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Sample records for academic behavioural confidence

  1. Current Developments in Measuring Academic Behavioural Confidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Using published findings and by further analyses of existing data, the structure, validity and utility of the Academic Behavioural Confidence scale (ABC) is critically considered. Validity is primarily assessed through the scale's relationship with other existing scales as well as by looking for predicted differences. The utility of the ABC scale…

  2. Contrasting Academic Behavioural Confidence in Mexican and European Psychology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochoa, Alma Rosa Aguila; Sander, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Research with the Academic Behavioural Confidence scale using European students has shown that students have high levels of confidence in their academic abilities. It is generally accepted that people in more collectivist cultures have more realistic confidence levels in contrast to the overconfidence seen in individualistic European…

  3. Measuring Academic Behavioural Confidence: The ABC Scale Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Paul; Sanders, Lalage

    2009-01-01

    The Academic Behavioural Confidence (ABC) scale has been shown to be valid and can be useful to teachers in understanding their students, enabling the design of more effective teaching sessions with large cohorts. However, some of the between-group differences have been smaller than expected, leading to the hypothesis that the ABC scale many not…

  4. Understanding Academic Confidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Paul; Sanders, Lalage

    2006-01-01

    This paper draws on the psychological theories of self-efficacy and the self-concept to understand students' self-confidence in academic study in higher education as measured by the Academic Behavioural Confidence scale (ABC). In doing this, expectancy-value theory and self-efficacy theory are considered and contrasted with self-concept and…

  5. Academic Behavioural Confidence: A Comparison of Medical and Psychology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Lalage; Sander, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Introduction. Sander, Stevenson, King and Coates (2000) identified differences between medical students in a conventional university and psychology students in a post-1992 university in their responses to different styles of learning and teaching. Method. It had been hypothesised that differing levels of confidence explained why the former felt…

  6. International Students' Confidence and Academic Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telbis, Nicola Miky; Helgeson, Lars; Kingsbury, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    Research shows that the international student population is showing significant growth. This article deals with issues affecting a growing international student population. Studies show that foreign students are encountering difficulties in social adaptability, language barriers, academic ability, and financial need. There is evidence that a…

  7. International Students' Confidence and Academic Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telbis, Nicola Miky

    2013-01-01

    Research shows that the international student population is showing significant growth. Studies also show that foreign students are encountering difficulties such as social adaptability, language barriers, academic ability, and financial need. There is compelling evidence that establishes a correlation between a person's self-efficacy and his or…

  8. Confidence and Academic Success in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telbis, Miky

    2010-01-01

    A dropout rate can be used to determine student's ability to fulfill their perspective program of study, as well as the college's ability to qualify the right students for the completion of their academic degree. College advertisement can also play a significant role when it comes to dropout rates as it can be viewed as ineffective if the learners…

  9. The Effect of POGIL on Academic Performance and Academic Confidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Gale, S.; Boisselle, L. N.

    2015-01-01

    POGIL (Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning) is a collaborative learning technique that employs guided inquiry within a cyclic system of exploration, concept invention, and application. This action research explores students' academic performance on a unit of organic chemistry work taught using POGIL, in addition to the effect of POGIL on…

  10. Metacognition and confidence: comparing math to other academic subjects

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Shanna; Heit, Evan

    2015-01-01

    Two studies addressed student metacognition in math, measuring confidence accuracy about math performance. Underconfidence would be expected in light of pervasive math anxiety. However, one might alternatively expect overconfidence based on previous results showing overconfidence in other subject domains. Metacognitive judgments and performance were assessed for biology, literature, and mathematics tests. In Study 1, high school students took three different tests and provided estimates of their performance both before and after taking each test. In Study 2, undergraduates similarly took three shortened SAT II Subject Tests. Students were overconfident in predicting math performance, indeed showing greater overconfidence compared to other academic subjects. It appears that both overconfidence and anxiety can adversely affect metacognitive ability and can lead to math avoidance. The results have implications for educational practice and other environments that require extensive use of math. PMID:26082742

  11. Metacognition and confidence: comparing math to other academic subjects.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Shanna; Heit, Evan

    2015-01-01

    Two studies addressed student metacognition in math, measuring confidence accuracy about math performance. Underconfidence would be expected in light of pervasive math anxiety. However, one might alternatively expect overconfidence based on previous results showing overconfidence in other subject domains. Metacognitive judgments and performance were assessed for biology, literature, and mathematics tests. In Study 1, high school students took three different tests and provided estimates of their performance both before and after taking each test. In Study 2, undergraduates similarly took three shortened SAT II Subject Tests. Students were overconfident in predicting math performance, indeed showing greater overconfidence compared to other academic subjects. It appears that both overconfidence and anxiety can adversely affect metacognitive ability and can lead to math avoidance. The results have implications for educational practice and other environments that require extensive use of math. PMID:26082742

  12. Identifying Determinants of Academic Self-Confidence among Science, Math, Engineering, and Technology Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Penelope M.; Brainard, Suzanne G.

    2001-01-01

    Attempts to identify determinants of the gender gap in science, math, engineering, and technology (SMET) students' levels of self-confidence in math, science, and overall academic ability. Results point to perceived respect from professors as the strongest determinant of female academic self-confidence whereas the perceived quality of teaching is…

  13. Corporate Communication: Building Confidence between the Academic and Business Worlds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snavely, William B.; Sullivan, Dan

    1984-01-01

    Describes how business organizations view the purposes and results of communication and the role of the corporate communication professional. Suggests ways to bridge the gap between academic and business worlds. (PD)

  14. Building Academic Confidence in English Language Learners in Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vazquez, Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    Non-English speaking students lack the confidence and preparation to be verbally actively engaged in the classroom. Students may frequently display hesitation in learning to speak English, and may also lack a teacher's guidance in becoming proficient English speakers. The purpose of this research is to examine how teachers build academic…

  15. "The Confidence-Man" and Jobs beyond Academe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mark

    1999-01-01

    Notes that the hopeful threads binding Herman Melville's book "The Confidence-Man" also weave a valuable lesson for literature PhDs considering their career options. Suggests that the values crucial to a teacher or scholar are also crucial to those who work outside the university: willingness to entertain other points of view and an ability to…

  16. Confidence: The Best Non-Cognitive Predictor of Academic Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stankov, Lazar; Morony, Suzanne; Lee, Yim Ping

    2014-01-01

    Recent efforts to identify non-cognitive predictors of academic achievement and school success have largely focused on self-constructs such as self-efficacy, self-concept and anxiety that are measured with respect to a specific domain (e.g. mathematics). We extend the measurement of the non-cognitive realm in education to incorporate both social…

  17. The Effect of Systematic Academic Instruction on Behavioural and Academic Outcomes of Students with EBD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Worp-van der Kamp, Lidy; Pijl, Sip Jan; Post, Wendy J.; Bijstra, Jan O.; van den Bosch, Els J.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to assess the impact of systematic academic instruction on academic progress and behavioural problems of students with emotional and/or behavioural disorders (EBD) in special education. Earlier studies have noted the importance of a systematic approach as well as the significance of focusing on academic instruction instead of on…

  18. Sources of Research Confidence for Early Career Academics: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmings, Brian

    2012-01-01

    There is a paucity of studies investigating how early career academics (ECAs) form attitudes towards aspects of their work and gain skills in research, teaching and service. This is especially the case with respect to research. A review of the pertinent literature revealed the prominence of a notion of research self-efficacy (or confidence) and…

  19. Relations between Technology, Parent Education, Self-Confidence, and Academic Aspiration of Hispanic Immigrant Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Haeseong; Lawson, Daniel; Williams, Helen Easterling

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to test a theoretical model explaining the relationship between technology use, parent educational background, academic aspiration, and self-confidence as predictors of mathematics achievement across three immigrant groups. This study utilized data from the TIMSS 2007. To compare the effect size of technology use,…

  20. Training Programs That Facilitate Lasting Change in Student Academic Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, Brad

    2014-01-01

    A range of evidence suggests that changing a person's pattern of behaviour is extremely difficult, with past behaviour being one of the strongest predictors of future behaviour. This is particularly evident in the university setting where students tend to use the same academic processes they have used throughout their schooling despite any…

  1. Canadian and Australian Pre-Service Teachers' Use, Confidence and Success in Various Behaviour Management Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reupert, Andrea; Woodcock, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold; first, to identify Australian and Canadian pre-service teachers' use, confidence and success in various behaviour management strategies, and second, to identify significant differences between the two cohorts. Pooled data indicated that pre-service teachers most frequently employ low level corrective…

  2. The Relationship between Stress, Academic Confidence, Parental Involvement, and Academic Achievement in African American Urban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayers, Teresa Horne

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between stress, coping resources, and academic achievement in fourth-grade urban youth. The intent was to examine if students' perceptions of their stress and coping resources could predict reading and math achievement. The data were collected from 24 low-income African American students…

  3. Gender Differences in Adolescents' Academic Motivation and Classroom Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugler, Myfanwy; McGeown, Sarah P.; St Clair-Thompson, Helen

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated gender differences in adolescents' academic motivation and classroom behaviour and gender differences in the extent to which motivation was associated with, and predicted, classroom behaviour. Seven hundred and fifty students (384 boys and 366 girls) aged 11--16 (M age?=?14.0, 1.59 SD) completed a questionnaire…

  4. Postgraduate nursing student knowledge, attitudes, skills, and confidence in appropriately referencing academic work.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, Melanie; Walkem, Kerrie; Smith, Lindsay Mervyn; Shearer, Toniele; Stirling, Christine

    2014-08-01

    Preventing plagiarism is an ongoing issue for higher education institutions. Although plagiarism has been traditionally seen as cheating, it is increasingly thought to be the result of poor referencing, with students reporting difficulties citing and referencing bibliographic sources. This study examined the academic knowledge, attitude, skills, and confidence of students in a school of nursing to understand poor referencing. A cross-sectional quantitative and qualitative survey was distributed to postgraduate (N = 1,000) certificate, diploma, and master's students. Quantitative data gathered demographics, cultural and linguistic background, and use of technology. Thematic analysis discovered patterns and themes. Results showed participants understood requirements for referencing; half indicated poor referencing was due to difficulty referencing Internet sources or losing track of sources, and many lacked confidence in key referencing tasks. Despite this, 50% did not make use of referencing resources. Overall, these data suggest incorrect referencing is rarely intentional and predominantly caused by skills deficit. PMID:25054474

  5. Transition to academic nurse educator: a survey exploring readiness, confidence, and locus of control.

    PubMed

    Goodrich, Robin S

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe nurse transition to the role of academic nurse educator and to investigate the resources and barriers that nurses experience during this career transition, specifically the relationships among levels of readiness, confidence, personal control, support, decision independence, general self-esteem, and work locus of control. A convenience sample of registered nurses in the United States (N = 541) who hold current full-time employment at an accredited nursing program granting baccalaureate or higher degrees was utilized. Subjects were recruited via electronic mail and answered an on-line survey. Pearson product-moment correlation and multivariate analysis of variance were used for statistical calculations. Results indicated significant, positive relationships among all the variables except readiness and personal control (p = .01). Significant differences were found in amount of time that nurses were in the role of academic nurse educator and the demographic variables of number of children, marital status, and highest degree held. The results of this study provide evidence to support and enhance processes to develop and retain nurse academicians, to promote excellence in the academic nurse educator role, and to advance the science and practice of the profession. PMID:24939330

  6. Health Behaviour and Academic Achievement in Icelandic School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Kristjansson, Alfgeir Logi; Allegrante, John P.

    2007-01-01

    Interest in the relationship between health behaviours and academic achievement has recently intensified in the face of an epidemic of childhood and adolescent obesity and converging school reforms in the United States and other nations with advanced economies. Epidemiologic research has demonstrated that poor diet and lack of adequate physical…

  7. The Key to Successful Achievement as an Undergraduate Student: Confidence and Realistic Expectations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Laura; Putwain, David; Connors, Liz; Hornby-Atkinson, Pat

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how expectations of independent study and academic behavioural confidence predicted end-of-semester marks in a sample of undergraduate students. Students' expectations and academic behavioural confidence were measured near the beginning of the semester, and academic performance was taken from aggregated end-of-semester…

  8. Classroom Behaviour and Academic Achievement: How Classroom Behaviour Categories Relate to Gender and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borg, Elin

    2015-01-01

    Latent profile analysis was used to identify different categories of students having different "profiles" using self-reported classroom behaviour. Four categories of students with unique classroom behaviour profiles were identified among secondary school students in Oslo, Norway (n = 1570). Analyses examined how classroom behaviour…

  9. Teaching Academic Skills as an Answer to Behavioural Problems of Students with Emotional or Behavioural Disorders: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Worp-van der Kamp, Lidy; Pijl, Sip Jan; Bijstra, Jan O.; van den Bosch, Els J.

    2014-01-01

    Academic learning has always been a serious issue for students with emotional and behavioural disorders (EBD) and their teachers. However, teaching academic skills could be an important protective and curative factor for the problem behaviour of these students. The current review was conducted to study the effect of interventions developed to…

  10. Trait emotional intelligence influences on academic achievement and school behaviour.

    PubMed

    Mavroveli, Stella; Sánchez-Ruiz, María José

    2011-03-01

    BACKGROUND. Trait emotional intelligence (trait EI or trait emotional self-efficacy) refers to individuals' emotion-related self-perceptions (Petrides, Furnham, & Mavroveli, 2007). The children's trait EI sampling domain provides comprehensive coverage of their affective personality. Preliminary evidence shows that the construct has important implications for children's psychological and behavioural adjustment. AIMS. This study investigates the associations between trait EI and school outcomes, such as performance in reading, writing, and maths, peer-rated behaviour and social competence, and self-reported bullying behaviours in a sample of primary school children. It also examines whether trait EI scores differentiate between children with and without special educational needs (SEN). SAMPLE. The sample comprised 565 children (274 boys and 286 girls) between the ages of 7 and 12 (M((age)) = 9.12 years, SD= 1.27 years) attending three English state primary schools. METHOD. Pupils completed the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Child Form (TEIQue-CF), the Guess Who peer assessment, the Peer-Victimization Scale, and the Bullying Behaviour Scale. Additional data on achievement and SEN were collected from the school archives. RESULTS. As predicted by trait EI theory, associations between trait EI and academic achievement were modest and limited to Year 3 children. Higher trait EI scores were related to more nominations from peers for prosocial behaviours and fewer nominations for antisocial behaviour as well as lower scores on self-reported bulling behaviours. Furthermore, SEN students scored lower on trait EI compared to students without SEN. CONCLUSIONS. Trait EI holds important and multifaceted implications for the socialization of primary schoolchildren. PMID:21199490

  11. International note: parenting, academic achievement and problem behaviour among Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Li, Haibin; Walker, Richard; Armstrong, Derrick

    2014-06-01

    In light of differing findings regarding the relations between parenting and adolescent academic/behavioural outcomes and the dearth of such research in a Chinese context, we conducted research to examine the relationship between parental supervision/attachment and academic achievement/problem behaviour among mainland Chinese adolescents. In the study, 636 Grade 11 students completed a questionnaire comprising parenting and problem behaviour variables complemented by academic achievement (GPA) data drawn from school records. The study found that the relations between parenting (parental supervision and attachment) and Chinese adolescents' academic and behavioural outcomes are very weak. PMID:24793385

  12. Confidence: A Better Predictor of Academic Achievement than Self-Efficacy, Self-Concept and Anxiety?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stankov, Lazar; Lee, Jihyun; Luo, Wenshu; Hogan, David J.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we report the results from a study that assessed confidence together with scales measuring self-belief--i.e., self-efficacy, different kinds of self-concepts, and anxiety--among the 15-year old students from Singapore. A distinct confidence factor was identified in the domains of mathematics (N = 1940) and English (N = 1786). Our…

  13. Understanding Dishonest Academic Behaviour Amongst Business Students--The Business Leaders of the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagraim, Jeffrey; Goodman, Suki; Pulker, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    This study applies the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) to increase understanding about dishonest academic behaviour amongst undergraduate business students. A total of 579 respondents from three universities in South Africa completed an online survey about their beliefs regarding academic dishonesty, their intentions to engage in dishonest…

  14. What Behaviours Do Students Consider Academically Dishonest? Findings from a Survey of Canadian Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurdi, Rozzet; Hage, H. Sam; Chow, Henry P. H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper identifies those behaviours that students perceive to be academically dishonest and sheds light on several demographic, academic and situational factors that predict students' perceptions of academic dishonesty. Data for this investigation were obtained through self-administered questionnaires from a sample of 321 undergraduate students…

  15. The impact of maths support tutorials on mathematics confidence and academic performance in a cohort of HE Animal Science students

    PubMed Central

    Amory, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Students embarking on a bioscience degree course, such as Animal Science, often do not have sufficient experience in mathematics. However, mathematics forms an essential and integral part of any bioscience degree and is essential to enhance employability. This paper presents the findings of a project looking at the effect of mathematics tutorials on a cohort of first year animal science and management students. The results of a questionnaire, focus group discussions and academic performance analysis indicate that small group tutorials enhance students’ confidence in maths and improve students’ academic performance. Furthermore, student feedback on the tutorial programme provides a deeper insight into student experiences and the value students assign to the tutorials. PMID:25024925

  16. Confidence Analyses of Self-Interpretation and Self-Description in Depressive Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothuber, Helfried; Leibetseder, Max; Mitterauer, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    The present paper represents an investigation in the procedure to validate a new questionnaire (Salzburg Subjective Behavioural Analysis, SSBA). This questionnaire is based on a new approach to the diagnosis of depressive behaviour. It is hypothesized that a patient suffering from a depressive disorder loses the ability to produce one or more…

  17. The Role of Interpersonal Comfort, Attributional Confidence, and Communication Quality in Academic Mentoring Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yim, Laetitia; Waters, Lea

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore mentoring between supervisors and their postgraduate students by (a) investigating types of mentoring functions offered in academic mentoring relationships, (b) exploring perceptions of supervisors and their postgraduate students about provisions for mentoring support, and (c) examining how interpersonal…

  18. Exploring Academic Misconduct: Some Insights into Student Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Bob

    2010-01-01

    Academic research and newspaper stories suggest that academic misconduct, including plagiarism, is on the increase. This apparent increase coupled with new internet enterprises selling "pass" papers and customized research are worrying trends. Academic misconduct is deeply harmful in a number of ways by devaluing awards, frustrating academics and…

  19. Effects of Relevance- and Confidence-Enhancing Motivational Strategies, Suggested Strategies, and Statements on Academic Performance and Course Satisfaction in Undergraduate Students of a Blended Public Speaking Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jokelova, Antonia

    2012-01-01

    The study was conducted to examine whether the components of Relevance and Confidence from the ARCS motivational model affect academic performance and course satisfaction differently. The participants were students of an online public speaking course at a southern U.S. public university. They were divided into three groups, Relevance, Confidence,…

  20. Principals' Confidence in Managing Disruptive Student Behaviour. Exploring Geographical Context in NSW Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Paul Brian; Spandagou, Ilektra; Evans, David

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the results from an initial quantitative analysis of survey data collected from the Principals and Behaviour Survey (PABS) conducted in New South Wales, Australia. PABS was built upon a foundation of existing validated studies measuring principals' attitudes to the inclusion of students with disabilities in mainstream…

  1. Leadership Behaviour and Effectiveness of Academic Program Directors in Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilkinas, Tricia; Ladyshewsky, Richard K.

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on leadership behaviour and effectiveness of university academic program directors who have responsibility for managing a program or course of study. The leadership capabilities were assessed using the Integrated Competing Values Framework as its theoretical foundation. Data from 90 academic program directors and 710…

  2. Self-Beliefs and Behavioural Development as Related to Academic Achievement in Canadian Aboriginal Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baydala, Lola; Rasmussen, Carmen; Birch, June; Sherman, Jody; Wikman, Erik; Charchun, Julianna; Kennedy, Merle; Bisanz, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    The authors explored the relationship between measures of self-belief, behavioural development, and academic achievement in Canadian Aboriginal children. Standardized measures of intelligence are unable to consistently predict academic achievement in students from indigenous populations. Exploring alternative factors that may be both predictive…

  3. An Investigation of Gender and Age Differences in Academic Motivation and Classroom Behaviour in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugler, Myfanwy; McGeown, Sarah; St. Clair-Thompson, Helen

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated gender- and age-related differences in academic motivation and classroom behaviour in adolescents. Eight hundred and fifty-five students (415 girls and 440 boys) aged 11-16 ("M" age = 13.96, "SD" = 1.47) filled in a questionnaire that examined student academic motivation and teachers completed a…

  4. Connections between Learning Experience, Study Behaviour and Academic Performance: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ning, H. K.; Downing, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Background: Whilst past studies have established the joint influence of student learning experience and study behaviour on academic achievement, few attempts have been made to determine their causal ordering in a longitudinal framework. Purpose: This study explored the reciprocal relationship between learning experience and study behaviour, and…

  5. The Relationships among Students' Commitment, Self-Esteem, Organisational Citizenship Behaviour and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khaola, Peter P.

    2014-01-01

    As one of the most important dependent variables in education and work research, performance has been operationalised either as the proficiency with which core tasks are performed (task performance), or as extra-role behaviours that support core activities (organisational citizenship behaviours). Relative to academic performance (core academic…

  6. Parental Behavioural Control and Academic Achievement: Striking the Balance between Control and Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Karen Z.

    2012-01-01

    Using a longitudinal US dataset (N = 6,134) we examine the relationship between parental behavioural control and academic achievement and explore the moderating role of parental involvement and parental warmth. Analyses using multiple hierarchical regression with clustering controls shows that parental behavioural control is negatively associated…

  7. Some Possible Effects of Behaviour Management Training on Teacher Confidence and Competence: Evidence from a Study of Primary School Teachers in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Paul; Yan, Zi

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to explore the relationships between the extent and perceived quality of teachers' experience of training in behaviour management (BM), and their awareness of the nature and extent of behavioural problems among school students, and their confidence in their own competence to deal with such problems. Teachers (n = 183) from…

  8. Length of Study-Time Behaviour and Academic Achievement of Social Studies Education Students in the University of Uyo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ukpong, D. E.; George, I. N.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the length of study time behaviour and academic achievement of Social Studies Education students in the University of Uyo. The purpose was to determine the difference in the academic achievement of the long study time behaviour students and their short study time behaviour counterparts in Social Studies Education. The study…

  9. Insights into Information-Seeking and Communicating Behaviour of Academics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ocholla, Dennis N.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the information-seeking behavior of academics in South Africa, presenting a survey conducted at the University of Zululand. Presents results in 9 tables in terms of: rank and position; information resources used; how knowledge of existence of information sources is gained; generation of professional ideas; why academics seek information;…

  10. Information-Seeking Behaviour by Academics: A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ocholla, Dennis N.

    1996-01-01

    Analyzes information-seeking behavior by university academics at Moi University (Kenya). Results established that faculty depend on the library and on colleagues for information in spite of a lack of awareness of information services and nonuse of current awareness services. A copy of the questionnaire used is appended. (Author/LRW)

  11. Examining the Link between Working Memory Behaviour and Academic Attainment in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alloway, Tracy Packiam; Gathercole, Susan E.; Elliott, Julian

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate whether behaviours typical of working memory problems are associated with poor academic attainment in those with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as well as a non-clinical group identified on the basis of working memory difficulties. Method: Children clinically diagnosed with…

  12. Achievement Goal Orientation and Differences in Self-Reported Copying Behaviour across Academic Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Songsriwittaya, Alisa; Koul, Ravinder; Kongsuwan, Sak

    2010-01-01

    This survey study investigated the relationship between achievement goal orientation and self-reported copying behaviour among college students (N = 2007) enrolled in five different academic programmes in Thailand. Results of statistical analysis showed several significant findings: performance approach goal orientation, performance avoidance goal…

  13. Peer Relationships, Social Behaviours, Academic Performance and Loneliness in Korean Primary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Yoolim

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how different forms of peer relationships offer children unique support for loneliness and to examine the direct as well as indirect effects of social behaviours and academic performance through the mediation of peer relationships on the prediction of loneliness in Korean children. Four hundred and…

  14. Seating Arrangements that Promote Positive Academic and Behavioural Outcomes: A Review of Empirical Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wannarka, Rachel; Ruhl, Kathy

    2008-01-01

    Seating arrangements are important classroom setting events because they have the potential to help prevent problem behaviours that decrease student attention and diminish available instructional time. The purpose of this synthesis of empirical literature is to determine which arrangements of desks best facilitate positive academic and behavioural…

  15. Whole-School Positive Behaviour Support: Effects on Student Discipline Problems and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luiselli, James K.; Putnam, Robert F.; Handler, Marcie W.; Feinberg, Adam B.

    2005-01-01

    Many students attending public schools exhibit discipline problems such as disruptive classroom behaviour, vandalism, bullying, and violence. Establishing effective discipline practices is critical to ensure academic success and to provide a safe learning environment. In this article, we describe the effects of whole-school positive behaviour…

  16. Impact of Teacher's Behaviour on the Academic Achievement of University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Syed Shafqat Ali

    2009-01-01

    This research article discusses the impact of teacher's behaviour on the academic achievement of university students. All the teachers and students of public sector universities constituted the population. From the 15 public sector universities, 375 teachers and 1500 students from five departments were selected as a sample. Two questionnaires were…

  17. The Perfect Place to Work? Australian Academic Libraries and Unacceptable Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moorcroft, Heather

    2009-01-01

    Despite the stereotype of libraries as peaceful retreats, unacceptable behaviour is a reality that desk staff have to deal with. This paper outlines the results of two surveys conducted at Charles Darwin University Library to investigate the extent to which this is a problem in Australian academic libraries. The first survey went to CAUL (Council…

  18. Child and Adolescent Traumatic Brain Injury: Academic, Behavioural, and Social Consequences in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jantz, Paul B.; Coulter, Gail A.

    2007-01-01

    More than five million children suffer from brain injuries each year. While the majority of these children are treated and released without permanent consequences, many children return to the classroom with lasting effects. Symptoms of brain injury can be misconstrued as common behaviour or academic problems. Therefore, teachers need to recognize…

  19. Validation of a Questionnaire on Behaviour Academic Competence among Chinese Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Cynthia; Lo, S. K.; Leung, Shirley S. L.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate a questionnaire on academic competence behaviour for use with Chinese preschool children in Hong Kong. A parent version and a teacher version were developed and evaluated. The participants included 457 children (230 boys and 227 girls) aged four and five years old, their preschool teachers and their parents.…

  20. The Extended Theory of Planned Behaviour and College Grades: The Role of Cognition and Past Behaviour in the Prediction of Students' Academic Intentions and Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovac, Velibor Bobo; Cameron, David Lansing; Høigaard, Rune

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the underlying processes influencing college students' academic achievement represents an important goal of educational research. The aim of the present study was to examine the utility of the extended Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) and the relative influence of cognitive processes and measures of past behaviour in the prediction…

  1. Effects of Implementing School-Wide Positive Behavioural Interventions and Supports on Problem Behaviour and Academic Achievement in a Canadian Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelm, Joanna L.; McIntosh, Kent; Cooley, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Although there is much research on School-Wide Positive Behavioural Interventions and Supports (PBIS) in the United States, there is little such research in Canada. The purpose of the current study was to provide a case study example of the relation between implementing PBIS and student academic and behavioural outcomes, as well as student…

  2. Academic performance of Korean children is associated with dietary behaviours and physical status.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Young P; Frongillo, Edward A; Han, Sung-Sook; Oh, Se-Young; Kim, Woo-Kyung; Jang, Young-Ai; Won, Hye-Sook; Lee, Hyun-Sook; Kim, Sook-He

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain a fuller understanding of the association of dietary behaviours, physical status and socio-economic status with academic performance in Korean teenagers. The subjects in this study were 6,463 boys and girls, in grade 5, 8, and 11 in Korea. A self-administered questionnaire and the food-frequency form were used. Grade point average (GPA), height, weight, and physical fitness score for the year were recorded from the school record. The academic performance of students was strongly associated with dietary behaviours, especially with regularity of three meals even after control for parent's education level. Regular breakfast and lunch were more important in grades 5 and 8, while regular dinner was more related with academic performance in grade 11. Small, positive associations of height and physical fitness to academic performance were also found. The relative importance of regularity of meals was greater than that of socio-economic status and physical status in older teenagers. The results of this study suggest that accommodation of better dietary environment and nutrition education for three regular meals is recommended. PMID:12810409

  3. Teaching Staff Knowledge, Attributions and Confidence in Relation to Working with Children with an Intellectual Disability and Challenging Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rae, Helen; Murray, George; McKenzie, Karen

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined Scottish teaching staff knowledge about the definition and management of challenging behaviour displayed by children with an intellectual disability. Knowledge levels were relatively low, and participants were most likely to define challenging behaviour by function or topography. Teaching staff were largely unaware of…

  4. School-Based Intervention for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Effects on Academic, Social, and Behavioural Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPaul, George J.; Weyandt, Lisa L.

    2006-01-01

    Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) exhibit significant academic, social, and behavioural difficulties in school settings. This article reviews empirical findings regarding the effects of classroom interventions for students with ADHD. Three major types of interventions are reviewed including behavioural (e.g., token…

  5. Academic Self-Efficacy in Study-Related Skills and Behaviours: Relations with Learning-related Emotions and Academic Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putwain, Dave; Sander, Paul; Larkin, Derek

    2013-01-01

    Background: Academic self-efficacy, when operationalized as mastery over domain-specific knowledge, has been found to be a predictor of academic achievement and emotions. Although academic emotions are also a predictor of academic achievement, there is limited evidence for reciprocal relations with academic achievement. Aims: To examine whether…

  6. The Association between Health Behaviours and Academic Performance in Canadian Elementary School Students: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    McIsaac, Jessie-Lee D.; Kirk, Sara F. L.; Kuhle, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Establishing early healthy eating and physical activity behaviours is critical in supporting children’s long-term health and well-being. The objective of the current paper was to examine the association between health behaviours and academic performance in elementary school students in a school board in Nova Scotia, Canada. Methods: Our population-based study included students in grades 4–6 across 18 schools in a rural school board. Diet and physical activity were assessed through validated instruments. Academic performance measures were obtained from the school board for Mathematics and English Language Arts (ELA). Associations between health behaviours and academic performance were assessed using multilevel logistic regression. Results: Students with unhealthy lifestyle behaviours were more likely to have poor academic performance for both ELA and Mathematics compared to students with healthy lifestyle behaviours; associations were statistically significant for diet quality, physical activity, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption for ELA; and breakfast skipping, not being physically active at morning recess, and not being physically active after school for Mathematics. The effects of diet and physical activity were independent of each other and there was no interaction between the two exposures. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that support for healthy behaviours may help to improve academic outcomes of students. PMID:26610537

  7. [The relationship between ADHD, problem behaviour and academic achievement at the end of primary school].

    PubMed

    Jantzer, Vanessa; Haffner, Johann; Parzer, Peter; Roos, Jeanette; Steen, Rainer; Resch, Franz

    2012-01-01

    So far there are contradictory findings concerning the degree of negative influence of attention deficit disorders, external or socio-emotional disorders on academic development of a child. Therefore the present epidemiologic study analyses the relationship between clinically relevant problems and academic achievement of fourth graders (measured by recommendation for secondary school: A-level, B-level or C-level). Children (N = 3910) were rated by their parents by anonymised questionnaires (Child Behavior Checklist CBCL) at the end of primary school. Especially in the field of attention deficit, somatic and anxiety/depression disorders, many children were in a clinically relevant range compared to German norm data. It became obvious that future C-level pupils are particularly strong, multiply problem troubled, with constantly higher problems at all subscales. Mainly attention deficit disorders proved to be relevant for academic achievement, but also delinquent behaviour and social problems, which enhance the relative risk of recommendation for B- or C-level considerably. Early applied preventive interventions supporting social and cognitive development seem therefore of central importance for the school career of primary school children. PMID:23304833

  8. Confidence in the future, health-related behaviour and psychological distress: results from a web-based cross-sectional study of 101 257 Finns

    PubMed Central

    Joutsenniemi, Kaisla; Härkänen, Tommi; Pankakoski, Maiju; Langinvainio, Heimo; Mattila, Antti S; Saarelma, Osmo; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Mustonen, Pekka

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the role of socioeconomic status and psychological stress to potential associations between confidence in the future and a wide range of health-related behaviours. Design Web-based cross-sectional study including an ‘Electronic Health Check’ at the Finnish Happiness-Flourishing Study website linked to a TV programme on happiness and depression. Setting The Finnish population with access to the internet. Participants 101 257 Finns aged 18 and above (21 365 men; 79 892 women). Participants who were under the age of 18 and who did not provide information about their gender were excluded. Primary outcome measures As planned, we assessed smoking, weekly alcohol consumption and binge drinking, daily intake of fruits and vegetables and regular exercise. Results Compared with participants with low confidence in the future, those with high confidence were less likely to be daily smokers (men OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.52 to 0.65; women 0.57, 95% CI 0.53 to 0.61) and binge drinkers (men 0.57; 0.52 to 0.63; women 0.54; 0.50 to 0.57). Participants with high confidence in the future were more likely to exercise regularly (men OR 2.82, 95% CI 2.55 to 3.13; women 2.57, 95% CI 2.44 to 2.71) and consume vegetables (men OR 2.48, 95% CI 2.25 to 2.74; women 2.13, 95% CI 2.03 to 2.24) and fruits (men OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.86 to 2.35; women 1.83, 95% CI 1.74 to 1.93) daily. Adjustment for current psychological distress and satisfaction for income attenuated the results. Conclusions Having confidence in the future is strongly associated with a healthy lifestyle, as assessed by a healthy diet, physical exercise and substance abuse. Health-related interventions may benefit from tailoring interventions according to the target population's level of confidence in the future as well as their level of psychological distress. PMID:23794550

  9. Does the Confidence of First-Year Undergraduate Students Change over Time According to Achievement Goal Profile?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putwain, David W.; Sander, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the changes in students' academic behavioural confidence over the course of their first year of academic study and whether changes differ by their achievement goal profile. Self-report data were collected from 434 participants in three waves: at the beginning of the first semester of their first year of undergraduate study, at…

  10. [The influence of perinatal hypoxic-ischemic disorders of central nervous system on adolescent academic achievements and behavioural deviations].

    PubMed

    Ukleba, K O; Pavlenishvili, I V; Zurabashvili, D Z

    2013-05-01

    The objective of our research was to study long-term influence of hypoxic-ischemic disorders of central nervous system on adolescent academic achievements and behavioural deviations. It was found that perinatal pathologies highly determine the deviant behaviour. The conducted research revealed law intellectual capacity (IQ) in youth with perinatal pathology--2.26. The majority of youths involved in adolescent antisocial behavior suffered from hypoxic-ischemic disorders of central nervous system during perinatal period (76%--tend to narcotic and toxic substance addictions; 82%--to criminal behaviour). PMID:23787509

  11. The Relationship of Academic and Social Cognition to Behaviour in Bullying Situations among Greek Primary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreou, Eleni; Metallidou, Panagiota

    2004-01-01

    This research explored links between cognition (both social and academic) and children's behaviour in a bullying situation (participant roles). Participants were 186 fourth to sixth grade boys and girls from four primary schools in central Greece. Six categories of social cognition (self-efficacy for assertion, self-efficacy for aggression,…

  12. Trust and Work Place Spirituality on Knowledge Sharing Behaviour: Perspective from Non-Academic Staff of Higher Learning Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, Muhammad Sabbir; Osmangani, Aahad M; Daud, Nuraihan Mat; Chowdhury, Abdul Hannan; Hassan, Hasliza

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This empirical research aims to add value in the existing research on knowledge sharing, investigate the antecedents of knowledge-sharing behaviour by embedding trust and workplace spirituality variable on non-academic staff from higher learning institution in Malaysia. The role of trust, perceived risk and workplace spirituality towards…

  13. Academic Standards as Public Goods and Varieties of Free-Rider Behaviour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Denton

    2002-01-01

    Explores the manner in which academic standards confer benefit, exhibit public-good characteristics, and elicit free-riding and "underproduction" in various parts of the academic community. Examines the resulting challenge to the maintenance of academic quality and the difficulty of discouraging free-rider behavior. (Contains 32 references.)…

  14. Learning Behaviours, Attention and Anxiety in Caribbean Children: Beyond the 'Usual Suspects' in Explaining Academic Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durbrow, Eric H.; Schaefer, Barbara A.; Jimerson, Shane R.

    2000-01-01

    Contributions of learning behaviors; anxiety; attention problems; cognitive ability; and home background to academic performance was investigated in Caribbean village children (N=61). It was determined that anxiety, attention, and learning-related behaviors explained 32-35% of variance in academic scores. Results suggest that academic performance…

  15. Birthweight-Discordance and Differences in Early Parenting Relate to Monozygotic Twin Differences in Behaviour Problems and Academic Achievement at Age 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asbury, Kathryn; Dunn, Judith F.; Plomin, Robert

    2006-01-01

    This longitudinal monozygotic (MZ) twin differences study explored associations between birthweight and early family environment and teacher-rated behaviour problems and academic achievement at age 7. MZ differences in anxiety, hyperactivity, conduct problems, peer problems and academic achievement correlated significantly with MZ differences in…

  16. Sustainable Attitudes and Behaviours amongst a Sample of Non-Academic Staff: A Case Study from an Information Services Department, Griffith University, Brisbane

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, G.; O'Callaghan, F.; Knox, K.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is seek to characterise sustainable attitudes and behaviours (including recycling and waste minimisation, energy efficiency, water conservation and "green" purchasing) amongst non-academic staff within Griffith University, Queensland. Design/methodology/approach: For this study, the attitudes and behaviour of 100…

  17. Self-reported attitudes and behaviours of medical students in Pakistan regarding academic misconduct: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Honesty and integrity are key attributes of an ethically competent physician. However, academic misconduct, which includes but is not limited to plagiarism, cheating, and falsifying documentation, is common in medical colleges across the world. The purpose of this study is to describe differences in the self-reported attitudes and behaviours of medical students regarding academic misconduct depending on gender, year of study and type of medical institution in Pakistan. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted with medical students from one private and one public sector medical college. A pre-coded questionnaire about attitudes and behaviours regarding plagiarism, lying, cheating and falsifying documentation was completed anonymously by the students. Results A total of 465 medical students filled the questionnaire. 53% of private medical college students reported that they recognize copying an assignment verbatim and listing sources as references as wrong compared to 35% of public medical college students. 26% of private medical college students self-report this behaviour as compared to 42% of public medical college students. 22% of private versus 15% of public medical college students and 21% of students in clinical years compared to 17% in basic science years admit to submitting a fake medical certificate to justify an absence. 87% of students at a private medical college believe that cheating in an examination is wrong as compared to 66% of public medical college students and 24% self-report this behaviour in the former group as compared to 41% in the latter. 63% of clinical year students identify cheating as wrong compared to 89% of their junior colleagues. 71% of male versus 84% of female respondents believe that cheating is wrong and 42% of males compared to 23% of females admit to cheating. Conclusions There are significant differences in medical students’ attitudes and behaviours towards plagiarism, lying, cheating and stealing by gender

  18. Academic Dishonesty in the Canadian Classroom: Behaviours of a Sample of University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurdi, Rozzet; Hage, H. Sam; Chow, Henry P. H.

    2011-01-01

    Academic dishonesty is a persistent problem in institutions of higher education, with numerous short- and long-term implications. This study examines undergraduate students' self-reported engagement in acts of academic dishonesty using data from a sample of 321 participants attending a public university in a western Canadian city during the fall…

  19. The Relationship of the Supportiveness of the Academic Environment to the Self-Confidence and Assertiveness in Academic Work for Men and Women Graduate Students in Science and Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansbury, Kendyll

    Situational influences on self-confidence and assertiveness in female and male graduate students in science and engineering were studied, based on responses from 328 Stanford University students (155 males and 173 females). Two dependent variables were used: an index of items measuring an individual's self-confidence in the ability to perform…

  20. The Continuing Behavioural Modification of Academics since the 1992 Research Assessment Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talib, Ameen Ali

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed academics for the impact of Britain's Research Assessment Exercise (RAE), an assessment and funding mechanism, on their research behavior. Compared results to an earlier study (McNay, 1997) for significant differences. Found that the RAE time scale and the perceived preferences of RAE panel members are increasingly influencing choice of…

  1. Effects of Multidomain Risk Accumulation on Cognitive, Academic, and Behavioural Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aro, Tuija; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Eklund, Kenneth; Tolvanen, Asko; Laakso, Marja-Leena; Viholainen, Helena; Lyytinen, Heikki; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Ahonen, Timo

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the predictive associations between cumulative multidomain risk factors and cognitive (IQ), academic (reading fluency), and social adaptive outcomes at 8 to 9 years among 190 children with or without familial risk for dyslexia. Other risk factors included parental and neurocognitive risks assessed when the children…

  2. Lexical Behaviour in Academic and Technical Corpora: Implications for ESP Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuentes, Alejandro Curado

    2001-01-01

    Outlines a way of dealing with vocabulary in English for academic purposes instruction in light of insights provided by empirical observation. Focusing on collocation in the context of English for special purposes (ESP), and more specifically, English for information science and technology, shows how the results of the contrastive study of lexical…

  3. Does Preschool Education Exposure Predict Children's Academic and Behavioural Outcomes in China?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yanfang; Lv, Ying; Huntsinger, Carol S.

