Meza, Rosemary; Drahota, Amy; Spurgeon, Emily
Community-academic partnerships (CAPs) improve the research process, outcomes, and yield benefits for the community and researchers. This exploratory study examined factors important in community stakeholders' decision to participate in CAPs. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) community stakeholders, previously contacted to participate in a CAP (n = 18), completed the 15-item Decision to Participate Questionnaire (DPQ). The DPQ assessed reasons for participating or declining participation in the ASD CAP. CAP participants rated networking with other providers, fit of collaboration with agency philosophy, and opportunity for future training/consultations as factors more important in their decision to participate in the ASD CAP than nonparticipants. Nonparticipants reported the number of requests to participate in research as more important in their decision to decline participation than participants. Findings reveal important factors in community stakeholders' decision to participate in CAPs that may provide guidance on increasing community engagement in CAPs and help close the science-to-service gap.
Anderson, Emily E
When community partners have direct interaction with human research participants, it is important to consider potential threats to participant protections and research integrity. Few studies have directly compared the views of academic and community partners. This pilot focus group study explores the views of academic partners (APs) and community partners (CPs) regarding challenges to the protection of research participants and research integrity in community-engaged research (CEnR). Data are analyzed to understand how APs and CPs define and think about ethical problems and how meaning and analysis may differ between the two groups. Findings have implications for the development of research ethics training materials for academic-community research partnerships and IRBs; best practices for CEnR; and future research on ethical issues in CEnR.
Wegner, Elisabeth; Nückles, Matthias
Learning has been described by two conceptual metaphors: as individual acquisition of knowledge ("acquisition metaphor"), and as an enculturation into a subject community ("participation metaphor"). On the other hand, academics' conceptions of teaching are usually reported to vary between teacher and student orientation. In…
Although the literature on institutional civic engagement within higher education is quite extensive, the community perspective on such endeavors remains an underdeveloped area of study. This is particularly true of outreach programs emanating from the university intended to support college preparation of underrepresented students. The purpose of…
Houser, John H. W.
Community schools represent a school reform approach that purports to address the multifaceted and intertwined challenges faced by poor urban communities and schools. The community school approach includes partnering with community organizations, making the school a community hub where services are provided during and outside of the school day,…
Recognizing the need to overcome the obstacles of traditional university- and discipline-oriented research approaches, a variety of incentives to promote community-based participatory research (CBPR) are presented. Experiences of existing CBPR researchers are used in outlining how this methodological approach can appeal to faculty: the common ground shared by faculty and community leaders in challenging the status quo; opportunities to have an impact on local, regional, and national policy; and opening doors for new research and funding opportunities. Strategies for promoting CBPR in universities are provided in getting CBPR started, changing institutional practices currently inhibiting CBPR, and institutionalizing CBPR. Among the specific strategies are: development of faculty research networks; team approaches to CBPR; mentoring faculty and students; using existing national CBPR networks; modifying tenure and promotion guidelines; development of appropriate measures of CBPR scholarship; earmarking university resources to support CBPR; using Institutional Review Boards to promote CBPR; making CBPR-oriented faculty appointments; and creating CBPR centers. PMID:12848841
Donnangelo, Frank P.
Since the implementation of an open admissions policy at Bronx Community College (BCC) in 1970, the majority of incoming students have been socially, economically, and academically disadvantaged. In 1978, one out of three students had a native language other than English; 46% came from households with an income of less than $5,000; 68% were placed…
Khodyakov, Dmitry; Stockdale, Susan; Jones, Andrea; Mango, Joseph; Jones, Felica; Lizaola, Elizabeth
Active participation of community partners in research aspects of community-academic partnered projects is often assumed to have a positive impact on the outcomes of such projects. The value of community engagement in research, however, cannot be empirically determined without good measures of the level of community participation in research…
Aylsworth, Anthony James
This study sought to compare teacher participation in a Professional Learning Community with the performance of their students. Student achievement data from multiple subject-alike groups were compared in a pre-and post-PLC format, using an independent, two-sample t-test. Overall, 10 PLCs from one high school in a suburban, Iowa setting were…
This article examines the participation of women in academic conferences in Israel, a country in which women are under-represented in academia vertically and horizontally. Data were retrieved from announcements of academic conferences in Israel, for one academic year, covering 56 conferences that attracted 997 participants. Participation was…
The purpose of this study was to examine how I Am A Dreamer Musician Program (IDMP) affected academic self-concept and self-esteem of middle school students in low-income communities. During the seven weeks of the weekly music workshops, students participated in different musical activities including playing percussion instruments, singing,…
Barrera, Douglas Stuart
While the literature on institutional civic engagement is quite extensive, the community perspective on such endeavors remains an under-developed area of study. This is particularly true of academic outreach programs meant to support the college preparation of underrepresented students. The purpose of this study was to explore the motivations of…
While the largest growth in the college-age population (i.e., 18 to 24 year olds) is among minority group members, the largest decline in college-going rates is among minorities. Because of poor academic preparation, rising tuition rates, and declining financial aid resources, the community college has become the college of necessity, rather than…
Berlie, Helen; Salinitri, Francine; McCuistion, Micah; Slaughter, Richard
Objective. To enhance academic performance and student progression by creating a community of learners. Design. Academic performance and student progression of students participating in the first 3 years of a second-year pharmacy learning community were compared with those of students in the 3 previous classes. Students participating in the learning community completed surveys at the end of each semester and at the end of the academic year. Peer mentors were surveyed at the end of the academic year. Assessment. After implementing the learning community, failures during the second year of the pharmacy program decreased. Students had increasingly positive perceptions of the experience over the 3 years. Peer mentors rated their overall experience highly. Conclusion. Implementation of a learning community resulted in improved progression through the program and was well received by students. PMID:26396279
Niia, Anna; Almqvist, Lena; Brunnberg, Elinor; Granlund, Mats
This study shows that students, teachers, and parents in Swedish schools ascribe differing meanings and significance to students' participation in school in relation to academic achievement. Students see participation as mainly related to social interaction and not academic achievement, whilst teachers view students' participation as more closely…
Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board, Austin. Div. of Community and Technical Colleges.
The Community College General Academic Course Guide Manual (ACGM) is the official list of approved numbers for general academic transfer courses that may be offered by public community and technical colleges in Texas for state funding. This edition of the ACGM, effective September 1996, contains the latest information available for academic…
Carey, Sean J.; Origins Space Telescope Study Team
The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, a study in development by NASA in preparation for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Origins is planned to be a large aperture, actively-cooled telescope covering a wide span of the mid- to far-infrared spectrum. Its imagers and spectrographs will enable a variety of surveys of the sky that will discover and characterize the most distant galaxies, Milky-Way, exoplanets, and the outer reaches of our Solar system. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s. This poster will outline the ways in which the astronomical community can participate in the STDT activities and a summary of tools that are currently available or are planned for the community during the study. The Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) would like to hear your science needs and ideas for this mission. The team can be contacted at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Kessinger, Peter R.
This academic development plan outlines the priorities of Honolulu Community College (HCC) for the years 1987 to 1995. After providing a history and description of the campus, the report explains the planning process, which involved campus-wide participation by representatives of faculty, staff, and advisory committees. The report then discusses…
In the past five years, there has been a surge in the attention shown to community and community-based health programs among Native Americans, particularly for chronic health problems such as diabetes. Community participation in health programming--from the efforts of community health workers (CHWs), to participatory research, to the impact of…
Profit-generating entrepreneurial initiatives have become increasingly important as community colleges look for alternative revenue to support escalating costs in an environment characterized by funding constraints. Academic capitalism was used as the conceptual framework to determine whether community colleges have become increasingly market…
Keller, David R.
A frequent refrain in Utah County, which prides itself on being one of the most conservative communities in the country, is that its public institution of higher education, Utah Valley State College, should reflect "community values." Generally, the argument goes something like this: local taxpayers, who support the school, should not…
Fostering Hope and Closing the Academic Gap: An Examination of College Retention for African-American and Latino Students Who Participate in the Louis Stokes Alliance Minority Participation Program (Learning Community) While Enrolled in a Predominately White Institution
Hollands, Aisha La'Chae
Colleges are struggling to retain students of color at four-year academic institutions (Kuh, 2005). The result is that while African-American and Latino students are entering college, fewer successfully complete their programs of study and obtain an undergraduate degree (ACE, 2006). For this reason, institutions are establishing supportive…
Wright, D. J.
We are all familiar with the three-legged stool of standard academic practice -- research, teaching, and service -- especially as it pertains to promotion and tenure. For example, many studies are emerging on the various ways that social media can be effectively used in teaching at all levels. Researchers are using analytical tools to turn social media feeds into useful indicators of human pattern and process. Darling et al. (2013) investigate the usefulness of Twitter for the development and distribution of scientific knowledge, including within the life cycle of scientific publication. However, the author focuses here on the use of social media as related to the traditional forms of academic "service:" i.e., participation on a committee or a board, in strategic planning or development of programs, in coordination of a seminar series or workshop, in professional reviews of books, papers, proposals, delivery of a public lectures to a civic group, giving an interview to a journalist on one's research or practice, even providing testimony to a group of policymakers. The author shares personal and institutional/organizational perspectives on how appropriate social media interaction in this context, can be viewed as a necessary (even daily) part of professional practice, and thus yet another moniker of good scientific behavior (especially as a model for students and early-career faculty), and of the "gift culture" of scholarship. For example, the "live tweeting" of ideas and summary points from paper sessions at scholarly meetings is gaining popularity, especially to inform those who could not attend. Other modes of contribution to intellectual communities range from advertising calls for special issues, proposals, participation in specialists meetings, to showcasing the real-time effects of natural disasters via social media feeds embedded in maps. Indeed, there is much discussion of "innovation" in research and in teaching, but can the speed and structure of social
Teeuwsen, Phil; Ratkovic, Snežana; Tilley, Susan A.
An important element of doctoral studies is identification with the academic community. Such identification is often complicated by part-time student status. In this paper, two part-time doctoral students and their supervisor employ Lave and Wenger's concept of legitimate peripheral participation to explore, through a critical socio-cultural lens,…
DeLugan, Robin Maria; Roussos, Stergios; Skram, Geneva
Research universities seeking to promote community-engaged scholarship (CES), defined here as research of mutual benefit to community and academic interests, will discover that it requires capacity building and institutional support. At the University of California at Merced, our 7-year experience in building a new public research university that…
Heritage, Zoë; Dooris, Mark
Community participation and empowerment are core principles underpinning the Healthy Cities movement. By providing an overview of theory and presenting the relevant findings of evaluations, this article explores how cities in the WHO European Healthy Cities Network have integrated community participation and empowerment within their development. Reflecting the inclusion of public participation and empowerment within the designation criteria for project cities, the evaluation of Phase III in 2002 demonstrated that community participation continues to be a high priority in most project cities. One-third of cities regularly consulted with large parts of their populations and another third undertook occasional consultations. Nearly 80% of cities had mechanisms for community representatives to participate in decision-making; and more than two-thirds of cities had initiatives explicitly aimed at empowering local people. Subsequent research carried out during 2005 further highlighted the centrality of public participation to the Healthy Cities movement. It found that all project cities continued to support community involvement. Community participation is an essential part of the process of good local governance, and empowerment remains at the heart of effective health promotion. To be meaningful, these processes must be seen as fundamental values of Healthy Cities and so must be developed as an integral part of long-term strategic development.
Saegert, Susan; Winke, Gary
Social disorganization at the neighborhood and community levels has been consistently linked to various forms of criminal activity. However,a very much smaller body of literature addresses the effects of crime on community organizations. In some studies, crime appears to energize communities while in others, crime leads to withdrawal from community life. Using department of health crime victimization data and interviews with 2,985 low-income inner city residents living in 487 multi-family dwellings, a multi-level model examined the relationships among crime victimization, social organization, and participation in neighborhood organizations. Social organization at the individual and building levels was measured using recent formulations of social capital theory. Findings regarding crime suggested more signs of a chilling effect on participation than of an energizing effect, especially at the building level. Social capital at the building level was more strongly and consistently related to participation in community organizations than was crime.
Perspectives in Computing, 1983
The six articles in this journal reflect the role of computers in the academic and scientific communities, discussing the relationship between universities and industry, communication networks, light-scattering, data processing during seismic exploration, and computer applications in publishing and archaeological site management. It is available…
Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. Office of Institutional Research and Analysis.
In fall 1981, a study was conducted in Hawaii's community colleges to determine the course-taking patterns of different groups of student majors (e.g., the proportion of the liberal arts major's academic load that is taken in the humanities, natural sciences, etc.), and the client-serving patterns of different subject disciplines (e.g., the…
Sypawka, William; Mallett, William; McFadden, Cheryl
The future of the community college system will depend on sound leadership, and its success will rely on how well academic deans effectively direct their units. The study investigated the dean's leadership styles using Bolman and Deal's Leadership Orientation Instrument to discover their primary leadership frame with a focus on how data may be…
Parisi, Domenico; McLaughlin, Diane K.; Grice, Steven Michael; Taquino, Michael; Gill, Duane A.
Single mothers' participation rates in Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) in rural Mississippi were influenced by community-level characteristics: educational attainment, racial composition, employment structure, civic engagement, and spatial concentration of poverty. Particularly, TANF participation rates were higher in the Delta and…
Baum, F.; Bush, R.; Modra, C.; Murray, C.; Cox, E.; Alexander, K.; Potter, R.
STUDY OBJECTIVE—To determine the levels of participation in social and civic community life in a metropolitan region, and to assess differential levels of participation according to demographic, socioeonomic and health status. To contribute to policy debates on community participation, social capital and health using these empirical data. DESIGN—Cross sectional, postal, self completed survey on health and participation. SETTING—Random sample of the population from the western suburbs of Adelaide, the capital city of South Australia, a population of approximately 210 000. PARTICIPANTS—2542 respondents from a sample of 4000 people aged 18 years and over who were registered on the electoral roll. MAIN RESULTS—The response rate to the survey was 63.6% (n=2542). Six indices of participation, on range of social and civic activities, with a number of items in each, were created. Levels of participation were highest in the informal social activities index (46.7-83.7% for individual items), and lowest in the index of civic activities of a collective nature (2.4-5.9% for individual items). Low levels of involvement in social and civic activities were reported more frequently by people of low income and low education levels. CONCLUSIONS—Levels of participation in social and civic community life in an urban setting are significantly influenced by individual socioeconomic status, health and other demographic characteristics. An understanding of the pattern of participation is important to inform social and health policy making. Increasing levels of participation will reduce social exclusion and is likely to improve the overall quality of community life. Keywords: community participation; social capital; health promotion PMID:10818116
Knepp, Douglas S.
Many colleges and universities are engaged in developing enrollment strategies in higher education that focus on student retention. Using concepts based on Astin's (1993) theory of involvement and Tinto's (1975) theory of social interaction, this study focused on how participation in recreation center activities is related to the academic success…
Higueras-Fresnillo, Sara; Martínez-Gómez, David; Padilla-Moledo, Carmen; Conde-Caveda, Julio; Esteban-Cornejo, Irene
Dance is a predominant type of physical activity among girls. Dance characteristics imply skills associated to health-related physical fitness, as well as others such as learning and memory, mental representation, imagination and creativity, which are related to cognitive development. Although dance has been shown to influence physical health among youth girls, whether dance may influence academic performance and cognition in youth remains to be elucidated. The objective of this work was to examine the association between participation in dance and academic performance in youth girls.
Bicay, M.; Gehrz, R.; Caroff, L.; Jura, M.; Pipher, J. L.; Werner, M.; Young, E.
SIRTF - the Space Infrared Telescope Facility - will be an observatory for the entire scientific community, but the modes of community participation may be somewhat different from those used on previous astrophysics missions. The limited lifetime of the mission demands the development of a highly efficient observing program that will maximize the scientific return. To achieve this goal, the SIRTF scientific program will probably consist largely of Key Projects - large scale targeted and unbiased spectroscopic and imaging surveys - supplemented by General Observer and Archival Research opportunities. Possible forms of community participation in the SIRTF program include: 1. Planning and preparation through collaboration in the definition of community roles and in the definition of the structure of the Key Projects Program. 2. Collaboration in SIRTF's Key Projects. Key Project investigations and investigators will be chosen by peer review several years before launch. Investigators will work with the instrument and operations teams in defining and preparing for their observations. 3. Participation in the General Observer Program. Selected General Observers will bear much of the responsibility for planning their observational programs and reducing the data. 4. Archival Research. We anticipate starting the archival research program during the mission while the spacecraft is still operating and adding data to the archive. The poster will describe these modes of participation in greater detail and serve as a focal point for discussion of the community's role in SIRTF.
