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Sample records for acad sci paris

  1. Paris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    This image of Paris was acquired on July 23, 2000 and covers an area of 23 by 20 km. Known as the City of Light, Paris has been extolled for centuries as one of the great cities of the world. Its location on the Seine River, at a strategic crossroads of land and river routes, has been the key to its expansion since the Parisii tribe first settled here in the 3rd century BC. Paris is an alluring city boasting many monumental landmarks, such as the Cathedral of Notre Dame, the Louvre, and the Eiffel Tower. Its beautiful gardens, world-class cuisine, high fashion, sidewalk cafes, and intellectual endeavors are well known. The city's cultural life is centered on the Left Bank of the Seine, while business and commerce dominate the Right Bank. The image is located at 48.8 degrees north latitude and 2.3 degrees east longitude.

    In figure 1, the 4 enlarged areas zoom in to some of the major buildings. In the UPPER LEFT, the Eiffel Tower and its shadow are seen. Based on the length of the shadow and the solar elevation angle of 59 degrees, we can calculate its height as 324 m (1054 ft), compared to its actual height of 303 m (985 ft). In the UPPER RIGHT, the Arc de Triomphe is at the center of the Place de L'etoile, from which radiate 12 major boulevards. In the LOWER LEFT is the Tuileries Garden and the Louvre Museum art its eastern end. In the LOWER RIGHT is the Invalides, the burial place and monument of Napoleon Bonaparte.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  2. ASTER Paris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Eiffel Tower and its shadow can be seen next to the Seine in the left middle of this ASTER image of Paris. Based on the length of the shadow and the solar elevation angle of 59 degrees, we can calculate its height as 324 meters (1,054 feet), compared to its actual height of 303 meters (985 feet). Acquired on July 23, 2000, this image covers an area 23 kilometers (15 miles) wide and 20 kilometers (13 miles) long in three bands of the reflected visible and infrared wavelength region. Known as the City of Light, Paris has been extolled for centuries as one of the great cities of the world. Its location on the Seine River, at a strategic crossroads of land and river routes, has been the key to its expansion since the Parisii tribe first settled here in the 3rd century B.C.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration

  3. The Rome Paris collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Signore, M.

    2007-03-01

    Since the first "Twinning CEE Project" between the Group of Francesco Mechiorri and our Laboratory at Observatoire de Paris and Ecole Normale Supérieure, and then through several European Networks and NASA Collaborations on the Cosmic Microwave Background, a long-term and fruitful cooperation has existed between Rome and Paris. This contribution will focus on the human story, the principal results and the possible prospects of this wonderful collaboration.

  4. Geosciences after Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogelj, Joeri; Knutti, Reto

    2016-03-01

    The adoption of the Paris Agreement is a historic milestone for the global response to the threat of climate change. Scientists are now being challenged to investigate a 1.5 °C world -- which will require an accelerated effort from the geoscience community.

  5. Loss and damage post Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petherick, Anna

    2016-08-01

    The Paris Agreement gave the Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage a permanent and potentially prominent place in climate negotiations, but beyond that its impact remains wide open for interpretation.

  6. An Englishman abroad: Charles Blagden's visit to Paris in 1783.

    PubMed

    Fauque, Danielle M E

    2008-12-20

    Once the preliminaries of peace had been signed in January 1783, after the war of American independence, exchanges between British and French men of science resumed their normal course. On a visit to Paris in 1783, the francophile Charles Blagden (with the encouragement of Joseph Banks) made a number of contacts that fostered relations between the Royal Society and the Académie royale des sciences. In the course of this and several subsequent visits to France, Blagden became especially intimate with the chemist Claude-Louis Berthollet. His correspondence, now in the Royal Society, is a rich source for our understanding of some of the leading scientific debates of the day, in particular concerning the nature of water, which forms the main subject of this article. PMID:19244920

  7. PARIS II: DESIGNING GREENER SOLVENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    PARIS II (the program for assisting the replacement of industrial solvents, version II), developed at the USEPA, is a unique software tool that can be used for customizing the design of replacement solvents and for the formulation of new solvents. This program helps users avoid ...

  8. Neurology outside Paris following Charcot.

    PubMed

    Moulin, Thierry; Clarac, François; Petit, Henri; Broussolle, Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    The Middle Ages saw the development of numerous universities in the different provinces that later became the kingdom of France. In 1794, Napoleon I established 3 medical schools in Paris, Montpellier and Strasbourg, which were transformed into medical faculties in 1808. France had always been a highly centralized country, but during the 19th century, this trend started to change with the creation of medical faculties in Nancy (1872), Lille (1877), Lyon (1878), Bordeaux (1879), Toulouse (1891), Algiers (1910) and Marseille (1930). Following the creation of the 12 foundation courses, specialized chairs were progressively established in Paris, but for a long time this remained restricted to the French capital. However, with the emergence of medicine as an academic discipline in several towns outside Paris, came the development of neurology. This was greatly influenced by former students of Jean-Martin Charcot, local personalities, and the interactions between the two. Leading figures included Albert Pitres in Bordeaux, Léon Ingelrans in Lille, Eugène Devic and Jules Froment in Lyon, Lucien Cornil in Marseille, Joseph Grasset in Montpellier, and Marcel Riser in Toulouse. The interaction between French and Germanic medical communities also developed at this turbulent time under the influence of several great physicians such as Wilhelm Waldeyer, Adolf Kussmaul, and later Jean Alexandre Barré in Strasbourg, and Hippolyte Bernheim in Nancy. There are a number of other university towns outside Paris in which the development of neurology was probably influenced by the same interactions with psychiatry. It would be worth carrying out a thorough analysis of these towns in order to present an exhaustive overview of the development of neurology in France. PMID:20938155

  9. POP: Publications by the Observatoire de Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brocquet, C.; Henry, F.; Laurenceau, A.

    2015-04-01

    The paper presents "POP: Publications of the Observatoire de Paris," a project of the Observatoire de Paris, which was launched to keep record of its activity by indexing its publications. It also describes the aims and the challenges of the project and the features of Publesia, the software that was adopted for the project.

  10. Paris court attacks abortion law.

    PubMed

    Dorozynski, A

    1995-07-15

    A Paris court last week challenged a 1993 law that makes it a criminal offense to obstruct abortions. The court acquitted nine anti-abortion protestors who had broken into the maternity ward of the public hospital Pitie-Salpetriere last November and prayed at the entrance of a ward where patients are admitted for abortions. The judges ruled that the protestors had not interfered with abortions being carried out because none were taking place at the time of the demonstration; furthermore, the judges stated, because the fetus could be considered a person (child), the protestors were protected by other laws which give immunity to those breaking a law in order to protect another person's life, or to defend a child that had been abandoned. The court continued to say that a fetus should be protected, whether or not it was considered a person, because it was definitely more than nothing. The Syndicat de la Magistrature, the association of French magistrates, believes the tribunal has denied the right to abortion guaranteed in the 1975 law. Veronique Neietz, who drafted the 1993 law, was "scandalized" by the decision and believes the decision of the court was made in retribution for a recent parliamentary decision to exclude anti-abortion protestors from the general amnesty given after presidential elections to minor offenders. During the same week of this court decision, two tribunals, in Lyons and in Bourg-en-Bresse, sentenced 45 anti-abortionists to suspended prison terms with fines. PMID:7613424

  11. GHG monitoring over Paris megacity and Orléans forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Te, Y. V.; Jeseck, P.; Zanon, T.; Boursier, C.; Janssen, C.; Deutscher, N. M.; Warneke, T.; Notholt, J.; Lac, C.; Dieudonné, E.; Lopez, M.; Schmidt, M.; Xueref-remy, I. C.

    2012-12-01

    In a growing world with more than 7 billion inhabitants and big emerging countries such as China, Brazil and India, emissions of anthropogenic pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHGs) are increasing continuously. Their monitoring and control in megacities have become a major challenge for scientists and public health authorities in environmental research area. The ground-based Fourier transform spectrometer (QualAir FTS[a], model IFS 125HR) of the QualAir platform located in downtown Paris at University Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC), is a scientific research instrument dedicated to the survey of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and urban air quality. Equipped with a sun-tracker, the remote sensing QualAir FTS relies on solar infrared absorption for monitoring trace gas concentrations and their variability in the Ile-de-France region[b]. Concentrations of atmospheric GHGs, especially CO2, CH4 and N2O, are retrieved by the radiative transfer model PROFFIT[c]. Because Paris is the third largest European megacity, the QualAir FTS can provide new and complementary measurements as compared to existing ground-based FTS network stations (NDACC and TCCON) located in unpolluted environments, such as the TCCON-Orléans station[d] situated in the forest of Orléans (100 km south of Paris). In the effort to integrate QualAir FTS into the TCCON network, simultaneous FTS measurements of GHGs at Paris and Orléans have been performed. We will emphasize on comparisons of CO2 from these two sites. Our comparison will be completed by high-resolved direct CO2 modeling outputs from the Meso-NH model, and ground in situ measurements at different sites (Orléans/Trainou, Paris/Jussieu, Paris/Eiffel Tower). Parts of the data were acquired in the framework of the French CO2-MEGAPARIS project[e, f], whose main goal is to quantify CO2 emissions from the Paris area. The present data intercomparison will help to reduce uncertainties in carbon cycle models and to better characterize regional GHG fluxes

  12. Reveal genes functionally associated with ACADS by a network study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yulong; Su, Zhiguang

    2015-09-15

    Establishing a systematic network is aimed at finding essential human gene-gene/gene-disease pathway by means of network inter-connecting patterns and functional annotation analysis. In the present study, we have analyzed functional gene interactions of short-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase gene (ACADS). ACADS plays a vital role in free fatty acid β-oxidation and regulates energy homeostasis. Modules of highly inter-connected genes in disease-specific ACADS network are derived by integrating gene function and protein interaction data. Among the 8 genes in ACADS web retrieved from both STRING and GeneMANIA, ACADS is effectively conjoined with 4 genes including HAHDA, HADHB, ECHS1 and ACAT1. The functional analysis is done via ontological briefing and candidate disease identification. We observed that the highly efficient-interlinked genes connected with ACADS are HAHDA, HADHB, ECHS1 and ACAT1. Interestingly, the ontological aspect of genes in the ACADS network reveals that ACADS, HAHDA and HADHB play equally vital roles in fatty acid metabolism. The gene ACAT1 together with ACADS indulges in ketone metabolism. Our computational gene web analysis also predicts potential candidate disease recognition, thus indicating the involvement of ACADS, HAHDA, HADHB, ECHS1 and ACAT1 not only with lipid metabolism but also with infant death syndrome, skeletal myopathy, acute hepatic encephalopathy, Reye-like syndrome, episodic ketosis, and metabolic acidosis. The current study presents a comprehensible layout of ACADS network, its functional strategies and candidate disease approach associated with ACADS network. PMID:26045367

  13. Envisioning disaster in the 1910 Paris flood.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Jeffrey H

    2011-01-01

    This article uncovers the visual narratives embedded within the photography of the 1910 Paris flood. Images offered Parisians multiple ways to understand and construe the significance of the flood and provided interpretive frameworks to decide the meaning of this event. Investigating three interlocking narratives of ruin, beauty, and fraternité, the article shows how photographs of Paris under water allowed residents to make sense of the destruction but also to imagine the city’s reconstruction. The article concludes with a discussion of the role of visual culture in recovering from urban disasters. PMID:21299021

  14. Scientific Respiratory Symposium, Paris June 2010

    PubMed Central

    Dalglish, Gavin; Priestley, Graham

    2011-01-01

    At a 2010 Respiratory Symposium in Paris, chaired by Professors Bousquet and Roche of the University of Paris, recent trends in research, therapy and treatment guidelines for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were reviewed and discussed by a faculty of expert European and US respiratory physicians. This article reviews five key clinical presentations with particular emphasis given to the importance of small airways in the pathology and treatment of asthma and COPD. Further analysis of the economics of treatment in Europe and the US shows a wide variance in direct and indirect costs. PMID:21792320

  15. Fiches pratiques: Paris en vert; Analyse textuelle; C'est parti, mon kiki; Paris vu par (Practical Ideas: Paris in Green; Textual Analysis; It's Gone, My Kiki; Focusing on Paris).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caillet, Claudine; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Four activities for the French language classroom are described, including a discussion of greenery in Paris, a reading comprehension exercise, an activity focusing on language styles and familiar expressions, and a study of Paris as portrayed in films. (MSE)

  16. The introduction of ether in Paris revisited.

    PubMed

    Defalque, Ray J; Wright, A J

    2008-04-01

    Modern accounts of the introduction of ether anesthesia in France are mainly based on a letter written in February 1947 to the editor of the Boston Medical and Surgical Journal by Francis Willis Fisher, a young Boston surgeon at that time a student in Paris. Fisher's letter hints that his efforts were the main impetus to the acceptance of ether by the French academic surgeons. The authors have reviewed the contemporary medical literature, especially the numerous French journals, relative to that event. Their review suggests that Fisher was largely ignored by the French surgeons and by his young competitors then studying in Paris. He seems to have exaggerated his role in the acceptance of ether anesthesia in France. The reviewed literature also provides some additional details and some corrections to Fisher's account. Modern accounts of the introduction of ether in France have relied heavily on a letter sent in February 1847 to the editor of the Boston Medical & Surgical Journal by Francis W. Fisher, a young Boston physician then studying in Paris. Fisher's report is often vague, occasionally incorrect, and probably exaggerates his role in the acceptance of anesthesia in Paris. This review attempts to complement and correct Fisher's account. PMID:20506770

  17. Drilling bits optimized for the Paris basin

    SciTech Connect

    Vennin, H.C. Pouyastruc )

    1989-07-31

    Paris basin wells have been successfully drilled using steel-body bits with stud-type cutters. These bits offer the possibility of optimizing the bit-face based on the strata to be drilled, as well as allowing replacement of worn cutters. This article discusses: bit manufacturing; bit repair; optimizing bits; hydraulics.

  18. Paris as the First Day of Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ensz, Kathleen Y.

    1988-01-01

    Presents useful ideas for activities that get students involved, upon arrival abroad, in using their foreign language and in relating to their new cultural environment. A "linguistic scavenger hunt" in Paris, France, helps students gain the confidence they need to maximally benefit from their experience abroad. (Author/DJD)

  19. Act Up-Paris: French Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakayama, Thomas K.

    2012-01-01

    The francophone world has always been at the center of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. From the mythical (French Canadian) "patient zero," Gaetan Dugas, to Rock Hudson's flight to Paris for medical treatment and the blaming of Haiti for AIDS, as well as the close relationships between Belgian and French and their former African colonies, underscores the…

  20. Complex I assembly function and fatty acid oxidation enzyme activity of ACAD9 both contribute to disease severity in ACAD9 deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Schiff, Manuel; Haberberger, Birgit; Xia, Chuanwu; Mohsen, Al-Walid; Goetzman, Eric S.; Wang, Yudong; Uppala, Radha; Zhang, Yuxun; Karunanidhi, Anuradha; Prabhu, Dolly; Alharbi, Hana; Prochownik, Edward V.; Haack, Tobias; Häberle, Johannes; Munnich, Arnold; Rötig, Agnes; Taylor, Robert W.; Nicholls, Robert D.; Kim, Jung-Ja; Prokisch, Holger; Vockley, Jerry

    2015-01-01

    Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase 9 (ACAD9) is an assembly factor for mitochondrial respiratory chain Complex I (CI), and ACAD9 mutations are recognized as a frequent cause of CI deficiency. ACAD9 also retains enzyme ACAD activity for long-chain fatty acids in vitro, but the biological relevance of this function remains controversial partly because of the tissue specificity of ACAD9 expression: high in liver and neurons and minimal in skin fibroblasts. In this study, we hypothesized that this enzymatic ACAD activity is required for full fatty acid oxidation capacity in cells expressing high levels of ACAD9 and that loss of this function is important in determining phenotype in ACAD9-deficient patients. First, we confirmed that HEK293 cells express ACAD9 abundantly. Then, we showed that ACAD9 knockout in HEK293 cells affected long-chain fatty acid oxidation along with Cl, both of which were rescued by wild type ACAD9. Further, we evaluated whether the loss of ACAD9 enzymatic fatty acid oxidation affects clinical severity in patients with ACAD9 mutations. The effects on ACAD activity of 16 ACAD9 mutations identified in 24 patients were evaluated using a prokaryotic expression system. We showed that there was a significant inverse correlation between residual enzyme ACAD activity and phenotypic severity of ACAD9-deficient patients. These results provide evidence that in cells where it is strongly expressed, ACAD9 plays a physiological role in fatty acid oxidation, which contributes to the severity of the phenotype in ACAD9-deficient patients. Accordingly, treatment of ACAD9 patients should aim at counteracting both CI and fatty acid oxidation dysfunctions. PMID:25721401

  1. Porphyry of Russian Empires in Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulakh, Andrey

    2014-05-01

    Porphyry of Russian Empires in Paris A. G. Bulakh (St Petersburg State University, Russia) So called "Schokhan porphyry" from Lake Onega, Russia, belongs surely to stones of World cultural heritage. One can see this "porphyry" at facades of a lovely palace of Pavel I and in pedestal of the monument after Nicolas I in St Petersburg. There are many other cases of using this stone in Russia. In Paris, sarcophagus of Napoleon I Bonaparte is constructed of blocks of this stone. Really, it is Proterozoic quartzite. Geology situation, petrography and mineralogical characteristic will be reported too. Comparison with antique porphyre from the Egyptian Province of the Roma Empire is given. References: 1) A.G.Bulakh, N.B.Abakumova, J.V.Romanovsky. St Petersburg: a History in Stone. 2010. Print House of St Petersburg State University. 173 p.

  2. SCI Hazard Report Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the methodology in creating a Source Control Item (SCI) Hazard Report (HR). The SCI HR provides a system safety risk assessment for the following Ares I Upper Stage Production Contract (USPC) components (1) Pyro Separation Systems (2) Main Propulsion System (3) Reaction and Roll Control Systems (4) Thrust Vector Control System and (5) Ullage Settling Motor System components.

  3. Climate Impacts of the Paris Agreement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Andrei; Paltsev, Sergey; Chen, Henry; Monier, Erwan

    2016-04-01

    The UN agreement signed during the recent COP21 meeting in Paris defines policies which supposed to be implemented by different countries to reduce their anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Those agreed policies, however, only cover the period up to 2030 and they do not specify actions after 2030. As a result, projections of the long-term climate impact of the Paris agreement produced by different research groups differ significantly because they make different assumptions about the policies after 2030. In this study we estimate possible impacts using the MIT Integrated Global System Model, which consists of the human activity model, Economic Projection and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, and a climate model of intermediate complexity, the MIT Earth System Model (MESM). In addition to the "no climate policy" scenario, we consider a scenario that incorporates the emissions targets proposed by the international community to address the challenges of climate change based on the submissions to the COP21 process. For the post-2030 period we create several variations: a) no additional climate policy after 2030, but the proposed cuts are extended to 2100; b) reductions in emissions and emission intensities after 2030 at the same rate as in the 2020-2030 period; 3) in addition to the conditions in the previous no country increases its GHG emissions after 2050. Based on the emission scenarios, we simulate possible future climate changes. Our analysis shows that, for the climate parameters corresponding to the median strength of the climate system response to anthropogenic forcing, the Paris Agreement can reduce the global mean surface air temperature (SAT) in 2100 between 0.63 and 1.07oC relative to "no climate policy" case. At the same time, due to a large inertia of climate system, in 2050 the SAT reduced only by about 0.12oC under all three scenarios. Under all three variants of an extension of the Paris Agreement an increase in the SAT relative to an 1861

  4. Plaster of Paris: the orthopaedic surgeon heritage.

    PubMed

    Hernigou, Philippe

    2016-08-01

    Plastering is one of the most ancient of the building handicrafts. Plaster is the common name for calcium sulphate hemi hydrate made by heating the mineral gypsum, the common name for sulphate of lime. In the tenth century the Arabs used liquid plaster in orthopaedic treatment. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, patients with fractures of the lower extremities-and often of the upper extremities as well-were treated in bed with restriction of all activity for many weeks until the fractures united. It was the practice of surgeons to dress wounds and fractures at frequent intervals. The bandages, pads, and splints were removed, the fractures manipulated, and the dressings reapplied. The search for simpler, less cumbersome methods of treatment led to the development of occlusive dressings, stiffened at first with starch and later with plaster of Paris. The ambulatory treatment of fractures was the direct result of these innovations. Two military surgeons, Antonius Mathijsen of the Netherlands, and Nikolai Ivanovitch Pirogov of Russia, were responsible for the introduction of the new plaster bandage technique. At the beginning of the twentieth century the technique was improved by Jean-François Calot, a French surgeon, who invented the hand manufacture of plaster bandage as a roll. During the twentieth century, walking cast and ambulation for fresh fractures were developed with plaster and pin incorporated in plaster; the open fracture care concept was introduced with plaster of Paris by Trueta before the external fixation. PMID:27055448

  5. PARIS II: Computer Aided Solvent Design for Pollution Prevention

    EPA Science Inventory

    This product is a summary of U.S. EPA researchers' work developing the solvent substitution software tool PARIS II (Program for Assisting the Replacement of Industrial Solvents, version 2.0). PARIS II finds less toxic solvents or solvent mixtures to replace more toxic solvents co...

  6. [Medicinal values and their chemical bases of Paris].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue-hu; Niu, Hong-mei; Zhang, Zhao-yun; Hu, Xiang-yang; Li, Heng

    2015-03-01

    Medicinal values and their chemical bases of Paris (Trilliaceae) are reviewed. Paris plants include 40 species and varieties. Among them, 18 ones are medicinal plants with similarity in traditional uses. Fourteen species have been studied phytochemically, which led to isolation of 207 compounds including 121 steroidal saponins. These saponins are major active constituents from Paris plants, which can explain the traditional uses of the plants to treat cancer, malignant boil, bleeding, gastritis, and so on. The similarity in medicinal uses and chemical constituents of Paris plants implies the possibility of resource substitution among these species. It is worth to further investigate Paris plants in chemical constituents, pharmacological activity, biological property, and toxicology. PMID:26087542

  7. The 1986 terrorist bombing experience in Paris.

    PubMed Central

    Rignault, D P; Deligny, M C

    1989-01-01

    Between December 7, 1985 and September 17, 1986, eleven terrorist bomb explosions took place in Paris. Thirteen people died immediately, 255 others were injured. Forty were treated on-site and were not hospitalized, 205 were subjected to triage and stabilization and were then hospitalized. These latter 205 patients are analyzed in this study. None of them died during transportation, and seven eventually died in hospitals. Forty-seven per cent of all victims suffered from multiple injuries. All deaths except one occurred in the polytraumatized group. The policy of subjecting victims of terrorist bomb explosions to triage and stabilization before hospitalization is compared to the so-called "scoop and run" technique, more generally applied in mass casualty situations. Its limitations and advantages are discussed. PMID:2647053

  8. Monitoring Polaris and Seeing Conditions at PARI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, April

    2016-01-01

    Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI) was originally built by NASA to track and collect data from satellites. The location in the Pisgah National Forest was chosen due to the excellent ability of the surrounding mountains to block radio interference and light pollution. The PARI observatory has been monitoring Polaris for over 10 years and has amassed a large collection of images of the star and those surrounding it. While several telescopes have been used throughout the project, we are currently using a Omni XLT Series Celestron and an SBIG ST-8300M CCD camera with a 0.70 arcsecond/pixel ratio. The software is run on Windows, however, we will be making a switch to Linux and implementing a new program to control the camera. The new images, once converted to a usable format (ST10 to FITS), can be automatically fed into an in-house Java program to track the variability of the star and simultaneously determine the seeing conditions experienced on the campus. Since we have several years worth of data, the program will also be used to provide a history of variability and seeing conditions. We ultimately hope to be able to track the possible changes in variability of Polaris, as it's current location on the HR diagram is being studied. The data could also prove valuable for our on-site scientists and many visiting students to study on campus. We are also developing a relative scale for our seeing conditions, accompanied by FWHM measurements in arcseconds that will can be compared to those of surrounding observatories in mountainous areas.

  9. SPINAL CORD INJURY (SCI) DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Spinal Cord Injury Database has been in existence since 1973 and captures data from SCI cases in the United States. Since its inception, 24 federally funded Model SCI Care Systems have contributed data to the National SCI Database. Statistics are derived from this da...

  10. Future Heat Waves in Paris Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaulant, A.; Lemonsu, A.; Somot, S.; Masson, V.

    2010-12-01

    Cities are particularly vulnerable to heat waves, firstly because they concentrate the majority of the population and, secondly because the heat island that characterizes the urban climate exacerbates heat wave effects. This work is part of the interdisciplinary VURCA project (Vulnerability of cities to heat waves), which deals with the evolution of heat wave events in the context of global warming, urban vulnerability and adaptation strategies. The aim of this study is to analyse urban heat wave events in present climate (1950-2009) and their evolution in an enhanced greenhouse gazes future climate (2010-2100). We used daily observations of temperature from several stations covering Paris metropolitan area and climate projections following three different IPCC-SRES scenarios (B1, A1B, A2) and issued from several ENSEMBLES regional climate models. The heat wave definition is based on the indexes of the operational French warning system. A heat wave is detected within observed or simulated time-series by a heat wave peak, when the temperatures exceed the value of the 99.9th percentile. Its duration is determined by all adjacent days to this peak, for which the temperatures are not durably smaller than the 99.9th percentile value minus 2 °C. The 99.9th percentile threshold is inferred from quantile-quantile plots produced for each climate model in comparison with observations for the reference period 1950-2000. Heat waves have been extracted within observations and 12 climatic simulations. The number of heat wave events and cumulated HW days per year have been calculated, the maximum being seven heat waves cumulating more than 60 HW days in one year in the case of the A2 scenario and until 50 days in the case of the more moderate A1B scenario. From 2050, the occurrence of three or four HW events per year is becoming the norm all scenarios taken together. The evolution of heat wave features has been analysed, highlighting the large variability of the climatic

  11. Planetary Sciences Interoperability at VO Paris Data Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Sidaner, P.; Aboudarham, J.; Birlan, M.; Briot, D.; Bonnin, X.; Cecconi, B.; Chauvin, C.; Erard, S.; Henry, F.; Lamy, L.; Mancini, M.; Normand, J.; Popescu, F.; Roques, F.; Savalle, R.; Schneider, J.; Shih, A.; Thuillot, W.; Vinatier, S.

    2015-10-01

    The Astronomy community has been developing interoperability since more than 10 years, by standardizing data access, data formats, and metadata. This international action is led by the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA). Observatoire de Paris is an active participant in this project. All actions on interoperability, data and service provision are centralized in and managed by VOParis Data Centre (VOPDC). VOPDC is a coordinated project from all scientific departments of Observatoire de Paris..

  12. A review of the Paris system for reporting urinary cytology.

    PubMed

    VandenBussche, C J

    2016-06-01

    After the 2013 International Congress of Cytology in Paris, consensus groups were formed to establish an international reporting system for urinary tract (UT) specimens. The recommended guidelines, known as The Paris System (TPS) for Reporting Urinary Cytology, focus on reducing the rate of unnecessary indeterminate diagnoses while maintaining the excellent performance UT cytology has for identifying high-grade urothelial carcinoma. This review highlights the major features of TPS. PMID:27221750

  13. A dense Black Carbon network in the region of Paris, France: Implementation, objectives, and first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciare, Jean; Petit, Jean-Eudes; Sarda-Esteve, Roland; Bonnaire, Nicolas; Gros, Valérie; Pernot, Pierre; Ghersi, Véronique; Ampe, Christophe; Songeur, Charlotte; Brugge, Benjamin; Debert, Christophe; Favez, Olivier; Le Priol, Tiphaine; Mocnik, Grisa

    2013-04-01

    ://www.airparif.asso.fr/). Contribution of imported versus local EBC is calculated using the "Lenschow" methodology (Lenschow et al., 2001), whereas the influence of domestic wood burning EBC (vs traffic) over the region of Paris is evaluated using the Aethalometer model developed by Sandradewi et al. (2008). Results and discussion. First results of this BC network are presented here including the temporal variations of EBC from wood burning (domestic heating) and fossil fuel (traffic) for the various sites (1-year observation for rural background and traffic sites; 4-year observations for urban background). The local versus imported contributions of EBC are also presented and discussed for these 2 sources. References. Lenschow, P., et al., Some ideas about the sources of PM10, Atmospheric Environment 35 Supplement No. 1 (2001) S23-S33 Sandradewi, J., et al., Using aerosol light absorption measurements for the quantitative determination of wood burning and traffic emission contributions to particulate matter, Environ. Sci. Technol., 42, 3316-3323, 2008

  14. Hydrocarbon Materials of Likely Interstellar Origin from the Paris Meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merouane, S.; Djouadi, Z.; Le Sergeant d'Hendecourt, L.; Zanda, B.; Borg, J.

    2012-09-01

    We have examined some grains from the Paris meteorite through infrared and Raman micro-spectroscopy in order to investigate their carbonaceous and mineralogical components. In the mid- as well as far-infrared regions, the raw and global spectra of Paris resemble those of CM meteorites. However, we have obtained rather peculiar infrared spectra for some aromatic-rich micron-sized fragments of Paris displaying a very good match between its organic signatures both in the 3.4 μm and 6 μm regions, and the ones observed from the diffuse interstellar medium infrared sources toward the Galactic center, suggesting that this meteorite may have indeed preserved some organic matter of interstellar origin.

  15. HYDROCARBON MATERIALS OF LIKELY INTERSTELLAR ORIGIN FROM THE PARIS METEORITE

    SciTech Connect

    Merouane, S.; Djouadi, Z.; D'Hendecourt, L. Le Sergeant; Borg, J.; Zanda, B. E-mail: zahia.djouadi@ias.u-psud.fr

    2012-09-10

    We have examined some grains from the Paris meteorite through infrared and Raman micro-spectroscopy in order to investigate their carbonaceous and mineralogical components. In the mid- as well as far-infrared regions, the raw and global spectra of Paris resemble those of CM meteorites. However, we have obtained rather peculiar infrared spectra for some aromatic-rich micron-sized fragments of Paris displaying a very good match between its organic signatures both in the 3.4 {mu}m and 6 {mu}m regions, and the ones observed from the diffuse interstellar medium infrared sources toward the Galactic center, suggesting that this meteorite may have indeed preserved some organic matter of interstellar origin.

  16. Digitising the Patrimonial Collections of the Paris Observatory Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurenceau, A.

    2015-04-01

    In the past few years, there have been many emerging digital library projects, and digitising heritage collections has become a major issue for libraries. Digitisation supports the preservation of collections and facilitates accessibility to the public. Furthermore, the richness and variety of the Paris Observatory's patrimonial collections, which includes ancient books, periodicals, manuscripts, archives, and iconographic documents, makes it an invaluable source for research on the history of astronomy. This is why the Paris Observatory library has started work on a digitisation policy and has since launched several digitisation projects.

  17. The Cabaret in Paris Life "Fin-de-Siecle."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buzash, Michael D.

    College-level history courses can be improved by including instruction about social history, particularly the leisure time activities of the dominant cultural group. Paris of the late 19th century had the well-deserved reputation of being the pleasure capital of Europe. This reputation developed in spite of the disparity that existed between the…

  18. Incidence and Paris Classification of Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Eszter Müller, Katalin; Laszlo Lakatos, Peter; Papp, Maria; Veres, Gabor

    2014-01-01

    New epidemiological data suggest that the incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing. As a result the burden of disease accounts for more strains to the health care system. The clinical variability queries whether disease characteristics are related to clinical outcome. Our aim was to delineate the latest results of incidence trends in pediatric IBD and to compare the first experiences with Paris Classification. Incidence of pediatric IBD has been increasing in Western Europe and in Eastern Europe. To better characterize IBD, Paris Classification was introduced and validated recently. Ileocolonic involvement is the most characteristic disease location in Crohn's disease (CD) based on applying Paris Classification. The rate of perianal disease and complicated behaviour in CD was similar. It is of interest that CD patients with colonic involvement were less likely to have stricturing disease compared with patients with ileal involvement. In addition, pancolitis dominated in ulcerative colitis (UC). However, most countries lack prospective, nationwide epidemiological studies to estimate incidence trends. This review emphasizes the importance of nationwide registries that enroll all pediatric IBD cases serving reliable data for “everyday practice.” These first reports have shown that Paris Classification is a useful tool to determine the pediatric IBD phenotype. PMID:24778643

  19. [Nepal earthquake: nursing missions in Paris and Kathmandu].

    PubMed

    Poux, Chrystel; Sergent, Jean-Louis

    2016-01-01

    A violent earthquake hit Nepal on 25th April 2015, injuring and killing thousands. A nurse manager and a nurse, both working in anaesthesia and reservists in the French Health Emergency Preparedness and Response Organisation, describe their mission: one working in the crisis centre in Paris, the other on the ground, providing assistance to French victims. PMID:26743371

  20. The Computerization of the National Library in Paris.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerin, Christian; Bernard, Annick

    1986-01-01

    Describes the organization and automation plan of the Bibliotheque Nationale (Paris, France) that was begun in 1981. Highlights include the method of moving toward computerization; technical choices; the choosing procedure (pre-qualification, bench-mark test); short term and pilot operations; and preparation for the implementation of the…

  1. Managing Building Permits Files at the Archives de Paris, France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faivre d'Arcier, Louis

    2005-01-01

    Collecting bulky series of paper materials happens very often in an institution as large as the Archives de Paris. Questions arise of how to give access to those materials and how to produce finding aids well suited to their many diverse uses. The numerous specific application programs that are used by the offices of origin of the archives can…

  2. Typhoon Observations with the PARIS In-Orbit Demonstration Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weiqiang; Martin-Neira, Manuel; D'Addio, Salvatore

    2013-04-01

    The PARIS In-Orbit Demonstration (PARIS IoD) mission is a small-class mission under study by the European Space Agency which aims at demonstrating scientific applications of the GNSS reflected signals, with particular focus on mesoscale ocean altimetry. It carries a single payload, a PARIS Ocean Altimeter, featuring the correlation between the direct and reflected GNSS signals received through high gain beam steering antennas. From the temporal position of the correlation waveforms and their amplitude characteristics, the sea surface height and several geophysical parameters of the ocean, land and ice can be extracted, in addition to the total electron content through the ionosphere. A practical application of this mission is the measurement of tsunami waves travelling in the ocean which would provide first-ever direct synoptic observations of this phenomenon. Another application of the PARIS IoD is the observation of Typhoons. A Typhoon is a mature Tropical Cyclone (wind speed ≥32.7m/s according to the World Meteorological Organization) that develops in the northwestern part of the Pacific Ocean between 180°E and 100°E (the same phenomenon, when develops in the Atlantic Ocean, East Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, is usually referred to as Hurricane). GNSS reflectometry observations of Typhoons might help scientists better model these phenomena, understand their genealogy and improve the predictions about their intensification and path route. A brief study has been conducted on the capability of the PARIS IoD mission to observe different physical parameters of a Typhoon, including wind speed at the sea surface, significant wave height and sea surface height. This research has included three tasks: (a) a review of the physical characteristics of a Typhoon like pressure profile, wind speed, significant wave height, spatial extent, temporal duration and geographical occurrence; (b) the sensitivity of the PARIS IoD observations to these different physical

  3. Latest VO developments at Paris VO Data Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Sidaner, P.; Dubernet, M.-L.; Simon, G.; Aboudarham, J.; Baillard, A.; Barache, C.; Boone, F.; Chilingarian, I.; Dantel-Fort, M.; Desert, J. M.; Didelon, P.; Egret, D.; Guibert, J.; Hebrard, G.; Lainey, V.; Magnard, F.; Marmo, C.; Martin, J. M.; Pelat, D.; Renié, C.; Sarkissian, A.; Schneider, J.; Theureau, G.; Vachier, F.

    2006-06-01

    Paris VO Data Center aims at providing VO access to its databases ressources, at participating to international standards developments, at implementing VO compliant simulation codes and data visualisation and analysis softwares. We will present some of the latest VO developments involving ressources from Paris VO Data Center, i.e, the first simple spectra access for data of the Nançay radiotelescope observatory, a validator for Simple Spectra Access protocols and its implementation tools, a Cone-search access to the exoplanet catalog, a pipeline for images processing to make them "science-ready" in vo-format, implementation of Simple Image Access using Geographic Information System in databases. Developments involving other ressources may be found in their own contributions to this meeting.

  4. Latest VO development at VO-Paris Data Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Sidaner, P.; Dubernet, M.-L.; Simon, G.; Aboudarham, J.; Baillard, A.; Barache, C.; Boone, F.; Chilingarian, I.; Dantel-Fort, M.; Didelon, P.; Egret, D.; Guibert, J.; Hebrard, G.; Lainey, V.; Magnard, F.; Marmo, C.; Martin, J. M.; Normand, J.; Pelat, D.; Renié, C.; Sarkissian, A.; Savalle, R.; Shih, A.; Schneider, J.; Theureau, G.; Vachier, F.

    2007-07-01

    VO-Paris Data Center aims at providing VO access to its databases resources, at participating to the development of interoperability standards, at implementing VO-compliant simulation codes and data visualization and analysis software. We will present some of the latest VO development involving resources from Paris VO Data Center, i.e, the first simple spectral access for data of the Nancay radio-telescope, a validator for Simple Spectra Access protocols and its implementation tools, a Cone-search access to the exoplanet catalog, a pipeline for image processing to make them "science-ready" and converting into VO-format, implementation of Simple Image Access using Geographic Information System in databases. Developments involving other resources may be found in their own contributions to this meeting.

  5. The Paris meteorite, the least altered CM chondrite so far

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewins, Roger H.; Bourot-Denise, Michèle; Zanda, Brigitte; Leroux, Hugues; Barrat, Jean-Alix; Humayun, Munir; Göpel, Christa; Greenwood, Richard C.; Franchi, Ian A.; Pont, Sylvain; Lorand, Jean-Pierre; Cournède, Cécile; Gattacceca, Jérôme; Rochette, Pierre; Kuga, Maïa; Marrocchi, Yves; Marty, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    The Paris chondrite provides an excellent opportunity to study CM chondrules and refractory inclusions in a more pristine state than currently possible from other CMs, and to investigate the earliest stages of aqueous alteration captured within a single CM bulk composition. It was found in the effects of a former colonial mining engineer and may have been an observed fall. The texture, mineralogy, petrography, magnetic properties and chemical and isotopic compositions are consistent with classification as a CM2 chondrite. There are ∼45 vol.% high-temperature components mainly Type I chondrules (with olivine mostly Fa0-2, mean Fa0.9) with granular textures because of low mesostasis abundances. Type II chondrules contain olivine Fa7 to Fa76. These are dominantly of Type IIA, but there are IIAB and IIB chondrules, II(A)B chondrules with minor highly ferroan olivine, and IIA(C) with augite as the only pyroxene. The refractory inclusions in Paris are amoeboid olivine aggregates (AOAs) and fine-grained spinel-rich Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAIs). The CAI phases formed in the sequence hibonite, perovskite, grossite, spinel, gehlenite, anorthite, diopside/fassaite and forsterite. The most refractory phases are embedded in spinel, which also occurs as massive nodules. Refractory metal nuggets are found in many CAI and refractory platinum group element abundances (PGE) decrease following the observed condensation sequences of their host phases. Mn-Cr isotope measurements of mineral separates from Paris define a regression line with a slope of 53Mn/55Mn = (5.76 ± 0.76) × 106. If we interpret Cr isotopic systematics as dating Paris components, particularly the chondrules, the age is 4566.44 ± 0.66 Myr, which is close to the age of CAI and puts new constraints on the early evolution of the solar system. Eleven individual Paris samples define an O isotope mixing line that passes through CM2 and CO3 falls and indicates that Paris is a very fresh sample, with variation explained

  6. Paris terrorist attack: early lessons from the intensivists.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    During the night of 13-14 November, the city of Paris was exposed, within a few hours, to three bomb explosions, four shooting scenes, and one 3-hour hostage-taking of several hundred people causing at least 130 deaths and more than 250 injured victims. Most unstable patients were transferred to the six trauma centers of the Paris area, all members of the TRAUMABASE Group. A rapid adaptation of the organization of trauma patients' admittance was required in all centers to face the particular needs of the situation. Everything went relatively well in all centers, with overall hospital mortality below 2 %. Nevertheless, most physicians nowadays agree that anticipation, teaching, and training are crucial to appropriately face such events. All of us have learned many additional issues from this experience. Following a meeting of the TRAUMABASE Group, the most relevant issues are detailed in the following. PMID:27056826

  7. The epileptic singers of belle époque Paris.

    PubMed

    Baxendale, Sallie; Marshall, Fiona

    2012-12-01

    In late 19th century Paris, people with epilepsy were treated alongside those with hysteria in the now famous Salpêtrière Hospital, where both conditions were deemed to have a neurological basis. When Jean Martin Charcot became chief physician at the Salpêtrière Hospital in 1862, he described himself 'in possession of a kind of museum of living pathology whose holdings were virtually inexhaustible'. He opened the doors of his 'living museum' and exhibited his prize specimens to all of Paris. By putting his patients on display, Charcot introduced a vogue for pathology that permeated well beyond the world of medical enquiry and into the public psyche and vernacular. Not only did Charcot's demonstrations provide the inspiration for high culture in the form of operas, plays and novels, they also provided the inspiration for the 'gommeuses epileptiques' (epileptic singers), who entertained the masses at the café concerts. This paper explores the foundations of our current medical approaches to mental illness and epilepsy, with a particular focus on the boundaries that emerged between hysteria and epilepsy in 19th century Paris. These clinical boundaries were both shaped by and reflected in the popular entertainments in the city. PMID:22613757

  8. Geological rally in the heart of Paris: How to find fossils in freestone buildings in Paris?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalaine, Stéphanie

    2014-05-01

    As a teacher in earth sciences, my challenge was to practise geology in an urban area. At the end of the school year, I organized a geological rally next to the Natural History Museum in the heart of Paris. The rally provided the opportunity to apply geological notions mentioned in class, and or a day out to my 16 years-old pupils. Just before this original session, students worked on different sedimentary stones such as limestone, sandstone, gypsum, and "meulière". They studied the conditions for the deposit of sediments and they identified different fossils (i.e: Cerithes, Nummulites, Milioles) in order to build "paleobackgrounds". This rally was a mean to improve with entertainment their knowledge in geology, and to discover the stones of the Parisian basin and their use as building materials. The rally was organized as follows: the pupils were divided into 4 teams of 8 students. Each team got a paper with 23 riddles. Each riddle led to a geological spot in the route of the rally. To attest their passing at each geological point the pupils had to take a picture of the characteristic fossil or the typical mark of each spot. Each team had a different itinerary to avoid pupils to meet during the rally. In order to motivate pupils and to ensure their safety, one teacher went with each team. Each riddle led to a stage. This rally comprised 23 steps which were geological spots. In case of pupils did not solve the enigma of one stage; they could open an envelope in which a map indicated the 23 geological spots. This rally lasted 2 hours. The purpose of this game was to obtain the most points thanks to the resolution of riddles. Timing and the quality of the pictures were also criterions used to evaluate the participants. At the end of this rally, pupils must be able to identify sedimentary stones, the conditions and the age of deposit of this stones (paleobackgrounds), the location of their extractions (carries), the interest of this stones in construction industry

  9. Preface: SciDAC 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Horst

    2009-07-01

    By almost any measure, the SciDAC community has come a long way since DOE launched the SciDAC program back in 2001. At the time, we were grappling with how to efficiently run applications on terascale systems (the November 2001 TOP500 list was led by DOE's ASCI White IBM system at Lawrence Livermore achieving 7.2 teraflop/s). And the results stemming from the first round of SciDAC projects were summed up in two-page reports. The scientific results were presented at annual meetings, which were by invitation only and typically were attended by about 75 researchers. Fast forward to 2009 and we now have SciDAC Review, a quarterly magazine showcasing the scientific computing contributions of SciDAC projects and related programs, all focused on presenting a comprehensive look at Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing. That is also the motivation behind the annual SciDAC conference that in 2009 was held from June 14-18 in San Diego. The annual conference, which can also be described as a celebration of all things SciDAC, grew out those meetings organized in the early days of the program. In 2005, the meeting was held in San Francisco and attendance was opened up to all members of the SciDAC community. The schedule was also expanded to include a keynote address, plenary speakers and other features found in a conference format. This year marks the fifth such SciDAC conference, which now comprises four days of computational science presentations, multiple poster sessions and, since last year, an evening event showcasing simulations and modeling runs resulting from SciDAC projects. The fifth annual SciDAC conference was remarkable on several levels. The primary purpose, of course, is to showcase the research accomplishments resulting from SciDAC programs in particular and computational science in general. It is these accomplishments, represented in 38 papers and 52 posters, that comprise this set of conference proceedings. These proceedings can stand alone as

  10. Preface: SciDAC 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Horst

    2009-07-01

    By almost any measure, the SciDAC community has come a long way since DOE launched the SciDAC program back in 2001. At the time, we were grappling with how to efficiently run applications on terascale systems (the November 2001 TOP500 list was led by DOE's ASCI White IBM system at Lawrence Livermore achieving 7.2 teraflop/s). And the results stemming from the first round of SciDAC projects were summed up in two-page reports. The scientific results were presented at annual meetings, which were by invitation only and typically were attended by about 75 researchers. Fast forward to 2009 and we now have SciDAC Review, a quarterly magazine showcasing the scientific computing contributions of SciDAC projects and related programs, all focused on presenting a comprehensive look at Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing. That is also the motivation behind the annual SciDAC conference that in 2009 was held from June 14-18 in San Diego. The annual conference, which can also be described as a celebration of all things SciDAC, grew out those meetings organized in the early days of the program. In 2005, the meeting was held in San Francisco and attendance was opened up to all members of the SciDAC community. The schedule was also expanded to include a keynote address, plenary speakers and other features found in a conference format. This year marks the fifth such SciDAC conference, which now comprises four days of computational science presentations, multiple poster sessions and, since last year, an evening event showcasing simulations and modeling runs resulting from SciDAC projects. The fifth annual SciDAC conference was remarkable on several levels. The primary purpose, of course, is to showcase the research accomplishments resulting from SciDAC programs in particular and computational science in general. It is these accomplishments, represented in 38 papers and 52 posters, that comprise this set of conference proceedings. These proceedings can stand alone as

  11. Photosymbiotic ascidians from Pari Island (Thousand Islands, Indonesia).

    PubMed

    Hirose, Euichi; Iskandar, Budhi Hascaryo; Wardiatno, Yusli

    2014-01-01

    Photosymbiotic ascidian fauna were surveyed in the subtidal zone off Pari Island in the Thousand Islands (Java Sea, Indonesia). Nine species were recorded: Didemnum molle, Trididemnum miniatum, Lissoclinum patella, L. punctatum, L. timorense, Diplosoma gumavirens, D. simile, D. simileguwa, and D. virens. All of these species have been previously recorded in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Diplosoma gumavirens and D. simileguwa were originally described from the Ryukyu Archipelago in 2009 and 2005, respectively, and all of the observed species are potentially widely distributed in Indo-West Pacific coral reefs. PMID:25061385

  12. A thyrotoxicosis outbreak due to dietary pills in Paris

    PubMed Central

    Ioos, Vincent; Das, Vincent; Maury, Eric; Baudel, Jean-Luc; Guéchot, Jérôme; Guidet, Bertrand; Offenstadt, Georges

    2008-01-01

    Three women were consecutively admitted to our medical intensive care unit for thyrotoxicosis after the ingestion of dietary pills accidentally containing high levels of thyroxin. These cases were observed during an outbreak in the Paris area. Despite similar blood levels of thyroid hormones, their clinical presentation and outcome were very different. One patient developed febrile confusion and died from malignant hyperthermia. The second one had progressive confusion requiring mechanical plasma exchange therapy and had a favorable outcome. The third one had very moderate symptoms. These exceptional observations raise several issues concerning diagnosis, physiopathology and treatment of thyrotoxicosis factitia. PMID:19337445

  13. [From traditional to modern hospital--from Paris to Berlin].

    PubMed

    Murken, Axel Hinrich

    Discussions about the modernisation and reform of the Hôtel Dieu in Paris concerning the catastrophic fire of 1772 there were followed very closely in Prussia and other German countries, though for a long time this had only slight consequences for modernising developments in the hospitals of Berlin or other administrative capitals of Germany. In contrast to this, the Hôpital Lariboisière was praised as a model example in Germany soon after its completion in 1854 after the pre-revolutionary Parisian plans, was imitated in Berlin twenty years later. It must be added that in Prussia great importance was attached to stricter requirements for hygiene and ventilation than in Paris. This was clearly demonstrated barely in the construction of the pavilionhospital in Berlin-Friedrichshain (1868-1874) with an extremely decentralized layout. It was not until two generations later with the completion of the municipal hospital Westend in Charlottenburg (1904-1907), a suburb of Berlin, that a slightly modified "Lariboisière" in the Wilheminian brick Baroque style was built. Similarily the acceptance of high-rise construction was, compared with Paris, considerably delayed on the German hospital scene. Whereas in the USA and France plans had been made for high-rise hospitals from the 1920s on and realized by 1935, as with the Hôpital Beaujon in Paris (1932-1935), there were fundamental reservations about them in Germany. As a result, this conception of the structure, with an effective concentration of inpatient care in towers together with separate low-rise buildings for functions such as treatment and diagnosis, only gradually gained acceptance in Germany at the end of the 1960s. On the other hand, German architects such as Hermann Distel (1875-1946) or Ernst Kopp (1890-1962), had already, indeed before the Second World War, promoted the high-rise type for inpatient care on theoretical grounds. In addition, two hospitals providing medical care within in Berlin, Martin

  14. Sources and geographical origins of fine aerosols in Paris (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bressi, M.; Sciare, J.; Ghersi, V.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Petit, J.-E.; Nicolas, J. B.; Moukhtar, S.; Rosso, A.; Féron, A.; Bonnaire, N.; Poulakis, E.; Theodosi, C.

    2013-12-01

    The present study aims at identifying and apportioning the major sources of fine aerosols in Paris (France) - the second largest megacity in Europe -, and determining their geographical origins. It is based on the daily chemical composition of PM2.5 characterised during one year at an urban background site of Paris (Bressi et al., 2013). Positive Matrix Factorization (EPA PMF3.0) was used to identify and apportion the sources of fine aerosols; bootstrapping was performed to determine the adequate number of PMF factors, and statistics (root mean square error, coefficient of determination, etc.) were examined to better model PM2.5 mass and chemical components. Potential Source Contribution Function (PSCF) and Conditional Probability Function (CPF) allowed the geographical origins of the sources to be assessed; special attention was paid to implement suitable weighting functions. Seven factors named ammonium sulfate (A.S.) rich factor, ammonium nitrate (A.N.) rich factor, heavy oil combustion, road traffic, biomass burning, marine aerosols and metals industry were identified; a detailed discussion of their chemical characteristics is reported. They respectively contribute 27, 24, 17, 14, 12, 6 and 1% of PM2.5 mass (14.7 μg m-3) on the annual average; their seasonal variability is discussed. The A.S. and A.N. rich factors have undergone north-eastward mid- or long-range transport from Continental Europe, heavy oil combustion mainly stems from northern France and the English Channel, whereas road traffic and biomass burning are primarily locally emitted. Therefore, on average more than half of PM2.5 mass measured in the city of Paris is due to mid- or long-range transport of secondary aerosols stemming from continental Europe, whereas local sources only contribute a quarter of the annual averaged mass. These results imply that fine aerosols abatement policies conducted at the local scale may not be sufficient to notably reduce PM2.5 levels at urban background sites in

  15. Sources and geographical origins of fine aerosols in Paris (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bressi, M.; Sciare, J.; Ghersi, V.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Petit, J.-E.; Nicolas, J. B.; Moukhtar, S.; Rosso, A.; Féron, A.; Bonnaire, N.; Poulakis, E.; Theodosi, C.

    2014-08-01

    The present study aims at identifying and apportioning fine aerosols to their major sources in Paris (France) - the second most populated "larger urban zone" in Europe - and determining their geographical origins. It is based on the daily chemical composition of PM2.5 examined over 1 year at an urban background site of Paris (Bressi et al., 2013). Positive matrix factorization (EPA PMF3.0) was used to identify and apportion fine aerosols to their sources; bootstrapping was performed to determine the adequate number of PMF factors, and statistics (root mean square error, coefficient of determination, etc.) were examined to better model PM2.5 mass and chemical components. Potential source contribution function (PSCF) and conditional probability function (CPF) allowed the geographical origins of the sources to be assessed; special attention was paid to implement suitable weighting functions. Seven factors, namely ammonium sulfate (A.S.)-rich factor, ammonium nitrate (A.N.)-rich factor, heavy oil combustion, road traffic, biomass burning, marine aerosols and metal industry, were identified; a detailed discussion of their chemical characteristics is reported. They contribute 27, 24, 17, 14, 12, 6 and 1% of PM2.5 mass (14.7 μg m-3) respectively on the annual average; their seasonal variability is discussed. The A.S.- and A.N.-rich factors have undergone mid- or long-range transport from continental Europe; heavy oil combustion mainly stems from northern France and the English Channel, whereas road traffic and biomass burning are primarily locally emitted. Therefore, on average more than half of PM2.5 mass measured in the city of Paris is due to mid- or long-range transport of secondary aerosols stemming from continental Europe, whereas local sources only contribute a quarter of the annual averaged mass. These results imply that fine-aerosol abatement policies conducted at the local scale may not be sufficient to notably reduce PM2.5 levels at urban background sites in

  16. Poverty, gender and incarceration in sixteenth-century Paris.

    PubMed

    Broomhall, Susan

    2004-01-01

    The experience of prison remains a relatively little-studied aspect of late-medieval and early-modern criminalization of the activities of the poor. This study examines how poverty and gender influenced incarceration practices, treatment and release in sixteenth-century Paris. A study of the archives of the ecclesiastical gaol at Saint-Germain-des-Prés from 1537 to 1579 suggests that both poverty and gender affected the crimes for which women and men were imprisoned, the length of time they remained in detention and the reasons for their release. PMID:20672487

  17. [FROM ULYSSES TO PARIS: JOURNEY TO THE MEDICALIZATION OF AGEING].

    PubMed

    Moreno, Belén; Pedace, Mariana; Matusevich, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In the following study we will be introducing the Paris Syndrome, taking as a departure stand the Ulises Syndrome described by Mercer Rang back in 1972. This syndrome is analyzed within the current context of medicalization that old people within Western societies are currently undergoing. We decided to present this topic by looking at the medical trajectories of four paradigmatic patients with the intention of capturing how they themselves experience this process. Through these cases, we would also like to further understand current medical practices toward the elderly. PMID:26966756

  18. Evidence of a wide spectrum of cardiac involvement due to ACAD9 mutations: Report on nine patients.

    PubMed

    Dewulf, Joseph P; Barrea, Catherine; Vincent, Marie-Françoise; De Laet, Corinne; Van Coster, Rudy; Seneca, Sara; Marie, Sandrine; Nassogne, Marie-Cécile

    2016-07-01

    Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase 9 (ACAD9) is a mitochondrial protein involved in oxidative phosphorylation complex I biogenesis. This protein also exhibits acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACAD) activity. ACAD9-mutated patients have been reported to suffer from primarily heart, muscle, liver, and nervous system disorders. ACAD9 mutation is suspected in cases of elevated lactic acid levels combined with complex I deficiency, and confirmed by ACAD9 gene analysis. At least 18 ACAD9-mutated patients have previously been reported, usually displaying severe cardiac involvement. We retrospectively studied nine additional patients from three unrelated families with a wide spectrum of cardiac involvement between the families as well as the patients from the same families. All patients exhibited elevated lactate levels. Deleterious ACAD9 mutations were identified in all patients except one for whom it was not possible to recover DNA. To our knowledge, this is one of the first reports on isolated mild ventricular hypertrophy due to ACAD9 mutation in a family with moderate symptoms during adolescence. This report also confirms that dilated cardiomyopathy may occur in conjunction with ACAD9 mutation and that some patients may respond clinically to riboflavin treatment. Of note, several patients suffered from patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), with one exhibiting a complex congenital heart defect. It is yet unknown whether these cardiac manifestations were related to ACAD9 mutation. In conclusion, this disorder should be suspected in the presence of lactic acidosis, complex I deficiency, and any cardiac involvement, even mild. PMID:27233227

  19. Langevin Theory of Anomalous Brownian Motion Made Simple

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tothova, Jana; Vasziova, Gabriela; Glod, Lukas; Lisy, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    During the century from the publication of the work by Einstein (1905 "Ann. Phys." 17 549) Brownian motion has become an important paradigm in many fields of modern science. An essential impulse for the development of Brownian motion theory was given by the work of Langevin (1908 "C. R. Acad. Sci.", Paris 146 530), in which he proposed an…

  20. Social mix policies in Paris: discourses, policies and social effects.

    PubMed

    Bacqué, Marie-Hélène; Fijalkow, Yankel; Launay, Lydie; Vermeersch, Stéphanie

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1980s, the issue of social mix has become a public policy category in France. Enshrined in legislation, yet remaining controversial, it represents a major premise on which housing policies have been reconfigured. The concept of social mix is essentially based on who lives where, but it is also evoked in the context of urban renewal schemes for social housing estates, as well as in relation to new-build developments. A study of the bases of social mix policies conducted in Paris since 2001 in the context of the embourgeoisement of the capital shows the fundamental role of social housing stock. The City Council has become involved in policy decisions about both the location and the allocation of social housing. Particular attention has been paid to the middle classes in the name of the principle of ‘balancing the population’. In order to measure the effects of the policy, this article relies on an analysis of two City of Paris schemes that have the stated intent of creating social mix. One of these schemes consists of redeveloping a working-class neighbourhood, Goutte d'Or, while the other involves the new acquisition of social housing in various more affluent neighbourhoods in the capital. This comparative study of the population shows that, whether in a neighbourhood poised for gentrification or in a more affluent neighbourhood, this policy has major effects on forms of local social cohesion, setting in motion individual trajectories and reshaping social and/or ethnic identities. PMID:21542203

  1. Vincenzo Neri and His Legacy in Paris and Bologna.

    PubMed

    Vanone, Federico; Lorusso, Lorenzo; Venturini, Simone

    2016-01-01

    Italian neurologist Vincenzo Neri was able to discover cinematography at the beginning of his career, when in 1908 he went to Paris to learn and improve his clinical background by following neurological cases at La Pitié with Joseph Babinski, who became his teacher and friend. While in Paris, Neri photographed and filmed several patients of famous neurologists, such as Babinski and Pierre Marie. His stills were published in several important French neurological journals and medical texts. He also collaborated with Georges Mendel, who helped Doyen film the first known surgical operation in the history of cinema. In 1910, when he came back to Bologna, he continued in his clinical activities and, for 50 years, slowly developed a huge archive of films, images, and prints of neurological, psychiatric, and orthopedic cases. This archive was extremely helpful to Neri, who especially needed to analyze neurological disorders and to differentiate them from functional conditions in order to understand clinical signs, rules, and mechanisms. PMID:26684423

  2. Images of Paris: Big C Culture for the Nonspeaker of French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spangler, May; York, Holly U.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses a course offered in both French and English at Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia that is based on the study of representations of Paris from the Middle Ages to the present. It uses architecture as a point of departure and explores the myth of Paris as expressed through a profusion of images in literature, painting, and film.…

  3. Sojourn in Paris of Hisashi Terao, the first Japanese modern astronomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Tsuko

    2003-08-01

    Through a domestic search as well as the one in Paris, I made clear the early life of Hisashi Terao, the first director of Tokyo Astronomical Observatory, his astronomical education in Paris, and the subsequent relation with the famous painter Seiki Kuroda. In particular, the origin and role of Montsouris Astronomical Training School were discussed.

  4. A Paris-Edinburgh Cell for Liquid Silicate Structural Studies Using Monochromatic Diffraction and Soller Slits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Yu, T.; Prescher, C.; Prakapenka, V.; Eng, P. J.; Stubbs, J.; Kono, Y.; Shen, G.

    2014-12-01

    A Paris-Edinburgh Press (PEP) has been commissioned at the GSECARS beamline 13-ID-C, with a Si (311) high-energy monochromator and a multi-channel collimator (MC) assembly, which consists of two arrays of fine slits (WC blades) arranged in two concentric circular arcs. Both arrays consist of 75 slits with 0.8° separation and are located 50 and 200 mm, respectively, from the center. Slit widths of the inner and outer arrays are 0.05 and 0.20 mm, respectively. By oscillating the silts during data collection, background scattering can be effectively removed. Similar MC assemblies have been used extensively with PEP at ESRF for studying metallic liquids and low-Z materials [1]. The PEP is mounted on a general purpose diffractometer [2], with an area detector (MAR CCD) mounted on the two-theta arm. With unfocused incident monochromatic beam (65keV) collimated at 0.2 mm, 30 min is sufficient to collect weak signals of a 2 mm diameter amorphous silicate sample, with minimal background scatter from the surrounding solid pressure medium. An analysis shows that with a fine incident beam of 0.05 mm, a collimation depth of 0.5 mm can be achieved at two-theta angles above 10°. To increase pressure and temperature range, we have developed a cupped-toroidal Drickamer (CTD) anvil [3]. The anvil design, with a central depression, a toroidal groove and a small tapered angle, combines features of modified Drickamer anvil and the traditional PE anvil. By optimizing the parameters for the CTD anvil design, pressures corresponding to the mantle transition zone can be generated. Cell assemblies with thermally insulating materials have been developed and temperatures up to 2000°C have been maintained steadily over hours. In the future, the large horizontally focusing Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror will be applied to focus the incident beam, thus allowing samples with diameters below 0.5 mm in diameter to be studied. The excellent spatial selectivity provides an exciting opportunity for liquid

  5. Paris Valley Combination Thermal Drive Pilot Demonstration Test. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Shipley, R.G. Jr.; Meldau, R.F.; White, P.D.

    1980-09-01

    A wet combustion pilot within the Paris Valley Field, Monterey County, California was initiated in January, 1975 in order to determine the technical and economic feasibility of this enhanced recovery process within a sandstone reservoir having a very viscous crude. Cyclic steaming was also performed and evaluated. Due to the low oil production rates, which were not capable of offsetting the high operating costs, the pilot was terminated during March, 1979. Eighteen producing wells, five air injectors, and one water disposal well were drilled. Primary oil production averaged less than 3 BOPD per well and initial water production ranged from 30 to 100 BWPD per well. Cumulative oil produced during the pilot was 120,623 STBO. Over 90% of the oil produced was due to response from cyclic steaming.

  6. Variability of air ion concentrations in urban Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dos Santos, V. N.; Herrmann, E.; Manninen, H. E.; Hussein, T.; Hakala, J.; Nieminen, T.; Aalto, P. P.; Merkel, M.; Wiedensohler, A.; Kulmala, M.; Petäjä, T.; Hämeri, K.

    2015-12-01

    Air ion concentrations influence new particle formation and consequently the global aerosol as potential cloud condensation nuclei. We aimed to evaluate air ion concentrations and characteristics of new particle formation events (NPF) in the megacity of Paris, France, within the MEGAPOLI (Megacities: Emissions, urban, regional and Global Atmospheric Pollution and climate effects, and Integrated tools for assessment and mitigation) project. We measured air ion number size distributions (0.8-42 nm) with an air ion spectrometer and fine particle number concentrations (> 6 nm) with a twin differential mobility particle sizer in an urban site of Paris between 26 June 2009 and 4 October 2010. Air ions were size classified as small (0.8-2 nm), intermediate (2-7 nm), and large (7-20 nm). The median concentrations of small and large ions were 670 and 680 cm-3, respectively, (sum of positive and negative polarities), whereas the median concentration of intermediate ions was only 20 cm-3, as these ions were mostly present during new particle formation bursts, i.e. when gas-to-particle conversion produced fresh aerosol particles from gas phase precursors. During peaks in traffic-related particle number, the concentrations of small and intermediate ions decreased, whereas the concentrations of large ions increased. Seasonal variations affected the ion population differently, with respect to their size and polarity. NPF was observed in 13 % of the days, being most frequent in spring and late summer (April, May, July, and August). The results also suggest that NPF was favoured on the weekends in comparison to workdays, likely due to the lower levels of condensation sinks in the mornings of weekends (CS weekdays 09:00: 18 × 10-3 s-1; CS weekend 09:00: 8 × 10-3 s-1). The median growth rates (GR) of ions during the NPF events varied between 3 and 7 nm h-1, increasing with the ion size and being higher on workdays than on weekends for intermediate and large ions. The median GR of

  7. LUTETIAN LIMESTONES IN THE PARIS REGION: PETROGRAPHIC AND COMPOSITIONAL EXAMINATION

    SciTech Connect

    BLANC,A.; HOLMES,L.L.; HARBOTTLE,G.

    1998-06-11

    Stone for building and decorating monuments in the Paris Basin from antiquity to the present came from numerous quarries in the Lutetian limestone formations of the region. To identify specific-stone sources used for masonry and sculptures in these monuments, a team of geologists and archaeologists has investigated 300 quarries and collected 2,300 limestone samples for study in a collaborative effort by geologists and chemists. Petrographic and paleontologic examinations of thin sections enable geologists to distinguish the Tertiary Lutetian limestones from similar stone in Jurassic and Cretaceous strata. The methods of the geologist have been supplemented by those of the chemist whose compositional studies by neutron activation analysis can differentiate among the fine-grained upper Lutetian limestones extracted from specific ancient quarries.

  8. Lutetian limestones in the Paris region: Petrographic and compositional examination

    SciTech Connect

    Blanc, A.; Holmes, L.L.; Harbottle, G.

    1998-12-31

    Stone for building and decorating monuments in the Paris Basin from antiquity to the present came from numerous quarries in the Lutetian limestone formations of the region. To identify specific stone sources used for masonry and sculptures in these monuments, a team of geologists and archaeologists have investigated 300 quarries and collected 2,300 limestone samples for study in a collaborative effort by geologists and chemists. Petrographic and paleontologic examinations of thin sections enable geologists to distinguish the Tertiary Lutetian limestones from similar stone in Jurassic and Cretaceous strata. The methods of the geologist have been supplemented by those of the chemistry whose compositional studies by neutron activation analysis can differentiate among the fine-grained upper Lutetian limestones extracted from specific ancient quarries.

  9. Gas Geochemistry of the Dogger Geothermal Aquifer (Paris Basin, France)

    SciTech Connect

    Criaud, A.; Fouillac, C.; Marty, B.; Brach, M.; Wei, H.F.

    1987-01-20

    The low enthalpy program developed in the Paris Basin provides the opportunity for studying the gas geochemistry of the calcareous aquifer of the Dogger. Hydrocarbons and CO{sub 2} are mainly biogenic, He displays high concentrations. He, Ar and N{sub 2} have multiple origins (radioactive decay, atmospheric migration, biochemical processes). The distribution of the gases in the zones of the basin varies in relation to the general chemistry, sedimentology and hydrodynamics. The gas geothermometers do not apply to this environment but useful estimations of the redox potential of the fluid can be derived from CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}/NH{sub 4}{sup +} ratios. H{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S are involved in corrosion processes and scaling in the pipes. 12 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Middle muschelkalk evaporitic deposits in eastern Paris basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geisler-Cussey, D.

    Middle Muschelkalk of the eastern Paris Basin is an extension of the large German Basin than an unit by itself. It allows us to study the effects of continental influences on evaporitic sedimentation: fresh water and detrital supplies, and salt dissolution. More or less evaporated sea water flowing into the basin causes a cyclic evolution of salinity throughout the series. The deposit is generally layered and shows millimetric to centimetric primary depositional sequences which prove the complexity of the internal organization of the filling in the basin. They reflect elementary changes in the depositional environment: fresh water supplies carring detrital particles, fresh water and sea water inflow introducing dilution, increasing evaporation rate causing precipitation of carbonates, Ca-sulfate or halite. In fact, the main factors controlling sedimentation which are working at this fine scale and the evolution at a larger sequential scale depends upon which one of these factors becomes dominant. The general evolution results in a typical sedimentary cycle.

  11. High Pressure Seebeck Coefficient Measurements Using Paris-Edinburgh Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Jason; Kumar, Ravhi; Park, Changyong; Kenney-Benson, Curtis; Velisavljevic, Nenad; Hipsec; Department Of Physics, University Of Nevada, Las Vegas Collaboration; Hpcat, Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution Of Washington Collaboration; Shock; Detonation Physics Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory Collaboration

    We have developed a new type of sample cell assembly for the Paris-Edinburgh (PE) type large volume press for simultaneous x-ray diffraction, electrical resistance, and thermal measurements at high pressures. We demonstrate the feasibility of performing in situ measurements of the Seebeck coefficient over a broad range of pressure-temperature conditions by observing the well-known solid-solid and solid-melt transitions of bismuth (Bi) up to 3GPa and 450 K. We observed a gradual increase in the Seebeck coefficient which becomes positive during transition to the Bi - II phase. Also, we have performed successful Seebeck coefficient measurements on the thermoelectric material PbTe. This new capability enables us to directly correlate pressure-induced structural phase transitions to electrical and thermal properties.

  12. Preface: SciDAC 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, William M., Dr.

    2006-01-01

    The second annual Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) Conference was held from June 25-29, 2006 at the new Hyatt Regency Hotel in Denver, Colorado. This conference showcased outstanding SciDAC-sponsored computational science results achieved during the past year across many scientific domains, with an emphasis on science at scale. Exciting computational science that has been accomplished outside of the SciDAC program both nationally and internationally was also featured to help foster communication between SciDAC computational scientists and those funded by other agencies. This was illustrated by many compelling examples of how domain scientists collaborated productively with applied mathematicians and computer scientists to effectively take advantage of terascale computers (capable of performing trillions of calculations per second) not only to accelerate progress in scientific discovery in a variety of fields but also to show great promise for being able to utilize the exciting petascale capabilities in the near future. The SciDAC program was originally conceived as an interdisciplinary computational science program based on the guiding principle that strong collaborative alliances between domain scientists, applied mathematicians, and computer scientists are vital to accelerated progress and associated discovery on the world's most challenging scientific problems. Associated verification and validation are essential in this successful program, which was funded by the US Department of Energy Office of Science (DOE OS) five years ago. As is made clear in many of the papers in these proceedings, SciDAC has fundamentally changed the way that computational science is now carried out in response to the exciting challenge of making the best use of the rapid progress in the emergence of more and more powerful computational platforms. In this regard, Dr. Raymond Orbach, Energy Undersecretary for Science at the DOE and Director of the OS has stated

  13. Preface: SciDAC 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Rick

    2008-07-01

    The fourth annual Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) Conference was held June 13-18, 2008, in Seattle, Washington. The SciDAC conference series is the premier communitywide venue for presentation of results from the DOE Office of Science's interdisciplinary computational science program. Started in 2001 and renewed in 2006, the DOE SciDAC program is the country's - and arguably the world's - most significant interdisciplinary research program supporting the development of advanced scientific computing methods and their application to fundamental and applied areas of science. SciDAC supports computational science across many disciplines, including astrophysics, biology, chemistry, fusion sciences, and nuclear physics. Moreover, the program actively encourages the creation of long-term partnerships among scientists focused on challenging problems and computer scientists and applied mathematicians developing the technology and tools needed to address those problems. The SciDAC program has played an increasingly important role in scientific research by allowing scientists to create more accurate models of complex processes, simulate problems once thought to be impossible, and analyze the growing amount of data generated by experiments. To help further the research community's ability to tap into the capabilities of current and future supercomputers, Under Secretary for Science, Raymond Orbach, launched the Innovative and Novel Computational Impact on Theory and Experiment (INCITE) program in 2003. The INCITE program was conceived specifically to seek out computationally intensive, large-scale research projects with the potential to significantly advance key areas in science and engineering. The program encourages proposals from universities, other research institutions, and industry. During the first two years of the INCITE program, 10 percent of the resources at NERSC were allocated to INCITE awardees. However, demand for supercomputing resources

  14. Preface: SciDAC 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keyes, David E.

    2007-09-01

    It takes a village to perform a petascale computation—domain scientists, applied mathematicians, computer scientists, computer system vendors, program managers, and support staff—and the village was assembled during 24-28 June 2007 in Boston's Westin Copley Place for the third annual Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) 2007 Conference. Over 300 registered participants networked around 76 posters, focused on achievements and challenges in 36 plenary talks, and brainstormed in two panels. In addition, with an eye to spreading the vision for simulation at the petascale and to growing the workforce, 115 participants—mostly doctoral students and post-docs complementary to the conferees—were gathered on 29 June 2007 in classrooms of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology for a full day of tutorials on the use of SciDAC software. Eleven SciDAC-sponsored research groups presented their software at an introductory level, in both lecture and hands-on formats that included live runs on a local BlueGene/L. Computation has always been about garnering insight into the behavior of systems too complex to explore satisfactorily by theoretical means alone. Today, however, computation is about much more: scientists and decision makers expect quantitatively reliable predictions from simulations ranging in scale from that of the Earth's climate, down to quarks, and out to colliding black holes. Predictive simulation lies at the heart of policy choices in energy and environment affecting billions of lives and expenditures of trillions of dollars. It is also at the heart of scientific debates on the nature of matter and the origin of the universe. The petascale is barely adequate for such demands and we are barely established at the levels of resolution and throughput that this new scale of computation affords. However, no scientific agenda worldwide is pushing the petascale frontier on all its fronts as vigorously as SciDAC. The breadth of this conference

  15. [Alfred Lacroix (Macon, 1863 - Paris, 1948), Chemist, Mineralogist, Volcanologist].

