Peixoto, Francisco; Almeida, Leandro S.
Previous research into the relationship between self-esteem and academic achievement shows that despite differences in academic self-evaluation, students' global self-representations do not differ as a result of their grades at school. In this study, we will analyse the strategies that underachievers used to maintain their self-esteem at an…
Moradi Sheykhjan, Tohid; Jabari, Kamran; Rajeswari, K.
The primary purpose of this study was to determine the influence of self-esteem on academic achievement among high school students in Miandoab City of Iran. The methodology of the research is descriptive and correlation that descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. Statistical Society includes male and female high…
Afari, Ernest; Ward, Graeme; Khine, Myint Swe
We investigated the relationships between global self-esteem, academic self-efficacy and academic performance among a sample of 255 college students in the United Arab Emirates. The widely used Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (RSES; Rosenberg, 1965) and an academic self-efficacy scale, modified from (Jinks and Morgan, 1999) were used to assess…
Dev, Smitha; Qiqieh, Sura
The present study aims to find out the relationship between English Language proficiency, self-esteem, and academic achievement of the students in Abu Dhabi University (ADU). The variables were analyzed using "t" test, chi-squire and Pearson's product moment correlation. In addition, Self-rating scale, Self-esteem inventory and Language…
Booth, Margaret Zoller; Gerard, Jean M.
Utilizing mixed methodology, this paper investigates the relationship between self-esteem and academic achievement for young adolescents within two Western cultural contexts: the United States and England. Quantitative and qualitative data from 86 North American and 86 British adolescents were utilized to examine the links between self-esteem and…
Hosseini, Seyyed Nasrollah; Mirzaei Alavijeh, Mehdi; Karami Matin, Behzad; Hamzeh, Behrooz; Ashtarian, Hossein; Jalilian, Farzad
Background Self-esteem and behavioral consequences, which are due to external or internal locus of control, are effective on academic achievement of students. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the prediction of locus of control and self-esteem in academic achievement among the students. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 300 college students in Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in 2014. Data collection tools were in three sections: demographic, Rotter internal-external locus of control scale and Coopersmith self-esteem inventory. Data were analyzed using the SPSS software version 21. Results Results showed that 29.8% and 76.2% of the participants had internal locus of control, and high self-esteem, respectively. There was a significant correlation between self-esteem, locus of control and academic achievement of the students. Self-esteem accounted for 39.5% of the variation in academic achievement. Conclusions It seems that interventions to increase self-esteem among student can help improve academic achievement among them. PMID:27284277
Carranza, Francisco D; You, Sukkyung; Chhuon, Vichet; Hudley, Cynthia
As the number of Mexican American school-aged children continues to increase, researchers, practitioners, and policymakers are in critical need of information to better understand and serve them. This study used structural equation modeling to examine the relationship among perceived parental educational involvement (PPEI), acculturation, gender, and self-esteem on the academic achievement and aspirations of Mexican American high school students (N = 298). Results revealed direct effects of perceived parental educational involvement, students' level of acculturation, and students' self-esteem on students' achievement and aspirations. Acculturation and self-esteem also revealed indirect effects on aspirations and achievement through parental educational expectations. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Trautwein, Ulrich; Lüdtke, Oliver; Köller, Olaf; Baumert, Jürgen
The authors examine the directionality of effects between global self-esteem, domain-specific academic self-concepts, and academic achievement. Special emphasis is placed on learning environments as potential moderators of the direction of these effects. According to the meritocracy principle presented here, so-called bottom-up effects (i.e., self-esteem is influenced by academic self-concept) are more pronounced in meritocratic learning environments than in ego-protective learning environments. This hypothesis was examined using a three-wave cross-lagged panel design with a large sample of 7th graders from East and West Germany, a total of 5,648 students who were tested shortly after German reunification. Reciprocal effects were found between self-esteem, academic self-concept, and academic achievement. In conformance with the meritocracy principle, support for bottom-up effects was stronger in the meritocratic learning environment.
Thomas-Brantley, Betty J.
This study investigated the relationship between self-esteem and academic achievement in a group of 150 high, medium, and low achievers at a large midwestern public high school. Correlating data from the Coopersmith Inventory of self-esteem with grades, cumulative grade point averages, and class rank, the study disclosed a positive correlation…
Shi, Qi; Steen, Sam
The Achieving Success Everyday (ASE) group model is used to promote self-esteem and academic performance of English as a second language (ESL) students. The findings from the preliminary data indicated that the participants' self-esteem was significantly improved after participation in the group. There was no significant improvement in the total…
Hope, Elan C.; Chavous, Tabbye M.; Jagers, Robert J.; Sellers, Robert M.
Using a person-oriented approach, we explored patterns of self-esteem and achievement among 324 Black college students across the freshman college year and identified four academic identification profiles. Multivariate analyses revealed profile differences in academic and psychological outcomes at beginning and end of freshman year (academic…
Leung, Chi-hung; Choi, Eudora
Background: A limited amount of research has been conducted on children and adolescents who are low achievers. In Hong Kong, educators describe low achieving students in terms of academic performance, they seldom focus on socio-emotional aspects, such as self-esteem, peer affiliation, and inter-personal relationships. However, low achieving…
Bonvillain, Jocelyn Freeman; Honora, Detris
The purpose of the present study was to explore the extent to which racial identity attitudes and self-esteem could predict academic performance for African American middle school students. A total of 175 African American adolescents in 7th grade attending one of two urban schools participated in the study. The Multi-Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM)…
Roman, Sergio; Cuestas, Pedro J.; Fenollar, Pedro
The current research represents an initial step into the analysis of the effect of self-esteem, others' (peers and teachers) expectations and family support on academic achievement through learning approaches (deep processing, surface processing and effort). Data were gathered from 553 university students from different faculties of a Spanish…
Bean, Roy A.; Bush, Kevin R.; McKenry, Patrick C.; Wilson, Stephan M.
Relationships between adolescent functioning and parent support, behavioral control, and psychological control were examined among European American and African American adolescents. A number of correlations were significant, including maternal support and academic achievement and self-esteem, and paternal psychological control and self-esteem.…
During the early grades, female students generally display enthusiasm for learning science. As these same students go though school, however, their level of motivation changes. Once female students reach high school, many lack the confidence to take chemistry and physics. Then, in college they lack the background necessary to major in chemistry, physics, and engineering. This study used quantitative data to investigate the correlation between female students' motivation, self-esteem, and standards-based state science achievement tests combined with a qualitative survey of student's perceptions of parents' attitudes toward science. The Children's Science Motivation Inventory (CAIMI) determined students' levels of motivation toward science. The Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory (CSEI) ascertained female students' overall self-esteem. The ISTEP+ exam given in the 6th grade measured the students' academic achievement in science. Trained examiners who interviewed students comprised the qualitative component of the study. Each examiner elaborated on selected questions from the CSEI and CAIMI to determine the students' perceptions of parental attitudes toward science. A multiple regression was used to determine the correlation between self-esteem, motivation, and achievement in science. The correlation was strongest between motivation. Interviews revealed parents and teachers had the most influence on students' perception of science. In understanding the correlation between female students' motivation, achievement, and self-esteem, schools will gain further knowledge into how students relate to the academic field of science and can thus promote females' participation in more science courses in high school. This then will provide females the necessary background knowledge to pursue a greater number of science majors in college.
Wang, Kenneth T
An increasing number of perfectionism studies have been conducted across different countries outside of the Western framework. Using an international egalitarian approach that adopts indigenous frameworks and concepts from the cultural context of the population studied is imperative. This study examines different groups of perfectionists with a sample of 348 Taiwanese college students, emphasizing the collectivistic culture. In particular, this is a follow-up study to further explore characteristics of a group with low standards/high discrepancy--a feeling that they are not good enough despite having low standards--found in a previous study with Taiwanese students. More specifically, this study investigates whether the source of the high discrepancy scores among this group is related to having higher perfectionistic standards from their family. Perfectionism was examined not only from a personal/individualistic perspective, but also from a familistic dimension to reflect Taiwanese collectivistic cultural values. Results partially supported the hypotheses--this group reported having higher family discrepancy, but not family standards, than nonperfectionists. However, this group of participants reported lower academic grades, which implies the possibility of their discrepancy being associated with poorer performance. Four cluster groups--adaptive perfectionists, maladaptive perfectionists, nonperfectionists, and those with low standards/high discrepancy--were compared on their levels of depression, self-esteem, achievement motivation, and academic grades. Maladaptive perfectionists reported the highest depression level, while adaptive perfectionists reported the highest self-esteem. Results also show that aspects of personal perfectionism and family perfectionism related to self-esteem differently among this sample. Findings and implications are discussed with consideration of the collectivistic cultural context in Taiwan.
Zuffiano, Antonio; Alessandri, Guido; Gerbino, Maria; Kanacri, Bernadette Paula Luengo; Di Giunta, Laura; Milioni, Michela; Caprara, Gian Vittorio
The present study examined the contribution of self-efficacy beliefs in self-regulated learning (SESRL) in predicting academic achievement at the end of junior high school above and beyond the effects of previous academic achievement, gender, socioeconomic status, intelligence, personality traits, and self-esteem. Participants included 170 (87…
Aydin, Betül; Sari, Serkan Volkan; Sahin, Mustafa
In this study, examining the relationship of parental acceptance/involvement to self-esteem, hope and academic achievement besides, mediating role of hope on the relationship between perception of parental acceptance/involvement, self esteem and academic achievement were aimed. The study was carried out with 297 students from different…
Farris, Jaelyn; Burke Lefever, Jennifer E.; Borkowski, John G.; Whitman, Thomas L.
Research Findings: This study investigated the joint influence of maternal cognitive readiness to parent and children's self-esteem on children's academic achievement and behavioral adjustment in the classroom at age 10. Participants were 153 adolescent mothers and their firstborn children. Findings indicated that low levels of prenatal maternal…
Legum, Harry L.; Hoare, Carol H.
The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a 9-week career intervention program on at-risk middle school students' career maturity levels, self-esteem, and academic achievement. This study was based on a pretest and posttest design using a control group. Data were collected from 27 at-risk middle school students representing the…
Kristjansson, Alfgeir Logi; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Allegrante, John P.
This study tested a structural equation model to estimate the relationship between health behaviors, body mass index (BMI), and self-esteem and the academic achievement of adolescents. The authors analyzed survey data from the 2000 study of "Youth in Iceland", a population-based, cross-sectional sample of 6,346 adolescents in Iceland.…
Troncone, Alda; Drammis, Maria Letizia; Labella, Alida
For years educators have attempted to identify the effective predictors of scholastic achievement and several personality variables were described as significantly correlated with grade performance. Since one of the crucial practical implications of identifying the factors involved in academic achievement is to facilitate the teaching-learning…
Marsh, Herbert W; O'Mara, Alison
In their influential review, Baumeister, Campbell, Krueger, and Vohs (2003) concluded that self-esteem--the global component of self-concept--has no effect on subsequent academic performance. In contrast, Marsh and Craven's (2006) review of reciprocal effects models from an explicitly multidimensional perspective demonstrated that academic self-concept and achievement are both a cause and an effect of each other. Ironically, both reviews cited classic Youth in Transition studies in support of their respective claims. In definitive tests of these counter claims, the authors reanalyze these data-including self-esteem (emphasized by Baumeister et al.), academic self-concept (emphasized by Marsh & Craven), and postsecondary educational attainment-using stronger statistical methods based on five waves of data (grade 10 through 5 years after graduation; N=2,213). Integrating apparently discrepant findings under a common theoretical framework based on a multidimensional perspective, academic self-concept had consistent reciprocal effects with both achievement and educational attainment, whereas self-esteem had almost none.
Garner, C. William; Cole, Ernest G.
A pilot study was conducted at two middle schools to investigate the relationship among student locus of control, field dependency, self-esteem, and achievement. A relationship between self-esteem and achievement has already been identified by research; another variable considered as a possible effect on a person's predisposition to achieve was…
This paper examines the influence of self-esteem on achievements of students who are gifted, in relation to the theories of Virginia Satir. Self-esteem training with gifted adolescents in Poland is discussed, as are the influences of school and family on self-esteem of youngsters who are gifted. Implications for Eastern Europe are noted. (SW)
Acharya Pandey, R; Chalise, H N
Stress and self-esteem are common issues that everyone has to cope with at some time in their lives and they could also affect other things going on in a persons' life. Academic stress is psychological condition often experienced by college students as, to some extent, being multidimensional variables. Among others are self-esteem and psychological well-being which are considered to have influences in explaining why college students experience stress. Objective The objective of this study was to assess the self-esteem level and academic stress among the nursing students. Method This is a cross-sectional study carried out in 2012. Total respondents were 190 nursing students selected randomly from Kathmandu University. Academic stress was assed using 30-item Scale for Assessing Academic Stress (SAAS) and Self esteem was assessed using 10 item Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale. Information was collected through the self-administered questionnaire. The collected data was analyzed using SPSS version 16 software. Simple statistics measurement, percentage, means, correlation was used for the data analysis. Result This study shows mean age of the respondent's was 20.44±2.67 years. Majority (88%) of students getting financial support of less than NRs 6000 per month and 64% have low perceived family support. This study found mean score of self esteem and academic stress was 11.9 and 18.4 respectively. Further nearly 78% students have low self esteem and 74% have high academic stress. Significant variable for high academic stress and low self esteem were lower the age, lower the education and low perceived family support. Lower financial support has also high academic stress. Conclusion Nursing students have low self esteem and high academic stress. Intervention to lower the academic stress and increase the self esteem should be carried out so that the learning of students will be efficient.
Polatajko, Helene J.; And Others
A study assigned children aged 6-8 with sensory integration (SI) dysfunction to 3 groups: 35 used sensory modalities, 32 received psychomotor (PM) training, and 13 no intervention. SI and PM administered one hour per week for six months proved equally effective in improving academic and motor performance but had little effect on self-esteem. (SK)
The Effects of the Children Having Incarcerated Parents Succeeding Group on Delinquent Behavior, Academic Achievement, Self-Esteem, Attendance and Aggressive Behavior with Seventh and Eighth Grade Students Who Have Incarcerated Parents or Guardians
King-White, Dakota L.
A sample of middle school students was investigated to determine whether an intervention group called Children Having Incarcerated Parents (C.H.I.P.S.; King-White & Lipford-Sanders, 2007) was an effective intervention for delinquent behavior, academic achievement, self-esteem, attendance, and aggressive behavior in children of incarcerated…
Arshad, Muhammad; Zaidi, Syed Muhammad Imran Haider; Mahmood, Khalid
The current study was conducted to assess the self-esteem and academic performance among university students after arising of several behavioral and educational problems. A total number of 80 students, 40 male students and 40 female students were selected through purposive sampling from G. C. University Faisalabad. The participants were…
Shim, Sungok Serena; Ryan, Allison M.; Cassady, Jerrell
This longitudinal study examined the effects of achievement goals on the growth trajectories of self-esteem during the first-year at a comprehensive public university. College freshmen (N = 311) were followed for one academic year with three time points. Between-individual differences and within-individual change in achievement goals were…
Bertucci, Andrea; Conte, Stella; Johnson, David W; Johnson, Roger T
The effect of cooperative learning in pairs and groups of 4 and in individualistic learning were compared on achievement, social support, and self-esteem. Sixty-two Italian 7th-grade students with no previous experience with cooperative learning were assigned to conditions on a stratified random basis controlling for ability, gender, and self-esteem. Students participated in 1 instructional unit for 90 min for 6 instructional days during a period of about 6 weeks. The results indicate that cooperative learning in pairs and 4s promoted higher achievement and greater academic support from peers than did individualistic learning. Students working in pairs developed a higher level of social self-esteem than did students learning in the other conditions.
Taylor, Laramie D; Davis-Kean, Pamela; Malanchuk, Oksana
The present study explores the relation between academic self-concept, self-esteem, and aggression at school. Longitudinal data from a racially diverse sample of middle-school students were analyzed to explore how academic self-concept influenced the likelihood of aggressing at school and whether high self-concept exerted a different pattern of influence when threatened. Data include self-reported academic self-concept, school-reported academic performance, and parent-reported school discipline. Results suggest that, in general, students with low self-concept in achievement domains are more likely to aggress at school than those with high self-concept. However, there is a small sample of youth who, when they receive contradictory information that threatens their reported self-concept, do aggress. Global self-esteem was not found to be predictive of aggression. These results are discussed in the context of recent debates on whether self-esteem is a predictor of aggression and the use of a more proximal vs. general self-measure in examining the self-esteem and aggression relation.
Schöne, Claudia; Tandler, Sarah S.; Stiensmeier-Pelster, Joachim
Low self-esteem has been established as a vulnerability factor for depression. In line with recent research, we suggest that a full understanding of the role of self-esteem in depression requires consideration of contingent self-esteem as well. For most people, competence is an important source of self-esteem. Students in particular link their self-esteem to academic competence. To test the hypothesis that academic contingent self-esteem (aCSE) predicts depressive symptoms (DS), two studies were conducted. Preceding the investigation of our hypothesis, the first purpose of Study 1 was to describe the development of aCSE, self-esteem (SE) level, and DS in adolescence in a sample of German students aged 10–16 (N = 1888) in order to provide a foundation for further analyses. Then, to address the main question, age and gender differences in aCSE, SE level, and DS as well as their relations were investigated. The results show that (1) gender differences emerged after the age of 10/11. Girls scored higher on aCSE and DS and lower on SE level than did boys, and aCSE and DS decreased and SE level increased over time in boys, while the rather disadvantageous pattern in girls remained stable. (2) After controlling for SE level and aCSE, the effects of gender and age × gender interaction on DS disappeared, suggesting an influence of aCSE on DS. (3) aCSE predicted DS over and above SE level. Since the results of Study 1 did not allow for causal conclusions, a longitudinal study (N = 160) was conducted to further investigate the causal role of aCSE. According to the diathesis-stress model, aCSE was expected to serve as a diathesis for developing DS in the face of academic stress (daily hassles) during an academic semester at university. The results of Study 2 revealed that aCSE interacted with corresponding hassles to predict increases in DS. High levels of academic stress led to increases in DS only among students who strongly based their SE on academic competence
Schöne, Claudia; Tandler, Sarah S; Stiensmeier-Pelster, Joachim
Low self-esteem has been established as a vulnerability factor for depression. In line with recent research, we suggest that a full understanding of the role of self-esteem in depression requires consideration of contingent self-esteem as well. For most people, competence is an important source of self-esteem. Students in particular link their self-esteem to academic competence. To test the hypothesis that academic contingent self-esteem (aCSE) predicts depressive symptoms (DS), two studies were conducted. Preceding the investigation of our hypothesis, the first purpose of Study 1 was to describe the development of aCSE, self-esteem (SE) level, and DS in adolescence in a sample of German students aged 10-16 (N = 1888) in order to provide a foundation for further analyses. Then, to address the main question, age and gender differences in aCSE, SE level, and DS as well as their relations were investigated. The results show that (1) gender differences emerged after the age of 10/11. Girls scored higher on aCSE and DS and lower on SE level than did boys, and aCSE and DS decreased and SE level increased over time in boys, while the rather disadvantageous pattern in girls remained stable. (2) After controlling for SE level and aCSE, the effects of gender and age × gender interaction on DS disappeared, suggesting an influence of aCSE on DS. (3) aCSE predicted DS over and above SE level. Since the results of Study 1 did not allow for causal conclusions, a longitudinal study (N = 160) was conducted to further investigate the causal role of aCSE. According to the diathesis-stress model, aCSE was expected to serve as a diathesis for developing DS in the face of academic stress (daily hassles) during an academic semester at university. The results of Study 2 revealed that aCSE interacted with corresponding hassles to predict increases in DS. High levels of academic stress led to increases in DS only among students who strongly based their SE on academic competence
Loose, Florence; Regner, Isabelle; Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Dumas, Florence
Often taken for granted, the coexistence of benefits and costs of discounting and devaluing has never been tested. Yet, not only are there inconsistent findings about the relations between these processes and global self-esteem, but little is known about their relations to motivation and performance. Here we simultaneously examined how academic…
Fernández-González, L.; González-Hernández, A.; Trianes-Torres, M. V.
Introduction: This research aims to analyse how optimism, self-esteem and social support help to predict academic stress. Method: The sample consisted of 123 students aged 20 to 31 years old, from the 3rd Year in the Psychology Degree. Students completed the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, the Life Orientation Optimism Questionnaire (LOT-R), the…
Sterbin, Allan; Rakow, Ernest
The direct effects of locus of control and self-esteem on standardized test scores were studied. The relationships among the standardized test scores and measures of locus of control and self-esteem for 12,260 students from the National Education Longitudinal Study 1994 database were examined, using the same definition of locus of control and…
Yeung, Alexander Seeshing
Researchers have assumed that global self-esteem (often labeled as general self-concept), being a general aggregate of perceptions of the self, is content free. Recent research has, however, shown that responses to self-esteem survey items are influenced by the context in which the respondents are asked to make their responses--a chameleon effect.…
Pedersen, Sara; Seidman, Edward
In this study we investigate the contribution of achievement in team sports to adolescent girls' self-esteem development. Adolescent girls (N = 247) from racially and ethnically diverse backgrounds were surveyed as part of a larger study investigating the development of poor urban youth. Participants responded to items tapping global self-esteem,…
Alkhateeb, Haitham M; Abushihab, Eiman F
This study assessed self-esteem and the relation between self-esteem and academic achievement in a sample of Arab-American elementary students who completed the What I Think About Myself Self-esteem Inventory. 123 students' (M age = 8.7 yr., 65 boys and 58 girls) self-esteem scores were associated with their academic achievement. Alpha internal consistency reliability was acceptable (Cronbach's α = .85) for the inventory. The results also indicated that the participants tended to have healthy self-esteem.
Heyman, W B
Eighty-seven children with learning disabilities, aged 9 through 11 years 11 months, completed measures of self-esteem, academic self-concept, and self-perception of their learning disability. The Self-Perception of Learning Disability (SPLD) instrument measures the extent to which children with learning disabilities perceive their disability as (a) delimited rather than global, (b) modifiable rather than permanently limiting, and (c) not stigmatizing. It was hypothesized that self-perception of one's learning disability would be related positively to both academic self-concept and self-esteem, and that each of these relationships would remain significant when controlling for sex, ethnicity, age, reading and math achievement, self-contained versus mainstreamed classroom setting, and age at diagnosis. Correlations and multiple regression analyses confirmed these hypotheses. Results were discussed in terms of helping children to develop less negative self-perceptions of their disabilities.
Andrews, Judy A.; And Others
The inverse relation between academic motivation and substance use has been well established, but the direction of the influence remains to be specified; two possible influences are the mediating and moderating effects of family relationships and self-esteem. In this study, investigators used General Estimating Equation (GEE) models based on data…
Zarei, Eghbal; Shokrpour, Nasrin; Nasiri, Elham; Kafipour, Reza
This study aimed at determining the effect of instruction in cognitive and metacognitive strategies on the students' educational self-esteem and academic performance. 87 students were selected through random sampling. The two first groups were consciously taught about cognitive and metacognitive strategies. All the classes were taught by the same…
Dalton, David W.; Hannafin, Michael
The effects of judgmental and non-judgmental computer assisted instruction (CAI) feedback on the self-esteem and mathematics achievement of remedial level junior high school students were examined. Each of 44 eighth-grade mathematics students was given a self-esteem pretest questionnaire, completed a basic mathematics facts drill and practice CAI…
Kandemir, Mehmet; Ilhan, Tahsin; Ozpolat, Ahmed Ragip; Palanci, Mehmet
The goal of this research is to analyze the predictive power level of academic self-efficacy, self-esteem and coping with stress on academic procrastination behavior. Relational screening model is used in the research whose research group is made of 374 students in Kirikkale University, Education Faculty in Turkey. Students in the research group…
Pillemer, David B; Ivcevic, Zorana; Gooze, Rachel A; Collins, Katherine A
College students and middle-aged adults provided memories of occasions when they felt especially good or especially bad about themselves. Probes directed the memory search to several age intervals during childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Predominant themes represented in self-esteem memories differed consistently as a function of emotional valence. Memories of positive self-worth frequently focused on achievement/mastery themes, whereas memories of negative self-worth frequently focused on interpersonal/affiliation themes. When people evaluate the self through the lens of autobiographical memory, interpersonal distress is portrayed as especially damaging and achievement success is portrayed as especially enhancing. The asymmetry between positive and negative self-esteem memories is explained using multiple theoretical perspectives within social and personality psychology.
Raskauskas, Juliana; Rubiano, Sherry; Offen, Ilanit; Wayland, Ann Kathleen
Victimization by peers has been associated with low academic performance and internalizing problems. Still, not all students who experience peer victimization report a reduction in performance. The current study examines the potential protective nature of self-esteem and social self-efficacy in the relationship between peer victimization and…
Stupnisky, Robert H.; Perry, Raymond P.; Renaud, Robert D.; Hladkyj, Steve
Previous research has found perceived academic control (PAC) to be a better predictor of first-year college students' grades than self-esteem; however, it is uncertain which construct is more important for students' well-being. The current study compared PAC and self-esteem on first-year college students' emotions, perceived stress, and…
Sarokon, Stephen C.
Principals can take many steps to improve students' self-esteem. A recent case study of four schools disclosed that self-esteem among students can be increased by improving communication with students and faculty, encouraging student participation in music and drama, emphasizing positive relationships between athletic coaches and players, and…
Wachelka, D; Katz, R C
Test anxiety seems like a benign problem to some people, but it can be potentially serious when it leads to high levels of distress and academic failure in otherwise capable students. Because test anxiety is common in older students with learning disabilities (LD), it is surprising that little research has been done on ways to reduce the distress these students experience in test situations. In this study, we used a randomized pretest-posttest control group design to examine the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral treatment for reducing test anxiety and improving academic self-esteem in a cohort (N = 27) of high school and college students with learning disabilities (LD). All of the students participated voluntarily. They were enrolled in classes for students with learning problems. Before the study began, they complained of test anxiety and showed an elevated score on the Test Anxiety Inventory (TAI). Eleven students (85%) completed the 8-week long treatment, which consisted of progressive muscle relaxation, guided imagery, self-instruction training, as well as training in study and test-taking skills. Results showed significant improvement in the treated group which was not evident in an untreated control group (N = 16). Compared to the control group, the treated group showed significant reductions in test anxiety on the TAI, as well as improvement in study skills and academic self-esteem as measured by the Survey of Study Habits and Attitudes, and the school scale of the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. These results extend the generality of similar studies on reducing test anxiety and improving academic self-esteem in younger students. They also suggest that relief from test anxiety can be expected fairly quickly when cognitive-behavioral methods are used. Additional implications and methodological limitations of the study are discussed.
Shoemaker, Allen L.
Factor analysis of the Hare Self-Esteem Scale yielded three separate factors. As expected, home self-esteem was significantly associated with social class; peer self-esteem, with recent family moves; and school self-esteem, significantly with test anxiety and reading and mathematics achievement. (Author/CP)
Tobias, Randolf; Turner, Thomas M.
Describes Network in the Schools (NIS), a project to enhance teens' academic achievement and self-esteem, which uses small group classroom discussions regarding self-affirmation, social concerns, self-improvement, and reflection, and meetings for group sharing and self-expression. Presents findings that the program results in enhanced parent…
Peixoto, Francisco; Monteiro, Vera; Mata, Lourdes; Sanches, Cristina; Pipa, Joana; Almeida, Leandro S.
Keeping students back in the same grade – retention – has always been a controversial issue in Education, with some defending it as a beneficial remedial practice and others arguing against its detrimental effects. This paper undertakes an analysis of this issue, focusing on the differences in student motivation and self-related variables according to their retention related status, and the interrelationship between retention and these variables. The participants were 695 students selected from two cohorts (5th and 7th graders) of a larger group of students followed over a 3-year project. The students were assigned to four groups according to their retention-related status over time: (1) students with past and recent retention; (2) students with past but no recent retention; (3) students with no past but recent retention; (4) students with no past or recent retention. Measures of achievement goal orientations, self-concept, self-esteem, importance given to school subjects and Grade Point Average (GPA) were collected for all students. Repeated measures MANCOVA analyses were carried out showing group differences in self-esteem, academic self-concept, importance attributed to academic competencies, task and avoidance orientation and academic achievement. To attain a deeper understanding of these results and to identify profiles across variables, a cluster analysis based on achievement goals was conducted and four clusters were identified. Students who were retained at the end of the school year are mainly represented in clusters with less adaptive motivational profiles and almost absent from clusters exhibiting more adaptive ones. Findings highlight that retention leaves a significant mark that remains even when students recover academic achievement and retention is in the distant past. This is reflected in the low academic self-concept as well as in the devaluation of academic competencies and in the avoidance orientation which, taken together, can undermine
Peixoto, Francisco; Monteiro, Vera; Mata, Lourdes; Sanches, Cristina; Pipa, Joana; Almeida, Leandro S
Keeping students back in the same grade - retention - has always been a controversial issue in Education, with some defending it as a beneficial remedial practice and others arguing against its detrimental effects. This paper undertakes an analysis of this issue, focusing on the differences in student motivation and self-related variables according to their retention related status, and the interrelationship between retention and these variables. The participants were 695 students selected from two cohorts (5th and 7th graders) of a larger group of students followed over a 3-year project. The students were assigned to four groups according to their retention-related status over time: (1) students with past and recent retention; (2) students with past but no recent retention; (3) students with no past but recent retention; (4) students with no past or recent retention. Measures of achievement goal orientations, self-concept, self-esteem, importance given to school subjects and Grade Point Average (GPA) were collected for all students. Repeated measures MANCOVA analyses were carried out showing group differences in self-esteem, academic self-concept, importance attributed to academic competencies, task and avoidance orientation and academic achievement. To attain a deeper understanding of these results and to identify profiles across variables, a cluster analysis based on achievement goals was conducted and four clusters were identified. Students who were retained at the end of the school year are mainly represented in clusters with less adaptive motivational profiles and almost absent from clusters exhibiting more adaptive ones. Findings highlight that retention leaves a significant mark that remains even when students recover academic achievement and retention is in the distant past. This is reflected in the low academic self-concept as well as in the devaluation of academic competencies and in the avoidance orientation which, taken together, can undermine students
Beatty, Richard W.
This study was designed to longitudinally assess the predictive validity and the nature of the relationships of scholastic achievement, clerical skill, and social self-esteem with the job success of hard-core unemployed clerical workers. (Author/RK)
Pepi, Annamaria; Faria, Luisa; Alesi, Marianna
Educational research places emphasis on the fact that different cultures have different self-construals. These construals can influence cognitive, emotional, and motivational processes in individuals. Great importance is attached to individuals' implicit conceptions of the nature of their intelligence (incremental or entity) and self-esteem. In…
Lupo, Concetta M.
This study focused on improving students' self-esteem through community building at an elementary school in a low socioeconomic community where over 55% of the students live below the poverty line. Orefield and Yun state in their 1999 article, "Resegregation of America's schools," "school level poverty is related to many…
Lipnevich, Anastasiya; Beder, Hal
The purpose of this study was to investigate adult literacy education learners' self-esteem and to examine the relationship between self-esteem and measures of achievement in reading and math. The rationale for the present study stemmed from the lack of research into adult literacy students' self-esteem levels. More than 200 learners enrolled in…
Responds to an article by David Dewhurst which argued that self-esteem is not always related to comparisons between oneself and others. Contends that personal qualities such as kindness and generosity are as important in developing self-esteem as achievement and competence. Concludes that both approaches are necessary if students' self-esteem is…
Hughes, Diane; Witherspoon, Dawn; Rivas-Drake, Deborah; West-Bey, Nia
The authors examined relationships between cultural socialization and preparation for bias and youth outcomes. Using data from 805 African American and White early adolescents attending school in an integrated middle-class suburban school district in the northeastern United States, the authors hypothesized that ethnic affirmation and self-esteem would mediate relations between ethnic-racial socialization and more distal academic and behavioral outcomes. Cultural socialization was positively associated with academic and behavioral outcomes, and these associations were partially mediated by ethnic affirmation and self-esteem. Preparation for bias was associated with more negative academic outcomes, and these relationships were fully mediated by ethnic affirmation and self-esteem. Relationships of preparation for bias to youth outcomes were generally stronger for White compared with African American youths. The risks and benefits of different socialization messages for youths in various ecological contexts are discussed.
Wang, Chia-Chih D. C.; Castaneda-Sound, Carrie
This study examined the influences of generational status, self-esteem, academic self-efficacy, and perceived social support on 367 undergraduate college students' well-being. Findings showed that 1st-generation students reported significantly more somatic symptoms and lower levels of academic self-efficacy than did non-1st-generation students. In…
Cherry, Crystal M.