Increasing numbers of people use the Internet for information and support about health and illness experiences. Likewise, researchers are increasingly turning to Internet communities as recruitment sites for research participants. Based on the use of online recruitment for a study of women living with lupus, the challenges and strategies associated with this method are discussed. How participants were obtained through posts on Web sites, the role of gatekeepers in accessing online communities, issues associated with list lurkers and posters, and challenges to authenticity when working with a sample recruited from this environment are covered, as are strategies for addressing identified problems.
King, Keyonna M.; Pardo, Yvette-Janine; Norris, Keith C.; Diaz-Romero, Maria; Morris, D’Ann; Vassar, Stefanie D.; Brown, Arleen F.
Grant writing is an essential skill necessary to secure financial support for community programs and research projects. Increasingly, funding opportunities for translational biomedical research require studies to engage community partners, patients, or other stakeholders in the research process to address their concerns. However, there is little evidence on strategies to prepare teams of academic and community partners to collaborate on grants. This paper presents the description and formative evaluation of a two-part community-academic partnered grant writing series designed to help community organizations and academic institutions build infrastructure for collaborative research projects using a partnered approach. The first phase of the series was a half-day workshop on grant readiness, which was open to all interested community partners. The second phase, open only to community-academic teams that met eligibility criteria, was a 12-week session that covered partnered grant writing for foundation grants and National Institutes of Health grants. Participants in both phases reported an increase in knowledge and self-efficacy for writing partnered proposals. At one year follow-up, participants in phase two had secured approximately $1.87 million in funding. This community-academic partnered grant writing series helped participants obtain proposal development skills and helped community-academic teams successfully compete for funding. PMID:26365589
King, Keyonna M; Pardo, Yvette-Janine; Norris, Keith C; Diaz-Romero, Maria; Morris, D'Ann; Vassar, Stefanie D; Brown, Arleen F
Grant writing is an essential skill necessary to secure financial support for community programs and research projects. Increasingly, funding opportunities for translational biomedical research require studies to engage community partners, patients, or other stakeholders in the research process to address their concerns. However, there is little evidence on strategies to prepare teams of academic and community partners to collaborate on grants. This paper presents the description and formative evaluation of a two-part community-academic partnered grant writing series designed to help community organizations and academic institutions build infrastructure for collaborative research projects using a partnered approach. The first phase of the series was a half-day workshop on grant readiness, which was open to all interested community partners. The second phase, open only to community-academic teams that met eligibility criteria, was a 12-week session that covered partnered grant writing for foundation grants and National Institutes of Health grants. Participants in both phases reported an increase in knowledge and self-efficacy for writing partnered proposals. At 1-year follow-up, participants in Phase 2 had secured approximately $1.87 million in funding. This community-academic partnered grant writing series helped participants obtain proposal development skills and helped community-academic teams successfully compete for funding.
McIntosh, Joshua Grant
This study examined the impact of basic skills curricular learning communities on academically underprepared community college students to determine if participation in such programs significantly contributed to student persistence from year one to year two. The conceptual framework that informed this study was Tinto's (1993) longitudinal model of…
Donaldson, Paul; McKinney, Lyle; Lee, Mimi; Pino, Diana
For this study, we analyzed the relationship between intrusive academic advising and community college student success. Utilizing a qualitative, single-case study design, we conducted interviews with 12 students who participated in an intrusive advising program at a large, urban community college in Texas. Analysis of the interview data revealed…
Reveles, John Michael
This one-year ethnographic study of a third grade classroom examined the construction of elementary school science. The research focused on the co-development of scientific literacy and academic identity. Unlike much research in science education that views literacy as merely supportive of science; this dissertation research considers how students learned both disciplinary knowledge in science as well as about themselves as learners through language use. The study documented and analyzed how students came to engage with scientific knowledge and the impact this engagement had upon their academic identities over time. Ethnographic and discourse analytic methods were employed to investigate three research questions: (a) How were the students in a third grade classroom afforded opportunities to acquire scientific literate practices through the spoken/written discourse and science activities? (b) In what ways did students develop and maintain academic identities taken-up over time as they discursively appropriated scientific literate practices via classroom discourse? and (c) How did students collectively and individually inscribe their academic identities and scientific knowledge into classroom artifacts across the school year? Through multiple forms of analyses, I identified how students' communication and participation in science investigations provided opportunities for them to learn specific scientific literate practices. The findings of this empirical research indicate that students' communication and participation in science influenced the ways they perceived themselves as active participants within the classroom community. More specifically, students were observed to appropriate particular discourse practices introduced by the teacher to frame scientific disciplinary knowledge and investigations. Thus, emerging academic identities and developing literate practices were documented via analysis of discursive (spoken, written, and enacted) classroom interactions. A
Rabitoy, Eric R.; Hoffman, John L.; Person, Dawn R.
This study evaluated variables associated with academic preparation and student demographics as predictors of academic achievement through participation in supplemental instruction (SI) programs for community college students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) fields. The findings suggest a differential impact of SI outcome for…
Vadaparampil, Susan T; Simmons, Vani N; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Malo, Teri; Klasko, Lynne; Rodriguez, Maria; Waddell, Rhonda; Gwede, Clement K; Meade, Cathy D
Journal clubs may enhance the knowledge and skills necessary to engage in community-based participatory research (CBPR) that will ultimately impact cancer health disparities. This article (1) describes an innovative approach to adapting the traditional journal club format to meet community and academic participants' needs, (2) presents evaluation data, and (3) explores whether responses differed between academic and community members. Five journal clubs occurred between February 2011 and May 2012 as a training activity of a regional cancer health disparities initiative. Each journal club was jointly planned and facilitated by an academic member in collaboration with a community partner. Attendees were recruited from academic programs across the Moffitt Cancer Center/University and community partners. Responses to a 13-item evaluation of each journal club session were compared to assess whether certain topics were evaluated more favorably, and explore differences between academic and community participants' assessment of the topic relevance. Evaluations were positive (mean ratings >4 out of 5) on most items and overall. No statistically significant differences were observed between academic and community members' ratings. Key overlapping interests by community partners and academic researchers/trainees for future journal club topics included discussing real-world CBPR examples and methods for involving the community in research. Although the initial goal was to use journal clubs as an educational tool to increase CBPR knowledge and skills of junior faculty trainees, results suggest mutual academic-community benefit and interest in learning more about CBPR as a way to reduce cancer health disparities.
Adams, Alexandra K.; LaRowe, Tara L.; Cronin, Kate A.; Prince, Ronald J.; Wubben, Deborah P.; Parker, Tassy; Jobe, Jared B.
Healthy Children, Strong Families (HCSF) is a 2-year, community-driven, family-based randomized controlled trial of a healthy lifestyles intervention conducted in partnership with four Wisconsin American Indian tribes. HCSF is composed of 1 year of targeted home visits to deliver nutritional and physical activity curricula. During Year 1, trained community mentors work with 2–5-year-old American Indian children and their primary caregivers to promote goal-based behavior change. During Year 2, intervention families receive monthly newsletters and attend monthly group meetings to participate in activities designed to reinforce and sustain changes made in Year 1. Control families receive only curricula materials during Year 1 and monthly newsletters during Year 2. Each of the two arms of the study comprises 60 families. Primary outcomes are decreased child BMI z-score and decreased primary caregiver BMI. Secondary outcomes include: increased fruit/vegetable consumption, decreased TV viewing, increased physical activity, decreased soda/sweetened drink consumption, improved primary caregiver biochemical indices, and increased primary caregiver self-efficacy to adopt healthy behaviors. Using community-based participatory research and our history of university–tribal partnerships, the community and academic researchers jointly designed this randomized trial. This article describes the study design and data collection strategies, including outcome measures, with emphasis on the communities’ input in all aspects of the research. PMID:22956296
Evans, Eliza D.; McFarland, Daniel A.; Rios-Aguilar, Cecilia; Deil-Amen, Regina
Objective: This study explores the relationship between online social network involvement and academic outcomes among community college students. Prior theory hypothesizes that socio-academic moments are especially important for the integration of students into community colleges and that integration is related to academic outcomes. Online social…
Spears Johnson, C R; Kraemer Diaz, A E; Arcury, T A
This analysis describes the nature of community participation in National Institutes of Health and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention funded community-based participatory research (CBPR) projects, and explores the scientific and social implications of variation in community participation. We conducted in-depth interviews in 2012 with professional and community researchers from 25 CBPR projects in the Southeast US. Interview topics focused on participants' experiences with the nature and conduct of their CBPR project. Projects were rated on community participation in 13 components of research. Projects varied substantially in community participation. Some projects had community participation in only two to three components; others had participation in every component. Some professional researchers were deliberate in their inclusion of community participation in all aspects of research, others had community participation in some aspects, and others were mainly concerned that community members had the opportunity to participate in the study. Findings suggest a need for a standardized rubric for community-based research that facilitates delineation of approaches and procedures that are effective and efficient. Little actual community participation may also result in negative social impacts for communities.
del Pino, Homero E.; Jones, Loretta; Forge, Nell; Martins, David; Morris, D’Ann; Wolf, Kenneth; Baker, Richard; Lucas-Wright, Anna Aziza; Jones, Andrea; Richlin, Laurie; Norris, Keith C.
The Problem Charles R. Drew University (CDU) and community partners wanted to create a structure to transcend traditional community–academic partnerships. They wanted community leaders integrated into CDU’s research goals and education of medical professionals. Purpose of Article To explain the establishment of the Community Faculty Program, a new model of community–academic partnership that integrates community and academic knowledge. Key Points Using CBPR principles, CDU and community partners re-conceptualized the faculty appointment process and established the Division of Community Engagement (DCE). CDU initially offered academic appointments to nine community leaders. Community Faculty contributes to CDU’s governance, education, research, and publication goals. This model engaged communities in translational research and transformed the education of future healthcare professionals. Conclusion The Community Faculty Program is a new vision of partnership. Using a CBPR approach with committed partners, a Community Faculty Program can be created that embodies the values of both the community and the academy. PMID:27346780
Jackson, Margot I.
For the half of American children who live in or near poverty, nutritional policy is part of the safety net against hunger and its negative effects on children’s development. The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) provides steadily available food from the food groups essential for physical and cognitive development. The effects of WIC on dietary quality among participating women and children are strong and positive. Furthermore, there is a strong influence of nutrition on cognitive development and socioeconomic inequality. Yet, research on the non-health effects of U.S. child nutritional policy is scarce, despite the ultimate goal of health policies directed at children—to enable productive functioning across multiple social institutions over the life course. Using two nationally representative, longitudinal surveys of children—the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) and the Child Development Supplement (CDS) of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics—I examine how prenatal and early childhood exposure to WIC is associated in the short-term with cognitive development, and in the longer-term with reading and math learning. Results suggest that early WIC participation is associated with both cognitive and academic benefits. These findings suggest that WIC meaningfully contributes to children’s educational prospects. PMID:25555255
Jackson, Margot I
For the 22% of American children who live below the federal poverty line, and the additional 23% who live below twice that level, nutritional policy is part of the safety net against hunger and its negative effects on children's development. The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) provides steadily available food from the food groups essential for physical and cognitive development. The effects of WIC on dietary quality among participating women and children are strong and positive. Furthermore, there is a strong influence of nutrition on cognitive development and socioeconomic inequality. Yet, research on the non-health effects of U.S. child nutritional policy is scarce, despite the ultimate goal of health policies directed at children-to enable productive functioning across multiple social institutions over the life course. Using two nationally representative, longitudinal surveys of children-the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) and the Child Development Supplement (CDS) of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics-I examine how prenatal and early childhood exposure to WIC is associated in the short-term with cognitive development, and in the longer-term with reading and math learning. Results show that early WIC participation is associated with both cognitive and academic benefits. These findings suggest that WIC meaningfully contributes to children's educational prospects.
Parkin, Rebecca T
Communities and research participants increasingly feel that they have rights to be equal partners with researchers and to have access to the results of studies to which they have contributed. Concurrently, research sponsors have become aware of legal liabilities, societal repercussions, and credibility impacts of ignoring research communication responsibilities. However, issues related to research communications are rarely discussed at professional meetings or taught in academic programs. As a result, individual investigators may not be clear about their duties to communicate the results of their research. It is important to address this gap between expectations and abilities, because researchers' lack of communication fosters a climate of distrust in science and implies disinterest or disrespect for participants and communities. Ethical, legal, and professional frameworks and practices were reviewed to develop insights about principles, guidelines, and means that can be used to promote best practices. A review of general research guidance and specific requests for proposals revealed sponsors' communication priorities. While there are barriers to research communication, there is an increasing awareness among sponsors and investigators that effective and responsive communication is not a cheap or uniform add-on to a project or proposal. Communications must be tailored to the project considering all potential stakeholders, and resources need to be allocated specifically for communication activities within projects. Researchers, sponsors, professional societies and academia all have opportunities to improve principles, policies, frameworks, guidelines and strategies to foster "best practice" communication of research results.
George, Cheryl L; Wood-Kanupka, Jennifer; Oriel, Kathryn N
Participation in community-based research provides college students with a high-impact experience involving both research and service learning. Presently, the impact of participation in community-based research projects has been measured most often through the use of post-learning course evaluations and case studies. The authors describe the impact of participation in community-based research, at a small liberal arts college, on undergraduate education students and graduate physical therapy students using the Community-Based Research Student Learning Outcomes Survey. Results from 2 years of survey responses and open-ended responses suggest that participation in such an experience may impact professional and personal growth, educational experiences, and civic engagement. This study provides support for universities and colleges to continue offering high-impact learning experiences for students by utilizing community-based research experiences while collaborating between academic departments.
Saah, Albert Amoah; Mensah, Joseph Adia
Community based learning and outreach is a strategy through which academic institutions worldwide including University of Ghana have successfully stayed relevant to less privileged communities; they exist in bringing benefits of education to their (less privileged communities) doorstep. Learner's participation has been an objective that any adult…
Baldwin, Roger G.; Zeig, Michael J.
The emeritus college, a recent higher education innovation, provides retired professors with a means to stay intellectually engaged and continue to contribute professionally in retirement. The emeritus college can also help institutions maintain a steady flow of professional talent by making retirement more attractive for senior academics. This…
Lewis, Dwight; Yerby, Lea; Tucker, Melanie; Foster, Pamela Payne; Hamilton, Kara C.; Fifolt, Matthew M.; Hites, Lisle; Shreves, Mary Katherine; Page, Susan B.; Bissell, Kimberly L.; Lucky, Felecia L.; Higginbotham, John C.
Cultural competency, trust, and research literacy can affect the planning and implementation of sustainable community-based participatory research (CBPR). The purpose of this manuscript is to highlight: (1) the development of a CBPR pilot grant request for application; and (2) a comprehensive program supporting CBPR obesity-related grant proposals facilitated by activities designed to promote scholarly collaborations between academic researchers and the community. After a competitive application process, academic researchers and non-academic community leaders were selected to participate in activities where the final culminating project was the submission of a collaborative obesity-related CBPR grant application. Teams were comprised of a mix of academic researchers and non-academic community leaders, and each team submitted an application addressing obesity-disparities among rural predominantly African American communities in the US Deep South. Among four collaborative teams, three (75%) successfully submitted a grant application to fund an intervention addressing rural and minority obesity disparities. Among the three submitted grant applications, one was successfully funded by an internal CBPR grant, and another was funded by an institutional seed funding grant. Preliminary findings suggest that the collaborative activities were successful in developing productive scholarly relationships between researchers and community leaders. Future research will seek to understand the full-context of our findings. PMID:26703675
Wildman, Terry M.
The author's charge in this article is to focus particularly on the question of how an academic community can sustain itself and work productively and positively to achieve normally high aspirations for its students and all members of the community. Writing from the perspective of a longtime member of the Virginia Tech community, he begins with a…
Ryan, Gordon Jeremiah
Drawing from an extensive literature review, this practicum recommends a written student academic due process procedure for Brookdale Community College (BCC). Introductory material poses the issue of students' rights to specific institutional procedures by which they can challenge academic judgements made by instructors or by collective faculty or…
Isakov, Alexander; O'Neal, Patrick; Prescott, John; Stanley, Joan; Herrmann, Jack; Dunlop, Anne
Academic institutions possess tremendous resources that could be important for community disaster response and preparedness activities. In-depth exploration of the role of academic institutions in community disaster response has elicited information about particular academic resources leveraged for and essential to community preparedness and response; factors that contribute to the decision-making process for partner engagement; and facilitators of and barriers to sustainable collaborations from the perspectives of academic institutions, public health and emergency management agencies, and national association and agency leaders. The Academic-Community Partnership Project of the Emory University Preparedness and Emergency Response Research Center in collaboration with the Association of Schools of Public Health convened an invitational summit which included leadership from the National Association of County and City Health Officials, Association of State and Territorial Health Officials, Directors of Public Health Preparedness, Department of Health and Human Services Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response, CDC Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response, Association of Schools of Public Health, Association of American Medical Colleges, Association of Academic Health Centers, American Association of Colleges of Nursing, Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists, and American Association of Poison Control Centers. From this convention, emerged recommendations for building and sustaining academic-public health-community collaborations for preparedness locally and regionally.