    PubMed

    Chaigneau, M

    1998-01-01

    His grandfather and his father were chemists in Macon. It was then natural for him to adopt such profession. After his studies at the Superior School of Chemistry of Paris (Ecole superieure de pharmacie de Paris), he passed as a first class chemist on december the seventh 1887. His passion for mineralogy, displayed since his youngest years, leads him to frequent scientists specialized in the earth's science, amongst who is Ferdinand Fouque, from the College of France (College de France), whom he used to accompany in his travels through the world between 1888 - the year when he parted from his pharmacy - and 1902. This very year, the eight of may, the terrifying eruption of the montagne Pelee on the isle of la Martinique annihilated in few minutes the town and the port of Saint-Pierre, leaving only two survivors, He sejourned there a second time, in august 1902 after the second eruption. A. Lacroix explained, for the first time, phenomena he designated as nuees ardentes. His knowledge in volcanology and mineralogy made him an expert who has been solicitated to observe various volcanos through out the world. Amongst his principal writings are the treaty of mineralogy (5 vol.), the 2 volumes of his conclusions about his observations of the montagne Pelee and one about the Piton de la Fournaise, to which must be added more than 650 notes and communications. Great officer of the Legion d'Honneur, the chemist Alfred Lacroix, professor at the Museum of natural history since the first of april 1893, carried on the function of perpetual secretary of the Academy of Sciences during 34 years. PMID:11625479

  16. The MEGAPOLI Paris campaign for urban aerosol characterisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beekmann, M.; Baltensperger, U.; Borbon, A.; Sciare, J.; Gros, V.; Baklanov, A.; Lawrence, M.; Pandis, S.

    2009-04-01

    Within the FP7 MEGAPOLI project, an intensive field campaign will be conducted in the Greater Paris region during July 2009 and January/February 2010. The aim is to quantify sources of primary and secondary aerosol, and the interaction with gaseous precursors, in and around a large agglomeration and to document its evolution in the megacity plume. Greater Paris has been chosen for such a campaign because it is a major and dense pollution source (more than 10 million inhabitants), surrounded by rural areas and relatively flat terrain. A particular focus will be put on organic carbon, for which secondary formation, but also primary emissions are still not well quantified. Detailed aerosol measurements and gaseous precursor measurements will be conducted at an urban and a sub-urban site, from two mobile platforms and from the French ATR-42 research aircraft (for plume characterisation). State of the art instrumentation will allow determination of aerosol chemical composition, either with very high frequency (several minutes to half an hour), or with large chemical detail (several dozens of organic compounds from filter samples). In addition, the size distribution, optical and hygroscopic and mixing properties will be determined in order to relate the aerosol chemical composition to its potential radiative and climate impact in the urban region and its plume. Gas phase measurements will focus especially on detailed VOC measurements in order to relate SOA build-up to gaseous precursor species abundance. A network of backscatter lidars including fixed station (urban, sub-urban) and mobile platforms (car and aircraft, see Cuesta et al., this session) will give the access to the aerosol vertical distribution in the region and to variations of the boundary layer height at the urban / rural interface. All in all, the campaign will be the most intensive urban aerosol characterisation experiment ever conducted over Europe. The present paper will present an overview over

  17. Experience of the Paris Research Consortium Climate-Environment-Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joussaume, Sylvie; Pacteau, Chantal; Vanderlinden, Jean Paul

    2016-04-01

    It is now widely recognized that the complexity of climate change issues translates itself into a need for interdisciplinary approaches to science. This allows to first achieve a more comprehensive vision of climate change and, second, to better inform the decision-making processes. However, it seems that willingness alone is rarely enough to implement interdisciplinarity. The purpose of this presentation is to mobilize reflexivity to revisit and analyze the experience of the Paris Consortium for Climate-Environment-Society. The French Consortium Climate-Environment-Society aims to develop, fund and coordinate interdisciplinary research into climate change and its impacts on society and environment. Launched in 2007, the consortium relies on the research expertise of 17 laboratories and federation in the Paris area working mainly in the fields of climatology, hydrology, ecology, health sciences, and the humanities and social sciences. As examples, economists and climatologists have studied greenhouse gas emission scenarios compatible with climate stabilization goals. Historical records have provided both knowledge about past climate change and vulnerability of societies. Some regions, as the Mediterranean and the Sahel, are particularly vulnerable and already have to cope with water availability, agricultural production and even health issues. A project showed that millet production in West Africa is expected to decline due to warming in a higher proportion than observed in recent decades. Climate change also raises many questions concerning health: combined effects of warming and air quality, impacts on the production of pollens and allergies, impacts on infectious diseases. All these issues lead to a need for approaches integrating different disciplines. Furthermore, climate change impacts many ecosystems which, in turn, affect its evolution. Our experience shows that interdisciplinarity supposes, in order to take shape, the conjunction between programming

  18. GREEN CATALYZED OXIDATION OF HYDROCARBONS IN ALTERNATIVE SOLVENT SYSTEMS GENERATED BY PARIS II

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green Catalyzed Oxidation of Hydrocarbons in Alternative Solvent Systems Generated by PARIS II

    Michael A. Gonzalez*, Thomas M. Becker, and Paul F. Harten; Sustainable Technology Division, Office of Research and Development; United States Environmental Protection Agency, 26...

  19. Inhibition of homologous recombination by the PCNA-interacting protein PARI.

    PubMed

    Moldovan, George-Lucian; Dejsuphong, Donniphat; Petalcorin, Mark I R; Hofmann, Kay; Takeda, Shunichi; Boulton, Simon J; D'Andrea, Alan D

    2012-01-13

    Inappropriate homologous recombination (HR) causes genomic instability and cancer. In yeast, the UvrD family helicase Srs2 is recruited to sites of DNA replication by SUMO-modified PCNA, where it acts to restrict HR by disassembling toxic RAD51 nucleofilaments. How human cells control recombination at replication forks is unknown. Here, we report that the protein PARI, containing a UvrD-like helicase domain, is a PCNA-interacting partner required for preservation of genome stability in human and DT40 chicken cells. Using cell-based and biochemical assays, we show that PARI restricts unscheduled recombination by interfering with the formation of RAD51-DNA HR structures. Finally, we show that PARI knockdown suppresses the genomic instability of Fanconi Anemia/BRCA pathway-deficient cells. Thus, we propose that PARI is a long sought-after factor that suppresses inappropriate recombination events at mammalian replication forks. PMID:22153967

  20. Annoyance from light aircraft investigation carried out around four airports near Paris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    An opinion survey was carried out on residents living near four airports in the Paris, France area. An evaluation of their responses concerning noise pollution and possible expansion of airport activity is presented.

  1. [The anatomy collections of the Paris V University: their role in medical teaching for two centuries].

    PubMed

    Saban, R; Lassau, J P; Delmas, V; Iba-Zizen, M T; Cabanis, E

    2001-11-01

    The Museum of anatomy of the University Paris V exhibits a collection of ancient and high quality dissections and waxworks, very well preserved, which were used for teaching anatomy and have been classified historic monument since 1992. PMID:11760585

  2. Development of safety containment system for experiments on radioactive and other hazardous materials with large volume Paris-Edinburgh press at APS and first measurements on depleted-uranium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, Matthew; Velisavljevic, Nenad

    Recent technical developments using the large volume Paris-Edinburgh press platform have enabled x-ray synchrotron studies at high pressure and temperature conditions (Kono, Y. et al. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 033905 (2012)). However, application for hazardous materials requires special handling due to safety issues, reactivity, or other challenges. Facility safety requirements require adequate containment for operation in the variety of environments available. In this talk, we will present a containment setup developed to enable studies of such materials. In particular, studies of the phase diagram of uranium using ultrasonic interferometry to determine the elasticity, mechanical, and thermal properties will be discussed. These results present the first high pressure studies of combined elasticity and thermal properties of depleted uranium metal as well as demonstration of a containment system for making such measurements.

  3. Lorenz Oken and Naturphilosophie in Jena, Paris and London.

    PubMed

    Breidbach, Olaf; Ghiselin, Michael T

    2002-01-01

    Although Lorenz Oken is a classic example of Naturphilosophie as applied to biology, his views have been imperfectly understood. He is best viewed as a follower of Schelling who consistently attempted to apply Schelling's ideas to biological data. His version of Naturphilosophic, however, was strongly influenced by older pseudoscience traditions, especially alchemy and numerology as they had been presented by Robert Fludd, whose works were current in Jena and available to him. According to those influences, parts of Oken's philosophical conception were communicable even in a non-idealistic scientific culture, for example in Paris, where Oken met Etienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire. Geoffroy however was embedded in a French intellectual tradition, and the correspondence between his views and those of Oken was only superficial. The English anatomist Richard Owen attempted to incorporate the views of Oken and Geoffroy within his own, idiosyncratic system. Although Darwin knew of Oken's ideas, it was Geoffroy who really affected his evolutionary biology, and any influence of Oken must have been attenuated to the point of triviality. PMID:12961766

  4. Vaccine knowledge in students in Paris, France, and surrounding regions

    PubMed Central

    Mellon, Guillaume; Rigal, Laurent; Partouche, Henri; Aoun, Olivier; Jaury, Philippe; Joannard, Nathalie; Guthmann, Jean Paul; Cochereau, Delphine; Caumes, Eric; Bricaire, Francois; Salmon-Céron, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In France, young adults are legally freed from parental authority at the age of 18 years and are, thus, responsible for their own vaccine record. This young adult population is more frequently exposed to vaccine-preventable infectious diseases. OBJECTIVE: To determine the factors associated with students’ knowledge of the interval between two antitetanus boosters and their report of having up-to-date vaccinations. METHODS: In April 2009, a survey was conducted involving a random sample of students between 18 and 25 years of age eating lunch at university dining facilities in Paris and its suburbs (Ile de France). RESULTS: Among the 677 students approached, 583 agreed to participate. Only 207 (36%) of respondents knew the recommended dosing interval between two doses of tetanus vaccine booster (10 years). The majority of students (69%) reported having up-to-date vaccinations. Declaring having up-to-date vaccinations was significantly associated with having a general practitioner (OR 3.03 [95% CI 1.69 to 5.55]). Health care students were significantly more likely to know the decennial interval between two antitetanus boosters (OR 2 [95% CI 1.28 to 3.25]). Most of responding students (n=519 [89%]) believed that vaccines were very useful. CONCLUSIONS: An overall lack of knowledge of vaccines was observed among this student population. Health care providers, such as GPs and university medical practice staff, who interact with these young individuals have an essential role to promote better vaccination coverage in this population. PMID:25285109

  5. What would it take to achieve the Paris temperature targets?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanderson, Benjamin M.; O'Neill, Brian C.; Tebaldi, Claudia

    2016-07-01

    The 2015 Paris Agreement aims to limit warming to 2 or 1.5°C above preindustrial level, although combined Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) are likely insufficient to achieve these targets. We propose a set of idealized emission pathways consistent with the targets. If countries reduce emissions in line with their INDCs, the 2°C threshold could be avoided only if net zero greenhouse gas emissions (GHGEs) are achieved by 2085 and late century negative emissions are considerably in excess of those assumed in Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 2.6 (net -5 Gt CO2/yr, compared with -1.5 Gt CO2/yr in RCP2.6). More aggressive near-term reductions would allow 2°C to be avoided with less end-of-century carbon removal capacity. A 10% cut in GHGEs by 2030 (relative to 2015) could likely achieve 2°C with RCP2.6 level negative emissions. The 1.5°C target requires GHGEs to be reduced by almost a third by 2030 and net zero by 2050, while a 50 year overshoot of 1.5°C allows net zero GHGEs by 2060.

  6. Anthelmintic activity of steroidal saponins from Paris polyphylla.

    PubMed

    Wang, G-X; Han, J; Zhao, L-W; Jiang, D-X; Liu, Y-T; Liu, X-L

    2010-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the anthelmintic activity of crude extracts and pure compounds from the rhizomes of Paris polyphylla. The methanol extract showed a promising anthelmintic activity against Dactylogyrus intermedius (EC(50) value=18.06 mg l(-¹). Based on these finding, the methanol extract was fractionated on silica gel column chromatography in a bioassay-guided fractionation affording two known steroidal saponins showing potent activity, dioscin and polyphyllin D. Both dioscin and polyphyllin D exhibited significant activity against D. intermedius with EC(50) values of 0.44 and 0.70 mg l(-¹), respectively, which were more effective than the positive control, mebendazole (EC(50) value=1.25 mg l(-¹)). The acute toxicities (LC(50)) of dioscin and polyphyllin D for goldfish were 1.37 and 1.08 mg l(-¹), respectively. These results indicated that P. polyphylla extract and the isolated compounds are potential natural agents for the control of Dactylogyrus infestation. This is the first report on in vivo anthelmintic investigation for P. polyphylla. PMID:20576414

  7. Seismic imaging a carbonate reservoir: The Paris Basin Dogger

    SciTech Connect

    Mougenot, D.

    1995-08-01

    Within the Dogger project, seven partners joined forces (CGG, DHYCA, EAP, ESSO-REP, IFP, TOTAL, TRITON France) to develop an appropriate seismic acquisition, processing and interpretation methodology in order to improve the description of the main oil reservoir (30 m) lying at the top of the Dogger carbonates in the Paris Basin, at a depth of 1900 m. High-resolution 2D Vibroseismic is used to record high frequencies (up to 100 Hz) at the level of the target, and provides sufficiently adequate vertical resolution for the reflections at the top and at the base of the reservoir not to interfere. The upper frequency content of the 3D seismic (70 Hz) is more difficult to enhance. Yet the essential contribution made by the 3D is to evidence, via horizon attributes, sub-meridian lineaments corresponding to faults with throw of several meters which is too weak to be detected on vertical sections. The distribution of these faults, via which water tends to invade the reservoir, and the organization of the amplitudes at the top reservoir reflector, which seems to suggest lateral variations in porosity, are a valuable guide for setting up wells. Three-component seismic (2D-3c) and S-wave emissions did not produce any reflections beyond 30 Hz at the level of the target which is a poor reflector (PS & SS). Only borehole seismic (VSP, offset VSP), where high frequencies are much less attenuated than with surface seismic, provides detailed imaging of the reservoir in converted mode (up to 110 Hz in PP and in PS). The combination of a continuous spatial sampling, such as that obtained in 3D, and of a Vibroseis emission adapted to frequency attenuation, such as that used in 2D, can supply useful information about the thin and discontinuous Dogger reservoir which cannot he provided by mere correlation of the borehole data.

  8. Paris basin petroleum systems revisited by two-dimensional modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Gaulier, J.M.; Burrus, J.; Poulet, M. ); Barlier, J. , Pau )

    1991-03-01

    The authors investigate the history of petroleum generation, expulsion, and migration along two E-W and N-W cross sections in the Paris basin. Source rocks, represented by Liassic marine shales (merely Hetangian-Sinemurian and Toarcian) reach the top of the oil window around 2,000 m and begin effective expulsion around 2,400 m. Reservoirs are essentially found in the subtle structures in the Dogger (carbonates) and Triassic (sandstones). These levels are normally separated from the source rocks by several hundred meters of impervious marls or shales. Regional faults are often viewed as major conduits that allow both expulsion and migration to the reservoirs. This petroleum system is seen by the use of two-dimensional modeling techniques: (1) The generation history is derived from an investigation of thermal history and kinetic modeling. They show that the present subsurface temperatures are influenced by regional convective discharge linked to the uplift of eastern and southeastern basin edges and that this cooling postdates the maturity. They also show that, in the eastern basin, the basement heat flow could have been increased since the Tertiary, at a time when Tertiary erosion had nearly frozen the maturity development. (2) The expulsion and migration are analyzed by coupling numerically the compaction history, the generation history, and the regional hydrodynamics. They show that expulsion efficiency is very much dependent on parameters not well constrained, but a sensitivity analysis confirms the prominent role of vertical faults as well as the influence of regional water flow on the distribution of accumulations.

  9. Is there a remnant Variscan subducted slab in the mantle beneath the Paris basin? Implications for the late Variscan lithospheric delamination process and the Paris basin formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averbuch, O.; Piromallo, C.

    2012-08-01

    The Paris basin (northern France) is a Late Paleozoic-Mesozoic intracratonic basin that settled upon the collapsed Variscan collisional belt. The lithospheric roots of the Variscan orogenic system, below the Paris basin, have been investigated using a European-scale P-wave velocity tomographic model. Tomography points out the existence of a significant high velocity anomaly in the upper mantle below the western part of the basin. At ~ 150-200 km depth, the anomaly extends with a NW-SE trend along the buried Northern France trace of the Northern Variscan Suture Zone i.e. the Bray segment of the Upper Carboniferous Lizard-Rhenohercynian (LRH) suture. Moreover, the high-velocity anomaly is spatially correlated with the prominent Paris Basin Magnetic Anomaly. Its downdip extent reaches depths greater than 200 km below the southern margin of the Paris basin. As suggested in previous tomographic studies below ancient suture zones, these data argue for such anomaly being the remnant of a Variscan subducted slab that escaped the extensive late orogenic delamination process affecting the lithospheric roots by Late Carboniferous-Early Permian times and that was preserved stable over 300 Ma at the base of the lithosphere. On a general geodynamical perspective, these results provide a new insight into the long-term evolution of subducted lithosphere into the mantle. In the case of the Western European Variscan orogenic belt, they suggest that the subduction of the LRH slab below the previously thickened Variscan crust, and its final detachment from the orogenic root, have played an important role in the collapse of the belt, inducing thermal erosion and extension of the overriding lithosphere. The spatial evolution of late orogenic extension across the belt and of subsequent thermal subsidence in the Paris basin is suggested to result from the heterogeneous delamination of the lithospheric roots along strike and from the resultant pattern of asthenospheric rise.

  10. FAQs about Spinal Cord Injury (SCI)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Website Managing Bowel Function After Spinal Cord Injury Resilience, Depression and Bouncing Back after SCI Getting to ... a “complete” and “incomplete” spinal cord injury? What recovery is expected following spinal cord injury? Where is ...

  11. Accelerating Scientific Analysis with SciDB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerhardt, L.; Faham, C. H.; Yao, Y.

    2015-12-01

    SciDB is an open-source analytical database for scalable complex analytics on very large array or multi-structured data from a variety of sources, programmable from Python and R. It runs on HPC, commodity hardware grids, or in a cloud and can manage and analyze terabytes of array-structured data and do complex analytics in-database. We present an overall description of the SciDB framework and describe its implementation at NERSC at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. A case study using SciDB to analyze data from the LUX dark matter detector is described and future plans for a large SciDB array at NERSC are described.

  12. Preface: SciDAC 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Rick

    2008-07-01

    The fourth annual Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) Conference was held June 13-18, 2008, in Seattle, Washington. The SciDAC conference series is the premier communitywide venue for presentation of results from the DOE Office of Science's interdisciplinary computational science program. Started in 2001 and renewed in 2006, the DOE SciDAC program is the country's - and arguably the world's - most significant interdisciplinary research program supporting the development of advanced scientific computing methods and their application to fundamental and applied areas of science. SciDAC supports computational science across many disciplines, including astrophysics, biology, chemistry, fusion sciences, and nuclear physics. Moreover, the program actively encourages the creation of long-term partnerships among scientists focused on challenging problems and computer scientists and applied mathematicians developing the technology and tools needed to address those problems. The SciDAC program has played an increasingly important role in scientific research by allowing scientists to create more accurate models of complex processes, simulate problems once thought to be impossible, and analyze the growing amount of data generated by experiments. To help further the research community's ability to tap into the capabilities of current and future supercomputers, Under Secretary for Science, Raymond Orbach, launched the Innovative and Novel Computational Impact on Theory and Experiment (INCITE) program in 2003. The INCITE program was conceived specifically to seek out computationally intensive, large-scale research projects with the potential to significantly advance key areas in science and engineering. The program encourages proposals from universities, other research institutions, and industry. During the first two years of the INCITE program, 10 percent of the resources at NERSC were allocated to INCITE awardees. However, demand for supercomputing resources

  13. High incidence and variable clinical outcome of cardiac hypertrophy due to ACAD9 mutations in childhood.

    PubMed

    Collet, Marie; Assouline, Zahra; Bonnet, Damien; Rio, Marlène; Iserin, Franck; Sidi, Daniel; Goldenberg, Alice; Lardennois, Caroline; Metodiev, Metodi Dimitrov; Haberberger, Birgit; Haack, Tobias; Munnich, Arnold; Prokisch, Holger; Rötig, Agnès

    2016-08-01

    Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase family, member 9 (ACAD9) mutation is a frequent, usually fatal cause of early-onset cardiac hypertrophy and mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I deficiency in early childhood. We retrospectively studied a series of 20 unrelated children with cardiac hypertrophy and isolated complex I deficiency and identified compound heterozygosity for missense, splice site or frame shift ACAD9 variants in 8/20 patients (40%). Age at onset ranged from neonatal period to 9 years and 5/8 died in infancy. Heart transplantation was possible in 3/8. Two of them survived and one additional patient improved spontaneously. Importantly, the surviving patients later developed delayed-onset neurologic or muscular symptoms, namely cognitive impairment, seizures, muscle weakness and exercise intolerance. Other organ involvement included proximal tubulopathy, renal failure, secondary ovarian failure and optic atrophy. We conclude that ACAD9 mutation is the most frequent cause of cardiac hypertrophy and isolated complex I deficiency. Heart transplantation in children surviving neonatal period should be considered with caution, as delayed-onset muscle and brain involvement of various severity may occur, even if absent prior to transplantation. PMID:26669660

  14. Messier, Copernicus, Flamsteed: The SAF Rare-Book Collection in Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.

    2014-01-01

    The historic books belonging to the Société Astronomique de France, founded by Camille Flammarion in 1887, are located partly in Paris and partly at the Flammarion site in Juvisy, a Paris suburb. Their holdings include first editions of Copernicus's De Revolutionibus and of Flamsteed's star atlas, as well as Messier's own copy of his 1783 and 1784 papers with his handwritten comments and additions. I will describe the fruitless search for a Bevis atlas and the circumstances that led me to inspect these treasures. I thank David Valls-Gabaud and Philippe Morel of the Société Astronomique de France for their hospitality in Paris, Jean-Claude Pecker, and Owen Gingerich for his prior work on Messier's catalogue.

  15. Parkin loss leads to PARIS-dependent declines in mitochondrial mass and respiration.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Daniel A; Lee, Yunjong; Kang, Ho Chul; Lee, Byoung Dae; Lee, Yun-Il; Bower, Aaron; Jiang, Haisong; Kang, Sung-Ung; Andrabi, Shaida A; Dawson, Valina L; Shin, Joo-Ho; Dawson, Ted M

    2015-09-15

    Mutations in parkin lead to early-onset autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease (PD) and inactivation of parkin is thought to contribute to sporadic PD. Adult knockout of parkin in the ventral midbrain of mice leads to an age-dependent loss of dopamine neurons that is dependent on the accumulation of parkin interacting substrate (PARIS), zinc finger protein 746 (ZNF746), and its transcriptional repression of PGC-1α. Here we show that adult knockout of parkin in mouse ventral midbrain leads to decreases in mitochondrial size, number, and protein markers consistent with a defect in mitochondrial biogenesis. This decrease in mitochondrial mass is prevented by short hairpin RNA knockdown of PARIS. PARIS overexpression in mouse ventral midbrain leads to decreases in mitochondrial number and protein markers and PGC-1α-dependent deficits in mitochondrial respiration. Taken together, these results suggest that parkin loss impairs mitochondrial biogenesis, leading to declining function of the mitochondrial pool and cell death. PMID:26324925

  16. Preface: SciDAC 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezzacappa, Anthony

    2005-01-01

    On 26-30 June 2005 at the Grand Hyatt on Union Square in San Francisco several hundred computational scientists from around the world came together for what can certainly be described as a celebration of computational science. Scientists from the SciDAC Program and scientists from other agencies and nations were joined by applied mathematicians and computer scientists to highlight the many successes in the past year where computation has led to scientific discovery in a variety of fields: lattice quantum chromodynamics, accelerator modeling, chemistry, biology, materials science, Earth and climate science, astrophysics, and combustion and fusion energy science. Also highlighted were the advances in numerical methods and computer science, and the multidisciplinary collaboration cutting across science, mathematics, and computer science that enabled these discoveries. The SciDAC Program was conceived and funded by the US Department of Energy Office of Science. It is the Office of Science's premier computational science program founded on what is arguably the perfect formula: the priority and focus is science and scientific discovery, with the understanding that the full arsenal of `enabling technologies' in applied mathematics and computer science must be brought to bear if we are to have any hope of attacking and ultimately solving today's computational Grand Challenge problems. The SciDAC Program has been in existence for four years, and many of the computational scientists funded by this program will tell you that the program has given them the hope of addressing their scientific problems in full realism for the very first time. Many of these scientists will also tell you that SciDAC has also fundamentally changed the way they do computational science. We begin this volume with one of DOE's great traditions, and core missions: energy research. As we will see, computation has been seminal to the critical advances that have been made in this arena. Of course, to

  17. Two New Highly Oxygenated Spirostanol Saponins from Paris polyphylla var. stenophylla.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ling-Yu; Lu, Ting-Xiang; Qin, Xu-Jie; Ni, Wei; Yan, Huan; Chen, Yu; Liu, Hui; He, Hong-Ping; Liu, Hai-Yang

    2016-08-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the rhizomes of Paris polyphylla var. stenophylla led to the isolation of two new highly oxygenated spirostanol saponins, named paristenosides A (1) and B (2), together with seven known compounds. Their structures were established mainly on the base of NMR spectroscopic techniques and mass spectrometry, as well as chemical methods. In addition, the cytotoxicity of the two new saponins was tested. Two new highly oxygenated spirostanol saponins, paristenosides A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the rhizomes of Paris polyphylla var. stenophylla. Their structures were established mainly based on NMR spectroscopic techniques and mass spectrometry, as well as chemical methods. PMID:27255683

  18. Astronomical Observations in Asia from Delisle's Manuscripts Preserved in the Paris Observatory Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Débarbat, S.

    Delisle, born in 1688 April 4, is well known as a collector of astronomical data from all over the world. Part of his manuscripts are preserved in the Paris Observatory library. He is said to have collected all available astronomical data at the time he was in activity in France and in Russia where he spent more than twenty years. He had more correspondents and among them, in Asia father Gaubil, of which more than one hundred letters are in the Paris Observatory archives, providing priceless informations to astronomical researchers, historians and others.

  19. 25 CFR 542.11 - What are the minimum internal control standards for pari-mutuel wagering?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for pari-mutuel wagering? 542.11 Section 542.11 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.11 What are the minimum internal control standards for pari-mutuel wagering?...

  20. SciDAC-2 software infrastructure for lattice QCD.

    SciTech Connect

    Balint Joo

    2007-06-01

    We present work carried out by the USQCD Collaboration on Software Infrastructure funded under SciDAC 2. We present successes of the software from the original SciDAC 1 project as well as ongoing and future work. We outline the various scientific collaborations SciDAC-2 has created.

  1. X-31 Unloading Returning from Paris Air Show

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    After being flown in the Paris Air Show in June 1995, the X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability Technology Demonstrator Aircraft, based at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards Air Force Base, California, is off-loaded from an Air Force Reserve C-5 transport after the ferry flight back to Edwards. At the air show, the X-31 demonstrated the value of using thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with advanced flight control systems to provide controlled flight at very high angles of attack. The X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability (EFM) demonstrator flew at the Ames- Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California (redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center in 1994) from February 1992 until 1995 and before that at the Air Force's Plant 42 in Palmdale, California. The goal of the project was to provide design information for the next generation of highly maneuverable fighter aircraft. This program demonstrated the value of using thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with an advanced flight control system to provide controlled flight to very high angles of attack. The result was a significant advantage over most conventional fighters in close-in combat situations. The X-31 flight program focused on agile flight within the post-stall regime, producing technical data to give aircraft designers a better understanding of aerodynamics, effectiveness of flight controls and thrust vectoring, and airflow phenomena at high angles of attack. Stall is a condition of an airplane or an airfoil in which lift decreases and drag increases due to the separation of airflow. Thrust vectoring compensates for the loss of control through normal aerodynamic surfaces that occurs during a stall. Post-stall refers to flying beyond the normal stall angle of attack, which in the X-31 was at a 30-degree angle of attack. During Dryden flight testing, the X-31 aircraft established several milestones. On November 6, 1992, the X-31 achieved

  2. Program for Assisting the Replacement of Industrial Solvents PARIS III User’s Guide

    EPA Science Inventory

    PARIS III is a third generation Windows-based computer software to assist the design of less harmful solvent replacements by estimating values of the solvent properties that characterize the static, dynamic, performance, and environmental behavior of the original solvent mixture ...

  3. The 2015 Paris Climate Conference: A turning point in the world's energy history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimenko, V. V.; Mikushina, O. V.; Tereshin, A. G.

    2016-06-01

    It has been established that the consistent implementation of the 2015 Paris Climate Conference implies the quick retire of coal from the global energy balance and its replacement with the energy from unconventional and renewable sources. It is shown that even the full-scale implementation of the agreement will not keep global warming within 2°C.

  4. Rough Journal Page Documenting Ratification and Final Page of the Treaty of Paris, 1783

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2008-01-01

    The 1783 Treaty of Paris formally ended the American Revolution and established the United States as an independent and sovereign nation. In words reminiscent of those in the resolution presented by Richard Henry Lee to Congress in June 1776, and later included in the Declaration of Independence, Article I of the treaty stated that the king now…

  5. A decade of drilling innovation and progress in the Paris basin

    SciTech Connect

    Canter, D.B. ); Simon, J.M. )

    1991-03-01

    Since 1979, Esso Rep has drilled more than 150 exploration and development wells in the Paris basin. A cost-per-foot reduction of more than 40% was achieved despite a near doubling of rig rates. This paper discusses the unique directional drilling approach used and the drilling, formation evaluation, and contracting techniques.

  6. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Paris Basin, France, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Le, Phoung A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Leathers, Heidi M.

    2015-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 222 million barrels of unconventional oil; 2,092 billion cubic feet of unconventional gas; 18 million barrels of conventional oil; and 47 billion cubic feet of conventional gas resources in the Paris Basin of France.

  7. 1.5 °C and climate research after the Paris Agreement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hulme, Mike

    2016-03-01

    The Paris Agreement contains an ambition to limit global warming to no more than 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels, changing the context for policy-relevant research and extending a challenge to the IPCC and researchers.

  8. 75 FR 28303 - Setco Automotive, Inc., Paris, TN; Notice of Revised Determination on Reconsideration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ... automotive clutch products produced by the workers' firm was directly incorporated into. The Department's Notice of determination was published in the Federal Register on April 23, 2010 (FR 75 21358). The... Employment and Training Administration Setco Automotive, Inc., Paris, TN; Notice of Revised Determination...

  9. Local Belonging and "Geographies of Emotions": Immigrant Children's Experience of Their Neighbourhoods in Paris and Berlin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    den Besten, Olga

    2010-01-01

    This article argues that a sense of local belonging and emotional attitudes to one's neighbourhood are inherently interconnected. It explores immigrant children's emotional experiences of their neighbourhoods in Paris and Berlin through subjective maps drawn by the children. The article highlights the social and spatial nature of immigrant…

  10. [Stories and drawings by children after the 2015 terrorist attacks in Paris].

    PubMed

    Poget, Marc; Bouaziz, Nora; Apter, Gisèle

    2016-01-01

    Through the stories and drawings of children in a medical-psychological centre, it is possible to explore their psychological representations of the terrorist attacks which took place in Paris in January 2015. This work highlights the need to rethink the methods of care provided to these children in order to adapt them to their specific needs. PMID:27015702

  11. An Apprenticeship in Resistance May '68 and the Power of Vincennes (Universite de Paris VIII)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolphijn, Rick

    2007-01-01

    Background: The riots in Paris '68 marked among others, the creation of a "Centre universitaire experimental" in Vincennes of which especially the philosophy faculty became the testing laboratory for educational reform. There, scholars like Michel Foucault, Gilles Deleuze, Alain Badiou and Jean-Francois Lyotard developed new ideas on education…

  12. Merchants of Light: The Paris Library School, Internationalism, and the Globalization of a Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witt, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Amid growing isolationism after World War I, the American Library Association transferred its wartime programs to train librarians in Europe and promote the American model of public libraries. Working in collaboration with American philanthropists and members of the French library community, ALA established a permanent library school in Paris that…

  13. [Sugar's sold by apothecaries and grocers in Paris in XVII century].

    PubMed

    Warolin, C

    1999-01-01

    Until the XVIth century Paris apothecaries and grocers sold sugars but from the beginning of the XVIIth century the former leaved the sale to the latter initiating the separation of both trades officialized by a Declaration royale, in 1777. PMID:11625525

  14. Using SciDB to Support Photon Science Data Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Becla, Jack; Wang, Daniel; lim, Kian-Tat; /SLAC

    2012-02-15

    Array data analytic systems like SciDB hold great potential to accelerate processing data from SLAC's Linac Coherent Light Source and other experiments. SciDB is unique in its ability to integrate storage and processing of array data efficiently, providing both space-efficient storage and out-of-memory efficient parallel array processing. We describe a recent effort to leverage SciDB to store and process LCLS data. The work includes development of software to import data into SciDB, subsequent benchmarks, and interactive manipulation of data in SciDB.

  15. Centimeter-level group-delay altimetric precision using the new PARIS interferometric technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardellach, E.; Nogues-Correig, O.; Ribo, S.; Rius, A.; Camps, A.; van der Marel, H.; Martin-Neira, M.

    2010-12-01

    Since its suggestion in 1993, the altimetric and scatterometric capabilities of the PAssive Reflectometry and Interferometry System (PARIS) have been tested extensively from ground- air- and even space-based experiments. The concept is based in the use of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals reflected off the Earth (Ocean, Ice, Land), in a bi-static radar configuration. ESA has proposed to use the PARIS Interferometric Technique in the future PARIS In-Orbit Demonstrator Instrument (PARIS-IOD). This is a novel instrumental approach respect to previous PARIS instruments which obtained the observables through cross-correlating direct and reflected signals against a GPS signal model (or replica). The limit of such an altimetric approach was given by the availability of the open-access GNSS codes. The new interferometric technique aligns the direct and reflected signals and directly computes the cross-correlation between them. Therefore, also encrypted signals can be used, increasing the available signal bandwidth and power, and thus the expected precision of the altimetric measurement. This project contributes to the PARIS-IOD concept trying to demonstrate the suitability of the interferometric technique for altimetric purposes, as well as to study and demonstrate the proposed calibration techniques for the PARIS-IOD instrument. We aim to confirm whether the interferometric technique is capable of measuring GPS signal delay differences with an associated 1 sigma error of 3 cm with 1 second of observation time. The first step to accomplish the objective of the activity was to build the appropriate receiver, able to perform the direct correlation of the signals. This was achieved by modifying the existing dedicated full-custom GNSS-Reflection Receiver GPS Open Loop Differential Real-Time Receiver (GOLD-RTR). The proof-of-concept instrument has been tested in two campaigns, during June and July 2010. The first campaign used synthetic signals generated by

  16. [Nicolas Houel and Michel Dusseau, apothecaries of the XVIth century in Paris].

    PubMed

    Warolin, C

    2000-01-01

    These two apothecaries of the XVIth century of Pharmacy in Paris were outstanding personalities. Nicolas Houel founded a charity in the south of Paris at Saint-Marcel suburb: The House of Christian Charity. It was a philanthropic organization composed of a chapel, an orphanage, a hospital, an apothecary's shop and a medicinal plants garden called Le Jardin des apothicaires. This institution is at the origin of the future Paris Pharmacy College (1777) and of the Paris School of Pharmacy (1803). This apothecary was also an artist, a poet, the author of artistic and scientific works. He wrote three pharmaceutical books between 1571 and 1573. The first one Pharmaceutices libri duo is about laxative and purgative medicines in accordance with Mésué's concepts, the second is a Plague Treatise and the third a Theriac and Mithridat Treatise. Michel Dusseau is the author of the first pharmaceutical book written in French prose. It was published in Lyon in 1561: l'Enchirid ou Manipul des miropoles. The life of Michel Dusseau had remained quite unknown but we recently managed to identify four generations of Dusseaus: Christofle, the ancestor, who lived in the XVth century and was not an apothecary, Michel a juror of the Paris apothecaries community and the author of the Enchirid, Pierre, Michel's son, also an apothecary, and lastly, Pierre's children who were the 4th generation. L'Enchirid is a "Manual for myrrh sellers ", a galenic pharmacy book divided into three parts. The first part shows how to prepare medicines, the second deals with pharmaceutical operations, the third is dedicated to the preparations of galenic forms. This book was well appreciated by French apothecaries in the XVIth-XVIIth centuries but sank into oblivion because of obsolescence. PMID:14653268

  17. Establishing a Seismometer at PARI and Designing a Switching Circuit Utilizing Fiber Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritchie, Justin

    2007-12-01

    At Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI) in Rosman, NC I spent ten weeks as the first NC Space Grant/Cline Astronomy Scholar developing multiple projects that helped to establish PARI as a resource for the scientific community. The first project that I worked on was establishing PARI's seismometer which serves as a resource for the region and utilizes sensitive equipment to measure 2.8 magnitude earthquakes occurring anywhere on earth. After basic seismometer operating principles were studied, multiple locations were surveyed to find an ideal location with little ambient noise and no disturbance from human or mechanical sources. Disturbances were generated at several locations identified as potential sites for the seismometer at 10, 20 and 30 feet by dropping a basketball and by driving a car around the location in an established pattern. Noise response was analyzed using the WinSDR software package which generates digital records of analog seismometer data and an ideal location was identified. The second project involved designing a circuit around the specific needs of the PARI optical telescope ridge. This ridge is susceptible to equipment that is damaged or improperly reset due to lightning. The circuit utilized the insulated properties of optical fiber to transmit a switching signal to the weather stations on the PARI optical ridge. This signal reset those stations that transmitted asynchronously after a lightning strike. Fiber optic transmitters were incorporated into the circuit along with TTL logic to provide a solid system that met the necessary specifications. After a rewarding an interesting summer I will follow up on my work next year for ten more weeks.

  18. Astronomy Popularization via Sci-fi Movies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qingkang

    2015-08-01

    It is astronomers’ duty to let more and more young people know a bit astronomy and be interested in astronomy and appreciate the beauty and great achievements in astronomy. One of the most effective methods to popularize astronomy to young people nowadays might be via enjoying some brilliant sci-fi movies related to astronomy with some guidance from astronomers. Firstly, we will introduce the basic information of our selective course “Appreciation of Sci-fi Movies in Astronomy” for the non-major astronomy students in our University, which is surely unique in China, then we will show its effect on astronomy popularization based on several rounds of teaching.

  19. The amino acid and hydrocarbon contents of the Paris meteorite, the most primitive CM chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Zita; Modica, Paola; Zanda, Brigitte; Le Sergeant d'Hendecourt, Louis

    2015-04-01

    The Paris meteorite is reported to be the least aqueously altered CM chondrite [1,2], and to have experienced only weak thermal metamorphism [2-5]. The IR spectra of some of Paris' fragments suggest a primitive origin for the organic matter in this meteorite, similar to the spectra from solid-state materials in molecular clouds [6]. Most of the micron-sized organic particles present in the Paris matrix exhibit 0 < δD <2000‰ [7,8]. In order to understand the effect of aqueous alteration and thermal metamorphism on the abundance and distribution of meteoritic soluble organic matter, we have analyzed for the first time the amino acid and hydrocarbon contents of the Paris meteorite [9]. Extensive aqueous alteration in the parent body of carbonaceous meteorites may result in the decomposition of α-amino acids and the synthesis of β- and γ-amino acids. When plotted with several CM chondrites, Paris has the lowest relative abundance of β-alanine/glycine (0.15) for a CM chondrite, which fits with the relative abundance of β-alanine/glycine increasing with increasing aqueous alteration [10,11]. In addition, our results show that the isovaline detected in this meteorite is racemic (D/L= 0.99 ± 0.08; L-enantiomer excess (%) = 0.35 ± 0.5; corrected D/L = 1.03; corrected L-enantiomer excess (%) = -1.4 ± 2.6). Although aqueous alteration does not create by itself an isovaline asymmetry, it may amplify a small enantiomeric excess. Therefore, our data may support the hypothesis that aqueous alteration is responsible for the high L-enantiomer excess of isovaline observed in the most aqueously altered carbonaceous meteorites [12,13]. Paris has n-alkanes ranging from C16 to C25 and 3- to 5-ring non-alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The lack of alkylated PAHs in Paris seems to be related to the low degree of aqueous alteration on its parent body [9,14]. The extra-terrestrial aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon content of Paris may have an interstellar origin

  20. EC Detector at SciBooNE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariani, Camillo

    2009-04-01

    SciBooNE is an experiment to measure neutrino and anti-neutrino cross-sections on the Booster Neutrino Beam at Fermilab. The EC is an extruded lead sheets and scintillating fibers "spaghetti calorimeter" to provide longitudinal containment and energy measurement for electrons and photons.

  1. Training Endusers on MathSci Disc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sichel, Beatrice

    1991-01-01

    Describes how the physical sciences library at Western Michigan University introduced a mathematical database on CD-ROM and trained patrons to conduct their own searches. The "Mathematical Reviews" database (entitled MathSci Disc) is described, and three types of training are discussed: informal demonstrations, self-instructional guides, and…

  2. Non-Existence of Global Solutions For a Quasilinear Benney System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antontsev, S.; Dias, J. P.; Figueira, M.; Oliveira, F.

    2011-06-01

    Benney introduced in 1977 (cf. Stud Appl Math 56:81-94, 1977) a general strategy for deriving systems of nonlinear PDEs describing the interaction between long and short waves. In Dias et al. (CR Acad Sci Paris I 344:493-496, 2007) we have studied the local existence and unicity of solutions to a quasilinear version of these systems. In the present paper we prove that in some important cases global strong solutions do not exist.

  3. [Pierre Bayen (Chalons-sur-Marne 1725-Paris 1798), organizer of military pharmacy, chemist].

    PubMed

    Labrude, P

    1999-01-01

    Pierre Bayen was born in Chalons in 1725. Pupil in pharmacy in Reims and in Paris, he begun his military career during the "Expedition de Minorque". After the "Guerre de Sept-Ans", named major apothecary, he had to organize the military pharmacy. At the end of his life, he was named general inspector of the medical corps. Member of the College de pharmacie, he devoted a great deal of his time to chemical research and he was named as a member of the Institut national de France when it was created. Bayen is one of the founders of analytical chemistry and of mineralogy. His results on the toxicology of pewter plates were famous. He is one of the precursors of the discovery of oxygen and one of the creators of modern chemistry. Bayen died in Paris in 1798. PMID:11625658

  4. Application techniques for plaster of paris back slab, resting splint, and thumb spica using ridged reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Chow, Jason; Hsu, Shelly; Kwok, Daniel; Reagh, Jessica

    2013-09-01

    Immobilization of fractures with plaster of Paris is a mainstay of management of stable, nondisplaced fractures not requiring fixation. However, application techniques can be variable and are often ineffective after the patient is discharged because of weakness and wear of the plaster. This can lead to displacement of fractures and inadequate analgesia. We describe a simple, inexpensive, effective technique to ensure plaster strength and immobilization. PMID:23657008

  5. Intense Particulate Pollution Events Observed with Lidar over the Paris Megalopolis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chazette, Patrick; Royer, Philippe

    2016-06-01

    The great particulate pollution event that affected the Paris Megalopolis in March 2014 was due to long-range transport from the northern-northeastern Europe. Although this phenomenon has appeared as exceptional in the media, this is not an exception and similar events have already been observed by lidar measurements. Here we will briefly describe and illustrate the origin of this intense pollution obviously harmful to health.

  6. Thermal structure of the Paris Basin from tectonic-Heat Flow modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonté, Damien; van Wees, Jan-Diederik; Guillou-Frottier, Laurent; Cloetingh, Sierd

    2015-04-01

    Located on the inner part of the Variscan Orogen, the Paris Basin has evolved from the Permo-Carboniferous as an intracratonic basin. The usual description of the sediments in the Paris Basin involves imbricated bowl shaped layers, starting from the Triassic. Due to their discontinuity, depth and complexity the Permian and Carboniferous layers have been commonly left aside. Fortunately, recent studies have been completed to looks specifically at these deeper sedimentary layers. With the development of geothermal energy and the widely use shallow medium enthalpy geothermal resources in the Paris Basin (Dogger) these pre-Mesozoic sediments are of a lot of interest. In this work, we use a tectonic-heat flow modelling methodology to model the present day thermal structure of the Paris Basin. The modelling takes into account the geometry of the layering and the petrophysical parameters (i.e., thermal conductivity, the radiogenic heat production of the sedimentary layers in relation with their facies). In addition, the upper part of the basement is closely considered to allow the description of magmatic intrusions that could have a major impact on the present day temperature (i.e., the variation of the radiogenic heat production). To assess the result of our thermal modelling, the obtained temperature is compared to BHT's (Bottom Hole Temperature) and DST's (Drill Stem Test) values when available. As a result of this modelling, we are able to present present-day temperature within the basin as well as in the shallower part of the basement. The aim of this work is identify the sources of the temperature perturbation. The impact of the sediment's thermal conductivity has already been assed on a previous work, in this work the deeper source of perturbation are of great interest (thermal conductivity and heat production of the pre-Mesozoic sedimentary layers, heat production of magmatic intrusion in the basement, and regional faults in the sediments and basement).

  7. Paris Observatory Analysis Center (OPAR): Report on Activities, January - December 2012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Sebastien; Barache, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    We report on activities of the Paris Observatory VLBI Analysis Center (OPAR) for calendar year 2012 concerning the development of operational tasks, the development of our Web site, and various other activities: monitoring of the Earth's free core nutation, measuring of the post-seismic displacements of some stations, and the analysis of the recent IVS R&D sessions, including observations of quasars close to the Sun.

  8. Containment system for experiments on radioactive and other hazardous materials in a Paris-Edinburgh press

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jacobsen, M. K.; Velisavljevic, N.

    2015-11-01

    Recent technical developments using the large volume Paris-Edinburgh press platform have enabled x-ray synchrotron studies at high pressure and temperature conditions. However, its application to some materials of interest, such as high hazard materials that require special handling due to safety issues, reactivity, or other challenges, has not been feasible without the introduction of special containment systems to eliminate the hazards. However, introduction of a containment system is challenging due to the requirement to provide full safety containment for operation in the variety of environments available, while not hindering any of the experimental probes that are available for inert samplemore » measurement. In this work, we report on the development and implementation of a full safety enclosure for a Paris-Edinburgh type press. During the initial development and subsequent application stage of work, experiments were performed on both cerium dioxide (CeO2) and uranium (U). As a result, this device allows for full implementation of all currently available experimental probes involving the Paris-Edinburgh press at the High Pressure Collaborative Access Team sector of the Advanced Photon Source.« less

  9. Inversions of CO2 Emissions from the Paris Area Using Yearlong Measurement Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staufer, J.; Broquet, G.; Bréon, F. M.; Puygrenier, V.; Xueref-Remy, I.; Ramonet, M.; Perrussel, O.; Chevallier, F.; Dieudonné, E.; Lopez, M.; Schmidt, M.; Ciais, P.

    2014-12-01

    Estimates of fossil fuel CO2 emission from urban areas rely on inventories that are based upon energy-use consumption for different fuel types, various socio-economic activity data and emission factors. There is growing interest in improving those estimates by using an atmospheric inversion approach based on transport modeling and CO2 measurements. Bréon et al. (ACPD, 2014) have recently developed a Bayesian inversion framework to control the daily CO2 fluxes of the Paris urban area during a 2 months period. The inversion framework relies on the transport model CHIMERE with a 2 km spatial resolution and uses atmospheric CO2 concentrations measurements obtained from three monitoring stations at the edge of the Paris urban area, installed as part of the CO2-MEGAPARIS and ICOS-France projects. The method relies on the measured daytime CO2 gradients between up- and downwind stations to correct the prior 6-hour mean emissions of the Paris area, given by the AIRPARIF regional air quality monitoring agency. The system, however, relies on the spatial distribution of the AIRPARIF inventory and does not attempt at correcting it. Here, we apply the inversion framework to one year of atmospheric CO2 observations (August 2010 - July 2011). We show that the results for the monthly budgets exhibit a reasonable seasonal cycle. We check that the sensitivity to the prior estimates of the monthly budgets and to the meteorological forcing to CHIMERE is low, which demonstrates that the system is strongly controlled by observations.

  10. Containment system for experiments on radioactive and other hazardous materials in a Paris-Edinburgh press

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobsen, M. K. Velisavljevic, N.

    2015-11-15

    Recent technical developments using the large volume Paris-Edinburgh press platform have enabled x-ray synchrotron studies at high pressure and temperature conditions. However, its application to some materials of interest, such as high hazard materials that require special handling due to safety issues, reactivity, or other challenges, has not been feasible without the introduction of special containment systems to eliminate the hazards. However, introduction of a containment system is challenging due to the requirement to provide full safety containment for operation in the variety of environments available, while not hindering any of the experimental probes that are available for inert sample measurement. In this work, we report on the development and implementation of a full safety enclosure for a Paris-Edinburgh type press. During the initial development and subsequent application stage of work, experiments were performed on both cerium dioxide (CeO{sub 2}) and uranium (U). This device allows for full implementation of all currently available experimental probes involving the Paris-Edinburgh press at the High Pressure Collaborative Access Team sector of the Advanced Photon Source.

  11. Containment system for experiments on radioactive and other hazardous materials in a Paris-Edinburgh press

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, M. K.; Velisavljevic, N.

    2015-11-01

    Recent technical developments using the large volume Paris-Edinburgh press platform have enabled x-ray synchrotron studies at high pressure and temperature conditions. However, its application to some materials of interest, such as high hazard materials that require special handling due to safety issues, reactivity, or other challenges, has not been feasible without the introduction of special containment systems to eliminate the hazards. However, introduction of a containment system is challenging due to the requirement to provide full safety containment for operation in the variety of environments available, while not hindering any of the experimental probes that are available for inert sample measurement. In this work, we report on the development and implementation of a full safety enclosure for a Paris-Edinburgh type press. During the initial development and subsequent application stage of work, experiments were performed on both cerium dioxide (CeO2) and uranium (U). This device allows for full implementation of all currently available experimental probes involving the Paris-Edinburgh press at the High Pressure Collaborative Access Team sector of the Advanced Photon Source.

  12. Containment system for experiments on radioactive and other hazardous materials in a Paris-Edinburgh press.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, M K; Velisavljevic, N

    2015-11-01

    Recent technical developments using the large volume Paris-Edinburgh press platform have enabled x-ray synchrotron studies at high pressure and temperature conditions. However, its application to some materials of interest, such as high hazard materials that require special handling due to safety issues, reactivity, or other challenges, has not been feasible without the introduction of special containment systems to eliminate the hazards. However, introduction of a containment system is challenging due to the requirement to provide full safety containment for operation in the variety of environments available, while not hindering any of the experimental probes that are available for inert sample measurement. In this work, we report on the development and implementation of a full safety enclosure for a Paris-Edinburgh type press. During the initial development and subsequent application stage of work, experiments were performed on both cerium dioxide (CeO2) and uranium (U). This device allows for full implementation of all currently available experimental probes involving the Paris-Edinburgh press at the High Pressure Collaborative Access Team sector of the Advanced Photon Source. PMID:26628148

  13. Alkylphenolic compounds and bisphenol A contamination within a heavily urbanized area: case study of Paris.

    PubMed

    Cladière, Mathieu; Gasperi, Johnny; Lorgeoux, Catherine; Bonhomme, Céline; Rocher, Vincent; Tassin, Bruno

    2013-05-01

    This study evaluates the influence of a heavily urbanized area (Paris Metropolitan area), on receiving water contamination by both bisphenol A (BPA) and alkylphenol ethoxylate (APE) biodegradation product. The study began by investigating concentrations within urban sources. In addition to the more commonly studied wastewater treatment plant effluent, wet weather urban sources (including combined sewer overflows, urban runoff, and total atmospheric fallout) were considered. The initial results highlight a significant contamination of all urban sources (from a few nanograms per liter in atmospheric fallout to several micrograms per liter in the other sources) with clearly distinguishable distribution patterns. Secondly, concentration changes along the Seine River from upstream of the Paris Metropolitan area to downstream were investigated. While the concentrations of BPA and nonylphenoxy acetic acid (NP₁EC) increase substantially due to urban sources, the 4-nonylphenol concentrations remain homogeneous along the Seine. These results suggest a broad dissemination of 4-nonylphenol at the scale of the Seine River basin. Moreover, the relationship between pollutant concentrations and Seine River flow was assessed both upstream and downstream of the Paris conurbation. Consequently, a sharp decrease in dissolved NP1EC concentrations relative to Seine River flow underscores the influence of single-point urban pollution on Seine River contamination. Conversely, dissolved 4-nonylphenol concentrations serve to reinforce the hypothesis of its widespread presence at the Seine River basin scale. PMID:23054786

  14. Hydrocarbon pollution fixed to combined sewer sediment: a case study in Paris.

    PubMed

    Rocher, Vincent; Garnaud, Stéphane; Moilleron, Régis; Chebbo, Ghassan

    2004-02-01

    Over a period of two years (2000-2001), sediment samples were extracted from 40 silt traps (STs) spread through the combined sewer system of Paris. All sediment samples were analysed for physico-chemical parameters (pH, organic matter content, grain size distribution), with total hydrocarbons (THs) and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) selected from the priority list of the US-EPA. The two main objectives of the study were (1) to determine the hydrocarbon contamination levels in the sediments of the Paris combined sewer system and (2) to investigate the PAH fingerprints in order to assess their spatial variability and to elucidate the PAH origins. The results show that there is some important inter-site and intra-site variations in hydrocarbon contents. Despite this variability, TH and PAH contamination levels (50th percentile) in the Parisian sewer sediment are estimated at 530 and 18 microg g(-1), respectively. The investigation of the aromatic compound distributions in all of the 40 STs has underlined that there is, at the Paris sewer system scale, a homogeneous PAH background pollution. Moreover, the study of the PAH fingerprints, using specific ratios, suggests the predominance of a pyrolytic origin for those PAHs fixed to the sewer sediment. PMID:14637336

  15. Three-dimensional modeling of the mixing state of particles over Greater Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Shupeng; Sartelet, Karine; Zhang, Yang; Nenes, Athanasios

    2016-05-01

    A size-composition resolved aerosol model (SCRAM) is coupled to the Polyphemus air quality platform and evaluated over Greater Paris. SCRAM simulates the particle mixing state and solves the aerosol dynamic evolution taking into account the processes of coagulation, condensation/evaporation, and nucleation. Both the size and mass fractions of chemical components of particles are discretized. The performance of SCRAM to model air quality over Greater Paris is evaluated by comparison to PM2.5, PM10, and Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) measurements. Because air quality models usually assume that particles are internally mixed, the impact of the mixing state on aerosols formation, composition, optical properties, and their ability to be activated as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) is investigated. The simulation results show that more than half (up to 80% during rush hours) of black carbon particles are barely mixed at the urban site of Paris, while they are more mixed with organic species at a rural site. The comparisons between the internal-mixing simulation and the mixing state-resolved simulation show that the internal-mixing assumption leads to lower nitrate and higher ammonium concentrations in the particulate phase. Moreover, the internal-mixing assumption leads to lower single scattering albedo, and the difference of aerosol optical depth caused by the mixing state assumption can be as high as 72.5%. Furthermore, the internal-mixing assumption leads to lower CCN activation percentage at low supersaturation, but higher CCN activation percentage at high supersaturation.

  16. FOOD SHOPPING BEHAVIORS AND SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS INFLUENCE OBESITY RATES IN SEATTLE AND IN PARIS

    PubMed Central

    Drewnowski, Adam; Moudon, Anne Vernez; Jiao, Junfeng; Aggarwal, Anju; Charreire, Helene; Chaix, Basile

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the associations between food environment at the individual level, socioeconomic status (SES) and obesity rates in two cities: Seattle and Paris. Methods Analyses of the SOS (Seattle Obesity Study) were based on a representative sample of 1340 adults in metropolitan Seattle and King County. The RECORD (Residential Environment and Coronary Heart Disease) cohort analyses were based on 7,131 adults in central Paris and suburbs. Data on socio-demographics, health and weight were obtained from a telephone survey (SOS) and from in-person interviews (RECORD). Both studies collected data on and geocoded home addresses and food shopping locations. Both studies calculated GIS network distances between home and the supermarket that study respondents listed as their primary food source. Supermarkets were further stratified into three categories by price. Modified Poisson regression models were used to test the associations among food environment variables, SES and obesity. Results Physical distance to supermarkets was unrelated to obesity risk. By contrast, lower education and incomes, lower surrounding property values, and shopping at lower-cost stores were consistently associated with higher obesity risk. Conclusion Lower SES was linked to higher obesity risk in both Paris and Seattle, despite differences in urban form, the food environments, and in the respective systems of health care. Cross-country comparisons can provide new insights into the social determinants of weight and health. PMID:23736365

  17. Containment system for experiments on radioactive and other hazardous materials in a Paris-Edinburgh press

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobsen, M. K.; Velisavljevic, N.

    2015-11-20

    Recent technical developments using the large volume Paris-Edinburgh press platform have enabled x-ray synchrotron studies at high pressure and temperature conditions. However, its application to some materials of interest, such as high hazard materials that require special handling due to safety issues, reactivity, or other challenges, has not been feasible without the introduction of special containment systems to eliminate the hazards. However, introduction of a containment system is challenging due to the requirement to provide full safety containment for operation in the variety of environments available, while not hindering any of the experimental probes that are available for inert sample measurement. In this work, we report on the development and implementation of a full safety enclosure for a Paris-Edinburgh type press. During the initial development and subsequent application stage of work, experiments were performed on both cerium dioxide (CeO2) and uranium (U). As a result, this device allows for full implementation of all currently available experimental probes involving the Paris-Edinburgh press at the High Pressure Collaborative Access Team sector of the Advanced Photon Source.

  18. Simulating gas and aerosol concentrations in the Paris area using different land surface models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khvorostyanov, Dmitry; Menut, Laurent; Dupont, Jean-Charles; Morille, Yoann; Haeffelin, Martial

    2010-05-01

    Regional air quality forecasting depends on the performance of weather forecast models used to drive chemistry-transport models. The widely used Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model provides a few land surface schemes (LSMs) to compute heat and moisture fluxes over land surface. The LSMs differ in complexity and approaches used. We performed WRF simulations for 15 and 5 km resolution nested domains over the North of France and Paris, respectively, for summer 2008. We used the four LSMs provided with WRF: 6-layer Rapid Update Cycle (RUC), 5-layer thermal diffusion, 2-layer Pleim-Xiu scheme (together with the Pleim-Xiu surface layer and the ACM boundary layer models), and 4-layer Noah scheme. The SIRTA atmospheric observatory located in Paris area provides in situ data of measurements for a number of meteorological parameters, as well as vertical profiles measured by a lidar. The simulation results were compared to the SIRTA measurement data. In order to quantify possible impacts of the LSMs to simulated gas and aerosol concentrations in the Paris region, we use a chemistry-transport model CHIMERE forced by the corresponding WRF meteorological fields. Implications for the regional air quality forecasting will be discussed.

  19. Steroidal saponins with antimicrobial activity from stems and leaves of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xu-Jie; Sun, Dong-Jie; Ni, Wei; Chen, Chang-Xiang; Hua, Yan; He, Li; Liu, Hai-Yang

    2012-10-01

    Rhizoma Paridis, the root of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis (Trilliaceae), is a Chinese traditional medicine, which resources become less and less. However, the aerial parts of this herb, which can regenerate every year, were discarded. In order to expand the resources, detailed chemical investigation on the stems and leaves of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis led to isolation of one sapogenin and 24 steroidal saponins (1-25), including 6 new glycosides, named chonglouosides SL-1-SL-6 (1-6). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of detailed analyses of their 1D and 2D NMR spectra and acid hydrolysis. Among them, compounds 3 and 4 are the first 23,27-dihydroxydiosgenin saponin having a sugar chain attached to C-23 or C-27, while compound 6 is the first 27-hydroxyruscogenin glycoside bearing 1, 27-di-O-sugar chains. The known compounds 10, 12, 14, 19, 20, 22, and 25 were isolated from the genus Paris for the first time. Antimicrobial testing activities of the selected compounds showed that compound 2, 3, 6, 8, 9, 11, 13, 17, 18, 21, and 24 were active against Propionibacterium acnes with MIC values of 62.5, 62.5, 3.9, 16.5, 17.2, 7.8, 39.0, 17.2, 31.3, 62.5, and 31.3 μg/ml, respectively. PMID:22846376

  20. Riboflavin-responsive oxidative phosphorylation complex I deficiency caused by defective ACAD9: new function for an old gene.

    PubMed

    Gerards, Mike; van den Bosch, Bianca J C; Danhauser, Katharina; Serre, Valérie; van Weeghel, Michel; Wanders, Ronald J A; Nicolaes, Gerry A F; Sluiter, Wim; Schoonderwoerd, Kees; Scholte, Hans R; Prokisch, Holger; Rötig, Agnès; de Coo, Irenaeus F M; Smeets, Hubert J M

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondrial complex I deficiency is the most common oxidative phosphorylation defect. Mutations have been detected in mitochondrial and nuclear genes, but the genetics of many patients remain unresolved and new genes are probably involved. In a consanguineous family, patients presented easy fatigability, exercise intolerance and lactic acidosis in blood from early childhood. In muscle, subsarcolemmal mitochondrial proliferation and a severe complex I deficiency were observed. Exercise intolerance and complex I activity was improved by a supplement of riboflavin at high dosage. Homozygosity mapping revealed a candidate region on chromosome three containing six mitochondria-related genes. Four genes were screened for mutations and a homozygous substitution was identified in ACAD9 (c.1594 C>T), changing the highly conserved arginine-532 into tryptophan. This mutation was absent in 188 ethnically matched controls. Protein modelling suggested a functional effect due to the loss of a stabilizing hydrogen bond in an α-helix and a local flexibility change. To test whether the ACAD9 mutation caused the complex I deficiency, we transduced fibroblasts of patients with wild-type and mutant ACAD9. Wild-type, but not mutant, ACAD9 restored complex I activity. An unrelated patient with the same phenotype was compound heterozygous for c.380 G>A and c.1405 C>T, changing arginine-127 into glutamine and arginine-469 into tryptophan, respectively. These amino acids were highly conserved and the substitutions were not present in controls, making them very probably pathogenic. Our data support a new function for ACAD9 in complex I function, making this gene an important new candidate for patients with complex I deficiency, which could be improved by riboflavin treatment. PMID:20929961

  1. Volatile Organic Compounds source contributions in Paris: Measurement and modeling approaches. Focus on the traffic source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gros, Valerie; Petetin, Hervé; Sarda-Estève, Roland; Kalogridis, Cerise; Baudic, Alexia; Bonnaire, Nicolas; Bonsang, Bernard; Xueref-Rémy, Irène; Ammoura, Lamia; Le Priol, Tiphaine; François Petit, Jean; Sanchez, Olivier; Rosso, Amandine; Perrussel, Olivier; Petit, Jean-Eudes; Sciare, Jean

    2013-04-01

    Paris is one of the few European megacities and with 11 Million inhabitants, almost 1/5 French population lives in Paris and its region. The EU-MEGAPOLI project allowed a detailed characterization of gaseous and particulate pollution in Paris in summer (July 2009) and winter (Jan-Feb 2010). Studies about VOCs source contributions performed for these periods have suggested the importance of traffic emissions, in contradiction with the local emission inventory, for which solvent source is the dominant VOC source in Paris. In order to examine the representativity of such conclusions, one-year (March 2010- March 2011) of continuous measurements of VOCs have been performed at the same urban site in Paris (as part of a French program PRIMEQUAL-FRANCIPOL). In addition, VOCs measurements (along with other gaseous and aerosol compounds) have been performed in a tunnel in order to better characterize the traffic source (October 2012, PRIMEQUAL -PREQUALIF project). Preliminary results will be presented here from this unique dataset, with a focus made on oxygenated compounds (methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone) and aromatic compounds (benzene, toluene, xylens...). We will show that the daily variability of oxygenated compounds is mainly linked to the local traffic source, as suggested by their co-variation with other compounds related to traffic emissions (CO, xylens...). In addition to this local source, we will show that oxygenated compounds baseline concentration levels are significantly enhanced during specific events (of a few day duration) characterized by continental air masses. Surprisingly other long-lived compounds (CO) appear to be much less affected by these events, providing evidences that the nature of these continental sources is not yet well established. Results from VOCs source contributions identification, quantification and geographical origin (Positive Matrix Factorization and Potential Source Contribution Function approaches) will be presented as well as

  2. Measurement of fossil fuel carbon dioxide and other anthropogenic trace gases from MEGAPOLI intensive campaign in Paris during winter 2010.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, M.; Schmidt, M.; Delmotte, M.; Gros, V.; Mondelain, D.; Lehman, S. J.; Ramonet, M.; Vuillemin, C.; Xueref-Remy, I.

    2012-04-01

    The Paris agglomeration is the third biggest megacity in Europe (12 million inhabitants) and according to national emission inventories, is responsible for 15 % of the French anthropogenic CO2 emissions mainly originating from road transport, and residential and industrial energy consumption. The objective of our feasibility study was to design an efficient monitoring strategy in order to quantify future trends in anthropogenic CO2 emission in Paris area. During the winter campaign of the European project MEGAPOLI and the French project CO2-MEGAPARIS, we performed measurements of CO2 and related trace gases from January to February 2010. The RAMCES (Atmospheric Network for Greenhouse Gases Monitoring) team at LSCE monitored CO2 and CO mixing ratio with high temporal resolution using instruments based on Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) in the thirteenth arrondissement of Paris (south). We also sampled air in more than fifty flasks covering three full days at the same place. Flask were analysed in the RAMCES central laboratory with a Gas Chromatograph system for CO2, CO, CH4, N2O, SF6 and H2 mixing ratios and also by Mass Spectroscopy for CO2 isotopic ratios (δ13C and δ18O). In order to quantify the fossil fuel CO2 (CO2ff) most flasks were analysed at INSTAAR for Δ14C in CO2. In addition, 13CO2 isotopic ratio and total CO2 concentration were measured at high temporal resolution (< 1 min) over three days at Paris with the SIMCO instrument developed at LPMAA. In parallel with the Paris measurements, in-situ CO2, CO and other trace gases were monitored at Gif-sur-Yvette, a semi urban station 20km south west of Paris and also at the Trainou tower, 100 km south of Paris. Similar synoptic variations of CO2and CO mixing ratios were found in Paris and Gif with maximum mixing ratio up to 495 ppm CO2 and 1000 ppb CO downtown Paris. The mean diurnal variation during this winter period shows a peak to peak amplitude of 15 ppm CO2 and 150 ppb CO at Paris and 10 ppm CO2

  3. Opening Comments: SciDAC 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strayer, Michael

    2008-07-01

    Welcome to Seattle and the 2008 SciDAC Conference. This conference, the fourth in the series, is a continuation of the PI meetings we first began under SciDAC-1. I would like to start by thanking the organizing committee, and Rick Stevens in particular, for organizing this year's meeting. This morning I would like to look briefly at SciDAC, to give you a brief history of SciDAC and also look ahead to see where we plan to go over the next few years. I think the best description of SciDAC, at least the simulation part, comes from a quote from Dr Ray Orbach, DOE's Under Secretary for Science and Director of the Office of Science. In an interview that appeared in the SciDAC Review magazine, Dr Orbach said, `SciDAC is unique in the world. There isn't any other program like it anywhere else, and it has the remarkable ability to do science by bringing together physical scientists, mathematicians, applied mathematicians, and computer scientists who recognize that computation is not something you do at the end, but rather it needs to be built into the solution of the very problem that one is addressing'. Of course, that is extended not just to physical scientists, but also to biological scientists. This is a theme of computational science, this partnership among disciplines, which goes all the way back to the early 1980s and Ken Wilson. It's a unique thread within the Department of Energy. SciDAC-1, launched around the turn of the millennium, created a new generation of scientific simulation codes. It advocated building out mathematical and computing system software in support of science and a new collaboratory software environment for data. The original concept for SciDAC-1 had topical centers for the execution of the various science codes, but several corrections and adjustments were needed. The ASCR scientific computing infrastructure was also upgraded, providing the hardware facilities for the program. The computing facility that we had at that time was the big 3

  4. Thymosin alpha1. SciClone Pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Billich, Andreas

    2002-05-01

    Thymosin alpha1 (Talpha1), a synthetic 28-amino acid peptide with multiple biological activities primarily directed towards immune response enhancement, was originally developed by Alpha 1 Biomedicals for the treatment of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. SciClone developed and launched Talpha1, under the trade name Zadaxin, for the treatment of HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. The drug is also being developed for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), hepatocellular carcinoma, AIDS and malignant melanoma. Talpha1 is able to potentiate the action of cytokines and also reduce the hematological toxicity of cytotoxic drug therapy (cyclophosphamide-, 5-fluorouracil-, dacarbazine- or ifosfamide-based regimens). These studies also demonstrated the mechanism of action of Talpha1 and its role as an immune system enhancer. By July 2001, it was in phase III trials in the US in combination with PEGylated interferon-alpha, and later the same month it was approved in the Philippines. SciClone received expanded approval for HBV and HCV infection in Mexico in July 2001. Talpha1 has been launched in Argentina, China, Peru, the Philippines and Singapore for the treatment of chronic HBV infection. The product subsequently received expanded approval for the treatment of both HBV and HCV infection in Argentina. Marketing approval was granted in India for HBV infection in February 2001. The company was working to expand this approval to include HCV infection. In March 2000, approval for treatment of HBV infection was granted in Thailand, Laos and Malta. Approval was also granted in Sri Lanka and Brunei in August 1999. In September 2000, SciClone announced that approval had been expanded to include the treatment of HCV infection as well as the previously approved HBV indication in both Peru and Sri Lanka. In January 1999, SciClone received approval for Talpha1 in Venezuela for the treatment of HBV and HCV infection. The company also filed a marketing

  5. Sci-Math: Applications in Proportional Problem Solving. Module Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodstein, Madeline P.

    Sci-Math is an interdisciplinary curriculum intended to help students develop the math skills needed for science, especially dimensional analysis, ratio, and the concept of proportion. Sci-Math is divided into two modules with each module having a student and teacher's guide. Module one is a pre-algebra module dealing with the arithmetic and logic…

  6. Sci-Math: Applications in Proportional Problem Solving. Module One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodstein, Madeline P.

