Valiente, Carlos; Eisenberg, Nancy; Haugen, Rg; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Hofer, Claire; Liew, Jeffrey; Kupfer, Anne
Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to test the premise that children's effortful control (EC) is prospectively related to their academic achievement and to specify mechanisms through which EC is related to academic success. We used data from 214 children (M age at Time 1 [T1] = 73 months) to test whether social functioning (e.g.,…
Aluja, Anton; Blanch, Angel
The Children Depression Inventory (CDI) is a multidimensional instrument that includes items of social withdrawal, anhedonia, asthenia, low self-esteem (internalized) and behavioral problems (externalized). Child depression has been related with low academic achievement, neurotic and introverted personality traits and social maladjustment defined…
Ray, Corey E.; Elliott, Stephen N.
This study examined the hypothesized relationship between social adjustment, as measured by perceived social support, self-concept, and social skills, and performance on academic achievement tests. Participants included 27 teachers and 77 fourth- and eighth-grade students with diverse academic and behavior competencies. Teachers were asked to…
This study examined the associations of parents' cultural beliefs and attitudes with respect to fate, traditional gender roles, aspirations, and involvement in children's academic achievement in Cambodia. Based on Coleman's social capital theory, a good parent-child relationship enables children's school success because resources are created as a…
Bendt, Lori; Nunan, Jan
This paper examines the impact of the explicit teaching of social skills to enhance academic achievement. The targeted population comprised kindergarten and second grade students in a middle-class community located in central Illinois. The problem of inappropriate behaviors and difficulties interacting with peers and how this may affect academic…
Brook, Christina A; Willoughby, Teena
Given that engagement and integration in university/college are considered key to successful academic achievement, the identifying features of social anxiety, including fear of negative evaluation and distress and avoidance of new or all social situations, may be particularly disadvantageous in the social and evaluative contexts that are integral to university/college life. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the direct effects of social anxiety on academic achievement, as well as investigate an indirect mechanism through which social anxiety might impact on academic achievement, namely, the formation of new social ties in university. The participants were 942 (71.7 % female; M = 19 years at Time 1) students enrolled in a mid-sized university in Southern Ontario, Canada. Students completed annual assessments of social anxiety, social ties, and academic achievement for three consecutive years. The results from an autoregressive cross-lag path analysis indicated that social anxiety had a significant and negative direct relationship with academic achievement. Moreover, the negative indirect effect of social anxiety on academic achievement through social ties was significant, as was the opposing direction of effects (i.e., the indirect effect of academic achievement on social anxiety through social ties). These findings highlight the critical role that social ties appear to play in successful academic outcomes and in alleviating the effects of social anxiety during university/college.
Masland, Lindsay C.; Lease, A. Michele
The contributions of academic achievement motivation and social status to peer-reported academic influence were explored in a sample of 322 children in grades three through five. Latent moderated structural equation modeling indicated that children who value academics are more likely to be rated by peers as academically influential. Social status…
Masland, Lindsay C.; Lease, A. Michele
This study investigated whether academic achievement motivation and social identity explain variation in children's conformity to positive academic behaviors (n = 455 children in grades three through five). Structural equation modeling suggested that academic value and peer group academic norms were positively related to academic conformity.…
Wentzel, K R
Relations between academic performance and 3 aspects of social competence--socially responsible behavior, sociometric status, and self-regulatory processes (goal setting, interpersonal trust, and problem-solving styles)--were studied. Based on a sample of 423 12- and 13-year-old students, correlational findings indicate that each aspect of social competence is related significantly to students' grades. Results from multiple regression analyses suggest that when accounting for students' IQ, sex, ethnicity, school absence, and family structure, socially responsible behavior mediates almost entirely the relations between students' grades and the other 2 aspects of social competence. Socially responsible behavior and peer status appear to be related by way of their joint association with goals to be socially responsible, interpersonal trust, and problem-solving styles. Similarly, relations between socially responsible behavior and the background variables are explained by joint relations with the self-regulatory processes. The social nature of learning and the role of self-regulation in both interpersonal and behavioral aspects of social competence are discussed.
Maville, J; Huerta, C G
This article describes two studies examining the effects of stress and social support on the academic achievement of Hispanic associate degree nursing students. The first study investigated stress, measured by the Life Experiences Survey (LES), and its relationship to academic achievement. Data analysis revealed a relationship between negative stress and academic achievement. Student level and ethnic origin were found to be predictive of stress. Ethnic origin and age also had an effect on academic achievement. Qualitative data indicated that students experienced stresses as a result of the academic environment. The second study investigated the effect of social support, measured by the Norbeck Social Support Questionnaire (NSSQ), on student persistence. No significant relationship was found. Qualitative data revealed less than desired social support in lower achieving students. Conclusions from these studies form the basis for identification of the high risk student and strategies to remediate the academically handicapped Hispanic student.
Wilson, Timothy D.; Buttrick, Nicholas R.
Attempts to improve student achievement typically focus on changing the educational environment (e.g., better schools, better teachers) or on personal characteristics of students (e.g., intelligence, self-control). The 6 articles in this special issue showcase an additional approach, emanating from social psychology, which focuses on students'…
Song, Juyeon; Bong, Mimi; Lee, Kyehyoung; Kim, Sung-il
We examined (a) the relative importance of perceived social support from parents, peers, and teachers; (b) the consequences associated with different types of perceived social support; and (c) the mediation by achievement goals in the relationship between perceived social support and academic outcomes. We analyzed the first 3 waves of the Korean…
Reynolds, Katherine J.; Lee, Eunro; Turner, Isobel; Bromhead, David; Subasic, Emina
In explaining academic achievement, school climate and social belonging (connectedness, identification) emerge as important variables. However, both constructs are rarely explored in one model. In the current study, a social psychological framework based on the social identity perspective (Turner, Hogg, Oakes, Reicher, & Wetherell, 1987) is…
Mackinnon, Sean P.
As students transition to post-secondary education, they experience considerable stress and declines in academic performance. Perceived social support is thought to improve academic achievement by reducing stress. Longitudinal designs with three or more waves are needed in this area because they permit stronger causal inferences and help…
Sewell, Trevor; And Others
Examined the relationship of cognitive and personality variables to achievement in 49 Black junior high school students. Results showed a higher achievement motivation for males. Neither personality nor social reinforcement showed much predictive value. The relationship between achievement motive and academic measures was not significant. (JAC)
Elias, Maurice J.; Haynes, Norris M.
Despite living in disadvantaged urban communities experiencing social and economic hardships, many children emerge with positive outcomes. Social-emotional competence and social support were hypothesized to have strong influences on academic trajectories during the critical period of academic skill acquisition. Participants were 282 third-grade…
Horst, S. Jeanne; Finney, Sara J.; Barron, Kenneth E.
The current research explored the theory of social goal orientation. More specifically, we conducted three studies utilizing six-independent university student samples to evaluate the construct validity of the Social Achievement Goal Orientation Scale (SAGOS; Ryan & Hopkins, 2003), a measure representing the construct of social goal orientation.…
This report describes a program designed to enhance social studies skills and knowledge. The target areas for enhancement are geography, economics, history, and core democratic values. The need for strengthening these skills was documented by literature, and surveys. An analysis of probable cause for lack of social studies skills revealed that…
Mattanah, Jonathan F.; Brooks, Leonie J.; Brand, Bethany L.; Quimby, Julie L.; Ayers, Jean F.
The authors examined whether a social support intervention reduced loneliness and increased academic achievement among college freshmen. Eighty-eight 1st-year students randomly assigned to a social support group program reported less loneliness in the spring of their freshman year and obtained higher grade point averages in the fall of their…
Puar, Surjit Singh
The present study has been designed to investigate the non-cognitive variables like anxiety, emotional maturity and social maturity and their relationship with academic achievement and also to see the locale-wise differences on the basis of their anxiety, emotional maturity and social maturity. The study was conducted over a sample of 400 (200…
Vitaro, Frank; Boivin, Michel; Brendgen, Mara; Girard, Alain; Dionne, Ginette
The goal of this study was to examine how different types of social experiences in kindergarten relate to Grade 1 academic achievement, while controlling for possible genetic and shared environmental influences through the use of the monozygotic (MZ) twin difference method. Social experiences in kindergarten included relationship quality with the…
Ali, Jinnat; McInerney, Dennis M.; Craven, Rhonda G.; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; King, Ronnel B.
The authors examined the relations between two socially oriented dimensions of student motivation and academic achievement of Native (Navajo) American and Anglo American students. Using confirmatory factor analysis, a multidimensional and hierarchical model was found to explain the relations between performance and social goals. Four first-order…
Eamon, Mary Keegan
Using data from a national sample of 388 Latino young adolescents, this study identified the social-demographic characteristics, influences in the broader social environment, and parenting practices that predict youth academic achievement. Youths who were Mexican American, older, and had an English language problem had lower levels of reading and…
Neto, Roque; Golz, Nancy; Polega, Meaghan
This study explored the association between social media use, loneliness, and academic achievement in high school students and identified the demographic characteristics associated with these three elements. This study also aimed to identify the percentage of variance in loneliness accounted for by social media use and GPA. Participants were 345…
Clifton, Rodney A.; Roberts, Lance W.
Examines differences between Inuit and non-Inuit students in activism (social attitude), self-concept, and academic achievement. Inuits scored lower in activism and self-concept than non-Inuits. Suggests teachers create personalized classroom environments to positively affect activism and self-concept, and thereby enhancing achievement.…
Zahra, Asma-Tuz; Arif, Manzoor H.; Yousuf, Muhammad Imran
This study investigated relationship between self-concept and academic achievement of bachelor degree students. Female students at bachelor were considered the target population. A sample of 1500 students was selected by using two stage cluster sampling technique. An amended form of Self-Descriptive Questionnaire developed by Marsh (1985) was used…
Brown, Chris; Garavalia, Linda S.; Fritts, Mary Lou Hines; Olson, Elizabeth A.
This study examined the sex role orientations endorsed by 188 male and female students majoring in computer science, a male-dominated college degree program. The relations among sex role orientation and academic achievement and social cognitive factors influential in career decision-making self-efficacy were explored. Findings revealed that…
When students look at their classmates in the classroom, consciously or unconsciously, they see competitors both for academic recognition and social success. How do they fit in relation to others and how do they succeed in achieving both? Traditional views on the drive to succeed and the fear of failure are well known as motivators for achieving…
Yildirim, Ibrahim; Genctanirim, Dilek; Yalcin, Ilhan; Baydan, Yaprak
This study examined likelihood of high school students' gender, levels of academic achievement, perfectionism and perceived social support in predicting their degree of test anxiety. Participants were 505 students from high schools in the Ankara metropolitan area. The Test Anxiety Inventory, Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale and Perceived…
Fu, Rui; Chen, Xinyin; Wang, Li; Yang, Fan
This study explored the developmental trajectories of academic achievement and the contributions of early social behaviors and problems to these trajectories in Chinese children. Data were collected each year in 5 consecutive years from a sample of elementary schoolchildren in China (initially N = 1,146, 609 boys, initial M [subscript age] = 8.33…
Morris, David S.
Participation in Organized Activities (OA) is associated with positive behavioral and developmental outcomes in children. However, less is known about how particular aspects of participation affect the academic achievement of high school students from different social class positions. Using the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002, this study…
de la Iglesia, Guadalupe; Freiberg Hoffmann, Agustin; Fernández Liporace, Mercedes
The aim of this study was to test the ability to predict academic achievement through the perception of parenting and social support in a sample of 354 Argentinean college students. Their mean age was 23.50 years (standard deviation =2.62 years) and most of them (83.3%) were females. As a prerequisite for admission to college, students are required to pass a series of mandatory core classes and are expected to complete them in two semesters. Delay in completing the curriculum is considered low academic achievement. Parenting was assessed taking into account the mother and the father and considering two dimensions: responsiveness and demandingness. Perceived social support was analyzed considering four sources: parents, teachers, classmates, and best friend or boyfriend/girlfriend. Path analysis showed that, as hypothesized, responsiveness had a positive indirect effect on the perception of social support and enhanced achievement. Demandingness had a different effect in the case of the mother as compared to the father. In the mother model, demandingness had a positive direct effect on achievement. In the case of the father, however, the effect of demandingness had a negative and indirect impact on the perception of social support. Teachers were the only source of perceived social support that significantly predicted achievement. The pathway that belongs to teachers as a source of support was positive and direct. Implications for possible interventions are discussed. PMID:25258563
de la Iglesia, Guadalupe; Freiberg Hoffmann, Agustin; Fernández Liporace, Mercedes
The aim of this study was to test the ability to predict academic achievement through the perception of parenting and social support in a sample of 354 Argentinean college students. Their mean age was 23.50 years (standard deviation =2.62 years) and most of them (83.3%) were females. As a prerequisite for admission to college, students are required to pass a series of mandatory core classes and are expected to complete them in two semesters. Delay in completing the curriculum is considered low academic achievement. Parenting was assessed taking into account the mother and the father and considering two dimensions: responsiveness and demandingness. Perceived social support was analyzed considering four sources: parents, teachers, classmates, and best friend or boyfriend/girlfriend. Path analysis showed that, as hypothesized, responsiveness had a positive indirect effect on the perception of social support and enhanced achievement. Demandingness had a different effect in the case of the mother as compared to the father. In the mother model, demandingness had a positive direct effect on achievement. In the case of the father, however, the effect of demandingness had a negative and indirect impact on the perception of social support. Teachers were the only source of perceived social support that significantly predicted achievement. The pathway that belongs to teachers as a source of support was positive and direct. Implications for possible interventions are discussed.
Ukpong, D. E.; George, I. N.
This study investigated the length of study time behaviour and academic achievement of Social Studies Education students in the University of Uyo. The purpose was to determine the difference in the academic achievement of the long study time behaviour students and their short study time behaviour counterparts in Social Studies Education. The study…
Zentall, Sydney S.; Beike, Suzanne M.
Children with mild disabilities experience sufficient failure to produce negative future expectations (goals), which may compound early academic and social deficits. This research compared the teacher- and student-rated goals of 57 children at two age levels, who were average learners, had a reading problem/disability (RP), and were hyperactive or…
Zhang, Baoshan; Zhao, Jun-Yan; Yu, Guoliang
During social interactions people self-monitor their behavior at least partially to conceal socially devalued characteristics. This study examined the influences of concealing academic achievement on self-monitoring in an academically-relevant social interaction. An interview paradigm called for school-aged adolescent participants (total N = 86)…
Díaz-Morales, Juan F; Escribano, Cristina
Adolescents in high school suffer from circadian misalignment, undersleeping on weekdays and oversleeping on weekends. Since high schools usually impose early schedules, adolescents suffer from permanent social jetlag (SJL) and thus are a suitable population to study the effects of SJL on both academic and cognitive performance. In this study, 796 adolescents aged 12-16 years reported information about their sleep habits, morningness-eveningness (M-E), cognitive abilities and grade point average (GPA). Time in bed on both weekdays and weekends was not related to cognitive abilities, and only time in bed on weekdays was related to academic achievement. SJL was negatively related to academic achievement, cognitive abilities (except for vocabulary and verbal fluency abilities) and general cognitive ability (g), whereas M-E was slightly positively related to academic achievement and marginally negatively related to inductive reasoning. Results separated by sex/gender indicated that SJL may be more detrimental to girls' performance, as it was negatively related to a greater number of cognitive abilities and GPA.
Neblett, Enrique W., Jr.; Philip, Cheri L.; Cogburn, Courtney D.; Sellers, Robert M.
This study examines the interrelationships among racial discrimination experiences, parent race socialization practices, and academic achievement outcomes in a sample of 548 African American adolescents. Adolescents' racial discrimination experiences were associated with a decrease in academic curiosity, persistence, and student self-reported…
Schonfeld, David J; Adams, Ryan E; Fredstrom, Bridget K; Weissberg, Roger P; Gilman, Richard; Voyce, Charlene; Tomlin, Ricarda; Speese-Linehan, Dee
This study evaluated the results of a social and emotional learning (SEL) program on academic achievement among students attending a large, urban, high-risk school district. Using a cluster-randomized design, 24 elementary schools were assigned to receive either the intervention curriculum (Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies, or PATHS) or a curriculum that delivered few if any SEL topics (i.e., the control group). In addition to state mastery test scores, demographic data, school attendance, and dosage information were obtained from 705 students who remained in the same group from the 3rd to the 6th grade. Analyses of odds ratios revealed that students enrolled in the intervention schools demonstrated higher levels of basic proficiency in reading, writing, and math at some grade levels. Although these between-groups differences held for race/ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status, significant within-group differences also were noted across these variables. Collectively, these findings indicated that social development instruction may be a promising approach to promote acquisition of academic proficiency, especially among youth attending high-risk school settings. Implications of these findings with respect to SEL programs conclude the article.
In this research, an experimental study was carried out in social studies 4th grade students to develop students' conceptual achievement and motivation to succeed academically. The study aims to investigate the effectiveness of project-based learning (PBL) in social studies. A quasi-experimental research design (pre- and posttest) was used in the…
Montroy, Janelle J.; Bowles, Ryan P.; Skibbe, Lori E.; Foster, Tricia D.
Early behavioral self-regulation is an important predictor of the skills children need to be successful in school. However, little is known about the mechanism(s) through which self-regulation affects academic achievement. The current study investigates the possibility that two aspects of children's social func- tioning, social skills and problem…
Caprara, G V; Barbaranelli, C; Pastorelli, C; Bandura, A; Zimbardo, P G
The present longitudinal research demonstrates robust contributions of early prosocial behavior to children's developmental trajectories in academic and social domains. Both prosocial and aggressive behaviors in early childhood were tested as predictors of academic achievement and peer relations in adolescence 5 years later. Prosocialness included cooperating, helping, sharing, and consoling, and the measure of antisocial aspects included proneness to verbal and physical aggression. Prosocialness had a strong positive impact on later academic achievement and social preferences, but early aggression had no significant effect on either outcome. The conceptual model accounted for 35% of variance in later academic achievement, and 37% of variance in social preferences. Additional analysis revealed that early academic achievement did not contribute to later academic achievement after controlling for effects of early prosocialness. Possible mediating processes by which prosocialness may affect academic achievement and other socially desirable developmental outcomes are proposed.
Inglehart, Marita; Brown, Donald R.
This study investigated the influence of social support on a person's career choice and its impact on later achievement, testing the hypotheses that social support that pressures a person into entering a given field will lead to lower achievement, and that social support that contributes to the person's development of a professional identity will…
Lorence, Jon; Dworkin, Anthony Gary.; Toenjes, Laurence A.; Hill, Antwanette N.
Although considerable research examines the impact of grade retention on student academic achievement, various shortcomings exhibited across these studies make it difficult to derive any concrete generalizations about the effectiveness of requiring students to repeat a grade. By utilizing data based on a cohort of all low-achieving elementary…
Tian, Lili; Yu, Tingting; Huebner, E. Scott
The purpose of this study was to examine the multiple mediational roles of academic social comparison directions (upward academic social comparison and downward academic social comparison) on the relationships between achievement goal orientations (i.e., mastery goals, performance-approach goals, and performance-avoidance goals) and subjective well-being (SWB) in school (school satisfaction, school affect) in adolescent students in China. A total of 883 Chinese adolescent students (430 males; Mean age = 12.99) completed a multi-measure questionnaire. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the hypotheses. Results indicated that (1) mastery goal orientations and performance-approach goal orientations both showed a statistically significant, positive correlation with SWB in school whereas performance-avoidance goal orientations showed a statistically significant, negative correlation with SWB in school among adolescents; (2) upward academic social comparisons mediated the relation between the three types of achievement goal orientations (i.e., mastery goals, performance-approach goals, and performance-avoidance goals) and SWB in school; (3) downward academic social comparisons mediated the relation between mastery goal orientations and SWB in school as well as the relation between performance-avoidance goal orientations and SWB in school. The findings suggest possible important cultural differences in the antecedents of SWB in school in adolescent students in China compared to adolescent students in Western nations. PMID:28197109
Tian, Lili; Yu, Tingting; Huebner, E Scott
The purpose of this study was to examine the multiple mediational roles of academic social comparison directions (upward academic social comparison and downward academic social comparison) on the relationships between achievement goal orientations (i.e., mastery goals, performance-approach goals, and performance-avoidance goals) and subjective well-being (SWB) in school (school satisfaction, school affect) in adolescent students in China. A total of 883 Chinese adolescent students (430 males; Mean age = 12.99) completed a multi-measure questionnaire. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the hypotheses. Results indicated that (1) mastery goal orientations and performance-approach goal orientations both showed a statistically significant, positive correlation with SWB in school whereas performance-avoidance goal orientations showed a statistically significant, negative correlation with SWB in school among adolescents; (2) upward academic social comparisons mediated the relation between the three types of achievement goal orientations (i.e., mastery goals, performance-approach goals, and performance-avoidance goals) and SWB in school; (3) downward academic social comparisons mediated the relation between mastery goal orientations and SWB in school as well as the relation between performance-avoidance goal orientations and SWB in school. The findings suggest possible important cultural differences in the antecedents of SWB in school in adolescent students in China compared to adolescent students in Western nations.
Jackson, Barbara Talbert
The No Child Left Behind legislation has brought greater attention to the academic performance of American youth. Its emphasis on student achievement requires a closer analysis of assessment data by school districts. To address the findings, educators must seek strategies to remedy failing results. In a mid-Atlantic district of the Unites States,…
Gil-Olarte Márquez, Paloma; Palomera Martín, Raquel; Brackett, Marc A
This study investigated the discriminant, criterion and incremental validity of an ability measure of Emotional Intelligence (EI). High school students (N = 77) took the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test - Spanish Version (MSCEIT V. 2.0, 2002), a measure of Big Five personality traits (BFQ; Caprara, Barbanelli, & Borgogni , 1993), an General Intelligence test (IGF-r 5; Yuste, 2002), and a social competence inventory (AECS; Moraleda, González, & García-Gallo, 1998). Students' academic grades also were obtained from official school records at the end of the school year. As predicted, the MSCEIT was discriminable from well-established measures of personality and intelligence. The test was also moderately related to social competence and predicted students' final grades. Most of the findings remained significant after personality and academic intelligence were statistically controlled. The potential utility of EI in the context of academic institutions is discussed.
Odetunde, Florence Olayinka
This study explored how social integration of African immigrants in the Louisville metropolitan area of Kentucky could be a factor in the academic achievements of their children. It involved critically investigating how the process of their adjustments as immigrants might have been shaped by various personal and environmental factors such as…
Swanson, Jodi; Valiente, Carlos; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; O'Brien, T. Caitlin
This study examined ego resilience and engagement coping as mediators of the relationships between supportive and controlling parenting practices and early adolescents' academic achievement, social competence, and physical health. Participants were 240 predominantly Mexican American early adolescents, their parents, and their teachers. There were…
Zach, Sima; Yazdi-Ugav, Orly; Zeev, Aviva
This study aimed to examine to what extent academic achievements, learning disorders, behavior problems and loneliness explain the variance of students' social skills. The differences between students diagnosed with learning disorders and students without learning disorders in all four variables were examined. Participants were 733 elementary…
Fan, F. A.
Background: The classroom is a social system in which the teacher and the students interact as organizational members. The quality of classroom relations is dependent on the activities of both the instructor and the students. Several environmental conditions and circumstances often tend to either improve or depress the academic performances of…
Cooper, Harris; Batts Allen, Ashley; Patall, Erika A.; Dent, Amy L.
A meta-analysis found that attending full-day (or all-day) kindergarten had a positive association with academic achievement (compared to half-day kindergarten) equal to about one quarter standard deviation at the end of the kindergarten year. But the association disappeared by third grade. Reasons for this fade-out are discussed. Social…
Runge, Amy L.
This evaluation case study explores the impact of the An Achievable Dream social, academic, and moral program on college student's performance in college. Through this study, the researcher was able to provide insight on college student and college student advocates perceptions of An Achievable Dream's social, academic, and moral program's impact…
Ashdown, Daniela Maree; Bernard, Michael E.
This study investigated the effect of a social and emotional learning skills curriculum, the "You Can Do It! Early Childhood Education Program" (YCDI), on the social-emotional development, well-being, and academic achievement of 99 preparatory and grade 1 students attending a Catholic school in Melbourne, Australia. One preparatory and one grade 1…
Dompnier, Benoît; Darnon, Céline; Meier, Emanuele; Brandner, Catherine; Smeding, Annique; Butera, Fabrizio
Recent research has shown that, in a university context, mastery goals are highly valued and that students may endorse these goals either because they believe in their utility (i.e., social utility), in which case mastery goals are positively linked to achievement, or to create a positive image of themselves (i.e., social desirability), in which…
Dompnier, Benoît; Darnon, Céline; Butera, Fabrizio
Research on achievement goal promotion at University has shown that performance-approach goals are perceived as a means to succeed at University (high social utility) but are not appreciated (low social desirability). We argue that such a paradox could explain why research has detected that performance-approach goals consistently predict academic grades. First-year psychology students answered a performance-approach goal scale with standard, social desirability and social utility instructions. Participants' grades were recorded at the end of the semester. Results showed that the relationship between performance-approach goals and grades was inhibited by the increase of these goals' social desirability and facilitated by the increase of their social utility, revealing that the predictive validity of performance-approach goals depends on social value.
Youse, Keith Edward
The current study examines predictors of math achievement and college graduation by integrating social learning theory and expectancy-value theory. Data came from a nationally-representative longitudinal database tracking 12,144 students over twelve years from 8th grade forward. Models for math achievement and college graduation were tested…
Berry, Gordon LaVern, Ed.; Asamen, Joy Keiko, Ed.
This collection examines the history and current status of the economic, political, social, and psychological factors that influence the academic achievement of low-income African Americans. The introduction, "Afro-American Students and Academic Achievement" (J. K. Asamen), outlines the historical development of black education and…
Caplan, Nathan; And Others
The children of the Southeast Asian boat people excel in the U.S. school system. A review of the factors underlying this achievement suggests that the U.S. educational crisis is more social than academic. (KR)
Churchwell, Dawn Earheart
This study examined the relationship between reading achievement and achievement in other subject areas. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a correlation between reading scores as measured by the Standardized Test for the Assessment of Reading (STAR) and academic achievement in language arts, math, science, and social studies…
Puccioni, Jaime Lynn
By the time children enter kindergarten, significant socioeconomic and racial gaps in academic achievement exist (Coley, 2002; Rouse, Brooks-Gunn, & Mclanahan, 2005). Kindergarten is considered to be a pivotal point of educational transition, as academic achievement upon kindergarten entry is associated with subsequent academic success…
Rhoades, Brittany L.; Warren, Heather K.; Domitrovich, Celene E.; Greenberg, Mark T.
Recently, research has begun to identify cognitive and social-emotional predictors of early academic success. Yet few studies have examined the mechanisms by which children's social-emotional skills are associated with later academic success. The present study examines the associations between preschool emotion knowledge, kindergarten attention…
Brown, Tisha J.
Students in kindergarten are not meeting state standards on standardized academic and social/emotional scores in the southeastern United States. The focus of this study was to determine if a teacher's perceptions of self-efficacy affects student success in academic and social/emotional standards as reported on the Georgia Kindergarten of Inventory…
Griswold, Deborah E.; Barnhill, Gena P.; Myles, Brenda Smith; Hagiwara, Taku; Simpson, Richard L.
A study focused on identifying the academic characteristics of 21 children and youth who have Asperger syndrome. Students had an extraordinary range of academic achievement scores, extending from significantly above average to far below grade level. Lowest achievement scores were shown for numerical operations, listening comprehension, and written…
Bentley, Donna Anderson; And Others
An ongoing concern for educators is the identification of factors that contribute to or are associated with academic achievement; one such group of variables that has received little attention are those involving stress. The relationship between perceived sources of stress and academic achievement was examined to determine if reactions to stress…
Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Cohort, this study examines the role that bilingualism plays in children's academic developmental trajectories during their early school years, with particular attention on the school environment (N = 16,380). Growth-curve results showed that despite starting with lower math scores in…
Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Cohort, this study examines the role that bilingualism plays in children's academic developmental trajectories during their early school years, with particular attention on the school environment (N = 16,380). Growth-curve results showed that despite starting with lower math scores in kindergarten, Mixed Bilingual children fully closed the math gap with their White English Monolingual peers by fifth grade. However, because non-English-Dominant Bilinguals and non-English Monolinguals started kindergarten with significantly lower reading and math scores compared to their English Monolingual peers, by fifth grade the former groups still had significantly lower scores. School-level factors explained about one third of the reductions in the differences in children's academic performance.
Tomul, Ekber; Savasci, Havva Sebile
This study aims to investigate the relationship between academic achievement and the socioeconomic characteristics of elementary school 7th grade students in Burdur. The population of the study are 7th grade students who had education at elementary schools in Burdur in the 2007-2008 academic year. Two staged sampling was chosen as suitable for the…
Fan, F. A.