    2015-01-01

    Relationships between exposure to preschool education and children's academic and social outcomes have been documented in Western countries. There is a lack of comparable research in China, where preschool education is relatively formal, but rather flexible in arrangement. We conducted research at six public kindergartens in a large Chinese…

  4. Academics Transformational Leadership: An Investigation of Heads of Department Leadership Behaviours in Malaysian Public Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tahir, Lokman; Abdullah, Tina; Ali, Fadzli; Daud, Khadijah

    2014-01-01

    Presently, the role and the function of universities in Malaysia have been described as being in a state of change. Several strategies have been adopted to assist in the re-branding of higher institutions of learning. As a consequence, an effective model of leadership practices, particularly at the Malaysian academic departmental level, has to be…

  5. Examining the Effect of Positive Behaviour Support on Academic Achievement of Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitiyo, Morgan; Makweche-Chitiyo, Plaxedes; Park, Meungguk; Ametepee, Lawrence K.; Chitiyo, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Students who engage in challenging behaviour compromise the fundamental ability of schools to educate children. Consequently, teachers face the daunting task of designing effective strategies to promote positive educational outcomes for their students. Since the 1997 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act amendments, the use of positive…

  6. Is the Study Process Questionnaire (SPQ) a Good Predictor of Academic Achievement? Examining the Mediating Role of Achievement-Related Classroom Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choy, Jeanette Lyn Fung; O'Grady, Glen; Rotgans, Jerome I.

    2012-01-01

    Studies have shown that the Study Process Questionnaire (SPQ)--which provides a measure of student approaches to learning--is a relatively weak predictor of academic achievement. The present study sought to explore whether students' achievement-related classroom behaviours, as observed by teachers, can be used as a mediator between student…

  7. Are Strengths the Solution? An Exploration of the Relationships among Teacher-Rated Strengths, Classroom Behaviour, and Academic Achievement of Young Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitley, Jessica; Rawana, Edward P.; Pye, Melissa; Brownlee, Keith

    2010-01-01

    Strength-based approaches are being increasingly validated for use in clinical settings with children and youth. However, the role that strengths play in educational settings with typically-achieving students has yet to be examined. The present study explored the relationship among strengths, classroom behaviour, and academic achievement for a…

  8. Effects of Behavioural Objectives-Based Instructional Strategy on Senior School Students' Academic Performance in Mathematics in Omu-Aran, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salman, M. F.; Yahaya, L. A.; Yusuf, A.; Ahmed, M. A.; Ayinla, J. O.

    2012-01-01

    This study sought for the effect of the use of behavioural objectives on Senior Secondary students' academic performance in Mathematics in Omu-Aran, Kwara South Senatorial District Area of Kwara State, Nigeria. The target population for the study comprised Senior Secondary Two (SS II) students in Omu-Aran town. Purposive sampling technique was…

  9. Care-seeking behaviour and diagnostic processes for symptomatic giardiasis in children attending an academic paediatric hospital

    PubMed Central

    Escobedo, Angel A; Almirall, Pedro; Ávila, Ivonne; Salazar, Yohana; Alfonso, Maydel

    2014-01-01

    Giardiasis is one of the commonest intestinal parasitic infections in Cuba. In order to determine care-seeking behaviour and diagnostic processes in paediatric in-patients with giardiasis, structured questionnaires were administered by interview mothers of children with giardiasis during January to December 2010. During the study period, 97 children were diagnosed with giardiasis, of whom 86 (88.6%) caregivers were interviewed. The median number of days from symptoms onset to the first presentation in a health unit was 2 days (range: 0–15 days). The pattern of care-seeking behaviour was variable; 41 (47.7%) of children initially visited the emergency unit in a paediatric hospital. Sixty-six children had, at least, one further contact for help before diagnosis of giardiasis was made (range: 1–5 contacts) and of the 128 contact visits, 94 (73.4%) were also targeted more to hospitals. There was a median time of 6 days between the first presentation to a health unit until diagnosis, which was mainly made by microscopic examination of duodenal aspiration. Among factors investigated in mothers, only knowing other person with giardiasis had significant association with their ability to suspect giardiasis [odds ratio (OR): 29.8, 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.71–239.4, P = 0.001]. Requesting a faecal specimen or ordering duodenal aspiration for microscopic examination during the first visit appeared associated with correct diagnosis (OR: 3.84, 95% CI: 1.57–9.40, P = 0.003). Efforts should be made to increase doctors’ awareness of- and diagnostic skills for childhood giardiasis. At the same time, it is necessary to improve caregivers’ awareness about giardiasis. PMID:25253040

  10. Care-seeking behaviour and diagnostic processes for symptomatic giardiasis in children attending an academic paediatric hospital.

    PubMed

    Escobedo, Angel A; Almirall, Pedro; Ávila, Ivonne; Salazar, Yohana; Alfonso, Maydel

    2014-09-01

    Giardiasis is one of the commonest intestinal parasitic infections in Cuba. In order to determine care-seeking behaviour and diagnostic processes in paediatric in-patients with giardiasis, structured questionnaires were administered by interview mothers of children with giardiasis during January to December 2010. During the study period, 97 children were diagnosed with giardiasis, of whom 86 (88·6%) caregivers were interviewed. The median number of days from symptoms onset to the first presentation in a health unit was 2 days (range: 0-15 days). The pattern of care-seeking behaviour was variable; 41 (47·7%) of children initially visited the emergency unit in a paediatric hospital. Sixty-six children had, at least, one further contact for help before diagnosis of giardiasis was made (range: 1-5 contacts) and of the 128 contact visits, 94 (73·4%) were also targeted more to hospitals. There was a median time of 6 days between the first presentation to a health unit until diagnosis, which was mainly made by microscopic examination of duodenal aspiration. Among factors investigated in mothers, only knowing other person with giardiasis had significant association with their ability to suspect giardiasis [odds ratio (OR): 29·8, 95% confidence interval (CI): 3·71-239·4, P = 0·001]. Requesting a faecal specimen or ordering duodenal aspiration for microscopic examination during the first visit appeared associated with correct diagnosis (OR: 3·84, 95% CI: 1·57-9·40, P = 0·003). Efforts should be made to increase doctors' awareness of- and diagnostic skills for childhood giardiasis. At the same time, it is necessary to improve caregivers' awareness about giardiasis. PMID:25253040

  11. Preservice Educators' Confidence in Addressing Sexuality Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Tammy Jordan

    2009-01-01

    This study examined 328 preservice educators' level of confidence in addressing four sexuality education domains and 21 sexuality education topics. Significant differences in confidence levels across the four domains were found for gender, academic major, sexuality education philosophy, and sexuality education knowledge. Preservice educators…

  12. Examining Response Confidence in Multiple Text Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    List, Alexandra; Alexander, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    Students' confidence in their responses to a multiple text-processing task and their justifications for those confidence ratings were investigated. Specifically, 215 undergraduates responded to two academic questions, differing by type (i.e., discrete and open-ended) and by domain (i.e., developmental psychology and astrophysics), using a digital…

  13. Measuring Vaccine Confidence: Introducing a Global Vaccine Confidence Index

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Heidi J; Schulz, William S; Tucker, Joseph D; Smith, David M D

    2015-01-01

    Background. Public confidence in vaccination is vital to the success of immunisation programmes worldwide. Understanding the dynamics of vaccine confidence is therefore of great importance for global public health. Few published studies permit global comparisons of vaccination sentiments and behaviours against a common metric. This article presents the findings of a multi-country survey of confidence in vaccines and immunisation programmes in Georgia, India, Nigeria, Pakistan, and the United Kingdom (UK) – these being the first results of a larger project to map vaccine confidence globally. Methods. Data were collected from a sample of the general population and from those with children under 5 years old against a core set of confidence questions. All surveys were conducted in the relevant local-language in Georgia, India, Nigeria, Pakistan, and the UK. We examine confidence in immunisation programmes as compared to confidence in other government health services, the relationships between confidence in the system and levels of vaccine hesitancy, reasons for vaccine hesitancy, ultimate vaccination decisions, and their variation based on country contexts and demographic factors. Results. The numbers of respondents by country were: Georgia (n=1000); India (n=1259); Pakistan (n=2609); UK (n=2055); Nigerian households (n=12554); and Nigerian health providers (n=1272). The UK respondents with children under five years of age were more likely to hesitate to vaccinate, compared to other countries. Confidence in immunisation programmes was more closely associated with confidence in the broader health system in the UK (Spearman’s ρ=0.5990), compared to Nigeria (ρ=0.5477), Pakistan (ρ=0.4491), and India (ρ=0.4240), all of which ranked confidence in immunisation programmes higher than confidence in the broader health system. Georgia had the highest rate of vaccine refusals (6 %) among those who reported initial hesitation. In all other countries surveyed most

  14. The STRIDE (Strategies to Increase confidence, InDependence and Energy) study: cognitive behavioural therapy-based intervention to reduce fear of falling in older fallers living in the community - study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Around 30% to 62% of older individuals fall each year, with adverse consequences of falls being by no means limited to physical injury and escalating levels of dependence. Many older individuals suffer from a variety of adverse psychosocial difficulties related to falling including fear, anxiety, loss of confidence and subsequent increasing activity avoidance, social isolation and frailty. Such ‘fear of falling’ is common and disabling, but definitive studies examining the effective management of the syndrome are lacking. Cognitive behavioural therapy has been trialed with some success in a group setting, but there is no adequately powered randomised controlled study of an individually based cognitive behavioural therapy intervention, and none using non-mental health professionals to deliver the intervention. Methods/Design We are conducting a two-phase study examining the role of individual cognitive behavioural therapy delivered by healthcare assistants in improving fear of falling in older adults. In Phase I, the intervention was developed and taught to healthcare assistants, while Phase II is the pragmatic randomised controlled study examining the efficacy of the intervention in improving fear of falling in community-dwelling elders attending falls services. A qualitative process evaluation study informed by Normalization Process Theory is being conducted throughout to examine the potential promoters and inhibitors of introducing such an intervention into routine clinical practice, while a health economic sub-study running alongside the trial is examining the costs and benefits of such an approach to the wider health economy. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN78396615 PMID:24906406

  15. Confidant Relations in Italy.

    PubMed

    Isaacs, Jenny; Soglian, Francesca; Hoffman, Edward

    2015-02-01

    Confidants are often described as the individuals with whom we choose to disclose personal, intimate matters. The presence of a confidant is associated with both mental and physical health benefits. In this study, 135 Italian adults responded to a structured questionnaire that asked if they had a confidant, and if so, to describe various features of the relationship. The vast majority of participants (91%) reported the presence of a confidant and regarded this relationship as personally important, high in mutuality and trust, and involving minimal lying. Confidants were significantly more likely to be of the opposite sex. Participants overall were significantly more likely to choose a spouse or other family member as their confidant, rather than someone outside of the family network. Familial confidants were generally seen as closer, and of greater value, than non-familial confidants. These findings are discussed within the context of Italian culture. PMID:27247641

  16. Confidant Relations in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Isaacs, Jenny; Soglian, Francesca; Hoffman, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Confidants are often described as the individuals with whom we choose to disclose personal, intimate matters. The presence of a confidant is associated with both mental and physical health benefits. In this study, 135 Italian adults responded to a structured questionnaire that asked if they had a confidant, and if so, to describe various features of the relationship. The vast majority of participants (91%) reported the presence of a confidant and regarded this relationship as personally important, high in mutuality and trust, and involving minimal lying. Confidants were significantly more likely to be of the opposite sex. Participants overall were significantly more likely to choose a spouse or other family member as their confidant, rather than someone outside of the family network. Familial confidants were generally seen as closer, and of greater value, than non-familial confidants. These findings are discussed within the context of Italian culture. PMID:27247641

  17. The Relationship between Compulsive Behaviour and Academic Achievement across the Three Genetic Subtypes of Prader-Willi Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarcone, J.; Napolitano, D.; Peterson, C.; Breidbord, J.; Ferraioli, S.; Caruso-Anderson, M.; Holsen, L.; Butler, M. G.; Thompson, T.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic syndrome associated with several physical, cognitive and behavioural characteristics. For many individuals with this syndrome, compulsive behaviour is often noted in both food and non-food situations. The focus of this paper is on the non-food-related compulsions in individuals with PWS and…

  18. Does Cognitive Behavioural Therapy in the Context of a Rural School Mental Health Programme Have an Impact on Academic Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Kurt D.; Albright, Abby; Jameson, John Paul; Sale, Rafaella; Massey, Cameron; Kirk, Alex; Egan, Theresa

    2013-01-01

    Given the prevalence of mental health difficulties among children and adolescents, schools have become a suitable context for providing psychological services to those who may otherwise go untreated. The co-occurrence of mental health impairments and academic problems has been widely cited, and many school mental health (SMH) programmes have begun…

  19. How Does Early Developmental Assessment Predict Academic and Attentional-Behavioural Skills at Group and Individual Levels?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valtonen, Riitta; Ahonen, Timo; Tolvanen, Asko; Lyytinen, Paula

    2009-01-01

    The main aim of the study was to explore the ability of a brief developmental assessment to predict teacher-rated learning and attentional and behavioural skills in the first grade of school at both the group and individual levels. A sample of 394 children (181 males, 213 females) aged 4 years were followed to the age of 6 years, and 283 of the…

  20. Evaluation of Social and Academic Effects of School-Wide Positive Behaviour Support in a Canadian School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Kent; Bennett, Joanna L.; Price, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses School-wide Positive Behaviour Support (SWPBS), an evidence-based approach to teaching social competencies and enhancing the school social environment. The focus of this article is on the value of evaluation and evaluation plans at a district level for maintaining and increasing the effectiveness of SWPBS in a district. We…

  1. Cognitive-behavioural therapy-based intervention to reduce fear of falling in older people: therapy development and randomised controlled trial - the Strategies for Increasing Independence, Confidence and Energy (STRIDE) study.

    PubMed Central

    Parry, Steve W; Bamford, Claire; Deary, Vincent; Finch, Tracy L; Gray, Jo; MacDonald, Claire; McMeekin, Peter; Sabin, Neil J; Steen, I Nick; Whitney, Sue L; McColl, Elaine M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Falls cause fear, anxiety and loss of confidence, resulting in activity avoidance, social isolation and increasing frailty. The umbrella term for these problems is 'fear of falling', seen in up to 85% of older adults who fall. Evidence of effectiveness of physical and psychological interventions is limited, with no previous studies examining the role of an individually delivered cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) approach. OBJECTIVES Primary objective To develop and then determine the effectiveness of a new CBT intervention (CBTi) delivered by health-care assistants (HCAs) plus usual care compared with usual care alone in reducing fear of falling. Secondary objectives To measure the impact of the intervention on falls, injuries, functional abilities, anxiety/depression, quality of life, social participation and loneliness; investigate the acceptability of the intervention for patients, family members and professionals and factors that promote or inhibit its implementation; and measure the costs and benefits of the intervention. DESIGN Phase I CBTi development. Phase II Parallel-group patient randomised controlled trial (RCT) of the new CBTi plus usual care compared with usual care alone. SETTING Multidisciplinary falls services. PARTICIPANTS Consecutive community-dwelling older adults, both sexes, aged ≥ 60 years, with excessive or undue fear of falling per Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I) score of > 23. INTERVENTIONS Phase I Development of the CBTi. The CBTi was developed following patient interviews and taught to HCAs to maximise the potential for uptake and generalisability to a UK NHS setting. Phase II RCT. The CBTi was delivered by HCAs weekly for 8 weeks, with a 6-month booster session plus usual care. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES These were assessed at baseline, 8 weeks, 6 months and 12 months. Primary outcome measure Fear of falling measured by change in FES-I scores at 12 months. Secondary outcome measures

  2. Non-Verbal Reasoning Ability and Academic Achievement as Moderators of the Relation between Adverse Life Events and Emotional and Behavioural Problems in Early Adolescence: The Importance of Moderator and Outcome Specificity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flouri, Eirini; Tzavidis, Nikos

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out to model the functional form of the effect of contextual risk (number of adverse life events) on emotional and behavioural problems in early adolescence, and to test how intelligence and academic achievement compare as moderators of this effect. The effect of number of adverse life events on emotional and behavioural…

  3. The effects of school, family, self-concept, and deviant behaviour on adolescent suicide ideation.

    PubMed

    Dukes, R L; Lorch, B

    1989-09-01

    In this study of a population of junior and senior high school students in a mid-sized, Western city, adolescent emotional and ideological disparity with parents and disparity between the importance the adolescent placed on academic achievement and satisfaction with academic achievement were linked to suicide ideation through the intervening variables of self-esteem, purpose in life, and two forms of deviant behaviour--alcohol use and eating disorder. Self-confidence and the deviant behaviours of delinquency and drug use did not prove to be meaningful intervening variables. PMID:2592633

  4. Neurophysiology of perceived confidence.

    PubMed

    Graziano, Martin; Parra, Lucas C; Sigman, Mariano

    2010-01-01

    In a partial report paradigm, subjects observe during a brief presentation a cluttered field and after some time - typically ranging from 100 ms to a second - are asked to report a subset of the presented elements. A vast buffer of information is transiently available to be broadcasted which, if not retrieved in time, fades rapidly without reaching consciousness. An interesting feature of this experiment is that objective performance and subjective confidence is decoupled. This converts this paradigm in an ideal vehicle to understand the brain dynamics of the construction of confidence. Here we report a high-density EEG experiment in which we infer elements of the EEG response which are indicative of subjective confidence. We find that an early response during encoding partially correlates with perceived confidence. However, the bulk of the weight of subjective confidence is determined during a late, N400-like waveform, during the retrieval stage. This shows that we can find markers of access to internal, subjective states, that are uncoupled from objective response and stimulus properties of the task, and we propose that this can be used with decoding methods of EEG to infer subjective mental states. PMID:21096220

  5. Self-Confidence in Women's Education: A Feminist Critique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Fran; Steiger, Arlene

    While acknowledging the research that suggests that women approach their education with lower levels of self-confidence than men, this paper raises fundamental questions about how self-confidence has been described and measured during the last two decades. The validity of work on women's attitudes toward academic success is shown to be undercut by…

  6. Confidence Calculation with AMV+

    SciTech Connect

    Fossum, A.F.

    1999-02-19

    The iterative advanced mean value algorithm (AMV+), introduced nearly ten years ago, is now widely used as a cost-effective probabilistic structural analysis tool when the use of sampling methods is cost prohibitive (Wu et al., 1990). The need to establish confidence bounds on calculated probabilities arises because of the presence of uncertainties in measured means and variances of input random variables. In this paper an algorithm is proposed that makes use of the AMV+ procedure and analytically derived probability sensitivities to determine confidence bounds on calculated probabilities.

  7. Predicting Systemic Confidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falke, Stephanie Inez

    2009-01-01

    Using a mixed method approach, this study explored which educational factors predicted systemic confidence in master's level marital and family therapy (MFT) students, and whether or not the impact of these factors was influenced by student beliefs and their perception of their supervisor's beliefs about the value of systemic practice. One hundred…

  8. SystemConfidence

    2012-09-25

    SystemConfidence is a benchmark developed at ORNL which can measure statistical variation in which the user can plot. The portions of the code which manage the collection of the histograms and computing statistics on the histograms were designed with the intent that we could use these functions in other codes.

  9. Computing Graphical Confidence Bounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mezzacappa, M. A.

    1983-01-01

    Approximation for graphical confidence bounds is simple enough to run on programmable calculator. Approximation is used in lieu of numerical tables not always available, and exact calculations, which often require rather sizable computer resources. Approximation verified for collection of up to 50 data points. Method used to analyze tile-strength data on Space Shuttle thermal-protection system.

  10. Adding Confidence to Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodson, Ludwika Aniela; Slater, Don; Zubovic, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    A "knowledge survey" and a formative evaluation process led to major changes in an instructor's course and teaching methods over a 5-year period. Design of the survey incorporated several innovations, including: a) using "confidence survey" rather than "knowledge survey" as the title; b) completing an…

  11. Rasch analysis of inattentive, hyperactive and impulsive behaviour in young children and the link with academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Merrell, Christine; Tymms, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) criteria from the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders were used to assess a large sample of children at the end of their first year at school in England. These data were explored using Rasch measurement and the measures for the items together with their frequencies are reported. The data were further analysed in three ways: a) The results were compared with a previous similar analysis of college students. b) A principal components analysis of the item residuals from the Rasch analysis was conducted. c) The measures were linked to reading and mathematics attainment assessed at three different time points. The exploration supported previous work and theoretical positions, and in doing so raised issues about the appropriateness of the use of the criteria across all ages. It also suggested that one of the currently recognised ADHD sub-types could be further sub-divided into verbal and physical hyperactivity. The links to academic achievement raised questions about the integrity of the currently recognised ADHD sub-types and the paper calls for further investigations. PMID:15701941

  12. Understanding Academic Misconduct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Julia M. Christensen; McCabe, Donald L.

    2006-01-01

    Research suggests that the majority of U.S. undergraduate students have engaged in some form of misconduct while completing their academic work, despite knowing that such behaviour is ethically or morally wrong. U.S.-based studies have also identified myriad personal and institutional factors associated with academic misconduct. Implicit in some…

  13. Reclaim your creative confidence.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Tom; Kelley, David

    2012-12-01

    Most people are born creative. But over time, a lot of us learn to stifle those impulses. We become warier of judgment, more cautious more analytical. The world seems to divide into "creatives" and "noncreatives," and too many people resign themselves to the latter category. And yet we know that creativity is essential to success in any discipline or industry. The good news, according to authors Tom Kelley and David Kelley of IDEO, is that we all can rediscover our creative confidence. The trick is to overcome the four big fears that hold most of us back: fear of the messy unknown, fear of judgment, fear of the first step, and fear of losing control. The authors use an approach based on the work of psychologist Albert Bandura in helping patients get over their snake phobias: You break challenges down into small steps and then build confidence by succeeding on one after another. Creativity is something you practice, say the authors, not just a talent you are born with. PMID:23227579

  14. A computational framework for the study of confidence in humans and animals

    PubMed Central

    Kepecs, Adam; Mainen, Zachary F.

    2012-01-01

    Confidence judgements, self-assessments about the quality of a subject's knowledge, are considered a central example of metacognition. Prima facie, introspection and self-report appear the only way to access the subjective sense of confidence or uncertainty. Contrary to this notion, overt behavioural measures can be used to study confidence judgements by animals trained in decision-making tasks with perceptual or mnemonic uncertainty. Here, we suggest that a computational approach can clarify the issues involved in interpreting these tasks and provide a much needed springboard for advancing the scientific understanding of confidence. We first review relevant theories of probabilistic inference and decision-making. We then critically discuss behavioural tasks employed to measure confidence in animals and show how quantitative models can help to constrain the computational strategies underlying confidence-reporting behaviours. In our view, post-decision wagering tasks with continuous measures of confidence appear to offer the best available metrics of confidence. Since behavioural reports alone provide a limited window into mechanism, we argue that progress calls for measuring the neural representations and identifying the computations underlying confidence reports. We present a case study using such a computational approach to study the neural correlates of decision confidence in rats. This work shows that confidence assessments may be considered higher order, but can be generated using elementary neural computations that are available to a wide range of species. Finally, we discuss the relationship of confidence judgements to the wider behavioural uses of confidence and uncertainty. PMID:22492750

  15. A computational framework for the study of confidence in humans and animals.

    PubMed

    Kepecs, Adam; Mainen, Zachary F

    2012-05-19

    Confidence judgements, self-assessments about the quality of a subject's knowledge, are considered a central example of metacognition. Prima facie, introspection and self-report appear the only way to access the subjective sense of confidence or uncertainty. Contrary to this notion, overt behavioural measures can be used to study confidence judgements by animals trained in decision-making tasks with perceptual or mnemonic uncertainty. Here, we suggest that a computational approach can clarify the issues involved in interpreting these tasks and provide a much needed springboard for advancing the scientific understanding of confidence. We first review relevant theories of probabilistic inference and decision-making. We then critically discuss behavioural tasks employed to measure confidence in animals and show how quantitative models can help to constrain the computational strategies underlying confidence-reporting behaviours. In our view, post-decision wagering tasks with continuous measures of confidence appear to offer the best available metrics of confidence. Since behavioural reports alone provide a limited window into mechanism, we argue that progress calls for measuring the neural representations and identifying the computations underlying confidence reports. We present a case study using such a computational approach to study the neural correlates of decision confidence in rats. This work shows that confidence assessments may be considered higher order, but can be generated using elementary neural computations that are available to a wide range of species. Finally, we discuss the relationship of confidence judgements to the wider behavioural uses of confidence and uncertainty. PMID:22492750

  16. Simulation integration with confidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strelich, Tom; Stalcup, Bruce W.

    1999-07-01

    Current financial, schedule and risk constraints mandate reuse of software components when building large-scale simulations. While integration of simulation components into larger systems is a well-understood process, it is extremely difficult to do while ensuring that the results are correct. Illgen Simulation Technologies Incorporated and Litton PRC have joined forces to provide tools to integrate simulations with confidence. Illgen Simulation Technologies has developed an extensible and scaleable, n-tier, client- server, distributed software framework for integrating legacy simulations, models, tools, utilities, and databases. By utilizing the Internet, Java, and the Common Object Request Brokering Architecture as the core implementation technologies, the framework provides built-in scalability and extensibility.

  17. Improved investor confidence

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.

    1995-10-01

    Results of a financial ranking survey of power projects show reasonably strong activity when compared to previous surveys. Perhaps the most notable trend is the continued increase in the number of international deals being reported. Nearly 62 percent of the transactions reported were for non-US projects. This increase will likely expand with time as developers and lenders gain confidence in certain regions. For the remainder of 1995 and into 1996 it is likely that financial activity will continue at a steady pace. A number of projects in various markets are poised to reach financial close relatively soon. Developers, investment bankers, and governments are all gaining experience and becoming more comfortable with the process.

  18. Optimally combined confidence limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janot, P.; Le Diberder, F.

    1998-02-01

    An analytical and optimal procedure to combine statistically independent sets of confidence levels on a quantity is presented. This procedure does not impose any constraint on the methods followed by each analysis to derive its own limit. It incorporates the a priori statistical power of each of the analyses to be combined, in order to optimize the overall sensitivity. It can, in particular, be used to combine the mass limits obtained by several analyses searching for the Higgs boson in different decay channels, with different selection efficiencies, mass resolution and expected background. It can also be used to combine the mass limits obtained by several experiments (e.g. ALEPH, DELPHI, L3 and OPAL, at LEP 2) independently of the method followed by each of these experiments to derive their own limit. A method to derive the limit set by one analysis is also presented, along with an unbiased prescription to optimize the expected mass limit in the no-signal-hypothesis.

  19. Ellenore Flood's Skills Confidence Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subich, Linda Mezydlo

    1998-01-01

    Presents background information on the Skills Confidence Inventory (SCI) and the construct it assesses. Interprets the skills confidence and interest profiles of a 29-year-old female high school teacher using the SCI and the Strong Interest Inventory. (MKA)

  20. Confidence in Numerical Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Hemez, Francois M.

    2015-02-23

    This PowerPoint presentation offers a high-level discussion of uncertainty, confidence and credibility in scientific Modeling and Simulation (M&S). It begins by briefly evoking M&S trends in computational physics and engineering. The first thrust of the discussion is to emphasize that the role of M&S in decision-making is either to support reasoning by similarity or to “forecast,” that is, make predictions about the future or extrapolate to settings or environments that cannot be tested experimentally. The second thrust is to explain that M&S-aided decision-making is an exercise in uncertainty management. The three broad classes of uncertainty in computational physics and engineering are variability and randomness, numerical uncertainty and model-form uncertainty. The last part of the discussion addresses how scientists “think.” This thought process parallels the scientific method where by a hypothesis is formulated, often accompanied by simplifying assumptions, then, physical experiments and numerical simulations are performed to confirm or reject the hypothesis. “Confidence” derives, not just from the levels of training and experience of analysts, but also from the rigor with which these assessments are performed, documented and peer-reviewed.

  1. Confidence and Cognitive Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stankov, Lazar; Lee, Jihyun

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the nature of confidence in relation to abilities, personality, and metacognition. Confidence scores were collected during the administration of Reading and Listening sections of the Test of English as a Foreign Language Internet-Based Test (TOEFL iBT) to 824 native speakers of English. Those confidence scores were correlated…

  2. Explorations in Statistics: Confidence Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran-Everett, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This third installment of "Explorations in Statistics" investigates confidence intervals. A confidence interval is a range that we expect, with some level of confidence, to include the true value of a population parameter…

  3. Monitoring tigers with confidence.

    PubMed

    Linkie, Matthew; Guillera-Arroita, Gurutzeta; Smith, Joseph; Rayan, D Mark

    2010-12-01

    With only 5% of the world's wild tigers (Panthera tigris Linnaeus, 1758) remaining since the last century, conservationists urgently need to know whether or not the management strategies currently being employed are effectively protecting these tigers. This knowledge is contingent on the ability to reliably monitor tiger populations, or subsets, over space and time. In the this paper, we focus on the 2 seminal methodologies (camera trap and occupancy surveys) that have enabled the monitoring of tiger populations with greater confidence. Specifically, we: (i) describe their statistical theory and application in the field; (ii) discuss issues associated with their survey designs and state variable modeling; and, (iii) discuss their future directions. These methods have had an unprecedented influence on increasing statistical rigor within tiger surveys and, also, surveys of other carnivore species. Nevertheless, only 2 published camera trap studies have gone beyond single baseline assessments and actually monitored population trends. For low density tiger populations (e.g. <1 adult tiger/100 km(2)) obtaining sufficient precision for state variable estimates from camera trapping remains a challenge because of insufficient detection probabilities and/or sample sizes. Occupancy surveys have overcome this problem by redefining the sampling unit (e.g. grid cells and not individual tigers). Current research is focusing on developing spatially explicit capture-mark-recapture models and estimating abundance indices from landscape-scale occupancy surveys, as well as the use of genetic information for identifying and monitoring tigers. The widespread application of these monitoring methods in the field now enables complementary studies on the impact of the different threats to tiger populations and their response to varying management intervention. PMID:21392352

  4. Measuring Patterns of Surgeon Confidence Using a Novel Assessment Tool.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Timothy M; Ghaderi, Iman; McPhail, Lindsee E; Alger, Amy R; Meyers, Michael O; Meyer, Anthony A

    2016-01-01

    Confidence should increase during surgical training and practice. However, few data exist regarding confidence of surgeons across this continuum. Confidence may develop differently in clinical and personal domains, or may erode as specialization or age restricts practice. A reliable scale of confidence is needed to track this competency. A novel survey was distributed to surgeons in private and academic settings. One hundred and thirty-four respondents completed this cross-sectional survey. Surgeons reported anticipated reactions to clinical scenarios within three patient care domains (acute inpatient, nonacute inpatient, and outpatient) and in personal spheres. Confidence scores were plotted against years of experience. Curves of best fit were generated and trends assessed. A subgroup completed a second survey after four years to assess the survey's reliability over time. During residency, there is steep improvement in confidence reported by surgeons in all clinical domains, with further increase for inpatient domains during transition into practice. Confidence in personal spheres also increases quickly during residency and thereafter. The surgeon confidence scale captures the expected acquisition of confidence during early surgical experience, and will have value in following trends in surgeon confidence as training and practice patterns change. PMID:26802851

  5. Effect Sizes, Confidence Intervals, and Confidence Intervals for Effect Sizes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    The present article provides a primer on (a) effect sizes, (b) confidence intervals, and (c) confidence intervals for effect sizes. Additionally, various admonitions for reformed statistical practice are presented. For example, a very important implication of the realization that there are dozens of effect size statistics is that "authors must…

  6. Confidence limits and their errors

    SciTech Connect

    Rajendran Raja

    2002-03-22

    Confidence limits are common place in physics analysis. Great care must be taken in their calculation and use especially in cases of limited statistics. We introduce the concept of statistical errors of confidence limits and argue that not only should limits be calculated but also their errors in order to represent the results of the analysis to the fullest. We show that comparison of two different limits from two different experiments becomes easier when their errors are also quoted. Use of errors of confidence limits will lead to abatement of the debate on which method is best suited to calculate confidence limits.

  7. Teaching Confidence Intervals Using Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagtvedt, Reidar; Jones, Gregory Todd; Jones, Kari

    2008-01-01

    Confidence intervals are difficult to teach, in part because most students appear to believe they understand how to interpret them intuitively. They rarely do. To help them abandon their misconception and achieve understanding, we have developed a simulation tool that encourages experimentation with multiple confidence intervals derived from the…

  8. A Review of Confidence Intervals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauk, Anne-Marie Kimbell

    This paper summarizes information leading to the recommendation that statistical significance testing be replaced, or at least accompanied by, the reporting of effect sizes and confidence intervals. It discusses the use of confidence intervals, noting that the recent report of the American Psychological Association Task Force on Statistical…

  9. Confidant Relations of the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tigges, Leann M.; And Others

    The confidant relationship is a qualitatively distinct dimension of the emotional support system of the aged, yet the composition of the confidant network has been largely neglected in research on aging. Persons (N=940) 60 years of age and older were interviewed about their socio-environmental setting. From the enumeration of their relatives,…

  10. Predicting confidence in flashbulb memories.

    PubMed

    Day, Martin V; Ross, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Years after a shocking news event many people confidently report details of their flashbulb memories (e.g., what they were doing). People's confidence is a defining feature of their flashbulb memories, but it is not well understood. We tested a model that predicted confidence in flashbulb memories. In particular we examined whether people's social bond with the target of a news event predicts confidence. At a first session shortly after the death of Michael Jackson participants reported their sense of attachment to Michael Jackson, as well as their flashbulb memories and emotional and other reactions to Jackson's death. At a second session approximately 18 months later they reported their flashbulb memories and confidence in those memories. Results supported our proposed model. A stronger sense of attachment to Jackson was related to reports of more initial surprise, emotion, and rehearsal during the first session. Participants' bond with Michael Jackson predicted their confidence but not the consistency of their flashbulb memories 18 months later. We also examined whether participants' initial forecasts regarding the persistence of their flashbulb memories predicted the durability of their memories. Participants' initial forecasts were more strongly related to participants' subsequent confidence than to the actual consistency of their memories. PMID:23496003

  11. Confidence rating for eutrophication assessments.

    PubMed

    Brockmann, Uwe H; Topcu, Dilek H

    2014-05-15

    Confidence of monitoring data is dependent on their variability and representativeness of sampling in space and time. Whereas variability can be assessed as statistical confidence limits, representative sampling is related to equidistant sampling, considering gradients or changing rates at sampling gaps. By the proposed method both aspects are combined, resulting in balanced results for examples of total nitrogen concentrations in the German Bight/North Sea. For assessing sampling representativeness surface areas, vertical profiles and time periods are divided into regular sections for which individually the representativeness is calculated. The sums correspond to the overall representativeness of sampling in the defined area/time period. Effects of not sampled sections are estimated along parallel rows by reducing their confidence, considering their distances to next sampled sections and the interrupted gradients/changing rates. Confidence rating of time sections is based on maximum differences of sampling rates at regular time steps and related means of concentrations. PMID:24680718

  12. Confidence as a Common Currency between Vision and Audition

    PubMed Central

    de Gardelle, Vincent; Le Corre, François; Mamassian, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    The idea of a common currency underlying our choice behaviour has played an important role in sciences of behaviour, from neurobiology to psychology and economics. However, while it has been mainly investigated in terms of values, with a common scale on which goods would be evaluated and compared, the question of a common scale for subjective probabilities and confidence in particular has received only little empirical investigation so far. The present study extends previous work addressing this question, by showing that confidence can be compared across visual and auditory decisions, with the same precision as for the comparison of two trials within the same task. We discuss the possibility that confidence could serve as a common currency when describing our choices to ourselves and to others. PMID:26808061

  13. The ABC of Gender Equality in Education: Aptitude, Behaviour, Confidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Over the past century, the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries have made significant progress in narrowing or closing long-standing gender gaps in many areas of education and employment, including educational attainment, pay and labour market participation. But new gender gaps in education are opening. Young men…

  14. Problem Solving Ability Confidence Levels among Student Teachers after a Semester in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krug, Kevin; Love, John; Mauzey, Ed; Dixon, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    Subjective confidence for solving classroom problems while instructing students in appropriate academic material is crucial for effective teaching. One way to develop problem solving confidence may result from the semester most education majors spend in the classroom as student teachers. The problem solving inventory (PSI) was given to university…

  15. What Confidence Should Boards Give No-Confidence Votes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacTaggart, Terrence

    2012-01-01

    As boards and presidents are increasingly in the vanguard of change that disturbs the status quo, they may also find themselves the targets of expressions of concern, censure, and no confidence from faculty members who may be averse to a new order of things or to the manner of bringing it about. Since presidents or other chief executives are…

  16. Targeting Low Career Confidence Using the Career Planning Confidence Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAuliffe, Garrett; Jurgens, Jill C.; Pickering, Worth; Calliotte, James; Macera, Anthony; Zerwas, Steven

    2006-01-01

    The authors describe the development and validation of a test of career planning confidence that makes possible the targeting of specific problem issues in employment counseling. The scale, developed using a rational process and the authors' experience with clients, was tested for criterion-related validity against 2 other measures. The scale…

  17. Public Loss of Confidence in the U.S. Government: Implications for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogler, Ronit

    The unsatisfactory status of higher education in the United States has many explanations, such as the declining value of scholarship and academic ethos and the neglect of teaching obligations in favor of research duties. This paper posits another theory for the skepticism toward academic institutions: the general loss of confidence of the American…

  18. Academic Integrity: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macfarlane, Bruce; Zhang, Jingjing; Pun, Annie

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a literature review on academic integrity, which encompasses the values, behaviour and conduct of academics in all aspects of their practice. This is a growing area of academic research as a result of the expansion of higher education on a global basis and concerns about standards of professional conduct. The article maps the…

  19. Motivation in Academic Life: A Prestige Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackmore, Paul; Kandiko, Camille B.