    Sci-Math is an interdisciplinary curriculum intended to help students develop the math skills needed for science, especially dimensional analysis, ratio, and the concept of proportion. Sci-Math is divided into two modules with each module having a student and teacher's guide. This module is a pre-algebra module dealing with the arithmetic and…

  7. Development and initial evaluation of the SCI-FI/AT

    PubMed Central

    Jette, Alan M.; Slavin, Mary D.; Ni, Pengsheng; Kisala, Pamela A.; Tulsky, David S.; Heinemann, Allen W.; Charlifue, Susie; Tate, Denise G.; Fyffe, Denise; Morse, Leslie; Marino, Ralph; Smith, Ian; Williams, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe the domain structure and calibration of the Spinal Cord Injury Functional Index for samples using Assistive Technology (SCI-FI/AT) and report the initial psychometric properties of each domain. Design Cross sectional survey followed by computerized adaptive test (CAT) simulations. Setting Inpatient and community settings. Participants A sample of 460 adults with traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) stratified by level of injury, completeness of injury, and time since injury. Interventions None Main outcome measure SCI-FI/AT Results Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and Item response theory (IRT) analyses identified 4 unidimensional SCI-FI/AT domains: Basic Mobility (41 items) Self-care (71 items), Fine Motor Function (35 items), and Ambulation (29 items). High correlations of full item banks with 10-item simulated CATs indicated high accuracy of each CAT in estimating a person's function, and there was high measurement reliability for the simulated CAT scales compared with the full item bank. SCI-FI/AT item difficulties in the domains of Self-care, Fine Motor Function, and Ambulation were less difficult than the same items in the original SCI-FI item banks. Conclusion With the development of the SCI-FI/AT, clinicians and investigators have available multidimensional assessment scales that evaluate function for users of AT to complement the scales available in the original SCI-FI. PMID:26010975

  8. Evaluation and Management of SCI-Associated Pain.

    PubMed

    Saulino, Michael; Averna, Justin F

    2016-09-01

    Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating neurological condition. Treatment of SCI-related pain is challenging for the treating physician, as normal neural pathways are disrupted. Patients with SCI consistently rate pain as one of the most difficult problems associated with their injury. SCI-related pain can be refractory and complete relief is often not possible. The multidimensional nature of SCI-related pain affects the neural system including autonomic nervous system deregulation and can alter metabolic and biochemical processes throughout the body. Co-morbid psychological illnesses such as depression and adjustment disorder are seen in a significant percentage of patients. Despite a better understanding of the underlying pain mechanisms and advances in procedural, pharmacologic, and non-pharmacologic therapies, treatment of pain after SCI remains elusive. This manuscript reviews the current evidence-based evaluation and management of the SCI patient with the overarching goal of providing appropriate and effective management of their pain. In particular, additional well-designed studies are needed to help elucidate effective treatments for SCI-related neuropathic pain in an effort to help provide these patients with better management of their pain and improve their quality of life. PMID:27474095

  9. Formation of secondary organic aerosol in the Paris pollution plume and its impact on surrounding regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Q. J.; Beekmann, M.; Freney, E.; Sellegri, K.; Pichon, J. M.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Colomb, A.; Bourrianne, T.; Michoud, V.; Borbon, A.

    2015-12-01

    Secondary pollutants such as ozone, secondary inorganic aerosol, and secondary organic aerosol formed in the plumes of megacities can affect regional air quality. In the framework of the FP7/EU MEGAPOLI (Megacities: Emissions, urban, regional and Global Atmospheric POLlution and climate effects, and Integrated tools for assessment and mitigation) project, an intensive campaign was launched in the greater Paris region in July 2009. The major objective was to quantify different sources of organic aerosol (OA) within a megacity and in its plume. In this study, we use airborne measurements aboard the French ATR-42 aircraft to evaluate the regional chemistry-transport model CHIMERE within and downwind of the Paris region. Two mechanisms of secondary OA (SOA) formation are used, both including SOA formation from oxidation and chemical aging of primary semivolatile and intermediate volatility organic compounds (SI-SOA) in the volatility basis set (VBS) framework. As for SOA formed from traditional VOC (volatile organic compound) precursors (traditional SOA), one applies chemical aging in the VBS framework adopting different SOA yields for high- and low-NOx environments, while another applies a single-step oxidation scheme without chemical aging. Two emission inventories are used for discussion of emission uncertainties. The slopes of the airborne OA levels versus Ox (i.e., O3 + NO2) show SOA formation normalized with respect to photochemical activity and are used for specific evaluation of the OA scheme in the model. The simulated slopes were overestimated slightly by factors of 1.1, 1.7 and 1.3 with respect to those observed for the three airborne measurements, when the most realistic "high-NOx" yields for traditional SOA formation in the VBS scheme are used in the model. In addition, these slopes are relatively stable from one day to another, which suggests that they are characteristic for the given megacity plume environment. The configuration with increased primary

  10. Measurement of fossil fuel carbon dioxide and other anthropogenic trace gases from MEGAPOLI intensive campaign in Paris during winter 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, M.; Schmidt, M.; Delmotte, M.; Gros, V.; Mondelain, D.; Lehman, S.; Ramonet, M.; Vuillemin, C.; Xueref-remy, I. C.

    2012-12-01

    The Paris agglomeration is the third biggest megacity in Europe (12 million inhabitants) and according to national emission inventories, is responsible for 15 % of the French anthropogenic CO2 emissions mainly originating from road transport, residential and industrial energy consumption. The objective of our feasibility study was to design an efficient monitoring strategy in order to quantify future trends in anthropogenic CO2 emission in Paris area. During the winter campaign of the European project MEGAPOLI and French project CO2-MEGAPARIS, we performed measurements of CO2 and related trace gases from January to February 2010. The RAMCES (Atmospheric Network for Greenhouse Gases Monitoring) team at LSCE monitored CO2 and CO mixing ratio with high temporal resolution using instruments based on Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) in the thirteenth arrondissement of Paris (south). We also sampled air in more than fifty flasks covering three full days at the same place. Flasks were analysed in the RAMCES central laboratory with a Gas Chromatograph system for CO2, CO, CH4, N2O, SF6 and H2 mixing ratios and also by Mass Spectroscopy for CO2 isotopic ratios (δ13C and δ18O). In order to quantify the fossil fuel CO2 (CO2ff) most flasks were analysed at INSTAAR for Δ14C in CO2. In addition, 13CO2 isotopic ratio and total CO2 concentration were measured at high temporal resolution (< 1 min) over three days at Paris with Tunable Diode Laser Spectroscope developed at LPMAA. In parallel with the Paris measurements, in-situ CO2, CO and other trace gases were monitored at Gif-sur-Yvette, a semi urban station 20km south west of Paris. Similar synoptic variations of CO2 and CO mixing ratios were found in Paris and Gif with maximum mixing ratio up to 495 ppm CO2 and 1000 ppb CO downtown Paris. The mean diurnal variation during this winter period shows peak to peak amplitude of 15 ppm CO2 and 150 ppb CO at Paris and 10 ppm CO2 and 40 CO ppb at Gif station. We focused on CO and

  11. Experiences using SciPy for computer vision research

    SciTech Connect

    Eads, Damian R; Rosten, Edward J

    2008-01-01

    SciPy is an effective tool suite for prototyping new algorithms. We share some of our experiences using it for the first time to support our research in object detection. SciPy makes it easy to integrate C code, which is essential when algorithms operating on large data sets cannot be vectorized. The universality of Python, the language in which SciPy was written, gives the researcher access to a broader set of non-numerical libraries to support GUI development, interface with databases, manipulate graph structures. render 3D graphics, unpack binary files, etc. Python's extensive support for operator overloading makes SciPy's syntax as succinct as its competitors, MATLAB, Octave, and R. More profoundly, we found it easy to rework research code written with SciPy into a production application, deployable on numerous platforms.

  12. The contribution of Paris to limit global warming to 2 °C

    SciTech Connect

    Iyer, Gokul C.; Edmonds, James A.; Fawcett, Allen A.; Hultman, Nathan; Alsalam, Jameel; Asrar, Ghassem R.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Clarke, Leon E.; Creason, Jared; Jeong, Minji; McFarland, Jim; Mundra, Anupriya; Patel, Pralit L.; Shi, Wenjing; McJeon, Haewon C.

    2015-11-24

    International negotiators have clearly articulated a goal to limit global warming to 2°C. In preparation for the 21st Conference of Parties (COP21) in Paris in December 2015, countries are submitting their Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change indicating their emissions reduction commitments through 2025 or 2030. Limiting global warming to 2°C is a challenging goal and will entail a dramatic transformation of the global energy system, largely complete by 2040. The deliberations in Paris will help determine the balance of challenges faced in the near-term and long-term. We use GCAM, a global integrated assessment model, to analyze the energy and economic-cost implications of INDCs. The INDCs imply near-term actions that reduce the level of mitigation needed in the post-2030 period, particularly when compared with an alternative path, in which nations are unable to undertake emissions mitigation until after 2030. We find that the latter case could require up to 2300 GW of premature retirements of fossil fuel power plants and up to 2900 GW of additional low-carbon power capacity installations within a five-year period of 2031 to 2035. INDCs have the effect of reducing premature retirements and new-capacity installations after 2030 by 50% and 34% respectively. However, if presently announced INDCs were strengthened to achieve greater near-term emissions mitigation, the 2031-2035 transformation could be tempered to require 84% fewer premature retirements of power generation capacity and 56% fewer new-capacity additions. Our results suggest that the ensuing COP21 in Paris will be critical in shaping the challenges of limiting global warming to 2°C.

  13. Climate change and heat waves in Paris and London metropolitan areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dousset, B.

    2010-12-01

    Summer warming trends in Western and Central Europe and in Mediterranean regions are increasing the incidence, intensity, and duration of heat waves. Those extreme events are especially deadly in large cities, owing to high population densities, surface characteristics, heat island effects, anthropogenic heat and pollutants. In August 2003, a persistent anticyclone over Western Europe generated a heat wave of exceptional strength and duration with an estimated death toll of 70,000, including 4678 in the Paris region. A series of NOAA-AVHRR satellite thermal images over the Paris and London metropolitan areas, were used to analyze Land Surface Temperature (LST) and its related mortality. In the Paris region, LSTs were merged with land use and cover data to identify risk areas, and thermal indicators were produced at the addresses of ~ 500 elderly people to assess diurnal heat exposure. Results indicate: (i) contrasting night time and daytime heat island patterns related to land use and surface characteristics; (ii) the relation between night-time heat islands and heat waves intensity; (iii) the impact of elevated minimal temperatures on excess mortality, with a 0.5 °C increase doubling the risk of death, (in the temperature range of the heatwave); iv) the correlation between the spatial distribution of highest night-time LSTs and that of highest mortality ratios; and v) the significant impact of urban parks in the partitioning between latent and sensible surface heat fluxes, despite a prior warm and dry spring. Near-real time satellite monitoring of heat waves in urban areas improve our understanding of the LST processes and spatial variability, and of the related heat stress and mortality. These observations provide criteria for warning systems, contingency policies and planning, and climate adaptation and mitigation strategies.

  14. Pressure transient tests on geothermal wells in the Dogger aquifer, Paris Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    giuglaris, elodie; hamm, virginie

    2014-05-01

    In this work, we propose a new interpretation of pressure transient tests conducted in more than sixty wells targeting the Dogger formation in the Paris basin. The most part of these wells were drilled during the eighties over a very short period of time in an urban area. The transient tests were only recorded during a pressure buildup and show that contrary to what has long been assumed the Dogger aquifer behavior is not homogeneous. The interpretation of the obtained data was mainly done with Horner's method, independently for each well, and assuming generally that the aquifer is homogeneous. Available data from pressure transient tests are limited because of the precision of the tools used, and because pressure buildup was only recorded during eight to twelve hours. The objective was to determine the average transmissivity and the skin factor in order to obtain the productivity of the wells. We gather all available data, including those obtained on the thirteen recent wells, and propose a new interpretation in terms of aquifer model. We use the pressure derivative method developed in the nineties for oil reservoirs which allows a better visualization of the model and of the heterogeneity of the aquifer. Most of the well tests have a derivative pressure curve with a slope equal to zero, that does not change after the well bore effects, confirming that the aquifer is relatively homogenous. However on a dozen of wells, data from pressure transient tests display singular behaviors that can be related to a double porosity or double permeability model for some wells and to a composite model for others. These observations question the validity of a homogeneous model for the Dogger aquifer in the Paris basin and the currently used parameters for the thermal and hydrodynamic predictive model of geothermal exploitation. Finally, this work increases our understanding of the Dogger aquifer in the Paris basin and will allow the optimization of the ongoing hydraulic tests and

  15. Formation of secondary organic aerosol in the Paris pollution plume and its impact on surrounding regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Q. J.; Beekmann, M.; Freney, E.; Sellegri, K.; Pichon, J. M.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Colomb, A.; Bourrianne, T.; Michoud, V.; Borbon, A.

    2015-03-01

    Secondary pollutants such as ozone, secondary inorganic aerosol, and secondary organic aerosol formed in the plume of megacities can affect regional air quality. In the framework of the FP7/EU MEGAPOLI project, an intensive campaign was launched in the Greater Paris Region in July 2009. The major objective was to quantify different sources of organic aerosol (OA) within a megacity and in its plume. In this study, we use airborne measurements aboard the French ATR-42 aircraft to evaluate the regional chemistry-transport model CHIMERE within and downwind the Paris region. Slopes of the plume OA levels vs. Ox (= O3 + NO2) show secondary OA (SOA) formation normalized with respect to photochemical activity and are used for specific evaluation of the OA scheme in the model. Simulated and observed slopes are in good agreement, when the most realistic "high-NOx" yields are used in the Volatility-Basis-Set scheme implemented into the model. In addition, these slopes are relatively stable from one day to another, which suggest that they are characteristic for the given megacity plume environment. Since OA within the plume is mainly formed from anthropogenic precursors (VOC and primary OA, POA), this work allows a specific evaluation of anthropogenic SOA and SOA formed from primary semi-volatile and intermediate volatile VOCs (SI-SOA) formation scheme in a model. For specific plumes, this anthropogenic OA build-up can reach about 10 μg m-3. For the average of the month of July 2009, maximum increases occur close to the agglomeration for primary OA are noticed at several tens (for POA) to hundred (for SI-SOA) kilometers of distance from the Paris agglomeration.

  16. Traffic induced particle resuspension in Paris: Emission factors and source contributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amato, F.; Favez, O.; Pandolfi, M.; Alastuey, A.; Querol, X.; Moukhtar, S.; Bruge, B.; Verlhac, S.; Orza, J. A. G.; Bonnaire, N.; Le Priol, T.; Petit, J.-F.; Sciare, J.

    2016-03-01

    Gaining knowledge on the process of particle resuspension from urban paved roads is of particular importance considering the increasing relevance of this source in urban air quality management and the lack of basic information on emission factors and source contributions. In this study we performed extensive field measurements for the quantification of the emission factors from different types of road in the city of Paris, and investigated the causes of their variability and the contributions to the ambient air PM10 observed across one year at one traffic monitoring site in the ring road of Paris. Results show agreement between lower road dust loadings (RD10: 0.7-2.2 mg m-2) and emission factors (5.4-9.0 mg vehicle-1 km-1) at inner-roads of Paris, compared to the ring road (2.4 mg m-2 and 17 mg vehicle-1 km-1, respectively), where the two parameters are estimated independently. The higher values in the ring road were likely caused by the poor state of pavement and higher share of heavy duty vehicles. Road wear, brake wear and a carbonaceous source, were almost equally responsible for 96% of RD10. At the traffic monitoring site located at the ring road (220,000 vehicle/day), the contributions of road dust emissions were estimated by receptor modeling to be 13% of PM10 on an annual mean (6.3 μg m-3), while the sum of vehicle exhaust and wear accounted for 47% resulting in a total traffic contribution of 60% of PM10. Road salting resulted to be a minor contributor (1% of annual mean) also in winter time (2%).

  17. The cosmos of the Paris apartment: working-class family life in the nineteenth century.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Eliza

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on Bachelard's notion of “cosmicity” this article investigates the living conditions of Parisian working-class families in the second half of the nineteenth century. Nineteenth-century social critics claimed that the lack of privacy in urban apartments made decent family life impossible. However, evidence from judicial dossiers concerning attentat à la pudeur (intimate assault against children) illuminates the lived experience of children and their families in Paris apartments. Rather than a sharp divide between public and private, children experienced their apartment homes as the core of a social and spatial world under the surveillance of parents, neighbors, and other children. PMID:21158198

  18. Henry B. Stallard, MD: The 1924 Paris Olympics, and Chariots of Fire.

    PubMed

    Bullock, John D

    2011-01-01

    Hyla Bristow Stallard was one of the greatest middle-distance runners in British athletic history. While an English medical student, he won the bronze medal in the 1500-meter run at the 1924 Paris Olympics, immortalized in the critically acclaimed 1981 epic British film, Chariots of Fire. He later became one of the most famous ophthalmologists in the world for his pioneering work in radiation therapy of malignant eye disease. He was an inspiring role model for both athletes and physicians. As a gifted individual who enjoyed two international careers, he is worthy of great admiration and emulation. PMID:21762941

  19. Structural style and hydrocarbon habitat of the English Channel and Paris basin

    SciTech Connect

    Vining, B.A.; Errat, D. )

    1991-03-01

    The structural style and hydrocarbon habitat of the English Channel and Paris basin are reviewed, and selected case histories are discussed. A new model for structural evolution invokes, in part, a detachment surface within the Early Jurassic sediments that differentiates the structural style of the Jurassic and younger sections from the underlying Triassic reservoirs. Compressional reactivation of certain faults in the Early Tertiary has resulted in the cessation of the generative capacity of Pliensbachian-Toarcian source rocks. A history of source rock maturation and migration is presented for Jurassic and Carboniferous source horizons that addresses structural configuration, fault profile analyses, and geologic timing.

  20. a New Design for Diamond Window Equipped Paris-Edinburgh — First Tests and Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burchard, M.; Glasmacher, U. A.; Dedera, S.; Trautmann, C.

    2012-12-01

    High pressure cells of the Paris-Edinburgh type are important tools for experimental high pressure studies in material science. Although these cells were originally developed for use in neutron diffraction, today they are also applied in alternative experimental high pressure fields. Their main advantages are their small construction size, limited weight and the relative high reachable pressures with a maximized sample volume. The small construction size also results in very good cost efficiency. The major drawback of these cells is that due to their simple squeezer geometry pressure extrapolations are nearly impossible and, hence, the use of internal standard is mandatory. Consequently, the normal use of Paris-Edinburgh cells is mostly limited to experiments with neutron or synchrotron radiation, during which pressure and temperature are determined by using an internal diffraction standard. To overcome this problem, tone may combine the advantages of diamond anvil cells with those of Paris-Edinburgh-cells by integrating diamond windows into the upper and / or the lower anvil. With such a cell it is possible to retrieve pressure and / or temperature data by measuring the shift of Raman bands or fluorescence lines by spectroscopic methods. Several attempts have been made to build such a cell ([1] and Klotz pers. communication) using different window materials. Until now no final setup has been published. We present a new Paris-Edinburgh cell design especially constructed for use within high energy relativistic heavy ion radiation experiments. This design uses conventional diamond anvils as spectroscopic windows in conjunction with specially designed hardened steel anvils. We have performed first feasibility studies up to 2.5 GPa with a standard Raman spectrometer using a special adapted Raman glass fiber probe. We present results of several mechanical test runs and one experiment with relativistic heavy ion radiation at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum f

  1. Effects of Plaster of Paris waste on the mechanical properties of pottery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badarulzaman, N. A.; Nawi, A. M.; Ibrahim, M.

    2015-05-01

    Ceramic waste may come from ceramics industry such as Plaster of Paris(POP) mould waste. The purpose of this study is to investigate the possibility of using POP as filler in the manufacturing of pottery. The different weight percentage of filler (0 wt.%, 2 wt.%,4 wt.%, 6wt.%, 8wt.%) content were added into the composition of pottery. The samples were characterized via viscosity test and bending test. The result of the study revealed that the weight percent of waste POP increase affects the physical properties with increasing the strength values.

  2. 75 FR 24747 - SCI, LLC/Zener-Rectifier Operations Division A Wholly Owned Subsidiary of SCI, LLC/ON...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... of SCI, LLC/ON Semiconductor, Phoenix, Arizona. The notice was published in the Federal Register on December 11, 2009 (74 FR 65795). At the request of the petitioner, the Department reviewed the... of SCI, LLC/ON Semiconductor Including On-Site Leased Workers From Superior Technical...

  3. Active correction of aperture discontinuities (ACAD) for space telescope pupils: a parametic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazoyer, Johan; Pueyo, Laurent; Norman, Colin; N'Diaye, Mamadou; Mawet, Dimitri; Soummer, Rémi; Perrin, Marshall; Choquet, Élodie; Carlotti, Alexis

    2015-09-01

    As the performance of coronagraphs improves, the achievable contrast is more and more dependent of the shape of the pupil. The future generation of space and ground based coronagraphic instruments will have to achieve high contrast levels on on-axis and/or segmented telescopes. To correct for the high amplitude aberrations introduced by secondary mirror structures and segmentation of the primary mirror, we explore a two deformable mirror (DM) method. The major difficulty of several DM methods is the non-linear relation linking actuator strokes to the point spread function in the coronagraph focal plane. The Active Compensation of Aperture Discontinuities (ACAD) method is achieving this minimization by solving a non linear differential Monge Ampere equation. Once this open loop method have reached the minimum, a close-loop stroke minimization method can be applied to correct for phase and amplitude aberrations to achieve the ultimate contrast. In this paper, I describe the results of the parametric analysis that that I have undertaken on this method. After recalling the principle of the method, I will described the explored parameter space (deformable mirror set-up, shape of the pupil, bandwidth, coronagraph designs). I will precisely described the way I simulated the Vortex coronagraph for this numerical simulation. Finally I will present the preliminary results of this parametric analysis for space telescope pupils only.

  4. Opening Comments: SciDAC 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strayer, Michael

    2008-07-01

    Welcome to Seattle and the 2008 SciDAC Conference. This conference, the fourth in the series, is a continuation of the PI meetings we first began under SciDAC-1. I would like to start by thanking the organizing committee, and Rick Stevens in particular, for organizing this year's meeting. This morning I would like to look briefly at SciDAC, to give you a brief history of SciDAC and also look ahead to see where we plan to go over the next few years. I think the best description of SciDAC, at least the simulation part, comes from a quote from Dr Ray Orbach, DOE's Under Secretary for Science and Director of the Office of Science. In an interview that appeared in the SciDAC Review magazine, Dr Orbach said, `SciDAC is unique in the world. There isn't any other program like it anywhere else, and it has the remarkable ability to do science by bringing together physical scientists, mathematicians, applied mathematicians, and computer scientists who recognize that computation is not something you do at the end, but rather it needs to be built into the solution of the very problem that one is addressing'. Of course, that is extended not just to physical scientists, but also to biological scientists. This is a theme of computational science, this partnership among disciplines, which goes all the way back to the early 1980s and Ken Wilson. It's a unique thread within the Department of Energy. SciDAC-1, launched around the turn of the millennium, created a new generation of scientific simulation codes. It advocated building out mathematical and computing system software in support of science and a new collaboratory software environment for data. The original concept for SciDAC-1 had topical centers for the execution of the various science codes, but several corrections and adjustments were needed. The ASCR scientific computing infrastructure was also upgraded, providing the hardware facilities for the program. The computing facility that we had at that time was the big 3

  5. Discrimination of Wild Paris Based on Near Infrared Spectroscopy and High Performance Liquid Chromatography Combined with Multivariate Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yanli; Zhang, Ji; Yuan, Tianjun; Shen, Tao; Li, Wei; Yang, Shihua; Hou, Ying; Wang, Yuanzhong; Jin, Hang

    2014-01-01

    Different geographical origins and species of Paris obtained from southwestern China were discriminated by near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) combined with multivariate analysis. The NIR parameter settings were scanning (64 times), resolution (4 cm−1), scanning range (10000 cm−1∼4000 cm−1) and parallel collection (3 times). NIR spectrum was optimized by TQ 8.6 software, and the ranges 7455∼6852 cm−1 and 5973∼4007 cm−1 were selected according to the spectrum standard deviation. The contents of polyphyllin I, polyphyllin II, polyphyllin VI, and polyphyllin VII and total steroid saponins were detected by HPLC. The contents of chemical components data matrix and spectrum data matrix were integrated and analyzed by partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). From the PLS-DA model of NIR spectrum, Paris samples were separated into three groups according to the different geographical origins. The R2X and Q2Y described accumulative contribution rates were 99.50% and 94.03% of the total variance, respectively. The PLS-DA model according to 12 species of Paris described 99.62% of the variation in X and predicted 95.23% in Y. The results of the contents of chemical components described differences among collections quantitatively. A multivariate statistical model of PLS-DA showed geographical origins of Paris had a much greater influence on Paris compared with species. NIR and HPLC combined with multivariate analysis could discriminate different geographical origins and different species. The quality of Paris showed regional dependence. PMID:24558477

  6. Contribution of treated wastewater to the microbiological quality of Seine River in Paris.

    PubMed

    Moulin, Laurent; Richard, Fanny; Stefania, Sabrina; Goulet, Marion; Gosselin, Sylvie; Gonçalves, Alexandre; Rocher, Vincent; Paffoni, Catherine; Dumètre, Aurélien

    2010-10-01

    Urban part of Seine River serving as drinking water supply in Paris can be heavily contaminated by Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis. In the absence of agricultural practice in this highly urbanized area, we investigated herein the contribution of treated wastewater to the microbiological quality of this river focusing on these two parasites. Other microorganisms such as faecal bacterial indicators, enteroviruses and oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii were assessed concurrently. Raw wastewaters were heavily contaminated by Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts, whereas concentrations of both protozoa in treated wastewater were lower. Treated wastewater, flowed into Seine River, had a parasite concentration closed to the one found along the river, in particular at the entry of a drinking water plant (DWP). Even if faecal bacteria were reliable indicators of a reduction in parasite concentrations during the wastewater treatment, they were not correlated to protozoal contamination of wastewater and river water. Oocysts of T. gondii were not found in both raw and treated wastewater, or in Seine River. Parasitic contamination was shown to be constant in the Seine River up to 40 km upstream Paris. Altogether, these results strongly suggest that treated wastewater does not contribute to the main parasitic contamination of the Seine River usually observed in this urbanized area. PMID:20630555

  7. Evaluating BC and NOx emission inventories for the Paris region from MEGAPOLI aircraft measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petetin, H.; Beekmann, M.; Colomb, A.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Dupont, J.-C.; Honoré, C.; Michoud, V.; Morille, Y.; Perrussel, O.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Sciare, J.; Wiedensohler, A.; Zhang, Q. J.

    2015-09-01

    High uncertainties affect black carbon (BC) emissions, and, despite its important impact on air pollution and climate, very few BC emissions evaluations are found in the literature. This paper presents a novel approach, based on airborne measurements across the Paris, France, plume, developed in order to evaluate BC and NOx emissions at the scale of a whole agglomeration. The methodology consists in integrating, for each transect, across the plume observed and simulated concentrations above background. This allows for several error sources (e.g., representativeness, chemistry, plume lateral dispersion) to be minimized in the model used. The procedure is applied with the CHIMERE chemistry-transport model to three inventories - the EMEP inventory and the so-called TNO and TNO-MP inventories - over the month of July 2009. Various systematic uncertainty sources both in the model (e.g., boundary layer height, vertical mixing, deposition) and in observations (e.g., BC nature) are discussed and quantified, notably through sensitivity tests. Large uncertainty values are determined in our results, which limits the usefulness of the method to rather strongly erroneous emission inventories. A statistically significant (but moderate) overestimation is obtained for the TNO BC emissions and the EMEP and TNO-MP NOx emissions, as well as for the BC / NOx emission ratio in TNO-MP. The benefit of the airborne approach is discussed through a comparison with the BC / NOx ratio at a ground site in Paris, which additionally suggests a spatially heterogeneous error in BC emissions over the agglomeration.

  8. Evaluating BC and NOx emission inventories for the Paris region from MEGAPOLI aircraft measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petetin, H.; Beekmann, M.; Colomb, A.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Dupont, J.-C.; Honoré, C.; Michoud, V.; Morille, Y.; Perrussel, O.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Sciare, J.; Wiedensohler, A.; Zhang, Q. J.

    2014-11-01

    High uncertainties affect black carbon (BC) emissions and, despite its important impact on air pollution and climate, very few BC emissions evaluations are found in the literature. This paper presents a novel approach, based on airborne measurements across the Paris plume, developed in order to evaluate BC and NOx emissions at the scale of a whole agglomeration. The methodology consists in integrating, for each transect, across the plume observed and simulated concentrations above background. This allows minimizing several error sources in the model (e.g. representativeness, chemistry, plume lateral dispersion). The procedure is applied with the CHIMERE chemistry-transport model to three inventories - the EMEP inventory, and the so-called TNO and TNO-MP inventories - over the month of July 2009. Various systematic uncertainty sources both in the model (e.g. boundary layer height, vertical mixing, deposition) and in observations (e.g. BC nature) are discussed and quantified, notably though sensitivity tests. A statistically significant (but moderate) overestimation is obtained on the TNO BC emissions and on EMEP and TNO-MP NOx emissions, as well as on the BC/NOx emission ratio in TNO-MP. The benefit of the airborne approach is discussed through a comparison with the BC/NOx ratio at a ground site in Paris, which additionally suggests potential error compensations in the BC emissions spatial distribution over the agglomeration.

  9. [Moyse Charas, apothecary and medical doctor (Uzés 1619 - Paris 1698)].

    PubMed

    Felix, Fred W

    2002-01-01

    Some new information, based on many unedited documents is presented, in order to complete the biography of Moyse Charas, as published in this revue by Dorveaux (1929) and Bouvet (1949). The origin of the protestant family Charas lies in Pont-Saint-Espirt, from where the parents of Moyse Charas, passing Uzés, moved to Orange, where he took up the profession of apothecary and was declared Master by Frederick Henry, prince of Orange. Later, in Paris, he had contacts with the Dutch diplomat Constantijn Huygens and his son, the scientist Christiaan Huygens, and with the English physician and philosopher John Locke. After shorter visits to London and the Royal Society he lived there for a certain time, being called to contribute to cure King Charles II. He revisited Orange to get his promotion as a doctor of medicine. After having practised for some time in Holland he went to Spain for five years, as a physician of the embassy of the States General in Madrid and later in Galice. The last six months he suffered imprisonment by the Inquisition. Liberated after his conversion to Catholicism, he could finally return to Paris. PMID:12141324

  10. Extinction of Light during the Fog Life Cycle: a Result from the ParisFog Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Elias, T.; Haeffelin, M.; Drobinski, P.

    2009-03-11

    Data set acquired by five particle-dedicated instruments set up on the SIRTA experimental site during the ParisFog field campaign are exploited to document microphysical properties of particles contributing to extinction of visible radiation in variable situations. The case study is a 48-hour period when atmospheric conditions are highly variable: relative humidity changes between 50 and 100%, visibility ranges between 35000 and 65 m, the site is either downwind Paris area either under maritime influence. A dense and homogeneous fog formed by radiative cooling during the 18-19 February night. In 7 hours, visibility decreases from 26 000 m to 65 m, because of transported pollution (factor 3 in visibility reduction), aerosol hydration (factor 20) and aerosol activation (factor 6). According to Mie theory, extinction in clear-sky polluted and unpolluted regimes is due equally to Aitken and accumulation modes. Extinction in haze is due to hydrated aerosols distributed in the accumulation mode, for diameter smaller than 2 {mu}m. Hydrated aerosols of the accumulation mode still contribute to 20-30% extinction in the fog. Measurements show that fog droplets, with diameter included between 2 and 10 {mu}m, contribute to 40% extinction during the first hours of the fog.

  11. The Pristane Formation Index, a molecular maturity parameter. Confirmation in samples from the Paris Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Goossens, H.; De Lange, F.; De Leeuw, J.W.; Schenck, P.A. )

    1988-10-01

    The value of the recently proposed molecular maturity parameter PFI (Pristane Formation Index) is evaluated by analysis of a suite of samples from the Paris Basin with known values of the molecular maturity parameters based on the sterane and hopane isomerization (SI and HI) and sterane aromatization (SA) reactions. The values of the pseudo-kinetic parameters E and A of the Arrhenius equation k = A exp({minus}E/RT), calculated for pristane formation in the Mahakam Delta, were used to compare the observed PFI values with calculated ones. The results indicate that the samples from the eastern part of the Paris Basin, which are at the surface at present, have been at higher temperatures for about 10-30 Ma, whereas the deeper samples, located around the center of the Basin, have not undergone considerable temperature changes in the past. These results are in agreement with the conclusions based on SI, SA and HI alone. Thus, the values of the pseudo-kinetic parameters E (59 kJ mol{sup minus 1}) and A (2.2*10{sup minus 7} s{sup minus 1}) for the pristane formation reaction can be applied in a different basin with a different type of kerogen. This confirms the value of PFI as a molecular maturity parameter.

  12. Helium isotope fluxes and groundwater ages in the Dogger aquifer, Paris Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Marty, B.; Torgersen, T.; Meynier, V.; Marsily, G. De ); O'Nions, R.K. )

    1993-04-01

    The Dogger aquifer of the Paris Basin has been shown to be first-order homogeneous in its helium concentration and its helium isotopic ratio, although slight differences are noted in relation to specific chemical water types. The helium isotopic composition of the Dogger aquifer contains a small component of mantle helium that is associated with a magmatic input, although the heat accompanying this magma is small. Constraints on the age of the overlying Albien aquifer are used to calculate the flux of helium out of the Dogger. This constraint allows a calculation of the residence time of waters in the Dogger aquifer of 4 Myr (+, - 50%), which is significantly longer than estimates derived from hydrologic models and hydrologic testing. It is possible that the hydrologic ages and the helium ages can be reconciled by a vertically layered Dogger aquifer with gradients in He, salinity, and fluid flow. Vertical profiles of fluid composition, helium concentration, and permeability are required in the Paris Basin to resolve this question.

  13. Palaeocommunities, diversity and sea-level change from middle Eocene shell beds of the Paris Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominici, Stefano; Zuschin, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The middle Eocene, a time of global transition from greenhouse to icehouse climate, was approached through high-resolution stratigraphy at a few classic localities of the Paris Basin. Quantitative data on the distribution of molluscan species abundance, collected at 12 different shell beds representative of the middle Lutetian and the lower Bartonian, formed the basis for a palaeoecological study. The succession can be subdivided into a hierarchy of depositional sequences, interpreted as the product of relative sea-level change. Abundance distributions are better correlated with 5th-order depositional sequences than geographic locality, suggesting that sea-level played an important role in the distribution of palaeocommunities. Rarefied diversities were measured and compared with analogous data from modern tropical and warm-temperate intertidal and subtidal communities. The palaeoecological analysis shows that sea-level variation is responsible for a major change in the upper part of the middle Lutetian, leading from high-diversity subtidal to low-diversity intertidal and shallow subtidal palaeocommunities. The study did not confirm that the stage-level drop in species richness documented in this basin is related to the global climatic deterioration. Instead, the global climatic signal might be obscured in the Paris Basin by facies control.

  14. The Pristane Formation Index, a molecular maturity parameter. Confirmation in samples from the Paris Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goossens, H.; de Lange, F.; de Leeuw, J. W.; Schenck, P. A.

    1988-10-01

    The value of the recently proposed molecular maturity parameter PFI (Pristane Formation Index) is evaluated by analysis of a suite of samples from the Paris Basin with known values of the molecular maturity parameters based on the sterane and hopane isomerization (SI and HI) and sterane aromatization (SA) reactions. The values of the pseudo-kinetic parameters E and A of the Arrhenius equation k = A exp(- E/RT) , calculated for pristane formation in the Mahakam Delta, were used to compare the observed PFI values with calculated ones. The results indicate that the samples from the eastern part of the Paris Basin, which are at the surface at present, have been at higher temperatures for about 10-30 Ma, whereas the deeper samples, located around the center of the Basin, have not undergone considerable temperature changes in the past. These results are in agreement with the conclusions based on SI, SA and HI alone. Thus, the values of the pseudo-kinetic parameters E (59 kJ mol -1) and A (2.2∗10 -7s -1) for the pristane formation reaction can be applied in a different basin with a different type of kerogen. This confirms the value of PFI as a molecular maturity parameter.

  15. Hygroscopic properties of the Paris urban aerosol in relation to its chemical composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamilli, K. A.; Poulain, L.; Held, A.; Nowak, A.; Birmili, W.; Wiedensohler, A.

    2014-01-01

    Aerosol hygroscopic growth factors and chemical properties were measured as part of the MEGAPOLI "Megacities Plume Case Study" at the urban site Laboratoire d'Hygiène de la Ville de Paris (LHVP) in the city center of Paris from June to August 2009, and from January to February 2010. Descriptive hygroscopic growth factors (DGF) were derived in the diameter range from 25 to 350 nm at relative humidities of 30, 55, 75, and 90% by applying the summation method on humidified and dry aerosol size distributions measured simultaneously with a humidified differential mobility particle sizer (HDMPS) and a twin differential mobility particle sizer (TDMPS). For 90% relative humidity, the DGF varied from 1.06 to 1.46 in summer, and from 1.06 to 1.66 in winter. Temporal variations in the observed mean DGF could be well explained with a simple growth model based on the aerosol chemical composition measured by aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS) and black carbon photometry (MAAP). In particular, good agreement was observed when sulfate was the predominant inorganic factor. A clear overestimation of the predicted growth factor was found when the nitrate mass concentration exceeded values of 10 μg m-3, e.g., during winter.

  16. 'A thorn in the side of European geodesy': measuring Paris-Greenwich longitude by electric telegraph.

    PubMed

    Kershaw, Michael

    2014-12-01

    The difference in longitude between the observatories of Paris and Greenwich was long of fundamental importance to geodesy, navigation and timekeeping. Measured many times and by many different means since the seventeenth century, the preferred method of the later nineteenth and early twentieth centuries made use of the electric telegraph. I describe here for the first time the four Paris-Greenwich telegraphic longitude determinations made between 1854 and 1902. Despite contemporary faith in the new technique, the first was soon found to be inaccurate; the second was a failure, ending in Anglo-French dispute over whose result was to be trusted; the third failed in exactly the same way; and when eventually the fourth was presented as a success, the evidence for that success was far from clear-cut. I use this as a case study in precision measurement, showing how mutual grounding between different measurement techniques, in the search for agreement between them, was an important force for change and improvement. I also show that better precision had more to do with the gradually improving methods of astronomical, time determination than with the singular innovation of the telegraph, thus emphasizing the importance of what have been described as 'observatory techniques' to nineteenth-century practices of precision measurement. PMID:25546999

  17. French Ministry of Health's response to Paris attacks of 13 November 2015.

    PubMed

    Philippe, Jean-Marc; Brahic, Olivier; Carli, Pierre; Tourtier, Jean-Pierre; Riou, Bruno; Vallet, Benoit

    2016-01-01

    On Friday November 13th at 9:20 pm, three kamikaze bombs went off around the Stade de France a stadium in Saint-Denis just outside Paris, 4 different shootings took place and bombings in Paris and hundreds of people were held hostage in a theater.This multi-site terrorist attack was the first of this magnitude in France. Drawing the lessons of these attacks and those which occurred in other countries from a health perspective is essential to continuously adapt and improve the French response to possible future attacks. Several issues would need to be further explored: Management of uncertainties: When to trigger the plans: after the 1st attack, the 2nd? When do attacks end and when to release mobilized resources? Management of victims: How to ensure that all victims are secured or taken care of? How to provide assistance when attacks are ongoing? Management of teams: Proper follow-up of persons involved in the response: health professionals, police and firemen, emergency call centers but also civil servants within administration that contributed to the response. Communication: Reactivity of all is a key element to secure appropriate resource is mobilized for the response. All actors have to be able to communicate quickly in a secured way. PMID:27039082

  18. Study of nano-architecture of the wings of Paris Peacock butterfly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghate, Ekata; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Kulkarni, G. R.

    Butterflies are one of the most colorful creatures in animal Kingdom. Wings of the male butterfly are brilliantly colored to attract females. Color of the wings plays an important role in camouflage. Study of structural colors in case of insects and butterflies are important for their biomimic and biophotonic applications. Structural color is the color which is produced by physical structures and their interaction with light. Paris Peacock or Papilio paris butterfly belongs to the family Papilionidae. The basis of structural color of this butterfly is investigated in the present study. The upper surface of the wings in this butterfly is covered with blue, green and brown colored scales. Nano-architecture of these scales was investigated with scanning electron microscope (SEM) and environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM). Photomicrographs were analyzed using image analysis software. Goniometric color or iridescence in blue and green colored scales of this butterfly was observed and studied with the help of gonio spectrophotometer in the visible range. No iridescence was observed in brown colored scales of the butterfly. Hues of the blue and green color were measured with spectrophotometer and were correlated with nano-architecture of the wing. Results of electron microscopy and reflection spectroscopy are used to explain the iridescent nature of blue and green scales. Sinusoidal grating like structures of these scales were prominently seen in the blue scales. It is possible that the structure of these wings can act as a template for the fabrication of sinusoidal gratings using nano-imprint technology.

  19. "De Cassini à l'an 2000": The Paris Observatory Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallet, M.; Reymonet, N.

    Paris Observatory founded in 1667 by Louis XIV is one of the so called "Grand Etablissement" under of the aegis of the Ministry of higher education and research, and includes two other centres: Meudon Observatory and the Radioastronomy centre in Nancay, created respectively in 1876 and 1955. The decree which gave birth to the library itself was signed in 1785 by Louis XVI. In 1926 Meudon is joined to Paris. The total number of bound volumes, including journals, is 100.000. This comprises 2000 periodical titles (of which 1200 are current titles), monographs, photographs, incunabula and manuscripts from the 16th to the 20th century, microfilm versions of historical material. The collections of two libraries are complementary. Starting in 1981, the library became part of a national "Centre d'Acquisition et de Diffusion de l'Information Scientifique et Technique" (CADIST) for astronomy and astrophysics documents. The catalogue is available on national networks such as the Pancatalogue or CCN. It may also be accessed on the international OCLC network. Finally the library may be accessed on internet via WWW.

  20. Opening Remarks: SciDAC 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strayer, Michael

    2007-09-01

    Good morning. Welcome to Boston, the home of the Red Sox, Celtics and Bruins, baked beans, tea parties, Robert Parker, and SciDAC 2007. A year ago I stood before you to share the legacy of the first SciDAC program and identify the challenges that we must address on the road to petascale computing—a road E E Cummins described as `. . . never traveled, gladly beyond any experience.' Today, I want to explore the preparations for the rapidly approaching extreme scale (X-scale) generation. These preparations are the first step propelling us along the road of burgeoning scientific discovery enabled by the application of X- scale computing. We look to petascale computing and beyond to open up a world of discovery that cuts across scientific fields and leads us to a greater understanding of not only our world, but our universe. As part of the President's America Competitiveness Initiative, the ASCR Office has been preparing a ten year vision for computing. As part of this planning the LBNL together with ORNL and ANL hosted three town hall meetings on Simulation and Modeling at the Exascale for Energy, Ecological Sustainability and Global Security (E3). The proposed E3 initiative is organized around four programmatic themes: Engaging our top scientists, engineers, computer scientists and applied mathematicians; investing in pioneering large-scale science; developing scalable analysis algorithms, and storage architectures to accelerate discovery; and accelerating the build-out and future development of the DOE open computing facilities. It is clear that we have only just started down the path to extreme scale computing. Plan to attend Thursday's session on the out-briefing and discussion of these meetings. The road to the petascale has been at best rocky. In FY07, the continuing resolution provided 12% less money for Advanced Scientific Computing than either the President, the Senate, or the House. As a consequence, many of you had to absorb a no cost extension for your

  1. Developmental and maladaptive plasticity in neonatal SCI.

    PubMed

    Pape, Karen E

    2012-06-01

    Babies and young children with early spinal cord injury (SCI) have evidence of an improved level of recovery over an extended time period. Enhanced neuroplasticity is well recognized in neonatal animal models. In the young human, developmental apraxia and learned early habitual movements mask expression of residual or recovered motor function. Techniques providing sensorimotor stimulation with threshold electrical stimulation (TES) and EMG triggered stimulation (ETS) act to increase awareness and useful function. Small cohort size and prolonged developmental maturation argue for the use of single subject research designs in this population. PMID:22306423

  2. Extending non-fatigue Mode I subcritical crack growth data to subcritical fatigue crack growth: Demonstration of the equivalence of the Charles' law and Paris law exponents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keanini, Russell; Eppes, Martha-Cary

    2016-04-01

    Paris's law connects fatigue-induced subcritical crack growth and fatigue loading. Environmentally-driven subcritical crack growth, while a random process, can be decomposed into a spectrum of cyclic processes, where each spectral component is governed by Paris's law. Unfortunately, almost no data exists concerning the Paris law exponent, m; rather, the great majority of existing sub-critical crack growth measurements on rock have been carried out via Mode I tensile tests, where corresponding data are generally correlated using Charles' law, and where the latter, similar to Paris's law, exposes a power law relationship between crack growth rate and stress intensity. In this study, a statistical argument is used to derive a simple, rigorous relationship between the all-important Paris law and Charles law exponents, m and n. This result has a significant practical implication: subcritical fatigue crack growth in rock, driven by various random environmental weathering processes can now be predicted using available Mode I stress corrosion indices, n.

  3. Volatile and intermediate volatility organic compounds in suburban Paris: variability, origin and importance for SOA formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ait-Helal, W.; Borbon, A.; Sauvage, S.; de Gouw, J. A.; Colomb, A.; Gros, V.; Freutel, F.; Crippa, M.; Afif, C.; Baltensperger, U.; Beekmann, M.; Doussin, J.-F.; Durand-Jolibois, R.; Fronval, I.; Grand, N.; Leonardis, T.; Lopez, M.; Michoud, V.; Miet, K.; Perrier, S.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Schneider, J.; Siour, G.; Zapf, P.; Locoge, N.

    2014-10-01

    Measurements of gaseous and particulate organic carbon were performed during the MEGAPOLI experiments, in July 2009 and January-February 2010, at the SIRTA observatory in suburban Paris. Measurements comprise primary and secondary volatile organic compounds (VOCs), of both anthropogenic and biogenic origins, including C12-C16 n-alkanes of intermediate volatility (IVOCs), suspected to be efficient precursors of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). The time series of gaseous carbon are generally consistent with times series of particulate organic carbon at regional scale, and are clearly affected by meteorology and air mass origin. Concentration levels of anthropogenic VOCs in urban and suburban Paris were surprisingly low (2-963 ppt) compared to other megacities worldwide and to rural continental sites. Urban enhancement ratios of anthropogenic VOC pairs agree well between the urban and suburban Paris sites, showing the regional extent of anthropogenic sources of similar composition. Contrary to other primary anthropogenic VOCs (aromatics and alkanes), IVOCs showed lower concentrations in winter (< 5 ppt) compared to summer (13-27 ppt), which cannot be explained by the gas-particle partitioning theory. Higher concentrations of most oxygenated VOCs in winter (18-5984 ppt) suggest their dominant primary anthropogenic origin. The respective role of primary anthropogenic gaseous compounds in regional SOA formation was investigated by estimating the SOA mass concentration expected from the anthropogenic VOCs and IVOCs (I / VOCs) measured at SIRTA. From an integrated approach based on emission ratios and SOA yields, 38 % of the SOA measured at SIRTA is explained by the measured concentrations of I / VOCs, with a 2% contribution by C12-C16 n-alkane IVOCs. From the results of an alternative time-resolved approach, the average IVOC contribution to SOA formation is estimated to be 7%, which is half of the average contribution of the traditional aromatic compounds (15%). Both

  4. Primary and secondary gaseous organic carbon in suburban Paris during the MEGAPOLI experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ait-Helal, W.; Borbon, A.; Sauvage, S.; Michoud, V.; Colomb, A.; Afif, C.; Miet, K.; Perrier, S.; Bechara, J.; Gros, V.; Crippa, M.; Prevot, A. S.; Locoge, N.

    2011-12-01

    Since 1950, the amount of people living in urban areas has not stopped increasing. Indeed, the urban population has risen from 30% to 50% of the world population within 50 years. An increasing number of megacities has also been observed. These urban areas are of a great important since they concentrate not only human being, but also high intensity activities which could end up emitting large amount of pollutants and, thus, threatening people health. In this context, the FP7 MEGAPOLI project aims to quantify sources of primary and secondary aerosols and the role of organic gas-phase precursors, in and around a large agglomeration and to describe their evolution in the megacity plume. Two intensive field campaigns were conducted in the Greater Paris region during the summer 2009 and the winter 2010. Primary and secondary VOCs of both anthropogenic and biogenic origins (monofunctionnal and bifunctionnal alkanes, alkenes, aromatics, terpenes, aldehydes and ketones), were measured at a suburban site in Paris (SIRTA). This wide range of carbonaceous compounds, from C2 to C16, includes species well-known to be secondary organic aerosol (SOAs) precursors, which have as many impacts on the climate as the gaseous compounds. Based on a source-receptor approach, the chemical signature of VOCs highlights that the SIRTA site is impacted by three kinds of influences: Paris urban outflow with higher levels of anthropogenic compounds, oceanic and/or continental air masses transported over long distances with high concentrations in secondary VOCs, southern/south-eastern plumes with significant amounts of biogenic compounds. First we will identify the primary and secondary origins of VOCs emissions and evaluate their contribution. Then, we will investigate the SOA formation regarding its potential VOC precursors. Good correlations have been observed several times during the summer campaign between anthropogenic (aromatics and heavy alkanes >C12) and/or biogenic (isoprene and

  5. CO2 dispersion modelling over Paris region within the CO2-MEGAPARIS project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lac, C.; Donnelly, R. P.; Masson, V.; Pal, S.; Donier, S.; Queguiner, S.; Tanguy, G.; Ammoura, L.; Xueref-Remy, I.

    2012-10-01

    Accurate simulation of the spatial and temporal variability of tracer mixing ratios over urban areas is challenging, but essential in order to utilize CO2 measurements in an atmospheric inverse framework to better estimate regional CO2 fluxes. This study investigates the ability of a high-resolution model to simulate meteorological and CO2 fields around Paris agglomeration, during the March field campaign of the CO2-MEGAPARIS project. The mesoscale atmospheric model Meso-NH, running at 2 km horizontal resolution, is coupled with the Town-Energy Balance (TEB) urban canopy scheme and with the Interactions between Soil, Biosphere and Atmosphere CO2-reactive (ISBA-A-gs) surface scheme, allowing a full interaction of CO2 between the surface and the atmosphere. Statistical scores show a good representation of the Urban Heat Island (UHI) and urban-rural contrasts. Boundary layer heights (BLH) at urban, sub-urban and rural sites are well captured, especially the onset time of the BLH increase and its growth rate in the morning, that are essential for tall tower CO2 observatories. Only nocturnal BLH at sub-urban sites are slightly underestimated a few nights, with a bias less than 50 m. At Eiffel tower, the observed spikes of CO2 maxima occur every morning exactly at the time at which the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) growth reaches the measurement height. The timing of the CO2 cycle is well captured by the model, with only small biases on CO2 concentrations, mainly linked to the misrepresentation of anthropogenic emissions, as the Eiffel site is at the heart of trafic emission sources. At sub-urban ground stations, CO2 measurements exhibit maxima at the beginning and at the end of each night, when the ABL is fully contracted, with a very strong spatio-temporal variability. The CO2 cycle at these sites is generally well reproduced by the model, even if some biases on the nocturnal maxima appear in the Paris plume parly due to small errors on the vertical transport, or in

  6. The PCNA-associated protein PARI negatively regulates homologous recombination via the inhibition of DNA repair synthesis.

    PubMed

    Burkovics, Peter; Dome, Lili; Juhasz, Szilvia; Altmannova, Veronika; Sebesta, Marek; Pacesa, Martin; Fugger, Kasper; Sorensen, Claus Storgaard; Lee, Marietta Y W T; Haracska, Lajos; Krejci, Lumir

    2016-04-20

    Successful and accurate completion of the replication of damage-containing DNA requires mainly recombination and RAD18-dependent DNA damage tolerance pathways. RAD18 governs at least two distinct mechanisms: translesion synthesis (TLS) and template switching (TS)-dependent pathways. Whereas TS is mainly error-free, TLS can work in an error-prone manner and, as such, the regulation of these pathways requires tight control to prevent DNA errors and potentially oncogenic transformation and tumorigenesis. In humans, the PCNA-associated recombination inhibitor (PARI) protein has recently been shown to inhibit homologous recombination (HR) events. Here, we describe a biochemical mechanism in which PARI functions as an HR regulator after replication fork stalling and during double-strand break repair. In our reconstituted biochemical system, we show that PARI inhibits DNA repair synthesis during recombination events in a PCNA interaction-dependent way but independently of its UvrD-like helicase domain. In accordance, we demonstrate that PARI inhibits HRin vivo, and its knockdown suppresses the UV sensitivity of RAD18-depleted cells. Our data reveal a novel human regulatory mechanism that limits the extent of HR and represents a new potential target for anticancer therapy. PMID:26792895

  7. 75 FR 34180 - Paris Accessories, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Job Connections, New Smithsville...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... Register on April 23, 2010 (75 FR 21363). In the request for reconsideration, the petitioner stated that... Employment and Training Administration Paris Accessories, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Job... workers from Job Connections, who are engaged in employment related to the assembly and packaging...

  8. 75 FR 41523 - Paris Accessories, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Job Connections, New Smithville...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ... on May 27, 2010. The Notice was published in the Federal Register on June 16, 2010 (75 FR 34180). The... Employment and Training Administration Paris Accessories, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Job... Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance In accordance with Section 223 of the Trade Act of...

  9. Powered two-wheelers road accidents and their risk perception in dense urban areas: case of Paris.

    PubMed

    Maestracci, Marion; Prochasson, François; Geffroy, Aurélie; Peccoud, Florian

    2012-11-01

    For a few years, the use of powered two-wheelers has taken off in Paris. It then became critical for the City of Paris to understand both the mechanisms leading to traffic accidents involving at least one powered two-wheelers user and the perception of their risk when riding in dense urban areas. In so doing, two studies were carried out along similar lines so that their results could be compared. The first study focused on the perception of situations where accidents are most likely to occur. The second one was an analysis of police reports of accidents involving at least one powered two-wheelers and the drawing-up of prototypical accident scenarios. Comparing the results of the two studies revealed a gap between perceived and objective risks of these users. In fact, they rather fear the situations during which a car driver is changing lanes, while accidents involving them occur more often when a car driver turns (right, left or U). Knowledge of this dissonance in terms of awareness of road risks for powered two-wheelers and equally, other road users, will give the City of Paris food for thought. The promising results of this study have encouraged the City of Paris to extend it to other types of users, such as cyclists or elderly pedestrians. PMID:23036388

  10. The PCNA-associated protein PARI negatively regulates homologous recombination via the inhibition of DNA repair synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Burkovics, Peter; Dome, Lili; Juhasz, Szilvia; Altmannova, Veronika; Sebesta, Marek; Pacesa, Martin; Fugger, Kasper; Sorensen, Claus Storgaard; Lee, Marietta Y.W.T.; Haracska, Lajos; Krejci, Lumir

    2016-01-01

    Successful and accurate completion of the replication of damage-containing DNA requires mainly recombination and RAD18-dependent DNA damage tolerance pathways. RAD18 governs at least two distinct mechanisms: translesion synthesis (TLS) and template switching (TS)-dependent pathways. Whereas TS is mainly error-free, TLS can work in an error-prone manner and, as such, the regulation of these pathways requires tight control to prevent DNA errors and potentially oncogenic transformation and tumorigenesis. In humans, the PCNA-associated recombination inhibitor (PARI) protein has recently been shown to inhibit homologous recombination (HR) events. Here, we describe a biochemical mechanism in which PARI functions as an HR regulator after replication fork stalling and during double-strand break repair. In our reconstituted biochemical system, we show that PARI inhibits DNA repair synthesis during recombination events in a PCNA interaction-dependent way but independently of its UvrD-like helicase domain. In accordance, we demonstrate that PARI inhibits HR in vivo, and its knockdown suppresses the UV sensitivity of RAD18-depleted cells. Our data reveal a novel human regulatory mechanism that limits the extent of HR and represents a new potential target for anticancer therapy. PMID:26792895

  11. EPA's science blog: "It All Starts with Science"; Article title: "EPA's Solvent Substitution Software Tool, PARIS III"

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's solvent substitution software tool, PARIS III is provided by the EPA for free, and can be effective and efficiently used to help environmentally-conscious individuals find better and greener solvent mixtures for many different common industrial processes. People can downlo...

  12. 25 CFR 542.11 - What are the minimum internal control standards for pari-mutuel wagering?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... percentage of the handle. (b) Computer applications. For any computer applications utilized, alternate.... In case of computer failure between the pari-mutuel book and the hub, no tickets shall be manually... writer/cashier shall sign on and the computer shall document gaming operation name (or...

  13. 25 CFR 542.11 - What are the minimum internal control standards for pari-mutuel wagering?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... percentage of the handle. (b) Computer applications. For any computer applications utilized, alternate.... In case of computer failure between the pari-mutuel book and the hub, no tickets shall be manually... writer/cashier shall sign on and the computer shall document gaming operation name (or...

  14. 25 CFR 542.11 - What are the minimum internal control standards for pari-mutuel wagering?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for pari... INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.11 What are the minimum internal control... documentation and/or procedures that provide at least the level of control described by the standards in...

  15. People Interview: Using sci-fi to promote physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-07-01

    INTERVIEW Using sci-fi to promote physics Robert Flack, a research fellow at University College London, talks to David Smith about science writing and the consequences for physicists of books like Angels and Demons.

  16. SciDAC Advances and Applications in Computational Beam Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Ryne, R.; Abell, D.; Adelmann, A.; Amundson, J.; Bohn, C.; Cary, J.; Colella, P.; Dechow, D.; Decyk, V.; Dragt, A.; Gerber, R.; Habib, S.; Higdon, D.; Katsouleas, T.; Ma, K.-L.; McCorquodale, P.; Mihalcea, D.; Mitchell, C.; Mori, W.; Mottershead, C.T.; Neri, F.; Pogorelov, I.; Qiang, J.; Samulyak, R.; Serafini, D.; Shalf, J.; Siegerist, C.; Spentzouris, P.; Stoltz, P.; Terzic, B.; Venturini, M.; Walstrom, P.

    2005-06-26

    SciDAC has had a major impact on computational beam dynamics and the design of particle accelerators. Particle accelerators--which account for half of the facilities in the DOE Office of Science Facilities for the Future of Science 20 Year Outlook--are crucial for US scientific, industrial, and economic competitiveness. Thanks to SciDAC, accelerator design calculations that were once thought impossible are now carried routinely, and new challenging and important calculations are within reach. SciDAC accelerator modeling codes are being used to get the most science out of existing facilities, to produce optimal designs for future facilities, and to explore advanced accelerator concepts that may hold the key to qualitatively new ways of accelerating charged particle beams. In this poster we present highlights from the SciDAC Accelerator Science and Technology (AST) project Beam Dynamics focus area in regard to algorithm development, software development, and applications.

  17. What Are the Treatments for Spinal Cord Injury (SCI)?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources and Publications What are the treatments for spinal cord injury (SCI)? Skip sharing on social media links ... no known ways to reverse damage to the spinal cord. However, researchers are continually working on new treatments, ...

  18. Hearing Pygmalion's Kiss: A Scientific Object at the Paris Opéra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, Kevin

    2014-12-01

    In 1748, in his acte de ballet Pygmalion, composer and music theorist Jean-Philippe Rameau arranged the Paris Opéra orchestra to play "nature's chord," harmonies that reproduced the overtones an expert ear could detect in every natural musical vibrating body. The following year Rameau presented his music theory to the French Royal Academy of Sciences for their endorsement. Disillusionment with the promise of Cartesian mechanics as a source of a unified understanding of nature opened up the possibility that matter might have properties beyond extension and motion, such as aversion, desire, and memory. Speculations about this material sensibility also coincided with increasing claims about the authority of spontaneous emotion and feeling. The experience of music at the opera was a significant resource for claims about the cultural authority of sensibility.

  19. Telephone survey of hospital staff knowledge of medical device surveillance in a Paris hospital.

    PubMed

    Mazeau, Valérie; Grenier-Sennelier, Catherine; Paturel, Denys Xavier; Mokhtari, Mostafa; Vidal-Trecan, Gwenaëlle

    2004-12-01

    Reporting of incidents or near incidents because of medical devices in French hospitals relies on procedures following European and national guidelines. The authors intend to evaluate hospital staff knowledge on these surveillance procedures as a marker of appropriate application. A telephone survey is conducted on a sample of Paris University hospital staff (n = 327) using a structured questionnaire. Two-hundred sixteen persons completed the questionnaire. The response rate was lower among physicians, especially surgeons paid on an hourly basis. Rates of correct answers were different according to age, seniority, job, and department categories. Physicians and nurses correctly answered questions on theoretical knowledge more often than the other job categories. However, on questions dealing with actual practice conditions, correct answers depended more on age and seniority with a U-shaped distribution (minimum rates in intermediate categories of age and seniority). PMID:15492050

  20. Job accessibility, residential segregation and risk of long-term unemployment in the Paris region.

    PubMed

    Korsu, Emre; Wenglenski, Sandrine

    2010-01-01

    The research presented in this paper explores, in the French context, the hypothesis that employment problems experienced by low-skilled jobseekers are partially caused by spatial urban factors. Many low-skilled workers live in poor neighbourhoods where they are exposed to a distressed social environment and/or weak job accessibility. For reasons discussed in this article, living in such neighbourhoods may increase the duration of unemployment for jobseekers. On the basis of an empirical study, this hypothesis is tested in the Paris-Ile-de-France metropolitan area and addresses the question: all other things being equal, are low-skilled workers living in high-poverty neighbourhoods and/or neighbourhoods with low job accessibility exposed to a greater risk of long-term unemployment? PMID:20845591

  1. [Innovations in medical undergraduate pathology education: The Paris Descartes medicine faculty experience].

    PubMed

    Just, Pierre-Alexandre; Verkarre, Virginie; Mansuet-Lupo, Audrey; Rabant, Marion; Daniliuc, Cristina; Radenen, Brigitte; Harent, Marion; Cassanelli, Lucien; Cherel, Éric; Javaux, Hubert; Tesniere, Antoine; Terris, Benoît; Badoual, Cécile

    2016-08-01

    At the Paris Descartes medicine faculty, we tested some newly developed tools to enhance the pedagogic value of the pathology teaching. In our faculty, this teaching is largely multidisciplinary and integrated in various teaching units; a large part is dedicated to practice works with thirteen 90min sessions. Virtual slides have been used for years in numerous medicine faculties; we successfully implemented this tool by adding contextual annotations, which facilitate students revising. We showed that rewarding students' assiduity enhanced their exam success. To do so, we now propose a short continuous assessment exam at the beginning of each practice session in the form of electronic multi-choice questions. Finally, we now propose a completely computerized final exam, on touchpads, that enhanced its docimologic value. PMID:27475003

  2. School Choice in London and Paris – A Comparison of Middle-class Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Michaela; Bridge, Gary; Wilson, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Education is one major public service in which quasi-markets and other choice-based mechanisms are now established methods of delivery. The types of school people choose, and the extent to which their choices are realized, have a fundamental impact on the outcomes of any mechanism of school choice. In this article, we provide a comparative analysis of the school choice strategies of middle-class families in London and Paris. We draw on approximately 200 in-depth interviews carried out across the two cities. This enables us to investigate the extent to which middle-class school choice strategies transcend the institutional context provided by both the local (state and private) schools market and national education policy in England and France. We discuss these findings in the context of current school choice policy and consider their implications for future policy design. PMID:25750467

  3. Breakthrough in cardiac arrest: reports from the 4th Paris International Conference.

    PubMed

    Kudenchuk, Peter J; Sandroni, Claudio; Drinhaus, Hendrik R; Böttiger, Bernd W; Cariou, Alain; Sunde, Kjetil; Dworschak, Martin; Taccone, Fabio Silvio; Deye, Nicolas; Friberg, Hans; Laureys, Steven; Ledoux, Didier; Oddo, Mauro; Legriel, Stéphane; Hantson, Philippe; Diehl, Jean-Luc; Laterre, Pierre-Francois

    2015-12-01

    Jean-Luc Diehl The French Intensive Care Society organized on 5th and 6th June 2014 its 4th "Paris International Conference in Intensive Care", whose principle is to bring together the best international experts on a hot topic in critical care medicine. The 2014 theme was "Breakthrough in cardiac arrest", with many high-quality updates on epidemiology, public health data, pre-hospital and in-ICU cares. The present review includes short summaries of the major presentations, classified into six main chapters: Epidemiology of CA Pre-hospital management Post-resuscitation management: targeted temperature management Post-resuscitation management: optimizing organ perfusion and metabolic parameters Neurological assessment of brain damages Public healthcare. PMID:26380990

  4. New characterization aspects of carbonate accumulation horizons in Chalky Champagne (NE of the Paris Basin, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linoir, Damien; Thomachot-Schneider, Céline; Gommeaux, Maxime; Fronteau, Gilles; Barbin, Vincent

    2016-05-01

    The soil profiles of the Champagne area (NE of Paris Basin, France) occasionally show carbonate accumulation horizons (CAHs). From the top to the bottom, these soil profiles include a rendic leptosol horizon, a Quaternary cryoturbated paleosol (QCP), and a chalky substratum. The CAHs are located in the top part of the QCP. This study is aimed at highlighting the specific characteristics of CAHs compared to other soil profile horizons using geophysics, geochemistry, micromorphology, and mercury injection porosimetry. It is the first essential step for understanding the impact of CAHs on water transfers into the Champagne soil profiles. Our analyses show that Champagne CAHs are not systematically characterized by a typical induration unlike generally put forward in the regional literature. They are more porous and heterogeneous than their parent material (QCP). Carbonate accumulation horizons are also characterized by singular colorimetric parameters that are linked to their geochemical specific content, even if they bear a signature of the initial QCP before the pedogenic modification.

  5. Fossil echinoid (Echinoidea, Echinodermata) diversity of the Early Cretaceous (Hauterivian) in the Paris Basin (France).

    PubMed

    Benetti, Sophie; Saucède, Thomas; David, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    This dataset inventories occurrence records of fossil echinoid specimens collected in the Calcaires à Spatangues Formation (CSF) that crops out in the southeast of the Paris Basin (France), and is dated from the Acanthodiscus radiatus chronozone (ca. 132 Ma, early Hauterivian, Early Cretaceous). Fossil richness and abundance of the CSF has attracted the attention of palaeontologists since the middle of the nineteenth century. This dataset compiles occurrence data (referenced by locality names and geographic coordinates with decimal numbers) of fossil echinoids both collated from the literature published over a century and a half, and completed by data from collection specimens. The dataset also gives information on taxonomy (from species to order and higher taxonomic levels), which has been checked for reliability and consistency. It compiles a total of 628 georeferenced occurrence data of 26 echinoid species represented by 22 genera, 14 families, and 9 orders. PMID:24003321

  6. Fossil echinoid (Echinoidea, Echinodermata) diversity of the Early Cretaceous (Hauterivian) in the Paris Basin (France)

    PubMed Central

    Benetti, Sophie; Saucède, Thomas; David, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This dataset inventories occurrence records of fossil echinoid specimens collected in the Calcaires à Spatangues Formation (CSF) that crops out in the southeast of the Paris Basin (France), and is dated from the Acanthodiscus radiatus chronozone (ca. 132 Ma, early Hauterivian, Early Cretaceous). Fossil richness and abundance of the CSF has attracted the attention of palaeontologists since the middle of the nineteenth century. This dataset compiles occurrence data (referenced by locality names and geographic coordinates with decimal numbers) of fossil echinoids both collated from the literature published over a century and a half, and completed by data from collection specimens. The dataset also gives information on taxonomy (from species to order and higher taxonomic levels), which has been checked for reliability and consistency. It compiles a total of 628 georeferenced occurrence data of 26 echinoid species represented by 22 genera, 14 families, and 9 orders. PMID:24003321

  7. An Account of the Inaugural Tessier Skull Exhibition at the University of Paris Descartes.

    PubMed

    Dusseldorp, Joseph Richard; Firmin, Françoise

    2015-10-01

    Paul Tessier is widely regarded as the father of modern craniofacial surgery. Upon his passing in 2008, his private collection of human skulls was purchased by the French Association of Facial Surgeons to ensure the collection would remain in France. The first public exhibition of the skulls was held in the medical museum of the University of Paris Descartes in April 2014. From this collection of skulls and the imagination of Tessier an entirely new specialty was created. Modern craniofacial surgery, now is an integral part of any pediatric plastic surgery department. Cranial and facial osteotomies have also become commonplace in both traumatic and aesthetic surgery. The goals for craniofacial deformity are now a return to completely normal appearance and function, as Tessier always believed they should be. PMID:26468782

  8. New steroidal saponins from the rhizomes of Paris delavayi and their cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Tian, Xiangrong; Hua, Dong; Cheng, Guang; Wang, Kaixing; Zhang, Lihan; Tang, Haifeng; Wang, Minchang

    2016-06-01

    Four new furostanol saponins, named padelaosides C-F (1-4), together with four known spirostanol saponins 5-8 were isolated from the rhizomes of Paris delavayi Franchet. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis and chemical evidences. The discovery of the new compounds 1-4 extended the diversity and complexity of this furostanol saponin family. The cytotoxicity of all the saponins was evaluated for their cytotoxicity against human glioblastoma U87MG and human hepatocellular carcinoma Hep-G2 cell lines. The known spirostanol saponins 7 and 8 exhibited notable cytotoxicity against the two tumor cell lines with IC50 values of 1.13 and 3.42μM, respectively, while the new furostanol saponins 3 and 4 showed moderate cytotoxicity with IC50 values of 15.28 to 16.98μM. PMID:27118322

  9. Homicide followed by suicide: Paris and its suburbs, 1991-1996.

    PubMed

    Lecomte, D; Fornes, P

    1998-07-01

    Homicide-suicides (HS) are relatively infrequent events. Yet, they are of great concern because they often result in the death of family members, young children, and cause additional morbidity, family disruption and childhood psychological trauma. The aims of our study were (a) to examine the sociodemographic, clinical, and autopsy characteristics of HS in Paris and its suburbs from 1991 through 1996, and (b) to analyze the psychodynamic determinants leading up to the onset of HS. Our findings are compared with those obtained in other international studies. For the purpose of the present study. HS was defined as a violent event in which an individual committed homicide and subsequently committed suicide within a few hours. The main results are as follows. During the six-year study period, 56 HS involving 133 victims were investigated at the Institute of Forensic Medicine of Paris. Seventeen events occurred in Paris and 39 in its suburbs. Paris has a population of approximately 2,200,000 while its suburbs are home to another 8,5000,000. Of the 56 offenders, 48 (85%) were males. The mean age of offenders was 51 years in males (range, 24 to 83) and 40.5 years in females (range, 33 to 56). In 45 events (80%), the offenders used a gun for both the homicide and suicide. A knife was used in only 4 murders, strangulation in 4 other cases, with poisoning, arson, or beating occurring in one case each. In 9 cases, the offender used a different weapon for homicide and suicide. Among firearms, handguns were more likely to be used (26 cases) than shotguns (6 cases) or rifles (13 cases). In 40 cases the offender killed one victim, in 11 cases 2 victims, and in 5 cases 3 victims. The homicide victims consisted of 34 children (21 boys), mean age 8 years (range, 1 to 16), 29 spouses (26 females), 2 girlfriends, 10 strangers, and 2 relatives. Five pets were killed. HS were most likely to be committed in the home. A suicide note was found near the victims in 29 cases (50% of events

  10. Social suffering and anxiety: deciphering coughs and colds at Akan anti-witchcraft shrines in Paris.

    PubMed

    Parish, Jane

    2011-12-01

    In treating illness and suffering, the Akan anti-witchcraft shrine is often presented as a model of unchanging, tightly bounded and antiquated ideals. This fails to acknowledge the extensive repertoire of Ghanaian witchcraft discourses and contemporary divinatory practices uncovered at Akan anti-witchcraft shrines. This paper analyses how one of the most popular Akan anti-witchcraft shrine in Europe, in an eastern banlieue of Paris, diagnoses the seemingly common and innocuous coughs and colds suffered by recently arrived, unskilled female Ghanaian migrants as something more socially and economically malignant, witchcraft. Successful treatment combines divinatory techniques, paracetamol medicines and positive thinking in order to empower clients and present them with the possibility of new social and gainful employment prospects. PMID:22060124

  11. Temporal scaling in fatigue life of materials and incorporation of temporal events in Paris's law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frantziskonis, George N.

    2013-04-01

    Temporal scaling in mechanical strength of materials is vital for long-term effects such as fatigue. The fatigue crack length α is related to the change in the stress intensity factor ΔK by the omnipresent Paris's law, which works well for cyclic fatigue of specific frequency and amplitude. The paper considers time scaling in fatigue and through it incorporates the effects of temporal events such as unexpected or accidental loads, impact loads, and rare events such as earthquake loads. This is achieved by theoretically incorporating the effects of delta-function type loads into fatigue. Since the time-scale decomposition of such a load contains information at all scales, the theoretical framework is easily extended to include general types of loads.

  12. [Comunities of knowledge. Schools and colleges in Paris in the XIIIth century].