The home as the first place to teach a child has the responsibility of encouraging moral development. Every child is born into the warm embrace of parents and others who provide him a social environment. Throughout life, children are units of social processes. In interacting and relating to selves and the world around, they develop and use…
Fortuin, Janna; van Geel, Mitch; Vedder, Paul
The present study was conducted to analyze whether in-class friends influence each other's grades, and whether adolescents tend to select friends that are similar to them in terms of academic achievement. During 1 academic year, 542 eighth-grade students (M age = 13.3 years) reported on 3 different occasions on their in-class friendship networks.…
Bankston, Carl L., III
Social-capital explanations of school outcomes, particularly of the school outcomes of immigrant children and children of immigrants, have come into wide use in recent years. These explanations attempt to account for individual or group variations in school performance by viewing the family and community relations that surround children as forms…
Background: Language minority students, who are mostly immigrant students tend to perform at lower levels in school and to be at risk of school failure when they are limited in English proficiency (LEP). Objective: Based on the previous studies that addressed the importance of students' social skills for school success, I examined the social…
Carr, Bruce Henry
The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships of social cognitive factors and their influence on the academic performance of first-year engineering students. The nine social cognitive variables identified were under the groupings of personal support, occupational self-efficacy, academic self-efficacy, vocational interests, coping, encouragement, discouragement, outcome expectations, and perceived stress. The primary student participants in this study were first-year engineering students from underrepresented groups which include African American, Hispanic American students and women. With this in mind, the researcher sought to examine the interactive influence of race/ethnicity and gender based on the aforementioned social cognitive factors. Differences in academic performance (university GPA of first-year undergraduate engineering students) were analyzed by ethnicity and gender. There was a main effect for ethnicity only. Gender was found not to be significant. Hispanics were not found to be significantly different in their GPAs than Whites but Blacks were found to have lower GPAs than Whites. Also, Pearson correlation coefficients were used to examine the relationship between and among the nine identified social cognitive variables. The data from the analysis uncovered ten significant correlations which were as follows: occupational self-efficacy and academic self-efficacy, occupational self-efficacy and vocational interest, occupational self-efficacy and perceived stress, academic self-efficacy and encouragement, academic self-efficacy and outcome expectations, academic self-efficacy and perceived stress, vocational interest and outcome expectations, discouragement and encouragement, coping and perceived stress, outcome expectations and perceived stress. Next, a Pearson correlation coefficient was utilized to examine the relationship between academic performance (college GPA) of first-year undergraduate engineering students and the nine identified
Sahin, Mehmet; Gumus, Yusuf Yasin; Dincel, Sezen
The primary aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between game addiction and academic achievement. The secondary aim was to adapt a self-report instrument to measure game addiction. Three hundred and seventy high school students participated in this study. Data were collected via an online questionnaire that included a brief…
Arslantas, Halis Adnan
This study aimed to identify the relationship between teacher candidates' epistemological beliefs and academic achievement. The participants of the study were 353 teacher candidates studying their fourth year at the Education Faculty. The Epistemological Belief Scale was used which adapted to Turkish through reliability and validity work by…
Increasing student retention and improving graduation rates continues to remain a critical issue for undergraduate institutions. Previous research suggests that student attrition is predominantly voluntary, and is influenced by institutional characteristics. The importance of academic and social integration as a strategy to reduce attrition is…
The purpose of this study was to investigate non-cognitive motivational factors as indicators of academic achievement of male athletes and male non-athletes as measured by a secondary data analysis of the College Student Inventory (CSI) from Fall 2003 to Fall 2005. Deci and Ryan's (2000) self-determination theory provided the conceptual framework…
Sommet, Nicolas; Quiamzade, Alain; Jury, Mickaël; Mugny, Gabriel
As compared to continuing-generation students, first-generation students are struggling more at university. In the present article, we question the unconditional nature of such a phenomenon and argue that it depends on structural competition. Indeed, most academic departments use harsh selection procedure all throughout the curriculum, fostering between-student competition. In these departments, first-generation students tend to suffer from a lack of student-institution fit, that is, inconsistencies with the competitive institution’s culture, practices, and identity. However, one might contend that in less competitive academic departments continuing-generation students might be the ones experiencing a lack of fit. Using a cross-sectional design, we investigated the consequences of such a context- and category-dependent lack of fit on the endorsement of scholastically adaptive goals. We surveyed N = 378 first- and continuing-generation students from either a more competitive or a less competitive department in their first or final year of bachelor’s study. In the more competitive department, first-to-third year decrease of mastery goals (i.e., the desire to learn) was found to be steeper for first- than for continuing-generation students. In the less competitive department, the reversed pattern was found. Moreover, first-to-third year decrease of performance goals (i.e., the desire to outperform others) was found to be steeper within the less competitive department but did not depend on social class. This single-site preliminary research highlights the need to take the academic context into account when studying the social class graduation gap. PMID:26124732
Palumbo, Anthony; Kramer-Vida, Louisa
America's unyielding academic achievement gap has been a national priority for a long time; yet, some schools have succeeded with academically disadvantaged youth. Usually, these institutions embrace a culture of success and follow an academic curriculum that is grounded in core knowledge and scholastic vocabulary. Academically disadvantaged…
Niia, Anna; Almqvist, Lena; Brunnberg, Elinor; Granlund, Mats
This study shows that students, teachers, and parents in Swedish schools ascribe differing meanings and significance to students' participation in school in relation to academic achievement. Students see participation as mainly related to social interaction and not academic achievement, whilst teachers view students' participation as more closely…
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Rohde, Treena Eileen; Thompson, Lee Anne
The purpose of the present study is to explain variation in academic achievement with general cognitive ability and specific cognitive abilities. Grade point average, Wide Range Achievement Test III scores, and SAT scores represented academic achievement. The specific cognitive abilities of interest were: working memory, processing speed, and…
Guay, Frederic; Ratelle, Catherine F.; Roy, Amelie; Litalien, David
Three conceptual models were tested to examine the relationships among academic self-concept, autonomous academic motivation, and academic achievement. This allowed us to determine whether 1) autonomous academic motivation mediates the relation between academic self-concept and achievement, 2) academic self-concept mediates the relation between…
This review explores the factors of cognitive processing, style, and metacognitive organization as they contribute to academic success. Specific discussions consider aspects of short- and long-term memory, including how these affect learning and academic performance, and the keys to attaining long-term memory capability by involving redundancy,…
Hughes, Jan N; Dyer, Nicole; Luo, Wen; Kwok, Oi-Man
Participants were 664 relatively low achieving children who were recruited into a longitudinal study when in first grade. Measures of peer academic reputation (PAR), peer acceptance, teacher-rated academic engagement and achievement, and reading and math achievement were obtained in Year 2, when the majority of students were in second grade, and 1 year later. Measures of academic self concept were obtained in Year 1 and in Year 3. As young as second grade, children's perceptions of classmates' academic competence are distinct from their perceptions of peers' other social and behavioral characteristics. SEM analyses found that Year 2 PAR predicted Year 3 teacher-rated academic engagement and reading (but not math) achievement test scores, above the effects of prior scores on these outcomes and other covariates. Furthermore, the effect of PAR on academic engagement and achievement was partially mediated by the effect of PAR on children's academic self concept. Implications of these findings for educational practice and future research are discussed.
Bursik, Krisanne; Martin, Timothy A.
This study investigated ego developmental differences in adolescent academic orientations and academic achievement. A sample of 142 male and female high school students completed the Washington University Sentence Completion Test and self-report measures assessing academic locus of control, learning orientation (LO), and grade orientation (GO).…
Edgerton, Jason; Peter, Tracey; Roberts, Lance
Bourdieu's theory of cultural and social reproduction posits that students' habitus--learned behavioural and perceptual dispositions rooted in family upbringing--is a formative influence on how they react to their educational environments, affecting academic practices and academic achievement. Although originally conceived as a "class"…
Rivera, Manuel G.
The life of Benito Juarez--who broke all odds to achieve academically, politically, and socially--serves proof that Hispanics can achieve without sacrificing their cultural heritage. The current educational achievement of Hispanics in California and elsewhere in the nation is a matter for serious consideration. Nearly 50% of all Hispanics enrolled…
Shakiba-Nejad, Hadi; Yellin, David
A recent study examined the socioeconomic status (SES), parent participation, teacher awareness, and academic achievement of 76 elementary school students. Results were obtained through interpretation of data and review of relevant literature. A strong positive correlation was found between a student's SES and academic achievement in school. Some…
Mahmood, Khalid; Iqbal, Muhammad Maqsood
This study was studied that emotional and behavioural problems of young students who are directly related to their academic achievement and thus play a vital role in the development of young learners carrier. This study helped to fill a gap by conducting an exploration of psychological adjustment and academic achievement among adolescents. It also…
Dotterer, Aryn M; Lowe, Katie
Classroom context and school engagement are significant predictors of academic achievement. These factors are especially important for academically at-risk students. Grounded in an ecological systems perspective, this study examined links between classroom context, school engagement, and academic achievement among early adolescents. We took a multidimensional approach to the measurement of classroom context and school engagement, incorporating both observational and self-reported assessments of various dimensions of classroom context (instruction quality, social/emotional climate, and student-teacher relationship) and school engagement (psychological and behavioral engagement). Using data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, we tested whether school engagement mediated the link between classroom context and academic achievement among 5th grade students, and whether these pathways were the same for students with previous achievement difficulties identified in 3rd grade. Participants included 1,014 children (50% female) in 5th grade (mean age = 11). The majority of the participants were white (77%) and 23% were children of color. Results indicated that psychological and behavioral engagement mediated the link between classroom context and academic achievement for students without previous achievement difficulties. However, for students with previous achievement difficulties psychological and behavioral engagement did not mediate the link between classroom context and academic achievement. These results suggest that improving classroom quality may not be sufficient to improve student engagement and achievement for students with previous achievement difficulties. Additional strategies may be needed for these students.
Goodwin, Sarah Christine
This research study examined the correlation between student achievement and parent's perceptions of their involvement in their child's schooling. Parent participants completed the Parent Involvement Project Parent Questionnaire. Results slightly indicated parents of students with higher level of achievement perceived less demand or invitations…
Utilizing data on approximately 16,000 children from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Kindergarten Cohort and a rich set of mediating factors on 16 immigrant groups, this paper examined the associations between children's immigrant generation status and their academic performance. The changes in academic achievements during kindergarten and…
McLeod, Jane D; Uemura, Ryotaro; Rohrman, Shawna
Prior research on the association of mental health and behavior problems with academic achievement is limited because it does not consider multiple problems simultaneously, take co-occurring problems into account, and control for academic aptitude. We addressed these limitations using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 6,315). We estimated the associations of depression, attention problems, delinquency, and substance use with two indicators of academic achievement (high school GPA and highest degree received) with controls for academic aptitude. Attention problems, delinquency, and substance use were significantly associated with diminished achievement, but depression was not. Combinations of problems involving substance use were especially consequential. Our results demonstrate that the social consequences of mental health problems are not the inevitable result of diminished functional ability but, rather, reflect negative social responses. These results also encourage a broader perspective on mental health by demonstrating that behavior problems heighten the negative consequences of more traditional forms of distress.
Tabibzadeh, Kiana S.
General Chemistry is required for variety of baccalaureate degrees, including all medical related fields, engineering, and science majors. Depending on the institution, the prerequisite requirement for college level General Chemistry varies. The success rate for this course is low. The purpose of this study is to examine the factors influencing student academic achievement and retention in General Chemistry at the college level. In this study student achievement is defined by those students who earned grades of "C" or better. The dissertation contains in-depth studies on influence of Intermediate Algebra as a prerequisite compared to Fundamental Chemistry for student academic achievement and student retention in college General Chemistry. In addition the study examined the extent and manner in which student self-efficacy influences student academic achievement in college level General Chemistry. The sample for this part of the study is 144 students enrolled in first semester college level General Chemistry. Student surveys determined student self-efficacy level. The statistical analyses of study demonstrated that Fundamental Chemistry is a better prerequisite for student academic achievement and student retention. The study also found that student self-efficacy has no influence on student academic achievement. The significance of this study will be to provide data for the purpose of establishing a uniform and most suitable prerequisite for college level General Chemistry. Finally the variables identified to influence student academic achievement and enhance student retention will support educators' mission to maximize the students' ability to complete their educational goal at institutions of higher education.
Edwards, R. Philip; And Others
The investigation provided no evidence that a diagnosis of minimal brain dysfunction based on a pediatric neurological evaluation and/or visual-motor impairment as measured by the Bender-Gestalt, is a useful predictor of academic achievement. (Author)
Greene, Jay P.; Trivitt, Julie R.
Over the last 3 decades student achievement has remained essentially unchanged in the United States, but not for a lack of spending. Over the same period a myriad of education reforms have been suggested and per-pupil spending has more than doubled. Since the 1990s the education reform attempts have frequently included judicial decisions to revise…
Jordan, Katrina Ann Woolsey
Gifted academic achievement has been identified as a major area of interest for educational researchers. The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether there was a relation between the quality of gifted programs as perceived by teachers, coordinators and supervisors of the gifted and the achievement of the same gifted students in 6th and 7th…
The relationships among race, class and academic achievement are complex, yet have been well documented in Canada for the last thirty years. Generations of students have experienced them--lowered expectations for achievement, gross generalizations about parents' backgrounds and aspirations, negative stereotypes of communities, and curricula that…
Elias, Maurice J.; White, Gwyne; Stepney, Cesalie
While educators and policy makers have an intuitive understanding of the influence of socioeconomic factors and race on student achievement, these factors make the current emphasis on standardized test scores as a primary criterion for evaluating schools and teachers indefensible and ineffective. The research presented illustrates the limits of…
Grigorenko, Elena L.; Macomber, Donna; Hart, Lesley; Naples, Adam; Chapman, John; Geib, Catherine F.; Chart, Hilary; Tan, Mei; Wolhendler, Baruch; Wagner, Richard
The literature has long pointed to heightened frequencies of learning disabilities (LD) within the population of law offenders; however, a systematic appraisal of these observations, careful estimation of these frequencies, and investigation of their correlates and causes have been lacking. Here we present data collected from all youth (1,337 unique admissions, mean age 14.81, 20.3% females) placed in detention in Connecticut (January 1, 2010–July 1, 2011). All youth completed a computerized educational screener designed to test a range of performance in reading (word and text levels) and mathematics. A subsample (n = 410) received the Wide Range Achievement Test, in addition to the educational screener. Quantitative (scale-based) and qualitative (grade-equivalence-based) indicators were then analyzed for both assessments. Results established the range of LD in this sample from 13% to 40%, averaging 24.9%. This work provides a systematic exploration of the type and severity of word and text reading and mathematics skill deficiencies among juvenile detainees and builds the foundation for subsequent efforts that may link these deficiencies to both more formal, structured, and variable definitions and classifications of LD, and to other types of disabilities (e.g., intellectual disability) and developmental disorders (e.g., ADHD) that need to be conducted in future research. PMID:24064502
Grigorenko, Elena L; Macomber, Donna; Hart, Lesley; Naples, Adam; Chapman, John; Geib, Catherine F; Chart, Hilary; Tan, Mei; Wolhendler, Baruch; Wagner, Richard
The literature has long pointed to heightened frequencies of learning disabilities (LD) within the population of law offenders; however, a systematic appraisal of these observations, careful estimation of these frequencies, and investigation of their correlates and causes have been lacking. Here we present data collected from all youth (1,337 unique admissions, mean age 14.81, 20.3% females) placed in detention in Connecticut (January 1, 2010-July 1, 2011). All youth completed a computerized educational screener designed to test a range of performance in reading (word and text levels) and mathematics. A subsample (n = 410) received the Wide Range Achievement Test, in addition to the educational screener. Quantitative (scale-based) and qualitative (grade-equivalence-based) indicators were then analyzed for both assessments. Results established the range of LD in this sample from 13% to 40%, averaging 24.9%. This work provides a systematic exploration of the type and severity of word and text reading and mathematics skill deficiencies among juvenile detainees and builds the foundation for subsequent efforts that may link these deficiencies to both more formal, structured, and variable definitions and classifications of LD, and to other types of disabilities (e.g., intellectual disability) and developmental disorders (e.g., ADHD) that need to be conducted in future research.
Blansky, Deanna; Kavanaugh, Christina; Boothroyd, Cara; Benson, Brianna; Gallagher, Julie; Endress, John; Sayama, Hiroki
Application of social network analysis to education has revealed how social network positions of K-12 students correlate with their behavior and academic achievements. However, no study has been conducted on how their social network influences their academic progress over time. Here we investigated correlations between high school students' academic progress over one year and the social environment that surrounds them in their friendship network. We found that students whose friends' average GPA (Grade Point Average) was greater (or less) than their own had a higher tendency toward increasing (or decreasing) their academic ranking over time, indicating social contagion of academic success taking place in their social network.
Lüftenegger, Marko; Klug, Julia; Harrer, Katharina; Langer, Marie; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara
In the present research, the recently proposed 3 × 2 model of achievement goals is tested and associations with achievement emotions and their joint influence on academic achievement are investigated. The study was conducted with 388 students using the 3 × 2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire including the six proposed goal constructs (task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance) and the enjoyment and boredom scales from the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire. Exam grades were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Findings from CFAs provided strong support for the proposed structure of the 3 × 2 achievement goal model. Self-based goals, other-based goals and task-approach goals predicted enjoyment. Task-approach goals negatively predicted boredom. Task-approach and other-approach predicted achievement. The indirect effects of achievement goals through emotion variables on achievement were assessed using bias-corrected bootstrapping. No mediation effects were found. Implications for educational practice are discussed. PMID:27199836
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between social studies pre-service teachers' (SSPTs) learning style, test anxiety and academic achievement. A total of 315 SSPTs participated in the study. Data were collected using Turkish versions of Grasha-Reichmann learning style scale (GRLSS) and test anxiety scale (TAS) by Spielberger.…
This ethnographic case study examines a bilingual child's academic socialization in both formal and informal academic communities. The study follows a high-achieving, bilingual student in a public US elementary school, who paradoxically is seen as a slow learner in her Korean-American Sunday school. From the academic socialization and community of…
Kalenkoski, Charlene Marie; Pabilonia, Sabrina Wulff
Although previous research has shown that homework improves students' academic achievement, the majority of these studies use data on students' homework time from retrospective questionnaires, which may be less accurate than time-diary data. We use data from the combined Child Development Supplement (CDS) and the Transition to Adulthood Survey…
Womack, Sid T.
This paper evaluates whether or not there is a direct academic-achievement benefit from additional expenditures on education in the United States. Numerous critics have said that education is already overfunded and that it can never be funded enough to make any appreciable difference. Berliner's study of 900 school districts in Texas in the 1993…
There has been an increased interest in personality traits (especially the five-factor model) in relation to education and learning over the last decade. Previous studies have shown a relation between personality traits and learning, and between personality traits and academic achievement. The latter is typically described in terms of Grade Point…
This study examines the relationship between athletics, athletic leadership, and academic achievement. This is likely to be a tricky issue as athletes and athletic leaders are not likely to be a random group of students. To address this issue I control for school fixed effects and instrument the endogenous variables with height. I find that…
DePlanty, Jennifer; Coulter-Kern, Russell; Duchane, Kim A.
The authors sought to understand the types of parent involvement that teachers, parents, and students believe affect the academic achievement of adolescent learners at the junior high school level. Research that included focus groups, interviews, and surveys indicated that teachers and students believed that parent involvement at school was…
Simasiku, Liswani; Kasanda, Choshi; Smit, Talita
There has been a high failure rate of Grade 10 learners in the year end examinations in the Caprivi Education Region of Namibia over a number of years. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the use of mother tongue in English medium classrooms enhanced learners' academic achievement.The study investigated 12 teachers at 12 schools…
Sadler, D. Royce
The tension between the freedom of academics to grade the achievements of their students without interference or coercion and the prerogative of higher education institutions to control grading standards is often deliberated by weighing up the authority and rights of the two parties. An alternative approach is to start with an analysis of the…
Jenkins, Lyndsay N.; Demaray, Michelle Kilpatrick
Peer victimization is a concern because victimized youth are more likely to have social, emotional, and academic difficulties. The current study examined the link between peer victimization and academic achievement by exploring the indirect effect of academic self-concept on two variables. The sample consisted of 140 middle school students (40%…
Kettler, Ryan J.; Elliott, Stephen N.; Davies, Michael; Griffin, Patrick
This study addresses the predictive validity of results from a screening system of academic enablers, with a sample of Australian elementary school students, when the criterion variable is end-of-year achievement. The investigation included (a) comparing the predictive validity of a brief criterion-referenced nomination system with more…
Green, Jasmine; Nelson, Genevieve; Martin, Andrew J.; Marsh, Herb
Critical questions in educational psychology research to be addressed in this paper concern the casual relationship between academic self-concept, academic motivation and its effect on academic achievement. Do changes in academic self-concept and academic motivation lead to changes in subsequent academic achievement? Various studies have attempted…
Mizuno, Kei; Tanaka, Masaaki; Ishii, Akira; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Onoe, Hirotaka; Sadato, Norihiro; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi
We have used functional magnetic resonance imaging to study the neural correlates of motivation, concentrating on the motivation to learn and gain monetary rewards. We compared the activation in the brain obtained during reported high states of motivation for learning, with the ones observed when the motivation was based on monetary reward. Our results show that motivation to learn correlates with bilateral activity in the putamen, and that the higher the reported motivation, as derived from a questionnaire that each subject filled prior to scanning, the greater the change in the BOLD signals within the putamen. Monetary motivation also activated the putamen bilaterally, though the intensity of activity was not related to the monetary reward. We conclude that the putamen is critical for motivation in different domains and the extent of activity of the putamen may be pivotal to the motivation that drives academic achievement and thus academic successes.
In the United States, racial-ethnic differences on tests of school readiness and academic achievement continue. A complete understanding of the origins of racial-ethnic achievement gaps is still lacking. This article describes social equity theory (SET), which proposes that racial-ethnic achievement gaps originate from two kinds of social process,…
Wei, Yichun; Clifton, Rodney A.; Roberts, Lance W.
This study estimates the impact of schools' physical resources and teachers' academic press on students' academic achievement in mathematics and reading when a number of important student variables are controlled. Academic press is defined as teachers' emphasis on academic excellence and upholding academic standards (McDill, Natriello, &…
Ben-Eliyahu, Adar; Linnenbrink-Garcia, Lisa; Putallaz, Martha
The relations of academic and social goal orientations to academic and social behaviors and self-concept were investigated among academically talented adolescents (N = 1,218) attending a mastery-oriented academic residential summer program. Results supported context effects in that academic mastery goal orientations predicted academic (in-class…
Garn, Alex C.; Jolly, Jennifer L.
This study investigated achievement-oriented parent socialization as it pertains to school avoidance in a sample of gifted students. A serial mediation model examining relationships among parental achievement-oriented psychological control (APC), fear of academic failure, academic amotivation, and school avoidance was tested. The sample included…
Rattan, Aneeta; Savani, Krishna; Chugh, Dolly; Dweck, Carol S
The United States must improve its students' educational achievement. Race, gender, and social class gaps persist, and, overall, U.S. students rank poorly among peers globally. Scientific research shows that students' psychology-their "academic mindsets"-have a critical role in educational achievement. Yet policymakers have not taken full advantage of cost-effective and well-validated mindset interventions. In this article, we present two key academic mindsets. The first, a growth mindset, refers to the belief that intelligence can be developed over time. The second, a belonging mindset, refers to the belief that people like you belong in your school or in a given academic field. Extensive research shows that fostering these mindsets can improve students' motivation; raise grades; and reduce racial, gender, and social class gaps. Of course, mindsets are not a panacea, but with proper implementation they can be an excellent point of entry. We show how policy at all levels (federal, state, and local) can leverage mindsets to lift the nation's educational outcomes.
Mulzac, Anica Camela
Research has shown that academic achievement among racial minority groups, particularly African Americans, and the majority Caucasian group is profoundly disproportionate. A number of variables have been shown to influence the academic achievement of students, such as stereotype threat, racial identity, and academic self-concept (Awad, 2007;…
Reviews research findings on academic self-concept, including the multidimensional character of academic self-concept, the role of frame of reference in academic self-concept formation, and the relationship between academic achievement and academic self-concept. Explores implications of this research for educational practice and suggests areas for…
Estes, Annette; Rivera, Vanessa; Bryan, Matthew; Cali, Philip; Dawson, Geraldine
Academic achievement patterns and their relationships with intellectual ability, social abilities, and problem behavior are described in a sample of 30 higher-functioning, 9-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Both social abilities and problem behavior have been found to be predictive of academic achievement in typically developing children but this has not been well studied in children with ASD. Participants were tested for academic achievement and intellectual ability at age 9. Problem behaviors were assessed through parent report and social functioning through teacher report at age 6 and 9. Significant discrepancies between children's actual academic achievement and their expected achievement based on their intellectual ability were found in 27 of 30 (90%) children. Both lower than expected and higher than expected achievement was observed. Children with improved social skills at age 6 demonstrated higher levels of academic achievement, specifically word reading, at age 9. No relationship was found between children's level of problem behavior and level of academic achievement. These results suggest that the large majority of higher-functioning children with ASD show discrepancies between actual achievement levels and levels predicted by their intellectual ability. In some cases, children are achieving higher than expected, whereas in others, they are achieving lower than expected. Improved social abilities may contribute to academic achievement. Future studies should further explore factors that can promote strong academic achievement, including studies that examine whether intervention to improve social functioning can support academic achievement in children with ASD.
Bazemore, S. Gordon; Noblit, George W.
Key factors of the cultural deprivation hypothesis are critically analyzed in this article. The analysis suggests that cultural deprivation theories fall short of their assertion that social class and academic achievement are closely related. (Author/EB)
Cerda, Carissa A.; Im, Myung Hee; Hughes, Jan N.
Using an academically at-risk, ethnically diverse sample of 744 first-grade children, this study tested a multi-method (i.e., child performance measures, teacher ratings, and peer ratings) measurement model of learning-related skills (i.e., effortful control [EC], behavioral self-regulation [BSR], and social competence [SC]), and their shared and unique contributions to children's reading and math achievement, above the effect of demographic variables. The hypothesized correlated factor measurement model demonstrated relatively good fit, with BSR and SC correlated highly with one another and moderately with EC. When entered in separate regression equations, EC and BSR each predicted children's reading and math achievement; SC only predicted reading achievement. When considered simultaneously, neither EC, BSR, nor SC contributed independently to reading achievement; however, EC had a direct effect on math achievement and an indirect effect on reading achievement via both BSR and SC. Implications for research and early intervention efforts are discussed. PMID:25908886
The academic success of migrants' children in France is explored, with an emphasis on the family characteristics that may determine such an outcome. "How can the surprising academic achievement of a minority of migrants' children who gain admission to university be explained? According to our hypothesis, such an explanation should be found in the families' migration trajectories. Taking them into account allows one to correct the well-known deficient indicator of social origin: father's occupation when in France. Families' strategies and mobilization toward an educational project, part and parcel of their migration project, can thus be explained. This hypothesis has been tested through the interviewing of two [predominantly Algerian] groups of migrants' children of the Lille region, one having experienced school failure, the second having gained admittance to university." (SUMMARY IN ENG)
Kilgus, Stephen P.; Bowman, Nicollette A.; Christ, Theodore J.; Taylor, Crystal N.
This study examined the extent to which teacher ratings of student behavior via the "Social, Academic, and Emotional Behavior Risk Screener" (SAEBRS) predicted academic achievement in math and reading. A secondary purpose was to compare the predictive capacity of three SAEBRS subscales corresponding to social, academic, or emotional…
González, C.; Velilla, C.; Sánchez-Girón, V.
In the 2010/12 academic year the College of Agricultural Engineering of the Technical University of Madrid implemented three new degrees all of them adapted to the European Space for Higher Education. These degrees are namely: Graduate in Agricultural Engineering and Science, Graduate in Food Engineering and Graduate in Agro-Environmental Engineering. A total of 382 new incoming students were finally registered and a survey study was carried out with these students about their academic achievement with the aim of finding the level of dependence among the following variables: the final mark in their secondary studies, the option followed in the secondary studies (Art, Science and Technology, and Humanities and Social Sciences), the mark obtained in the entering examination to the university and in which of the two opportunities per year this examination takes place the latter mark was obtained. Similarly, another group of 77 students were evaluated independently to the former group. These students were those entering the College in the previous academic year (2009/10) and decided to change their curricula to the new ones. Subsequently, using the tools of spatial analysis of geographic information systems, we analyzed the possible relationship between the success or failure at school and the socioeconomic profile of new students in a grade. For this purpose every student was referenced assigning UTM coordinates to their postal addresses. Furthermore, all students' secondary schools were geographically coded considering their typology (public, private, and private subsidized) and fares. Each student was represented by its average geometric point in order to be correlated to their respective record. Following this procedure a map of the performance of each student could be drawn. This map can be used as a reference system, as it includes variables as the distance from the student home to the College, that can be used as a tool to calculate the probability of success or
Adamuti-Trache, Maria; Sweet, Robert
This study employs the 2004 School Achievement Indicators Program (SAIP) data to examine whether academic effort manifested by greater investments in school and homework does result in higher literacy scores in science for Canadian students. The study compares four gender-immigrant profiles: Canadian-born males, immigrant males, Canadian-born females, and immigrant females on their scores on teacher-assigned grades in science and on the SAIP science literacy test, and across a range of dispositions, beliefs, and behaviors suggested in the literature as predictive of achievement in science. Study findings show that Canadian-born students, particularly boys, have higher performance in the science literacy test despite their lower achievement in the science classroom and the least investments of time in doing science homework. In contrast, immigrant female students demonstrate the highest academic effort and achievement in science courses which are not matched by similar results in the science literacy test. We discuss these results in relation to different socialization experiences with science and technology that limit female and immigrant students' abilities to transfer knowledge to new situations that have not been learned in the classroom.
