Will

    2016-01-01

    The Worldwide Innovative Networking (WIN) consortium is an alliance of academic institutions, pharmaceutical partners, representatives from technology companies and charitable/health payer organisations from across the globe. For the last six years, the consortium’s aims have been to foster communication and collaboration between members, encourage dialogue in an open forum, and deliver clinical trial results that improve the care and outcomes of patients with cancer using the latest advances in genomic-based medicine. The annual WIN Symposium, held over two days, is a chance for its members to come together and discuss ongoing research, recent announcements, and introduce new developments in personalised medicine. This year’s conference, held in Paris, France 27–29 June, consisted of six dedicated sessions, including two debates, and posters from members and participating organisations, all focusing on the latest therapeutic advances and updates in genomic analysis. Special highlights from this year included discussion of the MINDACT clinical trial, which uses a gene expression test to identify patients with breast cancer who can safely forego adjuvant chemotherapy, and the reflections on the SHIVA trial. Of particular interest to many speakers was the utilisation of liquid biopsy samples to produce near real time snapshots of tumour mutational profiles and vulnerability.

  19. Gothic Churches in Paris ST Gervais et ST Protais Image Matching 3d Reconstruction to Understand the Vaults System Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capone, M.; Campi, M.; Catuogno, R.

    2015-02-01

    This paper is part of a research about ribbed vaults systems in French Gothic Cathedrals. Our goal is to compare some different gothic cathedrals to understand the complex geometry of the ribbed vaults. The survey isn't the main objective but it is the way to verify the theoretical hypotheses about geometric configuration of the flamboyant churches in Paris. The survey method's choice generally depends on the goal; in this case we had to study many churches in a short time, so we chose 3D reconstruction method based on image dense stereo matching. This method allowed us to obtain the necessary information to our study without bringing special equipment, such as the laser scanner. The goal of this paper is to test image matching 3D reconstruction method in relation to some particular study cases and to show the benefits and the troubles. From a methodological point of view this is our workflow: - theoretical study about geometrical configuration of rib vault systems; - 3D model based on theoretical hypothesis about geometric definition of the vaults' form; - 3D model based on image matching 3D reconstruction methods; - comparison between 3D theoretical model and 3D model based on image matching;

  20. The in/visible women: Mariangela Ardinghelli and the circulation of knowledge between Paris and Naples in the eighteenth century.

    PubMed

    Bertucci, Paola

    2013-06-01

    Mariangela Ardinghelli (1730-1825) is remembered as the Italian translator of two texts by the Newtonian physiologist Stephen Hales, Haemastaticks and Vegetable Staticks. This essay shows that her role in the Republic of Letters was by no means limited to such work. At a time of increasing interest in the natural history of the areas around Naples, she became a reliable cultural mediator for French travelers and naturalists. She also acted as an informal foreign correspondent for the Paris Academy of Sciences, connecting scientific communities in Naples and France. Unlike other learned women of the time, Ardinghelli was neither an aristocrat nor a member of the ascendant middle class. The essay discusses the strategies she devised to build her authority and her choice of anonymity at the apex of her popularity, when she translated scientific texts by contemporary celebrities such as the abbé Nollet and the comte de Buffon. It argues that, in spite of Ardinghelli's historical invisibility, for her contemporaries she never became an "invisible assistant": she constructed layers of selective visibility that allowed her authorship to be identified by specific audiences, while protecting herself from social isolation or derision.

  1. [Effects of mycorrhizal colonization and medicine quality of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis inoculated by different foreign AM fungi species].

    PubMed

    Zhou Nong; Ding, Bo; Feng, Yuan; Qi, Wen-hua; Zhang, Hua; Guo, Dong-qin; Xiang, Jun