    PubMed

    Mews, Constant J

    2008-01-01

    The social and institutional history of the university of Paris still frequently remains detached from the study of the intellectual dynamics which were produced in its midst. The concept of "communities of knowledge" allows us to fill this gap by narrowly associating the history of knowledge to its concrete conditions of production and teaching. This model permits us to give attention to the maintenance, in the midst of the Parisian university of diverse "schools" endowed with orientations and specific programmes of research. The appearance of colleges can equally be situated in this perspective, which permits us to better grasp the interaction between the political and intellectual stakes which lay stress on the history of the university in the XIIIth century. Finally, it neveals the image of an institution more fragmented than unified. PMID:19391382

  13. Antinucleon-nucleus interaction near threshold from the Paris N bar N potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, E.; Gal, A.; Loiseau, B.; Wycech, S.

    2015-11-01

    A general algorithm for handling the energy dependence of hadron-nucleon amplitudes in the nuclear medium, consistently with their density dependence, has been recently applied to antikaons, eta mesons and pions interacting with nuclei. Here we apply this approach to antiprotons below threshold, analyzing experimental results for antiprotonic atoms across the periodic table. It is also applied to antiproton and antineutron interactions with nuclei up to 400 MeV/c, comparing with elastic scattering and annihilation cross sections. The underlying p bar N scattering amplitudes are derived from the Paris N bar N potential, including in-medium modifications. Emphasis is placed on the role of the P-wave amplitudes with respect to the repulsive S-wave amplitudes.

  14. Status of FNAL SciBooNE experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Nakajima, Yasuhiro; /Kyoto U.

    2007-12-01

    SciBooNE is a new experiment at FNAL which will make precision neutrino-nucleus cross section measurements in the one GeV region. These measurements are essential for the future neutrino oscillation experiments. We started data taking in the antineutrino mode on June 8, 2007, and collected 5.19 x 10{sup 19} protons on target (POT) before the accelerator shutdown in August. The first data from SciBooNE are reported in this article.

  15. Introduction to Searching with SciFinder Scholar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridley, Damon D.

    2001-04-01

    With SciFinder Scholar now one of the preferred access routes to information in the sciences, many college information retrieval courses that dealt with online networks need to be redesigned. Although one of the basic assumptions within the design of SciFinder Scholar is that staff and students may retrieve valuable answers with little training, nevertheless, with a little instruction improved search results may be obtained. We present here our basic teaching program for senior undergraduate and postgraduate classes.

  16. Prevalence and socioeconomic and geographical inequalities of household food insecurity in the Paris region, France, 2010

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Food insecurity (FI) is the situation where people do not have, at all times, access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs for an active and healthy life. The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of FI in the Paris area by using, for the first time in France, a specific FI questionnaire and to identify the characteristics of food-insecure households, taking into account a potential neighbourhood effect. Methods This study is based on data from the third wave of the SIRS cohort study (a representative, population-based socioepidemiological study) that were analysed using a cross-sectional design. In 2010, 3000 individuals in the Paris metropolitan area (PMA) were interviewed. FI was investigated by means of the USDA’s HFSSM. We used stratified multilevel models across three household income categories to identify populations at risk for FI. Results In 2010, 6.30% (95% CI = [4.99-7.97]) of the households in the PMA experienced FI (up to 13.59% in the most underprivileged neighbourhoods). About 2.50% of the households experienced severe FI and 2.85% of household living with an income above 1666 € experienced food insecurity, whereas the percentage raises to 23.38% among those living below the poverty threshold (<791 €). Depending on the income level, different household characteristics emerged as being associated with FI. In the poorest households, the presence of a child under 3 years of age was associated with an increased risk of FI (OR = 2.11; p = 0.03). Among higher-income households, the household composition appeared to be strongly associated with FI. Conclusion FI exists in several social groups in France. Its prevalence in the most underprivileged households should be considered an indicator of vulnerability, which could permit targeted social assistance policies. PMID:23688296

  17. Sequence Analysis of the Segmental Duplication Responsible for Paris Sex-Ratio Drive in Drosophila simulans

    PubMed Central

    Fouvry, Lucie; Ogereau, David; Berger, Anne; Gavory, Frederick; Montchamp-Moreau, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Sex-ratio distorters are X-linked selfish genetic elements that facilitate their own transmission by subverting Mendelian segregation at the expense of the Y chromosome. Naturally occurring cases of sex-linked distorters have been reported in a variety of organisms, including several species of Drosophila; they trigger genetic conflict over the sex ratio, which is an important evolutionary force. However, with a few exceptions, the causal loci are unknown. Here, we molecularly characterize the segmental duplication involved in the Paris sex-ratio system that is still evolving in natural populations of Drosophila simulans. This 37.5 kb tandem duplication spans six genes, from the second intron of the Trf2 gene (TATA box binding protein-related factor 2) to the first intron of the org-1 gene (optomotor-blind-related-gene-1). Sequence analysis showed that the duplication arose through the production of an exact copy on the template chromosome itself. We estimated this event to be less than 500 years old. We also detected specific signatures of the duplication mechanism; these support the Duplication-Dependent Strand Annealing model. The region at the junction between the two duplicated segments contains several copies of an active transposable element, Hosim1, alternating with 687 bp repeats that are noncoding but transcribed. The almost-complete sequence identity between copies made it impossible to complete the sequencing and assembly of this region. These results form the basis for the functional dissection of Paris sex-ratio drive and will be valuable for future studies designed to better understand the dynamics and the evolutionary significance of sex chromosome drive. PMID:22384350

  18. Biomonitoring of complex occupational exposures to carcinogens: The case of sewage workers in Paris

    PubMed Central

    Al Zabadi, Hamzeh; Ferrari, Luc; Laurent, Anne-Marie; Tiberguent, Aziz; Paris, Christophe; Zmirou-Navier, Denis

    2008-01-01

    Background Sewage workers provide an essential service in the protection of public and environmental health. However, they are exposed to varied mixtures of chemicals; some are known or suspected to be genotoxics or carcinogens. Thus, trying to relate adverse outcomes to single toxicant is inappropriate. We aim to investigate if sewage workers are at increased carcinogenic risk as evaluated by biomarkers of exposure and early biological effects. Methods/design This cross sectional study will compare exposed sewage workers to non-exposed office workers. Both are voluntaries from Paris municipality, males, aged (20–60) years, non-smokers since at least six months, with no history of chronic or recent illness, and have similar socioeconomic status. After at least 3 days of consecutive work, blood sample and a 24-hour urine will be collected. A caffeine test will be performed, by administering coffee and collecting urines three hours after. Subjects will fill in self-administered questionnaires; one covering the professional and lifestyle habits while the a second one is alimentary. The blood sample will be used to assess DNA adducts in peripheral lymphocytes. The 24-hour urine to assess urinary 8-oxo-7, 8-dihydro-2'-deoxy-Guanosine (8-oxo-dG), and the in vitro genotoxicity tests (comet and micronucleus) using HeLa S3 or HepG2 cells. In parallel, occupational air sampling will be conducted for some Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Volatile Organic Compounds. A weekly sampling chronology at the offices of occupational medicine in Paris city during the regular medical visits will be followed. This protocol has been accepted by the French Est III Ethical Comitee with the number 2007-A00685-48. Discussion Biomarkers of exposure and of early biological effects may help overcome the limitations of environmental exposure assessment in very complex occupational or environmental settings. PMID:18325085

  19. Deformations during uppermost Cretaceous-Early Eocene in NW Europe - The record of the Paris basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briais, Justine; Guillocheau, François; Robin, Cécile; Lasseur, Eric; Serrano, Olivier

    2014-05-01

    The uppermost Cretaceous to Early Paleocene is, in NW Europe, a period of major deformations with significant inversions during Turonian to Campanian times and during Early Paleocene. The mechanism of those inversions is still debated. Later on, a major uplift coeval with the Faroe-Shetland volcanic province occurred with a deformation regime still poorly understood. The objective of this study is to better constrain those deformations in the Paris Basin and to discuss their implications on the palaeogeography and the sedimentary systems. This study is based on well-dated wells and outcrops, correlated using the technique of "stacking pattern". In a second step, accommodation space measurements were performed from isopaches and facies maps. (1) The paroxysm of the deformation and the sharp decrease of the subsidence occurred between Late Campanian (with probably deposition of part of the Maastrichtian) and Early Danian, with the growth of a middle wavelength fold controlled by the Bray Fault. Danian carbonate platforms, mainly preserved south-west of Paris, are growing on unstable slightly consolidated chalk (numerous slumps). (2) A hiatus characterized part of the Danian, the Selandian and the base Thanetian. (3) Thanetian initiate a major change of sedimentary system (silicilastic) and of subsidence pattern, now located north of the Bray Fault, above the Early Liassic highly subsiding domains. (4) The Thanetian - Ypresian sediments do not record the eustatic signal, using the Zachos world sea temperature curve as a proxy (Haq's curve cannot be used anymore). This means that a significant deformation event overprints this signal, here the reactivation of the Seine Fault with inversion of some upper crust heterogeneities.

  20. Quantification of palaeoclimatic effects on heat flow in the Paris basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dentzer, Jacques; Lopez, Simon; Violette, Sophie; Bruel, Dominique

    2015-04-01

    Deep geothermal resources of the Paris basin have been harnessed for more than 40 years with nearly 40 operating plants supplying heat to district networks in the Parisian suburbs. The target of all these operations is the deep "Dogger" aquifer. Though these areas are densely exploited, no thermal breakthrough has been observed yet, except for a few isolated cases. As new geothermal projects are currently scheduled, heat transfers and thermal anomalies are now quantified considering the whole sedimentary pile. At this scale, thermal profiles are particularly relevant to discriminate different possible causes for the observed temperature and heat flow anomalies. Based on 10 thermal profiles in the centre of the Paris basin, a mean heat flow profile is reassessed. For each geological formation, a mean thermal gradient is estimated and heat flow is calculated with an averaged formation thermal conductivity. A simple 1D conductive numerical model is then set up with 19 sedimentary layers and a bedrock layer. Palaeoclimatic effects are quantified by testing different published temperature scenarios. These scenarios cover time scales ranging from 65 ky to 5 My. Although the uncertainty on heat flow derived from thermal profiles is around +/- 15 mW/m2, the model reproduces satisfactorily the main heat flow anomaly present in the upper part of the basin, with heat flow decreasing from 85 mW/m2 at 1200 m depth to less than 60 mW/m2 at the surface. Consequently, climatic variations over a long period of time (5 My scenario) seem enough to reproduce this anomaly correctly, which was previously attributed to convective effects. Yet, smaller scale heat flow fluctuations match aquifer levels exactly and are probably related to (relatively) short time convective water transfers at the basin scale.

  1. An attempt at estimating Paris area CO2 emissions from atmospheric concentration measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bréon, F. M.; Broquet, G.; Puygrenier, V.; Chevallier, F.; Xueref-Rémy, I.; Ramonet, M.; Dieudonné, E.; Lopez, M.; Schmidt, M.; Perrussel, O.; Ciais, P.

    2014-04-01

    Atmospheric concentration measurements are used to adjust the daily to monthly budget of CO2 emissions from the AirParif inventory of the Paris agglomeration. We use 5 atmospheric monitoring sites including one at the top of the Eiffel tower. The atmospheric inversion is based on a Bayesian approach, and relies on an atmospheric transport model with a spatial resolution of 2 km with boundary conditions from a global coarse grid transport model. The inversion tool adjusts the CO2 fluxes (anthropogenic and biogenic) with a temporal resolution of 6 h, assuming temporal correlation of emissions uncertainties within the daily cycle and from day to day, while keeping the a priori spatial distribution from the emission inventory. The inversion significantly improves the agreement between measured and modelled concentrations. However, the amplitude of the atmospheric transport errors is often large compared to the CO2 gradients between the sites that are used to estimate the fluxes, in particular for the Eiffel tower station. In addition, we sometime observe large model-measurement differences upwind from the Paris agglomeration, which confirms the large and poorly constrained contribution from distant sources and sinks included in the prescribed CO2 boundary conditions These results suggest that (i) the Eiffel measurements at 300 m above ground cannot be used with the current system and (ii) the inversion shall rely on the measured upwind-downwind gradients rather than the raw mole fraction measurements. With such setup, realistic emissions are retrieved for two 30 day periods. Similar inversions over longer periods are necessary for a proper evaluation of the results.

  2. The stable isotope compositions of mercury in atmospheric particles (PM10) from Paris (France) and vicinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widory, D.; Petelet-Giraud, E.; Johnson, T.; Quétel, C.; Snell, J.; van Bocxstaele, M.; Bullen, T. D.

    2010-12-01

    Solid mercury (Hg) in atmospheric particles in the environment can be derived from a variety of primary sources and cycled through numerous secondary processes, complicating identification of its origin. Using the PM10 fraction of aerosols from Paris and vicinity, we investigated the possibility that Hg stable isotope compositions could help identify the origins of atmospheric Hg and processes affecting the atmospheric Hg budget. Characterization of Hg isotope compositions of emissions from the different potential sources (e.g. waste incinerators, coal-fired power plants, metal refining plants, road traffic, heating sources and volcanic gases) shows that those containing Hg are clearly discriminated by specific Hg isotope signatures. PM10 were sampled in three different locations: A) downtown Paris, characterized by diffuse pollution, B) nearby suburb of the city, close to suspected Hg emitters, and C) in distant suburb of the city, having only a few industrial activities in the area. Results indicate that Hg in most of the PM10 samples is explained by binary mixings. The mixing end-members include at least two distinct sources at low Hg concentrations in the aerosols, compatible with industrial activity. At high Hg concentration in the aerosols, the isotopes may likewise indicate two distinct sources with δ202Hg compositions of -4.1 and -11.4 ‰. This range is significantly less than that measured on the potential sources of Hg pollution, and may indicate secondary processes, such as gas to solid phase transfers. The occurrence of post-emission processes is reinforced by the strong correlations existing between these low δ202Hg and MIF Δ201Hg values.

  3. Link between aerosol optical, microphysical and chemical measurements in an underground railway station in Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raut, J.-C.; Chazette, P.; Fortain, A.

    Measurements carried out in Paris Magenta railway station in April-May 2006 underlined a repeatable diurnal cycle of aerosol concentrations and optical properties. The average daytime PM 10 and PM 2.5 concentrations in such a confined space were approximately 5-30 times higher than those measured in Paris streets. Particles are mainly constituted of dust, with high concentrations of iron and other metals, but are also composed of black and organic carbon. Aerosol levels are linked to the rate at which rain and people pass through the station. Concentrations are also influenced by ambient air from the nearby streets through tunnel ventilation. During daytime approximately 70% of aerosol mass concentrations are governed by coarse absorbing particles with a low Angström exponent (˜0.8) and a low single-scattering albedo (˜0.7). The corresponding aerosol density is about 2 g cm -3 and their complex refractive index at 355 nm is close to 1.56-0.035 i. The high absorption properties are linked to the significant proportion of iron oxides together with black carbon in braking systems. During the night, particles are mostly submicronic, thus presenting a greater Angström exponent (˜2). The aerosol density is lower (1.8 g cm -3) and their complex refractive index presents a lower imaginary part (1.58-0.013 i), associated to a stronger single-scattering albedo (˜0.85-0.90), mostly influenced by the ambient air. For the first time we have assessed the emission (deposition) rates in an underground station for PM 10, PM 2.5 and black carbon concentrations to be 3314 ± 781(-1164 ± 160), 1186 ± 358(-401 ± 66) and 167 ± 46(-25 ± 9) μg m -2 h -1, respectively.

  4. Surveys, Fields, and Collections in the Astronomical Photographic Data Archive at PARI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cline, J. D.; Castelaz, M. W.; Barker, T.

    2014-01-01

    A diverse set of photometric, astrometric, spectral and surface brightness data exist on more than 100 years of photographic glass plates. About 20 percent of the plates in North America are located in the Astronomical Photographic Data Archive (APDA) at the Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI). APDA was established in November 2007 and is dedicated to the task of collecting, restoring, preserving and storing astronomical photographic data and PARI continues to accept collections. APDA is also tasked with scanning each image and establishing a database of images that can be accessed via the Internet by the global community of scientists, researchers and students. APDA is a new type of astronomical observatory - one that harnesses analog data of the night sky taken for more than a century and making that data available in a digital format. APDA currently has 50 collections with more than 250,000 plates taken for QSO identification, parallax measurements, spectral classification and monitoring, Magellanic Cloud studies, H-alpha emission star surveys, novae evolution, and astrometry of asteroids, outer planet satellites and Pluto. Some examples of collections include the complete set of the Henize H-alpha Southern Survey plates taken between 1949 and 1952 (Henize 1954, AJ, 59, 325), the Case Western Objective Prism All Sky Survey from 1958-1976 (e.g. Pesch, Sanduleak, and Stephenson 1996, ApJS, 103, 513), and QSO Survey from 1980 to 1991 (e.g. Pesch and Stephenson 1983, ApJS, 51, 171). We feature the contents of the APDA collections to provide the opportunity to the astronomical community to advance new and established areas of study.

  5. The Impact of Heat Islands on Mortality in Paris during the August 2003 Heat Wave

    PubMed Central

    Zeghnoun, Abdelkrim; Dousset, Bénédicte; Bretin, Philippe; Vandentorren, Stéphanie; Giraudet, Emmanuel; Beaudeau, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    Background: Heat waves have a drastic impact on urban populations, which could increase with climate change. Objectives: We evaluated new indicators of elderly people’s exposure to heat in Paris, from a public health prevention perspective, using satellite thermal images. Methods: We used a time series of 61 images from the satellites of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) taken from 1 to 13 August 2003 to produce thermal indicators of minimum, maximum, and mean surface temperatures and diurnal temperature amplitude, with different lags between the meteorological data and the health impact. Health data came from a case–control study involving 241 people ≥ 65 years of age who died in the city of Paris or the nearby suburban area of Val-de-Marne during the August 2003 heat wave, and 241 controls who were matched to cases on age, sex, and residential zone. For each person, we integrated the thermal indicators in a conditional logistic regression model, adjusted for age and other potential confounders. We computed odds ratios (ORs) comparing the 90th and 50th percentiles of the temperature differences between cases and controls for various indicators. Results: Mortality risk was significantly associated with exposure for two indicators: minimum temperatures averaged for 1–13 August [for a 0.41°C increase, OR = 2.17; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.14, 4.16] and minimum temperature averaged on the day of death and the 6 preceding days (for a 0.51°C increase: OR = 2.24; 95% CI: 1.03, 4.87). Conclusions: Our results support the influence of night temperatures on the health impact of heat waves in urban areas. Urban heat exposure indicators based on satellite imagery have the potential to identify areas with higher risk of death, which could inform intervention decisions by key stakeholders. PMID:21885383

  6. Highly time-resolved trace element concentrations in aerosols during the Megapoli Paris campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furger, Markus; Visser, Suzanne; Slowik, Jay G.; Crippa, Monica; Poulain, Laurent; Appel, Karen; Flechsig, Uwe; Prevot, Andre S. H.; Baltensperger, Urs

    2014-05-01

    Trace elements contribute typically only a few percent to the total mass of air pollutants, however, they can affect the environment in significant ways, especially those that are toxic. Furthermore, they are advantageous with respect to a refinement of source apportionment when measured with high time resolution and appropriate size segregation. This approach is especially advantageous in an urban environment with numerous time-variant emission sources distributed across a relatively narrow space, as is typically the setting of a megacity. Two 1-month long field campaigns took place in the framework of the Megapoli project in Paris, France, in the summer of 2009 and in the winter of 2010. Rotating drum impactors (RDI) were operated at two sites in each campaign, one urban, the other one suburban. The RDI segregated the aerosols into three size ranges (PM10-2.5, PM2.5-1 and PM1-0.1) and sampled with 2-hour time resolution. The samples were analyzed with synchrotron radiation induced X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (SR-XRF) at the synchrotron facilities of Paul Scherrer Institute (SLS) and Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (HASYLAB), where a broad range of elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Sr, Zr, Cd, Sn, Sb, Ba, Pb) was analyzed for each size range. Time series of the analyzed elements for the different sites and campaigns were prepared to characterize the aerosol trace element composition and temporal behavior for the different weather situations and urban environments. They allow for the distinction of regional vs. local sources and transport, and provide a basis for source apportionment calculations. Local and regional contributions of traffic, including re-suspension, break wear and exhaust, wood burning, marine and other sources will be discussed. Indications of long-range transport from Polish coal emissions in the city center of Paris were also found.

  7. The contribution of Paris to limit global warming to 2 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyer, Gokul C.; Edmonds, James A.; Fawcett, Allen A.; Hultman, Nathan E.; Alsalam, Jameel; Asrar, Ghassem R.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Clarke, Leon E.; Creason, Jared; Jeong, Minji; Kyle, Page; McFarland, James; Mundra, Anupriya; Patel, Pralit; Shi, Wenjing; McJeon, Haewon C.

    2015-12-01

    The international community has set a goal to limit global warming to 2 °C. Limiting global warming to 2 °C is a challenging goal and will entail a dramatic transformation of the global energy system, largely complete by 2040. As part of the work toward this goal, countries have been submitting their Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, indicating their emissions reduction commitments through 2025 or 2030, in advance of the 21st Conference of the Parties (COP21) in Paris in December 2015. In this paper, we use the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) to analyze the near versus long-term energy and economic-cost implications of these INDCs. The INDCs imply near-term actions that reduce the level of mitigation needed in the post-2030 period, particularly when compared with an alternative path in which nations are unable to undertake emissions mitigation until after 2030. We find that the latter case could require up to 2300 GW of premature retirements of fossil fuel power plants and up to 2900 GW of additional low-carbon power capacity installations within a five-year period of 2031-2035. INDCs have the effect of reducing premature retirements and new-capacity installations after 2030 by 50% and 34%, respectively. However, if presently announced INDCs were strengthened to achieve greater near-term emissions mitigation, the 2031-2035 transformation could be tempered to require 84% fewer premature retirements of power generation capacity and 56% fewer new-capacity additions. Our results suggest that the INDCs delivered for COP21 in Paris will have important contributions in reducing the challenges of achieving the goal of limiting global warming to 2 °C.

  8. Opening Remarks: SciDAC 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strayer, Michael

    2007-09-01

    Good morning. Welcome to Boston, the home of the Red Sox, Celtics and Bruins, baked beans, tea parties, Robert Parker, and SciDAC 2007. A year ago I stood before you to share the legacy of the first SciDAC program and identify the challenges that we must address on the road to petascale computing—a road E E Cummins described as `. . . never traveled, gladly beyond any experience.' Today, I want to explore the preparations for the rapidly approaching extreme scale (X-scale) generation. These preparations are the first step propelling us along the road of burgeoning scientific discovery enabled by the application of X- scale computing. We look to petascale computing and beyond to open up a world of discovery that cuts across scientific fields and leads us to a greater understanding of not only our world, but our universe. As part of the President's America Competitiveness Initiative, the ASCR Office has been preparing a ten year vision for computing. As part of this planning the LBNL together with ORNL and ANL hosted three town hall meetings on Simulation and Modeling at the Exascale for Energy, Ecological Sustainability and Global Security (E3). The proposed E3 initiative is organized around four programmatic themes: Engaging our top scientists, engineers, computer scientists and applied mathematicians; investing in pioneering large-scale science; developing scalable analysis algorithms, and storage architectures to accelerate discovery; and accelerating the build-out and future development of the DOE open computing facilities. It is clear that we have only just started down the path to extreme scale computing. Plan to attend Thursday's session on the out-briefing and discussion of these meetings. The road to the petascale has been at best rocky. In FY07, the continuing resolution provided 12% less money for Advanced Scientific Computing than either the President, the Senate, or the House. As a consequence, many of you had to absorb a no cost extension for your

  9. Combined SCI and TBI: Recovery of forelimb function after unilateral cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) is retarded by contralateral traumatic brain injury (TBI), and ipsilateral TBI balances the effects of SCI on paw placement

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Tomoo; Lin, Amity; Ma, Xiaokui; McKenna, Stephen L.; Creasey, Graham H.; Manley, Geoffrey T.; Ferguson, Adam R.; Bresnahan, Jacqueline C.; Beattie, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    A significant proportion (estimates range from 16–74%) of patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) have concomitant traumatic brain injury (TBI), and the combination often produces difficulties in planning and implementing rehabilitation strategies and drug therapies. For example, many of the drugs used to treat SCI may interfere with cognitive rehabilitation, and conversely drugs that are used to control seizures in TBI patients may undermine locomotor recovery after SCI. The current paper presents an experimental animal model for combined SCI and TBI to help drive mechanistic studies of dual diagnosis. Rats received a unilateral SCI (75 kdyn) at C5 vertebral level, a unilateral TBI (2.0 mm depth, 4.0 m/s velocity impact on the forelimb sensori-motor cortex), or both SCI + TBI. TBI was placed either contralateral or ipsilateral to the SCI. Behavioral recovery was examined using paw placement in a cylinder, grooming, open field locomotion, and the IBB cereal eating test. Over 6 weeks, in the paw placement test, SCI + contralateral TBI produced a profound deficit that failed to recover, but SCI + ipsilateral TBI increased the relative use of the paw on the SCI side. In the grooming test, SCI + contralateral TBI produced worse recovery than either lesion alone even though contralateral TBI alone produced no observable deficit. In the IBB forelimb test, SCI + contralateral TBI revealed a severe deficit that recovered in 3 weeks. For open field locomotion, SCI alone or in combination with TBI resulted in an initial deficit that recovered in 2 weeks. Thus, TBI and SCI affected forelimb function differently depending upon the test, reflecting different neural substrates underlying, for example, exploratory paw placement and stereotyped grooming. Concurrent SCI and TBI had significantly different effects on outcomes and recovery, depending upon laterality of the two lesions. Recovery of function after cervical SCI was retarded by the addition of a moderate TBI in the

  10. SciDAC Institute for Ultrascale Visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Humphreys, Grigori R.

    2008-09-30

    The Institute for Ultrascale Visualization aims to address visualization needs of SciDAC science domains, including research topics in advanced scientific visualization architectures, algorithms, and interfaces for understanding large, complex datasets. During the current project period, the focus of the team at the University of Virginia has been interactive remote rendering for scientific visualization. With high-performance computing resources enabling increasingly complex simulations, scientists may desire to interactively visualize huge 3D datasets. Traditional large-scale 3D visualization systems are often located very close to the processing clusters, and are linked to them with specialized connections for high-speed rendering. However, this tight coupling of processing and display limits possibilities for remote collaboration, and prohibits scientists from using their desktop workstations for data exploration. In this project, we are developing a client/server system for interactive remote 3D visualization on desktop computers.

  11. Opening Comments: SciDAC 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strayer, Michael

    2009-07-01

    Welcome to San Diego and the 2009 SciDAC conference. Over the next four days, I would like to present an assessment of the SciDAC program. We will look at where we've been, how we got to where we are and where we are going in the future. Our vision is to be first in computational science, to be best in class in modeling and simulation. When Ray Orbach asked me what I would do, in my job interview for the SciDAC Director position, I said we would achieve that vision. And with our collective dedicated efforts, we have managed to achieve this vision. In the last year, we have now the most powerful supercomputer for open science, Jaguar, the Cray XT system at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). We also have NERSC, probably the best-in-the-world program for productivity in science that the Office of Science so depends on. And the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility offers architectural diversity with its IBM Blue Gene/P system as a counterbalance to Oak Ridge. There is also ESnet, which is often understated—the 40 gigabit per second dual backbone ring that connects all the labs and many DOE sites. In the President's Recovery Act funding, there is exciting news that ESnet is going to build out to a 100 gigabit per second network using new optical technologies. This is very exciting news for simulations and large-scale scientific facilities. But as one noted SciDAC luminary said, it's not all about the computers—it's also about the science—and we are also achieving our vision in this area. Together with having the fastest supercomputer for science, at the SC08 conference, SciDAC researchers won two ACM Gordon Bell Prizes for the outstanding performance of their applications. The DCA++ code, which solves some very interesting problems in materials, achieved a sustained performance of 1.3 petaflops, an astounding result and a mark I suspect will last for some time. The LS3DF application for studying nanomaterials also required the development of a

  12. Structure of CaCO3-CaSiO3 melts at high P-T conditions using in situ X-ray diffuse scattering in a Paris-Edinburgh press

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hummer, D. R.; Kavner, A.; Manning, C. E.

    2012-12-01

    Carbonatites are an important class of mantle-derived magmas that may play a fundamental role in mantle metasomatism and carbon cycling. However, little is known about the impact of carbonate on the structure of carbonate-silicate liquids at high pressures and temperatures. To examine compositional dependence of the melt structure in the CaCO3-CaSiO3 system, we performed in situ X-ray scattering experiments in the Paris-Edinburgh press at HPCAT (Advanced Photon Source) using four different compositions along the CaCO3-CaSiO3 join. This system exhibits simple eutectic melting over a wide pressure range, with no subsolidus decarbonation reactions [1,2]. Charges were loaded using the experimental setup of Yamada et al [3], and held at ~1800 oC and ~40 kbar while energy dispersive X-ray scattering spectra were recorded. Spectra were collected at eleven different scattering angles to achieve coverage in reciprocal space up to q = 32 Å-1. Post-run inspection of charges indicated that both calcite and wollastonite were present, confirming the retention of CO2. Preliminary analysis of the scattering data suggests that CaCO3 forms an ionic liquid in which trigonal planar CO32- ions remain intact. However, the size of the ions (as measured by the O-O distance of 2.6 Å around the perimeter) was significantly larger than in crystalline carbonates (2.4 Å). This suggests weakening of the C-O bonds, similar to that observed in alkali carbonate melts [4]. Silicate-rich melts showed evidence of SiO44- monomers and a complex meso-scale structure, but no discernible evidence of dimers or higher polymers was observed. Structural differences in these melts as a function of composition, temperature, and pressure may play a significant role in the evolution of carbonatite magmas during metasomatic interaction with mantle minerals, and transit to the crust. [1] Huang, W.L. and Wyllie, P.J. (1974) Earth Plan. Sci. Lett. 24, 305-310. [2] Huang, W.L. et al. (1980) Am. Min. 65, 285-301. [3

  13. Opening Comments: SciDAC 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strayer, Michael

    2009-07-01

    Welcome to San Diego and the 2009 SciDAC conference. Over the next four days, I would like to present an assessment of the SciDAC program. We will look at where we've been, how we got to where we are and where we are going in the future. Our vision is to be first in computational science, to be best in class in modeling and simulation. When Ray Orbach asked me what I would do, in my job interview for the SciDAC Director position, I said we would achieve that vision. And with our collective dedicated efforts, we have managed to achieve this vision. In the last year, we have now the most powerful supercomputer for open science, Jaguar, the Cray XT system at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). We also have NERSC, probably the best-in-the-world program for productivity in science that the Office of Science so depends on. And the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility offers architectural diversity with its IBM Blue Gene/P system as a counterbalance to Oak Ridge. There is also ESnet, which is often understated—the 40 gigabit per second dual backbone ring that connects all the labs and many DOE sites. In the President's Recovery Act funding, there is exciting news that ESnet is going to build out to a 100 gigabit per second network using new optical technologies. This is very exciting news for simulations and large-scale scientific facilities. But as one noted SciDAC luminary said, it's not all about the computers—it's also about the science—and we are also achieving our vision in this area. Together with having the fastest supercomputer for science, at the SC08 conference, SciDAC researchers won two ACM Gordon Bell Prizes for the outstanding performance of their applications. The DCA++ code, which solves some very interesting problems in materials, achieved a sustained performance of 1.3 petaflops, an astounding result and a mark I suspect will last for some time. The LS3DF application for studying nanomaterials also required the development of a

  14. The London and Paris Daily Pressure Series, 1692-2007: the development of two new data series.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornes, R.; Jones, P.; Briffa, K.; Osborn, T.

    2009-04-01

    It has been known for some time that the potential exists to create long daily series of pressure for the cities of London and Paris by piecing together the barometer readings from various observers and institutions. However, most of the readings prior to 1920 have not previously been digitized or converted to modern units. To rectify this, work began in 2006 to locate and digitize these observations and then to correct the data to form homogeneous series of pressure. Observations have been located to span the years 1670-2007 for Paris and 1692-2007 for London, although significant gaps exist for the periods 1726-47 (Paris) and 1717-22 (London) where no daily pressure observations appear to have survived. The barometer observations were subjected to a detailed quality control procedure before being corrected to represent daily means of sea-level pressure at standard conditions. Monthly and annual means were calculated from the daily data and the homogeneity of these data series over the period 1780-2007 was assessed by using the Penalized Maximal t test through the use of several reference series. The homogeneity of the pre-1780 period, in the absence of highly correlated reference series, was tested by using the Penalized Maximal F test. Both of these tests were implemented through the RHtest V2 software package and it thus appears to be one of the first applications of this software to the homogenization of long pressure series. During this homogenization procedure, the London and Paris series were kept separate to avoid the introduction of circular relationships in subsequent analyses. In addition to the increased resolution and the extended length of these new series, the data are considered to be an improvement in terms of homogeneity over the monthly resolution London and Paris pressure series previously developed under the ADVICE project. In particular, the overall mean of the new London series is approximately 1hPa lower than that of the ADVICE London

  15. Nuclear matter properties from a separable representation of the Paris interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Baldo, M.; Bombaci, I.; Giansiracusa, G.; Lombardo, U. Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Catania, Corso Italia, 57, I-95129 Catania ); Mahaux, C.; Sartor, R. )

    1990-04-01

    A separable representation of the Paris interaction is used as input for the investigation of various nuclear matter properties. The faithfulness of the separable representation is checked by comparison with results previously obtained from the original Paris interaction. Calculations are performed for four different values of the Fermi momentum, namely {ital k}{sub {ital F}}=1.10, 1.36, 1.55, and 1.75 fm{sup {minus}1}. One evaluates the contributions to the quasiparticle potential energy that are of first, second, and third order in the reaction matrix. The momentum distribution {ital n}({ital k}) in the correlated ground state is calculated up to second order in the reaction matrix. For 0{lt}{ital k}{lt}2 fm{sup {minus}1}, it mainly depends upon the ratio {ital k}/{ital k}{sub {ital F}}; in the domain 2{lt}{ital k}{lt}4.5 fm{sup {minus}1}, it is accurately reproduced by the expression 1/7{ital k}{sub {ital F}}{sup 5}{ital e{minus}1.6{ital k}}, with {ital k} and {ital k}{sub {ital F}} in units of fm{sup {minus}1}. The quasiparticle strength at the Fermi surface is calculated, as well as the mean-square deviation of the one-body density matrix from that of the unperturbed Fermi sea: This quantity gives an estimate of the minimum value of the norm of the difference between the one-body density matrix of a correlated nucleus and that associated with any Slater determinant. The average kinetic energy per nucleon is evaluated. Various contributions to the average binding energy per nucleon are investigated in the framework of Brueckner's expansion; particular attention is paid to the dependence of the calculated binding energy upon the choice of the auxiliary'' potential which is added to and subtracted from the Hamiltonian before performing the expansion. One also evaluates diagrams that are characteristic of the difference between the Green's function and the Brueckner hole-line expansions.

  16. An Astronomer In The Classroom: Observatoire de Paris's Partnership Between Teachers and Astronomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doressoundiram, A.; Barban, C.

    2006-08-01

    The Observatoire de Paris is offering a partnership between teachers and astronomers. The principle is simple: any teacher wishing to undertake a pedagogical project in astronomy, in the classroom or involving the entire school, can request the help of a mentor. An astronomer from the Observatoire de Paris will then follow the teacher's project progress and offer advice and scientific support throughout the school year. The projects may take different forms: construction projects (models, instruments), lectures, posters, exhibitions, etc. The type of assistance offered is as varied as the projects: lecture(s) in class, telephone and e-mail exchanges, visits to the Observatoire; an almost made-to-measure approach that delighted the thirty or so groups that benefited such partnership in the 2005-2006 academic year. And this number is continuously growing. There was a rich variety of projects undertaken, from mounting a show and building a solar clock to visiting a high altitude observatory, or resolving the mystery of Jupiter's great red spot. The Universe and its mysteries fascinate the young (and the not so- young) and provide a multitude of scientific topics that can be exploited in class. Astronomy offers the added advantage of being a multidisciplinary field. Thus, if most projects are generally initiated by a motivated teacher, they are often taken over by teachers in other subjects: Life and Earth Sciences (SVT), history, mathematics, French, and so forth. The project may consist in an astronomy workshop or be part of the school curriculum. Whatever the case, the astronomer's task is not to replace the teacher or the textbooks, but to propose activities or experiments that are easy to implement. Representing the Solar system on a school-yard scale, for instance, is a perfect way to make youngsters realize that the Universe consists mostly of empty space. There is no shortage of topics, and the students' enthusiasm, seldom absent, is the best reward for the

  17. Transition from Paris dosimetry system to 3D image-guided planning in interstitial breast brachytherapy

    PubMed Central

    Wronczewska, Anna; Kabacińska, Renata; Makarewicz, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to evaluate our first experience with 3D image-guided breast brachytherapy and to compare dose distribution parameters between Paris dosimetry system (PDS) and image-based plans. Material and methods First 49 breast cancer patients treated with 3D high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy as a boost were selected for the study. Every patient underwent computed tomography, and the planning target volume (PTV) and organs at risk (OAR) were outlined. Two treatment plans were created for every patient. First, based on a Paris dosimetry system (PDS), and the second one, imaged-based plan with graphical optimization (OPT). The reference isodose in PDS implants was 85%, whereas in OPT plans the isodose was chosen to obtain proper target coverage. Dose and volume parameters (D90, D100, V90, V100), doses at OARs, total reference air kerma (TRAK), and quality assurance parameters: dose nonuniformity ratio (DNR), dose homogeneity index (DHI), and conformity index (COIN) were used for a comparison of both plans. Results The mean number of catheters was 7 but the mean for 20 first patients was 5 and almost 9 for the next 29 patients. The mean value of prescribed isodose for OPT plans was 73%. The mean D90 was 88.2% and 105.8%, the D100 was 59.8% and 75.7%, the VPTV90 was 88.6% and 98.1%, the VPTV100 was 79.9% and 98.9%, and the TRAK was 0.00375 Gym–1 and 0.00439 Gym–1 for the PDS and OPT plans, respectively. The mean DNR was 0.29 and 0.42, the DHI was 0.71 and 0.58, and the COIN was 0.68 and 0.76, respectively. Conclusions The target coverage in image-guided plans (OPT) was significantly higher than in PDS plans but the dose homogeneity was worse. Also, the value of TRAK increased because of change of prescribing isodose. The learning curve slightly affected our results. PMID:26816505

  18. Urban metabolism and river systems: an historical perspective - Paris and the Seine, 1790-1970

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barles, S.

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse metabolic interaction between Paris and the Seine during the industrial era, 1790-1970, a period marked by strong population growth, technological changes, and the absence of specific legislation on environmental issues. The viewpoint focuses on exchanges of waters and wastes between city and river, quantifying them and tracing their evolution in the light of the strategies implemented by the stakeholders in charge. The study combines industrial ecology, local history and the history of technology. From 1790 to 1850, waste matters, and especially excreta, were considered as raw materials, not refuse: they generated real profits. The removal of human excreta aimed not only at improving urban hygiene, but at producing the fertilizers needed in rural areas. Discharging them into the river was out of the question. But after the 1860s, several factors upset this exploitation, notably domestic water supply: night soil became more and more liquid, difficult to handle and to turn into fertilizer; once utilised, the water had to be removed from the house; at the same time, the sewerage system developed and had negative impacts on the river. Even so, Parisian engineers continued to process sewage using techniques that would not only ensure hygiene but also conciliate economic and agricultural interests: combined sewerage system and sewage farms. Both of these early periods are thus noteworthy for a relative limitation of the river's deterioration by urban wastes. Not until the 1920s, when domestic water supply had become the standard and excreta came to be considered as worthless waste, was the principle of valorisation abandoned. This led to important and long-lasting pollution of the Seine (despite the construction of a treatment plant), aggravating the industrial pollution that had been in evidence since the 1840s. Analysing the priorities that led to the adoption of one principle or another in matters of urban hygiene and techniques

  19. An attempt at estimating Paris area CO2 emissions from atmospheric concentration measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bréon, F. M.; Broquet, G.; Puygrenier, V.; Chevallier, F.; Xueref-Remy, I.; Ramonet, M.; Dieudonné, E.; Lopez, M.; Schmidt, M.; Perrussel, O.; Ciais, P.

    2015-02-01

    Atmospheric concentration measurements are used to adjust the daily to monthly budget of fossil fuel CO2 emissions of the Paris urban area from the prior estimates established by the Airparif local air quality agency. Five atmospheric monitoring sites are available, including one at the top of the Eiffel Tower. The atmospheric inversion is based on a Bayesian approach, and relies on an atmospheric transport model with a spatial resolution of 2 km with boundary conditions from a global coarse grid transport model. The inversion adjusts prior knowledge about the anthropogenic and biogenic CO2 fluxes from the Airparif inventory and an ecosystem model, respectively, with corrections at a temporal resolution of 6 h, while keeping the spatial distribution from the emission inventory. These corrections are based on assumptions regarding the temporal autocorrelation of prior emissions uncertainties within the daily cycle, and from day to day. The comparison of the measurements against the atmospheric transport simulation driven by the a priori CO2 surface fluxes shows significant differences upwind of the Paris urban area, which suggests a large and uncertain contribution from distant sources and sinks to the CO2 concentration variability. This contribution advocates that the inversion should aim at minimising model-data misfits in upwind-downwind gradients rather than misfits in mole fractions at individual sites. Another conclusion of the direct model-measurement comparison is that the CO2 variability at the top of the Eiffel Tower is large and poorly represented by the model for most wind speeds and directions. The model's inability to reproduce the CO2 variability at the heart of the city makes such measurements ill-suited for the inversion. This and the need to constrain the budgets for the whole city suggests the assimilation of upwind-downwind mole fraction gradients between sites at the edge of the urban area only. The inversion significantly improves the agreement

  20. Aerosol chemical and optical properties over the Paris area within ESQUIF project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodzic, A.; Vautard, R.; Chazette, P.; Menut, L.; Bessagnet, B.

    2006-01-01

    Aerosol chemical and optical properties are extensively investigated for the first time over the Paris Basin in July 2000 within the ESQUIF project. The measurement campaign offers an exceptional framework to evaluate the performances of the chemistry-transport model CHIMERE in simulating concentrations of gaseous and aerosol pollutants, as well as the aerosol-size distribution and composition in polluted urban environment against ground-based and airborne measurements. A detailed comparison of measured and simulated variables during the second half of July with particular focus on 19 and 31 pollution episodes reveals an overall good agreement for gas-species and aerosol components both at the ground level and along flight trajectories, and the absence of systematic biases in simulated meteorological variables such as wind speed, relative humidity and boundary layer height as computed by the MM5 model. A good consistency in ozone and NO concentrations demonstrates the ability of the model to reproduce fairly well the plume structure and location both on 19 and 31 July, despite an underestimation of the amplitude of ozone concentrations on 31 July. The spatial and vertical aerosol distributions are also examined by comparing simulated and observed lidar vertical profiles along flight trajectories on 31 July and confirmed the model capacity to simulate the plume characteristics. The comparison of observed and modeled aerosol components in the southwest suburb of Paris during the second half of July indicated that the aerosol composition is rather correctly reproduced, although the total aerosol mass is underestimated of about 20%. The simulated Parisian aerosol is dominated by primary particulate matter that accounts for anthropogenic and biogenic primary particles (40%) and inorganic aerosol fraction (40%) including nitrate (8%), sulfate (22%) and ammonium (10%). The secondary organic aerosols (SOA) represent 12% of the total aerosol mass, while the mineral dust

  1. Aerosol chemical and optical properties over the Paris area within ESQUIF project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodzic, A.; Vautard, R.; Chazette, P.; Menut, L.; Bessagnet, B.

    2006-08-01

    Aerosol chemical and optical properties are extensively investigated for the first time over the Paris Basin in July 2000 within the ESQUIF project. The measurement campaign offers an exceptional framework to evaluate the performances of the chemistry-transport model CHIMERE in simulating concentrations of gaseous and aerosol pollutants, as well as the aerosol-size distribution and composition in polluted urban environments against ground-based and airborne measurements. A detailed comparison of measured and simulated variables during the second half of July with particular focus on 19 and 31 pollution episodes reveals an overall good agreement for gas-species and aerosol components both at the ground level and along flight trajectories, and the absence of systematic biases in simulated meteorological variables such as wind speed, relative humidity and boundary layer height as computed by the MM5 model. A good consistency in ozone and NO concentrations demonstrates the ability of the model to reproduce the plume structure and location fairly well both on 19 and 31 July, despite an underestimation of the amplitude of ozone concentrations on 31 July. The spatial and vertical aerosol distributions are also examined by comparing simulated and observed lidar vertical profiles along flight trajectories on 31 July and confirm the model capacity to simulate the plume characteristics. The comparison of observed and modeled aerosol components in the southwest suburb of Paris during the second half of July indicates that the aerosol composition is rather correctly reproduced, although the total aerosol mass is underestimated by about 20%. The simulated Parisian aerosol is dominated by primary particulate matter that accounts for anthropogenic and biogenic primary particles (40%), and inorganic aerosol fraction (40%) including nitrate (8%), sulfate (22%) and ammonium (10%). The secondary organic aerosols (SOA) represent 12% of the total aerosol mass, while the mineral dust

  2. The influence of air-conditioning on street temperatures in the city of Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Munck, C. S.; Pigeon, G.; Masson, V.; Marchadier, C.; Meunier, F.; Tréméac, B.; Merchat, M.

    2010-12-01

    A consequence of urban heat islands in summer is the increased use of air-conditioning during extreme heat events : the use of air-conditioning systems, while cooling the inside of buildings releases waste heat (as latent and sensible heat) in the lower part of the urban atmosphere, hence potentially increasing air street temperatures where the heat is released. This may lead locally to a further increase in air street temperatures, therefore increasing the air cooling demand, while at the same time lowering the efficiency of air-conditioning units. A coupled model consisting of a meso-scale meteorological model (MESO-NH) and an urban energy balance model (TEB) has been implemented with an air-conditioning module and used in combination to real spatialised datasets to understand and quantify potential increases in temperature due to air-conditioning heat releases for the city of Paris . In a first instance, the current types of air-conditioning systems co-existing in the city were simulated (underground chilled water network, wet cooling towers and individual air-conditioning units) to study the effects of latent and sensible heat releases on street temperatures. In a third instance, 2 scenarios were tested to characterise the impacts of likely future trends in air-conditioning equipment in the city : a first scenario for which current heat releases were converted to sensible heat, and a second based on 2030s projections of air-conditioning equipment at the scale of the city. All the scenarios showed an increase in street temperature which, as expected, was greater at night time than day time. For the first two scenarios, this increase in street temperatures was localised at or near the sources of air-conditioner heat releases, while the 2030s air-conditioning scenario impacted wider zones in the city. The amplitude of the increase in temperature varied from 0,25°C to 1°C for the air-conditioning current state, between 0,25°C and 2°C for the sensible heat

  3. GREEN CATALYZED OXIDATION OF HYDROCARBONS IN ALTERNATIVE SOLVENT SYSTEMS GENERATED BY PARIS II DECHEMA; GREEN SOLVENTS FOR CATALYSIS - ENVIRONMENTALLY BENIGN REACTION MEDIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green catalyzed oxidation of hydrocarbons in alternative solvent systems generated by PARIS II
    Thomas M. Becker, Michael A. Gonzalez, Paul F. Harten; Sustainable Technology Division, Office of Research and Development; United States Environmental Protection Agency, 26 West Mar...

  4. Decrease of atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in an urban area from 1994 to 2002 (Paris, France).

    PubMed

    Azimi, Sam; Rocher, Vincent; Garnaud, Stéphane; Varrault, Gilles; Thevenot, Daniel R

    2005-11-01

    Total atmospheric deposition, i.e. both wet and dry ones, was sampled during three different sampling periods between 1994 and 2002. The aim of this study is to determine the temporal variation of the atmospheric deposition fluxes of four heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) in an urban area (Paris region, France). The global pattern shows a decrease of the fluxes for most of elements during this period. Indeed, the atmospheric deposition fluxes measured in 2001-2002 were lower than those measured during the 1994-1997 period by factors reaching 16, 2.5, 4 and 7.5 at Créteil and 7, 1, 6 and 4.5 at Chatou for Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn, respectively. At the Paris site, the decreasing factors were 2.5 and 3 for Cd and Pb, respectively while Cu and Zn fluxes were nearly similar during the whole studied period. PMID:16219500

  5. [Charles-Henri Fialon (1846-1933), creator of the Museum of the Faculty of Pharmacy of Paris. His family and professional life].

    PubMed

    Flahaut, Jean

    2004-01-01

    Henri Fialon was pharmacist in 1871, and worked in the family apothecary, at Rueil near Paris. At 46 years, he stopped his pharmaceutical activity, and livre quietly, being specially interested by the ancient pharmaceutical pots. He realized a very important collection, which he gave to the French Society of Pharmaceutical History. A museum was installed at the Faculty of Pharmacy of Paris which is presently in the Guillaume Valette Gallery and contains more than 500 pieces. PMID:15981391

  6. [The apothecaries of the quartier de la Harpe in Paris in the 16th and 17th centuries].

    PubMed

    Warolin, Christian

    2015-09-01

    Large families of apothecaries, some of them very famous, lived in the Quartier de la Harpe in Paris, on the left bank of Seine, from the 16th to the 17th century. The study confirms a well-established fact that apothecaries practised endogamy, in others words marriage within the same social class. The biographical research includes ten apothecaries, most of whom lived in the rue Saint-André-des-Arts. PMID:26529892

  7. Fast Decoding of the p-Ary First-Order Reed-Muller Codes Based on Jacket Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Moon Ho; Borissov, Yuri L.

    We propose a fast decoding algorithm for the p-ary first-order Reed-Muller code guaranteeing correction of up to [n/4sin(p-1/2pπ)] errors and having complexity proportional to nlogn, where n=pm is the code length and p is an odd prime. This algorithm is an extension in the complex domain of the fast Hadamard transform decoding algorithm applicable to the binary case.

  8. Status of the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approximation to the nuclear matter binding energy with the Paris potential

    SciTech Connect

    Schulze, H.; Cugnon, J.; Lejeune, A.; Baldo, M.; Lombardo, U.

    1995-11-01

    A new calculation of the binding energy of nuclear matter in the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approximation with the Paris potential using the standard and continuous choices of single particle energies is presented, paying special attention to the numerical accuracy and higher partial waves. Comparison with other calculations is made and the accuracy of the state of the art for the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock method is assessed.

  9. Assessing the ammonium nitrate formation regime in the Paris megacity and its representation in the CHIMERE model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petetin, H.; Sciare, J.; Bressi, M.; Rosso, A.; Sanchez, O.; Sarda-Estève, R.; Petit, J.-E.; Beekmann, M.

    2015-09-01

    Secondary inorganic compounds represent a major fraction of fine aerosol in the Paris megacity. The thermodynamics behind their formation is now relatively well constrained, but due to sparse direct measurements of their precursors (in particular NH3 and HNO3), uncertainties remain on their concentrations and variability as well as the formation regime of ammonium nitrate (in terms of limited species, among NH3 and HNO3) in urban environments such as Paris. This study presents the first urban background measurements of both inorganic aerosol compounds and their gaseous precursors during several months within the city of Paris. Intense agriculture-related NH3 episodes are observed in spring/summer while HNO3 concentrations remain relatively low, even during summer, which leads to a NH3-rich regime in Paris. The local formation of ammonium nitrate within the city appears low, despite high NOx emissions. The dataset is also used to evaluate the CHIMERE chemistry-transport model (CTM). Interestingly, the rather good results obtained on ammonium nitrates hide significant errors on gaseous precursors (e.g. mean bias of -75 and +195 % for NH3 and HNO3, respectively). It thus leads to a mis-representation of the nitrate formation regime through a highly underestimated Gas Ratio metric (introduced by Ansari and Pandis, 1998) and a much higher sensitivity of nitrate concentrations to ammonia changes. Several uncertainty sources are investigated, pointing out the importance of better assessing both NH3 emissions and OH concentrations in the future. These results finally remind the caution required in the use of CTMs for emission scenario analysis, highlighting the importance of prior diagnostic and dynamic evaluations.

  10. Mapping of a buried basement combining aeromagnetic, gravity and petrophysical data: The substratum of southwest Paris Basin, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptiste, Julien; Martelet, Guillaume; Faure, Michel; Beccaletto, Laurent; Reninger, Pierre-Alexandre; Perrin, José; Chen, Yan

    2016-06-01

    Aeromagnetic and gravity data have proven to be among the most effective methods for mapping deeply buried basin/basement interfaces. However, the data interpretation generally suffers from ambiguities, due to the non-uniqueness of the gravity and magnetic signatures. Here, we tie the gravity and magnetic signatures with a petrophysical characterization of the lithologies outcropping around the French Paris Basin. Our methodology investigates the lithology and structure of its hidden Variscan substratum at the junction between the Armorican Massif and Massif Central. Our approach is based on the combination of potential field data, magnetic susceptibilities measured in the field, density values of sample rocks and information documented in boreholes, in order to propose a new interpretative geological map of the buried substratum of the Paris Basin. The petrophysical description is combined with geophysical patterns of the substratum, mapped through statistical unsupervised classification of suitably selected magnetic and gravity maps. The first step of interpretation consists in extending the outcropping major structures below the Meso-Cenozoic sedimentary cover of the Paris Basin. The litho-structural units, in between these major structures, are then interpreted separately. The second step consists in assigning lithologies within each unit, with respect to its magnetization and density (as derived from the petrophysical compilation), and mapping its extension under cover, integrating punctual borehole information. Overall, with a special emphasis on relating geophysical signatures and petrophysical characteristics of litho-structural units, this methodology permits a precise structural and lithological cartography of a segment of the buried Variscan substratum. In the southwestern part of the Paris Basin, this approach reveals: i) the limited eastward extension of Central Brittany, ii) the eastward extension of the major Cholet fault, iii) the emphasis on N150E

  11. A comparison of soil moisture characteristics predicted by the Arya-Paris model with laboratory-measured data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arya, L. M.; Richter, J. C.; Davidson, S. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Soil moisture characteristics predicted by the Arya-Paris model were compared with the laboratory measured data for 181 New Jersey soil horizons. For a number of soil horizons, the predicted and the measured moisture characteristic curves are almost coincident; for a large number of other horizons, despite some disparity, their shapes are strikingly similar. Uncertainties in the model input and laboratory measurement of the moisture characteristic are indicated, and recommendations for additional experimentation and testing are made.

  12. Differences in Recourse to HIV Testing According to Migration Origin in the Paris Metropolitan Area in 2010

    PubMed Central

    Lapostolle, Annabelle; Massari, Véronique; Beltzer, Nathalie; Halfen, Sandrine; Chauvin, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    In France, HIV prevention within Maghrebi or French of Maghrebi origin has been seldom studied. The purpose of this study is to compare the recourse to HIV test according to nationality and origin. Data were from the 2010 SIRS cohort, which included 3,006 households representative of the Paris metropolitan area. Results of the study show comparatively low HIV testing rate among Maghrebi and French of Maghrebi origin compared to French with French parents. PMID:23099525

  13. How to estimate exposure when studying the temperature-mortality relationship? A case study of the Paris area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeffer, Laura; de Crouy-Chanel, Perrine; Wagner, Vérène; Desplat, Julien; Pascal, Mathilde

    2016-01-01

    Time series studies assessing the effect of temperature on mortality generally use temperatures measured by a single weather station. In the Paris region, there is a substantial measurement network, and a variety of exposure indicators created from multiple stations can be tested. The aim of this study is to test the influence of exposure indicators on the temperature-mortality relationship in the Paris region. The relationship between temperature and non-accidental mortality was assessed based on a time series analysis using Poisson regression and a generalised additive model. Twenty-five stations in Paris and its three neighbouring departments were used to create four exposure indicators. These indicators were (1) the temperature recorded by one reference station, (2) a simple average of the temperatures of all stations, (3) an average weighted on the departmental population and (4) a classification of the stations based on land use and an average weighted on the population in each class. The relative risks and the Akaike criteria were similar for all the exposure indicators. The estimated temperature-mortality relationship therefore did not appear to be significantly affected by the indicator used, regardless of study zone (departments or region) or age group. The increase in temperatures from the 90th to the 99th percentile of the temperature distribution led to a significant increase in mortality over 75 years (RR = 1.10 [95 % CI, 1.07; 1.14]). Conversely, the decrease in temperature between the 10th and 1st percentile had a significant effect on the mortality under 75 years (RR = 1.04 [95 % CI, 1.01; 1.06]). In the Paris area, there is no added value in taking multiple climatic stations into account when estimating exposure in time series studies. Methods to better represent the subtle temperature variations in densely populated areas in epidemiological studies are needed.

  14. The GeoSciML Logical Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laxton, J.; Wyborn, L.

    2007-12-01

    GeoSciML is being developed as an interchange language for geoscience. The initial scope has been designed to include the information generally shown on geological maps, and some observations, in particular using boreholes. The logical model has been built in UML and the model includes packages for mapped features, geologic units, earth material and geologic structures. The model inherits from GML, for spatial information, and observations and measurements (O&M) in particular. At present the scope of the model is largely interpreted information, but the intention is to extend it to include more observational data. A 'mapped feature' can be considered an occurrence, such as a polygon on a geologic map, of a real-world geologic feature the full extent of which is unknown. Geologic features are associated with geologic events for recording their age, process and environment of formation. The two main types of geologic feature modelled are geologic units and geologic structures. Geologic units have specialisations for lithostratigraphic units, lithodemic units, chronostratigraphic units and deformation units, but more will be added in the future as required. The model allows for composite geologic units, made up of other geologic units, to be described. Geologic structures include fractures, shear displacement structures, contacts, fold and foliation. The earth material package allows for the description of both individual components such as minerals and compound materials such as rocks or unconsolidated material. The model incorporates a structure for controlled concepts which can be defined in terms of normative descriptions of geologic units or earth materials. These can be built into geologic vocabularies, such as stratigraphic lexicons. Two data types of particular use in describing geologic properties have been defined: one allows properties to be recorded with term, number and range values along with a qualifier property for handling the 'fuzziness' of much

  15. Localising the nitrogen imprint of the Paris food supply: the potential of organic farming and changes in human diet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billen, G.; Garnier, J.; Thieu, V.; Silvestre, M.; Barles, S.; Chatzimpiros, P.

    2011-11-01

    The Seine watershed has long been the food-supplying hinterland of Paris, providing most of the animal and vegetal protein consumed in the city. Nowadays, because of the land specialisation of agriculture made possible by the shift from manure-based to synthetic nitrogen fertilisation, the Seine watershed, although it exports 80% of its huge cereal production, still provides most of the cereal consumed by the Paris agglomeration. The meat and milk supply originate, however, mainly from regions in the North and West of France, specialised in animal farming and importing about 30% of their feed from South America. As it works today, this system is responsible for a severe nitrate contamination of surface groundwater resources. Herein two scenarios of re-localising Paris's food supply are explored, based on organic farming and local provision of animal feed. We show that for the Seine watershed it is technically possible to design an agricultural system able to provide all the plant- and animal-based food required by the population, to deliver sub-root water meeting the drinking water standards and still to export a significant proportion of its production to areas less suitable for cereal cultivation. Decreasing the share of animal products in the human diet has a strong impact on the nitrogen imprint of urban food supply.

  16. Localising the nitrogen imprint of the Paris food supply: the potential of organic farming and changes in human diet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billen, G.; Garnier, J.; Thieu, V.; Silvestre, M.; Barles, S.; Chatzimpiros, P.

    2012-01-01

    The Seine watershed has long been the food-supplying hinterland of Paris, providing most of the animal and vegetal protein consumed in the city. Nowadays, the shift from manure-based to synthetic nitrogen fertilisation, has made possible a strong land specialisation of agriculture in the Seine watershed: it still provides most of the cereal consumed by the Paris agglomeration, but exports 80% of its huge cereal production. On the other hand the meat and milk supply originates mainly from regions in the North and West of France, specialised in animal farming and importing about 30% of their feed from South America. As it works today, this system is responsible for a severe nitrate contamination of surface and groundwater resources. Herein two scenarios of re-localising Paris's food supply are explored, based on organic farming and local provision of animal feed. We show that for the Seine watershed it is technically possible to design an agricultural system able to provide all the plant- and animal-based food required by the population, to deliver sub-root water meeting the drinking water standards and still to export a significant proportion of its production to areas less suitable for cereal cultivation. Decreasing the share of animal products in the human diet has a strong impact on the nitrogen imprint of urban food supply.

  17. Intracratonic basins : subtle records of long wavelength deformations and eustasy - the case example of the Paris Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robin, Cecile; Guillocheau, Francois

    2014-05-01

    Subtle vertical movements, major constraints for lithospheric and mantle dynamics models, are difficult to quantify and to date. In sedimentary basins, this quantification is based on subsidence measurements by backstripping. The error bars on this technique can be high, mainly in the low subsiding domains were dates, water depths and eustasy are important data. We developed a 3D high-resolution method of accommodation space measurement at the scale of intracratonic basins, with a precise quantification of the water depth. Based on this 3D quantification of the accommodation, it was possible to discriminate the deformation and the eustatic controls based on the principle that the basin-scale signal contain the eustasy and the local control is of tectonic origin. (1) The application of this technique to the Paris Basin questioned the importance of the long term subsidence signal versus major deformation events of at least European-scale (Mid and Neo-Cimmerian, Austrian, Senonian deformations..) that control, in the Paris Basin, major subsidence centers reorganization. (2) The stratigraphic record of the Paris Basin, with those excellent datings (inheritance of 2 centuries of biostratigraphy), is also a unique place for constraining eustasy, its timing (with now a good knowledge of the sea water temperatures since the Jurassic) and the order of magnitude of the sea level variations. Back, those sea level amplitude constraints can be inputs for a better quantification of the vertical movements.

  18. An evaluation of plaster of Paris barriers used under various materials to repair furcation perforations (in vitro study).

    PubMed

    Mittal, M; Chandra, S; Chandra, S

    1999-05-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of plaster of Paris barriers on the sealing ability of various materials when used to repair furcation perforations. The study was conducted on 90 human permanent molars with well developed, nonfused roots. Access openings and furcation perforations were prepared in the pulp chamber floor. The teeth were divided into one control and five experimental groups of 15 teeth each. In the experimental group, plaster of Paris barriers were created in the perforations and then sealed with silver amalgam, glass ionomer (GI), self-cured composite resin, IRM, or AH26. Access openings were filled with composite resin. The teeth were submerged in a solution of 2% methylene blue dye for 2 wk. Finally, the samples were sectioned and evaluated for linear dye leakage and analyzed statistically. Maximum dye penetration was observed in amalgam followed in a decreasing order by GI, composite, IRM, and AH26. AH26 showed the best sealing ability in the presence of plaster of Paris barriers followed by IRM, composite resin, and GI. Amalgam showed the poorest sealing ability when used to repair furcation perforations. PMID:10530267

  19. [Photosynthetic parameters and physiological indexes of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis influenced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi].

    PubMed

    Wei, Zheng-xin; Guo, Dong-qin; Li, Hai-feng; Ding, Bo; Zhang, Jie; Zhou, Nong; Yu, Jie

    2015-10-01

    Through potted inoculation test at room temperature and indoor analysis, the photosynthetic parameters and physiological and biochemical indexes of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis were observed after 28 arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi were injected into the P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis growing in a sterile soil environment. The results showed that AM fungi established a good symbiosis with P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. The AM fungi influenced the photosynthetic parameters and physiological and biochemical indexes of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. And the influences were varied depending on different AM fungi. The application of AM fungi improved photosynthesis intensity of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis mesophyll cells, the contents of soluble protein and soluble sugar, protective enzyme activity of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis leaf, which was beneficial to resist the adverse environment and promote the growth of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. Otherwise, there was a certain mutual selectivity between P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis and AM fungi. From the comprehensive effect of inoculation, Racocetra coralloidea, Scutellospora calospora, Claroideoglomus claroideum, S. pellucida and Rhizophagus clarus were the most suitable AM fungi to P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis when P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis was planted in the field. PMID:27062807

  20. Paris Saponin II induced apoptosis via activation of autophagy in human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lili; Man, Shuli; Wang, Yongshuai; Liu, Jing; Liu, Zhen; Yu, Peng; Gao, Wenyuan

    2016-06-25

    Paris Saponin II (PSII) has been shown anticancer activity against several cancer lines through the pro-apoptotic pathway. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between apoptosis and autophagy taking part in the anti-cancer mechanisms of PSII. In this study, PSII induced autophagy and apoptosis in dose- and time-dependent manners. Meanwhile, it induced autophagy as early as 2 h after exposure to 1 μM of PSII accompanying with apoptosis. Blockade of autophagy with chloroquine (CQ) attenuated apoptosis, while regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), gallic acid (GA) and H2O2 could not influence autophagy. In addition, PSII induced apoptosis via activation of autophagy, which might be associated with the activation of JNK and inhibition of PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. All in all, our research increased the understanding of the role of PSII regulating autophagy and apoptosis, which would hopefully provide prospective strategies for cancer therapy. PMID:27180204

  1. 3-D seismic improves structural mapping of a gas storage reservoir (Paris basin)

    SciTech Connect

    Huguet, F. ); Pinson, C. )

    1993-09-01

    In the Paris basin, anticlinal structures with closure of no more than 80 m and surface area of a few km[sup 2] are used for underground gas storage. At Soings-en-Sologne, a three-dimensional (3-D) survey (13 km[sup 2]) was carried out over such a structure to establish its exact geometry and to detail its fault network. Various reflectors were picked automatically on the migrated data: the top of the Kimmeridgian, the top of the Bathoinian and the base of the Hettangian close to the top of the reservoir. The isochron maps were converted into depth using data from 12 wells. Horizon attributes (amplitude, dip, and azimuth) were used to reconstruct the fault's pattern with much greater accuracy than that supplied by interpretation from previous two-dimensional seismic. The Triassic and the Jurassic are affected by two systems of conjugate faults (N10-N110, inherited from the Hercynian basement and N30-N120). Alternating clay and limestone are the cause of numerous structural disharmonies, particularly on both sides of the Bathonian. Ridges associated with N30-N120 faults suggest compressive movements contemporaneous with the tertiary events. The northern structure in Soings-en-Sologne thus appear to be the result of polyphased tectonics. Its closure (25 m), which is associated either with dips or faults, is described in detail by 3-D seismic, permitting more accurate forecast of the volume available for gas storage.

  2. A molecular and isotopic study of the organic matter from the Paris Basin, France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichtfouse, E.; Albrecht, P.; Behar, F.; Hayes, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    Thirteen Liassic sedimentary rocks of increasing depth and three petroleums from the Paris Basin were studied for 13C/12C isotopic compositions and biological markers, including steranes, sterenes, methylphenanthrenes, methylanthracenes, and triaromatic steroids. The isotopic compositions of n-alkanes from mature sedimentary rocks and petroleums fall in a narrow range (2%), except for the deepest Hettangian rock and the Trias petroleum, for which the short-chain n-alkanes are enriched and depleted in 13C, respectively. Most of the molecular parameters increase over the 2000-2500 m depth range, reflecting the transformation of the organic matter at the onset of petroleum generation. In this zone, carbonate content and carbon isotopic composition of carbonates, as well as molecular parameters, are distinct for the Toarcian and Hettangian source rocks and suggest a migration of organic matter from these two formations. Two novel molecular parameters were defined for this task: one using methyltriaromatic steroids from organic extracts; the other using 1-methylphenanthrene and 2-methylanthracene from kerogen pyrolysates. The anomalous high maturity of the Dogger petroleum relative to the maturity-depth trend of the source rocks is used to estimate the minimal vertical distance of migration of the organic matter from the source rock to the reservoir.

  3. Health hazard evaluation report HETA 85-308-1829, Kardon Industries, St. Paris, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Zey, J.N.; Todd, W.F.

    1987-09-01

    In response to a request by the factory manager and United Paperworkers Union local 1467 to investigate employee complaints of headaches and eye and throat irritation associated with operation of hand and automatic wax lines, an evaluation was made at Kardon Industries Composite Can and Tube Division, St. Paris, Ohio. The study focused on an amorphous polypropylene wax used on wax lines along with air samples for organic vapors, aldehydes, ketones, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. Relatively low levels of several hydrocarbons were found, with n-hexane present in highest concentrations relative to occupational hygiene criteria, being measured at 28.7mg/m3. While no furfural was detected, all samples contained formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Both aldehydes were also detected as decomposition products of the wax. The supplier of the wax stated that it gave off ketones, aldehydes, and eventually carboxylic acids when it was heated. Employees reported symptoms of headache, burning eyes, throat and nose irritation, dizziness, and an altered sense of taste and nausea. Aldehydes were considered to be the causative agents of these conditions.

  4. Octupole deformation properties of the Barcelona-Catania-Paris energy density functionals

    SciTech Connect

    Robledo, L. M.; Baldo, M.; Schuck, P.; Vinas, X.

    2010-03-15

    We discuss the octupole deformation properties of the recently proposed Barcelona-Catania-Paris (BCP) energy density functionals for two sets of isotopes, those of radium and barium, in which it is believed that octupole deformation plays a role in the description of the ground state. The analysis is carried out in the mean field framework (Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov approximation) by using the axially symmetric octupole moment as a constraint. The main ingredients entering the octupole collective Hamiltonian are evaluated and the lowest-lying octupole eigenstates are obtained. In this way we restore, in an approximate way, the parity symmetry spontaneously broken by the mean field and also incorporate octupole fluctuations around the ground-state solution. For each isotope the energy of the lowest lying 1{sup -} state and the B(E1) and B(E3) transition probabilities have been computed and compared to both the experimental data and the results obtained in the same framework with the Gogny D1S interaction, which are used here as a well-established benchmark. Finally, the octupolarity of the configurations involved in the way down to fission of {sup 240}Pu, which is strongly connected to the asymmetric fragment mass distribution, is studied. We confirm with this thorough study the suitability of the BCP functionals to describe octupole-related phenomena.

  5. Behavior of plaster of Paris-calcium carbonate composite as bone substitute. A study in rats.

    PubMed

    Dewi, Anne Handrini; Ana, Ika Dewi; Wolke, Joop; Jansen, John

    2013-08-01

    Calcium sulfate, also known as plaster of Paris (POP), is probably the oldest biomaterial used for bone grafting and considered to be a fast degradable material that allows complete resorption before the bone defect area is completely filled by new bone. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility to combine POP with calcium carbonate in order to increase the the osteoconductivity of this material. Twenty four male Sprague Dawley rats, 5-months-old and weighing 300-350 g, were used in the study. Various treatment groups were created by the implantation of cylindrical samples of POP-100, POP-075 and POP-050 into the femoral condyles. After 1 and 4 weeks of implantation, rats were sacrificed and the implanted areas and the surrounding tissue were retrieved for histological analysis. The study was completed by an in vitro experiment, which included the soaking of the experimental materials into simulated body fluid. The results indicated that the composites were appropriate to be used as bone grafting material. The incorporation of CaCO3 into POP did decrease the degradation rate of the cements and induced faster bone formation, thus provides promising properties to this material. PMID:23239628

  6. [History of a letter addressed to the Academy of Medicine of Paris].

    PubMed

    Ségal, Alain

    2015-01-01

    The author presents an autograph manuscript sent from Laval by Dr Hubert to Paris Academy of medicine in which he reports the birth of a freak who died at birth during a difficult delivery. This freak is, according to our contemporary classifications, a thoraco pagus who represents from 70 to 73% of symmetrical conjoined monmphalic twins. The address mentioned is that of the first location of the Academy. He gives explanations concerning both the Academy and Dr Hubert, a Parisian MD who was a regular contributor. He goes on explaining how it was received by Professor Adelon, then annual secretary. The letter sets up in the margin a commission offamous scientists such as Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Serres et Antoine Dubois. The case was presented to the Academy during the session of 17 november 1829. Though the Academy does not seem to have been able to keep detailed archives of that period, the Archives Générales de Médecine lets us know the reactions. PMID:27029130

  7. Exploding cities: housing the masses in Paris, Chicago, and Mexico City, 1850-2000.

    PubMed

    Platt, Harold L

    2010-01-01

    In The Mystery of Capitalism , the darling of neoliberalism, Hernando de Soto posits that secure property titles explain “why capitalism triumphs in the West and fails everywhere else.” While social scientists have taken him to task for an oversimplification of the causes and remedies of poverty, historians have contributed little to this important policy debate. Applying comparative methods across time and space, such a retrospective analysis exposes serious flaws in de Soto’s thesis. Case studies of Paris, Chicago, and Mexico City covering successive, fifty-year periods support his contention that property law was the single most important factor in determining the fate of rural migrants trying to find a place to live in these exploding cities. But in each case, residential property played a far more complex role in creating the social and physical geography of the city than its simple exchange value. This article illuminates some of these alternative economic uses and embedded cultural meanings of identities of place. It also shows how urban growth machines create capital value in property for some by creating environmental injustice of substandard conditions of everyday life for others. PMID:20827834

  8. Characterizing fractured reservoir by multicomponent reflection data and VSPs in the Paris basin

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xiang-Yang; MacBeth, C.; Lefeuvre, F.