Academic writing is challenging, particularly for new undergraduates who can struggle to know what is expected of them. Research into Academic Literacies often presents academic literacy practices as a barrier to the academy, excluding those not familiar with and those not able to participate in those practices and positioning them permanently on…
This information packet presents five readings about community participation and social networks of people with developmental disabilities and an annotated bibliography. The first paper, "Building Stronger Communities for All: Thoughts about Community Participation for People with Developmental Disabilities" (Robert Bogdan and Steven J. Taylor),…
This study examines the historical, current, and future challenges of higher education research in Japan within a global context. Japanese higher education research has been strongly influenced by the international academic community. At the same time, higher education researchers in Japan have participated in international projects, and Japan has…
Grunder, Patricia G.; Hellmich, David M.
Assesses the effectiveness of Santa Fe Community College's "College Success Program" by looking at the academic performance of remedial students who participated in the program as freshmen. Findings indicate that the program decreased the course failure rate for African-American and female students, and increased grade-point average for…
Habibi, Assal; Sarkissian, Alissa Der; Gomez, Martha; Ilari, Beatriz
Challenges associated with recruitment and retention of participants from underprivileged social communities, in addition to neuroscience researchers' unfamiliarity with these communities, possibly explain the limited number of individuals from these communities who participate in neuroscience research studies. The consequence is a scarcity of…
There has been growing concern among researchers and scholars about how nonnative-English-speaking academics in the "expanding circle" (Kachru, 2001, p. 520) cope with challenges while publishing in English in international refereed journals in the center. Most found that academics from peripheral countries where English is a foreign…
Christens, Brian D; Speer, Paul W; Peterson, N Andrew
How well do self-reported levels of community and organizational participation align with recorded acts of community and organizational participation? This study explores this question among participants in social action community organizing initiatives by comparing responses on a community participation scale designed to retrospectively assess community participation (T1, n = 482; T2, n = 220) with individual participants' attendance records in various social action organizing activities over two 1-year periods. By testing the self-reported measure's overall and item-by-item association with documented participation in various types of organizing activities, we find that the self-report measure is positively, but weakly correlated with actual participation levels in community organizing activities. Moreover, associations between self-report and recorded acts of participation differ by types of activity. Examining this unique source of data raises important questions about how community participation is conceptualized and measured in our field. Implications are explored for theory and measurement of participation in community and organizational contexts.
Slusher, Barbara S.; Conn, P. Jeffrey; Frye, Stephen; Glicksman, Marcie; Arkin, Michelle
The newly formed Academic Drug Discovery Consortium (ADDC) aims to support the growing numbers of university centres engaged in drug discovery that have emerged in response to recent changes in the drug discovery ecosystem. PMID:24172316
Background This paper explores how community participation can be used in designing rural primary healthcare services by describing a study of Scottish communities. Community participation is extolled in healthcare policy as useful in planning services and is understood as particularly relevant in rural settings, partly due to high social capital. Literature describes many community participation methods, but lacks discussion of outcomes relevant to health system reconfiguration. There is a spectrum of ideas in the literature on how to design services, from top-down standard models to contextual plans arising from population health planning that incorporates community participation. This paper addresses an evidence gap about the outcomes of using community participation in (re)designing rural community health services. Methods Community-based participatory action research was applied in four Scottish case study communities in 2008–10. Data were collected from four workshops held in each community (total 16) and attended by community members. Workshops were intended to produce hypothetical designs for future service provision. Themes, rankings and selections from workshops are presented. Results Community members identified consistent health priorities, including local practitioners, emergency triage, anticipatory care, wellbeing improvement and health volunteering. Communities designed different service models to address health priorities. One community did not design a service model and another replicated the current model despite initial enthusiasm for innovation. Conclusions Communities differ in their receptiveness to engaging in innovative service design, but some will create new models that fit in a given budget. Design diversity indicates that context influences local healthcare planning, suggesting community participation impacts on design outcomes, but standard service models maybe useful as part of the evidence in community participation discussions
Gilfert, Christy M.
This research was a quantitative study designed to evaluate parenting satisfaction, academic performance, and students' perceptions of pursuing higher education in students attending community college. One purpose of this research was to determine if pursuing higher education at the community college level impacted the parenting satisfaction of…
London, Howard B.
Reasons for slipping academic standards in U.S. community colleges and a specific program combating this problem are discussed. Two reasons are offered for this slippage; the first has to do with the ambiguous state of the community college faculty. These teachers are said to have difficulty defining their roles because they feel a powerlessness…
Matarrita-Cascante, David; Luloff, A. E.
Differences between old-timers and newcomers and their effects on community social dimensions have been the object of much research. These studies have shown how extensive in-migration of people with different socioeconomic backgrounds, values, and perspectives contribute to heightened social conflict in some communities. Popular media accounts…
[Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the relationship between balance function and community participation in stroke survivors. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty-three patients diagnosed with hemiparetic stroke participated in this study (36 males, 27 females, aged 58.6 ± 15.2 years). The participants were assessed for balance function and their level of participation in the community, using activity card sorting and the Berg Balance Scale. A regression analysis was used to identify the influence of balance function on instrumental activities of daily living and leisure and social activities. [Results] The results of the regression analysis indicated that balance function measured by using the Berg Balance Scale affected community participation of patients with hemiparetic stroke. Participation in instrumental activities of daily living and leisure and social activities was affected by balance function. [Conclusion] This study provides useful information for designing efficient programs and identifying their effectiveness for enhancement of community participation in stroke survivors.
Balancing power among academic and community partners, addressing community-identified needs, and strengthening community capacity are ethical values unique to community-based participatory research (CBPR). Negotiation of these values in one CBPR environmental justice project was evaluated to advance the environmental and occupational health of a Hispanic agricultural community in central Washington State. Data were collected through document review and participant observation. Applied conversation and discourse analysis were used to interpret the data. Within the organization, farmworkers primarily served an advisory role. Facilitation style influenced how participants negotiated environmental justice. Research goals were advanced in the project, but no direct actions were taken to improve farmworker health. Implementing CBPR's ethical values requires a willingness to confront institutional and interpersonal challenges, and offers a vision of research that builds knowledge and strengthens communities.
Community participation is a term frequently used and often cited in international educational development. In this article, Jennifer Swift-Morgan investigates the definition and impact of community participation in schooling in rural Ethiopia. Although national governments, development agencies, and nongovernmental organizations across the…
Cueto, Rosa María; Fernández, María Zoila; Moll, Sarah; Rivera, Gonzalo
During the first academic term of 2010, participatory action investigation processes were conducted in three communities affected by the 2007 high magnitude earthquake that occurred in the province of Chincha (Ica, Peru). In the process, members of the communities identified, as core problems, aspects related to the community coexistence, emphasizing the attention of the most vulnerable segments (children and adolescents) in the context of economic constraints and problems aggravated by the earthquake. Results include an analysis of the needs and reactions following the earthquake, the leadership and the power relations visible in the post disaster context and, finally, the community participation throughout the reconstruction process. This article also proposes some topics resulting from the analysis, aiming to contribute to interventions focused on community participation and strengthening of local resources in contexts of great vulnerability to natural disasters.
Eberle, Julia; Stegmann, Karsten; Fischer, Frank
Participating in communities of practice (CoPs) is an important way of learning. For newcomers in such communities, the learning process can be described as legitimate peripheral participation (LPP). Although a body of knowledge on LPP has been accumulated from qualitative case studies, mostly focusing on the use of practices, the concrete…
Voss, Heather C; Mathews, Launa Rae; Fossen, Traci; Scott, Ginger; Schaefer, Michele
Academic partnerships with hospitals and health care agencies for authentic clinical learning have become a major focus of schools of nursing and professional nursing organizations. Formal academic partnerships in community settings are less common despite evolving models of care delivery outside of inpatient settings. Community-Academic partnerships are commonly developed as a means to engage nursing students in service-learning experiences with an emphasis on student outcomes. The benefit of service-learning projects on community partners and populations receiving the service is largely unknown primarily due to the lack of structure for identifying and measuring outcomes specific to service-learning. Nursing students and their faculty engaged in service-learning have a unique opportunity to collaborate with community partners to evaluate benefits of service-learning projects on those receiving the service. This article describes the development of a service-learning framework as a first step toward successful measurement of the benefits of undergraduate nursing students' service-learning projects on community agencies and the people they serve through a collaborative community-academic partnership.
Carroll, Conor; O'Loughlin, Deirdre
This research aims to uncover key motivations, barriers and outcomes associated with first-time users of peer observation of teaching within an Irish higher level academic context. Following preliminary research, a peer observation process was piloted on five self-selected peer observation faculty pairs involving peer observation training and…
Commencing from the identification of an emerging discourse in government circles expounding the benefits of community participation, this article examines critically the claims that community participation enhances involvement in decision making, builds social capital, reduces social exclusion, improves public service delivery and enhances local…
Mlynarczyk, Rebecca Williams; Babbitt, Marcia
Finds that students who become part of an active, student-centered learning community have a greater change of succeeding in college than those who do not. Explores the nature and structure of learning community programs and what makes them so effective in contributing to the success of entering college students, English-as-a-second-language (ESL)…
Anderson, Britta L.; Schulkin, Jay; Lawrence, Hal C.
Introduction Obstetrician-gynecologist faculty workforce studies have been limited to faculty at university training programs. Not much is known about the obstetrician-gynecologist faculty workforce at community programs. Method This study assessed the obstetrician-gynecologist faculty workforce in community training programs via administering surveys to the department chairs. The questionnaire assessed number of current faculty by degree, work status (part-time/full-time), rank, and sub-specialty. Out of 125 programs, 65 responded (52% response rate). Results The mean number of full-time faculty per department in community hospitals was 17 faculty. Two-thirds of community department chairs anticipated an increase in full-time faculty and 43% anticipated an increase in part-time faculty. Like university programs, sub-specialists and Professors (compared to generalists and assistant professors) were more likely to be male. Conclusion There are similarities between the community and university faculty workforce, many of the community program faculty are involved in research. Given the evolving clinical, educational, and research demands on community faculty, it is important to continue to monitor and study community program faculty. PMID:23882350
This paper considers tensions between corporate models of governance focused on the governing body and more traditional, consensual academic approaches. It argues that despite these tensions, a decline in the role of the academic community in matters of institutional governance (shared governance) is neither desirable nor inevitable, and that…
Mackin, Sara Lee
Due to the implementation of new standards for academic progress in Fall 1978 and the resultant suspension of or imposition of credit limitations upon students not meeting these standards, Miami-Dade Community College developed and tested an academic alert program in which computer-generated letters were sent to students at mid-term to provide an…
Nicholson, Kathryn; Randhawa, Jasmine; Steele, Margaret
With the evolving fields of health research, health professional education and advanced clinical care comes a need to bring researchers, educators and health care providers together to enhance communication, knowledge-sharing and interdisciplinary collaboration. There is also a need for active collaboration between academic institutions and community organizations to improve health care delivery and health outcomes in the community setting. In Canada, an Academic Health Sciences Network model has been proposed to achieve such activities. The SouthWestern Academic Health Network (SWAHN) has been established among three universities, three community colleges, community hospitals, community-based organizations and health care providers and two Local Health Integrated Networks (LHINs) in Southwestern Ontario. A survey was conducted to understand the characteristics, activities, existing partnerships, short- and long-term goals of the academic and community health networks in SouthWestern Ontario to inform the development of SWAHN moving forward. A total of 114 health networks were identified from the two participating LHINs, 103 community health networks and 11 academic health networks. A mailed survey was sent to all networks and responses were analyzed using both quantitative and qualitative approaches. The short- and long-term goals of these networks were categorized into five main themes: Public Health, Education, Research, System Delivery and Special Populations. Overall, this study helped to elicit important information from the academic and community based networks, which will inform the future work of SWAHN. This research has also demonstrated the significance of collecting information from both academic and community partners during the formation of other interdisciplinary health networks.
Kussrow, Paul G.; Martel, Larry
Among innovative approaches to learning to enhance human performance in community school settings, the theory of multiple intelligences (linguistic, logic-mathematical, musical, spatial, kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal) can be applied to redesign of the educational delivery system. (JOW)
Attewell, Paul; Douglas, Daniel
This paper uses the credits-attempted perspective--in the context of how many credits a student attempts in their first year of college--and reports on several related projects all intended to evaluate potential interventions to raise academic momentum among first-year community college students. The presentation contrasts non-experimental…
Kirby, Misty M.; DiPaola, Michael F.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationships among academic optimism, community engagement, and student achievement in urban elementary schools across one district. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected from all 35 urban elementary schools across one district in Virginia, USA. Correlation, multiple regression, and…
The mechanics of establishing and maintaining overseas academic programs are examined in this monograph with respect to the community college level. Chapter 1 provides a history of internationalism in institutions of higher learning from ancient times in India, China, Persia, Greece, Rome, and Western Europe. Chapter 2 presents a rationale for the…
Academic Senate for California Community Colleges, 2010
The Rostrum is a quarterly publication of the Academic Senate for California Community Colleges. The following articles are included in this issue: (1) The Need for full Time faculty (again) by Jane Patton; (2) Reading May Be the Key to Unlocking Basic Skills Success by Janet Fulks; (3) Diversity Institute on the Right Track by Beth Smith; (4)…
Anderson, Philip Wayne
This study utilized Mintzberg's taxonomy of managerial roles to examine the roles performed by community college chief academic officers (CAOs). Mintzberg's taxonomy defines managerial roles as a set of behaviors and identifies 10 distinct roles: (1) figurehead; (2) leader; (3) liaison; (4) monitor; (5) disseminator; (6) spokesperson; (7)…
Gloria, Alberta M.
Examines the importance of a university-based community and perceived social support of family and friends in facilitating the growth and persistence in higher education of Latina students and Chicanas using a sample of 357 Chicana undergraduates. Factors that facilitate academic persistence are discussed. (SLD)
Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. Community Coll. System.
Patterns of course distribution by subject areas and of courses taken by various majors are described in this report on Hawaii community colleges. Distribution of courses by major indicates: (1) liberal arts majors are the largest consumers of general education--66% of all Student Semester Hours (SSH) generated in general education are taken by…
Tierney, William G.
Discusses the need for post-tenure faculty review to root out "dead wood" faculty and increase faculty accountability, focusing on the time frame for such reviews, who gets reviewed, and the intensity and ramifications of the review. Also notes criticisms of post-tenure reviews and the need to build community through self-regulation.…
Wright State University School of Medicine uses community pathologists as unpaid volunteers to team teach pathology courses, making possible a small-group approach in the laboratory. The organization of the course and faculty teams, student evaluation, and results of this approach are discussed. (JMD)
Yim, Yoon-kyung Kecia
This article reports an investigation of second language (L2) students' class participation in English-language university courses in two different modes: face-to-face off-line and asynchronous online. The study addressed (1) what characteristics of academic online discourse were created in graduate courses; (2) how students reported their…
In development policy, community participation has increasingly come to be seen as a way to encourage community interest, involvement, ownership and ultimately, sustainability of projects. Education has also been affected by this discourse. The following paper examines two countries affected by conflict (Pakistan and Yemen), asking what type of…
Hinckley, Robert A.; McGuire, John P.
We address several challenges faced by those who wish to increase the number of faculty participating in upper-division learning communities that feature a student research experience. Using illustrations from our own learning community, we describe three strategies for success that focus on providing low cost incentives and other means to promote…
Clennon, Ornette D.; Kagan, Carolyn; Lawthom, Rebecca; Swindells, Rachel
In this paper, we critically reflect, through the lens of liberation psychology, on our experiences of using participative community arts in work with young people and intergenerational groups in inner-city Manchester, UK. We used mixed methods to examine the impact of and engagement with community arts in two projects. One study was quasi…
CAL Community School, Latimer, IA.