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of performance-related pay into universities in recent years implies a belief that academic behaviours are modified by money. However, many valued academic activities are poorly paid or not paid at all. Clearly other factors are at work. Academic motivation and new working patterns are explored using the literature. An…

  20. Development of the Mentor Behaviour Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bruyn, Eddy H.

    2004-01-01

    The present study described the development of the Mentor Behaviour Rating Scale. In the Dutch secondary educational system, the mentor is a teacher responsible for individual students' academic and socio-emotional progress throughout the academic year. In order to assess the mentor behaviours conducive to pupils' acceptance levels of their…

  1. Academic Hospitality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phipps, Alison; Barnett, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    Academic hospitality is a feature of academic life. It takes many forms. It takes material form in the hosting of academics giving papers. It takes epistemological form in the welcome of new ideas. It takes linguistic form in the translation of academic work into other languages, and it takes touristic form through the welcome and generosity with…

  2. Does Classroom Management Coursework Influence Pre-service Teachers' Perceived Preparedness or Confidence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Sue; Stephenson, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    There has been conjecture that completing focused coursework units on classroom management during pre-service teacher preparation might lead to increased feelings of preparedness and confidence. This study reports the preparedness in managing specific problem behaviours, familiarity, and confidence in using management strategies and models of…

  3. Addressing the vaccine confidence gap.

    PubMed

    Larson, Heidi J; Cooper, Louis Z; Eskola, Juhani; Katz, Samuel L; Ratzan, Scott

    2011-08-01

    Vaccines--often lauded as one of the greatest public health interventions--are losing public confidence. Some vaccine experts have referred to this decline in confidence as a crisis. We discuss some of the characteristics of the changing global environment that are contributing to increased public questioning of vaccines, and outline some of the specific determinants of public trust. Public decision making related to vaccine acceptance is neither driven by scientific nor economic evidence alone, but is also driven by a mix of psychological, sociocultural, and political factors, all of which need to be understood and taken into account by policy and other decision makers. Public trust in vaccines is highly variable and building trust depends on understanding perceptions of vaccines and vaccine risks, historical experiences, religious or political affiliations, and socioeconomic status. Although provision of accurate, scientifically based evidence on the risk-benefit ratios of vaccines is crucial, it is not enough to redress the gap between current levels of public confidence in vaccines and levels of trust needed to ensure adequate and sustained vaccine coverage. We call for more research not just on individual determinants of public trust, but on what mix of factors are most likely to sustain public trust. The vaccine community demands rigorous evidence on vaccine efficacy and safety and technical and operational feasibility when introducing a new vaccine, but has been negligent in demanding equally rigorous research to understand the psychological, social, and political factors that affect public trust in vaccines. PMID:21664679

  4. Confidence-Based Feature Acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagstaff, Kiri L.; desJardins, Marie; MacGlashan, James

    2010-01-01

    Confidence-based Feature Acquisition (CFA) is a novel, supervised learning method for acquiring missing feature values when there is missing data at both training (learning) and test (deployment) time. To train a machine learning classifier, data is encoded with a series of input features describing each item. In some applications, the training data may have missing values for some of the features, which can be acquired at a given cost. A relevant JPL example is that of the Mars rover exploration in which the features are obtained from a variety of different instruments, with different power consumption and integration time costs. The challenge is to decide which features will lead to increased classification performance and are therefore worth acquiring (paying the cost). To solve this problem, CFA, which is made up of two algorithms (CFA-train and CFA-predict), has been designed to greedily minimize total acquisition cost (during training and testing) while aiming for a specific accuracy level (specified as a confidence threshold). With this method, it is assumed that there is a nonempty subset of features that are free; that is, every instance in the data set includes these features initially for zero cost. It is also assumed that the feature acquisition (FA) cost associated with each feature is known in advance, and that the FA cost for a given feature is the same for all instances. Finally, CFA requires that the base-level classifiers produce not only a classification, but also a confidence (or posterior probability).

  5. Loneliness and Social Dissatisfaction among Behaviourally At-Risk Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galanaki, Evangelia P.; Polychronopoulou, Stavroula A.; Babalis, Thomas K.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the associations between loneliness/social dissatisfaction and teacher-identified behavioural risk during late childhood. A broad range of behaviour problems, as well as academic adjustment, are assessed, in order to specify in which types of behaviour and academic problems loneliness/social dissatisfaction is…

  6. Academic detailing.

    PubMed

    Shankar, P R; Jha, N; Piryani, R M; Bajracharya, O; Shrestha, R; Thapa, H S

    2010-01-01

    There are a number of sources available to prescribers to stay up to date about medicines. Prescribers in rural areas in developing countries however, may not able to access some of them. Interventions to improve prescribing can be educational, managerial, and regulatory or use a mix of strategies. Detailing by the pharmaceutical industry is widespread. Academic detailing (AD) has been classically seen as a form of continuing medical education in which a trained health professional such as a physician or pharmacist visits physicians in their offices to provide evidence-based information. Face-to-face sessions, preferably on an individual basis, clear educational and behavioural objectives, establishing credibility with respect to objectivity, stimulating physician interaction, use of concise graphic educational materials, highlighting key messages, and when possible, providing positive reinforcement of improved practices in follow-up visits can increase success of AD initiatives. AD is common in developed countries and certain examples have been cited in this review. In developing countries the authors have come across reports of AD in Pakistan, Sudan, Argentina and Uruguay, Bihar state in India, Zambia, Cuba, Indonesia and Mexico. AD had a consistent, small but potentially significant impact on prescribing practices. AD has much less resources at its command compared to the efforts by the industry. Steps have to be taken to formally start AD in Nepal and there may be specific hindering factors similar to those in other developing nations. PMID:21209521

  7. Cultural Influences on Confidence: Country and Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundeberg, Mary A.; Fox, Paul W.; Brown, Amy C.; Elbedour, Salman

    2000-01-01

    Investigates gender differences in confidence judgments when they were correct and incorrect on exam items with postsecondary students (N=551) in five countries. Large and significant differences were found in overall confidence, confidence when correct, and confidence when wrong, associated primarily with country and culture. In contrast, gender…

  8. Confidence bounds on structural reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, S. R.; Cruse, T. A.; Mahadevan, S.

    1993-01-01

    Different approaches for quantifying physical, statistical, and model uncertainties associated with the distribution parameters which are aimed at determining structural reliability are described. Confidence intervals on the distribution parameters of the input random variables are estimated using four algorithms to evaluate uncertainty of the response. Design intervals are evaluated using either Monte Carlo simulation or an iterative approach. A first order approach can be used to compute a first approximation of the design interval, but its accuracy is not satisfactory. The regression approach which combines the iterative approach with Monte Carlo simulation is capable of providing good results if the performance function can be accurately represented using regression analysis. It is concluded that the design interval-based approach seems to be quite general and takes into account distribution and model uncertainties.

  9. Confidence in ASCI scientific simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Ang, J.A.; Trucano, T.G.; Luginbuhl, D.R.

    1998-06-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI) program calls for the development of high end computing and advanced application simulations as one component of a program to eliminate reliance upon nuclear testing in the US nuclear weapons program. This paper presents results from the ASCI program`s examination of needs for focused validation and verification (V and V). These V and V activities will ensure that 100 TeraOP-scale ASCI simulation code development projects apply the appropriate means to achieve high confidence in the use of simulations for stockpile assessment and certification. The authors begin with an examination of the roles for model development and validation in the traditional scientific method. The traditional view is that the scientific method has two foundations, experimental and theoretical. While the traditional scientific method does not acknowledge the role for computing and simulation, this examination establishes a foundation for the extension of the traditional processes to include verification and scientific software development that results in the notional framework known as Sargent`s Framework. This framework elucidates the relationships between the processes of scientific model development, computational model verification and simulation validation. This paper presents a discussion of the methodologies and practices that the ASCI program will use to establish confidence in large-scale scientific simulations. While the effort for a focused program in V and V is just getting started, the ASCI program has been underway for a couple of years. The authors discuss some V and V activities and preliminary results from the ALEGRA simulation code that is under development for ASCI. The breadth of physical phenomena and the advanced computational algorithms that are employed by ALEGRA make it a subject for V and V that should typify what is required for many ASCI simulations.

  10. How Academic Is Academic Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Kym; Ling, Peter

    2014-01-01

    University provision for academic development is well established in the USA, UK and many other countries. However, arrangements for its provision and staffing vary. In Australia, there has been a trend towards professional rather than academic staff appointments. Is this appropriate? In this paper, the domains of academic development work are…

  11. A Mathematical Framework for Statistical Decision Confidence.

    PubMed

    Hangya, Balázs; Sanders, Joshua I; Kepecs, Adam

    2016-09-01

    Decision confidence is a forecast about the probability that a decision will be correct. From a statistical perspective, decision confidence can be defined as the Bayesian posterior probability that the chosen option is correct based on the evidence contributing to it. Here, we used this formal definition as a starting point to develop a normative statistical framework for decision confidence. Our goal was to make general predictions that do not depend on the structure of the noise or a specific algorithm for estimating confidence. We analytically proved several interrelations between statistical decision confidence and observable decision measures, such as evidence discriminability, choice, and accuracy. These interrelationships specify necessary signatures of decision confidence in terms of externally quantifiable variables that can be empirically tested. Our results lay the foundations for a mathematically rigorous treatment of decision confidence that can lead to a common framework for understanding confidence across different research domains, from human and animal behavior to neural representations. PMID:27391683

  12. Item-Specific Gender Differences in Confidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foote, Chandra J.

    Very little research has been performed which examines gender differences in confidence in highly specified situations. More generalized studies consistently suggest that women are less confident than men (i.e. Sadker and Sadker, 1994). The few studies of gender differences in item-specific conditions indicate that men tend to be more confident in…

  13. Confidence in Science: The Gender Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Mary Frank; Firebaugh, Glenn

    1992-01-01

    Analyses relationship between gender and confidence in science. Argues that, as women form larger part of labor force and tax base, scientific fields must seek to increase women's generally lower levels of confidence in science. Reports no change in trend of confidence in science between 1973 and 1989, but shows significant and widening gap…

  14. Behavioural therapy of suicidality.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Barbara

    2012-11-01

    Suicidal behaviour is a serious public health issue. Suicidal behaviour includes completed suicide, suicide attempts, suicidal intent and/or plans and suicide ideation. Two prominent mechanisms, behavioural deficits, in particular poor problem-solving skills, and a certain cognitive style with overgeneralization, distortion and lack of positive expectations, have been identified in suicidal patients so far. Besides general therapy strategies, including the diagnostic process and a collaborative, confident relationship and strengthening of protective factors, specific behavioural strategies should aim at the modification of the behavioural repertoire and of cognitive strategies. The modification of the behavioural repertoire includes the direct modification of the behaviour, acquiring techniques for stress reduction and learning problem-solving strategies. Applied cognitive techniques comprise such as thought-stopping, examining options and alternatives, fantasizing consequences, externalizing inner voices, and reattribution. Psychotherapy with suicidal patients has a specific feature: It requires high activity of the therapist in terms of motivation and guidance of the patient. Regular assessment of the suicide risk at every session is a must. Nevertheless, the therapist should always be aware that it is impossible to prevent all suicidal acts. PMID:22926057

  15. Sedentary behaviour in youth.

    PubMed

    Pate, Russell R; Mitchell, Jonathan A; Byun, Wonwoo; Dowda, Marsha

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this review is to describe the amount of time children spend in sedentary behaviour and to determine if there are specific factors that associate with sedentary behaviour in children. The following search terms were used to identify relevant articles: sedentary behaviour, inactivity, television, computer, video games, small screen, sitting, prevalence, patterns, correlates, factors and determinants. The databases used to conduct the search included PubMed, PsycINFO, ERIC (Education Resources Information Center) and Academic Search Premier. The studies reviewed were limited to those that sampled children (2-18 years), were written in English and used a measure of sedentary behaviour as the dependent variable. Several studies reported the time spent watching television or the proportion of children at or above a threshold for television viewing (eg, ≥3 h/day). Among the accelerometer studies included, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey is the largest and reported ∼6.1, 7.5 and 8.0 h/day mean sedentary time in children 6-11, 12-15 and 16-19 years old, respectively. Taken together, the existing literature across the world indicates a slightly higher level of sedentary behaviour in older children. Higher levels of sedentary behaviour were also reported in non-white children, children from lower socioeconomic status background and children from households with more access to televisions/computers. Lower levels of sedentary behaviour were reported in children whose parents have rules/limitations on screen time. PMID:21836174

  16. The Development and Initial Use of a Survey of Student "Belongingness", Engagement and Self-Confidence in UK Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yorke, Mantz

    2016-01-01

    Students' sense of "belongingness" and their engagement in academic study have been identified as key contributors to student success. A short instrument that can identify changes over time in students' sense of belonging to their institution, their academic engagement and their self-confidence has been developed and used in conjunction…

  17. Psychological Adjustment and Academic Achievement among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahmood, Khalid; Iqbal, Muhammad Maqsood

    2015-01-01

    This study was studied that emotional and behavioural problems of young students who are directly related to their academic achievement and thus play a vital role in the development of young learners carrier. This study helped to fill a gap by conducting an exploration of psychological adjustment and academic achievement among adolescents. It also…

  18. Dynamics of postdecisional processing of confidence.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shuli; Pleskac, Timothy J; Zeigenfuse, Matthew D

    2015-04-01

    Most cognitive theories assume that confidence and choice happen simultaneously and are based on the same information. The 3 studies presented in this article instead show that confidence judgments can arise, at least in part, from a postdecisional evidence accumulation process. As a result of this process, increasing the time between making a choice and confidence judgment improves confidence resolution. This finding contradicts the notion that confidence judgments are biased by decision makers seeking confirmatory evidence. Further analysis reveals that the improved resolution is due to a reduction in confidence in incorrect responses, while confidence in correct responses remains relatively constant. These results are modeled with a sequential sampling process that allows evidence accumulation to continue after a choice is made and maps the amount of accumulated evidence onto a confidence rating. The cognitive modeling analysis reveals that the rate of evidence accumulation following a choice does slow relative to the rate preceding choice. The analysis also shows that the asymmetry between confidence in correct and incorrect choices is compatible with state-dependent decay in the accumulated evidence: Evidence consistent with the current state results in a deceleration of accumulated evidence and consequently evidence appears to have a decreasing impact on observed confidence. In contrast, evidence inconsistent with the current state results in an acceleration of accumulated evidence toward the opposite direction and consequently evidence appears to have an increasing impact on confidence. Taken together, this process-level understanding of confidence suggests a simple strategy for improving confidence accuracy: take a bit more time to make confidence judgments. PMID:25844627

  19. Second-chance university admission, the theory of planned behaviour and student achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alas, Yabit; Anshari, Muhammad; Sabtu, Norakmarul Ihsan; Yunus, Norazmah

    2016-05-01

    The theory of planned behaviour attempts to explain factors which influence behaviour. One of these factors is intention. Positive or negative intentions are formed by a person's impression of the way other people would perceive similar behaviour (external forces). The authors of this study used the theory of planned behaviour to examine, compare and interpret the academic performance of students entering a university either via direct intake or via a bridging programme. This study focuses on the UniBridge programme offered by Universiti Brunei Darussalam (UBD), which is an intensive one-semester course that prepares students for undergraduate-level study. While direct-intake applicants pass minimum requirements for entry and are able to enrol directly into an undergraduate programme, applicants who do not meet these minimum requirements can join this bridging programme which is designed to be a "second-chance" entry option. Using a mixed-methods approach, the authors subjected student performance data of both direct-intake and bridge-programme undergraduates to statistical analyses, carried out interviews and then used the theoretical framework of planned behaviour to pinpoint individual attitudes and social pressures which form an intention to prepare for entry examinations. The results were mostly consistent and showed that the two groups were competitive in terms of undergraduate academic achievement, thus proving the second-chance programme to be effective in enabling students with poor A-Level results to experience academic confidence at university level. On the strength of these findings, the authors conclude their paper with recommendations for tertiary institutions to support lifelong learning initiatives through the use of multiple channels of entry.

  20. Second-chance university admission, the theory of planned behaviour and student achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alas, Yabit; Anshari, Muhammad; Sabtu, Norakmarul Ihsan; Yunus, Norazmah

    2016-06-01

    The theory of planned behaviour attempts to explain factors which influence behaviour. One of these factors is intention. Positive or negative intentions are formed by a person's impression of the way other people would perceive similar behaviour (external forces). The authors of this study used the theory of planned behaviour to examine, compare and interpret the academic performance of students entering a university either via direct intake or via a bridging programme. This study focuses on the UniBridge programme offered by Universiti Brunei Darussalam (UBD), which is an intensive one-semester course that prepares students for undergraduate-level study. While direct-intake applicants pass minimum requirements for entry and are able to enrol directly into an undergraduate programme, applicants who do not meet these minimum requirements can join this bridging programme which is designed to be a "second-chance" entry option. Using a mixed-methods approach, the authors subjected student performance data of both direct-intake and bridge-programme undergraduates to statistical analyses, carried out interviews and then used the theoretical framework of planned behaviour to pinpoint individual attitudes and social pressures which form an intention to prepare for entry examinations. The results were mostly consistent and showed that the two groups were competitive in terms of undergraduate academic achievement, thus proving the second-chance programme to be effective in enabling students with poor A-Level results to experience academic confidence at university level. On the strength of these findings, the authors conclude their paper with recommendations for tertiary institutions to support lifelong learning initiatives through the use of multiple channels of entry.

  1. Confidence Intervals in Qtl Mapping by Bootstrapping

    PubMed Central

    Visscher, P. M.; Thompson, R.; Haley, C. S.

    1996-01-01

    The determination of empirical confidence intervals for the location of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) was investigated using simulation. Empirical confidence intervals were calculated using a bootstrap resampling method for a backcross population derived from inbred lines. Sample sizes were either 200 or 500 individuals, and the QTL explained 1, 5, or 10% of the phenotypic variance. The method worked well in that the proportion of empirical confidence intervals that contained the simulated QTL was close to expectation. In general, the confidence intervals were slightly conservatively biased. Correlations between the test statistic and the width of the confidence interval were strongly negative, so that the stronger the evidence for a QTL segregating, the smaller the empirical confidence interval for its location. The size of the average confidence interval depended heavily on the population size and the effect of the QTL. Marker spacing had only a small effect on the average empirical confidence interval. The LOD drop-off method to calculate empirical support intervals gave confidence intervals that generally were too small, in particular if confidence intervals were calculated only for samples above a certain significance threshold. The bootstrap method is easy to implement and is useful in the analysis of experimental data. PMID:8725246

  2. A Structural Equation Modelling of the Academic Self-Concept Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matovu, Musa

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed at validating the academic self-concept scale by Liu and Wang (2005) in measuring academic self-concept among university students. Structural equation modelling was used to validate the scale which was composed of two subscales; academic confidence and academic effort. The study was conducted on university students; males and…

  3. Academic Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicago City Colleges, IL.

    This statement outlines the academic policies of the City Colleges of Chicago. Part I outlines the Institution's academic standards, covering: (1) student class attendance; (2) the grading system; (3) mid-term grades; (4) the use of non-grade designations; i.e., administrative initiated withdrawal, auditor, no-show withdrawal, incomplete, and…

  4. Academic Bullies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogg, Piper

    2008-01-01

    Many professors have been traumatized by academic bullies. Unlike bullies at school, the academic bully plays a more subtle game. Bullies may spread rumors to undermine a colleague's credibility or shut their target out of social conversations. The more aggressive of the species cuss out co-workers, even threatening to get physical. There is…

  5. Academic Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swift, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The academy is defined by a fundamentally uncertain pursuit of certainty. The question of whether academic work is a sufficient form of engagement on its own is inseparable from the contradiction inherent to this pursuit. Like any properly academic question, it lends itself to a forum: a response is nearly obligatory for any professor in the…

  6. Academic Duty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Donald

    This book by a former university president examines the state of the research university faculty, focusing on teaching and how success at teaching can be evaluated; ethical problems in reviewing the work of others, research and how it is supported; outside commitments; and research misconduct. Chapters include: "Academic Freedom, Academic Duty,"…

  7. Metacognitive Beliefs, Self-Confidence and Primary Learning Environment of Sixth Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleitman, Sabina; Gibson, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Metacognition is an integral component of a self-regulated approach to learning. The present study examined the relationships between academic self-efficacy and perceptions of one's own competence in memory and reasoning abilities, and their role in predicting the Self-confidence trait. The study also aimed to determine the role of key classroom…

  8. An Examination of Teacher's Occupational Burnout Levels in Terms of Organizational Confidence and Some Other Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caglar, Caglar

    2011-01-01

    An effort is made in this research to determine the correlations between primary school teachers' levels of confidence in their organization and their burnout levels and other variables. The research population is composed of teachers teaching in the primary schools located in the city center of Adiyaman in 2009-2010 academic year whereas the…

  9. Academic Freedom and Academic Tenure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De George, Richard T.

    2001-01-01

    Asserts that Martin Michaelson's proposal in "Should Untenured as Well as Tenured Faculty Be Guaranteed Academic Freedom? A Few Observations," despite its good intentions, is seriously flawed and if adopted in preference to existing standards will weaken rather than strengthen academic freedom. (EV)

  10. Gender, Family Structure, and Adolescents' Primary Confidants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nomaguchi, Kei M.

    2008-01-01

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (N = 4,190), this study examined adolescents' reports of primary confidants. Results showed that nearly 30% of adolescents aged 16-18 nominated mothers as primary confidants, 25% nominated romantic partners, and 20% nominated friends. Nominating romantic partners or friends was related…

  11. Self-Confidence and Metacognitive Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleitman, Sabina; Stankov, Lazar

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the nature of the Self-confidence factor. In particular, we study the relationship between this factor and cognitive, metacognitive, and personality measures. Participants (N=296) were administered a battery of seven cognitive tests that assess three constructs: accuracy, speed, and confidence. Participants were also given the…

  12. Developing confidence decreases guessing and increases competency.

    PubMed

    Center, Deborah L; Adams, Timothy M

    2013-09-01

    Validating competency to meet accreditation and safety demands is a major challenge many organizations face. Traditional testing methods may only reflect guessing and may not capture the amount of misinformation nurses are using for critical decision making. Using a confidence-based learning methodology allows learners to correct misinformation and gain confidence and competency. PMID:24015795

  13. Decision Making and Confidence Given Uncertain Advice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Michael D.; Dry, Matthew J.

    2006-01-01

    We study human decision making in a simple forced-choice task that manipulates the frequency and accuracy of available information. Empirically, we find that people make decisions consistent with the advice provided, but that their subjective confidence in their decisions shows 2 interesting properties. First, people's confidence does not depend…

  14. Confidence and Competence with Mathematical Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Confidence assessment (CA), in which students state alongside each of their answers a confidence level expressing how certain they are, has been employed successfully within higher education. However, it has not been widely explored with school pupils. This study examined how school mathematics pupils (N?=?345) in five different secondary schools…

  15. Confidence Wagering during Mathematics and Science Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jack, Brady Michael; Liu, Chia-Ju; Chiu, Hoan-Lin; Shymansky, James A.

    2009-01-01

    This proposal presents the results of a case study involving five 8th grade Taiwanese classes, two mathematics and three science classes. These classes used a new method of testing called confidence wagering. This paper advocates the position that confidence wagering can predict the accuracy of a student's test answer selection during…

  16. Hypercorrection of High Confidence Errors in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalfe, Janet; Finn, Bridgid

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments investigated whether the hypercorrection effect--the finding that errors committed with high confidence are easier, rather than more difficult, to correct than are errors committed with low confidence--occurs in grade school children as it does in young adults. All three experiments showed that Grade 3-6 children hypercorrected…

  17. The Role of Confidence in Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Marie; Hyland, Terry

    2003-01-01

    Focuses on the concept of confidence stating that it is commonly misunderstood. Presents suggestions for managing and supporting learning after exploring research related to confidence. Offers information on original research on student teachers learning to teach in the post-school sector. (CMK)

  18. An informative confidence metric for ATR.

    SciTech Connect

    Bow, Wallace Johnston Jr.; Richards, John Alfred; Bray, Brian Kenworthy

    2003-03-01

    Automatic or assisted target recognition (ATR) is an important application of synthetic aperture radar (SAR). Most ATR researchers have focused on the core problem of declaration-that is, detection and identification of targets of interest within a SAR image. For ATR declarations to be of maximum value to an image analyst, however, it is essential that each declaration be accompanied by a reliability estimate or confidence metric. Unfortunately, the need for a clear and informative confidence metric for ATR has generally been overlooked or ignored. We propose a framework and methodology for evaluating the confidence in an ATR system's declarations and competing target hypotheses. Our proposed confidence metric is intuitive, informative, and applicable to a broad class of ATRs. We demonstrate that seemingly similar ATRs may differ fundamentally in the ability-or inability-to identify targets with high confidence.

  19. Constructing Confidence Intervals for Qtl Location

    PubMed Central

    Mangin, B.; Goffinet, B.; Rebai, A.

    1994-01-01

    We describe a method for constructing the confidence interval of the QTL location parameter. This method is developed in the local asymptotic framework, leading to a linear model at each position of the putative QTL. The idea is to construct a likelihood ratio test, using statistics whose asymptotic distribution does not depend on the nuisance parameters and in particular on the effect of the QTL. We show theoretical properties of the confidence interval built with this test, and compare it with the classical confidence interval using simulations. We show in particular, that our confidence interval has the correct probability of containing the true map location of the QTL, for almost all QTLs, whereas the classical confidence interval can be very biased for QTLs having small effect. PMID:7896108

  20. Academic Village.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boles, Rebecca

    2001-01-01

    Presents design features of the Renner Middle School (Plano, Texas) where the sprawling suburbs have been kept at bay while creating the atmosphere of an academic village. Photos and a floor plan are provided. (GR)

  1. Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 1970

    1970-01-01

    Building data is given for the following academic libraries: (1) Rosary College, River Forest, Illinois; (2) Abilene Christian College, Abilene, Texas; (3) University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California. (MF)

  2. Metacognition in human decision-making: confidence and error monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Nick; Summerfield, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    People are capable of robust evaluations of their decisions: they are often aware of their mistakes even without explicit feedback, and report levels of confidence in their decisions that correlate with objective performance. These metacognitive abilities help people to avoid making the same mistakes twice, and to avoid overcommitting time or resources to decisions that are based on unreliable evidence. In this review, we consider progress in characterizing the neural and mechanistic basis of these related aspects of metacognition—confidence judgements and error monitoring—and identify crucial points of convergence between methods and theories in the two fields. This convergence suggests that common principles govern metacognitive judgements of confidence and accuracy; in particular, a shared reliance on post-decisional processing within the systems responsible for the initial decision. However, research in both fields has focused rather narrowly on simple, discrete decisions—reflecting the correspondingly restricted focus of current models of the decision process itself—raising doubts about the degree to which discovered principles will scale up to explain metacognitive evaluation of real-world decisions and actions that are fluid, temporally extended, and embedded in the broader context of evolving behavioural goals. PMID:22492749

  3. One Year On: First-Year Primary Teachers' Perceptions of Preparedness to Manage Misbehaviour and Their Confidence in the Strategies They Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Sue; Stephenson, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a one-year follow-up study of Australian beginning primary teachers' perceived preparedness to manage a variety of problematic student behaviours, and their confidence and use of behaviour management strategies based on their preservice coursework in classroom behaviour management. A total of 216 primary…

  4. Inference by Eye: Pictures of Confidence Intervals and Thinking about Levels of Confidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumming, Geoff

    2007-01-01

    A picture of a 95% confidence interval (CI) implicitly contains pictures of CIs of all other levels of confidence, and information about the "p"-value for testing a null hypothesis. This article discusses pictures, taken from interactive software, that suggest several ways to think about the level of confidence of a CI, "p"-values, and what…

  5. Changes in the Linguistic Confidence of Primary and Secondary Students in Catalonia: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bretxa, Vanessa; Comajoan, Llorenç; Ubalde, Josep; Vila, F. Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Previous research in first (L1) and second language (L2) acquisition has provided evidence that linguistic confidence is a key construct that can explain linguistic behaviour. In this paper, we apply previous research in the socio-contextual model of L2 learning to data from Catalonia. More specifically, the paper investigates linguistic…

  6. Learning Styles: Impact on Knowledge and Confidence in Nursing Students in Simulation and Classroom.

    PubMed

    Brannan, Jane D; White, Anne; Long, Janice

    2016-01-01

    Nurse Educators must develop nursing curriculum with engaging learning strategies that promote the knowledge and confidence needed for safe, effective nursing practice. Faculty should explore new methods of teaching that consider how students learn. Studies have shown mixed results regarding student learning styles, academic achievement, and development of confidence in nursing practice. An experimental study using Felder and Soloman's (2004). Index of learning styles instrument was conducted to examine nursing student learning styles and their impact on confidence and knowledge in traditional and high fidelity simulation settings. Findings revealed students were more likely to have active, visual, sensing, and sequential learning styles. Student confidence or knowledge did not significantly differ among the learning styles in either simulation or traditional classroom methods. Awareness of learning styles may aid faculty in adapting engaging teaching strategies. Further research is needed with larger samples to identify best approaches to enhance student learning within the context of learning styles. PMID:27564700

  7. Early ant trajectories: spatial behaviour before behaviourism.

    PubMed

    Wehner, Rüdiger

    2016-04-01

    In the beginning of the twentieth century, when Jacques Loeb's and John Watson's mechanistic view of life started to dominate animal physiology and behavioural biology, several scientists with different academic backgrounds got engaged in studying the wayfinding behaviour of ants. Largely unaffected by the scientific spirit of the time, they worked independently of each other in different countries: in Algeria, Tunisia, Spain, Switzerland and the United States of America. In the current literature on spatial cognition these early ant researchers--Victor Cornetz, Felix Santschi, Charles Turner and Rudolf Brun--are barely mentioned. Moreover, it is virtually unknown that the great neuroanatomist Santiago Ramón y Cajal had also worked on spatial orientation in ants. This general neglect is certainly due to the fact that nearly all these ant researchers were scientific loners, who did their idiosyncratic investigations outside the realm of comparative physiology, neurobiology and the behavioural sciences of the time, and published their results in French, German, and Spanish at rather inaccessible places. Even though one might argue that much of their work resulted in mainly anecdotal evidence, the conceptual approaches of these early ant researchers preempt much of the present-day discussions on spatial representation in animals. PMID:26898725

  8. Self-Confidence of Selected Indian Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, James C.

    1974-01-01

    The article discusses a study that determined if selected primary and junior high Indian students' self-confidence was related to grade level and to the number of years enrolled in a particular Bureau of Indian Affairs boarding school. (KM)

  9. Weighting Mean and Variability during Confidence Judgments

    PubMed Central

    de Gardelle, Vincent; Mamassian, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Humans can not only perform some visual tasks with great precision, they can also judge how good they are in these tasks. However, it remains unclear how observers produce such metacognitive evaluations, and how these evaluations might be dissociated from the performance in the visual task. Here, we hypothesized that some stimulus variables could affect confidence judgments above and beyond their impact on performance. In a motion categorization task on moving dots, we manipulated the mean and the variance of the motion directions, to obtain a low-mean low-variance condition and a high-mean high-variance condition with matched performances. Critically, in terms of confidence, observers were not indifferent between these two conditions. Observers exhibited marked preferences, which were heterogeneous across individuals, but stable within each observer when assessed one week later. Thus, confidence and performance are dissociable and observers’ confidence judgments put different weights on the stimulus variables that limit performance. PMID:25793275

  10. Measuring Intuition: Nonconscious Emotional Information Boosts Decision Accuracy and Confidence.

    PubMed

    Lufityanto, Galang; Donkin, Chris; Pearson, Joel

    2016-05-01

    The long-held popular notion of intuition has garnered much attention both academically and popularly. Although most people agree that there is such a phenomenon as intuition, involving emotionally charged, rapid, unconscious processes, little compelling evidence supports this notion. Here, we introduce a technique in which subliminal emotional information is presented to subjects while they make fully conscious sensory decisions. Our behavioral and physiological data, along with evidence-accumulator models, show that nonconscious emotional information can boost accuracy and confidence in a concurrent emotion-free decision task, while also speeding up response times. Moreover, these effects were contingent on the specific predictive arrangement of the nonconscious emotional valence and motion direction in the decisional stimulus. A model that simultaneously accumulates evidence from both physiological skin conductance and conscious decisional information provides an accurate description of the data. These findings support the notion that nonconscious emotions can bias concurrent nonemotional behavior-a process of intuition. PMID:27052557

  11. Developing Confidence Limits For Reliability Of Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayhurst, Kelly J.

    1991-01-01

    Technique developed for estimating reliability of software by use of Moranda geometric de-eutrophication model. Pivotal method enables straightforward construction of exact bounds with associated degree of statistical confidence about reliability of software. Confidence limits thus derived provide precise means of assessing quality of software. Limits take into account number of bugs found while testing and effects of sampling variation associated with random order of discovering bugs.

  12. Confidence regions of planar cardiac vectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubin, S.; Herr, A.; Hunt, P.

    1980-01-01

    A method for plotting the confidence regions of vectorial data obtained in electrocardiology is presented. The 90%, 95% and 99% confidence regions of cardiac vectors represented in a plane are obtained in the form of an ellipse centered at coordinates corresponding to the means of a sample selected at random from a bivariate normal distribution. An example of such a plot for the frontal plane QRS mean electrical axis for 80 horses is also presented.

  13. Getting started in academic cardiothoracic surgery.

    PubMed

    Verrier, E D

    2000-04-01

    Preparing to begin a career in academic cardiothoracic surgery requires forethought and desire. Success mandates honesty, discipline, opportunity, and support. This article will attempt to review some fundamental concepts important in starting such an academic career. The thoughts are somewhat personal and not meant to be inclusive. The article will briefly discuss the following issues: choosing the first job, transitions, effective time management, developing clinical confidence, the continued need for mentorship, developing educational value, developing a philosophy of academic growth, intellectual and emotional honesty, myths, mental and physical health, and keys to success. PMID:10727955

  14. Higher Education, Academic Communities, and the Intellectual Virtues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ward E.

    2012-01-01

    Because higher education brings members of academic communities in direct contact with students, the reflective higher education student is in an excellent position for developing two important intellectual virtues: confidence and humility. However, academic communities differ as to whether their members reach consensus, and their teaching…

  15. Academic Motivation of Adolescents. Adolescence and Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pajares, Frank, Ed.; Urdan, Tim, Ed.

    Academically motivated students engage their schoolwork with confidence and interest, are less likely to drop out of school, suffer fewer disciplinary problems, and are more resilient in the face of setbacks than less motivated students. This book presents the work of numerous scholars of adolescent academic motivation and represents the varied…

  16. Academic Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, William R.

    The internal politics of colleges and the influence of a current emphasis on efficiency on the traditional independence of the academician are analyzed. It is suggested that the academician does not work in the same differentiated, and therefore interdependent, way as someone in industry or a bureaucracy. Academic activity is segmented, which…

  17. Academic Freedom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Brian G.

    The strength of academic freedom has always depended upon historical circumstances. In the United States, higher education began with institutions founded and controlled by religious sects. The notion of who gets educated and to what ends expanded as American democracy expanded. By the 1980's, legitimate calls for equality became a general…

  18. Academic Prophecies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Robert M.; Polishook, Irwin H.

    1985-01-01

    Academic prophecies are characterized by their innocence, detachment from the realities of politics and economics, and deference to a limited cohort of administrative representatives. Careless forecasting of the untested future contributes to public misunderstanding of higher education's role in society. (MLW)

  19. Academic Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Burton R.

    With fragmentation the dominant trend in academic settings around the world, the larger wholes of profession, enterprise, and system are less held together by integrative ideology. Strong ideological bonding is characteristic of the parts, primarily the disciplines. The larger aggregations are made whole mainly by formal superstructure, many…

  20. Academic Cloning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikula, John P.; Sikula, Andrew F.

    1980-01-01

    The authors define "cloning" as an integral feature of all educational systems, citing teaching practices which reward students for closely reproducing the teacher's thoughts and/or behaviors and administrative systems which tend to promote like-minded subordinates. They insist, however, that "academic cloning" is not a totally negative practice.…

  1. Academic Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durant, Linda

    2013-01-01

    As colleges and universities become even more complex organizations, advancement professionals need to have the skills, experience, and academic credentials to succeed in this ever-changing environment. Advancement leaders need competencies that extend beyond fundraising, alumni relations, and communications and marketing. The author encourages…

  2. Confidence in biopreparedness authorities among Finnish conscripts.

    PubMed

    Vartti, Anne-Marie; Aro, Arja R; Jormanainen, Vesa; Henriksson, Markus; Nikkari, Simo

    2010-08-01

    A large sample of Finnish military conscripts of the armored brigade were questioned on the extent to which they trusted the information given biopreparedness authorities (such as the police, military, health care, and public health institutions) and how confident they were in the authority's ability to protect the public during a potential infectious disease outbreak, from either natural or deliberate causes. Participants answered a written questionnaire during their initial health inspection in July 2007. From a total of 1,000 conscripts, 953 male conscripts returned the questionnaire. The mean sum scores for confidence in the information given to biopreparedness authorities and the media on natural and bioterrorism-related outbreaks (range = 0-30) were 20.14 (SD = 7.79) and 20.12 (SD = 7.69), respectively. Mean sum scores for the respondents' confidence in the ability of the biopreparedness authorities to protect the public during natural and bioterrorism-related outbreaks (range 0-25) were 16.04 (SD = 5.78) and 16.17 (SD = 5.89). Most respondents indicated that during a natural outbreak, they would have confidence in information provided by a health care institution such as central hospitals and primary health care centers, whereas in the case of bioterrorism, the respondents indicated that they would have confidence in the defense forces and central hospitals. PMID:20731266

  3. Chiropractic Interns' Perceptions of Stress and Confidence

    PubMed Central

    Spegman, Adele Mattinat; Herrin, Sean

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Psychological stress has been shown to influence learning and performance among medical and graduate students. Few studies have examined psychological stress in chiropractic students and interns. This preliminary study explored interns' perceptions around stress and confidence at the midpoint of professional training. Methods: This pilot study used a mixed-methods approach, combining rating scales and modified qualitative methods, to explore interns' lived experience. Eighty-eight interns provided ratings of stress and confidence and narrative responses to broad questions. Results: Participants reported multiple sources of stress; stress and confidence ratings were inversely related. Interns described stress as forced priorities, inadequate time, and perceptions of weak performance. Two themes, “convey respect” and “guide real-world learning,” describe faculty actions that minimized stress and promoted confidence. Conclusion: Chiropractic interns experience varying degrees of stress, which is managed with diverse strategies. The development of confidence appears to be influenced by the consistency and manner in which feedback is provided. Although faculty cannot control the amount or sources of stress, awareness of interns' perceptions can strengthen our effectiveness as educators. PMID:18483584

  4. Adaptive Confidence Bands for Nonparametric Regression Functions

    PubMed Central

    Cai, T. Tony; Low, Mark; Ma, Zongming

    2014-01-01

    A new formulation for the construction of adaptive confidence bands in non-parametric function estimation problems is proposed. Confidence bands are constructed which have size that adapts to the smoothness of the function while guaranteeing that both the relative excess mass of the function lying outside the band and the measure of the set of points where the function lies outside the band are small. It is shown that the bands adapt over a maximum range of Lipschitz classes. The adaptive confidence band can be easily implemented in standard statistical software with wavelet support. Numerical performance of the procedure is investigated using both simulated and real datasets. The numerical results agree well with the theoretical analysis. The procedure can be easily modified and used for other nonparametric function estimation models. PMID:26269661

  5. Freshman Engineering Students At-Risk of Non-Matriculation: Self-Efficacy for Academic Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ernst, Jeremy V.; Bowen, Bradley D.; Williams, Thomas O.

    2016-01-01

    Students identified as at-risk of non-academic continuation have a propensity toward lower academic self-efficacy than their peers (Lent, 2005). Within engineering, self-efficacy and confidence are major markers of university continuation and success (Lourens, 2014 Raelin, et al., 2014). This study explored academic learning self-efficacy specific…

  6. Coefficient Omega Bootstrap Confidence Intervals: Nonnormal Distributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Miguel A.; Divers, Jasmin

    2013-01-01

    The performance of the normal theory bootstrap (NTB), the percentile bootstrap (PB), and the bias-corrected and accelerated (BCa) bootstrap confidence intervals (CIs) for coefficient omega was assessed through a Monte Carlo simulation under conditions not previously investigated. Of particular interests were nonnormal Likert-type and binary items.…

  7. The Confidence Factor in Liberal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    With the US unemployment rate at 9 percent, it's rational for college students to lose confidence in the liberal arts and to opt for a vocational major. Or is it? There is a compelling economic case for the liberal arts. Against those who call for more professional training, liberal educators should concede nothing. However, they do have a…

  8. Mixed Confidence Estimation for Iterative CT Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Perlmutter, David S; Kim, Soo Mee; Kinahan, Paul E; Alessio, Adam M

    2016-09-01

    Dynamic (4D) CT imaging is used in a variety of applications, but the two major drawbacks of the technique are its increased radiation dose and longer reconstruction time. Here we present a statistical analysis of our previously proposed Mixed Confidence Estimation (MCE) method that addresses both these issues. This method, where framed iterative reconstruction is only performed on the dynamic regions of each frame while static regions are fixed across frames to a composite image, was proposed to reduce computation time. In this work, we generalize the previous method to describe any application where a portion of the image is known with higher confidence (static, composite, lower-frequency content, etc.) and a portion of the image is known with lower confidence (dynamic, targeted, etc). We show that by splitting the image space into higher and lower confidence components, MCE can lower the estimator variance in both regions compared to conventional reconstruction. We present a theoretical argument for this reduction in estimator variance and verify this argument with proof-of-principle simulations. We also propose a fast approximation of the variance of images reconstructed with MCE and confirm that this approximation is accurate compared to analytic calculations of and multi-realization image variance. This MCE method requires less computation time and provides reduced image variance for imaging scenarios where portions of the image are known with more certainty than others allowing for potentially reduced radiation dose and/or improved dynamic imaging. PMID:27008663

  9. Detecting Disease in Radiographs with Intuitive Confidence

    PubMed Central

    Jaeger, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    This paper argues in favor of a specific type of confidence for use in computer-aided diagnosis and disease classification, namely, sine/cosine values of angles represented by points on the unit circle. The paper shows how this confidence is motivated by Chinese medicine and how sine/cosine values are directly related with the two forces Yin and Yang. The angle for which sine and cosine are equal (45°) represents the state of equilibrium between Yin and Yang, which is a state of nonduality that indicates neither normality nor abnormality in terms of disease classification. The paper claims that the proposed confidence is intuitive and can be readily understood by physicians. The paper underpins this thesis with theoretical results in neural signal processing, stating that a sine/cosine relationship between the actual input signal and the perceived (learned) input is key to neural learning processes. As a practical example, the paper shows how to use the proposed confidence values to highlight manifestations of tuberculosis in frontal chest X-rays. PMID:26495433

  10. Sources of Confidence in School Community Councils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nygaard, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Three Utah middle level school community councils participated in a qualitative strengths-based process evaluation. Two of the school community councils were identified as exemplary, and the third was just beginning to function. One aspect of the evaluation was the source of school community council members' confidence. Each school had unique…

  11. Observed Consultation: Confidence and Accuracy of Assessors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tweed, Mike; Ingham, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Judgments made by the assessors observing consultations are widely used in the assessment of medical students. The aim of this research was to study judgment accuracy and confidence and the relationship between these. Assessors watched recordings of consultations, scoring the students on: a checklist of items; attributes of consultation; a…

  12. Confident Communication: Speaking Tips for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Douglas A.

    This resource book seeks to provide the building blocks needed for public speaking while eliminating the fear factor. The book explains how educators can perfect their oratorical capabilities as well as enjoy the security, confidence, and support needed to create and deliver dynamic speeches. Following an Introduction: A Message for Teachers,…

  13. Coefficient Alpha Bootstrap Confidence Interval under Nonnormality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Miguel A.; Divers, Jasmin; Newton, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Three different bootstrap methods for estimating confidence intervals (CIs) for coefficient alpha were investigated. In addition, the bootstrap methods were compared with the most promising coefficient alpha CI estimation methods reported in the literature. The CI methods were assessed through a Monte Carlo simulation utilizing conditions…

  14. Evaluating Measures of Optimism and Sport Confidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogarty, Gerard J.; Perera, Harsha N.; Furst, Andrea J.; Thomas, Patrick R.