Blankenship, Tashauna L.; O’Neill, Meagan; Ross, Alleyne; Bell, Martha Ann
The contributions of working memory and recollection to academic achievement are typically examined separately and most often with children who have learning difficulties. This study is the first to observe both types of memory in the same study and in typically developing children. Academic achievement focused on standardized assessments of math fluency, calculation, reading fluency, and passage comprehension. As noted in previous studies, working memory was associated with each assessed measure of academic achievement. Recollection, however, specifically contributed to math fluency and passage comprehension. Thus, recollection should be considered alongside working memory in studies of academic achievement. PMID:26644761
Good, Marie; Adams, Gerald R
This study used Structural Equation Modeling to test an Eriksonian conceptual model linking academic social environments (relationships with faculty and fellow students), ego-identity formation, ego virtues, and academic success. Participants included 765 first-year students at a university in southern Ontario, Canada. Results indicated that supportive relationships with faculty was directly related to higher average grades and perceived academic ability, whereas positive relationships with fellow students was indirectly related to academic success through ego virtues. Positive ego-identity formation (identity achievement) was also indirectly related to academic success through ego virtues.
Stephens, Nicole M; Hamedani, MarYam G; Destin, Mesmin
College students who do not have parents with 4-year degrees (first-generation students) earn lower grades and encounter more obstacles to success than do students who have at least one parent with a 4-year degree (continuing-generation students). In the study reported here, we tested a novel intervention designed to reduce this social-class achievement gap with a randomized controlled trial (N = 168). Using senior college students' real-life stories, we conducted a difference-education intervention with incoming students about how their diverse backgrounds can shape what they experience in college. Compared with a standard intervention that provided similar stories of college adjustment without highlighting students' different backgrounds, the difference-education intervention eliminated the social-class achievement gap by increasing first-generation students' tendency to seek out college resources (e.g., meeting with professors) and, in turn, improving their end-of-year grade point averages. The difference-education intervention also improved the college transition for all students on numerous psychosocial outcomes (e.g., mental health and engagement).
Bevel, Raymona King
The purpose of the research was to determine the effects of academic optimism on student academic achievement through measuring the individual and collective effects of academic emphasis, collective efficacy, and faculty trust in clients. Data for this study were obtained from the School Academic Optimism Scale and the reading section of the…
Barna, Jennifer S.; Brott, Pamelia E.
The researchers explored the relationship between elementary school counselors' motivational orientation, perceptions of importance and levels of implementation of Academic and Personal/Social Standards as a strategy for supporting academic achievement. Responses from 212 elementary school counselors confirm both types of Standards as being highly…
Graham, David Mark
Research investigating the impact of factors such as gender, socioeconomic status, racial socialization, and academic self-concept on the academic achievement of African American high school students has been of interest to scholars for decades. Previous literature has focused much attention on the relationship of each of these constructs and…
Chuan, Chun Cheng; Yusof, Aminuddin; Shah, Parilah Mohd
Factors that influence the academic achievement of Malaysian university athletes were investigated using 156 field hockey players from several universities. The relationship between team subculture, parental influence, the learning environment, support systems, financial aid, training factors, academic assistance, socialization, and stress level…
Porfeli, Erik; Ferrari, Lea; Nota, Laura
This study asserts a theoretical model of academic and work socialization within the family setting. The presumed associations between parents' work valences, children's work valences and valence perceptions, and children's academic interest and achievement are tested. The results suggest that children's perceptions of parents mediate the…
FARQUHAR, WILLIAM M.; CHRISTENSEN, EDWARD W.
THIS STUDY INVOLVED--(1) EXPLORING ACADEMIC MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS IN PUERTO RICAN 11TH-GRADE STUDENTS, (2) CREATING A MEASURE FOR THESE FACTORS WHICH MIGHT BE USABLE IN OTHER LATIN AMERICAN AREAS, AND (3) INVESTIGATING THE CHILD-REARING AND OTHER PSYCHO-SOCIAL FACTORS RELATED TO ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT. THE METHOD INVOLVED THREE STAGES--(1)…
Perry, S. Marshall; Catapano, Michael; Ramon, Olosunde Gbolagade
This paper explores the relationships among attitudes toward mathematics, teaching, and academic achievement in mathematics. Based on the contextual and social nature of academic self-concept, two complementary studies are discussed. The first study from the northeastern United States examined the relationships among these variables in 84 high…
Destin, Mesmin; Richman, Scott; Varner, Fatima; Mandara, Jelani
The current study tested a psychosocial mediation model of the association between subjective social status (SSS) and academic achievement for youth. The sample included 430 high school students from diverse racial/ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds. Those who perceived themselves to be at higher social status levels had higher GPAs. As…
Cauthen, T. W., III
This chapter begins the exploration of what leadership education is through examining the relationship between educational involvement and academic autonomy in the development of socially responsible leaders.
Dryer, Rachel; Henning, Marcus A.; Tyson, Graham A.; Shaw, Rosemary
This study examined whether: (1) the non-academic constructs of psychological well-being, motivation to learn and quality of life (QOL) explained the variance in the academic achievement of students with disability; and (2) students with a mental health disability (MHD) differed from students with other disability on academic achievement and on…
Kristjansson, Alfgeir Logi; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Allegrante, John P.; Helgason, Asgeir R.
Objectives: To examine the association between health behavior indicators, school contentment, and academic achievement. Methods: Structural equation modeling with 5810 adolescents. Results: Our model explained 36% of the variance in academic achievement and 24% in school contentment. BMI and sedentary lifestyle were negatively related to school…
Lawrence, A. S. Arul; Vimala, A.
The present study School Environment and Academic Achievement of standard IX students was probed to find the relationship between School Environment and Academic Achievement of standard IX students. Data for the study were collected using self-made School Environment Scale (SES). The investigator used stratified random sampling technique for…
Shropshire, Delia F. B.
The purpose of the study was to determine to what extent teaching style relates to third grade African American male academic achievement. The problem in this study addressed the factors affecting the academic achievement of the African American third grade male. This problem led the researcher to investigate the teaching styles of the…
Cherry, Crystal M.
This paper reviews the literature on the relationship between birth order and several variables, especially academic achievement. One study found a relationship between leadership skills and birth order for males. Several studies found no relationship between birth order and academic achievement; grade point average; self-esteem; locus of control…
Hannigan, William J.
Despite the research indicating a direct relationship between physical fitness and academic achievement, physical fitness levels of students are decreasing in many schools, along with opportunities for physical fitness. The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the relationship between physical fitness and academic achievement, as…
Katsiyannis, Antonis; Ryan, Joseph B.; Zhang, Dalun; Spann, Anastasia
For well over a century, behavioral researchers have attempted to understand the relation between juvenile delinquency and academic achievement. The authors review current literature pertaining to academic achievement and its effect on delinquency. While researchers have not yet been able to establish a direct causal relation between these two…
Academic achievement in adolescence is a key determinant of future educational and occupational success. Friends play an important role in the educational process. They provide support and resources and can both encourage and discourage academic achievement. As a result, the friends adolescents make may help to maintain and exacerbate inequality…
Lawrence, Arul A. S.; Lawrence, John A.
Personality is the man. The successful living of an individual, as a man, depends to a large extent on the academic achievement of that individual, as a student. This article attempts to find out personality type, academic achievement of secondary school students and relationship between them by selecting a sample of 300 secondary school students…
Schmitt, Sara A.; Finders, Jennifer K.; McClelland, Megan M.
Research Findings: The present study investigated the direct effects of residential mobility on children's inhibitory control and academic achievement during the preschool year. It also explored fall inhibitory control and academic skills as mediators linking residential mobility and spring achievement. Participants included 359 preschool children…
Schmitt, Sara A.; Finders, Jennifer K.; McClelland, Megan M.
The present study investigated the direct effects of residential mobility on children's inhibitory control and academic achievement during the preschool year. It also explored fall inhibitory control and academic skills as mediators linking residential mobility and spring achievement. Participants included 359 preschool children (49% female)…
This study examined the influence of motivation on academic achievement. The theoretical rationale for the study is grounded in bridging two influential yet isolated literatures of motivation: goal setting theory and achievement goal theory. Although it is clear that academic performance should be influenced by assigned learning goals,…
Schwinger, Malte; Wirthwein, Linda; Lemmer, Gunnar; Steinmayr, Ricarda
Self-handicapping represents a frequently used strategy for regulating the threat to self-esteem elicited by the fear of failing in academic achievement settings. Several studies have documented negative associations between self-handicapping and different educational outcomes, inter alia academic achievement. However, studies on the relation…
Savasci, Havva Sebile; Tomul, Ekber
The educational resources of schools play an important role in order to diminish the effect of socioeconomic features on academic achievement, and create equal opportunities for students. In this sense, it is highly crucial to investigate the relationship between the educational resources of schools and the academic achievement of students. This…
Karagöl, Ibrahim; Bekmezci, Sinan
The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between academic achievements and critical thinking dispositions of teacher candidates in Faculty of Education and to find out whether critical thinking dispositions and academic achievements scores of teacher candidates differ according to different variables. The population consists of the…
Gajda, Aleksandra; Karwowski, Maciej; Beghetto, Ronald A.
This article reports on a meta-analysis of 120 studies (total N = 52,578; 782 effects) examining the relationship between creativity and academic achievement in research conducted since the 1960s. Average correlation between creativity and academic achievement was r = 0.22, 95% CI [0.19, 0.24]. An analysis of moderators revealed that this…
Shim, Sungok Serena; Cho, YoonJung; Wang, Cen
The current study investigated the mediating role of social achievement goals in the relation between classroom goal structures and academic engagement and social adjustment among 373 middle school students (52.8% female). Students' perceptions of classroom goal structures were measured in Fall; social achievement goals and academic and social…
Høigaard, Rune; Kovač, Velibor Bobo; Øverby, Nina Cecilie; Haugen, Tommy
This study investigated the effects of proximal and distal constructs on adolescent's academic achievement through self-efficacy. Participants included 482 ninth- and tenth- grade Norwegian students who completed a questionnaire designed to assess school-goal orientations, organizational citizenship behavior, academic self-efficacy, and academic achievement. The results of a bootstrapping technique used to analyze relationships between the constructs indicated that school-goal orientations and organizational citizenship predicted academic self-efficacy. Furthermore, school-goal orientation, organizational citizenship, and academic self-efficacy explained 46% of the variance in academic achievement. Mediation analyses revealed that academic self-efficacy mediated the effects of perceived task goal structure, perceived ability structure, civic virtue, and sportsmanship on adolescents' academic achievements. The results are discussed in reference to current scholarship, including theories underlying our hypothesis. Practical implications and directions for future research are suggested.
Estes, Annette; Rivera, Vanessa; Bryan, Matthew; Cali, Philip; Dawson, Geraldine
Academic achievement patterns and their relationships with intellectual ability, social abilities, and problem behavior are described in a sample of 30 higher-functioning, 9-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Both social abilities and problem behavior have been found to be predictive of academic achievement in typically…
Rytkonen, Henna; Parpala, Anna; Lindblom-Ylanne, Sari; Virtanen, Viivi; Postareff, Liisa
The examination of academic progression has become an essential tool for measuring the effectiveness of educational systems. Research concerning the relationship between student learning and how they progress in their studies, however remains scarce. The aim of this study is two-fold: Firstly, the study aims to analyse first-year bioscience…
House, J D
The relationship between achievement-related expectancies, academic self-concept, and mathematics performance of 191 academically underprepared adolescent students was examined. After the effects of prior academic achievement were controlled for, a significant main effect for academic self-concept was found; as expected, students with higher academic self-concept earned significantly higher mathematics grades. In addition, after the effects of prior achievement were controlled for, female students were found to earn significantly higher mathematics grades than did male students. A significant three-way (Sex x Ethnic Group x Achievement-Related Expectancies) interaction was also noted. Unlike in several previous studies, no significant racial differences in mathematics performance were found. These students had a similar socioeconomic status (SES), and the effects of prior academic achievement were controlled for, suggesting that racial and gender differences in mathematics achievement may be partially explained by prior schooling and SES background, as posited by Reyes and Stanic (1988).
Villavicencio, Felicidad T.; Bernardo, Allan B. I.
Background: Research has shown how academic emotions are related to achievement and to cognitive/motivational variables that promote achievement. Mediated models have been proposed to account for the relationships among academic emotions, cognitive/motivational variables, and achievement, and research has supported such mediated models,…
Pasnak, Robert; Kidd, Julie K; Gadzichowski, K Marinka; Gallington, Debbie A; Schmerold, Katrina Lea; West, Heather
The ability to understand sequences of items may be an important cognitive ability. To test this proposition, 8 first-grade children from each of 36 classes were randomly assigned to four conditions. Some were taught sequences that represented increasing or decreasing values, or were symmetrical, or were rotations of an object through 6 or 8 positions. Control children received equal numbers of sessions on mathematics, reading, or social studies. Instruction was conducted three times weekly in 15-min sessions for seven months. In May, the children taught sequences applied their understanding to novel sequences, and scored as well or better on three standardized reading tests as the control children. They outscored all children on tests of mathematics concepts, and scored better than control children on some mathematics scales. These findings indicate that developing an understanding of sequences is a form of abstraction, probably involving fluid reasoning, that provides a foundation for academic achievement in early education.
Doyle, Matthew D; Lockwood, Brian; Comiskey, John G
Much of the literature on the consequences of natural disasters has focused on their physical and psychological ramifications. Few researchers have considered how the impacts of a natural disaster can influence academic achievement. This study analyses data collected from nearly 300 students at a mid-sized, private university in the northeast United States to determine if the effects of Cyclone Sandy in 2012 are associated with measures of academic achievement. The findings reveal that experiencing headaches after the event resulted in a higher likelihood of students suffering a loss of academic motivation. In addition, experiencing headaches and a loss of academic motivation were correlated with a lower grade point average (GPA) during the semester in which Sandy made landfall. However, the more direct effects of the superstorm, including displacement and a loss of power, did not have a significant bearing on academic achievement. Lastly, the paper examines the implications for higher education policy and future research.
Mello, Zena R.; Worrell, Frank C.
Time perspective is a useful psychological construct associated with educational outcomes (Phalet, Andriessen, & Lens, 2004) and may prove fruitful for research focusing on academically talented adolescents. Thus, the relationship of time perspective to age, gender, and academic achievement was examined among 722 academically talented middle and…
Traditional measures of predicting academic achievement in college such as high school grades and standardized test scores account for approximately 25% of the difference between predicted and actual grade point average (GPA). Researchers have also examined the relationship between psychological factors and academic self-efficacy which may account…
Sariçoban, Arif; Behjoo, Bahram Mohammadi
This study aims to scrutinize the possible relationship between academic self-efficacy beliefs and foreign language achievement among prospective ELT teachers. To do so, the data for the study were collected through a questionnaire, "College Academic Self-Efficacy Scale" adapted from Owen & Froman (1988), consisting of 33 items…
Redd, Zakia; Cochran, Stephanie; Hair, Elizabeth; Moore, Kristin
Based on the view that programs with a strong academic component may reduce the substantial educational disparities for American students from disadvantaged backgrounds or in chronically underperforming schools and school districts, this synthesis of research on academic achievement programs describes how such programs may help children and…
This paper examines the relationship between objective academic achievement (OAA) and subjective well-being (SWB). Using a sample of 515 adolescents from ten different high schools across a small country, semi-structured interviews, academic records and observations provided relevant data for the study. OAA was measured from examination results…
Moussa, Wael Soheil
This dissertation examines the student academic achievement through various mechanisms, put in place by the public school district, classroom student behavior, and negative external shocks to the students' living environment. I examine the impacts of various treatments on student short and long run academic outcomes such as math and English test…
Coohey, Carol; Renner, Lynette M.; Hua, Lei; Zhang, Ying J.; Whitney, Stephen D.
Purpose: Although researchers have concluded that child maltreatment has a negative effect on children's learning and academic achievement, not all children are negatively affected by maltreatment, and some children seem to succeed academically despite being maltreated. Drawing on risk and resilience theory, we examined a broad range of potential…
Morrissey, Taryn W.; Hutchison, Lindsey; Winsler, Adam
Low family income is associated with poor academic achievement among children. Higher rates of school absence and tardiness may be one mechanism through which low family income impacts children's academic success. This study examines relations between family income, as measured by receipt of free or reduced-price lunch, school attendance, and…
Akos, Patrick; Rose, Roderick A.; Orthner, Dennis
The academic impact of the transition from elementary to middle school has significant consequences for many early adolescents. This study examines academic growth across the transition, as well as sociodemographic moderators. Rather than defining the transition effect as a decline in student achievement between fifth and sixth grade, these data…
We reported the major findings of our research based on our own academic achievement tests towards elementary school and junior high school pupils in 2002. We then pointed out the fact that the differences of achievement between social groups have been expanded. Nowadays, that issue is seen to be one of the most serious educational problems in…
Lanciano, Tiziana; Curci, Antonietta
We tested the incremental validity of an ability measure of emotional intelligence (El) in predicting academic achievement in undergraduate students, controlling for cognitive abilities and personality traits. Academic achievement has been conceptualized in terms of the number of exams, grade point average, and study time taken to prepare for each exam. Additionally, gender differences were taken into account in these relationships. Participants filled in the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), the Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices, the reduced version of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, and academic achievement measures. Results showed that El abilities were positively related to academic achievement indices, such as the number of exams and grade point average; total El ability and the Perceiving branch were negatively associated with the study time spent preparing for exams. Furthermore, El ability adds a percentage of incremental variance with respect to cognitive ability and personality variables in explaining scholastic success. The magnitude of the associations between El abilities and academic achievement measures was generally higher for men than for women. Jointly considered, the present findings support the incremental validity of the MSCEIT and provide positive indications of the importance of El in students' academic development. The helpfulness of El training in the context of academic institutions is discussed.
Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Freeman, John G.
The study examined the self-reported academic achievement, academic self-concept, and academic motivation of 573 immigrant and nonimmigrant adolescents in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) secondary schools. Descriptive Discriminant Analyses indicated that the immigrant adolescents had higher performance in mathematics, higher math and school…
Tracz, Susan M.; Gibson, Sherri
Teacher efficacy is a critical variable in teacher and school effectiveness. The Teacher Efficacy Scale was used to assess teacher efficacy and investigate its relationship to teacher use of time, student time on task, and student achievement. Classroom observations were gathered from 14 teachers, grades 4-6, at two schools. Teacher allocation of…
Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Bixler, Edward O.; Zimmerman, Dennis N.
Word reading and math computation scores were predicted from Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence Full Scale IQ, 10 neuropsychological tests, and parent attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) ratings in 214 general population elementary school children. IQ was the best single predictor of achievement. In addition, Digit Span…
Harvard Educational Review, 2004
Using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, the NICHD Early Child Care Research Network (ECCRN) constructed a structural model predicting reading and mathematics achievement in first-grade children from parenting, child-care, and first-grade schooling…
Barlow, Kathy A.; Hickey, Ann
A study of 215 athletes at a small private liberal arts Division III college revealed that athletes (a) begin their college experience with SATs no different from non-athletes; (b) attain GPAs that do not significantly differ from those of nonathletes; (c) achieve GPAs that do not significantly differ between their "in-season" semester…
Fairlie, Robert W.
Although a large literature explores the achievement gap between minority and non-minority students, very little is known about whether disparities in access to technology are partly responsible. Data from the first-ever field experiment involving the random provision of free computers to low-income community college students for home use are used…
Despite much evidence that links mothers' educational attainment to children's academic outcomes, studies have not established whether increases in mothers' education will improve their children's academic achievement. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth on children between the ages of 6 and 12, this study examined whether increases in mothers' educational attainment are associated with changes in children's academic achievement and the quality of their home environments. Results suggest that children of young mothers with low levels of education perform better on tests of academic skills and have higher quality home environments when their mothers complete additional schooling, whereas increased maternal education does not predict improvements in the achievement or home environments of children with older and more highly educated mothers. The estimated effects of additional maternal schooling for children of these younger mothers appear to be more pronounced for children's reading than math skills.
Pizzolato, Jane Elizabeth; Brown, Elizabeth Levine; Kanny, Mary Allison
Research in the past decade suggests that a persistent achievement gap between students from low-income minority backgrounds and higher-income white backgrounds may be rooted in theories of student motivation and youth purpose. Yet limited research exists regarding the role of purpose on positive youth development as it pertains to academic achievement. Using a sample of 209 high school students, this study examines the effectiveness of an intervention designed to promote purpose development and internal control over academic success in high school students from a low-socioeconomic-status community. Findings reveal that a short-term intervention was effective in significantly increasing internal control over academic success and purpose in life for students participating in the intervention group. In addition, analysis of academic achievement for students who experienced positive gains in internal control and purpose demonstrates significant gains in academic achievement as measured by grade point average. Implications are made for further study of internal control and life purpose as a means of academic intervention in the effort to address the achievement gap.
How Community College African American Students with or without a Father or Male Surrogate Presence at Home Develop Their Personal Identity, Academic Self-Concept, Race Theory, Social Sensitivity, Resiliency, and Vision of Their Own Success and the Influence on Their Academic Achievement
Holliday, A'lon Michael
Despite the growing body of research on African American students' academic achievement and the role mothers play in their child's academic development, few studies (Carter, 2008; Fordham, 1988) examined the role fathers play in the development of their child's academic achievement. The primary aim of this study was to examine how the father or…
Bowes, Kathleen A.
This study employed a quasi-experimental pretest-posttest design with nonequivalent groups. It explored the effect of using interactive television (ITV) as a learning tool in an elementary setting. The Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale, which measures a student's learning preferences/attitudes toward learning, was used along with teacher mastery tests and an ITV evaluation survey. There were five research questions explored in the study: (1) What was the difference between the treatment and control groups with regards to learning preferences/attitudes as measured by the SDLRS-ABE? (2) What was the difference between the treatment and control groups with regards to academic achievement in science and in social studies as measured by teacher made mastery tests? (3) Was there a treatment-gender interaction for either the SDLRS-ABE or the science and social studies mastery tests? (4) What inter relationships existed among the SDLRS-ABE, science mastery tests, and social studies tests? (5) What did teacher evaluations of the ITV reveal? Forty 5th and thirty-seven 7th grade students participated in the study. There were treatment and control groups at each grade level. Groups were randomly assigned as intact classes. There were a number of noteworthy findings. There was a significant difference (p = .025) between males and females on the social studies mastery test and a treatment-control difference on the science mastery test (p = .040). Also a moderate relationship was found between the SDLRS-ABE pretest (r = .433) and the SDLRS-ABE posttest (r = .420) and the fifth grade treatment group science grades and a moderate correlation (r = 0.546) between the social studies grades, and the SDLRS-ABE posttest for the fifth grade treatment group. The teacher evaluations of the ITV sessions indicated the importance of interactivity between the sending and receiving sites. Teachers felt that this interactivity was key to holding the students' attention and fostering learning.
Simms, Kathryn; Bock, Sara; Hackett, Lewis
Objective: Prior research on the efficacy of physical education has been conducted in a piecemeal fashion. More specifically, studies typically test a single benefit hypothesized to be associated with physical education (e.g. body mass index [BMI]) while excluding others (e.g. social skills) and not controlling for important confounds (e.g. diet).…
Bertalan, John J.
A determination of the reading grade placement levels (GPLs) and final course grades of community college students in relationship to the GPLs of their assigned social science textbooks was the focus of a study at Citrus Community College (Florida). Dale-Chall readability placement levels were calculated for eight textbooks used in 19 classes of…
Balancing Academic Achievement and Social Growth. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Chinese American Educational Research and Development Association (4th, San Jose, California, September 21, 1996).
Chinese American Educational Research and Development Association, Rockville, MD.
This proceedings is presented in three parts. Part 1 contains summaries of the keynote speech and one paper: "Sa-Jiao: An Important Concept in Understanding Chinese Students' Social Behavior" (Jing-Jyi Wu); and "Our Choices Create Our Future: A Chinese-American Perspective" (Rose Tseng). Part 2 contains summaries of three panel…
Rhodes, Darson L.
A sample of 656 undergraduate students from multiple sections of an introductory nutrition course, a personal health course, and a physical fitness course at a large Midwestern University completed one of four surveys. Using matrix sampling, each participant completed a survey measuring one of four personal and social competence constructs; coping…
Ishak, Zahari; Low, Suet Fin; Lau, Poh Li
Parenting styles have always been a crucial factor in influencing all aspects of a person's development. The purpose of this study is to test the structural equation model of academic achievement among the students using parenting styles as a moderator. The sample comprised 493 students from eight schools. Parenting styles are determined using the Parental Authority Questionnaire (Buri in J Pers Assess 57:110-119, 1991). Academic achievement is measured based on the students' performance in the Lower Secondary Assessment. Data were analyzed using structural equation modelling. Results demonstrated that model of authoritative and model of authoritarian fit the data of this study well. Both authoritative and authoritarian parenting styles are the most common practice of the parents. Parenting styles have been found to be a moderator of this study. The results indicated that parenting styles moderated the effect of academic self-concept on academic achievement. The impact of academic self-concept on academic achievement is found to be greater for the authoritative than the authoritarian parenting style.
Pérez, David, II
Latino males are grossly underrepresented at four-year postsecondary institutions in the United States. This phenomenological study seeks to address this emergent educational crisis by focusing on the experiences of two Latino male achievers at predominantly White research universities. Community Cultural Wealth is used to explore how Latino male…
Lockshin, Jeffrey; Zamkov, Oleg
A significant amount of attention has been given to the predictors of academic achievement in higher education. However, the vast majority of articles have centred on entrance criteria and the learning approaches or personal habits of students. Investigations into how achievement depends on student efforts, being almost invariably based on…
Inglehart, Marita Rosch; Brown, Donald R.
Gender differences in academic achievement of students in the medical school at the University of Michigan were investigated in this study. Observed achievement differences were attributed to gender differences in values which influence student motivation. Three hypotheses were tested: (1) that men place more importance on mastery-related issues,…
Caro, Daniel H.; Lenkeit, Jenny; Lehmann, Rainer; Schwippert, Knut
Students in Germany are tracked into different forms of secondary schooling based on teachers' recommendations. The literature shows that school tracking is largely affected by academic achievement levels, but neglects the influence of individual achievement growth. The authors used data from the Berlin study ELEMENT (N = 2242) to characterize…
Schmid, Megan E.; Gillian-Daniel, Donald L.; Kraemer, Sara; Kueppers, Mark
The achievement gap, disparities in the academic achievement of marginalized students (e.g., underrepresented minority, first generation in their family to attend college, and low socio-economic status undergraduate students) relative to their non-minority peers is a pervasive problem in higher education. It impacts student access to the major and…
Townsend, Dianna; Filippini, Alexis; Collins, Penelope; Biancarosa, Gina
Despite the current theoretical momentum for the importance of academic English and the acknowledgment that academic materials increase in complexity through the grades, little empirical attention has been devoted to the role of academic English in academic achievement. This study examined the amount of variance in academic achievement explained…
Bernard, Michael E.
This article discusses the non-academic, social-emotional factors that contribute to student academic achievement, including the cognitive-behavioral characteristics of underachieving students and those with learning disabilities; the "You Can Do It! Education" (YCDI) theory of achievement; derivative research on social-emotional capabilities,…
Olofsson, Åke; Taube, Karin; Ahl, Astrid
Broadened recruitment to higher education is on the agenda in many countries, and it is also widely recognized that the number of dyslexic students entering higher education is increasing. In Sweden, as in many other European countries, higher education institutions are required to accommodate students with dyslexia. The present study focuses on the study outcome for 50 students with diagnosed dyslexia, mainly in teacher education and nurses' training, at three universities in Northern Sweden. The students trusted their own ability to find information on the Internet but mistrusted their own abilities in reading course books and articles in English and in taking notes. The mean rate of study was 23.5 European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System credits per semester, which is slightly below the national baseline of 26.7. The results show that more than half of the students are examined at a normal rate of study but that about one fifth have a very low rate of study. Messages Most students with dyslexia can compensate for their reading problems. Taking notes during lessons and reading in foreign language may be especially difficult for students with dyslexia. Diagnoses should distinguish between reading comprehension and word decoding. More than half of the students with dyslexia can achieve at a normal rate of study. One-fifth of the students with dyslexia may need a longer period of study than other students.