This annual report provides information on the CAL Community School, a small K-12 school that serves the communities of Alexander, Coulter, and Latimer, Iowa. The mission of the school is to provide a positive educational environment, maintain high academic standards, and promote the value of life-long learning among students. In addition, the…
The purpose of the study was to describe the participation perceptions of church choir musicians. Twenty-two choral musicians in 3 churches were interviewed. The results align with past research on community music ensembles in terms of musical and social perceptions of the participants, including concepts of recruitment, attendance, and diverse…
Kearns, Jacqueline Farmer; Towles-Reeves, Elizabeth; Kleinert, Harold L.; Kleinert, Jane O'Regan; Thomas, Megan Kleine-Kracht
Little research has precisely defined the population of students participating in alternate assessments based on alternate academic achievement standards (AA-AAAS). Therefore, the purpose of this article is twofold: (a) explicate the findings of a multistate study examining the characteristics of the population of students participating in…
Davenport, Kevin O.
This study examined whether or not students that participated in a school sponsored instrumental music program had higher academic achievement and attendance than students that did not participate in a school sponsor instrumental music program. Units of measurement included standardized test scores and attendance, without taking into consideration…
Kettler, Todd; Hurst, Luke T.
Participation in advanced academic programs such as Advanced Placement (AP) and International Baccalaureate (IB) has been associated with higher student achievement and college readiness. In addition, AP and IB are widely recommended and implemented as services for gifted and talented students. Students who participate in these programs tend to be…
Im, Myung Hee; Hughes, Jan N.; Cao, Qian; Kwok, Oi-man
We investigated the effect of participating in two domains of extracurricular activities (sports and performance arts/clubs) in Grades 7 and 8 on Grade 9 academic motivation and letter grades, above baseline performance. Participants were 483 students (55% male; 33% Euro-American, 25% African American, and 39% Latino). Propensity score weighting…
Rees, Daniel I.; Sabia, Joseph J.
It has been argued that high school sports participation increases motivation and teaches teamwork and self-discipline. While several studies have shown that students who participate in athletic activities perform better in school than those who do not, it is not clear whether this association is a result of positive academic spillovers, or due to…
Howard, Anissa K.; Ziomek-Daigle, Jolie
Utilizing a single-group interrupted time series design (Creswell, 2003), this pilot study examined the relationship between academic achievement, school bonding, and the extracurricular activity participation of "uninvolved" students (n=11) who participated in a voluntary support group at a suburban high school in the southeast. Results…
Jhangiani, Rajiv S.
The present study investigates the impact of participation in a peer assessment activity on subsequent academic performance. Students in two sections of an introductory psychology course completed a practice quiz 1 week prior to each of three course exams. Students in the experimental group participated in a five-step double-blind peer assessment…
Nkansa, Grace Akukwe; Chapman, David W.
SUSTAINING COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION: WHAT REMAINS AFTER THE MONEY ENDS? - A major concern confronting development specialists in the education sector is the sustainability of project activities and outcomes, that is, their ability to persist once external funding ends. The increased attention of international development-assistance organizations to sustainability reflects the greater recent focus on outcome-based funding. The present study investigates differences between six communities in Ghana that varied in their ability to sustain externally initiated community-participation activities beyond the life of the external development-assistance project that promoted those activities. It was hypothesized that high- and low-sustaining communities differ in eight managerial and socio-cultural dimensions suggested by earlier research to be important for sustainability of community-level activities: planning, transparency, leadership, and participation, on one hand, and, on the other, social cohesion, resources, community skills, and valuing of education. Findings indicate that leadership and social cohesion are the two most vital elements in the sustainability of organizational structures intended to promote community participation in the oversight of local schools. Other factors suggested by the model are largely subsumed under leadership, so that the model can be simplified.
Velezis, M J; Endeshaw, Y
Many universities are establishing programs to bring health professions students, faculty, and communities together to address the communities' needs using public health models and tools. Such partnerships provide students with the opportunity to put into practice what they learn in the classroom, work together in interdisciplinary teams, and provide communities with access to preventive care and health education. The authors describe the experience of the partnership developed between a Washington, D.C., elementary school and a group of students from the schools of medicine, nursing, and public health and health services of the George Washington University and George Mason University. Working with both an academic preceptor and a community preceptor, the students assessed the schoolchildren's immunization status; prepared informational packets for parents; and organized and conducted an immunization fair at the elementary school. The authors describe how the program was implemented, the results of the program, and lessons learned.
Crawford, Ian; Wang, Zhiqi; Andrews, Georgina
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the low placement participation rate among international students compared with UK students, by examining the impact of individual factors such as gender and domicile and academic achievement such as prior academic qualification, prior academic results and subsequent academic results on…
Strange, Cecily; Bremner, Alexander; Fisher, Colleen; Howat, Peter; Wood, Lisa
Issue addressed: The study aim was to investigate the relationships between social capital measures and playgroup participation in a local residential area for parents with children of playgroup age (1-4 years) compared with non-participation and participation in a playgroup outside the local residential area. Research indicates playgroup participation has benefits for families, however, less is known about the potential local community social capital for parents who participate in playgroups.Methods: Data were collected through a cross-sectional survey from March 2013 to January 2014 in Perth, Western Australia. The data from a group of parents (n=405) who had at least one child aged between 1 and 4 years were analysed using multivariable regression. Reported playgroup participation (local, outside the area or non-participation) in the previous 12 months was investigated for associations with three measures (Neighbourhood Cohesion Index, Social Capital and Citizenship Survey and local reciprocity) that capture attributes of social capital.Results: Participation in playgroup locally was generally associated with higher levels of social capital than both participation in playgroup outside the local area and non-participation. Mothers with two or more children fared better for social capital measures than mothers with one child.Conclusions: Participation in a locally placed playgroup may provide an important opportunity for families with children of playgroup age (1-4 years) to build social capital in their local community.So what?: Playgroups in a family's local area have the potential to foster locally placed social capital through community interaction, social networks and cohesion, which are important for mental health promotion in communities.
Cohn, Elizabeth Gross; Husamudeen, Maryam; Larson, Elaine L.; Williams, Janet K.
Achieving equitable minority representation in genomic biobanking is one of the most difficult challenges faced by researchers today. Capacity building—a framework for research that includes collaborations and on-going engagement—can be used to help researchers, clinicians and communities better understand the process, utility, and clinical application of genomic science. The purpose of this exploratory descriptive study was to examine factors that influence the decision to participate in genomic research, and identify essential components of capacity building with a community at risk of being under-represented in biobanks. Results of focus groups conducted in Central Harlem with 46 participants were analyzed by a collaborative team of community and academic investigators using content analysis and AtlisTi. Key themes identified were: (1) the potential contribution of biobanking to individual and community health, for example the effect of the environment on health, (2) the societal context of the science, such as DNA criminal databases and paternity testing, that may affect the decision to participate, and (3) the researchers’ commitment to community health as an outcome of capacity building. These key factors can contribute to achieving equity in biobank participation, and guide genetic specialists in biobank planning and implementation. PMID:25228357
Frerichs, Leah; Kim, Mimi; Dave, Gaurav; Cheney, Ann; Hassmiller Lich, Kristen; Jones, Jennifer; Young, Tiffany L; Cene, Crystal W; Varma, Deepthi S; Schaal, Jennifer; Black, Adina; Striley, Catherine W; Vassar, Stefanie; Sullivan, Greer; Cottler, Linda B; Brown, Arleen; Burke, Jessica G; Corbie-Smith, Giselle
Community-academic research partnerships aim to build stakeholder trust in order to improve the reach and translation of health research, but there is limited empirical research regarding effective ways to build trust. This multisite study was launched to identify similarities and differences among stakeholders' perspectives of antecedents to trust in research partnerships. In 2013-2014, we conducted a mixed-methods concept mapping study with participants from three major stakeholder groups who identified and rated the importance of different antecedents of trust on a 5-point Likert-type scale. Study participants were community members ( n = 66), health care providers ( n = 38), and academic researchers ( n = 44). All stakeholder groups rated "authentic communication" and "reciprocal relationships" the highest in importance. Community members rated "communication/methodology to resolve problems" ( M = 4.23, SD = 0.58) significantly higher than academic researchers ( M = 3.87, SD = 0.67) and health care providers ( M = 3.89, SD = 0.62; p < .01) and had different perspectives regarding the importance of issues related to "sustainability." The importance of communication and relationships across stakeholders indicates the importance of colearning processes that involve the exchange of knowledge and skills. The differences uncovered suggest specific areas where attention and skill building may be needed to improve trust within partnerships. More research on how partnerships can improve communication specific to problem solving and sustainability is merited.
'Participation' by community members in health-related programmes is an appealing concept that has not always been easy to achieve. Such programmes are often directed towards communities defined on the basis of neighbourhood or group identity. This article aims to develop an account of participation and identity by drawing on Bourdieu's theory of practice to understand participation as the practice of social identities structured by habitus, capital and field. Examples from interviews with members of one deprived neighbourhood illustrate the theory by showing that people may identify with their neighbourhood for certain social purposes, but have different identity practices in different fields of practice. Implications for community-based health programmes are briefly outlined.
Zakus, J D
Great hope is accorded to community participation in health. A large number of potential benefits are attributed to participatory processes, including better addressing community needs through more locally adapted organizational processes and improvement in health outcomes. To this end, many governments around the world have adopted policies and programmes of community participation as part of their strategy to implement primary health care services. In Mexico this is, in great part, realized through the module programme of the Ministry of Health. A module is characterized by various village based health posts (casas de salud), each operated by a community volunteer and associated with a health committee, all of which are supervised by a nurse from a nearby health centre. The southern Mexican state of Oaxaca was chosen for a study of the module programme (during the period 1987-1992) to gain a better understanding of how organizational processes impact on the implementation and outcomes of community participation programmes in large institutions (i.e. the Ministry of Health). The resource dependency perspective formed the basis for the theoretical framework used. Some 75 towns and villages were visited and about 170 health related personnel from all over the state were interviewed to obtain data on the operation and impact of the module programme. As predicted by resource dependency theory, which postulates that organizations will react to pressures in their external environment to secure the resources needed for survival, the findings of this research led to the conclusion that the Ministry of Health had co-opted the resources of the communities it was involving in the module programme in order to meet its policy objectives, especially those related to expanding service coverage. Community participation in the module programme was found to have been implemented entirely for its utility in supplying resources and not for democratic or intrinsic values. This
Orozco, Edith Aimee
The objective of this research was to compare Career Technical Education--16 Career Pathway high school participants with non-participants on academic achievement, development of technical skills and school engagement. Academic achievement was measured by Exit Level Math and English Language Arts Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS)…
Lopez, Carlos; Jones, Stephanie J.
There are a limited number of individuals who possess the skills to fulfill the workforce demand in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) in the United States. Therefore, community colleges and 4-year institutions must be able to identify academic and social factors that impact students' participation in the areas of STEM. These…
SHAHANDEH, Khandan; BASSERI, Hamid Reza; MAJDZADEH, Reza; SADEGHI, Roya; SHAHANDEH, Maryam; SHOJAEIZADEH, Davoud
Background: This study was undertaken to identify key elements for obtaining community interest and motivate them to support eliminate malaria in the places that malaria is no longer a perceived threat. Methods: Sequential explanatory mixed methods research design used to provide more comprehensive evidence research. A questionnaire was developed after reviewing the literature relating to community participation for malaria elimination and used to collect data from three native people, Iranian migrant and foreign immigrant groups. The variables included access to educational facilities, services, social support, social supporters, trust, and supportive norms were assessed. We also employed an ethnographic design involving: observation participant (PO), Key informant interviews (KIIs), and focus group discussions (FGDs). Results: The results revealed that predisposing, enabling and reinforcing factors had association with community involvement. Less than 50% of total respondents reported have access to educational sessions, most of them were unaware of available and affordable services. Differences views regarding to social support influence have been found among respondents. Although patterns of social interactions were almost similar in all residents, frequencies of interactions were varied. Three thematic areas emerged including perceptions on involvement, potential barriers, and focus areas for the training community members. Conclusion: These findings indicate needs for greater understanding about how to strengthen community involvement with emphasize for community capacity building. This research has benefit to national and regional efforts to increase community involvement as a source for effective actions on malaria elimination. PMID:26284207
Gorzkowski, Julie; Kelly, Erin H.; Klaas, Sara J.; Vogel, Lawrence C.
Objective Examine caregiver-report of obstacles to community participation for youth with spinal cord injury (SCI), and explore relationships between obstacles and child, caregiver, and community characteristics. Design Two hundred and one primary caregivers of youth with SCI ages 7–17 years were interviewed at three pediatric SCI centers within a single-hospital system. Caregivers answered an open-ended question assessing obstacles to youth participation. A mixed-methods approach was incorporated, where qualitative methods analyzed caregiver-reported obstacles, and exploratory multivariate analyses examined relationships between obstacles and demographic variables. Results Caregivers were primarily mothers (74%), married (69%), employed (54%), had college experience (67%), and lived in small towns (55%). Youths' mean age was 12.60 years at interview and 7.19 years at injury, 70% had paraplegia, and 55% had complete injuries. Analyses revealed that youth participation was limited by obstacles across six domains: community, disability-related, practical concerns, child-internal, social, and other. Child, caregiver, and community characteristics were related to overall report of obstacles, and report of community obstacles, disability-related obstacles, and practical concerns. Caregiver college experience and small town living predicted overall report of obstacles. Having a child injured at a younger age, caregiver college experience, and small town living predicted community obstacles. Having a child with an incomplete injury and recent medical complication predicted disability-related obstacles. Caregiver employment predicted practical concerns. Conclusion Youth from small towns, those injured younger, those with incomplete injuries, and those experiencing recent medical complications may need additional supports and resources to maximize participation. Clinicians should work with caregivers to identify and problem-solve obstacles to youth participation. PMID
This article reviews the overall significance of the concept of community participation in health with respect to endemic diseases. It also observes how changes in Latin American society during the past forty years have forced radical changes in the notion of participation. The article describes changes in society and analyzes participation in the Cold War context, with four modalities of participation: as ideological manipulation, as cheap labor, as medical care facilitation, and as subversion. It then reviews participation in the context of the crisis of ideologies and describes two modalities: participation as a grassroots movement and as popular promotion. Finally, it interprets the forms participation takes in the context of economic adjustment programs, and from there it describes participation as both a complement to the State and a form of privatization. The article concludes with a proposal for participation as a mechanism to expand and extend democracy; in this sense, it highlights participation as a means of criticism of power, a fomenter of democratic organization, and a mechanism of transformation for the health sector.
Objective: Guided by validation theory, this study aims to better understand the role that academic advising plays in international community college students' adjustment. More specifically, this study investigated how academic advising validates or invalidates their academic and social experiences in a community college context. Method: This…
Roth, Wolff-Michael; Lee, Stuart
In this paper, we take up and advance the project of rethinking scientific literacy by Eisenhart, Finkel, and Marion (American Educational Research Journal, 1996, 33, 261-295). As part of a project of rethinking science education, we advance three propositions. First, because society is built on division of labor, not everybody needs to know the same basic sets of concepts; it is more important to allow the emergence of scientific literacy as a collective property. Second, scientific knowledge ought not to be privileged in democratic collective decision making but ought to be one of many resources. Third, rethinking science education as and for participation in community life sets up the potential for lifelong participation in and learning of science-related issues. To show the viability of these propositions, we provide a case study based on a 3-year, multisite ethnographic research project as part of which we investigated science in the community. Framing our work in terms of activity theory, we provide descriptions of science in a local middle school, where students learn science while participating in a community effort to contribute to the knowledge base about a local creek. The children's activities are continuous with those of adults concerned about environmental health. In this way, rather than preparing for life after school, science education allows students to participate in legitimate ways in community life and therefore provides a starting point for uninterrupted lifelong learning across the presently existing boundary separating formal schooling from everyday life outside schools.
Parker, Lyn; Raihani, R.