This paper reviews the literature on the relationship between birth order and several variables, especially academic achievement. One study found a relationship between leadership skills and birth order for males. Several studies found no relationship between birth order and academic achievement; grade point average; self-esteem; locus of control…
Schwinger, Malte; Wirthwein, Linda; Lemmer, Gunnar; Steinmayr, Ricarda
Self-handicapping represents a frequently used strategy for regulating the threat to self-esteem elicited by the fear of failing in academic achievement settings. Several studies have documented negative associations between self-handicapping and different educational outcomes, inter alia academic achievement. However, studies on the relation…
Haq, Muhammad Ahsan Ul
The purpose of this study was to scrutinize self-esteem of university students and explore association of self-esteem with academic achievement, gender and other factors. A sample of 346 students was selected from Punjab University, Lahore Pakistan. Rosenberg self-esteem scale with demographic variables was used for data collection. Besides descriptive statistics, binary logistic regression and t test were used for analysing the data. Significant gender difference was observed, self-esteem was significantly higher in males than females. Logistic regression indicates that age, medium of instruction, family income, student monthly expenditures, GPA and area of residence has direct effect on self-esteem; while number of siblings showed an inverse effect.
Galbraith, Alison; Alexander, Joy
In this article, Alison Galbraith and Joy Alexander use case studies of a group of primary school pupils to examine the efficacy of an integrated, eclectic approach to the teaching of literacy, including whether constructs such as self-concept and self-esteem have a bearing on academic achievement. Circle Time activities, interactive teaching…
Lewis, John; Adank, Richard
Determines the intercorrelations among measures of intelligence, achievement, self-esteem, and anxiety among elementary pupils who were enrolled in two different styles of instruction: a traditional self-contained structure and an open school using the Westinghouse PLAN system of computer-backed individualized instruction. (Author/RC)
Mitic, Wayne R.
Results revealed that regular users possessed significantly higher mean scores in overall self-esteem as compared to all other drinking categories. Potential problem drinkers obtained significantly lower scores in academic self-esteem. Educators should consider self-esteem building activities when devising alcohol education programs for teenagers.…
Aluja, Anton; Blanch, Angel
The Children Depression Inventory (CDI) is a multidimensional instrument that includes items of social withdrawal, anhedonia, asthenia, low self-esteem (internalized) and behavioral problems (externalized). Child depression has been related with low academic achievement, neurotic and introverted personality traits and social maladjustment defined…
Elfering, Achim; Grebner, Simone
Global self-esteem was tested to predict quicker cardiovascular adaptation during stressful oral thesis presentation and faster habituation from the first to the second and third thesis presentations. Nineteen graduate students initially rated their global self-esteem and afterwards orally presented their theses proposals in 20-min presentations to their thesis supervisor and peers. A second and third presentation of the revised thesis concepts took place at 4-weeks intervals. Ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate were assessed repeatedly during the presentations. Post-talk self ratings of stressfulness indicated presentations to be a strong public speaking stressor. One hundred and thirty-eight measurements of systolic (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and heart rate (HR) showed a significant adaptation (decrease) during presentations. There was an overall mean level decrease from the first to the second, and the second to the third presentations in HR, but not in SBP and DBP. However, habituation in SBP and DBP across three presentations was significantly faster (p < .05) in those participants who initially reported higher levels of global self-esteem. Higher global self-esteem did not foster adaptation within the presentations. Self-esteem is discussed as an important individual resource that allows successful coping with recurring evaluative threats.
Kaplan, Julie Bass
The concept of aesthetic self-esteem was explored for utilization in the medical spa environment. The aims and purposes of the analysis were outlined. The literature review identified various uses of the self-esteem concept as well as published definitions of the word. Defining attributes were also explored and examined, including positive and negative connotations of self-esteem. Two tools were utilized to help aesthetic nurse specialists assess patients for self-esteem and assess for a possible mental illness that may present as low self-esteem. A culturally sensitive theoretical definition of self-esteem was constructed to fit the needs and environment of medical spas. A model case of this definition, as well as a borderline and contrary case, was presented. Antecedents and consequences, as well as empirical referents of the concept, were explored.
Khaola, Peter P.
As one of the most important dependent variables in education and work research, performance has been operationalised either as the proficiency with which core tasks are performed (task performance), or as extra-role behaviours that support core activities (organisational citizenship behaviours). Relative to academic performance (core academic…
Cross-age mentoring programs are peer helping programs in which high school students serve as mentors to younger children. The study in this article compared fall-to-spring changes on connectedness, attachment, and self-esteem between 46 teen mentors and 45 comparison classmates. Results revealed an association between serving as a cross-age peer…
Jiang, Ying Hong; Yau, Jenny; Bonner, Patricia; Chiang, Linda
Introduction: Driven by an overarching conceptual framework adapted from Self-Determination Theory, this study tested the direct and indirect effects of perceived parental academia autonomy support vs. academic planning control on the interrelated variables of adolescents' self-esteem, academic motivation, and academic achievement, using…
Missouri Univ., Columbia. Missouri LINC.
The paper examines self-esteem, what contributes to it, why it is important, and ways to build it in children, especially those with disabilities. Definitions of four basic terms (self-esteem, body image, unconditional acceptance, and active-reflective listening) are offered. Guidelines for teachers and parents are then offered in the form of…
Pervasive though it is in modern life, the concept of self-esteem is often viewed with distrust. This paper departs from an idea that was recently aired by Richard Smith: that we might be better off without this concept. The meaning of self-esteem is explored within four homes: the self-help industry, social science, therapy and education. It is…
This paper develops a thread of argument from previous contributions to this journal by Richard Smith and Ruth Cigman about the educational salience of self-esteem. It is argued--contra Smith and Cigman--that the social science conception of self-esteem does serve a useful educational function, most importantly in undermining the inflated…
Nursing students with high levels of self-esteem and a strong ego-identity maintain a level of self-integrity that enables them to participate successfully in shared group values and interests while simultaneously meeting their own needs. Self-esteem and ego-identity are associated with academic achievement, major (area of study) satisfaction, and life satisfaction in undergraduate students. This study evaluated a brief group program for Korean nursing students that focused on promoting positive self-esteem and ego-identity development. Twenty-three Korean nursing school students participated. Changes in the students' ego-identity and self-esteem were quantitatively examined. Scores for ego-identity and self-esteem increased significantly for the students who participated in the group, while scores in the control group remained the same. The program is judged as an effective method for nursing educators or college mental health providers to utilize in order to promote affirmative ego-identity and self-esteem in nursing students. Additionally, the program contributes to helping students achieve developmental goals during their college life.
... de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Self-Esteem KidsHealth > For Kids > Self-Esteem Print A A ... español La historia de la autoestima What Is Self-Esteem? Self-esteem is a way of thinking and ...
von Soest, Tilmann; Wichstrøm, Lars; Kvalem, Ingela Lundin
This study examines the development of global self-esteem and self-esteem in 6 specific domains across adolescence and young adulthood. Using a cohort-sequential design, we analyzed longitudinal data on 3,116 Norwegian men and women from 13 to 31 years of age by means of growth curve modeling. Questionnaire data provided information on global self-esteem and self-esteem in social, academic, athletic, and appearance domains. Data on important life outcomes was provided by register linkages. Results showed increasing levels of global self-esteem and self-esteem in most domains with increasing age. Being male, higher parental education, and reported higher levels of parental care were related to higher levels of global self-esteem and self-esteem in several domains. Self-esteem in the appearance domain showed high and stable correlations with global self-esteem, whereas in social domains, correlations with global self-esteem increased over age, with a particularly steep increase for romantic appeal self-esteem. As to the prospective relationship between self-esteem and important life outcomes, results showed that participants high in academic self-esteem attained higher education levels and higher income, but most of the relationship was explained by covariates such as parents' socioeconomic status and school grades. Low global self-esteem predicted later prescription of antidepressants, even after controlling for covariates. This study is the first to provide a comprehensive picture of the development of global and domain-specific self-esteem throughout adolescence and young adulthood using long-term longitudinal data. The results underscore the importance of examining development of self-esteem in specific domains in addition to global self-esteem.
The purpose of this study was to examine how I Am A Dreamer Musician Program (IDMP) affected academic self-concept and self-esteem of middle school students in low-income communities. During the seven weeks of the weekly music workshops, students participated in different musical activities including playing percussion instruments, singing,…
Steffenhagen, R. A.
Alfred Adler's Individual Psychology theory is actually a theory of self-esteem psychology. For Adler the most important motivating force for behavior is a striving for superiority. A self-esteem theory of deviance was developed with the underlying proposition being that low self-esteem is the basic psychodynamic mechanism underlying deviance. For…
Lack of self-esteem is the root of many social problems. The California Task Force to Promote Self-Esteem and Personal and Social Responsibility has made several recommendations to promote self-esteem as a social vaccine against the problems besetting minority and urban families. (SLD)
Lewis, Florence C.
Good teachers are treasures, but they need rewards and small classes. They cannot instruct others in self-esteem if they feel like losers. If the teaching profession is scorned and the school administration offers no support, the teacher can be only poison in the classroom. (MLW)
Tomas, Jose M.; Oliver, Amparo
Results of a study with 640 Spanish high school students suggest the existence of a global self-esteem factor underlying responses to Rosenberg's (M. Rosenberg, 1965) Self-Esteem Scale, although the inclusion of method effects is needed to achieve a good model fit. Method effects are associated with item wording. (SLD)
Thanissaro, Phra Nicholas
Although the importance of self-esteem in educational achievement is contested, it remains a significant touchstone of multicultural religious education. This study set out to establish differences in demographics and attitudes between high self-esteem and low self-esteem Buddhist teenagers who are a small religious minority in Britain. Low…
Treatment programs for the growing problem of solvent abuse, in the form of sniffing gasoline, among Canadian-Native youth have had no success. Increased self-esteem, which is central to successful treatment, can only be achieved through programs designed by Native people and based on the their culture. Contains 32 references. (TD)
There appear to be two forms of high self-esteem: secure high self-esteem (which is often linked with psychological health) and fragile high self-esteem (which is generally associated with poor psychological adjustment and impaired interpersonal relationships). Discrepant high self-esteem is a form of fragile self-esteem characterized by high explicit self-esteem and low implicit self-esteem. The present study examined whether discrepant high self-esteem was associated with narcissism and self-esteem instability in an undergraduate sample. Using multiple measures of implicit self-esteem, two basic findings emerged from the present study. First, participants with discrepant high self-esteem possessed the highest levels of narcissism. Second, participants with high explicit self-esteem and high implicit self-esteem displayed the most stable self-esteem. Findings are discussed in terms of secure and fragile high self-esteem.
Martínez, Isabel; García, José Fernando; Yubero, Santiago
This study explored the relationship between parenting styles and self-esteem among 1,239 11- to 15-yr.-old Brazilian adolescents (54% girls; M age= 13.4 yr., SD= 1.4). Teenagers' families were classified into 1 of 4 groups (Authoritative, Authoritarian, Indulgent, or Neglectful) based on adolescents' answers to the ESPA29 Parental Socialization Scale. Participants completed the AF5 Multidimensional Self-Esteem Scale which appraises five dimensions: Academic, Social, Emotional, Family, and Physical. Analyses showed that Brazilian adolescents from Indulgent families scored equal (Academic and Social) or higher (Family) in Self-esteem than adolescents from Authoritative families. Adolescents from Indulgent families scored higher than adolescents from Authoritarian and Neglectful families in four Self-esteem dimensions, Academic, Social, Family, and Physical. Adolescents from Authoritative families scored higher than adolescents from Authoritarian and Neglectful families in three Self-esteem dimensions, Academic, Social, and Family. These results suggest that Authoritative parenting is not associated with optimum self-esteem in Brazil.
Patchin, Justin W.; Hinduja, Sameer
Background: This article examines the relationship between middle school students' experience with cyberbullying and their level of self-esteem. Previous research on traditional bullying among adolescents has found a relatively consistent link between victimization and lower self-esteem, while finding an inconsistent relationship between offending…
Figa, Leslie E.
The 50-item Bickley Assessment of Self Esteem (BASE) is an experimental instrument designed to measure the self-esteem of children enrolled in early childhood education. In addition to yielding an overall measure of a child's self-esteem, the BASE attempts to measure the child's general orientation toward academics, toward his or her teachers, and…
Yousef, Wael Shaher Mohammed; Bellamy, Al
Introduction: Cyberbullying has received a considerable amount of attention within the academic and public literature. However, very little if any cyberbullying research has been conducted among Arab American students. This current study explored the impact of cyberbullying among middle and high school Arab American students on their self-esteem…
Salsali, Mahnaz; Silverstone, Peter H
Background The objective of the present study was to identify the effects and relative importance of demographic factors and psychosocial stressors on self-esteem of psychiatric patients. Method The present study was carried out on a consecutive sample of 1,190 individuals attending an open-access psychiatric outpatient clinic. Patients were diagnosed according to DSM III-R diagnostic criteria following detailed assessments. At screening, patients and controls completed two self-esteem questionnaires, the Rosenberg self-esteem scale and the Janis and Field Social Adequacy scale. In addition, a large amount of demographic and psychosocial data was collected on all patients. Results Significantly increased self-esteem was observed with an increase in age, educational achievement and income. Employed patients showed significantly higher self-esteem compared to unemployed patients. Female patients had a significantly lower self-esteem compared to male patients. The self-esteem of psychiatric patients did not vary significantly with their marital status. No relationship was detected between acute stressors and the self-esteem of psychiatric patients, although severe enduring stressors were associated with lower self-esteem in psychiatric patients. Conclusion The results of this large study demonstrate that the self-esteem of adult psychiatric patients is affected by a number of demographic and psychosocial factors including age, sex, educational status, income, employment status, and enduring psychosocial stressors. PMID:12622872
... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness How's Your Self-Esteem? (Quiz) KidsHealth > For Teens > How's Your Self-Esteem? (Quiz) A A A We hear a lot about the importance of self-esteem. Self-esteem can influence our happiness and success. ...
... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness How's Your Self-Esteem? (Quiz) KidsHealth > For Teens > How's Your Self-Esteem? (Quiz) Print A A A We hear a lot about the importance of self-esteem. Self-esteem can influence our happiness and success. ...
Culp, Mara E.
Positive self-esteem helps students succeed in and outside of music classrooms. High self-esteem is associated with a positive self-image and fine musicianship. Conversely, low self-esteem is associated with a negative self-image and poorer musicianship. Because students' self-esteem may affect their participation in music classes, the music…
Steiger, Andrea E; Allemand, Mathias; Robins, Richard W; Fend, Helmut A
Previous studies revealed that low self-esteem is prospectively associated with depression. However, self-esteem has been shown to change over time. We thus hypothesized that not only level but also change in self-esteem affect depression. Using data from a 23-year longitudinal study (N = 1,527), we therefore examined the prospective effects of global and domain-specific self-esteem (physical attractiveness, academic competence) level and change on depressive symptoms 2 decades later. Self-esteem was assessed annually from age 12 to 16, and depression was assessed at age 16 and 35. Results from latent growth curve analyses demonstrated that both level and change in self-esteem served as predictors for adult depression. Individuals who entered adolescence with low self-esteem, and/or whose self-esteem declined further during the adolescent years, were more likely to exhibit symptoms of depression 2 decades later as adults; this pattern held both for global and domain-specific self-esteem. These findings highlight the importance of adolescent self-esteem development for mental health outcomes in adulthood.
Baudson, Tanja G; Weber, Kira E; Freund, Philipp A
One important goal of education is to develop students' self-esteem which, in turn, hinges on their self-concept in the academic, physical, and social domains. Prior studies have shown that physical self-concept accounts for most of the variation in self-esteem, with academic and social self-concepts playing a much lesser role. As pressure toward perfection seems to be increasing in education, appearance, and social relationships (three aspects that relate to crucial developmental tasks of adolescence), the goal of the present field study was to examine whether former findings still hold true in the light of the changing societal context. A sample of 2,950 students from a broad range of German secondary schools (47% girls, age 10-19 years) responded to a recently validated German-language questionnaire assessing multiple self-concept facets (Weber and Freund, 2016). We examined which self-concept aspects predict self-esteem best and whether the pattern is comparable across genders and achievement levels using latent regression analyses. Results show that self-concept of appearance is still by far the strongest predictor (total sample: B = 0.77, SE = 0.02, p < 0.01) and that this is especially the case for girls and students from special educational schools. Other aspects play a much lesser role. The discussion explores why appearance is so neglected, compared to the more academic subjects, and what school can do to account for its vast importance for students' self-esteem.
Reports on a study of 305 African American and 338 white middle school students to determine whether self-beliefs underlying self-esteem are different across ethnic and gender boundaries. Finds that academic self-beliefs, as opposed to nonacademic self-beliefs were not strong predictors of self-esteem among any of the groups. (ACM)
King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca; Davis, Beth; McClellan, Warren
Examines findings from a multidisciplinary mentoring program for fourth graders. Students were admitted to the program based on responses to a survey on self-esteem; school, peer, and family connectedness; and risk taking behavior. The program emphasized relationship building, self-esteem enhancement, goal setting, and academic assistance.…
ARI Research Note 98-23 The Role of Self - Esteem and Self -Efficacy in Detecting Responses to Feedback Walter Davis and Donald B. Fedor Georgia...12/94 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Role of Self - Esteem and Self -Efficacy in Determining Responses to Performance Feedback 6. AUTHOR(S) Walter Davis...are: self - esteem , self -efficacy, locus of control, achievement need, and tolerance for ambiguity. Within the identified research, feedback-related
Donnellan, M Brent; Trzesniewski, Kali H; Robins, Richard W; Moffitt, Terrie E; Caspi, Avshalom
The present research explored the controversial link between global self-esteem and externalizing problems such as aggression, antisocial behavior, and delinquency. In three studies, we found a robust relation between low self-esteem and externalizing problems. This relation held for measures of self-esteem and externalizing problems based on self-report, teachers' ratings, and parents' ratings, and for participants from different nationalities (United States and New Zealand) and age groups (adolescents and college students). Moreover, this relation held both cross-sectionally and longitudinally and after controlling for potential confounding variables such as supportive parenting, parent-child and peer relationships, achievement-test scores, socioeconomic status, and IQ. In addition, the effect of self-esteem on aggression was independent of narcissism, an important finding given recent claims that individuals who are narcissistic, not low in self-esteem, are aggressive. Discussion focuses on clarifying the relations among self-esteem, narcissism, and externalizing problems.
Jackson, Barbara Talbert
The No Child Left Behind legislation has brought greater attention to the academic performance of American youth. Its emphasis on student achievement requires a closer analysis of assessment data by school districts. To address the findings, educators must seek strategies to remedy failing results. In a mid-Atlantic district of the Unites States,…
Williams, Tammy Kay
The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of a year long intensive extracurricular middle school science experience on the self-esteem, career goal orientation, and attitude toward science of eighth grade female students using both quantitative and qualitative methods. Sixteen self-selected eighth grade female students participated in extracurricular science experiences such as camping, rock climbing, specimen collecting and hiking, as well as meeting and interacting with female science role models. Data was collected using pre- and posttest methods using the Children's Attitude Toward Science Survey, the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, and the Self-Directed Search (SDS) Career Explorer. End of year science course grades were examined for seventh and eighth grades and compared to first semester high school grades. Qualitative data was in the form of: (1) focus group interviews conducted prior to field experiences, at the end of all field experiences, and at the end of the first semester of high school, and (2) journal entries from throughout the project. Qualitative data was examined for changes in student perceptions of science as a discipline, self as scientist, women in science, and social comparison of self in science.
Street, Sue; Isaacs, Madelyn
The role of self-esteem as a professional and personality construct has been obscured by its panacea role. Definitions of self-esteem and related terms are distinguished. Self-esteem is discussed as a developmental construct, a personality construct, and as a therapeutic goal. Therapeutic, educational, and counseling implications are discussed.…
Some philosophers of education have recently argued that educators can more or less ignore children's global self-esteem without failing them educationally in any important way. This paper draws on an attachment theoretic account of self-esteem to argue that this view is mistaken. I argue that understanding self-esteem's origins in attachment…
... 1- to 2-Year-Old Developing Your Child's Self-Esteem KidsHealth > For Parents > Developing Your Child's Self-Esteem ... their ability to do well at things Why Self-Esteem Matters When children feel good about themselves, it ...
Robins, Richard W.; Trzesniewski, Kali H.; Donnellan, M. Brent
Since the construct of "self-esteem" was first introduced over 100 years ago, a wealth of knowledge has been accumulated. Several conclusions about the nature of self-esteem can be reached that provide a foundation for future practice and research. In general, research shows that high self-esteem is associated with the behaviors, goals, and coping…
Meriwether, Nicholas K.
Suggests that sanctions based on emotional well-being or self-esteem are insufficient for motivating moral behavior and ultimately are reduced to hedonism. Argues this is also the case in the hypothetical event that all moral action results in heightened self-esteem and all immoral actions results in lower self-esteem. (CAJ)
Middle school students experience substantial changes in their emotion and cognition while they grow. They have mixed feelings, which may negatively affect their motivation, self-esteem, and academic success due to different classroom management strategies of their teachers. There is available research about motivation of middle school students…
Psychological masks can become the accepted facade of people who struggle to camouflage their real selves. Sometimes parents label a child as "lazy" or "stupid"; teachers may follow suit by labeling a child "slow learner" or "uncooperative." Healthy self-esteem is based on three main concepts: "I am…
This paper examines the relationship between androgyny and self-esteem by reviewing recent research on the two topics. It is noted that, until recently, sex-typing was considered to be a normal healthy function of development and it was believed that people were happiest and most productive if their sex-typing matched their gender. Some recent…
Kiviruusu, Olli; Huurre, Taina; Aro, Hillevi; Marttunen, Mauri; Haukkala, Ari
The present study examined the trajectory of self-esteem from adolescence to mid-adulthood and its predictors in adolescence in a prospective cohort sample with a 26-year follow-up. Participants of a Finnish cohort study in 1983 at 16 years (N = 2194) were followed up at ages 22 (N = 1656), 32 (N = 1471) and 42 (N = 1334) years. Self-esteem development was analyzed using latent growth curve models with parental socioeconomic status (SES), parental divorce, school achievement, daily smoking, and heavy drinking as time invariant covariates. Self-esteem grew linearly from 16 to 32 years, but stabilized after that with no growth between 32 and 42 years. Males had significantly higher self-esteem throughout the follow-up, although females had a faster growth rate. Better school performance and higher parental SES were associated with a higher initial level of self-esteem among both genders, while parental divorce among females and daily smoking among males were associated with a lower initial level of self-esteem. Among females the growth rate of self-esteem was practically unaffected by the studied covariates. Among males, however, the initial differences in self-esteem favouring those from a higher SES background were indicated to diminish, while the differences between non-smokers and smokers were indicated to increase. The studied adolescent covariates combined had only limited predictive value for the later self-esteem development. However, the effects of any covariate on the level and slope of the self-esteem trajectory, even if small, should be assessed in combination in order to identify whether they lead to converging, diverging or constantly equidistant self-esteem trajectories. The findings highlight the variety of roles that adolescent behaviours and social environments may have in the developmental process of self-esteem from adolescence into mid-adulthood.
McKay, Michael T.; Sumnall, Harry R.; Cole, Jon C.; Percy, Andrew
Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have reported equivocal findings regarding the association between self-esteem, self-efficacy and adolescent alcohol use. Data were collected from a sample of 11-16-year olds in Northern Ireland (n = 4088) over two consecutive academic years measuring global self-esteem, academic, social and emotional…
Obese children benefit from structured life-style changes and need help with self-esteem, which is lower when compared to normal-weight children. Summer camp might offer an opportunity to achieve a healthy lifestyle and to improve weight and self-esteem. he objective is to determine the effectivenes...
In this study, relationships between vocational self-esteem and psychological needs (autonomy, affiliation, achievement, and dominance) in Turkish counseling students were examined. In addition, the moderating effect of gender on the relationships between vocational self-esteem and psychological needs was investigated. The participants consisted…
Farber, Betty, Ed.
Based on the assumption that a belief in one's worth and competence will encourage children's achievement and protect against failure, this book for parents presents guidelines and activities for helping to guide children to a strong, enduring sense of self-esteem and competence. Section 1 describes the building blocks of self-esteem, focusing on…
Liang, Belle; Lund, Terese Jean; Mousseau, Angela M. Desilva; Spencer, Renée
This study examined the influence of growth-fostering mentoring relationships on the self-esteem of adolescent female students from affluent communities. Studies have demonstrated that this population of students is susceptible to psychological distress and self-esteem problems, due to perfectionistic strivings and achievement pressures.…
Butler County (Pennsylvania) Vo-Tech motivates better attendance and achievement through an incentive program with tangible rewards such as the Win-a-Car contest. A two-day self-esteem program involves action-oriented experiential learning activities designed to develop leadership, teamwork, self-esteem, and problem-solving skills. (SK)
Outlines a year-long project for students to create scrapbooks with reflective writings, monthly activities, special writings and projects, achievements, and social activities. Students bind and decorate the scrapbooks then share them with one another before school ends. (SM)
The perceived social self and the ratings of the Dymond Scale were used as measures of selfesteem. As hypothesized, on both measures of self - esteem ...3, 4 and 2. Thus persons functioning in terms of the more abstract level of System 4 were higher in self - esteem than were Ss of the other systems...addition to showing that self - esteem does not depend on internalization of or adherence to dominant social norms, these results were interpreted as
Baudson, Tanja G.; Weber, Kira E.; Freund, Philipp A.
One important goal of education is to develop students’ self-esteem which, in turn, hinges on their self-concept in the academic, physical, and social domains. Prior studies have shown that physical self-concept accounts for most of the variation in self-esteem, with academic and social self-concepts playing a much lesser role. As pressure toward perfection seems to be increasing in education, appearance, and social relationships (three aspects that relate to crucial developmental tasks of adolescence), the goal of the present field study was to examine whether former findings still hold true in the light of the changing societal context. A sample of 2,950 students from a broad range of German secondary schools (47% girls, age 10–19 years) responded to a recently validated German-language questionnaire assessing multiple self-concept facets (Weber and Freund, 2016). We examined which self-concept aspects predict self-esteem best and whether the pattern is comparable across genders and achievement levels using latent regression analyses. Results show that self-concept of appearance is still by far the strongest predictor (total sample: B = 0.77, SE = 0.02, p < 0.01) and that this is especially the case for girls and students from special educational schools. Other aspects play a much lesser role. The discussion explores why appearance is so neglected, compared to the more academic subjects, and what school can do to account for its vast importance for students’ self-esteem. PMID:27803681
Cavallo, Justin V; Holmes, John G; Fitzsimons, Gráinne M; Murray, Sandra L; Wood, Joanne V
This article explores how self-esteem and executive resources interact to determine responses to motivational conflict. One correlational and 3 experimental studies investigated the hypothesis that high and low self-esteem people undertake different self-regulatory strategies in "risky" situations that afford opportunity to pursue competing goals and that carrying out these strategies requires executive resources. When such resources are available, high self-esteem people respond to risk by prioritizing and pursuing approach goals, whereas low self-esteem people prioritize avoidance goals. However, self-esteem does not influence responses to risk when executive resources are impaired. In these studies, risk was operationalized by exposing participants to a relationship threat (Studies 1 and 2), by using participants' self-reported marital conflict (Study 3), and by threatening academic competence (Study 4). Executive resources were operationalized as cognitive load (Studies 1 and 2), working memory capacity (Study 3), and resource depletion (Study 4). When executive resources were ample, high self-esteem people responded to interpersonal risk by making more positive relationship evaluations (Studies 1, 2, and 3) and making more risky social comparisons following a personal failure (Study 4) than did low self-esteem people. Self-esteem did not predict participants' responses when executive resources were impaired or when risk was absent. The regulatory function of self-esteem may be more resource-dependent than has been previously theorized.
Wilkinson, Meredith R.; Ball, Linden J.; Alford, David
We report a study that examined the modulating impact of contingent self-esteem on regret intensity for regretted outcomes associated with controllable versus uncontrollable events. The Contingent Self-Esteem Scale (e.g., Kernis & Goldman, 2006) was used to assess the extent to which a person’s sense of self-worth is based on self and others’ expectations. We found that there was an influence of self-esteem contingency for controllable but not for uncontrollable regret types. For controllable regret types individuals with a high contingent (i.e., unstable) self-esteem reported greater regret intensity than those with a low contingent (i.e., stable) self-esteem. We interpret this finding as reflecting a functional and adaptive role of high contingent self-esteem in terms of mobilizing the application of counterfactual reasoning and planning mechanisms that can enable personal expectations to be achieved in the future. PMID:25883697
Wilkinson, Meredith R; Ball, Linden J; Alford, David
We report a study that examined the modulating impact of contingent self-esteem on regret intensity for regretted outcomes associated with controllable versus uncontrollable events. The Contingent Self-Esteem Scale (e.g., Kernis & Goldman, 2006) was used to assess the extent to which a person's sense of self-worth is based on self and others' expectations. We found that there was an influence of self-esteem contingency for controllable but not for uncontrollable regret types. For controllable regret types individuals with a high contingent (i.e., unstable) self-esteem reported greater regret intensity than those with a low contingent (i.e., stable) self-esteem. We interpret this finding as reflecting a functional and adaptive role of high contingent self-esteem in terms of mobilizing the application of counterfactual reasoning and planning mechanisms that can enable personal expectations to be achieved in the future.
Before analysts can assess self-esteem as a goal for policy and practice, they must consider the ideological orientations of those who use the term and the cultural norms that shape the debate. Explicit attention to the politics surrounding self-esteem is needed to evaluate the use of the term in policy contexts. (Author/SLD)
Dhal, Anubha; Bhatia, Sangeeta; Sharma, Vidhi; Gupta, Priyanka
Objectives: To assess self-esteem, loneliness and attachment styles among adolescents and examine their association with each other and with age and gender. Method: Adolescents (55 males and 55 females) from a public school in Delhi, aged 10-13 years were administered Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (School Form), Attachment Scale and UCLA…
Maintains that self-esteem is more than simply "feeling good" about oneself. It derives from having experienced meaningful success. A service learning program can accomplish this and avoid the self-preoccupation and narcissism that occasionally accompany self-esteem efforts. Service learning can replace this with empathy and commitment. (MJP)
Reasoner, Robert W.; Gilberts, Ragnar
A 3-year control study was conducted to determine whether the use of self-esteem program materials could have a significant impact on staff or student self-esteem and functioning within the school setting. The study used three experimental schools and three control schools. Teachers in the three experimental schools were provided orientation,…
Higgins, Keith B.
This book was written to help schools and educators in their efforts to raise the self-esteem of adolescent students. The first chapter presents the layout of the book. Chapter 2 explains Coopersmith's (1967) model of self-esteem, emphasizing the model's relevance to secondary education. Experiences leading to feelings of significance, competence,…
... desktop! more... Orthodontics Align Crooked Teeth and Boost Self- esteem Article Chapters Orthodontics Align Crooked Teeth and Boost Self- esteem Orthodontics print full article print this chapter email ...
Aguirre, Alicia Alvarez; Alonso Castillo, María Magdalena; Zanetti, Ana Carolina Guidorizzi
The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship of levels of self esteem and alcohol consumption in adolescents, by carrying out a transversal, descriptive study, in a college of nursing of Queretaro in Mexico, in the month of July 2008, with a sample of 109 adolescents, between 17 and 20 years old. For attainment of the data two instruments were applied: AUDIT and the Rosemberg self esteem scale. The majority of the participating adolescents had high self esteem (94.5%) and none presented low self esteem. Of the adolescents in the study 80.7% did not consume alcohol hazardously. It was concluded that the adolescents presented high self esteem and low alcohol consumption. Therefore, it is necessary to implement preventive programs related to alcohol consumption and to identify the protective factors to guarantee the maintenance of healthy habits for the adolescents.
Griswold, Deborah E.; Barnhill, Gena P.; Myles, Brenda Smith; Hagiwara, Taku; Simpson, Richard L.
A study focused on identifying the academic characteristics of 21 children and youth who have Asperger syndrome. Students had an extraordinary range of academic achievement scores, extending from significantly above average to far below grade level. Lowest achievement scores were shown for numerical operations, listening comprehension, and written…
Bentley, Donna Anderson; And Others
An ongoing concern for educators is the identification of factors that contribute to or are associated with academic achievement; one such group of variables that has received little attention are those involving stress. The relationship between perceived sources of stress and academic achievement was examined to determine if reactions to stress…
Marsh, Herbert W; Martin, Andrew J
BACKGROUND. A positive self-concept is valued as a desirable outcome in many disciplines of psychology as well as an important mediator to other outcomes. AIMS. The present review examines support for the reciprocal effects model (REM) that posits academic self-concept (ASC) and achievement are mutually reinforcing, each leading to gains in the other - and its extension to other achievement domains. METHOD. We review theoretical, methodological, and empirical support for the REM. Critical features in this research are a theoretical emphasis on multidimensional perspectives that focus on specific components of self-concept and a methodological focus on a construct validity approach to evaluating the REM. RESULTS. Consistent with these distinctions, REM research and a comprehensive meta-analysis show that prior ASC has direct and indirect effects on subsequent achievement, whilst the effects of self-esteem and other non-academic components of self-concept are negligible. We then provide an overview of subsequent support for the generality of the REM for: young children, cross-cultural, health (physical activity), and non-elite (gymnastics) and elite (international swimming championships) sport. CONCLUSION. This research is important in demonstrating that increases in ASC lead to increases in subsequent academic achievement and other desirable educational outcomes. Findings confirm that not only is self-concept an important outcome variable in itself, it also plays a central role in affecting other desirable educational outcomes. Implications for educational practice are discussed.
Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Cohort, this study examines the role that bilingualism plays in children's academic developmental trajectories during their early school years, with particular attention on the school environment (N = 16,380). Growth-curve results showed that despite starting with lower math scores in…
van Dijk, Wilco W; van Koningsbruggen, Guido M; Ouwerkerk, Jaap W; Wesseling, Yoka M
In two studies we demonstrated that self-esteem has a negative relationship with schadenfreude toward a high achiever and that this relationship was mediated by the self-threat evoked by this high achiever. Moreover, we showed that this indirect relationship was contingent on an opportunity to affirm the self. When no self-affirmation opportunity was available, low self-esteem participants experienced a stronger self-threat when confronted with a high achiever, and this self-threat increased their schadenfreude, whereas this response was attenuated when they were given an opportunity to self-affirm. These findings indicate that the misfortunes of others can evoke schadenfreude because they provide people with an opportunity to protect or enhance their self-views.
Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Cohort, this study examines the role that bilingualism plays in children's academic developmental trajectories during their early school years, with particular attention on the school environment (N = 16,380). Growth-curve results showed that despite starting with lower math scores in kindergarten, Mixed Bilingual children fully closed the math gap with their White English Monolingual peers by fifth grade. However, because non-English-Dominant Bilinguals and non-English Monolinguals started kindergarten with significantly lower reading and math scores compared to their English Monolingual peers, by fifth grade the former groups still had significantly lower scores. School-level factors explained about one third of the reductions in the differences in children's academic performance.
Vasta, Ross; Brockner, Joel
Compared self-esteem scores with self-monitored self-evaluations in college students. Self-esteem was negatively correlated with absolute and relative rates of negative self-evaluations. Subjects higher in self-esteem reported greater rates of positive self-evaluations. Data for subjects lower in self-esteem were non-differential. The relationship…
Defines global self-esteem (sense of efficacy, purpose, responsibility, self-acceptance) and trait self-esteem (confidence in specific abilities or talents). Gives examples of how low self-esteem impedes participation in learning and how learning can raise self-esteem. (SK)
The Longitudinal Study of American Youth (LSAY) database was employed to examine the educational practice of early acceleration of students of mathematics on the development of their self-esteem across the entire secondary grade levels. Students were classified into three different academic categories (gifted, honors, and regular). Results indicated that, in terms of the development of their self-esteem, gifted students benefited from early acceleration, honors students neither benefited nor were harmed by early acceleration, and regular students were harmed by early acceleration. Early acceleration in mathematics promoted significant growth in self-esteem among gifted male students and among gifted, honors, and regular minority students. When students were accelerated, schools showed similar average growth in self-esteem among gifted students and regular students and a large effect of general support for mathematics on the average growth in self-esteem among honors students.
Tomul, Ekber; Savasci, Havva Sebile
This study aims to investigate the relationship between academic achievement and the socioeconomic characteristics of elementary school 7th grade students in Burdur. The population of the study are 7th grade students who had education at elementary schools in Burdur in the 2007-2008 academic year. Two staged sampling was chosen as suitable for the…
... and delight. As your child grows, things like learning to dress, read, or ride a bike provide perfect opportunities for self-esteem to take root. When teaching kids how to do things, show and help ...
In this study, a self-esteem maintenance model is introduced and is used to test predictions about sibling identification, sibling friction, and the closeness of father-son relationships as they relate to sibling performance. (Author/SS)
During the early grades, female students generally display enthusiasm for learning science. As these same students go though school, however, their level of motivation changes. Once female students reach high school, many lack the confidence to take chemistry and physics. Then, in college they lack the background necessary to major in chemistry,…
Bailey, Joseph A
Self-esteem is a simplistic term for varied and complex mental states pertaining to how one views oneself. It takes but little research in the voluminous literature to see the vagueness and inconsistencies in its various definitions. Even more problematic is the uncertainty concerning its foundational components. The importance of having a solid definition and specific ideas about the foundational components of self-esteem is that both pave the way to recognizing its causes; to predicting effects from those causes; and to organizing the trouble-shooting process for locating those philosophical flaws or psychological scars which lead to low self-esteem. The purpose of this paper is to offer a common ground for thinking about self-esteem at its most basic level. In order to distinguish the "basic level" from the rest of the components of self-esteem, let us liken it to a skyscraper building. Here, the focus is on the building's "underground foundation" and the base upon which that foundation rests. The base is a definition that allows for the assessment of the foundation. The underground foundation itself consists of the mental building blocks called self-meaning, self-identity, self-image, and self-concepts. To help illustrate their interactions, a few of the "masks" and "faces" of self-esteem will be mentioned. What is not being addressed is the "above ground structure"--those theories and manifestations dealt with by most mental health specialists.
Bailey, Joseph A.
Self-esteem is a simplistic term for varied and complex mental states pertaining to how one views oneself. It takes but little research in the voluminous literature to see the vagueness and inconsistencies in its various definitions. Even more problematic is the uncertainty concerning its foundational components. The importance of having a solid definition and specific ideas about the foundational components of self-esteem is that both pave the way to recognizing its causes; to predicting effects from those causes; and to organizing the trouble-shooting process for locating those philosophical flaws or psychological scars which lead to low self-esteem. The purpose of this paper is to offer a common ground for thinking about self-esteem at its most basic level. In order to distinguish the "basic level" from the rest of the components of self-esteem, let us liken it to a skyscraper building. Here, the focus is on the building's "underground foundation" and the base upon which that foundation rests. The base is a definition that allows for the assessment of the foundation. The underground foundation itself consists of the mental building blocks called self-meaning, self-identity, self-image, and self-concepts. To help illustrate their interactions, a few of the "masks" and "faces" of self-esteem will be mentioned. What is not being addressed is the "above ground structure"--those theories and manifestations dealt with by most mental health specialists. PMID:12793795
Lampard, Amy M; Byrne, Susan M; McLean, Neil
It has been proposed that interpersonal problems play a role in the maintenance of disordered eating because of an adverse effect on self-esteem, which in turn encourages the pursuit of achievement in the valued domain of weight and shape. This study aimed to identify the types of interpersonal problems that are associated with disordered eating and to determine whether self-esteem mediates the relationship between interpersonal problems and eating disorder symptoms. Female university students (n = 227) completed the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-32, Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Regression analysis identified two forms of interpersonal problems that were associated with disordered eating: difficulties being sociable and being too dependent on the opinion of others. Self-esteem mediated the relationship between interpersonal problems and overevaluation of weight and shape but did not mediate the relationship between interpersonal problems and dietary restraint.
Accordino, Denise B.; Accordino, Michael P.; Slaney, Robert B.
Examines the relationship of perfectionism with measures of achievement and achievement motivation and mental health aspects of depression and self-esteem in high school students (N=123). Results indicate that students' personal standards were significant predictors of academic achievement and academic motivation. Also reveals that as students'…
Creemers, Daan H. M.; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.; Wiers, Reinout W.
Implicit and explicit self-esteem are assumed to be important factors in understanding the onset and maintenance of psychological problems. The current study aims to examine the association between implicit and explicit self-esteem and their interaction with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. Specifically, the relationship between the size and the direction of the discrepancy between implicit and explicit self-esteem with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness were examined. Participants were 95 young female adults (M = 21.2 years, SD = 1.88) enrolled in higher education. We administered the IAT to assess implicit self-esteem, and the Rosenberg self-esteem scale to measure explicit self-esteem while psychological problems were assessed through self-reports. Results showed that discrepancies between implicit and explicit self-esteem were positively associated with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. In addition, the direction of the discrepancy was specifically relevant: damaged self-esteem (i.e., high implicit self-esteem and low explicit self-esteem) was consistently associated with increased levels of depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. In contrast, defensive or fragile self-esteem (i.e., low implicit and high explicit self-esteem) was solely associated with loneliness. These findings provide further support that specifically damaged self-esteem is an important vulnerability marker for depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. PMID:23565101
Rezaei-Dehaghani, Abdollah; Paki, Somayeh; Keshvari, Mahrokh
Background: One of the most critical periods of the life of a person is adolescence. During this period, individuals face many problems such as low self-esteem. Self-esteem can be influenced by many factors such as school, friends, and inner personality, but it seems that the family has a crucial role in shaping self-esteem. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the relationship between family functioning and self-esteem in female high school students in Isfahan, Iran. Materials and Methods: This descriptive correlational study was performed with multi-stage random sampling method on 237 female high school students who met the inclusion criteria of the study. The data collection tools included Bloom's Family Functioning Scale and Pop's self-esteem questionnaire. The data obtained from the questionnaires were analyzed through SPSS software. Results: The results showed that the majority of the samples examined had moderate level self-esteem (48.5%) and family function (56.5%). There was a significant correlation between the dimensions of family functioning and areas of self-esteem (except for lack of independence, and public, academic, and physical self-esteem). In addition, the correlation between family aspirations and self-esteem (r = 0.636, P < 0.01) was higher than other variables. Moreover, across the dimensions of family functioning, a significant negative correlation was found between the lack of independence and the family self-esteem subscale. Conclusions: The results of the study showed that adolescents’ self-esteem is highly correlated with their family's performance. Therefore, to enhance the self-esteem of adolescents, family-centered empowerment programs should be planned and implemented by health service providers, especially nurses, in order to improve and enhance family functioning. PMID:26120339
Orth, Ulrich; Robins, Richard W; Widaman, Keith F; Conger, Rand D
We examined the relation between low self-esteem and depression using longitudinal data from a sample of 674 Mexican-origin early adolescents who were assessed at age 10 and 12 years. Results supported the vulnerability model, which states that low self-esteem is a prospective risk factor for depression. Moreover, results suggested that the vulnerability effect of low self-esteem is driven, for the most part, by general evaluations of worth (i.e., global self-esteem), rather than by domain-specific evaluations of academic competence, physical appearance, and competence in peer relationships. The only domain-specific self-evaluation that showed a prospective effect on depression was honesty-trustworthiness. The vulnerability effect of low self-esteem held for male and female adolescents, for adolescents born in the United States versus Mexico, and across different levels of pubertal status. Finally, the vulnerability effect held when we controlled for several theoretically relevant 3rd variables (i.e., social support, maternal depression, stressful events, and relational victimization) and for interactive effects between self-esteem and the 3rd variables. The present study contributes to an emerging understanding of the link between self-esteem and depression and provides much needed data on the antecedents of depression in ethnic minority populations.
Orth, Ulrich; Robins, Richard W.; Widaman, Keith F.; Conger, Rand D.
We examined the relation between low self-esteem and depression using longitudinal data from a sample of 674 Mexican-origin early adolescents who were assessed at age 10 and 12 years. Results supported the vulnerability model, which states that low self-esteem is a prospective risk factor for depression. Moreover, results suggested that the vulnerability effect of low self-esteem is driven, for the most part, by general evaluations of worth (i.e., global self-esteem), rather than by domain-specific evaluations of academic competence, physical appearance, and competence in peer relationships. The only domain-specific self-evaluation that showed a prospective effect on depression was honesty–trustworthiness. The vulnerability effect of low self-esteem held for male and female adolescents, for adolescents born in the United States vs. Mexico, and across different levels of pubertal status. Finally, the vulnerability effect held when we controlled for several theoretically relevant third variables (i.e., social support, maternal depression, stressful events, and relational victimization), and for interactive effects between self-esteem and the third variables. The present study contributes to an emerging understanding of the link between self-esteem and depression and provides much needed data on the antecedents of depression in ethnic minority populations. PMID:23895172
Sahin, Mehmet; Gumus, Yusuf Yasin; Dincel, Sezen
The primary aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between game addiction and academic achievement. The secondary aim was to adapt a self-report instrument to measure game addiction. Three hundred and seventy high school students participated in this study. Data were collected via an online questionnaire that included a brief…
Arslantas, Halis Adnan
This study aimed to identify the relationship between teacher candidates' epistemological beliefs and academic achievement. The participants of the study were 353 teacher candidates studying their fourth year at the Education Faculty. The Epistemological Belief Scale was used which adapted to Turkish through reliability and validity work by…
Anderson, J A; Olnhausen, K S
Based on results of a concept synthesis and concept derivation, an argument is made that self-esteem is a human foundational disposition within the self-care deficit theory of nursing and, as such, is a component of an individual's self-care agency. Guided by research literature, the basic conditioning factors of age, gender, developmental state, family systems, sociocultural orientation, health state, and environmental factors are discussed in regard to their influence on the adolescent's developing self-esteem and emerging self-care agency.
Xue-Yan, Zhang; Dong-Mei, Li; Dan-Dan, Xu; Le-Shan, Zhou
Objectives The aim of this study was to examine several factors related to low self-esteem among obese Chinese primary-school students. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between June 2009 and June 2010. A total of 1,410 primary-school students (China grades 4 - 6) in Changsha city were divided into normal weight (n = 1,084), overweight (n = 211), and obese groups (n = 115) according to world health organization (WHO) growth standards for body mass index (BMI). The students were assessed using the self-esteem scale (SES) and a general situation questionnaire. Caregivers completed questionnaires about their child’s weight status. Self-esteem levels were explored; any factors related to low self-esteem were analyzed using logistic regression analysis. Results The average self-esteem score among overweight or obese primary-school students was found to be lower than that of normal-weight students. The proportion of students with low self-esteem in the obese group was more than that in the normal-weight and overweight groups. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that obesity status (odds ratio [OR], 3.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.25 - 6.22), overweight status (OR, 2.60; 95% CI, 1.71 - 3.95), obesity considered by children’s grandparents (OR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.05 - 2.96), dissatisfaction with height (OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.11 - 2.18), and dissatisfaction with weight (OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.05 - 2.01) were the risk factors for low self-esteem for primary-school students, while satisfaction with academic performance was a protective factor (OR, 0.22; 95% CI, 0.07 - 0.71). Conclusions For Chinese primary-school students, low self-esteem is associated with higher weight status and self-perceived body shape and academic performance. In addition, grandparental opinion of a child’s weight also contributes to low self-esteem. PMID:27713806
This thesis presents a literature review of self- esteem , primarily as it relates to organizations and management. Based on this literature review...self- esteem is defined as the emotional valuation individuals have of themselves and the degree of certainty of this valuation. Several models of self... esteem are presented. The relationship of coping and avoidance to self- esteem is considered. Coping is presented as being one of the primary sources
In two studies which were designed to identify behavioral manifestations of self-esteem, experienced teachers were asked to perform a criterion sort of an 84-item behavioral Q-set, with high and low self-esteem as the criteria. Aims included: (1) identification of classroom behaviors of preschool children associated with self-esteem; (2)…
Bhar, Sunil; Ghahramanlou-Holloway, Marjan; Brown, Gregory; Beck, Aaron T.
Depression, hopelessness, and low self-esteem are implicated as vulnerability factors for suicide ideation. The association of self-esteem with suicide ideation after controlling for depressed mood and hopelessness was examined. Adult psychiatric outpatients (N = 338) completed measures of self-esteem, suicide ideation, hopelessness, and…
Barlow, Alexandra; Woods, Susan E.
There have been mixed results concerning any association between self-esteem and smoking prevalence in young people. The aim of this paper was to investigate cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between self-esteem and the uptake of smoking in childhood, and how various sub-components of self-esteem are related to smoking. A sample of…
Wilburn, Victor R.; Smith, Delores E.
The relationships among stress, self-esteem, and suicidal ideation in late adolescents were examined in a group of college students. Multiple regression analysis indicated that both stress and self-esteem were significantly related to suicidal ideation; low self-esteem and stressful life events significantly predicted suicidal ideation. The…
Woods, Carol S.
Differentiates self-esteem from narcissism and traces societal preoccupation with self-esteem. Maintains that placing so much importance on an individual and self-esteem obscures the value of a balance between individuality and mutual responsibility. Describes Montessori's emphasis on the child's inner development and on community and mutual…
This book provides an opportunity to look at self esteem from a different point of view. It uses clear, easy-to-understand examples of what lowers self esteem, and what promotes it. It begins with an explanation of positive attention, an essential building block of self-esteem for children. Several examples are given of negative feedback and how…
Shermis, Michael, Ed.
This booklet focuses on self-esteem, especially as to how reading at home can affect reading and school performance and how poor reading attainment can affect self-esteem. Specific steps to help middle school children gain self-esteem are discussed. Practical questions from parents are answered and activities are described which can be used at…
Eckart, M. L.
The study examined correlates of self-esteem in 54 adolescents and young adults (ages 12-22) with spina bifida. Core issues identified were the relationships of global self-esteem and perceived competencies in specific areas, perceptions of control, and identification with the physically handicapped. Relationships of self-esteem to age, gender,…
Anderson, Lisa K.; And Others
Past research has demonstrated a relationship between children's physical attractiveness and their self-esteem. Other research has found that learning disabled children are at risk for having low self-esteem. This study examined the relationship between self-esteem and facial attractiveness in learning disabled children. Subjects were 20 diagnosed…
Foley-Nicpon, Megan; Rickels, Heather; Assouline, Susan G.; Richards, Allison
Intellectually gifted students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) face unique academic and social challenges, yet little research has been conducted with this population. The purpose of this study was to examine the self-esteem and self-concept of intellectually gifted children with and without a coexisting diagnosis of ADHD.…
Safara, Maryam; Alkaran, Zeinab Blori; Salmabadi, Mojtaba; Rostami, Najmieh
Objective: The present study was carried out to compare creativity and self-esteem in the university students with employed and household mothers in academic years 2014-2015. Method: This research is a descriptive one which is of comparative-casual type. The statistical population includes all undergraduate students of Azad universities of…
Yavuzer, Yasemin; Karatas, Zeynep; Civilidag, Aydin; Gundogdu, Rezzan
Problem Statement: Aggression is defined as any kind of behavior intended to hurt others. Aggression generally arises due to the interaction between individual (e.g., social and emotional difficulties, low self-esteem, peer rejection, academic failure) and environmental (e.g., poverty, lack of family supervision, limited social support, conflicts…
Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A.; DeLucia-Waack, Janice L.
This study examines the self-esteem, acculturation, and ethnic identity of 150 Latino adolescents enrolled in either a bilingual or traditional education program. Bilingual education programs were established to ensure that academic failure was not the product of limited English proficiency. Grade point average (GPA), acculturation, and ethnic…
Lawson, J. S.; And Others
A 30-item measure of self-esteem in social situations was developed. Factor analysis revealed that a single general factor accounted for 39.7 percent of the total variance. Reliability data based on 128 subjects and normative data based on 265 subjects are provided. (Author/BW)
When presented with the words self-esteem, it is most common in our society to immediately think of girls. It is not often that people ponder the effects of body image, athleticism, success, or even friendships for boys. Unfortunately in overlooking these concepts, we are doing a disservice to our male youth. This article addresses the effects of…
Wu, Yi-Ju; Smith, Delores E.
Assessed gender and age differences in self-esteem of Taiwanese children in grades four through six. Found that boys exceeded girls in confidence in physical abilities, but were less satisfied with their conduct; confidence in scholastic and athletic competence and global self-worth declined with age. Found that scholastic competence, physical…
Norem-Hebeisen, Ardyth A.
Evidence for construct validity of this multi-dimensional concept of self esteem includes the relative congruence of the factor structure with the theoretical construct, the stability of the structure when subjected to a series of empirical tests, increasingly positive self-referent responses with increasing age, willingness to become more…
Yang, Raymond K.; Fetsch, Robert J.
The self-esteem of children in small towns was assessed. Comparing these children's self-rated competencies to extant norms suggests that rural children's self-perceptions are not distinctly different from suburban and urban children. Rural children's feelings of self-worth and self-assessments of scholastic competence are comparable to or higher…
Yue, Xiao Dong; Liu, Katy Wing-Yin; Jiang, Feng; Hiranandani, Neelam Arjan
Summary.-This study examined how humor styles could mediate the effect of self-esteem on subjective happiness. 227 Hong Kong undergraduate students completed the Humor Styles Questionnaire, the Roxsenberg Self-esteem Scale, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. Results showed adaptive humor styles (affiliative humor and self-enhancing humor) significantly predicted self-esteem and subjective happiness and mediated the relationship between self-esteem and subjective happiness. Maladaptive humor styles (aggressive humor and self-defeating humor) did not strongly predict self-esteem or subjective happiness. The mediation effects of humor styles found in the present research provided useful suggestions for future studies.
Giri, Vijai N
The study investigated the relation of scores on self-esteem and communication style using the Rosenberg Self-esteem scale and Communications Style Profile for 282 men and 133 women. Analysis showed the group with high self-esteem scores preferred a direct, straightforward, result-oriented, dominating, and assertive communication style, whereas those with low self-esteem preferred to have a warm, supportive, socially oriented, sharing, and expressive communication style. Men's and women's scores on self-esteem were not significantly different.
Kim, Mikyoung; Kwon, Kyoung-Nan; Lee, Mira
This study explores the three major consumer characteristics that underlie the use of Internet dating services: self-esteem, involvement in romantic relationships, and sociability. A significant three-way interaction effect among these factors emerged. Among sociable people, individuals with high self-esteem are more likely to use Internet dating services than are those with low self-esteem when they are highly involved in romantic relationships. The opposite pattern was revealed for sociable people, however, when they are less involved in romantic relationships. That is, individuals with low self-esteem used Internet dating services more often than did those with high self-esteem when romantic relationships were not important. The implications for academic researchers and practitioners are discussed.
Hesapçıoğlu, Selma Tural; Tural, Mustafa Kemal; Kandil, Sema
Aim: In this study, it was aimed to evaluate the quality of life and self-esteem in children and adolescents with Tourette syndrome (TS) and other chronic motor or vocal tic disorders in comparison with the control group. This is the first study examining the effects of quality of life and self-esteem on each other in chronic tic disorders. Material and Methods: Among 62 patients aged between 6 and 16 years who were diagnosed with chronic tic disorder according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV, 57 patients who met the study inclusion criteria constituted the study group and 57 age- and gender-matched individuals constituted the control group (Ethics committee file number: 2009/69; ethics committee meeting number: 2009/14 (11.06.2009); ethics committee decision number: 16). The Rosenberg self-esteem scale, Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory, Children’s Depression Inventory, Screen for Child Anxiety Related Disorders, Maudsley Obsessional Compulsive Inventory and the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime version were applied to the children and adolescents. Results: In the study group, all quality of life subtests were found to be lower compared to the control group both in children and adolescents except for self-reported emotional functionality and social functionality. Being below the age of 12 years and female gender were found to be predictors of low self-esteem in tic disorder. In the reports obtained from the children and adolescents, low self-esteem was related with decreased quality of life in all areas except for academic functionality. Conclusions: Children and adolescents with tic disorder experience functional disruption with a higher rate compared to the group without a psychiatric disorder or severe medical condition. Applying holistic approaches considering other clinical psychiatric symptoms as a part of chronic tic disorder will be useful in increasing the quality of life and self-esteem
Dotterer, Aryn M.; Lowe, Katie; McHale, Susan M.
This study explored trajectories of African American youths’ academic functioning and assessed whether changes in parent-adolescent relationships were associated with changes in youths’ academic functioning. The data were drawn from a three-year longitudinal study of gender socialization and development in two-parent African American families and included 197 families. Findings revealed gender differences in achievement trajectories and indicated that boys not only had lower levels of academic achievement compared to girls, but also experienced steeper declines in school self-esteem during adolescence. Changes in parent-adolescent relationship quality were linked to changes in academic functioning: Increases in conflict were related to decreases in GPA, school bonding, and school self-esteem and increases in warmth were related to increases in school bonding and school self-esteem. PMID:27122959
Usborne, Esther; Taylor, Donald M
Knowing oneself and experiencing oneself as clearly defined has been linked to positive self-esteem and psychological well-being; however, this association has been tested only at the level of personal identity. The authors propose that a clear cultural identity provides the individual with a clear prototype with which to engage the processes necessary to construct a clear personal identity and, by extension, to achieve self-esteem and well-being. For samples of undergraduate students, Anglophone Quebecers, Francophone Québécois, Chinese North Americans, and Aboriginal Canadians, cultural identity clarity was positively related to self-concept clarity, self-esteem, and markers of subjective well-being. The relationship between cultural identity clarity and both self-esteem and well-being was consistently mediated by self-concept clarity. Interventions designed to clarify cultural identity might have psychological benefits for individuals facing cultural identity challenges.
Palumbo, Anthony; Kramer-Vida, Louisa
America's unyielding academic achievement gap has been a national priority for a long time; yet, some schools have succeeded with academically disadvantaged youth. Usually, these institutions embrace a culture of success and follow an academic curriculum that is grounded in core knowledge and scholastic vocabulary. Academically disadvantaged…
Scrimin, Sara; Altoè, Gianmarco; Moscardino, Ughetta; Pastore, Massimiliano; Mason, Lucia
Factors related to grade point average (GPA) are of great importance for students' success. Yet, little is known about the impact of individual differences in emotional reactivity on students' academic performance. We aimed to examine the emotional reactivity-GPA link and to assess whether self-esteem and psychological distress moderate this…
Benish-Weisman, Maya; Daniel, Ella; Schiefer, David; Möllering, Anna; Knafo-Noam, Ariel
The research examined the relationship between multiple social identifications and self-esteem. Early adolescents (M = 11.4, SD = .95) and mid-adolescents (M = 15.9, SD = 1.18) from Germany and Israel (n = 2337) were studied. Respondents described their social identification as students, family members, and as members of the majority national group and reported self-esteem. A longitudinal, cross-sectional and cross-cultural design revealed, as predicted, multiple social identifications related positively to self-esteem concurrently; they also related positively to self-esteem longitudinally over the course of a year. Moreover, multiple social identifications were found to be antecedent to self-esteem, not vice versa. Finally, multiple social identifications were found to decrease over time. The article discusses the contribution of multiple social identifications to self-esteem at different ages and in various contexts.
Wilburn, Victor R; Smith, Delores E
The relationships among stress, self-esteem, and suicidal ideation in late adolescents were examined in a group of college students. Multiple regression analysis indicated that both stress and self-esteem were significantly related to suicidal ideation; low self-esteem and stressful life events significantly predicted suicidal ideation. The hypothesis that self-esteem would moderate the effects of life stressors on suicidal ideation was supported at the .06 level. A significant minority of the sample indicated having thoughts severe enough to be classified as clinical suicidal ideation. In general, participants who had experienced negative life events in the 6 to 12 months prior to participating in the study had lower self-esteem than those who had similar stresses within the prior six months. However, the opposite was true for clinical suicidal ideators; those who experienced negative life stressors recently had lower self-esteem than those who experienced negative life events six months to a year in the past.
... Evaluation FAQs Additional Evaluation Resources Health & Academics Anti-Bullying Policies and Enumeration: An Infobrief for Local Education ... 11 Resources Health and Academics Data and Statistics Bullying and Absenteeism: Information for State and Local Education ...
Caprara, G V; Barbaranelli, C; Pastorelli, C; Bandura, A; Zimbardo, P G
The present longitudinal research demonstrates robust contributions of early prosocial behavior to children's developmental trajectories in academic and social domains. Both prosocial and aggressive behaviors in early childhood were tested as predictors of academic achievement and peer relations in adolescence 5 years later. Prosocialness included cooperating, helping, sharing, and consoling, and the measure of antisocial aspects included proneness to verbal and physical aggression. Prosocialness had a strong positive impact on later academic achievement and social preferences, but early aggression had no significant effect on either outcome. The conceptual model accounted for 35% of variance in later academic achievement, and 37% of variance in social preferences. Additional analysis revealed that early academic achievement did not contribute to later academic achievement after controlling for effects of early prosocialness. Possible mediating processes by which prosocialness may affect academic achievement and other socially desirable developmental outcomes are proposed.
Luciano, Eva C; Orth, Ulrich
Research suggests that self-esteem increases during late adolescence and young adulthood, but that there is large interindividual variability in this development. However, little is known about the factors accounting for these findings. Using propensity score matching, we tested whether important transitions in the domain of romantic relationships (i.e., beginning a relationship, marrying, and breaking up) explain why individuals differ in the particular self-esteem trajectory they follow. Data came from a longitudinal German study with a large sample of 3 nationally representative cohorts of late adolescents and young adults (total N = 9,069). The analyses were based on 4 assessments across a 3-year period. Using matched samples, the results showed that beginning a relationship increased self-esteem and that the increase persisted when the relationship held at least for 1 year. Experiencing a relationship break-up decreased self-esteem, but the effect disappeared after 1 year, even if the participant stayed single. Marrying did not influence self-esteem. Additionally, we tested for selection effects of self-esteem on the later occurrence of relationship transitions. High self-esteem predicted the beginning of a relationship and low self-esteem predicted relationship break-up. All findings held across gender, age, and migration background. Furthermore, relationship quality mediated the effect of self-esteem on relationship break-up and the effect of beginning a longer versus a short relationship on self-esteem. The findings have significant implications because they show that self-esteem influences whether important transitions occur in the relationship domain and that, in turn, experiencing these transitions influences the further development of self-esteem. (PsycINFO Database Record
Weiss (1977, 1978) has shown that low self esteem workers are more likely to model the role behaviors and work values of superiors than are high self ...situation. He has also argued that high self esteem individuals search for less information on problem solving tasks and are therefore less likely to...seek and use models to help them define their roles. This study examined whether self esteem is, in fact, negatively related to information search
Self-esteem is vital to a law-abiding lifestyle and serves to promote successful rehabilitative and reintegrative outcomes, particularly for female offenders often plagued by low levels of self-worth. Prison-based program administrators have the opportunity to achieve their intended programmatic goals while offenders are incarcerated, in addition…
Luhtanen, Riia K; Crocker, Jennifer
The unique effects of level of self-esteem, narcissism, and contingencies of self-worth assessed prior to college on alcohol use during the freshman year were examined in a longitudinal study of 620 college students. Narcissism predicted alcohol use, but level of self-esteem did not. Basing self-worth on appearance predicted more alcohol use, whereas the virtue, God's love, and academic competence contingencies predicted less alcohol use, independent of other personality measures and joining a sorority or a fraternity. Further, the virtue and academic competence contingencies were associated with decreases in alcohol use from the 1st to the 2nd semester.
King, Keith A; Vidourek, Rebecca A; Davis, Beth; McClellan, Warren
High levels of self-esteem and positive school, peer, and family connections represent protective factors against youth involvement in risky behavior. This paper reports findings from year one of the Healthy Kids Mentoring Program, a multidisciplinary mentoring program for fourth-grade students in a Midwestern public school. In October 2000, 28 fourth-grade students were admitted into the program, based on findings from a 55-item survey distributed to all fourth-grade students (N = 283) regarding overall self-esteem, school, peer, and family connectedness and involvement in risky behavior. The program, which ran from January 2000 to May 2000, consisted of four components: 1) relationship building, 2) self-esteem enhancement, 3) goal setting, 4) academic assistance. Pretest-Posttest data showed significant improvements at posttest in mentored students' self-esteem levels and positive connections to school, peers, and family. Mentored students also were significantly less likely to be depressed or involved in bullying and fighting at posttest than at pretest. Compared to nonmentored students, mentored students reported significantly higher school and family connectedness scores at posttest. Recommendations for effective mentoring program design are offered.
Martens, Andy; Greenberg, Jeff; Allen, John J B
In this article a potential physiological connection to self-esteem is suggested: cardiac vagal tone, the degree of influence on the heart by the vagus, a primary nerve of the parasympathetic nervous system. This hypothesis emerges from parallels between the two literatures that suggest both self-esteem and cardiac vagal tone function to provide protection from threat responding. This article reviews these literatures and evidence and preliminary findings that suggest in some contexts self-esteem and cardiac vagal tone may exert an influence on each other. Last, the article discusses theoretical and applied health implications of this potential physiological connection to self-esteem.
Romero, Nuria; Sanchez, Alvaro; Vázquez, Carmelo; Valiente, Carmen
This study examines the relationships between explicit and implicit self-esteem and self-referent memory biases in depression. We specifically tested the hypothesis that implicit self-esteem would influence depression-related memory biases via its association with explicit self-esteem. Self-esteem was assessed in patients with a current Major Depressive Disorder (MDD; n=38) and in a control group of participants who had never experienced depression (ND; n=40) by using explicit (Rosenberg Self-esteem Questionnaire) and implicit (Go/No-go Association Task) measures. A self-referent processing task of negative and positive adjectives was used to assess memory bias. Our analyses revealed that participants diagnosed with MDD showed lower levels of both explicit and implicit self-esteem in comparison to ND participants. MDD compared to ND participants also recalled a greater number of depressed self-referent adjectives and lower recall of positive self-referent information. Mediation analyses showed an indirect effect of explicit self-esteem on the relationship between implicit self-esteem and depression-related memory biases in the MDD group. These findings suggest an association between implicit and explicit self-esteem in depression that may result in negative cognitive processing, as reflected by self-referent memory biases.