    1995-12-31

    We process and interpret nine-component (9C, three component recordings of two horizontal and one vertical sources) surface seismic data and two nearby VSPs to characterize the fractured carbonate reservoir in the Dogger Formation in the Paris Basin. This is achieved by analysing differential changes in the various attributes of the vector wavefield: velocity ratios, polarizations, amplitudes and differential travel times. Careful processing is required to preserve and recover these attributes which have diagnostic anomalies associated with the Dogger formation. The interval shear-anisotropy within the Dogger shows an average of 4% with significant lateral variations, which might be interpreted as lateral changes in porosity and permeability. The differential shear-wave amplitude from the top of the Dogger shows an overall dimming. The shear-wave polarization section reveals detailed internal layering, up to six intervals, within the Dogger, which is not visible in the P-wave section. The information inferred from these wavefield attributes can be broadly correlated with the reservoir properties at the inter-well scale in Duval but with more detailed lateral variations.

  9. A non-tectonic origin for the present day stress field in the sedimentary Paris Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornet, Francois; Magnenet, Vincent

    2016-04-01

    The large scale stress patterns observed in intraplate area is generally considered to result from far-field boundary forces that drive plate tectonics. However, no present day deformation has been detected in the Paris Basin, yet significant deviatoric stresses are measured in limestone formations observed above soft argillite layers encountered in this region at depths close to 500m. Further, the pore pressure measured in the argillite is larger than that measured in the surrounding permeable zones. These observations suggest a presently active source of stress in this sedimentary system. We propose that this stress is not related to tectonics but to pressure solution effects activated by pore pressure transients. These transients develop in the natural fracture system that affects the limestone formations. They are linked to climatic variations and involve periods that range from thousands to hundreds of thousands years. This mechanism generates time-dependent shear stresses in soft formations and explains overpressures observed in the very low permeability argillite. This mechanism may be modeled by different visco-elastic behaviors for the various formations. It outlines the influence of time dependent material properties on the present day stress field. These results imply that the viscoelastic properties of sedimentary formations raise a strong difficulty for extrapolating measured surface deformations to basement rocks in domains of very slow tectonics.

  10. Molecular parameters of maturation in the Toarcian shales, Paris Basin, France - IV. Laboratory thermal alteration studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackenzie, A. S.; Lewis, C. A.; Maxwell, J. R.

    1981-12-01

    An immature Toarcian shale from the Paris Basin (Semecourt, reported maximum burial depth 700m) was heated in the laboratory under reduced pressure at different temperatures (201, 257, 285°C) for different times (6-91 days). We measured in the resulting extracts by gas chromatography or combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: (b) extent of aromatisation in aromatic steroid hydrocarbons. Both configurational isomerisation and aromatisation occur during heating, but the latter process is accelerated relative to the former, in comparison with the maturation effect experienced by the Toarcian shales as a result of burial depth and the associated temperature rise. The results suggest that it may be possible to distinguish the thermal histories of sedimentary sequences by comparison of the relative extents of isomerisation at C-20 in steranes with the extent of aromatisation in aromatic steroid hydrocarbons.

  11. Glacier mass change projections and commitments resulting from the Paris Agreement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzeion, Ben; Kaser, Georg; Maussion, Fabien

    2016-04-01

    At COP21, the UNFCCC agreed to hold "the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels and to pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels". Using an ensemble of global glacier model integrations, we estimate the glacier mass change commitment and its temporal evolution resulting from a hypothesized success of the Paris Agreement. Our preliminary results indicate that under 1.5°C global mean temperature increase, glaciers will eventually lose mass corresponding to 133 mm SLE (90 % confidence interval: 83 to 154 mm SLE), compared to 164 mm SLE (110 to 184 mm SLE) under 2.0°C warming. In order to stabilize glaciers at their current global mass, a temperature of 0.17°C (-0.13 to 0.43°C) above pre-industrial would be required. Only a fraction of the long-term mass loss would be realized within the 21st century. Based on scaling existing GCM integrations under the RCP2.6 scenario to 1.5°C global warming, 21st century mass loss of glaciers would correspond to 84 mm SLE (64 to 110 mm SLE). Under the original RCP2.6 scenario, this number climbs to 100 mm SLE (67 to 137 mm SLE).

  12. Hygroscopic properties of the Paris urban aerosol in relation to its chemical composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamilli, K. A.; Poulain, L.; Held, A.; Nowak, A.; Birmili, W.; Wiedensohler, A.

    2013-05-01

    Aerosol hygroscopic growth factors and chemical properties were measured as part of the MEGAPOLI "Megacities Plume Case Study" at the urban site LHVP in the city center of Paris from June to August 2009, and from January to February 2010. Descriptive hygroscopic growth factors (DGF) were derived in the diameter range from 25 to 350 nm at relative humidities of 30, 55, 75, and 90% by applying the summation method on humidified and dry aerosol size distributions measured simultaneously with a humidified differential mobility particle sizer (HDMPS) and a twin differential mobility particle sizer (TDMPS). For 90% relative humidity, the DGF varied from 1.06 to 1.46 in summer, and from 1.06 to 1.66 in winter. Temporal variations in the observed mean DGF could be well explained with a simple growth model based on the aerosol chemical composition measured by aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS) and black carbon photometry (MAAP). In particular, good agreement was observed when sulfate was the predominant inorganic factor. A clear overestimation of the predicted growth factor was found when the nitrate mass concentration exceeded values of 10 μg m3, e.g. during winter.

  13. Identification of compounds from Paris polyphylla (ChongLou) active against Dactylogyrus intermedius.

    PubMed

    Li, Ze-Hong; Wan, Jia-Yu; Wang, Gui-Qin; Zhao, Fu-Guang; Wen, Ji-Hong

    2013-07-01

    The present study was designated to ascertain the anthelmintic activity of the rhizomes of Paris polyphylla and to isolate and characterize the active constituents. The methanol extract from rhizomes of P. polyphylla showed significant anthelmintic activity against Dactylogyrus intermedius with the median effective concentration (EC50) 22.5 mg L(-1). Based on this finding, the methanol extract was fractionated by silica gel column chromatography in a bioassay-guided fractionation yielding 2 bioactive compounds, the structures of these compounds were elucidated as formosanin C and polyphyllin VII. The in vivo tests revealed that formosanin C and polyphyllin VII were significantly effective against D. intermedius with EC50 values of 0.6 and 1.2 mg L(-1), respectively. The acute toxicities (LC50) of formosanin C and polyphyllin VII for grass carp were 2.8 and 2.9 mg L(-1), respectively. The overall results provide important information for the potential application of formosanin C and polyphyllin VII in the therapy of serious infection caused by D. intermedius. PMID:23552446

  14. Figures and institutions of the neurological sciences in Paris from 1800 to 1950. Part III: neurology.

    PubMed

    Broussolle, E; Poirier, J; Clarac, F; Barbara, J-G

    2012-04-01

    We present a short historical review of the major figures, their administrative functions and their works that contributed to make Paris a renowned centre of physiology and neurology during the xixth and the first half of the xxth century. We purposely chose to focus on the period 1800-1950, as 1800 corresponds to the actual beginning of neurosciences, and 1950 marks their exponential rise. Our presentation is divided into four chapters, matching the main disciplines which have progressed and contributed the most to the knowledge we have of the brain sciences: anatomy, physiology, neurology, and psychiatry-psychology. The present article is the third of four parts of this review, and deals with neurology. A special credit should be given to Jean-Martin Charcot who founded the Salpêtrière School of neurology and became one of the world's most important neurologists of the xixth century. We provide below the biographical sketches of Armand Trousseau, Guillaume Benjamin Amand Duchenne, Jean-Martin Charcot, Alfred Vulpian, Désiré-Magloire Bourneville, Paul Richer, Henri Parinaud, Albert Pitres, Jules Joseph Dejerine, Mrs. Augusta Dejerine-Klumpke, Édouard Brissaud, Pierre Marie, Georges Édouard Brutus Gilles de la Tourette, Joseph Babinski, André Thomas, Georges Marinesco, Achille Alexandre Souques, Georges Guillain and Charles Foix. PMID:22387204

  15. Annual metallic flows in roof runoff from different materials: test-bed scale in Paris conurbation.

    PubMed

    Robert-Sainte, P; Gromaire, M C; De Gouvello, B; Saad, M; Chebbo, G

    2009-08-01

    A substantial database of annual metal runoff loads, obtained from a 14-month field exposure campaign on 12 different metal roofing materials at two sites within Paris conurbation, is presented herein. Thirteen metallic species have been considered. A comparison among the various roofing materials yields a ranking of their runoff pollution potential, which highlights that aluminum, coated products, and stainless steel display the lower emission levels, before zinc and copper materials. Lead materials appear to release more metallic species, and tend to do so in quite large quantities. Whatever the material family considered, older materials apparently release more metallic species with higher levels of emission. In considering zinc emissions from zinc-based materials, it is clear that surface coatings significantly reduce zinc emissions (40% less for the Zn3(PO4)2 surface-treated Anthra zinc, compared to natural zinc; and 99% less for prepainted galvanized steel compared to standard galvanized steel). In the case of Anthra zinc however, surface treatment induces the release of Ni into the runoff, and Ni constitutes a priority pollutant in the European Water Framework Directive (2000/60 CE). A high level of consistency with literature data has been found for Zn runoff when considering runoff rates reported at the same inclination. PMID:19731652

  16. Health-hazard-evaluation report HETA 88-279-2026, Kardon Industries, St. Paris, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Kinnes, G.M.

    1990-03-01

    In response to a request from a production manager, an evaluation was conducted of the effectiveness of ventilation system modifications made to reduce worker exposures at the waxing unit at Kardon Industries (SIC-2655), St. Paris, Ohio. NIOSH investigators had visited the site previously and collected personal and area air samples for acetaldehyde (75070) and formaldehyde (50000) determinations. This particular facility produced cardboard caulking tubes, employing a workforce of 100 hourly employees with some departments operating three shifts per day. Some of the tubes were manufactured with an inner wax coating, sprayed on by the auto wax unit. Environmental sampling did not detect any aldehydes initially, but a more sensitive test did reveal the presence of formaldehyde in concentrations ranging from 0.024 to 0.029 parts per million. During the first visit, problems in the ventilation system had been identified. Modifications made subsequent to this initial visit had improved the working conditions. Even though reported symptoms of headache, burning eyes, throat and nose irritation, dizziness and an altered taste sensation and nausea, were not readily explained by the documented exposure levels, the symptoms might possibly have come from a combined effect of the low levels of airborne substances measured. The author concludes that improvements made to the local exhaust ventilation system and the auto wax unit have reduced the potential for work related exposures. The author recommends further improvements.

  17. The experimental urban catchment 'Le Marais' in Paris: what lessons can be learned from it?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chebbo, G.; Gromaire, M. C.

    2004-12-01

    An experimental catchment area was set up by CEREVE in the centre of Paris, in order to obtain an accurate description of the pollution caused by urban wet weather flows at different locations within the combined sewer system, and hence to estimate the contribution of runoff, waste water and sewer sediments to the total pollution. The results obtained show a change in quality between the runoff entering the sewer network and the combined storm water flow at the sewer's outlet. In particular, an increase was observed in the concentrations of SS, VSS, COD, BOD 5, Cu and in the settling velocities of particles. The assessment of the contribution of different sources to the pollution showed that the organic layer at water-sediment interface in the sewer is the main source of wet weather flow pollution for suspended solids, volatile solids, particle-bound COD and BOD 5, and copper. For cadmium, lead and zinc, it was shown that roof runoff constitutes the main source of wet weather flow pollution in 'Le Marais' catchment, due to the corrosion of the roofing materials.

  18. Fine-scale urbanization affects Odonata species diversity in ponds of a megacity (Paris, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeanmougin, Martin; Leprieur, Fabien; Loïs, Grégoire; Clergeau, Philippe

    2014-08-01

    Current developments in urban ecology include very few studies focused on pond ecosystems, though ponds are recognized as biodiversity hotspots. Using Odonata as an indicator model, we explored changes in species composition in ponds localized along an urban gradient of a megacity (Paris, France). We then assessed the relative importance of local- and landscape-scale variables in shaping Odonata α-diversity patterns using a model-averaging approach. Analyses were performed for adult (A) and adult plus exuviae (AE) census data. At 26 ponds, we recorded 657 adults and 815 exuviae belonging to 17 Odonata species. The results showed that the Odonata species assemblage composition was not determined by pond localization along the urban gradient. Similarly, pond characteristics were found to be similar among urban, suburban and periurban ponds. The analyses of AE census data revealed that fine-scale urbanization (i.e., increased density of buildings surrounding ponds) negatively affects Odonata α-diversity. In contrast, pond localization along the urban gradient weakly explained the α-diversity patterns. Several local-scale variables, such as the coverage of submerged macrophytes, were found to be significant drivers of Odonata α-diversity. Together, these results show that the degree of urbanization around ponds must be considered instead of pond localization along the urban gradient when assessing the potential impacts of urbanization on Odonata species diversity. This work also indicates the importance of exuviae sampling in understanding the response of Odonata to urbanization.

  19. [Poisoning with Jatropha curcas: 24 cases reported to Paris and Marseille Poisons Centers].

    PubMed

    Langrand, J; Médernach, C; Schmitt, C; Blanc-Brisset, I; Villa, A F; de Haro, L; Garnier, R

    2015-03-01

    Jatropha curcas L. is an inedible plant belonging to the Euphorbiaceae family that is growing in subtropical zones of all continents. We report a series of 24 cases of poisoning with J. curcas seeds or fruits reported to poison centers in Paris and Marseille between December 2000 and June 2014. Fifteen adults and 9 children ingested J. curcas seeds or fruits. All patients experienced gastrointestinal disorders, within the first hours following ingestion: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal pain. Laboratory investigations performed in 10 patients revealed minor abnormalities: CK elevation (8 cases), dehydration (5 cases) with moderate elevation of serum creatinine levels (3 cases), and mildly increased serum bilirubin (8 cases). Complete remission of all clinical signs was observed within 48 hours in the 20 cases for which the outcome was known. Previously published cases of J. curcas poisoning were very similar to ours: As in our series, gastrointestinal disorders were always present. They were sometimes associated with neurological or cardiovascular signs, and hepatic or renal disorders; these were generally interpreted as complications of severe gastroenteritis, although direct toxic effects could not be formally excluded. In most cases, simple supportive measures were sufficient to ensure complete recovery within 24-48 hours. J Curcas poisoning incidence is certainly increasing because the plant is cultivated to produce biodiesel and is now largely present in most subtropical countries. As a consequence, local health professionals should be informed of the toxic properties of this plant. PMID:25925815

  20. The Paris System for Reporting Urinary Cytology: The Quest to Develop a Standardized Terminology.

    PubMed

    Barkan, Güliz A; Wojcik, Eva M; Nayar, Ritu; Savic-Prince, Spasenija; Quek, Marcus L; Kurtycz, Daniel F I; Rosenthal, Dorothy L

    2016-07-01

    The main purpose of urine cytology is to detect high-grade urothelial carcinoma. With this principle in mind, The Paris System (TPS) Working Group, composed of cytopathologists, surgical pathologists, and urologists, has proposed and published a standardized reporting system that includes specific diagnostic categories and cytomorphologic criteria for the reliable diagnosis of high-grade urothelial carcinoma. This paper outlines the essential elements of TPS and the process that led to the formation and rationale of the reporting system. TPS Working Group, organized at the 2013 International Congress of Cytology, conceived a standardized platform on which to base cytologic interpretation of urine samples. The widespread dissemination of this approach to cytologic examination and reporting of urologic samples and the scheme's universal acceptance by pathologists and urologists is critical for its success. For urologists, understanding the diagnostic criteria, their clinical implications, and limitations of TPS is essential if they are to utilize urine cytology and noninvasive ancillary tests in a thoughtful and practical manner. This is the first international/inclusive attempt at standardizing urinary cytology. The success of TPS will depend on the pathology and urology communities working collectively to improve this seminal paradigm shift, and optimize the impact on patient care. PMID:27233050

  1. SciDB and Geoinformatics Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Paul

    2015-04-01

    The SciDB project took as its design goals a list of features identified as being critical to scientific data management in a survey of working scientists (Stonebraker et al 2009). Earth scientists working with remote sensing data were well represented among those polled so it should come as no surprise that the platform has been embraced by that community. In this talk we focus on work done by researchers at NASA and INPE, and on applications created by commercial data providers in Korea and the United States. For each use-case, we will review the project team's objectives, the nature and quantity of the data involved, the their workload queries. As we discuss each use-case we will describe what is emerging as "best practice" for data management and analysis in this space. M. Stonebraker, J. Becla, D. J. DeWitt, K. T. Lim, D. Maier, O. Ratzesberger, and S. B. Zdonik. Requirements for science data bases and scidb. In CIDR 2009, Fourth Biennial Conference on Innovative Data Systems Research, Asilomar, CA, USA, January 4-7, 2009, Online Proceedings, 2009.

  2. Neonatal multiorgan failure due to ACAD9 mutation and complex I deficiency with mitochondrial hyperplasia in liver, cardiac myocytes, skeletal muscle, and renal tubules.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Nancy; Wang, Xinjian; Peng, Yanyan; Valencia, C Alexander; Khuchua, Zaza; Hata, Jessica; Witte, David; Huang, Taosheng; Bove, Kevin E

    2016-03-01

    Complex I deficiency causes Leigh syndrome, fatal infant lactic acidosis, and neonatal cardiomyopathy. Mutations in more than 100 nuclear DNA and mitochondrial DNA genes miscode for complex I subunits or assembly factors. ACAD9 is an acyl-CoA dehydrogenase with a novel function in assembly of complex I; biallelic mutations cause progressive encephalomyopathy, recurrent Reye syndrome, and fatal cardiomyopathy. We describe the first autopsy in fatal neonatal lethal lactic acidosis due to mutations in ACAD9 that reduced complex I activity. We identified mitochondrial hyperplasia in cardiac myocytes, diaphragm muscle, and liver and renal tubules in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue using immunohistochemistry for mitochondrial antigens. Whole-exome sequencing revealed compound heterozygous variants in the ACAD9 gene: c.187G>T (p.E63*) and c.941T>C (p.L314P). The nonsense mutation causes late infantile lethality; the missense variant is novel. Autopsy-derived fibroblasts had reduced complex I activity (53% of control) with normal activity in complexes II to IV, similar to reported cases of ACAD9 deficiency. PMID:26826406

  3. Solving Large-scale Eigenvalue Problems in SciDACApplications

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Chao

    2005-06-29

    Large-scale eigenvalue problems arise in a number of DOE applications. This paper provides an overview of the recent development of eigenvalue computation in the context of two SciDAC applications. We emphasize the importance of Krylov subspace methods, and point out its limitations. We discuss the value of alternative approaches that are more amenable to the use of preconditioners, and report the progression using the multi-level algebraic sub-structuring techniques to speed up eigenvalue calculation. In addition to methods for linear eigenvalue problems, we also examine new approaches to solving two types of non-linear eigenvalue problems arising from SciDAC applications.

  4. Primary and secondary gaseous organic carbon in Paris plume during the MEGAPOLI summer experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ait-Helal, Warda; Borbon, Agnès.; Colomb, Aurélie; Michoud, Vincent; Afif, Charbel; Fronval, Isabelle; Leonardis, Thierry; Sauvage, Stéphane; Locoge, Nadine

    2010-05-01

    Within the FP7 MEGAPOLI project, an intensive field campaign was conducted in the Greater Paris region during July 2009. The main objective of the campaign was to quantify sources of primary and secondary aerosol and the role of organic gas-phase precursors, in and around a large agglomeration and to describe their evolution in the megacity plume. Observed gaseous organic carbon include a large dataset of primary and secondary VOCs of both anthropogenic and biogenic origin (monofunctionnal and bifunctionnal alkanes, alkenes, aromatics, terpenes, alcohols, aldehydes and ketones). Instruments were simultaneously deployed on ground-based platforms (MILEAGE) at two urban and suburban sites and one mobile platform (the French ATR-42 aircraft). Flights were designed to describe the urban plume ageing by performing several legs at increasing distances from the city centre. Techniques include on-line sampling and analysis by GC-FID and PTR-MS (on-board the aircraft) at high-time resolution and off-line sampling on carbonaceous cartridges and 2.4-DNPH-cartridges at 3-hour-time resolution. These measurements are collocated with other relevant trace gases measurements (O3, CO, NO, NO2, NOy) and meteorological parameters. First, the spatial and temporal variability of VOC from urban to regional scale is discussed regarding environmental conditions (air masses origin, meteorology, chemical regimes and photochemical ageing based on various photochemical clocks) and with respect to their sources. Then, the SOA forming potential of air masses is determined from laboratory determined particle-yields and observed gaseous organic precursors.

  5. Seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 antibodies in an STD clinic in Paris.

    PubMed

    Janier, M; Lassau, F; Bloch, J; Spindler, E; Morel, P; Gérard, P; Aufrère, A

    1999-08-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus (HSV)-2 and HSV-1 in a population of men and women attending the STD clinic of Hôpital St-Louis (Paris, France). Four hundred and eighty-seven patients (264 men and 223 women) were tested for HSV-2 and HSV-1 antibodies by specific enzyme immunoassay (EIA) (Smithkline-Beecham Biologicals). Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out for correlations with clinical, socio-epidemiological and behavioural data. HSV-2 seroprevalence was 55% (44.7% in men, 67.3% in women). HSV-1 seroprevalence was 93% (94.7% in men, 91% in women). The predictive factors of HSV-2 seropositivity being female (OR: 3.37), age (OR: 1.04), country of origin (Central Africa OR: 3.52, North Africa OR: 1.36), history of genital herpes (OR: 10.97), hepatitis B virus (HBV) markers (OR: 1.92) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) markers (OR: 3.96). The only protective factor was HSV-1 seropositivity (OR: 0.25). The predictive factors of HSV-1 seropositivity were only the country of origin (Central Africa OR: 2.95, North Africa OR: 1.83) and the absence of genital herpes (OR: 11.01). Only 23 (8.6%) HSV-2 seropositive patients had a history of genital herpes. This study underlines the very high HSV-2 seroprevalence of patients with STDs, only a few of whom have a history of genital herpes. Detection and counselling is urgently needed for these patients. PMID:10471101

  6. Lidar profiling of aerosol optical properties from Paris to Lake Baikal (Siberia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dieudonné, E.; Chazette, P.; Marnas, F.; Totems, J.; Shang, X.

    2015-05-01

    In June 2013, a ground-based mobile lidar performed the ~10 000 km ride from Paris to Ulan-Ude, near Lake Baikal, profiling for the first time aerosol optical properties all the way from western Europe to central Siberia. The instrument was equipped with N2-Raman and depolarization channels that enabled an optical speciation of aerosols in the low and middle troposphere. The extinction-to-backscatter ratio (also called lidar ratio or LR) and particle depolarization ratio (PDR) at 355 nm have been retrieved. The LR in the lower boundary layer (300-700 m) was found to be 63 ± 17 sr on average during the campaign with a distribution slightly skewed toward higher values that peaks between 50 and 55 sr. Although the difference is small, PDR values observed in Russian cities (>2%, except after rain) are systematically higher than the ones measured in Europe (<1%), which is probably an effect of the lifting of terrigenous aerosols by traffic on roads. Biomass burning layers from grassland or/and forest fires in southern Russia exhibit LR values ranging from 65 to 107 sr and from 3 to 4% for the PDR. During the route, desert dust aerosols originating from the Caspian and Aral seas regions were characterized for the first time, with a LR (PDR) of 43 ± 14 sr (23 ± 2%) for pure dust. The lidar observations also showed that this dust event extended over 2300 km and lasted for ~6 days. Measurements from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) show that our results are comparable in terms of aerosol optical thickness (between 0.05 and 0.40 at 355 nm) with the mean aerosol load encountered throughout our route.

  7. Lidar profiling of aerosol optical properties from Paris to Lake Baikal (Siberia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dieudonné, E.; Chazette, P.; Marnas, F.; Totems, J.; Shang, X.

    2014-11-01

    In June 2013, a ground-based mobile lidar performed the 10 000 km ride from Paris to Ulan-Ude, near Lake Baikal, profiling for the first time aerosol optical properties all the way from Western Europe to central Siberia. The instrument was equipped with N2-Raman and depolarization channels that enabled an optical speciation of aerosols in the low and middle troposphere. The backscatter-to-extinction ratio (BER) and particle depolarization ratio (PDR) at 355 nm have been retrieved. The BER in the lower boundary layer (300-700 m) was found to be 0.017 ± 0.009 sr-1 in average during the campaign, with slightly higher values in background conditions near Lake Baikal (0.021 ± 0.010 sr-1 in average) corresponding to dust-like particles. PDR values observed in Russian cities (>1.7%) are higher than the ones measured in European cities (<1.3%) due to the lifting of terrigenous aerosols by traffic on roads with a bad tarmac. Biomass burning layers from grassland or/and forest fires in southern Russia exhibit BER values ranging from 0.010 to 0.015 sr-1 and from 2 to 3% for the PDR. Desert dust aerosols originating from the Caspian and Aral seas regions were characterized for the first time, with a BER (PDR) of 0.022 sr-1 (21%) for pure dust, and 0.011 sr-1 (15%) for a mix between dust and biomass burning. The lidar observations also showed that this dust event extended over 2300 km and lasted for ~6 days. Measurements from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) show that our results are comparable in terms of aerosol optical thickness (between 0.05 and 0.40 at 355 nm) with the mean aerosol load encountered throughout our route.

  8. Phthalates and alkylphenols in industrial and domestic effluents: case of Paris conurbation (France).

    PubMed

    Bergé, A; Gasperi, J; Rocher, V; Gras, L; Coursimault, A; Moilleron, R

    2014-08-01

    Phthalates and alkylphenols are toxics classified as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). They are of particular concern due to their ubiquity and generally higher levels found in the environment comparatively to other EDCs. Industrial and domestic discharges might affect the quality of receiving waters by discharging organic matter and contaminants through treated waters and combined sewer overflows. Historically, industrial discharges are often considered as the principal vector of pollution in urban areas. If this observation was true in the past for some contaminants, no current data are today available to compare the quality of industrial and domestic discharges as regards EDCs. In this context, a total of 45 domestic samples as well as 101 industrial samples were collected from different sites, including 14 residential and 33 industrial facilities. This study focuses more specifically on 4 phthalates and 2 alkylphenols, among the most commonly studied congeners. A particular attention was also given to routine wastewater quality parameters. For most substances, wastewaters from the different sites were heavily contaminated; they display concentrations up to 1200 μg/l for di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and between 10 and 100 μg/l for diethyl phthalate and nonylphenol. Overall, for the majority of compounds, the industrial contribution to the flux of contaminant reaching the wastewater treatment plants ranges between 1 and 3%. The data generated during this work constitutes one of the first studies conducted in Europe on industrial fluxes for a variety of sectors of activity. The study of the wastewater contribution was used to better predict the industrial and domestic contributions at the scale of a huge conurbation heavily urbanized but with a weak industrial cover, illustrated by Paris. Our results indicate that specific investigations on domestic discharges are necessary in order to reduce the release of phthalates and alkylphenols in the sewer systems

  9. Ambient aerosol chlorine concentrations and artefacts during the MEGAPOLI Paris campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furger, Markus; Visser, Suzanne; Slowik, Jay; Crippa, Monica; Poulain, Laurent; Sciare, Jean; Flechsig, Uwe; Prévôt, André; Baltensperger, Urs

    2015-04-01

    Trace elements, especially those that are toxic, can affect the environment in significant ways. Studying them is advantageous with respect to a refinement of source apportionment when measured with high time resolution and appropriate size segregation. This approach is especially useful in urban environments with numerous time-variant emission sources distributed across a relatively narrow space. Two field campaigns took place in the framework of the MEGAPOLI project in Paris, France: one in the summer of 2009 (1-31 July), the other in the winter of 2010 (11 Jan - 10 Feb). Rotating drum impactors (RDI) were operated at an urban and a suburban site in each campaign. The RDI segregated the aerosols into three size ranges (PM10-2.5, PM2.5-1.0 and PM1.0-0.3) and sampled with 2-hour time resolution. The samples were analyzed with synchrotron radiation-induced X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (SR-XRF) at the synchrotron facility of the Paul Scherrer Institute (SLS), where a broad range of elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn) was analyzed for each size range. Time series of the analyzed elements for the different sites and campaigns were prepared to characterize the aerosol trace element composition and temporal behavior for different weather situations and urban environments. Quality assurance was performed partly by intercomparison with independent measurements. An exceptional behavior was observed for chlorine (Cl), where periods with zero RDI concentration alternated with periods of normal load. Zero concentrations were not observed in particle-into-liquid (PILS) measurements. This identifies the observed behavior as a RDI sampling artefact. Nevertheless, the non-zero periods of Cl concentrations are still a gain in information compared to conventional sampling techniques, mainly due to the high time resolution.

  10. Diagenesis and pore water evolution in the Keuper reservoir, Paris Basin (France)

    SciTech Connect

    Spotl, C.; Matter, A. . Geologisches Inst.); Brevart, O. . Centre Scientifique et Technique Jean Feger)

    1993-09-01

    Keuper (Upper Triassic) fluvial sandstones and nonmarine carbonate rocks form a major oil reservoir in the western Paris Basin at burial depths of [approximately] 2km. Early-diagenetic processes comprise red-bed-type diagenesis and extensive dolocrete formation both in fluvial channels and in fine-grained over-bank sediments. Locally significant paleokarst created vuggy dissolution porosity in the carbonate units and probably also caused leaching of detrital alkali feldspar grains. Oxygen, carbon, and strontium isotope analyses of various eogenetic cements indicate a nonmarine pore-water composition. Ferroan carbonates, authigenic albite and potassium feldspar, quartz, sulfates, sulfides, and clay minerals formed subsequent to major mechanical compaction. Their isotopic compositions record significant changes in the chemistry of the parent pore water. Cl-Br relationships of the present-day pore water reveal that fluids saturated with respect to halite flushed the reservoir during burial. Based on radiogenic dating of illite cements, influx of warm brines into the reservoir most likely occurred during the earliest Cretaceous. The authors suggest that uplift of the Vosges crustal block created a hydraulic head in the eastern part of the basin and established a gravity-driven fluid flow system, displacing interstitial brines from the Keuper evaporites from the eastern part towards the western part of the basin. A second gravity-driven fluid flow system was established during the Oligocene by major uplift, and freshwater flushed the Keuper reservoir, causing brine dilution. The present-day pore water in the study area is still saline and mass-balance calculations indicate that the ratio of basinal brines to Tertiary meteoric water is about 1:2.

  11. Stress inversion and basement-cover stress transmission across weak layers in the Paris basin, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunzburger, Yann; Magnenet, Vincent

    2014-03-01

    We investigate the source of non-purely gravitational horizontal stresses in the Paris basin, a nowadays tectonically quiet intracratonic basin, in its eastern border of which outstandingly dense stress measurements are available. Based on a synthesis of published data, the stress state in the basin is first shown to be very close to the one that may be extrapolated for the underlying basement, in terms of principal stress orientations and horizontal to vertical stress ratios. This is in favour of a mechanical coupling between the basement and its sedimentary cover, which may seem contradictory to the presence of several weak rock layers in the basin fill, e.g. an argillite layer that was shown to bear low deviatoric stresses, and salt layers that are implicated in a major décollement elsewhere. To unravel this apparent contradiction, a 3D-numerical modelling is performed, following a rigorous inverse problem approach, to determine the long-term elastic properties of both the basement and the basin rocks. The objective is to find the set of elastic constants that provides the best fit between the calculated stress state in the basin and the in situ data, by assuming that the stress state in the basement is known. This methodology provides a realistic set of mechanical parameters, in agreement with previous studies, which leads to the conclusion that the horizontal stresses in the basin constitute its mechanical response to the stresses that developed in the underlying basement during and since the last tectonic event (Alpine phase). The fact that horizontal stresses could be transmitted across the weak horizons, contrary to what may be expected at first glance, is explained both by the geometry of the basin and the fact that, over the long term, the stiffnesses of the various sedimentary rocks are only slightly different from each other.

  12. Fluxes of Nitrous Acid (HONO) above an Agricultural Field Side near Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laufs, S.; Cazaunau, M.; Stella, P.; Loubet, B.; Kurtenbach, R.; Cellier, P.; Mellouki, W.; Kleffmann, J.

    2012-04-01

    HONO is an important precursor of the OH radical, the detergent of the atmosphere. Field measurements show high diurnal HONO mixing ratios that cannot be explained by chemical models with known gas phase chemistry. Therefore, daytime sources of HONO are still under discussion. During the last decade many experimental investigation were performed to study heterogeneous production of HONO like the photo enhanced reduction of NO2 on humic acids or photolysis of HNO3 on surfaces. Recently, nitrite produced by bacteria, present in soil, was discussed as a source of HONO as well. In addition gas phase sources like the photolysis of nitrophenols, or the reaction of excited NO2 are discussed. Gradient measurements show high mixing ratios of HONO even above the boundary layer. However, beside intensive investigations on the sources of HONO, it is still an open question whether heterogeneous or gas phase sources are more important in the atmosphere. Flux measurements could represent a method to find the origin of missing sources of HONO. Until now instruments are not sensitive and fast enough to do Eddy correlation measurements for HONO. Alternatively, HONO fluxes are estimated by the Aerodynamic Gradient (AGM), or Relaxed Eddy Accumulation (REA) methods. Here we present HONO fluxes estimated by AGM and the LOPAP technique (Long Path Absorption Photometer) above an agricultural field in Grignon, Paris (48°51'N, 1°58'E). Fluxes during different seasons and different types of vegetations including bare soil will be presented and compared with chemical corrected fluxes of NO, NO2 and O3, or other parameters.

  13. Airborne mineral components and trace metals in Paris region: spatial and temporal variability.

    PubMed

    Poulakis, E; Theodosi, C; Bressi, M; Sciare, J; Ghersi, V; Mihalopoulos, N

    2015-10-01

    A variety of mineral components (Al, Fe) and trace metals (V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb) were simultaneously measured in PM2.5 and PM10 fractions at three different locations (traffic, urban, and suburban) in the Greater Paris Area (GPA) on a daily basis throughout a year. Mineral species and trace metal levels measured in both fractions are in agreement with those reported in the literature and below the thresholds defined by the European guidelines for toxic metals (Cd, Ni, Pb). Size distribution between PM2.5 and PM10 fractions revealed that mineral components prevail in the coarse mode, while trace metals are mainly confined in the fine one. Enrichment factor analysis, statistical analysis, and seasonal variability suggest that elements such as Mn, Cr, Zn, Fe, and Cu are attributed to traffic, V and Ni to oil combustion while Cd and Pb to industrial activities with regional origin. Meteorological parameters such as rain, boundary layer height (BLH), and air mass origin were found to significantly influence element concentrations. Periods with high frequency of northern and eastern air masses (from high populated and industrialized areas) are characterized by high metal concentrations. Finally, inner city and traffic emissions were also evaluated in PM2.5 fraction. Significant contributions (>50 %) were measured in the traffic site for Mn, Fe, Cr, Zn, and Cu, confirming that vehicle emissions contribute significantly to their levels, while in the urban site, the lower contributions (18 to 33 %) for all measured metals highlight the influence of regional sources on their levels. PMID:25982986

  14. Homicidal deaths in the Western suburbs of Paris: a 15-year-study.

    PubMed

    Cros, Jérôme; Alvarez, Jean-Claude; Sbidian, Emilie; Charlier, Philippe; Lorin de la Grandmaison, Geoffroy

    2012-12-01

    The aim of our study was to analyze the homicide pattern in the Western suburbs of Paris and its evolution between 1994 and 2008. All autopsy reports regarding homicides from the period January 1, 1994, to December 31, 2008, were retrospectively reviewed. Five hundred eleven homicide cases were selected of 4842 autopsy cases. The following data were recorded: assailants and victims characteristics, crime scene location, homicide motive, cause of death, and victim's postmortem toxicological results. Homicide rate steadily declined over the period at the exception of the number of homicide-suicide per year, which remained constant. Homicide victims remained unidentified after medicolegal investigations in 2% of the cases. Child and elder homicide cases represented, respectively, 10.7% and 8.2% of the cases. Offenders were male in 88% of the cases. Male and female assailants showed distinct homicide patterns: females were involved more frequently in familial quarrel and child abuse. They never killed a stranger and committed homicide exclusively in a private place with a predominance of sharp weapons. Males, in contrast, assaulted almost equally a stranger or an acquaintance, often in a public place with a predominance of firearm. Victim knew the assailant(s) in 57% of the cases. Homicides mostly took place at the residence of the assailant or the victim. Homicide motive was clearly determined in 71% of the cases. Argument was the most common motive in 44% of the cases. Sexual assault was rarely found (10 cases). Gunshot wounds were the most common cause of death (37%), followed by stab wounds (27%), blunt trauma (19%), and asphyxia (13%). A decrease of gunshot wounds as a cause of death was found over the studied period. Alcohol was the most common toxic detected in blood of the victim, in 48.5% of the cases when toxicological results were available. Blood alcohol concentration ranged from 1 to 500 mg/dL with a mean value of 150 mg/dL. PMID:22922553

  15. Volatility of organic aerosol and its components in the Megacity of Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paciga, A.; Karnezi, E.; Kostenidou, E.; Hildebrandt, L.; Psichoudaki, M.; Engelhart, G. J.; Lee, B.-H.; Crippa, M.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Baltensperger, U.; Pandis, S. N.

    2015-08-01

    Using a mass transfer model and the volatility basis set, we estimate the volatility distribution for the organic aerosol (OA) components during summer and winter in Paris, France as part of the collaborative project MEGAPOLI. The concentrations of the OA components as a function of temperature were measured combining data from a thermodenuder and an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) with Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis. The hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) had similar volatility distributions for the summer and winter campaigns with half of the material in the saturation concentration bin of 10 μg m-3 and another 35-40 % consisting of low and extremely low volatility organic compounds (LVOCs and ELVOCs, respectively). The winter cooking OA (COA) was more than an order of magnitude less volatile than the summer COA. The low volatility oxygenated OA (LV-OOA) factor detected in the summer had the lowest volatility of all the derived factors and consisted almost exclusively of ELVOCs. The volatility for the semi-volatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA) was significantly higher than that of the LV-OOA, containing both semi-volatile organic components (SVOCs) and LVOCs. The oxygenated OA (OOA) factor in winter consisted of SVOCs (45 %), LVOCs (25 %) and ELVOCs (30 %). The volatility of marine OA (MOA) was higher than that of the other factors containing around 60 % SVOCs. The biomass burning OA (BBOA) factor contained components with a wide range of volatilities with significant contributions from both SVOCs (50 %) and LVOCs (30 %). Finally, combining the O : C ratio and volatility distributions of the various factors, we incorporated our results into the two-dimensional volatility basis set (2D-VBS). Our results show that the factors cover a broad spectrum of volatilities with no direct link between the average volatility and average O : C of the OA components. Agreement between our findings and previous publications is encouraging for our understanding of the

  16. Microbial diversity in Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis rhizomes of varying ages.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y; Yang, S C; Zhao, J; Udikeri, S; Liu, T

    2015-01-01

    Endophyte microorganisms live inside plants without causing them any apparent damage. Recently, endophytic microorganisms have attracted attention because they can produce bioactive compounds of biotechnological interest. The endophytic microorganisms in Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis (Liliaceae) - a species used since antiquity in traditional Chinese medicine - are under scrutiny because they may be responsible for producing the bioactive metabolites associated with the plant. The levels of bioactive metabolites in the rhizomes of P. polyphylla increase with rhizome age. To elucidate the roles played by endophytes in the accumulation of bioactive metabolites, we investigated the community structure and diversity of the endophytic microorganisms in P. polyphylla rhizomes of different ages (4, 6, and 8 years) using 16S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analysis. 16S rDNA amplicon pyrosequencing revealed that the number of operational taxonomic units was lower in the 8-year-old samples than in the other samples. A total of 28 phyla were observed in the P. polyphylla samples and the predominant bacteria were of the Cyanobacteria and Proteobacteria phyla. Moreover, the percentage of Cyanobacteria increased with rhizome age. Similarly, ITS1 amplicon pyrosequencing identified developmental changes in the most abundant fungal classes; some classes were more prevalent in the 8-year-old rhizomes than in younger rhizomes, indicating the importance in secondary metabolism in older rhizomes. Our study showed that endophyte microorganism diversity and prevalence depend on P. polyphylla rhizome age. There was also an indication that some endophyte microorganisms contribute to the higher saponin content in older P. polyphylla specimens. PMID:26782406

  17. Overview of the Spinal Cord Injury – Quality of Life (SCI-QOL) measurement system

    PubMed Central

    Tulsky, David S.; Kisala, Pamela A.; Victorson, David; Tate, Denise G.; Heinemann, Allen W.; Charlifue, Susan; Kirshblum, Steve C.; Fyffe, Denise; Gershon, Richard; Spungen, Ann M.; Bombardier, Charles H.; Dyson-Hudson, Trevor A.; Amtmann, Dagmar; Z. Kalpakjian, Claire; W. Choi, Seung; Jette, Alan M.; Forchheimer, Martin; Cella, David

    2015-01-01

    Context/Objective The Spinal Cord Injury – Quality of Life (SCI-QOL) measurement system was developed to address the shortage of relevant and psychometrically sound patient reported outcome (PRO) measures available for clinical care and research in spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation. Using a computer adaptive testing (CAT) approach, the SCI-QOL builds on the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) and the Quality of Life in Neurological Disorders (Neuro-QOL) initiative. This initial manuscript introduces the background and development of the SCI-QOL measurement system. Greater detail is presented in the additional manuscripts of this special issue. Design Classical and contemporary test development methodologies were employed. Qualitative input was obtained from individuals with SCI and clinicians through interviews, focus groups, and cognitive debriefing. Item pools were field tested in a multi-site sample (n = 877) and calibrated using item response theory methods. Initial reliability and validity testing was performed in a new sample of individuals with traumatic SCI (n = 245). Setting Five Model SCI System centers and one Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center across the United States. Participants Adults with traumatic SCI. Interventions n/a Outcome Measures n/a Results The SCI-QOL consists of 19 item banks, including the SCI-Functional Index banks, and 3 fixed-length scales measuring physical, emotional, and social aspects of health-related QOL (HRQOL). Conclusion The SCI-QOL measurement system consists of psychometrically sound measures for individuals with SCI. The manuscripts in this special issue provide evidence of the reliability and initial validity of this measurement system. The SCI-QOL also links to other measures designed for a general medical population. PMID:26010962

  18. Sci-Tech Books of 1977: An Addendum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mount, Ellis; Crockett, Edith S.

    1978-01-01

    The 35 titles in this annotated bibliography complete the list of 100 best sci-tech titles; the first 65 appeared in the March 1, 1978 issue. Major subject subdivisions in this addendum include astronomy, earth sciences, and general science. (JAB)

  19. SciTech Clubs for Girls. [Annual] technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Nogal, A.M.

    1993-02-01

    Since January 1992, 9 exhibits have been constructed by the SciTech Clubs for Girls, which involved 63 girls, ages 10 to 14. These exhibits are: Bubble Shapes by the St. Charles Cadette Girl Scout Troop No. 109. Density Games by the South Elgin Cadette Girl Scout Troop No. 132. Electric Fleas by the Warrenville Junior Girl Scout Troop No. 305. Energy vs. Power by the Aurora Junior Girl Scout Troop No. 242. The Organ Pipe by the Bartlett Junior Girl Scout Troop No. 107. Ohm`s Law by the Geneva Junior Girl Scout Troop No. 401. What is Gravity by the Pilsen YMCA girls. Insulation at Work by the Algonquin Junior Girl Scout Troop No. 303. Series vs. Parallel by the Leland Junior Girl Scout Troop No. 50. The report is a description of each exhibit and the group that built the exhibit. Each group had a minimum of 10 hours of contact time at SciTech with the SciTech Clubs for Girls Program Coordinator. All mentors are female. Each exhibit building experience includes a trip to the hardware store to purchase supplies. After the exhibit is complete, the girls receive certificates of achievement and a SciTech Club Patch.

  20. OPENING REMARKS: SciDAC: Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strayer, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Good morning. Welcome to SciDAC 2005 and San Francisco. SciDAC is all about computational science and scientific discovery. In a large sense, computational science characterizes SciDAC and its intent is change. It transforms both our approach and our understanding of science. It opens new doors and crosses traditional boundaries while seeking discovery. In terms of twentieth century methodologies, computational science may be said to be transformational. There are a number of examples to this point. First are the sciences that encompass climate modeling. The application of computational science has in essence created the field of climate modeling. This community is now international in scope and has provided precision results that are challenging our understanding of our environment. A second example is that of lattice quantum chromodynamics. Lattice QCD, while adding precision and insight to our fundamental understanding of strong interaction dynamics, has transformed our approach to particle and nuclear science. The individual investigator approach has evolved to teams of scientists from different disciplines working side-by-side towards a common goal. SciDAC is also undergoing a transformation. This meeting is a prime example. Last year it was a small programmatic meeting tracking progress in SciDAC. This year, we have a major computational science meeting with a variety of disciplines and enabling technologies represented. SciDAC 2005 should position itself as a new corner stone for Computational Science and its impact on science. As we look to the immediate future, FY2006 will bring a new cycle to SciDAC. Most of the program elements of SciDAC will be re-competed in FY2006. The re-competition will involve new instruments for computational science, new approaches for collaboration, as well as new disciplines. There will be new opportunities for virtual experiments in carbon sequestration, fusion, and nuclear power and nuclear waste, as well as collaborations

  1. Figures and Institutions of the neurological sciences in Paris from 1800 to 1950. Part IV: Psychiatry and psychology.

    PubMed

    Poirier, J; Clarac, F; Barbara, J-G; Broussolle, E

    2012-05-01

    We present a short historical review on the major institutions and figures who contributed to make Paris a renowned centre of physiology and neurology during the XIXth and the first half of the XXth century. We purposely chose to focus on the period 1800-1950, as 1800 corresponds to the actual beginning of neurosciences, and as 1950 marks their exponential rise. Our presentation is divided into four chapters, matching the main disciplines that have progressed and contributed most to the knowledge we have of the brain sciences: anatomy, physiology, neurology, and psychiatry-psychology. The present article is the fourth of the four parts of this review, which deals with the chapter on psychiatry and psychology. When the French Revolution occurred, only a few institutions were taking care of the mentally ill. In the Paris area, these included Maison Royale de Charenton, Les Petites Maisons, and one of the departments of larger hospitals such as Hôtel-Dieu, the Salpêtrière Hospital and Bicêtre Hospital. One of the founders of psychiatry in Paris at that time and thereafter was Philippe Pinel (1745-1826) who was the first to distinguish insane/alienated patients from misfits, beggars, and other vagabonds. During the first half of the XIXth century, his student Jean-Étienne Esquirol (1772-1840) also played a major role with his treatise on mental diseases and the 1838 law and the creation of asylums in all parts of France. Alienists were in general caregivers and learned by themselves. In contrast, at the academic level, the emerging disciplines psychiatry and neurology were very close to each other in the second half of the XIXth century, the best example being Jules Baillarger (1809-1890). The actual development of psychiatry and psychology and the foundation of psychoanalysis later in the XIXth century and in the first half of the XXth century owed much to several European doctors and scientists, particularly those from British institutions and from German

  2. Investigation of characteristics and transformation processes of megacity emission plumes using a mobile laboratory in the Paris metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von der Weiden-Reinmüller, S.-L.; Drewnick, F.; Zhang, Q.; Meleux, F.; Beekmann, M.; Borrmann, S.

    2012-04-01

    A growing fraction of the world's population is living in urban agglomerations of increasing size. Currently, 20 cities worldwide qualify as so-called megacities, having more than 10 million inhabitants. These intense pollution hot-spots cause a number of scientific questions concerning their influence on local and regional air quality, which is connected with human health, flora and fauna. In the framework of the European Union FP7 MEGAPOLI project (Megacities: Emissions, urban, regional and Global Atmospheric POLlution and climate effects, and Integrated tools for assessment and mitigation) two major field campaigns were carried out in the greater Paris region in July 2009 and January/February 2010. This work presents results from mobile particulate and gas phase measurements with focus on the characteristics of the Paris emission plume and its impact on the regional air quality and on aerosol transformation processes within this plume as it travels away from its source. In addition differences between summer and winter conditions are discussed. The mobile laboratory was equipped with high time resolution instrumentation to measure particle number concentrations (dP > 2.5 nm), size distributions (dP ~ 5 nm - 32 μm), sub-micron chemical composition (non-refractory species using Aerodyne HR-ToF-AMS, PAH and black carbon) as well as major trace gases (CO2, SO2, O3, NOx) and standard meteorological parameters. On-board webcam and GPS allow detailed monitoring of traffic situation and vehicle track. In a total of 29 mobile and 25 stationary measurements with the mobile laboratory the Paris emission plume as well as the atmospheric background was characterized under various meteorological conditions. This allows investigating the influence of external factors like temperature, solar radiation or precipitation on the plume characteristics. Three measurement strategies were applied to investigate the emission plume. First, circular mobile measurements around Paris

  3. Simulating the formation of carbonaceous aerosol in a European Megacity (Paris) during the MEGAPOLI summer and winter campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fountoukis, Christos; Megaritis, Athanasios G.; Skyllakou, Ksakousti; Charalampidis, Panagiotis E.; Denier van der Gon, Hugo A. C.; Crippa, Monica; Prévôt, André S. H.; Fachinger, Friederike; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Pilinis, Christodoulos; Pandis, Spyros N.

    2016-03-01

    We use a three-dimensional regional chemical transport model (PMCAMx) with high grid resolution and high-resolution emissions (4 × 4 km2) over the Paris greater area to simulate the formation of carbonaceous aerosol during a summer (July 2009) and a winter (January/February 2010) period as part of the MEGAPOLI (megacities: emissions, urban, regional, and global atmospheric pollution and climate effects, and Integrated tools for assessment and mitigation) campaigns. Model predictions of carbonaceous aerosol are compared against Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer and black carbon (BC) high time resolution measurements from three ground sites. PMCAMx predicts BC concentrations reasonably well reproducing the majority (70 %) of the hourly data within a factor of two during both periods. The agreement for the summertime secondary organic aerosol (OA) concentrations is also encouraging (mean bias = 0.1 µg m-3) during a photochemically intense period. The model tends to underpredict the summertime primary OA concentrations in the Paris greater area (by approximately 0.8 µg m-3) mainly due to missing primary OA emissions from cooking activities. The total cooking emissions are estimated to be approximately 80 mg d-1 per capita and have a distinct diurnal profile in which 50 % of the daily cooking OA is emitted during lunch time (12:00-14:00 LT) and 20 % during dinner time (20:00-22:00 LT). Results also show a large underestimation of secondary OA in the Paris greater area during wintertime (mean bias = -2.3 µg m-3) pointing towards a secondary OA formation process during low photochemical activity periods that is not simulated in the model.

  4. Simulating the formation of carbonaceous aerosol in a European Megacity (Paris) during the MEGAPOLI summer and winter campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fountoukis, C.; Megaritis, A. G.; Skyllakou, K.; Charalampidis, P. E.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Crippa, M.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Freutel, F.; Wiedensohler, A.; Pilinis, C.; Pandis, S. N.

    2015-09-01

    We use a three dimensional regional chemical transport model (PMCAMx) with high grid resolution and high resolution emissions (4 km × 4 km) over the Paris greater area to simulate the formation of carbonaceous aerosol during a summer (July 2009) and a winter (January/February 2010) period as part of the MEGAPOLI (Megacities: Emissions, urban, regional, and Global Atmospheric POLlution and climate effects, and Integrated tools for assessment and mitigation) campaigns. Model predictions of carbonaceous aerosol are compared against Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer and black carbon (BC) high time resolution measurements from three ground sites. PMCAMx predicts BC concentrations reasonably well reproducing the majority (70 %) of the hourly data within a factor of two during both periods. The agreement for the summertime secondary organic aerosol (OA) concentrations is also encouraging (mean bias = 0.1 μg m-3) during a photochemically intense period. The model tends to underpredict the summertime primary OA concentrations in the Paris greater area (by approximately 0.8 μg m-3) mainly due to missing primary OA emissions from cooking activities. The total cooking emissions are estimated to be approximately 80 mg d-1 per capita and have a distinct diurnal profile in which 50 % of the daily cooking OA is emitted during lunch time (12:00-14:00 LT) and 20 % during dinner time (20:00-22:00 LT). Results also show a large underestimation of secondary OA in the Paris greater area during wintertime (mean bias = -2.3 μg m-3) pointing towards a secondary OA formation process during low photochemical activity periods that is not simulated in the model.

  5. Evaluation of bottom-up and downscaled emission inventories for Paris and consequences for estimating urban air pollution increments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmermans, R.; Denier van der Gon, H.; Segers, A.; Honore, C.; Perrussel, O.; Builtjes, P.; Schaap, M.

    2012-04-01

    Since a major part of the Earth's population lives in cities, it is of great importance to correctly characterise the air pollution levels over these urban areas. Many studies in the past have already been dedicated to this subject and have determined so-called urban increments: the impact of large cities on the air pollution levels. The impact of large cities on air pollution levels usually is determined with models driven by so-called downscaled emission inventories. In these inventories official country total emissions are gridded using information on for example population density and location of industries and roads. The question is how accurate are the downscaled inventories over cities or large urban areas. Within the EU FP 7 project MEGAPOLI project a new emission inventory has been produced including refined local emission data for two European megacities (Paris, London) and two urban conglomerations (the Po valley, Italy and the Rhine-Ruhr region, Germany) based on a bottom-up approach. The inventory has comparable national totals but remarkable difference at the city scale. Such a bottom up inventory is thought to be more accurate as it contains local knowledge. Within this study we compared modelled nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM) concentrations from the LOTOS-EUROS chemistry transport model driven by a conventional downscaled emission inventory (TNO-MACC inventory) with the concentrations from the same model driven by the new MEGAPOLI 'bottom-up' emission inventory focusing on the Paris region. Model predictions for Paris significantly improve using the new Megapoli inventory. Both the emissions as well as the simulated average concentrations of PM over urban sites in Paris are much lower due to the different spatial distribution of the anthropogenic emissions. The difference for the nearby rural stations is small implicating that also the urban increment for PM simulated using the bottom-up emission inventory is much smaller than

  6. High pressure neutron diffraction to beyond 20 GPa and below 1.8 K using Paris-Edinburgh load frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klotz, S.; Strässle, Th.; Lebert, B.; d'Astuto, M.; Hansen, Th.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a method for collecting neutron diffraction patterns simultaneously at high pressure (>22 GPa) and low temperature (<1.8 K). The system uses ∼5-10 mm3 samples compressed by double-toroidal sintered diamond anvils, with the required forces generated by a Paris-Edinburgh press of 30 kg mass. Technical details are given and diffraction data of ε-iron at 22.6 GPa and 1.79 K are presented.

  7. Origin of particulate matter and gaseous precursors in the Paris Megacity: Results from intensive campaigns, long term measurements and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beekmann, Matthias; Petetin, Hervé; Zhang, Qijie; Prevot, André S. H.; Sciare, Jean; Gros, Valérie; Ghersi, Véronique; Rosso, Amandine; Crippa, Monica; Zotter, Peter; Freutel, Fredericke; Poulain, Laurent; Freney, Evelyne; Sellegri, Karine; Drewnick, Frank; Borbon, Agnès; Wiedensohler, Aflred; Pandis, Spyros N.; Baltensperger, Urs

    2016-04-01

    Uncertainties on the origin of primary and secondary particulate matter and its gaseous precursors in megacities is still large and needs to be reduced. A detailed characterization of air quality in Paris (France), a megacity of more than 10 million inhabitants, during two one month intensive campaigns (MEGAPOLI) and from additional one year observations (PARTICULATE and FRANCIPOL), revealed that about 70% of the fine particulate matter (PM) at urban background is transported on average into the megacity from upwind regions. While advection of sulfate is well documented for other megacities, there was a surprisingly high contribution from long-range transport for both nitrate and organic aerosol. The data set of urban local and advected PM concentrations in the Paris area were used for a thorough evaluation of the CHIMERE model and revealed error compensation for the local and advected components of organic matter and nitrate. During spring time, CHIMERE simulations overestimate the sensitivity of ammonium nitrate peaks to NH3, because (i) they underestimate the urban background NH3 levels, probably due to neglecting enhanced NH3 emissions for larger temperatures, and because they overestimate HNO3. However, from an ensemble of mobile Max-DOAS NO2 column and airborne NOy measurements around Paris, no clear sign on a NOx emission bias in the TNO-Airparif data set was made evident. The origin of organic PM was investigated by a comprehensive analysis of aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), radiocarbon and tracer measurements during two intensive campaigns. Primary fossil fuel combustion emissions contributed less than 20% in winter and 40% in summer to carbonaceous fine PM, unexpectedly little for a megacity. Cooking activities and, during winter, residential wood burning are the major primary organic PM sources. This analysis suggests that the major part of secondary organic aerosol is of modern origin, i.e. from biogenic precursors and from wood burning. Implementation

  8. [Prosecution of Mélanie Hahnemann in 1847 at the court of Paris: illegal practise of pharmacy and medicine].

    PubMed

    Trépardoux, Francis

    2002-01-01

    Recently married, the Hahnemanns came to Paris in 1835. The great man, 80, was authorised to practice in France. His wife Mélanie always assisted him in writing prescriptions, and in recruiting patients. When he died in 1843, she was continuing to practise assisted or not by a physician, Deleau or Croserio. A young pharmacist, Charles LeThiére, lived close to her as her adoptive son, grandson of the famous painter Guillaume Guillon-LeThière who was the director of the French Academy of Fine Arts of Rome at the Villa Medici, grandson as well of the Roman pharmacist Giuseppe Meli. Early Charles remained orphan and was educated by Mélanie. In 1844, he obtained his pharmaceutical graduation at the Ecole supérieure de Pharmacie de Paris. In 1847, she was accused of illegal practising of medicine and pharmacy. She claimed that she held the degree of doctor in homeopathy granted to her by the Academy of Pennsylvania. The court condemned her on the medical side considering that she earned money without legal certification in medicine. But as the drugs were prepared by a pharmacist, and delivered free of charge to the patients, no sentence was pronounced against her neither against LeThière. However, the court tempted to object that LeTière did not meet all the legal requirements for practising his pharmaceutical activity, especially aruging that he did not own an open shop of pharmacy, and that he did not declare his activity to the authorities in Paris. This point underline the fact that during the XIXth century the French law (21 germinal An XI- 1803), obliged the starting drug industry to be in dependence of the shops of pharmacy opened to the public, owned by a graduated pharmacist. As defender Mrs. Hahnemann chose the quite known solicitor Chaix d'Estange. Many testimonies came for justifying her capability of medical prescribing from artists, officers, writers and several aristocrats. From abroad came the supports of American doctors, Hempel, Hering and Hull

  9. Evaluation of PARIS performance in the South Central Coast Air Basin. Volume 2. Technical report. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, S.G.; Daly, C.; Moore, G.E.; Myers, T.C.

    1991-12-01

    The primary goal of the study was to compare PARIS model performance in simulating ozone in the South Central Coast Air Basin (SCCAB) for 22-24 September 1985 using alternative wind fields. One wind field was generated by the Diagnostic Wind Model (DWM), and the other by the Colorado State University Mesoscale Model (CSUMM). The overall objective of the South Central Coast Cooperative Aerometric Monitoring Program (SCCCAMP) project was to develop a means of assessing the aggregate impact of offshore petroleum industry sources on onshore ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations.

  10. Evaluation of PARIS performance in the South Central Coast Air Basin. Volume 1. Executive Summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, S.G.; Daly, C.; Moore, G.E.; Myers, T.C.

    1991-12-01

    The primary goal of the study was to compare PARIS model performance in simulating ozone in the South Central Coast Air Basin (SCCAB) for 22-24 September 1985 using alternative wind fields. One wind field was generated by the Diagnostic Wind Model (DWM), and the other by the Colorado State University Mesoscale Model (CSUMM). The overall objective of the South Central Coast Cooperative Aerometric Monitoring Program (SCCCAMP) project was to develop a means of assessing the aggregate impact of offshore petroleum industry sources on onshore ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations.

  11. Contributions to the history of psychology: LXXXV. Jean Piaget, student of Pierre Janet (Paris 1919-1921).

    PubMed

    Amann-Gainotti, M

    1992-06-01

    This article provides information about an important period of Piaget's formative years, those he spent in Paris from 1919 to 1921, during which he came into contact with eminent members of the French scientific and philosophical community of the time. Among these was the psychiatrist and psychologist Pierre Janet, whose genetic approach to the psychology of behaviour and ideas about the hierarchical organization of psychological functions converged with Piaget's early scientific interests and provided Piaget a conceptual framework within which to work and develop his own project of studying the genesis of knowledge. PMID:1501961

  12. Measurement of Bone: Diagnosis of SCI-Induced Osteoporosis and Fracture Risk Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Morse, Leslie R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is associated with a rapid loss of bone mass, resulting in severe osteoporosis and a 5- to 23-fold increase in fracture risk. Despite the seriousness of fractures in SCI, there are multiple barriers to osteoporosis diagnosis and wide variations in treatment practices for SCI-induced osteoporosis. Methods: We review the biological and structural changes that are known to occur in bone after SCI in the context of promoting future research to prevent or reduce risk of fracture in this population. We also review the most commonly used methods for assessing bone after SCI and discuss the strengths, limitations, and clinical applications of each method. Conclusions: Although dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry assessments of bone mineral density may be used clinically to detect changes in bone after SCI, 3-dimensional methods such as quantitative CT analysis are recommended for research applications and are explained in detail. PMID:26689691

  13. Viscosity Solutions for the One-Body Liouville Equation in Yang-Mills Charged Bianchi Models with Non-Zero Mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayissi, Raoul Domingo; Noutchegueme, Norbert; Etoua, Remy Magloire; Tchagna, Hugues Paulin Mbeutcha

    2015-09-01

    Recently in 2005, Briani and Rampazzo (Nonlinear Differ Equ Appl 12:71-91, 2005) gave, using results of Crandall and Lions (Ill J Math 31:665-688, 1987), Ishii (Indiana Univ Math J 33: 721-748, 1984, Bull Fac Sci Eng 28: 33-77, 1985) and Ley (Adv Diff Equ 6:547-576, 2001) a density approach to Hamilton-Jacobi equations with t-measurable Hamiltonians. In this paper we show, using an important result of Briani and Rampazzo (Nonlinear Differ Equ Appl 12:71-91, 2005) the existence and uniqueness of viscosity solutions to the one-body Liouville relativistic equation in Yang-Mills charged Bianchi space times with non-zero mass. To our knowledge, the method used here is original and thus, totally different from those used in Alves (C R Acad Sci Paris Sér A 278:1151-1154, 1975), Choquet-Bruhat and Noutchegueme (C R Acad Sci Paris Sér I 311, 1973), Choquet-Bruhat and Noutchegueme (Ann Inst Henri Poincaré 55:759-787, 1991), Choquet-Bruhat and Noutchegueme (Pitman Res Notes Math Ser 253:52-71, 1992), Noutchegueme and Noundjeu (Ann Inst Henri Poincaré 1:385-404, 2000), Wollman (J Math Anal Appl 127:103-121, 1987) and Choquet-Bruhat (Existence and uniqueness for the Einstein-Maxwell-Liouville system. Volume dedicated to Petrov, Moscow, 1971) who have studied the same equation.

  14. Le Carbonifère du Maroc central : les formations de Migoumess, de Tirhela et d'Idmarrach. Lithologie, biostratigraphie et conséquences géodynamiquesThe Carboniferous formations of Migoumess, Tirhela and Idmarrach (central Morocco): lithology, biostratigraphy and geodynamic consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkhli, Mostafa; Vachard, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    New biostratigraphical data based on foraminifers, algae and pseudo-algae indicate that the limestone pebbles of the channelized polygenic conglomerates of the Migoumess formation contain Late Visean (V3b γ-V3c) assemblages. That confirms the Westphalian age attributed to this formation by Hollard [Zdt. Geol. Ges. 129 (1978) 495-512]. The Tournaisian age assigned to it by palynology [C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, série II 310 (1990) 1573-1576] cannot be retained. The Tirhela formation, Late Visean and Serpukhovian (E1) in age, is coeval with the Akerchi formation [Berkhli, thèse d'État, 1999; Berkhli et al., J. Afr. Earth Sci. (accepté)]. The Idmarrach formation, mapped as a thrust sheet [C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, série II 310 (1990) 1573-1576], is dated as Serpukhovian (E1) and its thrusting is consequently post-Serpukhovian. Palaeogeographic and geodynamic consequences are listed. To cite this article: M. Berkhli, D. Vachard, C. R. Geoscience 334 (2002) 67-72

  15. Occupational exposure and 12-year spirometric changes among Paris area workers.

    PubMed Central

    Kauffmann, F; Drouet, D; Lellouch, J; Brille, D

    1982-01-01

    A follow-up study over 12 years was conducted among 556 men aged 30 to 54 in 1960 and working at that time in factories around Paris (France). Various occupational exposures were recorded at the time of the 1960 survey after a technical study of each workplace. The annual rate of decline of FEV1 during 12 years was estimated for each subject from the measurements in 1960 and 1972. This rate (the FEV1 slope) was related independently of FEV1 level (which reflects the loss since the beginning of adult life) and of smoking habits to occupational exposure to dust, gases, and heat. FEV1 slope was significantly related to inhalation of mineral dust (even in the absence of silica) as well as to grain dust, and the slope was steeper with increased intensity of exposure to dust. Analysis of job changes showed that among heavily exposed subjects, those who changed jobs had a less steep slope than those who did not. Our results support the hypothesis of a causal role of exposure to dust in the development of chronic airflow obstruction and of a benefit when exposure to dust ceases. Exposure to dust, gas, and heat usually occurred together so data on gas and heat were analysed after taking account of exposure to dust. The influence of heat on FEV1 decline showed a clear trend. Results suggest that exposure to gases associated with exposure to dust or heat or both had a deleterious effect. After adjusting for age, smoking, and FEV1 level (ASLA) the following average slopes were obtained: 44 ml/a (for exposure to none or to only a slight amount of dust, or to gases alone), 51 ml/a (heat), 53 ml/a (noticeable dust), 55 ml/a (noticeable dust and heat), 60 ml/a (noticeable dust, heat, and high concentration of gases). Independently of the occupational exposures, ASLA FEV1 slopes among manual workers were related to skill, being 44 ml/a for skilled and 51 ml/a for unskilled men. Independently of social class and occupational exposures recorded, there were differences in FEV1 slopes

  16. Theory of cyclic creep of concrete based on Paris law for fatigue growth of subcritical microcracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazant, Zdenek P.; Hubler, Mija H.

    2014-02-01

    Recent investigations prompted by a disaster in Palau revealed that worldwide there are 69 long-span segmental prestressed-concrete box-girder bridges that suffered excessive multi-decade deflections, while many more surely exist. Although the excessive deflections were shown to be caused mainly by obsolescence of design recommendations or codes for static creep, some engineers suspect that cyclic creep might have been a significant additional cause. Many investigators explored the cyclic creep of concrete experimentally, but a rational mathematical model that would be anchored in the microstructure and would allow extrapolation to a 100-year lifetime is lacking. Here it is assumed that the cause of cyclic creep is the fatigue growth of pre-existing microcracks in hydrated cement. The resulting macroscopic strain is calculated by applying fracture mechanics to the microcracks considered as either tensile or, in the form of a crushing band, as compressive. This leads to a mathematical model for cyclic creep in compression, which is verified and calibrated by laboratory test data from the literature. The cyclic creep is shown to be proportional to the time average of stress and to the 4th power of the ratio of the stress amplitude to material strength. The power of 4 is supported by the recent finding that, on the atomistic scale, the Paris law should have the exponent of 2 and that the exponent must increase due to scale bridging. Exponent 4 implies that cyclic creep deflections are enormously sensitive to the relative amplitude of the applied cyclic stress. Calculations of the effects of cyclic creep in six segmental prestressed concrete box girders indicate that, because of self-weight dominance, the effect on deflections absolutely negligible for large spans (>150m). For small spans (<40m) the cyclic creep deflections are not negligible but do not matter since the static creep causes in such bridges upward deflections. However, the cyclic creep is shown to cause

  17. Chronology of the Early Toarcian environmental crisis in the Lorraine Sub-Basin (NE Paris Basin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruebsam, Wolfgang; Münzberger, Petra; Schwark, Lorenz

    2014-10-01

    Early Toarcian (Jurassic; ∼183 Ma) sediments recorded profound environmental changes, including mass extinction, global warming, marine transgression as well as widespread bottom water anoxia and organic matter accumulation on the Western Tethyan shelf. Enhanced organic matter accumulation was accompanied by a positive carbon isotope excursion (CIE) in pelagic carbonate, which marks the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event. These environmental changes were accompanied by a major perturbation of the global carbon cycle, expressed by negative CIE, interrupting the positive trend. The duration of the carbon cycle perturbation is still debated, with estimates for the negative CIE range from ∼200 to ∼600 kyr. Here we present ultra high-resolution (<1 kyr) measurements of magnetic susceptibility and sediment color from a marine section located in the Lorraine Sub-Basin (NE Paris Basin) documenting Milankovitch-controlled fluctuations in depositional conditions that occurred superimposed onto the overall sea level evolution. Differences in the wavelength of the sedimentary cycles indicate variable sediment accumulation rates that mainly resulted from rapid sea level fluctuations. The most pronounced sea level rise that took place within the uppermost tenuicostatum zone resulted in a strong condensation of the basal Schistes Carton formation. Strong condensation can explain the discrepancy between durations previously calculated for the CIE placed at this stratigraphic interval. Our data support durations of ∼900 kyr and ∼600 kyr for the positive and negative CIE, respectively. The cyclostratigraphy-based timescale further proposes a duration of >555 kyr for the tenuicostatum zone and 1310 kyr for the serpentinum zone. The durations of the elegantulum and falciferum subzones can be estimated to ∼790 kyr and ∼520 kyr, respectively. A change in the orbital response from eccentricity- to obliquity-forcing, evident from other locations, is well-expressed in the Lorraine

  18. Isolation and identification of cytotoxic compounds from the rhizomes of Paris quadrifolia L.

    PubMed Central

    Gajdus, Jerzy; Kaczyński, Zbigniew; Kawiak, Anna; Łojkowska, Ewa; Stefanowicz-Hajduk, Justyna; Ochocka, J. Renata; Stepnowski, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Background: Paris quadrifolia L. is a medicinal plant which contains steroidal saponins. The present study reports isolation and structural identification of six pennogenyl saponins obtained from P. quadrifolia rhizomes. The four spirostan saponins were obtained from P. quadrifolia for the first time. The cytotoxic effects of the sub-fractions and six compounds isolated from the plant extract were evaluated on tumour cells. Materials and Methods: Ethanol extract from the rhizomes of P. quadrifolia were partinioned using column chromatography. The saponins were isolated from the obtained sub-fractions by isocratic RP HPLC and their structures were determined by means of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and MALDI TOF MS. The cytotoxic effects of the sub-fractions and the isolated compounds were tested against human promyelocytic leukaemia cells (HL-60), human cervical adenocarcinoma cells (HeLa) and human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) using the [(3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Results: Six pennogenyl saponins were isolated from P. quadrifolia rhizomes: pennogenin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), pennogenin 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), pennogenin 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), pennogenin 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucopyranoside (4), pennogenin 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)]-β-D-glucopyranoside (5), pennogenin 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)]-β-D-glucopyranoside (6). Pennogenyl saponins 5 and 6 exhibited cytotoxic activity against HL-60, HeLa and MCF-7 tumour cells with IC50 values of 1.0 ± 0.04 μg/ml, 1.8 ± 0.072 μg/ml and 2.4 ± 0.096 μg/ml respectively, and 2.0 ± 0.08 μg/ml, 2.5 ± 0.125 μg/ml and 3.2 ± 0.128 μg/ml respectively. Conclusion: Compounds 1-4 were isolated from this species for the first time. PMID:24991111

  19. CO2 dispersion modelling over Paris region within the CO2-MEGAPARIS project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lac, C.; Donnelly, R. P.; Masson, V.; Pal, S.; Riette, S.; Donier, S.; Queguiner, S.; Tanguy, G.; Ammoura, L.; Xueref-Remy, I.