In 1998, Indonesia embarked on a journey to democracy. This journey involved the decentralization of education from 2002. The new school-based management (SBM) system required greater community and parental participation in schools--thereby, it was hoped, contributing to a deepening of democracy. Islamic schools ("madrasah") also adopted…
Palmer, Neal A.; Perkins, Douglas D.; Xu, Qingwen
In China, rapid development has prompted massive migration from rural to urban areas. Migrants' participation in Urban Residents Committees (URCs) and other community organizations offers opportunities for the development of social capital and democracy in contemporary China. We use 2006 survey data from a stratified convenience sample of 3,024…
Rindstedt, Camilla; Aronsson, Karin
This study analyzes informal learning, drawing on video recordings of staff-child interaction in a pediatric unit. It is shown that even very young patients engage in intent community participation, carefully noting fine variations in examination and treatment practices. They orient to everyday routines in successively more complex ways, gradually…
Valiente, Carlos; Swanson, Jodi; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Berger, Rebecca H
Given that early academic achievement is related to numerous developmental outcomes, understanding processes that promote early success in school is important. This study was designed to clarify how students' (N=291; M age in fall of kindergarten=5.66 years, SD=0.39 year) effortful control, relational peer victimization, and classroom participation relate to achievement, as students progress from kindergarten to first grade. Effortful control and achievement were assessed in kindergarten, classroom participation and relational peer victimization were assessed in the fall of first grade, and achievement was reassessed in the spring of first grade. Classroom participation, but not relational peer victimization, mediated relations between effortful control and first grade standardized and teacher-rated achievement, controlling for kindergarten achievement. Findings suggest that aspects of classroom participation, such as the ability to work independently, may be useful targets of intervention for enhancing academic achievement in young children.
Arévalo, Decsi Astrid
In Colombia, the 1991 Constitution established the obligation of promoting social participation. However, the discussion regarding the significance and scope of social participation is far from being over with the promulgation of the Constitution since social participation has a high political component, i.e., social participation requires the transfer of a part of power to sectors previously excluded from decision taking. As long as the State has conceived the market strategy as the best way to allocate resources and the receptors of social policy are considered as consumers, the challenge is to establish a balance between supply and demand in order to guarantee efficiency and efficacy in the application of resources and transparency in the public administration. Thus, the community of users has the mission of monitoring the correct allocation of State resources. Upon evaluating some of the results of the application of this strategy of social participation in health, three features can be highlighted: there are important advances in the promotion of social participation but not in social control; social control is dispersed and atomized, and participation as institutional policy is weak. Regarding the first aspect, it can be concluded that there has been a favorable response of the municipalities to the obligation of promoting the organizational forms of the community as far as health is concerned. When the actions carried out for social control are taken into account, the outlook varies. The convoking capacity of the institutions of the system to community organizations is considerably low, as well as the discussion of the reports presented by such organizations. On the other hand, the lack of communication between the different instances involved in both promotion of participation and social control became evident, situation which reflects the presence of relationships of bilateral nature, i.e., only the most direct interlocutor is known.
The hypothesis for this research was that the higher the level of academic satisfaction, the more likely it is for alumni to be involved with the university. Alumni involvement was defined as alumni giving and/or alumni participating with their alma mater within the last three years. There were 1,608 alumni from a large state university who…
Primeri, Emilia; Reale, Emanuela
This article describes the effects of participating in European Union Framework Programmes (EUFPs) at the level of research units and researchers. We consider EUFPs as policy instruments that contribute to the Europeanisation of academic research and study the changes they produce with respect to: 1) the organisation and activities of Departments,…
Schneider, Timothy W.; Klotz, Jack
This study sought to determine if participation as a musician or an athlete had an effect on academic achievement as measured by standardized test scores. It was hypothesized that students who received training as musicians would score higher on the core battery composite of reading, language, and mathematics sections of the California Achievement…
Arendale, David R.; Hane, Amanda R.
This qualitative study focused on observed and perceived changes in academic and personal attitudes and behaviors by student participants in the Peer Assisted Learning (PAL) program at the University of Minnesota (UMN). The PAL model employs best practices from national peer learning models including Supplemental Instruction, Peer-led Team…
Villani, Gina Marie
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of early childhood program participation on academic achievement by grade 3. This case study utilized a quantitative approach to data collection. For purposes of this research, one P-12 school district in central New Jersey was studied to look at the influence of early childhood program…
This article addresses a question for those seeking to deepen engagement with nontraditional students for strategies of widening participation in the higher education setting. The question is as follows: how can the academic subject be made more "open" to what the student (and therefore also the nontraditional student) can bring to it?…
ADFL Bulletin, 2002
The Modern Language Association's committee on academic freedom has published this document for English and foreign language faculty on combating campus bigotry and fostering respect in the academic community. (Author/VWL)
Quandt, S A; Arcury, T A; Pell, A I
Partnerships between academic researchers and community organizations are frequently formed to address environmental health concerns in underserved communities. Although such participatory approaches to research combine valuable assets of both partners, they are often difficult to maintain. We describe a partnership formed to investigate migrant and seasonal farmworker exposure to pesticides in North Carolina and to develop effective interventions to reduce exposure. North Carolina ranks fifth in the United States in the number of farmworkers; most are from Mexico, and a significant minority come to the United States on work contracts. Several barriers to establishing effective collaboration were recognized in this partnership, including stereotypes, cultural differences, competing demands for time and attention, and differences in orientation to power structures. To overcome these barriers, members of the partnership took actions in three domains: clarifying the different goals of each partner, operationalizing a model of participation that could involve many different community segments developing cultural sensitivity. By taking these actions, the work of the partnership was accomplished in ways that met the criteria for success of both academic researchers and community members. This approach can be used by others to develop collaborative relationships to investigate environmental health issues within a community-based participatory framework. PMID:11427393
Mars, Matthew M.; Ginter, Mary Beth
Employing interviews with individuals from 16 community colleges across the country, as well as an independent consultant engaged in activities of the National Association for Community College Entrepreneurship (NACCE), this study considers the organizational structures and academic practices associated with community college entrepreneurship…
Smith, M.; Osborn, J.
Increasingly, REUs are recruiting from community colleges as a means of broadening participation of underrepresented minorities, women, and low-income students in STEM. As inclusion of community college students becomes normalized, defining the role of science faculty and preparing them to serve as mentors to community college students is a key component of well-designed programs. This session will present empirical research regarding faculty mentoring in the first two years of an NSF-REU grant to support community college students in a university's earth and environmental science labs. Given the documented benefits of undergraduate research on students' integration into the scientific community and their career trajectory in STEM, the focus of the investigation has been on the processes and impact of mentoring community college STEM researchers at a university serving a more traditionally privileged population; the degree to which the mentoring relationships have addressed community college students needs including their emotional, cultural and resource needs; and gaps in mentor training and the mentoring relationship identified by mentors and students.
Virtual communities are formed on the Internet and are expected to serve the needs of members for communication, information, and entertainment. Online businesses should consider virtual communities as a new market place since their members are current or future customers. Thus, there is a need to understand the determinants of member intentions to participate in virtual communities. Based on the extended theory of planned behavior (TPB), this study develop a research model to identify the attitudinal, social, and perceived behavioral control factors that would influence members intentions to participate in virtual communities. Specifically, the research model decomposes the attitude component into perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and perceived trust, and the perceived behavioral control component into Internet self-efficacy and facilitating conditions. Based on a survey of 165 community members, this study uses structural equation modeling (SEM) approach to investigate the research model. The results indicate that attitude and perceived behavioral control significantly influence member behavioral intentions, while subjective norms do not. Finally, this study discusses the implications of these findings and offer directions for future research.
Chan-Golston, Alec M.; Friedlander, Scott; Glik, Deborah C.; Prelip, Michael L.; Belin, Thomas R.; Brookmeyer, Ron; Santos, Robert; Chen, Jie; Ortega, Alexander N.
Background The employment of professional interviewers from academic survey centers to conduct surveys has been standard practice. Because one goal of community-engaged research is to provide professional skills to community residents, this paper considers whether employing locally trained lay interviewers from within the community may be as effective as employing interviewers from an academic survey center with regard to unit and item nonresponse rates and cost. Methods To study a nutrition-focused intervention, 1035 in-person household interviews were conducted in East Los Angeles and Boyle Heights, 503 of which were completed by lay community interviewers. A chi-square test was used to assess differences in unit nonresponse rates between professional and community interviewers and Welch’s t tests were used to assess differences in item nonresponse rates. A cost comparison analysis between the two interviewer groups was also conducted. Results Interviewers from the academic survey center had lower unit nonresponse rates than the lay community interviewers (16.2% vs. 23.3%; p < 0.01). However, the item nonresponse rates were lower for the community interviewers than the professional interviewers (1.4% vs. 3.3%; p < 0.01). Community interviewers cost approximately $415.38 per survey whereas professional interviewers cost approximately $537.29 per survey. Conclusions With a lower cost per completed survey and lower item nonresponse rates, lay community interviewers are a viable alternative to professional interviewers for fieldwork in community-based research. Additional research is needed to assess other important aspects of data quality interviewer such as interviewer effects and response error. PMID:28230551
Calleson, Diane C; Jordan, Catherine; Seifer, Sarena D
Since Ernest Boyer's landmark 1990 report, Scholarship Reconsidered: Priorities of the Professoriate, leaders in higher education, including academic medicine, have advocated that faculty members apply their expertise in new and creative ways in partnership with communities. Such community engagement can take many forms, including community-based teaching, research, clinical care, and service. There continues to be a gap, however, between the rhetoric of this idea and the reality of how promotion and tenure actually work in health professions schools. The Commission on Community-Engaged Scholarship in the Health Professions was established in October 2003 with funding from the W.K. Kellogg Foundation to take a leadership role in creating a more supportive culture and reward system for community-engaged faculty in the nation's health professions schools. The authors prepared this article to inform the commission's deliberations and to stimulate discussion among educators in the health professions. The authors define the work that faculty engage in with communities, consider whether all work by faculty in community-based settings is actually scholarship, and propose a framework for documenting and assessing community-engaged scholarship for promotion and tenure decisions. They conclude with recommendations for change in academic health centers and health professions schools.
Pyatak, Elizabeth A; Díaz, Jesús; Delgado, Celso
This paper describes the case of an after-school program, focused on providing enrichment opportunities for neighborhood youth, jointly administered through an academic division and residential community within a large urban research university. The program, originally conceived as an activity-based after-school program for middle school youth, expanded in scope in response to both community and student needs. The resident faculty fellow in this community served as a liaison between the academic division and office of residential education, helping maintain continuity and facilitating effective student leadership of the program. In this case, we detail the origins and evolution of the program, including strategies used to resolve challenges that arose over several years of program implementation.
Happell, Brenda; Roper, Cath
Mental health policy reform in Australia has led to the expectation of increased consumer participation not only in all aspects of service delivery, but also in the education and training of mental health professionals. The aim of this paper is to explore the development and introduction of a role for a consumer of mental health services within an academic institution, including achievements of the role and the principles contributing to successful implementation. The consumer academic position was successfully implemented and has proved a valuable role. The success of the role was considered to be dependent on the following factors: partnership and commitment, support, scope and autonomy. In conclusion, a consumer can play a valuable role within an academic institution. However, success will depend upon a number of important environmental factors that promote the independence of the consumer voice.
Lee, Rebecca E; Soltero, Erica G; Mama, Scherezade K; Saavedra, Fiorella; Ledoux, Tracey A; McNeill, Lorna
Innovative and empirically tested strategies are needed to define and understand obesity prevention and reduction in a transcultural society. This manuscript describes the development of Science & Community, a partnership developed over a 3-year period with the end goal of implementing a community-based participatory research (CBPR) trial to reduce and prevent obesity. Outreach strategies focused on promoting the project via existing and new channels and identifying and contacting potential partners using established strategies. Science & Community developed and fostered partnerships by hosting a series of interactive meetings, including three Opportunity Receptions, four Community Open Forum Symposia, and quarterly Community Advisory Board (CAB) meetings. Opportunity Reception (N = 62) and Symposia attendees (N = 103) represented the diversity of the community, and participants reported high satisfaction with content and programming. From these events, the CAB was formed and was comprised of 13 community representatives. From these meetings, a Partnership representing 34 organizations and 614 individuals emerged that has helped to guide the development of future proposals and strategies to reduce obesity in Houston/Harris County.
The purpose of this article is to explore the effects of community participation in school governance, as an element of development and humanitarian assistance programs, on social capital and civil society building. The first section describes different types of participation in education, its institutional forms, and the paradigms that support…
Oddy, W H; Holman, C D; Corti, B; Donovan, R J
The paper is concerned with the use of epidemiological methods to measure the rates at which different strata of a defined population participate in community health promotion projects. The specific aim was to estimate the incidence rates of participation in projects sponsored by the Western Australian Health Promotion Foundation (Healthway), separately for sociodemographic and health-related behavioral subgroups. Data were drawn from Healthway sponsorship projects in 1992. Each sport, arts, and racing project was associated with promotion of a health message and creation of a health promoting environment. The study used a 2-stage sampling design. 13 of 57 large sponsorship projects and 30 of 129 small projects were selected. In the second stage, respondents were randomly surveyed from among project participants. A total of 4060 respondents at least 10 years old was sampled from the 43 selected projects. Population-based incident participation were estimated and were related to person-years at risk. The total participation rate was 4.01 per person-year in people or= 10 years old. The rate was very high at ages 10-14 years and thereafter declined with increasing age. Compared with the least socially disadvantaged 25% of the population, the participation rate fell by around 1/3 in the medium and high disadvantaged groups, but exceeded the baseline by a ratio of 1.85 (95% confidence interval: 1.57-2.18) in the most disadvantaged 10% of the population. The comparatively high rate of participation in the most disadvantaged group occurred only at ages 50 years and the effect was most pronounced at ages 10-19 years. Compared with the least disadvantaged 25%, the rate ratio in the most disadvantaged 10% of the population was 2.50 in the metropolitan area and 1.25 in the country regions of western Australia. Participation was higher in those who smoked, drank alcohol unsafely, reported sunburn, and reported low consumption of fruit and vegetables. Epidemiological methods
Eyre, Rachel; Gauld, Robin
Since the mid-1980s, the New Zealand health sector has been in a state of continual change. The most radical changes were in the early-1990s, with the creation of an internal market system for public health care delivery. Rural health services, seen to be unviable, were given the option of establishing themselves as 'community trusts', owning and running their own services. Community trusts have since become a feature of rural health care in New Zealand. An expectation was that community trusts would facilitate community participation. This article reports on a study of participation in a rural community health trust. The 'pentagram model' of Rifkin and coworkers, with its five dimensions of participation-needs assessment, leadership, resource mobilization, management and organization-was applied. High levels of participation were found across each of these dimensions. The research revealed additional dimensions that could be added to the framework, including 'sustainability of participation', 'equity in participation' and 'the dynamic socio-political context'. In this regard, it supports recent theoretical work by Laverack (2001) and Laverack and Wallerstein (2001). Finally, the article comments on the future of rural health trusts in the current round of health sector restructuring.
East Garfield Park, IL, is an impoverished community with 59.7% of residents falling below twice the poverty level and 42.6% of its children in poverty. In 2001, the leading causes of hospitalizations were heart disease (10.3%), diabetes (2%), and asthma (3.9%), all of which occur at frequencies 33% greater than the Chicago average. Finally, a review of the health care facilities in the community suggests that there is a need for accessible primary health care services in the area. The purpose of this project was to improve health outcomes in an impoverished, underserved community with documented health care needs and lack of adequate health care services by creating a community-academic partnership to provide on-site, interdisciplinary, health care services within an established and trusted community-based social service agency, Marillac House. The short-term objectives for this project included creating a community-academic partnership between Marillac House and Colleges of Nursing, Medicine, and Health Sciences; providing comprehensive health care services; and developing an innovative clinical education model for interdisciplinary care across specialties. Long-term objectives included providing preventative services; evidenced-based management of acute and chronic illness; evaluating client's health outcomes; and creating a sustainability plan for the long-term success of the health center.
Piland, William E.; Villanueva, Xavier
Describes a study of faculty opinions concerning academic standards in the community college classroom, comparing faculty responses based on personal characteristics, academic senate experience, and employment factors. Although faculty generally agreed on the importance of academic standards, there were differences based on senate membership,…
Christensen, Jeannine M.
Academic dishonesty is a problem that educators face at all levels of education. Many studies have focused on researching academic dishonesty at four year colleges and universities, ignoring the community college. The purpose of this study was to examine the self-reported attitudes and behaviors of generational students towards academic integrity…
Fischer, Christopher; Bol, Linda; Pribesh, Shana; Nunnery, John
The extent to which smaller learning communities' (SLCs) focus on academic press and strong social relationships affects academic engagement among 9th graders in urban high schools was investigated. Data were collected through classroom observations, student questionnaires, and focus groups with teachers. Data were analyzed using descriptive…
Nistor, Nicolae; Daxecker, Irene; Stanciu, Dorin; Diekamp, Oliver
Sense of community (SoC) in communities of practice (CoP) seems to play a similar role to that of group cohesion in small groups: Both sustain participants' knowledge sharing, which in turn substantiates the socio-cognitive structures that make up the CoP such as scholar identities, practical repertoires in research and teaching or relationships…
Lovecchio, Catherine P; DiMattio, Mary Jane K; Hudacek, Sharon
The necessity to help baccalaureate nursing students transition to clinical practice in a health care environment governed by change has compelled nurse educators to investigate alternative clinical instruction models that nurture academic-practice partnerships and facilitate student clinical learning. This article describes an academic-practice partnership in a community hospital using the Clinical Liaison Nurse (CLN) model as a link between students and clinical faculty and reports results of a quasi-experimental study that compared perceptions of the clinical learning environment between students participating in the CLN model (experimental group) and those in a traditional, instructor-led clinical model (control group). Students assigned to the CLN model had statistically significantly higher individualization, satisfaction, and task orientation scores on the Clinical Learning Environment Inventory. The findings provide evidence that academic-practice partnerships can be successful in community hospital settings and enhance students' perceptions in the clinical learning environment.