Sells, M B
A group of Black, urban, teenage males from the Central Detroit catchment area were certified through the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act's (CETA) Summer Youth Employment Program to participate in a Youth and Self-Esteem project. The project's objective was to expose the participants to older Black males who have made significant contributions to community. Through research and direct interviews, we hoped to identify the coping skills which enabled them to survive and excel and share these characteristics and strategies with the youth of today.
Rohde, Treena Eileen; Thompson, Lee Anne
The purpose of the present study is to explain variation in academic achievement with general cognitive ability and specific cognitive abilities. Grade point average, Wide Range Achievement Test III scores, and SAT scores represented academic achievement. The specific cognitive abilities of interest were: working memory, processing speed, and…
Guay, Frederic; Ratelle, Catherine F.; Roy, Amelie; Litalien, David
Three conceptual models were tested to examine the relationships among academic self-concept, autonomous academic motivation, and academic achievement. This allowed us to determine whether 1) autonomous academic motivation mediates the relation between academic self-concept and achievement, 2) academic self-concept mediates the relation between…
This review explores the factors of cognitive processing, style, and metacognitive organization as they contribute to academic success. Specific discussions consider aspects of short- and long-term memory, including how these affect learning and academic performance, and the keys to attaining long-term memory capability by involving redundancy,…
Bursik, Krisanne; Martin, Timothy A.
This study investigated ego developmental differences in adolescent academic orientations and academic achievement. A sample of 142 male and female high school students completed the Washington University Sentence Completion Test and self-report measures assessing academic locus of control, learning orientation (LO), and grade orientation (GO).…
This replication study examined the effect of a self esteem enhancement program on mid-western sixth graders’ self esteem scores (n=29). The...Coopersmith Self esteem Inventory (SEI) was used to determine pre and post test self esteem scores for students who participated in a four month self esteem ...enhancement program. Mean scores showed females had overall higher self esteem scores than males, however this was not statistically significant
Clemens, Norman A
How can psychotherapists best work with patients suffering in the aftermath of the recent devastating economic meltdown and deal with our shaken collective and individual self-esteem? Working with patients who have lost their jobs or their nest eggs, or whose retirement is imperiled, involves addressing the dynamics of mourning. Patients may be experiencing disbelief, shock, anger, and denial of the immensity of the loss, as well as shame and humiliation at their vulnerability. At the same time, because we personally may be confronting many of the same fears and uncertainties, it is important that we as therapists avoid overly identifying with our patients and failing to treat them as individuals in their own right. The author discusses strategies for addressing patients' defenses, a tendency to catastrophize and give way to panic, a sense of narcissistic injury, and anger directed at the people they blame for the economic collapse as well as at themselves for having gotten in over their heads. Using Kohut's concepts of a developmental line of narcissism, therapy may reinforce mature self-esteem while helping patients work through their emotions and come to terms with their new realities. Optimally, they can find new resources within themselves and grow in their ability to value relationships with others.
Chavez, Robert S; Heatherton, Todd F
A heightened sense of self-esteem is associated with a reduced risk for several types of affective and psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety and eating disorders. However, little is known about how brain systems integrate self-referential processing and positive evaluation to give rise to these feelings. To address this, we combined diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test how frontostriatal connectivity reflects long-term trait and short-term state aspects of self-esteem. Using DTI, we found individual variability in white matter structural integrity between the medial prefrontal cortex and the ventral striatum was related to trait measures of self-esteem, reflecting long-term stability of self-esteem maintenance. Using fMRI, we found that functional connectivity of these regions during positive self-evaluation was related to current feelings of self-esteem, reflecting short-term state self-esteem. These results provide convergent anatomical and functional evidence that self-esteem is related to the connectivity of frontostriatal circuits and suggest that feelings of self-worth may emerge from neural systems integrating information about the self with positive affect and reward. This information could potentially inform the etiology of diminished self-esteem underlying multiple psychiatric conditions and inform future studies of evaluative self-referential processing.
Bell, Nancy J.; And Others
Female teachers rated 107 preschool boys and girls on their self-esteem and on a sex role rating scale. Although the validity of such ratings remains an issue, it appears that children rated high in self-esteem by their teachers are those perceived as assertive, active, athletic--stereotypically masculine traits. (Author/SJL)
The processes and components of self-esteem derive from the context or value system (culture) in which people live. A shift in the values of American society, especially within the last 50 years, has placed Americans in a no-win situation with respect to self-esteem. The everyday pressures of survival in a highly competitive and complex world that…
In this article, the author offers tips to boost the self-esteem of a child with special needs. Rick Lavoie, renowned author, speaker and advocate for children with special needs, says that one of the ways to increase a child's self-esteem is to find "islands of competence" and focus on the child's natural abilities. All parents need to be…
The aims of the study were to investigate self-esteem levels amongst a sample group of 60 children with Visual Impairment (VI). The group was made up of equal numbers of boys and girls from primary and secondary schools. Each child's self-esteem was measured using the BG STEEM Questionnaire (Maines and Robinson, 1993). The results showed that…
Mandara, Jelani; Johnston, Jamie S.; Murray, Carolyn B.; Varner, Fatima
This study examined the effects of marital status and family income on the self-esteem of 292 African American mothers. Counter to previous studies with European American mothers, family income moderated the effects of marital status. Those mothers with higher family income had higher self-esteem, regardless of their marital status. For those with…
Whelan, Anne; Haywood, Pennie; Galloway, Scott
This article will describe a self-esteem cognitive behavioural therapy group run with adults with learning disabilities. The aim is to show how a group of this nature can be organized and run, using theory to inform practice. An introduction to the concept of self esteem will be given and then explored in relation to adults with learning…
Ryujin, Donald H.; Abitia, Fred B.
Self-esteem may be an issue for certain minority groups more than others. In particular, given their long and difficult history, this issue may be of more relevance to minorities of African-American descent. To assess whether renewed signs of racism at a college were negatively affecting the self-esteem of African-American students the Race…
Howells, Kristy; Bowen, Jo
Previous research has proposed that physical exercise can raise self-esteem. This paper will examine the extent to which physical activity interventions, within one case study primary school supported the development of self-esteem of a (junior) year 5 child over a period of five months. Jonny was 10 years old when the physical activity…
Armstrong, Sara; And Others
A study was done to examine the relation between classroom seating preference and level of self-esteem, in particular the influence of gender on self-esteem and seating preferences among community college students. The study administered a 16-item questionnaire to 231 students (104 women and 127 men) enrolled in sections of an Introductory…
Birkeland, Marianne Skogbrott; Melkevik, Ole; Holsen, Ingrid; Wold, Bente
Based on data from a 17-year longitudinal study of 1083 adolescents, from the ages of 13 to 30 years, the average development of self-reported global self-esteem was found to be high and stable during adolescence. However, there is considerable inter-individual variance in baseline and development of global self-esteem. This study used latent…
Spencer, C. D.; And Others
The study involving six single and multiple amputee children (10 to 14 years old) was conducted to provide information on how situations affect the self esteem of amputee children, how situations affect satisfaction with their prostheses, and the relationship between amputee self esteem and their satisfaction with their prosthetic device.…
Jaffee, Lynn; Manzer, Rebecca
The relationship between activity and positive self-esteem in girls 9 to 12 years of age was explored in this study. The hypothesis was that the positive relationship between physical activity and positive self-esteem which exists for women also exists for girls. A secondary goal was to gain insight into some of the factors that are associated…
Lee, Kimberly E.
The purpose of this thesis was to investigate the self-esteem of junior high and high school students. The independent variables investigated were quality of family life, birth order, family size, maternal employment, grade level and family structure. The dependent variables were the self-esteem scores from the following sub-scales of the Texas…
Demeyer, Ineke; Romero, Nuria; De Raedt, Rudi
The interplay between actual and ideal self-esteem may be a key component in emotional disorders. Since automatic self-evaluations are not always consciously accessible, assessment through implicit measures is necessary. Given the lack of implicit self-esteem measures in late life, we aimed to identify a reliable measure and to clarify the role of actual and ideal self-esteem in mood and depressive symptoms in older adults. Forty-nine older adults completed two adapted Go/No go Association tasks measuring implicit actual and ideal self-esteem and measures of mood and depressive symptoms. The two Go/No go Association tasks showed satisfactory internal consistency. Moderation analyses revealed that lower actual self-esteem in older adults is related to higher levels of sad mood when ideal self-esteem is high. Moreover, lower actual self-esteem is related to more anxious mood. Given the role of self-esteem in emotional well-being, a reliable measure for older adults is crucial to improve age-appropriate diagnostics and treatment.
Jackman, Danielle M.; MacPhee, David
This study's purpose was to examine the relations among future orientation, self-esteem, and later adolescent risk behaviors, and to compare two mediational models involving self-esteem versus future orientation as mediators. An ethnically diverse sample of 12- to 14-year-olds (N = 862, 54% female, 53% ethnic minority) was assessed longitudinally.…
such cognitive process, the self - esteem of the lower-level supervisor, is studied in the context of an organization in which no formal human relations...training had taken place. A series of hypotheses relate supportiveness of the foreman’s supervisor to the foreman’s self - esteem , and its attendant
Jambor, Edina; Elliott, Marta
Research studies on the determinants of self-esteem of deaf individuals often yield inconsistent findings. The current study assessed the effects on self-esteem of factors related to deafness, such as the means of communication at home and severity of hearing loss with hearing aid, as well as the coping styles that deaf people adopt to cope with…
Surkan, Pamela J.; Schnaas, Lourdes; Wright, Rosalind J.; Téllez-Rojo, Martha M.; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Héctor; Hu, Howard; Hernández-Avila, E. Mauricio; Bellinger, David C.; Schwartz, Joel; Perroni, Estela; Wright, Robert O.
The notion that maternal personality characteristics influence cognitive development in their children has been grounded in stress moderation theory. Maternal personality traits, such as self-esteem, may buffer maternal stressors or lead to improved maternal-child interactions that directly impact neurodevelopment. This can be extended to suggest that maternal personality may serve to attenuate or exacerbate the effects of other neurotoxicants, although this has not been studied directly. We examined whether mothers’ self-esteem had a direct or main effect on their children's cognitive outcomes. We also explored the modifying effects of maternal self-esteem on the association between exposure to lead and neurodevelopment in these children. Study participants included 379 mother-child pairs from Mexico City. Data included the Coopersmith self-esteem scale in mothers, children's Bayley's Scale of Infant Development (BSID) scores, and sociodemographic information. Linear regression was used to model the relationship between maternal self-esteem and the Bayley's Mental Development Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) scores at age 24 months using regression models stratified by levels of maternal self-esteem. In adjusted models, each point increase in maternal self-esteem was associated with children having 0.2 higher score on the Bayley's MDI (p=0.04). Similar results were observed using the PDI outcome. Moreover, there was evidence that maternal self-esteem attenuated the negative effects of lead exposure, although the interaction fell short of conventional levels of statistical significance. PMID:18261800
Hong, Zuway-R; Veach, Patricia McCarthy; Lawrenz, Frances
This study investigated the relationships between psychosocial factors and self-esteem for 1,672 Taiwanese senior high school students (779 boys, 893 girls). Students from Kaohsiung City, Taiwan, completed a Chinese version of the Secondary Student Questionnaire (SSQ), which measures self-esteem, depression, anxiety, stereotyped thinking,…
van Zyl, Jacob D.; Cronje, Elsje M.; Payze, Catharine
In this article, the story of 11 male psychotherapeutic patients with low self-esteem is told within the context of the research process. The literature suggests that the concept of "self-esteem" has a significant influence on the way an individual experiences his/her world. Therefore, the meaning that the psychotherapeutic patients…
Medora, Nilufer P.; von der Hellen, Cheryl
Examined teen mothers' (N=94) romanticism and self-esteem so as to investigate these variables' relationships among ten independent variables, (e.g., age and sexual activity). Results indicate that five variables were significantly related to romanticism (previous abortion, etc.), whereas two variables were connected to self-esteem (age and birth…
Davis, Clare; Kellett, Stephen; Beail, Nigel
The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) continues to be used to purportedly measure self-esteem of people with intellectual disabilities, despite the lack of sound evidence concerning its validity and reliability when employed with this population. The psychometric foundations of the RSES were analyzed here with a sample of 219 participants with…
Miller, Thomas W.
Male attitudes toward the women's rights movement as a function of their level of self-esteem were examined. Subjects were chosen from five college settings and from a sixth noncollege population. Low levels of self-esteem were related to negative attitudes toward women's liberation in small, private, and predominately male institutions and in the…
Cooper, Patricia S.
A total of 55 learning-disabled children ages 8 to 13 years completed a self-esteem measure, and photographs of their faces were rated for attractiveness by adults and peers. Found relationships between children's facial attractiveness and self-esteem and between adult and peer ratings of facial attractiveness. Found no gender differences in…
Donnelly, Joseph; Young, Michael; Pearson, Rebecca; Penhollow, Tina M.; Hernandez, Aida
The use of illicit and licit drugs continues to be a major public health concern. Many prevention and drug education programs address this issue by attempting to enhance self-esteem. The idea is that increased levels of self-esteem will serve as a protective factor in decreasing the motivation and increasing the resistance to use drugs. This study…
Leitner, Jordan B; Hehman, Eric; Deegan, Matthew P; Jones, James M
The degree to which self-esteem hinges on feedback in a domain is known as a contingency of self-worth, or engagement. Although previous research has conceptualized engagement as stable, it would be advantageous for individuals to dynamically regulate engagement. The current research examined whether the tendency to disengage from negative feedback accounts for variability in self-esteem. We created the Adaptive Disengagement Scale (ADS) to capture individual differences in the tendency to disengage self-esteem from negative outcomes. Results demonstrated that the ADS is reliable and valid (Studies 1 and 2). Furthermore, in response to negative social feedback, higher scores on the ADS predicted greater state self-esteem (Study 3), and this relationship was mediated by disengagement (Study 4). These findings demonstrate that adaptive disengagement protects self-esteem from negative outcomes and that the ADS is a valid measure of individual differences in the implementation of this process.
Van Dongen, C J
There has been little research to substantiate the nature and degree of self-esteem among persons with mental illness. The results reported here are from a study involving 92 clients with severe mental illness. The study explored the relation between work status and quality of life, drug attitudes, and self-esteem. In this analysis, positive self-esteem was found among all subjects and was significantly higher in workers than in nonworkers. In stepwise multiple regression analysis, feelings regarding functioning, valuing of work, social relationships, and activities with family explained 50% of the variance in self-esteem. Mental health professionals should not assume that clients with mental illness experience low self-esteem.
Shakiba-Nejad, Hadi; Yellin, David
A recent study examined the socioeconomic status (SES), parent participation, teacher awareness, and academic achievement of 76 elementary school students. Results were obtained through interpretation of data and review of relevant literature. A strong positive correlation was found between a student's SES and academic achievement in school. Some…
Mahmood, Khalid; Iqbal, Muhammad Maqsood
This study was studied that emotional and behavioural problems of young students who are directly related to their academic achievement and thus play a vital role in the development of young learners carrier. This study helped to fill a gap by conducting an exploration of psychological adjustment and academic achievement among adolescents. It also…
Berry, Gordon LaVern, Ed.; Asamen, Joy Keiko, Ed.
This collection examines the history and current status of the economic, political, social, and psychological factors that influence the academic achievement of low-income African Americans. The introduction, "Afro-American Students and Academic Achievement" (J. K. Asamen), outlines the historical development of black education and…
Kirstein, Kurt D.
The strategies used by practicing adult basic education (ABE) teachers to retain students with poor self-esteem were examined through an Internet survey that was sent to 115 ABE instructors at community colleges in Washington. The survey, which contained questions about the prevalence of poor self-esteem among ABE dropouts, specific behaviors…
Bushman, Brad J; Moeller, Scott J; Crocker, Jennifer
Many people ascribe great value to self-esteem, but how much value? Do people value self-esteem more than other pleasant activities, such as eating sweets and having sex? Two studies of college students (Study 1: N=130; Study 2: N=152) showed that people valued boosts to their self-esteem more than they valued eating a favorite food and engaging in a favorite sexual activity. Study 2 also showed that people valued self-esteem more than they valued drinking alcohol, receiving a paycheck, and seeing a best friend. Both studies found that people who highly valued self-esteem engaged in laboratory tasks to boost their self-esteem. Finally, personality variables interacted with these value ratings. Entitled people thought they were more deserving of all pleasant rewards, even though they did not like them all that much (both studies), and people who highly value self-esteem pursued potentially maladaptive self-image goals, presumably to elevate their self-esteem (Study 2).
Klibert, Jeffrey; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Luna, Amy; Robichaux, Michelle
This study examined the relationships between 2 academic dispositions (i.e., procrastination and achievement motivation) and 2 indices of suicidal proneness in college women and men. The degree these 2 academic dispositions could predict unique variance in suicide proneness scores, above and beyond the influence of depression and self-esteem was…
Martínez, Isabel; García, José Fernando
The relation between parenting styles and adolescent outcomes was analyzed in a sample of 1,198 15-18-year-old Brazilians. The adolescents were classified into 1 of 4 groups (Authoritative, Authoritarian, Indulgent, and Neglectful) on the basis of their own ratings of their parents on two dimensions: Acceptance/ Involvement and Strictness/Imposition. The adolescents were then contrasted along two different outcomes: (1) priority given to Schwartz Self-transcendence and Conservation values, and (2) level of Self-esteem (appraised in 5 domains: Academic, Social, Emotional, Family, and Physical). Results showed that Authoritative and Indulgent parenting is associated with the highest internalization of Self-Transcendence and Conservation values of teenagers, whereas Authoritarian parenting is associated with the lowest. On the other hand, adolescents with Indulgent parents have equal or higher levels of Self-esteem than adolescents with Authoritative parents, while adolescents raised in Authoritarian and Neglectful homes have the lowest scores in Self-Esteem.
Darrow, Alice-Ann; Novak, Julie; Swedberg, Olivia; Horton, Monica; Rice, Brenda
The purpose of the paper was to examine the effect of participation in a music mentorship program on the self-esteem and attitudes of at-risk students. Participants (N = 24) were adolescent girls enrolled in a special program for secondary students who are at risk for academic failure and who are experiencing conflict in school and at home.…
Martínez, Isabel; García, José Fernando
The relationship of parenting styles with adolescents' outcomes was analyzed within a sample of Spanish adolescents. A sample of 1456 teenagers from 13 to 16 years of age, of whom 54.3% were females, reported on their parents' child-rearing practices. The teenagers' parents were classified into one of four groups (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, or neglectful). The adolescents were then contrasted on two different outcomes: (1) priority given to Schwartz's self-transcendence (universalism and benevolence) and conservation (security, conformity, and tradition) values and (2) level of self-esteem (appraised in five domains: academic, social, emotional, family and physical). The results show that Spanish adolescents from indulgent households have the same or better outcomes than adolescents from authoritative homes. Parenting is related with two self-esteem dimensions--academic and family--and with all the self-transcendence and conservation values. Adolescents of indulgent parents show highest scores in self-esteem whereas adolescents from authoritarian parents obtain the worst results. In contrast, there were no differences between the priority given by adolescents of authoritative and indulgent parents to any of the self-transcendence and conservation values, whereas adolescents of authoritarian and neglectful parents, in general, assign the lowest priority to all of these values.
Loy, Betty A.; Evans, Christine; Wetsel, Ashton; Tobey, Emily A.
Children with hearing loss are at risk for lower self-esteem due to differences from hearing peers relative to communication skills, physical appearance, and social maturity. This study examines the influence of generic factors unrelated to hearing loss (e.g., age, gender, temperament) and specific factors associated with hearing loss (e.g., age at identification, communication skills) on how children with hearing loss wearing cochlear implants or hearing aids appraise self-esteem. Fifty children with hearing loss wearing cochlear implants or hearing aids participated (Mean age: 12.88 years; mean duration of device use: 3.43 years). Participants independently completed online questionnaires to assess communication skills, social engagement, self-esteem, and temperament. Children with hearing loss rated global self-esteem significantly more positively than hearing peers, t = 2.38, p = .02. Self-esteem ratings attained significant positive correlations with affiliation (r = .42, p = .002) and attention (r = .45, p = .001) temperaments and a significant negative association with depressive mood (r = − .60, p < .0001). No significant correlations emerged between self-esteem and demographic factors, communication skills, or social engagement. Because successful communication abilities do not always co-occur with excellent quality of life, clinicians and professionals working with children with hearing loss need to understand components contributing to self-esteem to improve identification, counseling, and external referrals for children in this population. PMID:25755025
Garaigordobil, Maite; Pérez, José Ignacio; Mozaz, María
This study has two objectives: 1) to analyse the characteristics of self-concept, self-esteem and psychopathological symptoms in accordance with age and gender in a representative sample from the Basque Country; and 2) to explore the relationships of self-concept and self-esteem with psychopathological symptoms. The sample is made up of 1,579 participants, aged 12 to 65, of whom 732 are males (46.4%) and 847 are females (53.6%). The study uses a descriptive and correlational methodology. For the measurement of psychopathological symptoms, self-concept and self-esteem, three assessment instruments are applied. The ANOVAs indicated significant differences associated with age in self-concept, self-esteem, and quantity of psychopathological symptoms. As regards gender, no significant differences were found for self-concept and self-esteem, but there were differences in psychopathological symptoms, with females scoring higher in various disorders (somatization, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, phobic anxiety, and total quantity of symptoms). The results of the correlational analyses confirmed significant inverse relationships between self-concept/self-esteem and psychopathological symptoms. The discussion considers the potential role of intervention programmes that promote self-concept and self-esteem in the prevention of psychopathological problems.
Warner-Czyz, Andrea D; Loy, Betty A; Evans, Christine; Wetsel, Ashton; Tobey, Emily A
Children with hearing loss are at risk for lower self-esteem due to differences from hearing peers relative to communication skills, physical appearance, and social maturity. This study examines the influence of generic factors unrelated to hearing loss (e.g., age, gender, temperament) and specific factors associated with hearing loss (e.g., age at identification, communication skills) on how children with hearing loss wearing cochlear implants or hearing aids appraise self-esteem. Fifty children with hearing loss wearing cochlear implants or hearing aids participated (Mean age: 12.88 years; mean duration of device use: 3.43 years). Participants independently completed online questionnaires to assess communication skills, social engagement, self-esteem, and temperament. Children with hearing loss rated global self-esteem significantly more positively than hearing peers, t = 2.38, p = .02. Self-esteem ratings attained significant positive correlations with affiliation (r = .42, p = .002) and attention (r = .45, p = .001) temperaments and a significant negative association with depressive mood (r = - .60, p < .0001). No significant correlations emerged between self-esteem and demographic factors, communication skills, or social engagement. Because successful communication abilities do not always co-occur with excellent quality of life, clinicians and professionals working with children with hearing loss need to understand components contributing to self-esteem to improve identification, counseling, and external referrals for children in this population.
Johnson, Matthew D; Galambos, Nancy L; Finn, Christine; Neyer, Franz J; Horne, Rebecca M
Guided by concepts from a relational developmental perspective, this study examined intra- and interpersonal associations between self-esteem and depressive symptoms in a sample of 1,407 couples surveyed annually across 6 years in the Panel Analysis of Intimate Relations and Family Dynamics (pairfam) study. Autoregressive cross-lagged model results demonstrated that self-esteem predicted future depressive symptoms for male partners at all times, replicating the vulnerability model for men (low self-esteem is a risk factor for future depression). Additionally, a cross-partner association emerged between symptoms of depression: Higher depressive symptoms in one partner were associated with higher levels of depression in the other partner one year later. Finally, supportive dyadic coping, the support that partners reported providing to one another in times of stress, was tested as a potential interpersonal mediator of pathways between self-esteem and depression. Female partners' higher initial levels of self-esteem predicted male partners' subsequent reports of increased supportive dyadic coping, which, in turn, predicted higher self-esteem and fewer symptoms of depression among female partners in the future. Male partners' initially higher symptoms of depression predicted less frequent supportive dyadic coping subsequently reported by female partners, which was associated with increased feelings of depression in the future. Couple relations represent an important contextual factor that may be implicated in the developmental pathways connecting self-esteem and symptoms of depression. (PsycINFO Database Record
Churchwell, Dawn Earheart
This study examined the relationship between reading achievement and achievement in other subject areas. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a correlation between reading scores as measured by the Standardized Test for the Assessment of Reading (STAR) and academic achievement in language arts, math, science, and social studies…
Thomas, D; Gaslin, T C
Children with hemophilia have often been viewed at greater risk for altered self-esteem than their healthy counterparts. Our article shares the positive effects of the camp experience on children with hemophilia and subsequent enhancement of self-esteem. Interaction and support in the camp environment provide an opportunity for these children to gain independence and "prove" their self-worth and ability. Previous literature has provided a variety of findings on the relationship between chronic illness, such as hemophilia, and self-esteem alterations. We identify many opportunities for future education and research to provide quality nursing support to this unique population.
RD-A173 665 EGO IDENTITY SELF ESTEEM AND SUBSTANCE USE DURING - /i ADOLESCENCE(U) ARIZONA UNIV TUCSON COLL OF MEDICINE R M JONES ET AL 24 AUG 85 UARZ...Security Classification) Ego Identity, Self Esteem and Substance Use during Adolescence. 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Jnnp5. Randall M-6 Hortmann- Rarhara R 13a...Adolescents. Drinking. Drug Use. 05 J 10 Self - Esteem . Smoking. Drug Abuse. Interpersonal Communi- 06 1 15 lratinn" Tnterprrnna1 Relatinn-hipn Sprnndarv
Goodwin, Sarah Christine
This research study examined the correlation between student achievement and parent's perceptions of their involvement in their child's schooling. Parent participants completed the Parent Involvement Project Parent Questionnaire. Results slightly indicated parents of students with higher level of achievement perceived less demand or invitations…
Utilizing data on approximately 16,000 children from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Kindergarten Cohort and a rich set of mediating factors on 16 immigrant groups, this paper examined the associations between children's immigrant generation status and their academic performance. The changes in academic achievements during kindergarten and…
Blattner, Meghan C C; Liang, Belle; Lund, Terese; Spencer, Renee
Achieving a sense of purpose during adolescence is a developmental asset; however, searching for that purpose may be a developmental stressor. Supportive parent-child relationships may help youth during this stressful experience. The present study included 207 female students in the sixth, eighth, and tenth grades from two competitive private schools. Searching for purpose negatively predicted self-esteem. Hierarchical linear regression examined moderating effects of parental trust and alienation on searching for purpose as a predictor of self-esteem. Parental alienation significantly moderated the association between search for purpose and girls' self-esteem; conversely, parental trust did not moderate the association. Results suggest that parent-child relationships characterized by high levels of parental alienation may exacerbate the pernicious effects of search for purpose. Person-based analyses found four clusters corresponding to Foreclosed Purpose, Diffused Purpose, Uncommitted Purpose/Moratorium, and Achieved Purpose. We discuss implications for practice and research based on these results.
Iqbal, Hafiz Muhammad; Bibi, Fariha; Gul, Asma
One of the characteristics of teachers having great bearing upon students' learning is their professional self-esteem. Various instruments are available for measuring general self-esteem and professional self-esteem of teachers. For the present study it was deemed appropriate to use a Turkish professional self-esteem scale developed by Aricak…
Mendelson, Beverley Katz; White, Donna Romano
Normal and obese children completed self-esteem and body-esteem questionnaires. Body-esteem was significantly correlated with self-esteem and percentage overweight. Body-esteem and relative weight were correlated; self-esteem and relative weight were not related. The body/self-esteem relation was the same for normal and obese children. (Author/RD)
Gives examples of ways in which low self-esteem inhibits educational participation, using Alexander's model of self-esteem, and discusses how participation might raise self-esteem. Suggests that stress and associated socioeconomic conditions can influence self-esteem and nonparticipation. (Contains 16 references.) (SK)
Watkins, David; Astilla, Estela
Investigates the relationship between birth order and self-esteem among 209 11- to 13-year-old girls attending a private high school in the central Philippines. The Self-Esteem Inventory was used to measure self-esteem. No evidence of any influence of birth order, family size, or their interaction with self-esteem was found. (Author/RH)
Neugebauer, Sabina Rak
Present conceptualizations and measures of self-esteem do not account for linguistic self-esteem, an aspect of the self specifically relevant for bilingual students. This study examines the utility of a newly developed measure of linguistic self-esteem. This novel measure is compared with a commonly used self-esteem measure, two standardized…
The Sullivanian hypothesis of a negative relationship between self - esteem and hostility was tested by intercorrelating two measures of self - esteem ...subvarieties, two dimensions and one global aspect of hostility. The negative self - esteem --hostility relationship was found to be contingent upon...the self - esteem measure, hostility instrument and dimension of hostility. The Sullivanian hypothesis applied to hostile actions and emotions in
Tabibzadeh, Kiana S.
General Chemistry is required for variety of baccalaureate degrees, including all medical related fields, engineering, and science majors. Depending on the institution, the prerequisite requirement for college level General Chemistry varies. The success rate for this course is low. The purpose of this study is to examine the factors influencing student academic achievement and retention in General Chemistry at the college level. In this study student achievement is defined by those students who earned grades of "C" or better. The dissertation contains in-depth studies on influence of Intermediate Algebra as a prerequisite compared to Fundamental Chemistry for student academic achievement and student retention in college General Chemistry. In addition the study examined the extent and manner in which student self-efficacy influences student academic achievement in college level General Chemistry. The sample for this part of the study is 144 students enrolled in first semester college level General Chemistry. Student surveys determined student self-efficacy level. The statistical analyses of study demonstrated that Fundamental Chemistry is a better prerequisite for student academic achievement and student retention. The study also found that student self-efficacy has no influence on student academic achievement. The significance of this study will be to provide data for the purpose of establishing a uniform and most suitable prerequisite for college level General Chemistry. Finally the variables identified to influence student academic achievement and enhance student retention will support educators' mission to maximize the students' ability to complete their educational goal at institutions of higher education.
Edwards, R. Philip; And Others
The investigation provided no evidence that a diagnosis of minimal brain dysfunction based on a pediatric neurological evaluation and/or visual-motor impairment as measured by the Bender-Gestalt, is a useful predictor of academic achievement. (Author)
Caplan, Nathan; And Others
The children of the Southeast Asian boat people excel in the U.S. school system. A review of the factors underlying this achievement suggests that the U.S. educational crisis is more social than academic. (KR)
Smokowski, Paul R; Guo, Shenyang; Wu, Qi; Evans, Caroline B R; Cotter, Katie L; Bacallao, Martica
Positive Action (PA) is a school-based intervention for elementary-, middle-, and high-school students that aims to decrease problem behaviors (e.g., violence, substance use) and increase positive behaviors (e.g., academic achievement, school engagement). PA has a long history of documented success achieving these aims, making it an Evidence Based Practice (EBP). Intervention research on EBP's has established the importance of implementation fidelity, especially with regard to program dosage; failure to properly implement an EBP can have negative consequences on targeted outcomes, especially if participants are exposed to a low dosage of the program (e.g., fewer lessons than specified). Much of the current research on PA has neglected to examine how program dosage impacts PA's effect on targeted outcomes. Using propensity score models, multiple imputation, and a 2-level hierarchical linear model, the current study fills this gap and examines how different dosages of PA as measured by years participating in PA and number of PA lessons, impacts adolescent internalizing symptoms, aggression, perceptions of school hassles, and self-esteem over a 3-year period. The current sample included middle school students in grades 6, 7, and 8 (N = 5,894). The findings indicate that students who received 3 years of the PA intervention and a high number of PA lessons had a significantly higher self-esteem score than those who received 0 years of PA or zero lessons. Participants who received 1 year of PA also reported significantly lower school hassle scores than those who received 0 years. Dosage had no statistically significant effects on aggression or internalizing score. Implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record
Greene, Jay P.; Trivitt, Julie R.
Over the last 3 decades student achievement has remained essentially unchanged in the United States, but not for a lack of spending. Over the same period a myriad of education reforms have been suggested and per-pupil spending has more than doubled. Since the 1990s the education reform attempts have frequently included judicial decisions to revise…
Ivcevic, Zorana; Pillemer, David B; Wang, Qi; Hou, Yubo; Tang, Huizhen; Mohoric, Tamara; Taksic, Vladimir
Young adults in the United States, Croatia, and China described personal episodes of times when they felt especially good or bad about themselves. These self-esteem memories were either recent (episodes that occurred during the previous 4 weeks) or remote (episodes that occurred between the ages of 10 and 15). Systematic content differences between memories of positive and negative self-worth were apparent primarily for remote rather than for recent memories. Across cultures, long-lasting positive memories frequently represented achievement themes, whereas negative memories frequently represented social themes. Links between achievement success and positive self-regard, and between social distress and negative self-regard, are explained using theories of self-esteem and autobiographical memory.