    2016-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R), the Sport Confidence Inventory (SCI), and the Carolina SCI (CSCI) were examined in a study involving 260 athletes. The study aimed to test the dimensional structure, convergent and divergent validity, and invariance over competition level of scores generated by these…

  15. The Effect of Adaptive Confidence Strategies in Computer-Assisted Instruction on Learning and Learner Confidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Richard Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of including adaptive confidence strategies in instructionally sound computer-assisted instruction (CAI) on learning and learner confidence. Seventy-one general educational development (GED) learners recruited from various GED learning centers at community colleges in the southeast United…

  16. Highly Confident but Wrong: Gender Differences and Similarities in Confidence Judgments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundeberg, Mary A.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Gender differences in item-specific confidence judgments were studied for 70 male and 181 female college students. Gender differences in confidence were dependent on context and the domain being tested. Both men and women were overconfident, but men were especially overconfident when incorrect. (SLD)

  17. Practical Literacy Matters: Teacher Confidence Is Key

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santamaria, Laura A.; Taylor, Marissa K.; Park, Travis D.; Keene, Barrett L.; van der Mandele, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Literacy is important to career and technical education (CTE) teachers, who strive to integrate core academic and cognitive skills and knowledge into their classrooms. There is little question that educators need to continually address literacy within CTE. Rather, the issue for many CTE teachers and administrators becomes how to effectively…

  18. Building Public Confidence in Nuclear Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacs, T

    2002-03-27

    Achieving public acceptance has become a central issue in discussions regarding the future of nuclear power and associated nuclear activities. Effective public communication and public participation are often put forward as the key building blocks in garnering public acceptance. A recent international workshop in Finland provided insights into other features that might also be important to building and sustaining public confidence in nuclear activities. The workshop was held in Finland in close cooperation with Finnish stakeholders. This was most appropriate because of the recent successes in achieving positive decisions at the municipal, governmental, and Parliamentary levels, allowing the Finnish high-level radioactive waste repository program to proceed, including the identification and approval of a proposed candidate repository site. Much of the workshop discussion appropriately focused on the roles of public participation and public communications in building public confidence. It was clear that well constructed and implemented programs of public involvement and communication and a sense of fairness were essential in building the extent of public confidence needed to allow the repository program in Finland to proceed. It was also clear that there were a number of other elements beyond public involvement that contributed substantially to the success in Finland to date. And, in fact, it appeared that these other factors were also necessary to achieving the Finnish public acceptance. In other words, successful public participation and communication were necessary but not sufficient. What else was important? Culture, politics, and history vary from country to country, providing differing contexts for establishing and maintaining public confidence. What works in one country will not necessarily be effective in another. Nonetheless, there appear to be certain elements that might be common to programs that are successful in sustaining public confidence and some of

  19. Building Public Confidence in Nuclear Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacs, T

    2002-02-13

    Achieving public acceptance has become a central issue in discussions regarding the future of nuclear power and associated nuclear activities. Effective public communication and public participation are often put forward as the key building blocks in garnering public acceptance. A recent international workshop in Finland provided insights into other features that might also be important to building and sustaining public confidence in nuclear activities. The workshop was held in Finland in close cooperation with Finnish stakeholders. This was most appropriate because of the recent successes in achieving positive decisions at the municipal, governmental, and Parliamentary levels, allowing the Finnish high-level radioactive waste repository program to proceed, including the identification and approval of a proposed candidate repository site Much of the workshop discussion appropriately focused on the roles of public participation and public communications in building public confidence. It was clear that well constructed and implemented programs of public involvement and communication and a sense of fairness were essential in building the extent of public confidence needed to allow the repository program in Finland to proceed. It was also clear that there were a number of other elements beyond public involvement that contributed substantially to the success in Finland to date. And, in fact, it appeared that these other factors were also necessary to achieving the Finnish public acceptance. In other words, successful public participation and communication were necessary but not sufficient. What else was important? Culture, politics, and history vary from country to country, providing differing contexts for establishing and maintaining public confidence. What works in one country will not necessarily be effective in another. Nonetheless, there appear to be certain elements that might be common to programs that are successful in sustaining public confidence, and some of

  20. Random selection as a confidence building tool

    SciTech Connect

    Macarthur, Duncan W; Hauck, Danielle; Langner, Diana; Thron, Jonathan; Smith, Morag; Williams, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Any verification measurement performed on potentially classified nuclear material must satisfy two seemingly contradictory constraints. First and foremost, no classified information can be released. At the same time, the monitoring party must have confidence in the veracity of the measurement. The first concern can be addressed by performing the measurements within the host facility using instruments under the host's control. Because the data output in this measurement scenario is also under host control, it is difficult for the monitoring party to have confidence in that data. One technique for addressing this difficulty is random selection. The concept of random selection can be thought of as four steps: (1) The host presents several 'identical' copies of a component or system to the monitor. (2) One (or more) of these copies is randomly chosen by the monitors for use in the measurement system. (3) Similarly, one or more is randomly chosen to be validated further at a later date in a monitor-controlled facility. (4) Because the two components or systems are identical, validation of the 'validation copy' is equivalent to validation of the measurement system. This procedure sounds straightforward, but effective application may be quite difficult. Although random selection is often viewed as a panacea for confidence building, the amount of confidence generated depends on the monitor's continuity of knowledge for both validation and measurement systems. In this presentation, we will discuss the random selection technique, as well as where and how this technique might be applied to generate maximum confidence. In addition, we will discuss the role of modular measurement-system design in facilitating random selection and describe a simple modular measurement system incorporating six small {sup 3}He neutron detectors and a single high-purity germanium gamma detector.

  1. Gendered Habitus and Gender Differences in Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgerton, Jason; Peter, Tracey; Roberts, Lance

    2014-01-01

    Bourdieu's theory of cultural and social reproduction posits that students' habitus--learned behavioural and perceptual dispositions rooted in family upbringing--is a formative influence on how they react to their educational environments, affecting academic practices and academic achievement. Although originally conceived as a…

  2. Malaysian University Students' Attitudes to Academic Dishonesty and Business Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Zauwiyah; Simun, Maimun; Mohammad, Junaini

    2008-01-01

    Academic dishonesty is believed to have predictive ability for subsequent behaviours in the workplace. This study adds to the literature by investigating Malaysian business students' attitudes to academic dishonesty and their attitudes to ethics issues in business. This study also explores the association between these two constructs. The form of…

  3. Efficient computation of parameter confidence intervals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Patrick C.

    1987-01-01

    An important step in system identification of aircraft is the estimation of stability and control derivatives from flight data along with an assessment of parameter accuracy. When the maximum likelihood estimation technique is used, parameter accuracy is commonly assessed by the Cramer-Rao lower bound. It is known, however, that in some cases the lower bound can be substantially different from the parameter variance. Under these circumstances the Cramer-Rao bounds may be misleading as an accuracy measure. This paper discusses the confidence interval estimation problem based on likelihood ratios, which offers a more general estimate of the error bounds. Four approaches are considered for computing confidence intervals of maximum likelihood parameter estimates. Each approach is applied to real flight data and compared.

  4. On the Confidence Limit of Hilbert Spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Norden

    2003-01-01

    Confidence limit is a routine requirement for Fourier spectral analysis. But this confidence limit is established based on ergodic theory: For stationary process, temporal average equals the ensemble average. Therefore, one can divide the data into n-sections and treat each section as independent realization. Most natural processes in general, and climate data in particular, are not stationary; therefore, there is a need for the Hilbert Spectral analysis for such processes. Here ergodic theory is no longer applicable. We propose to use various adjustable parameters in the shifting processes of the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) method to obtain an ensemble of Intrinsic Mode Function 0 sets. Based on such an ensemble, we introduce a statistical measure in. a form of confidence limits for the Intrinsic Mode Functions, and consequently, the Hilbert spectra. The criterion of selecting the various adjustable parameters is based on the orthogonality test of the resulting M F sets. Length-of-day data from 1962 to 2001 will be used to illustrate this new approach. Its implication in climate data analysis will also be discussed.

  5. Confidence-Based Learning in Investment Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serradell-Lopez, Enric; Lara-Navarra, Pablo; Castillo-Merino, David; González-González, Inés

    The aim of this study is to determine the effectiveness of using multiple choice tests in subjects related to the administration and business management. To this end we used a multiple-choice test with specific questions to verify the extent of knowledge gained and the confidence and trust in the answers. The tests were performed in a group of 200 students at the bachelor's degree in Business Administration and Management. The analysis made have been implemented in one subject of the scope of investment analysis and measured the level of knowledge gained and the degree of trust and security in the responses at two different times of the course. The measurements have been taken into account different levels of difficulty in the questions asked and the time spent by students to complete the test. The results confirm that students are generally able to obtain more knowledge along the way and get increases in the degree of trust and confidence in the answers. It is confirmed as the difficulty level of the questions set a priori by the heads of the subjects are related to levels of security and confidence in the answers. It is estimated that the improvement in the skills learned is viewed favourably by businesses and are especially important for job placement of students.

  6. Female College Students' Media Use and Academic Outcomes: Results from a Longitudinal Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Jennifer L; Fielder, Robyn L; Carey, Kate B; Carey, Michael P

    2013-09-01

    This longitudinal study describes women's media use during their first year of college and examines associations between media use and academic outcomes. Female students (N = 483, Mage = 18.1 years) reported on their use of 11 media forms and their grade point average, academic behaviors, academic confidence, and problems affecting schoolwork. Allowing for multi-tasking, women reported nearly 12 hours of media use per day; use of texting, music, the Internet, and social networking was heaviest. In general, media use was negatively associated with academic outcomes after controlling for prior academics and demographics. Exceptions were newspaper reading and music listening, which were positively associated with academic outcomes. There were significant indirect effects of magazine reading and social networking on GPA via academic behaviors, confidence, and problems. Results show that female college students are heavy users of new media, and that some forms of media use may adversely impact academic performance. PMID:24505554

  7. Female College Students’ Media Use and Academic Outcomes: Results from a Longitudinal Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Jennifer L.; Fielder, Robyn L.; Carey, Kate B.; Carey, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study describes women’s media use during their first year of college and examines associations between media use and academic outcomes. Female students (N = 483, Mage = 18.1 years) reported on their use of 11 media forms and their grade point average, academic behaviors, academic confidence, and problems affecting schoolwork. Allowing for multi-tasking, women reported nearly 12 hours of media use per day; use of texting, music, the Internet, and social networking was heaviest. In general, media use was negatively associated with academic outcomes after controlling for prior academics and demographics. Exceptions were newspaper reading and music listening, which were positively associated with academic outcomes. There were significant indirect effects of magazine reading and social networking on GPA via academic behaviors, confidence, and problems. Results show that female college students are heavy users of new media, and that some forms of media use may adversely impact academic performance. PMID:24505554

  8. Crossing Uncertain Terrain: Messages from Male Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keamy, Ron Kim

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, comments made by a group of senior male academics in Australian universities about their leadership behaviours, are considered. Whereas the majority of the men in the study spoke about gender relations, and sometimes feminism in their workplaces, only two of the men engaged in discourses of gender and/or feminism, as well as…

  9. The association between exaggeration in health related science news and academic press releases: retrospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Vivian-Griffiths, Solveiga; Boivin, Jacky; Williams, Andy; Venetis, Christos A; Davies, Aimée; Ogden, Jack; Whelan, Leanne; Hughes, Bethan; Dalton, Bethan; Boy, Fred

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify the source (press releases or news) of distortions, exaggerations, or changes to the main conclusions drawn from research that could potentially influence a reader’s health related behaviour. Design Retrospective quantitative content analysis. Setting Journal articles, press releases, and related news, with accompanying simulations. Sample Press releases (n=462) on biomedical and health related science issued by 20 leading UK universities in 2011, alongside their associated peer reviewed research papers and news stories (n=668). Main outcome measures Advice to readers to change behaviour, causal statements drawn from correlational research, and inference to humans from animal research that went beyond those in the associated peer reviewed papers. Results 40% (95% confidence interval 33% to 46%) of the press releases contained exaggerated advice, 33% (26% to 40%) contained exaggerated causal claims, and 36% (28% to 46%) contained exaggerated inference to humans from animal research. When press releases contained such exaggeration, 58% (95% confidence interval 48% to 68%), 81% (70% to 93%), and 86% (77% to 95%) of news stories, respectively, contained similar exaggeration, compared with exaggeration rates of 17% (10% to 24%), 18% (9% to 27%), and 10% (0% to 19%) in news when the press releases were not exaggerated. Odds ratios for each category of analysis were 6.5 (95% confidence interval 3.5 to 12), 20 (7.6 to 51), and 56 (15 to 211). At the same time, there was little evidence that exaggeration in press releases increased the uptake of news. Conclusions Exaggeration in news is strongly associated with exaggeration in press releases. Improving the accuracy of academic press releases could represent a key opportunity for reducing misleading health related news. PMID:25498121

  10. Linking Academic Integrity and Classroom Civility: Student Attitudes and Institutional Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Troy; Marini, Zopito; Radue, Jon

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the notion that student behaviour regarding academic integrity and classroom civility are linked, and that intervention methods used to resolve classroom incivility may be used as a response to academic dishonesty. We advance the view that academic integrity and classroom civility refer to a student's willingness to respect the…

  11. The Effects of Using Ticks and Crosses on Academic Self-Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Robert; de Fockert, Jan W.

    2012-01-01

    Behaviour, including academic performance, can be influenced by implicit primes; and both objective performance and subjective ratings are susceptible to priming effects. Here, we report a new priming effect on academic self-ratings. Participants twice completed a measure of academic self-concept. In the first session, they all used circles to…

  12. Perceived Instructor Affective Support in Relation to Academic Emotions and Motivation in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakiz, Gonul

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the associations among perceived instructor affective support, academic enjoyment, academic hopelessness, behavioural engagement and academic help seeking in college classrooms. A self-report survey was administered to 277 college students enrolled in a teacher training department of a major…

  13. Engineering Student Self-Assessment through Confidence-Based Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuen-Reed, Gigi; Reed, Kyle B.

    2015-01-01

    A vital aspect of an answer is the confidence that goes along with it. Misstating the level of confidence one has in the answer can have devastating outcomes. However, confidence assessment is rarely emphasized during typical engineering education. The confidence-based scoring method described in this study encourages students to both think about…

  14. European security, nuclear weapons and public confidence

    SciTech Connect

    Gutteridge, W.

    1982-01-01

    This book presents papers on nuclear arms control in Europe. Topics considered include political aspects, the balance of power, nuclear disarmament in Europe, the implications of new conventional technologies, the neutron bomb, theater nuclear weapons, arms control in Northern Europe, naval confidence-building measures in the Baltic, the strategic balance in the Arctic Ocean, Arctic resources, threats to European stability, developments in South Africa, economic cooperation in Europe, European collaboration in science and technology after Helsinki, European cooperation in the area of electric power, and economic cooperation as a factor for the development of European security and cooperation.

  15. Confidence and conflicts of duty in surgery.

    PubMed

    Coggon, John; Wheeler, Robert

    2010-03-01

    This paper offers an exploration of the right to confidentiality, considering the moral importance of private information. It is shown that the legitimate value that individuals derive from confidentiality stems from the public interest. It is re-assuring, therefore, that public interest arguments must be made to justify breaches of confidentiality. The General Medical Council's guidance gives very high importance to duties to maintain confidences, but also rightly acknowledges that, at times, there are more important duties that must be met. Nevertheless, this potential conflict of obligations may place the surgeon in difficult clinical situations, and examples of these are described, together with suggestions for resolution. PMID:20353640

  16. Academic Productivity as Perceived by Malaysian Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassan, Aminuddin; Tymms, Peter; Ismail, Habsah

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to explore the perspectives of Malaysian academics in relation to academic productivity and some factors affecting it. A large scale online questionnaire was used to gather information from six public universities. The most productive role in the eyes of the academics was found to be teaching, with research and…

  17. Towards Measurement of Confidence in Safety Cases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denney, Ewen; Paim Ganesh J.; Habli, Ibrahim

    2011-01-01

    Arguments in safety cases are predominantly qualitative. This is partly attributed to the lack of sufficient design and operational data necessary to measure the achievement of high-dependability targets, particularly for safety-critical functions implemented in software. The subjective nature of many forms of evidence, such as expert judgment and process maturity, also contributes to the overwhelming dependence on qualitative arguments. However, where data for quantitative measurements is systematically collected, quantitative arguments provide far more benefits over qualitative arguments, in assessing confidence in the safety case. In this paper, we propose a basis for developing and evaluating integrated qualitative and quantitative safety arguments based on the Goal Structuring Notation (GSN) and Bayesian Networks (BN). The approach we propose identifies structures within GSN-based arguments where uncertainties can be quantified. BN are then used to provide a means to reason about confidence in a probabilistic way. We illustrate our approach using a fragment of a safety case for an unmanned aerial system and conclude with some preliminary observations

  18. Diagnosing Anomalous Network Performance with Confidence

    SciTech Connect

    Settlemyer, Bradley W; Hodson, Stephen W; Kuehn, Jeffery A; Poole, Stephen W

    2011-04-01

    Variability in network performance is a major obstacle in effectively analyzing the throughput of modern high performance computer systems. High performance interconnec- tion networks offer excellent best-case network latencies; how- ever, highly parallel applications running on parallel machines typically require consistently high levels of performance to adequately leverage the massive amounts of available computing power. Performance analysts have usually quantified network performance using traditional summary statistics that assume the observational data is sampled from a normal distribution. In our examinations of network performance, we have found this method of analysis often provides too little data to under- stand anomalous network performance. Our tool, Confidence, instead uses an empirically derived probability distribution to characterize network performance. In this paper we describe several instances where the Confidence toolkit allowed us to understand and diagnose network performance anomalies that we could not adequately explore with the simple summary statis- tics provided by traditional measurement tools. In particular, we examine a multi-modal performance scenario encountered with an Infiniband interconnection network and we explore the performance repeatability on the custom Cray SeaStar2 interconnection network after a set of software and driver updates.

  19. Demonstrating disease freedom-combining confidence levels.

    PubMed

    Cannon, R M

    2002-01-22

    Part of the requirements for demonstrating disease freedom usually will be that sufficient testing be done to give a specified confidence of detecting the disease if it were present at a specified level. Often, this requirement is translated into a fixed testing regime that must be followed (an inflexible approach that might not be the most economic or practical solution).A more flexible approach is to specify the capabilities of the various tests that can be used to detect the disease, and let the party hoping to demonstrate disease freedom decide upon the testing regime. The question then arises as to how to combine information that can come from a variety of sources over a period of time to give an overall level of confidence. Two methods are given. The first, an exact method based on multiplying probabilities, would be more appropriate for a survey of an area in which no disease is thought to be present. The second method (more appropriate for a herd-assurance program within an infected area) is a point-based system that takes into account the different sensitivities of the methods used to detect disease and the change in prevalence over time. It allocates points for each test done proportional to the sensitivity of the test and the prevalence at the time of testing. PMID:11849719

  20. The Clustering of Bullying and Cyberbullying Behaviour within Australian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Therese; Cross, Donna

    2012-01-01

    Bullying between students at school can seriously affect students' health and academic outcomes. To date, little is known regarding the extent to which bullying behaviour is clustered within certain schools rather than similarly prevalent across all schools. Additionally, studies of bullying behaviour in schools that do not account for clustering…

  1. The Interrelationship between Student Learning Experience and Study Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ning, Hoi Kwan; Downing, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the interrelationship between student learning experiences and study behaviour in explaining academic achievement. The participants were 541 final year students from a university in Hong Kong. Students' learning experiences and study behaviour were measured using the Course Experience Questionnaire and the Learning and Study…

  2. Confidence and rejection in automatic speech recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colton, Larry Don

    Automatic speech recognition (ASR) is performed imperfectly by computers. For some designated part (e.g., word or phrase) of the ASR output, rejection is deciding (yes or no) whether it is correct, and confidence is the probability (0.0 to 1.0) of it being correct. This thesis presents new methods of rejecting errors and estimating confidence for telephone speech. These are also called word or utterance verification and can be used in wordspotting or voice-response systems. Open-set or out-of-vocabulary situations are a primary focus. Language models are not considered. In vocabulary-dependent rejection all words in the target vocabulary are known in advance and a strategy can be developed for confirming each word. A word-specific artificial neural network (ANN) is shown to discriminate well, and scores from such ANNs are shown on a closed-set recognition task to reorder the N-best hypothesis list (N=3) for improved recognition performance. Segment-based duration and perceptual linear prediction (PLP) features are shown to perform well for such ANNs. The majority of the thesis concerns vocabulary- and task-independent confidence and rejection based on phonetic word models. These can be computed for words even when no training examples of those words have been seen. New techniques are developed using phoneme ranks instead of probabilities in each frame. These are shown to perform as well as the best other methods examined despite the data reduction involved. Certain new weighted averaging schemes are studied but found to give no performance benefit. Hierarchical averaging is shown to improve performance significantly: frame scores combine to make segment (phoneme state) scores, which combine to make phoneme scores, which combine to make word scores. Use of intermediate syllable scores is shown to not affect performance. Normalizing frame scores by an average of the top probabilities in each frame is shown to improve performance significantly. Perplexity of the wrong

  3. Sample sizes for confidence limits for reliability.

    SciTech Connect

    Darby, John L.

    2010-02-01

    We recently performed an evaluation of the implications of a reduced stockpile of nuclear weapons for surveillance to support estimates of reliability. We found that one technique developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) under-estimates the required sample size for systems-level testing. For a large population the discrepancy is not important, but for a small population it is important. We found that another technique used by SNL provides the correct required sample size. For systems-level testing of nuclear weapons, samples are selected without replacement, and the hypergeometric probability distribution applies. Both of the SNL techniques focus on samples without defects from sampling without replacement. We generalized the second SNL technique to cases with defects in the sample. We created a computer program in Mathematica to automate the calculation of confidence for reliability. We also evaluated sampling with replacement where the binomial probability distribution applies.

  4. The 2009 Retirement Confidence Survey: economy drives confidence to record lows; many looking to work longer.

    PubMed

    Helman, Ruth; Copeland, Craig; VanDerhei, Jack

    2009-04-01

    RECORD LOW CONFIDENCE LEVELS: Workers who say they are very confident about having enough money for a comfortable retirement this year hit the lowest level in 2009 (13 percent) since the Retirement Confidence Survey started asking the question in 1993, continuing a two-year decline. Retirees also posted a new low in confidence about having a financially secure retirement, with only 20 percent now saying they are very confident (down from 41 percent in 2007). THE ECONOMY, INFLATION, COST OF LIVING ARE THE BIG CONCERNS: Not surprisingly, workers overall who have lost confidence over the past year about affording a comfortable retirement most often cite the recent economic uncertainty, inflation, and the cost of living as primary factors. In addition, certain negative experiences, such as job loss or a pay cut, loss of retirement savings, or an increase in debt, almost always contribute to loss of confidence among those who experience them. RETIREMENT EXPECTATIONS DELAYED: Workers apparently expect to work longer because of the economic downturn: 28 percent of workers in the 2009 RCS say the age at which they expect to retire has changed in the past year. Of those, the vast majority (89 percent) say that they have postponed retirement with the intention of increasing their financial security. Nevertheless, the median (mid-point) worker expects to retire at age 65, with 21 percent planning to push on into their 70s. The median retiree actually retired at age 62, and 47 percent of retirees say they retired sooner than planned. WORKING IN RETIREMENT: More workers are also planning to supplement their income in retirement by working for pay. The percentage of workers planning to work after they retire has increased to 72 percent in 2009 (up from 66 percent in 2007). This compares with 34 percent of retirees who report they actually worked for pay at some time during their retirement. GREATER WORRY ABOUT BASIC AND HEALTH EXPENSES: Workers who say they very confident in

  5. Confidence Intervals Make a Difference: Effects of Showing Confidence Intervals on Inferential Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoekstra, Rink; Johnson, Addie; Kiers, Henk A. L.

    2012-01-01

    The use of confidence intervals (CIs) as an addition or as an alternative to null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) has been promoted as a means to make researchers more aware of the uncertainty that is inherent in statistical inference. Little is known, however, about whether presenting results via CIs affects how readers judge the…

  6. (Self)Confidence or Compliance: Students' Experience of Academic Quality in Study-Abroad Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaeger, Kirsten; Gram, Malene

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates the views of quality in higher education held by two groups of international students: Chinese students at a Danish university and Danish students at Chinese universities. Given that there are no agreed international "quality standards" in higher education, we analysed the students' understanding of the…

  7. Can Self-Efficacy and Self-Confidence Explain Iranian Female Students' Academic Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rezaei, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Official statistics from several resources in Iran indicate that female enrollment and achievement in Iranian universities has recently exceeded that of male students. Despite the fact that a religious government has been ruling the country for three decades, and despite many regulations against women, Iranian women have managed to overcome…

  8. Self-Monitoring: Confidence, Academic Achievement and Gender Differences in Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Manjula Devi; Bewes, James

    2011-01-01

    Metacognition is the higher-order monitoring that deals with a person's regulation of thought processes and governs learning strategies and understanding in an instructional setting. The ability to appraise and judge the quality of one's own cognitive work in the course of doing it is self-monitoring. If the work needs to be done within a short…

  9. Mathematical Foundations for a Theory of Confidence Structures

    PubMed Central

    Balch, Michael Scott

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a new mathematical object: the confidence structure. A confidence structure represents inferential uncertainty in an unknown parameter by defining a belief function whose output is commensurate with Neyman-Pearson confidence. Confidence structures on a group of input variables can be propagated through a function to obtain a valid confidence structure on the output of that function. The theory of confidence structures is created by enhancing the extant theory of confidence distributions with the mathematical generality of Dempster-Shafer evidence theory. Mathematical proofs grounded in random set theory demonstrate the operative properties of confidence structures. The result is a new theory which achieves the holistic goals of Bayesian inference while maintaining the empirical rigor of frequentist inference. PMID:25190904

  10. Graduating dental students' views of competency statements: importance, confidence, and time trends from 2008 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Whitney, Eli M; Walton, Joanne N; Aleksejuniene, Jolanta; Schönwetter, Dieter J

    2015-03-01

    Competency documents are used in dental education as both an educational framework and an accreditation instrument. The aim of this study was to analyze the perceptions of graduating dental students at the University of British Columbia (UBC) regarding the importance of each competency statement, as well as to assess their confidence in their abilities associated with each statement. The instrument was based on the survey developed by Schönwetter et al. at the University of Manitoba using the Association of Canadian Faculties of Dentistry competency document. The current study surveyed UBC graduating students in the years 2008 through 2012. The response rates ranged from 66.7% to 95.9%, averaging 77.5% across all five years. The results showed that, overall, the students rated all the competencies as important, but they rated their confidence lower than the perceived importance. Correlation coefficients averaged a moderate correlation of 0.376 for all competency statements except the five with the greatest discrepancy between perceived importance and confidence. The competencies the students perceived as most important tended to be associated with tasks frequently performed during predoctoral dental education. The instrument used in this study can help other academic dental institutions identify patterns of students' perceived competency importance and confidence to inform allocation of teaching time and resources and adopt new methodologies to address identified areas of need. PMID:25729026

  11. A confidence parameter for seismic moment tensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tape, Walter; Tape, Carl

    2016-02-01

    Given a moment tensor m inferred from seismic data for an earthquake, we define P(V) to be the probability that the true moment tensor for the earthquake lies in the neighborhood of m that has fractional volume V. The average value of P(V) is then a measure of our confidence in m. The calculation of P(V) requires knowing both the probability hat{P}(ω ) and the fractional volume hat{V}(ω ) of the set of moment tensors within a given angular radius ω of m. We explain how to construct hat{P}(ω ) from a misfit function derived from seismic data, and we show how to calculate hat{V}(ω ), which depends on the set M of moment tensors under consideration. The two most important instances of M are where M is the set of all moment tensors of fixed norm, and where M is the set of all double couples of fixed norm.

  12. Germany and America: Crisis of confidence

    SciTech Connect

    Asmus, R.D.

    1991-02-01

    The paper examines the deterioration in German-American relations. The reasons for this downturn in German-American relations are quite simple. Washington views the Persian Gulf crisis as a defining moment in European-American relations and in the creation of a new world order. It is also the first diplomatic test of a unified Germany and a new German-American relationship. It is a test that Germany is thus far seen as having failed for three reasons. First, from the outset many Americans sensed that Germans did not comprehend what this crisis meant for the United States. A second and, in many ways, more worrying factor was the growing sense that the Germans were not being good Europeans. The third and most serious American concern, however, was the unsettling appearance of a very selective German definition of collective defense and common security. The result has been a crisis of confidence in the performance of the German political elite that goes beyond the problems in German-American relations during the early 1980s and the INF debate.

  13. Modal confidence factor in vibration testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ibrahim, S. R.

    1978-01-01

    The theory and applications of a time domain modal test technique are presented. The method uses free decay of random responses from a structure under test to identify its modal characteristics namely, natural frequencies, damping factors, and mode shapes. The method can identify multimodal (highly coupled) systems and modes that have very small contribution in the responses. A method is presented to decrease the effects of high levels of noise in the data and thus improve the accuracy of identified parameters. This is accomplished using an oversized mathematical model. The concept of modal confidence factor (MCF) is developed. The MCF is a number calculated for every identified mode for a structure under test. The MCF varies from 0.000 for a distorted, nonlinear, or noise mode to 100.0 for a pure structural mode. The theory of the MCF is based on the correlation that exits between the modal deflection at a certain station and the modal deflection at the same station delayed in time. The theory and application of the MCF is illustrated by two experiments. The first experiment deals with simulated responses from a two degree of freedom system with 20 percent, 40 percent, and 100 percent noise added. The second experiment was run on a generalized payload model. The free decay response from the payload model contained about 22 percent noise.

  14. Towards better counselling. Keeping confidences. Training activities.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    Presented are two training exercises for health personnel who counsel individuals about the results of blood tests for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The first exercise is preceded by remarks on the importance of trust and confidentiality in the clinical encounter. Then, participants are divided into pairs and instructed to think of a person they trust and to list 10 characteristics of that person. These attributes are compiled for the entire group. Next, small groups of 3-4 participants discuss the following questions: What do you need to say and do when you are counseling someone to help them have confidence in you? What do you need to do to enable them to keep trusting you? What might happen when confidentiality is broken? What are the benefits of maintaining confidentiality? Finally, the small groups are given case scenarios of breaches of client confidentiality and asked to imagine both how they would feel in such a situation and how it could have been prevented. The second exercise seeks to increase counselors' understanding of clients' risk-taking behaviors and their ability to suspend personal judgment by having them describe incidents from their own lives when they took a risk related to sex, relationships, or money. PMID:12291931

  15. A confidence parameter for seismic moment tensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tape, Walter; Tape, Carl

    2016-05-01

    Given a moment tensor m inferred from seismic data for an earthquake, we define P(V) to be the probability that the true moment tensor for the earthquake lies in the neighbourhood of m that has fractional volume V. The average value of P(V) is then a measure of our confidence in m. The calculation of P(V) requires knowing both the probability hat{P}(ω) and the fractional volume hat{V}(ω) of the set of moment tensors within a given angular radius ω of m. We explain how to construct hat{P}(ω) from a misfit function derived from seismic data, and we show how to calculate hat{V}(ω), which depends on the set M of moment tensors under consideration. The two most important instances of M are where M is the set of all moment tensors of fixed norm, and where M is the set of all double couples of fixed norm.

  16. Assessing Undergraduate Students' Conceptual Understanding and Confidence of Electromagnetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leppavirta, Johanna

    2012-01-01

    The study examines how students' conceptual understanding changes from high confidence with incorrect conceptions to high confidence with correct conceptions when reasoning about electromagnetics. The Conceptual Survey of Electricity and Magnetism test is weighted with students' self-rated confidence on each item in order to infer how strongly…

  17. Girls and Women, Sport, and Self-Confidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lirgg, Cathy D.

    1992-01-01

    Analyzes research on females' self-confidence in sport and physical activity. The article compares three models that link confidence to achievement, examines research variables that may influence female self-confidence, discusses sex differences, and offers enhancement strategies and future research directions. (SM)

  18. Does Consumer Confidence Measure Up to the Hype?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffitts, Dawn

    2003-01-01

    This economic education publication features an article, "Does Consumer Confidence Measure Up to the Hype?," which defines consumer confidence and describes how it is measured. The article also explores why people might pay so much attention to consumer confidence indexes. The document also contains a question and answer section about deflation as…

  19. Predicting Postfeedback Performance from Students' Confidence in Their Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Timothy A.

    The model of feedback processing proposed by R. W. Kulhavy and W. A. Stock (1989) was studied in a traditional classroom setting in which methods of assessing students' response confidence as predictors of postfeedback performance were also examined. The relationship between confidence ratings at the time of the test and confidence assessed prior…

  20. 49 CFR 1103.23 - Confidences of a client.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Confidences of a client. 1103.23 Section 1103.23... Responsibilities Toward A Client § 1103.23 Confidences of a client. (a) The practitioner's duty to preserve his client's confidence outlasts the practitioner's employment by the client, and this duty extends to...

  1. The 2012 Retirement Confidence Survey: job insecurity, debt weigh on retirement confidence, savings.

    PubMed

    Helman, Ruth; Copeland, Craig; VanDerhei, Jack

    2012-03-01

    Americans' confidence in their ability to retire comfortably is stagnant at historically low levels. Just 14 percent are very confident they will have enough money to live comfortably in retirement (statistically equivalent to the low of 13 percent measured in 2011 and 2009). Employment insecurity looms large: Forty-two percent identify job uncertainty as the most pressing financial issue facing most Americans today. Worker confidence about having enough money to pay for medical expenses and long-term care expenses in retirement remains well below their confidence levels for paying basic expenses. Many workers report they have virtually no savings and investments. In total, 60 percent of workers report that the total value of their household's savings and investments, excluding the value of their primary home and any defined benefit plans, is less than $25,000. Twenty-five percent of workers in the 2012 Retirement Confidence Survey say the age at which they expect to retire has changed in the past year. In 1991, 11 percent of workers said they expected to retire after age 65, and by 2012 that has grown to 37 percent. Regardless of those retirement age expectations, and consistent with prior RCS findings, half of current retirees surveyed say they left the work force unexpectedly due to health problems, disability, or changes at their employer, such as downsizing or closure. Those already in retirement tend to express higher levels of confidence than current workers about several key financial aspects of retirement. Retirees report they are significantly more reliant on Social Security as a major source of their retirement income than current workers expect to be. Although 56 percent of workers expect to receive benefits from a defined benefit plan in retirement, only 33 percent report that they and/or their spouse currently have such a benefit with a current or previous employer. More than half of workers (56 percent) report they and/or their spouse have not tried

  2. On how the brain decodes vocal cues about speaker confidence.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiaoming; Pell, Marc D

    2015-05-01

    In speech communication, listeners must accurately decode vocal cues that refer to the speaker's mental state, such as their confidence or 'feeling of knowing'. However, the time course and neural mechanisms associated with online inferences about speaker confidence are unclear. Here, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine the temporal neural dynamics underlying a listener's ability to infer speaker confidence from vocal cues during speech processing. We recorded listeners' real-time brain responses while they evaluated statements wherein the speaker's tone of voice conveyed one of three levels of confidence (confident, close-to-confident, unconfident) or were spoken in a neutral manner. Neural responses time-locked to event onset show that the perceived level of speaker confidence could be differentiated at distinct time points during speech processing: unconfident expressions elicited a weaker P2 than all other expressions of confidence (or neutral-intending utterances), whereas close-to-confident expressions elicited a reduced negative response in the 330-500 msec and 550-740 msec time window. Neutral-intending expressions, which were also perceived as relatively confident, elicited a more delayed, larger sustained positivity than all other expressions in the 980-1270 msec window for this task. These findings provide the first piece of evidence of how quickly the brain responds to vocal cues signifying the extent of a speaker's confidence during online speech comprehension; first, a rough dissociation between unconfident and confident voices occurs as early as 200 msec after speech onset. At a later stage, further differentiation of the exact level of speaker confidence (i.e., close-to-confident, very confident) is evaluated via an inferential system to determine the speaker's meaning under current task settings. These findings extend three-stage models of how vocal emotion cues are processed in speech comprehension (e.g., Schirmer & Kotz, 2006) by

  3. Relating confidence to information uncertainty in qualitative reasoning

    SciTech Connect

    Chavez, Gregory M; Zerkle, David K; Key, Brian P; Shevitz, Daniel W

    2010-12-02

    Qualitative reasoning makes use of qualitative assessments provided by subject matter experts to model factors such as security risk. Confidence in a result is important and useful when comparing competing security risk results. Quantifying the confidence in an evidential reasoning result must be consistent and based on the available information. A novel method is proposed to determine a qualitative measure of confidence in a qualitative reasoning result from the available information uncertainty in the result using membership values in the fuzzy sets of confidence. In this study information uncertainty is quantified through measures of non-specificity and conflict. Fuzzy values for confidence are established from information uncertainty values that lie between the measured minimum and maximum information uncertainty values. Measured values of information uncertainty in each result is used to obtain the confidence. The determined confidence values are used to compare competing scenarios and understand the influences on the desired result.

  4. Effects of postidentification feedback on eyewitness identification and nonidentification confidence.

    PubMed

    Semmler, Carolyn; Brewer, Neil; Wells, Gary L

    2004-04-01

    Two experiments investigated new dimensions of the effect of confirming feedback on eyewitness identification confidence using target-absent and target-present lineups and (previously unused) unbiased witness instructions (i.e., "offender not present" option highlighted). In Experiment 1, participants viewed a crime video and were later asked to try to identify the thief from an 8-person target-absent photo array. Feedback inflated witness confidence for both mistaken identifications and correct lineup rejections. With target-present lineups in Experiment 2, feedback inflated confidence for correct and mistaken identifications and lineup rejections. Although feedback had no influence on the confidence-accuracy correlation, it produced clear overconfidence. Confidence inflation varied with the confidence measure reference point (i.e., retrospective vs. current confidence) and identification response latency. PMID:15065979

  5. Confidence through consensus: a neural mechanism for uncertainty monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Paz, Luciano; Insabato, Andrea; Zylberberg, Ariel; Deco, Gustavo; Sigman, Mariano

    2016-01-01

    Models that integrate sensory evidence to a threshold can explain task accuracy, response times and confidence, yet it is still unclear how confidence is encoded in the brain. Classic models assume that confidence is encoded in some form of balance between the evidence integrated in favor and against the selected option. However, recent experiments that measure the sensory evidence’s influence on choice and confidence contradict these classic models. We propose that the decision is taken by many loosely coupled modules each of which represent a stochastic sample of the sensory evidence integral. Confidence is then encoded in the dispersion between modules. We show that our proposal can account for the well established relations between confidence, and stimuli discriminability and reaction times, as well as the fluctuations influence on choice and confidence. PMID:26907162

  6. College and Academic Self-Efficacy as Antecedents for High School Dual-Credit Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozmun, Cliff D.