Mavroveli, Stella; Sánchez-Ruiz, María José
BACKGROUND. Trait emotional intelligence (trait EI or trait emotional self-efficacy) refers to individuals' emotion-related self-perceptions (Petrides, Furnham, & Mavroveli, 2007). The children's trait EI sampling domain provides comprehensive coverage of their affective personality. Preliminary evidence shows that the construct has important implications for children's psychological and behavioural adjustment. AIMS. This study investigates the associations between trait EI and school outcomes, such as performance in reading, writing, and maths, peer-rated behaviour and social competence, and self-reported bullying behaviours in a sample of primary school children. It also examines whether trait EI scores differentiate between children with and without special educational needs (SEN). SAMPLE. The sample comprised 565 children (274 boys and 286 girls) between the ages of 7 and 12 (M((age)) = 9.12 years, SD= 1.27 years) attending three English state primary schools. METHOD. Pupils completed the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Child Form (TEIQue-CF), the Guess Who peer assessment, the Peer-Victimization Scale, and the Bullying Behaviour Scale. Additional data on achievement and SEN were collected from the school archives. RESULTS. As predicted by trait EI theory, associations between trait EI and academic achievement were modest and limited to Year 3 children. Higher trait EI scores were related to more nominations from peers for prosocial behaviours and fewer nominations for antisocial behaviour as well as lower scores on self-reported bulling behaviours. Furthermore, SEN students scored lower on trait EI compared to students without SEN. CONCLUSIONS. Trait EI holds important and multifaceted implications for the socialization of primary schoolchildren.
Impact of a social-emotional and character development program on school-level indicators of academic achievement, absenteeism, and disciplinary outcomes: A matched-pair, cluster randomized, controlled trial.
Snyder, Frank; Flay, Brian; Vuchinich, Samuel; Acock, Alan; Washburn, Isaac; Beets, Michael; Li, Kin-Kit
This paper reports the effects of a comprehensive elementary school-based social-emotional and character education program on school-level achievement, absenteeism, and disciplinary outcomes utilizing a matched-pair, cluster randomized, controlled design. The Positive Action Hawai'i trial included 20 racially/ethnically diverse schools (mean enrollment = 544) and was conducted from the 2002-03 through the 2005-06 academic years. Using school-level archival data, analyses comparing change from baseline (2002) to one-year post trial (2007) revealed that intervention schools scored 9.8% better on the TerraNova (2(nd) ed.) test for reading and 8.8% on math; 20.7% better in Hawai'i Content and Performance Standards scores for reading and 51.4% better in math; and that intervention schools reported 15.2% lower absenteeism and fewer suspensions (72.6%) and retentions (72.7%). Overall, effect sizes were moderate to large (range 0.5-1.1) for all of the examined outcomes. Sensitivity analyses using permutation models and random-intercept growth curve models substantiated results. The results provide evidence that a comprehensive school-based program, specifically developed to target student behavior and character, can positively influence school-level achievement, attendance, and disciplinary outcomes concurrently.
Diseth, Age; Kobbeltvedt, Therese
Background: Previous research is inconclusive regarding antecedents and consequences of achievement goals, and there is a need for more research in order to examine the joint effects of different types of motives and learning strategies as predictors of academic achievement. Aims: To investigate the relationship between achievement motives,…
Afolabi, Olukayode Ayooluwa; Ogunmwonyi, Edosa; Okediji, Abayomi
This study examined influence of emotional intelligence and need for achievement on interpersonal relations and academic achievement of undergraduates. Questionnaires were administered to one hundred and ten (110) subjects. The independent variables are emotional intelligence and need for achievement, while the dependent variables are…
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of private tutoring expenditure on two types of Korean students' academic achievements as measured by standardized test achievement and by school performance achievement, applying 5-year data from Korean Educational Longitudinal Study (KELS). It was found that private tutoring expenditure…
Pinxten, Maarten; De Fraine, Bieke; Van Damme, Jan; D'Haenens, Ellen
Background: The relation between academic self-concept and achievement has been examined in a large number of studies. The majority of these studies have found evidence for a reciprocal effects model. However, there is an ongoing debate on how students' achievement should be measured and whether the type of achievement indicator (grades, tests,…
Acee, Taylor W.; Cho, Yoonjung; Kim, Jung-In; Weinstein, Claire Ellen
The major purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among properties of college students' self-set academic goals and academic achievement, using multiple theoretical perspectives. Using a personal goal-based research methodology, college students enrolled in a learning-to-learn course (N = 130) were asked to list 20 of their…
Høigaard, Rune; Kovac, Velibor Bobo; Øverby, Nina Cecilie; Haugen, Tommy
This study investigated the effects of proximal and distal constructs on adolescent's academic achievement through self-efficacy. Participants included 482 ninth-and tenth-grade Norwegian students who completed a questionnaire designed to assess school-goal orientations, organizational citizenship behavior, academic self-efficacy, and academic…
McInerney, Dennis M.; Cheng, Rebecca Wing-yi; Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching; Lam, Amy Kwok Hap
This study examined the prediction of academic self-concept (English and Mathematics) and learning strategies (deep and surface), and their direction of effect, on academic achievement (English and Mathematics) of 8,354 students from 16 secondary schools in Hong Kong. Two competing models were tested to ascertain the direction of effect: Model A…
Cokley, Kevin; McClain, Shannon; Jones, Martinique; Johnson, Samoan
The purpose of this study was to examine academic disidentification along with demographic and psychological factors related to the academic achievement of African American adolescents. Participants included 96 African American students (41 males, 55 females) in an urban high school setting located in the Southwest. Consistent with previous…
Professor Neil Carson, who is to retire as Chairman of Monash University's Department of Community Medicine at the end of this year, has completed a significant and successful term marked by many achievements. His energy, vision and ability to acquire and channel resources have helped develop a vibrant and productive department. His wise counsel and negotiating skills have led to important achievements for the cause of general practice in both the political sphere and in academic institutions. He was the founder and first president of the Australian Association for Academic General Practice. His impact on medical education, especially for general practice in Australia, has been far reaching.
Abd-El-Fattah, Sabry M.; Patrick, Rosan R.
The aim of the present study is to examine the relationships among achievement motivation orientations and academic achievement and interest and whether achievement goals mediate these relationships. A sample of 503 students aged 14-16 years from 8 secondary schools in two Australia cities responded to a questionnaire package, comprising measures…
In recent years a dramatic increase in enrollments of mature age students has occurred in courses of arts, social sciences, and humanities. The main objective of this study was to examine the predictive value of the age factor in the academic performance of behavioral science students at a regional college of advanced education in Australia. (SSH)
Intrator, Sam M.; Siegel, Donald
Researchers and educators have long tried to find the connection between participation in sport-related activities and academic and social development among youths. This article traces the conceptual ideas that led to the design of an after-school sports program (Project Coach). This program promotes positive youth and community development…
The paper reviews quantitative and qualitative research evidence regarding the relationship between intercultural education and academic achievement among students from socially marginalized communities. Intercultural education is conceptualized as including a focus both on generating understanding and respect for diverse cultural traditions and…
Young, Shakebra L.
This quantitative, cross-sectional, correlation research study explored the relationships between self-efficacy, social support, and academic achievement among single mothers aged 18 and older attending Mississippi public two-year institutions. A total of 82 single mothers provided data for this study by completing the following research…
Chen, Su-Yen; Chang, Hsing-Yu; Yang, Shih Ruey
The linkage between reading for pleasure and language ability has been well established, but the relationship between content-based recreational reading and academic achievement in various subject areas has rarely been explored. To investigate whether reading literature, social studies, and science trade books for pleasure is related to students'…
Li, Weiwei; Yang, Wenjing; Li, Wenfu; Li, Yadan; Wei, Dongtao; Li, Huimin; Qiu, Jiang; Zhang, Qinglin
Creative persons play an important role in technical innovation and social progress. There is little research on the neural correlates with researchers with high academic achievement. We used a combined structural (regional gray matter volume, rGMV) and functional (resting-state functional connectivity analysis, rsFC) approach to examine the…
Berger, Nathan; Archer, Jennifer
In recent years motivational researchers have spent considerable time examining race/ethnicity and gender differences in academic and social achievement goals, but little time examining the influence of socioeconomic status (SES). This lack of attention is surprising given that both student motivation and SES have been shown to predict academic…
Owens, Timothy J.; Shippee, Nathan D.; Hensel, Devon J.
Our study of the adolescent life course proposes that substantial maturation occurs within three intertwined arenas of development: the social, the psychological, and the normative attainment. Further, each arena may be linked, respectively, to three youth problem dimensions: drinking, depressive affect, and academic achievement. We use latent…
Ogundokun, Olubunmi K.
This study analyzes the relationship between school management strategies and student's academic achievement, while controlling for factors such as the school principals' age, gender, experience, as well as school size and location, Student's Social Economics Status (SES), English as a Second Language learner's population (ESL), Special Education…
Suárez, Natalia; Regueiro, Bibiana; Epstein, Joyce L; Piñeiro, Isabel; Díaz, Sara M; Valle, Antonio
Homework is a debated issue in society and its relationship with academic achievement has been deeply studied in the last years. Nowadays, schools are multicultural stages in which students from different cultures and ethnicities work together. In this sense, the present study aims to compare homework involvement and academic achievement in a sample of native and immigrant students, as well as to study immigrant students' relationship between homework involvement and Math achievement. The sample included 1328 students, 10-16 years old from Spanish families (85.6%) or immigrant students or students of immigrant origin (14.4%) from South America, Europe, Africa, and Asia. The study was developed considering three informants: elementary and secondary students, their parents and their teachers. Results showed higher involvement in homework in native students than in immigrant. Between immigrants students, those who are more involved in homework have better academic achievement in Math at secondary grades. There weren't found gender differences on homework involvement, but age differences were reported. Immigrant students are less involved in homework at secondary grades that students in elementary grades. The study highlights the relevance of homework involvement in academic achievement in immigrant students.
Suárez, Natalia; Regueiro, Bibiana; Epstein, Joyce L.; Piñeiro, Isabel; Díaz, Sara M.; Valle, Antonio
Homework is a debated issue in society and its relationship with academic achievement has been deeply studied in the last years. Nowadays, schools are multicultural stages in which students from different cultures and ethnicities work together. In this sense, the present study aims to compare homework involvement and academic achievement in a sample of native and immigrant students, as well as to study immigrant students’ relationship between homework involvement and Math achievement. The sample included 1328 students, 10–16 years old from Spanish families (85.6%) or immigrant students or students of immigrant origin (14.4%) from South America, Europe, Africa, and Asia. The study was developed considering three informants: elementary and secondary students, their parents and their teachers. Results showed higher involvement in homework in native students than in immigrant. Between immigrants students, those who are more involved in homework have better academic achievement in Math at secondary grades. There weren’t found gender differences on homework involvement, but age differences were reported. Immigrant students are less involved in homework at secondary grades that students in elementary grades. The study highlights the relevance of homework involvement in academic achievement in immigrant students. PMID:27757097
Voltas, Núria; Hernández-Martínez, Carmen; Aparicio, Estefania; Arija, Victoria; Canals, Josefa
This three-phase prospective study investigated psychosocial factors predicting or associated with academic achievement. An initial sample of 1,514 school-age children was assessed with screening tools for emotional problems (Screen for Childhood Anxiety and Related Emotional Disorders; Leyton Obsessional Inventory-Child Version; Children's Depression Inventory). The following year, 562 subjects (risk group/without risk group) were re-assessed and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was assessed. Two years later, 242 subjects were followed, and their parents informed about their academic achievement. Results showed that early depression (phase 1 B = -.130, p = .001; phase 1 + phase 2 B = -.187, p < .001), persistent anxiety symptoms (phase 1 + phase 2 B = -1.721, p = .018), and ADHD were predictors of lower academic achievement (phase 1 + phase 2 B = -3.415, p = .005). However, some anxiety symptoms can improve academic achievement (Social phobia B = .216, p = .018; Generalized anxiety B = .313, p < .001). Socio-economic status (SES) was positively related to academic achievement. We can conclude that in the transition period to adolescence, school-health professionals and teachers need to consider the emotional issues of students to avoid unwanted academic outcomes.
Liu, Kun-Shia; Cheng, Ying-Yao; Chen, Yi-Ling; Wu, Yuh-Yih
This study used nationwide data from the Taiwan Education Panel Survey (TEPS) to examine the longitudinal effects of educational expectations and achievement attributions on the academic achievements of adolescents. The sample included 2,000 Taiwanese secondary school students, each of whom completed three waves of questionnaires and cognitive tests: the first in grade 7 (in 2001), the second in grade 9 (in 2003), and the third in grade 11 (in 2005). Through multilevel longitudinal analysis, the results showed: (1) educational expectations accounted for a moderate amount of the variance in academic achievements; (2) students with high educational expectations and effort attribution exhibited higher growth rates in their academic achievements; and (3) studentswith lower educational expectations and those attributing success to others showed significantly fewer academic achievements and significantly lower growth rates in such achievements. The results demonstrated that adolescents' educational expectations and achievement attributions play crucial roles in the long-term course of academic accomplishments. Implications for educational practice and further studies are also discussed.
Collet, Brent; Barron, Sheila; Romitti, Paul A.; Ansley, Timothy N.; Speltz, Matthew
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Previous studies of academic achievement of children with oral clefts have mostly relied on small, clinic-based samples prone to ascertainment bias. In the first study in the United States to use a population-based sample with direct assessment, we evaluated the academic achievement of children with oral clefts relative to their classmates. METHODS: Children born with isolated oral clefts in Iowa from 1983 to 2003 were identified from the Iowa Registry for Congenital and Inherited Disorders and matched to unaffected classmates by gender, school/school district, and month and year of birth. Academic achievement was assessed by using standardized tests of academic progress developed by the Iowa Testing Programs. Iowa Testing Programs data were linked to birth certificates for all children. Regression models controlled for household demographic and socioeconomic factors. The analytical sample included 588 children with clefts contributing 3735 child-grade observations and 1874 classmates contributing 13 159 child-grade observations. RESULTS: Children with oral clefts had lower scores than their classmates across all domains and school levels, with a 5-percentile difference in the overall composite score. Children with clefts were approximately one-half grade level behind their classmates and had higher rates of academic underachievement and use of special education services by 8 percentage points. Group differences were slightly lower but remained large and significant after adjusting for many background characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: Children with oral clefts underperformed across all academic areas and grade levels compared with their classmates. The results support a model of early testing and intervention among affected children to identify and reduce academic deficits. PMID:24753523
Khan, Khalid; Wasserman, Gail A; Liu, Xinhua; Ahmed, Ershad; Parvez, Faruque; Slavkovich, Vesna; Levy, Diane; Mey, Jacob; van Geen, Alexander; Graziano, Joseph H; Factor-Litvak, Pam
Drinking water manganese (WMn) is a potential threat to children's health due to its associations with a wide range of outcomes including cognitive, behavioral and neuropsychological effects. Although adverse effects of Mn on cognitive function of the children indicate possible impact on their academic achievement little evidence on this issue is available. Moreover, little is known regarding potential interactions between exposure to Mn and other metals, especially water arsenic (WAs). In Araihazar, a rural area of Bangladesh, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 840 children to investigate associations between WMn and WAs and academic achievement in mathematics and languages among elementary school-children, aged 8-11 years. Data on As and Mn exposure were collected from the participants at the baseline of an ongoing longitudinal study of school-based educational intervention. Annual scores of the study children in languages (Bangla and English) and mathematics were obtained from the academic achievement records of the elementary schools. WMn above the WHO standard of 400μg/L was associated with 6.4% score loss (95% CI=-12.3 to -0.5) in mathematics achievement test scores, adjusted for WAs and other sociodemographic variables. We did not find any statistically significant associations between WMn and academic achievement in either language. Neither WAs nor urinary As was significantly related to any of the three academic achievement scores. Our finding suggests that a large number of children in rural Bangladesh may experience deficits in mathematics due to high concentrations of Mn exposure in drinking water.
Gremmen, Mariola Claudia; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Steglich, Christian; Veenstra, René
This study concerns peer selection and influence dynamics in early adolescents' friendships regarding academic achievement. Using longitudinal social network analysis (RSiena), both selection and influence processes were investigated for students' average grades and their cluster-specific grades (i.e., language, exact, and social cluster). Data were derived from the SNARE (Social Network Analysis of Risk behavior in Early adolescence) study, using 6 waves (N = 601; Mage = 12.66, 48.9% boys at first wave). Results showed developmental differences between the first and second year of secondary school (seventh and eighth grade). Whereas selection processes were found in the first year on students' cluster-specific grades, influence processes were found in the second year, on both students' average and cluster-specific grades. These results suggest that students initially tend to select friends on the basis of similar cluster-based grades (first year), showing that similarity in achievement is attractive for friendships. Especially for low-achieving students, similar-achieving students were highly attractive as friends, whereas they were mostly avoided by high-achieving students. Influence processes on academic achievement take place later on (second year), when students know each other better, indicating that students' grades become more similar over time in response to their connectedness. Concluding, this study shows the importance of developmental differences and specific school subjects for understanding peer selection and influence processes in adolescents' academic achievement. (PsycINFO Database Record
Gray, Sarah Anne; Dueck, Katherine; Rogers, Maria; Tannock, Rosemary
Background: A body of literature has emerged that links inattentive symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to poor academic achievement. Major variation across studies renders conclusions about this relationship complex. Purpose: This review will provide a qualitative synthesis of these studies that (1) use community samples…
Gilpatrick, Robin Sue Holzworth
This mixed method project study identified the need for effective classroom management strategies to dissuade student noncompliant behavior and to ensure academic success for all students. Enhancing classroom management practices is vital to improved student achievement and teacher self-efficacy. Within a constructivist framework, it is critical…
Bieker, Richard F.
Analysis of the academic achievement of 71 business administration graduates indicated that scores on the Graduate Management Admissions Test (GMAT) are more significant predictors of graduate performance than undergraduate performance is. The relationship between graduate performance and GMAT score differs for black students and white students.…
Planchard, Matthew; Daniel, Kristy L.; Maroo, Jill; Mishra, Chandrani; McLean, Tim
We conducted a mixed methods study in an upper-level genetics course exploring the relationships between student motivation, homework completion, and academic achievement at the college level. We used data from an open-ended questionnaire, homework grades and completion reports, and exam scores. We used these data sources to measure self-perceived…
Sulak, Tracey N.
School climate research has indicated a relationship between the climate of a school and academic achievement. The majority of explanatory models have been developed in urban schools with less attention given to suburban schools. Due to the process of formation of suburban schools, there is a likelihood these campuses differ from the traditional…
Keister, Mary; Hall, Joshua
Educators are often in a position to affect student decisions to work during the school term. This study reviews and summarizes the literature on the effect that employment during high school has on academic achievement. The available evidence suggests that part-time jobs for high school students are beneficial as long as the number of hours…
Adamuti-Trache, Maria; Sweet, Robert
This study employs the 2004 School Achievement Indicators Program (SAIP) data to examine whether academic effort manifested by greater investments in school and homework does result in higher literacy scores in science for Canadian students. The study compares four gender-immigrant profiles: Canadian-born males, immigrant males, Canadian-born…
Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Kristjansson, Alfgeir Logi; Allegrante, John P.
Interest in the relationship between health behaviours and academic achievement has recently intensified in the face of an epidemic of childhood and adolescent obesity and converging school reforms in the United States and other nations with advanced economies. Epidemiologic research has demonstrated that poor diet and lack of adequate physical…
Hubbard, Trina; Newell, Michelle
This study describes a program designed to increase academic achievement in reading and writing among first and second grade students in a rural, middle-income area. Evidence for the existence of the problem includes reading comprehension tests, observation checklists for reading skills and reading behaviors, and writing samples. Analysis of…
Hendriks, A. A. Jolijn; Kuyper, Hans; Lubbers, Miranda J.; Van der Werf, Margaretha P. C.
We investigated whether personality moderates group influence of classmates on academic achievement and whether these so-called context effects can be attributed to peer pressure. The sample consisted of 2498 students in their first year of Dutch secondary education. The data were analyzed by a two-level (students within classes) analysis,…
Franklin, Marshalynn Morgan
This study investigated teacher impact on the academic achievement of students of poverty. Teacher impact was analyzed based on two factors: (1) teacher emotional empathy and (2) teacher professional development experiences. The results of this study indicate a non-correlative relationship between teachers' overall emotional empathy and…
Smrtnik-Vitulic, Helena; Zupancic, Maja
The study examined the predictive value of adolescents' personality trait ratings by different groups of informants in explaining academic achievement [grade point average (GPA)] while controlling for students' sex and their mothers' education. The Inventory of Child/Adolescent Individual Differences was employed as a measure of students'…
Bazelais, Paul; Lemay, David John; Doleck, Tenzin
Research has suggested that achievement is not solely based on the cognitive abilities of the learner, but rather on the combination of cognitive ability and personality traits. This paper explores how grit affects student academic performance and success in first-year college physics students in the context of a Quebec Collège d'enseignement…
Foote Sykes, Darold E.
Research has shown that the adolescent African American male, in comparison to his peers of other races, is challenged by a diversity of destructive factors that significantly affect his future. This study examined the disparity in academic achievement that exists between African American male students and other student populations in the United…
Couch, James V.; And Others
An investigation of self-statements, test anxiety and academic achievement studied 426 college students. Research methodology is defined, demographics and student profiles for both facilitative and debilitative test anxiety are presented, with the resulting findings for each testing component. The student profile for high facilitative test anxiety…
Olatoye, R. Ademola; Akintunde, S. O.; Yakasai, M. I.
Introduction: This study investigated the extent to which the level of creativity and emotional intelligence influenced the level of academic achievement of Higher National Diploma HND business administration students of Polytechnics in the South Western States of Nigeria. Method: Three instruments; Student Cumulative Grade Point (CGPA)…
Front Range Community Coll., Westminster, CO.
This report describes student academic achievement assessment activities at Front Range Community College (FRCC) (Colorado). According to this plan, all major decisions within the college will be based on four strategic initiatives: quality of student experience; excellence of human resources; college flexibility and responsibility; and…
Beşoluk, Senol; Onder, Ismail; Deveci, Isa
The present study investigates whether the circadian preferences of students are related to their academic achievements. This study explores whether different class times affect students' achievement and examines the performance of students on final exams administered at 09:30 h for differences according to chronotype. A total of 1471 university students between 18 and 25 yrs of age responded to a morningness-eveningness questionnaire (MEQ), and data on their cumulative grade point averages (CGPA) were also collected from their transcripts. Some of the students in the sample attended classes during the first teaching period, which started at 08:00 h and ended at 14:50 h, and the remaining students followed the second schedule, which started at 15:00 h and ended at 21:50 h. MEQ scores were found to differ by sex. MEQ scores partially predicted academic success and that students' academic achievements differed according to the time of the teaching period. Moreover, final exam (administered at 09:30 h) scores differed with respect to their circadian preferences; students with a morning preference achieved higher scores than either those with an evening or intermediate preference. Both teaching and test start times thus impact academic performance.
English language learners (ELL students) were not attaining and maintaining sufficient proficiency at public schools in Northern California, as measured by students' achievement scores on state and district assessments. The purpose of this quasi-experimental research was to determine whether there were differences in academic language arts…
Brigman, Greg; Campbell, Chari
This article describes a study evaluating the impact of school-counselor-led interventions on student academic achievement and school success behavior. A group counseling and classroom guidance model called student success skills (SSS) was the primary intervention. The focus of the SSS model was on three sets of skills identified in several…
Tomporowski, Phillip D.; Davis, Catherine L.; Miller, Patricia H.; Naglieri, Jack A.
Studies that examine the effects of exercise on children's intelligence, cognition, or academic achievement were reviewed and results were discussed in light of (a) contemporary cognitive theory development directed toward exercise, (b) recent research demonstrating the salutary effects of exercise on adults' cognitive functioning, and (c) studies…
Burford, Charles Thomas
The purpose of this study was to report on the academic achievement of Red Deer College transfer students at three Alberta Universities for 1968-1971. Transfer students were matched with native students from the universities using session year, year of program, degree sought, age, sex, and first year cumulative grade-point average. These matched…
Ishak, Zahari; Low, Suet Fin; Lau, Poh Li
Parenting styles have always been a crucial factor in influencing all aspects of a person's development. The purpose of this study is to test the structural equation model of academic achievement among the students using parenting styles as a moderator. The sample comprised 493 students from eight schools. Parenting styles are determined using the…
Moradi Sheykhjan, Tohid; Jabari, Kamran; Rajeswari, K.
The primary purpose of this study was to determine the influence of self-esteem on academic achievement among high school students in Miandoab City of Iran. The methodology of the research is descriptive and correlation that descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. Statistical Society includes male and female high…
This article discusses an approach to teaching used at Calexico Unified School District, a California-Mexican border high school, by a group of teachers working to make teaching and learning more relevant to Chicano and Mexican students' lives and to improve their academic achievement in writing. An off-shoot of a training program for English…
Matlock, Ki; Song, Joon Jin; Goering, Christian Z.
This study investigated the influences of district-related variables on a district's academic performance. Arkansas augmented benchmark examination scores were used to measure a district's scholastic achievement. Spatial analysis fit each district's performance to its geographical location; spatial autocorrelation measured the amount of influence…
Reyes, Maria R.; Brackett, Marc A.; Rivers, Susan E.; White, Mark; Salovey, Peter
The emotional connections students foster in their classrooms are likely to impact their success in school. Using a multimethod, multilevel approach, this study examined the link between classroom emotional climate and academic achievement, including the role of student engagement as a mediator. Data were collected from 63 fifth- and sixth-grade…
Georgakis, Steve; Evans, John Robert; Warwick, Leanne
While sport and student-athletes have featured in the Australian education system since compulsory schooling, there has been no analysis to date of the link between academic achievement and elite student-athletes. However, this is in stark contrast to the United States of America (US), where student-athletes have been the subject of sustained…
Prusank, Diane T.; Comadena, Mark E.
A study examined the relationship between communication apprehension (CA) and academic achievement among elementary school students and whether that relationship was different for males and females. Subjects were 144 (74 females, 70 males) students enrolled in grades 2-5 at a laboratory school on the campus of a midwestern university. Academic…
Wuensch, Karl L.; Lao, Rosina C.
Nine groups of undergraduate students were formed on the basis of one-third splits of the distributions of their scores on an internality-externality measure and on an achievement motive measure. Academic performance was measured by obtaining grade point averages for all subjects. Analysis of variance showed that internal students made higher…
Wagmiller, Robert L., Jr.; Gershoff, Elizabeth; Veliz, Philip; Clements, Margaret
Promoting marriage, especially among low-income single mothers with children, is increasingly viewed as a promising public policy strategy for improving developmental outcomes for disadvantaged children. Previous research suggests, however, that children's academic achievement either does not improve or declines when single mothers marry. In this…
Mason, Hope I.
With the push for teacher accountability and the controversy concerning high-stakes testing, more teachers are looking for systematic ways to increase academic achievement. If the U.S. is to regain its global position as number 1 in the education arena, education policy must dictate that teachers integrate technology as a regular part of core…
Towner, Terri L.
Research on the influence of class size on student academic achievement is important for university instructors, administrators, and students. The article examines the influence of class size--a small section versus a large section--in introductory political science courses on student grades in two comparable semesters. It is expected that…
McKinney, James D.; And Others
This study investigated the relationship between learning styles, classroom behaviors, ability levels, and academic achievement in an open classroom kindergarten setting. Thirty subjects were selected (ten children from each of the 4-, 5-, and 6-year-old groups). Each child was tested on the following measures: Matching Familiar Figures (MMF);…
The purpose of this quantitative correlational research was to study the relationship between class size and students' academic achievement. Citywide language arts and math test scores for third and fifth grade students in four New York City public schools were examined using a variety of variables including (a) gender, (b) ethnicity, (c) grade…
Jurich, Sonia; Estes, Steve
This document contains information about the methodology and findings of a study that identified 20 programs across the United States that have been successful in raising student's academic achievement. Part 1 contains the following items: (1) an explanation of the process and criteria used to select the 20 examples of excellence drawn from the 96…
Johnson, Wendy; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G
Most studies have considered the effects of particular characteristics on academic achievement individually, which means that little is known about how they function together. Using the population-based Minnesota Twin Family Study, the authors investigated the effects of child academic engagement (interest, involvement, effort), IQ, depression, externalizing behavior, and family environmental risk on academic achievement (reported school grades) from ages 11 through 17. Hierarchical linear growth curve modeling showed main effects on initial reported Grades for all variables, and IQ mitigated the deleterious effects of family risk and externalizing. Only engagement affected change in Grades through adolescence. Influences on initial Grades were strongly genetically influenced, associated primarily with IQ, engagement, and externalizing behavior. Shared environmental influences on initial Grades linked engagement, IQ, and family risk. Genetic influences on change in Grades were substantial, but they were not associated with the academic, family risk, and mental health covarying factors. These results indicate that age 11 achievement and change in achievement through adolescence show systematic patterns and document the existence of individual differences in the commonly shared developmental experience of adapting to the school environment.