Medora, N P; von der Hellen, C
This study examined teen mothers' romanticism and self-esteem. The Dean Romanticism Scale and the Bachman Self-esteem Scale were administered to 94 mothers between the ages of 13 and 18 in Southern California. The study also investigated the relationship between the dependent variables--romanticism and self-esteem--and ten independent variables--age, age of mother when first child was born, incidence of sexual abuse, incidence of abortion, current sexual activity, adoption considerations, current use of birth control, whether paternity was denied by the baby's father, whether the mother's parents were living together, and the quality of the relationship between the mother's parents. Results indicated that five variables were significantly related to romanticism--whether the teenager had a previous abortion, adoption considerations, current sexual activity, whether the parents were living together, and the quality of the relationship between the parents. Two variables were significantly related to self-esteem--age and current use of birth control.
Jambor, Edina; Elliott, Marta
Research studies on the determinants of self-esteem of deaf individuals often yield inconsistent findings. The current study assessed the effects on self-esteem of factors related to deafness, such as the means of communication at home and severity of hearing loss with hearing aid, as well as the coping styles that deaf people adopt to cope with everyday life in a hearing world. Data were collected among the deaf students of California State University, Northridge. Hierarchical regression modeling showed that identification with the Deaf community significantly contributed to positive self-esteem. Results also revealed that deaf students with greater degree of hearing loss and with bicultural skills that help them function in both the hearing and the Deaf community generally have higher self-esteem. Implications for further study are discussed.
... develop healthier thinking. previous continue Where Can I Go if I Need Help? Sometimes low self-esteem ... and lose interest in activities or friends. Some go on to develop eating disorders or body image ...
Erdem, Müyesser; Tasçi, Nazan
Tuberculosis patients and determining the perception of their illnesses are important in increasing treatment adaptation. Decrease in self-esteem because of illness cause losing self confidence, deteriorating social relations and giving up struggle against illness. The aim of this study was to determine self-esteem levels of patients with tuberculosis. Descriptive and cross section study. Study was done on patients (n= 120) who were treated for pulmonary tuberculosis in "Izmir Chest Diseases and Surgical, Education, Practice and Research Hospital" between January 2001 and February 2001. Average self-esteem points of the patients were found to be 57.50 +/- 14.09 (minimum 24, maximum 84). It was observed that being unemployed and housewife, not having a job, effects on economic status of the patient, not having a hope to recover, change in family and social relations and not having social support decreased average self-esteem points of the patients.
On the basis of previous research on conformity it was predicted that subjects who were subjected to acute self - esteem manipulations and perceived...a demonstration of the interaction effects of acute self - esteem and perceived competence. Acute self - esteem manipulations (high, low or no) were...role in conformity. The main effect of self - esteem and the interaction of self - esteem and perceived competence did not prove significant. Results were
The purpose of this study is to investigate the self-esteem levels of futsal players according to certain variables. The samples of the study constituted 119 females and 96 males; a total of 215 players with an average age of 21.57 ± 2.20 years. The research was carried out with the end of "Rosenberg self-esteem Scale" developed by…
Bong, Mimi; Cho, Catherine; Ahn, Hyun Seon; Kim, Hye Jin
The authors examined whether self-concept, self-efficacy, and self-esteem show differential predictive utility for academic achievement across age groups and domains. More specifically, the relationships of 3 self-constructs with achievement were examined in mathematics for elementary school students and mathematics and language arts for middle…
This study utilises an integrated conceptual model of academic performance which captures a series of psychological factors: cognitive style; self-theories such as self-esteem and self-efficacy; achievement goals such as mastery, performance, performance avoidance and work avoidance; study-processing strategies such as deep and surface learning;…
Arroyo, C G; Zigler, E
The relation between racial identity and personal psychological functioning was examined within the framework of the "racelessness" construct proposed by Fordham and Ogbu (S. Fordham, 1988; S. Fordham & J. U. Ogbu, 1986). These researchers have proposed that academically successful African American students achieve their success by adopting behaviors and attitudes that distance them from their culture of origin, resulting in increased feelings of depression, anxiety, and identity confusion. Studies 1 and 2 describe the development of the Racelessness Scale (RS) designed to test these assumptions. Study 2 also investigated Race X Achievement level differences in students' responses to the RS. In Study 3, correlations between the RS and measures of depression, self-efficacy, anxiety, alienation, and collective self-esteem were assessed. The pattern of results in Study 2 suggest that the behaviors and attitudes described by Fordham and Ogbu are common to high-achieving adolescents and not specific to African Americans. However, racial differences in the pattern of associations between the RS and measures of depression suggest that racelessness may have important psychological consequences for African American adolescents.
Sethi, Jaspal Kaur; Nagendra, H. R.; Sham Ganpat, Tikhe
Background: A student under optimal stress does bring out his or her best; however, extreme stress can result in mental health problems and deteriorates their academic performance. Students who esteem themselves low are most likely to engage in destructive and self-destructive behaviors. Moreover, excessive stress is harmful to academic performance and may lead to dropping out in student. Can Yoga be of benefit in students for improving their attention and self-esteem (SE)? Objective: To assess attention and SE in girls undergoing Integrated Yoga Module (IYM). Materials and Methods: Sixty low-income high school girls with 15.17 + 0.64 years of mean age participated in this single group pre-post study. The data was collected before and after 5 days of IYM. Statistical Analysis: Means, standard deviations, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, and Wilcoxon signed rank test were used to analyze the data with the help of SPSS 16. Results: The data analysis showed 9.04% increase (P = 0.001) in SE scores, whereas d2 test for attention revealed 10.12% increase (P < 0.001) in total number of symbols processed scores and 44.73% decrease (P < 0.001) in total number of errors. Conclusion: The present study suggests that of IYM can result in improvement of attention and SE among students and thereby enhancing their mental health and can help them in improving their academic achievement. Efforts aimed at reducing mental health problems among students may focus more on implementing effective and culturally acceptable interventions, such as Yoga, counseling, and social support. Additional well-designed studies are needed before a strong recommendation can be made. PMID:24251291
Eisenberger, Naomi I; Inagaki, Tristen K; Muscatell, Keely A; Byrne Haltom, Kate E; Leary, Mark R
On the basis of the importance of social connection for survival, humans may have evolved a "sociometer"-a mechanism that translates perceptions of rejection or acceptance into state self-esteem. Here, we explored the neural underpinnings of the sociometer by examining whether neural regions responsive to rejection or acceptance were associated with state self-esteem. Participants underwent fMRI while viewing feedback words ("interesting," "boring") ostensibly chosen by another individual (confederate) to describe the participant's previously recorded interview. Participants rated their state self-esteem in response to each feedback word. Results demonstrated that greater activity in rejection-related neural regions (dorsal ACC, anterior insula) and mentalizing regions was associated with lower-state self-esteem. Additionally, participants whose self-esteem decreased from prescan to postscan versus those whose self-esteem did not showed greater medial prefrontal cortical activity, previously associated with self-referential processing, in response to negative feedback. Together, the results inform our understanding of the origin and nature of our feelings about ourselves.
Zervas, L J; Sherman, M F
In this study of 91 male and female college subjects, we used two questionnaires to explore the relationship between the students' perceived parental favoritism and their self-esteem. In addition, the prevalence of parental favoritism, the reasons for it, and the ways it is shown were examined. Results indicated that total self-esteem and two facets of self-esteem were related to parental favoritism; the no-favoritism subjects had higher total self-esteem than the nonfavored subjects, the no-favoritism and the favored subjects had higher self-esteem with respect to home-parent relationships than the nonfavored subjects, and the no-favoritism subjects had higher social self-esteem than the favored subjects. Furthermore, the perception of parental favoritism was widespread--62% of the subjects thought one or both of their parents had a favored child. Moreover, parents were more likely to show favoritism in subtle ways than in more obvious material ways; and the predominate reasons given for favoritism were the child's intellect, behavior, birth-order, and creativity rather than his or her physical appearance or gender.
Boden, Joseph M; Fergusson, David M; Horwood, L John
This paper examines the relationship between self-esteem in adolescence and later mental health, substance use, and life and relationship outcomes in adulthood. The investigation analyzed data from a birth cohort of approximately 1,000 New Zealand young adults studied to the age of 25. Lower levels of self-esteem at age 15 were associated with greater risks of mental health problems, substance dependence, and lower levels of life and relationship satisfaction at ages 18, 21, and 25. Adjustment for potentially confounding factors reduced the strength of these associations to either moderate or statistically nonsignificant levels. It was concluded that the effects of self-esteem during adolescence on later developmental outcomes were weak, and largely explained by the psychosocial context within which self-esteem develops.
Sowislo, Julia Friederike; Orth, Ulrich; Meier, Laurenz L
A growing body of longitudinal studies suggests that low self-esteem is a risk factor for depression. However, it is unclear whether other characteristics of self-esteem, besides its level, explain incremental or even greater variance in subsequent depression. We examined the prospective effects of self-esteem level, instability (i.e., the degree of variability in self-esteem across short periods), and contingency (i.e., the degree to which self-esteem fluctuates in response to self-relevant events) on depressive symptoms in 1 overarching model, using data from 2 longitudinal studies. In Study 1, 372 adults were assessed at 2 waves over 6 months, including 40 daily diary assessments at Wave 1. In Study 2, 235 young adults were assessed at 2 waves over 6 weeks, including about 6 daily diary assessments at each wave. Self-esteem contingency was measured by self-report and by a statistical index based on the diary data (capturing event-related fluctuations in self-esteem). In both studies self-esteem level, but not self-esteem contingency, predicted subsequent depressive symptoms. Self-esteem instability predicted subsequent depressive symptoms in Study 2 only, with a smaller effect size than self-esteem level. Also, level, instability, and contingency of self-esteem did not interact in the prediction of depressive symptoms. Moreover, the effect of self-esteem level held when controlling for neuroticism and for all other Big Five personality traits. Thus, the findings provide converging evidence for a vulnerability effect of self-esteem level, tentative evidence for a smaller vulnerability effect of self-esteem instability, and no evidence for a vulnerability effect of self-esteem contingency.
Jordan, Katrina Ann Woolsey
Gifted academic achievement has been identified as a major area of interest for educational researchers. The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether there was a relation between the quality of gifted programs as perceived by teachers, coordinators and supervisors of the gifted and the achievement of the same gifted students in 6th and 7th…
The relationships among race, class and academic achievement are complex, yet have been well documented in Canada for the last thirty years. Generations of students have experienced them--lowered expectations for achievement, gross generalizations about parents' backgrounds and aspirations, negative stereotypes of communities, and curricula that…
Grigorenko, Elena L.; Macomber, Donna; Hart, Lesley; Naples, Adam; Chapman, John; Geib, Catherine F.; Chart, Hilary; Tan, Mei; Wolhendler, Baruch; Wagner, Richard
The literature has long pointed to heightened frequencies of learning disabilities (LD) within the population of law offenders; however, a systematic appraisal of these observations, careful estimation of these frequencies, and investigation of their correlates and causes have been lacking. Here we present data collected from all youth (1,337 unique admissions, mean age 14.81, 20.3% females) placed in detention in Connecticut (January 1, 2010–July 1, 2011). All youth completed a computerized educational screener designed to test a range of performance in reading (word and text levels) and mathematics. A subsample (n = 410) received the Wide Range Achievement Test, in addition to the educational screener. Quantitative (scale-based) and qualitative (grade-equivalence-based) indicators were then analyzed for both assessments. Results established the range of LD in this sample from 13% to 40%, averaging 24.9%. This work provides a systematic exploration of the type and severity of word and text reading and mathematics skill deficiencies among juvenile detainees and builds the foundation for subsequent efforts that may link these deficiencies to both more formal, structured, and variable definitions and classifications of LD, and to other types of disabilities (e.g., intellectual disability) and developmental disorders (e.g., ADHD) that need to be conducted in future research. PMID:24064502
Grigorenko, Elena L; Macomber, Donna; Hart, Lesley; Naples, Adam; Chapman, John; Geib, Catherine F; Chart, Hilary; Tan, Mei; Wolhendler, Baruch; Wagner, Richard
The literature has long pointed to heightened frequencies of learning disabilities (LD) within the population of law offenders; however, a systematic appraisal of these observations, careful estimation of these frequencies, and investigation of their correlates and causes have been lacking. Here we present data collected from all youth (1,337 unique admissions, mean age 14.81, 20.3% females) placed in detention in Connecticut (January 1, 2010-July 1, 2011). All youth completed a computerized educational screener designed to test a range of performance in reading (word and text levels) and mathematics. A subsample (n = 410) received the Wide Range Achievement Test, in addition to the educational screener. Quantitative (scale-based) and qualitative (grade-equivalence-based) indicators were then analyzed for both assessments. Results established the range of LD in this sample from 13% to 40%, averaging 24.9%. This work provides a systematic exploration of the type and severity of word and text reading and mathematics skill deficiencies among juvenile detainees and builds the foundation for subsequent efforts that may link these deficiencies to both more formal, structured, and variable definitions and classifications of LD, and to other types of disabilities (e.g., intellectual disability) and developmental disorders (e.g., ADHD) that need to be conducted in future research.
Artero-Boname, Margaret T.
This paper describes a study to determine whether Chamoru students at the University of Guam, evaluating a standardized self-esteem instrument, agree that the test does measure self-esteem. The instrument used is the Index of Self-Esteem (ISE) and was developed and normed in the United States. There can be a problem using instruments with…
This investigation examines the relation between self-esteem and socially desirable responding by integrating previous findings via a meta-analysis. In 55 studies containing 73 independent samples (N?=?11,901), the correlation between self-esteem and Impression Management was weak, that between self-esteem and Self-Deceptive Enhancement was from…
Soenens, Bart; Berzonsky, Michael D.; Papini, Dennis R.
Although research suggests an interplay between identity development and self-esteem, most studies focused on the role of identity commitment and measured only level of self-esteem. This study examined longitudinal associations between Berzonsky's (2011) styles of identity exploration and two distinct features of self-esteem: level of self-esteem…
Juffer, Femmie; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.
Do adopted children show lower self-esteem than nonadopted peers, and do transracial adoptees show lower self-esteem than same-race adoptees? Adopted children are hypothesized to be at risk of low self-esteem. They may suffer from the consequences of neglect, abuse, and malnutrition in institutions before adoption. They have to cope with their…
A model for teaching elementary school art contains a rationale that outlines the interrelationship between self-esteem and constructive creativity as promoted in well-designed art activities. Self-esteem is defined, and characteristics of a child with high self-esteem are outlined. Conditions contributing to the development of high self-esteem…
In the context of the current identity discussions, the interrelations between acculturations, psychological resources, and self-esteem as well as the satisfaction with life of deaf and hard-of-hearing people (N = 629) were examined by means of a questionnaire-based survey. To check these interrelations, one-factor and two-factor analyses of variance were employed. The results show that bicultural, deaf, and hearing acculturation styles have the advantage over marginal acculturation, but the results for marginal acculturation need to be discussed in depth to ensure a comprehensive understanding of them. All in all, bicultural acculturation seems to be a secure option for psychosocial well-being. The availability of psychological resources (optimism, self-efficacy) seems to be of special importance for the quality of self-esteem and satisfaction with life. On the other hand, the power of these psychological resources is closely associated with good communicative conditions in the individual biographies of the participants in this study as well as with their education level. Going beyond a methodological discussion then, the mission for educators would seem to be one of making good communicative conditions available to each deaf or hard-of-hearing child and optimizing academic achievement so as to ensure a secure, comprehensive, and differentiated opening up of the world and psychological empowerment. In this way, a good foundation can be laid for developing quality of life.
Lüftenegger, Marko; Klug, Julia; Harrer, Katharina; Langer, Marie; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara
In the present research, the recently proposed 3 × 2 model of achievement goals is tested and associations with achievement emotions and their joint influence on academic achievement are investigated. The study was conducted with 388 students using the 3 × 2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire including the six proposed goal constructs (task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance) and the enjoyment and boredom scales from the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire. Exam grades were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Findings from CFAs provided strong support for the proposed structure of the 3 × 2 achievement goal model. Self-based goals, other-based goals and task-approach goals predicted enjoyment. Task-approach goals negatively predicted boredom. Task-approach and other-approach predicted achievement. The indirect effects of achievement goals through emotion variables on achievement were assessed using bias-corrected bootstrapping. No mediation effects were found. Implications for educational practice are discussed. PMID:27199836
Portes, Pedro R.; Zady, Madelon F.
Self-esteem variations were studied among 2,600 Spanish-speaking adolescents who were immigrants or children of immigrants and attended grade 8 or 9 in 42 Florida and San Diego (California) schools. Five Spanish-speaking subgroups had different acculturation patterns. Depression, parent-child conflict, discrimination, and school achievement and…
Hare, Bruce R.
This report focuses on the self-perception and academic achievement of fifth grade black girls as compared to black boys and white girls. Comparisons are made along different dimensions of self-esteem (general, school, peer, and home), and on self-concept of ability, achievement orientation, general anxiety, locus of control, importance of social…
Bonsaksen, Tore; Lerdal, Anners; Småstuen, Milada Cvancarova; Fagermoen, May Solveig
Background Chronic illness is a risk factor for low self-esteem, and the research literature needs to include more studies of self-esteem and its development in chronic illness groups using longitudinal and comparative designs. The aim of this study was to explore the trajectories of self-esteem and of positive and negative affect in persons with morbid obesity and in persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods Patient education course attendants in Norway having morbid obesity (n=139) or COPD (n=97) participated in the study. Data concerning self-esteem, positive and negative affect, and sociodemographic background were collected at the start and at the end of the patient education, with subsequent follow-ups at 3, 6, and 12 months. Data were analyzed using linear mixed models for repeated measures. Results Taking all measurements into account, our data revealed a statistically significant increase in self-esteem for participants with morbid obesity but not for those with COPD. There were no significant differences in levels of negative and positive affect between the two groups, and the time-trajectories were also similar. However, participants in both groups achieved lower levels of negative affect for all the successive measurement points. Conclusion An increase in self-esteem during the first year after the patient education course was observed for persons with morbid obesity, but not for persons with COPD. Initial higher levels of self-esteem in the participants with COPD may indicate that they are less troubled with low self-esteem than people with morbid obesity are. The pattern of reduced negative affect for both groups during follow-up is promising. PMID:27574438
Calvo, Vincenzo; Bianco, Francesca
Background: Parenting self-esteem includes two global components, parents’ self-efficacy and satisfaction with their parental role, and has a crucial role in parent–child interactions. The purpose of this study was to develop an integrative model linking adult attachment insecurities, dyadic adjustment, and parenting self-esteem. Methods: The study involved 118 pairs (236 subjects) of heterosexual parents of a firstborn child aged 0–6 years. They were administered the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised (ECR-R) questionnaire, the Dyadic Adjustment Scale, and the Parenting Sense of Competence Scale. Results: Path analysis was used to design and test a theoretical integrative model, achieving a good fit with the data. Findings showed that dyadic adjustment mediates the negative influence on parenting self-efficacy of both attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance. Parenting satisfaction is positively influenced by parenting self-efficacy and negatively affected by child’s age. Attachment anxiety negatively influences parenting satisfaction. Conclusion: Our findings are in line with the theoretical expectations and have promising implications for future research and intervention programs designed to improve parenting self-esteem. PMID:26441811
Kalenkoski, Charlene Marie; Pabilonia, Sabrina Wulff
Although previous research has shown that homework improves students' academic achievement, the majority of these studies use data on students' homework time from retrospective questionnaires, which may be less accurate than time-diary data. We use data from the combined Child Development Supplement (CDS) and the Transition to Adulthood Survey…
Womack, Sid T.
This paper evaluates whether or not there is a direct academic-achievement benefit from additional expenditures on education in the United States. Numerous critics have said that education is already overfunded and that it can never be funded enough to make any appreciable difference. Berliner's study of 900 school districts in Texas in the 1993…
There has been an increased interest in personality traits (especially the five-factor model) in relation to education and learning over the last decade. Previous studies have shown a relation between personality traits and learning, and between personality traits and academic achievement. The latter is typically described in terms of Grade Point…
This study examines the relationship between athletics, athletic leadership, and academic achievement. This is likely to be a tricky issue as athletes and athletic leaders are not likely to be a random group of students. To address this issue I control for school fixed effects and instrument the endogenous variables with height. I find that…
DePlanty, Jennifer; Coulter-Kern, Russell; Duchane, Kim A.
The authors sought to understand the types of parent involvement that teachers, parents, and students believe affect the academic achievement of adolescent learners at the junior high school level. Research that included focus groups, interviews, and surveys indicated that teachers and students believed that parent involvement at school was…
Simasiku, Liswani; Kasanda, Choshi; Smit, Talita
There has been a high failure rate of Grade 10 learners in the year end examinations in the Caprivi Education Region of Namibia over a number of years. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the use of mother tongue in English medium classrooms enhanced learners' academic achievement.The study investigated 12 teachers at 12 schools…
Sadler, D. Royce
The tension between the freedom of academics to grade the achievements of their students without interference or coercion and the prerogative of higher education institutions to control grading standards is often deliberated by weighing up the authority and rights of the two parties. An alternative approach is to start with an analysis of the…
Saari, Antti J.; Kentala, Jukka; Mattila, Kari J.
Background. To study whether weaker self-esteem in adolescence is connected with smoking behavior in adulthood. Methods. An age cohort born in 1979 responded to the Lawrence Self-Esteem Questionnaire (LAWSEQ) at the age of 16 (n = 1,072). Respondents' smoking behavior was monitored annually during adolescence and 75.3% (n = 813) of them remained nonsmokers during adolescence. A follow-up questionnaire eliciting smoking behavior was sent to the adolescent nonsmokers at the age of 29 years. Response rate at follow-up was 46.2% (n = 376). Results. Weaker self-esteem (LAWSEQ score ≥ 3) during the adolescence was not significantly associated with smoking in adulthood. However, those respondents who had weaker self-esteem in adolescence had increased risk of having been smoking regularly (adjusted OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.1–3.0) although not all of them were smokers at the time of the follow-up. Conclusions. Those with weaker self-esteem in adolescence are more likely to smoke regularly in adulthood. PMID:26273640
Perrin, Eliana M.; Boone-Heinonen, Janne; Field, Alison E.; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; Gordon-Larsen, Penny
Objective To examine sex- and race/ethnicity-specific relationships between adolescents' self-esteem and weight perception. Method Descriptive analysis and logistic regression of Wave II of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 6,427 males, 6,574 females; ages 11–21) examined associations between low self-esteem and perceived overweight within body mass index (BMI) percentile categories, controlling for socio-demographics and stratified by sex and race/ethnicity. Results 25.1% and 8% of normal weight females and males, respectively, perceived themselves as overweight, with variation by race/ethnicity. Low self-esteem was most strongly associated with misperceived overweight in moderate BMI percentile categories (males: OR = 2.34; 95% CI: 1.60–3.41; females: OR = 2.39; 95% CI: 1.82, 3.16). Odds of correctly perceived overweight were higher for low (versus high) self-esteem in white and black females but not males of any race/ethnicity. Discussion Understanding subgroup differences by race/ethnicity in perceived overweight-self-esteem relationships may inform eating disorders' prevention strategies. PMID:19536882
Thompson, Ted; Sharp, Jessica; Alexander, James
In this study, the psychometric properties of the scenario-based Achievement Guilt and Shame Scale (AGSS) were established. The AGSS and scales assessing interpersonal guilt and shame, high standards, overgeneralization, self-criticism, self-esteem, academic self-concept, fear of failure, and tendency to respond in a socially desirable manner were…
Orth, Ulrich; Robins, Richard W; Meier, Laurenz L; Conger, Rand D
A growing body of research supports the vulnerability model of low self-esteem and depression, which states that low self-esteem is a risk factor for depression. The goal of the present research was to refine the vulnerability model, by testing whether the self-esteem effect is truly due to a lack of genuine self-esteem or due to a lack of narcissistic self-enhancement. For the analyses, we used data from 6 longitudinal studies consisting of 2,717 individuals. In each study, we tested the prospective effects of self-esteem and narcissism on depression both separately for each construct and mutually controlling the constructs for each other (i.e., a strategy that informs about effects of genuine self-esteem and pure narcissism), and then meta-analytically aggregated the findings. The results indicated that the effect of low self-esteem holds when narcissism is controlled for (uncontrolled effect = -.26, controlled effect = -.27). In contrast, the effect of narcissism was close to zero when self-esteem was controlled for (uncontrolled effect = -.06, controlled effect = .01). Moreover, the analyses suggested that the self-esteem effect is linear across the continuum from low to high self-esteem (i.e., the effect was not weaker at very high levels of self-esteem). Finally, self-esteem and narcissism did not interact in their effect on depression; that is, individuals with high self-esteem have a lower risk for developing depression, regardless of whether or not they are narcissistic. The findings have significant theoretical implications because they strengthen the vulnerability model of low self-esteem and depression.
Lazarowitz, Reuven; Hertz-Lazarowitz, Rachel; Baird, J. Hugh
A learning unit in earth science was taught to high school students, using a jigsaw-group mastery learning approach. The sample consisted of 73 students in the experimental group and 47 students who learned the topic in an individualized mastery learning approach. The study lasted 5 weeks. Pretests and posttests on academic achievement and affective outcomes were administered. Data were treated with an analysis of covariance. The results show that students of the experimental group achieved significantly higher on academic outcomes, both normative and objective scores. On the creative essay test, the differences in number of ideas and total essay score were not significant between the groups, although the mean scores for number of words were higher for the individualized mastery learning group. On the affective domain, jigsaw-group mastery learning students scored significantly higher on self-esteem, number of friends, and involvement in the classroom. No differences were found in cohesiveness, cooperation, competition, and attitudes toward the subject learned. The results are discussed through the evaluation and comparison of the two methods of instruction used in this study.The cooperative learning movement began in junior high schools as part of the desegregation process, aiming at facilitating positive ethnic relations and increasing academic achievement and social skills among diverse students (Aronson, Stephan, Sikes, Blaney, & Snapp, 1978; Sharan & Hertz-Lazarowitz, 1980; Slavin, 1980). However, elementary teachers quickly recognized the potential of cooperative methods, and such methods were adopted freely in elementary schools before becoming widespread on the junior and senior high level. It has only been during the past few years that application of cooperative learning has been studied extensively with these older students.Cooperative learning methods generally involve heterogeneous groups working together on tasks that are deliberately structured to
Polizzi, Concetta; Fontana, Valentina; Carollo, Antonio; Bono, Alessandra; Burgio, Sofia; Perricone, Giovanna
This study has explored the valence of sibship that may empower the self-esteem of children with asthma at the interpersonal, environmental control competence, emotionality management, and body-image levels. It has been assumed that the relationship between siblings may have a moderating effect on the negative impact that asthma has on child’s development. Seventy children suffering from chronic asthma have been involved: 40 children with siblings (experimental group) and 30 sibling-free children (control group). The children with asthma have exhibited higher levels of self-esteem in comparison with the sibling-free children. The results of the study, at the clinical significance level, highlight how meaningful could be the involvement of healthy siblings to support the development, and to ease the compliance of children suffering from asthma. The outcomes have confirmed the supportive valence of sibship for the self-esteem of the children with asthma. PMID:27433304
Sedikides, Constantine; Rudich, Eric A; Gregg, Aiden P; Kumashiro, Madoka; Rusbult, Caryl
Five studies established that normal narcissism is correlated with good psychological health. Specifically, narcissism is (a) inversely related to daily sadness and dispositional depression, (b) inversely related to daily and dispositional loneliness, (c) positively related to daily and dispositional subjective well-being as well as couple well-being, (d) inversely related to daily anxiety, and (e) inversely related to dispositional neuroticism. More important, self-esteem fully accounted for the relation between narcissism and psychological health. Thus, narcissism is beneficial for psychological health only insofar as it is associated with high self-esteem. Explanations of the main and mediational findings in terms of response or social desirability biases (e.g., defensiveness, repression, impression management) were ruled out. Supplementary analysis showed that the links among narcissism, self-esteem, and psychological health were preponderantly linear.
Marissen, Marlies A E; Brouwer, Marlies E; Hiemstra, Annemarie M F; Deen, Mathijs L; Franken, Ingmar H A
The mask model of narcissism states that the narcissistic traits of patients with NPD are the result of a compensatory reaction to underlying ego fragility. This model assumes that high explicit self-esteem masks low implicit self-esteem. However, research on narcissism has predominantly focused on non-clinical participants and data derived from patients diagnosed with Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) remain scarce. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to test the mask model hypothesis of narcissism among patients with NPD. Male patients with NPD were compared to patients with other PD's and healthy participants on implicit and explicit self-esteem. NPD patients did not differ in levels of explicit and implicit self-esteem compared to both the psychiatric and the healthy control group. Overall, the current study found no evidence in support of the mask model of narcissism among a clinical group. This implicates that it might not be relevant for clinicians to focus treatment of NPD on an underlying negative self-esteem.
Atik, Gökhan; Güneri, Oya Yerin
This study explored the roles of individual factors (age, gender, locus of control, self-esteem, and loneliness), parenting style, and academic achievement in discriminating students involved in bullying (as bullies, victims, and bully/victims) from those not involved. Participants comprised 742 middle school students (393 females, 349 males). The…
A differentiated model of self-esteem, based on William James's (1890), C. H. Cooley's (1902/1968), and G. H. Mead's (1925/1968) works and developed by Dr. Susan Harter (1983), is presented as a valuable tool for the occupational therapist to use in evaluation and intervention. Competence and social support are considered important components, and discounting is presented as a mechanism for the maintenance or improvement of self-esteem. Social comparison, social desirability, and defensiveness are discussed as important considerations, particularly regarding children with disabilities.
Du, Hongfei; Li, Xiaoming; Chi, Peilian; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang
Self-esteem can be derived from the relationships with significant others (relational self-esteem). However, it is unclear what the importance of relational self-esteem is for mental health and whether social support from others promotes relational self-esteem. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between relational self-esteem and a multitude of indicators of psychological well-being among children affected by HIV. We also examined how social support from others would affect relational self-esteem. Results indicated that relational self-esteem was positively associated with psychological well-being. Support from significant others rather than others predicted increased relational self-esteem. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.
... influence self-esteem include: Your own thoughts and perceptions How other people react to you Experiences at ... www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/adult-health/in-depth/self-esteem/art-20047976 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal ...
Robins, Richard W; Donnellan, M Brent; Widaman, Keith F; Conger, Rand D
The present study examined the relation between self-esteem and temperament in a sample of 646 Mexican-American early adolescents (mean age=10.4). Findings show that (a) early adolescents with high self-esteem exhibit higher levels of Effortful Control but, contrary to findings in adult samples, do not differ from low self-esteem adolescents in Negative Affectivity; (b) low self-esteem is associated with Depression; and (c) low self-esteem is associated with Aggression. These findings replicated for boys and girls, two measures of self-esteem, and child and mother reports of temperament. The present study contributes to an emerging understanding of the link between self-esteem and temperament, and provides much needed data on the nature of self-esteem in ethnic minority populations.
Soenens, Bart; Wuyts, Dorien; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Mageau, Geneviève A; Brenning, Katrijn
This study examined the role of mothers' child-invested contingent self-esteem, that is, their tendency to hinge their self-worth on their child's achievements, in maternal promotion of extrinsic goals, as perceived by adolescents. It was also examined whether maternal promotion of extrinsic goals would, in turn, relate to adolescents' Social Dominance Orientation (SDO). Participants were 184 mothers and their adolescent children (66% female). Maternal child-invested contingent self-esteem predicted adolescent-perceived maternal promotion of extrinsic goals, even when taking into account the variance shared between the promotion of extrinsic goals and mothers' use of a controlling parenting style. Maternal child-invested contingent self-esteem also moderated associations between mothers' personal pursuit of extrinsic goals and their promotion of those goals, such that the association between mothers' own extrinsic goals and their promotion of those goals was significant only among mothers high on child-invested contingent self-esteem. Maternal promotion of extrinsic goals was, in turn, related to adolescent SDO, suggesting that the dynamics examined in this study ultimately relate to adolescents' social and ideological development.
The purpose of the study is to provide information concerning the self esteem of blacks and whites under conditions of integrative and segregative...simulated work groups. Subjects were 96 undergraduate students, half black and half white, who performed three laboratory tasks. Ziller’s self esteem ...scales were used to measure the self esteem of subjects. Results indicate a significant difference between the self esteem scores of blacks and whites
Green, Jasmine; Nelson, Genevieve; Martin, Andrew J.; Marsh, Herb
Critical questions in educational psychology research to be addressed in this paper concern the casual relationship between academic self-concept, academic motivation and its effect on academic achievement. Do changes in academic self-concept and academic motivation lead to changes in subsequent academic achievement? Various studies have attempted…
Layden, Mary Anne
Low self-esteem and depressed individuals tend to have an attributional style of externalizing success and internalizing failure. To evaluate a program developed to help reverse this pattern of responses to be more similar to high self-esteem and nondepressed individuals, subjects were first tested for self-esteem, depression, and attributional…
Baran, Stanley J.
Children will individually react to television program content according to different psychological characteristics, one of which is self-esteem. Results of one study revealed a definite relationship between a child's self-esteem and his "modeling," or imitative behavior, after observing a televised film. A self-esteem inventory was administered…
Bailey, A. Peter
Lack of individual and group self-esteem hinders African Americans in their efforts to compete with others in U.S. society. A person or group with self-esteem will not settle for second-class treatment. Suggestions for promoting individual and group self-esteem for blacks are presented. (SLD)
Lee, Eunju J.