    2013-05-01

    Accurate simulation of the spatial and temporal variability of tracer mixing ratios over urban areas is a challenging and interesting task needed to be performed in order to utilise CO2 measurements in an atmospheric inverse framework and to better estimate regional CO2 fluxes. This study investigates the ability of a high-resolution model to simulate meteorological and CO2 fields around Paris agglomeration during the March field campaign of the CO2-MEGAPARIS project. The mesoscale atmospheric model Meso-NH, running at 2 km horizontal resolution, is coupled with the Town Energy Balance (TEB) urban canopy scheme and with the Interactions between Soil, Biosphere and Atmosphere CO2-reactive (ISBA-A-gs) surface scheme, allowing a full interaction of CO2 modelling between the surface and the atmosphere. Statistical scores show a good representation of the urban heat island (UHI) with stronger urban-rural contrasts on temperature at night than during the day by up to 7 °C. Boundary layer heights (BLH) have been evaluated on urban, suburban and rural sites during the campaign, and also on a suburban site over 1 yr. The diurnal cycles of the BLH are well captured, especially the onset time of the BLH increase and its growth rate in the morning, which are essential for tall tower CO2 observatories. The main discrepancy is a small negative bias over urban and suburban sites during nighttime (respectively 45 m and 5 m), leading to a few overestimations of nocturnal CO2 mixing ratios at suburban sites and a bias of +5 ppm. The diurnal CO2 cycle is generally well captured for all the sites. At the Eiffel tower, the observed spikes of CO2 maxima occur every morning exactly at the time at which the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) growth reaches the measurement height. At suburban ground stations, CO2 measurements exhibit maxima at the beginning and at the end of each night, when the ABL is fully contracted, with a strong spatio-temporal variability. A sensitivity test without

  20. Volatility of organic aerosol and its components in the megacity of Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paciga, Andrea; Karnezi, Eleni; Kostenidou, Evangelia; Hildebrandt, Lea; Psichoudaki, Magda; Engelhart, Gabriella J.; Lee, Byong-Hyoek; Crippa, Monica; Prévôt, André S. H.; Baltensperger, Urs; Pandis, Spyros N.

    2016-02-01

    Using a mass transfer model and the volatility basis set, we estimate the volatility distribution for the organic aerosol (OA) components during summer and winter in Paris, France as part of the collaborative project MEGAPOLI. The concentrations of the OA components as a function of temperature were measured combining data from a thermodenuder and an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) with Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis. The hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) had similar volatility distributions for the summer and winter campaigns with half of the material in the saturation concentration bin of 10 µg m-3 and another 35-40 % consisting of low and extremely low volatility organic compounds (LVOCs with effective saturation concentrations C* of 10-3-0.1 µg m-3 and ELVOCs C* less or equal than 10-4 µg m-3, respectively). The winter cooking OA (COA) was more than an order of magnitude less volatile than the summer COA. The low-volatility oxygenated OA (LV-OOA) factor detected in the summer had the lowest volatility of all the derived factors and consisted almost exclusively of ELVOCs. The volatility for the semi-volatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA) was significantly higher than that of the LV-OOA, containing both semi-volatile organic components (SVOCs with C* in the 1-100 µg m-3 range) and LVOCs. The oxygenated OA (OOA) factor in winter consisted of SVOCs (45 %), LVOCs (25 %) and ELVOCs (30 %). The volatility of marine OA (MOA) was higher than that of the other factors containing around 60 % SVOCs. The biomass burning OA (BBOA) factor contained components with a wide range of volatilities with significant contributions from both SVOCs (50 %) and LVOCs (30 %). Finally, combining the bulk average O : C ratios and volatility distributions of the various factors, our results are placed into the two-dimensional volatility basis set (2D-VBS) framework. The OA factors cover a broad spectrum of volatilities with no direct link between the average volatility and

  1. Fractional Hamiltonian monodromy from a Gauss-Manin monodromy

    SciTech Connect

    Sugny, D.; Jauslin, H. R.; Mardesic, P.; Pelletier, M.; Jebrane, A.

    2008-04-15

    Fractional Hamiltonian monodromy is a generalization of the notion of Hamiltonian monodromy, recently introduced by [Nekhoroshev, Sadovskii, and Zhilinskii, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, Ser. 1 335, 985 (2002); and Ann. Henri Poincare 7, 1099 (2006)] for energy-momentum maps whose image has a particular type of nonisolated singularities. In this paper, we analyze the notion of fractional Hamiltonian monodromy in terms of the Gauss-Manin monodromy of a Riemann surface constructed from the energy-momentum map and associated with a loop in complex space which bypasses the line of singularities. We also prove some propositions on fractional Hamiltonian monodromy for 1:-n and m:-n resonant systems.

  2. On Rank One Convex Functions that are Homogeneous of Degree One

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchheim, Bernd; Kristensen, Jan

    2016-07-01

    We show that positively 1-homogeneous rank one convex functions are convex at 0 and at matrices of rank one. The result is a special case of an abstract convexity result that we establish for positively 1-homogeneous directionally convex functions defined on an open convex cone in a finite dimensional vector space. From these results we derive a number of consequences including various generalizations of the Ornstein L1 non inequalities. Most of the results were announced in ( C R Acad Sci Paris Ser I 349:407-409, 2011).

  3. Purification and characterization of a Na+, K+ ATPase inhibitor found in an endotoxin of Leptospira interrogans.

    PubMed Central

    Burth, P; Younes-Ibrahim, M; Gonçalez, F H; Costa, E R; Faria, M V

    1997-01-01

    We showed previously that the glycolipoprotein fraction prepared from Leptospira interrogans inhibited the Na+,K+ ATPase enzyme purified from brain or kidney and in isolated nephron segments (M. Younes-Ibrahim, P. Burth, M. V. Castro Faria, B. Buffin-Meyer, S. Marsy, C. Barlet-Bas, L. Cheval, and A. Doucet, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris Ser. III 318:619-625, 1995). In the present communication, we have demonstrated that unsaturated fatty acids such as oleic and palmitoleic acids, which are adsorbed to this fraction, are effective inhibitors of the enzyme. PMID:9119504

  4. L'affleurement triasique du Debadib Ben Gasseur (Nord-Ouest de la Tunisie) : diapir enraciné à épanchements latéraux dans la mer Albienne, replissé au cours des phases de compression tertiairesThe Triassic rocks of the Debadib Ben Gasseur area (northwestern Tunisia): diapir with overhangs spreading downslope in the Albian Sea and deformed during the Tertiary compressional deformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikhaoui, Mongi; Jallouli, Chokri; Turki, Mohamed Moncef; Soussi, Mohamed; Braham, Ahmed; Zaghbib-Turki, Dalia

    2002-12-01

    The Triassic outcrops of the Debadib-Ben Gasseur area, located in the Kef area (northwestern Tunisia) have recently been interpreted as submarine 'salt glaciers' interbedded within the Albian deposits (J.-M. Vila et al., C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, Ser. II 318 (1994) 1661-1667). New cartographic, drills and gravimetric data recognised evidence for an Albian diapiric stage for the Triassic rocks. The Triassic rocks as pulling out of the sedimentary cover could spread laterally as small size 'salt glaciers' before they have been deformed during the Tertiary compressional deformations. To cite this article: M. Chikhaoui et al., C. R. Geoscience 334 (2002) 1129-1133.

  5. Development and psychometric characteristics of the SCI-QOL Pressure Ulcers scale and short form

    PubMed Central

    Kisala, Pamela A.; Tulsky, David S.; Choi, Seung W.; Kirshblum, Steven C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop a self-reported measure of the subjective impact of pressure ulcers on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) as part of the SCI quality of life (SCI-QOL) measurement system. Design Grounded-theory based qualitative item development methods, large-scale item calibration testing, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and item response theory-based psychometric analysis. Setting Five SCI Model System centers and one Department of Veterans Affairs medical center in the United States. Participants Adults with traumatic SCI. Main Outcome Measures SCI-QOL Pressure Ulcers scale. Results 189 individuals with traumatic SCI who experienced a pressure ulcer within the past 7 days completed 30 items related to pressure ulcers. CFA confirmed a unidimensional pool of items. IRT analyses were conducted. A constrained Graded Response Model with a constant slope parameter was used to estimate item thresholds for the 12 retained items. Conclusions The 12-item SCI-QOL Pressure Ulcers scale is unique in that it is specifically targeted to individuals with spinal cord injury and at every stage of development has included input from individuals with SCI. Furthermore, use of CFA and IRT methods provide flexibility and precision of measurement. The scale may be administered in its entirety or as a 7-item “short form” and is available for both research and clinical practice. PMID:26010965

  6. The End of Alchemy? The Repudiation and Persistence of Chrysopoeia at the Académie Royale des Sciences in the Eighteenth Century.

    PubMed

    Principe, Lawrence M

    2014-01-01

    The general abandonment of serious endeavor toward metallic transmutation represents a major development in the history of chemistry, yet its exact causes and timing remain unclear. This essay examines the fate of chrysopoeia at the eighteenth-century Académie Royale des Sciences. It reveals a long-standing tension between Académie chemists, who pursued transmutation, and administrators, who tried to suppress it. This tension provides background for Etienne-François Geoffroy's 1722 paper describing fraudulent practices around transmutation. Although transmutation seems to disappear after Geoffroy's paper, manuscripts reveal that most of the institution's chemists continued to pursue it privately until at least the 1760s, long after widely accepted dates for the "demise of alchemy" in learned circles. PMID:26103750

  7. Effect of the thermal gradient variation through geological time on basin modeling; a case study: The Paris basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amir, L.; Martinez, L.; Disnar, J. R.; Vigneresse, J.-L.; Michels, R.; Guillocheau, F.; Robin, C.

    2005-05-01

    Many studies investigated the thermal modeling of the Paris basin for petroleum interests during the 1970s. Most of the softwares developed by oil companies or research centers were based on the assumption of a constant thermal gradient. In order to take into consideration the variation of the thermal gradient during basin evolution, we developed the TherMO's Visual Basic 1D program. We applied our model to twenty boreholes located along a cross-section roughly running EW over 150 km in the center of the Paris basin. The numerical results were calibrated with organic matter maturity data. TherMO's simulates the amount of heat provided to the sedimentary organic matter. The heat parameter simulated shows lateral variation along the cross-section. It decreases from Rambouillet to Trou Aux Loups boreholes (87-66 mW/m 2) at about 100 km more to the east whereas the heat flux value simulated is 73 mW/m 2 in St. Loup borehole. The mean thermal gradient calculated for liassic horizons at 87 My for the Rambouillet well is 50.4 °C/km. This value is similar to previously published results. By integrating the calculation of the thermal gradients and conductivities related to the burial of each stratigraphic sequence, our approach points out variations in the thermal regimes the sedimentary organic matter (SOM) has been subjected to through geological time.

  8. An Automated Grass-Based Procedure to Assess the Geometrical Accuracy of the Openstreetmap Paris Road Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brovelli, M. A.; Minghini, M.; Molinari, M. E.

    2016-06-01

    OpenStreetMap (OSM) is the largest spatial database of the world. One of the most frequently occurring geospatial elements within this database is the road network, whose quality is crucial for applications such as routing and navigation. Several methods have been proposed for the assessment of OSM road network quality, however they are often tightly coupled to the characteristics of the authoritative dataset involved in the comparison. This makes it hard to replicate and extend these methods. This study relies on an automated procedure which was recently developed for comparing OSM with any road network dataset. It is based on three Python modules for the open source GRASS GIS software and provides measures of OSM road network spatial accuracy and completeness. Provided that the user is familiar with the authoritative dataset used, he can adjust the values of the parameters involved thanks to the flexibility of the procedure. The method is applied to assess the quality of the Paris OSM road network dataset through a comparison against the French official dataset provided by the French National Institute of Geographic and Forest Information (IGN). The results show that the Paris OSM road network has both a high completeness and spatial accuracy. It has a greater length than the IGN road network, and is found to be suitable for applications requiring spatial accuracies up to 5-6 m. Also, the results confirm the flexibility of the procedure for supporting users in carrying out their own comparisons between OSM and reference road datasets.

  9. A trnI_CAU Triplication Event in the Complete Chloroplast Genome of Paris verticillata M.Bieb. (Melanthiaceae, Liliales)

    PubMed Central

    Do, Hoang Dang Khoa; Kim, Jung Sung; Kim, Joo-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    The chloroplast is an essential plant organelle responsible for photosynthesis. Gene duplication, relocation, and loss in the chloroplast genome (cpDNA) are useful for exploring the evolution and phylogeny of plant species. In this study, the complete chloroplast genome of Paris verticillata was sequenced using the 454 sequencing system and Sanger sequencing method to trace the evolutionary pattern in the tribe Parideae of the family Melanthiaceae (Liliales). The circular double-stranded cpDNA of P. verticillata (157,379 bp) consists of two inverted repeat regions each of 28,373 bp, a large single copy of 82,726 bp, and a small single copy of 17,907 bp. Gene content and order are generally similar to the previously reported cpDNA sequences within the order Liliales. However, we found that trnI_CAU was triplicated in P. verticillata. In addition, cemA is suspected to be a pseudogene due to the presence of internal stop codons created by poly(A) insertion and single small CA repeats. Such changes were not found in previously examined cpDNAs of the Melanthiaceae or other families of the Liliales, suggesting that such features are unique to the tribe Parideae of Melanthiaceae. The characteristics of P. verticillata cpDNA will provide useful information for uncovering the evolution within Paris and for further research of plastid genome evolution and phylogenetic studies in Liliales. PMID:24951560

  10. Development and Exploitation of Low Enthalpy Geothermal Systems, Example of "The Dogger" in the Paris Basin, France

    SciTech Connect

    Rojas, J.; Menjoz, A.; Martin, J.C.; Criaud, A.; Fouillac, C.

    1987-01-20

    A feature of French geothermal engineering is the development of industrial projects in normal gradient, non-convective areas. The economic feasibility of exploiting wells producing between 150 and 350 m{sup 3}/h at temperatures from 55° to 85° from depths of 1,500 to 2,000 meters, in sedimentary basins with normal gradient, for direct heat production has been proved by 50 plants providing heating for over 500,000 people during the last few years. This opens new possibilities for geothermal energy development the world over, in particular for areas where heat consumption is higher than 2,500 Tons oil equivalent (Toe)/year over several square kilometers. The recent and rapid development of geothermal projects in France, in particular in the Paris Basin has provided much more information on the characteristics of the Jurassic Dogger, which is the unit tapped by geothermal doublets (one production and one injection well). Detailed study of the Dogger reservoir in the Paris Basin is one of the main objectives of the IMRG research and development program drawn up in 1983. The preliminary results presented here are oriented towards (1) improved knowledge of the potential geothermal resources, and (2) analysis of optimum development conditions. 1 tab., 7 refs., 9 figs.

  11. The Itteville Oil Field: An example of a stratigraphic trap in mid-Jurassic carbonates of the Paris Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Bez, M.; Sambet, G.

    1995-08-01

    The Itteville Oil Field is located 30 km south of Paris. The top of the reservoir lies at an average depth of 1450 m below sealevel. The field is situated on a large scale monocline dipping gently toward the present center of the Paris Basin. At reservoir level, no anticline closure is seen to explain the oil accumulation. The reservoir is composed of oolitic, peloidal and bioclastic carbonates of Lower Callovian age, regionally known as {open_quotes}Dalle Nacree{close_quotes}. These carbonate sands were deposited by storm-dominated processes during a phase of major sealevel fall which caused the emersion of the main Burgundy Platform. This shoal is completely isolated from the main platform and surrounded by coeval marine shales. Marls corresponding to the Mid-Callovian major flooding event seal the reservoir. The occurrence of these shoals appears to be tectonically controlled. The Itteville Field is situated on a Liassic faulted block seated on the eastern flank of the so-called {open_quotes}Deep Magnetic Anomaly{close_quotes}. Sedimentological studies and high resolution sequential analysis, carried out on cores from 17 wells of the field, help define three main tabular correlable units within the reservoir. Geochemical studies, including cathodo-luminescence and isotope analysis, help define the diagenetic history. Original poroperm properties are strongly enhanced by contemporaneous dissolution events related to high frequency sealevel fluctuations.

  12. Contribution of logging tools to understanding helium porewater data across the Mesozoic sequence of the East of the Paris Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battani, Anne; Smith, Thomas; Robinet, Jean Charles; Brulhet, Jacques; Lavielle, Bernard; Coelho, Daniel

    2011-12-01

    Helium concentration measurements made on water and rock samples collected at various depths along a 2000 m depth borehole drilled in the eastern part of the Paris basin and reaching the Triassic conglomerates were used to establish a vertical profile of dissolved helium concentration throughout the entire Mesozoic sedimentary pile. Wireline logging tools were used to measure rock density, porosity and U and Th contents every 15 cm in the various formations. Samples from the deepest Muschelkalk and Buntsandstein show a very good agreement between measured and calculated 4He porewater contents. Shallower levels show lower and lower 4He concentrations compared to calculated values when going upwards. The data set obtained by wireline logging measurements was used as inputs for numerical simulations of 1D He production/diffusion throughout the 2000 m profile. Several assumptions regarding the transport properties in the various sedimentary layers were tested and all were found to yield fairly good agreement between modeled and measured He concentrations. There is no need to invoke either a transient regime or a deep crustal He flux in this "quiet" (seismically inactive) part of the Paris basin. Moreover, the modeling results suggest that the Keuper massive halite level associated with the upper Muschelkalk pre-evaporitic series efficiently isolates the overlying layers from any input from deeper formations in the Meuse/Haute Marne area.

  13. [Epidemiologic followup of cases of tuberculosis in the medical-social centers of Paris for the year 1994].

    PubMed

    Antoun, F; Momas, I; Vieu, V; Poinsard, R; Crespy, M

    1998-04-01

    This study was carried out in 280 patients in 1994 in five medico-social centres (CMS) in the city of Paris for the follow up of treatment tuberculous disease. The group represented approximately one fifth of the tuberculous patients in Paris. 90.7% of the subjects were of foreign origin, predominantly African. Amongst these 280 patients, 80% were unemployed and 64.6% without social security protection. Their tuberculous disease did not differ on clinical grounds from those of the general population but they were less often vaccinated with BCG. They are also less often co-infected with the HIV virus (4.4 vs 12-16%). The level of resistance to isoniazid and rifampicin was 1.4%. A cure was certainly achieved in 73.5% of the patients. For the remainder, the absence of information and the loss to follow up prevented us from having a definite answer. The patients lost to follow numbered 56 and represented 20% of the group. PMID:9608987

  14. Paris Agreement climate proposals need a boost to keep warming well below 2 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogelj, Joeri; den Elzen, Michel; Höhne, Niklas; Fransen, Taryn; Fekete, Hanna; Winkler, Harald; Schaeffer, Roberto; Sha, Fu; Riahi, Keywan; Meinshausen, Malte

    2016-06-01

    The Paris climate agreement aims at holding global warming to well below 2 degrees Celsius and to “pursue efforts” to limit it to 1.5 degrees Celsius. To accomplish this, countries have submitted Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) outlining their post-2020 climate action. Here we assess the effect of current INDCs on reducing aggregate greenhouse gas emissions, its implications for achieving the temperature objective of the Paris climate agreement, and potential options for overachievement. The INDCs collectively lower greenhouse gas emissions compared to where current policies stand, but still imply a median warming of 2.6–3.1 degrees Celsius by 2100. More can be achieved, because the agreement stipulates that targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions are strengthened over time, both in ambition and scope. Substantial enhancement or over-delivery on current INDCs by additional national, sub-national and non-state actions is required to maintain a reasonable chance of meeting the target of keeping warming well below 2 degrees Celsius.

  15. The sulphur stable isotope compositions of urban sources and atmospheric particles (PM2.5 & PM10) from Paris (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widory, D.; Landry, J.; Helie, J.; Ravelomanantsoa, H.

    2013-12-01

    Sulphur (S) in atmospheric particles in the environment can be derived from a variety of primary sources and cycled through numerous secondary processes, complicating identification of its origin. Using the PM10 fraction of aerosols from Paris and its vicinity, we are investigating the suitability of sulphur stable isotope compositions (δ34S) as tracers of origins and processes affecting the atmospheric S budget. Characterization of S isotope compositions of emissions from the different potential sources (e.g. waste incinerators, coal-fired power plants, metal refining plants, road traffic and heating sources) shows these are clearly discriminated by specific coupled S-δ34S isotope signatures. While S concentrations vary from 0.7 to 11.5%, δ34S display a large range of values from -2.2 and 13.4‰. PM10 samples from Paris and its vicinity show that S is usually present at low levels, around 1 μg.m-3 in average, but that concentrations as high as 100 μg.m-3 can punctually be observed. By the time of the conference, we will have analysed and interpreted the corresponding δ34S in order to help elucidate the origin(s) of sulphur in the atmosphere of the city.

  16. Paris Agreement climate proposals need a boost to keep warming well below 2 °C.

    PubMed

    Rogelj, Joeri; den Elzen, Michel; Höhne, Niklas; Fransen, Taryn; Fekete, Hanna; Winkler, Harald; Schaeffer, Roberto; Sha, Fu; Riahi, Keywan; Meinshausen, Malte

    2016-06-30

    The Paris climate agreement aims at holding global warming to well below 2 degrees Celsius and to "pursue efforts" to limit it to 1.5 degrees Celsius. To accomplish this, countries have submitted Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) outlining their post-2020 climate action. Here we assess the effect of current INDCs on reducing aggregate greenhouse gas emissions, its implications for achieving the temperature objective of the Paris climate agreement, and potential options for overachievement. The INDCs collectively lower greenhouse gas emissions compared to where current policies stand, but still imply a median warming of 2.6-3.1 degrees Celsius by 2100. More can be achieved, because the agreement stipulates that targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions are strengthened over time, both in ambition and scope. Substantial enhancement or over-delivery on current INDCs by additional national, sub-national and non-state actions is required to maintain a reasonable chance of meeting the target of keeping warming well below 2 degrees Celsius. PMID:27357792

  17. [The nerves of the face: anatomical sample in wax in the Delmas-Orfila-Rouvière Museum in Paris].

    PubMed

    Drifi, F; Le Floch-Prigent, P

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to check the anatomical veracity of the model of wax no. 262, from the Delmas, Orfila and Rouvière museums, 45, rue des Saints Pères, Paris 6th, made by Tramond M.D., entitled "nerves of the face". We successively took several numerical photographs with several view angles; anatomically described the nerves of the face as they were represented on this model; correlated the anatomical veracity of this representation with the classical, textbooks' data; approached the technical bases of fabrication; and collected successive photographs of the model every 5 degrees , all along 180 degrees , thus allowing an animated rotation on computer, using the QuickTime Virtual Reality program. The oversize of the model excluded a set on a real human skeleton. The building technique of the model was deduced from known data but could not be completely reported. The anatomical veracity of the sample was excellent. The difficulties of realization in wax of an oversized model of the nerves of the human face were solved in the late 19th century, in Paris by Tramond's factory. They remained unequalled. PMID:19819177

  18. [Pollen content of the Paris air: comparison of the results obtained by two samplers for the year 2003].

    PubMed

    Distigny, C; Polenne, J P; Bordenave, L; Bex, V; Squinazi, F

    2004-09-01

    During the 2003 season, a second pollen collector has been established in Paris city (Audubon site) to study the representativeness of the initial collector situated on the roof of the Pasteur Institute. The Hygiene Laboratory of Paris followed the pollen counts from the two collectors, during the period going from May to September. Both the samplers are Lanzoni model with a flow rate of 10 l x min(-1). The quantitative results show that no statistical difference exists between the pollen counts obtained from the 2 sites (Mann-Withney test, p > .05). The dominant species are Urticaceae, Poacae and Castenea species for the 2 collectors. Their counts are similar except for Poacae whose results are higher at the Audubon site. The collection period do not take into account the pollen production period of many trees species because of the late installation of the collector on the Audubon site. The results show that the two sites chosen for the study of pollen distribution are comparable. Nevertheless, the comparative study should be maintained on the next year to get more details about the observed differences and to collect the early trees pollen. PMID:15529829

  19. X-ray imaging for studying behavior of liquids at high pressures and high temperatures using Paris-Edinburgh press

    SciTech Connect

    Kono, Yoshio; Kenney-Benson, Curtis; Park, Changyong; Shen, Guoyin; Shibazaki, Yuki; Wang, Yanbin

    2015-07-15

    Several X-ray techniques for studying structure, elastic properties, viscosity, and immiscibility of liquids at high pressures have been integrated using a Paris-Edinburgh press at the 16-BM-B beamline of the Advanced Photon Source. Here, we report the development of X-ray imaging techniques suitable for studying behavior of liquids at high pressures and high temperatures. White X-ray radiography allows for imaging phase separation and immiscibility of melts at high pressures, identified not only by density contrast but also by phase contrast imaging in particular for low density contrast liquids such as silicate and carbonate melts. In addition, ultrafast X-ray imaging, at frame rates up to ∼10{sup 5} frames/second (fps) in air and up to ∼10{sup 4} fps in Paris-Edinburgh press, enables us to investigate dynamics of liquids at high pressures. Very low viscosities of melts similar to that of water can be reliably measured. These high-pressure X-ray imaging techniques provide useful tools for understanding behavior of liquids or melts at high pressures and high temperatures.

  20. Overview of the Scalable Coherent Interface, IEEE STD 1596 (SCI)

    SciTech Connect

    Gustavson, D.B.; James, D.V.; Wiggers, H.A.

    1992-10-01

    The Scalable Coherent Interface standard defines a new generation of interconnection that spans the full range from supercomputer memory `bus` to campus-wide network. SCI provides bus-like services and a shared-memory software model while using an underlying, packet protocol on many independent communication links. Initially these links are 1 GByte/s (wires) and 1 GBit/s (fiber), but the protocol scales well to future faster or lower-cost technologies. The interconnect may use switches, meshes, and rings. The SCI distributed-shared-memory model is simple and versatile, enabling for the first time a smooth integration of highly parallel multiprocessors, workstations, personal computers, I/O, networking and data acquisition.

  1. Methodology for the development and calibration of the SCI-QOL item banks

    PubMed Central

    Tulsky, David S.; Kisala, Pamela A.; Victorson, David; Choi, Seung W.; Gershon, Richard; Heinemann, Allen W.; Cella, David

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop a comprehensive, psychometrically sound, and conceptually grounded patient reported outcomes (PRO) measurement system for individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods Individual interviews (n = 44) and focus groups (n = 65 individuals with SCI and n = 42 SCI clinicians) were used to select key domains for inclusion and to develop PRO items. Verbatim items from other cutting-edge measurement systems (i.e. PROMIS, Neuro-QOL) were included to facilitate linkage and cross-population comparison. Items were field tested in a large sample of individuals with traumatic SCI (n = 877). Dimensionality was assessed with confirmatory factor analysis. Local item dependence and differential item functioning were assessed, and items were calibrated using the item response theory (IRT) graded response model. Finally, computer adaptive tests (CATs) and short forms were administered in a new sample (n = 245) to assess test-retest reliability and stability. Participants and Procedures A calibration sample of 877 individuals with traumatic SCI across five SCI Model Systems sites and one Department of Veterans Affairs medical center completed SCI-QOL items in interview format. Results We developed 14 unidimensional calibrated item banks and 3 calibrated scales across physical, emotional, and social health domains. When combined with the five Spinal Cord Injury – Functional Index physical function banks, the final SCI-QOL system consists of 22 IRT-calibrated item banks/scales. Item banks may be administered as CATs or short forms. Scales may be administered in a fixed-length format only. Conclusions The SCI-QOL measurement system provides SCI researchers and clinicians with a comprehensive, relevant and psychometrically robust system for measurement of physical-medical, physical-functional, emotional, and social outcomes. All SCI-QOL instruments are freely available on Assessment CenterSM. PMID:26010963

  2. New developments in the Paris-Edinburgh cell program at HPCAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, C.; Kenney-Benson, C.; Kono, Y.; Shen, G.; Yu, T.; Sakamaki, T.; Jing, Z.; Wang, Y.; Abd El Qader, M.; Baker, J.; Kumar, R.; Velisavljevic, N.

    2011-12-01

    The Paris-Edinburgh cell at HPCAT 16BM-B station is capable of maintaining sample pressure and temperature up to 7GPa and 2,300K for long durations more than 24 hrs for various types of materials in the molten state. Materials including rock forming minerals, metal alloys, semiconductors, and energetic organic compounds have been studied for their liquid structures and phase transition behaviors under these conditions. The sample volume ranges from 0.03 mm3 to 1.2 mm3 by adjusting the cylindrical sample diameter depending on x-ray attenuation, while the sample height available for x-ray scattering is limited to 0.4 mm due to the gap between the two co-axial WC anvils. The sample cell assembly has been optimized for x-ray transparency, chemical inertness, and thermal insulation using boron-epoxy composite gasket, hexagonal boron nitride or graphite crucible, and low density magnesia supporting the cylindrical graphite heater. For consistent measurements of liquid/amorphous and crystalline structures during melting and phase transitions, the energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction (EDXD) with multiple 2θ angles is applied, fully exploiting the bending magnet white beam spectrum provided by the Advanced Photon Source up to 120 keV energy. Fine collimation slits are applied for the diffracted beam to control the depth resolution at various diffraction angles and to minimize background scattering from the pressure media. A real-time radiography imaging system is also statically installed at the beamline for sample alignment and 2D projection volumetry applications. This combined setup is established as the routine PEC application at the station. Recently, a few new capabilities have been added: Ultrasonic velocity measurement for liquid samples having a disc shape (0.2-0.4 mm in thickness) has been successfully commissioned with the help of the radiography imaging system, which calibrates the acoustic travel distances through the sample cell assembly within 5

  3. A Paris-Edinburgh cell at HPCAT for studying melts at high pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, C.; Kenney-Benson, C.; Yu, T.; Mei, Q.; Sakamaki, T.; Shen, G.; Wang, Y.

    2010-12-01

    A Paris-Edinburgh type large volume press cell (PEC) has been installed and tested at HPCAT 16BM-B, a bending magnet white X-ray beamline at the Advanced Photon Source. The PEC utilizes two co-axial anvils made of WC, which have concave shaped chamber to contain a large volume sample and a unique ability to access wide radial diffraction angles compared to other types of large volume presses. Combined with the APS white beam spectrum which ranges up to >120 keV energy and with the maximum available 2θ angle up to ~40 degree limited by the particular hutch setup, the maximum momentum transfer, Q=4πsin(θ)/λ, for scattering intensity measurement can reach up to ~40 Å-1. Currently, the pressure and temperature ranges reach either up to ~10 GPa under 1300 K or up to 1900 K under ~5GPa depending on the choice of anvil and cell assembly sets. To obtain high signal to noise ratio for scattering intensities, fine detector collimation slits, beam stop, and detector shields are applied. The efficacy of this setup has been successfully demonstrated by measuring structure factors, S(Q), of high-temperature liquid and amorphous silicates, germania, borates, and basalts under pressures with multi-angle energy dispersive X-ray diffraction (MA-EDXD) approach. With this PEC, on-going and future developments at HPCAT include: (1) Densitometry with monochromatic X-ray absorption: the density measurement is a significant challenge for equations of state of melts. The flexibility between white beam and monochromatic beam setup on the same experimental table will also greatly enhance the accuracy of MA-EDXD data normalization by providing the sample density in-situ. (2) High-pressure X-ray tomography or white beam radiography: the excellent angular access of PEC can also benefit the studies for 3D or 2D textures and volumetric properties of liquid and amorphous phases under pressures. A full 3D tomography is not possible for a portable PEC due to the intrinsic design but a partial 3

  4. Sources and mixing state of size-resolved elemental carbon particles in a European megacity: Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Healy, R. M.; Sciare, J.; Poulain, L.; Kamili, K.; Merkel, M.; Müller, T.; Wiedensohler, A.; Eckhardt, S.; Stohl, A.; Sarda-Estève, R.; McGillicuddy, E.; O'Connor, I. P.; Sodeau, J. R.; Wenger, J. C.

    2012-02-01

    An Aerosol Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (ATOFMS) was deployed to investigate the size-resolved chemical composition of single particles at an urban background site in Paris, France, as part of the MEGAPOLI winter campaign in January/February 2010. ATOFMS particle counts were scaled to match coincident Twin Differential Mobility Particle Sizer (TDMPS) data in order to generate hourly size-resolved mass concentrations for the single particle classes observed. The total scaled ATOFMS particle mass concentration in the size range 150-1067 nm was found to agree very well with the sum of concurrent High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP) mass concentration measurements of organic carbon (OC), inorganic ions and black carbon (BC) (R2 = 0.91). Clustering analysis of the ATOFMS single particle mass spectra allowed the separation of elemental carbon (EC) particles into four classes: (i) EC attributed to biomass burning (ECbiomass), (ii) EC attributed to traffic (ECtraffic), (iii) EC internally mixed with OC and ammonium sulfate (ECOCSOx), and (iv) EC internally mixed with OC and ammonium nitrate (ECOCNOx). Average hourly mass concentrations for EC-containing particles detected by the ATOFMS were found to agree reasonably well with semi-continuous quantitative thermal/optical EC and optical BC measurements (r2 = 0.61 and 0.65-0.68 respectively, n = 552). The EC particle mass assigned to fossil fuel and biomass burning sources also agreed reasonably well with BC mass fractions assigned to the same sources using seven-wavelength aethalometer data (r2 = 0.60 and 0.48, respectively, n = 568). Agreement between the ATOFMS and other instrumentation improved noticeably when a period influenced by significantly aged, internally mixed EC particles was removed from the intercomparison. 88% and 12% of EC particle mass was apportioned to fossil fuel and biomass burning respectively using the ATOFMS data

  5. Sources and mixing state of size-resolved elemental carbon particles in a European megacity: Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Healy, R. M.; Sciare, J.; Poulain, L.; Kamili, K.; Merkel, M.; Müller, T.; Wiedensohler, A.; Eckhardt, S.; Stohl, A.; Sarda-Estève, R.; McGillicuddy, E.; O'Connor, I. P.; Sodeau, J. R.; Wenger, J. C.

    2011-11-01

    An Aerosol Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (ATOFMS) was deployed to investigate the size-resolved chemical composition of single particles at an urban background site in Paris, France, as part of the MEGAPOLI winter campaign in January/February 2010. ATOFMS particle counts were scaled to match coincident Twin Differential Mobility Particle Sizer (TDMPS) data in order to generate hourly size-resolved mass concentrations for the single particle classes observed. The total scaled ATOFMS particle mass concentration in the size range 150-1067 nm was found to agree very well with the sum of concurrent High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP) mass concentration measurements of organic carbon (OC), inorganic ions and black carbon (BC) (R2 = 0.91). Clustering analysis of the ATOFMS single particle mass spectra allowed the separation of elemental carbon (EC) particles into four classes: (i) EC attributed to biomass burning (ECbiomass), (ii) EC attributed to traffic (ECtraffic), (iii) EC internally mixed with OC and ammonium sulfate (ECOCSOx), and (iv) EC internally mixed with OC and ammonium nitrate (ECOCNOx). Average hourly mass concentrations for EC-containing particles detected by the ATOFMS were found to agree reasonably well with semi-continuous quantitative thermal/optical EC and optical BC measurements (r2 = 0.61 and 0.65-0.68, respectively, n = 552). The EC particle mass assigned to fossil fuel and biomass burning sources also agreed reasonably well with BC mass fractions assigned to the same sources using seven-wavelength aethalometer data (r2 = 0.60 and 0.48, respectively, n = 568). Agreement between the ATOFMS and other instrumentation improved noticeably when a period influenced by significantly aged, internally mixed EC particles was removed from the intercomparison. 88 % and 12 % of EC particle mass was apportioned to fossil fuel and biomass burning respectively using the ATOFMS data

  6. Utilization of SciFinder Scholar at an Undergraduate Institution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Reilly, Stacy A.; Wilson, Anne M.; Howes, Barbara

    2002-04-01

    The use of tools to search chemical information databases continues to be important to science educators. The ability to perform online searches of Chemical Abstracts Service can have a significant impact on teaching and research. The implementation of SciFinder Scholar at Butler University has resulted in significant changes in teaching, student-based research, and faculty development in the Chemistry Department. Details of these changes in courses, student research projects and proposals, and the professional growth of the faculty are discussed.

  7. The minor C-allele of rs2014355 in ACADS is associated with reduced insulin release following an oral glucose load

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A genome-wide association study (GWAS) using metabolite concentrations as proxies for enzymatic activity, suggested that two variants: rs2014355 in the gene encoding short-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (ACADS) and rs11161510 in the gene encoding medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (ACADM) impair fatty acid β-oxidation. Chronic exposure to fatty acids due to an impaired β-oxidation may down-regulate the glucose-stimulated insulin release and result in an increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). We aimed to investigate whether the two variants associate with altered insulin release following an oral glucose load or with T2D. Methods The variants were genotyped using KASPar® PCR SNP genotyping system and investigated for associations with estimates of insulin release and insulin sensitivity following an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in a random sample of middle-aged Danish individuals (n ACADS = 4,324; n ACADM = 4,337). The T2D-case-control study involved a total of ~8,300 Danish individuals (n ACADS = 8,313; n ACADM = 8,344). Results In glucose-tolerant individuals the minor C-allele of rs2014355 of ACADS associated with reduced measures of serum insulin at 30 min following an oral glucose load (per allele effect (β) = -3.8% (-6.3%;-1.3%), P = 0.003), reduced incremental area under the insulin curve (β = -3.6% (-6.3%;-0.9%), P = 0.009), reduced acute insulin response (β = -2.2% (-4.2%;0.2%), P = 0.03), and with increased insulin sensitivity ISIMatsuda (β = 2.9% (0.5%;5.2%), P = 0.02). The C-allele did not associate with two other measures of insulin sensitivity or with a derived disposition index. The C-allele was not associated with T2D in the case-control analysis (OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.96-1.18, P = 0.21). rs11161510 of ACADM did not associate with any indices of glucose-stimulated insulin release or with T2D. Conclusions In glucose-tolerant individuals the minor C-allele of rs2014355 of ACADS was associated with reduced measures of

  8. SCI: Present and Future Therapeutic Devices and Prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Giszter, Simon F.

    2008-01-01

    Summary A range of passive and active devices are under development, or are already in clinical use, to partially restore function after SCI (SCI). Prosthetic devices to promote host tissue regeneration and plasticity and reconnection are under development, comprising bioengineered bridging materials free of cells. Alternatively, artificial electrical stimulation and robotic bridges may be used, upon which we focus here. A range of neuroprostheses interfacing either with CNS or PNS both above and below the lesion are under investigation and are at different stages of development or translation to the clinic. In addition, there are orthotic and robotic devices which are being developed and tested in laboratory and clinic that can provide mechanical assistance, training or substitution after SCI. The range of different approaches employed draw on many different aspects of our current but limited understanding of neural regeneration and plasticity, and spinal cord function and interactions with cortex. The best therapeutic practice will ultimately likely depend on combinations of these approaches and technologies and on balancing the combined effects of these on the biological mechanisms and their interactions after injury. An increased understanding of plasticity of brain and spinal cord, and of the behavior of innate modular mechanisms in intact and injured systems, will likely assist future developments. We review the range of device designs under development and in use, the basic understanding of spinal cord organization and plasticity, the problems and design issues in device interactions with the nervous system, and the possible benefits of active motor devices. PMID:18164494

  9. GEMS-like material in the matrix of the Paris meteorite and the early stages of alteration of CM chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroux, H.; Cuvillier, P.; Zanda, B.; Hewins, R. H.

    2015-12-01

    The Paris meteorite is a weakly altered CM chondrite that has been discovered recently (Hewins et al., 2014). Its matrix offers the opportunity to search for well-preserved pristine pre-accretional material, as well as to study the earliest stages of aqueous alteration in the CM parent body. The study of the matrix of Paris has been conducted by analytical transmission electron microscopy on focused ion beam sections extracted from matrix areas showing different degrees of aqueous alteration. The least altered matrix sample consists of amorphous silicate grains, a few hundreds of nm in size, separated from one another by an abundant porosity. The amorphous silicates enclose numerous Fe-sulfide nanograins and their average composition is close to the chondritic composition. They share many similarities with GEMS (glass with embedded metal and sulfides) grains present in chondritic-porous interplanetary dust particles and with primitive type 3.0 carbonaceous chondrites. This first discovery of GEMS-like texture in a CM chondrite suggests that GEMS grains could have been the building blocks of the CM matrices. In more aqueously altered samples, pronounced microstructural heterogeneities were detected at the micrometer scale. The matrix consists mostly of a mixture of amorphous material and Fe-rich, spongy to fine-fibrous, poorly crystalline phyllosilicates. The porosity fraction is significantly reduced and the mixed amorphous-fibrous material frequently forms a continuous groundmass. The close association between these two material types suggests a replacement mechanism due to aqueous alteration. Chemical compositions correlate strongly with the microstructure. The amorphous material has a composition close to the chondritic value while the fine-fibrous phyllosilicate material is Fe-enriched. This Fe enrichment is found to be continuous from weakly to more heavily altered areas, in which the fibrous morphology is coarser and better crystalline. Cronstedtite with

  10. Les abcès froids pariétaux thoraciques chez les sujets immunocompétents

    PubMed Central

    Benjelloun, Hanane; Morad, Sanaa; Zaghba, Nahid; Bakhatar, Abdelaziz; Yassine, Najiba; Bahlaoui, Abdelkrim

    2015-01-01

    Les abcès froids de la paroi thoracique représentent une forme rare et inhabituelle de tuberculose extrapulmonaire. Sa fréquence est estimée à moins de 5% des tuberculoses ostéoarticulaires, évaluées elles-mêmes à 15% des tuberculoses extrapulmonaires. L'objectif de ce travail est de rapporter la prise en charge diagnostique et thérapeutique de cette localisation dans notre structure. Etude rétrospective portant sur 18 cas colligés au service des maladies respiratoires du centre hospitalier universitaire Ibn Rochd de Casablanca, sur une période de 13 ans. La moyenne d’âge était de 34 ans (21-57). Un antécédent de tuberculose traitée était relevé dans un cas. Le tableau clinique était révélé par l'apparition insidieuse d'une masse pariétale de taille, de consistance et de siège variables. A l'imagerie thoracique, l'abcès pariétal était associé à une lyse osseuse dans sept cas, une atteinte parenchymateuse et pleurale dans quatre cas chacune et des adénopathies médiastinales dans deux cas. La confirmation diagnostique était bactériologique et/ou histologique dans tous les cas. La sérologie du virus de l'immunodéficience humaineétait négative chez tous nos malades. L’évolution sous traitement antibacillaire couplé ou non à une résection chirurgicale était favorable chez tous nos malades. Malgré la fréquence de la tuberculose dans notre contexte, la localisation pariétale thoracique reste rare, survenant chez une population non immunodéprimée et non toxicomane, contrairement à ce qui est souvent rapporté dans la littérature. Les abcès froids tuberculeux représentent une forme rare de tuberculose extrapulmonaire dont l’évolution reste favorable sous traitement précoce et bien conduit. PMID:26113904

  11. Volatile and intermediate-volatility organic compounds in sub-urban Paris: variability, origin and importance for SOA formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ait-Helal, W.; Borbon, A.; Sauvage, S.; de Gouw, J. A.; Colomb, A.; Gros, V.; Freutel, F.; Crippa, M.; Afif, C.; Baltensperger, U.; Beekmann, M.; Doussin, J.-F.; Durand-Jolibois, R.; Fronval, I.; Grand, N.; Leonardis, T.; Lopez, M.; Michoud, V.; Miet, K.; Perrier, S.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Schneider, J.; Siour, G.; Zapf, P.; Locoge, N.

    2014-02-01

    Measurements of gaseous and particulate organic carbon were performed during the MEGAPOLI experiments, in July 2009 and January-February 2010, at the SIRTA observatory in sub-urban Paris. Measurements of primary and secondary volatile organic compounds (VOCs), of both anthropogenic and biogenic origins, including for the first time C12-C16 n-alkanes of intermediate volatility (IVOCs), suspected to be efficient precursors of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). The time series of gaseous carbon are generally consistent with times series of particulate organic carbon at regional scales and are clearly affected by meteorology and air mass origin. Concentration levels of anthropogenic VOCs in urban and sub-urban Paris were surprisingly low (2-963 ppt) compared to other megacities worldwide and to rural continental sites. Urban enhancement ratios of anthropogenic VOC pairs agree well between the urban and sub-urban Paris sites, showing the regional extent of anthropogenic sources of similar composition. Contrary to other primary anthropogenic VOCs (aromatics and alkanes), IVOCs showed lower concentrations in winter (< 5 ppt) compared to summer (13-27 ppt) in agreement with a gas-particle partitioning in favor of their transfer to the particle phase in winter. Higher concentrations of most oxygenated VOCs in winter (18-5984 ppt) suggest their dominant primary anthropogenic origin. The respective role of primary anthropogenic gaseous compounds in regional SOA formation was investigated by estimating the SOA mass concentration expected from the anthropogenic VOCs and IVOCs (I / VOCs) measured at SIRTA. From an approach based on emissions inferred from the I / VOC concentrations times the SOA formation yields', the so-called integrated approach conducted in this study, 46% of the SOA measured at SIRTA is explained by our measured concentrations of I / VOC, with 10% explained by only C12-C16 IVOCs. From results of an alternative time-resolved approach, the explained variability

  12. Quantitative determination of carbonaceous particle mixing state in Paris using single particle mass spectrometer and aerosol mass spectrometer measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Healy, R. M.; Sciare, J.; Poulain, L.; Crippa, M.; Wiedensohler, A.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Baltensperger, U.; Sarda-Estève, R.; McGuire, M. L.; Jeong, C.-H.; McGillicuddy, E.; O'Connor, I. P.; Sodeau, J. R.; Evans, G. J.; Wenger, J. C.

    2013-04-01

    Single particle mixing state information can be a powerful tool for assessing the relative impact of local and regional sources of ambient particulate matter in urban environments. However, quantitative mixing state data are challenging to obtain using single particle mass spectrometers. In this study, the quantitative chemical composition of carbonaceous single particles has been estimated using an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) as part of the MEGAPOLI 2010 winter campaign in Paris, France. Relative peak areas of marker ions for elemental carbon (EC), organic aerosol (OA), ammonium, nitrate, sulphate and potassium were compared with concurrent measurements from an Aerodyne high resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS), a thermal/optical OCEC analyser and a particle into liquid sampler coupled with ion chromatography (PILS-IC). ATOFMS-derived mass concentrations reproduced the variability of these species well (R2 = 0.67-0.78), and ten discrete mixing states for carbonaceous particles were identified and quantified. Potassium content was used to identify particles associated with biomass combustion. The chemical mixing state of HR-ToF-AMS organic aerosol factors, resolved using positive matrix factorization, was also investigated through comparison with the ATOFMS dataset. The results indicate that hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) detected in Paris is associated with two EC-rich mixing states which differ in their relative sulphate content, while fresh biomass burning OA (BBOA) is associated with two mixing states which differ significantly in their OA/EC ratios. Aged biomass burning OA (OOA2-BBOA) was found to be significantly internally mixed with nitrate, while secondary, oxidized OA (OOA) was associated with five particle mixing states, each exhibiting different relative secondary inorganic ion content. Externally mixed secondary organic aerosol was not observed. These findings demonstrate the heterogeneity of primary and

  13. Quantitative determination of carbonaceous particle mixing state in Paris using single-particle mass spectrometer and aerosol mass spectrometer measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Healy, R. M.; Sciare, J.; Poulain, L.; Crippa, M.; Wiedensohler, A.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Baltensperger, U.; Sarda-Estève, R.; McGuire, M. L.; Jeong, C.-H.; McGillicuddy, E.; O'Connor, I. P.; Sodeau, J. R.; Evans, G. J.; Wenger, J. C.

    2013-09-01

    Single-particle mixing state information can be a powerful tool for assessing the relative impact of local and regional sources of ambient particulate matter in urban environments. However, quantitative mixing state data are challenging to obtain using single-particle mass spectrometers. In this study, the quantitative chemical composition of carbonaceous single particles has been determined using an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) as part of the MEGAPOLI 2010 winter campaign in Paris, France. Relative peak areas of marker ions for elemental carbon (EC), organic aerosol (OA), ammonium, nitrate, sulfate and potassium were compared with concurrent measurements from an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS), a thermal-optical OCEC analyser and a particle into liquid sampler coupled with ion chromatography (PILS-IC). ATOFMS-derived estimated mass concentrations reproduced the variability of these species well (R2 = 0.67-0.78), and 10 discrete mixing states for carbonaceous particles were identified and quantified. The chemical mixing state of HR-ToF-AMS organic aerosol factors, resolved using positive matrix factorisation, was also investigated through comparison with the ATOFMS dataset. The results indicate that hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) detected in Paris is associated with two EC-rich mixing states which differ in their relative sulfate content, while fresh biomass burning OA (BBOA) is associated with two mixing states which differ significantly in their OA / EC ratios. Aged biomass burning OA (OOA2-BBOA) was found to be significantly internally mixed with nitrate, while secondary, oxidised OA (OOA) was associated with five particle mixing states, each exhibiting different relative secondary inorganic ion content. Externally mixed secondary organic aerosol was not observed. These findings demonstrate the range of primary and secondary organic aerosol mixing states in Paris. Examination of the temporal

  14. Variations in IBD (ACAD8) in children with elevated C4-carnitine detected by tandem mass spectrometry newborn screening.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Christina B; Bischoff, Claus; Christensen, Ernst; Simonsen, Henrik; Lund, Allan M; Young, Sarah P; Koeberl, Dwight D; Millington, David S; Roe, Charles R; Roe, Diane S; Wanders, Ronald J A; Ruiter, Jos P N; Keppen, Laura D; Stein, Quinn; Knudsen, Inga; Gregersen, Niels; Andresen, Brage S

    2006-09-01

    The isobutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase (IBD) enzyme is involved in the degradation of valine. IBD deficiency was first reported in 1998 and subsequent genetic investigations identified acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACAD) 8, now IBD, as the gene responsible for IBD deficiency. Only three individuals homozygous or compound heterozygous for variations in the IBD gene have been reported. We present IBD deficiency in an additional four newborns with elevated C(4)-carnitine identified by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) screening in Denmark and the United States. Three showed urinary excretions of isobutyryl-glycine, and in vitro probe analysis of fibroblasts from two newborns indicated enzymatic IBD defect. Molecular genetic analysis revealed seven new rare variations in the IBD gene (c.348C>A, c.400G>T, c.409G>A, c.455T>C, c.958G>A, c.1000C>T and c.1154G>A). Furthermore, sequence analysis of the short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCAD) gene revealed heterozygosity for the prevalent c.625G>A susceptibility variation in all newborns and in the first reported IBD patient. Functional studies in isolated mitochondria demonstrated that the IBD variations present in the Danish newborn (c.409G>A and c.958G>A) together with a previously published IBD variation (c.905G>A) disturbed protein folding and reduced the levels of correctly folded IBD tetramers. Accordingly, low/no IBD residual enzyme activity was detectable when the variant IBD proteins were overexpressed in Chang cells. PMID:16857760

  15. Sci-Math: Applications in Proportional Problem Solving. Module One Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodstein, Madeline P.

    Sci-Math is an interdisciplinary curriculum intended to help students develop the math skills needed for science, especially dimensional analysis, ratio, and the concept of proportion. Sci-Math is divided into two modules with each module having a student and teacher's guide. Module one is a pre-algebra module dealing with the arithmetic and logic…

  16. Sci-Math: Applications in Proportional Problem Solving. Module Two Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodstein, Madeline P.

    Sci-Math is an interdisciplinary curriculum intended to help students develop the math skills needed for science, especially dimensional analysis, ratio, and the concept of proportion. Sci-Math is divided into two modules with each module having a student and teacher's guide. Module one is a pre-algebra module dealing with the arithmetic and logic…

  17. What is Matter? Study Guide. Unit C1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide is a two-part unit…

  18. Particles in Action. Study Guide. Unit C2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide is a four-part unit…

  19. Soil conditioning index (SCI) and soil organic carbon in the Midwest and southeastern USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calibration of the soil conditioning index (SCI) to a diversity of field studies with known changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) would improve the usefulness of the SCI by the USDA–Natural Resources Conservation Service to assess the environmental services provided by agricultural land stewardship. ...

  20. 75 FR 19626 - Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive Patent License: SciTech Medical Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ... Department of the Navy Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive Patent License: SciTech Medical Inc. AGENCY... intent to grant a partially exclusive license to SciTech Medical Inc. The proposed license is a revocable... ownership interest in these inventions, and they are covered by U.S. Patent No. 7,128,714:...

  1. One Hundred Years of Sci-Tech Libraries: A Brief History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mount, Ellis; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Includes papers on: the history of academic, public, government, and corporate science and technology libraries; the past 35 years in information retrieval; and education for sci-tech librarianship. Other papers provide statistical data on science/engineering libraries and bibliographies of computer-aided design literature, sci-tech reference…

  2. Looking at Life. Study Guide. Unit A2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  3. Close Encounters of the Best Kind: The Latest Sci-Fi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunzel, Bonnie

    2008-01-01

    Not only is science fiction alive and well--it's flourishing. From the big screen (howdy, Wall-E) to the big books (like Suzanne Collins's The Hunger Games, which has attracted loads of prepublication praise), 2008 has been a great year for sci-fi. Publishers have released truckloads of new sci-fi titles this year, but what's particularly…

  4. Detection of Abnormal Muscle Activations during Walking Following Spinal Cord Injury (SCI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ping; Low, K. H.; McGregor, Alison H.; Tow, Adela

    2013-01-01

    In order to identify optimal rehabilitation strategies for spinal cord injury (SCI) participants, assessment of impaired walking is required to detect, monitor and quantify movement disorders. In the proposed assessment, ten healthy and seven SCI participants were recruited to perform an over-ground walking test at slow walking speeds. SCI…

  5. The Social Function of the Law Faculty: Demographics, Republican Reform, and Professional Training at the Paris Law Faculty, 1870-1914

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, John

    2008-01-01

    Even before the legal integration of the Parisian faculties into the single entity of the "Universite de Paris" in 1896, the law faculty stood out as the most recalcitrant and resistant to the spirit of reform. In the years that followed, far from embodying republican ideals, it became known as a site of anti-republican ideological fervor. Even as…

  6. An American on Paris: Extent of aqueous alteration of a CM chondrite and the petrography of its refractory and amoeboid olivine inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Alan E.

    2015-09-01

    Paris is the least aqueously altered CM chondrite identified to date, classified as subtype 2.7; however, literature data indicate that some regions of this apparently brecciated meteorite may be subtype 2.9. The suite of CAIs in Paris includes 19% spinel-pyroxene inclusions, 19% spinel inclusions, 8% spinel-pyroxene-olivine inclusions, 43% pyroxene inclusions, 8% pyroxene-olivine inclusions, and 3% hibonite-bearing inclusions. Both simple and complex inclusions are present; some have nodular, banded, or distended structures. No melilite was identified in any of the inclusions in the present suite, but other recent studies have found a few rare occurrences of melilite in Paris CAIs. Because melilite is highly susceptible to aqueous alteration, it is likely that it was mostly destroyed during early-stage parent-body alteration. Two of the CAIs in this study are part of compound CAI-chondrule objects. Their presence suggests that there were transient heating events (probably associated with chondrule formation) in the nebula after chondrules and CAIs were admixed. Also present in Paris are a few amoeboid olivine inclusions (AOI) consisting of relatively coarse forsterite rims surrounding fine-grained, porous zones containing diopside and anorthite. The interior regions of the AOIs may represent fine-grained rimless CAIs that were incorporated into highly porous forsterite-rich dustballs. These assemblages were heated by an energy pulse that collapsed and coarsened their rims, but failed to melt their interiors.

  7. International Advisory Committee for Out-of-School Education; Report of the First Session. (Unesco House, Paris, 18-26 March 1968).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    The fourteenth session of Unesco authorized the establishment of an international committee for the advancement of out-of-school education. The first meeting of the committee, held in Paris 18-26 March 1968, took care of election of officers and other procedural matters, established sub-committees on adult education, literacy, and youth…

  8. The impact of area residential property values on self-rated health: A cross-sectional comparative study of Seattle and Paris.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Junfeng; Drewnowski, Adam; Moudon, Anne Vernez; Aggarwal, Anju; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Charreire, Helene; Chaix, Basile

    2016-12-01

    This study analyzed the impact of area residential property values, an objective measure of socioeconomic status (SES), on self-rated health (SRH) in Seattle, Washington and Paris, France. This study brings forth a valuable comparison of SRH between cities that have contrasting urban forms, population compositions, residential segregation, food systems and transportation modes. The SOS (Seattle Obesity Study) was based on a representative sample of 1394 adult residents of Seattle and King County in the United States. The RECORD Study (Residential Environment and Coronary Heart Disease) was based on 7131 adult residents of Paris and its suburbs in France. Socio-demographics, SRH and body weights were obtained from telephone surveys (SOS) and in-person interviews (RECORD). All home addresses were geocoded using ArcGIS 9.3.1 (ESRI, Redlands, CA). Residential property values were obtained from tax records (Seattle) and from real estate sales (Paris). Binary logistic regression models were used to test the associations among demographic and SES variables and SRH. Higher area property values significantly associated with better SRH, adjusting for age, gender, individual education, incomes, and BMI. The associations were significant for both cities. A one-unit increase in body mass index (BMI) was more detrimental to SRH in Seattle than in Paris. In both cities, higher area residential property values were related to a significantly lower obesity risk and better SRH. Ranked residential property values can be useful for health and weight studies, including those involving social inequalities and cross-country comparisons. PMID:27413663

  9. Getting Its Ducks in a Row? Qatar Foundation's Agreement with HEC Paris and the Launch of the Qatar Foundation Management, Education and Research Centre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Observatory on Borderless Higher Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Last week, private, non-profit organisation the Qatar Foundation (QF) announced a partnership agreement with French business institution HEC Paris to offer executive education programmes. According to the terms of the agreement, a full-time faculty will provide executive and short certificate programmes and corporate-specific training, including…

  10. Curriculum Revision: A Methodological Approach. Main Conclusions of the Study. Studies in Institutional Management in Higher Education, Universite de Paris X-Nanterre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordier, G.; And Others

    In its unabridged French version this document reviews research resulting from cooperation between university teachers, students, and representatives of industrial and commercial firms in the Paris area. The research was carried out at a period when the aims and organization of higher education in economic science in French universities had become…

  11. Population Growth and Demographic Structure. Proceedings of the United Nations Expert Group Meeting on Population Growth and Demographic Structure (Paris, France, November 16-20, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations, New York, NY. Dept. of Economic and Social Affairs.

    This volume contains the report and recommendations of the United Nations-sponsored meeting on population growth and demographic structure which was held in Paris, November 1992. Materials in the volume can serve as useful tools for future research on the relations between population, environment, and development and further the work of the United…

  12. Intergovernmental Conference of Experts on the Scientific Basis for Rational Use and Conservation of the Resources of the Biosphere (Paris, France, September 4-13, 1968), Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This document contains twenty recommendations put forth at the Intergovernmental Conference of Experts on the Scientific Basis for Rational Use and Conservation of the Resources of the Biosphere under the direction of UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization). The conference was held at the UNESCO House, Paris,…

  13. Power, Identity, and Organizational Structure as Reflected in Schools for Minority Groups: A Case Study of Jewish Schools in Paris, Brussels, and Geneva

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Zehavit

    2006-01-01

    This article compares the linkages between organizational structure, power relations, and group identities within the private schools operated by the francophone Jewish communities of Brussels, Paris, and Geneva. A school's organizational structure and balance of power reflect its identity and its conceptual world. That is, its organizational…

  14. Influence of the water quality improvement on fish population in the Seine River (Paris, France) over the 1990-2013 period.

    PubMed

    Azimi, Sam; Rocher, Vincent

    2016-01-15

    Over the past 20 years, rules concerning wastewater treatment and quality of water discharged into the environment have changed considerably. Huge investments have been made in Paris conurbation to improve waste water treatment processes in accordance with the European Water Framework Directive. The interdepartmental association for sewage disposal in Paris conurbation (SIAAP) carried out a monitoring of both fish assemblages and water quality in the Seine River around the Paris conurbation (France) since the early 90's. The main goal of this study was to estimate the influence of the water quality improvement on fish. On one hand, the study confirmed the improvement of the water quality (dissolved oxygen, ammonia nitrogen, organic matter) in the Seine River, mostly focused downstream of Paris conurbation. On the other hand, an increase of the number of species occurred from 1990 (14) to 2013 (21). Moreover, changes in the river Seine assemblages happened over that 23-year period with emergence of sensitive species (ruffe, scalpin and pike-perch). The improvement of the water quality was also reported with respect to the Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI). However, no variation of pollutant concentrations in roach, eel and chub muscles has been observed. An exceedance of the environmental quality standards have even been reported all over this period as regards mercury and organochlorine. PMID:26562342

  15. First time experiences using SciPy for computer vision research

    SciTech Connect

    Eads, Damian R; Rosten, Edward J

    2008-01-01

    SciPy is an effective tool suite for prototyping new algorithms. We share some of our experiences using it for the first time to support our research in object detection. SciPy makes it easy to integrate C code, which is essential when algorithms operating on large data sets cannot be vectorized. Python's extensive support for operator overloading makes SciPy's syntax as succinct as its competitors, MATLAB. Octave. and R. The universality of Python. the language in which SciPy was written, gives the researcher access to a broader set of non-numerical libraries to support GUI development. interface with databases, manipulate graph structures, render 3D graphics, unpack binary files, etc. More profoundly, we found it easy to rework research code written with SciPy into a production application, deployable on numerous platforms.

  16. Dressing religious bodies in public spaces: gender, clothing and negotiations of stigma among Jews in Paris and muslims in London.

    PubMed

    Endelstein, Lucine; Ryan, Louise

    2013-06-01

    In recent years religious clothing has become prevalent across many European cities, making religious bodies more visible in public spaces. This paper brings together our separate research on Jews in Paris and Muslims in London. While recognising the clear differences between these two socio-political contexts and distinct religious groups, we suggest that a focus on clothing allows us to consider some points of similarity and difference in the presentation of gendered religious bodies, particularly in situations of heightened stigmatisation. We draw upon Goffman's notion of impression management, in contexts of risks and threats, to explore how individuals experience and negotiate self presentation as members of stigmatised religious groups. We use rich qualitative data based on indepth interviews to consider how, when faced with collective stigmatisation, actors make deliberate and measured choices to present themselves and attempt to impression manage. PMID:23307497

  17. [The birth of the international conference "Biology and the future of man", Paris, 18-24 September 1974].

    PubMed

    Galperin, Charles

    2015-01-01

    In 1974, a symposium was organized in Paris entitled "Biology and the future of man". It was focused on the analysis of "new powers of science and new duties of man" in the field of medically assisted procreation, agriculture, demography, and environmental issues. This small introductory text begins by describing the circumstances that led to the organization of this prestigious conference. Then, in order to go further than the silent framework of the presentation of the themes, we will focus on the report of Dr. Robert Edwards on medically assisted procreation, we will recall the duel between Jacques Monod and Jérôme Lejeune on abortion, then we will give center stage to physicians like Jean Bernard and Alexandre Minkowski about the right to die, and finally we will remind the conclusion brought to the conference by Georges Canguilhem. PMID:26184345

  18. Effects of the Pays de Bray'' fault on fluid paleocirculations in the Paris Basin Dogger reservoir, France

    SciTech Connect

    Bril, H. . Lab. d'Analyse Structurale et Hydrothermalisme); Velde, B.; Iqdari, A. . Dept. Geologie); Meunier, A. . Lab. Petrologie des Alterations Hydrothermales)

    1994-06-01

    Clay fractions and fluid inclusions were studied in the Aulnay sous Bois and Cerneaux (CER-1 and CER-P6) wells located 10 km, 1.3 and 0.6 km, respectively, from the Pays de Bray'' fault (Paris Basin, France). It was shown that a connection was probably established between the Dogger and Triassic reservoirs during the active period of the fault. Chemical and heat transfers have locally modified the diagenesis conditions in the Dogger formation, inducing an overmaturation of clay minerals. These effects, although attenuated, are still identifiable in the Aulnay and CER-1 wells. A maximum temperature of about 90 C was maintained in CER-P6 site even during the uplift stage of the basin.

  19. Kerogen of Toarcian shales of the Paris Basin. A study of its maturation by flash pyrolysis techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Graas, Ger; de Leeuw, J. W.; Schenck, P. A.; Haverkamp, J.

    1981-12-01

    A set of 14 samples-both extracted and unextracted from the Toarcian of the Paris Basin have been investigated using Curie-point pyrolysis-mass spectrometry and Curie-point pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The relative amount of n-alkenes and n-alkanes in the pyrolyzates increases with increasing maximum burial depth of the samples. Comparison of the pyrolysis data of extracted and unextracted samples shows that generation of hydrocarbons from the kerogen starts at a maximum burial depth of ~ 1000m. The increase of pristane and phytane in the extracts of the deeper samples is correlated with the gradual decrease of the characteristic pyrolysis product prist-1-ene. Three samples yield pyrolyzates with high relative amounts of aromatic compounds. This phenomenon probably reflects a different type of contributing organic matter and/or a different environment of sedimentation.

  20. [The apothecaries of the rue de l'Arbre-Sec in Paris in the 17th century].

    PubMed

    Warolin, Christian

    2014-06-01

    The mud tax imposed by the king in 1637 to pay for street-cleaning is a useful tool for identifying the people who were liable for the tax, their profession, and whether they were owners or tenants. The survey of the Rue de l'Arbre-Sec, a very old street in Paris close to the Louvre, reveals that seven apothecaries lived there in 1637. Two of them were particularly important: Hiérosme Lambert, who had an apothecary'shop near the church of Saint-Germain-l'Auxerrois, and Michel Dansse, apothecary to Queen Anne of Austria. The two families established links through the marriage of Marie Lambert, the daughter of Hiérosme Lambert and Marie Gauche, to Michel Dansse. One of their sons, Jean Dansse, was also apothecary to Anne of Austria and then to Queen Marie-Thérèse. PMID:25090837

  1. From the "Phoenix of Legends" to the "Ultimate Monument" of the times: stadia, spectators, and urban development in postwar Paris.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Robert W

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes the renovation and construction of the Parc des Princes and the Stade de France in post-Second World War Paris. The history of the two stadia testifies to a shift in the envisioned role of stadia in the Parisian basin between the late 1960s and the end of the twentieth century and stands as evidence for the emergence of new urban planning actors. Both stadia were also critiqued as symbols of broader problems with Parisian urbanization, notably as manifestations of anti-democratic planning processes. At the same time, the Parc and the Stade also reflected an emerging consensus over the role of spectator sport in society, accompanied by attempts to re-envision mass sporting spectatorship as a more democratic and familial practice. This article thus situates the two stadia within the history of Parisian urbanization and within broader global urbanizing processes. PMID:22826892

  2. Magnetostratigraphy of Mesozoic shallow-water carbonates: Preliminary results from the Middle Jurassic of the Paris basin

    SciTech Connect

    Aissaoui, D.M.; Kirschvink, J.L. )

    1991-03-01

    The use of sedimentary paleomagnetism has enhanced greatly our understanding of the timing of deposition and diagenesis of Cenozoic platform and reefal carbonates. Its application to similar but older deposits will have direct implications for economic exploration and development. The authors report here preliminary paleomagnetic results from the Middle Jurassic limestones of the Paris basin (France). The samples consist mainly of bioclastic and oolitic limestones deposited in ancient counterpart of the shallow-water environments of the Bahama platform. The Jurassic samples are stable to progressive, incremental demagnetization and exhibit magnetization patterns identical to Cenozoic rocks from the Bahama platform or Mururoa Atoll. The natural remanent magnetization of these limestones is weak and comprised between 7.7 x 10{sup {minus}9} to 1.8 x 10{sup {minus}8} AM{sup 2}/kg. Magnetic components of both normal and reversed polarity are observed. Paired isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) and alternating field demagnetization experiments show that most of the remanence is lost between 20 and 45 mT, which is typical of single-domain biogenic magnetite or maghemite. The ratio of IRM at H{sub RG} to the saturation IRM ranges from 35 to 42% indicating a moderate to low interparticle interaction. This is confirmed by the anhysteretic remanent magnetization as compared with intact, freeze-dried cells of magnetotactic bacteria and chiton teeth. Magnetic minerals extracted from the Jurassic samples are examined to further confirm the occurrence of SD magnetite within the Middle Jurassic limestones of the Paris basin. The preliminary results suggest that the strata should be good for the paleomagnetic investigation of Mesozoic shallow-water carbonates.

  3. Application of mobile aerosol and trace gas measurements for the investigation of megacity air pollution emissions: the Paris metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von der Weiden-Reinmüller, S.-L.; Drewnick, F.; Crippa, M.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Meleux, F.; Baltensperger, U.; Beekmann, M.; Borrmann, S.

    2014-01-01

    For the investigation of megacity emission development and the impact outside the source region, mobile aerosol and trace gas measurements were carried out in the Paris metropolitan area between 1 July and 31 July 2009 (summer conditions) and 15 January and 15 February 2010 (winter conditions) in the framework of the European Union FP7 MEGAPOLI project. Two mobile laboratories, MoLa and MOSQUITA, were deployed, and here an overview of these measurements and an investigation of the applicability of such measurements for the analysis of megacity emissions are presented. Both laboratories measured physical and chemical properties of fine and ultrafine aerosol particles as well as gas phase constituents of relevance for urban pollution scenarios. The applied measurement strategies include cross-section measurements for the investigation of plume structure and quasi-Lagrangian measurements axially along the flow of the city's pollution plume to study plume aging processes. Results of intercomparison measurements between the two mobile laboratories represent the adopted data quality assurance procedures. Most of the compared measurement devices show sufficient agreement for combined data analysis. For the removal of data contaminated by local pollution emissions a video tape analysis method was applied. Analysis tools like positive matrix factorization and peak integration by key analysis applied to high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer data are used for in-depth data analysis of the organic particulate matter. Several examples, including a combination of MoLa and MOSQUITA measurements on a cross section through the Paris emission plume, are provided to demonstrate how such mobile measurements can be used to investigate the emissions of a megacity. A critical discussion of advantages and limitations of mobile measurements for the investigation of megacity emissions completes this work.

  4. Application of mobile aerosol and trace gas measurements for the investigation of megacity air pollution emissions: the Paris metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von der Weiden-Reinmüller, S.-L.; Drewnick, F.; Crippa, M.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Meleux, F.; Baltensperger, U.; Beekmann, M.; Borrmann, S.

    2013-08-01

    For the investigation of megacity emission development and impact outside the source region mobile aerosol and trace gas measurements were carried out in the Paris metropolitan area between 1 July and 31 July 2009 (summer conditions) and 15 January and 15 February 2010 (winter conditions) in the framework of the European Union FP7 MEGAPOLI project. Two mobile laboratories, MoLa and MOSQUITA, were deployed, and here an overview of these measurements and an investigation of the applicability of such measurements for the analysis of megacity emissions are presented. Both laboratories measured physical and chemical properties of fine and ultrafine aerosol particles as well as gas phase constituents of relevance for urban pollution scenarios. The applied measurement strategies include cross section measurements for the investigation of plume structure and quasi-Lagrangian measurements radially away from the city center to study plume aging processes. Results of intercomparison measurements between the two mobile laboratories represent the adopted data quality assurance procedures. Most of the compared measurement devices show sufficient agreement for combined data analysis. For the removal of data contaminated by local pollution emissions a video tape analysis method was applied. Analysis tools like positive matrix factorization and peak integration by key analysis applied to high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer data are used for in-depth data analysis of the organic particulate matter. Several examples, including a combination of MoLa and MOSQUITA measurements on a cross section through the Paris emission plume are provided to demonstrate how such mobile measurements can be used to investigate the emissions of a megacity. A critical discussion of advantages and limitations of mobile measurements for the investigation of megacity emissions completes this work.

  5. Orthostatic Responses to Anticholinesterase Inhibition in Persons with SCI

    PubMed Central

    Wecht, Jill M.; Cirnigliaro, Christopher M.; Azarelo, Frank; Bauman, William A.; Kirshblum, Steven C.