Stankov, Lazar; Morony, Suzanne; Lee, Yim Ping
Recent efforts to identify non-cognitive predictors of academic achievement and school success have largely focused on self-constructs such as self-efficacy, self-concept and anxiety that are measured with respect to a specific domain (e.g. mathematics). We extend the measurement of the non-cognitive realm in education to incorporate both social…
This paper reports the results of an investigation on the effect of cooperative learning on academic achievement of physics course. Cooperative learning was employed to experimental group and conventional teaching method was used for control group. Sampling of the study consists of 15-16 years old 220 students at high school in Iran. The progress…
DeBaryshe, Barbara D.; And Others
This study followed 206 adolescent boys and their families from the fourth through eighth grade to test a model for conduct-related school failure. Results indicated that low parental academic achievement was associated with ineffective discipline practices and child antisocial behavior in the sixth grade and that ineffective discipline had a…
Datu, Jesus Alfonso D
Recent literature has recognized the advantageous role of low-arousal positive affect such as feelings of peacefulness and internal harmony in collectivist cultures. However, limited research has explored the benefits of low-arousal affective states in the educational setting. The current study examined the link of peace of mind (PoM) to academic motivation (i.e., amotivation, controlled motivation, and autonomous motivation) and academic achievement among 525 Filipino high school students. Findings revealed that PoM was positively associated with academic achievement β = .16, p < .05, autonomous motivation β = .48, p < .001, and controlled motivation β = .25, p < .01. As expected, PoM was negatively related to amotivation β = -.19, p < .05, and autonomous motivation was positively associated with academic achievement β = .52, p < .01. Furthermore, the results of bias-corrected bootstrap analyses at 95% confidence interval based on 5,000 bootstrapped resamples demonstrated that peace of mind had an indirect influence on academic achievement through the mediating effects of autonomous motivation. In terms of the effect sizes, the findings showed that PoM explained about 1% to 18% of the variance in academic achievement and motivation. The theoretical and practical implications of the results are elucidated.
Educational policies and practices have been largely unsuccessful in closing the achievement gap between Black and White students "Schwartz, 2001". This achievement gap is especially problematic for Black students in science "Maton, Hrabrowski, - Schmitt, 2000. Given the fact that the Black-White achievement gap is still an enigma, the purpose of this article is to address the Black female-Black male academic achievement gap in science majors. Addressing barriers that Black male students may experience as college science and engineering majors, this article presents marketing strategies relative to politics, emotional intelligence, and issues with respect to how science teaching, and Black male students' responses to it, are different. Many Black male students may need to experience a paradigm shift, which structures and enhances their science achievement. Paradigm shifts are necessary because exceptional academic ability and motivation are not enough to get Black males from their first year in a science, technology, education, and mathematics "STEM" major to a bachelor's degree in science and engineering. The conclusions focus on the balance of truth-slippery slopes concerning the confluence of science teachers' further ado and Black male students' theories, methods, and values that position their academic achievement in science and engineering majors.
Costley, Kevin C.
During the twentieth century it has been theorized that there is a link between musical achievement and academic achievement of young children. In support of this controversial view, many educators and music specialists promote the relationship between, parent, teacher, and child. The theory is: with cooperative learning experiences in the study…
Nasser, Ramzi; McInerney, Dennis
This study investigated the relation between motivational goals and university intentions, school valuing and school achievement. The premise of this study is that motivational goals play a key role in academic values and achievement. Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to establish the construct validity of the motivational measures drawn…
Three programs sponsored by the Seattle (Washington) public schools' Office of Academic Achievement were evaluated: the Academic Achievement Project, Early Childhood Model (ECM) Schools, and Pilot Projects. Academic Achievement projects were designed to increase the academic achievement of at-risk learners and to decrease disproportionality. The…
Marschark, Marc; Rhoten, Cathy; Fabich, Megan
This article presents a critical analysis of empirical studies assessing literacy and other domains of academic achievement among children with cochlear implants. A variety of recent studies have demonstrated benefits to hearing, language, and speech from implants, leading to assumptions that early implantation and longer periods of implant should be associated with higher reading and academic achievement. This review, however, reveals that although there are clear benefits of cochlear implantation to achievement in young deaf children, empirical results have been somewhat variable. Examination of the literature with regard to reading achievement suggests that the lack of consistent findings might be the result of frequent failures to control potentially confounding variables such as age of implantation, language skills prior to implantation, reading ability prior to implantation, and consistency of implant use. Studies of academic achievement beyond reading are relatively rare, and the extent to which performance in such domains is mediated by reading abilities or directly influenced by hearing, language, and speech remains unclear. Considerations of methodological shortcomings in existing research as well as theoretical and practical questions yet to be addressed provide direction for future research.
Casillas, Alex; Robbins, Steve; Allen, Jeff; Kuo, Yi-Lung; Hanson, Mary Ann; Schmeiser, Cynthia
The authors examined the differential effects of prior academic achievement, psychosocial, behavioral, demographic, and school context factors on early high school grade point average (GPA) using a prospective study of 4,660 middle-school students from 24 schools. The findings suggest that (a) prior grades and standardized achievement are the…
Ayers, Teresa Horne
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between stress, coping resources, and academic achievement in fourth-grade urban youth. The intent was to examine if students' perceptions of their stress and coping resources could predict reading and math achievement. The data were collected from 24 low-income African American students…
Colvin, Tisha Stoll
The current study explored socialization variables (academic discipline, part-time versus full-time enrollment status, and student involvement with research and teaching assistantships) and educational psychological variables (academic help-seeking attitudes, achievement goal orientations, and dissertation self-efficacy) in relation to…
Gordon, Derrick M.; Iwamoto, Derek; Ward, Nadia; Potts, Randolph; Boyd, Elizabeth
Researchers have called for innovative and culturally responsive intervention programs to enhance male, African American middle school students’ academic achievement. Mentoring has received considerable attention as a novel remedy. Although anecdotal evidence supports the positive role of mentoring on academic achievement, these results are not consistent. The Benjamin E. Mays Institute (BEMI) builds on the ideals of mentoring to counter the effects academic underachievement among adolescent Black males by building a model that is Afro-centric, uses pro-social modeling, and emphasizes cultural strengths and pride, and single-sex instruction in a dual-sex educational environment. Sixty-one middle-school Black males were enrolled (BEMI: n=29; Comparison: n=32) in this study. Results revealed that students in the BEMI program had significantly greater academic attachment scores and academic success than their non-mentored peers. Additionally, racial identity attitudes of immersion/emersion and internalization and identification with academics were also significantly associated with standardized achievement tests and GPA. Policy and practice implications are discussed. PMID:20379371
Chu, Samuel Kai-Wah; Du, Helen S.
This is an exploratory study investigating the use of social networking tools in academic libraries, examining the extent of their use, library staff's perceptions of their usefulness and challenges, and factors influencing decisions to use or not to use such tools. Invitations to participate in a web-based survey were sent to 140 university…
Vaughan, Ellen L; Corbin, William R; Fromme, Kim
This longitudinal study of 1,447 first-time college students tested separate time-varying covariate models of the relations between academic and social motives/behaviors and alcohol use and related problems from senior year of high school through the end of the second year in college. Structural equation models identified small but significant inverse relations between academic motives/behaviors and alcohol use across all time points, with relations of somewhat larger magnitude between academic motives/behaviors and alcohol-related problems across all semesters other than senior year in high school. At all time points, there were much larger positive relations between social motives/behaviors and alcohol use across all semesters, with smaller but significant relations between social motives/behaviors and alcohol-related problems. Multi-group models found considerable consistency in the relations between motives/behaviors and alcohol-related outcomes across gender, race/ethnicity, and family history of alcohol problems, although academic motives/behaviors played a stronger protective role for women, and social motives were a more robust risk factor for Caucasian and Latino students and individuals with a positive family history of alcohol problems. Implications for alcohol prevention efforts among college students are discussed.
Hale, James B; Reddy, Linda A; Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Hain, Lisa A; Whitaker, James; Morley, Jessica; Lawrence, Kyle; Smith, Alex; Jones, Nicole
Methylphenidate (MPH) often ameliorates attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) behavioral dysfunction according to indirect informant reports and rating scales. The standard of care behavioral MPH titration approach seldom includes direct neuropsychological or academic assessment data to determine treatment efficacy. Documenting "cool" executive-working memory (EWM) and "hot" self-regulation (SR) neuropsychological impairments could aid in differential diagnosis of ADHD subtypes and determining cognitive and academic MPH response. In this study, children aged 6 to 16 with ADHD inattentive type (IT; n = 19) and combined type (n = 33)/hyperactive-impulsive type (n = 4) (CT) participated in double-blind placebo-controlled MPH trials with baseline and randomized placebo, low MPH dose, and high MPH dose conditions. EWM/ SR measures and behavior ratings/classroom observations were rank ordered separately across conditions, with nonparametric randomization tests conducted to determine individual MPH response. Participants were subsequently grouped according to their level of cool EWM and hot SR circuit dysfunction. Robust cognitive and behavioral MPH response was achieved for children with significant baseline EWM/SR impairment, yet response was poor for those with adequate EWM/ SR baseline performance. Even for strong MPH responders, the best dose for neuropsychological functioning was typically lower than the best dose for behavior. Findings offer one possible explanation for why long-term academic MPH treatment gains in ADHD have not been realized. Implications for academic achievement and medication titration practices for children with behaviorally diagnosed ADHD will be discussed.
Morrissey, Taryn W; Hutchison, Lindsey; Winsler, Adam
Low family income is associated with poor academic achievement among children. Higher rates of school absence and tardiness may be one mechanism through which low family income impacts children's academic success. This study examines relations between family income, as measured by receipt of free or reduced-price lunch, school attendance, and academic achievement among a diverse sample of children from kindergarten to 4th grade (N = 35,419) using both random and within-child fixed-effects models. Generally, results suggest that the receipt of free or reduced-price lunch and duration of receipt have small but positive associations with school absences and tardies. Poor attendance patterns predict poorer grades, with absences more associated with grades than tardies. Given the small associations between receipt of free or reduced-price lunch and school attendance, and between the duration of receipt of free or reduced-price lunch and children's grades, results do not provide strong evidence that absences and tardies meaningfully attenuate relations between the duration of low family income and student achievement; poorer attendance and persistent low income independently predict poorer grades. Implications for policy and future research are discussed.
Claro, Susana; Paunesku, David; Dweck, Carol S
Two largely separate bodies of empirical research have shown that academic achievement is influenced by structural factors, such as socioeconomic background, and psychological factors, such as students' beliefs about their abilities. In this research, we use a nationwide sample of high school students from Chile to investigate how these factors interact on a systemic level. Confirming prior research, we find that family income is a strong predictor of achievement. Extending prior research, we find that a growth mindset (the belief that intelligence is not fixed and can be developed) is a comparably strong predictor of achievement and that it exhibits a positive relationship with achievement across all of the socioeconomic strata in the country. Furthermore, we find that students from lower-income families were less likely to hold a growth mindset than their wealthier peers, but those who did hold a growth mindset were appreciably buffered against the deleterious effects of poverty on achievement: students in the lowest 10th percentile of family income who exhibited a growth mindset showed academic performance as high as that of fixed mindset students from the 80th income percentile. These results suggest that students' mindsets may temper or exacerbate the effects of economic disadvantage on a systemic level.
Claro, Susana; Paunesku, David; Dweck, Carol S.
Two largely separate bodies of empirical research have shown that academic achievement is influenced by structural factors, such as socioeconomic background, and psychological factors, such as students’ beliefs about their abilities. In this research, we use a nationwide sample of high school students from Chile to investigate how these factors interact on a systemic level. Confirming prior research, we find that family income is a strong predictor of achievement. Extending prior research, we find that a growth mindset (the belief that intelligence is not fixed and can be developed) is a comparably strong predictor of achievement and that it exhibits a positive relationship with achievement across all of the socioeconomic strata in the country. Furthermore, we find that students from lower-income families were less likely to hold a growth mindset than their wealthier peers, but those who did hold a growth mindset were appreciably buffered against the deleterious effects of poverty on achievement: students in the lowest 10th percentile of family income who exhibited a growth mindset showed academic performance as high as that of fixed mindset students from the 80th income percentile. These results suggest that students’ mindsets may temper or exacerbate the effects of economic disadvantage on a systemic level. PMID:27432947
Howard, Anissa K.; Ziomek-Daigle, Jolie
Utilizing a single-group interrupted time series design (Creswell, 2003), this pilot study examined the relationship between academic achievement, school bonding, and the extracurricular activity participation of "uninvolved" students (n=11) who participated in a voluntary support group at a suburban high school in the southeast. Results…
A study analyzed family decision-making style, peer group affiliation, and academic achievement in 10th grade as predictors of academic achievement of African American students in 12th grade. Findings indicated that though peer groups were known to influence academic performance, affiliation with learning oriented peers in 10th grade did not…
For non-native English writers, second language (L2) advanced academic literacy encompasses knowledge of the rhetorical, linguistic, social and cultural features of academic discourse as well as knowledge of English as used by their academic disciplines. Literacy is acquired through a socialization process embedded in social practice, patterned by…
Rimfeld, Kaili; Kovas, Yulia; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert
Grit -- perseverance and passion for long-term goals -- has been shown to be a significant predictor of academic success, even after controlling for other personality factors. Here, for the first time, we use a UK-representative sample and a genetically sensitive design to unpack the etiology of grit and its prediction of academic achievement in comparison to well-established personality traits. For 4,642 16-year-olds (2,321 twin pairs), we used the Grit-S scale (Perseverance of Effort and Consistency of Interest), along with the Big-5 personality traits, to predict scores on the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) exams, which are administered UK-wide at the end of compulsory education. Twin analyses of Grit Perseverance yielded a heritability estimate of 37% (20% for Consistency of Interest) and no evidence for shared environmental influence. Personality, primarily Conscientiousness, predicts about 6% of the variance in GCSE scores, but Grit adds little to this prediction. Moreover, multivariate twin analyses showed that roughly two-thirds of the GCSE prediction is mediated genetically. Grit Perseverance of Effort and Big-5 Conscientiousness are to a large extent the same trait both phenotypically (r=0.53) and genetically (genetic correlation = 0. 86). We conclude that the etiology of Grit is highly similar to other personality traits, not only in showing substantial genetic influence but also in showing no influence of shared environmental factors. Personality significantly predicts academic achievement, but Grit adds little phenotypically or genetically to the prediction of academic achievement beyond traditional personality factors, especially Conscientiousness. PMID:26867111
This study utilises a quantitative case study social network approach to explore the connection between masculinity and scholastic achievement in two secondary, all-boys schools in Australia. In both schools two social networks representing social status are explored: the "friendship" network as a measure of status that includes…
Ruban, Lilia M; McCoach, D Betsy; McGuire, Joan M; Reis, Sally M
Although research on academic self-regulation has proliferated in recent years, no studies have investigated the question of whether the perceived usefulness and the use of standard self-regulated learning strategies and compensation strategies provide a differential prediction of academic achievement for university students with and without learning disabilities (LD). We developed and tested a model explaining interrelationships among self-regulatory variables and grade point average (GPA) using structural equation modeling and multiple group analysis for students with LD (n = 53) and without LD (n = 421). Data were gathered using a new instrument, the Learning Strategies and Study Skills survey. The results of this study indicate that students with LD differed significantly from students without LD in the relationships between their motivation for and use of standard self-regulated learning strategies and compensation strategies, which in turn provided a differential explanation of academic achievement for students with and without LD. These paths of influence and idiosyncrasies of academic self-regulation among students with LD were interpreted in terms of social cognitive theory, metacognitive theory, and research conducted in the LD field.
Valle, Antonio; Regueiro, Bibiana; Núñez, José C; Rodríguez, Susana; Piñeiro, Isabel; Rosário, Pedro
There seems to be a general consensus in the literature that doing homework is beneficial for students. Thus, the current challenge is to examine the process of doing homework to find which variables may help students to complete the homework assigned. To address this goal, a path analysis model was fit. The model hypothesized that the way students engage in homework is explained by the type of academic goals set, and it explains the amount of time spend on homework, the homework time management, and the amount of homework done. Lastly, the amount of homework done is positively related to academic achievement. The model was fit using a sample of 535 Spanish students from the last three courses of elementary school (aged 9 to 13). Findings show that: (a) academic achievement was positively associated with the amount of homework completed, (b) the amount of homework completed was related to the homework time management,
Deiorio, Nicole M; Carney, Patricia A; Kahl, Leslie E; Bonura, Erin M; Juve, Amy Miller
Background Individualized education is emerging as an innovative model for physician training. This requires faculty coaching to guide learners' achievements in academic performance, competency development, and career progression. In addition, coaching can foster self-reflection and self-monitoring using a data-guided approach to support lifelong learning. Context Coaching differs from mentoring or advising, and its application in medical education is novel. Because of this, definitions of the concept and the constructs of coaching as applied to medical education are needed to accurately assess the coaching relationship and coaching processes. These can then be linked to learner outcomes to inform how coaching serves as a modifier of academic and competency achievement and career satisfaction. Innovation We developed definitions and constructs for academic coaching in medical education based on review of existing education and non-education coaching literature. These constructs focus on 1) establishing relationship principles, 2) conducting learner assessments, 3) developing and implementing an action plan, and 4) assessing results and revising plans accordingly. Implication Coaching is emerging as an important construct in the context of medical education. This article lays the vital groundwork needed for evaluation of coaching programs aimed at producing outstanding physicians.
Deiorio, Nicole M.; Carney, Patricia A.; Kahl, Leslie E.; Bonura, Erin M.; Juve, Amy Miller
Background Individualized education is emerging as an innovative model for physician training. This requires faculty coaching to guide learners’ achievements in academic performance, competency development, and career progression. In addition, coaching can foster self-reflection and self-monitoring using a data-guided approach to support lifelong learning. Context Coaching differs from mentoring or advising, and its application in medical education is novel. Because of this, definitions of the concept and the constructs of coaching as applied to medical education are needed to accurately assess the coaching relationship and coaching processes. These can then be linked to learner outcomes to inform how coaching serves as a modifier of academic and competency achievement and career satisfaction. Innovation We developed definitions and constructs for academic coaching in medical education based on review of existing education and non-education coaching literature. These constructs focus on 1) establishing relationship principles, 2) conducting learner assessments, 3) developing and implementing an action plan, and 4) assessing results and revising plans accordingly. Implication Coaching is emerging as an important construct in the context of medical education. This article lays the vital groundwork needed for evaluation of coaching programs aimed at producing outstanding physicians. PMID:27914193
Rattermann, Mary Jo
This research presents data linking the impact of substance disorder to academic achievement, using data gathered at a recovery high school. Recovery schools provide recovery supports and a high-quality education to students with substance use disorders. The Global Appraisal of Individual Needs -- Short Screener and the Northwest Evaluation…
Valle, Antonio; Regueiro, Bibiana; Núñez, José C.; Rodríguez, Susana; Piñeiro, Isabel; Rosário, Pedro
There seems to be a general consensus in the literature that doing homework is beneficial for students. Thus, the current challenge is to examine the process of doing homework to find which variables may help students to complete the homework assigned. To address this goal, a path analysis model was fit. The model hypothesized that the way students engage in homework is explained by the type of academic goals set, and it explains the amount of time spend on homework, the homework time management, and the amount of homework done. Lastly, the amount of homework done is positively related to academic achievement. The model was fit using a sample of 535 Spanish students from the last three courses of elementary school (aged 9 to 13). Findings show that: (a) academic achievement was positively associated with the amount of homework completed, (b) the amount of homework completed was related to the homework time management, (c) homework time management was associated with the approach to homework, (d) and the approach to homework, like the rest of the variables of the model (except for the time spent on homework), was related to the student's academic motivation (i.e., academic goals). PMID:27065928
Tanaka, A; Yamauchi, H
This study investigated the effect of achievement motive on goal orientation, and that of goal orientation on intrinsic interest in learning and academic achievement, based on the model proposed by Elliot and Church (1997). A sample of 222 fifth and sixth grade students of an elementary school, and another of 307 seventh, eighth and ninth grade students of a junior high school participated in the study. The approach-avoidance framework of Elliot and Harackiewicz (1996) was used to classify goal orientations. With multiple-sample structural equation modeling, the paths in two causal models, one for each of the elementary and junior high school samples, were compared. A path was found from hope for success to mastery orientation, from both hope for success and fear of failure to performance-approach orientation, and from fear of failure to performance-avoidance orientation. Mastery and performance-approach orientations each had a positive effect on intrinsic interest in learning. For elementary school children, performance-approach orientation enhanced academic achievement, and for junior high school students, mastery orientation mainly facilitated it. Performance-avoidance orientation had a negative effect on both intrinsic interest and academic achievement.
Hamm, Jill V.; Farmer, Thomas W.; Lambert, Kerrylin; Gravelle, Maggie
Peer cultures of effort and achievement influence early adolescents' academic adjustment. A randomized controlled trials design was used to test the extent to which aspects of peer cultures of effort and achievement were enhanced following teachers' participation in the Supporting Early Adolescents' Learning and Social Success…
Gouzouasis, Peter; Guhn, Martin; Kishor, Nand
The relationship between musical training and general intellectual capacity as well as academic achievement has been discussed in numerous contexts. In our study, we examined the relationship between participation and achievement in music and achievement in academic courses, based on data from three consecutive British Columbia student cohorts.…
Tucker-Drob, Elliot M; Briley, Daniel A; Engelhardt, Laura E; Mann, Frank D; Harden, K Paige
Researchers and the general public have become increasingly intrigued by the roles that systematic tendencies toward thinking, feeling, and behaving might play in academic achievement. Some measures of constructs belonging to this group have been well studied in genetics and psychometrics, while much less is known about measures of other such constructs. The current study focuses on 7 character traits prominently featured in influential intervention-oriented and/or socialization theories of academic achievement: grit, intellectual curiosity, intellectual self-concept, mastery orientation, educational value, intelligence mindset, and test motivation. In a population-based sample of 811 school-aged twins and triplets from the Texas Twin Project, we tested (a) how each measure relates to indices of the Big Five personality traits, (b) how the measures relate to one another, (c) the extent to which each measure is associated with genetic and environmental influences and whether such influences operate through common dimensions of individual differences, and (d) the extent to which genetic and environmental factors mediate the relations between fluid intelligence, character measures, verbal knowledge, and academic achievement. We find moderate relations among the measures that can be captured by a highly heritable common dimension representing a mixture of Openness and Conscientiousness. Moreover, genetically influenced variance in the character measures is associated with multiple measures of verbal knowledge and academic achievement, even after controlling for fluid intelligence. In contrast, environmentally influenced variance in character is largely unrelated to knowledge and achievement outcomes. We propose that character measures popularly used in education may be best conceptualized as indexing facets of personality that are of particular relevance to academic achievement. (PsycINFO Database Record
Teator, Dawn; And Others
The author discusses ways that attendance workers, social workers, nurses, counselors and psychologists can work together to help students bridge the gap between school and home. She urges individuals involved with children to coordinate their efforts toward attendance, adjustment, and achievement. Speech presented at the Convention of the…
Marsh, Herbert W; Martin, Andrew J
BACKGROUND. A positive self-concept is valued as a desirable outcome in many disciplines of psychology as well as an important mediator to other outcomes. AIMS. The present review examines support for the reciprocal effects model (REM) that posits academic self-concept (ASC) and achievement are mutually reinforcing, each leading to gains in the other - and its extension to other achievement domains. METHOD. We review theoretical, methodological, and empirical support for the REM. Critical features in this research are a theoretical emphasis on multidimensional perspectives that focus on specific components of self-concept and a methodological focus on a construct validity approach to evaluating the REM. RESULTS. Consistent with these distinctions, REM research and a comprehensive meta-analysis show that prior ASC has direct and indirect effects on subsequent achievement, whilst the effects of self-esteem and other non-academic components of self-concept are negligible. We then provide an overview of subsequent support for the generality of the REM for: young children, cross-cultural, health (physical activity), and non-elite (gymnastics) and elite (international swimming championships) sport. CONCLUSION. This research is important in demonstrating that increases in ASC lead to increases in subsequent academic achievement and other desirable educational outcomes. Findings confirm that not only is self-concept an important outcome variable in itself, it also plays a central role in affecting other desirable educational outcomes. Implications for educational practice are discussed.
McClelland, Megan M; Cameron, Claire E
Self-regulation is a key construct in children's healthy and adaptive development. In this chapter, the authors situate self-regulation in a theoretical context that describes its underlying components that are most important for early school success: flexible attention, working memory, and inhibitory control. The authors review evidence that supports substantive links between these aspects of self-regulation and academic achievement in young children. They also discuss methodological challenges in reliably and validly assessing these skills (involving measures that are biased, are not applicable across broad age ranges, or triangulated) and describe some recent advances in measures of self-regulation (involving the NIH Toolbox or the Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders assessment) that are reliable, ecologically valid, and predictive of children's school achievement.
Davidovitch, Nitza; Casakin, Hernan
The present research investigates academic social climate in architectural studies as perceived by students. It studies the importance that the various measures of academic social climate have in the studio and in architectural classes. It also investigates the relation between the personal background of students and their sense of academic social…
Zhang, Baoshan; Wang, Mo; Li, Juan; Yu, Guoliang; Bi, Yan-Ling
Using an experimental design, the effect of concealing academic achievement information on adolescents' self-concept was examined in the current study. Specifically, adolescents with low academic achievement and adolescents with average to high academic achievement (N = 129) were randomly assigned to different interview contexts wherein…
Smith, Kelsey E.; Patterson, Chavis A.; Szabo, Margo M.; Tarazi, Reem A.; Barakat, Lamia P.
Children with sickle cell disease (SCD) are at risk for neurocognitive impairment and poor academic achievement, although there is limited research on factors predicting academic achievement in this population. This study explores the relative contribution to academic achievement of a comprehensive set of factors, such as environmental…
Bempechat, Janine; Li, Jin; Ronfard, Samuel
This mixed-methods study of urban low-income, English-proficient Chinese American, second-generation 15-year-olds (conducted in 2004; N = 32) examined the relation among the virtue model of learning communicated by parents and adolescents' learning beliefs, self-regulated learning (SRL) behaviors, and academic achievement. Analysis of in-depth individual interviews revealed that for these adolescents, perceptions of family educational socialization predicted students' endorsement of their culture's virtue-oriented learning beliefs and that adolescents' endorsement of these learning beliefs predicted their academic achievement. Importantly, adolescents' reported that use of SRL strategies mediated the relationship between their endorsement of virtue-oriented learning beliefs and their academic achievement. Findings are discussed in the context of further research linking cultural learning beliefs, SRL, and children's academic achievement.
Vrugt, Anneke; Oort, Frans J.
The purpose of this research was to develop and test a model of effective self-regulated learning. Based on effort expenditure we discerned effective self-regulators and less effective self-regulators. The model comprised achievement goals (mastery, performance-approach and -avoidance goals), metacognition (metacognitive knowledge, regulation and…
Impact of a Social-Emotional and Character Development Program on School-Level Indicators of Academic Achievement, Absenteeism, and Disciplinary Outcomes: A Matched-Pair, Cluster-Randomized, Controlled Trial
Snyder, Frank; Flay, Brian; Vuchinich, Samuel; Acock, Alan; Washburn, Isaac; Beets, Michael; Li, Kin-Kit
This article reports the effects of a comprehensive elementary school-based social-emotional and character education program on school-level achievement, absenteeism, and disciplinary outcomes utilizing a matched-pair, cluster-randomized, controlled design. The "Positive Action" Hawai'i trial included 20 racially/ethnically diverse…
Lecce, Serena; Caputi, Marcella; Hughes, Claire
This study adds to the growing research on school outcomes associated with individual differences in preschoolers' theory of mind skills by considering whether "costs" of theory of mind (e.g., sensitivity to criticism) actually help to foster children's academic achievement. A group of 60 Italian children was tested during the last year of preschool (Time 1, mean age=5years 6months) and in their first year (Time 2, mean age=6years 5months) and second year (Time 3, mean age=7years 5months) of primary school. Children's theory of mind, verbal ability, and social skills were evaluated at each time point. In addition, children's sensitivity to teacher criticism was assessed at Time 2 and teachers' ratings of children's academic achievement were gathered at Time 3. Mediation analyses showed that, independent of verbal ability and social skills, sensitivity to criticism at Time 2 mediated the association between theory of mind at Time 1 and academic achievement at Time 3. These findings highlight the importance of investigating the educational consequences of individual differences in preschoolers' theory of mind.
Lena, Hugh F.; And Others
This study analyzed the relative influence of individual social origins and academic achievement in organizational recruitment and practice outcomes for legal careers. It investigated the effects of background characteristics and academic performance measures for a national sample of college seniors on types of legal practices 25 years after…
Véronneau, Marie-Hélène; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Dishion, Thomas J; Tremblay, Richard E
This study tested a transactional model of reciprocal influences regarding students' peer experiences (peer acceptance, peer rejection, and friends' academic achievement) and students' academic achievement from middle childhood to early adolescence. This longitudinal model was tested on 452 students (198 girls), mostly Caucasian and French speaking, who were assessed yearly from Grades 2 through 7. Structural equation models revealed that, for boys and for girls, higher academic achievement predicted (a) increases in peer acceptance from Grades 2 through 6, (b) decreases in peer rejection from Grades 2 through 4 (through Grade 5 for girls), and (c) increases in friends' achievement from Grades 4 through 7. Also, rejection predicted decreases in academic achievement from Grades 3 through 5. These results suggest that academic achievement is a good predictor of peer group status in middle childhood and that high-achieving students start selecting each other as friends as they enter early adolescence. These data also suggest that peer rejection in childhood may disrupt future academic achievement. Possible mediating mechanisms, as well as peer selection and influences in the context of social development, are discussed.
Reynolds, Amy L.; Weigand, Matthew J.
This study examined the relationships among academic and psychological attitudes and academic achievement of first-year students. The College Resilience Scale, the Academic Motivation Scale, the College Self-Efficacy Inventory, and the University Environment Scale were administered to 164 first-year undergraduate students enrolled at a large RU/VH…
DeRosier, Melissa E.; Lloyd, Stacey W.