Kano, Miria; Willging, Cathleen E.; Rylko-Bauer, Barbara
In 2005, New Mexico implemented a unique reform in managed behavioral health services that seeks to ensure delivery of consumer-driven, recovery-oriented care to low-income individuals. Distinguishing features of the reform are the Local Collaboratives (LCs), regionally based community organizations designed by state government to represent behavioral health concerns of New Mexico's diverse cultural populations. We examine community response to the LCs, focusing on two broad sets of themes derived from 18 months of ethnographic fieldwork. The first set—structure and function—encompasses several issues: predominance of provider versus consumer voice; insufficient resources to support internal operations; imposition of state administrative demands; and perceived lack of state response to LC efforts. The second set—participation and collaboration—reveals how problems of information flow and other logistical factors impact involvement in LCs and how the construction of “community” introduced under this initiative exacerbates tensions across localities with varied histories and populations. PMID:19764315
Since the decade of the 1970s health promotion has been an integral part of most primary health care strategies. This article examines some community participation strategies adopted in the health promotion in Cuba and the policies which enable such strategies. This is done in the context of health promotion theory and also examines the concept of direct involvement by the political directorate in health promotion. The article is written from a reflexive perspective following the author's visit to Cuba as member of a health study tour in March 2002.
Hur, Jung Won; Brush, Thomas A.
The purpose of this study was to examine reasons for teacher participation in online communities of K-12 teachers. The authors interviewed 23 teachers from three self-generated online communities and analyzed more than 2,000 postings in those communities. The findings indicated five reasons for participation: (a) sharing emotions, (b) utilizing…
Sistrom, Maria Gilson; Hale, Patty J
Community and public health nurses (C/PHNs) may play a vital role in the investigation of disease outbreaks. C/PHNs possess skills in conducting interviews on sensitive subjects and in collaborating with communities. C/PHNs maintain key links to community providers, symptomatic clients, their families and associates, as well as community institutions where outbreaks occur. This combination of skills makes C/PHNs ideally suited to perform outbreak investigations. There are, however, pressing questions about whether C/PHNs are adequately prepared to contribute to investigation outcomes, to foster participation of affected communities, and to fully apply nursing skills to outbreak investigations to stop the spread of disease. Using one case study, the authors explore investigation outcomes, community participation issues, educational preparation, and public health funding and workforce policies required to achieve these ends successfully. One model of community participation in the steps of outbreak investigation and several Quad Council domains and competencies are proposed for use in practice. Questions regarding the use of emergency preparedness funding and employment of C/PHNs in epidemiology roles are raised.
Academic Senate for California Community Colleges, 2010
The Rostrum is a quarterly publication of the Academic Senate for California Community Colleges. The following articles are included in this issue: (1) The Master Plan for Higher Education and the Missions of the California Community Colleges (Jane Patton); (2) Academic Dishonesty and the Faculty's Right to Assign a Grade: A Test of the Academic…
Smith, Rachel A.
Residential learning communities aim to foster increased academic and social integration, ideally leading to greater student success. However, the concept of academic integration is often conceptualized and measured at the individual level, rather than the theoretically more consistent community level. Network analysis provides a paradigm and…
Charlevoix, D. J.; Morris, A. R.
Engaging lower-division undergraduates in research experiences is a key but challenging aspect of guiding talented students into the geoscience research pipeline. UNAVCO conducted a summer internship program to prepare first and second year college students for participation in authentic, scientific research. Many students in their first two years of academic studies do not have the science content knowledge or sufficient math skills to conduct independent research. Students from groups historically underrepresented in the geosciences may face additional challenges in that they often have a less robust support structure to help them navigate the university environment and may be less aware of professional opportunities in the geosciences.UNAVCO, manager of NSF's geodetic facility, hosted four students during summer 2015 internship experience aimed to help them develop skills that will prepare them for research internships and skills that will help them advance professionally. Students spent eight weeks working with UNAVCO technical staff learning how to use equipment, prepare instrumentation for field campaigns, among other technical skills. Interns also participated in a suite of professional development activities including communications workshops, skills seminars, career circles, geology-focused field trips, and informal interactions with research interns and graduate student interns at UNAVCO. This presentation will outline the successes and challenges of engaging students early in their academic careers and outline the unique role such experiences can have in students' academic careers.
Frongillo, Edward A; Jyoti, Diana F; Jones, Sonya J
Household food insecurity is associated with multiple adverse outcomes in children and adolescents, including poor school performance. U.S. federal food assistance programs such as the Food Stamp Program (FSP) aim to help prevent household food insecurity and its outcomes. Program participation may act as a resource either to counteract the effects of constraints such as food insecurity or to modify the effects of food insecurity on outcomes. This study aimed to determine whether FSP participation was associated with child reading and mathematics learning, weight gain, and social skills and whether these associations depended on degree of estimated need for the program. Data used were from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten cohort, a large nationally representative sample. A difference (i.e., fixed-effects) model was used to minimize bias in the estimation of association resulting from unmeasured covariates. Starting FSP participation during the 4 years from K to third grade was associated with about a 3-point greater improvement in reading and mathematics score as compared with stopping FSP participation during that period. But it was for female students only that this association was large and significant. Children in households starting FSP participation had slightly but not significantly less weight gain compared with children in households stopping FSP participation. This study provides the strongest evidence to date that FSP participation plausibly has beneficial effects for children on nonnutritional outcomes, specifically academic learning. The mechanisms for this relationship are not well understood and may be through both dietary intake and stress.
Ezeonwu, Mabel; Berkowitz, Bobbie; Vlasses, Frances R
This article describes a model of teaching community health nursing that evolved from a long-term partnership with a community with limited existing health programs. The partnership supported RN-BSN students' integration in the community and resulted in reciprocal gains for faculty, students and community members. Community clients accessed public health services as a result of the partnership. A blended learning approach that combines face-to-face interactions, service learning and online activities was utilized to enhance students' learning. Following classroom sessions, students actively participated in community-based educational process through comprehensive health needs assessments, planning and implementation of disease prevention and health promotion activities for community clients. Such active involvement in an underserved community deepened students' awareness of the fundamentals of community health practice. Students were challenged to view public health from a broader perspective while analyzing the impacts of social determinants of health on underserved populations. Through asynchronous online interactions, students synthesized classroom and community activities through critical thinking. This paper describes a model for teaching community health nursing that informs students' learning through blended learning, and meets the demands for community health nursing services delivery.
Martín-García, Manuel; Ponte-Mittelbrun, Carlos; Sánchez-Bayle, Marciano
The community participation in the health systems is a concept that develops from the health policy proposals that have led the World Health Organization and that they highlight the fundamental role of health promotion and of primary care to answer to the health challenges from the middle of the XXth century. Its development has encountered big obstacles that have become major from the increasing trend of introduction of healthcare marketing. This explains partly its scanty advance in the developed countries, though there exist very interesting experiences that are based especially on the effort of professionals and social organizations. The fundamental dilemma is one in the option among the assumption of the role like consumers or clients that it supports a relation subordinated of the patients with a major dependence of the consumption, or on the contrary to give voice and vote for the citizens incorporating them into the productive process and turning them into producers of health. There are analyzed also the existing practices of community participation in Spain and offers are realized for its impulse and development.
le Roux, Elizabeth
South Africa's academic publishing history has been profoundly influenced by its colonial heritage. This is reflected in the publication of Transactions of the South African Philosophical Society (later, the Royal Society of South Africa) from 1878. Although the Society and journal sought to promote original research about South Africa, it was modelled after the Royal Society in London and formed part of an imperial scientific community. As the local higher education institutions grew more independent and research-focused, local scholarly publishing developed as well, with university presses playing an increasingly important role. The University of South Africa (Unisa) Press started publishing departmental journals in the 1950s, with a focus on journals that ‘speak to the student’, and it is today the only South African university press with an active journals publishing programme. As external funding declined and the country became intellectually isolated in the high apartheid period, the Press managed to attract journals that could no longer be subsidized by learned societies and other universities. More recently, new co-publishing arrangements have brought South African journals back into an international intellectual community. Although some argue that this constitutes a re-colonization of South African knowledge production, it is also an innovative strategy for positioning local research in a global context. PMID:26495579
Gouzouasis, Peter; Guhn, Martin; Kishor, Nand
The relationship between musical training and general intellectual capacity as well as academic achievement has been discussed in numerous contexts. In our study, we examined the relationship between participation and achievement in music and achievement in academic courses, based on data from three consecutive British Columbia student cohorts.…
Smailes, Paula; Reider, Carson; Hallarn, Rose Kegler; Hafer, Lisa; Wallace, Lorraine; Miser, William F.
This descriptive case study covers the development of a survey to assess research subject satisfaction among those participating in clinical research studies at an academic medical center (AMC). The purpose was twofold: to gauge the effectiveness of the survey, as well as to determine the level of satisfaction of the research participants. The authors developed and implemented an electronic research participant satisfaction survey. It was created to provide research teams at the authors’ AMC with a common instrument to capture research participant experiences in order to improve upon the quality of research operations. The instrument captured participant responses in a standardized format. Ultimately, the results are to serve as a means to improve the research experience of participants for single studies, studies conducted within a division or department of the AMC, or across the entire research enterprise at the institution. For ease of use, the survey was created within an electronic data capture system known as REDCap, which is used by a consortium of more than 1,800 institutional partners as a tool from the Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) program of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Participants in the survey described in this article were more than 18 years of age and participating in an institutional review board (IRB)-approved study. Results showed that the vast majority of participants surveyed had a positive experience engaging in research at the authors’ AMC. Further, the tool was found to be effective in making that determination. The authors hope to expand the use of the survey as a means to increase research satisfaction and quality at their university. PMID:27390769
Russell, Kenneth A.
This study examines how communities participate in schools across diverse contexts in developing countries and the results attributed to community participation. It reviews evaluations of participatory approaches to education in developing countries to answer two basic questions: 1) How do communities participate in school in developing countries?…
This instructor's handbook contains information on the Coordinated Vocational Academic Education program (CVAE) designed for special learning needs students (in-school youth possessing academic, socio-economic, or other handicaps). Academic instruction is provided for the areas of math, science, English, and social studies. Home economics skills…
Weinberg, Michael; LeMelle, Stephanie; Ranz, Jules
During yearly meetings of the recently developed network of 15 public/community psychiatry fellowships, it has been noted that programs are having varying degrees of success with regard to recruitment. To understand factors that impact recruitment, a quality improvement survey of fellows and alumni was conducted. Respondents were asked to rate overall satisfaction with their fellowship training as well as perceived benefits and obstacles to participating in a fellowship program, and impact on their careers. A total of 155 (57%) fellows and alumni responded. Factor analysis was used to condense the variables, and a multiple regression explored factors predicting overall fellowship program satisfaction. Factors that represented perceived benefits had higher means than did factors that represent obstacles. Respondents highly valued the extent to which these fellowships enhanced their careers, with regard to job opportunities, academics, networking and leadership.
Broussard, A B; Delahoussaye, C P; Poirrier, G P
The practice role of nurse educators has emerged as a mechanism to unite practice, research, and education. The long-term outcome of such a synthesis should be an improvement in the quality of nursing care delivered to clients. Clinically focused nursing research designed by nurse educators who maintain a practice role or nurse clinicians who maintain a teaching role has the potential to unify and thus advance the profession. The authors discuss the historical background from which the practice role evolved, and efforts of recent nursing leaders to facilitate the incorporation of the nursing practice role by educators. Models for faculty practice are identified, and advantages of faculty practice are reviewed. The authors also describe barriers to the establishment of faculty practice, contemporary developments impacting faculty practice, and research needed to advance faculty practice. Nurse educators in many academic communities in the 1990s are discovering that not only must they produce scholarly work in addition to their teaching and service to the university and community, but that they may also be under growing pressure to be engaged in clinical practice. This pressure may be self-imposed or may be an expectation of their colleagues in nursing education or the administrators of their nursing programs. The focus of this research brief will be to describe the historical background from which this "new" role evolved, to discuss strategies or models developed to facilitate the faculty practice role, and to identify faculty practice issues that have emerged with the adoption of this role in academia. An additional focus will be to critically review faculty practice-related research performed since Chicadonz' (1987) review.
Brizay, Ulrike; Golob, Lina; Globerman, Jason; Gogolishvili, David; Bird, Mara; Rios-Ellis, Britt; Rourke, Sean B; Heidari, Shirin
Introduction Community involvement in HIV research has increased over recent years, enhancing community-academic partnerships. Several terms have been used to describe community participation in research. Clarification is needed to determine whether these terms are synonymous or actually describe different research processes. In addition, it remains unclear if the role that communities play in the actual research process follows the recommendations given in theoretical frameworks of community-academia research. Objectives The objective of this study is to review the existing terms and definitions regarding community-academic partnerships and assess how studies are implementing these in relation to conceptual definitions. Methods A systematic literature review was conducted in PubMed. Two reviewers independently assessed each article, applying the following inclusion criteria: the article must be published in English before 2013; it must provide an explicit definition and/or defining methodology for a term describing research with a community component; and it has to refer to HIV or AIDS, reproductive health and/or STDs. When disagreements about the relevance of an article emerged, a third reviewer was involved until concordance was reached. Data were extracted by one reviewer and independently verified by a second. Qualitative data were analyzed using MaxQDA for content and thematic analyses while quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Community feedback on data analysis and presentation of results was also incorporated. Results In total, 246 articles were retrieved, 159 of which fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The number of studies that included community participation in the field of HIV research increased between 1991 and 2012, and the terms used to describe these activities have changed, moving away from action research (AR) to participatory action research (PAR), community-based research (CBR) and community-based participatory research
Krupat, Edward; Pololi, Linda; Schnell, Eugene R; Kern, David E
The culture of academic medicine has been described as hierarchical, competitive, and not highly supportive of female or minority faculty. In response to this, the authors designed the Learning Action Network (LAN), which was part of the National Initiative on Gender, Culture and Leadership in Medicine (C-Change). The LAN is a five-school consortium aimed at changing the organizational culture of its constituent institutions. The authors selected LAN schools to be geographically diverse and representative of U.S. medical schools. Institutional leaders and faculty representatives from constituent schools met twice yearly for four years (2006-2010), forming a cross-institutional learning community. Through their quarterly listing of institutional activities, schools reported a wide array of actions. Most common were increased faculty development and/or mentoring, new approaches to communication, and adoption of new policies and procedures. Other categories included data collection/management, engagement of key stakeholders, education regarding gender/diversity, and new/expanded leadership positions. Through exit interviews, most participants reported feeling optimistic about maintaining the momentum of change. However, some, especially in schools with leadership changes, expressed uncertainty. Participants reported that they felt that the LAN enabled, empowered, facilitated, and/or caused the reported actions.For others who might want to work toward changing the culture of academic medicine, the authors offer several lessons learned from their experiences with C-Change. Most notably, people, structures, policies, and reward systems must be put into place to support cultural values, and broad-based support should be created in order for changes to persist when inevitable transitions in leadership occur.
Johnson-Dedeaux, Vanessa Massalyn
This study was the first attempt to evaluate the college's career/technical current advising practices. The purpose of this study was to investigate career/technical students' satisfaction with academic advising at a rural community college and to investigate whether there were any relationships between students' satisfaction and various…
Stedman-Smith, Maggie; McGovern, Patricia M; Peden-McAlpine, Cynthia J; Kingery, Linda R; Draeger, Kathryn J
A community-academic partnership was formed in Minnesota's Red River Basin for a 1-year planning grant preceding a larger intervention to reduce pesticide exposure among children. Photovoice, developed by Dr. Caroline Wang, was used by mothers to document pathways to pesticide exposure for their children along with other health and safety concerns. An evaluation of the partnership was conducted for mothers, and for the research team of local stakeholders and academics. Surveys consisting of structured and open-ended questions elicited information on the perception of the process and short-term outcomes. Questions were created based on objectives of the Photovoice project, satisfaction, and principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR). A high percentage of study participants and researchers indicated that the objectives of the effort had been met, the principles of CBPR had been realized and they were satisfied with the benefits of participation. A need for more thorough planning was identified related to long-term dissemination of knowledge generated. The evaluation provides insight on the strengths and weaknesses of the project, demonstrates to team members and funders that formative and summative outcomes were met, and serves as a model for community-academic partnerships utilizing Photovoice as one CBPR method.