    2015-01-01

    Acetylcholine (Ach) is the pre-synaptic neurotransmitter of the sympathetic nervous system. Increased pre-synaptic Ach may augment post-synaptic release of norepinephrine thereby increasing systemic blood pressure (BP). The primary objective of this investigation was to determine the hemodynamic effect of pyridostigmine bromide (PYRIDO: 60 mg), an Ach inhibitor (AchI), compared to no-drug (NO-D) during head-up tilt (HUT) in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Secondarily we aimed to determine the effects of PYRIDO compared to NO-D on symptoms of orthostatic intolerance (OI) and adverse event reporting (AE). Ten individuals with SCI (C4–C7) were studied on 2 occasions: visit 1) NO-D and visit 2) PYRIDO. On each visit subjects underwent a progressive HUT maneuver to 15°, 25°, 35° for 5 minutes at each angle and 45 minutes at 45°. Supine and orthostatic heart rate (HR), systolic and diastolic BP (SBP & DBP) were monitored and symptoms of OI and AE recorded. Supine hemodynamics did not differ between the trials. The significant fall in SBP during the NO-D trial was diminished with PYRIDO and five subjects had an increased DBP during HUT with PYRIDO compared to the NO-D trial. Individuals that responded to PYRIDO with an increase in orthostatic BP had significantly lower resting HR than non-responders (p<0.01), which suggests increased levels of pre-synaptic Ach. Subjective symptoms of OI and AE reporting did not differ between the two trials. These preliminary data suggest that PYRIDO is safe and may be effective at ameliorating the orthostatic fall in BP in select individuals with SCI. PMID:25916633

  6. Detection of abnormal muscle activations during walking following spinal cord injury (SCI).

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Low, K H; McGregor, Alison H; Tow, Adela

    2013-04-01

    In order to identify optimal rehabilitation strategies for spinal cord injury (SCI) participants, assessment of impaired walking is required to detect, monitor and quantify movement disorders. In the proposed assessment, ten healthy and seven SCI participants were recruited to perform an over-ground walking test at slow walking speeds. SCI participants were given assistance from physiotherapists, if required, while they were walking. In agreement with other research, larger cadence and smaller step length and swing phase of SCI gait were observed as a result of muscle weakness and resultant gait instability. Muscle activation patterns of seven major leg muscles were collected. The EMG signal was processed by the RMS in frequency domain to represent the muscle activation power, and the distribution of muscle activation was compared between healthy and SCI participants. The alternations of muscle activation within the phases of the gait cycle are highlighted to facilitate our understanding of the underlying muscular activation following SCI. Key differences were observed (p-value=0.0006) in the reduced activation of tibialis anterior (TA) in single stance phase and rectus femoris (RF) in swing phase (p-value=0.0011). We can then conclude that the proposed assessment approach of gait provides valuable information that can be used to target and define therapeutic interventions and their evaluation; hence impacting the functional outcome of SCI individuals. PMID:23396198

  7. Nuclear Physics in the SciDAC Era

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Edwards

    2009-08-01

    Lattice QCD currently provides our only means of solving QCD (Quantum Chromo Dynamics) -- the theory of the strong nuclear force -- in the low-energy regime, and thus of crucial importance for theoretical and experimental research programs in High Energy and Nuclear Physics. Under the SciDAC program, a software infrastructure has been developed for lattice QCD that effectively utilize the capabilities of the INCITE facilities. These developments have enabled a new generation of Nuclear Physics calculations investigating the spectrum and structure of matter, such as the origin of mass and spin. This software infrastructure is described and recent results are reviewed.

  8. Introduction to Structure Searching with SciFinder Scholar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridley, Damon D.

    2001-04-01

    CAS Registry Numbers provide a key to searching for chemical substances in CAS databases, and the challenge is to obtain the Registry Numbers for all the substances required. When the substances can be represented by structures, then one option is to find the Registry Numbers through structure searches. With SciFinder Scholar, the process of drawing and searching structures is intuitive; however, there are underlying issues and opportunities that need some explanation in courses on chemical information retrieval.We describe here our introductory course, which addresses the major ones.

  9. GeoSciML v2: an interchange and mark-up language for geologic information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laxton, J.

    2009-04-01

    GeoSciML was released in 2006 as a data transfer standard for geoscience. The scope of GeoSciML is the information generally shown on geological maps along with some observations, in particular those made using boreholes. Following further testing and use-case analysis GeoSciML v2 has recently been released incorporating enhanced representation of geologic units, earth materials, structures and associated vocabularies. The model utilizes the XML-based Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Geography Markup Language (GML) for spatial information, and Observations and Measurements markup schema (O&M) for field and lab observations, including boreholes. In the GeoSciML conceptual model, 'mapped features,' which represent occurrences such as a polygon or curve on a geologic map, are specified by a 'geologic feature,' which is a typed description of an entity analogous to a 'legend item' on a map. The two main types of geologic feature modelled are geologic units and geologic structures. GeoSciML also includes a structure for controlled concepts that may be defined in terms of normative geologic features, GeoSciML earth material descriptions, or an entity from some other schema. Controlled concepts can be built into geologic vocabularies, such as stratigraphic lexicons, and are used as the basis for classification. GeoSciMLv2 has been proven in an OGC web services compliant testbed comprising services from 10 geological surveys worldwide. Testbed services and products include Web Mapping Services (WMS) and Web Feature Services (WFS) serving data in GeoSciML v2 form; catalog and vocabulary services, and metadata for such services; registers of vocabularies; and clients capable of using, querying and rendering such services. The paper will describe the GeoSciML v2 resources available and how to obtain them. These include the schema representation in UML and W3C XSD, documentation describing the schema and how to use it, and example data files.

  10. Mid-21st century air quality at the urban scale under the influence of changed climate and emissions: case studies for Paris and Stockholm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markakis, K.; Valari, M.; Engardt, M.; Lacressonnière, G.; Vautard, R.; Andersson, C.

    2015-10-01

    Ozone, PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations over Paris, France and Stockholm, Sweden were modeled at 4 and 1 \\unit{km} horizontal resolutions respectively for the present and 2050 periods employing decade-long simulations. We account for large-scale global climate change (RCP-4.5) and fine resolution bottom-up emission projections developed by local experts and quantify their impact on future pollutant concentrations. Moreover, we identify biases related to the implementation of regional scale emission projections over the study areas by comparing modeled pollutant concentrations between the fine and coarse scale simulations. We show that over urban areas with major regional contribution (e.g., the city of Stockholm) the bias due to coarse emission inventory may be significant and lead to policy misclassification. Our results stress the need to better understand the mechanism of bias propagation across the modeling scales in order to design more successful local-scale strategies. We find that the impact of climate change is spatially homogeneous in both regions, implying strong regional influence. The climate benefit for ozone (daily average and maximum) is up to -5 % for Paris and -2 % for Stockholm city. The joined climate benefit on PM2.5 and PM10 in Paris is between -10 and -5 % while for Stockholm we observe mixed trends up to 3 % depending on season and size class. In Stockholm, emission mitigation leads to concentration reductions up to 15 % for daily average and maximum ozone and 20 % for PM and through a sensitivity analysis we show that this response is entirely due to changes in emissions at the regional scale. On the contrary, over the city of Paris (VOC-limited photochemical regime), local mitigation of NOx emissions increases future ozone concentrations due to ozone titration inhibition. This competing trend between the respective roles of emission and climate change, results in an increase in 2050 daily average ozone by 2.5 % in Paris. Climate and not

  11. Mid-21st century air quality at the urban scale under the influence of changed climate and emissions - case studies for Paris and Stockholm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markakis, Konstantinos; Valari, Myrto; Engardt, Magnuz; Lacressonniere, Gwendoline; Vautard, Robert; Andersson, Camilla

    2016-02-01

    Ozone, PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations over Paris, France and Stockholm, Sweden were modelled at 4 and 1 km horizontal resolutions respectively for the present and 2050 periods employing decade-long simulations. We account for large-scale global climate change (RCP-4.5) and fine-resolution bottom-up emission projections developed by local experts and quantify their impact on future pollutant concentrations. Moreover, we identify biases related to the implementation of regional-scale emission projections by comparing modelled pollutant concentrations between the fine- and coarse-scale simulations over the study areas. We show that over urban areas with major regional contribution (e.g. the city of Stockholm) the bias related to coarse-scale projections may be significant and lead to policy misclassification. Our results stress the need to better understand the mechanism of bias propagation across the modelling scales in order to design more successful local-scale strategies. We find that the impact of climate change is spatially homogeneous in both regions, implying strong regional influence. The climate benefit for ozone (daily mean and maximum) is up to -5 % for Paris and -2 % for Stockholm city. The climate benefit on PM2.5 and PM10 in Paris is between -5 and -10 %, while for Stockholm we estimate mixed trends of up to 3 % depending on season and size class. In Stockholm, emission mitigation leads to concentration reductions up to 15 % for daily mean and maximum ozone and 20 % for PM. Through a sensitivity analysis we show that this response is entirely due to changes in emissions at the regional scale. On the contrary, over the city of Paris (VOC-limited photochemical regime), local mitigation of NOx emissions increases future ozone concentrations due to ozone titration inhibition. This competing trend between the respective roles of emission and climate change, results in an increase in 2050 daily mean ozone by 2.5 % in Paris. Climate and not emission change

  12. Undocumented Youth Living Between the Lines: Urban Governance, Social Policy, and the Boundaries of Legality in New York City and Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruszczyk, Stephen P.

    This dissertation compares the transition to adulthood of undocumented youth in New York and Paris, along with analysis of the construction of illegality in each city. In both the United States and France, national restrictions against undocumented immigrants increasingly take the form of deportations and limiting access to social rights. New York City and Paris, however, mitigate the national restrictions in important but different ways. They construct "illegality" differently, leading to different young adult outcomes and lived experiences of "illegality." This project uses seven years of multi-site ethnographic data to trace the effects of these mitigated "illegalities" on two dozen (male) youth. We can begin to understand the variation in these undocumented young men's social lives within and between cities by centering on (1) governance structure, the labyrinth of obtaining rights associated with citizenship, (2) citizenship, the possibility of gaining a legal status, steered in particular by civil society actors, and (3) identity, here centered on youths' negotiation of social mobility with the fear of enforcement. Biographical narratives show the shifts in social memberships as youth transition to new countries, new restrictions at adulthood, and new, limiting work. In New York, most social prospects are flattened as future possibilities are whittled down to ones focusing on family and wages. Undocumented status propels New York informants into an accelerated transition to adulthood, as they take on adult responsibilities of work, paying bills, and developing families. In Paris, youth experience more divergent processes of transitioning to adulthood. Those who are more socially integrated use a civil society actor to garner a (temporary) legal status, which does not lead to work opportunities. Those who are less socially integrated face isolation as they wait to gain status and access to better jobs. Paris undocumented youth are thus characterized by a

  13. Keuper stratigraphic cycles in the Paris basin and comparison with cycles in other peritethyan basins (German basin and Bresse-Jura basin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourquin, Sylvie; Guillocheau, François

    1996-09-01

    High-resolution sequence stratigraphy of the Keuper, Paris Basin, is used to establish correlations between the basin-centre evaporite series and the basin-margin clastics series. The high-resolution correlations show stratigraphic cycle geometries. The Keuper consists of five minor base-level cycles whth occur in the upper portion of the Scythian-Carnian major base-level cycle and the lower part of the Carnian-Liassic major base-level cycle. The maximum relative rate of subsidence for the base-level fall phase of the Scythian-Carnian major cycle occurs in the eastern part of the Paris Basin. During the base-level rise phase of the Carnian-Liassic major cycle, the area of highest rate of subsidence shifted westwards and northwards. This shift records the first occurrence of an independent Paris Basin which was no longer merely the western margin of the German Basin. Two phases of tectonic movement influenced evaporite sedimentation and sequence geometries by creating areas of subsidence where halite could accumulate. The second, within the 'Marnes irisées supérieures', induced a general westward and northward tilt of the basin. Concurrent migration of depocentres to the west and north produced an intra-'Marnes irisées supérieures' truncation. Comparison of the stratigraphic records of the Paris Basin and of other Triassic Peritethyan basins (German Basin, Bresse-Jura Basin and South-East Basin) reveals numerous similarities. The coastal onlap curve of the German Keuper (Aigner and Bachmann, 1992) exhibits many similarities with the sequence evolution of the Paris Basin. But the Triassic succession is more complete in the German Basin and more cycles are observed. The major difference between these two basins during the Keuper is that the 'Marnes irisées inférieures' minor base-level cycle does not occur in the German Basin. In the Bresse-Jura Basin, the major difference concerns the Lettenkohle. One minor base-level cycle is recorded in the Paris Basin while

  14. Astronomical Data Processing Using SciQL, an SQL Based Query Language for Array Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Scheers, B.; Kersten, M.; Ivanova, M.; Nes, N.

    2012-09-01

    SciQL (pronounced as ‘cycle’) is a novel SQL-based array query language for scientific applications with both tables and arrays as first class citizens. SciQL lowers the entrance fee of adopting relational DBMS (RDBMS) in scientific domains, because it includes functionality often only found in mathematics software packages. In this paper, we demonstrate the usefulness of SciQL for astronomical data processing using examples from the Transient Key Project of the LOFAR radio telescope. In particular, how the LOFAR light-curve database of all detected sources can be constructed, by correlating sources across the spatial, frequency, time and polarisation domains.

  15. Relationships between petrophysical, sedimentological and microstructural properties of the Oolithes Blanche formation, a saline aquifer in the Paris Basin.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casteleyn, Lisa; Robion, Philippe; Collin, Pierry-Yves; Menéndez, Beatriz; David, Christian; Fernandes, Nathalie; Desaubliaux, Guy; Dreux, Rémi; Rigollet, Christophe; Badinier, Guillaume

    2010-05-01

    The Paris Basin appears to be appropriate in terms of CO2 capture and storage when considering both the amount of CO2 produced and the availability of depleted fields and deep saline aquifers. The purpose of this study is to investigate the petrophysical properties in relation with the sedimento-diagenetic environment of the "Oolithe Blanche" formation (Dogger), a deep saline aquifer considered as a potential candidate for CO2 storage. Regarding the scarcity of the core data in the Paris Basin, our investigation was firstly based on the study of field analogs in the south-east of the Paris Basin. The Oolithe Blanche Formation is composed of very shallow marine oolitic and bioclastic limestones, mainly grainstones. Three main sedimentological fabrics were defined: tide-dominated, wave-dominated (oolitic shoal) and prograding oolitic shoal fabrics. These three fabrics show subtle variations in composition (ooliths vs bioclasts) and in the distribution of the carbonate textures. The Oolithe Blanche Formation (Bathonian) is 70-80 meters thick and water salinity ranges from 1 to 4 g NaCl/l. 18 oriented blocks were collected on outcrops selected for the different sedimentological facies recognised in the formation: 9 blocks in the Bierry Lès Belles Fontaines quarry (Yonne), 5 blocks in the Ravières quarries (Côte d'Or) and 4 blocks in the Massangis quarry (Yonne). On each block, several petrophysical properties were measured on three perpendicular plugs: porosity, pore size distribution derived from mercury injection tests, permeability, capillary imbibition parameters, electrical conductivity and acoustic velocities. The sedimento-diagenetic fabric and microstructural analysis was defined by using optical microscope and scanning electron microscopy, coupled with image analysis on thin sections. The porosity measured using the water saturation triple weight method ranges from 6% to 34%. The permeability values are low, between 0.1 mD and 9 mD. The data from the

  16. Air quality modelling for the mid-21th century in the greater Paris area under 2 climate scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markakis, Konstantinos; Valari, Mytro; Colette, Augustin; Sanchez, Olivier; Perrussel, Olivier

    2013-04-01

    There has been an increasing interest on the impact of climate change on future air quality at both global and regional scales. The largest amount of research up to now used global-scale modelling tools to address the issue, while few recent papers use regional scale models to assess the impact of climate change on large urban agglomerations. The main issues of concern related to a regional scale set-up focusing on a city are the representativeness of the emission estimates of a regional inventory for the city as well as uncertainties in the emission projections. Regional scale projections, may be consistent with global scale climate scenarios but they are not representative of the future trend of a specific city. In this study we modelled air quality in the city of Paris, France at a mid-21st century horizon (2045-2055) under two emission and climate scenarios. The emission scenarios were developed for Europe from the Global Energy Assessment (GEA) to be consistent with the IPCCs recently developed Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) which incorporate only climate change actions. The emission scenarios include both climate (RCP consistent) and regional air quality policies. To cope with the aforementioned problems we combined two sources of information to project emissions for the city of Paris to the mid-century horizon. The first stems from a local agency (AIRPARIF) and includes a bottom-up high resolution emission inventory compiled for the year 2008 based on information on local activity and statistics. This inventory is projected by AIRPARIF to the year 2020 based on various air-quality policies already in place or planned for the next years. The second is a set of projection coefficients extracted from the two GEA scenarios for France and applied to the 2020 local inventory in order to obtain an emission inventory for 2050. Global scale concentrations were modelled with the coupled LMDz-INCA system and then downscaled with the regional scale air

  17. Size-dependent particle activation properties in fog during the ParisFog 2012/13 field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, E.; Gysel, M.; Roberts, G. C.; Elias, T.; Hofer, J.; Hoyle, C. R.; Bukowiecki, N.; Dupont, J.-C.; Burnet, F.; Baltensperger, U.; Weingartner, E.

    2014-04-01

    Fog causes a variety of hazards in road traffic, maritime navigation, as well as in air traffic and railway traffic. There is a great demand, e.g. from airports, for more reliable fog forecasts to prevent fog related accidents. Improved fog forecasts require a better understanding of the numerous complex mechanisms during the fog life cycle. During winter 2012/13 a field campaign called ParisFog aiming at fog research took place at SIRTA (Instrumented Site for Atmospheric Remote Sensing Research). SIRTA is located about 20 km southwest of the Paris city centre, France in a semi-urban environment. In situ activation properties of the prevailing fog were investigated by measuring: (1) total and interstitial (non-activated) dry particle number size distributions behind two different inlet systems; (2) interstitial hydrated aerosol and fog droplet size distributions at ambient conditions; (3) cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentration at different supersaturations (SS) with a CCN counter. The aerosol particles were characterized regarding their hygroscopic properties, fog droplet activation behavior and contribution to light scattering for 17 developed fog events. Low particle hygroscopicity with an overall median of hygroscopicity parameter, κ, of 0.14 was found, likely caused by substantial influence from local traffic and wood burning emissions. Measurements of the aerosol size distribution at ambient RH revealed that the critical wet diameter, above which the hydrated aerosols activate to fog droplets, is rather large with a median value of 2.4 μm and is highly variable (ranging from 1 to 5 μm) between the different fog events. Thus, the number of activated fog droplets was very small and the non-activated hydrated particles were found to contribute siginificantly to the observed light scattering and thus to the reduction in visibility. Combining all experimental data, the effective peak supersaturation, SSpeak, a measure of the peak supersaturation

  18. Isotopic mass independent signature of black crusts: a proxy for atmospheric aerosols formation in the Paris area (France).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genot, Isabelle; Martin, Erwan; Yang, David Au; De Rafelis, Marc; Cartigny, Pierre; Wing, Boswell; Le Gendre, Erwann; Bekki, Slimane

    2016-04-01

    In view of the negative forcing of the sulfate aerosols on climate, a more accurate understanding of the formation of these particles is crucial. Indeed, despite the knowledge of their effects, uncertainties remain regarding the formation of sulfate aerosols, particularly the oxidation processes of S-bearing gases. Since the discovery of oxygen and sulfur mass independent fractionation (O- and S-MIF) processes on Earth, the sulfate isotopic composition became essential to investigate the atmospheric composition evolution and its consequences on the climate and the biosphere. Large amount of S-bearing compounds (SO2 mainly) is released into the atmosphere by anthropogenic and natural sources. Their oxidation in the atmosphere generates sulfate aerosols, H2SO4, which precipitate on the earth surface mainly as acid rain. One consequence of this precipitation is the formation of black crust on buildings made of carbonate stones. Indeed the chemical alteration of CaCO3 by H2SO4 leads to gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) concretions on building walls. Associated to other particles, gypsum forms black-crusts. Therefore, black crusts acts as 'sulfate aerosol traps', meaning that their isotopic composition reveals the composition and thus the source and formation processes of sulfate aerosols in the atmosphere in a specific region. In this study we collected 37 black crusts on a 300km NW-SE profile centered on Paris (France). In our samples, sulfate represent 40wt.% and other particles 60wt.% of the black crusts. After sulfate extraction from each samples we measured their O- and S-isotopes composition. Variations of about 10‰ in δ18O and δ34S are observed and both O-MIF (Δ17O from 0 to 1.4‰) and S-MIF (Δ33S from 0 to -0.3‰) compositions have been measured. In regards to these compositions we can discuss the source and formation (oxidation pathways) of the sulfate aerosols in troposphere above the Paris region that covers urban, rural and coastal environments. Furthermore

  19. Megacity emission plume characteristics in summer and winter investigated by mobile aerosol and trace gas measurements: the Paris metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von der Weiden-Reinmüller, S.-L.; Drewnick, F.; Zhang, Q. J.; Freutel, F.; Beekmann, M.; Borrmann, S.

    2014-05-01

    For the investigation of megacity emission plume characteristics mobile aerosol and trace gas measurements were carried out in the greater Paris region in July 2009 and January/February 2010 within the EU FP7 MEGAPOLI project. The deployed instruments measured physical and chemical properties of sub-micron aerosol particles, gas phase constituents of relevance for urban air pollution studies and meteorological parameters. The emission plume was identified based on fresh pollutant (e.g. particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, black carbon, CO2 and NOx) concentration changes in combination with wind direction data. The classification into megacity influenced and background air masses allowed a characterization of the emission plume during summer and winter environmental conditions. On average, a clear increase of fresh pollutant concentrations in plume compared to background air masses was found for both seasons. For example, an average increase of 190% (+8.8 ng m-3) in summer and of 130% (+18.1 ng m-3) in winter was found for particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in plume air masses. The aerosol particle size distribution in plume air masses was influenced by nucleation and growth due to coagulation and condensation in summer, while in winter only the second process seemed to be initiated by urban pollution. The observed distribution of fresh pollutants in the emission plume - its cross sectional Gaussian-like profile and the exponential decrease of pollutant concentrations with increasing distance to the megacity - are in agreement with model results. Differences between model and measurements were found for plume center location, plume width and axial plume extent. In general, dilution was identified as the dominant process determining the axial variations within the Paris emission plume. For in-depth analysis of transformation processes occurring in the advected plume, simultaneous measurements at a suburban measurement site and a stationary

  20. Megacity emission plume characteristics in summer and winter investigated by mobile aerosol and trace gas measurements: the Paris metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von der Weiden-Reinmüller, S.-L.; Drewnick, F.; Zhang, Q. J.; Freutel, F.; Beekmann, M.; Borrmann, S.

    2014-12-01

    For the investigation of megacity emission plume characteristics mobile aerosol and trace gas measurements were carried out in the greater Paris region in July 2009 and January-February 2010 within the EU FP7 MEGAPOLI project (Megacities: Emissions, urban, regional and Global Atmospheric POLlution and climate effects, and Integrated tools for assessment and mitigation). The deployed instruments measured physical and chemical properties of sub-micron aerosol particles, gas phase constituents of relevance for urban air pollution studies and meteorological parameters. The emission plume was identified based on fresh pollutant (e.g., particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, black carbon, CO2 and NOx) concentration changes in combination with wind direction data. The classification into megacity influenced and background air masses allowed a characterization of the emission plume during summer and winter environmental conditions. On average, a clear increase of fresh pollutant concentrations in plume compared to background air masses was found for both seasons. For example, an average increase of 190% (+ 8.8 ng m-3) in summer and of 130% (+ 18.1 ng m-3) in winter was found for particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in plume air masses. The aerosol particle size distribution in plume air masses was influenced by nucleation and growth due to coagulation and condensation in summer, while in winter only the latter process (i.e., particle growth) seemed to be initiated by urban pollution. The observed distribution of fresh pollutants in the emission plume - its cross sectional Gaussian-like profile and the exponential decrease of pollutant concentrations with increasing distance to the megacity - are in agreement with model results. Differences between model and measurements were found for plume center location, plume width and axial plume extent. In general, dilution was identified as the dominant process determining the axial variations within the Paris

  1. Size-dependent particle activation properties in fog during the ParisFog 2012/13 field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, E.; Gysel, M.; Roberts, G. C.; Elias, T.; Hofer, J.; Hoyle, C. R.; Bukowiecki, N.; Dupont, J.-C.; Burnet, F.; Baltensperger, U.; Weingartner, E.

    2014-10-01

    Fog-induced visibility reduction is responsible for a variety of hazards in the transport sector. Therefore there is a large demand for an improved understanding of fog formation and thus improved forecasts. Improved fog forecasts require a better understanding of the numerous complex mechanisms during the fog life cycle. During winter 2012/13 a field campaign called ParisFog aiming at fog research took place at SIRTA (Instrumented Site for Atmospheric Remote Sensing Research). SIRTA is located about 20 km southwest of the Paris city center, France, in a semi-urban environment. In situ activation properties of the prevailing fog were investigated by measuring (1) total and interstitial (non-activated) dry particle number size distributions behind two different inlet systems; (2) interstitial hydrated aerosol and fog droplet size distributions at ambient conditions; and (3) cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentration at different supersaturations (SS) with a CCN counter. The aerosol particles were characterized regarding their hygroscopic properties, fog droplet activation behavior and contribution to light scattering for 17 developed fog events. Low particle hygroscopicity with an overall median of the hygroscopicity parameter, κ, of 0.14 was found, likely caused by substantial influence from local traffic and wood burning emissions. Measurements of the aerosol size distribution at ambient RH revealed that the critical wet diameter, above which the hydrated aerosols activate to fog droplets, is rather large (with a median value of 2.6μm) and is highly variable (ranging from 1 to 5μm) between the different fog events. Thus, the number of activated fog droplets was very small and the non-activated hydrated particles were found to contribute significantly to the observed light scattering and thus to the reduction in visibility. Combining all experimental data, the effective peak supersaturation, SSpeak, a measure of the peak supersaturation during the fog

  2. Geochemical and palynological records for the end-Triassic Mass-Extinction Event in the NE Paris Basin (Luxemburg)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhlmann, Natascha; van de Schootbrugge, Bas; Thein, Jean; Fiebig, Jens; Franz, Sven-Oliver; Hanzo, Micheline; Colbach, Robert; Faber, Alain

    2016-04-01

    The End-Triassic mass-extinction event is one of the "big five" mass extinctions in Earth's history. Large scale flood basalt volcanism associated with the break-up of Pangaea, which resulted in the opening of the central Atlantic Ocean, is considered as the leading cause. In addition, an asteroid impact in Rochechouart (France; 201 ± 2 Ma) may have had a local influence on ecosystems and sedimentary settings. The Luxembourg Embayment, in the NE Paris Basin, offers a rare chance to study both effects in a range of settings from deltaic to lagoonal. A multidisciplinary study (sedimentology, geochemistry, palynology) has been carried out on a number of outcrops and cores that span from the Norian to lower Hettangian. Combined geochemical and palynological records from the Boust core drilled in the NE Paris Basin, provide evidence for paleoenvironmental changes associated with the end-Triassic mass-extinction event. The Triassic-Jurassic stratigraphy of the Boust core is well constrained by palynomorphs showing the disappaerance of typical Triassic pollen taxa (e.g. Ricciisporites tuberculates) and the occurrence of the marker species Polypodiisporites polymicroforatus within the uppermost Rhaetian, prior to the Hettangian dominance of Classopollis pollen. The organic carbon stable isotope record (δ13Corg) spanning the Norian to Hettangian, shows a series of prominent negative excursions within the middle Rhaetian, followed by a trend towards more positive values (approx -24 per mille) within the uppermost Rhaetian Argiles de Levallois Member. The lowermost Hettangian is characterized by a major negative excursion, reaching - 30 per mille that occurs in organic-rich sediments. This so-called "main negative excursion" is well-known from other locations, for example from Mariental in Northern Germany and from St Audrie's Bay in England, and Stenlille in Denmark. Based on redox-sensitive trace element records (V, Cr, Ni, Co, Th, U) the lowermost Hettangian in most of

  3. [The family relationships of Antoine Brulon, apothecary to the king, and his wife, Anne de Furnes, in Auvergne and Paris in the 17th century. Anne de Furnes and Molière in Paris and the village of Auteuil].

    PubMed

    Warolin, Christian

    2011-07-01

    This article presents the biography of Anne de Fumes, wife of Antoine Brulon, the king's apothecary. Due to the successive deaths of her husband and her only daughter, Geneviève, her sisters-in-law, Géraude and Anne Brulon, living in Auvergne, inherited the property of their niece. Anne de Fumes, who inherited the movable assets, carried out a series of transactions to acquire the totality of the property rights, which she obtained, but at the considerable cost of 100,000 pounds. After her death, her five nephews and nieces, her sole legatees, inherited her estate. From 1666, Molière was the tenant of an apartment in a building in the Rue Saint-Thomas-du-Louvre, Place du Palais-Royal, in Paris, which belonged to Anne de Fumes. She lived in the neighbouring house in the Rue Saint-Honoré of which she was also the owner. Three apothecaries, Philibert Boudin, Jean Morel and Pierre Frapin, successively rented the shop and entresol of the house in the Rue Saint-Thomas-du-Louvre. Pierre Frapin, tenant of the shop from 1668, supplied Molière with medicine. Like Molière, Anne de Fumes rented accommodation in a house in the village of Auteuil belonging to Jacques de Grout de Beaufort and his wife Marie Filz. Reports show that the famous actor and Anne de Fumes cohabited in Auteuil during the period 1667 to 1672. PMID:21998974

  4. The AIRPARIF-AEROSOL project: A comprehensive source apportionment study of fine aerosols (PM2.5) in the region of Paris (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciare, Jean; Ghersi, Veronique; Bressi, Michael; Lameloise, Philippe; Bonnaire, Nicolas; Rosso, Amandine; Nicolas, Jose; Moukhtar, Sophie; Ferron, Anais; Baumier, Dominique

    2010-05-01

    With a population of about 12 millions inhabitants (20% of the French population), Greater Paris (France) is one of the most populated megacity in Europe and among the few located in developed countries. Due to its favorable geographical situation (far from other big European cities and influenced very often by clean oceanic air masses), it may be considered as a good candidate for investigating the build-up of urban air pollution from temperate industrialized countries. Particulate mass of fine aerosols with aerodynamic diameter below 2.5μm (PM2.5) is continuously monitored at several stations from great Paris for almost 8 years by the local air quality network (AIRPARIF), using a conventional on-line automatic system (R&P TEOM; see Patashnik and Rupprecht, 1991). During the period 2000-2006, levels of PM2.5 in the region of Paris have shown rather stable yearly mean values ranging 13 to 16?g/m3 whereas most of the other pollutants monitored by AIRPARIF have shown a net decrease during this period (http:\\www.airparif.asso.fr). Since the year 2007, this situation has becoming worse for particulate pollution with a net increase of the yearly mean concentration of PM2.5 (up to 21?g/m3), which increase is partly due to the use of a new PM2.5 measurement technique (R&P TEOM-FDMS instrument) enabling a proper determination of the semi-volatile fraction of fine aerosols. Although this new method greatly improves the determination of PM2.5, it has also brought PM2.5 levels in the region of Paris closer to the 25?g/m3 yearly mean targeted value recommended by Europe for 2010 (limit value for 2015). Efficient abatement policies aiming at reducing levels of PM2.5 in the region of Paris will have to be fed by preliminary PM2.5 source apportionment studies and exhaustive aerosol chemistry studies (chemical mass balance) allowing a better separation between regional to continental aerosol sources. The objective of the AIRPARIF-AEROSOL project aims to perform a spatially- and

  5. The horizontal and vertical semi-diameters of the Sun observed at the Cape of Good Hope (1834 - 1887) and Paris (1837 - 1906): A report on work in progress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, C.; Messina, D.

    1981-01-01

    Cape and Paris meridian observations of the solar limbs which permit an estimate to be made of the solar semi-diameter were surveyed, sampled, and compared with Greenwich and U.S. Naval Observatory observations. Significant systematic errors were found in the Paris work and have been correlated with changes of instruments and observers. Results from the Cape series indicate that work should continue on the compilation of data from Cape observations of the Sun.

  6. International Project on Technical and Vocational Education (UNEVOC). International Advisory Committee (Third Session, Paris, France, October 2-4, 1995). Final Report = Projet International pour l'Enseignement Technique et Professionnel (UNEVOC). Comite Consultatif International (Troisieme Session, Paris, France, 2-4 octobre 1995). Rapport Final.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    The international advisory committee of the International Project on Technical and Vocational Education (UNEVOC) held its third session in Paris in October 1995. Advisory committee members and observers from the United Nations' specialized, intergovernmental, and nongovernmental organizations reviewed the major UNEVOC project activities undertaken…

  7. The Cd and Zn Isotope Compositions of PM10 in the Atmosphere of Paris: New Tools for Discrimination and Tracking of the Origin of Metallic Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petelet-Giraud, E.; Widory, D.; Innocent, C.; Quetel, C.; Le Bihan, O.; Fraboulet, I.; Forti, L.; Joos, E.; Goupil, G.; Canard, E.

    2008-12-01

    Due to their relatively high concentration in urban environments (from 10 to more than 50 μg.m-3), atmospheric particles (PM10) have potential damaging effects on the Public Health. Hence, the development of measures dealing with fine particulate matter is considered a priority by the EU Clean Air For Europe (CAFE) Program. Still, the origin of these airborne particles is subject to debate, as classical chemical methods showed their limitations. Recent studies have shown that stable isotopes of elements such as carbon, nitrogen or lead could be of great help in the search of new particle air pollution tracking tools. We will present here preliminary results on the pioneer use of stable isotope compositions of cadmium, zinc and mercury to help decipher the different possible origins of PM10 pollution in the atmosphere of Paris (France). Main potential sources were characterized: (1) waste incineration, (2) road traffic, (3) central heating and (4) coal-fired power plants. Results show that the use of cadmium (d114Cd) and zinc (d66Zn) isotopes, and the combination of both provides a reliable and precise tool for discriminating the different families of particle vectors. The isotope systematic of mercury (d200Hg) is more difficult to apprehend due to the low levels encountered (mercury is mainly present under gaseous form, but is still observed at low concentrations in particles), but does show significant variations between the different sources. Daily cumulative air samples were taken on three different locations, covering different scenarios in Paris city: 1) background pollution in Paris, 2) under the plume of a major pollution source and 3) Paris vicinity. Corresponding chemical and isotope analyses help identify the main vectors for the three elements (Cd, Zn and Hg) considered as well as assess their respective contributions to the levels of pollution observed.

  8. Finite Time Extinction for Stochastic Sign Fast Diffusion and Self-Organized Criticality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gess, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    We prove finite time extinction for stochastic sign fast diffusion equations driven by linear multiplicative space-time noise, corresponding to the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld model for self-organized criticality. This solves a problem posed and left open in several works: (Barbu, Methods Appl Sci 36:1726-1733, 2013; Röckner and Wang, J Lond Math Soc (2) 87:545-560, 2013; Barbu et al. J Math Anal Appl 389:147-164, 2012; Barbu and Röckner, Comm Math Phys 311:539-555, 2012; Barbu et al., Comm Math Phys 285:901-923, 2009, C R Math Acad Sci Paris 347(1-2):81-84, 2009). The highly singular-degenerate nature of the drift in interplay with the stochastic perturbation causes the need for new methods in the analysis of mass diffusion, and several new estimates and techniques are introduced.

  9. A new method for estimating emission ratios in the urban atmosphere: examples of ratios to CO2, CO and volatile organic compounds in Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammoura, L.; Xueref-Remy, I.; Vogel, F.; Gros, V.; Baudic, A.; Bonsang, B.; Delmotte, M.; Té, Y.; Chevallier, F.

    2015-09-01

    We propose a new approach to estimate urban emission ratios that takes advantage of the enhanced local urban signal in the atmosphere at low wind speed. We apply it to estimate monthly ratios between CO2, CO and some VOCs from several atmospheric concentration measurement datasets acquired in the centre of Paris between 2010 and 2014. We find that this approach is little sensitive to the regional background level definition and that, in the case of Paris, it samples all days (weekdays and weekends) and all hours of the day evenly. A large seasonal variability of the ΔCO/ΔCO2 ratio in Paris is shown, with a difference of around 60 % between the extreme values and a strong anti-correlation (r2 = 0.75) with atmospheric temperature. The comparison of the ratios obtained for two short measurement campaigns conducted in two different districts and two different periods (fall and winter) shows differences ranging from -120 to +63 %. A comparison with a highly resolved regional emission inventory suggests some spatial variations of the ratio within the city, although most of these differences seem to be rather driven by the seasonal variability.

  10. Anticancer Effects of Paris Saponins by Apoptosis and PI3K/AKT Pathway in Gefitinib-Resistant Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xinhai; Jiang, Hao; Li, Jinhui; Xu, Ji; Fei, Zhenghua

    2016-01-01

    Background Paris saponins have been studied for their anticancer effects in various cancer types, but the mechanisms underlying the cytotoxic effects, especially in EGFR-TKI-resistant cells, are still unclear. We explored the potential mechanism of the antitumor effects of PSI, II, VI, VII in EGFR-TKI-resistant cells and attempted to develop PSI, II, VI, VII as a systemic treatment strategy for EGFR-TKI-resistant lung cancer. Material/Methods Growth inhibition was detected by MTT assay. The apoptosis assay was detected using annexin-V/PI and Hoechst staining. The level of PI3K, pAKT, Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-3, and caspase-9 protein expression were detected using Western blot analysis. Results The results revealed that PSI, II, VI, VII inhibited the proliferation of PC-9-ZD cells. Furthermore, PSI, II, VI, VII induced significant cell apoptosis. The levels of PI3K, pAKT, Bcl-2 protein decreased, while the Bax, caspase-3, and caspase-9 protein was increased by PSI, II, PSVI, PSVII treatment and resulted in increased sensitivity to gefitinib in PC-9-ZD cells. Conclusions The underlying mechanism of Paris saponins may be related to targeting the PI3K/AKT pathways to cause apoptosis. Our results suggest a therapeutic potential of Paris saponins in clinical settings for gefitinib-resistant NSCLC. PMID:27125283

  11. Anticancer Effects of Paris Saponins by Apoptosis and PI3K/AKT Pathway in Gefitinib-Resistant Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhu, XinHai; Jiang, Hao; Li, Jinhui; Xu, Ji; Fei, Zhenghua

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Paris saponins have been studied for their anticancer effects in various cancer types, but the mechanisms underlying the cytotoxic effects, especially in EGFR-TKI-resistant cells, are still unclear. We explored the potential mechanism of the antitumor effects of PSI, II, VI, VII in EGFR-TKI-resistant cells and attempted to develop PSI, II, VI, VII as a systemic treatment strategy for EGFR-TKI-resistant lung cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS Growth inhibition was detected by MTT assay. The apoptosis assay was detected using annexin-V/PI and Hoechst staining. The level of PI3K, pAKT, Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-3, and caspase-9 protein expression were detected using Western blot analysis. RESULTS The results revealed that PSI, II, VI, VII inhibited the proliferation of PC-9-ZD cells. Furthermore, PSI, II, VI, VII induced significant cell apoptosis. The levels of PI3K, pAKT, Bcl-2 protein decreased, while the Bax, caspase-3, and caspase-9 protein was increased by PSI, II, PSVI, PSVII treatment and resulted in increased sensitivity to gefitinib in PC-9-ZD cells. CONCLUSIONS The underlying mechanism of Paris saponins may be related to targeting the PI3K/AKT pathways to cause apoptosis. Our results suggest a therapeutic potential of Paris saponins in clinical settings for gefitinib-resistant NSCLC. PMID:27125283

  12. Sexism and anatomy, as discerned in textbooks and as perceived by medical students at Cardiff University and University of Paris Descartes

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Susan; Plaisant, Odile; Lignier, Baptiste; Moxham, Bernard J

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary textbooks of anatomy and surface anatomy were evaluated to ascertain whether they were gender-neutral. The evidence of this, and previous studies, suggests that, both in terms of imagery and text, many textbooks lack neutrality. To further investigate such matters, we provided second-year medical students studying at Cardiff University (n = 293) and at the Paris Descartes University (n = 142) during the 2011–2012 academic year with a questionnaire inviting them to address the possibility that social/gender factors hinder the dispassionate representation of anatomy. Ethical approval was obtained from both Cardiff and Paris universities. Eighty-six percent of the students at Cardiff and 39% at Paris Descartes responded and provided data for analysis. The hypothesis tested is that medical students perceive a gender bias that is reflected in the books they read and the tuition they receive. Our findings suggest that, while students recognise the importance of gender issues and do not wish to associate with sexism, most are unaware of the possible negative aspects of sexism within anatomy. In this respect, the findings do not support our hypothesis. Nevertheless, we recommended that teachers of anatomy and authors of anatomy textbooks should be aware of the possibility of adverse effects on professional matters relating to equality and diversity issues. PMID:23781866

  13. The PARIS cluster coupled to the BaFPro electronic module: data analysis from the NRF experiment at the γELBE facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasilewska, B.; Bednarczyk, P.; Boiano, C.; Brambilla, S.; Camera, F.; Ciemała, M.; Dorvaux, O.; Giaz, A.; Jastrzab, M.; Kihel, S.; Kmiecik, M.; Maj, A.; Matea, I.; Massarczyk, R.; Mazumdar, I.; Mentana, A.; Napiorkowski, P.; Sowicki, B.; Schwengner, R.; Riboldi, S.; Ziebliński, M.; PARIS Collaboration

    2015-06-01

    The first cluster of the constructed PARIS calorimeter was assembled and tested at the γELBE facility at HZDR, Dresden, Germany. The experiment was aimed at the evaluation of the performance of each detector separately as well as the whole PARIS cluster with discrete γ-ray energies seen by the PARIS ranging up to 8.9 MeV. As the detectors use phoswich configuration, with 2" × 2" × 2" LaBr3(Ce) crystal coupled to 2" × 2" × 6" NaI(Tl) one, great care must be taken during the data analysis process to obtain the best possible values for energy resolution. Two algorithms for data transformation from matrices created with slow vs fast pulse shaping to energy spectra were tested from which one was chosen for further analysis. An algorithm for adding back energies of γ-rays scattered inside the cluster was prepared, as well. Energy resolution for γ-rays in 2-8 MeV range was estimated and is presented in this paper.

  14. Sexism and anatomy, as discerned in textbooks and as perceived by medical students at Cardiff University and University of Paris Descartes.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Susan; Plaisant, Odile; Lignier, Baptiste; Moxham, Bernard J

    2014-03-01

    Contemporary textbooks of anatomy and surface anatomy were evaluated to ascertain whether they were gender-neutral. The evidence of this, and previous studies, suggests that, both in terms of imagery and text, many textbooks lack neutrality. To further investigate such matters, we provided second-year medical students studying at Cardiff University (n = 293) and at the Paris Descartes University (n = 142) during the 2011-2012 academic year with a questionnaire inviting them to address the possibility that social/gender factors hinder the dispassionate representation of anatomy. Ethical approval was obtained from both Cardiff and Paris universities. Eighty-six percent of the students at Cardiff and 39% at Paris Descartes responded and provided data for analysis. The hypothesis tested is that medical students perceive a gender bias that is reflected in the books they read and the tuition they receive. Our findings suggest that, while students recognise the importance of gender issues and do not wish to associate with sexism, most are unaware of the possible negative aspects of sexism within anatomy. In this respect, the findings do not support our hypothesis. Nevertheless, we recommended that teachers of anatomy and authors of anatomy textbooks should be aware of the possibility of adverse effects on professional matters relating to equality and diversity issues. PMID:23781866

  15. SciBox, an Integrated Instrument and Spacecraft Planning and Commanding System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choo, T. H.; Murchie, S. L.; Bedini, P. D.; Nair, H.; McGovern, J. A.

    2012-10-01

    SciBox is a revolutionary, proven approach to planning and sequencing orbital science observations. It automates searching for and selecting observing opportunities, construction of sequences, conflict resolution, sequence validation and commanding.

  16. High level of depressive symptoms as a barrier to reach an ideal cardiovascular health. The Paris Prospective Study III

    PubMed Central

    Gaye, B.; Prugger, C.; Perier, M. C.; Thomas, F.; Plichart, M.; Guibout, C.; Lemogne, C.; Pannier, B.; Boutouyrie, P.; Jouven, X.; Empana, J. P.

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesized that depression might represent a barrier to reach an ideal cardiovascular health (CVH) as estimated by the 7-item tool proposed by the American Heart Association. Between 2008 and 2012, 9,417 subjects 50–75 years of age were examined in a large health center and enrolled in the Paris Prospective Study III (PPS3). Participants with 0–2, 3–4 and 5–7 health metrics at the ideal level were categorized as having poor, intermediate and ideal CVH, respectively. Participants with a score ≥7 on the 13-item Questionnaire of Depression 2nd version, Abridged or who were on antidepressants were referred as having high level of depressive symptoms (HLDS). The mean age of the 9417 study participants was 59.57 (SD 6.28) years and 61.16% were males. A total of 9.55% had HLDS. Poor, intermediate and ideal CVH was present in 40.38%, 49.52% and 10.10% of the participants. In multivariate polytomous logistic regression analysis, HLDS was inversely associated with ideal CVH (odds ratio = 0.70; 95% CI: 0.55;0.90). This was driven by an association with the behavioural component of the CVH. Participants with HLDS had a substantial reduced chance of reaching an ideal CVH. PMID:26743318

  17. THE TYPES OF PALAEARCTIC HIPPORHININI (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Cyclominae) CONSERVED AT THE MUSÉUM NATIONAL D'HISTOIRE NATURELLE, PARIS.

    PubMed

    Meregalli, Massimo; Perrin, Hélène

    2015-01-01

    The Palaearctic species of Curculionidae: Cyclominae: Hipporhinini conserved at the Muséum national d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris were critically revised in order to recognise the type specimens, select lectotypes or, where necessary, designate neotypes. Out of 135 species whose types were presumably preserved in the MNHN, original type specimens of 116 could be found. The holotypes of 21 species were available, either because originally designated as such, or because the species was unequivocally based on a single specimen; a paratype of another taxon, whose holotype is preserved in another collection, was also examined. The lectotypes of 93 species were designated, and a syntype of another species was also seen. Neotypes of 10 more species were designated, thus leading to a total number of species whose type is conserved at the MNHN to 126. Type specimens of five more species described by French authors, not present in the MNHN but conserved in other museums, were found as well and were included in the paper, with the further designation of three lectotypes. All types treated herein were labelled and photographed. PMID:26624774

  18. Reappraisal of the specific status of Rhabdias (Nematoda: Rhabdiasoidea) from Malagasy chameleons in the Paris museum collection.

    PubMed

    Lhermitte-Vallarino, N; Junker, K; Bain, O

    2009-06-01

    To date Rhabdias gemellipara is the only species described from Malagasy chameleons, but heterogeneity of the material had been suspected. 11 samples of Rhabdias parasites present in the Paris Natural History Museum collection were examined. The size and shape of the buccal capsule, shape and length of the oesophagus, shape of the apical region of the intestine, extent of the genital tract and structure of the cuticular vesicle led to the distinction of five species. Rhabdias rabetafikae n. sp. parasitises Columma cucullatum in the northeastern region (Cap Machoual). In the eastern region, R. nasutum n. sp. is parasitic in C. nasutum, and R. brevicorne n. sp. in C. brevicorne. All three species are similar in size to the African species parasitic in chameleons from which they can be distinguished by several characters. The small species, R. gemellipara, type host C. parsonii from the eastern region, was also found in C. brevicorne from the same geographic region. In the central region, Rhabdias sp., equally collected from C. brevicorne, is distinguished from R. gemellipara by a laterally flattened buccal capsule. All Malagasy species are hermaphrodites. Throughout the worm's life spermatozoids are formed intermittently in a band of cells situated at 1-2 mm from the extremity of the ovaries; they migrate in the ovaries and accumulate in the oviducts. PMID:19585889

  19. The in/visible women: Mariangela Ardinghelli and the circulation of knowledge between Paris and Naples in the eighteenth century.

    PubMed

    Bertucci, Paola

    2013-06-01

    Mariangela Ardinghelli (1730-1825) is remembered as the Italian translator of two texts by the Newtonian physiologist Stephen Hales, Haemastaticks and Vegetable Staticks. This essay shows that her role in the Republic of Letters was by no means limited to such work. At a time of increasing interest in the natural history of the areas around Naples, she became a reliable cultural mediator for French travelers and naturalists. She also acted as an informal foreign correspondent for the Paris Academy of Sciences, connecting scientific communities in Naples and France. Unlike other learned women of the time, Ardinghelli was neither an aristocrat nor a member of the ascendant middle class. The essay discusses the strategies she devised to build her authority and her choice of anonymity at the apex of her popularity, when she translated scientific texts by contemporary celebrities such as the abbé Nollet and the comte de Buffon. It argues that, in spite of Ardinghelli's historical invisibility, for her contemporaries she never became an "invisible assistant": she constructed layers of selective visibility that allowed her authorship to be identified by specific audiences, while protecting herself from social isolation or derision. PMID:23961687

  20. Gothic Churches in Paris ST Gervais et ST Protais Image Matching 3d Reconstruction to Understand the Vaults System Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capone, M.; Campi, M.; Catuogno, R.

    2015-02-01

    This paper is part of a research about ribbed vaults systems in French Gothic Cathedrals. Our goal is to compare some different gothic cathedrals to understand the complex geometry of the ribbed vaults. The survey isn't the main objective but it is the way to verify the theoretical hypotheses about geometric configuration of the flamboyant churches in Paris. The survey method's choice generally depends on the goal; in this case we had to study many churches in a short time, so we chose 3D reconstruction method based on image dense stereo matching. This method allowed us to obtain the necessary information to our study without bringing special equipment, such as the laser scanner. The goal of this paper is to test image matching 3D reconstruction method in relation to some particular study cases and to show the benefits and the troubles. From a methodological point of view this is our workflow: - theoretical study about geometrical configuration of rib vault systems; - 3D model based on theoretical hypothesis about geometric definition of the vaults' form; - 3D model based on image matching 3D reconstruction methods; - comparison between 3D theoretical model and 3D model based on image matching;

  1. Glycol ethers and semen quality: a cross‐sectional study among male workers in the Paris Municipality

    PubMed Central

    Multigner, L; Brik, E Ben; Arnaud, I; Haguenoer, J M; Jouannet, P; Auger, J; Eustache, F

    2007-01-01

    Objectives Apparent increases in human male reproductive disorders, including low sperm production, may have occurred because of increased chemical exposure. Various glycol ether‐based solvents have pronounced adverse effects on sperm production and male fertility in laboratory animals. The authors investigated the effects of past and current exposure to glycol ether‐containing products on semen quality and reproductive hormones among men employed by the Paris Municipality. Methods Between 2000 and 2001 the authors recruited 109 men who gave semen, blood and urine samples and underwent an andrological examination. Information on lifestyle, occupation, exposure and medical history was obtained by interview. According to their job and chemical products used during the period 1990–2000, men were classified as either occupationally exposed or non‐exposed. Current exposure levels to glycol ethers at the time of the study were evaluated by biological monitoring of six urinary metabolites. Results Previous exposure to glycol ethers was associated with an increased risk for sperm concentration, for rapid progressive motility and for morphologically normal sperm below the World Health Organization semen reference values. No effect of previous glycol ether exposure on hormones levels was observed. By contrast, current glycol ether exposure levels were low and not correlated with either seminal quality or hormone levels. Conclusions This study suggests that most glycol ethers currently used do not impact on human semen characteristics. Those that were more prevalent from the 1960s until recently may have long lasting negative effects on human semen quality. PMID:17332140

  2. How to Catch All Those Mutations—The Report of the Third Human Variome Project Meeting, UNESCO Paris, May 2010

    PubMed Central

    Kohonen-Corish, Maija R.J.; Al-Aama, Jumana Y.; Auerbach, Arleen D.; Axton, Myles; Barash, Carol Isaacson; Bernstein, Inge; Béroud, Christophe; Burn, John; Cunningham, Fiona; Cutting, Garry R.; den Dunnen, Johan T.; Greenblatt, Marc S.; Kaput, Jim; Katz, Michael; Lindblom, Annika; Macrae, Finlay; Maglott, Donna; Möslein, Gabriela; Povey, Sue; Ramesar, Raj; Richards, Sue; Seminara, Daniela; Sobrido, María-Jesús; Tavtigian, Sean; Taylor, Graham; Vihinen, Mauno; Winship, Ingrid; Cotton, Richard G.H.

    2011-01-01

    The third Human Variome Project (HVP) Meeting “Integration and Implementation” was held under UNESCO Patronage in Paris, France, at the UNESCO Headquarters May 10–14, 2010. The major aims of the HVP are the collection, curation, and distribution of all human genetic variation affecting health. The HVP has drawn together disparate groups, by country, gene of interest, and expertise, who are working for the common good with the shared goal of pushing the boundaries of the human variome and collaborating to avoid unnecessary duplication. The meeting addressed the 12 key areas that form the current framework of HVP activities: Ethics; Nomenclature and Standards; Publication, Credit and Incentives; Data Collection from Clinics; Overall Data Integration and Access—Peripheral Systems/Software; Data Collection from Laboratories; Assessment of Pathogenicity; Country Specific Collection; Translation to Healthcare and Personalized Medicine; Data Transfer, Databasing, and Curation; Overall Data Integration and Access—Central Systems; and Funding Mechanisms and Sustainability. In addition, three societies that support the goals and the mission of HVP also held their own Workshops with the view to advance disease-specific variation data collection and utilization: the International Society for Gastrointestinal Hereditary Tumours, the Micronutrient Genomics Project, and the Neurogenetics Consortium. PMID:20960468

  3. Novel experimental design for high pressure-high temperature electrical resistance measurements in a "Paris-Edinburgh" large volume press.

    PubMed

    Matityahu, Shlomi; Emuna, Moran; Yahel, Eyal; Makov, Guy; Greenberg, Yaron

    2015-04-01

    We present a novel experimental design for high sensitivity measurements of the electrical resistance of samples at high pressures (0-6 GPa) and high temperatures (300-1000 K) in a "Paris-Edinburgh" type large volume press. Uniquely, the electrical measurements are carried out directly on a small sample, thus greatly increasing the sensitivity of the measurement. The sensitivity to even minor changes in electrical resistance can be used to clearly identify phase transitions in material samples. Electrical resistance measurements are relatively simple and rapid to execute and the efficacy of the present experimental design is demonstrated by measuring the electrical resistance of Pb, Sn, and Bi across a wide domain of temperature-pressure phase space and employing it to identify the loci of phase transitions. Based on these results, the phase diagrams of these elements are reconstructed to high accuracy and found to be in excellent agreement with previous studies. In particular, by mapping the locations of several well-studied reference points in the phase diagram of Sn and Bi, it is demonstrated that a standard calibration exists for the temperature and pressure, thus eliminating the need for direct or indirect temperature and pressure measurements. The present technique will allow simple and accurate mapping of phase diagrams under extreme conditions and may be of particular importance in advancing studies of liquid state anomalies. PMID:25933866

  4. Highlights from the 2016 WIN Symposium, 27–29 June 2016, Paris: personalised therapy beyond next-generation sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Schilsky, Richard; Davies, Will

    2016-01-01

    The Worldwide Innovative Networking (WIN) consortium is an alliance of academic institutions, pharmaceutical partners, representatives from technology companies and charitable/health payer organisations from across the globe. For the last six years, the consortium’s aims have been to foster communication and collaboration between members, encourage dialogue in an open forum, and deliver clinical trial results that improve the care and outcomes of patients with cancer using the latest advances in genomic-based medicine. The annual WIN Symposium, held over two days, is a chance for its members to come together and discuss ongoing research, recent announcements, and introduce new developments in personalised medicine. This year’s conference, held in Paris, France 27–29 June, consisted of six dedicated sessions, including two debates, and posters from members and participating organisations, all focusing on the latest therapeutic advances and updates in genomic analysis. Special highlights from this year included discussion of the MINDACT clinical trial, which uses a gene expression test to identify patients with breast cancer who can safely forego adjuvant chemotherapy, and the reflections on the SHIVA trial. Of particular interest to many speakers was the utilisation of liquid biopsy samples to produce near real time snapshots of tumour mutational profiles and vulnerability. PMID:27610195

  5. High resolution sequence stratigraphy of Scythian-early Anisian continental deposits of east of Paris basin: Applications to gas storage

    SciTech Connect

    Roselyne, F.; Guillocheau, F.; Wicquart, E.

    1995-08-01

    Continental facies of Scythian-early Anisian age (Buntsandstein) of East of the Paris Basin form the underground gas storage reservoir exploited by Gaz de France in the area of Nancy (east of France). An accurate sedimentological study and the application of Genetic Stratigraphy principles lead to the understanding of the deposition of fluvial, which form the reservoirs, and to the reconstruction of their geometries. The subsurface data are calibrated on outcrops. Three types of fluvial systems (braided, sinuous to straight and anastomosed) are defined. A special focus on anastomosed channels permits to differentiate a proximal and a distal facies. Study of laterally continuous outcrops induces recurrent cycles of thickness, velocity and time variations (few tens to hundred ka). These correspond to the highest frequence stratigraphic units, i.e. parasequences or genetic units. Maximum of channel and levee presentation occurs during base-level rise: base-level fall is characterised by amalgamation of sets, by-pass and erosion. This method is applied to subsurface data by an accurate calibration of well logs on cores. Thus the electric expression of genetic units corresponding to different environments is determined as well as the expression of base-level variations. The correlation of these units using stacking pattern method leads to a very fine subdivision of reservoir between timelines. Different orders of depositional sequences are pointed out, resulting in reservoir geometry characterization and permeability barrier distribution.

  6. Sequence stratigraphy of the Jurassic: New data from the Paris-London basin compiled on well logs

    SciTech Connect

    Ponsot, C.M.; Vail, P.R. )

    1991-03-01

    A sequence stratigraphic analysis of the Jurassic sedimentary succession in Paris basin is derived from an integration of subsurface log correlations, field observations, and reinterpretations of field descriptions. The analysis is presented on two log sections, one crossing the basin from northeast to southwest and the other from northwest to southeast (approximately 80 logs). A vast quantity of field data, collected all around the Parsi basin (English Dorset, French Normandy, Manche, Ardennes, Lorraine, Bourgogne) allowed the sequences and system tracts boundaries to be traced and dated at the same time or prior to being recognized on well log data. In comparison with the Haq et al. 1987 cycle chart, 16 new sequences have been added: three for the Lias, seven for the Dogger, and six for the Malm. Occasionally, ages of some of the already recognized sequences boundaries have been slightly modified to fit new biostratal data. These biostratal data were usually at the scale of the ammonite sub-zone and the actual give ages all tie with the 1987 Haq et al. chart time scale.

  7. Borehole magnetostratigraphy, absolute age dating, and correlation of sedimentary rocks, with examples from the Paris Basin, France

    SciTech Connect

    Bouisset, P.M. ); Augustin, A.M. )

    1993-04-01

    Total and CEA have conceived and developed two new logging tools which allow continuous, precise, and accurate in-situ magnetic measurements within weakly magnetized sedimentary rocks encountered in uncased industry drilled wells. The combination of these magnetic measurements permits for the first time continuous determination of natural remanent magnetization (NRM) polarities occurring in the logged section. The resulting well magnetostratigraphic sequence (WMS) which may be recognized from well to well (magnetostratigraphic correlations), may also be correlative to a geomagnetic polarity time scale (GPTS) of reference magnetostratigraphic scale (RMS), given adequate dating tie points and lack of noticeable remagnetizations. Application of this method to the Upper Jurrasic formation in four wells of the Paris basin has yielded promising results for both stratigraphic and near absolute age correlations as well as determination of facies diachronisms. The comparison of results obtained from magnetic measurements and from sequence stratigraphy analysis shows that third-order sequence boundaries may be correlative to geomagnetic reversals, but may also be diachronous in wells 80 km or less apart. The potential of borehole magnetic measurements as presented in this paper is still under investigation. However, these encouraging initial results show that this new investigating and dating method could be of great help in the analysis of subsurface stratigraphy by extending the concepts of magnetostratigraphy from the outcrops and laboratory directly into borehole logging. 81 refs., 18 figs.

  8. Identification and structural elucidation of steroidal saponins from the root of Paris polyphylla by HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Ling, Yun; Fu, Zhiwen; Zhang, Qing; Xu, Lingling; Liao, Liang

    2015-01-01

    The root of Paris polyphylla (RPP) is widely used as a traditional Chinese medicine for a long time due to the good properties of heat-clearing and detoxicating, detumescence, sedation, acesodyne and haemostasis. To clarify on the bioactive substances and ensure the safety in clinical medication, a feasible and accurate strategy was developed by applying the high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionisation and quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS). Separation was performed an Agilent poroshell 120 EC-C18 column (2.7 × 100 mm, i.d., 2.7 μm) with 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution and acetonitrile as the mobile phase under gradient conditions. Based on the proposed strategy, 30 constituents, mainly including steroidal saponins, were characterised or tentatively identified, 2 of which were the first to be reported as the potential new steroidal saponins in RPP. In conclusion, the HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS is a feasible and credible technique to separate and identify steroidal saponins from botanical extracts. PMID:25649342

  9. The Myriapoda and Onychophora collection (MY) of the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle (MNHN, Paris)

    PubMed Central

    Bras, Gwenaël Le; Geoffroy, Jean-Jacques; Albenga, Laurent; Mauriès, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Myriapoda and Onychophora collection dataset inventories the occurrence records of the collection of myriapods and onychophorans in the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, Paris. The dataset currently consists of 202 lots of onychophorans, representing all of those present, and almost ten thousand (9 795) lots of myriapods, representing 33 to 40% of the MNHN Myriapoda collection. This collection, which is of key historic importance, represents the results of two centuries of myriapod and onychophoran studies. The sources of the collection are worldwide, with a high representation for metropolitan France for the myriapods. None of the occurrences are yet georeferenced. Access to the dataset via the data portals of the MNHN and the GBIF has been made possible through the e-ReColNat project (ANR-11-INBS-0004). The Myriapoda and Onychophora collection of MNHN is actively expanding, hence both the collection and dataset are in continuous growth. The dataset can be accessed through the portals of GBIF at http://www.gbif.org/dataset/3287044c-8c48-4ad6-81d4-4908071bc8db and the MNHN at http://science.mnhn.fr/institution/mnhn/collection/my/item/search/form. PMID:26448704

  10. Assessing the ammonium nitrate formation regime in the Paris megacity and its representation in the CHIMERE model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petetin, Hervé; Sciare, Jean; Beekmann, Matthias; Sanchez, Olivier; Rosso, Amandine; Denier van der Gon, Hugo

    2014-05-01

    Ammonium nitrates significantly contribute to the fine particulate matter load, in particular in the Paris agglomeration where two measurement campaigns, PARTICULES and FRANCIPOL, have recently made available a large database on this compound and its gaseous precursors, nitric acid and ammonia. These new observations give the opportunity (for the first time in France) to assess the ammonium nitrate formation regime (in terms of limited species) as well as the ability of the CHIMERE chemistry-transport model to simulate each species and to reproduce in fine the observed regime. Quite satisfactory results are obtained on nitrates, mainly due to a significant contribution of imports from outside the agglomeration. However, significant biases affect both gaseous precursors. Various uncertainty sources are discussed, including those relative to ammonia trafic and agricultural emissions, thermodynamic equilibria or oxidative capacity of the atmosphere. Despite these errors, CHIMERE manages to simulate a HNO3-limited regime, in agreement with observations, at least at the daily scale. This study especially confirms that further work on the OH radical characterization in the CHIMERE model and agricultural ammonia emissions are required to improve the simulation of the ammonium nitrate formation regime.

  11. Novel experimental design for high pressure-high temperature electrical resistance measurements in a "Paris-Edinburgh" large volume press

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matityahu, Shlomi; Emuna, Moran; Yahel, Eyal; Makov, Guy; Greenberg, Yaron

    2015-04-01

    We present a novel experimental design for high sensitivity measurements of the electrical resistance of samples at high pressures (0-6 GPa) and high temperatures (300-1000 K) in a "Paris-Edinburgh" type large volume press. Uniquely, the electrical measurements are carried out directly on a small sample, thus greatly increasing the sensitivity of the measurement. The sensitivity to even minor changes in electrical resistance can be used to clearly identify phase transitions in material samples. Electrical resistance measurements are relatively simple and rapid to execute and the efficacy of the present experimental design is demonstrated by measuring the electrical resistance of Pb, Sn, and Bi across a wide domain of temperature-pressure phase space and employing it to identify the loci of phase transitions. Based on these results, the phase diagrams of these elements are reconstructed to high accuracy and found to be in excellent agreement with previous studies. In particular, by mapping the locations of several well-studied reference points in the phase diagram of Sn and Bi, it is demonstrated that a standard calibration exists for the temperature and pressure, thus eliminating the need for direct or indirect temperature and pressure measurements. The present technique will allow simple and accurate mapping of phase diagrams under extreme conditions and may be of particular importance in advancing studies of liquid state anomalies.

  12. Biogeochemical dynamics of perfluorinated alkyl acids and sulfonates in the River Seine (Paris, France) under contrasting hydrological conditions.

    PubMed

    Labadie, Pierre; Chevreuil, Marc

    2011-12-01

    The biogeochemical dynamics of 15 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were investigated in a heavily urbanised river (River Seine, Paris, France). The target compounds included C4-C10 sulfonates and C5-C14 acids; eleven PFCs were detected and ∑PFCs ranged between 31 and 91 ng L(-1) (median: 47 ng L(-1)). The molecular pattern was dominated by the perfluoroalkyl sulfonates PFHxS and PFOS (>54% of ∑PFCs), which were the only PFCs quantified in both the dissolved and particulate phases. For these PFCs, the sorbed fraction positively correlated with suspended sediment levels. Total PFC levels negatively correlated with river flow rate, which varied between 150 and 640 m(3) s(-1). This suggests the predominance of point sources (likely WWTP effluent discharge), but a contribution of non-point sources such as combined sewer overflow could not be excluded. The annual PFC mass flow was estimated at 500 kg, which is less than observed for other large European rivers. PMID:21899936

  13. The Myriapoda and Onychophora collection (MY) of the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle (MNHN, Paris).

    PubMed

    Bras, Gwenaël Le; Geoffroy, Jean-Jacques; Albenga, Laurent; Mauriès, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    The Myriapoda and Onychophora collection dataset inventories the occurrence records of the collection of myriapods and onychophorans in the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris. The dataset currently consists of 202 lots of onychophorans, representing all of those present, and almost ten thousand (9 795) lots of myriapods, representing 33 to 40% of the MNHN Myriapoda collection. This collection, which is of key historic importance, represents the results of two centuries of myriapod and onychophoran studies. The sources of the collection are worldwide, with a high representation for metropolitan France for the myriapods. None of the occurrences are yet georeferenced. Access to the dataset via the data portals of the MNHN and the GBIF has been made possible through the e-ReColNat project (ANR-11-INBS-0004). The Myriapoda and Onychophora collection of MNHN is actively expanding, hence both the collection and dataset are in continuous growth. The dataset can be accessed through the portals of GBIF at http://www.gbif.org/dataset/3287044c-8c48-4ad6-81d4-4908071bc8db and the MNHN at http://science.mnhn.fr/institution/mnhn/collection/my/item/search/form. PMID:26448704

  14. Applying Multivariate Clustering Techniques to Health Data: The 4 Types of Healthcare Utilization in the Paris Metropolitan Area

    PubMed Central

    Lefèvre, Thomas; Rondet, Claire; Parizot, Isabelle; Chauvin, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Background Cost containment policies and the need to satisfy patients’ health needs and care expectations provide major challenges to healthcare systems. Identification of homogeneous groups in terms of healthcare utilisation could lead to a better understanding of how to adjust healthcare provision to society and patient needs. Methods This study used data from the third wave of the SIRS cohort study, a representative, population-based, socio-epidemiological study set up in 2005 in the Paris metropolitan area, France. The data were analysed using a cross-sectional design. In 2010, 3000 individuals were interviewed in their homes. Non-conventional multivariate clustering techniques were used to determine homogeneous user groups in data. Multinomial models assessed a wide range of potential associations between user characteristics and their pattern of healthcare utilisation. Results We identified four distinct patterns of healthcare use. Patterns of consumption and the socio-demographic characteristics of users differed qualitatively and quantitatively between these four profiles. Extensive and intensive use by older, wealthier and unhealthier people contrasted with narrow and parsimonious use by younger, socially deprived people and immigrants. Rare, intermittent use by young healthy men contrasted with regular targeted use by healthy and wealthy women. Conclusion The use of an original technique of massive multivariate analysis allowed us to characterise different types of healthcare users, both in terms of resource utilisation and socio-demographic variables. This method would merit replication in different populations and healthcare systems. PMID:25506916

  15. [Genealogical study of the Pijart dynasty, goldsmiths or apothecaries in Paris in the 16th and 17th centuries].

    PubMed

    Warolin, Christian

    2007-10-01

    The Pijart dynasty, established in Paris during the 16th and 17th centuries, included apothecaries and goldsmiths who had a common ancestor, Michel Pijart, warden of the goldsmith's guild (garde de l'orfèvrerie) in 1507. He was married to Jehanne Daumont and died 23rd July 1524. This couple had four sons, all goldsmiths, Pierre, Michel, Jehan and Nicolas. Pierre married twice. His first wife, Philippe Dusseau, was the sister of a famous apothecary. Only their eldest son, François, chose the profession of apothecary; the other three, Jacques, Jehan and Philibert, all followed their father's profession. By his second marriage to Marie de Mézières, Pierre had two sons, Claude the elder and Claude the younger, who both became goldsmiths. Thus, the goldsmith's trade became the favoured profession of the Pijart family. Professional endogamy prevailed in this dynasty, after the fashion of merchants belonging to the six most prestigious guilds (Six-Corps de métiers). Goldsmiths and apothecaries retained strong family ties, demonstrated by family reunions (baptisms, betrothals, etc.). It is undisputable that the renown of this dynasty is based on the fame of its goldsmiths. However, through marriage, the Pijart's developed links with other families of apothecaries, of which the most outstanding were the Boulduc's. PMID:18348497

  16. The Fate of Polyol-Made ZnO and CdS Nanoparticles in Seine River Water (Paris, France).

    PubMed

    da Rocha, Alice; Sivry, Yann; Gelabert, Alexandre; Beji, Zyed; Benedetti, Marc F; Menguy, Nicolas; Brayner, Roberta

    2015-05-01

    This study aims to characterize nanoparticles with different compositions and structures as well as seeing their evolutions over time in a natural environment such as Seine river water (Paris, France). Face centered cubic (fcc) and hexagonal (hcp) CdS as well as hexagonal (hcp) ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by the Polyol method. CdS nanoparticles (i) cfc structure: are agglomerated, present 100 nm length with heterogeneous diameter and 10 m2 g(-1) specific surface area (S(g)) from Brunauer Emett and Teller (BET) measurements; (ii) hcp structure: 20 nm and S(g) = 67 m2 g(-1). ZnO hcp nanoparticles presents 50 nm length and 15 nm diameter and S(g) = 54 m2 g(-1). These results are in agreement with X-ray diffraction (XRD), and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXs). After 48 h interaction with Seine river water, cryo-TEM analysis showed that ZnO nanoparticles form spherical agglomerates with 300 nm diameter; CdS nanoparticles (fcc) are agglomerated presenting large diameters (> 500 nm); and CdS nanoparticles (hcp) are not agglomerated and present the same characteristics of the starting material. After 168h of contact with Seine river water, CdS (fcc) presents only 14% of dissolution, CdS (hcp) presents both 60% dissolution and 30% reprecipitation in a cadmium carbonate form and finally almost 90% of ZnO nanoparticles are dissolved. PMID:26505021

  17. Comparison of three marine screening tests and four Oslo and Paris Commission procedures to evaluate toxicity of offshore chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Weideborg, M.; Vik, E.A.; Oefjord, G.D.; Kjoennoe, O.