    2015-08-01

    After 28 foreign species of AM fungi were inoculated in sterilized soil, the effects of the AM mycorrhizal colonization and the medicine quality of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis were observed by combination of inoculation test in pot at room temperature and instrumental analysis. The results showed that, compared with control group (CK), the inoculation of foreign AM fungi in the soil influenced the spore density, mycorrhizal infection rate, and colonization intensity of AM fungi in root system of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. The inoculation of foreign AM fungi enhanced the mycorrhiza viability of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis by increasing the activity of succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in intraradical hyphae. The content of single steroid saponin in rhizome of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis showed variation after P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis was inoculated by different foreign species of AM fungi, which was beneficial for increasing the medicine quality; however, the kinds of steroid saponin showed no difference. In a degree, there was a selectivity of symbiosis between P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis and foreign AM fungi. And we found that the Claroideoglomus claroideum and Racocetra coralloidea were best foreign AM fungi species for cultivating P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis under field condition. PMID:26790285

  2. Highlights from the 2016 WIN Symposium, 27-29 June 2016, Paris: personalised therapy beyond next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Schilsky, Richard; Davies, Will

    2016-01-01

    The Worldwide Innovative Networking (WIN) consortium is an alliance of academic institutions, pharmaceutical partners, representatives from technology companies and charitable/health payer organisations from across the globe. For the last six years, the consortium's aims have been to foster communication and collaboration between members, encourage dialogue in an open forum, and deliver clinical trial results that improve the care and outcomes of patients with cancer using the latest advances in genomic-based medicine. The annual WIN Symposium, held over two days, is a chance for its members to come together and discuss ongoing research, recent announcements, and introduce new developments in personalised medicine. This year's conference, held in Paris, France 27-29 June, consisted of six dedicated sessions, including two debates, and posters from members and participating organisations, all focusing on the latest therapeutic advances and updates in genomic analysis. Special highlights from this year included discussion of the MINDACT clinical trial, which uses a gene expression test to identify patients with breast cancer who can safely forego adjuvant chemotherapy, and the reflections on the SHIVA trial. Of particular interest to many speakers was the utilisation of liquid biopsy samples to produce near real time snapshots of tumour mutational profiles and vulnerability.

  3. THE TYPES OF PALAEARCTIC HIPPORHININI (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Cyclominae) CONSERVED AT THE MUSÉUM NATIONAL D'HISTOIRE NATURELLE, PARIS.

    PubMed

    Meregalli, Massimo; Perrin, Hélène

    2015-11-30

    The Palaearctic species of Curculionidae: Cyclominae: Hipporhinini conserved at the Muséum national d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris were critically revised in order to recognise the type specimens, select lectotypes or, where necessary, designate neotypes. Out of 135 species whose types were presumably preserved in the MNHN, original type specimens of 116 could be found. The holotypes of 21 species were available, either because originally designated as such, or because the species was unequivocally based on a single specimen; a paratype of another taxon, whose holotype is preserved in another collection, was also examined. The lectotypes of 93 species were designated, and a syntype of another species was also seen. Neotypes of 10 more species were designated, thus leading to a total number of species whose type is conserved at the MNHN to 126. Type specimens of five more species described by French authors, not present in the MNHN but conserved in other museums, were found as well and were included in the paper, with the further designation of three lectotypes. All types treated herein were labelled and photographed.

  4. High resolution sequence stratigraphy of Scythian-early Anisian continental deposits of east of Paris basin: Applications to gas storage

    SciTech Connect

    Roselyne, F.; Guillocheau, F.; Wicquart, E.

    1995-08-01

    Continental facies of Scythian-early Anisian age (Buntsandstein) of East of the Paris Basin form the underground gas storage reservoir exploited by Gaz de France in the area of Nancy (east of France). An accurate sedimentological study and the application of Genetic Stratigraphy principles lead to the understanding of the deposition of fluvial, which form the reservoirs, and to the reconstruction of their geometries. The subsurface data are calibrated on outcrops. Three types of fluvial systems (braided, sinuous to straight and anastomosed) are defined. A special focus on anastomosed channels permits to differentiate a proximal and a distal facies. Study of laterally continuous outcrops induces recurrent cycles of thickness, velocity and time variations (few tens to hundred ka). These correspond to the highest frequence stratigraphic units, i.e. parasequences or genetic units. Maximum of channel and levee presentation occurs during base-level rise: base-level fall is characterised by amalgamation of sets, by-pass and erosion. This method is applied to subsurface data by an accurate calibration of well logs on cores. Thus the electric expression of genetic units corresponding to different environments is determined as well as the expression of base-level variations. The correlation of these units using stacking pattern method leads to a very fine subdivision of reservoir between timelines. Different orders of depositional sequences are pointed out, resulting in reservoir geometry characterization and permeability barrier distribution.