Busby, Danielle R; Lambert, Sharon F; Ialongo, Nicholas S
African American adolescents are exposed disproportionately to community violence, increasing their risk for emotional and behavioral symptoms that can detract from learning and undermine academic outcomes. The present study examined whether aggressive behavior and depressive and anxious symptoms mediated the association between exposure to community violence and academic functioning, and if the indirect effects of community violence on academic functioning differed for boys and girls, in a community sample of urban African American adolescents (N = 491; 46.6 % female). Structural equation modeling was used to examine the indirect effect of exposure to community violence in grade 6 on grade 8 academic functioning. Results revealed that aggression in grade 7 mediated the association between grade 6 exposure to community violence and grade 8 academic functioning. There were no indirect effects through depressive and anxious symptoms, and gender did not moderate the indirect effect. Findings highlight the importance of targeting aggressive behavior for youth exposed to community violence to not only improve their behavioral adjustment but also their academic functioning. Implications for future research are discussed.
Myers, Brian E.; Thompson, Gregory W.
This study investigated the perceptions of participants in the National Agriscience Teacher Ambassador Academy as to the next steps the agricultural education profession should take to move forward in the area of integrating academic subject matter into agricultural education courses. All members of the 2007 Academy participated in the study.…
Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2013
This "Academic Year Report 2012-13" provides a snapshot of funding, facilities, staffing, and enrollments in community and technical colleges in Washington state for the past academic year. The report also describes key measures of student outcomes and addresses the most frequently asked questions related to expenditures, personnel and…
Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2006
The Academic Year Report 2005-06 provides a snapshot of funding, facilities, staffing, and enrollments in community and technical colleges in the past academic year. The report also describes key measures of student outcomes and addresses the most frequently asked questions related to expenditures, personnel and students. Additional demographic…
Jennings, Heather M.
Rates of in-coming college students in need of academic remediation are on the rise, for both community college and four-year colleges. Consequently, many of these students will be required to enroll in some level of academic remediation in reading, writing and/or math to develop the basic skills necessary for student success in college-level…
Academic Senate for California Community Colleges, 2009
The Rostrum is a quarterly publication of the Academic Senate for California Community Colleges. The following articles are included in this issue: (1) An SLO Terminology Glossary: A Draft in Progress by Lesley Kawaguchi; (2) A Tale of Two Data Elements by Mark Wade Lieu; (3) Sustainability and the Academic Senate by David Beaulieu and Don…
Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2014
The "Academic Year Report 2013-14" provides a snapshot of funding, facilities, staffing, and enrollments in Washington's community and technical colleges for the past academic year. The report also describes key measures of student outcomes and addresses the most frequently asked questions related to expenditures, personnel, and…
Marini, Zopito; Polihronis, Christine; Blackwell, Wendy
While it has important implications for the success of students as well as for institutions, academic in/civility is not an issue that is readily engaged by many professors. However, the creation of a civil learning community should be a high priority for everyone in the academe for it has the potential to benefit both individuals and…
Gulley, Needham Yancey
The purpose of this study was to understand the nature of collaboration between academic affairs and student affairs units in the community college context from a qualitative perspective. A discourse analysis study was conducted to explore the ways in which collaborative practice was discussed and understood by chief and midlevel academic and…
Bers, Trudy H.; Smith, Kerry E.
A study examined the extent to which social and academic integration and student educational objectives were predictive of persistence for 1,142 community college students. Student educational objectives discriminated most powerfully between persisters and nonpersisters. Academic and social integration and employment status were also significant…
Heaton, Patrick Michael
The purpose of this study was to examine what effect the Freshmen Interest Group (FIG) program, a variation of a non-residential learning community had on academic achievement scores and institutional rates of persistence. Study variables included: gender; race; pre-collegiate academic achievement (GPA scores); educational preferences (major…
This paper explores the use of situated cognition theory to investigate how new academics learn to judge complex student performance in an academic department at a South African university. The analysis revealed the existence of two largely separate communities of practice within the department, one centred on the provision of undergraduate…
Plowfield, Lisa Ann; Wheeler, Erlinda C; Raymond, Jean E
Building strong partnerships between academic institutions and community health agencies requires a commitment to time, tactful communications, talented leaders, and trust. The essential elements of partnership building are discussed based on experiences of a mid-Atlantic nursing center, an academic health center established to provide care to underserved and vulnerable populations.
Coria, Elizabeth; Hoffman, John L.
The purpose of this study was to explore relationships between financial aid awards and measures of student academic achievement. Financial aid and academic records for 11,956 students attending an urban California community college were examined and analyzed using simultaneous linear regression and two-way factorial ANOVAs. Findings revealed a…
Marlier, Mathieu; Cardon, Greet; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Willem, Annick
Recent evidence showed that community capacity building is one of the key methods to reach health improvements within disadvantaged communities. Physical activity and sports participation are important means to reach health improvements. This study investigates a capacity building method which aims at increasing sports participation in the community, especially for individuals at higher risk of sports deprivation. The main aims of the present study, are the following: (1) to examine differences in sports participation between individuals living in communities implementing a sports-based capacity building program and individuals living in communities without such capacity building program and (2) to investigate if the community sports program reaches the individuals known to experience higher barriers to engage in sports. In Flanders, Belgium, five disadvantaged urban communities implementing the community capacity building program (program communities) and four without (control communities) were selected based on similarity of sociodemographic and environmental characteristics. Two hundred adults (aged 18-56 years) per community were randomly selected and visited at home to fill out a questionnaire on sociodemographics, sports participation, and the community sports program. A sample of 414 adults participated in the study. Results showed that adults from program communities reported on average 96 min/week more participation in sports than their counterparts living in control communities. Furthermore, 61.3% of the individuals of program communities indicated to engage in sports, whereas in control communities, this was only 42.4%. Respondents at higher risk of sports deprivation also engaged in significantly more sports participation in program communities than those in control communities. This difference was also noted for groups that are not related with sports deprivation. These results are promising and plead for a community capacity building approach to
Fitriah, Amaliah; Sumintono, Bambang; Subekti, Nanang Bagus; Hassan, Zainudin
Parental participation in school management is regarded as a good thing according to the rationale that local people know better and are able to be more responsive to their own needs. However, little is understood about the implications of the School Operational Support policy for community participation in education. This study investigated…
Gannon, Sam C.
Academic medical centers are well-known for their emphasis on teaching, research and public service; however, like most large, bureaucratic organizations, they oftentimes suffer from an inability to learn as an organization. The role of the research administrator in the academic medical center has grown over time as the profession itself has…
Singer-Freeman, Karen; Bastone, Linda; Skrivanek, Joseph
We evaluate the extent to which ePortfolios can be used to assess applied and collaborative learning and academic identity among community college students from underrepresented minority groups who participated in a summer research program. Thirty-eight students were evaluated by their research sponsor and two or three naïve faculty evaluators.…
Clark, Colleen A.; Rodis, Jennifer L.; Pruchnicki, Maria C.; Pedersen, Craig A.
Objectives To determine the percentage of residents accepting faculty positions following completion of a community pharmacy residency program (CPRP) and identify influences to pursue/not pursue an academic career. Methods CPRP directors and preceptors across the United States were contacted and 53 community pharmacy residents were identified. The residents were invited to participate in surveys at the beginning and end of the 2005-2006 residency year. Results Forty-five residents (85%) completed the preliminary survey instrument and 40 (75%) completed the follow-up survey instrument. Of these, 36 completed both survey instruments. Initially, 28 (62%) respondents indicated a faculty position as one of their potential job preferences. After completing their residency program, 3 (8%) residents accepted faculty positions; and 3 (8%) others were awaiting offers at follow-up. Reasons for accepting a faculty position were positive teaching experiences and the influence of a mentor or preceptor. Reasons for not pursuing a faculty position included lack of interest, geographic location, disliked teaching experiences, lack of preparedness, and non-competitive salary. Conclusion Many community pharmacy residents consider faculty positions early in their residency but few pursue faculty positions. CPRPs and colleges of pharmacy should work together to enhance residents' experiences to foster interest in academia. PMID:18322566
Granados, Nadia Regina
Through a Communities of Practice Network Analysis, this research illustrates the ways in which dual language graduates participate in multiple, varied, and overlapping communities of practice across time. Findings highlight that the dual language school as a shared community of practice represents a critical and formative part of participants'…
... 42 CFR Part 485 Medicare Program; Conditions of Participation (CoPs) for Community Mental Health... 485 RIN 0938-AP51 Medicare Program; Conditions of Participation (CoPs) for Community Mental Health... (no password required). I. Background A. Introduction In 2007, 224 certified Community Mental...
Aisenberg, Eugene; Dwight-Johnson, Meagan; O'Brien, Mary; Ludman, Evette J; Golinelli, Daniela
Concerns about the appropriate use of EBP with ethnic minority clients and the ability of community agencies to implement and sustain EBP persist and emphasize the need for community-academic research partnerships that can be used to develop, adapt, and test culturally responsive EBP in community settings. In this paper, we describe the processes of developing a community-academic partnership that implemented and pilot tested an evidence-based telephone cognitive behavioral therapy program. Originally demonstrated to be effective for urban, middle-income, English-speaking primary care patients with major depression, the program was adapted and pilot tested for use with rural, uninsured, low-income, Latino (primarily Spanish-speaking) primary care patients with major depressive disorder in a primary care site in a community health center in rural Eastern Washington. The values of community-based participatory research and community-partnered participatory research informed each phase of this randomized clinical trial and the development of a community-academic partnership. Information regarding this partnership may guide future community practice, research, implementation, and workforce development efforts to address mental health disparities by implementing culturally tailored EBP in underserved communities.
Aisenberg, Eugene; Dwight-Johnson, Meagan; O'Brien, Mary; Ludman, Evette J.; Golinelli, Daniela
Concerns about the appropriate use of EBP with ethnic minority clients and the ability of community agencies to implement and sustain EBP persist and emphasize the need for community-academic research partnerships that can be used to develop, adapt, and test culturally responsive EBP in community settings. In this paper, we describe the processes of developing a community-academic partnership that implemented and pilot tested an evidence-based telephone cognitive behavioral therapy program. Originally demonstrated to be effective for urban, middle-income, English-speaking primary care patients with major depression, the program was adapted and pilot tested for use with rural, uninsured, low-income, Latino (primarily Spanish-speaking) primary care patients with major depressive disorder in a primary care site in a community health center in rural Eastern Washington. The values of community-based participatory research and community-partnered participatory research informed each phase of this randomized clinical trial and the development of a community-academic partnership. Information regarding this partnership may guide future community practice, research, implementation, and workforce development efforts to address mental health disparities by implementing culturally tailored EBP in underserved communities. PMID:23050133
Background Community participation is increasingly seen as a pre-requisite for successful health service uptake. It is notoriously difficult to assess participation and little has been done to advance tools for the assessment of community participation. In this paper we illustrate an approach that combines a ‘social psychology of participation’ (theory) with ‘spider-grams’ (method) to assess participation and apply it to a Community-based Health Planning and Services (CHPS) programme in rural Ghana. Methods We draw on data from 17 individual in-depth interviews, two focus group discussions and a community conversation with a mix of service users, providers and community health committee members. It was during the community conversation that stakeholders collectively evaluated community participation in the CHPS programme and drew up a spider-gram. Results Thematic analysis of our data shows that participation was sustained through the recognition and use of community resources, CHPS integration with pre-existing community structures, and alignment of CHPS services with community interests. However, male dominance and didactic community leadership and management styles undermined real opportunities for broad-based community empowerment, particularly of women, young people and marginalised men. Conclusion We conclude that combining the ‘spider-gram’ tool and the ‘social psychology of participation’ framework provide health professionals with a useful starting point for assessing community participation and developing recommendations for more participatory and empowering health care programmes. PMID:23803140
Office of Economic Opportunity, Washington, DC. Community Action Program.
This paper identifies key factors which promote participation of the poor (resident participation) through group action and community decision making processes, programs, and activities; and describes techniques which Community Action Program (CAP) grantees have used successfully to enhance such participation. Kinds of CAP grantee and community…
Preuss, Michael; Switalski, Rachael
Retaining and aiding students on academic probation is a concern for all institutions of higher education. Students placed on academic probation by Rockingham Community College (RCC) have been encouraged to participate in an intervention program since the summer of 2006. When treated as an aggregate, the data regarding the program indicates that…
Gaughan, Monica; Gillman, Laura B; Boumbulian, Paul; Davis, Marsha; Galen, Robert S
We describe and assess how the College of Public Health at the University of Georgia, established in 2005, has developed formal institutional mechanisms to facilitate community-university partnerships that serve the needs of communities and the university. The College developed these partnerships as part of its founding; therefore, the University of Georgia model may serve as an important model for other new public health programs. One important lesson is the need to develop financial and organizational mechanisms that ensure stability over time. Equally important is attention to how community needs can be addressed by faculty and students in academically appropriate ways. The integration of these 2 lessons ensures that the academic mission is fulfilled at the same time that community needs are addressed. Together, these lessons suggest that multiple formal strategies are warranted in the development of academically appropriate and sustainable university-community partnerships.
Khalid, Fariza; Joyes, Gordon; Ellison, Linda; Daud, Md Yusoff
The use of an online learning community is one possible approach to teachers' professional development that can enhance the opportunity for collaboration. Discussions in online learning communities not only allow community members to share resources, ideas and expertise, but also contribute to the fulfilment of teachers' needs in terms of…
McCook, Kathleen de la Pena
While librarians deliver a vital public service within diverse communities, they are often invisible in the community development process initiated by civic planners, activists, and local government officials. This book challenges librarians everywhere to get involved early and often by demanding a place at the community planning and development…
Hess, G. Alfred, Jr.
Discusses the history of community control of public education, examining: sub-regional communities (New York City's community school boards and Detroit's regional decentralization); school-based decentralization (preserving professional privilege in Salt Lake City and local school councils in Chicago); balancing bottom-up and top-down; whether…
Abad-Franch, Fernando; Vega, M. Celeste; Rolón, Miriam S.; Santos, Walter S.; Rojas de Arias, Antonieta
Background Vector control has substantially reduced Chagas disease (ChD) incidence. However, transmission by household-reinfesting triatomines persists, suggesting that entomological surveillance should play a crucial role in the long-term interruption of transmission. Yet, infestation foci become smaller and harder to detect as vector control proceeds, and highly sensitive surveillance methods are needed. Community participation (CP) and vector-detection devices (VDDs) are both thought to enhance surveillance, but this remains to be thoroughly assessed. Methodology/Principal Findings We searched Medline, Web of Knowledge, Scopus, LILACS, SciELO, the bibliographies of retrieved studies, and our own records. Data from studies describing vector control and/or surveillance interventions were extracted by two reviewers. Outcomes of primary interest included changes in infestation rates and the detection of infestation/reinfestation foci. Most results likely depended on study- and site-specific conditions, precluding meta-analysis, but we re-analysed data from studies comparing vector control and detection methods whenever possible. Results confirm that professional, insecticide-based vector control is highly effective, but also show that reinfestation by native triatomines is common and widespread across Latin America. Bug notification by householders (the simplest CP-based strategy) significantly boosts vector detection probabilities; in comparison, both active searches and VDDs perform poorly, although they might in some cases complement each other. Conclusions/Significance CP should become a strategic component of ChD surveillance, but only professional insecticide spraying seems consistently effective at eliminating infestation foci. Involvement of stakeholders at all process stages, from planning to evaluation, would probably enhance such CP-based strategies. PMID:21713022
Boudos, Rebecca Marie; Mukherjee, Shubhra
This study identified the baseline participation rates for 101 teens and young adults ages 10-32 years old with a diagnosis of spina or lipomenigocele bifida in various domains: school, employment, community activities, physical activity and peer social relationships. The goal of the study was also to identify barriers to community participation. Our findings demonstrate that overall participation is low in several domains. Community participation is low with only 30% partaking in an organized community activity at least once a week. Multiple individual, family, and environmental barriers were identified by participants and their family. The most frequent barriers identified were low motivation (38%), lack of information (25%) and time constraints (21%). Barriers need to be addressed on an individualized basis as well as addressing the community as a whole. Future plans are to intervene based on the barriers and reassess participation at 6 months and a year with the goal of increased long term participation, employment, quality of life and social relationships.