This study tested whether social adjustment added to the prediction of academic outcomes above and beyond prior academic functioning. School records and peer-, teacher-, and self-report measures were collected for 1,255 third grade children in the fall and spring of the school year. Social acceptance by and aggression with peers were included as measures of social adjustment. Academic outcomes included math and reading GPA, classroom behavior, academic self-esteem, and absenteeism. As expected, support for the causal model was found where both forms of social adjustment contributed independently to the prediction of each area of academic adjustment. Gender differences in the patterns of results were present, particularly for the impact of aggression on academic adjustment. Discussion focuses on the implications for social-emotional literacy programs to prevent negative academic outcomes. PMID:21603062
Williams, Terrinieka T; McMahon, Susan D; Keys, Christopher B
School experiences can have positive effects on student academic achievement, yet less is known about intermediary processes that contribute to these positive effects. We examined pathways between school experiences and academic achievement among 117 low-income urban students of color, many with disabilities, who transitioned to other schools following a school closure. Using structural equation modeling, we tested two ecological models that examined the relationships among self-reported school experiences, school support, academic self-efficacy, and school-reported academic achievement. The model in which the relationship between school experiences and academic achievement is mediated by both school support and academic self-efficacy, and that takes previous academic achievement into account, was an excellent fit with the data. The roles of contextual and individual factors as they relate to academic achievement, and the implications of these findings, are discussed.
Preckel, Franzis; Niepel, Christoph; Schneider, Marian; Brunner, Martin
Fostering social and academic self-concepts are central educational goals. During mid-adolescence academic engagement and success seem to be devalued by peers and to be negatively associated with students' social standing. For this age group, is the development of a positive academic self-concept compatible with the development of a positive social self-concept? We investigated relations among academic self-concept, social self-concept, and academic achievement. 1282 students (47.60% female) participated in three-waves of measurement in Grade 5, 6, and 8. Earlier social self-concept of acceptance negatively predicted changes in academic self-concept over time while earlier social self-concept of assertion positively predicted changes in academic self-concept. There were no significant relations between social self-concepts and achievement but positive reciprocal relations between academic self-concept and achievement. Results indicate that fostering adolescents self-concept in social and academic domains are compatible goals. However, some students need support in managing the challenge to coordinate social and academic goals.
Delgado, Melissa Y; Ettekal, Andrea Vest; Simpkins, Sandra D; Schaefer, David R
Are Latino adolescents' friendships an untapped resource for academic achievement or perhaps one of the reasons why these youth struggle academically? Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 6782; 7th through 12th graders; 52.9 % female), we examined whether the process of Latino students' school belonging mediated the relationships between the context of friendships (i.e., friendship network indicators) and their academic outcomes (i.e., a context-process-outcomes model), and tested whether the process-context link varied by friends' characteristics (i.e., GPA and problem behavior; social capital). Moreover, we tested whether all relationships varied across the four largest Latino subgroups in the U.S. (i.e., Mexican, Central/South American, Puerto Rican, and Cuban). Our findings indicate that being nominated as a friend by peers and perceiving to have friends exerted both direct effects on school belonging in all but one of the Latino ethnic samples (i.e., Puerto Rican samples) and indirect effects on academic achievement in the full Latino, Mexican, and Central/South American samples. As such, school belonging was more likely to explain the links between academic achievement with nominations by peers as a friend and perceived friends than with having close-knit friendship groups. However, having a close-knit group of average or low-achieving friends predicted more school belonging for Mexican youth, but less school belonging for Cubans. Our findings suggest that friendships may be particularly beneficial for the school belonging process of highly marginalized groups in the U.S. (i.e., Mexican-origin).
Gottlieb, Rosemary J; Rogers, Janet L
Students enrolled in a selected admissions program, in which there are a limited number of student positions available, were assessed for academic self-concept using the Dimensions of Self-Concept upon entry into the program. This study was performed to explore whether academic self-concept scores could predict successful completion of an academic program and the impact of self-concept scores on academic achievement and professional leadership.
DeFreitas, Stacie Craft
First-year African American and European American college students were surveyed to examine ethnic differences in how their social cognitive beliefs (self-efficacy and outcome expectations) influenced their academic achievement. It was hypothesized that outcome expectations may better explain academic achievement for African Americans due to the…
Mandell, Dorothy J.; Hill, Sheri L.; Carter, Louise; Brandon, Richard N.
Noting that little is known about how the social environment affects academic achievement among groups of students, this study examined the associations among substance use, violent/delinquent behavior, and academic achievement in groups of middle and high school students. Data sources for middle school students were the 1998 Washington State…
Davis, Catherine L.; Miller, Patricia H.; Naglieri, Jack A.
Studies that examine the effects of exercise on children’s intelligence, cognition, or academic achievement were reviewed and results were discussed in light of (a) contemporary cognitive theory development directed toward exercise, (b) recent research demonstrating the salutary effects of exercise on adults’ cognitive functioning, and (c) studies conducted with animals that have linked physical activity to changes in neurological development and behavior. Similar to adults, exercise facilitates children’s executive function (i.e., processes required to select, organize, and properly initiate goal-directed actions). Exercise may prove to be a simple, yet important, method of enhancing those aspects of children’s mental functioning central to cognitive development. PMID:19777141
Jantzer, Vanessa; Haffner, Johann; Parzer, Peter; Roos, Jeanette; Steen, Rainer; Resch, Franz
So far there are contradictory findings concerning the degree of negative influence of attention deficit disorders, external or socio-emotional disorders on academic development of a child. Therefore the present epidemiologic study analyses the relationship between clinically relevant problems and academic achievement of fourth graders (measured by recommendation for secondary school: A-level, B-level or C-level). Children (N = 3910) were rated by their parents by anonymised questionnaires (Child Behavior Checklist CBCL) at the end of primary school. Especially in the field of attention deficit, somatic and anxiety/depression disorders, many children were in a clinically relevant range compared to German norm data. It became obvious that future C-level pupils are particularly strong, multiply problem troubled, with constantly higher problems at all subscales. Mainly attention deficit disorders proved to be relevant for academic achievement, but also delinquent behaviour and social problems, which enhance the relative risk of recommendation for B- or C-level considerably. Early applied preventive interventions supporting social and cognitive development seem therefore of central importance for the school career of primary school children.
Klinkosz, Waldemar; Sekowski, Andrzej; Brambring, Michael
This study compared academic achievement by sighted versus visually impaired students at Polish universities and analyzed potential between-group differences on various personality traits and their impact on academic grades. Although there was no main effect of visual status on academic achievement, there were some significant differences between…
Andersen, Mikkel P.; Mortensen, Rikke N.; Vardinghus-Nielsen, Henrik; Franch, Jesper; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Bøggild, Henrik
Background: Time spent on physical activity in elementary school has been altered to improve core academics. However, little is known about the relationship between physical fitness and academic achievement. We examined the association between physical fitness and academic achievement and investigated the influence of parental socioeconomic status…
Kennedy, Renea F.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between GEAR UP academic support services and student achievement. GEAR UP is an evidence-based college readiness program. This study focused on a subset of academic support services designed to impact student achievement including: academic mentoring, math tutoring, English tutoring, study…
Schellenberg, James; Halteman, John
Results covering a period of two years (including three academic years) fail to give any evidence that elementary school children who are bussed do any better academically than those who remain in inner-city schools. (Author/AM)
Geoffroy, Marie-Claude; Côté, Sylvana. M.; Giguère, Charles-Édouard; Dionne, Ginette; Zelazo, Philip David; Tremblay, Richard E.; Boivin, Michel; Séguin, Jean. R.
Background Socially disadvantaged children with academic difficulties at school entry are at increased risk for poor health and psychosocial outcomes. Our objective is to test the possibility that participation in childcare – at the population level – could attenuate the gap in academic readiness and achievement between children with and without a social disadvantage (indexed by low levels of maternal education). Methods A cohort of infants born in the Canadian province of Quebec in 1997/1998 was selected through birth registries and followed annually until 7 years of age (n = 1,863). Children receiving formal childcare (i.e., center-based or non-relative out-of-home) were distinguished from those receiving informal childcare (i.e., relative or nanny). Measures from 4 standardized tests that assessed cognitive school readiness (Lollipop Test for School Readiness), receptive vocabulary (Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test Revised), mathematics (Number Knowledge Test), and reading performance (Kaufman Assessment Battery for children) were administered at 6 and 7 years. Results Children of mothers with low levels of education showed a consistent pattern of lower scores on academic readiness and achievement tests at 6 and 7 years than those of highly educated mothers, unless they received formal childcare. Specifically, among children of mothers with low levels of education, those who received formal childcare obtained higher school readiness (d = 0.87), receptive vocabulary (d = 0.36), reading (d = 0.48) and math achievement scores (d = 0.38; although not significant at 5%) in comparison with those who were cared for by their parents. Childcare participation was not associated with cognitive outcomes among children of mothers with higher levels of education. Conclusions Public investments in early childcare are increasing in many countries with the intention of reducing cognitive inequalities between disadvantaged and advantaged children. Our findings provide further
Lutzke, Steven Ronald
This mixed-methods study investigated relationships among gender, academic motivation and achievement in a mid-sized Wisconsin high school. A questionnaire was developed that focused on perceived ability, achievement motives and achievement goals. Interviews with teachers focused on relationships among academic motivation and gender achievement.…
Respondek, Lisa; Seufert, Tina; Stupnisky, Robert; Nett, Ulrike E
The present study addressed concerns over the high risk of university students' academic failure. It examined how perceived academic control and academic emotions predict undergraduate students' academic success, conceptualized as both low dropout intention and high achievement (indicated by GPA). A cross-sectional survey was administered to 883 undergraduate students across all disciplines of a German STEM orientated university. The study additionally compared freshman students (N = 597) vs. second-year students (N = 286). Using structural equation modeling, for the overall sample of undergraduate students we found that perceived academic control positively predicted enjoyment and achievement, as well as negatively predicted boredom and anxiety. The prediction of dropout intention by perceived academic control was fully mediated via anxiety. When taking perceived academic control into account, we found no specific impact of enjoyment or boredom on the intention to dropout and no specific impact of all three academic emotions on achievement. The multi-group analysis showed, however, that perceived academic control, enjoyment, and boredom among second-year students had a direct relationship with dropout intention. A major contribution of the present study was demonstrating the important roles of perceived academic control and anxiety in undergraduate students' academic success. Concerning corresponding institutional support and future research, the results suggested distinguishing incoming from advanced undergraduate students.
Respondek, Lisa; Seufert, Tina; Stupnisky, Robert; Nett, Ulrike E.
The present study addressed concerns over the high risk of university students' academic failure. It examined how perceived academic control and academic emotions predict undergraduate students' academic success, conceptualized as both low dropout intention and high achievement (indicated by GPA). A cross-sectional survey was administered to 883 undergraduate students across all disciplines of a German STEM orientated university. The study additionally compared freshman students (N = 597) vs. second-year students (N = 286). Using structural equation modeling, for the overall sample of undergraduate students we found that perceived academic control positively predicted enjoyment and achievement, as well as negatively predicted boredom and anxiety. The prediction of dropout intention by perceived academic control was fully mediated via anxiety. When taking perceived academic control into account, we found no specific impact of enjoyment or boredom on the intention to dropout and no specific impact of all three academic emotions on achievement. The multi-group analysis showed, however, that perceived academic control, enjoyment, and boredom among second-year students had a direct relationship with dropout intention. A major contribution of the present study was demonstrating the important roles of perceived academic control and anxiety in undergraduate students' academic success. Concerning corresponding institutional support and future research, the results suggested distinguishing incoming from advanced undergraduate students. PMID:28326043
Trautwein, Ulrich; Lüdtke, Oliver; Roberts, Brent W; Schnyder, Inge; Niggli, Alois
Conscientiousness and domain-specific competence beliefs are known to be highly important predictors of academic effort and achievement. Given their basis in distinct research traditions, however, these constructs have rarely been examined simultaneously. Three studies with 571, 415, and 1,535 students, respectively, found a moderate association between conscientiousness and competence beliefs. Both conscientiousness and competence beliefs meaningfully predicted academic effort, irrespective of how academic effort was measured (single-measurement questionnaire or diary data). The associations of competence beliefs with academic effort were highly domain specific, whereas conscientiousness was predictive of academic effort across a wide range of academic subjects. Conscientiousness and competence beliefs were also associated with academic achievement. Figural and verbal reasoning ability, although associated with academic achievement, only loosely predicted academic effort.
Haraszti, Réka Ágnes; Ella, Krisztina; Gyöngyösi, Norbert; Roenneberg, Till; Káldi, Krisztina
Discrepancies between sleep timing on workdays and weekends, also known as social jetlag (SJL), affect the majority of the population and have been found to be associated with increased health risk and health-impairing behaviors. In this study, we explored the relationship between SJL and academic performance in a sample of undergraduates of the Semmelweis University. We assessed SJL and other sleep-related parameters with the Munich ChronoType Questionnaire (MCTQ) (n = 753). Academic performance was measured by the average grade based on weekly test results as well as scores acquired on the final test (n = 247). The average mid-sleep point on free days in the Hungarian sample fits well the regression line plotted for longitudes within the Central European Time Zone and chronotypes, confirming that sunlight has a major impact on chronotype. Multivariate analysis showed negative effect of SJL on the weekly average grade (p = 0.028, n = 247) during the lecture term with its highly regular teaching schedules, while this association disappeared in the exam period (p = 0.871, n = 247) when students had no scheduled obligations (lower SJL). We also analyzed the relationship between the time of the weekly tests and academic performance and found that students with later sleep times on free days achieved worse in the morning (p = 0.017, n = 129), while the inverse tendency was observed for the afternoon test-takers (p = 0.10, n = 118). We did not find significant association between academic performance and sleep duration or sleep debt on work days. Our data suggest that circadian misalignment can have a significant negative effect on academic performance. One possible reason for this misalignment is socially enforced sleep times.
Cohen, D A; Rice, J
This article investigates how children and their parents rate their parenting styles, and how this rating is associated with academic achievement, alcohol, and tobacco use. We surveyed students and their parents in two public school districts. A total of 386 matched parent-child pairs from eighth- and ninth-grade students were analyzed for parent and student classification of parents as authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, or mixed parenting styles. Agreement on parenting styles between parents and children was poor. Students perceived parents as less authoritative, less permissive and more authoritarian than parents considered themselves. High grades were associated with child and parent perception of higher authoritativeness, lower permissiveness, and lower authoritarianism. Child tobacco and alcohol use was associated with child perception of lower authoritativeness, and higher permissiveness while parent perception of parenting style was not associated with child substance use. This study provides further evidence that parenting styles and adolescents' perceptions of them are associated with child achievement and substance use. While we cannot determine whether child or parent perception of parenting style is more accurate, child perception is more strongly associated with grades and substance use than is parent perception. It is likely that parents would benefit from understanding how they are perceived by their children.
Summers, Emily J.; Dickinson, Gail
This longitudinal study focused on how project-based instruction (PBI) influenced secondary social studies students' academic achievement and promoted College and Career Readiness (CCR). We explored and compared student achievement in a PBI high school versus a traditional instruction high school within the same rural school district. While…
Lueger, Robert J.; And Others
Examined neuropsychological and academic achievement correlates of statistically abnormal verbal-performance discrepancies on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (Revised). Results indicated that abnormal discrepancies reflect specific aphasia deficits rather than generalized neuropsychological dysfunction and that academic achievement…
Erlich, Richard J.; Russ-Eft, Darlene F.
We investigated whether the social cognitive theory constructs of self-efficacy and self-regulated learning apply to academic advising for measuring student learning outcomes. Community college students (N = 120) participated in an individual academic-advising session. We assessed students' post-intervention self-efficacy in academic planning and…
Giacalone, Valarie A.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an academic service learning project on ninth-grade students' science achievement and attitudes. A quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest design was used with four classes of one teacher in a rural school. The treatment was an Energy Fair service project. Two treatment classes that were chosen by random assignment (n = 58) were compared to two control classes (n = 64), who performed an alternative assignment. The Energy Fair was conducted for the elementary school students and on a limited basis for fellow students (peers). The academic effect was measured by a teacher-designed end-of-unit ecology test, with a subset of the questions on energy use. Psychological effects were measured by a self-esteem questionnaire, which measured both self-esteem and the satisfaction felt about one's self-esteem. Social effects were measured by three semantic differentials, one each for "adults," "peers," and "elementary students." The teacher was interviewed regarding her observations about the project. Written reflections from both the treatment and control groups were coded and analyzed. Pretest results were divided into thirds of high, medium, and low for all variables to search for the possibility of an attribute-treatment interaction. Analysis of covariance was used to reduce the possibility of pretest bias, to test for significant effects, and to test for a level by treatment interaction. Although the posttest means favored the experimental group, no statistically significant difference was found for academic results. No significant effect was found for either of the psychological measures. No change was found for the social results regarding "adults." A statistically significant effect was found for social results in the categories of "elementary students" and "peers." No statistically significant level by treatment interaction was found. Further research on the effects of academic service learning projects is needed at
The purpose was to describe the social adjustment, academic achievement, and creativity of 127 Taiwanese children with Tourette's Syndrome and a control group of 138 Taiwanese children with typical development and reports of the parents of both groups. The Tourette's Syndrome group had significantly more disruptive behaviors than the controls; most parents reported their children with Tourette's Syndrome had high academic achievement although the children scored significantly lower than controls on the Elaboration subtest of Creative Thinking.
This study assessed the relation between school-social motivation and student academic achievement. A factor analysis was performed on a set of school-social items selected a priori from three measures of school motivation: the Inventory of School Motivation, the General Achievement Goals Orientation Scale, and the Facilitating Conditions Scale. Three factors with fewer items represented Global Motivation, Peer Help, and Social Power. Hierarchical regression analysis showed social motivation measures were weak predictors of achievement scores in the various content areas. Findings are discussed in the context of Qatari education and culture.
Pop, Eleonora Ioana; Negru-Subtirica, Oana; Crocetti, Elisabetta; Opre, Adrian; Meeus, Wim
The present three-wave longitudinal study provides empirical evidence for the mechanisms of the bright and dark sides of identity development in the academic context. First, we investigated the patterns of stability and change in educational identity and academic achievement among adolescents. Second, we examined the reciprocal associations between identity processes (i.e., commitment, in-depth exploration, and reconsideration of commitment) and academic achievement. The main results of the study highlighted that academic achievement predicts the manner in which adolescents deal with their identity issues in the academic context. Thus, high academic achievement leads to high levels of commitment (identity synthesis), while low academic achievement leads to high levels of reconsideration of commitment (identity confusion). This unidirectional pattern of effects applied equally to adolescent boys and girls, early-to-middle and middle-to-late adolescents, and to adolescents attending theoretical and vocational schools. Practical implications are discussed.
Crosnoe, Robert; Muller, Chandra
Reflected self-appraisal suggests that individual functioning is related to the fit between individual characteristics and the norms of their primary contexts. To apply this social psychological concept to the study of obesity, we hypothesized that adolescents at risk of obesity would have lower academic achievement overall than other students,…
Adibsereshki, Narges; Abkenar, Somaye Jalil; Ashoori, Mohammad; Mirzamani, Mahmood
The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of two kinds of reinforcements, tangible reinforcements and social reinforcements, on the academic achievement of eighth-grade female students with intellectual disabilities in the science subject. The study was an experimental method by pretest, with a control group. The participants of…
Stack-Cutler, Holly L.; Parrila, Rauno K.; Torppa, Minna
We assessed the impact of intrapersonal and interpersonal resilience, persistence, and number of difficulties in addition to reading problems on life satisfaction (general, social, and self) and academic achievement. A total of 120 adults with reading difficulties who either were completing a university degree or were recent graduates responded to…
Troyb, Eva; Orinstein, Alyssa; Tyson, Katherine; Helt, Molly; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Stevens, Michael; Fein, Deborah
This study examines the academic abilities of children and adolescents who were once diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder, but who no longer meet diagnostic criteria for this disorder. These individuals have achieved social and language skills within the average range for their ages, receive little or no school support, and are referred to…
Howell, Cheryl A.
The purpose of this study was to investigate second-year college student wellness behaviors and their relationship to academic achievement. The ten constructs of wellness within Hettler's model of wellness are physical fitness, nutrition, self-care and safety, environmental wellness, social awareness, emotional awareness and sexuality, emotional…
Brinkman, Barbara Ann
The purpose of the study was to examine the impact of a teacher's preparation program on the academic achievement of eighth grade students in the areas of mathematics, reading, science, and social studies. Prior to the implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) in 2001, the majority of classroom teachers earned their teaching…
Kelly, William E.; Daughtry, Don
This study explored the relationship between academic orientation, academic achievement, and interest in night-sky watching (noctcaelador). Participants included 117 students enrolled in undergraduate psychology classes who completed the Survey of Academic Orientations (SAO; Davidson, Beck, & Silver, 1999), Noctcaelador Inventory (NI; Kelly,…
Balkis, Murat; Duru, Erdinc; Bulus, Mustafa
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relations between academic rational/irrational beliefs, academic procrastination, and time preferences to study for exams and academic achievement by using the structural equation model. The sample consisted of 281 undergraduate students who filled in questionnaires at the 7-week-long summer course.…
Jackson, Margot I.
For the half of American children who live in or near poverty, nutritional policy is part of the safety net against hunger and its negative effects on children’s development. The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) provides steadily available food from the food groups essential for physical and cognitive development. The effects of WIC on dietary quality among participating women and children are strong and positive. Furthermore, there is a strong influence of nutrition on cognitive development and socioeconomic inequality. Yet, research on the non-health effects of U.S. child nutritional policy is scarce, despite the ultimate goal of health policies directed at children—to enable productive functioning across multiple social institutions over the life course. Using two nationally representative, longitudinal surveys of children—the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) and the Child Development Supplement (CDS) of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics—I examine how prenatal and early childhood exposure to WIC is associated in the short-term with cognitive development, and in the longer-term with reading and math learning. Results suggest that early WIC participation is associated with both cognitive and academic benefits. These findings suggest that WIC meaningfully contributes to children’s educational prospects. PMID:25555255
Jackson, Margot I
For the 22% of American children who live below the federal poverty line, and the additional 23% who live below twice that level, nutritional policy is part of the safety net against hunger and its negative effects on children's development. The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) provides steadily available food from the food groups essential for physical and cognitive development. The effects of WIC on dietary quality among participating women and children are strong and positive. Furthermore, there is a strong influence of nutrition on cognitive development and socioeconomic inequality. Yet, research on the non-health effects of U.S. child nutritional policy is scarce, despite the ultimate goal of health policies directed at children-to enable productive functioning across multiple social institutions over the life course. Using two nationally representative, longitudinal surveys of children-the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) and the Child Development Supplement (CDS) of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics-I examine how prenatal and early childhood exposure to WIC is associated in the short-term with cognitive development, and in the longer-term with reading and math learning. Results show that early WIC participation is associated with both cognitive and academic benefits. These findings suggest that WIC meaningfully contributes to children's educational prospects.
Jones, Ithel; Gullo, Dominic F.; Burton-Maxwell, Christine; Stoiber, Karen
Examined the effects of early educational experiences on the academic achievement and social skills of 91 inner-city first graders. Found that, after controlling for first-grade teachers' instructional practices and beliefs, children with prekindergarten experience had higher scores in mathematics and language and higher social skills than…
Fisher, Kim W.; Shogren, Karrie A.
This study examined adolescents' social capital, through social network analyses (i.e., ego network analyses), in two high schools where students were placed into academic tracks adopted by the schools and shaped by disability status (i.e., general education, co-taught, segregated special education classrooms). The impact of academic tracks, as…
Educational outcomes vary dramatically across schools in the United States. Many under-performing schools, especially in Chicago, also deal with high levels of violent crime on school grounds. Exposure to this type of frequent violence may be an important factor shaping already disadvantaged students’ educational experiences. However, estimating the effect of school violence on learning is difficult due to potential selection bias and the confounding of other school-level problems. Using detailed crime data from the Chicago Police Department, complete administrative records from the Chicago Public Schools, and school climate surveys conducted by the Consortium on Chicago School Research (2002–10), this study exploits variation in violent crime rates within schools over time to estimate its effect on academic achievement. School and neighborhood fixed-effects models show that violent crime rates have a negative effect on test scores, but not on grades. This effect is more likely related to direct reductions in learning, through cognitive stress and classroom disruptions, than changes in perceived safety, general school climate, or discipline practices. PMID:24259755
Bryan, Julia; Moore-Thomas, Cheryl; Gaenzle, Stacey; Kim, Jungnam; Lin, Chia-Huei; Na, Goeun
The authors examine the effects of school bonding on academic achievement (measured by math achievement scores) in a sample of 12th graders from the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002 (Ingels, Pratt, Rogers, Siegel, & Stutts, 2005). Components of school bonding have proximal and distal effects on academic achievement. Attachment to school and…
Scoggins, Donna K.
Single-sex education is an instructional innovation implemented to improve student academic achievement by teaching to the learning styles and interests of boys and/or girls. This ex post facto quantitative study examined the differences in academic achievement between single-sex education and coeducation classes on students' achievement in…
Landeau, Reginald H., Jr.
The study evaluates the relationship between middle school principals' leadership characteristics and academic achievement of African American male students in grades 6, 7, and 8 in a large urban school district. Academic achievement is typically defined as the cognitive knowledge, skills, and abilities that are measured by achievement tests. The…
Madigan, Kathleen; Cross, Richard W.; Smolkowski, Keith; Strycker, Lisa A.
This study evaluated the long-term impact of schoolwide positive behavioural interventions and supports (PBIS) on student academic achievement. In this quasi-experimental study, academic achievement data were collected over 9 years. The 21 elementary, middle, and high schools that achieved moderate to high fidelity to the Save & Civil Schools'…
Soares, Ana Paula; Guisande, Adelina M; Almeida, Leandro S; Páramo, Fernanda M
This paper analyses the role of academic preparation and learning strategies in the prediction of first-year Portuguese college students' academic achievement, considering students' sex and academic field attended. A sample of 445 first-year college students (68.5% female) from the University of Minho (25.8% enrolled in economics, 35.3% in science/technology, and 38.9% in humanities degrees) participated in the study. Students answered a questionnaire on learning strategies in the classroom at the end of the first semester, which consisted of 44 items organized in five dimensions: comprehensive approach, surface approach, personal competency perceptions, intrinsic motivation, and organization of study activities. Academic achievement (grade point average at the end of first year) and academic preparation (students' higher education access mark) were obtained through the academic records of the university. Results showed that academic preparation was the strongest predictor of first-year academic achievement, and only marginal additional variance was explained by learning strategies as assessed by the self-reported questionnaire. There were sex and academic field differences, but these variables do not seem strong enough to affect the results, although the different percentages of variance captured by each model and the different weights associated to higher education access mark, stimulate the use of these and/or other personal and contextual variables when analysing the phenomenon.
Lyon, M A; MacDonald, N T
This study examined the relationship of academic self-concept scores of 122 children with their achievement in Grade 6 as compared to general self-concept and locus of control. Academic self-concept correlated significantly higher with teachers' grades and standardized measures of achievement than either general self-concept or locus of control. A multiple regression analysis also confirmed the potential usefulness of academic self-concept for predicting students' achievement. Academic self-concept may be a more useful construct in helping understand students' achievement than frequently administered measures of general self-concept.
Many researchers link social capital theory to education and commonly use examples from the field of education to examine social capital theory. Accordingly, they accept that reflections and contributions of social capital can be observed in the field of education. This paper examines social capital's effects on academic success in education. In…
Bacon, La Shawn Catrice
The relationship between academic self-concept and academic achievement in African American students who have experienced geographic mobility was the focus of this study. Specifically, this study used quantitative methods to assess African American students from counties in Iowa to obtain information about the students' relocation from urban to…
Chen, Wei-Wen; Ho, Hsiu-Zu
The excellent academic performance among East-Asian students has drawn international attention from educators and psychologists. However, the process that underlies student academic achievement for this particular group has rarely been documented. The present study examines how the relation between perceived parental involvement and Taiwanese students' academic achievement is mediated by student academic beliefs (i.e., beliefs about effort, academic self-concept, and perceived control). The study further explores whether this mediating effect varies with types of filial piety. Participants were 468 first-year students from colleges and universities in Taiwan. Multiple-group mediating models were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). Results indicated that, for the Taiwanese sample, students' academic beliefs mediated the relation between perceived parental involvement and academic achievement. Furthermore, the mediational effect was significant for the reciprocal filial type, but not for the authoritarian filial type. The importance of the quality of the parent-child relationship and the internalization process related to children's assumptions of their parents' educational values indicate the need for a contextual view when examining predictors of student academic achievement.
Rogers, Keba Marguerita
The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between academic achievement, as measured by high school GPA and cumulative undergraduate GPA, peer tutoring, academic self-concept, and personal self-concept. A total of 50 students (treatment=29, control=21) from a university in Western, NY participated in this study. The results…
Rinn, Anne N.
The purpose of this study is to examine the academic achievement, academic self-concepts, and aspirations of gifted college students who are enrolled in an honors program and of gifted college students who are not enrolled in an honors program. Participants include 294 gifted college students, 248 of whom were enrolled in an honors program and 46…
Peixoto, Francisco; Almeida, Leandro S.