  5. Sequence stratigraphy of the Jurassic: New data from the Paris-London basin compiled on well logs

    SciTech Connect

    Ponsot, C.M.; Vail, P.R. )

    1991-03-01

    A sequence stratigraphic analysis of the Jurassic sedimentary succession in Paris basin is derived from an integration of subsurface log correlations, field observations, and reinterpretations of field descriptions. The analysis is presented on two log sections, one crossing the basin from northeast to southwest and the other from northwest to southeast (approximately 80 logs). A vast quantity of field data, collected all around the Parsi basin (English Dorset, French Normandy, Manche, Ardennes, Lorraine, Bourgogne) allowed the sequences and system tracts boundaries to be traced and dated at the same time or prior to being recognized on well log data. In comparison with the Haq et al. 1987 cycle chart, 16 new sequences have been added: three for the Lias, seven for the Dogger, and six for the Malm. Occasionally, ages of some of the already recognized sequences boundaries have been slightly modified to fit new biostratal data. These biostratal data were usually at the scale of the ammonite sub-zone and the actual give ages all tie with the 1987 Haq et al. chart time scale.

  6. Borehole magnetostratigraphy, absolute age dating, and correlation of sedimentary rocks, with examples from the Paris Basin, France

    SciTech Connect

    Bouisset, P.M. ); Augustin, A.M. )

    1993-04-01

    Total and CEA have conceived and developed two new logging tools which allow continuous, precise, and accurate in-situ magnetic measurements within weakly magnetized sedimentary rocks encountered in uncased industry drilled wells. The combination of these magnetic measurements permits for the first time continuous determination of natural remanent magnetization (NRM) polarities occurring in the logged section. The resulting well magnetostratigraphic sequence (WMS) which may be recognized from well to well (magnetostratigraphic correlations), may also be correlative to a geomagnetic polarity time scale (GPTS) of reference magnetostratigraphic scale (RMS), given adequate dating tie points and lack of noticeable remagnetizations. Application of this method to the Upper Jurrasic formation in four wells of the Paris basin has yielded promising results for both stratigraphic and near absolute age correlations as well as determination of facies diachronisms. The comparison of results obtained from magnetic measurements and from sequence stratigraphy analysis shows that third-order sequence boundaries may be correlative to geomagnetic reversals, but may also be diachronous in wells 80 km or less apart. The potential of borehole magnetic measurements as presented in this paper is still under investigation. However, these encouraging initial results show that this new investigating and dating method could be of great help in the analysis of subsurface stratigraphy by extending the concepts of magnetostratigraphy from the outcrops and laboratory directly into borehole logging. 81 refs., 18 figs.

  7. The Myriapoda and Onychophora collection (MY) of the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle (MNHN, Paris).

    PubMed

    Bras, Gwenaël Le; Geoffroy, Jean-Jacques; Albenga, Laurent; Mauriès, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    The Myriapoda and Onychophora collection dataset inventories the occurrence records of the collection of myriapods and onychophorans in the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris. The dataset currently consists of 202 lots of onychophorans, representing all of those present, and almost ten thousand (9 795) lots of myriapods, representing 33 to 40% of the MNHN Myriapoda collection. This collection, which is of key historic importance, represents the results of two centuries of myriapod and onychophoran studies. The sources of the collection are worldwide, with a high representation for metropolitan France for the myriapods. None of the occurrences are yet georeferenced. Access to the dataset via the data portals of the MNHN and the GBIF has been made possible through the e-ReColNat project (ANR-11-INBS-0004). The Myriapoda and Onychophora collection of MNHN is actively expanding, hence both the collection and dataset are in continuous growth. The dataset can be accessed through the portals of GBIF at http://www.gbif.org/dataset/3287044c-8c48-4ad6-81d4-4908071bc8db and the MNHN at http://science.mnhn.fr/institution/mnhn/collection/my/item/search/form.