    1997-02-01

    The results from the screening toxicity tests Artemia salina, Microtox{reg_sign}, and Mitochondria RET test were compared with those obtained from OSPAR (Oslo and Paris Commissions)-authorized procedures for testing of offshore chemicals (Skeletonema costatum, Acartia tonsa, Abra alba, and Corophium volutator). In this study 82 test substances (26 non-water soluble) were included. The Microtox test was found to be the most sensitive of the three screening tests. Microtox and Mitochondria RET test results showed good correlation with results from Acartia and Skeletonema testing, and it was concluded that the Microtox test was a suitable screening test as a base for assessment of further testing, especially regarding water-soluble chemicals. Sensitivity of Artemia salina to the tested chemicals was too low for it to be an appropriate bioassay organism for screening testing. A very good correlation was found between the results obtained with the Skeletonema and Acartia tests. The results indicated no need for more than one of the Skeletonema or Acartia tests if the Skeletonema median effective concentration or Acartia median lethal concentration was greater than 200 mg/L. The sediment-reworker tests (A. Alba or C. volutator) for chemicals that are likely to end up in the sediments (non-water soluble or surfactants) should be performed, independent of results from screening tests and other OSPAR species.

  18. Highlights from the 2016 WIN Symposium, 27-29 June 2016, Paris: personalised therapy beyond next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Schilsky, Richard; Davies, Will

    2016-01-01

    The Worldwide Innovative Networking (WIN) consortium is an alliance of academic institutions, pharmaceutical partners, representatives from technology companies and charitable/health payer organisations from across the globe. For the last six years, the consortium's aims have been to foster communication and collaboration between members, encourage dialogue in an open forum, and deliver clinical trial results that improve the care and outcomes of patients with cancer using the latest advances in genomic-based medicine. The annual WIN Symposium, held over two days, is a chance for its members to come together and discuss ongoing research, recent announcements, and introduce new developments in personalised medicine. This year's conference, held in Paris, France 27-29 June, consisted of six dedicated sessions, including two debates, and posters from members and participating organisations, all focusing on the latest therapeutic advances and updates in genomic analysis. Special highlights from this year included discussion of the MINDACT clinical trial, which uses a gene expression test to identify patients with breast cancer who can safely forego adjuvant chemotherapy, and the reflections on the SHIVA trial. Of particular interest to many speakers was the utilisation of liquid biopsy samples to produce near real time snapshots of tumour mutational profiles and vulnerability. PMID:27610195

  19. SciServer Compute brings Analysis to Big Data in the Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raddick, Jordan; Medvedev, Dmitry; Lemson, Gerard; Souter, Barbara

    2016-06-01

    SciServer Compute uses Jupyter Notebooks running within server-side Docker containers attached to big data collections to bring advanced analysis to big data "in the cloud." SciServer Compute is a component in the SciServer Big-Data ecosystem under development at JHU, which will provide a stable, reproducible, sharable virtual research environment.SciServer builds on the popular CasJobs and SkyServer systems that made the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) archive one of the most-used astronomical instruments. SciServer extends those systems with server-side computational capabilities and very large scratch storage space, and further extends their functions to a range of other scientific disciplines.Although big datasets like SDSS have revolutionized astronomy research, for further analysis, users are still restricted to downloading the selected data sets locally – but increasing data sizes make this local approach impractical. Instead, researchers need online tools that are co-located with data in a virtual research environment, enabling them to bring their analysis to the data.SciServer supports this using the popular Jupyter notebooks, which allow users to write their own Python and R scripts and execute them on the server with the data (extensions to Matlab and other languages are planned). We have written special-purpose libraries that enable querying the databases and other persistent datasets. Intermediate results can be stored in large scratch space (hundreds of TBs) and analyzed directly from within Python or R with state-of-the-art visualization and machine learning libraries. Users can store science-ready results in their permanent allocation on SciDrive, a Dropbox-like system for sharing and publishing files. Communication between the various components of the SciServer system is managed through SciServer‘s new Single Sign-on Portal.We have created a number of demos to illustrate the capabilities of SciServer Compute, including Python and R scripts

  20. Measurement of Charged Current Charged Single Pion Production in SciBooNE

    SciTech Connect

    Hiraide, K.

    2008-10-01

    The SciBooNE experiment is designed to measure neutrino cross sections on carbon around one GeV region. Charged current single charged pion production is a dominant background process for {nu}{sub {mu}} to {nu}{sub x} oscillation experiments with a few-GeV neutrino beam, and thus a precision measurement of the cross section is essential. This article reports preliminary results on this process from SciBooNE.

  1. Mid-year Status of MESSENGER SciBox Science Planning and Commanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, L.; Choo, T. H.; Steele, R. J.; Lucks, M.; Nair, H.; Perry, M. E.; Anderson, B. J.; Berman, A. F.; Solomon, S. C.

    2011-12-01

    More than halfway into its primary orbital mission, MESSENGER has successfully exploited the SciBox planning and commanding system to automate science observation scheduling and command generation for its full instrument suite, as well as its radio-frequency communication and guidance and control systems. MESSENGER's SciBox software coordinates instrument observations to determine the optimal conflict-free science schedule for the entire orbital mission and generates weekly command sequences for submission to mission operations. SciBox maximizes science return by filling all available observing opportunities and fully utilizing onboard storage and downlink bandwidth. As of four months into its one-year orbital mission, MESSENGER SciBox had scheduled the acquisition and downlink of nearly 40,000 images and comparable data sets from the spacecraft's six other instruments. The flexibility of MESSENGER SciBox allows for rapid re-optimization of schedules in the event of unforeseen circumstances. It has also allowed the science and planning teams to analyze rapidly the effects of modifying operational parameters and adding new observations. Within two hours, the entire mission can be re-optimized, schedules and command sequences generated, and a full set of plots and reports produced. The effects on resource usage, observational coverage, and compliance with operational constraints may be quickly assessed. This rapid turnaround ensures that optimal schedules are produced regardless of circumstances. We present an overview of the MESSENGER SciBox design and its operation.

  2. Detailed petrophysical characterization enhances geological mapping of a buried substratum using aeromagnetic and gravity data; application to the southwestern Paris basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptiste, Julien; Martelet, Guillaume; Faure, Michel; Beccaletto, Laurent; Chen, Yan; Reninger, Pierre-Alexandre

    2016-04-01

    Mapping the geometries (structure and lithology) of a buried basement is a key for targeting resources and for improving the regional geological knowledge. The Paris basin is a Mesozoic to Cenozoic intraplate basin set up on a Variscan substratum, which crops out in the surrounding massifs. We focus our study on the southwestern part of the Paris basin at its junction with the Aquitaine basin. This Mezo-Cenozoic cover separates the Armorican Massif and the Massif Central which compose of several litho-tectonic units bounded by crustal-scale shear zones. In spite of several lithological and structural correlations between various domains of the two massifs, their geological connection, hidden below the Paris basin sedimentary cover, is still largely debated. Potential field geophysics have proven effective for mapping buried basin/basement interfaces. In order to enhance the cartographic interpretation of these data, we have set up a detailed petrophysical library (field magnetic susceptibility data and density measurements on rock samples) of the Paleozoic rocks outcropping in the Variscan massifs. The combination of aeromagnetic and gravity data supported by the petrophysical signatures and field/borehole geological information, is carried out to propose a new map of the architecture of the Variscan substratum. The new synthetic map of geophysical signature of the Paris basin basement combines: i) the magnetic anomaly reduced to the pole, ii) the vertical gradient of the Bouguer anomaly and iii) the tilt derivative of the magnetic anomaly reduced to the pole. Based on this information, the Eastern extension of the major shear zones below the sedimentary cover is assessed. The petrophysical signatures were classified in three classes of magnetic susceptibility and density: low, intermediate and high. Basic rocks have high magnetization and density values whereas granite, migmatite and orthogneiss show low magnetization and density values, Proterozoic and Paleozoic

  3. Interoperable geometry and mesh components for SciDAC applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tautges, T. J.; Knupp, P.; Kraftcheck, J. A.; Kim, H. J.

    2005-01-01

    Software components for representing and evaluating geometry (TSTTG/CGM) and finite element mesh (TSTTM/MOAB), and a higher-level component for relations between the two (TSTTR/LASSO), have been combined with electromagnetic modelling and optimization techniques, to form a SciDAC shape optimization application. The TSTT data model described in this paper allows components involved in the shape optimization application to be coupled at a variety of levels, from coarse black-box coupling (e.g. to generate a model accelerator cavity using TSTTG) to very fine-grained coupling (e.g. smoothing individual mesh elements based in part on geometric surface normals at mesh vertices). Despite this flexibility, the TSTT data model uses only four fundamental data types (entities, sets, tags, and the interface object itself). We elaborate on the design and implementation of effective components in the context of this application, and show how our simple but flexible data model facilitates these efforts.

  4. Modelling algae growth and dissolved oxygen in the Seine River downstream the Paris urban area: contribution of high frequency measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilmin, Lauriane; Escoffier, Nicolas; Groleau, Alexis; Poulin, Michel; Flipo, Nicolas

    2014-05-01

    Dissolved oxygen is a key variable in the hydro-ecological functioning of river systems. The accurate representation of the different biogeochemical processes affecting algal blooms and dissolved oxygen in the water column in hydro-ecological models is crucial for the use of these models as reliable management tools. This study focuses on the water quality of the Seine River along a 225 km stretch, from Paris to the Seine estuary. The study area is highly urbanized and located downstream France's largest agricultural area, and therefore receives large amounts of nutrients. During the last decades, nutrient inputs have been significantly reduced, especially with the implementation of new sewage water treatment technologies. Even though the frequency and the intensity of observed algal blooms have decreased, blooms were observed in 2011 and 2012. These blooms are generally followed by a period of high organic matter accumulation, leading to high mineralization fluxes and potential oxygen depletion. The hydrodynamics and the water quality of the Seine River are simulated for the 2011-2012 period with the distributed process-based hydro-ecological model ProSe (Even et al., 1998). The simulated chlorophyll a and dissolved oxygen concentrations are compared to high frequency measurements at the Bougival monitoring station (50 km downstream from Paris), which is part of the CarboSeine monitoring network. The high frequency continuous dataset allows calibrating of primary producers' physiological parameters. New growth parameters are defined for the diatom community. The blooms occur at the end of the winter period (march 2011 and march 2012) and the optimal temperature for diatom growth is calibrated at 10°C, based on an analysis of the physiological response of the diatom community. One of the main outcomes of the modelling exercise is that the precise identification of the constituting communities of algal blooms must be achieved prior to the modelling itself. With the

  5. Modelling transport of storm-water pollutants using the distributed Multi-Hydro platform on an urban catchment near Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Yi; Bonhomme, Celine; Giangola-Murzyn, Agathe; Schertzer, Daniel; Chebbo, Ghassan

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays, the increasingly use of vehicles causes expanding contaminated storm-water runoff from roads and the associated quarters. Besides, the current utilization of city's separated sewer systems underlines the needs for evaluating precisely the growing impact of these polluted effluents on receiving water bodies. Nevertheless, traditional means of water quality modelling had shown its limits (Kanso, 2004), more accurate modelling schemes are hence required. In this paper, we found that the application of physically based and fully distributed model coupled with detailed high-resolution data is a promising approach to reproduce the various dynamics and interactions of water quantity/quality processes in urban or peri-urban environment. Over recent years, the physically based and spatially distributed numerical platform Multi-Hydro (MH) has been developed at Ecole des Ponts ParisTech (El-Tabach et al. , 2009 ; Gires et al., 2013 ; Giangola-Murzyn et al., 2014). This platform is particularly adapted for representing the hydrological processes for medium size watersheds, including the surface runoff, drainage water routing and the infiltrations on permeable zones. It is formed by the interactive coupling of several independent modules, which depend on generally used open-access models. In the framework of the ANR (French National Agency for Research) Trafipollu project, a new extension of MH, MH-quality, was set up for the water-quality modelling. MH-quality was used for the simulation of pollutant transport on a peri-urban and highly trafficked catchment located near Paris (Le Perreux-sur-Marne, 0.2 km2). The set-up of this model is based on the detailed description of urban land use features. For this purpose, 15 classes of urban land uses relevant to water quality modelling were defined in collaboration with the National Institute of Geography of France (IGN) using Digital Orthophoto Quadrangles (5cm). The delimitation of the urban catchment was then performed

  6. The Neural Baroreflex Pathway in Subjects With Metabolic Syndrome: A Sub-Study of the Paris Prospective Study III.

    PubMed

    Zanoli, Luca; Empana, Jean-Philippe; Estrugo, Nicolas; Escriou, Guillaume; Ketthab, Hakim; Pruny, Jean-Francois; Castellino, Pietro; Laude, Dominique; Thomas, Frederique; Pannier, Bruno; Jouven, Xavier; Boutouyrie, Pierre; Laurent, Stephane

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms that link metabolic syndrome (MetS) to increased cardiovascular risk are incompletely understood. We examined whether MetS is associated with the neural baroreflex pathway (NBP) and whether any such associations are independent of blood pressure values.This study involved the cross-sectional analysis of data on 2835 subjects aged 50 to 75 years from the Paris Prospective Study 3. The prevalence of MetS was defined according to the American Heart Association/National Heart Blood and Lung Institute definition. NBP values were calculated from the fluctuation of the common carotid distension rate and heart rate using fast Fourier transformation and cross-spectral analysis.The prevalence of MetS was 20.1% in men and 10.4% in women. Compared with controls, subjects with MetS (≥3 components), and those at risk for MetS (1-2 components) had lower NBP (-5.3% and -2.3%, respectively) and higher carotid stiffness (+13.5% and +6.8%, respectively). The negative association between MetS components and NBP was confirmed, even after adjustment for age, sex, and carotid stiffness. After stratification for blood pressure (BP) levels, NBP was reduced only in MetS subjects and those at risk with high BP. The NBP was positively associated with carotid stiffness in controls and subjects at risk for MetS. This association was lost in subjects with MetS, regardless of BP levels.Subjects with MetS had reduced NBP values. The role of BP is fundamental in the reduction of NBP. The mechanisms that link carotid stiffness and NBP are inactive in subjects with MetS, independent of BP levels. PMID:26765449

  7. Mining genes involved in the stratification of Paris Polyphylla seeds using high-throughput embryo Transcriptome sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis is an important medicinal plant. Seed dormancy is one of the main factors restricting artificial cultivation. The molecular mechanisms of seed dormancy remain unclear, and little genomic or transcriptome data are available for this plant. Results In this study, massive parallel pyrosequencing on the Roche 454-GS FLX Titanium platform was used to generate a substantial sequence dataset for the P. polyphylla embryo. 369,496 high quality reads were obtained, ranging from 50 to 1146 bp, with a mean of 219 bp. These reads were assembled into 47,768 unigenes, which included 16,069 contigs and 31,699 singletons. Using BLASTX searches of public databases, 15,757 (32.3%) unique transcripts were identified. Gene Ontology and Cluster of Orthologous Groups of proteins annotations revealed that these transcripts were broadly representative of the P. polyphylla embryo transcriptome. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes assigned 5961 of the unique sequences to specific metabolic pathways. Relative expression levels analysis showed that eleven phytohormone-related genes and five other genes have different expression patterns in the embryo and endosperm in the seed stratification process. Conclusions Gene annotation and quantitative RT-PCR expression analysis identified 464 transcripts that may be involved in phytohormone catabolism and biosynthesis, hormone signal, seed dormancy, seed maturation, cell wall growth and circadian rhythms. In particular, the relative expression analysis of sixteen genes (CYP707A, NCED, GA20ox2, GA20ox3, ABI2, PP2C, ARP3, ARP7, IAAH, IAAS, BRRK, DRM, ELF1, ELF2, SFR6, and SUS) in embryo and endosperm and at two temperatures indicated that these related genes may be candidates for clarifying the molecular basis of seed dormancy in P. polyphlla var. yunnanensis. PMID:23718911

  8. Virtualizing ancient Rome: 3D acquisition and modeling of a large plaster-of-Paris model of imperial Rome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidi, Gabriele; Frischer, Bernard; De Simone, Monica; Cioci, Andrea; Spinetti, Alessandro; Carosso, Luca; Micoli, Laura L.; Russo, Michele; Grasso, Tommaso

    2005-01-01

    Computer modeling through digital range images has been used for many applications, including 3D modeling of objects belonging to our cultural heritage. The scales involved range from small objects (e.g. pottery), to middle-sized works of art (statues, architectural decorations), up to very large structures (architectural and archaeological monuments). For any of these applications, suitable sensors and methodologies have been explored by different authors. The object to be modeled within this project is the "Plastico di Roma antica," a large plaster-of-Paris model of imperial Rome (16x17 meters) created in the last century. Its overall size therefore demands an acquisition approach typical of large structures, but it also is characterized extremely tiny details typical of small objects (houses are a few centimeters high; their doors, windows, etc. are smaller than 1 centimeter). This paper gives an account of the procedures followed for solving this "contradiction" and describes how a huge 3D model was acquired and generated by using a special metrology Laser Radar. The procedures for reorienting in a single reference system the huge point clouds obtained after each acquisition phase, thanks to the measurement of fixed redundant references, are described. The data set was split in smaller sub-areas 2 x 2 meters each for purposes of mesh editing. This subdivision was necessary owing to the huge number of points in each individual scan (50-60 millions). The final merge of the edited parts made it possible to create a single mesh. All these processes were made with software specifically designed for this project since no commercial package could be found that was suitable for managing such a large number of points. Preliminary models are presented. Finally, the significance of the project is discussed in terms of the overall project known as "Rome Reborn," of which the present acquisition is an important component.

  9. Virtualizing ancient Rome: 3D acquisition and modeling of a large plaster-of-Paris model of imperial Rome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidi, Gabriele; Frischer, Bernard; De Simone, Monica; Cioci, Andrea; Spinetti, Alessandro; Carosso, Luca; Micoli, Laura L.; Russo, Michele; Grasso, Tommaso

    2004-12-01

    Computer modeling through digital range images has been used for many applications, including 3D modeling of objects belonging to our cultural heritage. The scales involved range from small objects (e.g. pottery), to middle-sized works of art (statues, architectural decorations), up to very large structures (architectural and archaeological monuments). For any of these applications, suitable sensors and methodologies have been explored by different authors. The object to be modeled within this project is the "Plastico di Roma antica," a large plaster-of-Paris model of imperial Rome (16x17 meters) created in the last century. Its overall size therefore demands an acquisition approach typical of large structures, but it also is characterized extremely tiny details typical of small objects (houses are a few centimeters high; their doors, windows, etc. are smaller than 1 centimeter). This paper gives an account of the procedures followed for solving this "contradiction" and describes how a huge 3D model was acquired and generated by using a special metrology Laser Radar. The procedures for reorienting in a single reference system the huge point clouds obtained after each acquisition phase, thanks to the measurement of fixed redundant references, are described. The data set was split in smaller sub-areas 2 x 2 meters each for purposes of mesh editing. This subdivision was necessary owing to the huge number of points in each individual scan (50-60 millions). The final merge of the edited parts made it possible to create a single mesh. All these processes were made with software specifically designed for this project since no commercial package could be found that was suitable for managing such a large number of points. Preliminary models are presented. Finally, the significance of the project is discussed in terms of the overall project known as "Rome Reborn," of which the present acquisition is an important component.

  10. When the Waves of European Neolithization Met: First Paleogenetic Evidence from Early Farmers in the Southern Paris Basin

    PubMed Central

    Rivollat, Maïté; Mendisco, Fanny; Pemonge, Marie-Hélène; Safi, Audrey; Saint-Marc, Didier; Brémond, Antoine; Couture-Veschambre, Christine; Rottier, Stéphane; Deguilloux, Marie-France

    2015-01-01

    An intense debate concerning the nature and mode of Neolithic transition in Europe has long received much attention. Recent publications of paleogenetic analyses focusing on ancient European farmers from Central Europe or the Iberian Peninsula have greatly contributed to this debate, providing arguments in favor of major migrations accompanying European Neolithization and highlighting noticeable genetic differentiation between farmers associated with two archaeologically defined migration routes: the Danube valley and the Mediterranean Sea. The aim of the present study was to fill a gap with the first paleogenetic data of Neolithic settlers from a region (France) where the two great currents came into both direct and indirect contact with each other. To this end, we analyzed the Gurgy 'Les Noisats' group, an Early/Middle Neolithic necropolis in the southern part of the Paris Basin. Interestingly, the archaeological record from this region highlighted a clear cultural influence from the Danubian cultural sphere but also notes exchanges with the Mediterranean cultural area. To unravel the processes implied in these cultural exchanges, we analyzed 102 individuals and obtained the largest Neolithic mitochondrial gene pool so far (39 HVS-I mitochondrial sequences and haplogroups for 55 individuals) from a single archaeological site from the Early/Middle Neolithic period. Pairwise FST values, haplogroup frequencies and shared informative haplotypes were calculated and compared with ancient and modern European and Near Eastern populations. These descriptive analyses provided patterns resulting from different evolutionary scenarios; however, the archaeological data available for the region suggest that the Gurgy group was formed through equivalent genetic contributions of farmer descendants from the Danubian and Mediterranean Neolithization waves. However, these results, that would constitute the most ancient genetic evidence of admixture between farmers from both Central

  11. When the waves of European Neolithization met: first paleogenetic evidence from early farmers in the southern Paris Basin.

    PubMed

    Rivollat, Maïté; Mendisco, Fanny; Pemonge, Marie-Hélène; Safi, Audrey; Saint-Marc, Didier; Brémond, Antoine; Couture-Veschambre, Christine; Rottier, Stéphane; Deguilloux, Marie-France

    2015-01-01

    An intense debate concerning the nature and mode of Neolithic transition in Europe has long received much attention. Recent publications of paleogenetic analyses focusing on ancient European farmers from Central Europe or the Iberian Peninsula have greatly contributed to this debate, providing arguments in favor of major migrations accompanying European Neolithization and highlighting noticeable genetic differentiation between farmers associated with two archaeologically defined migration routes: the Danube valley and the Mediterranean Sea. The aim of the present study was to fill a gap with the first paleogenetic data of Neolithic settlers from a region (France) where the two great currents came into both direct and indirect contact with each other. To this end, we analyzed the Gurgy 'Les Noisats' group, an Early/Middle Neolithic necropolis in the southern part of the Paris Basin. Interestingly, the archaeological record from this region highlighted a clear cultural influence from the Danubian cultural sphere but also notes exchanges with the Mediterranean cultural area. To unravel the processes implied in these cultural exchanges, we analyzed 102 individuals and obtained the largest Neolithic mitochondrial gene pool so far (39 HVS-I mitochondrial sequences and haplogroups for 55 individuals) from a single archaeological site from the Early/Middle Neolithic period. Pairwise FST values, haplogroup frequencies and shared informative haplotypes were calculated and compared with ancient and modern European and Near Eastern populations. These descriptive analyses provided patterns resulting from different evolutionary scenarios; however, the archaeological data available for the region suggest that the Gurgy group was formed through equivalent genetic contributions of farmer descendants from the Danubian and Mediterranean Neolithization waves. However, these results, that would constitute the most ancient genetic evidence of admixture between farmers from both Central

  12. Oceanobacillus endoradicis sp. nov., an endophytic bacterial species isolated from the root of Paris polyphylla Smith var. yunnanensis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ling-Ling; Tang, Shu-Kun; Chu, Xiao; Jiang, Zhao; Xu, Li-Hua; Zhi, Xiao-Yang

    2016-07-01

    A bacterial strain, py1294(T), isolated from a root of Paris polyphylla Smith var. yunnanensis collected from Yunnan province, southwest China, was characterised by using a polyphasic approach to clarify its taxonomic position. Strain py1294(T) was found to be Gram-positive, aerobic, spore-forming, peritrichous flagella and rod shaped. Growth was found to occur in the presence of 0-8 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 1-3 %), at pH 6.5-9.5 (optimum 8.0) and at 10-42 °C (optimum 30 °C). The major cellular fatty acids were identified as anteiso-C15:0, anteiso-C17:0, iso-C16:0 and iso-C14:0. The predominant quinone was identified as MK-7 and a minor amount of MK-6 was detected. The diagnostic polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. The cell wall peptidoglycan was found to contain meso-diaminopimelic acid. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain py1294(T) forms a well-supported clade with Oceanobacillus damuensis PT-20(T) (97.9 % sequence similarity) within the genus Oceanobacillus, although it also shares a high sequence similarity with Ornithinibacillus contaminans (97.5 %). Crucially, the DNA-DNA relatedness value between strain py1294(T) and O. damuensis PT-20(T) was 29.7 ± 3.2 %. The G+C content was determined to be 42.3 mol%. On the basis of the phylogenetic and phenotypic data, a novel species Oceanobacillus endoradicis sp. nov. is proposed, with py1294(T) (=DSM 100726(T) = KCTC 33731(T)) as the type strain. PMID:27059624

  13. Molecular Characterization of Legionellosis Drug Target Candidate Enzyme Phosphoglucosamine Mutase from Legionella pneumophila (strain Paris): An In Silico Approach

    PubMed Central

    Mazumder, Habibul Hasan; Khan, Arif; Hossain, Mohammad Uzzal; Chowdhury, Homaun Kabir

    2014-01-01

    The harshness of legionellosis differs from mild Pontiac fever to potentially fatal Legionnaire's disease. The increasing development of drug resistance against legionellosis has led to explore new novel drug targets. It has been found that phosphoglucosamine mutase, phosphomannomutase, and phosphoglyceromutase enzymes can be used as the most probable therapeutic drug targets through extensive data mining. Phosphoglucosamine mutase is involved in amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism. The purpose of this study was to predict the potential target of that specific drug. For this, the 3D structure of phosphoglucosamine mutase of Legionella pneumophila (strain Paris) was determined by means of homology modeling through Phyre2 and refined by ModRefiner. Then, the designed model was evaluated with a structure validation program, for instance, PROCHECK, ERRAT, Verify3D, and QMEAN, for further structural analysis. Secondary structural features were determined through self-optimized prediction method with alignment (SOPMA) and interacting networks by STRING. Consequently, we performed molecular docking studies. The analytical result of PROCHECK showed that 95.0% of the residues are in the most favored region, 4.50% are in the additional allowed region and 0.50% are in the generously allowed region of the Ramachandran plot. Verify3D graph value indicates a score of 0.71 and 89.791, 1.11 for ERRAT and QMEAN respectively. Arg419, Thr414, Ser412, and Thr9 were found to dock the substrate for the most favorable binding of S-mercaptocysteine. However, these findings from this current study will pave the way for further extensive investigation of this enzyme in wet lab experiments and in that way assist drug design against legionellosis. PMID:25705169

  14. Health effects of attending a public swimming pool: follow up of a cohort of pupils in Paris.

    PubMed Central

    Momas, I; Brette, F; Spinasse, A; Squinazi, F; Dab, W; Festy, B

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--This study aimed to determine the health effects of attending a well-kept school swimming pool maintained according to French public health regulations. METHODS--This prospective month long study was carried out on a randomised sample of pupils aged 5 to 18 years who attended a private French school with two swimming pools. The children surveyed, helped by their parents, had to fill in questionnaires about their bathing habits and symptoms during the survey period. Inspections of the pool complex were made and these included physicochemical and bacteriological analyses of the pools' water. PARTICIPATION--The response rates achieved were 70% at primary and middle school levels but only 25% in the high school pupils. Because of this older teenagers were excluded from the final analysis (of 246 children). RESULTS--Compared with non-bathers, bathers experienced fatigue and eye irritation significantly more often (p < 0.001). The eyes were red (38% of bathers) and/or watery (16%) after swimming but this resolved spontaneously within 24 hours. Bathing behaviour (bath duration, head immersion, wearing swimming goggles) did not affect these incidence rates noticeably. There were no differences between bathers and non-bathers with regard to other symptoms, especially otolaryngological ones. This survey does not allow definite conclusions to be made about verrucas because 22% of non-bathers were exempted from swimming because of verrucas that they might have caught previously in a pool. CONCLUSIONS--Except for verrucas, the methodology was adequate and daily self reporting of symptoms was feasible. This college largely recruits pupils from higher social classes and is not therefore representative of schools in Paris. PMID:8120501

  15. The choice of a compressor for the aerosolisation of tobramycin (TOBI) with the PARI LC PLUS reusable nebuliser.

    PubMed

    de Boer, A H; Hagedoorn, P; Frijlink, H W

    2003-12-11

    The performance of five different compressors (CR60), Porta-Neb, Pulmo-Aide, TurboBoy and Freeway Freedom) was studied in combination with the widely recommended PARI LC PLUS nebuliser for the aerosolisation of a marketed tobramycin solution (TOBI). The droplet size distribution of the generated aerosol was measured with laser diffraction technique at stationary inspiratory flow rates through the nebuliser cup of 20, 30 and 40l N/min. The different compressors showed a distinct difference in droplet size distribution of the aerosol and nebulisation time till dry running. The finest droplets with a volume (equals mass) median diameter (mmd) of 1.84 microm (which was the same at all flow rates), as well as the narrowest size distribution were obtained with a CR60. The Freeway Freedom generated the largest droplets: mmd ranged between 2.63 and 3.72 microm depending on the inspiratory flow rate. The aerosol produced with this compressor also had the widest size distribution. The differences between the compressors could be explained with differences in the jet flow. A higher jet flow resulted in finer droplets, less dependence on the inspiratory flow rate and a shorter time till dry running. Thus, to obtain the required fineness of the aerosol for peripheral airway deposition of the tobramycin, independent of the inspiratory flow rate, the use of the CR60 compressor is preferred over the use of Porta-Neb, Pulmo-Aide, TurboBoy and Freeway Freedom (in order of decreasing preference). Finally, it was found that careful cleaning with warm water and liquid soap of the nebuliser cup is essential to obtain adequate performance of the LC PLUS. PMID:14643977

  16. Understanding Quality of Life in Adults with Spinal Cord Injury Via SCI-Related Needs and Secondary Complications

    PubMed Central

    Noreau, Luc; Leblond, Jean; Dumont, Frédéric S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Understanding the factors that can predict greater quality of life (QoL) is important for adults with spinal cord injury (SCI), given that they report lower levels of QoL than the general population. Objectives: To build a conceptual model linking SCI-related needs, secondary complications, and QoL in adults with SCI. Prior to testing the conceptual model, we aimed to develop and evaluate the factor structure for both SCI-related needs and secondary complications. Methods: Individuals with a traumatic SCI (N = 1,137) responded to an online survey measuring 13 SCI-related needs, 13 secondary complications, and the Life Satisfaction Questionnaire to assess QoL. The SCI-related needs and secondary complications were conceptualized into factors, tested with a confirmatory factor analysis, and subsequently evaluated in a structural equation model to predict QoL. Results: The confirmatory factor analysis supported a 2-factor model for SCI related needs, χ2(61, N = 1,137) = 250.40, P <.001, comparative fit index (CFI) = .93, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = .05, standardized root mean square residual (SRMR) = .04, and for 11 of the 13 secondary complications, χ2(44, N = 1,137) = 305.67, P < .001, CFI = .91, RMSEA = .060, SRMR = .033. The final 2 secondary complications were kept as observed constructs. In the structural model, both vital and personal development unmet SCI-related needs (β = -.22 and -.20, P < .05, respectively) and the neuro-physiological systems factor (β = -.45, P < .05) were negatively related with QoL. Conclusions: Identifying unmet SCI-related needs of individuals with SCI and preventing or managing secondary complications are essential to their QoL. PMID:25477745

  17. GeoSciML and EarthResourceML Update, 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, S. M.; Commissionthe Management; Application Inte, I.

    2012-12-01

    CGI Interoperability Working Group activities during 2012 include deployment of services using the GeoSciML-Portrayal schema, addition of new vocabularies to support properties added in version 3.0, improvements to server software for deploying services, introduction of EarthResourceML v.2 for mineral resources, and collaboration with the IUSS on a markup language for soils information. GeoSciML and EarthResourceML have been used as the basis for the INSPIRE Geology and Mineral Resources specifications respectively. GeoSciML-Portrayal is an OGC GML simple-feature application schema for presentation of geologic map unit, contact, and shear displacement structure (fault and ductile shear zone) descriptions in web map services. Use of standard vocabularies for geologic age and lithology enables map services using shared legends to achieve visual harmonization of maps provided by different services. New vocabularies have been added to the collection of CGI vocabularies provided to support interoperable GeoSciML services, and can be accessed through http://resource.geosciml.org. Concept URIs can be dereferenced to obtain SKOS rdf or html representations using the SISSVoc vocabulary service. New releases of the FOSS GeoServer application greatly improve support for complex XML feature schemas like GeoSciML, and the ArcGIS for INSPIRE extension implements similar complex feature support for ArcGIS Server. These improved server implementations greatly facilitate deploying GeoSciML services. EarthResourceML v2 adds features for information related to mining activities. SoilML provides an interchange format for soil material, soil profile, and terrain information. Work is underway to add GeoSciML to the portfolio of Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) specifications.

  18. The monuments of the UNESCO List under threat in the 21rst century: the Project "MONUNESCO-PARIS" (2012-2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menendez, B.; Brimblecombe, P.; Deque, M.; Grossi, C. M.; Ionescu, A.; Lefevre, R. A.

    2012-04-01

    The banks of the River Seine in Paris are inscribed on the UNESCO List of the World Cultural Heritage since 1991 because they are studded with a succession of masterpieces such as Notre- Dame Cathedral, Sainte Chapelle, Louvre, Place de la Concorde, Tour Eiffel, and with prestigious museums: Louvre, Orsay, Quai Branly, Petit Palais…Unfortunately, these banks are crossed by the Pompidou urban motorway, an important and continuous source of atmospheric pollution. The aim of the Project is to evaluate the evolution of the weathering of limestone, glass and stained glass in the centre of Paris in the 21rst century by crossing Climate and Pollution Models with Dose-Response Functions (DRF) for limestone, glass and stained glass and with Climatology of Salt Transitions for limestone. A Lutetian limestone (« Courville Stone ») has been used for the construction and the restoration of the most important monuments (Notre-Dame, Louvre…) and haussmannian buildings in Paris. It has a fine grain, a medium porosity (19%) and contains 90% of CaO. The modern glass of windows and large contemporaneous façades has a Si-Ca-Na composition, it is chemically inert, has a low thermal inertia, a flat surface, no open porosity and no surface roughness, therefore it is very durable. The glass of stained glass windows has a Si-Ca-K composition and it is low durable. Using different climate and pollution scenarios of the 21rst century, the project will evaluate different schemes of material degradations: (i) - Recession of limestone surface; (ii) - Soiling of limestone surface; (iii) - Soiling of modern glass; (iv) - Leaching of ancient stained glass windows; (v) - Deterioration of limestone by salts. The British Hadley Models, the French Météo- France Arpège-Aladin Models and the ENSEMBLES Approach will be crossed with DRF and Climatology of Salts Transitions. An in-the-field inventory (stock at risk) of the surface occupied on the façades by each kind of material (stone

  19. Our Planet Earth. Teacher's Guide. Unit F1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities,…

  20. Reproducing by Flowers and Seeds. Study Guide. Unit E2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zesaguli, Josie

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and environmental laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide consists of…

  1. Living Things and Their Food. Study Guide. Unit G2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  2. Life, Beginning and Growing. Study Guide. Unit E1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide is a three-part unit…

  3. The Chemicals of the Earth. Study Guide. Unit F2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  4. Forces. 'O' Level Study Guide. Unit 1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udwin, Martin

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the third year of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide is a five-part unit…

  5. What Do You Know about Water? Study Guide. Unit D. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Peter

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide is a three-part unit…

  6. Atoms and Molecules. Study Guide. Unit 2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandizha, George

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the third year of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide is a four-part unit…

  7. Using Electricity. Study Guide. Unit I2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chidume, Kwashira

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  8. SCI1 is a component of the auxin-dependent control of cell proliferation in Arabidopsis upper pistil.

    PubMed

    DePaoli, Henrique Cestari; Dornelas, Marcelo Carnier; Goldman, Maria Helena S

    2014-12-01

    To characterize the recently described SCI1 (stigma/style cell cycle inhibitor 1) gene relationship with the auxin pathway, we have taken the advantage of the Arabidopsis model system and its available tools. At first, we have analyzed the At1g79200 T-DNA insertion mutants and constructed various transgenic plants. The loss- and gain-of-function plants displayed cell number alterations in upper pistils that were controlled by the amino-terminal domain of the protein. These data also confirmed that this locus holds the functional homolog (AtSCI1) of the Nicotiana tabacum SCI1 gene. Then, we have provided some evidences the auxin synthesis/signaling pathways are required for downstream proper AtSCI1 control of cell number: (a) its expression is downregulated in yuc2yuc6 and npy1 auxin-deficient mutants, (b) triple (yuc2yuc6sci1) and double (npy1sci1) mutants mimicked the auxin-deficient phenotypes, with no synergistic interactions, and (c) the increased upper pistil phenotype in these last mutants, which is a consequence of an increased cell number, was able to be complemented by AtSCI1 overexpression. Taken together, our data strongly suggests SCI1 as a component of the auxin signaling transduction pathway to control cell proliferation/differentiation in stigma/style, representing a molecular effector of this hormone on pistil development. PMID:25443839

  9. Sense from Senses. Study Guide. Unit J. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simango, Sam

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  10. Energy for Living. Study Guide. Unit G1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide includes activities and…

  11. Ranking Business and Economics Journals in South America Using the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Jennifer K.; Pradenas, Lorena; Parada, Victor; Scherer, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    Access to published research for knowledge creation and education in the administrative science disciplines in South America has been enhanced since the introduction of the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO). Although SciELO has been available as an online journal indexing and publication service since 1998, there have been no…

  12. Understanding Electricity. Study Guide. Unit I1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chidume, Kwashira

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  13. Forces in Action. Study Guide. Unit H1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Peter

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  14. Forces in Living Things. Study Guide. Unit H2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty; Zesaguli, Josie

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  15. Learning to be a Scientist. Study Guide. Unit A1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide introduces students to…

  16. The origin and timing of multiphase cementation in carbonates: Impact of regional scale geodynamic events on the Middle Jurassic Limestones diagenesis (Paris Basin, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brigaud, Benjamin; Durlet, Christophe; Deconinck, Jean-François; Vincent, Benoît; Thierry, Jacques; Trouiller, Alain

    2009-12-01

    The Middle Jurassic carbonates of the eastern part of the Paris Basin display surprisingly low values of porosity and permeability ( Φ < 15‰ and K < 0.5 mD). The main objective of this study is to determine the causes and timing of the cementation that altered the petrophysical properties of these carbonates thereby destroying their potential as oil reservoirs; a fate that did not befall their equivalents in deeper, central parts of the Paris Basin. Using petrographic and geochemical analyses (stable O and C isotopes, Sr isotopes, major elements), we identify six calcitic spar stages, two dolomite stages, and several episodes of fracturing and stylolitization ordered in paragenetic sequence. Cement quantification shows the predominance of two blocky calcite cement stages (75% of total cementation). O and Sr isotopes from these calcite cements suggest that the parent fluids resulted either from a mixing of trapped Jurassic seawater and meteoric water, or from buffered meteoric waters. In the geological history of the Paris Basin, major meteoric water inputs were possible during the Early Cretaceous, when the Middle Jurassic carbonates cropped out at its northern and eastern borders. Lateral meteoric recharge may have occurred as a result of two separate uplift events (Late Cimmerian Unconformity and Late Aptian Unconformity) and the related exposures of carbonates to the north of the study area. This palaeohydrological circulation brought about a significant reduction of porosity (from 40% to 10%) through calcite cement precipitation. The Early Cretaceous events are of great importance in the diagenetic evolution of the sedimentary basins bordering the London-Brabant Massif across all of northwestern Europe. A subsequent dolomite and calcite cementation stage accounts for about 5% of the total cement volumes. This late cementation may have been caused by hydrothermal fluids ascending along permeable fractures during the Late Oligocene extension episode.

  17. Emission ratios of anthropogenic volatile organic compounds in northern mid-latitude megacities: Observations versus emission inventories in Los Angeles and Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borbon, Agnes; Gilman, J. B.; Kuster, W. C.; Grand, N.; Chevaillier, S.; Colomb, A.; Dolgorouky, C.; Gros, V.; Lopez, M.; Sarda-Esteve, R.; Holloway, J.; Stutz, J.; Petetin, H.; McKeen, S.; Beekmann, M.; Warneke, C.; Parrish, D. D.; Gouw, J. A.

    2013-02-01

    Ground-based and airborne volatile organic compound (VOC) measurements in Los Angeles, California, and Paris, France, during the Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) and Megacities: Emissions, Urban, Regional and Global Atmospheric Pollution and Climate Effects, and Integrated Tools for Assessment and Mitigation (MEGAPOLI) campaigns, respectively, are used to examine the spatial variability of the composition of anthropogenic VOC urban emissions and to evaluate regional emission inventories. Two independent methods that take into account the effect of chemistry were used to determine the emission ratios of anthropogenic VOCs (including anthropogenic isoprene and oxygenated VOCs) over carbon monoxide (CO) and acetylene. Emission ratios from both methods agree within ±20%, showing the reliability of our approach. Emission ratios for alkenes, alkanes, and benzene are fairly similar between Los Angeles and Paris, whereas the emission ratios for C7-C9 aromatics in Paris are higher than in Los Angeles and other French and European Union urban areas by a factor of 2-3. The results suggest that the emissions of gasoline-powered vehicles still dominate the hydrocarbon distribution in northern mid-latitude urban areas, which disagrees with emission inventories. However, regional characteristics like the gasoline composition could affect the composition of hydrocarbon emissions. The observed emission ratios show large discrepancies by a factor of 2-4 (alkanes and oxygenated VOC) with the ones derived from four reference emission databases. A bias in CO emissions was also evident for both megacities. Nevertheless, the difference between measurements and inventory in terms of the overall OH reactivity is, in general, lower than 40%, and the potential to form secondary organic aerosols (SOA) agrees within 30% when considering volatile organic emissions as the main SOA precursors.

  18. Structure study of sodium disilicate glass in a Paris-Edinburgh cell using monochromatic x-ray diffraction and a multi-channel collimator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, T.; Prescher, C.; Wang, Y.; Prakapenka, V.; Eng, P. J.; Kono, Y.; Stubbs, J.; Shen, G.

    2014-12-01

    The ratio of non-bridging oxygen to tetrahedrally coordinated cation (NBO/T) represents the degree of polymerization and is one well-known way of structurally categorizing amorphous silicates. A number of studies show that at ambient temperature ultrasonic sound velocities (both longitudinal and transverse) of SiO2 (Zha et al., 1994; Yokoyama et al., 2010; Kono et al., 2011) and other polymerized silicate glasses, including sodium disilicate which we recently studied (Yu et al., in prep), decrease with increasing pressure and reach minima between 2-3GPa, above which the velocities turn around and display a normal, positive pressure dependence. To systematically study the velocity profile of amorphous silicates and their relationship with the NBO/T value and detailed local structure, synthesized sodium disilicate glass was loaded into a Paris-Edinburgh (PE) cell to investigate pressure induced structure change using X-ray total scattering and pair distribution function (PDF) analysis at the GSECARS 13-ID-C beamline at the APS. X-ray diffraction data of the glass sample has been collected up to 3GPa at ambient temperature by utilizing a 60KeV monochromatic X-ray beam. We used a new multi-channel collimator (MCC; cf., Mezouar et al., 2002) to effectively remove unwanted scattering signal from the surrounding pressure media, and interfaced the Paris-Edinburgh cell (PEC) with the general-purpose diffractometer to decrease data collection time for glass structure measurement by more than one order of magnitude comparing with energy dispersive X-ray diffraction method. Results of our recent silicate glass structure measurements will be presented. We acknowledge the supports of COMPRES on facility development, of GSECARS and HPCAT for the Paris-Edinburgh press system.

  19. The design of color spectrophotometer based on diffuse illumination and compatible SCE/SCI geometric condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Kun; Yan, Hui-min; Jin, Shang-zhong

    2013-12-01

    The geometric conditions of diffuse illumination, 8 degree observation, specular light include (SCI) and specular light exclude (SCE) often be employed to measure the surface color of material with different gloss value. The SCE condition is usually realized by setting light trap on the integrating sphere. However, the structure of light trap has its negative influence on the light intensity uniformity, and can led to the inaccuracy of the test results under SCE or SCI condition. Due to the different sizes of the light trap, structures of the measurement instrument will led to inter instrument agreement among the measurement of sample with different gloss. This paper designs a measuring structure to measure the SCE and SCI results simultaneously; proposes a method to calculate the 8 degree gloss value based on the SCE and SCI test result; proposes a computing modal to modify the SCI and SCE measure result based on the 8 degree gloss value, experimental verifying is also carried out. The experimental results demonstrate the structure and modified model effectively reduce the negative influence of light trap. The inter instrument disagreement caused by the geometric dimension of different light trap is significantly decreased.

  20. Local delivery of FTY720 in PCL membrane improves SCI functional recovery by reducing reactive astrogliosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junjuan; Wang, Jiaqiu; Lu, Ping; Cai, Youzhi; Wang, Yafei; Hong, Lan; Ren, Hao; Heng, Boon Chin; Liu, Hua; Zhou, Jing; Ouyang, Hongwei

    2015-09-01

    FTY720 has recently been approved as an oral drug for treating relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis, and exerts its therapeutic effect by acting as an immunological inhibitor targeting the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor subtype (S1P1) of T cells. Recently studies demonstrated positive efficacy of this drug on spinal cord injury (SCI) in animal models after systemic administration, albeit with significant adverse side effects. We hereby hypothesize that localized delivery of FTY720 can promote SCI recovery by reducing pathological astrogliosis. The mechanistic functions of FTY720 were investigated in vitro and in vivo utilizing immunofluorescence, histology, MRI and behavioral analysis. The in vitro study showed that FTY720 can reduce astrocyte migration and proliferation activated by S1P. FTY720 can prolong internalization of S1P1 and exert antagonistic effects on S1P1. In vivo study of SCI animal models demonstrated that local delivery of FTY720 with polycaprolactone (PCL) membrane significantly decreased S1P1 expression and glial scarring compared with the control group. Furthermore, FTY720-treated groups exhibited less cavitation volume and neuron loss, which significantly improved recovery of motor function. These findings demonstrated that localized delivery of FTY720 can promote SCI recovery by targeting the S1P1 receptor of astrocytes, provide a new therapeutic strategy for SCI treatment. PMID:26036174

  1. [Anatomo-clinical collections carried out in Marseille during the 1914-1918 war and kept at the museum of the health services of the army in Paris].

    PubMed

    Ferrandis, Jean-Jacques

    2011-01-01

    The creation in full war, in Val-de-Grâce in Paris, of the center "Archives and documents of war" by Justin Godart brought together nearly 100,000 archivistic files, 10,000 objects or anatomopatholocal pieces among which 1500 wax casts or plaster casts and their technical and photographic documents. The reports and the objects realized in Marseilles in the XVth military region, show certainly the progress of that surgery during the 1st world War but also provide a better understanding of the functioning of the major specialized services created in this city for the nerves surgery, orthopedic or the maxillofacial surgery. PMID:21598572

  2. Air-quality in the mid-21st century for the city of Paris under two climate scenarios; from regional to local scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markakis, K.; Valari, M.; Colette, A.; Sanchez, O.; Perrussel, O.; Honore, C.; Vautard, R.; Klimont, Z.; Rao, S.

    2014-01-01

    Ozone and PM2.5 concentrations over the city of Paris are modeled with the CHIMERE air-quality model at 4 km × 4 km horizontal resolution for two future emission scenarios. High-resolution (1 km × 1 km) emission projection until 2020 for the greater Paris region is developed by local experts (AIRPARIF) and is further extended to year 2050 based on regional scale emission projections developed by the Global Energy Assessment. Model evaluation is performed based on a 10 yr control simulation. Ozone is in very good agreement with measurements while PM2.5 is underestimated by 20% over the urban area mainly due to a large wet bias in wintertime precipitation. A significant increase of maximum ozone relative to present time levels over Paris is modeled under the "business as usual" scenario (+7 ppb) while a more optimistic mitigation scenario leads to moderate ozone decrease (-3.5 ppb) in year 2050. These results are substantially different to previous regional scale projections where 2050 ozone is found to decrease under both future scenarios. A sensitivity analysis showed that this difference is due to the fact that ozone formation over Paris at the current, urban scale study, is driven by VOC-limited chemistry, whereas at the regional scale ozone formation occurs under NOx-sensitive conditions. This explains why the sharp NOx reductions implemented in the future scenarios have a different effect on ozone projections at different scales. In rural areas projections at both scales yield similar results showing that the longer time-scale processes of emission transport and ozone formation are less sensitive to model resolution. PM2.5 concentrations decrease by 78% and 89% under "business as usual" and "mitigation" scenarios respectively compared to present time period. The reduction is much more prominent over the urban part of the domain due to the effective reductions of road transport and residential emissions resulting in the smoothing of the large urban increment

  3. Air quality in the mid-21st century for the city of Paris under two climate scenarios; from the regional to local scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markakis, K.; Valari, M.; Colette, A.; Sanchez, O.; Perrussel, O.; Honore, C.; Vautard, R.; Klimont, Z.; Rao, S.

    2014-07-01

    Ozone and PM2.5 concentrations over the city of Paris are modeled with the CHIMERE air-quality model at 4 km × 4 km horizontal resolution for two future emission scenarios. A high-resolution (1 km × 1 km) emission projection until 2020 for the greater Paris region is developed by local experts (AIRPARIF) and is further extended to year 2050 based on regional-scale emission projections developed by the Global Energy Assessment. Model evaluation is performed based on a 10-year control simulation. Ozone is in very good agreement with measurements while PM2.5 is underestimated by 20% over the urban area mainly due to a large wet bias in wintertime precipitation. A significant increase of maximum ozone relative to present-day levels over Paris is modeled under the "business-as-usual" scenario (+7 ppb) while a more optimistic "mitigation" scenario leads to a moderate ozone decrease (-3.5 ppb) in year 2050. These results are substantially different to previous regional-scale projections where 2050 ozone is found to decrease under both future scenarios. A sensitivity analysis showed that this difference is due to the fact that ozone formation over Paris at the current urban-scale study is driven by volatile organic compound (VOC)-limited chemistry, whereas at the regional-scale ozone formation occurs under NOx-sensitive conditions. This explains why the sharp NOx reductions implemented in the future scenarios have a different effect on ozone projections at different scales. In rural areas, projections at both scales yield similar results showing that the longer timescale processes of emission transport and ozone formation are less sensitive to model resolution. PM2.5 concentrations decrease by 78% and 89% under business-as-usual and mitigation scenarios, respectively, compared to the present-day period. The reduction is much more prominent over the urban part of the domain due to the effective reductions of road transport and residential emissions resulting in the

  4. [The enigma of the "punished suicide": an anatomical preparation of Lodovico Brunetti winner of the gold medal at the Universal Exhibition in Paris in 1867].

    PubMed

    Zampieri, Fabio; Zanatta, Alberto; Bonati, Maurizio Rippa

    This article reconstructs the figure of Lodovico Brunetti, the first Chair of Pathological Anatomy at the University of Padua, and Director of the homonymous Institute from 1869 to 1887. He was the inventor of a technique known as "tannization," for the conservation of animal tissue. In particular, we have reconstructed the episode related to a particularly choking anatomical preparation, created by Brunetti in 1863, called "The Punished Suicide." This composition, together with a series of 66 preparations, allowed him to win the "Gran prix" at the Universal Exposition of Paris in 1867. PMID:25029827

  5. Novel Ambler Class A Carbapenem-Hydrolyzing β-Lactamase from a Pseudomonas fluorescens Isolate from the Seine River, Paris, France▿

    PubMed Central

    Girlich, Delphine; Poirel, Laurent; Nordmann, Patrice

    2010-01-01

    A Pseudomonas fluorescens isolate (PF-1) resistant to carbapenems was recovered during an environmental survey performed with water from the Seine River (Paris). It expressed a novel Ambler class A carbapenemase, BIC-1, sharing 68 and 59% amino acid identities with β-lactamases SFC-1 from Serratia fonticola and the plasmid-encoded KPC-2, respectively. β-Lactamase BIC-1 hydrolyzed penicillins, carbapenems, and cephalosporins except ceftazidime and monobactams. The blaBIC-1 gene was chromosomally located and was also identified in two other P. fluorescens strains isolated from the Seine River 3 months later. PMID:19901091

  6. Nicolas Andry de Bois-Regard (Lyon 1658-Paris 1742): the inventor of the word "orthopaedics" and the father of parasitology.

    PubMed

    Kohler, Remi

    2010-08-01

    This is an historical essay about Nicolas Andry, a French medical doctor (Lyon 1658-Paris 1742) who wrote in 1741 the famous book called "L'orthopedie", which was soon after translated into English (1742) "Orthopaedia or the art of correcting and preventing deformities in children". His life and works are detailed as the containment of the book composed of two volumes and many engravings (the crooked tree has become the symbol of numerous orthopaedic societies around the world). A discussion of semantics (ORTHO-PEDIE) and evolution of the meaning of this word is also discussed. PMID:21804898

  7. Simulation of particle diversity and mixing state over Greater Paris: a model-measurement inter-comparison.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shupeng; Sartelet, Karine N; Healy, Robert M; Wenger, John C

    2016-07-18

    Air quality models are used to simulate and forecast pollutant concentrations, from continental scales to regional and urban scales. These models usually assume that particles are internally mixed, i.e. particles of the same size have the same chemical composition, which may vary in space and time. Although this assumption may be realistic for continental-scale simulations, where particles originating from different sources have undergone sufficient mixing to achieve a common chemical composition for a given model grid cell and time, it may not be valid for urban-scale simulations, where particles from different sources interact on shorter time scales. To investigate the role of the mixing state assumption on the formation of particles, a size-composition resolved aerosol model (SCRAM) was developed and coupled to the Polyphemus air quality platform. Two simulations, one with the internal mixing hypothesis and another with the external mixing hypothesis, have been carried out for the period 15 January to 11 February 2010, when the MEGAPOLI winter field measurement campaign took place in Paris. The simulated bulk concentrations of chemical species and the concentrations of individual particle classes are compared with the observations of Healy et al. (Atmos. Chem. Phys., 2013, 13, 9479-9496) for the same period. The single particle diversity and the mixing-state index are computed based on the approach developed by Riemer et al. (Atmos. Chem. Phys., 2013, 13, 11423-11439), and they are compared to the measurement-based analyses of Healy et al. (Atmos. Chem. Phys., 2014, 14, 6289-6299). The average value of the single particle diversity, which represents the average number of species within each particle, is consistent between simulation and measurement (2.91 and 2.79 respectively). Furthermore, the average value of the mixing-state index is also well represented in the simulation (69% against 59% from the measurements). The spatial distribution of the mixing

  8. Consultative meeting to develop a strategy for treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Institute Pasteur, Paris. 13–15 June, 2006

    PubMed Central

    Modabber, Farrokh; Buffet, Pierre A; Torreele, Els; Milon, Geneviéve; Croft, Simon L

    2007-01-01

    Background A meeting was organized by Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative (DNDi) and the Institute Pasteur (IP), Paris, to review the treatment for all forms of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and to propose a strategy for the development of new efficacious and affordable treatments. Method The global burden of CL was discussed with respect to financial impact; relation to poverty; the stigma of CL lesions and scars (particularly in young women); lack of effective, affordable, easily implemented tools and political will and resources to implement available control tools; and lack of input from pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies to develop new drugs and vaccines. Results According to the experts from different endemic countries present, the financial and social burdens of CL are high, but we have limited quantitative data. The analysis of published trials indicates that the quality of most trials is poor and requires both improvement and standardization. The available drugs are inadequate. Criteria by which different CL types could be prioritized as target disease were set. These criteria included: severity of the disease; lack of response to available drugs; overall incidence and prevalence of the disease; sequelae of the disease, (including recidivans and mucosal leishmaniasis); the impact of treatment of individuals on control of transmission and lack of other major parties involved in drug development. Based on these, the anthroponotic CL and its sequel "recidivans" caused by L. tropica and CL caused by L. braziliensis and its sequel, mucosal leishmaniasis were considered to be the target diseases. The mechanism for controlling Leishmania infection to reach a stable self healing process is a balanced immune response. Immune stimulation during chemotherapy can enhance cure. There is no adequately effective vaccine, but some encouraging results have been obtained with whole killed Leishmania parasites or imiquimod (an immuno-modulator) plus antimonials

  9. Real-time measurements of levoglucosan in fine aerosols (PM2.5) in the region of Paris (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciare, J.; Bonnaire, N.; Mocnik, G.; Bressi, M.; Petit, J.; Nicolas, J.; Sarda-Estève, R.

    2011-12-01

    Levoglucosan - one of the major saccharidic compounds produced by the combustion of cellulose and hemicellulose - is emitted in large amounts by wildfires or residential wood burning (during winter months). Over the past few years, this organic tracer has received more and more attention as it can be used in a quantitative way to derive atmospheric concentrations of biomass burning aerosols [Favez et al., 2010] which aerosol source has strong implications for climate and air quality studies. A new technique has been developed and is presented here to investigate real-time concentrations of levoglucosan in fine aerosols (PM2.5). This technique is based on a Particle-into-liquid-sampler (PILS, Brechtel Manufacturing inc., model 4002) used "on-line" and coupled with an electrospray ionisation - tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS, Applied Biosystem model QTRAP 3200). Air was drawn in the PILS at 15LPM and removed from particles larger than 2.5μm aerodynamic diameter (AD) using a very sharp cyclone. Water-soluble aerosols were collected in the PILS and sent in the 10μL loop of the ESI-MS/MS at a flowrate of 50μL/min. Flow injection analysis (FIA) was then performed every 2.5min for the quantification of levoglucosan using ion source specific fragments (ions m/z 113). An internal levoglucosan standard was injected every 10 samples (i.e. every 25min) in order to check the stability of the mass spectrometry calibration. Field blanks were performed using a total filter upstream of the PILS instrument and did not show any detectable amount of levoglucosan. A limit of quantification (LOQ) better than 1 ng/m3 was calculated here for levoglucosan in FIA mode. Based on these settings, unattended measurements of levoglucosan by PILS-ESI-MS/MS have been performed every 2.5 min in the region of Paris for a couple of weeks during the winter 2011 showing concentrations ranging from below 1ng/m3 to more than 500ng/m3. These measurements were compared to measurements of Black

  10. First assessment of triclosan, triclocarban and paraben mass loads at a very large regional scale: case of Paris conurbation (France).

    PubMed

    Gasperi, Johnny; Geara, Darine; Lorgeoux, Catherine; Bressy, Adèle; Zedek, Sifax; Rocher, Vincent; El Samrani, Antoine; Chebbo, Ghassan; Moilleron, Régis

    2014-09-15

    The objective of this study was to examine the occurrence of parabens (5 congeners), triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC) at the scale of the Parisian sewer network and to provide representative knowledge on these compounds in France for a large area. For this purpose and in collaboration with the Parisian public sanitation service (SIAAP) in charge of the collect and treatment of the Parisian wastewater, this study focused on seven main sewer trunks of the Paris conurbation, accounting for 1900,000 m(3) d(-1), i.e., about 8 million inhabitants. Concentrations lying in the 2000-20000 ng l(-1) ranges were found in wastewater, confirming the ubiquity of parabens, TCS and TCC in our environment and household products. Parabens (>97%) and to a lesser extent TCS (68% in median) were mainly associated to the dissolved fraction, as demonstrated by low KD and KOC values. For the first time, this study also evaluated the pollutant mass loads per population equivalent (PE) of parabens, TCS and TCC at the large and representative scale of the Parisian conurbation. Hence, the median mass loads varied from 176 to 3040 μg PE(-1) d(-1) for parabens and from 26 to 762 μg PE(-1) d(-1) for TCS and TCC. Based on these results and according to the assumptions done, the extrapolation of the mass loads at the national scale pointed out an annual mass loads between 51.8 and 100.7 ty(-1) for methyl paraben (MeP) and between 11.2 and 23.5 ty(-1) for TCS. Mass loads per equivalent habitant and national mass loads are both extremely relevant and innovative data. Contrary to other countries, such data are nowadays rather difficult to gain in France and neither enquiry nor database provides access to information on the use and production of these chemicals. Since cosmetic industries are voluntarily and fully engaged in the substitution of parabens, triclosan and triclocarban in personal care product, this study could constitute a "time reference status" which could be used as a basis for

  11. Last Tango in Paris.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romaine, Suzanne

    1991-01-01

    In response to a previous article attempting to bridge the gap between formalist and functionalist theories of language, it is argued that the theory's views of evolutionary theory, natural selection, and functionalism are naive. It is suggested that coming to these issues from a generative standpoint naturally subsumes the functionalist claims of…

  12. Charged-Current Neutral Pion production at SciBooNE

    SciTech Connect

    Catala-Perez, J.; /Valencia U., IFIC

    2009-10-01

    SciBooNE, located in the Booster Neutrino Beam at Fermilab, collected data from June 2007 to August 2008 to accurately measure muon neutrino and anti-neutrino cross sections on carbon below 1 GeV neutrino energy. SciBooNE is studying charged current interactions. Among them, neutral pion production interactions will be the focus of this poster. The experimental signature of neutrino-induced neutral pion production is constituted by two electromagnetic cascades initiated by the conversion of the {pi}{sup 0} decay photons, with an additional muon in the final state for CC processes. In this poster, I will present how we reconstruct and select charged-current muon neutrino interactions producing {pi}{sup 0}'s in SciBooNE.

  13. Bringing the SciBar detector to the booster neutrino beam

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A.A.; Alcaraz, J.; Andringa, S.; Brice, S.J.; Brown, B.C.; Bugel, L.; Catala, J.; Cervera, A.; Conrad, J.M.; Couce, E.; Dore, U.; Espinal, X.; Finley, D.A.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.J.; Hayato, Y.; Hiraide, K.; Ishii, T.; Jover, G.; Kobilarcik, T.; Kurimoto, Y.; Kurosawa, Y.; /Columbia U. /Fermilab /KEK, Tsukuba /Barcelona, IFAE /Tokyo U., ICRR /Valencia U., IFIC /Kyoto U. /Los Alamos /Louisiana State U. /Stratton Mountain Sch. /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Colorado U.

    2006-01-01

    This document presents the physics case for bringing SciBar, the fully active, finely segmented tracking detector at KEK, to the FNAL Booster Neutrino Beam (BNB) line. This unique opportunity arose with the termination of K2K beam operations in 2005. At that time, the SciBar detector became available for use in other neutrino beam lines, including the BNB, which has been providing neutrinos to the MiniBooNE experiment since late 2002. The physics that can be done with SciBar/BNB can be put into three categories, each involving several measurements. First are neutrino cross section measurements which are interesting in their own right, including analyses of multi-particle final states, with unprecedented statistics. Second are measurements of processes that represent the signal and primary background channels for the upcoming T2K experiment. Third are measurements which improve existing or planned MiniBooNE analyses and the understanding of the BNB, both in neutrino and antineutrino mode. For each of these proposed measurements, the SciBar/BNB combination presents a unique opportunity or will significantly improve upon current or near-future experiments for several reasons. First, the fine granularity of SciBar allows detailed reconstruction of final states not possible with the MiniBooNE detector. Additionally, the BNB neutrino energy spectrum is a close match to the expected T2K energy spectrum in a region where cross sections are expected to vary dramatically with energy. As a result, the SciBar/BNB combination will provide cross-section measurements in an energy range complementary to MINERvA and complete the knowledge of neutrino cross sections over the entire energy range of interest to the upcoming off-axis experiments.

  14. Spinal Cord Injury Community Survey: Understanding the Needs of Canadians with SCI

    PubMed Central

    Noonan, Vanessa K.; Cobb, John; Leblond, Jean; Dumont, Frédéric S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is a lack of literature regarding service needs of people with SCI living in the community. Better assessment of expressed and met and unmet needs would help in the development of effective service delivery. Objective: From a national SCI Community Survey in Canada, the aim was to identify the most critical service needs of people living in the community at least 1 year post discharge from rehabilitation and the support they received to meet their needs. Method: Data were collected mainly through a secure Web site and encompassed demographics, personal and household income, an SCI severity measure, and an SCI community needs measure containing information on 13 SCI-related needs. Results: A total of 1,549 persons with SCI (traumatic lesion, n = 1,137; nontraumatic lesion, n = 412) across Canada completed the survey. Most critical needs for community integration were expressed by a substantial proportion of survey participants, but significantly more expressed and met needs were reported by persons with a traumatic than a nontraumatic lesion. Personal and environmental characteristics influenced the probability of expressing and meeting needs (eg, severity of injury and household income). Help and support to meet expressed needs were received from government agencies, community organizations, and friends or family. Conclusion: Better assessment of expressed and met or unmet needs for services remains a challenge but will serve as a tool to optimize service delivery in the community. Environmental barriers to services, particularly the process of getting needs met and associated costs, remain an issue that requires a reconsideration of some aspects of access to services. PMID:25477740

  15. SCI Hospital in Home Program: Bringing Hospital Care Home for Veterans With Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Madaris, Linda L; Onyebueke, Mirian; Liebman, Janet; Martin, Allyson

    2016-01-01

    The complex nature of spinal cord injury (SCI) and the level of care required for health maintenance frequently result in repeated hospital admissions for recurrent medical complications. Prolonged hospitalizations of persons with SCI have been linked to the increased risk of hospital-acquired infections and development or worsening pressure ulcers. An evidence-based alternative for providing hospital-level care to patients with specific diagnoses who are willing to receive that level of care in the comfort of their home is being implemented in a Department of Veterans Affairs SCI Home Care Program. The SCI Hospital in Home (HiH) model is similar to a patient-centered interdisciplinary care model that was first introduced in Europe and later tested as part of a National Demonstration and Evaluation Study through Johns Hopkins School of Medicine and School of Public Health. This was funded by the John A. Hartford Foundation and the Department of Veterans Affairs. The objectives of the program are to support veterans' choice and access to patient-centered care, reduce the reliance on inpatient medical care, allow for early discharge, and decrease medical costs. Veterans with SCI who are admitted to the HiH program receive daily oversight by a physician, daily visits by a registered nurse, access to laboratory services, oxygen, intravenous medications, and nursing care in the home setting. In this model, patients may typically access HiH services either as an "early discharge" from the hospital or as a direct admit to the program from the emergency department or SCI clinic. Similar programs providing acute hospital-equivalent care in the home have been previously implemented and are successfully demonstrating decreased length of stay, improved patient access, and increased patient satisfaction. PMID:26938182

  16. SciDAC-Center for Plasma Edge Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Choong Seock

    2012-06-04

    The SciDAC ProtoFSP Center for Plasma Edge Simulation (CPES) [http://www.cims.nyu.edu/cpes/] was awarded to New York University, Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences in FY 2006. C.S. Chang was the institutional and national project PI. It’s mission was 1) to build kinetic simulation code applicable to tokamak edge region including magnetic divertor geometry, 2) to build a computer science framework which can integrate the kinetic code with MHD/fluid codes in multiscale, 3) to conduct scientific research using the developed tools. CPES has built two such edge kinetic codes XGC0 and XGC1, which are still the only working kinetic edge plasma codes capable of including the diverted magnetic field geometry. CPES has also built the code coupling framework EFFIS (End-to-end Framework for Fusion Integrated Simulation), which incubated and used the Adios (www.olcf.ornl.gov/center-projects/adios/) and eSiMon (http://www.olcf.ornl.gov/center-projects/esimmon/) technologies, together with the Kepler technology.

  17. STARtorialist: Astronomy Outreach via Fashion, Sci-Fi, & Pop Culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Emily L.; Ash, Summer

    2015-01-01

    Astronomical images in the public domain have increasingly been used as inspiration and patterns for clothing, accessories, and home decor. These 'AstroFashion' items are as diverse as DIY projects, handmade and boutique products, mass-produced commercial items, and haute couture. STARtorialist is a Tumblr-based blog that curates the proliferation of these products with the goal of celebrating the beauty of the universe and highlighting the science behind the images. The blog also includes sci-fi, space, and science-related aspects of popular culture. Each post features images and descriptions of the products, and often where/how we found them and/or the people wearing them, with links to the original astronomical images or other relevant science content. The popularity of each post is evident in the number of 'notes', including 'faves' (personal bookmarks) and 'reblogs' (shares with other users). Since launching the blog in December 2013, with an average of one post per day, we've attracted hundreds of followers on Tumblr and Twitter and thousands of notes on Tumblr. We will present our most popular posts and recommend how education, outreach, and press offices can add Tumblr to their social media repertoire.

  18. "Sci-Tech - Couldn't be without it !"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-03-01

    Launch of a Major European Outreach Programme Seven of Europe's leading Research Organizations [1] launch joint outreach programme for the European Science and Technology Week at the Technopolis Museum in Brussels on 22 March. Their aim is to show Europeans how today's society couldn't be without fundamental research . Could you imagine life without mobile phones, cars, CD players, TV, refrigerators, computers, the internet and the World Wide Web, antibiotics, vitamins, anaesthetics, vaccination, heating, pampers, nylon stockings, glue, bar codes, metal detectors, contact lenses, modems, laser printers, digital cameras, gameboys, play stations...? Technology is everywhere and used by everyone in today's society, but how many Europeans suspect that without studies on the structure of the atom, lasers would not exist, and neither would CD players? Most do not realise that most things they couldn't be without have required years of fundamental research . To fill this knowledge gap, the leading Research Organizations in Europe [1], with the support of the research directorate of the European Commission, have joined forces to inform Europeans how technology couldn't be without science, and how science can no longer progress without technology. The project is called...... Sci-Tech - Couldn't be without it! Sci-Tech - Couldn't be without it! invites Europeans to vote online in a survey to identify the top ten technologies they can't live without. It will show them through a dynamic and entertaining Web space where these top technologies really come from, and it will reveal their intimate links with research. Teaching kits will be developed to explain to students how their favourite gadgets actually work, and how a career in science can contribute to inventions that future generations couldn't be without. The results of the survey will be presented as a series of quiz shows live on the Internet during the Science Week, from 4 to 10 November. Sci-tech - Couldn't be without

  19. The epidemiological and clinical presentation of syphilis in a venereal disease centre in Paris, France. A cohort study of 284 consecutive cases over the period 2000-2007.

    PubMed

    FARHI, David; ZIZI, Nada; GRANGE, Philippe; BENHADDOU, Nadjet; GERHARDT, Philippe; AVRIL, Marie-Françoise; DUPIN, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    Since 2000, the incidence of syphilis has risen in developed countries. An updated knowledge of syphilis features is the key for early diagnosis and treatment. Our objective was to appraise the clinical and epidemiological presentation of syphilis in Paris, France. A retrospective monocentric descriptive study of 284 consecutive syphilis cases was conducted in a venereal disease centre (Paris, France), over the period 2000-2007. Epidemiological, clinical and microbiological data were systematically collected, using standardized medical forms. Overall, 95% of the cases occurred in men (271/284), 83% in men having sex with men (MSM) (231/278), 58% in patients having more than 10 partners/year (138/240) and 19% in patients who never use a condom (49/253). At least one STD has been previously diagnosed in 79% (220/279) of the cases. In 50.5% of the cases (142/281), HIV serology was positive. Most patients had primary (82/279, 29%) or secondary (125/279, 45%) syphilis. The most frequent physical signs in primary and secondary syphilis were, respectively, a genital chancre (63/82, 77%) and a diffuse exanthema (108/125, 86%). Syphilis occurs chiefly in MSM, often in HIV-positive patients. Many patients never use condoms. These data will help provide the basis for the development of national information and screening campaigns. PMID:19703802

  20. High resolution sequence stratigraphy in the upper Jurassic carbonate platform of the Paris basin: Reservoir geometries in lagoonal, protected marine and ooids shoals environments

    SciTech Connect

    Pascal, H.; Villalobos, L. Guillocheau, F.

    1995-08-01

    Reservoir geometry reconstruction within carbonate platforms has been carried out in the Upper Jurassic of the Paris Basin based on high-resolution sequence stratigraphy correlations (cores and well-logs). 18 cored wells over 25 kM{sup 2} have been correlated (Saint-Clair-sur-Epte field, Gaz de France). During lower and middle Oxfordian the Paris Basin is a carbonate platform prograding southward. This progradational trend can be subdivided into three upper order sequences (parasequences sets, mean duration: one m.y.). The lower parasequence-set is a stacking of shallowing-upward parasequences made up of tidal ooids bars surrounded laterally and backward by more protected environments (large variety of coated grains). The middle parasequence-set is recorded in lagoonal environments with numerous channels and lobes of storm washover-fans. Metric-thick sequences have been correlated over the field. They are ernersive upward (subtidal lagoonal deposits cut by storm-induced channels and lobes, covered by small karsts). The upper parasequence-set is made-up of protected-marine deposits grading into lagoonal sediments. The metric thick shallowing-upward sequences are composed by sheet-shaped, strongly bioturbated, medium to coarse-grained bioclastic limestones. Correlation levels are the deepest facies (strongly monospecifically bioturbated wackstones). Shape and size of reservoirs will be quantified.