Previous research into the relationship between self-esteem and academic achievement shows that despite differences in academic self-evaluation, students' global self-representations do not differ as a result of their grades at school. In this study, we will analyse the strategies that underachievers used to maintain their self-esteem at an…
Lam, Un Fong; Chen, Wei-Wen; Zhang, Jingqi; Liang, Ting
This study examined the relationships between school belonging, academic emotions, and academic achievement in Macau adolescents. A survey of 406 junior high school students in Macau was used to collect information on the extent to which these students felt accepted and respected in their schools (school belonging), the emotions they experienced…
Young, Adena; Johnson, Gail; Hawthorne, Melissa; Pugh, Jeremy
College retention and graduation rates are significantly lower for African American and Hispanic American students. Limited research has been conducted on the relationship between academic motivation and perceived social support. The purpose of this study was to determine the importance of social support as a predictor of academic motivation and…
Previous research indicates that collective efficacy, faculty trust in students and parents, and academic emphasis together formed a single latent school construct, called academic optimism. In the U.S., academic optimism has been proven to be a powerful construct that could effectively predict student achievement even after controlling for…
Cromartie, Michael Tyrone
The aim of this study was to determine the organizational characteristics and behaviors that contribute to sustaining a culture of academic optimism as a mechanism of student achievement. While there is a developing research base identifying both the individual elements of academic optimism as well as the academic optimism construct itself as…
McEwan, Lynn; Goldenberg, Dolly
A study of 41 graduate nursing students found they had high achievement motivation and academic ability. Trait anxiety was the only valid predictor of academic success. Academic ability and inherent anxiety had greater potential for predicting students who would succeed. (Author/SK)
Regner, Isabelle; Loose, Florence; Dumas, Florence
The present study examined whether students' perceptions of two major facets of parental and teacher academic involvement (i.e., academic support and academic monitoring), contribute to the process of students' achievement goals adoption. French junior high-school students completed two questionnaires assessing first their perceptions of parental…
Jiang, Ying Hong; Yau, Jenny; Bonner, Patricia; Chiang, Linda
Introduction: Driven by an overarching conceptual framework adapted from Self-Determination Theory, this study tested the direct and indirect effects of perceived parental academia autonomy support vs. academic planning control on the interrelated variables of adolescents' self-esteem, academic motivation, and academic achievement, using…
Neblett, Enrique W., Jr.; Chavous, Tabbye M.; Nguyen, Hoa X.; Sellers, Robert M.
This study uses two waves of data to examine the relationships among racial socialization, racial discrimination, and academic achievement outcomes in a sample of 144 African American male adolescents. Using latent class analyses, the authors identified four patterns of adolescent-reported racial socialization experiences: Positive Socialization,…
Hickman, Gregory P.; Crossland, Garnet L.
Through the administration of self-report surveys, this study examined the relationships among a) parenting styles, b) family structure, c) academic achievement, d) birth order, e) gender, and f) humor on the initial personal-emotional, social, academic, and commitment to college adjustment among 257 first-quarter college freshmen. Multiple…
Molloy, Carly S; Di Battista, Ashley M; Anderson, Vicki A; Burnett, Alice; Lee, Katherine J; Roberts, Gehan; Cheong, Jeanie Ly; Anderson, Peter J; Doyle, Lex W
Children born extremely preterm (EP, <28 weeks) and/or extremely low birth weight (ELBW, <1000 g) have more academic deficiencies than their term-born peers, which may be due to problems with visual processing. The aim of this study is to determine (1) if visual processing is related to poor academic outcomes in EP/ELBW adolescents, and (2) how much of the variance in academic achievement in EP/ELBW adolescents is explained by visual processing ability after controlling for perinatal risk factors and other known contributors to academic performance, particularly attention and working memory. A geographically determined cohort of 228 surviving EP/ELBW adolescents (mean age 17 years) was studied. The relationships between measures of visual processing (visual acuity, binocular stereopsis, eye convergence, and visual perception) and academic achievement were explored within the EP/ELBW group. Analyses were repeated controlling for perinatal and social risk, and measures of attention and working memory. It was found that visual acuity, convergence and visual perception are related to scores for academic achievement on univariable regression analyses. After controlling for potential confounds (perinatal and social risk, working memory and attention), visual acuity, convergence and visual perception remained associated with reading and math computation, but only convergence and visual perception are related to spelling. The additional variance explained by visual processing is up to 6.6% for reading, 2.7% for spelling, and 2.2% for math computation. None of the visual processing variables or visual motor integration are associated with handwriting on multivariable analysis. Working memory is generally a stronger predictor of reading, spelling, and math computation than visual processing. It was concluded that visual processing difficulties are significantly related to academic outcomes in EP/ELBW adolescents; therefore, specific attention should be paid to academic
Lazarowitz, Reuven; Hertz-Lazarowitz, Rachel; Baird, J. Hugh
A learning unit in earth science was taught to high school students, using a jigsaw-group mastery learning approach. The sample consisted of 73 students in the experimental group and 47 students who learned the topic in an individualized mastery learning approach. The study lasted 5 weeks. Pretests and posttests on academic achievement and affective outcomes were administered. Data were treated with an analysis of covariance. The results show that students of the experimental group achieved significantly higher on academic outcomes, both normative and objective scores. On the creative essay test, the differences in number of ideas and total essay score were not significant between the groups, although the mean scores for number of words were higher for the individualized mastery learning group. On the affective domain, jigsaw-group mastery learning students scored significantly higher on self-esteem, number of friends, and involvement in the classroom. No differences were found in cohesiveness, cooperation, competition, and attitudes toward the subject learned. The results are discussed through the evaluation and comparison of the two methods of instruction used in this study.The cooperative learning movement began in junior high schools as part of the desegregation process, aiming at facilitating positive ethnic relations and increasing academic achievement and social skills among diverse students (Aronson, Stephan, Sikes, Blaney, & Snapp, 1978; Sharan & Hertz-Lazarowitz, 1980; Slavin, 1980). However, elementary teachers quickly recognized the potential of cooperative methods, and such methods were adopted freely in elementary schools before becoming widespread on the junior and senior high level. It has only been during the past few years that application of cooperative learning has been studied extensively with these older students.Cooperative learning methods generally involve heterogeneous groups working together on tasks that are deliberately structured to
Hale, James B.; Reddy, Linda A.; Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Hain, Lisa A.; Whitaker, James; Morley, Jessica; Lawrence, Kyle; Smith, Alex; Jones, Nicole
Methylphenidate (MPH) often ameliorates attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) behavioral dysfunction according to "indirect" informant reports and rating scales. The standard of care behavioral MPH titration approach seldom includes "direct" neuropsychological or academic assessment data to determine treatment…
Hill, Nancy E; Castellino, Domini R; Lansford, Jennifer E; Nowlin, Patrick; Dodge, Kenneth A; Bates, John E; Pettit, Gregory S
A longitudinal model of parent academic involvement, behavioral problems, achievement, and aspirations was examined for 463 adolescents, followed from 7th (approximately 12 years old) through 11th (approximately 16 years old) grades. Parent academic involvement in 7th grade was negatively related to 8th-grade behavioral problems and positively related to 11th-grade aspirations. There were variations across parental education levels and ethnicity: Among the higher parental education group, parent academic involvement was related to fewer behavioral problems, which were related to achievement and then aspirations. For the lower parental education group, parent academic involvement was related to aspirations but not to behavior or achievement. Parent academic involvement was positively related to achievement for African Americans but not for European Americans. Parent academic involvement may be interpreted differently and serve different purposes across sociodemographic backgrounds.
Nakamoto, Jonathan; Schwartz, David
This paper presents a meta-analytic review of 33 studies, with a total of 29,552 participants, that examined the concurrent association between peer victimization and academic achievement. The results revealed a small but significant negative correlation between peer victimization and academic achievement under both the random-effects model (r =…
Nunn, Gary D.; And Others
Investigated the relationships between student locus of control and academic achievement in grades five through eight. The Nowicki-Strickland Locus of Control Scale (NSLOCS) was used to measure motivation, and the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS) to assess academic achievement. Results indicated moderate inverse relationships between level of…
Since the 1980s, research has been examining the role of temperament in education. In particular, academic achievement and school adjustment were among the first variables to be examined. Subsequently, several studies have documented associations between temperament and either academic achievement or school adjustment. However, no review of this…
The present paper interrogates the dominance of formal education. As formal education system relies on ability based academic achievement as a goal, exploring post-formal approaches, such as sociocultural notion of academic achievement is the hallmark of present paper. An attempt is made to interrogate the existing cultural dominance in formal…
Georgakis, Steve; Wilson, Rachel; Ferguson, Jamaya
Elite athletes and their academic achievement in higher education have long been subject to considerable debate within North American scholarship. This interest proliferated especially after the release of the Knight Report (2001), which, amongst other findings, revealed a clear negative link between elite athletes and their academic achievement.…
Cherian, Varghese I.
Compares relationship between family size and academic achievement of children from broken and intact families among Black African Xhosa-speaking children between the ages of 13 and 17. Results indicate a negative relationship between family size and academic achievement, regardless of broken or intact families. (Author/NL)
Lennon, Jaclyn M.; Li-Grining, Christine; Raver, C. Cybele; Pess, Rachel A.
In this poster presentation, the authors examine the impact of Chicago School Readiness Project (CSRP) on students' academic achievement in elementary school. First, they provide upper- and lower-bound estimates of the impact of CSRP on students' academic achievement, taking into account their subsequent nonrandom selection into higher versus…
Norris, Tina L.
Using two waves of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), I investigated the relationships among bullying behaviors, internet use, and academic achievement for Black, Hispanic, and White boys and girls. I assessed three measures of academic achievement, including scores on mathematics, reading comprehension, and vocabulary.…
Seabi, Joseph; Payne, Jarrod
Purpose: Academic achievement of first year university students in the international arena, as well as in South Africa, has been a point of concern for all stakeholders because of high failure and dropout rates. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of identity processing styles on academic achievement in first year university…
Gilbert, Marianne C.
This study asked the question: Do spiritual factors impact academic achievement? The subjects in this study were all students in grades 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 11, in Seventh-day Adventist schools in the United States and Bermuda, from 2006 to 2008. The compilation of the results of 75 questions as correlated to academic achievement, controlled…
Introduction: Students are daily exposed to a variety of assessment tasks in the classroom. It has long been recognized that students' perceptions of the assessment tasks may influence student academic achievement. The present study aimed at predicting academic achievement in mathematics from perceptions of the assessment tasks after controlling…
Wilkins, Natalie J.; Kuperminc, Gabriel P.
Elliot and McGregor's (2001) 2 x 2 model of achievement motivation (mastery approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-approach and performance-avoidance) was used among 143 Latino adolescents to examine how achievement motivation changes over time, and whether perception of academic climate influences eventual academic outcomes. A series of…
MacCann, Carolyn; Fogarty, Gerard J.; Zeidner, Moshe; Roberts, Richard D.
Research examining the relationships between performance measures of emotional intelligence (EI), coping styles, and academic achievement is sparse. Two studies were designed to redress this imbalance. In each of these studies, both EI and coping styles were significantly related to academic achievement. In Study 1, 159 community college students…
Robertson, Schellia Arnette
The researcher focused on the elementary principal's influence on academic achievement of minority students in mathematics in grade four. The sample population was from a parish where three schools were identified to have improved academic achievement in mathematics with the minority population. The study was a mixed method. The study was…
The present study examined the between-domain relations of Chinese high school students' academic achievements. In a sample of 1870 Chinese 10th grade students, the results indicated that Chinese high school students' academic achievements were correlated across nine subjects. In line with the previous Western findings, the findings suggested that…
This study examined the effective strategies, resources, and programs urban superintendents utilize to improve the academic achievement for African-American males. This study employed a mixed-methods approach to answer the following research questions regarding urban superintendents and the academic achievement for African-American males: What…
Bas, Gökhan; Sentürk, Cihad; Cigerci, Fatih Mehmet
The main purpose of this study was to determine the effect of homework assignments on students' academic achievement. This meta-analysis sought an answer to the research question: "What kind of effect does homework assignment have on students' academic achievement levels?" In this research, meta-analysis was adopted to determine the…
The present paper attempts to interrogate the existing approach to understand academic achievement in the mainstream educational psychology. The paper explores the persistent question of "why academic achievement gap" in the modern society from the cultural ecological and postformalist framework of John Ogbu and Joe Kincheloe…
Manichander, T.; Brindhamani, M.
The investigator attempted to find out the significant relationship between Academic Achievement and Scientific Aptitude in Science among the Students of Standard X. Scientific Aptitude Inventory was developed and Academic Achievement in Science Test as a tool was used to assess the Variables for this study. The Investigators employed Stratified…
Mrowka, Karyn Anne Kowalski
Whether academic achievement is defined as passing a state-mandated test for graduation or earning "A's" in a rigorous course load and having a resume full of extra-curricular accomplishments, the pressure to achieve is pervading public education, creating a culture of competition and causing academic stress. A culture of competition…
Liu, Yangyang; Lu, Zuhong
In previous research, few studies have examined the effects of adolescents' stress in school on the change rates of their academic achievement. In the present study, we seek to examine the longitudinal relationships between adolescents' stress in school and the change rates of their academic achievement. The results indicated that for those whose…
Liu, Yangyang; Lu, Zuhong
In a sample of 466 Chinese high school students, we examined the relationships between Chinese high school students' stress in the school and their academic achievements. Regression mixture modelling identified two different classes of the effects of Chinese high school students' stress on their academic achievements. One class contained 87% of…
Gul, Showkeen Bilal Ahmad
The study examined the impact of socio-emotional adjustment on academic achievement of adolescent girls of Jammu and Kashmir. The purpose of the investigation was to study the relationship and effect of socio-emotional adjustment on academic achievement among adolescent girls. The descriptive survey research method was used for the study and the…
Becker, Derek R.; McClelland, Megan M.; Loprinzi, Paul; Trost, Stewart G.
Research Findings: The present study investigated whether active play during recess was associated with self-regulation and academic achievement in a prekindergarten sample. A total of 51 children in classes containing approximately half Head Start children were assessed on self-regulation, active play, and early academic achievement. Path…
Sudkamp, Anna; Kaiser, Johanna; Moller, Jens
This meta-analysis summarizes empirical results on the correspondence between teachers' judgments of students' academic achievement and students' actual academic achievement. The article further investigates theoretically and methodologically relevant moderators of the correlation between the two measures. Overall, 75 studies reporting…
Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study tests whether the relationship between academic achievement and problem behaviors is the same across racial and ethnic groups. Some have suggested that academic achievement may be a weaker predictor of problem behaviors among Asian Pacific Islander American (API)…
Smith-Groves, Michelle S.
Within the last decade, several school and government-level administrations have been attempting to circumvent the incidence of poor academic achievement in relation to school transition. Military children already challenged by frequent moves and parental absences may also be challenged with the impact on their academic achievement. Due to a lack…
Coe, Dawn P.; Peterson, Thomas; Blair, Cheryl; Schutten, Mary C.; Peddie, Heather
Background: This study examined the association between physical fitness and academic achievement and determined the influence of socioeconomic status (SES) on the association between fitness and academic achievement in school-aged youth. Methods: Overall, 1,701 third-, sixth-, and ninth-grade students from 5 school districts participated in the…
Emenheiser, David E.
Previous literature suggests that academic achievement and self-concept among adolescents in the general education population are positively related (e.g., Huang, 2011). For students with disabilities, however, the correlation between academic achievement and self-concept is sometimes negative and non-significant (Daniel & King, 1995; Feiwell,…
Jeong, Yu-Jin; Acock, Alan C.
Drawing on the National Educational Longitudinal Survey 1988 (NELS:88), this study identified (1) the growth pattern of academic achievement of adolescent children from Mexican and East Asian immigrant families; (2) investigated to what extent ethnicity and family capital influenced the trajectories in the academic achievement of children from…
Duru, Erdinç; Duru, Sibel; Balkis, Murat
This study examined the relationships among burnout, academic achievement, and self-regulation with two structural models. The participants were 383 undergraduates with different majors in a university in the western part of Turkey. The results showed that academic achievement was negatively associated with three dimensions of burnout and was…
Phillipson, Sivanes; Phillipson, Shane N.
It is generally accepted that cognitive ability predicts academic achievement, and that parental involvement and expectations form part of the constellation of factors that predict their children's academic achievement, particularly for families within the Chinese-heritage Cultures. Although a number of interactions between these parental factors…
Akinsola, Mojeed Kolawole; Tella, Adedeji; Tella, Adeyinka
Procrastination is now a common phenomenon among students, particularly those at the higher level. And this is doing more harm to their academic achievement than good. Therefore, this study examined the correlates between academic procrastination and mathematics achievement among the university mathematics undergraduate students. The study used a…
Liu, Junsheng; Bullock, Amanda; Coplan, Robert J
The goal of this study was to explore longitudinal associations between peer victimization and academic achievement in Chinese children. Participants were N = 805 3rd-grade students (486 boys, 319 girls; M(age) = 9.5 years, SD = 3 months) attending primary schools in Shanghai, People's Republic of China. At Time 1 and Time 2 (2 years later), peers nominated classmates who were victims of peer maltreatment using the Chinese version of the Revised Class Play (Chen, Rubin, & Sun, 1992), and teachers rated students' academic achievement. Among the results, peer victimization was negatively related to academic achievement at both time points. Also, peer victimization and academic achievement displayed considerable stability across the 2 years. Results from cross-lagged hierarchical analyses demonstrated that peer victimization at Grade 3 predicted lower academic achievement at Grade 5. However, academic achievement at Grade 3 was not predictive of peer victimization at Grade 5. These results suggest that peer victimization appears to function more as a precursor rather than a consequence of lower academic achievement. Results are discussed in terms of the cross-cultural similarities in the links between peer maltreatment and academic achievement and their educational implications.
Gordon, Derrick M.; Iwamoto, Derek K.; Ward, Nadia; Potts, Randolph; Boyd, Elizabeth
Researchers have called for innovative and culturally responsive intervention programs to enhance male, Black middle school students' academic achievement. Mentoring has received considerable attention as a novel remedy. Although anecdotal evidence supports the positive role of mentoring on academic achievement, these results are not consistent.…
Whitinger, Jamie Hilton
The purpose of this study was to identify significant differences in academic achievement among virtual students of various backgrounds, demographics, and virtual learning environments. The study also sought to identify factors that may predict the academic achievement, as defined by final course grade, of virtual students. This study examined…
Lessing, Elise E.
The following hypotheses were investigated: (1) Negro children have lower academic achievement than whites, (2) the ego variables of sense personal control and willingness to delay gratification are significantly related to academic achievement and (3) Negro children score significantly lower on both ego variables. Subjects included 237 eighth…
Benner, Aprile D.; Kretsch, Natalie; Harden, K. Paige; Crosnoe, Robert
Prior research suggests a link between academic performance and alcohol use during adolescence, but the degree to which this association reflects actual protective effects continues to be debated. We investigated the role of genetic factors in the association between academic achievement and adolescent alcohol use and whether achievement might…
Heaton, Patrick Michael
The purpose of this study was to examine what effect the Freshmen Interest Group (FIG) program, a variation of a non-residential learning community had on academic achievement scores and institutional rates of persistence. Study variables included: gender; race; pre-collegiate academic achievement (GPA scores); educational preferences (major…
Kim, Kyoungho; Rohner, Ronald P.
Explored the relationship between parenting style and academic achievement of Korean American adolescents, investigating the influence of perceived parental warmth and control and improvement in schooling. Survey data indicated that authoritative paternal parenting related to optimal academic achievement. Differences in maternal parenting styles…
This paper reviews findings from several studies that contribute to our understanding of cross-cultural differences in academic achievement, anxiety and self-doubt. The focus is on comparisons between Confucian Asian and European regions. Recent studies indicate that high academic achievement of students from Confucian Asian countries is…
Objective: Previous studies have shown that academic achievement has a significant effect on juvenile delinquency, with the reverse reported as well. This study, therefore, examined the reciprocal causal relationships between academic achievement and juvenile delinquency. Methods: The participants were 3449 Korean adolescents (mean age 13.2 years,…
Kim, You Lim; Lee, Suk Min
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate satisfaction in major among physical therapy students and to identify the sub-factors of satisfaction in major affecting academic achievement. [Subjects and Methods] We distributed a self-administered questionnaire, comprising items relating to satisfaction in major and academic achievement to 369 physical therapy students located in Seoul, Daejeon, Jinju, Pohang, and Gunsan. [Results] General satisfaction and academic achievement showed the greatest correlation (r = 0.235), followed by course satisfaction (r = 0.123). [Conclusion] Several sub-factors were found to affect academic achievement. The results of this study can be used as the basis for programs that aim at development of satisfaction in major and academic achievement among clinical physical therapists. PMID:25729179
Misner, Johnathan Scott
The purpose of the study was to determine if students' cultural capital is a significant predictor of 8th grade science achievement test scores in urban locales. Cultural capital refers to the knowledge used and gained by the dominant class, which allows social and economic mobility. Cultural capital variables include magazines at home and parental education level. Other variables analyzed include socioeconomic status (SES), gender, and English language learners (ELL). This non-experimental study analyzed the results of the 2011 Eighth Grade Science National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). The researcher analyzed the data using a multivariate stepwise regression analysis. The researcher concluded that the addition of cultural capital factors significantly increased the predictive power of the model where magazines in home, gender, student classified as ELL, parental education level, and SES were the independent variables and science achievement was the dependent variable. For alpha=0.05, the overall test for the model produced a R2 value of 0.232; therefore the model predicted 23.2% of variance in science achievement results. Other major findings include: higher measures of home resources predicted higher 2011 NAEP eighth grade science achievement; males were predicted to have higher 2011 NAEP 8 th grade science achievement; classified ELL students were predicted to score lower on the NAEP eight grade science achievement; higher parent education predicted higher NAEP eighth grade science achievement; lower measures of SES predicted lower 2011 NAEP eighth grade science achievement. This study contributed to the research in this field by identifying cultural capital factors that have been found to have statistical significance on predicting eighth grade science achievement results, which can lead to strategies to help improve science academic achievement among underserved populations.
Sockalingam, Nachamma; Rotgans, Jerome I; Schmidt, Henk G
This study investigated the influence of five problem characteristics on students' achievement-related classroom behaviors and academic achievement. Data from 5,949 polytechnic students in PBL curricula across 170 courses were analyzed by means of path analysis. The five problem characteristics were: (1) problem clarity, (2) problem familiarity, (3) the extent to which the problem stimulated group discussion, (4) self-study, and (5) identification of learning goals. The results showed that problem clarity led to more group discussion, identification of learning goals, and self-study than problem familiarity. On the other hand, problem familiarity had a stronger and direct impact on academic achievement.
Stankovska, Gordana; Angelkovska, Slagana; Grncarovska, Svetlana Pandiloska
The world is extensively changed by Social Networks Sites (SNSs) on the Internet. A large number of children and adolescents in the world have access to the internet and are exposed to the internet at a very early age. Most of them use the Social Networks Sites with the purpose of exchanging academic activities and developing a social network all…
Gore, Jonathan S.; Thomas, Jessica; Jones, Stevy; Mahoney, Lauren; Dukes, Kristina; Treadway, Jodi
Fear of academic success is ultimately a fear of social exclusion. Therefore, various forms of social inclusion may alleviate this fear. Three studies tested the hypothesis that social inclusion variables negatively predict fear of success. In Study 1, middle and high school students (n = 129) completed surveys of parental involvement, parental…
School counselors can play a powerful role in closing the achievement gap when they incorporate the principles of social justice into their practice. In this much-needed resource for preservice and inservice counselors, the author addresses factors (such as racism, sexism, heterosexism, and classism) that can contribute to academic failure, and…
Gaynor, Alan Kibbe
This system dynamics analysis draws on the literature to outline the factors commonly discussed as predictive of and, perhaps, causally related to problematic differences in academic achievement among students who vary in race, ethnicity, and social class. It first treats these as a wide-ranging set of exogenous variables, many of which interact…
Good, Marie; Adams, Gerald R.
This study used Structural Equation Modeling to test an Eriksonian conceptual model linking academic social environments (relationships with faculty and fellow students), ego-identity formation, ego virtues, and academic success. Participants included 765 first-year students at a university in southern Ontario, Canada. Results indicated that…
Gayton, Jeffrey T.
The apparent death of academic libraries, as measured by declining circulation of print materials, reduced use of reference services, and falling gate counts, has led to calls for a more "social" approach to academic libraries: installing cafes, expanding group study spaces, and developing "information commons." This study compares these social…
Recognizing the importance of academic language for students' success in schools, this article reports on an investigation of how narrative-focused literacy events in the classroom provide opportunities for academic language socialization. Data were collected from one public elementary school in a major metropolitan area in the Mid-Atlantic region…
Redden, Carla S.
This paper presents an exploration of the potential utilization of social bookmarking web sites by academic libraries. These web sites, which allow users and organizations to create accounts for bookmarking online content, provide academic libraries tools to collaborate and network, organize and share electronic resources and teach information…
There is extensive research literature addressing the impact that the college experience has on students, linking the campus environment to their persistence and graduation, satisfaction, sense of community, academic and social integration, and academic performance. Researchers have yet to fully address the connection between students identifying…
Stäbler, Franziska; Dumont, Hanna; Becker, Michael; Baumert, Jürgen
Empirical studies have demonstrated that students who are taught in a group of students with higher average achievement benefit in terms of their achievement. However, there is also evidence showing that being surrounded by high-achieving students has a negative effect on students' academic self-concept, also known as the big-fish--little-pond…
Speltz, M L; Shimamura, J W; McReynolds, W T
There has been little research on the effects of the many procedural variables in applied group contingencies. In the present study, an individualized contingency and three group contingencies with different "responder" criteria (e.g., reward based on the group average, reward based on the work of a designated, low-achieving student, or reward based on the work of a randomly selected student) were applied to the academic work of primary grade children in a learning disabilities classroom. Group social interaction during each contingency was measured systematically. Although there were large individual differences in students' academic and social responses to the different contingencies, some consistent effects were observed. Two of the four low-achieving target students did their best academic work during the group contingency which focused on their performance as a designated responder. This type of contingency also produced high levels of positive social interaction in three of four groups of children observed.
Poteat, V Paul; Scheer, Jillian R; Mereish, Ethan H
Experiences of victimization among sexual minority youth (e.g., lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender; LGBT) and gender-variant youth remain pronounced in many schools. Although much work has shown the connection between homophobic bullying and mental and physical health, there has been limited attention to how victimization impedes learning, academic achievement, and other school-related outcomes for these youth. In this chapter, we propose several pathways through which victimization leads to academic disparities among sexual minority and gender-variant youth, with attention to its effects on individual learning processes (e.g., motivation, concentration, self efficacy, and other cognitive stressors) as well as broader psychological and social processes (e.g., mental health, school avoidance, harmful coping strategies, exclusionary discipline). We also consider protective factors (e.g., social support, Gay-Straight Alliances, extracurricular involvement, nondiscrimination policies, inclusive curriculum) that could promote resilience and suggest potential mechanisms by which they may operate. In doing so, we aim to stimulate ideas for an advancement of research in this area.
Chen, Qi; Hughes, Jan N.; Liew, Jeffrey; Kwok, Oi-Man
The longitudinal relationships between two dimensions of peer relationships and subsequent academic adjustment were investigated in a sample of 543 relatively low achieving children (M = 6.57 years at Year 1, 1st grade). Latent variable SEM was used to test a four stage model positing indirect effects of peer acceptance and peer academic reputation (PAR) assessed in Year 2 on academic achievement in Year 5, via the effects of the peer relationships variables on perceived academic competence in Year 3 and effortful engagement in Year 4. As expected, the effect of PAR on engagement was partially mediated by perceived academic competence, and the effect of perceived academic competence on achievement was partially mediated by engagement. In the context of PAR, peer acceptance did not contribute to the mediating variables or to achievement. Findings provide a clearer understanding of the processes by which early peer-relationships influence concurrent and future school-related outcomes. Implications for educational practice and future research are discussed. PMID:21113406
Native American students from the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community have attended Stapley Junior High, one of 13 junior high schools in the Mesa Unified School District, since its doors opened in the fall of 1994. Over the years a variety of instructional practices have been used in an effort to improve academic outcomes for these…
Hamlen, Karla R.
The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between strategies students use to overcome challenges in both video games and homework assignments, and whether or not these are predictors of academic performance in school. Data were collected through an online survey of students, primarily in middle and high school, assessing both…
Gama, Elizabeth M. P.; de Jesus, Denise M.
The purpose of this study was to identify teachers' expectations of schooling and their causal attributions regarding the academic performance of their students. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire administered to 451 elementary school teachers. Analyses led to the following conclusions: (1) teachers hold high expectations of schooling…
Tlhoaele, Malefyane; Hofman, Adriaan; Winnips, Koos; Beetsma, Yta
Interactive engagement (IE) is a process that promotes students' conceptual understanding through activities, combined with immediate feedback from peers and/or instructors. The present study investigates the impact of IE on students' academic performance, using the comprehensive model of educational effectiveness. Engineering students (n?=?158),…
Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Sulak, Tracey N.; Fearon, Danielle D.