    2013-01-01

    Do high school students who are predisposed to enroll in dual-credit courses already possess high levels of motivation or college and academic self-efficacy? Students in this study reported being academically motivated, but they did not report high levels of confidence in their ability to perform certain college-associated tasks. Of 52 items…

  7. Academic-Centered Peer Interactions and Retention in Undergraduate Mathematics Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Kadian M.

    2009-01-01

    Peer interactions are a critical component of students' academic success and retention in undergraduate programs. Scholars argue that peer interactions influence students' cognitive development, identity development, self-confidence and self-efficacy, and social and academic integration into the university environment (Pascarella & Terenzini,…

  8. Measuring the Academic Self-Efficacy of First-Year Accounting Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Marann; Flood, Barbara; Griffin, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This study measured the levels of academic self-efficacy of first-year accounting students. It also investigated whether there were any gender differences and the extent to which efficacy levels explained variation in academic performance. Overall the analysis revealed that many students lacked the confidence to participate fully in the academic…

  9. Anti-Intellectual Attitudes and Academic Self-Efficacy among Business Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elias, Rafik Z.

    2008-01-01

    "Anti-intellectualism" refers to a student's lack of interest in and disrespect for intellectual pursuits and critical thinking and a preference for an education experience that is practical and requires only memorization. "Academic self-efficacy" refers to a student's confidence in his or her ability to succeed in challenging academic tasks. The…

  10. Academic Delay of Gratification and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bembenutty, Hefer

    2011-01-01

    The ability to delay gratification is the cornerstone of all academic achievement and education. It is by delaying gratification that learners can pursue long-term academic and career goals. In general, "delay of gratification" refers to an individual's ability to forgo immediate rewards for the sake of more valuable ones later (Mischel, 1996).…

  11. A national radiation oncology medical student clerkship survey: Didactic curricular components increase confidence in clinical competency

    PubMed Central

    Jagadeesan, Vikrant S.; Raleigh, David R.; Koshy, Matthew; Howard, Andrew R.; Chmura, Steven J.; Golden, Daniel W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives Students applying to radiation oncology residency programs complete one or more radiation oncology clerkships. This study assesses student experiences and perspectives during radiation oncology clerkships. The impact of didactic components and number of clerkship experiences in relation to confidence in clinical competency and preparation to function as a first year radiation oncology resident are evaluated. Methods and Materials An anonymous, internet-based survey was sent via direct e-mail to all applicants to a single radiation oncology residency program during the 2012–2013 academic year. The survey was composed of three main sections including questions regarding baseline demographic information and prior radiation oncology experience, rotation experiences, and ideal clerkship curriculum content. Results The survey response rate was 37% (70/188). Respondents reported 191 unique clerkship experiences. 27% of respondents (19/70) completed at least one clerkship with a didactic component geared towards their level of training. Completing a clerkship with a didactic component was significantly associated with a respondent’s confidence to function as a first- year radiation oncology resident (Wilcoxon rank-sum p = 0.03). However, the total number of clerkships completed did not correlate with confidence to pursue radiation oncology as a specialty (Spearman’s rho p = 0.48) or confidence to function as a first year resident (Spearman’s rho p = 0.43). Conclusions Based on responses to this survey, rotating students perceive that the majority of radiation oncology clerkships do not have formal didactic curricula. Survey respondents who completed a clerkship with a didactic curriculum reported feeling more prepared to function as a radiation oncology resident. However, completing an increasing number of clerkships does not appear to improve confidence in the decision to pursue radiation oncology as a career or to function as a radiation

  12. A National Radiation Oncology Medical Student Clerkship Survey: Didactic Curricular Components Increase Confidence in Clinical Competency

    SciTech Connect

    Jagadeesan, Vikrant S.; Raleigh, David R.; Koshy, Matthew; Howard, Andrew R.; Chmura, Steven J.; Golden, Daniel W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Students applying to radiation oncology residency programs complete 1 or more radiation oncology clerkships. This study assesses student experiences and perspectives during radiation oncology clerkships. The impact of didactic components and number of clerkship experiences in relation to confidence in clinical competency and preparation to function as a first-year radiation oncology resident are evaluated. Methods and Materials: An anonymous, Internet-based survey was sent via direct e-mail to all applicants to a single radiation oncology residency program during the 2012-2013 academic year. The survey was composed of 3 main sections including questions regarding baseline demographic information and prior radiation oncology experience, rotation experiences, and ideal clerkship curriculum content. Results: The survey response rate was 37% (70 of 188). Respondents reported 191 unique clerkship experiences. Of the respondents, 27% (19 of 70) completed at least 1 clerkship with a didactic component geared towards their level of training. Completing a clerkship with a didactic component was significantly associated with a respondent's confidence to function as a first-year radiation oncology resident (Wilcoxon rank–sum P=.03). However, the total number of clerkships completed did not correlate with confidence to pursue radiation oncology as a specialty (Spearman ρ P=.48) or confidence to function as a first year resident (Spearman ρ P=.43). Conclusions: Based on responses to this survey, rotating students perceive that the majority of radiation oncology clerkships do not have formal didactic curricula. Survey respondents who completed a clerkship with a didactic curriculum reported feeling more prepared to function as a radiation oncology resident. However, completing an increasing number of clerkships does not appear to improve confidence in the decision to pursue radiation oncology as a career or to function as a radiation oncology resident. These results

  13. Academic Inbreeding in Nursing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael H.

    1977-01-01

    Academic inbreeding, the employment for faculty positions of persons who receive their graduate training at the same academic institution, is considered detrimental to an institution's academic environment. Results of a study conducted at 54 universities revealed that almost half the faculty (48 percent) in collegiate nursing programs are drawn…

  14. What Is Academic Vocabulary?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumann, James F.; Graves, Michael F.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors address the construct of "academic vocabulary." First, they attempt to bring some clarity to a constellation of terms surrounding academic vocabulary. Second, they compare and contrast definitions of academic vocabulary. Third, they review typologies that researchers and writers have proposed to organize academic…

  15. The Academic Adviser

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, I explore the idea that "academic" advisers are "academics" who play a major role in connecting the general education curriculum to the students' experience as well as connecting the faculty to the students' holistic experience of the curriculum. The National Academic Advising Association Concept of Academic…

  16. To Be Honest: Championing Academic Integrity in Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleeker, Karen Clos

    2008-01-01

    Academic dishonesty is not new, but recent research reviews and the media indicate that its prevalence is on the rise and that it erodes public confidence in academia. Such loss can be ill afforded at at time when the costs of education are increasing, and both federal and public funding are decreasing. The author discusses: (1) What is academic…

  17. Between the Academic Mathematics and the Mathematics Education Worlds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreira, Candida Queiroz

    1997-01-01

    Investigated stresses confronted by Portuguese secondary mathematics teachers during the first semester in a master's course, Perspectives on Mathematics Education, noting how they negatively affected teachers' self-confidence and morale and discussing fundamental issues teachers addressed in bridging the academic mathematics and mathematics…

  18. Variance misperception explains illusions of confidence in simple perceptual decisions.

    PubMed

    Zylberberg, Ariel; Roelfsema, Pieter R; Sigman, Mariano

    2014-07-01

    Confidence in a perceptual decision is a judgment about the quality of the sensory evidence. The quality of the evidence depends not only on its strength ('signal') but critically on its reliability ('noise'), but the separate contribution of these quantities to the formation of confidence judgments has not been investigated before in the context of perceptual decisions. We studied subjective confidence reports in a multi-element perceptual task where evidence strength and reliability could be manipulated independently. Our results reveal a confidence paradox: confidence is higher for stimuli of lower reliability that are associated with a lower accuracy. We show that the subjects' overconfidence in trials with unreliable evidence is caused by a reduced sensitivity to stimulus variability. Our results bridge between the investigation of miss-attributions of confidence in behavioral economics and the domain of simple perceptual decisions amenable to neuroscience research. PMID:24951943

  19. Relating confidence to measured information uncertainty in qualitative reasoning

    SciTech Connect

    Chavez, Gregory M; Zerkle, David K; Key, Brian P; Shevitz, Daniel W

    2010-10-07

    Qualitative reasoning makes use of qualitative assessments provided by subject matter experts to model factors such as security risk. Confidence in a result is important and useful when comparing competing results. Quantifying the confidence in an evidential reasoning result must be consistent and based on the available information. A novel method is proposed to relate confidence to the available information uncertainty in the result using fuzzy sets. Information uncertainty can be quantified through measures of non-specificity and conflict. Fuzzy values for confidence are established from information uncertainty values that lie between the measured minimum and maximum information uncertainty values.

  20. Cortical alpha activity predicts the confidence in an impending action

    PubMed Central

    Kubanek, Jan; Hill, N. Jeremy; Snyder, Lawrence H.; Schalk, Gerwin

    2015-01-01

    When we make a decision, we experience a degree of confidence that our choice may lead to a desirable outcome. Recent studies in animals have probed the subjective aspects of the choice confidence using confidence-reporting tasks. These studies showed that estimates of the choice confidence substantially modulate neural activity in multiple regions of the brain. Building on these findings, we investigated the neural representation of the confidence in a choice in humans who explicitly reported the confidence in their choice. Subjects performed a perceptual decision task in which they decided between choosing a button press or a saccade while we recorded EEG activity. Following each choice, subjects indicated whether they were sure or unsure about the choice. We found that alpha activity strongly encodes a subject's confidence level in a forthcoming button press choice. The neural effect of the subjects' confidence was independent of the reaction time and independent of the sensory input modeled as a decision variable. Furthermore, the effect is not due to a general cognitive state, such as reward expectation, because the effect was specifically observed during button press choices and not during saccade choices. The neural effect of the confidence in the ensuing button press choice was strong enough that we could predict, from independent single trial neural signals, whether a subject was going to be sure or unsure of an ensuing button press choice. In sum, alpha activity in human cortex provides a window into the commitment to make a hand movement. PMID:26283892

  1. The antecedents and belief-polarized effects of thought confidence.

    PubMed

    Chou, Hsuan-Yi; Lien, Nai-Hwa; Liang, Kuan-Yu

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates 2 possible antecedents of thought confidence and explores the effects of confidence induced before or during ad exposure. The results of the experiments indicate that both consumers' dispositional optimism and spokesperson attractiveness have significant effects on consumers' confidence in thoughts that are generated after viewing the advertisement. Higher levels of thought confidence will influence the quality of the thoughts that people generate, lead to either positively or negatively polarized message processing, and therefore induce better or worse advertising effectiveness, depending on the valence of thoughts. The authors posit the belief-polarization hypothesis to explain these findings. PMID:21902013

  2. Academic Self-Concept, Autonomous Academic Motivation, and Academic Achievement: Mediating and Additive Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guay, Frederic; Ratelle, Catherine F.; Roy, Amelie; Litalien, David

    2010-01-01

    Three conceptual models were tested to examine the relationships among academic self-concept, autonomous academic motivation, and academic achievement. This allowed us to determine whether 1) autonomous academic motivation mediates the relation between academic self-concept and achievement, 2) academic self-concept mediates the relation between…

  3. Reporting Confidence Intervals and Effect Sizes: Collecting the Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zientek, Linda Reichwein; Ozel, Z. Ebrar Yetkiner; Ozel, Serkan; Allen, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Confidence intervals (CIs) and effect sizes are essential to encourage meta-analytic thinking and to accumulate research findings. CIs provide a range of plausible values for population parameters with a degree of confidence that the parameter is in that particular interval. CIs also give information about how precise the estimates are. Comparison…

  4. True and false memories, parietal cortex, and confidence judgments.

    PubMed

    Urgolites, Zhisen J; Smith, Christine N; Squire, Larry R

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies have asked whether activity in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and the neocortex can distinguish true memory from false memory. A frequent complication has been that the confidence associated with correct memory judgments (true memory) is typically higher than the confidence associated with incorrect memory judgments (false memory). Accordingly, it has often been difficult to know whether a finding is related to memory confidence or memory accuracy. In the current study, participants made recognition memory judgments with confidence ratings in response to previously studied scenes and novel scenes. The left hippocampus and 16 other brain regions distinguished true and false memories when confidence ratings were different for the two conditions. Only three regions (all in the parietal cortex) distinguished true and false memories when confidence ratings were equated. These findings illustrate the utility of taking confidence ratings into account when identifying brain regions associated with true and false memories. Neural correlates of true and false memories are most easily interpreted when confidence ratings are similar for the two kinds of memories. PMID:26472645

  5. Producing "Confident" Children: Negotiating Childhood in Fijian Kindergartens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brison, Karen J.

    2011-01-01

    Kindergartens in Fiji contribute to incipient class-based identities in a society traditionally structured by ethnicity. Teachers emphasize making children confident, but define confidence differently with varying student groups, building class-based orientations toward person and society. Parental expectations also differ with many upwardly…

  6. The Confident Learner: Help Your Child Succeed in School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simic, Marjorie R.; And Others

    This book is intended to assist parents in helping their children become confident learners and self-reliant individuals who succeed in school. The book maintains that children become confident learners by developing high self-esteem, strong motivation, self-discipline, good health and fitness, and the ability to deal with stress. Following an…

  7. True and False Memories, Parietal Cortex, and Confidence Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urgolites, Zhisen J.; Smith, Christine N.; Squire, Larry R.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have asked whether activity in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and the neocortex can distinguish true memory from false memory. A frequent complication has been that the confidence associated with correct memory judgments (true memory) is typically higher than the confidence associated with incorrect memory judgments (false memory).…

  8. Sample Size for the "Z" Test and Its Confidence Interval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xiaofeng Steven

    2012-01-01

    The statistical power of a significance test is closely related to the length of the confidence interval (i.e. estimate precision). In the case of a "Z" test, the length of the confidence interval can be expressed as a function of the statistical power. (Contains 1 figure and 1 table.)

  9. Utilitarian Model of Measuring Confidence within Knowledge-Based Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jack, Brady Michael; Hung, Kuan-Ming; Liu, Chia Ju; Chiu, Houn Lin

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a utilitarian confidence testing statistic called Risk Inclination Model (RIM) which indexes all possible confidence wagering combinations within the confines of a defined symmetrically point-balanced test environment. This paper presents the theoretical underpinnings, a formal derivation, a hypothetical application, and…

  10. Bootstrapping Confidence Intervals for Robust Measures of Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Jason E.

    A Monte Carlo simulation study was conducted to determine the bootstrap correction formula yielding the most accurate confidence intervals for robust measures of association. Confidence intervals were generated via the percentile, adjusted, BC, and BC(a) bootstrap procedures and applied to the Winsorized, percentage bend, and Pearson correlation…

  11. Influence of Achievement Beliefs on Adolescent Girls' Sport Confidence Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magyar, T. Michelle; Feltz, Deborah L.

    A study was conducted on the influence of female athletes' dispositional and situational tendencies on the selection of sources of sport confidence. It hypothesized that task orientation and perceptions of mastery climate would be positively associated with the selection of maladaptive or normative sources of confidence. Participants were 180…

  12. Information and Communication: Tools for Increasing Confidence in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achilles, C. M.; Lintz, M. N.

    Beginning with a review of signs and signals of public attitudes toward American education over the last 15 years, this paper analyzes some concerns regarding public confidence in public schools. Following a brief introduction, issues involved in the definition and behavioral attributes of confidence are mentioned. A synopsis of three approaches…

  13. Confidence and Gender Differences on the Mental Rotations Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke-Simpson, Amanda; Voyer, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined the relation between self-reported confidence ratings, performance on the Mental Rotations Test (MRT), and guessing behavior on the MRT. Eighty undergraduate students (40 males, 40 females) completed the MRT while rating their confidence in the accuracy of their answers for each item. As expected, gender differences in…

  14. Subjective Confidence in One's Answers: The Consensuality Principle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koriat, Asher

    2008-01-01

    In answering general-information questions, a within-person confidence-accuracy (C-A) correlation is typically observed, suggesting that people can monitor the correctness of their knowledge. However, because the correct answer is generally the consensual answer--the one endorsed by most participants--confidence judgment may actually monitor the…

  15. The Self-Consistency Model of Subjective Confidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koriat, Asher

    2012-01-01

    How do people monitor the correctness of their answers? A self-consistency model is proposed for the process underlying confidence judgments and their accuracy. In answering a 2-alternative question, participants are assumed to retrieve a sample of representations of the question and base their confidence on the consistency with which the chosen…

  16. A Rasch Analysis of the Teachers Music Confidence Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yim, Hoi Yin Bonnie; Abd-El-Fattah, Sabry; Lee, Lai Wan Maria

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a new measure of teachers' confidence to conduct musical activities with young children; Teachers Music Confidence Scale (TMCS). The TMCS was developed using a sample of 284 in-service and pre-service early childhood teachers in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR). The TMCS consisted of 10 musical activities.…

  17. Confidence set interference with a prior quadratic bound. [in geophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backus, George E.

    1989-01-01

    Neyman's (1937) theory of confidence sets is developed as a replacement for Bayesian interference (BI) and stochastic inversion (SI) when the prior information is a hard quadratic bound. It is recommended that BI and SI be replaced by confidence set interference (CSI) only in certain circumstances. The geomagnetic problem is used to illustrate the general theory of CSI.

  18. Supplementary Eye Field Encodes Confidence in Decisions Under Risk.

    PubMed

    So, NaYoung; Stuphorn, Veit

    2016-02-01

    Choices are made with varying degrees of confidence, a cognitive signal representing the subjective belief in the optimality of the choice. Confidence has been mostly studied in the context of perceptual judgments, in which choice accuracy can be measured using objective criteria. Here, we study confidence in subjective value-based decisions. We recorded in the supplementary eye field (SEF) of monkeys performing a gambling task, where they had to use subjective criteria for placing bets. We found neural signals in the SEF that explicitly represent choice confidence independent from reward expectation. This confidence signal appeared after the choice and diminished before the choice outcome. Most of this neuronal activity was negatively correlated with confidence, and was strongest in trials on which the monkey spontaneously withdrew his choice. Such confidence-related activity indicates that the SEF not only guides saccade selection, but also evaluates the likelihood that the choice was optimal. This internal evaluation influences decisions concerning the willingness to bear later costs that follow from the choice or to avoid them. More generally, our findings indicate that choice confidence is an integral component of all forms of decision-making, whether they are based on perceptual evidence or on value estimations. PMID:25750256

  19. The Metamemory Approach to Confidence: A Test Using Semantic Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, William F.; Sampaio, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    The metamemory approach to memory confidence was extended and elaborated to deal with semantic memory tasks. The metamemory approach assumes that memory confidence is based on the products and processes of a completed memory task, as well as metamemory beliefs that individuals have about how their memory products and processes relate to memory…

  20. Recognition confidence under violated and confirmed memory expectations

    PubMed Central

    Jaeger, Antonio; Cox, Justin C.; Dobbins, Ian G.

    2011-01-01

    Our memory experiences typically covary with those of the others’ around us, and on average, an item is more likely to be familiar than not, if a companion recommends it as such. Although it would be ideal if observers could use the external recommendations of others as statistical priors during recognition decisions, it is currently unclear how or if they do so. Furthermore, understanding the sensitivity of recognition judgments to such external cues is critical for understanding memory conformity and eyewitness suggestibility phenomena. To address this we examined recognition accuracy and confidence following cues from an external source (e.g., “Likely old”) that forecast the likely status of upcoming memory probes. Three regularities emerged. First, hit and correction rejection rates expectedly fell when subjects were invalidly versus validly cued. Second, hit confidence was generally higher than correct rejection confidence, regardless of cue validity. Finally, and most noteworthy, cue validity interacted with judgment confidence such that validity heavily influenced the confidence of correct rejections, but had no discernable influence on the confidence of hits. Bootstrap informed Monte Carlo simulation supported a dual process recognition model under which familiarity and recollection processes counteract to heavily dampen the influence of external cues on average reported confidence. A third experiment tested this model using source memory. As predicted, because source memory is heavily governed by contextual recollection, cue validity again did not affect confidence, although as with recognition, it clearly altered accuracy. PMID:21967231

  1. Feedback Dependence Among Low Confidence Preadolescent Boys and Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Michael J.; Corbin, Charles B.

    1988-01-01

    Investigation of differences between male and female students' reactions to receiving or not receiving performance feedback indicated that both sexes showed lower self-confidence when they did not receive feedback and that lack of self-confidence impaired the performance of males more than females. Participants were 111 fifth- and sixth-grade…

  2. Confidence Intervals for Effect Sizes: Applying Bootstrap Resampling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banjanovic, Erin S.; Osborne, Jason W.

    2016-01-01

    Confidence intervals for effect sizes (CIES) provide readers with an estimate of the strength of a reported statistic as well as the relative precision of the point estimate. These statistics offer more information and context than null hypothesis statistic testing. Although confidence intervals have been recommended by scholars for many years,…

  3. An Application of the Poisson Race Model to Confidence Calibration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merkle, Edgar C.; Van Zandt, Trisha

    2006-01-01

    In tasks as diverse as stock market predictions and jury deliberations, a person's feelings of confidence in the appropriateness of different choices often impact that person's final choice. The current study examines the mathematical modeling of confidence calibration in a simple dual-choice task. Experiments are motivated by an accumulator…

  4. Music Education Preservice Teachers' Confidence in Resolving Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedden, Debra G.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there would be a change in preservice teachers' (a) confidence concerning the resolution of behavior problems, (b) tactics for resolving them, (c) anticipation of problems, (d) fears about management issues, and (e) confidence in methodology and pedagogy over the time period of a one-semester…

  5. Confidence Sharing in the Vocational Counselling Interview: Emergence and Repercussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olry-Louis, Isabelle; Bremond, Capucine; Pouliot, Manon

    2012-01-01

    Confidence sharing is an asymmetrical dialogic episode to which both parties consent, in which one reveals something personal to the other who participates in the emergence and unfolding of the confidence. We describe how this is achieved at a discursive level within vocational counselling interviews. Based on a corpus of 64 interviews, we analyse…

  6. Understanding public confidence in government to prevent terrorist attacks.

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, T. E.; Ramaprasad, A,; Samsa, M. E.; Decision and Information Sciences; Univ. of Illinois at Chicago

    2008-04-02

    A primary goal of terrorism is to instill a sense of fear and vulnerability in a population and to erode its confidence in government and law enforcement agencies to protect citizens against future attacks. In recognition of its importance, the Department of Homeland Security includes public confidence as one of the principal metrics used to assess the consequences of terrorist attacks. Hence, a detailed understanding of the variations in public confidence among individuals, terrorist event types, and as a function of time is critical to developing this metric. In this exploratory study, a questionnaire was designed, tested, and administered to small groups of individuals to measure public confidence in the ability of federal, state, and local governments and their public safety agencies to prevent acts of terrorism. Data was collected from three groups before and after they watched mock television news broadcasts portraying a smallpox attack, a series of suicide bomber attacks, a refinery explosion attack, and cyber intrusions on financial institutions, resulting in identity theft. Our findings are: (a) although the aggregate confidence level is low, there are optimists and pessimists; (b) the subjects are discriminating in interpreting the nature of a terrorist attack, the time horizon, and its impact; (c) confidence recovery after a terrorist event has an incubation period; and (d) the patterns of recovery of confidence of the optimists and the pessimists are different. These findings can affect the strategy and policies to manage public confidence after a terrorist event.

  7. Confidence Scoring of Speaking Performance: How Does Fuzziness become Exact?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Tan; Mak, Barley; Zhou, Pei

    2012-01-01

    The fuzziness of assessing second language speaking performance raises two difficulties in scoring speaking performance: "indistinction between adjacent levels" and "overlap between scales". To address these two problems, this article proposes a new approach, "confidence scoring", to deal with such fuzziness, leading to "confidence" scores between…

  8. RIASEC Interest and Confidence Cutoff Scores: Implications for Career Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonitz, Verena S.; Armstrong, Patrick Ian; Larson, Lisa M.

    2010-01-01

    One strategy commonly used to simplify the joint interpretation of interest and confidence inventories is the use of cutoff scores to classify individuals dichotomously as having high or low levels of confidence and interest, respectively. The present study examined the adequacy of cutoff scores currently recommended for the joint interpretation…

  9. Prospective Teachers' Problem Solving Skills and Self-Confidence Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gursen Otacioglu, Sena

    2008-01-01

    The basic objective of the research is to determine whether the education that prospective teachers in different fields receive is related to their levels of problem solving skills and self-confidence. Within the mentioned framework, the prospective teachers' problem solving and self-confidence levels have been examined under several variables.…

  10. Development of Confidence in Child Behavior Management through Role Playing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kress, Gerard C., Jr.; Ehrlichs, Melvin A.

    1990-01-01

    In a preclinical course in pediatric dentistry, 76 students were taught child behavior management through role playing of 7-10 common management situations. Pre- and postcourse measures of student confidence found that, although older students were more confident, all gained significantly from the training. Other student characteristics were also…

  11. A Note on Confidence Interval Estimation and Margin of Error

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliland, Dennis; Melfi, Vince

    2010-01-01

    Confidence interval estimation is a fundamental technique in statistical inference. Margin of error is used to delimit the error in estimation. Dispelling misinterpretations that teachers and students give to these terms is important. In this note, we give examples of the confusion that can arise in regard to confidence interval estimation and…

  12. A (revised) confidence index for the forecasting of meteor showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaubaillon, J.

    2016-01-01

    A confidence index for the forecasting of meteor showers is presented. The goal is to provide users with information regarding the way the forecasting is performed, so several degrees of confidence is achieved. This paper presents the meaning of the index coding system.

  13. Teacher-Student Interpersonal Relationships and Academic Motivation within One School Year: Developmental Changes and Linkage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opdenakker, Marie-Christine; Maulana, Ridwan; den Brok, Perry

    2012-01-01

    The present study explored the developmental changes of teacher-student interpersonal relationships as well as that of academic motivation among first-grade secondary school students. In addition, the link between teacher-student interpersonal behaviour and academic motivation across the school year was investigated. The data were collected 5…

  14. Early-Career Academics' Perceptions of Teaching and Learning in Hong Kong: Implications for Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Keith; McNaught, Carmel; Wong, Kin-Chi; Li, Yi-Ching

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses early-career academics' development at a university in Hong Kong. Reflecting the impact of local context, the paper explores cultural and structural influences that can impinge on teaching and learning strategies for new academics. Barriers such as student learning behaviour and publication pressure may discourage new…

  15. Transfer of Training in an Academic Leadership Development Program for Program Coordinators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladyshewsky, Richard K.; Flavell, Helen

    2012-01-01

    The higher education sector has increasingly begun to pay more attention to academic leadership. This qualitative study explores how such an investment in a 20-week leadership development program influenced the behaviour of 10 academic staff in the role of program coordinator 6 to 12 months following participation in the program. Otherwise known…

  16. Changing Landscapes, Shifting Identities in Higher Education: Narratives of Academics in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trahar, Sheila

    2011-01-01

    Students and academics have always used different sources of knowledge to generate and to interpret academic and social behaviours, but it is asserted that the increasingly diverse environments of 21st century higher education lead to greater levels of complexity in learning, teaching and assessment and to a consequent shift in the ways in which…

  17. Individual and Organisational Factors Influencing Academics' Decisions to Pursue the Scholarship of Teaching ICT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Julianne; Sheard, Judithe; Carbone, Angela; Collins, Francesca

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on Information and Communication Technology (ICT) academics' perceptions of factors that promote and inhibit their pursuit of scholarship in their teaching work. It identifies critical factors that influence academics' attitudes, orientations and behaviours in respect to the scholarship of teaching, and from these builds a…

  18. Automatic integration of confidence in the brain valuation signal.

    PubMed

    Lebreton, Maël; Abitbol, Raphaëlle; Daunizeau, Jean; Pessiglione, Mathias

    2015-08-01

    A key process in decision-making is estimating the value of possible outcomes. Growing evidence suggests that different types of values are automatically encoded in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC). Here we extend this idea by suggesting that any overt judgment is accompanied by a second-order valuation (a confidence estimate), which is also automatically incorporated in VMPFC activity. In accordance with the predictions of our normative model of rating tasks, two behavioral experiments showed that confidence levels were quadratically related to first-order judgments (age, value or probability ratings). The analysis of three functional magnetic resonance imaging data sets using similar rating tasks confirmed that the quadratic extension of first-order ratings (our proxy for confidence) was encoded in VMPFC activity, even if no confidence judgment was required of the participants. Such an automatic aggregation of value and confidence in a same brain region might provide insight into many distortions of judgment and choice. PMID:26192748

  19. Can nursing students' confidence levels increase with repeated simulation activities?

    PubMed

    Cummings, Cynthia L; Connelly, Linda K

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, nursing faculty conducted a study with undergraduate nursing students on their satisfaction, confidence, and educational practice levels, as it related to simulation activities throughout the curriculum. The study was a voluntary survey conducted on junior and senior year nursing students. It consisted of 30 items based on the Student Satisfaction and Self-Confidence in Learning and the Educational Practices Questionnaire (Jeffries, 2012). Mean averages were obtained for each of the 30 items from both groups and were compared using T scores for unpaired means. The results showed that 8 of the items had a 95% confidence level and when combined the items were significant for p <.001. The items identified were those related to self-confidence and active learning. Based on these findings, it can be assumed that repeated simulation experiences can lead to an increase in student confidence and active learning. PMID:26599594

  20. Pre-competitive confidence, coping, and subjective performance in sport.

    PubMed

    Levy, A R; Nicholls, A R; Polman, R C J

    2011-10-01

    The primary aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between confidence and subjective performance in addition to exploring whether coping mediated this relationship. A sample of 414 athletes completed a measure of confidence before performance. Athletes also completed a measure of coping and subjective performance after competing. Correlational findings revealed that confidence was positively and significantly associated with subjective performance. Furthermore, mediational analysis found that coping partly mediated this relationship. In particular, task-oriented coping (i.e., mental imagery) and disengagement-oriented coping (i.e., resignation) had positive and negative mediational effects, respectively. Additionally, athletes who employed mental imagery generally coped more effectively than those using resignation. These findings imply mental imagery has the potential not only to improve confidence, but also subsequent performance, while resignation coping may have the opposite effect. Overall, these results lend some credence to Vealey's integrated sports confidence model. PMID:20459476

  1. Behaviour Recovery. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Bill

    2004-01-01

    This second edition of Behaviour Recovery puts emphasis on teaching behaviour concerning children with emotional and behavioural disorders (EBD). These children have many factors in their lives that affect their behaviour over which schools have limited control. This book acknowledges the challenge and explores the practical realities, options and…

  2. The Academic Structure in Japan: Institutional Hierarchy and Academic Mobility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arimoto, Akira

    The characteristics of the Japanese academic structure are examined with attention to the evolution of institutional hierarchy, the closed academic structure, and the effects of the academic structure upon academic research. The evolution of Japan's institutional hierarchy in academics has been tightly related to factors of nationalism,…

  3. Playing with confidence: the relationship between imagery use and self-confidence and self-efficacy in youth soccer players.

    PubMed

    Munroe-Chandler, Krista; Hall, Craig; Fishburne, Graham

    2008-12-01

    Confidence has been one of the most consistent factors in distinguishing the successful from the unsuccessful athletes (Gould, Weiss, & Weinberg, 1981) and Bandura (1997) proposed that imagery is one way to enhance confidence. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between imagery use and confidence in soccer (football) players. The participants included 122 male and female soccer athletes ages 11-14 years participating in both house/ recreation (n = 72) and travel/competitive (n = 50) levels. Athletes completed three questionnaires; one measuring the frequency of imagery use, one assessing generalised self-confidence, and one assessing self-efficacy in soccer. A series of regression analyses found that Motivational General-Mastery (MG-M) imagery was a signifant predictor of self-confidence and self-efficacy in both recreational and competitive youth soccer players. More specifically, MG-M imagery accounted for between 40 and 57% of the variance for both self-confidence and self-efficacy with two other functions (MG-A and MS) contributing marginally in the self-confidence regression for recreational athletes. These findings suggest that if a youth athlete, regardless of competitive level, wants to increase his/her self-confidence or self-efficacy through the use of imagery, the MG-M function should be emphasised. PMID:18949659

  4. Partnerships with Academic Departments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Anthony M.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter describes how professional and continuing higher education units can develop and sustain successful partnerships with academic departments in order to deliver educational programs effectively to students.

  5. Ethics and academic integrity.

    PubMed

    Milton, Constance L

    2015-01-01

    Academics from across the globe must navigate ever-increasing demands for research, practice, and educational productivity. With the increased demands, nurse faculty must choose value priorities and actions that reflect academic integrity. What does it mean to choose actions that reflect personal integrity in the academic arena? This article begins an important nursing philosophical and theoretical discussion that members and future members of the discipline of nursing must reflect upon and grapple with as they consider what it potentially means to act with straight thinking and integrity in academics. PMID:25520458

  6. Confusion about Collusion: Working Together and Academic Integrity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Anna; Taylor, David

    2011-01-01

    An increasing emphasis on developing students' transferable skills, such as group working and IT, is creating challenges in ensuring the academic integrity of individually assessed coursework. This study investigated the frequency with which students engaged in a range of study behaviours for individual assignments, with a focus on the extent to…

  7. Academics' Responses to the Implementation of a Quality Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunetto, Yvonne; Farr-Wharton, Rod

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a new implementation model that bases implementation outcomes on the responses of academics to a new policy. The model is derived from a review of policy and organisational behaviour literature. The model was tested within the context of the implementation of significant reforms aimed at changing the work practices of academics…

  8. Determinants of physicians' prescribing behaviour of methylphenidate for cognitive enhancement.

    PubMed

    Ponnet, Koen; Wouters, Edwin; Van Hal, Guido; Heirman, Wannes; Walrave, Michel

    2014-01-01

    The non-medical use of methylphenidate for cognitive enhancement becomes a more and more common practice among college and university students. Although physicians are a source of access, little is known about the underlying mechanisms that might lead to physicians' intention and behaviour of prescribing methylphenidate to improve students' academic performance. Applying Ajzen's theory of planned behaviour (TPB), we tested whether attitudes, subjective norms (controllability and self-efficacy) and perceived behavioural control predicted the intention and the prescribing behaviour of physicians. Participants were 130 physicians (62.3% males). Structural equation modelling was used to test the ability of TPB to predict physicians' behaviour. Overall, the present study provides support for the TPB in predicting physicians' prescribing behaviour of methylphenidate for cognitive enhancement. Subjective norms, followed by attitudes, are the strongest predictors of physicians' intention to prescribe methylphenidate. To a lesser extent, controllability predicts the intention of physicians, and self-efficacy predicts the self-reported behaviour. Compared to their male colleagues, female physicians seem to have more negative attitudes towards prescribing methylphenidate for cognitive enhancement, feel less social pressure and perceive more control over their behaviour. Intervention programmes that want to decrease physicians' intention to prescribe methylphenidate for improving academic performance should primarily focus on alleviating the perceived social pressure to prescribe methylphenidate and on converting physician neutral or positive attitudes towards prescribing methylphenidate into negative attitudes. PMID:23713799

  9. Disconnections Between Teacher Expectations and Student Confidence in Bioethics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanegan, Nikki L.; Price, Laura; Peterson, Jeremy

    2008-09-01

    This study examines how student practice of scientific argumentation using socioscientific bioethics issues affects both teacher expectations of students’ general performance and student confidence in their own work. When teachers use bioethical issues in the classroom students can gain not only biology content knowledge but also important decision-making skills. Learning bioethics through scientific argumentation gives students opportunities to express their ideas, formulate educated opinions and value others’ viewpoints. Research has shown that science teachers’ expectations of student success and knowledge directly influence student achievement and confidence levels. Our study analyzes pre-course and post-course surveys completed by students enrolled in a university level bioethics course ( n = 111) and by faculty in the College of Biology and Agriculture faculty ( n = 34) based on their perceptions of student confidence. Additionally, student data were collected from classroom observations and interviews. Data analysis showed a disconnect between faculty and students perceptions of confidence for both knowledge and the use of science argumentation. Student reports of their confidence levels regarding various bioethical issues were higher than faculty reports. A further disconnect showed up between students’ preferred learning styles and the general faculty’s common teaching methods; students learned more by practicing scientific argumentation than listening to traditional lectures. Students who completed a bioethics course that included practice in scientific argumentation, significantly increased their confidence levels. This study suggests that professors’ expectations and teaching styles influence student confidence levels in both knowledge and scientific argumentation.

  10. Doubly Bayesian Analysis of Confidence in Perceptual Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    Bahrami, Bahador; Latham, Peter E.

    2015-01-01

    Humans stand out from other animals in that they are able to explicitly report on the reliability of their internal operations. This ability, which is known as metacognition, is typically studied by asking people to report their confidence in the correctness of some decision. However, the computations underlying confidence reports remain unclear. In this paper, we present a fully Bayesian method for directly comparing models of confidence. Using a visual two-interval forced-choice task, we tested whether confidence reports reflect heuristic computations (e.g. the magnitude of sensory data) or Bayes optimal ones (i.e. how likely a decision is to be correct given the sensory data). In a standard design in which subjects were first asked to make a decision, and only then gave their confidence, subjects were mostly Bayes optimal. In contrast, in a less-commonly used design in which subjects indicated their confidence and decision simultaneously, they were roughly equally likely to use the Bayes optimal strategy or to use a heuristic but suboptimal strategy. Our results suggest that, while people’s confidence reports can reflect Bayes optimal computations, even a small unusual twist or additional element of complexity can prevent optimality. PMID:26517475

  11. Confidence Intervals for Error Rates Observed in Coded Communications Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamkins, J.

    2015-05-01

    We present methods to compute confidence intervals for the codeword error rate (CWER) and bit error rate (BER) of a coded communications link. We review several methods to compute exact and approximate confidence intervals for the CWER, and specifically consider the situation in which the true CWER is so low that only a handful, if any, codeword errors are able to be simulated. In doing so, we answer the question of how long an error-free simulation must be run in order to certify that a given CWER requirement is met with a given level of confidence, and discuss the bias introduced by aborting a simulation after observing the first codeword error. Next, we turn to the lesser studied problem of determining confidence intervals for the BER of coded systems. Since bit errors in systems that use coding or higher-order modulation do not occur independently, blind application of a method that assumes independence leads to inappropriately narrow confidence intervals. We present a new method to compute the confidence interval properly, using the first and second sample moments of the number of bit errors per codeword. This is the first method we know of to compute a confidence interval for the BER of a coded or higher-order modulation system.

  12. Neural correlates of perceived confidence in a partial report paradigm.

    PubMed

    Graziano, Martín; Parra, Lucas C; Sigman, Mariano

    2015-06-01

    Confidence judgments are often severely distorted: People may feel underconfident when responding correctly or, conversely, overconfident in erred responses. Our aim here was to identify the timing of brain processes that lead to variations in objective performance and subjective judgments of confidence. We capitalized on the Partial Report Paradigm [Sperling, G. The information available in brief visual presentations. Psychological Monographs: General and Applied, 74, 1, 1960], which allowed us to separate experimentally the moment of encoding of information from that of its retrieval [Zylberberg, A., Dehaene, S., Mindlin, G. B., & Sigman, M. Neurophysiological bases of exponential sensory decay and top-down memory retrieval: A model. Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience, 3, 2009]. We observed that the level of subjective confidence is indexed by two very specific evoked potentials at latencies of about 400 and 600 msec during the retrieval stage and by a stationary measure of intensity of the alpha band during the encoding period. When factoring out the effect of confidence, objective performance shows a weak effect during the encoding and retrieval periods. These results have relevant implications for theories of decision-making and confidence, suggesting that confidence is not constructed online as evidence is accumulated toward a decision. Instead, confidence attributions are more consistent with a retrospective mechanism that monitors the entire decision process. PMID:25390193

  13. Public eyewitness confidence ratings can differ from those held privately.

    PubMed

    Shaw, J S; Zerr, T K; Woythaler, K A

    2001-04-01

    Despite much research on eyewitness confidence, we know very little about whether confidence ratings given in public might differ from those held privately. This study tested a prediction derived from self-presentation theory that eyewitnesses will give lower confidence ratings in public when there is a possibility of their account being contradicted by other witnesses as compared to when they report their confidence in private. In groups of 3 or 4 people, 96 participants watched a videotape of a simulated robbery and then answered 16 forced-choice questions about details from the videotape. In half of the experimental sessions, the participants shared their answers and confidence ratings aloud with the other participants (public condition), and in the other half, the answers and ratings were not shared (private). As predicted, confidence ratings were significantly lower in the public condition than in the private condition, but the privacy manipulation had no effect on response accuracy. These results are consistent with a self-presentation explanation, and they highlight the need to examine public confidence ratings more thoroughly. PMID:11419379

  14. Students' Perceptions of the Academic Environment and Approaches to Studying in British Postgraduate Business Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Haoda; Richardson, John T. E.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research on student learning in higher education has identified clear associations between variations in students' perceptions of the academic environment and variations in their study behaviour. This study investigated a general theoretical model linking students' demographic characteristics, perceptions and study behaviour with measures…

  15. A Poisson process approximation for generalized K-5 confidence regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arsham, H.; Miller, D. R.