This study examines whether the instability of self-esteem (i.e., a high intraindividual variability in self-esteem) is differentially associated with different types of aggressive behavior by using a sample of 235 preadolescent children. Self-esteem was measured four times for four consecutive days, and proactive and reactive aggressive behaviors…
Openshaw, D. Kim; And Others
Investigated the effects of social learning and symbolic interaction on adolescent self-esteem. Adolescents (N=368) and their parents completed measures of self-esteem, parental behavior and parental power. Results suggested adolescent self-esteem is more a function of social interaction and the reflected appraisals of others than a modeling of…
This newsletter summarizes the current state of understanding about self-esteem in teenaged girls. It notes that self-esteem is a concept that is difficult to define and to measure. Current research indicates that self-esteem is composed of many factors; however, a reasonable functional definition is the value a person places on herself or…
Hills, Peter R.; Francis, Leslie J.; Jennings, Penelope
The school short form of the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory is a widely used measure of children's global self-esteem. Unlike the full-length scale, however, it has been generally understood that the short form does not allow differentiation between the major individual sources of self-esteem. The present study has examined the internal…
Chan, Yiu Man; Chan, Christine Mei-Sheung
The Self-esteem Inventory developed by Coopersmith (1967) was used to measure the self-esteem of 387 Chinese children. The sample included newly arrived mainland Chinese children and Hong Kong children. The results showed significant statistical differences when measuring the self-esteem level associated with the length of their stay in Hong Kong…
Developed a teacher's rating scale of self-esteem for children. Participants were 231 school children in grades K-7. Used sociometric measures, popularity ranking by teachers, and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory to estimate validity. The Self-Esteem Rating Scale for Children (SERSC) included 12 behavioral characteristics rated most…
Hurlbut, Nancy L.; Culp, Anne McDonald; Jambunathan, Saigeetha; Butler, Patrice
Investigates the relationship between adolescent mothers' (N=24) self-esteem and their knowledge of parenting skills. Findings indicate that self-esteem is a good indicator of the adolescent mother's parenting. Significant correlations arose between the mother's baseline self-esteem and her knowledge about role reversal, empathy, developmental…
Glindemann, Kent E.; Geller, E. Scott; Fortney, Jason N.
Research assessed 44 students' levels of self-esteem and then measured their actual levels of intoxication with a breathalyzer as they were leaving a fraternity party. Participants with lower levels of self-esteem exited the party with a mean Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) of .126, while those with higher levels of self-esteem exited with a…
Huurre, Taina Maarit; Komulainen, Erkki Juhani; Aro, Hillevi Marita
The social support and self-esteem of 115 adolescents with visual impairments who attended mainstream Finnish schools, and a control group of 607 classmates were assessed. Self-esteem of the adolescents did not differ; relationships with friends contributed to the enhancement of the self-esteem of the adolescents with visual impairments.…
Robins, Richard W.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Widaman, Keith F.; Conger, Rand D.
The present study examined the relation between self-esteem and temperament in a sample of 646 Mexican-American early adolescents (mean age = 10.4). Findings show that (a) early adolescents with high self-esteem exhibit higher levels of Effortful Control but, contrary to findings in adult samples, do not differ from low self-esteem adolescents in…
Neff, Angela; Sonnentag, Sabine; Niessen, Cornelia; Unger, Dana
This diary study examines the daily crossover of self-esteem within working couples. By integrating self-esteem research into the crossover framework, we hypothesized that the day-specific self-esteem experienced by one partner after work crosses over to the other partner. Furthermore, we proposed that this daily crossover process is moderated by…
Badayai, Abdul Rahman bin Ahmad; Ismail, Khaidzir bin Haji
Self-esteem has been regarded as one of the most pivotal component in almost every day human daily activities. Trajectory of self esteem development means that on the average, one's self-esteem is relatively high in childhood, then drops during adolescence, later to arise gradually throughout adulthood, and then declines sharply in old age. The…
Collison, Daniel; Banbury, Samantha; Lusher, Joanne
It has been found that self-esteem is related to alcohol consumption, with the majority of research finding that low self-esteem is associated with high levels of alcohol use and high self-esteem is associated with low levels of alcohol use. The present study examined this relationship among 100 university students aged 18-25 years. Further,…
Hamilton, Diane; Oswalt, Sara
This lesson enhances secondary students' self-esteem and reinforces positive health behaviors. Activity 1 examines cultural standards of beauty, questions attitudes about body image, and presents nonappearance affirmations for enhancing self-esteem. Activity 2 helps students recall occasions when others' comments influenced their self-esteem,…
McManus, Freda; Waite, Polly; Shafran, Roz
Low self-esteem is a common, disabling, and distressing problem that has been shown to be involved in the etiology and maintenance of a range of Axis I disorders. Hence, it is a priority to develop effective treatments for low self-esteem. A cognitive-behavioral conceptualization of low self-esteem has been proposed and a cognitive-behavioral…
Guindon, Mary H.
Self-esteem is a common target of intervention, and the proliferation of research on self-esteem attests to the widely held belief of its significance as a personality variable. Despite its popularity, there is limited consistency in the use of its definition, and little evidence suggests that counselors routinely assess levels of self-esteem.…
Hayman, Jessie Wetherbe; Kurpius, Sharon Robinson; Befort, Christy; Nicpon, Megan Foley; Hull-Blanks, Elva; Sollenberger, Sonja; Huser, Laura
The authors investigated the relationships between spirituality, body image, self-esteem, and stress in 204 college freshmen who identified themselves as being highly spiritual. A positive relationship was found between spirituality and self-esteem. Although self-esteem was found to be negatively related to stress, spirituality served as a buffer…
Tang, Thomas Li-Ping; Gilbert, Pamela Rae
In the field of human resources management, self-esteem has been one of the most researched personality variables. Recently, the construct of organization-based self-esteem also has come under investigation. Organization-based self-esteem is defined as "the degree to which organizational members believe that they can satisfy their needs by…
Sowislo, Julia Friederike; Orth, Ulrich
Low self-esteem and depression are strongly related, but there is not yet consistent evidence on the nature of the relation. Whereas the vulnerability model states that low self-esteem contributes to depression, the scar model states that depression erodes self-esteem. Furthermore, it is unknown whether the models are specific for depression or…
The construct of self-esteem has received considerable attention in recent years. Self-esteem is defined as a personal judgment of worthiness that is expressed in attitudes that individuals hold for themselves. This study compared self-esteem of American and Chinese children. Subjects included 446 American elementary school students from the…
Barker, Erin T.; Bornstein, Marc H.
Global self-esteem, appearance satisfaction, and self-reported dieting are interrelated. This study examines the temporal ordering of global self-esteem and appearance satisfaction across the early adolescence transition, from age 10 to age 14, as well as the independent associations of self-esteem and appearance satisfaction on self-reported…
Bamaca, Mayra Y.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Shin, Nana; Alfaro, Edna C.
We examined the relations among parenting behaviors, adolescents' self-esteem, and neighborhood risk with a Midwestern sample of 324 Latino adolescents. The findings suggest that boys' self-esteem is influenced by both mothers' and fathers' parenting behaviors, whereas girls' self-esteem is influenced by mothers' behaviors only. In addition, the…
Hoskins, Jo A.
This study focuses on the analysis of the impact of school uniforms on student self-esteem and self-efficacy. In the past, schools have implemented school uniform policies in order to help improve student achievement as well as strengthen discipline. However, previous research has indicated an association, which is tenuous at best, with regard to…
Meyer, Nancy Billings
This overview of the characteristics and needs of adult, nontraditional students attending community colleges argues that enhancing the self-concept and self-esteem of adult students fosters and increases their academic success and life chances. After chapter I introduces the issues and defines terms, chapter II provides a literature review…
This evaluation of 16 children (ages 7-12) with achondroplasia from Transkei, Hungary, and Nigeria found that, compared to controls, subjects had more behavior problems and less self-esteem. Subjects were socially withdrawn, internalized emotional problems, had lower academic performance, found less adaptive solutions to frustration, and faced…
Erie City School District, PA.
A project was conducted at Crossroads Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation Center (Erie, Pennsylvania) to help residents build self-esteem and confidence through a course involving decision making, problem solving, and values clarification. Strategies, academic skills, reading, writing, and mathematics were introduced as part of the program. Over the…
Many outdoor educators and adventure therapists share the belief that adventure experiences improve participant self-esteem. Recently, researchers have begun to question this widespread belief, suggesting that a mismatch between the level of physical or psychological risk and the level of client readiness may produce negative outcomes. A study of…
Hamner, Tommie J.
Explores various aspects of the development of self-concept in young children and suggests activities which promote the development of self-esteem. A review of the literature pertinent to children's self-concept covers several areas: (1) the importance of a positive self-concept for effective adjustment in all aspects of life; (2) theories on the…
Lyubomirsky, Sonja; Tkach, Chris; DiMatteo, Robin M.
The present study investigated theoretically and empirically derived similarities and differences between the constructs of enduring happiness and self-esteem. Participants (N = 621), retired employees ages 51-95, completed standardized measures of affect, personality, psychosocial characteristics, physical health, and demographics. The relations…
Tyra, T L
Parents are the first and the most important environment for the formation of children's self-esteem. The processes of identification with parents behaviours, attitudes, opinions and the world perceptions play the main role. Depression with its sadness, pessimism and negative self- and world-perception has significant negative impact on the intrapsychic processes of the child. The literature suggests that in depressive families the emotional communication is significantly disordered, the educational processes are inconsistent and the patterns of behavioural responses are under the impact of the illness. The aim of the study was the verification of the hypothesis that parent's depression negatively influenced the formation of self-esteem of the child. The results allow for the confirmation that the childrens self-portrait is lowered and that the self-esteem is often ambivalent. There were no significant relations between verbal and non-verbal self-esteem. There was no significant influence on the process of identification with the same gender parent (it was not important which parent is depressive). Due to the small group of children analysed these results are a preliminary evaluation of the problem.
Allendorff, Sibylle; And Others
The Chicago Heart Health Curriculum Program (CHHCP) is a cardiovascular disease risk reduction program designed for students and families. Results of a study of CHHCP suggest that future programs conveying heart health knowledge should consider student learning in the context of self-esteem, independence of peers, and teacher humanism. (Author/MT)
Huettig, Carol; Rich, Shannon; Engelbrecht, Jo Ann; Sanborn, Charlotte; Essery, Eve; DiMarco, Nancy; Velez, Luisa; Levy, Luba
A diverse group of professionals associated with Texas Woman's University's Institute for Women's Health, working collaboratively with school administrators, teachers, family support teams, and family members, developed Growing with EASE: Eating, Activity, and Self-Esteem, a nutrition program for young children and their families. In tracking the…
This paper defines the term "self-image" or "self-esteem" and defines the term "creativity" from psychoanalytic and humanist interpretations. It then proposes the theory that a positive self-image enhances the possibilities for creative productivity or lifestyle. Practical implications for child rearing are offered. (JDD)
First in a series of books designed to accompany the compact disk "Help Yourself," this book provides suggestions for classroom activities using the CD songs as a springboard into a curriculum for promoting self-esteem and safety skills among preschool children. Each section begins with sheet music and complete lyrics for each of the 12 songs,…
It has been found that the sexes differ as to social/affective versus instrumental/competence orientation, with females oriented more towards the social domain and males oriented more towards the instrumental domain. Because it has been suggested that the sexes also differ as to the source of self-esteem, with males deriving esteem from task…
Simmons, Roberta G.
Changes in research findings related to the self-esteem of blacks may be due to the impact of ideology; or to methodological differences, such as the populations studied, the definitions and dimensions of self-image conceptualized, and the measures used. This article is a commentary on the previous Adam article (TM 503 243). (BW)
Landis, H. John
Results of this validation study of a slightly modified version of the Coppersmith Self-Esteem Inventory substantiate its use with seventh graders to assess Goal I (concerning self-understanding and appreciation of self-worth) of the Educational Quality Assessment Program in Pennsylvania. Appendixes include the definition and rationale for Goal I,…
Jeree Pawl, PhD, former clinical professor, Department of Psychiatry, University of California at San Francisco and past director of the Infant-Parent Program located at San Francisco General Hospital responds to questions about how parents and caregivers can support the development of self-esteem in very young children. Contrary to the idea that…
Herold, Edward S.; And Others
Of the 486 single women aged 13-20 who were tested, the subjects with high self-esteem had positive attitudes toward using birth control pills, were less embarrassed about obtaining contraception, and were more effective and consistent contraceptive users. (RL)
Brief excerpts from correspondence from blind persons and their families in Uruguay indicate increased self-esteem resulting from access to braille materials such as a braille newspaper. Braille literacy is seen to enhance the dialog between student and teacher, parent and child, or child and book. Knowledge of community events offered by the…
Biddington, Carol M.
Although the mechanisms of transmission of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) are well known, the elimination of HIV infections remains a major social problem. While traditional education techniques have been effective in increasing knowledge levels, they have not been adequate in changing sexual behavior. Since students' self-esteem plays a…
Lochman, John E.
Secondary prevention programs for aggressive children should be based on research about processes which mediate children's expression of aggressive behavior. The relative importance of perceived competence, self-esteem, and social problem solving processes was investigated in 20 aggressive and 18 non-aggressive fourth and fifth grade boys. Teacher…
Peck, Lisa D.; Lightsey, Owen Richard
Among 261 undergraduate women, increased severity of eating disorders along a continuum was associated with decreased self-esteem, increased perfectionism, and increased scores on 7 subscales of the Eating Disorders Inventory-2. Women with eating disorders differed from both symptomatic women and asymptomatic women on all variables, whereas…
Impett, Emily A.; Sorsoli, Lynn; Schooler, Deborah; Henson, James M.; Tolman; Deborah L.
Feminist psychologists have long posited that relationship authenticity (i.e., the congruence between what one thinks and feels and what one does and says in relational contexts) is integral to self-esteem and well-being. Guided by a feminist developmental framework, the authors investigated the role of relationship authenticity in promoting…
Kort-Butler, Lisa A.
Structured extracurricular activity participation has been linked to self-esteem and other indicators of positive youth development. This article describes the theoretical basis for this relationship, centering on extracurricular activities as a location for identity development. A summary of the empirical evidence points to the importance of…
Jackson, Claire; Cavenagh, Penny; Clibbens, John
Background: It is estimated that around 50-90% of people with learning disabilities experience difficulties in communicating. Previous research has linked communication difficulties and self-esteem in other populations, yet this relationship has not previously been investigated for people with Down syndrome. Aims: To explore the relationship…
An interview study carried out in the pilot year of the new GNVQ in science at A-level has shown that the use of grading criteria, which require independent learning, as a method of assessment is better for students' motivation and self-esteem.
Ayas, Tuncay; Horzum, Mehmet Baris
Problem: Internet addiction has been emerged as a result of excessive internet misuse. In this study, analyzing the effects of depression, loneliness and self-esteem has been aimed in the prediction of the internet addiction levels of secondary education students. Method: The research is conducted according to the cross-sectional model as one of…
The orienting perspectives for examining shame and self-esteem included phenomenological, developmental (from a linear and from a discontinuous point of view), pathogenesis, and modes of therapeutic action. The perspectives are overlapping but potential incompatibilities exist, especially in the area of therapeutic action.
Oguz-Duran, Nagihan; Tezer, Esin
This study investigated the differences among 465 Turkish first year university students regarding overall wellness and four of its dimensions (cognitive emotional wellness-CEW, relational wellness-RW, life goal-LG, and physical wellness-PW) in terms of self-esteem levels and gender. The data were gathered by administering the Rosenberg…
This study examined the effect of the active pursuit of ballet as a hobby on personality. The study group consisted of 62 members of the junior ballet of the Finnish National Opera, ranging in age from 9 to 17 with the majority under 14. The dancers were given four self-esteem questionnaires which measured empathy, creativity, and other…
Johnson, Ann D.; Johnson, George W.
A workshop on the importance of building and maintaining healthy self-esteem is described in this document. It has been successfully presented to nontraditional college students, counselor educators, and other professionals in the counseling field, with slight modifications depending on the background of the participants. At the beginning of the…
Wu, Lili; Cai, Huajian; Gu, Ruolei; Luo, Yu L. L.; Zhang, Jianxin; Yang, Jing; Shi, Yuanyuan; Ding, Lei
Behavioral research has established that humans implicitly tend to hold a positive view toward themselves. In this study, we employed the event-related potential (ERP) technique to explore neural manifestations of positive implicit self-esteem using the Go/Nogo association task (GNAT). Participants generated a response (Go) or withheld a response (Nogo) to self or others words and good or bad attributes. Behavioral data showed that participants responded faster to the self paired with good than the self paired with bad, whereas the opposite proved true for others, reflecting the positive nature of implicit self-esteem. ERP results showed an augmented N200 over the frontal areas in Nogo responses relative to Go responses. Moreover, the positive implicit self-positivity bias delayed the onset time of the N200 wave difference between Nogo and Go trials, suggesting that positive implicit self-esteem is manifested on neural activity about 270 ms after the presentation of self-relevant stimuli. These findings provide neural evidence for the positivity and automaticity of implicit self-esteem. PMID:25006966
Katz, Lilian G.
While the development of children's self-esteem is a worthwhile goal in early education, many practices designed to reach this goal may instead be encouraging narcissism. Such practices include those that direct children's attention to their own inner gratifications, or encourage children to believe their specialness is dependent on trivial…
Lindeman, A K
Self-esteem, a hierarchical and multifactorial perception, can be described as the extent to which a person feels positive about himself or herself. Social factors such as life satisfaction, sex, age, and strongly held values can affect self-esteem. Low self-esteem is a well-recognized trait of those with eating disorders and may be associated with a heightened self-awareness. Body dissatisfaction, common among women in Western society, may enhance this awareness. Athletes, especially those with eating disorders, are perfectionists and have acute body awareness and a sense of loss of control. Control is a crucial issue with these athletes. Before any nutrition counseling starts, readiness to listen should be assessed in conjunction with a mental health professional. Various tools are available to assess the eating disordered athlete's self-esteem, body image, and eating behavior. Nutrition counseling can help the athlete overcome an eating disorder by clarifying misconceptions and focusing on the role of nutrition in promoting health and athletic performance.
Burnett, Paul C.
Self-esteem has been defined as the "totality of the individual's thoughts and feelings having reference to himself as an object." Self-concept has been defined as the descriptive and evaluative beliefs that a person holds about multidimensional characteristics of the self. As children progress through primary school, general…
Boudreault, Andréa; Ntetu, Antoine Lutumba
The hospital is an environment which accomodates the elderly persons and in which these last have to make trainings at one time when they are not in full possession with all their physical, psychological and cognitive capacities. They can then live there humiliating situations which generate feelings of discomfort, embarrassment and shame. The presence of interveners not very warm, lacking compassion lack and impressed negative prejudices towards the elderly patients, is another factor which is added to lead them not to feel at ease, involving, inter alia, consequences a fall of their self-esteem. However the affective touch is a strategy which would have the potential to act on the personal value of the elderly patients and to thus improve their self-esteem. It is with a view to popularize the use of the affective touch in practice nurse that a study was carried out in order to check its effects on the self-esteem of the elderly patients. The results confirm that the emotional touch influences positively the self-esteem of the elderly patients. The authors of the study thus recommend the systematization of the affective touch in nursing practice.
Quilty, Lena C.; Oakman, Jonathan M.; Risko, Evan
Investigators of personality assessment are becoming aware that using positively and negatively worded items in questionnaires to prevent acquiescence may negatively impact construct validity. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) has demonstrated a bifactorial structure typically proposed to result from these method effects. Recent work suggests…
Mares, Suzanne H. W.; de Leeuw, Rebecca N. H.; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.
Facial attractiveness has been associated with many (social) advantages in life, like greater popularity, acceptance, and social competence. Because social evaluations and acceptance are important factors contributing to self-esteem (SE), we hypothesized that high levels of attractiveness would be related to increased levels of SE. To test this…
Bulanda, Ronald E.; Majumdar, Debarun
We used data drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to assess the independent and interactive correlations of maternal and paternal parenting with adolescent self-esteem. Specifically, ordinary least squares regression was used to provide estimates for a large, culturally diverse sample of married, biological…
SOLMAZ, Mustafa; BİNBAY, Zerrin; CİDEM, Muharrem; SAĞIR, Selim; KARACAN, İlhan
Introduction Ankylosing spondylitis (AS), which has an unknown etiology, inflammatory disorder, characterized by inflammation of the spinal joints and adjacent structures. It has a negatif effect on all aspects of a patients’s life: Physcally, psychologically and socially. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of AS on self-esteem and alexithymia. Method In this study, 50 patients from the department of physical therapy and rehabilitation with the diaognosis of AS who were under traetment and follow-up and 50 healty volunteers who matched for age and gender were taken. Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) were performed to both patients and control group. Results Compared to the control group, the anxiety and depression scores were higher in the patient group and the alexithymic characteristics were significantly higher, self-esteem scores were significantly lower in the patient group (p<.05). Conclusion Like all the other inflammatory chronic diseases, depression and anxiety are commonly seen in AS patients. Alexithymai and self-esteem of these patients should be considered carefully. More studies are needed on this regard. PMID:28360653
Mizuno, Kei; Tanaka, Masaaki; Ishii, Akira; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Onoe, Hirotaka; Sadato, Norihiro; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi
We have used functional magnetic resonance imaging to study the neural correlates of motivation, concentrating on the motivation to learn and gain monetary rewards. We compared the activation in the brain obtained during reported high states of motivation for learning, with the ones observed when the motivation was based on monetary reward. Our results show that motivation to learn correlates with bilateral activity in the putamen, and that the higher the reported motivation, as derived from a questionnaire that each subject filled prior to scanning, the greater the change in the BOLD signals within the putamen. Monetary motivation also activated the putamen bilaterally, though the intensity of activity was not related to the monetary reward. We conclude that the putamen is critical for motivation in different domains and the extent of activity of the putamen may be pivotal to the motivation that drives academic achievement and thus academic successes.
Leeuwis, Franca H; Koot, Hans M; Creemers, Daan H M; van Lier, Pol A C
Discrepancies between implicit and explicit self-esteem have been linked with internalizing problems among mainly adolescents and adults. Longitudinal research on this association in children is lacking. This study examined the longitudinal link between self-esteem discrepancies and the development of internalizing problems in children. It furthermore examined the possible mediating role of self-esteem discrepancies in the longitudinal link between experiences of peer victimization and internalizing problems development. Children (N = 330, M(age) = 11.2 year; 52.5 % female) were followed over grades five (age 11 years) and six (age 12 years). Self-report measures were used annually to test for victimization and internalizing problems. Implicit self-esteem was assessed using an implicit association test, while explicit self-esteem was assessed via self-reports. Self-esteem discrepancies represented the difference between implicit and explicit self-esteem. Results showed that victimization was associated with increases in damaged self-esteem (higher levels of implicit than explicit self-esteem. Additionally, damaged self-esteem at age 11 years predicted an increase in internalizing problems in children over ages 11 to 12 years. Furthermore, damaged self-esteem mediated the relationship between age 11 years victimization and the development of internalizing problems. No impact of fragile self-esteem (lower levels of implicit than explicit self-esteem) on internalizing problems was found. The results thus underscore that, as found in adolescent and adult samples, damaged self-esteem is a predictor of increases in childhood internalizing problems. Moreover, damaged self-esteem might explain why children who are victimized develop internalizing problems. Implications are discussed.
Fernandez, Yolanda M; Marshall, W L
The purpose of the present study was to compare the responses of 27 incarcerated rapists and 27 incarcerated nonsexual offenders using the Rapist Empathy Measure (targeting victim specific empathy deficits) and to examine the relationship between empathy with self-esteem and psychopathy for both groups. The Social Self-Esteem Inventory was used as a measure of perceived social competence and the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 1991) was used as a measure of psychopathy. All participants completed the two self-report questionnaires on empathy and self-esteem; in addition, the rapists were required to complete an extra section of the empathy measure that assessed their empathic responses to their own victims. Demographic information and psychopathy scores were obtained by reviewing institutional files. When psychopathy scores were not available, subjects participated in a semi-structured interview and were scored on the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised by the researcher. Rapists demonstrated more empathy than the nonsexual offenders toward women in general and the same degree of empathy as the nonsexual offenders toward a woman who had been a victim of a sexual assault by another male. Of particular importance were the within-group comparisons across victim type for the rapists which revealed significant empathy deficits toward their own victim(s). Interestingly, no differences were found between the rapists and nonsexual offenders in terms of self-esteem and psychopathy, and neither self-esteem nor psychopathy significantly predicted empathy for either group. It was concluded from the present study that rapists may suppress empathy primarily toward their own victim rather than suffer from a generalized empathy deficit. It is suggested that empathy deficits in rapists might better be construed as cognitive distortions specific to their victims and should be addressed in that manner in treatment.
Wei, Yichun; Clifton, Rodney A.; Roberts, Lance W.
This study estimates the impact of schools' physical resources and teachers' academic press on students' academic achievement in mathematics and reading when a number of important student variables are controlled. Academic press is defined as teachers' emphasis on academic excellence and upholding academic standards (McDill, Natriello, &…
Gagliano, Antonella; Lamberti, Marco; Siracusano, Rosamaria; Ciuffo, Massimo; Boncoddo, Maria; Maggio, Roberta; Rosina, Simona; Cedro, Clemente; Germanò, Eva
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is frequently associated with negative psychological outcomes. This study explores the relationship between self-esteem, ADHD symptoms and parental stress. It compares children with ADHD, children with epilepsy (E) and typical developmental controls (TD). Participants included 65 children (aged 9-12 yrs) and their parents. The assessment was conducted by Multidimensional Self-Concept Scale (MSCS), Parent Stress Index (PSI) and Conners' Parent Rating Scales–Revised. Significant differences were found in Social, Competence and Academic areas of self-esteem between children with ADHD, with E and TD. Moreover, parents of children with ADHD showed a higher overall stress than both other groups. In conclusion, it seems important to evaluate the psychological aspects of ADHD con-dition, both in children and in parents, in order to suggest an individual multimodal treatment. PMID:25614755
Gagliano, Antonella; Lamberti, Marco; Siracusano, Rosamaria; Ciuffo, Massimo; Boncoddo, Maria; Maggio, Roberta; Rosina, Simona; Cedro, Clemente; Germanò, Eva
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is frequently associated with negative psychological outcomes. This study explores the relationship between self-esteem, ADHD symptoms and parental stress. It compares children with ADHD, children with epilepsy (E) and typical developmental controls (TD). Participants included 65 children (aged 9-12 yrs) and their parents. The assessment was conducted by Multidimensional Self-Concept Scale (MSCS), Parent Stress Index (PSI) and Conners' Parent Rating Scales-Revised. Significant differences were found in Social, Competence and Academic areas of self-esteem between children with ADHD, with E and TD. Moreover, parents of children with ADHD showed a higher overall stress than both other groups. In conclusion, it seems important to evaluate the psychological aspects of ADHD con-dition, both in children and in parents, in order to suggest an individual multimodal treatment.
Baste, Vrushali S; Gadkari, Jayashree V
Medical students are exposed to many stressors and if stress is perceived negatively or becomes excessive can affect academic performance and health adversely. The objective of this study was to assess stress, predominant stressor and effect of music on perceived stress. 90 undergraduate students were selected randomly. A written questionnaire about personal information, stressful factors, ways to cope up stress, Rosenberg self-esteem scale (Rosenberg, 1965) and 'Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology' self-rated 16 (QIDS-SR-16) was given.45.6% Students had mild stress, 7.7% students had moderate stress and 1.1% students had severe stress. Academic factors were the predominant cause of stress in most students, followed by physical, social and emotional. On Rosenberg self-esteem scale (Rosenberg, 1965) 85.6% students had high self-esteem and on QIDS-SR16 50% students had depression. Effect of music on perceived stress was statistically significant. Medical curriculum is associated with increased stress in students. Music can be used as simple, inexpensive and effective therapy for stress.
Coelho, Vitor Alexandre; Marchante, Marta; Jimerson, Shane R
The middle school transition is a salient developmental experience impacting adolescents around the world. This study employed a randomized-controlled treatment design, with randomization at the school level, to investigate the impact of a school adjustment program for middle school transition and potential gender differences. Participants included 1147 students (M age = 9.62; SD = 0.30, 45.7 % girls), who were assessed at four time points during the transition, regarding five dimensions of self-concept (academic, social, emotional, physical and family) and self-esteem. Parallel growth curves were employed to analyze the evolution of self-concept. Following the transition to middle school, students reported lower levels of self-concept (academic, emotional and physical) and self-esteem, while participation in the intervention led to increases in self-esteem and gains in social self-concept. No gender differences were found. These results provide preliminary evidence supporting such interventions in early middle school transitions.
Chiu, L H
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of career goal and self-esteem among adolescents. A sample of 221 high school sophomores and juniors was administered the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE). Their teachers also were asked to rate the students' self-esteem using the Self-Esteem Rating Scale for Children (SERSC). It was found that, on both the RSE and SERSC, adolescents with some career goals had significantly higher self-esteem than did those without any career goal.
According to terror management theory (TMT; Greenberg, Pyszczynski, 1986), self-esteem protects people from anxiety associated with the knowledge of certain mortality. A number of studies provide evidence consistent with this assertion, but no studies have experimentally examined the effect of threatened self-esteem on death-anxiety. In the current study, self-esteem was manipulated and death-anxiety measured. A self-esteem threat increased death-anxiety relative to a self-esteem boost and non-self threat control condition.
This article discusses the gender differences in perceived physical appearance that contribute to problems such as depression and eating disorders. Ways are explored to help children and adolescents reject media messages and base their self-esteem on genuine qualities. (Author/MKA)
Phillips, Wendy J; Hine, Donald W
Dual-process models of cognitive vulnerability to depression suggest that some individuals possess discrepant implicit and explicit self-views, such as high explicit and low implicit self-esteem (fragile self-esteem) or low explicit and high implicit self-esteem (damaged self-esteem). This study investigated whether individuals with discrepant self-esteem may employ depressive rumination in an effort to reduce discrepancy-related dissonance, and whether the relationship between self-esteem discrepancy and future depressive symptoms varies as a function of rumination tendencies. Hierarchical regressions examined whether self-esteem discrepancy was associated with rumination in an Australian undergraduate sample at Time 1 (N = 306; M(age) = 29.9), and whether rumination tendencies moderated the relationship between self-esteem discrepancy and depressive symptoms assessed 3 months later (n = 160). Damaged self-esteem was associated with rumination at Time 1. As hypothesized, rumination moderated the relationship between self-esteem discrepancy and depressive symptoms at Time 2, where fragile self-esteem and high rumination tendencies at Time 1 predicted the highest levels of subsequent dysphoria. Results are consistent with dual-process propositions that (a) explicit self-regulation strategies may be triggered when explicit and implicit self-beliefs are incongruent, and (b) rumination may increase the likelihood of depression by expending cognitive resources and/or amplifying negative implicit biases.
Cai, Huajian; Wu, Mingzheng; Luo, Yu L L; Yang, Jing
Implicit self-esteem has remained an active research topic in both the areas of implicit social cognition and self-esteem in recent decades. The purpose of this study is to explore the development of implicit self-esteem in adolescents. A total of 599 adolescents from junior and senior high schools in East China participated in the study. They ranged in age from 11 to 18 years with a mean age of 14.10 (SD = 2.16). The degree of implicit self-esteem was assessed using the Implicit Association Test (IAT) with the improved D score as the index. Participants also completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (α = 0.77). For all surveyed ages, implicit self-esteem was positively biased, all ts>8.59, all ps<0.001. The simple correlation between implicit self-esteem and age was significant, r = -.25, p = 1. 10(-10). A regression with implicit self-esteem as the criterion variable, and age, gender, and age × gender interaction as predictors further revealed the significant negative linear relationship between age and implicit self-esteem, β = -0.19, t = -3.20, p = 0.001. However, explicit self-esteem manifested a reverse "U" shape throughout adolescence. Implicit self-esteem in adolescence manifests a declining trend with increasing age, suggesting that it is sensitive to developmental or age-related changes. This finding enriches our understanding of the development of implicit social cognition.
Self-esteem is essential for school-aged children's optimum health. High self-esteem is linked to increased school performance, improved health, and productive behavior. This study reports on the effects of a four-lesson self-esteem enhancement program for six groups of 5th and 6th grade children (N=98). The interactive lessons dealt with an overview of self-esteem, media influences, hiding emotions, and changes in self-esteem. Using a pre-test/ post-test design, Coopersmith's Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI) was used to measure self-esteem. The self-esteem subscales dealing with general and social areas were found to significantly increase over time (p<.05). Girls had more significant changes than boys in the general subscale score and the total self-esteem score. Mean scores showed that children who had friends had more significant changes than those who did not have friends. Children with lower socioeconomic status had lower scores at both the pre and post testing with significance in the general and social subscales. No significance was found related to racial group, family make-up, or the number of household chores or activities. This study supports the effectiveness of a self-esteem enhancement program for girls, those children with friends, and those in lower socioeconomic status. Future research is needed to understand what contributes to the self-esteem of children who report that they do not have friends.