Objective: ADHD is a commonly diagnosed neuropsychological disorder among school-aged children with reported high rates of coexisting or comorbid disorders. As ADHD has been associated with academic underachievement, the current study examines this association in view of the presence of coexisting disorders. The purpose of the current study is to…
Swenson Goguen, Lisa M.; Hiester, Marnie A.; Nordstrom, Alicia H.
Developmental theory describes the central importance of peer relationships in the lives of young adults (e.g., Erikson, 1963). In this study we tested the importance of peer relationships to academic outcomes. First-year undergraduates completed a self-report survey to indicate the number and closeness of their friendships. We compared these…
Rodgers, Ronald C.; Lee, Margaret B.
Holland's Vocational Preference Inventory (VPI) and Super and Forrest's Career Development Inventory (CDI) are recommended in the their respective manuals for use with secondary school students regardless of academic ability. Scores on both instruments for 245 suburban high school seniors in this investigation were well below reported means.…
Winston, Deborah L.
A large, growing number of mis-educated American citizens are being produced by America's public schools. Many of these students are being funneled into the penal system shortly after dropping out of high school. This phenomenon is especially prevalent among African American male students, many of whom have withdrawn academically years prior…
Bowman, Robert L.; Partin, Kenneth E.
Examined grade point averages (GPAs) of students (n=80) residing off-campus or in university dormitories. Data collected from official university records included GPA, American College Testing (ACT) scores, and housing accommodations. Found no significant differences between GPAs of on-campus and off-campus students. Academic ability, as measured…
Vazquez, Stella Maris; de Anglat, Hilda Difabio
Introduction: Research on university-level academic performance has significantly linked failure and dropping out to formal reasoning deficiency. We have not found any papers on formal thought in Argentine university students, in spite of the obvious shortcomings observed in the classrooms. Thus, the main objective of this paper was exploring the…
Johnson, Richard W.
The predictive validities of various SVIB academic interest scales were assessed with first semester freshman males at the University of Massachusetts. Both the Rust and Ryan and the Campbell and Johansson scales contributed significantly, albeit modestly, to a multiple correlation coefficient consisting of high school rank and scholastic aptitude…
Zeitlin-Ophir, Iris; Melitz, Osnat; Miller, Rina; Podoshin, Pia; Mesh, Gustavo
This study attempted to analyze the variables that influence the academic integration of nursing students. The theoretical model presented by Leigler was adapted to the existing conditions in a school of nursing in northern Israel. The independent variables included the student's background; amount of support received in the course of studies; extent of outside family and social commitments; satisfaction with the school's facilities and services; and level of social integration. The dependent variable was the student's level of academic integration. The findings substantiated four central hypotheses, with the study model explaining approximately 45% of the variance in the dependent variable. Academic integration is influenced by a number of variables, the most prominent of which is the social integration of the student with colleagues and educational staff. Among the background variables, country of origin was found to be significant to both social and academic integration for two main groups in the sample: Israeli-born students (both Jewish and Arab) and immigrant students.
Seaton, Marjorie; Parker, Philip; Marsh, Herbert W.; Craven, Rhonda G.; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing
Research suggests that motivated students and those with high academic self-concepts perform better academically. Although substantial evidence supports a reciprocal relation between academic self-concept and achievement, there is less evidence supporting a similar relation between achievement goal orientations and achievement. There is also a…
Wang, Clare Wen; Neihart, Maureen
Many studies have reported that twice-exceptional (2e) students were vulnerable in psychological traits and exhibited low-academic self-concept and academic self-efficacy. Such vulnerability may cause their academic failures. This study applied interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA), a qualitative approach to investigate the perceptions of…
Wright, Tiffanie L.
The purpose of this study was to explore whether Modeling Instruction, compared to traditional lecturing, is an effective instructional method to promote academic achievement in selected high school physics classes at a rural middle Tennessee high school. This study used an ex post facto , quasi-experimental research methodology. The independent variables in this study were the instructional methods of teaching. The treatment variable was Modeling Instruction and the control variable was traditional lecture instruction. The Treatment Group consisted of participants in Physical World Concepts who received Modeling Instruction. The Control Group consisted of participants in Physical Science who received traditional lecture instruction. The dependent variable was gains scores on the Force Concepts Inventory (FCI). The participants for this study were 133 students each in both the Treatment and Control Groups (n = 266), who attended a public, high school in rural middle Tennessee. The participants were administered the Force Concepts Inventory (FCI) prior to being taught the mechanics of physics. The FCI data were entered into the computer-based Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS). Two independent samples t-tests were conducted to answer the research questions. There was a statistically significant difference between the treatment and control groups concerning the instructional method. Modeling Instructional methods were found to be effective in increasing the academic achievement of students in high school physics. There was no statistically significant difference between FCI gains scores for gender. Gender was found to have no effect on the academic achievement of students in high school physics classes. However, even though there was not a statistically significant difference, female students' gains scores were higher than male students' gains scores when Modeling Instructional methods of teaching were used. Based on these findings, it is recommended
Berry, James J.; Plecha, Michelle D.
Three pilot studies are used to examine the relationships between academic performance, student ability, and motivation among community college students. The first study analyzed the association between motivation and academic performance in order to test the hypothesis that students who are highly motivated will earn higher grades. Results…
Hayes, DeMarquis; Blake, Jamilia J.; Darensbourg, Alicia; Castillo, Linda G.
The achievement gap between Latino and White youth is well documented. This is of particular concern as children enter middle school because of the decline in school engagement and achievement noted in many students. The impact parent and peer beliefs and behaviors have on academic achievement, engagement, and achievement values of Latino middle…
Stack-Cutler, Holly L; Parrila, Rauno K; Torppa, Minna
We assessed the impact of intrapersonal and interpersonal resilience, persistence, and number of difficulties in addition to reading problems on life satisfaction (general, social, and self) and academic achievement. A total of 120 adults with reading difficulties who either were completing a university degree or were recent graduates responded to an in-lab or online survey. Results indicated that intrapersonal resilience correlated positively with interpersonal resilience and persistence, and both resilience factors were negatively associated with number of difficulties. Using structural equation modeling, intrapersonal resilience explained general satisfaction, intrapersonal resilience and number of difficulties explained self satisfaction, and interpersonal resilience explained social satisfaction. Academic achievement did not correlate with any of the included variables.
Konishi, Chiaki; Hymel, Shelley; Zumbo, Bruno D.; Li, Zhen
In extending our understanding of how the social climate of schools can affect academic outcomes, this study examined the relationship between school bullying, student-teacher (S-T) connectedness, and academic performance. Using data collected in Canada as part of a larger international study conducted by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation…
According to the American School Counselor Association (ASCA; "The ASCA National Model for School Counseling Programs," 2003), school counselors are trained to counsel students regarding academics, social and emotional issues, attendance, and so forth. Because of the growing number of students who are at risk of academic failure, it…
Brown, Tiffany L; Linver, Miriam R; Evans, Melanie; DeGennaro, Donna
This study examined the relationship of racial and ethnic socialization and academic achievement in a sample of 218 African American adolescents (grades 9-12; 52% girls) attending a public high school in the northeastern United States. Researchers were particularly interested in whether adolescent gender moderated the relationship between racial and ethnic socialization and academic grades. Results indicated that aspects of ethnic socialization, African American cultural values and African American heritage were linked to adolescent grades. Additionally, adolescent gender was found to moderate the association between these socialization variables and grades. The findings also suggest that socialization provided by paternal caregivers around African American cultural values and African American heritage may have differential effects for academic grades than the socialization messages provided by maternal caregivers. Information generated from this study broadens the understanding of socialization factors that can facilitate positive academic outcomes in African American youth and has practical implications for parents and educators.
Social Justice and English Language Learners in the Borderland: A Personal Narrative of a Committed Principal Determined to Take the Steps Necessary for English Language Learners to Achieve and Succeed in Academic Content
Lechuga, Mary Helen
This study embraces the pedagogy that this school's educators believed in and utilized to enhance and expand the academic knowledge of those students who posses a language different from the English language. This research study, represented in a personal narrative, attempts to question the widespread thinking that places all validity on using…
Soemantri, Diantha; Jusuf, Anwar
Objectives This study applied self-determination theory (SDT) to investigate the relationship between students’ autonomous motivation and tutors’ autonomy support in medical students’ academic achievement. Methods This was a cross-sectional study. Out of 204 students in a fundamental medical science course, 199 participated in the study. Data was collected using two questionnaires: the Learning Self-Regulation and Learning Climate Questionnaires. The score of the course assessment was the measure of academic achievement. Data was analyzed and reported with descriptive and inferential statistics (mean, standard deviation and multiple regression analysis). Results Mean score (±standard deviation) of the autonomous motivation, tutors’ autonomy support, and academic achievement were 5.48±0.89, 5.22±0.92, and 5.22±0.92. Multiple regression results reported students’ autonomous motivation was associated with improvement of students’ academic achievement (β=15.2, p=0.004). However, augmentation of tutors’ autonomy support was not reflected in the improvement of students’ academic achievement (β = -12.6, p = 0.019). Both students’ autonomous motivation and tutors’ autonomy support had a contribution of about 4.2% students’ academic achievement (F = 4.343, p = 0.014, R2 = 0.042). Conclusions Due to the unique characteristic of our medical students’ educational background, our study shows that tutors’ autonomy support is inconsistent with students’ academic achievement. However, both autonomous motivation and support are essential to students’ academic achievement. Further study is needed to explore students’ educational background and self-regulated learning competence to improve students’ academic achievement. PMID:28035054
Wang, Hongyu; Cai, Tianji
Self-determined learning is essential to academic success. The motivational resources development model argues that parents promote academic success in their children indirectly by nurturing self-determined learner. In this study, applying a structural equation modelling and using data collected from 8th graders in Zhuhai, China (n = 1009) in 2012, we aim to answer 2 research questions: (a) What forms of parental involvement are highly correlated with self-determined learning and (b) Can self-determined learning fully mediate the relationship between parental involvement and students' academic performance? We find that parental leisure involvement is positively and significantly associated with the development of self-determined learning, which in turn is significantly and positively correlated with academic achievement. Parental provision of structure or parental academic assistance is not significantly associated with students' self-regulation and students' academic achievement.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether academic motivation and academic self-regulated learning predicted students' GPAs in the Early Childhood Education Department. The study participants consisted of 166 early childhood education majors enrolled in the 2014 spring semester at Georgia Southern University, USA. Data were gathered using…
Baert, Stijn; Omey, Eddy; Verhaest, Dieter; Vermeir, Aurélie
There is growing evidence that health factors affect tertiary education success in a causal way. This study assesses the effect of sleep quality on academic achievement at university. To this end, we surveyed 804 students about their sleep quality by means of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) before the start of their first exam period in December 2013 at Ghent University. PSQI scores were merged with course marks in this exam period. Instrumenting PSQI scores by sleep quality during secondary education, we find that increasing total sleep quality with one standard deviation leads to 4.85 percentage point higher course marks. Based on this finding, we suggest that higher education providers might be incentivised to invest part of their resources for social facilities in professional support for students with sleep and other health problems.
Lam, Ching Man
This paper reports the results of a qualitative study that explored the administration and implementation of the Tier 1 Program (Secondary 1 Curriculum) of the Project P.A.T.H.S. The case study method was used to explore perceptions of the teachers and the project coordinator of program effectiveness, and to identify various factors for program success. A school admitting high academic achievers was selected, and site visits, as well as individual and focus group interviews, were conducted with the program coordinator, social worker, and course teachers. The results suggested that clear vision and program goals, high quality of curriculum, helpful leadership, positive teacher attitude, and strong administrative support are factors for program success. Analyzing the data enables the researchers to understand the characteristics of a successful program as well as the interplay among factors for producing success.
Mattingly, Robert M.; VanSickle, Ronald L.
Presents a study of the cooperative learning method "Jigsaw II." Reports superior academic achievement effects are inconsistent with poorer results reported in earlier studies. Discusses a modification incorporating a group goal achievable only by contribution of all group members. Concludes that cooperative learning must include a group…
Balogun, Anthony Gbenro; Balogun, Shyngle Kolawole; Onyencho, Chidi Victor
This study investigated the moderating role of achievement motivation in the relationship between test anxiety and academic performance. Three hundred and ninety three participants (192 males and 201 females) selected from a public university in Ondo State, Nigeria using a purposive sampling technique, participated in the study. They responded to measures of test anxiety and achievement motivation. Three hypotheses were tested using moderated hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Results showed that test anxiety had a negative impact on academic performance (β = -.23; p < .05). Achievement motivation had a positive impact on academic performance (β = .38; p < .05). Also, achievement motivation significantly moderated the relationship between test anxiety and academic performance (β = .10; p < .01). These findings suggest that university management should design appropriate psycho-educational interventions that would enhance students' achievement motivation.
This study focuses on the relationship between self-regulated learning behavior and their academic achievement of college students of art. The results show that for students of art, the involvements in self-efficacy, intrinsic value and cognitive strategies are closely tied to their performance in the examination. However, test anxiety, as a negative emotional factor is negatively correlated with academic performance. And among the five variables, self-efficacy has the strongest influence on students of art's academic performance.
Cook, H. C.
From the social constructivist perspective, this paper examines speech style shifts in academic consultation sessions between professors and students in Japanese universities and demonstrates that politeness is an interactional achievement. The paper attempts to show how what has previously been described as a display of discernment can be…
Nwazor, Joseph Chukwudi; Godwin-Maduike, Chinwe Constance
The aim of the study was to analyze effects of social media on academic performance of business education students in south-east Nigeria. To achieve this, an instrument was designed and sent out to four universities in south-east Nigeria. Out of the 600 copies of the questionnaire distributed, 520 were completely filled and returned giving a…
Walker, Olga L.; Henderson, Heather A.
The goals of the current study were to examine whether children's social problem solving (SPS) skills are a mechanism through which temperament influences later academic achievement and whether sex moderates these associations. The participants included 1117 children enrolled in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of…
Arroyos-Jurado, Elsa; Paulsen, Jane S.; Merrell, Kenneth W.; Lindgren, Scott D.; Max, Jeffrey E.
Examines the academic, behavioral, and social outcomes of a cohort of children and adolescents (N=43) following a traumatic brain injury. Findings reveal that premorbid functions were significant predictors of reading and spelling achievement and adaptive functioning. Discusses implications of results including program development, reintegration…
Bae, Hyo; Hopkins, Joyce; Gouze, Karen R.; Lavigne, John V.
Background: Most research on the relation between parenting behaviors and child outcomes has not focused on cross-ethnic variation in these relations. Objective: This study examined if ethnicity moderates associations between parenting, child agency/persistence, and child academic achievement and social competence. Design: Participants included…
Collett, Gale A.
Longitudinal research has demonstrated that children's emotional and social skills are linked to their early academic achievement (Wentzel & Asher, 1995). Children who have difficulty paying attention, following directions, getting along with others, and controlling negative emotions like anger and distress do not do as well in school (Arnokl…
Shin, Huiyoung; Ryan, Allison M.
This study investigated early adolescent friendship selection and social influence with regard to academic motivation (self-efficacy and intrinsic value), engagement (effortful and disruptive behavior), and achievement (GPA calculated from report card grades) among 6th graders (N = 587, 50% girls at Wave 1; N = 576, 52% girls at Wave 2) followed…
Shin, Huiyoung; Ryan, Allison M
This study investigated early adolescent friendship selection and social influence with regard to academic motivation (self-efficacy and intrinsic value), engagement (effortful and disruptive behavior), and achievement (GPA calculated from report card grades) among 6th graders (N = 587, 50% girls at Wave 1; N = 576, 52% girls at Wave 2) followed from fall to spring within 1 academic year. A stochastic actor-based model of social network analysis was used to overcome methodological limitations of prior research on friends, peer groups, and academic adjustment. Evidence that early adolescents sought out friends who were similar to themselves (selection) was found in regard to academic self-efficacy, and a similar trend was found for achievement. Evidence that friends became more similar to their friends over time (influence) was found for all aspects of academic adjustment except academic self-efficacy. Collectively, results indicate that selection effects were not as pervasive as influence effects in explaining similarity among friends in academic adjustment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
GLENNIE, ELIZABETH; BONNEAU, KARA; VANDELLEN, MICHELLE; DODGE, KENNETH A.
Background/Context Efforts to improve student achievement should increase graduation rates. However, work investigating the effects of student-level accountability has consistently demonstrated that increases in the standards for high school graduation are correlated with increases in dropout rates. The most favored explanation for this finding is that high-stakes testing policies that mandate grade repetition and high school exit exams may be the tipping point for students who are already struggling academically. These extra demands may, in fact, push students out of school. Purpose/Objective/Focus This article examines two hypotheses regarding the relation between school-level accountability and dropout rates. The first posits that improvements in school performance lead to improved success for everyone. If school-level accountability systems improve a school for all students, then the proportion of students performing at grade level increases, and the dropout rate decreases. The second hypothesis posits that schools facing pressure to improve their overall accountability score may pursue this increase at the cost of other student outcomes, including dropout rate. Research Design Our approach focuses on the dynamic relation between school-level academic achievement and dropout rates over time—that is, between one year’s achievement and the subsequent year’s dropout rate, and vice versa. This article employs longitudinal data of records on all students in North Carolina public schools over an 8-year period. Analyses employ fixed-effects models clustering schools and districts within years and controls each year for school size, percentage of students who were free/reduced-price lunch eligible, percentage of students who are ethnic minorities, and locale. Findings/Results This study finds partial evidence that improvements in school-level academic performance will lead to improvements (i.e., decreases) in school-level dropout rates. Schools with improved
Kantomaa, Marko T.; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Kankaanpää, Anna; Kaakinen, Marika; Rodriguez, Alina; Taanila, Anja; Ahonen, Timo; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Tammelin, Tuija
The global epidemic of obesity and physical inactivity may have detrimental implications for young people’s cognitive function and academic achievement. This prospective study investigated whether childhood motor function predicts later academic achievement via physical activity, fitness, and obesity. The study sample included 8,061 children from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986, which contains data about parent-reported motor function at age 8 y and self-reported physical activity, predicted cardiorespiratory fitness (cycle ergometer test), obesity (body weight and height), and academic achievement (grades) at age 16 y. Structural equation models with unstandardized (B) and standardized (β) coefficients were used to test whether, and to what extent, physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and obesity at age 16 mediated the association between childhood motor function and adolescents’ academic achievement. Physical activity was associated with a higher grade-point average, and obesity was associated with a lower grade-point average in adolescence. Furthermore, compromised motor function in childhood had a negative indirect effect on adolescents’ academic achievement via physical inactivity (B = –0.023, 95% confidence interval = –0.031, –0.015) and obesity (B = –0.025, 95% confidence interval = –0.039, –0.011), but not via cardiorespiratory fitness. These results suggest that physical activity and obesity may mediate the association between childhood motor function and adolescents’ academic achievement. Compromised motor function in childhood may represent an important factor driving the effects of obesity and physical inactivity on academic underachievement. PMID:23277558
Kantomaa, Marko T; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Kankaanpää, Anna; Kaakinen, Marika; Rodriguez, Alina; Taanila, Anja; Ahonen, Timo; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Tammelin, Tuija
The global epidemic of obesity and physical inactivity may have detrimental implications for young people's cognitive function and academic achievement. This prospective study investigated whether childhood motor function predicts later academic achievement via physical activity, fitness, and obesity. The study sample included 8,061 children from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986, which contains data about parent-reported motor function at age 8 y and self-reported physical activity, predicted cardiorespiratory fitness (cycle ergometer test), obesity (body weight and height), and academic achievement (grades) at age 16 y. Structural equation models with unstandardized (B) and standardized (β) coefficients were used to test whether, and to what extent, physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and obesity at age 16 mediated the association between childhood motor function and adolescents' academic achievement. Physical activity was associated with a higher grade-point average, and obesity was associated with a lower grade-point average in adolescence. Furthermore, compromised motor function in childhood had a negative indirect effect on adolescents' academic achievement via physical inactivity (B = -0.023, 95% confidence interval = -0.031, -0.015) and obesity (B = -0.025, 95% confidence interval = -0.039, -0.011), but not via cardiorespiratory fitness. These results suggest that physical activity and obesity may mediate the association between childhood motor function and adolescents' academic achievement. Compromised motor function in childhood may represent an important factor driving the effects of obesity and physical inactivity on academic underachievement.
Chen, Wei-Wen; Wong, Yi-Lee
Chinese students are well-known for their academic excellence. However, studies that explore the underlying mechanism of how cultural factors relate to the motivational process and academic achievement of Chinese students have been limited. This study aimed to examine the role of filial piety in shaping Chinese students' theories of intelligence so as to obtain a clearer understanding of the process by which parent-child connectedness is linked to Chinese students' academic achievement. A sample of 312 university students in Hong Kong were assessed concerning their filial piety beliefs, theories of intelligence and academic achievement. Data were analysed using structural equation modelling. The results indicated that different filial piety beliefs relate to students' academic achievement by shaping different theories of intelligence. Reciprocal filial piety beliefs were found to facilitate an incremental view of intelligence, which in turn contributes to students' academic achievement. Authoritarian filial piety beliefs were shown to be associated with an entity view of intelligence, which consequently deteriorates students' academic achievement. Cultural views of motivational processes can shed light on how motivational beliefs are developed as a product of cultural or socialization processes, which, in turn, contribute to students' academic success.
Knopf, John A.; Hahn, Robert A.; Proia, Krista K.; Truman, Benedict I.; Johnson, Robert L.; Muntaner, Carles; Fielding, Jonathan E.; Jones, Camara Phyllis; Fullilove, Mindy T.; Hunt, Pete C.; Qu, Shuli; Chattopadhyay, Sajal K.; Milstein, Bobby
Context Low-income and minority status in the United States are associated with poor educational outcomes, which, in turn, reduce the long-term health benefits of education. Objective This systematic review assessed the extent to which out-of-school-time academic (OSTA) programs for at-risk students, most of whom are from low-income and racial/ethnic minority families, can improve academic achievement. Because most OSTA programs serve low-income and ethnic/racial minority students, programs may improve health equity. Design Methods of the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used. An existing systematic review assessing the effects of OSTA programs on academic outcomes (Lauer et al 2006; search period 1985–2003) was supplemented with a Community Guide update (search period 2003–2011). Main Outcome Measure Standardized mean difference. Results Thirty-two studies from the existing review and 25 studies from the update were combined and stratified by program focus (ie, reading-focused, math-focused, general academic programs, and programs with minimal academic focus). Focused programs were more effective than general or minimal academic programs. Reading-focused programs were effective only for students in grades K-3. There was insufficient evidence to determine effectiveness on behavioral outcomes and longer-term academic outcomes. Conclusions OSTA programs, particularly focused programs, are effective in increasing academic achievement for at-risk students. Ongoing school and social environments that support learning and development may be essential to ensure the longer-term benefits of OSTA programs. PMID:26062096
Gregory, Sheila T., Ed.
This book presents a collection of papers by educators and researchers who discuss various methods of improving minority student achievement. The 19 chapters highlight the achievement of students from kindergarten through college as follows: (1) "Discrepancies between Aspirations and Preparation of Low SES Elementary Students" (Dianne L.…
The present study was undertaken to compare the scientific temper of high and low achieving adolescent girl students. Random sampling technique was used to draw the sample from various high schools of District Srinagar. The sample for the present study consisted of 120 school going adolescent girls (60 high and 60 low achievers). Data was…
Measuring the quality of the "product" is elemental in education, and most studies depend on observational data about student achievement factors, focusing overwhelmingly on quantitative data namely achievement scores, school data like attendance, facilities, expenditure class size, etc. But there is little evidence of learner…
Canto-Herrera, Pedro; Salazar-Carballo, Humberto
The purpose of this study was to study the relationship between beliefs and teaching styles of teachers of mathematics and their students' academic performance in high schools of Yucatan. For this purpose, a questionnaire was administered to 72 high school mathematics teachers and the student academic achievement score of 1241 were used. A…
In a sample of 520 Chinese high school students, the present study aimed to replicate the prior Western findings about the relationship between achievement goals and academic boredom. Our findings indicated that mastery-approach goals and performance-avoidance goals predicted academic boredom, but mastery-avoidance goals and performance-approach goals did not.
Cemaloglu, Necati; Filiz, Sevil
The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between the time management skills and academic achievement of students who are potential teachers studying in faculties of education. The research was conducted in the 2007-08 academic term among 849 graduate students in the Faculty of Education at Gazi University. The "Time Management…
Kazu, Ibrahim Yasar; Demirkol, Mehmet
This study analyzes the students' academic performance by comparing the blended learning environment and traditional learning environment. It has been observed whether there is a significant difference between the academic achievement grade dispersions and the male-female students' grades. The study has been carried out in Diyarbakir Anatolian…
Carrillo-de-la-Pena, Maria T.; Bailles, Eva; Caseras, Xavier; Martinez, Alvar; Ortet, Generos; Perez, Jorge
Although educational experts recommend the use of formative assessment, there is a dearth of empirical studies on its impact on academic achievement. In this research the authors analyse to what extent participation and performance in formative assessment are associated with positive academic outcomes of pre-graduate students of health sciences. A…
Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2010
Teachers who work together to blend academic and career/technical (CT) instruction have found a key to motivating students to complete high school and prepare for college, advanced training and careers. This newsletter highlights key strategies schools are using to join academic and technical studies to advance student motivation and achievement.…
This study aims to examine the relation between pre-service music teachers' psychological resilience and academic achievement levels and to determine what variables influence their psychological resilience levels. The study sample consisted of students enrolled in a music education program in the 2013-2014 academic year (N = 333). In respect with…
Sarwar, Muhammad; Bashir, Muhammad; Khan, Muhammad Naemullah; Khan, Muhammad Saeed
The study orientation of low and high academic achievers was compared, measured through a self-developed study orientation scale (SOS) primarily based on 47 items comparing study habits and attitude. Students' marks obtained in the 10th grade Examination determined the measure of academic performance. The analysis revealed that the high achievers…
Rice, Elisabeth Hess; Yen, Cherng-Jyh
Students with emotional disturbance (ED) have significant academic deficits (Trout, Nordness, Pierce, & Epstein, 2003; Lane, 2004). Even after identification and school intervention, students with ED continue to demonstrate limited academic achievement and high rates of drop out and school failure, with 80-90% scoring below grade level on tests of…
Chae, Soo Eun; Shin, Jae-Han
This study was aimed to find which tutoring styles significantly predict learners' satisfaction with an e-learning service, academic involvement, and academic achievement. The tutoring styles included subject expert, facilitator, guider, and administrator. In this study, 818 Korean sixth-grade students (ages 11-12 years), enrolled in the…
Moore, Elizabeth A.; Harris, Felicity; Laurens, Kristin R.; Green, Melissa J.; Brinkman, Sally; Lenroot, Rhoshel K.; Carr, Vaughan J.
Poor academic performance during childhood predicts later adverse outcomes, and could be targeted for improvement if detected early. This study used population-based record linkage to examine the association between early life risk factors and academic achievement at two different stages of development using two different cohorts: a kindergarten…
Musungu, L. L.; Nasongo, J. W.
The head teachers' role is to promote academic performance. It is therefore important that the performance of a school is appraised against the performance of the person who leads it. The purpose of the study was to investigate the instructional role of the head-teacher in academic achievement in Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (KCSE)…
Kettler, Ryan J.; Elliott, Stephen N.; Beddow, Peter A.; Compton, Elizabeth; McGrath, Dawn; Kaase, Kristopher J.; Bruen, Charles; Ford, Lisa; Hinton, Kent
This study featured validity evidence for scores from states' alternate assessments of alternate academic achievement standards (AA-AASs). It evaluated students from 6 states who were eligible for an AA-AAS concurrently with measures of academic competence and adaptive behavior. The investigators also assessed students with disabilities who were…
Diaz, Anjolii; Berger, Rebecca; Valiente, Carlos; Eisenberg, Nancy; VanSchyndel, Sarah K.; Tao, Chun; Spinrad, Tracy; Doane, Leah D.; Thompson, Marilyn S.; Silva, Kassondra M.; Southworth, Jody
Poor sleep is thought to interfere with children's learning and academic achievement (AA). However, existing research and theory indicate there are factors that may mitigate the academic risk associated with poor sleep. The purpose of this study was to examine the moderating role of children's effortful control (EC) on the relation between sleep…
Allan, John F.; McKenna, Jim; Dominey, Susan
University inductees may be increasingly vulnerable to stressors during transition into higher education (HE), requiring psychological resilience to achieve academic success. This study aimed to profile inductees' resilience and to investigate links to prospective end of year academic outcomes. Scores for resilience were based on a validated…
The goal of this QUAN-qual mixed methods study was to investigate how parents from various ethnicities and socioeconomic status construct their expectations of academic achievement and the impact these expectations have on academic success for the student. Data was gathered by using The Parent Survey of Family and Community Involvement in the…
Gonzalez-Pienda, Julio Antonio; Nunez, Jose Carlos; Gonzalez-Pumariega, Soledad; Alvarez, Luis; Roces, Cristina; Garcia, Marta
Used the structural equation model approach to test a model hypothesizing the influence of parental involvement on students' academic aptitudes, self-concept, and causal attributions, as well as the influence of these variables on academic achievement. Results for 261 adolescents aged 12 to 18 years suggest that cognitive-affective variables are…