  8. The Myriapoda and Onychophora collection (MY) of the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle (MNHN, Paris)

    PubMed Central

    Bras, Gwenaël Le; Geoffroy, Jean-Jacques; Albenga, Laurent; Mauriès, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Myriapoda and Onychophora collection dataset inventories the occurrence records of the collection of myriapods and onychophorans in the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, Paris. The dataset currently consists of 202 lots of onychophorans, representing all of those present, and almost ten thousand (9 795) lots of myriapods, representing 33 to 40% of the MNHN Myriapoda collection. This collection, which is of key historic importance, represents the results of two centuries of myriapod and onychophoran studies. The sources of the collection are worldwide, with a high representation for metropolitan France for the myriapods. None of the occurrences are yet georeferenced. Access to the dataset via the data portals of the MNHN and the GBIF has been made possible through the e-ReColNat project (ANR-11-INBS-0004). The Myriapoda and Onychophora collection of MNHN is actively expanding, hence both the collection and dataset are in continuous growth. The dataset can be accessed through the portals of GBIF at http://www.gbif.org/dataset/3287044c-8c48-4ad6-81d4-4908071bc8db and the MNHN at http://science.mnhn.fr/institution/mnhn/collection/my/item/search/form. PMID:26448704

  9. Highlights from the 2016 WIN Symposium, 27-29 June 2016, Paris: personalised therapy beyond next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Schilsky, Richard; Davies, Will

    2016-01-01

    The Worldwide Innovative Networking (WIN) consortium is an alliance of academic institutions, pharmaceutical partners, representatives from technology companies and charitable/health payer organisations from across the globe. For the last six years, the consortium's aims have been to foster communication and collaboration between members, encourage dialogue in an open forum, and deliver clinical trial results that improve the care and outcomes of patients with cancer using the latest advances in genomic-based medicine. The annual WIN Symposium, held over two days, is a chance for its members to come together and discuss ongoing research, recent announcements, and introduce new developments in personalised medicine. This year's conference, held in Paris, France 27-29 June, consisted of six dedicated sessions, including two debates, and posters from members and participating organisations, all focusing on the latest therapeutic advances and updates in genomic analysis. Special highlights from this year included discussion of the MINDACT clinical trial, which uses a gene expression test to identify patients with breast cancer who can safely forego adjuvant chemotherapy, and the reflections on the SHIVA trial. Of particular interest to many speakers was the utilisation of liquid biopsy samples to produce near real time snapshots of tumour mutational profiles and vulnerability. PMID:27610195

  10. Case study of extreme aerosol pollution events in the Paris area by synergy between optical measurements from multiple platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Totems, Julien; Chazette, Patrick; Royer, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    Major pollution events encountered in the Paris area are mainly due to anticyclonic conditions where air masses are blocked and recycled (horizontal wind speed less than 1 m.s-1) or advected from northestern Europe. Such events with aerosol optical thickness larger than 0.4 at 355 nm have been documented by in situ sensors (AirParif network), ground-based sunphotometers (Aeronet network) and fixed and mobile ground-based Rayleigh-Mie lidars. The first studied event occurred during the MEGAPOLI (Megacities: Emissions, urban, regional and Global Atmospheric POLlution and climate effects, and Integrated tools for assessment and mitigation) summer experiment, on July 1st, 2009. Another favorable period for major pollution events is the spring season and we have highlighted two of them using the opportunity given by lidar experimental tests at LSCE in march 2011. Ground-based observations have been complemented by spaceborne measurements from MODIS and CALIPSO/CALIOP that give information on the spatial extent of the pollution plume in 3 dimensions. From this instrumental synergy we determine the aerosol optical properties (extinction coefficients in the atmospheric column, optical thickness, lidar ratio, ...). The probable aerosol sources have also been investigated using back-trajectories analyses computed by the HYSPLIT model (http://ready.arl.noaa.gov/HYSPLIT.php) ; they lie in the French Lorraine, Benelux, and German Saarland and Ruhr industrialized regions.

  11. Comparison of three marine screening tests and four Oslo and Paris Commission procedures to evaluate toxicity of offshore chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Weideborg, M.; Vik, E.A.; Oefjord, G.D.; Kjoennoe, O.