Wang, Yi Nan
Possessing power contributes to high self-esteem, but how power enhances self-esteem is still unknown. As power is associated with both self-oriented goals and social-responsibility goals, we proposed that power predicts self-esteem through two positive personal and interpersonal results: authenticity and relationship satisfaction. Three studies were carried out with a total of 505 Chinese participants, including college students and adults, who completed surveys that assessed personal power, self-esteem, authenticity, relationship satisfaction, communal orientation, and social desirability. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses demonstrated that power, authenticity, and relationship satisfaction each uniquely contributed to self-esteem. More importantly, multiple mediation analysis showed that authenticity and relationship satisfaction both mediated the effects of power on self-esteem, even when controlling for participants' communal orientation and social desirability. Our findings demonstrate that authenticity and relationship satisfaction represent two key mechanisms by which power is associated with self-esteem.
Wang, Yi Nan
Possessing power contributes to high self-esteem, but how power enhances self-esteem is still unknown. As power is associated with both self-oriented goals and social-responsibility goals, we proposed that power predicts self-esteem through two positive personal and interpersonal results: authenticity and relationship satisfaction. Three studies were carried out with a total of 505 Chinese participants, including college students and adults, who completed surveys that assessed personal power, self-esteem, authenticity, relationship satisfaction, communal orientation, and social desirability. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses demonstrated that power, authenticity, and relationship satisfaction each uniquely contributed to self-esteem. More importantly, multiple mediation analysis showed that authenticity and relationship satisfaction both mediated the effects of power on self-esteem, even when controlling for participants’ communal orientation and social desirability. Our findings demonstrate that authenticity and relationship satisfaction represent two key mechanisms by which power is associated with self-esteem. PMID:26720814
Marshall, Sarah L; Parker, Phillip D; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Heaven, Patrick C L
Considerable research has been devoted to examining the relations between self-esteem and social support. However, the exact nature and direction of these relations are not well understood. Measures of self-esteem, and social support quantity and quality were administered to 961 adolescents across five yearly time points (M(age) = 13.41 years). Structural equation modeling (SEM) was utilized to test between a self-esteem antecedent model (self-esteem precedes changes in social support), self-esteem consequence model (social support precedes change in self-esteem), and a reciprocal influence model. Self-esteem reliably predicted increasing levels of social support quality and network size across time. In contrast, the consequence model was not supported. The implications of this for helping adolescents to develop higher quality social support structures are discussed.
Giang, Michael T.; Wittig, Michele A.
Berry, Trimble, and Olmedo’s (1986) acculturation model was used to investigate the relationship among adolescents’ acculturation strategies, personal self-esteem, and collective self-esteem. Using data from 427 high school students, factor analysis results distinguished Collective Self-esteem Scale constructs (Luhtanen & Crocker, 1992) from both ethnic identity and outgroup orientation subscales of the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (Phinney, 1992). Subsequent results showed that: 1) both acculturation dimensions were correlated with personal and collective self-esteems, 2) integrationists shared similar levels of personal and collective self-esteems with assimilationists and/or separationists, and 3) marginalizationists generally had the lowest levels of personal and collective self-esteems. Implications are drawn for understanding acculturation among adolescents and for the utility of group-level measures of self-esteem. PMID:17087532
Pardoen, D; Bauwens, F; Tracy, A; Martin, F; Mendlewicz, J
The hypothesis of a low self-esteem in depressive patients was tested using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale in 24 recovered unipolar and 27 recovered bipolar patients, compared with a normal control group of 26 subjects matched for age and sex. The hypothesis was confirmed only for unipolars; bipolar patients presented a self-esteem score not significantly different from normal scores. Self-esteem was not related to clinical characteristics of the affective disorder, suggesting that low self-esteem may be a basic component of a depression-prone personality. The investigation of the relationship between self-esteem and social adjustment confirmed the presence of social conformism in bipolar patients and rigidly set low self-esteem in unipolar patients. These results should stimulate the evaluation of different psychotherapeutic treatments in the long-term psychosocial management of affectively ill patients.
Self-esteem can be affected by any change in health, appearance, or emotional status--change that can affect quality of life. A decrease in self-esteem is especially evident in people with urinary diversions. A review of the literature, conducted to demonstrate self-esteem problems related to this population, revealed that body image and sexuality changes related to urinary diversions are frequently discussed in the current literature but studies that focus directly on self-esteem in the urinary diversion population have not been published. However, self-esteem may be compromised in people with urinary diversions more frequently than the literature reflects. Patients with urinary diversions, whether continent or incontinent, may be at risk for self-esteem problems. Future research and exploration are needed to expand knowledge of self-esteem with regard to urinary diversions in order to further understand the issue.
DeHart, Tracy; Tennen, Howard; Armeli, Stephen; Todd, Michael; Mohr, Cynthia
A 30-day daily diary study examined the relations among implicit self-esteem, interpersonal interactions, and alcohol consumption in college students. Multilevel analyses revealed that students with low implicit self-esteem drank more on days when they experienced more negative interpersonal interactions. In contrast, students with high implicit self-esteem drank more on days when they experienced more positive interpersonal interactions. Spending time with people who were drinking mediated both the low implicit self-esteem by negative interpersonal events interaction and the high implicit self-esteem by positive interpersonal events interaction. These findings suggest that people with low implicit self-esteem may unintentionally drink as a way to regulate unfulfilled needs for acceptance. On the other hand, people with high implicit self-esteem may drink as a way to enhance positive interpersonal experiences. PMID:20161219
Fortes, Leonardo de Sousa; Cipriani, Flávia Marcele; Coelho, Fernanda Dias; Paes, Santiago Tavares; Ferreira, Maria Elisa Caputo
Objective: To evaluate the influence of self-esteem on levels of body dissatisfaction among adolescent females. Methods: A group of 397 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years were enrolled in the study. The Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) was applied to assess body dissatisfaction. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale was used to assess self-esteem. Weight, height, and skinfold thickness were also measured. These anthropometric data were controlled in the statistical analyses. Results: The multiple regression model indicated influence of "positive self-esteem" (R2=0.16; p=0.001) and "negative self-esteem" (R2=0.23; p=0.001) subscales on the BSQ scores. Univariate analysis of covariance demonstrated differences in BSQ scores (p=0.001) according to groups of self-esteem. Conclusion: It was concluded that self-esteem influenced body dissatisfaction in adolescent girls from Juiz de Fora, MG. PMID:25479855
Giang, Michael T; Wittig, Michele A
Berry, Trimble, and Olmedo's (1986) acculturation model was used to investigate the relationship among adolescents' acculturation strategies, personal self-esteem, and collective self-esteem. Using data from 427 high school students, factor analysis results distinguished Collective Self-esteem Scale constructs (Luhtanen & Crocker, 1992) from both ethnic identity and outgroup orientation subscales of the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (Phinney, 1992). Subsequent results showed that: 1) both acculturation dimensions were correlated with personal and collective self-esteems, 2) integrationists shared similar levels of personal and collective self-esteems with assimilationists and/or separationists, and 3) marginalizationists generally had the lowest levels of personal and collective self-esteems. Implications are drawn for understanding acculturation among adolescents and for the utility of group-level measures of self-esteem.
Sowislo, Julia Friederike; Orth, Ulrich
Low self-esteem and depression are strongly related, but there is not yet consistent evidence on the nature of the relation. Whereas the vulnerability model states that low self-esteem contributes to depression, the scar model states that depression erodes self-esteem. Furthermore, it is unknown whether the models are specific for depression or whether they are also valid for anxiety. We evaluated the vulnerability and scar models of low self-esteem and depression, and low self-esteem and anxiety, by meta-analyzing the available longitudinal data (covering 77 studies on depression and 18 studies on anxiety). The mean age of the samples ranged from childhood to old age. In the analyses, we used a random-effects model and examined prospective effects between the variables, controlling for prior levels of the predicted variables. For depression, the findings supported the vulnerability model: The effect of self-esteem on depression (β = -.16) was significantly stronger than the effect of depression on self-esteem (β = -.08). In contrast, the effects between low self-esteem and anxiety were relatively balanced: Self-esteem predicted anxiety with β = -.10, and anxiety predicted self-esteem with β = -.08. Moderator analyses were conducted for the effect of low self-esteem on depression; these suggested that the effect is not significantly influenced by gender, age, measures of self-esteem and depression, or time lag between assessments. If future research supports the hypothesized causality of the vulnerability effect of low self-esteem on depression, interventions aimed at increasing self-esteem might be useful in reducing the risk of depression.
Du, Hongfei; Jonas, Eva
Terror management research shows that existential terror motivates people to live up to social norms. According to terror management theory (TMT), people can achieve a sense of self-worth through compliance with social norms. However, this has not yet been empirically tested. Modesty has long been known as an important social norm in Eastern cultures, such as China, Japan, and Korea. The current research examined whether conforming to the modesty norm in response to reminders of death concerns increases self-esteem for Chinese. In Study 1, following the modesty norm (i.e., explicit self-effacement) led to decreased implicit self-esteem, however, this was only the case if mortality was salient. In Study 2, violating the modesty norm (i.e., explicit self-enhancement) increased implicit self-esteem - however - again, this was only the case when mortality was salient. These findings indicate that self-esteem cannot be maintained through compliance with the modesty norm. Implications of this research for understanding the interplay between self-esteem and social norms in terror management processes are discussed.
Guo, Shenyang; Wu, Qi; Smokowski, Paul R; Bacallao, Martica; Evans, Caroline B R; Cotter, Katie L
Positive Action is a school-based program that aims to decrease problem behaviors (e.g., violence, substance use) and increase positive behaviors (e.g., school engagement, academic achievement). Although a number of studies have shown that Positive Action successfully achieves these goals, few studies have evaluated the program's effectiveness in rural schools. Given that rural youth are at an increased risk for risky behaviors (e.g., violence, substance use), this is a critical gap in the existing Positive Action research base. The current study assesses the impact of Positive Action on change rates of self-esteem, school hassles, aggression, and internalizing symptoms in a group (N = 1246, 52% female) of ethnically/racially diverse (27% White, 23% African American, 12% mixed race/other, 8% Latino, 30% as American Indian) middle school youth (age range 9-20) located in two violent, low-income rural counties in North Carolina. One county engaged in Positive Action over the 3-year study window while the other county did not. Following multiple imputation and propensity score analysis, 4 two-level hierarchical linear models were run using each of the outcome measures as dependent variables. The results indicate that the program generates statistically significant beneficial effects for youth from the intervention county on self-esteem scores and school hassles scores. Although the program generates beneficial effects for intervention youth on the change in aggression scores, the finding is not statistically significant. The finding on the change in internalizing scores shows a non-significant detrimental effect: the youth from the comparison county have lower internalizing scores than those from the intervention county. Implications are discussed.
Lewis, Shaun; Boes, Susan R.; Chibbaro, Julie S.
This small action research study (ARS) began with a review of the literature examining the relationship of gangsta rap in regards to academic achievement, self-esteem, decision-making, identity issues and development of young African American males. The purpose of the ARS was to examine the correlation between gangsta rap and its influence on 5th…
Gulbas, Lauren E
In this article, I examine how race motivates women's decisions to undergo aesthetic rhinoplasty in Caracas, Venezuela. Through a combination of cultural domain analysis and thematic analysis of qualitative interviews, I explore how the preference for whiteness and associated facial features dovetail with the aesthetic ideals promoted by cosmetic surgeons. Rhinoplasty is offered by physicians and interpreted by patients as a resolution to body dissatisfaction and low self-esteem. The clinical ethos of objectivity established by cosmetic surgeons fails to acknowledge how perceptions of the self and body are strongly tied to racial marginalization: patients' efforts to alter the nose reveal attempts to change not only how the body looks, but how it is lived. As a result, cosmetic surgery only acts as a stop-gap measure to heighten one's self-esteem and body image.
Juffer, Femmie; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H
Do adopted children show lower self-esteem than nonadopted peers, and do transracial adoptees show lower self-esteem than same-race adoptees? Adopted children are hypothesized to be at risk of low self-esteem. They may suffer from the consequences of neglect, abuse, and malnutrition in institutions before adoption. They have to cope with their adoptive status, which often includes difficulties associated with the lack of resemblance to their adoptive parents. Additionally, transracial and international adoptees may feel less integrated into their family, resulting in low self-esteem. In a series of metaanalyses, the authors found, however, no difference in self-esteem between adoptees (N = 10,977) and nonadopted comparisons (N = 33,862) across 88 studies. This was equally true for international, domestic, and transracial adoptees. Across 18 studies including 2,198 adoptees, no differences in self-esteem were found between transracial and same-race adoptees. In contrast, in a small set of 3 studies (N = 300), adoptees showed higher levels of self-esteem than nonadopted, institutionalized children. The authors' findings may be explained by adoptees' resilience to overcome early adversity, supported by the large investment of adoptive families. Adoption can be seen as an effective intervention, leading to normative self-esteem.
Grundy, John G; Benarroch, Miriam F F; Lebarr, A Nicole; Shedden, Judith M
We provide the first high-temporal resolution account of the self-esteem implicit association test (IAT; Greenwald & Farnham, 2000) to highlight important similarities and differences between the cognitive processes corresponding to implicit valenced self-processing in high vs. low self-esteem individuals. We divided individuals into high and low self-esteem groups based on the Rosenberg self-esteem scale (Rosenberg, 1965) and administered the self-esteem IAT while recording electroencephalographic data. We show that the P2 captured group (high vs. low self-esteem) differences, the N250 and the late parietal positivity (LPP) captured differences corresponding to category pairing (self/positive vs. self/negative pairing), and the N1, P2, and P300-400 components captured interactions between self-esteem groups and whether the self was paired with positive or negative categories in the IAT. Overall, both high and low self-esteem groups were sensitive to the distinction between positive and negative information in relation to the self (me/negative generally displayed larger event-related potential amplitudes than me/positive), but for high self-esteem individuals, this difference was generally larger, earlier, and most pronounced over left-hemisphere electrodes. These electrophysiological differences may reflect differences in attentional resources devoted to teasing apart these two oppositely valenced associations. High self-esteem individuals appear to devote more automatic (early) attentional resources to strengthen the distinction between positively or negatively valenced information in relation to the self.
Froufe, M; Schwartz, C
Although experimental research has confirmed the capacity of the human cognitive system to process information that does not reach consciousness (unconscious perception), empirical evidence of the incidence of subliminal verbal messages included on audiotapes claiming to improve human resources and correct some behavioral problems is meager and inconsistent. Our study assesses the influence of "subliminal tapes" designed to increase self-esteem. Participants were randomly assigned to four experimental conditions. One group listened to a tape of music with supra- and subliminal messages; another listened to a tape of music with only subliminal messages; the third group's tape had only music, although the participants believed that it also included subliminal messages; a fourth ("waiting") group heard no tapes, but filled in the same self-esteem scales. Participants in the first three groups filled in the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale (Fitts, 1965) before and after listening to the tape for several days. All groups showed a similar pretest-posttest improvement in self-esteem (p < or = .003), except for the waiting group, which did not improve (p = .311). This implies that only a placebo effect took place. Our data are not in accordance with those obtained by other authors. We comment upon the possible reasons for these discrepancies.
Karagözoğlu, Serife; Kahve, Emine; Koç, Oznur; Adamişoğlu, Derya
This study developed a quantitative methodology to ascertain the level of self esteem and assertiveness of last year students in baccalaureate degree programs at Cumhuriyet University Nursing School, School for Health Sciences' Midwifery School, Education Faculty's Mathematics Teacher, Classroom Teacher, and Social Sciences Teacher programs and to determine if there is a correlation between self esteem and assertiveness. The research population was a total of 372 students who were in their final year of university in these programs. Sampling was not done in the research, the entire population was studied. However there was a total of 82 students who were not included in the research because of illness, absenteeism, registration on hold, who could not be found on campus or who did not want to participate in the research and who did not correctly complete the survey form. The research was conducted with total of 290 students. Total response rate was 77.9%. The data were collected using a "Personal Information Form," Stanley Coopersmith Self Esteem Inventory (SEI) and Rathus Assertiveness Schedule (RAS). Frequency distribution, t test, correlation and variance analysis were used in the analysis of the data. The results of the study were that the nursing students had the highest scores from SEI (80.64+/-15.83). Similarly the nursing students had the highest scores on the RAS (36.29+/-25.33).
Enejoh, Victor; Pharr, Jennifer; Mavegam, Bertille Octavie; Olutola, Ayodotun; Karick, Haruna; Ezeanolue, Echezona E
Although improved knowledge is often the first approach in HIV prevention for adolescents, studies have shown that despite being well informed, adolescents still engage in risky sexual behavior (RSB). Low self-esteem has been considered to be a psychological explanation for behavioral problems, but little is known about the impact of self-esteem on RSB among adolescents in Nigeria. The purpose of this study was to determine whether adolescents with high self-esteem demonstrate lower RSB compared to those with low self-esteem. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 361 adolescents in 9 secondary schools in Jos Plateau, Nigeria. The Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale was used to measure self-esteem and the Brief HIV Screener (BHS) was used to measure RSB. All data were analyzed using SPSS 21. Chi square and odds ratios were calculated to determine differences in BHS questions based on predetermined low or high self-esteem categories. Independent t-test were utilized to determine difference in mean BHS scores based on self-esteem categories. Participants were 169 male (46.8%) and 192 female (53.2%) with a mean age of 16.9. Mean self-esteem score was 27.6 with no significant difference in self-esteem scores by gender. Adolescents with low self-esteem were 1.7 times more likely to be sexually active and had a higher mean BHS scores compared to adolescents with high self-esteem. Programs aimed at reducing RSB and in-turn HIV/AIDS should consider interventions to raise adolescents' self-esteem.
Mulzac, Anica Camela
Research has shown that academic achievement among racial minority groups, particularly African Americans, and the majority Caucasian group is profoundly disproportionate. A number of variables have been shown to influence the academic achievement of students, such as stereotype threat, racial identity, and academic self-concept (Awad, 2007;…
Reviews research findings on academic self-concept, including the multidimensional character of academic self-concept, the role of frame of reference in academic self-concept formation, and the relationship between academic achievement and academic self-concept. Explores implications of this research for educational practice and suggests areas for…
Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Clark, C Brendan; Pickard, Jessica D
It has been suggested that there are two forms of narcissism: a grandiose subtype and a vulnerable subtype. Although these forms of narcissism share certain similarities, it is believed that these subtypes may differ in the domains upon which their self-esteem is based. To explore this possibility, the present study examined the associations between these narcissistic subtypes and domain-specific contingencies of self-worth. The results show that vulnerable narcissism was positively associated with contingencies of self-worth across a variety of domains. In contrast, the associations between grandiose narcissism and domain-specific contingencies of self-worth were more complex and included both positive and negative relationships. These results provide additional support for the distinction between grandiose and vulnerable narcissism by showing that the domains of contingent self-esteem associated with grandiose narcissism may be more limited in scope than those associated with vulnerable narcissism.
Fedi, Angela; Rollero, Chiara
Ambivalent sexism has many pernicious consequences. Since gender stereotypes also affect leadership roles, the present research investigated the effects of ambivalent sexism on envisioning oneself as a leader. Our studies tested the influence of sexist attitudes (toward women - Study 1 - and men - Study 2) on leadership aspiration, taking into account the interaction among ambivalent attitudes, personal characteristics (e.g. self-esteem), and group processes (e.g. level of identification with gender). Specifically, the current study used a 3 (sexism: hostile, benevolent, control) x 2 (social identification: high, low) x 2 (self-esteem: high, low) factorial design. 178 women participated in Study 1. Results showed that, although sexism was not recognised as a form of prejudice and did not trigger negative emotions, in sexist conditions high-identified women increase their leadership aspiration. In Study 2 men (N = 184) showed to recognise hostility as a form of prejudice, to experience more negative emotions, but to be not influenced in leadership aspiration. For both men and women self-esteem had a significant main effect on leadership aspiration.
Fedi, Angela; Rollero, Chiara
Ambivalent sexism has many pernicious consequences. Since gender stereotypes also affect leadership roles, the present research investigated the effects of ambivalent sexism on envisioning oneself as a leader. Our studies tested the influence of sexist attitudes (toward women – Study 1 – and men – Study 2) on leadership aspiration, taking into account the interaction among ambivalent attitudes, personal characteristics (e.g. self-esteem), and group processes (e.g. level of identification with gender). Specifically, the current study used a 3 (sexism: hostile, benevolent, control) x 2 (social identification: high, low) x 2 (self-esteem: high, low) factorial design. 178 women participated in Study 1. Results showed that, although sexism was not recognised as a form of prejudice and did not trigger negative emotions, in sexist conditions high-identified women increase their leadership aspiration. In Study 2 men (N = 184) showed to recognise hostility as a form of prejudice, to experience more negative emotions, but to be not influenced in leadership aspiration. For both men and women self-esteem had a significant main effect on leadership aspiration. PMID:27872665
Moksnes, Unni K; Espnes, Geir A
The present paper investigates possible gender and age differences on emotional states (depression and anxiety) and self-esteem as well as the association between self-esteem and emotional states. The cross-sectional sectional sample consists of 1,209 adolescents 13-18 years from public elementary and secondary schools in mid-Norway. The results showed that girls reported higher scores on state anxiety and state depression, whereas boys consistently scored higher on self-esteem in all age groups. Self-esteem was strongly and inversely associated with both state depression and state anxiety. An interaction effect of gender by self-esteem was found on state depression, where the association was stronger for girls than for boys. The associations found give support for the positive role of self-esteem in relation to adolescents' emotional health and well-being.
Liang, Yuan; Liu, Li; Tan, Xuyun; Huang, Zhenwei; Dang, Jianning; Zheng, Wenwen
The present set of studies aimed to explore the effect of self-esteem on corrupt intention and the mediating role of materialism in generating this effect. In Study 1, we used questionnaires to investigate the correlation among self-esteem, materialism, and corrupt intention. In Study 2, we manipulated self-esteem to explore the causal effect of self-esteem on materialism and corrupt intention. In Study 3, we manipulated materialism to examine whether inducing materialism can reduce the relationship between self-esteem and corrupt intention. The three studies converged to show that increased self-esteem caused a low level of materialism, which in turn decreased corrupt intention. The theoretical and practical implications of the results are discussed. PMID:27462297
Liang, Yuan; Liu, Li; Tan, Xuyun; Huang, Zhenwei; Dang, Jianning; Zheng, Wenwen
The present set of studies aimed to explore the effect of self-esteem on corrupt intention and the mediating role of materialism in generating this effect. In Study 1, we used questionnaires to investigate the correlation among self-esteem, materialism, and corrupt intention. In Study 2, we manipulated self-esteem to explore the causal effect of self-esteem on materialism and corrupt intention. In Study 3, we manipulated materialism to examine whether inducing materialism can reduce the relationship between self-esteem and corrupt intention. The three studies converged to show that increased self-esteem caused a low level of materialism, which in turn decreased corrupt intention. The theoretical and practical implications of the results are discussed.
Hu, Jingchu; Hu, Jize; Huang, Gang; Zheng, Xifu
Low levels of life satisfaction have been linked to low self-esteem and loneliness, but this association has never been tested directly in LGB (lesbian/gay/bisexual) populations. We compared 275 Chinese LGB adults to 275 demographic-matched Chinese heterosexual controls on life satisfaction, self-esteem, and loneliness. LGB adults reported lower levels of self-esteem and higher levels of loneliness than heterosexuals, but similar levels of overall life satisfaction. Self-esteem partially mediated (but did not moderate) the relationship between loneliness and life satisfaction in both groups. Hierarchical regressions indicated that demographic variables, loneliness, and self-esteem can predict life satisfaction in both LGB and heterosexual adults, but explained more variance of life satisfaction in the LGB group. Thus self-esteem and loneliness play a more important role in life satisfaction for LGB rather than heterosexual Chinese adults.
Heatherton, T F; Vohs, K D
In 2 studies, the authors used dyadic interactions to assess the influence of ego threat on likability as a function of self-esteem. In both studies, 2 naive participants engaged in a structured conversation; in half of the dyads, 1 participant received an ego threat prior to the interaction. In the 1st study, threatened high self-esteem participants were rated as less likable than were threatened low self-esteem participants. The 2nd study confirmed that ego threats are associated with decreased liking for those with high self-esteem and with increased liking for those with low self-esteem. A mediational analysis demonstrated that decreased liking among high self-esteem participants was due to being perceived as antagonistic. Study 2 also indicated that the findings could not be explained by trait levels of narcissism. These patterns are interpreted in terms of differential sensitivity to potential interpersonal rejection.
Barry, Christopher T; Frick, Paul J; Killian, Amber L
Investigated several possible models to explain the seemingly discrepant relations between self-esteem and conduct problems, as both low self-esteem and exaggerated levels of self-esteem, thought to be captured by narcissism, have been associated with aggressive and antisocial behavior. Our sample consisted of 98 nonreferred children (mean age = 11.9 years; SD = 1.68 years) recruited from public schools to oversample children at risk for severe aggressive and antisocial behavior. Results indicated that certain aspects of narcissism (i.e., those indicating a need to be evaluated well by, and obtain status over, others) were particularly predictive of maladaptive characteristics and outcomes such as low self-esteem, callous-unemotional (CU) traits, and conduct problems. In addition, the relation between narcissism and conduct problems was moderated by self-esteem level, such that children with relatively high levels of narcissism and low self-esteem showed the highest rates of conduct-problem symptoms.
Cordero, Elizabeth D
Thin-ideal internalization (TII) reflects agreement that thinness equates with beauty. TII is a risk factor for body dissatisfaction and eating pathology; this phenomenon and its correlates, however, are just beginning to be studied in Latina undergraduates. This study examined the ability of self-esteem, social support, and collectivism to predict TII in 279 Latina undergraduates. It was hypothesized that higher levels of self-esteem, social support, and collectivism would predict lower levels of TII. Cross-sectional data were analyzed using multiple regression; the model was significant, p<.01. Although both self-esteem and social support negatively correlated with thin-ideal internalization, only self-esteem accounted for a significant amount of variance. Results indicate that investigations of self-esteem as a protective factor against TII in Latina undergraduates would be fruitful, as would how self-esteem and social support affect the relationship between TII and other variables. Implications and limitations are discussed.
Udachina, Alisa; Varese, Filippo; Oorschot, Margreet; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Bentall, Richard P
The dynamics of self-esteem and paranoia were examined in 41 patients with past or current paranoia and 23 controls using questionnaires and the Experience Sampling Method (a structured diary technique). For some analyses, patients were further divided into three groups: a) individuals who believed that persecution is underserved ("poor me"; PM), b) individuals who believed that persecution is justified ("bad me"; BM), and c) remitted patients. The results revealed that PM and especially BM patients had highly unstable psychological profiles. Beliefs about deservedness of persecution fluctuated over 6 days. BM beliefs were associated with low self-esteem and depression. Measured concurrently, paranoia predicted lower self-esteem in the BM patients. Prospectively, paranoia predicted lower subsequent self-esteem in BM patients but higher subsequent self-esteem in PM patients. Our results suggest that paranoia can serve a defensive function in some circumstances. The reasons for inconsistencies in self-esteem research in relation to paranoia are discussed.
Mandara, J; Murray, C B
This study examined the effects of marital status, family income, and family functioning on African American adolescents' self-esteem. One hundred sixteen adolescents participated, 64% of whom were female. Compared with boys with nonmarried parents, boys with married parents had higher overall self-esteem, even when family income and family functioning were controlled. Parental marital status had no effect on girls' self-esteem. Family functioning was a very strong predictor of self-esteem for both sexes. However, family relational factors were more important to girls' self-esteem, whereas structural and growth factors were more important for boys. It was concluded that African American adolescent boys with nonmarried parents are at risk for developing low self-esteem compared with other African American adolescents, but a more controlled and structured environment may buffer the effects of having nonmarried parents.
Suliman, Wafika A; Halabi, Jehad
This study aimed at exploring the existing predominant critical thinking disposition(s) of baccalaureate nursing students and the relationship among their critical thinking (CT), self-esteem (SE), and state anxiety (SA). Cross-sectional correlational design was utilized to achieve the said aim. A voluntary convenient sample consisted of first year (n=105) and fourth year (n=60) nursing students. The California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory were used for data collection after their translation to Arabic language and test for validity and reliability. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze data. Results showed that both groups overall CT was marginal indicating no serious deficiency, their SE was average, and their SA was relatively high; they reported analyticity, open-mindedness, systematicity, inquisitiveness, and truth seeking as predominant critical thinking dispositions with no significant difference between them. However, the two groups were weak with significant difference on CT self-confidence (t=-2.053, df=136.904, p=.042) with beginning students reporting poorer level of CT self-confidence. Significant correlation results showed that critical thinking is positively correlated with SE, negatively correlated with SA, and SE is negatively correlated with SA; however, all correlations were actually quite low.
Zhai, Hui; Yang, Yanjie; Sui, Hong; Wang, Wenbo; Chen, Lu; Qiu, Xiaohui; Yang, Xiuxian; Qiao, Zhengxue; Wang, Lin; Zhu, Xiongzhao; Yang, Jiarun
Background Although self-esteem is related to problematic drinking, the mechanisms by which it affects drinking remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine whether coping mechanisms mediate the relationship between self-esteem and problematic drinking among Chinese men and women with alcohol use disorders and to recommend appropriate interventions for drinking problems. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, China. A sample of 5,689 community residents was screened, and 517 male and 172 female problematic drinkers were chosen to participate in this study. A self-esteem scale, a coping questionnaire and an alcohol use disorder identification test were completed in order to assess participants’ self-esteem, coping mechanisms and alcohol use disorders, respectively. Participants’ socio-demographic data were also gathered at this stage. The resulting data were examined via descriptive statistics, correlations and bootstrap analyses. Results Lower self-esteem levels were related to problematic drinking, and there were no gender differences in the relationship between self-esteem and problematic drinking. A relationship between low self-esteem and negative coping was observed only in men. Negative coping thus mediated the relationship between self-esteem and problematic drinking among men, but this was not the case for women. Positive coping did not mediate the relationship between self-esteem and problematic drinking among the participants, regardless of gender. Conclusions Self-esteem and coping strategies are correlated among problematic drinkers. In addition, there are gender differences in the manners in which negative coping mediates the relationship between self-esteem and problematic drinking. Problematic drinking interventions directed at males should simultaneously address low self-esteem and negative coping. PMID:26451595
Geukes, Katharina; Nestler, Steffen; Hutteman, Roos; Dufner, Michael; Küfner, Albrecht C P; Egloff, Boris; Denissen, Jaap J A; Back, Mitja D
Different theoretical conceptualizations characterize grandiose narcissists by high, yet fragile self-esteem. Empirical evidence, however, has been inconsistent, particularly regarding the relationship between narcissism and self-esteem fragility (i.e., self-esteem variability). Here, we aim at unraveling this inconsistency by disentangling the effects of two theoretically distinct facets of narcissism (i.e., admiration and rivalry) on the two aspects of state self-esteem (i.e., level and variability). We report on data from a laboratory-based and two field-based studies (total N = 596) in realistic social contexts, capturing momentary, daily, and weekly fluctuations of state self-esteem. To estimate unbiased effects of narcissism on the level and variability of self-esteem within one model, we applied mixed-effects location scale models. Results of the three studies and their meta-analytical integration indicated that narcissism is positively linked to self-esteem level and variability. When distinguishing between admiration and rivalry, however, an important dissociation was identified: Admiration was related to high (and rather stable) levels of state self-esteem, whereas rivalry was related to (rather low and) fragile self-esteem. Analyses on underlying processes suggest that effects of rivalry on self-esteem variability are based on stronger decreases in self-esteem from one assessment to the next, particularly after a perceived lack of social inclusion. The revealed differentiated effects of admiration and rivalry explain why the analysis of narcissism as a unitary concept has led to the inconsistent past findings and provide deeper insights into the intrapersonal dynamics of grandiose narcissism governing state self-esteem. (PsycINFO Database Record
Theunissen, Stephanie C. P. M.; Rieffe, Carolien; Netten, Anouk P.; Briaire, Jeroen J.; Soede, Wim; Kouwenberg, Maartje; Frijns, Johan H. M.