    1982-01-01

    One-sided confidence regions for continuous cumulative distribution functions are constructed using empirical cumulative distribution functions and the generalized Kolmogorov-Smirnov distance. The band width of such regions becomes narrower in the right or left tail of the distribution. To avoid tedious computation of confidence levels and critical values, an approximation based on the Poisson process is introduced. This aproximation provides a conservative confidence region; moreover, the approximation error decreases monotonically to 0 as sample size increases. Critical values necessary for implementation are given. Applications are made to the areas of risk analysis, investment modeling, reliability assessment, and analysis of fault tolerant systems.

  16. Validation, Uncertainty, and Quantitative Reliability at Confidence (QRC)

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, R W; Nitta, C K

    2002-12-06

    This paper represents a summary of our methodology for Verification and Validation and Uncertainty Quantification. A graded scale methodology is presented and related to other concepts in the literature. We describe the critical nature of quantified Verification and Validation with Uncertainty Quantification at specified Confidence levels in evaluating system certification status. Only after Verification and Validation has contributed to Uncertainty Quantification at specified confidence can rational tradeoffs of various scenarios be made. Verification and Validation methods for various scenarios and issues are applied in assessments of Quantified Reliability at Confidence and we summarize briefly how this can lead to a Value Engineering methodology for investment strategy.

  17. Estimation of confidence intervals for federal waterfowl harvest surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geissler, P.H.

    1990-01-01

    I developed methods of estimating confidence intervals for the federal waterfowl harvest surveys conducted by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). I estimated flyway harvest confidence intervals for mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) (95% CI are .+-. 8% of the estimate). Canada geese (Branta canadensis) (.+-. 11%), black ducks (Anas rubripes) (.+-. 16%), canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) (.+-. 32%), snow geese (Chen caerulescens) (.+-. 43%), and brant (Branta bernicla) (.+-. 46%). Differences between annual estimate of 10, 13, 22, 42, 43, and 58% could be detected with mallards, Canada geese, black ducks, canvasbacks, snow geese, and brant, respectively. Estimated confidence intervals for state harvests tended to be much larger than those for the flyway estimates.

  18. Talking about cancer with confidence: evaluation of cancer awareness training for community-based health workers

    PubMed Central

    Grimmett, Chloe; Macherianakis, Alexis; Rendell, Helen; George, Helen; Kaplan, Gwen; Kilgour, Gillian

    2014-01-01

    Aims: To examine the impact of cancer awareness training for community-based health workers on confidence to talk about cancer, and knowledge of cancer risk factors and signs and symptoms. Methods: Community-based health workers from Sandwell, Birmingham and Solihull were invited to take part in one of 14 one-day training workshops. Trainees completed questionnaires at the beginning of the workshop and were followed up one month later. Confidence in talking about cancer was examined. Knowledge of cancer risk factors and signs and symptoms was assessed. Trainees were asked to rate the usefulness of the workshop, whether they would recommend it to others and whether they had put what they had learnt into practice. Results: A total of 187 community-based health workers took part in the workshops, and 167 (89%) completed the one-month follow-up. Considerable improvements were observed in confidence to discuss cancer. For example, the proportion of participants reporting feeling ‘very confident’/‘fairly confident’ in discussing signs and symptoms of cancer increased from 32% to 96% (p < .001). Substantial improvements in trainees’ knowledge were also observed, with 79% of participants correctly identifying 10 out of 11 known risk factors for cancer at one month compared with 21% before training (p < .001). Average (unprompted) recall of cancer signs and symptoms also increased from 2.3 (±1.6) to 2.7 (±1.5), (p = .02). Most trainees (83%) rated the workshop as ‘very useful’, and 89% said they would ‘definitely’ recommend the workshop. Conclusion: The cancer awareness training was reviewed positively by community-based health workers and led to improvements in confidence to talk about cancer, and knowledge of risk factors and warning signs of cancer. It is hoped that raising awareness among this group will help them to communicate and drive behaviour change in the at-risk populations with whom they work. PMID:25169613

  19. Role of Health-Promoting Behaviours for On-Campus and Distance Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beccaria, Lisa; Rogers, Cath; Burton, Lorelle; Beccaria, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    University students are likely to experience high rates of stress, which has the potential to negatively affect academic performance and their experience of study. Research with on-campus students has found positive benefits of health-promoting behaviours such as stress reduction and academic achievement; yet no research has examined these…

  20. California Redefines Academic Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trow, Martin A.

    2003-01-01

    In the spring of 2003, University of California President Richard Atkinson forwarded to the U.C. Academic Senate a proposed revision of the existing regulation bearing on how university teachers should treat contentious and disputed issues, both political and academic, in their classrooms. The existing regulation on this matter, APM-010, had been…

  1. The Academic Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chickering, Arthur W.

    This report shows the results of a questionnaire on academic experiences, administered to students at four different colleges. Included in the term "academic experiences" are such factors as mental activities in class and in studying for class, the role of the teacher, motivation for studying, feelings about courses, and patterns of work. Two main…

  2. Marketing Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallon, Melissa, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Ask any academic librarian if marketing their library and its services is an important task, and the answer will most likely be a resounding "yes!" Particularly in economically troubled times, librarians are increasingly called upon to promote their services and defend their library's worth. Since few academic libraries have in-house marketing…

  3. Patterns of Academic Procrastination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Victor; Mensink, David; O'Sullivan, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Uses the Academic Procrastination Questionnaire to measure procrastination and six possible patterns underlying it among undergraduate students. Finds that the most common patterns for clients involved Evaluation Anxiety or being Discouraged/Depressed, or Dependent. Supports individualized assessment and solutions for academic procrastination. (SC)

  4. The Academic Dean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowker, Lee H.

    1981-01-01

    The role of the academic dean, role conflicts, and the occupational experiences and performance of deans are considered. Role conflict for academic deans is related to clashing constituencies, role ambiguity, lack of correspondence between organization requirements and the personalities of incumbent deans, changing organizational needs over time,…

  5. The Academic Generation Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dronzek, Anna

    2008-01-01

    The current generation gap in academia is different--fundamentally shaped by the structural problems of academic employment. The job market has especially exacerbated tensions between senior and junior faculty by ratcheting up expectations and requirements at every stage of the academic career. The disparities have been mentioned often enough to…

  6. Academic Libraries in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deale, H. Vail

    1973-01-01

    Iranian librarianship is in the embryonic stages of development, especially with respect to modern and functional academic libraries. In three major areas--personnel, resources, and physical facilities--the academic libraries are deficient compared with Western standards. (16 references) (Author)

  7. Academic Freedom Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doughty, Howard A.

    2010-01-01

    One of the author's enduring concerns about the concept of academic freedom is with semantics. It has seemed to him that one of the biggest difficulties with discussions of academic freedom (as with many conversations about "value-laden" terms such as "democracy," "equity," and "justice") is that people begin from different positions and with…

  8. Gender and Academic Integrity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendershott, Anne; Drinan, Patrick F.; Cross, Megan

    1999-01-01

    Investigates the academic integrity climate of a mid-sized, comprehensive, private university. Seeks to assess gender differences in motivations surrounding cheating behaviors among 532 undergraduate students. Findings indicate that while both males and females are reluctant to report instances of academic dishonesty that they witness, there…

  9. Academic and Vocational Integration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villeneuve, Phyllis, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This manual describes pilot projects designed to explore and support academic vocational integration. In conjunction with the Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, FACTC (Faculty Association of Community and Technical Colleges) sponsored an array of pilot projects during the fall of 1995. Vocational and academic faculty from…

  10. Academic Freedom and Me

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard, Ian

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a personal history of the author's own relationships with the concept of academic freedom. The article is subdivided into 3 prehistories, 7 incidents, 3 disjunctions, and 3 myths. The author discusses the complications of politics, culture, and academic freedom in one career.

  11. Academic Researchers Speak

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergom, Inger; Waltman, Jean; August, Louise; Hollenshead, Carol

    2010-01-01

    Non-tenure-track (NTT) research faculty are perhaps the most under-recognized group of academic professionals on the campuses today, despite their increasingly important role within the expanding academic research enterprise. The American Association for the Advancement of Science reports that the amount of federal spending on R&D has more than…

  12. Reconceptualizing Academic Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vantine, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, more and more independent schools have established academic support programs and learning centers to address their students' individual learning needs. Perhaps not surprisingly, as the number of students being evaluated has increased, even more families have requested academic accommodations and services for their children.…

  13. Arbitration in Academe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Joel, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Questions and issues critical to an understanding of arbitration in higher education are discussed. Aspects of the academic arbitration model are defined. The following four topics are examined: (1) the procedural similarities and differences between academic arbitration and the industrial model; (2) the possible inherent conflict between academic…

  14. Thinking Academic Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Lis

    2016-01-01

    This lecture argues that the politicisation and instrumentalisation of the university caused by neoliberal frames has as a result the depoliticisation of knowledge and of the academic as individual. This depoliticisation has turned academic freedom into a right to disengage not only from the political fight around these issues but also from the…

  15. Recalibrating Academic Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yancey, George

    2012-01-01

    Whether political and/or religious academic bias exists is a question with important ramifications for the educational institutions. Those arguing for the presence of such bias contend that political conservatives and the highly religious in academia are marginalized and face discrimination. The question of academic bias tends to be cast in a…

  16. Testing a Model for Promoting Academic Success of Learning Disabled Students at the University Level. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swan, Robert J.

    Instead of emphasizing basic skills remediation or academic tutoring, a counseling model can provide a consistent support system, reduce client anxiety levels, and build self-confidence among learning disabled (LD) college students. All of the services offered under this model--(1) academic advisement, (2) personal counseling, (3) career…

  17. Erratum: Action-Specific Disruption of Perceptual Confidence

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Fleming, S. M., Maniscalco, B., Ko, Y., Amendi, N., Ro, T., & Lau, H. (2015). Action-specific disruption of perceptual confidence. Psychological Science, 26, 89–98. (Original DOI: 10.1177/0956797614557697) PMID:25814500

  18. Confidence and the stock market: an agent-based approach.

    PubMed

    Bertella, Mario A; Pires, Felipe R; Feng, Ling; Stanley, Harry Eugene

    2014-01-01

    Using a behavioral finance approach we study the impact of behavioral bias. We construct an artificial market consisting of fundamentalists and chartists to model the decision-making process of various agents. The agents differ in their strategies for evaluating stock prices, and exhibit differing memory lengths and confidence levels. When we increase the heterogeneity of the strategies used by the agents, in particular the memory lengths, we observe excess volatility and kurtosis, in agreement with real market fluctuations--indicating that agents in real-world financial markets exhibit widely differing memory lengths. We incorporate the behavioral traits of adaptive confidence and observe a positive correlation between average confidence and return rate, indicating that market sentiment is an important driver in price fluctuations. The introduction of market confidence increases price volatility, reflecting the negative effect of irrationality in market behavior. PMID:24421888

  19. Confidence and the Stock Market: An Agent-Based Approach

    PubMed Central

    Bertella, Mario A.; Pires, Felipe R.; Feng, Ling; Stanley, Harry Eugene

    2014-01-01

    Using a behavioral finance approach we study the impact of behavioral bias. We construct an artificial market consisting of fundamentalists and chartists to model the decision-making process of various agents. The agents differ in their strategies for evaluating stock prices, and exhibit differing memory lengths and confidence levels. When we increase the heterogeneity of the strategies used by the agents, in particular the memory lengths, we observe excess volatility and kurtosis, in agreement with real market fluctuations—indicating that agents in real-world financial markets exhibit widely differing memory lengths. We incorporate the behavioral traits of adaptive confidence and observe a positive correlation between average confidence and return rate, indicating that market sentiment is an important driver in price fluctuations. The introduction of market confidence increases price volatility, reflecting the negative effect of irrationality in market behavior. PMID:24421888

  20. 78 FR 56621 - Draft Waste Confidence Generic Environmental Impact Statement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... Impact Statement AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft generic environmental impact... issuing for public comment the draft generic environmental impact statement (DGEIS), NUREG-2157, ``Waste Confidence Generic Environmental Impact Statement,'' that forms the regulatory basis for the...

  1. Longitudinal relations among inattention, working memory, and academic achievement: testing mediation and the moderating role of gender

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Maria; Martinussen, Rhonda; Tannock, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Behavioral inattention, working memory (WM), and academic achievement share significant variance, but the direction of relationships across development is unknown. The aim of the present study was to determine whether WM mediates the pathway between inattentive behaviour and subsequent academic outcomes. Methods. 204 students from grades 1–4 (49.5% female) were recruited from elementary schools. Participants received assessments of WM and achievement at baseline and one year later. WM measures included a visual-spatial storage task and auditory-verbal storage and manipulation tasks. Teachers completed the SWAN behaviour rating scale both years. Mediation analysis with PROCESS (Hayes, 2013) was used to determine mediation pathways. Results. Teacher-rated inattention indirectly influenced math addition fluency, subtraction fluency and calculation scores through its effect on visual-spatial WM, only for boys. There was a direct relationship between inattention and math outcomes one year later for girls and boys. Children who displayed better attention had higher WM scores, and children with higher WM scores had stronger scores on math outcomes. Bias-corrected bootstrap confidence intervals for the indirect effects were entirely below zero for boys, for the three math outcomes. WM did not mediate the direct relationship between inattention and reading scores. Discussion. Findings identify inattention and WM as longitudinal predictors for math addition and subtraction fluency and math calculation outcomes one year later, with visual-spatial WM as a significant mediator for boys. Results highlight the close relationship between inattention and WM and their importance in the development of math skills. PMID:26038714

  2. Longitudinal relations among inattention, working memory, and academic achievement: testing mediation and the moderating role of gender.

    PubMed

    Gray, Sarah A; Rogers, Maria; Martinussen, Rhonda; Tannock, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Behavioral inattention, working memory (WM), and academic achievement share significant variance, but the direction of relationships across development is unknown. The aim of the present study was to determine whether WM mediates the pathway between inattentive behaviour and subsequent academic outcomes. Methods. 204 students from grades 1-4 (49.5% female) were recruited from elementary schools. Participants received assessments of WM and achievement at baseline and one year later. WM measures included a visual-spatial storage task and auditory-verbal storage and manipulation tasks. Teachers completed the SWAN behaviour rating scale both years. Mediation analysis with PROCESS (Hayes, 2013) was used to determine mediation pathways. Results. Teacher-rated inattention indirectly influenced math addition fluency, subtraction fluency and calculation scores through its effect on visual-spatial WM, only for boys. There was a direct relationship between inattention and math outcomes one year later for girls and boys. Children who displayed better attention had higher WM scores, and children with higher WM scores had stronger scores on math outcomes. Bias-corrected bootstrap confidence intervals for the indirect effects were entirely below zero for boys, for the three math outcomes. WM did not mediate the direct relationship between inattention and reading scores. Discussion. Findings identify inattention and WM as longitudinal predictors for math addition and subtraction fluency and math calculation outcomes one year later, with visual-spatial WM as a significant mediator for boys. Results highlight the close relationship between inattention and WM and their importance in the development of math skills. PMID:26038714

  3. The Sense of Confidence during Probabilistic Learning: A Normative Account

    PubMed Central

    Meyniel, Florent; Schlunegger, Daniel; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2015-01-01

    Learning in a stochastic environment consists of estimating a model from a limited amount of noisy data, and is therefore inherently uncertain. However, many classical models reduce the learning process to the updating of parameter estimates and neglect the fact that learning is also frequently accompanied by a variable “feeling of knowing” or confidence. The characteristics and the origin of these subjective confidence estimates thus remain largely unknown. Here we investigate whether, during learning, humans not only infer a model of their environment, but also derive an accurate sense of confidence from their inferences. In our experiment, humans estimated the transition probabilities between two visual or auditory stimuli in a changing environment, and reported their mean estimate and their confidence in this report. To formalize the link between both kinds of estimate and assess their accuracy in comparison to a normative reference, we derive the optimal inference strategy for our task. Our results indicate that subjects accurately track the likelihood that their inferences are correct. Learning and estimating confidence in what has been learned appear to be two intimately related abilities, suggesting that they arise from a single inference process. We show that human performance matches several properties of the optimal probabilistic inference. In particular, subjective confidence is impacted by environmental uncertainty, both at the first level (uncertainty in stimulus occurrence given the inferred stochastic characteristics) and at the second level (uncertainty due to unexpected changes in these stochastic characteristics). Confidence also increases appropriately with the number of observations within stable periods. Our results support the idea that humans possess a quantitative sense of confidence in their inferences about abstract non-sensory parameters of the environment. This ability cannot be reduced to simple heuristics, it seems instead a core

  4. Improved reproducibility by assuring confidence in measurements in biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Plant, Anne L; Locascio, Laurie E; May, Willie E; Gallagher, Patrick D

    2014-09-01

    ‘Irreproducibility’ is symptomatic of a broader challenge in measurement in biomedical research. From the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) perspective of rigorous metrology, reproducibility is only one aspect of establishing confidence in measurements. Appropriate controls, reference materials, statistics and informatics are required for a robust measurement process. Research is required to establish these tools for biological measurements, which will lead to greater confidence in research results. PMID:25166868

  5. The self-assessment of confidence, by one vocational trainee

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Colin

    1979-01-01

    A list of important topics in general practice was constructed and a trainee was asked to indicate his confidence about each topic on a one to five scale. Repeated use showed different confidence ratings by the same trainee, and an attempt was made to correlate factual knowledge by using a multiple choice questionnaire. Despite important limitations, which are described, this method may be useful in identifying suitable topics for teaching during the trainee year. PMID:541789

  6. The Ethical Academic: Academics as Public Intellectuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Twenty-five years ago, American sociologist Robert Neelly Bellah (Bellah, et al., 1986: 303) critiqued the growing isolation of intellectuals within universities and called for a return to "social science as public philosophy." Little seems to have changed. My thirty-seven year experience at the University of Alberta suggests that academics see…

  7. Reengineering Academic Medical Centers: Reengineering Academic Values?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korn, David

    1996-01-01

    Discussion of academic medical centers (AMCs) looks at: change due to heavy federal funding in recent decades; adverse consequences, including deemphasis on education in favor of research and clinical service delivery, and discrepancies between AMC internal and external labor markets; and challenges to medical education in research, education, and…

  8. Does Academic Work Make Australian Academics Happy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Roderick; Tilbrook, Kerry; Krivokapic-Skoko, Branka

    2015-01-01

    Happiness research is a rapidly-growing area in social psychology and has emphasised the link between happiness and workplace productivity and creativity for knowledge workers. Recent articles in this journal have raised concerns about the level of happiness and engagement of Australian academics with their work, however there is little research…

  9. Confidence bounds for nonlinear dose-response relationships.

    PubMed

    Baayen, C; Hougaard, P

    2015-11-30

    An important aim of drug trials is to characterize the dose-response relationship of a new compound. Such a relationship can often be described by a parametric (nonlinear) function that is monotone in dose. If such a model is fitted, it is useful to know the uncertainty of the fitted curve. It is well known that Wald confidence intervals are based on linear approximations and are often unsatisfactory in nonlinear models. Apart from incorrect coverage rates, they can be unreasonable in the sense that the lower confidence limit of the difference to placebo can be negative, even when an overall test shows a significant positive effect. Bootstrap confidence intervals solve many of the problems of the Wald confidence intervals but are computationally intensive and prone to undercoverage for small sample sizes. In this work, we propose a profile likelihood approach to compute confidence intervals for the dose-response curve. These confidence bounds have better coverage than Wald intervals and are more precise and generally faster than bootstrap methods. Moreover, if monotonicity is assumed, the profile likelihood approach takes this automatically into account. The approach is illustrated using a public dataset and simulations based on the Emax and sigmoid Emax models. PMID:26112765

  10. Confidence-based somatic mutation evaluation and prioritization.

    PubMed

    Löwer, Martin; Renard, Bernhard Y; de Graaf, Jos; Wagner, Meike; Paret, Claudia; Kneip, Christoph; Türeci, Ozlem; Diken, Mustafa; Britten, Cedrik; Kreiter, Sebastian; Koslowski, Michael; Castle, John C; Sahin, Ugur

    2012-01-01

    Next generation sequencing (NGS) has enabled high throughput discovery of somatic mutations. Detection depends on experimental design, lab platforms, parameters and analysis algorithms. However, NGS-based somatic mutation detection is prone to erroneous calls, with reported validation rates near 54% and congruence between algorithms less than 50%. Here, we developed an algorithm to assign a single statistic, a false discovery rate (FDR), to each somatic mutation identified by NGS. This FDR confidence value accurately discriminates true mutations from erroneous calls. Using sequencing data generated from triplicate exome profiling of C57BL/6 mice and B16-F10 melanoma cells, we used the existing algorithms GATK, SAMtools and SomaticSNiPer to identify somatic mutations. For each identified mutation, our algorithm assigned an FDR. We selected 139 mutations for validation, including 50 somatic mutations assigned a low FDR (high confidence) and 44 mutations assigned a high FDR (low confidence). All of the high confidence somatic mutations validated (50 of 50), none of the 44 low confidence somatic mutations validated, and 15 of 45 mutations with an intermediate FDR validated. Furthermore, the assignment of a single FDR to individual mutations enables statistical comparisons of lab and computation methodologies, including ROC curves and AUC metrics. Using the HiSeq 2000, single end 50 nt reads from replicates generate the highest confidence somatic mutation call set. PMID:23028300

  11. Confidence-based Somatic Mutation Evaluation and Prioritization

    PubMed Central

    de Graaf, Jos; Wagner, Meike; Paret, Claudia; Kneip, Christoph; Türeci, Özlem; Diken, Mustafa; Britten, Cedrik; Kreiter, Sebastian; Koslowski, Michael; Castle, John C.; Sahin, Ugur

    2012-01-01

    Next generation sequencing (NGS) has enabled high throughput discovery of somatic mutations. Detection depends on experimental design, lab platforms, parameters and analysis algorithms. However, NGS-based somatic mutation detection is prone to erroneous calls, with reported validation rates near 54% and congruence between algorithms less than 50%. Here, we developed an algorithm to assign a single statistic, a false discovery rate (FDR), to each somatic mutation identified by NGS. This FDR confidence value accurately discriminates true mutations from erroneous calls. Using sequencing data generated from triplicate exome profiling of C57BL/6 mice and B16-F10 melanoma cells, we used the existing algorithms GATK, SAMtools and SomaticSNiPer to identify somatic mutations. For each identified mutation, our algorithm assigned an FDR. We selected 139 mutations for validation, including 50 somatic mutations assigned a low FDR (high confidence) and 44 mutations assigned a high FDR (low confidence). All of the high confidence somatic mutations validated (50 of 50), none of the 44 low confidence somatic mutations validated, and 15 of 45 mutations with an intermediate FDR validated. Furthermore, the assignment of a single FDR to individual mutations enables statistical comparisons of lab and computation methodologies, including ROC curves and AUC metrics. Using the HiSeq 2000, single end 50 nt reads from replicates generate the highest confidence somatic mutation call set. PMID:23028300

  12. Improved central confidence intervals for the ratio of Poisson means

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cousins, R. D.

    The problem of confidence intervals for the ratio of two unknown Poisson means was "solved" decades ago, but a closer examination reveals that the standard solution is far from optimal from the frequentist point of view. We construct a more powerful set of central confidence intervals, each of which is a (typically proper) subinterval of the corresponding standard interval. They also provide upper and lower confidence limits which are more restrictive than the standard limits. The construction follows Neyman's original prescription, though discreteness of the Poisson distribution and the presence of a nuisance parameter (one of the unknown means) lead to slightly conservative intervals. Philosophically, the issue of the appropriateness of the construction method is similar to the issue of conditioning on the margins in 2×2 contingency tables. From a frequentist point of view, the new set maintains (over) coverage of the unknown true value of the ratio of means at each stated confidence level, even though the new intervals are shorter than the old intervals by any measure (except for two cases where they are identical). As an example, when the number 2 is drawn from each Poisson population, the 90% CL central confidence interval on the ratio of means is (0.169, 5.196), rather than (0.108, 9.245). In the cited literature, such confidence intervals have applications in numerous branches of pure and applied science, including agriculture, wildlife studies, manufacturing, medicine, reliability theory, and elementary particle physics.

  13. The Development of Confidence Limits for Fatigue Strength Data

    SciTech Connect

    SUTHERLAND,HERBERT J.; VEERS,PAUL S.

    1999-11-09

    Over the past several years, extensive databases have been developed for the S-N behavior of various materials used in wind turbine blades, primarily fiberglass composites. These data are typically presented both in their raw form and curve fit to define their average properties. For design, confidence limits must be placed on these descriptions. In particular, most designs call for the 95/95 design values; namely, with a 95% level of confidence, the designer is assured that 95% of the material will meet or exceed the design value. For such material properties as the ultimate strength, the procedures for estimating its value at a particular confidence level is well defined if the measured values follow a normal or a log-normal distribution. Namely, based upon the number of sample points and their standard deviation, a commonly-found table may be used to determine the survival percentage at a particular confidence level with respect to its mean value. The same is true for fatigue data at a constant stress level (the number of cycles to failure N at stress level S{sub 1}). However, when the stress level is allowed to vary, as with a typical S-N fatigue curve, the procedures for determining confidence limits are not as well defined. This paper outlines techniques for determining confidence limits of fatigue data. Different approaches to estimating the 95/95 level are compared. Data from the MSU/DOE and the FACT fatigue databases are used to illustrate typical results.

  14. Conceptualising Animal Abuse with an Antisocial Behaviour Framework

    PubMed Central

    Gullone, Eleonora

    2011-01-01

    Simple Summary There is increasing acceptance of the links between animal abuse and aggressive or antisocial behaviours toward humans. Nevertheless, researchers and other professionals continue to call for methodologically sound empirical research amongst claims that current animal abuse research is methodologically limited. Below, I argue that current conceptualizations of antisocial and aggressive human behavior logically incorporate animal abuse. Given that the body of empirical evidence available to support of theories of antisocial and aggressive behaviour is large and sound, conceptualization of animal abuse as an aggressive behaviour rather than a behaviour that is somehow different, enables us to confidently promote putting current understanding into practice. Abstract This paper reviews current findings in the human aggression and antisocial behaviour literature and those in the animal abuse literature with the aim of highlighting the overlap in conceptualisation. The major aim of this review is to highlight that the co-occurrence between animal abuse behaviours and aggression and violence toward humans can be logically understood through examination of the research evidence for antisocial and aggressive behaviour. From examination through this framework, it is not at all surprising that the two co-occur. Indeed, it would be surprising if they did not. Animal abuse is one expression of antisocial behaviour. What is also known from the extensive antisocial behaviour literature is that antisocial behaviours co-occur such that the presence of one form of antisocial behaviour is highly predictive of the presence of other antisocial behaviours. From such a framework, it becomes evident that animal abuse should be considered an important indicator of antisocial behaviour and violence as are other aggressive and antisocial behaviours. The implications of such a stance are that law enforcement, health and other professionals should not minimize the presence of

  15. Academic dishonesty in Indian medical colleges.

    PubMed

    Gitanjali, B

    2004-01-01

    Integrity is a necessary attribute expected in practitioners of medicine. Unfortunately there is evidence on hand that academic dishonesty is widely prevalent in many Indian medical colleges and that a proportion of students seem to think that there is nothing wrong in participating in such acts. This practice needs to be discouraged as those indulging in unethical acts during student days are likely to indulge in similar practices while dealing with their patients. It is, therefore, necessary that teachers in medical colleges show 'zero tolerance' to such acts. There is a need for faculty and administrators to be above board in their actions and be role models for ethical behaviour. Hence, acts of academic misconduct committed by faculty and administrators should also be dealt with quickly, fairly and firmly. A milieu of transparency, fairness and student awareness will go a long way in minimizing this pervasive malady. PMID:15623972

  16. Substance-Related Knowledge, Attitude, and Behaviour among College Students: Opportunities for Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heckman, Carolyn J.; Dykstra, Jennifer L.; Collins, Bradley N.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine substance-related attitudes and behaviours among college students across an academic semester. Design: Pre-post quasi-experimental survey design. Setting: A large University in the Midwestern United States. Method: Surveys were completed by 299 undergraduates enrolled in three courses: drugs and behaviour, abnormal…

  17. Teacher Behaviours Observed by Teacher Candidates throughout Their Primary and Secondary School Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Güven, Semra

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the positive/negative teacher behaviours which teacher candidates observed during their primary and secondary school years and the effects of these behaviours on themselves. The research was conducted in the spring term of 2012-2013 academic year with 88 teacher candidates (52 females and 36 males), studying…

  18. Teachers' Perceptions of Classroom Behaviour and Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alloway, Tracy Packiam

    2012-01-01

    Working memory, ability to remember and manipulate information, is crucial to academic attainment. The aim of the present study was to understand teachers' perception of working memory and how it impacts classroom behaviour. A semi-structured interview was used to explore teachers' ability to define working memory, identify these difficulties in…

  19. A Non-Linear Model of Information Seeking Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Allen

    2005-01-01

    Introduction:The results of a study of information seeking behaviour of inter-disciplinary academic and postgraduate researchers are reported. Method. The study applied the naturalistic methods recommended by Lincoln and Guba for maximising credibility, transferability, dependability, and confirmability in data collection and analysis. Sampling…

  20. An Academic Curriculum Will Close the Academic Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palumbo, Anthony; Kramer-Vida, Louisa

    2012-01-01

    America's unyielding academic achievement gap has been a national priority for a long time; yet, some schools have succeeded with academically disadvantaged youth. Usually, these institutions embrace a culture of success and follow an academic curriculum that is grounded in core knowledge and scholastic vocabulary. Academically disadvantaged…

  1. Academic Capitalism and Academic Culture: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendoza, Pilar; Berger, Joseph B.

    2008-01-01

    This case study investigated the impact of academic capitalism on academic culture by examining the perspectives of faculty members in an American academic department with significant industrial funding. The results of this study indicate that faculty members believe that the broad integrity of the academic culture remains unaffected in this…

  2. Parenting Confidence and Needs for Parents of Newborns in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Ching-Pyng; Chuang, Hsiao-Ling; Lee, Shu-Hsin; Liao, Wen-Chun; Chang, Li-Yu; Lee, Meng-Chih

    2012-01-01

    Objective Parenting confidence with regards to caring for their infants is crucial for the healthy adaptation to parenthood and the development of positive parent-infant relationships. The postpartum period is a tremendous transitional time for parents, so their unique needs should be considered. This study explored parenting confidence and needs in parents when their newborns are discharged from hospital, and explored the best predictors of parenting confidence and needs. Methods A cross-sectional design with a questionnaire survey was used in this study. The questionnaire included three parts: Demographic, Parenting Needs and Parenting Confidence Questionnaire. We survey a convenience sample of 96 parents from a postnatal ward and a neonatal intermediate care unit of the medical central hospital in Taichung, Taiwan. Findings The mean age of the subjects was 32 years and 67.7% of the subjects’ education level was college or above. Approximately one half of the subjects was multiparous, vaginal delivery and had planned pregnancy. The mean gestational age and birth weight of the newborns was 37.7 weeks and 2902 g, respectively. Parents who had a planned pregnancy (t=2.1, P=0.04) or preterm infants (t=2.0, P=0.046) and those whose infants were delivered by cesarean section (t=2.2, P=0.03) had higher parenting needs. In addition, parents of low birth weight infants had higher parenting needs (r=-0.23, P=0.02). Regarding parenting confidence, multipara parents perceived higher confidence than primipara parents (t=2.9, P=0.005). Needs in psychosocial support were significantly correlated with parenting confidence (r=0.21, P<0.05). The stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that parity and needs in psychosocial support predict parenting confidence of 13.8% variance. Conclusion The findings of this study help care providers to identify parents with low parenting confidence at an early postpartum stage. Health care teams should provide appropriate psychosocial

  3. Market Confidence Predicts Stock Price: Beyond Supply and Demand.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiao-Qian; Shen, Hua-Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi; Zhang, Yuqing

    2016-01-01

    Stock price prediction is an important and challenging problem in stock market analysis. Existing prediction methods either exploit autocorrelation of stock price and its correlation with the supply and demand of stock, or explore predictive indictors exogenous to stock market. In this paper, using transaction record of stocks with identifier of traders, we introduce an index to characterize market confidence, i.e., the ratio of the number of traders who is active in two successive trading days to the number of active traders in a certain trading day. Strong Granger causality is found between the index of market confidence and stock price. We further predict stock price by incorporating the index of market confidence into a neural network based on time series of stock price. Experimental results on 50 stocks in two Chinese Stock Exchanges demonstrate that the accuracy of stock price prediction is significantly improved by the inclusion of the market confidence index. This study sheds light on using cross-day trading behavior to characterize market confidence and to predict stock price. PMID:27391816

  4. Emotor control: computations underlying bodily resource allocation, emotions, and confidence.

    PubMed

    Kepecs, Adam; Mensh, Brett D

    2015-12-01

    Emotional processes are central to behavior, yet their deeply subjective nature has been a challenge for neuroscientific study as well as for psychiatric diagnosis. Here we explore the relationships between subjective feelings and their underlying brain circuits from a computational perspective. We apply recent insights from systems neuroscience-approaching subjective behavior as the result of mental computations instantiated in the brain-to the study of emotions. We develop the hypothesis that emotions are the product of neural computations whose motor role is to reallocate bodily resources mostly gated by smooth muscles. This "emotor" control system is analagous to the more familiar motor control computations that coordinate skeletal muscle movements. To illustrate this framework, we review recent research on "confidence." Although familiar as a feeling, confidence is also an objective statistical quantity: an estimate of the probability that a hypothesis is correct. This model-based approach helped reveal the neural basis of decision confidence in mammals and provides a bridge to the subjective feeling of confidence in humans. These results have important implications for psychiatry, since disorders of confidence computations appear to contribute to a number of psychopathologies. More broadly, this computational approach to emotions resonates with the emerging view that psychiatric nosology may be best parameterized in terms of disorders of the cognitive computations underlying complex behavior. PMID:26869840

  5. Characteristics of successful opinion leaders in a bounded confidence model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shuwei; Glass, David H.; McCartney, Mark

    2016-05-01

    This paper analyses the impact of competing opinion leaders on attracting followers in a social group based on a bounded confidence model in terms of four characteristics: reputation, stubbornness, appeal and extremeness. In the model, reputation differs among leaders and normal agents based on the weights assigned to them, stubbornness of leaders is reflected by their confidence towards normal agents, appeal of the leaders is represented by the confidence of followers towards them, and extremeness is captured by the opinion values of leaders. Simulations show that increasing reputation, stubbornness or extremeness makes it more difficult for the group to achieve consensus, but increasing the appeal will make it easier. The results demonstrate that successful opinion leaders should generally be less stubborn, have greater appeal and be less extreme in order to attract more followers in a competing environment. Furthermore, the number of followers can be very sensitive to small changes in these characteristics. On the other hand, reputation has a more complicated impact: higher reputation helps the leader to attract more followers when the group bound of confidence is high, but can hinder the leader from attracting followers when the group bound of confidence is low.

  6. Assessment of biomedical knowledge according to confidence criteria.

    PubMed

    Jilani, Ines; Grabar, Natalia; Meneton, Pierre; Jaulent, Marie-Christine

    2008-01-01

    The characterisation of biomedical knowledge taking into account the degree of confidence expressed in texts, is an important issue in the biomedical domain. The authors of scientific texts use grammatical and lexical devices to qualify their assertions. We named these markers of qualification "confidence markers". We present here the results of our efforts to collect confidence markers from full texts and abstracts, to classify them on the basis of semantics, and their use within our knowledge extraction system. We propose in this study, an implementation of these confidence markers for functional annotation of the human gene Apolipoprotein (APOE) thought to be involved in Alzheimer's disease. As a result, we obtain, through the extraction system, triplets: (G, F, PMID), in which G is the gene APOE, F is its function found in texts and the PMID of the article from which this knowledge was extracted. Moreover, a spatial 3D of the triplets, relative to each other, is proposed depending on their respective confidence degree. PMID:18487731

  7. Emotor control: computations underlying bodily resource allocation, emotions, and confidence

    PubMed Central

    Kepecs, Adam; Mensh, Brett D.

    2015-01-01

    Emotional processes are central to behavior, yet their deeply subjective nature has been a challenge for neuroscientific study as well as for psychiatric diagnosis. Here we explore the relationships between subjective feelings and their underlying brain circuits from a computational perspective. We apply recent insights from systems neuroscience—approaching subjective behavior as the result of mental computations instantiated in the brain—to the study of emotions. We develop the hypothesis that emotions are the product of neural computations whose motor role is to reallocate bodily resources mostly gated by smooth muscles. This “emotor” control system is analagous to the more familiar motor control computations that coordinate skeletal muscle movements. To illustrate this framework, we review recent research on “confidence.” Although familiar as a feeling, confidence is also an objective statistical quantity: an estimate of the probability that a hypothesis is correct. This model-based approach helped reveal the neural basis of decision confidence in mammals and provides a bridge to the subjective feeling of confidence in humans. These results have important implications for psychiatry, since disorders of confidence computations appear to contribute to a number of psychopathologies. More broadly, this computational approach to emotions resonates with the emerging view that psychiatric nosology may be best parameterized in terms of disorders of the cognitive computations underlying complex behavior. PMID:26869840

  8. Alternative Confidence Interval Methods Used in the Diagnostic Accuracy Studies

    PubMed Central

    Gülhan, Orekıcı Temel

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim. It is necessary to decide whether the newly improved methods are better than the standard or reference test or not. To decide whether the new diagnostics test is better than the gold standard test/imperfect standard test, the differences of estimated sensitivity/specificity are calculated with the help of information obtained from samples. However, to generalize this value to the population, it should be given with the confidence intervals. The aim of this study is to evaluate the confidence interval methods developed for the differences between the two dependent sensitivity/specificity values on a clinical application. Materials and Methods. In this study, confidence interval methods like Asymptotic Intervals, Conditional Intervals, Unconditional Interval, Score Intervals, and Nonparametric Methods Based on Relative Effects Intervals are used. Besides, as clinical application, data used in diagnostics study by Dickel et al. (2010) has been taken as a sample. Results. The results belonging to the alternative confidence interval methods for Nickel Sulfate, Potassium Dichromate, and Lanolin Alcohol are given as a table. Conclusion. While preferring the confidence interval methods, the researchers have to consider whether the case to be compared is single ratio or dependent binary ratio differences, the correlation coefficient between the rates in two dependent ratios and the sample sizes. PMID:27478491

  9. New graduate nurses' experiences about lack of professional confidence.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Jennifer

    2016-07-01

    Professional confidence is an essential trait for new graduate nurses to possess in order to provide quality patient care in today's complex hospital setting. However, many new graduates are entering the workforce without it and this remains to be explored. This study describes how new graduate nurses accounted for their lack of professional confidence upon entry into professional practice and how it developed during their first year of practice in the hospital setting. Two face-to-face, individual interviews of 12 participants were utilized to capture the lived experiences of new graduate nurses to gain an understanding of this phenomenon. After manual content analysis seven themes emerged: communication is huge, making mistakes, disconnect between school and practice, independence, relationship building, positive feedback is important, and gaining experience. The findings indicate that the development of professional confidence is a dynamic process that occurs throughout the first year of practice. New graduate nurses must experience both positive and negative circumstances in order to move toward the attainment of professional confidence. Knowing this, nurse educators in academia as well as in the hospital setting may better support the development of professional confidence both before and during the first year of practice. PMID:27428687

  10. Market Confidence Predicts Stock Price: Beyond Supply and Demand

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiao-Qian; Shen, Hua-Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi; Zhang, Yuqing

    2016-01-01

    Stock price prediction is an important and challenging problem in stock market analysis. Existing prediction methods either exploit autocorrelation of stock price and its correlation with the supply and demand of stock, or explore predictive indictors exogenous to stock market. In this paper, using transaction record of stocks with identifier of traders, we introduce an index to characterize market confidence, i.e., the ratio of the number of traders who is active in two successive trading days to the number of active traders in a certain trading day. Strong Granger causality is found between the index of market confidence and stock price. We further predict stock price by incorporating the index of market confidence into a neural network based on time series of stock price. Experimental results on 50 stocks in two Chinese Stock Exchanges demonstrate that the accuracy of stock price prediction is significantly improved by the inclusion of the market confidence index. This study sheds light on using cross-day trading behavior to characterize market confidence and to predict stock price. PMID:27391816

  11. Confidence intervals for the symmetry point: an optimal cutpoint in continuous diagnostic tests.

    PubMed

    López-Ratón, Mónica; Cadarso-Suárez, Carmen; Molanes-López, Elisa M; Letón, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    Continuous diagnostic tests are often used for discriminating between healthy and diseased populations. For this reason, it is useful to select an appropriate discrimination threshold. There are several optimality criteria: the North-West corner, the Youden index, the concordance probability and the symmetry point, among others. In this paper, we focus on the symmetry point that maximizes simultaneously the two types of correct classifications. We construct confidence intervals for this optimal cutpoint and its associated specificity and sensitivity indexes using two approaches: one based on the generalized pivotal quantity and the other on empirical likelihood. We perform a simulation study to check the practical behaviour of both methods and illustrate their use by means of three real biomedical datasets on melanoma, prostate cancer and coronary artery disease. PMID:26756550

  12. Investigating students' academic numeracy in 1st level university courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galligan, Linda; Hobohm, Carola

    2015-06-01

    This paper investigates how an online test (`Self-Test' developed at the University of Southern Queensland) can enrich students' understanding of their academic numeracy, through a purpose-built, self-assessment tool aligned with online modules. Since its creation and evaluation, the tool has been developed and tailored to suit other first year courses based around an academic numeracy framework of competence, confidence and critical awareness (Galligan 2013a). This paper will highlight how the new Self-Test is underpinned by this framework and how students' levels of numeracy can be better understood by the lecturer through Self-Test in a first year nursing for numeracy course and a maths for teachers course. It particularly addresses over- and under-confidence, error analysis and students' reflective comments, and how this understanding can better inform course development and teaching.