    1997-02-01

    The results from the screening toxicity tests Artemia salina, Microtox{reg_sign}, and Mitochondria RET test were compared with those obtained from OSPAR (Oslo and Paris Commissions)-authorized procedures for testing of offshore chemicals (Skeletonema costatum, Acartia tonsa, Abra alba, and Corophium volutator). In this study 82 test substances (26 non-water soluble) were included. The Microtox test was found to be the most sensitive of the three screening tests. Microtox and Mitochondria RET test results showed good correlation with results from Acartia and Skeletonema testing, and it was concluded that the Microtox test was a suitable screening test as a base for assessment of further testing, especially regarding water-soluble chemicals. Sensitivity of Artemia salina to the tested chemicals was too low for it to be an appropriate bioassay organism for screening testing. A very good correlation was found between the results obtained with the Skeletonema and Acartia tests. The results indicated no need for more than one of the Skeletonema or Acartia tests if the Skeletonema median effective concentration or Acartia median lethal concentration was greater than 200 mg/L. The sediment-reworker tests (A. Alba or C. volutator) for chemicals that are likely to end up in the sediments (non-water soluble or surfactants) should be performed, independent of results from screening tests and other OSPAR species.

  12. [Genealogical study of the Pijart dynasty, goldsmiths or apothecaries in Paris in the 16th and 17th centuries].

    PubMed

    Warolin, Christian

    2007-10-01

    The Pijart dynasty, established in Paris during the 16th and 17th centuries, included apothecaries and goldsmiths who had a common ancestor, Michel Pijart, warden of the goldsmith's guild (garde de l'orfèvrerie) in 1507. He was married to Jehanne Daumont and died 23rd July 1524. This couple had four sons, all goldsmiths, Pierre, Michel, Jehan and Nicolas. Pierre married twice. His first wife, Philippe Dusseau, was the sister of a famous apothecary. Only their eldest son, François, chose the profession of apothecary; the other three, Jacques, Jehan and Philibert, all followed their father's profession. By his second marriage to Marie de Mézières, Pierre had two sons, Claude the elder and Claude the younger, who both became goldsmiths. Thus, the goldsmith's trade became the favoured profession of the Pijart family. Professional endogamy prevailed in this dynasty, after the fashion of merchants belonging to the six most prestigious guilds (Six-Corps de métiers). Goldsmiths and apothecaries retained strong family ties, demonstrated by family reunions (baptisms, betrothals, etc.). It is undisputable that the renown of this dynasty is based on the fame of its goldsmiths. However, through marriage, the Pijart's developed links with other families of apothecaries, of which the most outstanding were the Boulduc's. PMID:18348497

  13. Highlights from the 2016 WIN Symposium, 27–29 June 2016, Paris: personalised therapy beyond next-generation sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Schilsky, Richard; Davies, Will

    2016-01-01

    The Worldwide Innovative Networking (WIN) consortium is an alliance of academic institutions, pharmaceutical partners, representatives from technology companies and charitable/health payer organisations from across the globe. For the last six years, the consortium’s aims have been to foster communication and collaboration between members, encourage dialogue in an open forum, and deliver clinical trial results that improve the care and outcomes of patients with cancer using the latest advances in genomic-based medicine. The annual WIN Symposium, held over two days, is a chance for its members to come together and discuss ongoing research, recent announcements, and introduce new developments in personalised medicine. This year’s conference, held in Paris, France 27–29 June, consisted of six dedicated sessions, including two debates, and posters from members and participating organisations, all focusing on the latest therapeutic advances and updates in genomic analysis. Special highlights from this year included discussion of the MINDACT clinical trial, which uses a gene expression test to identify patients with breast cancer who can safely forego adjuvant chemotherapy, and the reflections on the SHIVA trial. Of particular interest to many speakers was the utilisation of liquid biopsy samples to produce near real time snapshots of tumour mutational profiles and vulnerability. PMID:27610195

  14. High level of depressive symptoms as a barrier to reach an ideal cardiovascular health. The Paris Prospective Study III

    PubMed Central

    Gaye, B.; Prugger, C.; Perier, M. C.; Thomas, F.; Plichart, M.; Guibout, C.; Lemogne, C.; Pannier, B.; Boutouyrie, P.; Jouven, X.; Empana, J. P.