Objective Sufficient self-esteem is extremely important for psychosocial functioning. It is hypothesized that hearing-impaired (HI) children have lower levels of self-esteem, because, among other things, they frequently experience lower language and communication skills. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare HI children's self-esteem across different domains with those of normal hearing (NH) children and to investigate the influence of communication, type of education, and audiological characteristics. Methods This large (N = 252) retrospective, multicenter study consisted of two age- and gender-matched groups: 123 HI children and 129 NH controls (mean age = 11.8 years). Self-reports were used to measure self-esteem across four domains: perceived social acceptance by peers, perceived parental attention, perceived physical appearance, and global self-esteem. Results HI children experienced lower levels of self-esteem regarding peers and parents than NH controls. Particularly HI children who attended special education for the deaf were at risk, even after correcting for their language development and intelligence. Yet, levels of global self-esteem and self-esteem involving physical appearance in HI children equalled those of NH controls. Furthermore, younger age at implantation and longer duration of having cochlear implants (CIs) were related to higher levels of self-esteem. Conclusion HI children experience lower levels of self-esteem in the social domains. Yet, due to the heterogeneity of the HI population, there is high variability in levels of self-esteem. Discussion Clinicians must always be aware of the risk and protective factors related to self-esteem in order to help individual patients reach their full potential. PMID:24722329
Emam, Mahmoud Mohamed; Abu-Serei, Usama Saad
The study investigated whether family functioning can predict the self-concept and self-esteem of normally achieving (NA) and at risk for learning disabilities (LD) students in Oman regardless of parent education level and gender status. A total of 259 elementary school students were selected from schools in the main districts of Muscat, the…
Rasmussen, Michael K; Pidgeon, Aileen M
The current study investigated relationships between dispositional mindfulness, self-esteem, and social anxiety using self-report measures. Correlational data were collected from 205 Australian undergraduate students who completed the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS). Mindfulness significantly predicted high levels of self-esteem and low levels of social anxiety. Mediation analysis supported the role of self-esteem as a partial mediator between mindfulness and social anxiety. Clinical implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.
Akdemir, Devrim; Çak, Tuna; Aslan, Cihan; Aydos, Büşra Sultan; Nalbant, Kevser; Çuhadaroğlu-Çetin, Füsun
In the literature self-esteem is found to be lower in clinically referred adolescents compared to adolescents without any psychiatric disorder. The aim of this study is to examine self-esteem and associated socio-demographical and psychological factors in clinically referred adolescents in Turkey. Three hundred forty-nine adolescents aged between 12 and 18 years admitted to the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry with a psychiatric complaint were enrolled. Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), Parenting Style Scale (PSS) and Sense of Identity Assessment Form (SIAF) were used for the evaluation. Self-esteem was lower in: girls, adolescents without siblings, living in non-nuclear families, with a past suicide attempt, and with history of a non-suicidal self-injurious behavior (NSSI). Self-esteem was negatively correlated with identity confusion on SIAF and positively correlated with acceptance/involvement on PSS. Significant predictors of self-esteem were gender, presence of a sibling, history of a NSSI and SIAF scores. Interactions between self-esteem and gender, psychiatric symptoms, parenting and identity development are complex in clinically referred adolescents. Further elucidation of the mechanisms through which these characteristics modify self-esteem will be necessary to guide families and clinicians to help adolescents to maintain high self-esteem levels.
Curvis, William; Simpson, Jane; Hampson, Natalie
Self-esteem is potentially a key factor in psychological and psychosocial well-being following acquired brain injury (ABI). The current review aimed to identify, synthesise and appraise all existing quantitative empirical studies on predictors or correlates of self-esteem following ABI in adulthood. In total, 27 papers met the inclusion criteria. A range of clinical factors were related to self-esteem after ABI, including the degree of physical and functional impairment. It is unclear if cognitive impairment is related to high or low self-esteem. Additionally, psychological variables such as coping styles, adjustment and perception of problems or rehabilitation are related to self-esteem following ABI. Depression is strongly associated with low self-esteem, alongside anxiety, psychological distress and quality of life. Limitations of the available research and recommendations for clinical practice and further research are discussed. In particular, there is a need to engage with contemporary theoretical understandings of self-esteem, integrated with and supported by developments in how self-esteem is conceptualised and measured over time in an ABI population. The findings of the review suggest that self-esteem is an important factor to consider following ABI, particularly in the context of developing individualised, formulation-driven rehabilitation interventions that take into account biological, social and psychological factors.
Robins, Richard W.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Widaman, Keith F.; Conger, Rand D.
The present study examined the relation between self-esteem and temperament in a sample of 646 Mexican-American early adolescents (mean age=10.4). Self-esteem was assessed using child reports on the Self-Description Questionnaire II—Short (SDQII-S; Marsh et al., 2005) and temperament was assessed using child and mother reports on the revised Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire (Ellis & Rothbart, 2001). Findings show that: (a) early adolescents with high self-esteem show higher levels of Effortful Control but, contrary to findings in adult samples, do not differ from low self-esteem adolescents in Negative Affectivity; (b) low self-esteem is associated with Depression; and (c) low self-esteem is associated with Aggression. These findings replicated for boys and girls, two measures of self-esteem, and child and mother reports of temperament. The present study contributes to an emerging understanding of the link between self-esteem and temperament, and provides much needed data on the nature of self-esteem in ethnic minority populations. PMID:19740537
Duchesne, Annie-Pier; Dion, Jacinthe; Lalande, Daniel; Bégin, Catherine; Émond, Claudie; Lalande, Gilles; McDuff, Pierre
This brief report tests the mediating effect of self-esteem in the relationship between body dissatisfaction and symptoms of depression and anxiety. A sample of 409 adolescents (females = 58.4%) aged between 14 and 18 years completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Contour Drawing Rating Scale, the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Overall, results for the indirect effects analysis were significant for both anxiety and depression, which confirmed the mediating role of self-esteem. Thus, a negative perception of one's body image has the effect of lowering self-esteem, which in turn increases psychological distress.
Onoda, Keiichi; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Nakashima, Ken'ichiro; Nittono, Hiroshi; Yoshimura, Shinpei; Yamawaki, Sigeto; Yamaguchi, Shuhei; Ura, Mitsuhiro
According to sociometer theory, self-esteem serves as a barometer of the extent to which individuals are socially included or excluded by others. We hypothesized that trait self-esteem would be related to social pain responsiveness, and we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to experimentally investigate this potential relationship. Participants (n = 26) performed a cyberball task, a computerized game of catch during which the participants were excluded from the game. Participants then rated the degree of social pain experienced during both inclusion in and exclusion from the game. Individuals with lower trait self-esteem reported increased social pain relative to individuals with higher trait self-esteem, and such individuals also demonstrated a greater degree of dorsal anterior cingulate cortex activation. A psychophysiological interaction analysis revealed a positive connectivity between the dorsal anterior cingulate and prefrontal cortices for the lower trait self-esteem group, and a corresponding negative connectivity for the higher trait self-esteem group. Heightened dorsal anterior cortex activity and a corresponding connection with the prefrontal cortex might be one possible explanation for the greater levels of social pain observed experienced by individuals with low trait self-esteem.
Sola-Carmona, Juan Jesús; López-Liria, Remedios; Padilla-Góngora, David; Daza, María Teresa; Aguilar-Parra, José Manuel; Salido-Campos, María Ángeles
The objective was to examine the connection of the personal, social and family context, educational variables with the levels of anxiety, subjective psychological well-being and self-esteem in a sample of 61 parents of blind children. Results suggest that parents present less anxiety when they have only one child, possess a technical degree, receive remuneration for their work, their child's visual impairment is not progressive, their knowledge about their child's disability is appropriate, and their leisure and labour possibilities have not been affected. Their psychological well-being is higher when they are married in first nuptials and perceive that their health is good. Their well-being is negatively related to reduced leisure, and self-esteem is lower when labour possibilities have been affected. In order for these families to achieve a more pleasant life, with greater psychological well-being, lower anxiety and higher self-esteem, professionals should be aware of the aspects with a negative impact.
Sola-Carmona, Juan Jesús; Padilla-Góngora, David; Daza, María Teresa; Aguilar-Parra, José Manuel; Salido-Campos, María Ángeles
The objective was to examine the connection of the personal, social and family context, educational variables with the levels of anxiety, subjective psychological well-being and self-esteem in a sample of 61 parents of blind children. Results suggest that parents present less anxiety when they have only one child, possess a technical degree, receive remuneration for their work, their child’s visual impairment is not progressive, their knowledge about their child’s disability is appropriate, and their leisure and labour possibilities have not been affected. Their psychological well-being is higher when they are married in first nuptials and perceive that their health is good. Their well-being is negatively related to reduced leisure, and self-esteem is lower when labour possibilities have been affected. In order for these families to achieve a more pleasant life, with greater psychological well-being, lower anxiety and higher self-esteem, professionals should be aware of the aspects with a negative impact. PMID:27603670
Blankenship, Tashauna L.; O’Neill, Meagan; Ross, Alleyne; Bell, Martha Ann
The contributions of working memory and recollection to academic achievement are typically examined separately and most often with children who have learning difficulties. This study is the first to observe both types of memory in the same study and in typically developing children. Academic achievement focused on standardized assessments of math fluency, calculation, reading fluency, and passage comprehension. As noted in previous studies, working memory was associated with each assessed measure of academic achievement. Recollection, however, specifically contributed to math fluency and passage comprehension. Thus, recollection should be considered alongside working memory in studies of academic achievement. PMID:26644761
Jones, Lara L; Norville, Gregory A; Wright, A Michelle
Across two studies, we investigated the influence of narcissism and self-esteem along with gender on phenomenological ratings across the four subscales of the Autobiographical Memory Questionnaire (AMQ; impact, recollection, rehearsal, and belief). Memory cues varied in valence (positive vs. negative) and agency (agentic vs. communal). In Study 2, we used different memory cues reflecting these four Valence by Agency conditions and additionally investigated retrieval times for the autobiographical memories (AMs). Results were consistent with the agency model of narcissism [Campbell, W. K., Brunell, A. B., & Finkel, E. J. (2006). Narcissism, interpersonal self-regulation, and romantic relationships: An agency model approach. In E. J. Finkel & K. D. Vohs (Eds.), Self and relationships: Connecting intrapersonal and interpersonal processes. New York, NY: Guilford], which characterises narcissists as being more concerned with agentic (self-focused) rather than communal (other-focused) positive self-relevant information. Narcissism predicted greater phenomenology across the four subscales for the positive-agentic memories (Study 1: clever; Study 2: attractive, talented) as well as faster memory retrieval times. Narcissism also predicted greater recollection and faster retrieval times for the negative-communal AMs (Study 1: rude; Study 2: annoying, dishonest). In contrast, self-esteem predicted greater phenomenology and faster retrieval times for the positive-communal AMs (Study 1: cooperative; Study 2: romantic, sympathetic). In both studies, results of LIWC analyses further differentiated between narcissism and self-esteem in the content (word usage) of the AMs.
Bevel, Raymona King
The purpose of the research was to determine the effects of academic optimism on student academic achievement through measuring the individual and collective effects of academic emphasis, collective efficacy, and faculty trust in clients. Data for this study were obtained from the School Academic Optimism Scale and the reading section of the…
Glass, Kerrie; Flory, Kate; Martin, Amber; Hankin, Benjamin L
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common child and adolescent disorder that is associated with negative outcomes (e.g., emotional and behavioral problems, substance use) and is often comorbid with Conduct Problems (CP). Research findings are mixed as to whether youth with ADHD alone or comorbid ADHD/CP suffer from low self-esteem. Research has also shown links between low self-esteem and ADHD (alone and with CP) with substance use; yet, no research has examined the links between self-esteem and substance use in adolescents with ADHD and CP. The current study examined the relation between ADHD with and without comorbid CP and self-esteem, and whether self-esteem moderated the relation between ADHD and ADHD/CP with substance use among adolescents. We hypothesized that adolescents with comorbid ADHD/CP would experience lower self-esteem than adolescents with ADHD alone or with neither disorder and that self-esteem would moderate the association between ADHD, CP, and substance use. Participants were 62 adolescents who completed the laboratory-based study with a parent. Results suggested that adolescents with comorbid ADHD and CP had significantly lower self-esteem than adolescents with ADHD alone or neither disorder. Self-esteem was not significantly different for adolescents with ADHD alone versus those in the control group. There was one marginally significant interaction between ADHD and self-esteem predicting substance use, such that individuals with comorbid ADHD/CP who also had low self-esteem tended to use more substances. Results have implications for treatments that target adolescents with ADHD and comorbid CP, as these adolescents are at risk for many deleterious outcomes.
Dryer, Rachel; Henning, Marcus A.; Tyson, Graham A.; Shaw, Rosemary
This study examined whether: (1) the non-academic constructs of psychological well-being, motivation to learn and quality of life (QOL) explained the variance in the academic achievement of students with disability; and (2) students with a mental health disability (MHD) differed from students with other disability on academic achievement and on…
Cizmeli, Ceylan; Lobel, Marci; Franasiak, Jason; Pastore, Lisa M.
Objective To measure the level of distress and its relationship with other psychologic factors in women with diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) who participated in a fragile X genetics study. Design Longitudinal data analyzed with structural equation modeling. Setting Four U.S. private and academic fertility centers. Patient(s) Sixty-two infertile patients with DOR. Intervention(s) None. Main Outcome Measure(s) Fertility Problem Inventory, Coping Scale for Infertile Couples, Rosenberg Self-Esteem, Health Orientation Scale. Result(s) Nineteen percent had low fertility distress, 56% had average fertility distress, and 24% had high fertility distress. Thirty-six percent self-reported a “favorable” or “very favorable” emotional response to potentially being a fragile X carrier (termed “emotions”), 53% were “ambivalent,” and 11% had an unfavorable reaction. Three months after learning that they were not a carrier, these percentages were 91%, 9%, and 0%, respectively. Emotions at this second time point were significantly more positive than at pretesting. At baseline, higher self-esteem was a significant predictor of reduced fertility distress both directly and indirectly through emotions. Fertility distress was not associated with coping. Self-esteem, fertility distress, pretesting emotions, and coping were unrelated to posttesting emotions. Conclusion(s) The potential of having an explanation for one’s DOR condition may have a beneficial impact on women’s psychologic states during the process of genetic testing, and this appeared to be especially true for women with higher self-esteem. Psychologic interventions targeted to women with low self-esteem may reduce distress and improve reactions to genetic testing. PMID:23498890
Kristjansson, Alfgeir Logi; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Allegrante, John P.; Helgason, Asgeir R.
Objectives: To examine the association between health behavior indicators, school contentment, and academic achievement. Methods: Structural equation modeling with 5810 adolescents. Results: Our model explained 36% of the variance in academic achievement and 24% in school contentment. BMI and sedentary lifestyle were negatively related to school…
Lawrence, A. S. Arul; Vimala, A.
The present study School Environment and Academic Achievement of standard IX students was probed to find the relationship between School Environment and Academic Achievement of standard IX students. Data for the study were collected using self-made School Environment Scale (SES). The investigator used stratified random sampling technique for…
Shropshire, Delia F. B.
The purpose of the study was to determine to what extent teaching style relates to third grade African American male academic achievement. The problem in this study addressed the factors affecting the academic achievement of the African American third grade male. This problem led the researcher to investigate the teaching styles of the…
Hannigan, William J.
Despite the research indicating a direct relationship between physical fitness and academic achievement, physical fitness levels of students are decreasing in many schools, along with opportunities for physical fitness. The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the relationship between physical fitness and academic achievement, as…
Katsiyannis, Antonis; Ryan, Joseph B.; Zhang, Dalun; Spann, Anastasia
For well over a century, behavioral researchers have attempted to understand the relation between juvenile delinquency and academic achievement. The authors review current literature pertaining to academic achievement and its effect on delinquency. While researchers have not yet been able to establish a direct causal relation between these two…
Niia, Anna; Almqvist, Lena; Brunnberg, Elinor; Granlund, Mats
This study shows that students, teachers, and parents in Swedish schools ascribe differing meanings and significance to students' participation in school in relation to academic achievement. Students see participation as mainly related to social interaction and not academic achievement, whilst teachers view students' participation as more closely…
Academic achievement in adolescence is a key determinant of future educational and occupational success. Friends play an important role in the educational process. They provide support and resources and can both encourage and discourage academic achievement. As a result, the friends adolescents make may help to maintain and exacerbate inequality…
Lawrence, Arul A. S.; Lawrence, John A.
Personality is the man. The successful living of an individual, as a man, depends to a large extent on the academic achievement of that individual, as a student. This article attempts to find out personality type, academic achievement of secondary school students and relationship between them by selecting a sample of 300 secondary school students…
Schmitt, Sara A.; Finders, Jennifer K.; McClelland, Megan M.
Research Findings: The present study investigated the direct effects of residential mobility on children's inhibitory control and academic achievement during the preschool year. It also explored fall inhibitory control and academic skills as mediators linking residential mobility and spring achievement. Participants included 359 preschool children…
Schmitt, Sara A.; Finders, Jennifer K.; McClelland, Megan M.
The present study investigated the direct effects of residential mobility on children's inhibitory control and academic achievement during the preschool year. It also explored fall inhibitory control and academic skills as mediators linking residential mobility and spring achievement. Participants included 359 preschool children (49% female)…
This study examined the influence of motivation on academic achievement. The theoretical rationale for the study is grounded in bridging two influential yet isolated literatures of motivation: goal setting theory and achievement goal theory. Although it is clear that academic performance should be influenced by assigned learning goals,…
Savasci, Havva Sebile; Tomul, Ekber
The educational resources of schools play an important role in order to diminish the effect of socioeconomic features on academic achievement, and create equal opportunities for students. In this sense, it is highly crucial to investigate the relationship between the educational resources of schools and the academic achievement of students. This…
Karagöl, Ibrahim; Bekmezci, Sinan
The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between academic achievements and critical thinking dispositions of teacher candidates in Faculty of Education and to find out whether critical thinking dispositions and academic achievements scores of teacher candidates differ according to different variables. The population consists of the…
Gajda, Aleksandra; Karwowski, Maciej; Beghetto, Ronald A.
This article reports on a meta-analysis of 120 studies (total N = 52,578; 782 effects) examining the relationship between creativity and academic achievement in research conducted since the 1960s. Average correlation between creativity and academic achievement was r = 0.22, 95% CI [0.19, 0.24]. An analysis of moderators revealed that this…
Räty, Lena; Gustafsson, Barbro
This study identifies emotions in patients with epilepsy as a result of confirming and disconfirming healthcare experiences. A discussion of emotions as a motive for patients' goal-directed actions was a further aim of this study. The critical incident method was used for data collection. Emotions occurring in confirming and disconfirming healthcare encounters were analyzed using the Belief-Desire Theory of Emotions and were categorized as basic, complex, or self-evaluating. Confirming encounters aroused emotions like hope, a feeling of security, joy, relief, and pride, while disconfirming encounters aroused emotions like despair, fear, unrest, resignation, shame, and guilt. The emotions identified in the healthcare encounters were recognized as motives for action. An emotion such as a feeling of security aroused a desire in the patients to strengthen their positive self and motivated them to have a constructive and sympathetic attitude toward the healthcare experience. An emotion such as anger caused patients to strive to maintain their self-respect either by avoiding difficult situations and ignoring the problem (patients with a low self-esteem) or by trying to re-create a positive self-image (patients with a high self-esteem). Healthcare encounters between patient and caregiver considerably affect the patient's emotional status and thereby his or her well-being. The importance of establishing healthcare encounters that evoke positive emotions that strengthen patients' resources must be addressed in future nursing care.
Høigaard, Rune; Kovač, Velibor Bobo; Øverby, Nina Cecilie; Haugen, Tommy
This study investigated the effects of proximal and distal constructs on adolescent's academic achievement through self-efficacy. Participants included 482 ninth- and tenth- grade Norwegian students who completed a questionnaire designed to assess school-goal orientations, organizational citizenship behavior, academic self-efficacy, and academic achievement. The results of a bootstrapping technique used to analyze relationships between the constructs indicated that school-goal orientations and organizational citizenship predicted academic self-efficacy. Furthermore, school-goal orientation, organizational citizenship, and academic self-efficacy explained 46% of the variance in academic achievement. Mediation analyses revealed that academic self-efficacy mediated the effects of perceived task goal structure, perceived ability structure, civic virtue, and sportsmanship on adolescents' academic achievements. The results are discussed in reference to current scholarship, including theories underlying our hypothesis. Practical implications and directions for future research are suggested.
Fortin, Joseph A.; Sesi, Maher S.
This experiment tested the hypotheses that interpersonal dependence would be an inverse function of the individual's chronic and situational levels of self-esteem, and that interpersonal attraction would be an inverse function of the individual's induced/situational level of self-esteem, but would be unaffected by her chronic level. Subjects were…
Zevin, Dale; McPherson, Carole
This book is a 10-lesson module for grades 5-8, designed to increase students' awareness of self-esteem as a dynamic, ever-changing component in their lives. Beginning with a "Full Esteem Ahead" lesson to help students identify high and low self-esteem behaviors, this module gives teachers specific instructional strategies for guiding students…
Medora, Nilufer P.; And Others
Administered Dean Romanticism Scale and Bachman Self-Esteem Scale to 121 pregnant adolescents (ages 12-21). Found that two variables were significantly related to feelings of romanticism: adoption considerations and whether adolescent planned to have child with the baby's father. Two variables were significantly related to self-esteem: incidence…
Kahng, Sang K.; Mowbray, Carol T.
A positive coping style can be critical to successful rehabilitation of psychiatric consumers. Using structural equation modeling, this study examined the relationships among consumers' psychological characteristics, self-esteem, and behaviors, and the role of self-esteem in mediating the relationships between psychological characteristics and…
Bolognini, Monique; And Others
A longitudinal study of a general population (n=219; M age 12, 13, and 14), was carried out between 1990 and 1993 over 3 years in Lausanne (Switzerland). Sought information on global changes in self-esteem during early adolescence, ways in which young people perceive themselves, differences between boys and girls regarding self-esteem, and…
Vacek, Kimberly R.; Coyle, Laura D.; Vera, Elizabeth M.
This study examined hope, optimism, self-esteem, social support, stress, and indices of subjective well-being (SWB) in 137 low-income, urban, ethnic minority adolescents. Hope, optimism, and self-esteem were significant predictors of SWB indices, but stress predicted only 1 SWB index: negative affect. No moderators of stress and negative affect…
Offers several definitions of self-esteem and describes some techniques for adults to use to help develop children's and adolescents' self-esteem. These techniques include addressing children by name, using movement games, appropriately praising children, setting clear limits, acknowledging children's feelings, using specific criticism, and…
This working paper explores current thinking about self-esteem in adolescent girls in a pluralistic or multicultural society. A large percentage of current discussion and research on gender, adolescence, and self-esteem overlooks the diversity among females and neglects to analyze how various identities interweave with gender and strongly…
Describes issues of self-concept and self-esteem that arise when people find themselves living in a cross-cultural environment. Discusses Western definition of self-concept and other self-concept models. Discusses self-esteem and integration and adjustment as it relates to bicultural persons. (ABL)
The research of this author indicates that the development of high self-esteem (defined as the good-bad dimension of self-concept) is associated with (1) acceptance, (2) clearly defined limits and moderately high goals, and (3) respectful treatment. Such factors as status, income, and education are only related to high self-esteem if they are a…
Menon, Madhavi; Tobin, Desiree D.; Corby, Brooke C.; Menon, Meenakshi; Hodges, Ernest V. E.; Perry, David G.
Two hypotheses--high self-esteem leads children to act on antisocial cognitions (disposition-activating hypothesis) and high self-esteem leads children to rationalize antisocial conduct (disposition-rationalizing hypothesis)--were investigated in two longitudinal studies. In Study 1 (N = 189; mean age = 11.1 years), antisocial behavior was…
Van Damme, Lore; Colins, Olivier F; Vanderplasschen, Wouter
Detained minors display substantial mental health needs. This study focused on two features (psychopathology and self-esteem) that have received considerable attention in the literature and clinical work, but have rarely been studied simultaneously in detained youths. The aims of this study were to examine gender differences in psychiatric disorders and clusters of self-esteem, and to test the hypothesis that the cluster of adolescents with lower (versus higher) levels of self-esteem have higher rates of psychiatric disorders. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders was assessed in 440 Belgian, detained adolescents using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-IV. Self-esteem was assessed using the Self-perception Profile for Adolescents. Model-based cluster analyses were performed to identify youths with lower and/or higher levels of self-esteem across several domains. Girls have higher rates for most psychiatric disorders and lower levels of self-esteem than boys. A higher number of clusters was identified in boys (four) than girls (three). Generally, the cluster of adolescents with lower (versus higher) levels of self-esteem had a higher prevalence of psychiatric disorders. These results suggest that the detection of low levels of self-esteem in adolescents, especially girls, might help clinicians to identify a subgroup of detained adolescents with the highest prevalence of psychopathology.
Portes, Pedro R.; Zady, Madelon F.
Development of self-esteem tends to become stable in middle adolescence for mainstream groups, but relatively little is known about self-esteem development of individuals in groups undergoing cultural adaptation, such as Spanish-speaking adolescents. The idea that immigrant students (voluntary minorities) are alike in many psychological and social…
Sanchez, Francisco J.; Vilain, Eric
The fear of experiencing discrimination often provokes symptoms of psychological distress. One coping resource is positive identification with one's social group--known as collective self-esteem. This preliminary study investigated whether collective self-esteem was related to fears regarding a transsexual identity and psychological distress among…
Wild, Lauren G.; Flisher, Alan J.; Lombard, Carl
This study aimed to disentangle the influence of depression and self-esteem on suicidal behaviour in adolescence. Grades 8 and 11 students in Cape Town, South Africa (n=939) completed questionnaires assessing suicidal ideation and behaviour, depression, and self-esteem with respect to family, peers, school, sports/athletics, body image and global…
Bush, Stephanie I.; And Others
Undergraduate adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) (n=57) were compared with children of nonalcoholic parents (n=100) on depression, self-esteem, and attributional style. ACOAs were found to have higher depression scores and lower self-esteem and were more likely to have a depressive attributional style. (SLD)
Shen, Yu-Pei; Armstrong, Stephen A.
The effectiveness of group sandtray therapy was examined using a pretest-posttest control group design with young adolescent girls (n = 37) identified as having low self-esteem. A split-plot analysis of variance (SPANOVA) revealed statistically significant differences between participants in the treatment and control groups in self-esteem on five…
Phares, Vicky; Fields, Sherecce; Watkins-Clay, M. Monica; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Han, Sena
Self-esteem and perceived competence have only been explored minimally in family studies with ethnically diverse samples. The current study explores self-esteem and perceived competence in a sample of adolescents, their mothers, and their fathers from three racial/ ethnic groups: African American, Hispanic/Latino/Latina, and Caucasian. Results…
Phares, Vicky; Fields, Sherecce; Watkins-Clay, M. Monica; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Han, Sena
Self-esteem and perceived competence have only been explored minimally in family studies with ethnically diverse samples. The current study explores self-esteem and perceived competence in a sample of adolescents, their mothers, and their fathers from three racial/ethnic groups: African American, Hispanic/Latino/Latina, and Caucasian. Results show…
This study investigated the mediating role of adolescents' global self-esteem, based on the relationship between adolescents' mother or father attachment and their career indecision; as well as the mediating role of adolescents' career indecision on the relationship between mother or father attachment and self-esteem. Two hundred and forty-one…
Passmore, Nola L.; Fogarty, Gerard J.; Bourke, Carolyn J.; Baker-Evans, Sandra F.
Adult adoptees (n=100) and nonadoptees (n=100) were compared with regard to self-esteem, identity processing style, and parental bonding. Although some differences were found with regard to self-esteem, maternal care, and maternal overprotection, these differences were qualified by reunion status such that only reunited adoptees differed…
Abood, Doris A.; Conway, Terry L.
Study examined relationships between self-esteem, health values, specific health behaviors, and general practice of wellness behaviors in Navy personnel. Lifestyle surveys indicated health values predicted specific health behaviors and general practice of wellness behaviors. After controlling for health values, self-esteem predicted general…
Arslan, Coskun; Hamarta, Erdal; Uslu, Mustafa
The current study used a survey model to analyze 306 university students to investigate relationship between life satisfaction, self-esteem and conflict communication. Data were collected from the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, the Satisfaction with Life Scale and Conflict Communication Scale. Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients were…
Sigward, Timothy M.; And Others
This study was conducted to examine the relationships between parental styles and the components of self-esteem that correspond to Damon and Hart's conceptualization of the self. Specifically, high levels of both parental control and parent acceptance were hypothesized to be positively related to self-esteem. Undergraduate students (N=225) rated…
Fedorenko, Marina V.; Bykova, Svetlana S.
The relevance of the topic is due to the need of self-correction of senior preschoolers. Adequate self-esteem of preschoolers will give us an opportunity to prepare them for school more effectively, as well as to create some positive character traits. The preschool age is the initial period of development of a child's self-esteem. This is the most…
Improving self-esteem, dietary habits, and physical activity is essential for long-term success in childhood obesity prevention. The aim is to evaluate the effects of a healthy living promotion program, Healthy Kids-Houston, on BMI, dietary habits, self-esteem, and physical activity among minority c...
Griffin-Shirley, Nora; Nes, Sandra L.
This article reports on a study of self-esteem and empathy among 71 students with visual impairments and 88 sighted students. No significant difference was found between the two groups of students in their levels of self esteem, empathy toward others, and bonding with pets.
Ferrari, Joseph R.; Stevens, Edward B.; Legler, Raymond; Jason, Leonard A.
Hopefulness remains unclear in relation to aspects of self-control and self-esteem among adults in substance abuse recovery. The present study explored the relationship between dispositional hope (agency and pathway) with self-esteem (self-liking, self-competency, and self-confidence) and self-regulation (impulse control and self-discipline),…
Jaffee, Lynn; Ricker, Sherri
The relationship between activity and positive self-esteem in girls 12 to 17 years of age was explored by this study. The primary goal was to determine if the positive relationship between physical activity and positive self-esteem which exists for women also exists for girls. It was also hoped that insight would be gained regarding the factors…
Gianini, Loren M.; Smith, Jane Ellen
The purpose of the current study was to examine the eating behavior, self-esteem, and social anxiety of restrained and non-restrained eaters exposed to an interpersonal stressor. Sixty female undergraduate students completed questionnaires and took part in a stressor and taste test. Results indicated that self-esteem was not predictive of eating…
Coleman, Katherine; Mills, Bethany
This psychoeducational counselling group is designed to explore the many facets of the emerging female adolescent identity and foster a high level of self-esteem. According to Powell (2004) adolescence is a time, and even more so for females, which can be marked by many identity conflicts and low levels of self-esteem. As such, this 14 week…
Background: This was a quantitative study to measure the prevalence low self-esteem in an intellectually disabled forensic population. The dependent variables used were the adapted six-item Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the adapted Evaluative Beliefs Scale. It had a repeated measures design with independent variables including consideration of…
Bowles, Terence V.
Social skills training is a long-standing intervention for adolescents with social anxiety, while self-esteem is often ignored. However, there is little evidence suggesting that those with social anxiety require social skills training or interventions associated with self-esteem. The aim of the research was to investigate whether social skills and…
Kong, Feng; You, Xuqun
This study examined both the mediation effects of loneliness and self-esteem for the relationship between social support and life satisfaction. Three hundred and eighty nine Chinese college students, ranging in age from 17 to 25 (M = 20.39), completed the emotional and social loneliness scale, the self-esteem scale, the satisfaction with life…
This study is an attempt to explore the relationship between self-esteem, parenting style and social anxiety in girls. A sample of 100 female students selected from different schools. For data collection Social Interaction Anxiety Scale, Parental Authority Questionnaire and Rosenberg's Self Esteem Scales were used together with demographic sheet.…
For more than a generation, the idea that children need nurturance of a high self-esteem in order to be developmentally healthy has had wide acceptance in Western psychology. A generation of parents has been told that one of their key tasks is to increase their children's self-esteem, and teachers have been trained to give accolades, gold stars,…
Allen, G. E. Kawika; Garriott, Patton O.; Reyes, Carla J.; Hsieh, Catherine
This study examined racial identity, self-esteem, and phenotype among biracial Polynesian/White adults. Eighty-four Polynesian/White persons completed the Biracial Identity Attitude Scale, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory, and a Polynesian phenotype scale. Profile analyses showed participants identified more with their Polynesian parent. A…
Açak, Mahmut; Kaya, Oktay
The current study aimed at reviewing the level of self-esteem of the hearing impaired football players. The sample of the study was composed of 95 football players who played in the 1st hearing impaired football league. To gather the study-data; a Personal Information Form and Self-esteem Scale were used. The data obtained were analyzed through…
Sahin, Ertugrul; Barut, Yasar; Ersanli, Ercüment
Although the literature on self-esteem has a long and prolific history in Turkey regarding which demographics may influence the self-esteem of adolescents. The research findings are intricate and undermine the need of further research in Turkey. This cross-sectional study re-examined the effects of age, grade level and education level of a mother…
Maddy, Luther M., III
Unemployment is, and will likely continue to be, a problem in industrialized nations. Numerous studies have concluded unemployment negatively impacts self-esteem and self-efficacy. Additional studies have shown that unemployed individuals with lower self-esteem and self-efficacy tend to remain unemployed longer than individuals with higher…
This paper provides an informed and critical understanding of the concept of self-esteem. It explores this psychological construct in relation to its use in adventure education and outdoor learning. Enhancing a participant's self-esteem is perceived to be fundamentally a good thing and is culturally linked to the Hahnian notion that implies…