  13. Academics explore humidity's benefits.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, Dave

    2008-11-01

    The effects of humidification on hospital superbugs are being explored by some of the UK's top academics, in what Dave Mortimer, national sales manager for Vapac Humidity Control, explains are the UK's first such studies. PMID:19044148

  14. Resources for Academic Advising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Virginia N.

    1995-01-01

    A variety of resources available to assist college faculty in academic advising tasks are listed, including books, professional journals, annotated bibliographies, reports, monographs, conferences, and organizations. Some items are annotated. Addresses are provided for organizations. (MSE)

  15. Women in Academic Medicine.

    PubMed

    Thibault, George E

    2016-08-01

    More than a decade ago, women achieved parity with men in the number of matriculants to medical school, nearly one-third of the faculty of medical schools were women, and there were some women deans and department chairs. These trends were promising, but today there are still significant differences in pay, academic rank, and leadership positions for women compared with men in academic medicine. Though there has been progress in many areas, the progress is too slow to achieve previously recommended goals, such as 50% women department chairs by 2025 and 50% women deans by 2030.The author points to the findings presented in the articles from the Research Partnership on Women in Biomedical Careers in this issue, as well as research being published elsewhere, as an evidence base for the ongoing discussion of gender equity in academic medicine. More attention to culture and the working environment will be needed to achieve true parity for women in academic medical careers. PMID:27306968

  16. Academic Bankruptcy by Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Arthur D.

    1986-01-01

    The advantages and requirements for offering a second chance to students who have failed, by forgiving a poor academic record, are discussed and supported by findings from a survey of institutions and the results of several experimental programs. (MSE)

  17. Perspectives on academic dishonesty.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, M J; Lowenstein, A J

    1990-01-01

    Academic dishonest behaviors, such as lying, cheating, and plagiarism, are destructive and must be recognized and addressed early in the development of professional nurses. Faculty must be concerned with the relationship between student integrity in the classroom and clinical or professional behaviors. The authors discuss student motivation and attitudes toward unethical practices, faculty responses, and responsibilities when these incidents arise, and strategies for preventing academic dishonesty. PMID:2216065

  18. The Rewards of Academic Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Christina

    2003-01-01

    Recent studies of academic leadership confirm what many academic leaders know from personal experience: academic leadership is a complex and demanding role with significant stress and high burnout and turnover rates (Brown, 2002; Brown and Moshavi, 2002). In the light of these issues, an exploration of the nature of academic leadership and its…

  19. Academic Freedom and Organisational Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, William G.

    2001-01-01

    Summarizes prominent current arguments on academic freedom's endangerment by managerialism and discusses their limitations. Defines a new vision of academic freedom informed by thinking on globalization. Presents findings from interviews with Australian faculty about academic freedom and discusses ways to ensure that academic freedom endures in…

  20. The Scholarship of Academic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggins, Heather, Ed.; Macdonald, Ranald, Ed.

    The selections in this book address the concept and nature of academic development and examine research into and within the field. Following an introduction, "Developing a Scholarship of Academic Development: Setting the Context," by Ranald Macdonald, the chapters of part 1, "Conceptualizing Academic Development," are: (2) "Academic Development: A…

  1. Academic Writing and Tacit Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elton, Lewis

    2010-01-01

    The genre of academic writing is discipline dependent, so that neither specialists in academic writing nor practising academics in a discipline can, independently of each other, provide students with the necessary help to develop the ability to write in their academic disciplines. Furthermore, the rules are largely tacit, i.e. they are not…

  2. Identifying Determinants of Academic Selfconfidence among Science, Math, Engineering, and Technology Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Penelope M.; Brainard, Suzanne G.

    This study attempts to identify determinants of the gender gap in science, math, engineering, and technology (SMET) students’ levels of self-confidence in math, science, and overall academic ability. Results from multivariate regression analyses of 336 undergraduate engineering majors at the University of Washington (UW) who completed the Engineering Student Experience Survey point to perceived respect from professors as the strongest determinant of female academic self-confidence, whereas the perceived quality of teaching is the strongest predictor among male students. Results from multivariate regression analyses of the Undergraduate Retention Study, a longitudinal study of nine cohorts of female undergraduates interested in SMET study at UW, support the finding that female students’ selfconfidence levels tend more than those of male students to be influenced by external factors. Analyses also reveal the determinants of math self-confidence to be different from factors that determine science self-confidence. These factors are found to vary by class level as well.

  3. Manipulation of body odour alters men's self-confidence and judgements of their visual attractiveness by women.

    PubMed

    Craig Roberts, S; Little, A C; Lyndon, A; Roberts, J; Havlicek, J; Wright, R L

    2009-02-01

    Human body odour is important in modulating self-perception and interactions between individuals. Artificial fragrances have been used for thousands of years to manipulate personal odour, but the nature and extent of influences on person perception are relatively unexplored. Here we test the effects of a double-blind manipulation of personal odour on self-confidence and behaviour. We gave to male participants either an aerosol spray containing a formulation of fragrance and antimicrobial agents or an otherwise identical spray that lacked these active ingredients. Over several days, we found effects between treatment groups on psychometric self-confidence and self-perceived attractiveness. Furthermore, although there was no difference between groups in mean attractiveness ratings of men's photographs by a female panel, the same women judged men using the active spray as more attractive in video-clips, suggesting a behavioural difference between the groups. Attractiveness of an individual male's non-verbal behaviour, independent of structural facial features, was predicted by the men's self-reported proclivity towards the provided deodorant. Our results demonstrate the pervasive influence of personal odour on self-perception, and how this can extend to impressions on others even when these impressions are formed in the absence of odour cues. PMID:19134127

  4. Confidence region estimation techniques for nonlinear regression :three case studies.

    SciTech Connect

    Swiler, Laura Painton (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Sullivan, Sean P. (University of Texas, Austin, TX); Stucky-Mack, Nicholas J. (Harvard University, Cambridge, MA); Roberts, Randall Mark; Vugrin, Kay White

    2005-10-01

    This work focuses on different methods to generate confidence regions for nonlinear parameter identification problems. Three methods for confidence region estimation are considered: a linear approximation method, an F-test method, and a Log-Likelihood method. Each of these methods are applied to three case studies. One case study is a problem with synthetic data, and the other two case studies identify hydraulic parameters in groundwater flow problems based on experimental well-test results. The confidence regions for each case study are analyzed and compared. Although the F-test and Log-Likelihood methods result in similar regions, there are differences between these regions and the regions generated by the linear approximation method for nonlinear problems. The differing results, capabilities, and drawbacks of all three methods are discussed.

  5. Does mood influence the realism of confidence judgments?

    PubMed

    Allwood, Carl Martin; Granhag, Pär Anders; Jonsson, Anna-Carin

    2002-07-01

    Previous research has shown that mood affects cognition, but the extent to which mood affects meta-cognitive judgments is a relatively over-looked issue. In the current study we investigated how mood influences the degree of realism in participants' confidence judgments (based on an episodic memory task). Using music and film in combination, we successfully induced an elated mood in half of the participants, but failed to induce a sad mood in the other half. In line with previous research, the participants in both conditions were overconfident in their judgments. However, and contrary to our prediction, our data indicated that there was no difference in the realism of the confidence between the conditions. When relating this result to previous research, our conclusion is that there is no, or very little, influence of mood of moderate intensity on the realism of confidence judgments. PMID:12184480

  6. Assessing recognition memory using confidence ratings and response times.

    PubMed

    Weidemann, Christoph T; Kahana, Michael J

    2016-04-01

    Classification of stimuli into categories (such as 'old' and 'new' in tests of recognition memory or 'present' versus 'absent' in signal detection tasks) requires the mapping of internal signals to discrete responses. Introspective judgements about a given choice response are regularly employed in research, legal and clinical settings in an effort to measure the signal that is thought to be the basis of the classification decision. Correlations between introspective judgements and task performance suggest that such ratings often do convey information about internal states that are relevant for a given task, but well-known limitations of introspection call the fidelity of this information into question. We investigated to what extent response times can reveal information usually assessed with explicit confidence ratings. We quantitatively compared response times to confidence ratings in their ability to qualify recognition memory decisions and found convergent results suggesting that much of the information from confidence ratings can be obtained from response times. PMID:27152209

  7. Golfers have better balance control and confidence than healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Gao, Kelly L; Hui-Chan, Christina W Y; Tsang, William W N

    2011-11-01

    In a well-executed golf swing, golfers must maintain good balance and precise control of posture. Golfing also requires prolonged walking over uneven ground such as a hilly course. Therefore, repeated golf practice may enhance balance control and confidence in the golfers. The objective is to investigate whether older golfers had better balance control and confidence than non-golfing older, healthy adults. This is a cross-sectional study, conducted at a University-based rehabilitation center. Eleven golfers and 12 control subjects (all male; mean age: 66.2 ± 6.8 and 71.3 ± 6.6 years, respectively) were recruited. Two balance control tests were administered: (1) functional reach test which measured subjects' maximum forward distance in standing; (2) sensory organization test (SOT) which examined subjects' abilities to use somatosensory, visual, and vestibular inputs to control body sway during stance. The modified Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) determined subject's balance confidence in daily activities. The golfers were found to achieve significantly longer distance in the functional reach test than controls. They manifested significantly better balance than controls in the visual ratio and vestibular ratio, but not the somatosensory ratio of the SOT. The golfers also reported significantly higher balance confidence score ratios. Furthermore, older adults' modified ABC score ratios showed positive correlations with functional reach, visual and vestibular ratios, but not with somatosensory ratio. Golfing is an activity which may enhance both the physical and psychological aspects of balance control. Significant correlations between these measures reveal the importance of the balance control under reduced or conflicting sensory conditions in older adults' balance confidence in their daily activities. Since cause-and-effect could not be established in the present cross-sectional study, further prospective intervention design is warranted. PMID

  8. Fast and Accurate Construction of Confidence Intervals for Heritability.

    PubMed

    Schweiger, Regev; Kaufman, Shachar; Laaksonen, Reijo; Kleber, Marcus E; März, Winfried; Eskin, Eleazar; Rosset, Saharon; Halperin, Eran

    2016-06-01

    Estimation of heritability is fundamental in genetic studies. Recently, heritability estimation using linear mixed models (LMMs) has gained popularity because these estimates can be obtained from unrelated individuals collected in genome-wide association studies. Typically, heritability estimation under LMMs uses the restricted maximum likelihood (REML) approach. Existing methods for the construction of confidence intervals and estimators of SEs for REML rely on asymptotic properties. However, these assumptions are often violated because of the bounded parameter space, statistical dependencies, and limited sample size, leading to biased estimates and inflated or deflated confidence intervals. Here, we show that the estimation of confidence intervals by state-of-the-art methods is inaccurate, especially when the true heritability is relatively low or relatively high. We further show that these inaccuracies occur in datasets including thousands of individuals. Such biases are present, for example, in estimates of heritability of gene expression in the Genotype-Tissue Expression project and of lipid profiles in the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health study. We also show that often the probability that the genetic component is estimated as 0 is high even when the true heritability is bounded away from 0, emphasizing the need for accurate confidence intervals. We propose a computationally efficient method, ALBI (accurate LMM-based heritability bootstrap confidence intervals), for estimating the distribution of the heritability estimator and for constructing accurate confidence intervals. Our method can be used as an add-on to existing methods for estimating heritability and variance components, such as GCTA, FaST-LMM, GEMMA, or EMMAX. PMID:27259052

  9. Sparse Multidimensional Patient Modeling using Auxiliary Confidence Labels

    PubMed Central

    Heim, Eric; Hauskrecht, Milos

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we focus on the problem of learning a classification model that performs inference on patient Electronic Health Records (EHRs). Often, a large amount of costly expert supervision is required to learn such a model. To reduce this cost, we obtain confidence labels that indicate how sure an expert is in the class labels she provides. If meaningful confidence information can be incorporated into a learning method, fewer patient instances may need to be labeled to learn an accurate model. In addition, while accuracy of predictions is important for any inference model, a model of patients must be interpretable so that clinicians can understand how the model is making decisions. To these ends, we develop a novel metric learning method called Confidence bAsed MEtric Learning (CAMEL) that supports inclusion of confidence labels, but also emphasizes interpretability in three ways. First, our method induces sparsity, thus producing simple models that use only a few features from patient EHRs. Second, CAMEL naturally produces confidence scores that can be taken into consideration when clinicians make treatment decisions. Third, the metrics learned by CAMEL induce multidimensional spaces where each dimension represents a different “factor” that clinicians can use to assess patients. In our experimental evaluation, we show on a real-world clinical data set that our CAMEL methods are able to learn models that are as or more accurate as other methods that use the same supervision. Furthermore, we show that when CAMEL uses confidence scores it is able to learn models as or more accurate as others we tested while using only 10% of the training instances. Finally, we perform qualitative assessments on the metrics learned by CAMEL and show that they identify and clearly articulate important factors in how the model performs inference. PMID:26949568

  10. Confidence intervals for concentration and brightness from fluorescence fluctuation measurements.

    PubMed

    Pryse, Kenneth M; Rong, Xi; Whisler, Jordan A; McConnaughey, William B; Jiang, Yan-Fei; Melnykov, Artem V; Elson, Elliot L; Genin, Guy M

    2012-09-01

    The theory of photon count histogram (PCH) analysis describes the distribution of fluorescence fluctuation amplitudes due to populations of fluorophores diffusing through a focused laser beam and provides a rigorous framework through which the brightnesses and concentrations of the fluorophores can be determined. In practice, however, the brightnesses and concentrations of only a few components can be identified. Brightnesses and concentrations are determined by a nonlinear least-squares fit of a theoretical model to the experimental PCH derived from a record of fluorescence intensity fluctuations. The χ(2) hypersurface in the neighborhood of the optimum parameter set can have varying degrees of curvature, due to the intrinsic curvature of the model, the specific parameter values of the system under study, and the relative noise in the data. Because of this varying curvature, parameters estimated from the least-squares analysis have varying degrees of uncertainty associated with them. There are several methods for assigning confidence intervals to the parameters, but these methods have different efficacies for PCH data. Here, we evaluate several approaches to confidence interval estimation for PCH data, including asymptotic standard error, likelihood joint-confidence region, likelihood confidence intervals, skew-corrected and accelerated bootstrap (BCa), and Monte Carlo residual resampling methods. We study these with a model two-dimensional membrane system for simplicity, but the principles are applicable as well to fluorophores diffusing in three-dimensional solution. Using simulated fluorescence fluctuation data, we find the BCa method to be particularly well-suited for estimating confidence intervals in PCH analysis, and several other methods to be less so. Using the BCa method and additional simulated fluctuation data, we find that confidence intervals can be reduced dramatically for a specific non-Gaussian beam profile. PMID:23009839

  11. Calibrated Peer Review Essays Increase Confidence in Self-assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Likkel, Lauren

    2006-12-01

    We studied the effect of the web-based tool “Calibrated Peer Review” ™ on student confidence in their ability to recognize the quality of their own work. CPR can be used in large enrollment classes to allow a controlled peer review of moderate length student essays. We expected that teaching students how to grade an essay and having them grade their own work would increase confidence in assessing the quality of their own essays, and the results support this. Three introductory astronomy classes participated in this study during 2005 at the University of Wisconsin Eau Claire, a four year university. Four essays were assigned in both the experimental class (104 students) and the control classes (34 students). In the comparison classes, the student was given a score on the essay and perhaps a few written comments. The experimental group used the CPR tool, in which they are taught how to evaluate the essay, evaluate assignments written by peers, and evaluate their own essay. Three survey questions were used to characterize the change in confidence level in ability to assess their own work. The survey results from a survey at the end of the semester were compared to results from the same survey administered at the beginning of the semester. A measurable effect on the average confidence level of the experimental class was found. By the final survey, significantly more of the CPR students had changed to a more positive statement in indicating their confidence in evaluating their own written work. There was no effect seen on the classes that wrote essays but did not use the CPR system, showing that this result is due to using the CPR system for the essays, not just writing essays or becoming more confident during the course of the semester.

  12. The effect of terrorism on public confidence : an exploratory study.

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, M. S.; Baldwin, T. E.; Samsa, M. E.; Ramaprasad, A.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2008-10-31

    A primary goal of terrorism is to instill a sense of fear and vulnerability in a population and to erode confidence in government and law enforcement agencies to protect citizens against future attacks. In recognition of its importance, the Department of Homeland Security includes public confidence as one of the metrics it uses to assess the consequences of terrorist attacks. Hence, several factors--including a detailed understanding of the variations in public confidence among individuals, by type of terrorist event, and as a function of time--are critical to developing this metric. In this exploratory study, a questionnaire was designed, tested, and administered to small groups of individuals to measure public confidence in the ability of federal, state, and local governments and their public safety agencies to prevent acts of terrorism. Data were collected from the groups before and after they watched mock television news broadcasts portraying a smallpox attack, a series of suicide bomber attacks, a refinery bombing, and cyber intrusions on financial institutions that resulted in identity theft and financial losses. Our findings include the following: (a) the subjects can be classified into at least three distinct groups on the basis of their baseline outlook--optimistic, pessimistic, and unaffected; (b) the subjects make discriminations in their interpretations of an event on the basis of the nature of a terrorist attack, the time horizon, and its impact; (c) the recovery of confidence after a terrorist event has an incubation period and typically does not return to its initial level in the long-term; (d) the patterns of recovery of confidence differ between the optimists and the pessimists; and (e) individuals are able to associate a monetary value with a loss or gain in confidence, and the value associated with a loss is greater than the value associated with a gain. These findings illustrate the importance the public places in their confidence in government

  13. Comparison of confidence procedures for type I censored exponential lifetimes.

    PubMed

    Sundberg, R

    2001-12-01

    In the model of type I censored exponential lifetimes, coverage probabilities are compared for a number of confidence interval constructions proposed in literature. The coverage probabilities are calculated exactly for sample sizes up to 50 and for different degrees of censoring and different degrees of intended confidence. If not only a fair two-sided coverage is desired, but also fair one-sided coverages, only few methods are quite satisfactory. A likelihood-based interval and a third root transformation to normality work almost perfectly, but the chi 2-based method that is perfect under no censoring and under type II censoring can also be advocated. PMID:11763546

  14. An approach for Web service selection based on confidence level of decision maker.

    PubMed

    Khezrian, Mojtaba; Jahan, Ali; Kadir, Wan Mohd Nasir Wan; Ibrahim, Suhaimi

    2014-01-01

    Web services today are among the most widely used groups for Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). Service selection is one of the most significant current discussions in SOA, which evaluates discovered services and chooses the best candidate from them. Although a majority of service selection techniques apply Quality of Service (QoS), the behaviour of QoS-based service selection leads to service selection problems in Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM). In the existing works, the confidence level of decision makers is neglected and does not consider their expertise in assessing Web services. In this paper, we employ the VIKOR (VIšekriterijumskoKOmpromisnoRangiranje) method, which is absent in the literature for service selection, but is well-known in other research. We propose a QoS-based approach that deals with service selection by applying VIKOR with improvement of features. This research determines the weights of criteria based on user preference and accounts for the confidence level of decision makers. The proposed approach is illustrated by an example in order to demonstrate and validate the model. The results of this research may facilitate service consumers to attain a more efficient decision when selecting the appropriate service. PMID:24897426

  15. "When in Rome, do as the Romans do" Do International Students' Acculturation Attitudes Impact Their Ethical Academic Conduct?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafaei, Azadeh; Nejati, Mehran; Quazi, Ali; von der Heidt, Tania

    2016-01-01

    International students undertaking higher education in foreign countries bring with them some perceived beliefs about academic conduct. These beliefs are often in contrast with the host countries' academic practices, which may generate confusion and frustration among international students, affecting their learning behaviours. As a consequence of…

  16. Reputational Risk, Academic Freedom and Research Ethics Review

    PubMed Central

    Hedgecoe, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on scholarship around academic freedom and new public management, this article explores the way in which research ethics committees in UK universities (URECs) can come to exhibit behaviour – common in their US equivalents – that prioritises the reputational protection of their host institution over and above academic freedom and the protection of research subjects. Drawing on two case studies the article shows both how URECs can serve to restrict research that may be ‘embarrassing’ for a university and how, in high profile cases, university management come to use such committees as mechanisms for internal discipline. PMID:27330226

  17. Signatures of a Statistical Computation in the Human Sense of Confidence.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Joshua I; Hangya, Balázs; Kepecs, Adam

    2016-05-01

    Human confidence judgments are thought to originate from metacognitive processes that provide a subjective assessment about one's beliefs. Alternatively, confidence is framed in mathematics as an objective statistical quantity: the probability that a chosen hypothesis is correct. Despite similar terminology, it remains unclear whether the subjective feeling of confidence is related to the objective, statistical computation of confidence. To address this, we collected confidence reports from humans performing perceptual and knowledge-based psychometric decision tasks. We observed two counterintuitive patterns relating confidence to choice and evidence: apparent overconfidence in choices based on uninformative evidence, and decreasing confidence with increasing evidence strength for erroneous choices. We show that these patterns lawfully arise from statistical confidence, and therefore occur even for perfectly calibrated confidence measures. Furthermore, statistical confidence quantitatively accounted for human confidence in our tasks without necessitating heuristic operations. Accordingly, we suggest that the human feeling of confidence originates from a mental computation of statistical confidence. PMID:27151640

  18. Technology in Teaching: Just How Confident Are Preservice Teachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molebash, Philip; Milman, Natalie

    This paper examines the effectiveness of increasing the confidence of preservice teachers in using technology for personal and instructional purposes as a result of participating in an introductory educational technology course offered at the University of Virginia's Curry School of Education. Course participants attended sections designed for…

  19. Confidence bands for measured economically optimal nitrogen rates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While numerous researchers have computed economically optimal N rate (EONR) values from measured yield – N rate data, nearly all have neglected to compute or estimate the statistical reliability of these EONR values. In this study, a simple method for computing EONR and its confidence bands is descr...

  20. Finite sampling corrected 3D noise with confidence intervals.

    PubMed

    Haefner, David P; Burks, Stephen D

    2015-05-20

    When evaluated with a spatially uniform irradiance, an imaging sensor exhibits both spatial and temporal variations, which can be described as a three-dimensional (3D) random process considered as noise. In the 1990s, NVESD engineers developed an approximation to the 3D power spectral density for noise in imaging systems known as 3D noise. The goal was to decompose the 3D noise process into spatial and temporal components identify potential sources of origin. To characterize a sensor in terms of its 3D noise values, a finite number of samples in each of the three dimensions (two spatial, one temporal) were performed. In this correspondence, we developed the full sampling corrected 3D noise measurement and the corresponding confidence bounds. The accuracy of these methods was demonstrated through Monte Carlo simulations. Both the sampling correction as well as the confidence intervals can be applied a posteriori to the classic 3D noise calculation. The Matlab functions associated with this work can be found on the Mathworks file exchange ["Finite sampling corrected 3D noise with confidence intervals," https://www.mathworks.com/matlabcentral/fileexchange/49657-finite-sampling-corrected-3d-noise-with-confidence-intervals.]. PMID:26192530

  1. Gender Difference of Confidence in Using Technology for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yau, Hon Keung; Cheng, Alison Lai Fong

    2012-01-01

    Past studies have found male students to have more confidence in using technology for learning than do female students. Males tend to have more positive attitudes about the use of technology for learning than do females. According to the Women's Foundation (2006), few studies examined gender relevant research in Hong Kong. It also appears that no…

  2. Knowledge and Confidence of Speech-Language Pathologists Regarding Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Julie M.

    2010-01-01

    The increased prevalence rate of autism has immense implications for speech language pathologists (SLPs) who are directly involved in the education and service delivery for students with autism. However, few studies have documented the effectiveness of the knowledge and confidence of SLPs regarding autism. The purpose of this study was to measure…

  3. Disconnections between Teacher Expectations and Student Confidence in Bioethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanegan, Nikki L.; Price, Laura; Peterson, Jeremy

    2008-01-01

    This study examines how student practice of scientific argumentation using socioscientific bioethics issues affects both teacher expectations of students' general performance and student confidence in their own work. When teachers use bioethical issues in the classroom students can gain not only biology content knowledge but also important…

  4. Biased but in Doubt: Conflict and Decision Confidence

    PubMed Central

    De Neys, Wim; Cromheeke, Sofie; Osman, Magda

    2011-01-01

    Human reasoning is often biased by intuitive heuristics. A central question is whether the bias results from a failure to detect that the intuitions conflict with traditional normative considerations or from a failure to discard the tempting intuitions. The present study addressed this unresolved debate by using people's decision confidence as a nonverbal index of conflict detection. Participants were asked to indicate how confident they were after solving classic base-rate (Experiment 1) and conjunction fallacy (Experiment 2) problems in which a cued intuitive response could be inconsistent or consistent with the traditional correct response. Results indicated that reasoners showed a clear confidence decrease when they gave an intuitive response that conflicted with the normative response. Contrary to popular belief, this establishes that people seem to acknowledge that their intuitive answers are not fully warranted. Experiment 3 established that younger reasoners did not yet show the confidence decrease, which points to the role of improved bias awareness in our reasoning development. Implications for the long standing debate on human rationality are discussed. PMID:21283574

  5. Testing 40 Predictions from the Transtheoretical Model Again, with Confidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velicer, Wayne F.; Brick, Leslie Ann D.; Fava, Joseph L.; Prochaska, James O.

    2013-01-01

    Testing Theory-based Quantitative Predictions (TTQP) represents an alternative to traditional Null Hypothesis Significance Testing (NHST) procedures and is more appropriate for theory testing. The theory generates explicit effect size predictions and these effect size estimates, with related confidence intervals, are used to test the predictions.…

  6. Researchers Misunderstand Confidence Intervals and Standard Error Bars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belia, Sarah; Fidler, Fiona; Williams, Jennifer; Cumming, Geoff

    2005-01-01

    Little is known about researchers' understanding of confidence intervals (CIs) and standard error (SE) bars. Authors of journal articles in psychology, behavioral neuroscience, and medicine were invited to visit a Web site where they adjusted a figure until they judged 2 means, with error bars, to be just statistically significantly different (p…

  7. Analyzing Student Confidence in Classroom Voting with Multiple Choice Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Ann; Storm, Christopher; VonEpps, Lahna

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present results of a recent study in which students voted on multiple choice questions in mathematics courses of varying levels. Students used clickers to select the best answer among the choices given; in addition, they were also asked whether they were confident in their answer. In this paper we analyze data…

  8. Panel Discussion and the Development of Students' Self Confidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anwar, Khoirul

    2016-01-01

    This study is to analyze the use of panel discussion towards the development of students' self confidence in learning the content subject of qualitative research concept. The study uses mix-method in which questionnaire and interview are conducted at the class of qualitative research of the sixth semester consisting twenty students especially…

  9. Expanding Horizons--Into the Future with Confidence!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volk, Valerie

    2006-01-01

    Gifted students often show a deep interest in and profound concern for the complex issues of society. Given the leadership potential of these students and their likely responsibility for solving future social problems, they need to develop this awareness and also a sense of confidence in dealing with future issues. The Future Problem Solving…

  10. Using Online EFL Interaction to Increase Confidence, Motivation, and Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Wen-chi Vivian; Yen, Ling Ling; Marek, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Teachers of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) in Taiwan often use an outdated lecture-memorization methodology resulting in low motivation, confidence, and ability on the part of students. Innovative educators are exploring use of technology, such as videoconferences with native speakers, to enrich the classroom; however few guidelines have been…

  11. Family Background, Self-Confidence and Economic Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filippin, Antonio; Paccagnella, Marco

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the role played by self-confidence, modeled as beliefs about one's ability, in shaping task choices. We propose a model in which fully rational agents exploit all the available information to update their beliefs using Bayes' rule, eventually learning their true type. We show that when the learning process does not…

  12. Confidence Testing for Knowledge-Based Global Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jack, Brady Michael; Liu, Chia-Ju; Chiu, Houn-Lin; Shymansky, James A.

    2009-01-01

    This proposal advocates the position that the use of confidence wagering (CW) during testing can predict the accuracy of a student's test answer selection during between-subject assessments. Data revealed female students were more favorable to taking risks when making CW and less inclined toward risk aversion than their male counterparts. Student…

  13. Multiple Confidence Estimates as Indices of Eyewitness Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauer, James D.; Brewer, Neil; Weber, Nathan

    2008-01-01

    Eyewitness identification decisions are vulnerable to various influences on witnesses' decision criteria that contribute to false identifications of innocent suspects and failures to choose perpetrators. An alternative procedure using confidence estimates to assess the degree of match between novel and previously viewed faces was investigated.…

  14. 21 CFR 26.37 - Confidence building activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Confidence building activities. 26.37 Section 26.37 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY...

  15. 21 CFR 26.37 - Confidence building activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Confidence building activities. 26.37 Section 26.37 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY...

  16. Confidence and Preparedness to Teach: Conflicting Perspectives from Multiple Stakeholders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Pamala J.; Cowan, Kay W.

    2013-01-01

    This article, "Confidence and Preparedness to Teach" is a quantitative study that examines the level of preparedness for the classroom of fifty-seven student teachers. The student teachers, their cooperating teachers, and the professor-in-residence who monitored the placement completed a twenty-four item survey that rated the prospective…

  17. Conquering Confidence: Reflections on a Women's Winter Expedition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudley, Catherine; Ferren, Sue; Glackmeyer, Heidi

    1999-01-01

    Three women undertook a four-day winter camping trip in the Adirondacks as their practicum in an outdoor and experiential-education course. Their description of the confidence gained and the balance between self-doubt and overconfidence is compared to walking in snowshoes. (TD)

  18. Knowledge Surveys in General Chemistry: Confidence, Overconfidence, and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Priscilla; Volckmann, David

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge surveys have been used in a number of fields to assess changes in students' understanding of their own learning and to assist students in review. This study compares metacognitive confidence ratings of students faced with problems on the surveys with their actual knowledge as shown on the final exams in two courses of general chemistry…

  19. 21 CFR 26.37 - Confidence building activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Confidence building activities. 26.37 Section 26.37 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY...

  20. North Dakota Leadership Training Boosts Confidence and Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flage, Lynette; Hvidsten, Marie; Vettern, Rachelle

    2012-01-01

    Effective leadership is critical for communities as they work to maintain their vitality and sustainability for years to come. The purpose of the study reported here was to assess confidence levels and community engagement of community leadership program participants in North Dakota State University Extension programs. Through a survey…

  1. Confidence Interval Coverage for Cohen's Effect Size Statistic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Algina, James; Keselman, H. J.; Penfield, Randall D.

    2006-01-01

    Kelley compared three methods for setting a confidence interval (CI) around Cohen's standardized mean difference statistic: the noncentral-"t"-based, percentile (PERC) bootstrap, and biased-corrected and accelerated (BCA) bootstrap methods under three conditions of nonnormality, eight cases of sample size, and six cases of population effect size…

  2. On Pupils' Self-Confidence in Mathematics: Gender Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nurmi, Anu; Hannula, Markku; Maijala, Hanna; Pehkonen, Erkki

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we will concentrate on pupils' self-confidence in mathematics, which belongs to pupils' mathematical beliefs in themselves, and beliefs on achievement in mathematics. Research described consists of a survey of more than 3000 fifth-graders and seventh-graders. Furthermore, 40 pupils participated in a qualitative follow-up study…

  3. State FFA Officers' Confidence and Trustworthiness of Biotechnology Information Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingenbach, Gary J.; Rutherford, Tracy A.

    2007-01-01

    Are state FFA officers' awareness levels of agricultural topics reported in mass media superior to those who do not serve in leadership roles? The purpose of this study was to determine elected state FFA officers' awareness of biotechnology, and their confidence and trust of biotechnology information sources. Descriptive survey methods were used…

  4. Test Anxiety Reduction and Confidence Training: A Replication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Noah; Driscoll, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken to replicate prior research in which a brief counter-conditioning and confidence training program was found to reduce anxiety and raise test scores. First-semester college students were screened with the Westside Test Anxiety Scale, and the 25 identified as having high or moderately-high anxiety were randomly divided…

  5. Building Confident Teachers: Preservice Physical Education Teachers' Efficacy Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hand, Karen E.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding teachers' perceptions of their abilities across a variety of teaching strategies can provide insight for understanding teaching effectiveness and program review. Teaching efficacy reflects the degrees of confidence individuals have in their ability to successfully perform specific teaching proficiencies (Bandura, 1986). Additional…

  6. Building and Encouraging Confidence and Creativity in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Lynnette J.

    The focus of this study is an eight-week science enrichment mentorship program for elementary and middle school girls (ages 8 to 13) at Coleson Village, a public housing community, in an urban area of western Washington. The goal of the program was to build confidence and encourage creativity as the participants discovered themselves as competent…

  7. Acceptance and confidence of central and peripheral misinformation.

    PubMed

    Luna, Karlos; Migueles, Malen

    2009-11-01

    We examined the memory for central and peripheral information concerning a crime and the acceptance of false information. We also studied eyewitnesses' confidence in their memory. Participants were shown a video depicting a bank robbery and a questionnaire was used to introduce false central and peripheral information. The next day the participants completed a recognition task in which they rated the confidence of their responses. Performance was better for central information and participants registered more false alarms for peripheral contents. The cognitive system's limited attentional capacity and the greater information capacity of central elements may facilitate processing the more important information. The presentation of misinformation seriously impaired eyewitness memory by prompting a more lenient response criterion. Participants were more confident with central than with peripheral information. Eyewitness memory is easily distorted in peripheral aspects but it is more difficult to make mistakes with central information. However, when false information is introduced, errors in central information can be accompanied by high confidence, thus rendering them credible and legally serious. PMID:19899643

  8. Constructing Approximate Confidence Intervals for Parameters with Structural Equation Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Mike W. -L.

    2009-01-01

    Confidence intervals (CIs) for parameters are usually constructed based on the estimated standard errors. These are known as Wald CIs. This article argues that likelihood-based CIs (CIs based on likelihood ratio statistics) are often preferred to Wald CIs. It shows how the likelihood-based CIs and the Wald CIs for many statistics and psychometric…

  9. Utility of de-escalatory confidence-building measures

    SciTech Connect

    Nation, J.

    1989-06-01

    This paper evaluates the utility of specific confidence-building de-escalatory measures and pays special attention to the evaluation of measures which place restrictions on or establish procedures for strategic forces. Some measures appear more promising than others. Potentially useful confidence-building measures largely satisfy defined criteria and include the phased return of strategic nuclear forces to peacetime bases and operations, the termination of interference with communications and NTMs (National Technical Means) and the termination of civil defense preparations. Less-promising CBMs include the standing down of supplemental early warning systems, the establishment of SSBN keep-out zones, and decreases in bomber alert rates. Establishment of SSBN keep-out zones and reduction in bomber rates are difficult to verify, while the standing-down of early warning systems provides little benefit at potentially large costs. Particular confidence-building measures (CBMs) may be most useful in building superpower confidence at specific points in the crisis termination phase. For example, a decrease in strategic bomber alert rates may provide some decrease in perception of the likelihood of war, but its potential costs, particularly in increasing bomber vulnerability, may limit its utility and implementation to the final crisis stages when the risks of re-escalation and surprise attack are lower.

  10. 37 CFR 1.14 - Patent applications preserved in confidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Patent applications preserved in confidence. 1.14 Section 1.14 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES General...

  11. 37 CFR 1.14 - Patent applications preserved in confidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Patent applications preserved in confidence. 1.14 Section 1.14 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES General...

  12. 37 CFR 1.14 - Patent applications preserved in confidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Patent applications preserved in confidence. 1.14 Section 1.14 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES General...

  13. 37 CFR 1.14 - Patent applications preserved in confidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Patent applications preserved in confidence. 1.14 Section 1.14 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES General...

  14. 37 CFR 1.14 - Patent applications preserved in confidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Patent applications preserved in confidence. 1.14 Section 1.14 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES General...

  15. Confidence in Teaching Mathematics among Malaysian Pre-Service Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yunus, Aida Suraya Md.; Hamzah, Ramlah; Ismail, Habsah; Husain, Sharifah Kartini Said; Ismail, Mat Rofa

    2006-01-01

    This study focuses on the confidence level of mathematics education students in teaching school mathematics. Respondents were 165 final year students from four Malaysian universities. It was found that the respondents showed a strong foundation in mathematics upon entrance to the university. In spite of their strong background in school…

  16. Likelihood-Based Confidence Intervals in Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oort, Frans J.

    2011-01-01

    In exploratory or unrestricted factor analysis, all factor loadings are free to be estimated. In oblique solutions, the correlations between common factors are free to be estimated as well. The purpose of this article is to show how likelihood-based confidence intervals can be obtained for rotated factor loadings and factor correlations, by…

  17. Confidence Intervals and Replication: Where Will the Next Mean Fall?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumming, Geoff; Maillardet, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Confidence intervals (CIs) give information about replication, but many researchers have misconceptions about this information. One problem is that the percentage of future replication means captured by a particular CI varies markedly, depending on where in relation to the population mean that CI falls. The authors investigated the distribution of…

  18. Confidence Intervals for Assessing Heterogeneity in Generalized Linear Mixed Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagler, Amy E.