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesized that depression might represent a barrier to reach an ideal cardiovascular health (CVH) as estimated by the 7-item tool proposed by the American Heart Association. Between 2008 and 2012, 9,417 subjects 50–75 years of age were examined in a large health center and enrolled in the Paris Prospective Study III (PPS3). Participants with 0–2, 3–4 and 5–7 health metrics at the ideal level were categorized as having poor, intermediate and ideal CVH, respectively. Participants with a score ≥7 on the 13-item Questionnaire of Depression 2nd version, Abridged or who were on antidepressants were referred as having high level of depressive symptoms (HLDS). The mean age of the 9417 study participants was 59.57 (SD 6.28) years and 61.16% were males. A total of 9.55% had HLDS. Poor, intermediate and ideal CVH was present in 40.38%, 49.52% and 10.10% of the participants. In multivariate polytomous logistic regression analysis, HLDS was inversely associated with ideal CVH (odds ratio = 0.70; 95% CI: 0.55;0.90). This was driven by an association with the behavioural component of the CVH. Participants with HLDS had a substantial reduced chance of reaching an ideal CVH. PMID:26743318

  15. Turbulence profiles of the future E-ELT with LuSci (Lunar Scintillometer)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Char, F.; Lombardi, G.; Sarazin, M.; González, C.; Navarrete, J.

    The Lunar Scintillometer (LuSci) is an instrument used to analyze the Surface Layer in all the candidate sites for the E-ELT. Currently is used in the monitoring of the chosen site, Cerro Armazones. LuSci has proved to be a portable and reliable tool, in the aim to estimate the distribution of the turbulence in the Ground Layer, when used in combination with several other turbulence profilers, such as MASS, DIMM and SLODAR. In this way, LuSci has provided valuable data in order to characterize the Ground Layer and the relevant portion of turbulence for the future largest optical/infrared observatory in the world.

  16. Detailed petrophysical characterization enhances geological mapping of a buried substratum using aeromagnetic and gravity data; application to the southwestern Paris basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptiste, Julien; Martelet, Guillaume; Faure, Michel; Beccaletto, Laurent; Chen, Yan; Reninger, Pierre-Alexandre

    2016-04-01

    Mapping the geometries (structure and lithology) of a buried basement is a key for targeting resources and for improving the regional geological knowledge. The Paris basin is a Mesozoic to Cenozoic intraplate basin set up on a Variscan substratum, which crops out in the surrounding massifs. We focus our study on the southwestern part of the Paris basin at its junction with the Aquitaine basin. This Mezo-Cenozoic cover separates the Armorican Massif and the Massif Central which compose of several litho-tectonic units bounded by crustal-scale shear zones. In spite of several lithological and structural correlations between various domains of the two massifs, their geological connection, hidden below the Paris basin sedimentary cover, is still largely debated. Potential field geophysics have proven effective for mapping buried basin/basement interfaces. In order to enhance the cartographic interpretation of these data, we have set up a detailed petrophysical library (field magnetic susceptibility data and density measurements on rock samples) of the Paleozoic rocks outcropping in the Variscan massifs. The combination of aeromagnetic and gravity data supported by the petrophysical signatures and field/borehole geological information, is carried out to propose a new map of the architecture of the Variscan substratum. The new synthetic map of geophysical signature of the Paris basin basement combines: i) the magnetic anomaly reduced to the pole, ii) the vertical gradient of the Bouguer anomaly and iii) the tilt derivative of the magnetic anomaly reduced to the pole. Based on this information, the Eastern extension of the major shear zones below the sedimentary cover is assessed. The petrophysical signatures were classified in three classes of magnetic susceptibility and density: low, intermediate and high. Basic rocks have high magnetization and density values whereas granite, migmatite and orthogneiss show low magnetization and density values, Proterozoic and Paleozoic

  17. 76 FR 10395 - BreconRidge Manufacturing Solutions, Now Known as Sanmina-SCI Corporation, Division...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... Corporation, Division Optoelectronic and Microelectronic Design and Manufacturing, a Subsidiary of Sanmina-SCI Corporation, Including On- Site Leased Workers From Kelly Services, Penski, Inc., and Whitney Enterprises... Corporation, Division Optoelectronic and Microelectronic Design and Manufacturing, a subsidiary of...