    2014-01-01

    Generalized linear mixed models are frequently applied to data with clustered categorical outcomes. The effect of clustering on the response is often difficult to practically assess partly because it is reported on a scale on which comparisons with regression parameters are difficult to make. This article proposes confidence intervals for…

  19. Academic mobbing: hidden health hazard at workplace.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Sb

    2010-01-01

    Academic mobbing is a non-violent, sophisticated, 'ganging up' behaviour adopted by academicians to "wear and tear" a colleague down emotionally through unjustified accusation, humiliation, general harassment and emotional abuse. These are directed at the target under a veil of lies and justifications so that they are "hidden" to others and difficult to prove. Bullies use mobbing activities to hide their own weaknesses and incompetence. Targets selected are often intelligent, innovative high achievers, with good integrity and principles. Mobbing activities appear trivial and innocuous on its own but the frequency and pattern of their occurrence over long period of time indicates an aggressive manipulation to "eliminate" the target. Mobbing activities typically progress through five stereotypical phases that begins with an unsolved minor conflict between two workers and ultimately escalates into a senseless mobbing whereby the target is stigmatized and victimized to justify the behaviours of the bullies. The result is always physical, mental, social distress or illness and, most often, expulsion of target from the workplace. Organizations are subjected to great financial loss, loss of key workers and a tarnished public image and reputation. Public awareness, education, effective counselling, establishment of anti-bullying policies and legislations at all levels are necessary to curb academic mobbing. General practitioners (GPs) play an important role in supporting patients subjected to mental and physical health injury caused by workplace bullying and mobbing. PMID:25606190

  20. Confidence in facial emotion recognition in borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Thome, Janine; Liebke, Lisa; Bungert, Melanie; Schmahl, Christian; Domes, Gregor; Bohus, Martin; Lis, Stefanie

    2016-04-01

    Dysfunctions of social-cognitive processes such as the recognition of emotions have been discussed to contribute to the severe impairments of interpersonal functioning in borderline personality disorder (BPD). By investigating how patients with BPD experience the intensity of different emotions in a facial expression and how confident they are in their own judgments, the current study aimed at identifying subtle alterations of emotion processing in BPD. Female patients with BPD (N = 36) and 36 healthy controls were presented with faces that displayed low-intense anger and happiness or ambiguous expressions of anger and happiness blends. Subjects were asked to rate (a) the intensity of anger and happiness in each facial expression and (b) their confidence in their judgments. Patients with BPD rated the intensity of happiness in happy faces lower than did controls, but did not differ in regard to the assessment of angry or ambiguous facial stimuli or the rating of anger. They reported lower confidence in their judgments, which was particularly pronounced for the assessment of happy facial expressions. The reduced rating of happiness was linked to higher state anger, whereas the reduced confidence in the assessment of happy faces was related to stronger feelings of loneliness and the expectation of social rejection. Our findings suggest alterations in the processing of positive social stimuli that affect both the experience of the emotional intensity and the confidence subjects experience during their assessment. The link to loneliness and social rejection sensitivity points to the necessity to target these alterations in psychotherapeutical interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26389624

  1. Improving maternal confidence in neonatal care through a checklist intervention

    PubMed Central

    Radenkovic, Dina; Kotecha, Shrinal; Patel, Shreena; Lakhani, Anjali; Reimann-Dubbers, Katharina; Shah, Shreya; Jafree, Daniyal; Mitrasinovic, Stefan; Whitten, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    Previous qualitative studies suggest a lack of maternal confidence in care of their newborn child upon discharge into the community. This observation was supported by discussion with healthcare professionals and mothers at University College London Hospital (UCLH), highlighting specific areas of concern, in particular identifying and managing common neonatal presentations. The aim of this study was to design and introduce a checklist, addressing concerns, to increase maternal confidence in care of their newborn child. Based on market research, an 8-question checklist was designed, assessing maternal confidence in: feeding, jaundice, nappy care, rashes and dry skin, umbilical cord care, choking, bowel movements, and vomiting. Mothers were assessed as per the checklist, and received a score representative of their confidence in neonatal care. Mothers were followed up with a telephone call, and were assessed after a 7-day-period. Checklist scores before as compared to after the follow-up period were analysed. This process was repeated for three study cycles, with the placement of information posters on the ward prior to the second study cycle, and the stapling of the checklist to the mother's personal child health record (PCHR) prior to the third study cycle. A total of 99 mothers on the Maternity Care Unit at UCLH were enrolled in the study, and 92 were contactable after a 7-day period. During all study cycles, a significant increase in median checklist score was observed after, as compared to before, the 7-day follow up period (p < 0.001). The median difference in checklist score from baseline was greatest for the third cycle. These results suggest that introduction of a simple checklist can be successfully utilised to improve confidence of mothers in being able to care for their newborn child. Further investigation is indicated, but this intervention has the potential for routine application in postnatal care. PMID:27335642

  2. Confidence in one's social beliefs: implications for belief justification.

    PubMed

    Koriat, Asher; Adiv, Shiri

    2012-12-01

    Philosophers commonly define knowledge as justified true beliefs. A heated debate exists, however, about what makes a belief justified. In this article, we examine the question of belief justification from a psychological perspective, focusing on the subjective confidence in a belief that the person has just formed. Participants decided whether to accept or reject a proposition depicting a social belief, and indicated their confidence in their choice. The task was repeated six times, and choice latency was measured. The results were analyzed within a Self-Consistency Model (SCM) of subjective confidence. According to SCM, the decision to accept or reject a proposition is based on the on-line sampling of representations from a pool of representations associated with the proposition. Respondents behave like intuitive statisticians who infer the central tendency of a population based on a small sample. Confidence depends on the consistency with which the belief was supported across the sampled representations, and reflects the likelihood that a new sample will yield the same decision. The results supported the assumption of a commonly shared population of representations associated with each proposition. Based on this assumption, analyses of within-person consistency and cross-person consensus provided support for the model. As expected, choices that deviated from the person's own modal judgment or from the consensually held judgment took relatively longer to form and were associated with relatively lower confidence, presumably because they were based on non-representative samples. The results were discussed in relation to major epistemological theories--foundationalism, coherentism and reliabilism. PMID:22995400

  3. Inferring high-confidence human protein-protein interactions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background As numerous experimental factors drive the acquisition, identification, and interpretation of protein-protein interactions (PPIs), aggregated assemblies of human PPI data invariably contain experiment-dependent noise. Ascertaining the reliability of PPIs collected from these diverse studies and scoring them to infer high-confidence networks is a non-trivial task. Moreover, a large number of PPIs share the same number of reported occurrences, making it impossible to distinguish the reliability of these PPIs and rank-order them. For example, for the data analyzed here, we found that the majority (>83%) of currently available human PPIs have been reported only once. Results In this work, we proposed an unsupervised statistical approach to score a set of diverse, experimentally identified PPIs from nine primary databases to create subsets of high-confidence human PPI networks. We evaluated this ranking method by comparing it with other methods and assessing their ability to retrieve protein associations from a number of diverse and independent reference sets. These reference sets contain known biological data that are either directly or indirectly linked to interactions between proteins. We quantified the average effect of using ranked protein interaction data to retrieve this information and showed that, when compared to randomly ranked interaction data sets, the proposed method created a larger enrichment (~134%) than either ranking based on the hypergeometric test (~109%) or occurrence ranking (~46%). Conclusions From our evaluations, it was clear that ranked interactions were always of value because higher-ranked PPIs had a higher likelihood of retrieving high-confidence experimental data. Reducing the noise inherent in aggregated experimental PPIs via our ranking scheme further increased the accuracy and enrichment of PPIs derived from a number of biologically relevant data sets. These results suggest that using our high-confidence protein interactions

  4. Challenge to Increase Confidence in Geological Evolution Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuno, T.; Iwatsuki, T.; Saegusa, H.; Kato, T.; Matsuoka, T.; Yasue, K.; Ohyama, T.; Sasao, E.

    2014-12-01

    The geological evolution models (GEMs) as well as site descriptive models (SDMs) are used to integrate investigation results and to support safety assessment. Even more, enhancing confidence in long-term stability of geological environment is required for geological disposal in Japan where is in active tectonic region. The aim of the study is to provide future direction for increasing GEMs confidence based on review of current GEMs. GEMs has been constructed in following three steps; 1) Features, Events and Processes (FEP) analysis, 2) Scenario development and 3) Numerical modeling. Base on the current status, we looked at the issues for developing GEMs with higher level of confidence. As the result, development of techniques and methodologies for; 1) validation of GEMs, 2) handling uncertainty and 3) digitalization/visualization are identified as open issues. To solve these issues, we specified three approaches. First approach is using multiple lines of evidence. Consistency between various study fields will be important information for validation of the GEMs. Second one is revealing the argument behind GEMs. Confidence/uncertainty of GEMs will be able to be confirmed by synthesizing the basic information behind the GEMs because GEMs are built on many evidences, hypothesis and assumptions. In addition, the optional cases will be needed for demonstrating the level of understanding. Third is development of elemental technology, such as the integrated system between numerical simulation and visualization which can take into account large size of model and composite phenomenon. In the future, we will focus on increasing GEMs confidence in keeping with this notion. This study was carried out under a contract with METI (Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry) as part of its R&D supporting program for developing geological disposal technology.

  5. Relating the Content and Confidence of Recognition Judgments

    PubMed Central

    Selmeczy, Diana; Dobbins, Ian G.

    2014-01-01

    The Remember/Know procedure, developed by Tulving (1985) to capture the distinction between the conscious correlates of episodic and semantic retrieval, has spurned considerable research and debate. However, only a handful of reports have examined the recognition content beyond this dichotomous simplification. To address this, we collected participants’ written justifications in support of ordinary old/new recognition decisions accompanied by confidence ratings using a 3-point scale (high/medium/low). Unlike prior research, we did not provide the participants with any descriptions of Remembering or Knowing and thus, if the justifications mapped well onto theory, they would do so spontaneously. Word frequency analysis (unigrams, bigrams, and trigrams), independent ratings, and machine learning techniques (Support Vector Machine - SVM) converged in demonstrating that the linguistic content of high and medium confidence recognition differs in a manner consistent with dual process theories of recognition. For example, the use of ‘I remember’, particularly when combined with temporal or perceptual information (e.g., ‘when’, ‘saw’, ‘distinctly’), was heavily associated with high confidence recognition. Conversely, participants also used the absence of remembering for personally distinctive materials as support for high confidence new reports (‘would have remembered’). Thus, participants afford a special status to the presence or absence of remembering and use this actively as a basis for high confidence during recognition judgments. Additionally, the pattern of classification successes and failures of a SVM was well anticipated by the Dual Process Signal Detection model of recognition and inconsistent with a single process, strictly unidimensional approach. “One might think that memory should have something to do with remembering, and remembering is a conscious experience.”(Tulving, 1985, p. 1) PMID:23957366

  6. Academic Culture and Campus Culture of Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Xi; Tian, Xianghong

    2012-01-01

    Academic culture of universities mainly consists of academic outlooks, academic spirits, academic ethics and academic environments. Campus culture in a university is characterized by individuality, academic feature, opening, leading, variety and creativity. The academic culture enhances the construction of campus culture. The campus culture…

  7. STEM development: A study of 6th--12th grade girls' interest and confidence in mathematics and science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heaverlo, Carol Ann

    Researchers, policymakers, business, and industry have indicated that the United States will experience a shortage of professionals in the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) fields. Several strategies have been suggested to address this shortage, one of which includes increasing the representation of girls and women in the STEM fields. In order to increase the representation of women in the STEM fields, it is important to understand the developmental factors that impact girls' interest and confidence in STEM academics and extracurricular programs. Research indicates that greater confidence leads to greater interest and vice versa (Denissen et al., 2007). This study identifies factors that impact girls' interest and confidence in mathematics and science, defined as girls' STEM development. Using Bronfenbrenner's (2005) bioecological model of human development, several factors were hypothesized as having an impact on girls' STEM development; specifically, the macrosystems of region of residence and race/ethnicity, and the microsystems of extracurricular STEM activities, family STEM influence, and math/science teacher influence. Hierarchical regression analysis results indicated that extracurricular STEM involvement and math teacher influence were statistically significant predictors for 6--12th grade girls' interest and confidence in mathematics. Furthermore, hierarchical regression analysis results indicated that the only significant predictor for 6--12th grade girls' interest and confidence in science was science teacher influence. This study provides new knowledge about the factors that impact girls' STEM development. Results can be used to inform and guide educators, administrators, and policy makers in developing programs and policy that support and encourage the STEM development of 6--12th grade girls.

  8. Measurement of academic entitlement.

    PubMed

    Miller, Brian K

    2013-10-01

    Members of Generation Y, or Millennials, have been accused of being lazy, whiny, pampered, and entitled, particularly in the college classroom. Using an equity theory framework, eight items from a measure of work entitlement were adapted to measure academic entitlement in a university setting in three independent samples. In Study 1 (n = 229), confirmatory factor analyses indicated good model fit to a unidimensional structure for the data. In Study 2 (n = 200), the questionnaire predicted unique variance in university satisfaction beyond two more general measures of dispositional entitlement. In Study 3 (n = 161), the measure predicted unique variance in perceptions of grade fairness beyond that which was predicted by another measure of academic entitlement. This analysis provides evidence of discriminant, convergent, incremental, concurrent criterion-related, and construct validity for the Academic Equity Preference Questionnaire. PMID:24597456

  9. Confidence intervals in Flow Forecasting by using artificial neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagoulia, Dionysia; Tsekouras, George

    2014-05-01

    One of the major inadequacies in implementation of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) for flow forecasting is the development of confidence intervals, because the relevant estimation cannot be implemented directly, contrasted to the classical forecasting methods. The variation in the ANN output is a measure of uncertainty in the model predictions based on the training data set. Different methods for uncertainty analysis, such as bootstrap, Bayesian, Monte Carlo, have already proposed for hydrologic and geophysical models, while methods for confidence intervals, such as error output, re-sampling, multi-linear regression adapted to ANN have been used for power load forecasting [1-2]. The aim of this paper is to present the re-sampling method for ANN prediction models and to develop this for flow forecasting of the next day. The re-sampling method is based on the ascending sorting of the errors between real and predicted values for all input vectors. The cumulative sample distribution function of the prediction errors is calculated and the confidence intervals are estimated by keeping the intermediate value, rejecting the extreme values according to the desired confidence levels, and holding the intervals symmetrical in probability. For application of the confidence intervals issue, input vectors are used from the Mesochora catchment in western-central Greece. The ANN's training algorithm is the stochastic training back-propagation process with decreasing functions of learning rate and momentum term, for which an optimization process is conducted regarding the crucial parameters values, such as the number of neurons, the kind of activation functions, the initial values and time parameters of learning rate and momentum term etc. Input variables are historical data of previous days, such as flows, nonlinearly weather related temperatures and nonlinearly weather related rainfalls based on correlation analysis between the under prediction flow and each implicit input

  10. Leadership Provided by Non-Academic Middle-Level Managers in the Australian Higher Education Sector: The Enablers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilkinas, Tricia

    2014-01-01

    This study seeks to identify the leadership behaviours displayed by non-academic middle-level managers in the Australian higher education sector. The study also identifies the importance of these leadership behaviours and the leadership effectiveness of these managers. The integrated competing values framework was used to measure leadership…

  11. What is your savings personality? The 1998 Retirement Confidence Survey.

    PubMed

    Yakoboski, P; Ostuw, P; Hicks, J

    1998-08-01

    This Issue Brief presents the findings of the 1998 Retirement Confidence Survey (RCS). The survey tracks Americans' retirement planning and saving behavior and their confidence regarding various aspects of their retirement. It also categorizes workers and retirees into six distinct groups, based on their very different views on retirement, retirement planning, and saving. The six personality types identified in the RCS are Deniers (10 percent of the population), Strugglers (9 percent), Impulsives (20 percent), Cautious Savers (21 percent), Planners (23 percent), and Retiring Savers (17 percent). The survey shows that working Americans have become more focused on retirement; 45 percent have tried to determine how much they need to save before they retire, up from 32 percent in 1996. Americans' growing attention to their retirement has not increased their retirement income confidence. Since 1993, the portion of working Americans who are very confident that they will have enough money to live comfortably throughout retirement has consistently ranged from 20 percent to 25 percent. Sixty-three percent of Americans have begun to save for retirement. Fifty-five percent of those not saving for retirement say it is reasonably possible for them to save $20 per week (over $1,000 per year). In addition, 57 percent of workers who have begun to save say that it is reasonably possible for them to save an additional $20 per week. The findings demonstrate the continuing need for broad-based educational efforts designed to make retirement savings a priority for individuals. The good news is the evidence that education can have a real impact at the individual level. For the first time the 1998 RCS examined retirement planning, saving, and attitudes across ethnic groups (African-Americans, Hispanic-Americans, Asian-Americans, and whites). African-Americans are the least confident that they will have enough money to live comfortably in retirement. African-Americans and Hispanic

  12. Academic medicine in Russia.

    PubMed

    Burger, Edward J; Ziganshina, Lilia; Ziganshin, Airat U

    2004-12-01

    Academic medicine, along with professionalism of the medical community in Russia underwent a remarkable evolution from the Revolution through the decline of the Soviet Union. The Soviet period brought about an enormous expansion of numbers of admissions to medical schools and a corresponding increase in the number of new physicians. Academic medical institutions were separated from institutions of higher learning in general and medical science was separated from the mainstream of science. Many of these features have been reversed in the past 14 years and re-professionalization of medicine has resumed. PMID:15578798

  13. Empowering parents to understand and manage children's behaviour.

    PubMed

    Boot, Ann

    2010-01-01

    While there are many projects successfully targeting the problems associated with the management of unwanted behaviour in children, this article suggests that all parents would benefit from a greater understanding of how to manage such behaviour. Health visitors and their teams are well placed to help parents to understand what is normal behaviour for different ages and developmental stages and empower them to find solutions for unwanted behaviours. However, current financial constraints which allow health visitors to focus only on specific groups mean that they are not able to provide this help as a universal service. Teaching parents to observe their child and record their findings, an approach used by a health visitor-led programme in Wales, provides an opportunity for significant learning to take place. Through such programmes, parents acquire skills that boost their self-esteem and confidence, which in turn empower them to be proactive in the promotion of their family's health and well-being. PMID:20695355

  14. Replication, falsification, and the crisis of confidence in social psychology.

    PubMed

    Earp, Brian D; Trafimow, David

    2015-01-01

    The (latest) crisis in confidence in social psychology has generated much heated discussion about the importance of replication, including how it should be carried out as well as interpreted by scholars in the field. For example, what does it mean if a replication attempt "fails"-does it mean that the original results, or the theory that predicted them, have been falsified? And how should "failed" replications affect our belief in the validity of the original research? In this paper, we consider the replication debate from a historical and philosophical perspective, and provide a conceptual analysis of both replication and falsification as they pertain to this important discussion. Along the way, we highlight the importance of auxiliary assumptions (for both testing theories and attempting replications), and introduce a Bayesian framework for assessing "failed" replications in terms of how they should affect our confidence in original findings. PMID:26042061

  15. An Overview of Space Exploration Simulation (Basis of Confidence) Documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bray, Alleen; Hale, Joseph P.

    2006-01-01

    Models and simulations (M&S) are critical resources in the exploration of space. They support program management, systems engineering, integration, analysis, test, and operations by providing critical information that supports key analyses and decisions (technical, cost and schedule). Consequently, there is a clear need to establish a solid understanding of M&S strengths and weaknesses, and the bounds within which they can credibly support decision making. In this presentation we will describe how development of simulation capability documentation will be used to form a Basis of Confidence (Basis of Confidence) for National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) M&S. The process by which BOC documentation is developed will be addressed, as well as the structure and critical concepts that are essential for establishing credibility of NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) legacy M&S. We will illustrate the significance of BOC documentation in supporting decision makers and Accreditation Authorities in M&S risk management.

  16. Simulator effects on cognitive skills and confidence levels.

    PubMed

    Brannan, Jane D; White, Anne; Bezanson, Judy L

    2008-11-01

    Use of a human patient simulator (HPS) as a tool for experiential learning provides a mechanism by which students can participate in clinical decision making, practice skills, and observe outcomes from clinical decisions. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of two instructional methods to teach specific nursing education content, acute myocardial infarction, on junior-level nursing students' cognitive skills and confidence. The instructional methods included an interactive approach using the HPS method, compared with traditional classroom lecture. Results of this study suggest that use of a teaching strategy involving the HPS method made a positive difference in the nursing students' ability to answer questions on a test of cognitive skills. Confidence levels were not found to be significantly enhanced by use of the HPS method. PMID:19010047

  17. Replication, falsification, and the crisis of confidence in social psychology

    PubMed Central

    Earp, Brian D.; Trafimow, David

    2015-01-01

    The (latest) crisis in confidence in social psychology has generated much heated discussion about the importance of replication, including how it should be carried out as well as interpreted by scholars in the field. For example, what does it mean if a replication attempt “fails”—does it mean that the original results, or the theory that predicted them, have been falsified? And how should “failed” replications affect our belief in the validity of the original research? In this paper, we consider the replication debate from a historical and philosophical perspective, and provide a conceptual analysis of both replication and falsification as they pertain to this important discussion. Along the way, we highlight the importance of auxiliary assumptions (for both testing theories and attempting replications), and introduce a Bayesian framework for assessing “failed” replications in terms of how they should affect our confidence in original findings. PMID:26042061

  18. A View from the Inside: An In-Depth Look at a Female University Student's Experience with a Feel-Based Intervention to Enhance Self-Confidence and Self-Talk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerin, Eva; Arcand, Isabelle; Durand-Bush, Natalie

    2010-01-01

    The primary goal of this investigation was to document, using the participatory paradigm, a female university student's experience with a feel-based intervention intended to enhance the quality of her academic experiences including her self-confidence and self-talk. In this unique qualitative case study, the student participated in a 15-week…

  19. Classifying At-Risk High School Youth: The Influence of Exposure to Community Violence and Protective Factors on Academic and Health Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solberg, V. Scott H.; Carlstom, Aaron H.; Howard, Kimberly A. S.; Jones, Janice E.

    2007-01-01

    Using cluster analysis, 789 predominately Latino and African American high school youth were classified into varying academic at-risk profiles using self-reported levels of academic confidence, motivation to attend school, perceived family support, connections with teachers and peers, and exposure to violence. Six clusters emerged, 5 of which were…

  20. Academic Buoyancy: Towards an Understanding of Students' Everyday Academic Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrew J.; Marsh, Herbert W.

    2008-01-01

    Academic buoyancy is developed as a construct reflecting everyday academic resilience within a positive psychology context and is defined as students' ability to successfully deal with academic setbacks and challenges that are typical of the ordinary course of school life (e.g., poor grades, competing deadlines, exam pressure, difficult…

  1. Is Your Academic Library Pinning? Academic Libraries and Pinterest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    Academic libraries are flocking to online social networking sites in an effort to meet users where they are. Pinterest is the latest of these rapidly growing online social networking tools. The author of this article reports results from a survey on academic libraries' presence on Pinterest. The survey found most academic library pinboards are in…

  2. Academic buoyancy: Towards an understanding of students' everyday academic resilience.

    PubMed

    Martin, Andrew J; Marsh, Herbert W

    2008-02-01

    Academic buoyancy is developed as a construct reflecting everyday academic resilience within a positive psychology context and is defined as students' ability to successfully deal with academic setbacks and challenges that are typical of the ordinary course of school life (e.g., poor grades, competing deadlines, exam pressure, difficult schoolwork). Data were collected from 598 students in Years 8 and 10 at five Australian high schools. Half-way through the school year and then again at the end of the year, students were asked to rate their academic buoyancy as well as a set of hypothesized predictors (self-efficacy, control, academic engagement, anxiety, teacher-student relationship) in the area of mathematics. Multilevel modeling found that the bulk of variance in academic buoyancy was explained at the student level. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling showed that (a) Time 1 anxiety (negatively), self-efficacy, and academic engagement significantly predict Time 1 academic buoyancy; (b) Time 2 anxiety (negatively), self-efficacy, academic engagement, and teacher-student relationships explain variance in Time 2 academic buoyancy over and above that explained by academic buoyancy at Time 1; and (c) of the significant predictors, anxiety explains the bulk of variance in academic buoyancy. PMID:19083351

  3. Academic Practice in Transition: Hidden Stories of Academic Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchman, Deborah; King, Sharron

    2009-01-01

    Academic work is becoming increasingly restrictive and controlled as tertiary institutions move towards a more corporate managerialistic mode of operating. This paper uses a narrative lens to explore the ways in which academic staff make sense of this new environment. In particular, it compares academic staff's stories of their worklife with the…

  4. Investigation of a comprehensive confidence measure in NDE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Portia; Safdarnejad, Seyed; Udpa, Lalita; Udpa, Satish

    2015-03-01

    Quantitative assessment of reliability of classification results is critical in detection and characterization of anomalies in any non-destructive evaluation (NDE) application. Particularly in automated data analysis systems, such a measure enables the system to automatically flag indications where operator intervention is required, and reduces maintenance costs and risks. Classification results are affected by inherent ambiguity of defect classes, non-discriminative features, inadequate training samples and poor data quality. Although these sources of uncertainties in classification have been studied, formulating a single measure which quantifies all of them together has not been done to date. Generally, from Bayesian point of view, the posterior probability is considered as a confidence measure. Posterior probability of occurrence of an event is representative of inter-class similarities and intra-class distance and thus, may be used as a measure of inherent ambiguity of classes and discriminative quality of features. However, estimation of posterior probability itself is affected by size of available training samples. In this paper, we develop a framework to incorporate these two major sources of classification error in a single quantity. In lieu of the simplistic assumption, we assume that parameters of the distribution of a class are random variables. We utilize bootstrap method to find empirical distribution of parameters of the class conditional densities based on which a distribution of confidence is found. Utilizing this distribution, different interpretations of the confidence measure may be provided. Analytical results show how statistical properties of the confidence distribution depend on number of training samples and quality of features. Initial results of the approach on eddy current data is presented.

  5. Gaining Confidence in Scientific Applications Through Executable Interface Contracts

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlgren, T; Bernholdt, D; McInnes, L C

    2008-06-16

    Interface contract enforcement is intended to help scientists gain confidence in software built from third-party components. Unfamiliar components present increased risk of incorrect or unanticipated usage patterns and unexpected component behavior. Executable interface contracts can address these issues but may incur unacceptable overhead. Research into techniques for performance-driven contract enforcement pursues practical solutions to adapting the level of contract enforcement to performance constraints.

  6. Confidence Level and Sensitivity Limits in High Contrast Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Marois, C

    2007-11-07

    In long adaptive optics corrected exposures, exoplanet detections are currently limited by speckle noise originating from the telescope and instrument optics, and it is expected that such noise will also limit future high-contrast imaging instruments for both ground and space-based telescopes. Previous theoretical analysis have shown that the time intensity variations of a single speckle follows a modified Rician. It is first demonstrated here that for a circular pupil this temporal intensity distribution also represents the speckle spatial intensity distribution at a fix separation from the point spread function center; this fact is demonstrated using numerical simulations for coronagraphic and non-coronagraphic data. The real statistical distribution of the noise needs to be taken into account explicitly when selecting a detection threshold appropriate for some desired confidence level. In this paper, a technique is described to obtain the pixel intensity distribution of an image and its corresponding confidence level as a function of the detection threshold. Using numerical simulations, it is shown that in the presence of speckles noise, a detection threshold up to three times higher is required to obtain a confidence level equivalent to that at 5{sigma} for Gaussian noise. The technique is then tested using TRIDENT CFHT and angular differential imaging NIRI Gemini adaptive optics data. It is found that the angular differential imaging technique produces quasi-Gaussian residuals, a remarkable result compared to classical adaptive optic imaging. A power-law is finally derived to predict the 1-3 x 10{sup -7} confidence level detection threshold when averaging a partially correlated non-Gaussian noise.

  7. Confidence Level and Sensitivity Limits in High Contrast Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Marois, C; LaFreniere, D; Macintosh, B; Doyon, R

    2008-06-02

    In long adaptive optics corrected exposures, exoplanet detections are currently limited by speckle noise originating from the telescope and instrument optics, and it is expected that such noise will also limit future high-contrast imaging instruments for both ground and space-based telescopes. Previous theoretical analysis have shown that the time intensity variations of a single speckle follows a modified Rician. It is first demonstrated here that for a circular pupil this temporal intensity distribution also represents the speckle spatial intensity distribution at a fix separation from the point spread function center; this fact is demonstrated using numerical simulations for coronagraphic and non-coronagraphic data. The real statistical distribution of the noise needs to be taken into account explicitly when selecting a detection threshold appropriate for some desired confidence level. In this paper, a technique is described to obtain the pixel intensity distribution of an image and its corresponding confidence level as a function of the detection threshold. Using numerical simulations, it is shown that in the presence of speckles noise, a detection threshold up to three times higher is required to obtain a confidence level equivalent to that at 5{sigma} for Gaussian noise. The technique is then tested using TRIDENT CFHT and angular differential imaging NIRI Gemini adaptive optics data. It is found that the angular differential imaging technique produces quasi-Gaussian residuals, a remarkable result compared to classical adaptive optic imaging. A power-law is finally derived to predict the 1-3 x 10{sup -7} confidence level detection threshold when averaging a partially correlated non-Gaussian noise.

  8. Simultaneous confidence bands for Cox regression from semiparametric random censorship.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Shoubhik; Subramanian, Sundarraman

    2016-01-01

    Cox regression is combined with semiparametric random censorship models to construct simultaneous confidence bands (SCBs) for subject-specific survival curves. Simulation results are presented to compare the performance of the proposed SCBs with the SCBs that are based only on standard Cox. The new SCBs provide correct empirical coverage and are more informative. The proposed SCBs are illustrated with two real examples. An extension to handle missing censoring indicators is also outlined. PMID:25691289

  9. Strengthening Academic Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodnar, Julie R.; Petrucelli, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    Underprepared students often need assistance building writing skills and maintaining confidence in their abilities and potential. The authors share the philosophy, pedagogy, and experience of freshman developmental education and the writing center at a four-year, private, not-for-profit urban college. They describe high-impact educational…

  10. Physical activity and obesity mediate the association between childhood motor function and adolescents' academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Kantomaa, Marko T; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Kankaanpää, Anna; Kaakinen, Marika; Rodriguez, Alina; Taanila, Anja; Ahonen, Timo; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Tammelin, Tuija

    2013-01-29

    The global epidemic of obesity and physical inactivity may have detrimental implications for young people's cognitive function and academic achievement. This prospective study investigated whether childhood motor function predicts later academic achievement via physical activity, fitness, and obesity. The study sample included 8,061 children from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986, which contains data about parent-reported motor function at age 8 y and self-reported physical activity, predicted cardiorespiratory fitness (cycle ergometer test), obesity (body weight and height), and academic achievement (grades) at age 16 y. Structural equation models with unstandardized (B) and standardized (β) coefficients were used to test whether, and to what extent, physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and obesity at age 16 mediated the association between childhood motor function and adolescents' academic achievement. Physical activity was associated with a higher grade-point average, and obesity was associated with a lower grade-point average in adolescence. Furthermore, compromised motor function in childhood had a negative indirect effect on adolescents' academic achievement via physical inactivity (B = -0.023, 95% confidence interval = -0.031, -0.015) and obesity (B = -0.025, 95% confidence interval = -0.039, -0.011), but not via cardiorespiratory fitness. These results suggest that physical activity and obesity may mediate the association between childhood motor function and adolescents' academic achievement. Compromised motor function in childhood may represent an important factor driving the effects of obesity and physical inactivity on academic underachievement. PMID:23277558

  11. Statistical analysis of synaptic transmission: model discrimination and confidence limits.

    PubMed Central

    Stricker, C; Redman, S; Daley, D

    1994-01-01

    Procedures for discriminating between competing statistical models of synaptic transmission, and for providing confidence limits on the parameters of these models, have been developed. These procedures were tested against simulated data and were used to analyze the fluctuations in synaptic currents evoked in hippocampal neurones. All models were fitted to data using the Expectation-Maximization algorithm and a maximum likelihood criterion. Competing models were evaluated using the log-likelihood ratio (Wilks statistic). When the competing models were not nested, Monte Carlo sampling of the model used as the null hypothesis (H0) provided density functions against which H0 and the alternate model (H1) were tested. The statistic for the log-likelihood ratio was determined from the fit of H0 and H1 to these probability densities. This statistic was used to determine the significance level at which H0 could be rejected for the original data. When the competing models were nested, log-likelihood ratios and the chi 2 statistic were used to determine the confidence level for rejection. Once the model that provided the best statistical fit to the data was identified, many estimates for the model parameters were calculated by resampling the original data. Bootstrap techniques were then used to obtain the confidence limits of these parameters. PMID:7948672

  12. Metamemory in schizophrenia: retrospective confidence ratings interact with neurocognitive deficits.

    PubMed

    Eifler, Sarah; Rausch, Franziska; Schirmbeck, Frederike; Veckenstedt, Ruth; Mier, Daniela; Esslinger, Christine; Englisch, Susanne; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Kirsch, Peter; Zink, Mathias

    2015-02-28

    Prior studies with schizophrenia patients described a reduced ability to discriminate between correct and false memories in terms of confidence compared to control groups. This metamemory bias has been associated with the emergence and maintenance of delusions. The relation to neuropsychological performance and other clinical dimensions is incompletely understood. In a cross-sectional study, metamemory functioning was explored in 32 schizophrenia patients and 25 healthy controls. Metamemory was assessed using a verbal recognition task combined with retrospective confidence level ratings. Associations of metamemory performance with six neuropsychological domains (executive functioning/problem solving, speed of processing, working memory, verbal and visual learning, and attention/vigilance) and psychopathological measures were analyzed. Results revealed a significantly smaller discrepancy between confidence ratings for correct and incorrect recognitions in the patient group. Furthermore, patients showed significantly lower recognition accuracy in the metamemory task and marked deficits in all neuropsychological domains. Across all participants, metamemory performance significantly correlated with executive functioning and working memory. No associations with delusions were found. This data confirms prior findings of metamemory biases in schizophrenia. Selective neuropsychological abilities seem to be modulating factors of metamemory functioning. Longitudinal studies in at risk mental state and first-episode patients are needed to reveal causal interrelations. PMID:25530415

  13. Assessing recognition memory using confidence ratings and response times

    PubMed Central

    Kahana, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Classification of stimuli into categories (such as ‘old’ and ‘new’ in tests of recognition memory or ‘present’ versus ‘absent’ in signal detection tasks) requires the mapping of internal signals to discrete responses. Introspective judgements about a given choice response are regularly employed in research, legal and clinical settings in an effort to measure the signal that is thought to be the basis of the classification decision. Correlations between introspective judgements and task performance suggest that such ratings often do convey information about internal states that are relevant for a given task, but well-known limitations of introspection call the fidelity of this information into question. We investigated to what extent response times can reveal information usually assessed with explicit confidence ratings. We quantitatively compared response times to confidence ratings in their ability to qualify recognition memory decisions and found convergent results suggesting that much of the information from confidence ratings can be obtained from response times. PMID:27152209

  14. Re-thinking accountability: trust versus confidence in medical practice.

    PubMed

    Checkland, K; Marshall, M; Harrison, S

    2004-04-01

    In seeking to prevent a reoccurrence of scandals such as that involving cardiac surgery in Bristol, the UK government has adopted a model of regulation that uses rules and surveillance as a way of both improving the quality of care delivered and increasing confidence in healthcare institutions. However, this approach may actually act to reduce confidence and trust while also reducing the moral motivation of practitioners. Accountability in health care is discussed, and it is suggested that openness about the difficult dilemmas that arise when practitioners have a duty to be accountable to more than one audience may be an alternative means of restoring trust. A greater emphasis on the sharing of information between individual health professionals and their patients would increase trust and would allow patients to hold their doctors to account for the quality of care they receive. Concentrating more on developing trust by the sharing of information and less on the futile search for complete confidence in systems and rules may improve the quality of care delivered while also nurturing the moral motivation of professionals upon which the delivery of high quality health care depends. PMID:15069221

  15. Multiclass microarray data classification based on confidence evaluation.

    PubMed

    Yu, H L; Gao, S; Qin, B; Zhao, J

    2012-01-01

    Microarray technology is becoming a powerful tool for clinical diagnosis, as it has potential to discover gene expression patterns that are characteristic for a particular disease. To date, this possibility has received much attention in the context of cancer research, especially in tumor classification. However, most published articles have concentrated on the development of binary classification methods while neglected ubiquitous multiclass problems. Unfortunately, only a few multiclass classification approaches have had poor predictive accuracy. In an effort to improve classification accuracy, we developed a novel multiclass microarray data classification method. First, we applied a "one versus rest-support vector machine" to classify the samples. Then the classification confidence of each testing sample was evaluated according to its distribution in feature space and some with poor confidence were extracted. Next, a novel strategy, which we named as "class priority estimation method based on centroid distance", was used to make decisions about categories for those poor confidence samples. This approach was tested on seven benchmark multiclass microarray datasets, with encouraging results, demonstrating effectiveness and feasibility. PMID:22653582

  16. A quantitative confidence signal detection model: 1. Fitting psychometric functions.

    PubMed

    Yi, Yongwoo; Merfeld, Daniel M

    2016-04-01

    Perceptual thresholds are commonly assayed in the laboratory and clinic. When precision and accuracy are required, thresholds are quantified by fitting a psychometric function to forced-choice data. The primary shortcoming of this approach is that it typically requires 100 trials or more to yield accurate (i.e., small bias) and precise (i.e., small variance) psychometric parameter estimates. We show that confidence probability judgments combined with a model of confidence can yield psychometric parameter estimates that are markedly more precise and/or markedly more efficient than conventional methods. Specifically, both human data and simulations show that including confidence probability judgments for just 20 trials can yield psychometric parameter estimates that match the precision of those obtained from 100 trials using conventional analyses. Such an efficiency advantage would be especially beneficial for tasks (e.g., taste, smell, and vestibular assays) that require more than a few seconds for each trial, but this potential benefit could accrue for many other tasks. PMID:26763777

  17. Flood frequency analysis: Confidence interval estimation by test inversion bootstrapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schendel, Thomas; Thongwichian, Rossukon

    2015-09-01

    A common approach to estimate extreme flood events is the annual block maxima approach, where for each year the peak streamflow is determined and a distribution (usually the generalized extreme value distribution (GEV)) is fitted to this series of maxima. Eventually this distribution is used to estimate the return level for a defined return period. However, due to the finite sample size, the estimated return levels are associated with a range of uncertainity, usually expressed via confidence intervals. Previous publications have shown that existing bootstrapping methods for estimating the confidence intervals of the GEV yield too narrow estimates of these uncertainty ranges. Therefore, we present in this article a novel approach based on the less known test inversion bootstrapping, which we adapted especially for complex quantities like the return level. The reliability of this approach is studied and its performance is compared to other bootstrapping methods as well as the Profile Likelihood technique. It is shown that the new approach improves significantly the coverage of confidence intervals compared to other bootstrapping methods and for small sample sizes should even be favoured over the Profile Likelihood.

  18. Confidence intervals for expected moments algorithm flood quantile estimates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cohn, T.A.; Lane, W.L.; Stedinger, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    Historical and paleoflood information can substantially improve flood frequency estimates if appropriate statistical procedures are properly applied. However, the Federal guidelines for flood frequency analysis, set forth in Bulletin 17B, rely on an inefficient "weighting" procedure that fails to take advantage of historical and paleoflood information. This has led researchers to propose several more efficient alternatives including the Expected Moments Algorithm (EMA), which is attractive because it retains Bulletin 17B's statistical structure (method of moments with the Log Pearson Type 3 distribution) and thus can be easily integrated into flood analyses employing the rest of the Bulletin 17B approach. The practical utility of EMA, however, has been limited because no closed-form method has been available for quantifying the uncertainty of EMA-based flood quantile estimates. This paper addresses that concern by providing analytical expressions for the asymptotic variance of EMA flood-quantile estimators and confidence intervals for flood quantile estimates. Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate the properties of such confidence intervals for sites where a 25- to 100-year streamgage record is augmented by 50 to 150 years of historical information. The experiments show that the confidence intervals, though not exact, should be acceptable for most purposes.

  19. Theme: Teaching Academically Disadvantaged Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iverson, Maynard J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Includes "Will We Serve the Academically Disadvantaged?" (Iverson); "Using Centers of Learning to Reach Academically Disadvantaged Students" (Gentry); "Georgia's Special Lamb Project Adoption Program" (Farmer); "Teacher Expectations" (Powers); "Providing Instruction for Special Populations" (Jewell); and "The Educational Reform Movement and…

  20. NOVA ACADEMIC TEAMS PROGRAM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WOLFE, ARTHUR B.

    AN ACADEMIC TEAMS PROGRAM TO PROVIDE OPPORTUNITIES FOR DEVELOPING OPTIMUM LEARNING POTENTIAL AND FOR FULFILLING DESIRES OF TALENTED STUDENTS IS PROPOSED. THE PROGRAM WILL BE INITIATED THROUGH A SERIES OF DISCUSSIONS WITH STUDENTS, FACULTY, PARENTS, AND CONSULTANTS, THE AREA OF CONCENTRATION FOR THE SELECTED TEAMS OF STUDENTS WILL BE IN THE FIELD…