  18. Complementary use of the SciSearch database for improved biomedical information searching.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, C M

    1998-01-01

    The use of at least two complementary online biomedical databases is generally considered critical for biomedical scientists seeking to keep fully abreast of recent research developments as well as to retrieve the highest number of relevant citations possible. Although the National Library of Medicine's MEDLINE is usually the database of choice, this paper illustrates the benefits of using another database, the Institute for Scientific Information's SciSearch, when conducting a biomedical information search. When a simple query about red wine consumption and coronary artery disease was posed simultaneously in both MEDLINE and SciSearch, a greater number of relevant citations were retrieved through SciSearch. This paper also provides suggestions for carrying out a comprehensive biomedical literature search in a rapid and efficient manner by using SciSearch in conjunction with MEDLINE. PMID:9549014

  19. SciServer Compute brings Analysis to Big Data in the Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raddick, Jordan; Medvedev, Dmitry; Lemson, Gerard; Souter, Barbara

    2016-06-01

    SciServer Compute uses Jupyter Notebooks running within server-side Docker containers attached to big data collections to bring advanced analysis to big data "in the cloud." SciServer Compute is a component in the SciServer Big-Data ecosystem under development at JHU, which will provide a stable, reproducible, sharable virtual research environment.SciServer builds on the popular CasJobs and SkyServer systems that made the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) archive one of the most-used astronomical instruments. SciServer extends those systems with server-side computational capabilities and very large scratch storage space, and further extends their functions to a range of other scientific disciplines.Although big datasets like SDSS have revolutionized astronomy research, for further analysis, users are still restricted to downloading the selected data sets locally – but increasing data sizes make this local approach impractical. Instead, researchers need online tools that are co-located with data in a virtual research environment, enabling them to bring their analysis to the data.SciServer supports this using the popular Jupyter notebooks, which allow users to write their own Python and R scripts and execute them on the server with the data (extensions to Matlab and other languages are planned). We have written special-purpose libraries that enable querying the databases and other persistent datasets. Intermediate results can be stored in large scratch space (hundreds of TBs) and analyzed directly from within Python or R with state-of-the-art visualization and machine learning libraries. Users can store science-ready results in their permanent allocation on SciDrive, a Dropbox-like system for sharing and publishing files. Communication between the various components of the SciServer system is managed through SciServer‘s new Single Sign-on Portal.We have created a number of demos to illustrate the capabilities of SciServer Compute, including Python and R scripts

  20. SciServer Compute brings Analysis to Big Data in the Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raddick, Jordan; Medvedev, Dmitry; Lemson, Gerard; Souter, Barbara

    2016-06-01

    SciServer Compute uses Jupyter Notebooks running within server-side Docker containers attached to big data collections to bring advanced analysis to big data "in the cloud." SciServer Compute is a component in the SciServer Big-Data ecosystem under development at JHU, which will provide a stable, reproducible, sharable virtual research environment.SciServer builds on the popular CasJobs and SkyServer systems that made the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) archive one of the most-used astronomical instruments. SciServer extends those systems with server-side computational capabilities and very large scratch storage space, and further extends their functions to a range of other scientific disciplines.Although big datasets like SDSS have revolutionized astronomy research, for further analysis, users are still restricted to downloading the selected data sets locally - but increasing data sizes make this local approach impractical. Instead, researchers need online tools that are co-located with data in a virtual research environment, enabling them to bring their analysis to the data.SciServer supports this using the popular Jupyter notebooks, which allow users to write their own Python and R scripts and execute them on the server with the data (extensions to Matlab and other languages are planned). We have written special-purpose libraries that enable querying the databases and other persistent datasets. Intermediate results can be stored in large scratch space (hundreds of TBs) and analyzed directly from within Python or R with state-of-the-art visualization and machine learning libraries. Users can store science-ready results in their permanent allocation on SciDrive, a Dropbox-like system for sharing and publishing files. Communication between the various components of the SciServer system is managed through SciServer‘s new Single Sign-on Portal.We have created a number of demos to illustrate the capabilities of SciServer Compute, including Python and R scripts