Freire, Silvana; Espinosa, Agustín; Rottenbacher, Jan Marc
Currently, in rural communities from the Peruvian northern coast, it is common to find a climate of distrust and pessimism that accompanies the lack of coordinated social action and community participation among residents. This study analyzes the relationships that people develop with regard to the place where they live in, how it associates to the ways they participate in their community and the relationship that these two variables have with the perceived emotional climate, in a rural community from the northern coast of Peru (n = 81). Results indicate that place identity is significantly associated with a high community participation and a climate of trust in the community. Finally, a Path Analysis is performed to analyze comprehensively the relationship between these variables. The results suggest that place identity does have an influence on perceived positive climate in the community, being mediated by the dimensions of community participation.
This study explored the academic experiences of two groups of first-year students in university, one in the arts and one in the science, who participated in a residential-based learning community program. Using qualitative and critical analysis of in-depth student interviews conducted over a fall and winter semester, I constructed their world as implied from their stories and narratives. From this vantage point, I investigated how students as novice learners negotiated their role as learners; the belief systems they brought with them to minimize academic risk; their coping strategies in a 12 week semestered system; and the tacit theories they acquired within their day-to-day educational experiences. A number of themes emerged from the research: students intentionally minimizing faculty contact until they developed 'worthiness'; learning as 'teacher pleasing'; disciplinary learning differences between the arts and sciences students; and a grade orientation that influenced what and how students learned. Within the broader political, ideological, and cultural framework of the university, I identified student patterns of accommodation, resistance, silence and submission in negotiating their roles as learners. By critiquing the academic side of university life as students experienced it and lived it as a community of learners, I exposed the tensions, contradictions, and paradoxes that emerged. I revealed the points of disjuncture that came from competing discourses within the university for these students: the discourse of community, the discourse of collective harmony, and the discourse of the market place.
Francis, Sarah L.; Noterman, Amber; Litchfield, Ruth
An Extension diabetes program (DP) was revised for Latinos; however, participation was limited. Factors influencing low participation rates were examined. Five Latinos interested in the DP participated in a focus group discussion. Transcripts were analyzed for themes. Preferred education programs were multi-session, local, group classes led by an…
Zhang, Keyong; Xu, Wenli
Community governance is not only a global social development of the core issues, but also the essential requirement of social development, At present, there are still exist poor sense of involved in community awareness and participation insufficient. These constraints have become the bottleneck of China's urban community development. This paper attempts to the community perspective of participation, and the District of Wuhan, for example X, from a historical, psychological, institutional and other elements to discussed the causes of low participation, Hope benefit to the domestic community development.
Willems, Patricia P.; Gonzalez-DeHass, Alyssa R.
The opportunities school-community partnerships pose for students' learning continue to generate the attention of educational stakeholders. Children learn through a variety of social and educational contexts, and the goals for student academic success are best achieved through the cooperation and support of schools, families, and communities. The…
Kangas, Jon Alan
A survey was conducted by the Learning Assessment Retention Consortium of the California Community Colleges to determine the extent of community college involvement with academic standards in California. The survey investigated the relationship of the colleges to adult education, assessment practices, entrance standards for vocational and…
Academic Senate for California Community Colleges, 2009
The Rostrum is a quarterly publication of the academic senate for California community colleges. The following articles are included in this issue: (1) Establishing a Systemwide California Community College General Education Advanced Placement (CCC GE AP) List by Dave Degroot; (2) Explaining the ASCCC Position on "Transfer Degrees" by…
College students are increasingly combining studying with paid employment, and community college students tend to work even longer hours compared with students at four-year colleges. Yet, there is little evidence on the academic consequences of community college students' term-time employment. Using a rare administrative dataset from Washington…
This qualitative case study utilizing in-depth interviews examined academic advisers' perceptions of training and professional development resources at a Midwestern U.S. community college. In addition, the study examined the availability and accessibility of training and professional development resources at the community college. The study sought…
This study examines the relationship between academic undermatch theory and the college-going decisions, experiences, and aspirations of first-generation, rural Hispanic community college students in the new destination meatpacking town of Winstead, Kansas. Ethnographic data from rural high school guidance counselors, community college faculty,…
Serrell, Nancy; Caron, Rosemary M.; Fleishman, Bethany; Robbins, Emily D.
Background Although academic institutions are rich resources for improving public health, academic partnerships with community organizations can be challenging. We describe a successful academic-community partnership composed of the Dartmouth Toxic Metals Research Program, the Manchester (New Hampshire) Health Department, and the Greater Manchester Partners Against Lead Poisoning (GMPALP). Objective Partners collaborated to translate science and best practices into social action and policy change to address childhood lead poisoning. Methods Using the evolution of a childhood lead poisoning prevention initiative, we discuss how an academic-community relationship can be created and sustained. Lessons Learned Our experience demonstrates that broad-based partnerships are enhanced by the attributes of community-based participatory research (CBPR). We observe that engaging in community collaborations that are not driven by research eliminates potential conflicts for academic and community partners. Conclusion We identify four core values, namely, (1) adaptability, (2) consistency, (3) shared authority, and (4) trust, as being constructive when working in such partnerships. PMID:19779580
Bottoms, Sueann I.
Research suggests that long-term participation in professional development is critical in helping teachers meet the increasing demands of reform efforts and changing practice (Gallucci, 2003; Darling-Hammond, 1995; Little, 1993). Understanding the influence that participation in a community of teachers as a community of practice may have on teachers professional growth requires a deeper understanding of those aspects of teacher community that encourage or discourage participation. This research examines teachers perceptions as to why they participate in a community of practice. It also addresses what these perceptions suggest about the potential resources that participation in a community of practice provide in support of professional growth. This study utilizes community of practice as theoretical framework because it encourages thought about learning as participation rather than simply the acquisition of knowledge or skills (Wenger, 1999). This mid-level analysis focuses on the actions, artifacts, tools, stories, events, and discourse of the participants in a given context. It is a critical case study using a phenomenological perspective (Patton, 2005) to understand the essence of the experience of participation from the perspective of the participants themselves. Analysis of participants responses indicates that from their perspective, participation in a community of teachers as community of practice through a school-university partnership constitutes a resource for professional growth. Teachers in this study describe their participation in terms of leadership, disengagement, student-centeredness, pedagogy and pedagogical content knowledge, financial and material resources, professional development, collegial interactions and relationships, and shared personal practice. Analysis of participation is characterized by reason(s) for initial participation, for continuing or discontinuing participation, in terms of collegial interactions and relationships, and by
Bowers, Barbara; Jacobson, Nora; Krupp, Anna
Despite decades of effort, lower income people and ethnic minorities continue to be underrepresented as participants in health research. A group of racially and ethnically diverse, lower income community members (Community Advisors on Research Design and Strategies: CARDS®) was trained to review study designs and procedures and provide recommendations to researchers for increasing participation and making research materials more understandable to members of underrepresented communities. In this mixed methods study, one participant group (n = 55) was shown research materials (recruitment documents and a consent form) developed by a research team and approved by the local IRB. A second group (n = 45) was shown the same materials after they had also been reviewed and revised by CARDS. Interviews, which included both fixed-response and open-ended questions, were used to assess reactions of participants in both groups to the materials, including their hypothetical willingness to volunteer for the research described. Group differences were examined using the Chi-square distribution test. Proportional difference effect sizes were estimated using arcsine transformation. The qualitative data were subjected to conventional content analysis. Participants in the group shown the recruitment materials revised by CARDS were more likely to say they understood the documents, more likely to ask for more information about the study, and more likely to say they would participate in the research. Results of content analysis suggested a four-phase sequential process for deciding whether to participate in the research. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Cooper, Rory A.; Ferretti, Eliana; Oyster, Michelle; Kelleher, Annmarie; Cooper, Rosemarie
Participation is considered the most meaningful outcome of rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there were correlations between wheelchair activity recorded with a data logger and community participation as measured by the Participation Survey/Mobility. Data from 16 participants were included in this study. Data…
Denning, Dorothy E., Ed.; Lin, Herbert S., Ed.
This report is based on a November 1992 workshop and a February 1993 public forum which discussed some of the social issues raised by the emergence of electronic communities. The workshop examined user, provider, and other perspectives on different types of networked communities, including those on the Internet, commercial information services,…
Lower Mississippi Delta Nutrition Intervention Research Initiative (Delta NIRI) is an academic-community partnership between seven academic institutions and three communities in Mississippi, Arkansas, and Louisiana. A range of community-based participatory methods have been employed to develop susta...
Espinoza, Elba Custodio; Rivera-Holguín, Miryam; Pacheco, Manuel Seminario; Sotelo, Eric Arenas; Béjar, Paola Urruchi
The impact of the internal armed conflict in Peru (1980-2000) was felt in many regions in this South American country, and especially in rural regions such as the Southern Andean province of Cotabambas in the Apurímac department. This article describes and analyzes the actions and results of a community mental health project in this area that aimed to address the conflict's aftermath. The intervention used participatory strategies to identify the communities' prioritized problems, established actions appropriate to the cultural characteristics of the population, and implemented creative and recreational initiatives that responded to communities' needs. Based on democratic dialogue, horizontal relations, and reciprocity, the targeted communities became protagonists in the process of psychosocial transformation that fostered individual and collective exercise of rights, individual human development, and democratic community building.
Lee, Young Eun; Saharia, Aditya
With the rapid growth of computer mediated communication technologies in the last two decades, various types of virtual communities have emerged. Some communities provide a role playing arena, enabled by avatars, while others provide an arena for expressing and promoting detailed personal profiles to enhance their offline social networks. Due to different focus of these virtual communities, different factors motivate members to participate in these communities. In this study, we examine differences in members’ motivations to participate in role-playing versus self-expression based virtual communities. To achieve this goal, we apply the Wang and Fesenmaier (2004) framework, which explains members’ participation in terms of their functional, social, psychological, and hedonic needs. The primary contributions of this study are two folds: First, it demonstrates differences between role-playing and self-expression based communities. Second, it provides a comprehensive framework describing members’ motivation to participate in virtual communities.
Crosnoe, Robert; Smith, Chelsea; Leventhal, Tama
Applying latent class and regression techniques to data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (n = 997), this study explored the potential academic advantages of time spent in out-of-school activities. Of particular interest was how these potential advantages played out in relation to the timing and duration of activity participation and the family contexts in which it occurred. Participation closer to the start of high school—including consistent participants and latecomers—was associated with higher grades at the transition into high school, especially for youth from low-income families. Sensitivity analyses indicated that this link between school-age activity participation and adolescent academic progress was unlikely to be solely a function of selection. It also tended to be more pronounced among youth from lower-income families, although without varying by other aspects of family status or process. PMID:26279615
Ripat, Jacquie; Colatruglio, Angela
The aim of this qualitative study was to gain an understanding of what people who use wheeled mobility devices (WMDs; e.g., manual and power wheelchairs, and scooters) identify as environmental barriers to community participation in cold weather climates, and to explore recommendations to overcome environmental barriers to community participation. Researchers conducted an online asynchronous focus group that spanned seven days, with eight individuals who use WMDs. Each day, participants were asked to respond to a moderator-provided question, and to engage with one another around the topic area. The researchers analyzed the verbatim data using an inductive content-analysis approach. Four categories emerged from the data: (1) winter barriers to community participation; (2) life resumes in spring and summer; (3) change requires awareness, education, and advocacy; and (4) winter participation is a right. Participants confirmed that it is a collective responsibility to ensure that WMD users are able to participate in the community throughout the seasons.
Ripat, Jacquie; Colatruglio, Angela
ABSTRACT The aim of this qualitative study was to gain an understanding of what people who use wheeled mobility devices (WMDs; e.g., manual and power wheelchairs, and scooters) identify as environmental barriers to community participation in cold weather climates, and to explore recommendations to overcome environmental barriers to community participation. Researchers conducted an online asynchronous focus group that spanned seven days, with eight individuals who use WMDs. Each day, participants were asked to respond to a moderator-provided question, and to engage with one another around the topic area. The researchers analyzed the verbatim data using an inductive content-analysis approach. Four categories emerged from the data: (1) winter barriers to community participation; (2) life resumes in spring and summer; (3) change requires awareness, education, and advocacy; and (4) winter participation is a right. Participants confirmed that it is a collective responsibility to ensure that WMD users are able to participate in the community throughout the seasons. PMID:26295488
dos Santos, Madalena Pinto
In my contribution to this panel I will bring elements from recent research I conducted (Santos, 2004) in Cape Verde aiming to clarify the meaning of learning as participation in social practices--"learning as participation in the social world" (Lave and Wenger, 1991, p. 42). But as my main interest is learning in compulsory education…
Docherty, Iain; Goodlad, Robina; Paddison, Ronan
Collected data from four urban neighborhoods to explore whether citizen participation in urban governance was fostered by civic culture and local political institutions. Although citizen participation was least likely to occur in poor neighborhoods demonstrating lower educational attainment levels, such factors could be mitigated by political…
Fox, Claudia K.; Barr-Anderson, Daheia; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Wall, Melanie
Background: Previous studies have found that higher physical activity levels are associated with greater academic achievement among students. However, it remains unclear whether associations are due to the physical activity itself or sports team participation, which may involve requirements for maintaining certain grades, for example. The purpose…
Montero-Hernandez, Virginia; Levin, John; Diaz-Castillo, Maribel
This study uses narrative analysis to understand the ways in which Mexican university faculty members used their self-motivational resources to persist in an instructional technology training program within adverse work conditions. The methodology included interviews and participant observation. Findings suggest that faculty's academic resilience…
Agbaria, Qutaiba Ali
The purpose of this study is to examine the link between learning motivation among teaching trainees and self-efficacy and the rate of participation in choosing the profession of teaching. The main assumptions: There will be a clear positive link between the rate of self-efficacy of students and academic motivation, with its various elements.…
Valdes Ingelmo, Jose Joaquin, Jr.
This study explores the perception of belonging by Latino undergraduate students attending a predominantly White private university by documenting, in their "own voices," the extent of their participation in the social and academic life of the campus. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of…
Yunker, Craig Andrew
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of various intensity levels of athletic participation on academic and leadership performance in a selective institution. For the purpose of this study a retrospective analysis of existing admissions and student performance data was conducted. The continuous dependent variables were academic…
Reviews legislation and court decisions advancing wage and job equity for minorities and women in academic settings. Discusses provisions of the Equal Pay Act and Title VII, legal precedents for pay equity, and recent court decisions supporting voluntary affirmative action plans. (DMM)
Guerin, Cally; Carter, Susan; Aitchison, Claire
As practices and expectations around doctoral writing continue to change, so too do the demands on academic developers and learning advisors. Social media is increasingly playing a role in doctoral education, just as it is in higher education more generally. This paper explores a blog initiated in 2012 to inform and support doctoral writing; since…
English language learners (ELL students) were not attaining and maintaining sufficient proficiency at public schools in Northern California, as measured by students' achievement scores on state and district assessments. The purpose of this quasi-experimental research was to determine whether there were differences in academic language arts…
Lichtveld, Maureen; Goldstein, Bernard; Grattan, Lynn; Mundorf, Christopher
On the occasion of the 50(th) anniversary of the National Institutes of Environmental Health Sciences we reflect on how environmental research incorporating community members as active partners has evolved, benefited communities and advanced environmental health research. We highlight the commitment to community partnerships in the aftermath of the 2010 Deep Water Horizon Oil Spill, and how that commitment helped improve science. We provide examples of community-academic partnerships across the engagement spectrum. Finally, we offer suggestions to improve the community engagement in order to cultivate more long partnerships and better scientific research.
With the belief that diversity is strength, the community of Reading, Pennsylvania, set forth an effort to meet the challenges of the disparity within the local nursing workforce with a comprehensive, long-term approach for the recruitment and retention of an underrepresented group. An academic-community partnership was formed to develop multifaceted programs and support across school and community agency systems. The Alvernia College Nursing Department has taken a leadership role to coordinate many community and health care agencies with the goal of increasing the number of baccalaureate-prepared Hispanic and bilingual nurses to provide culturally competent and sensitive care to the community.
Pike, Gary R.; Kuh, George D.; McCormick, Alexander C.
This study examined the contingent relationships between learning community participation and student engagement in educational activities inside and outside the classroom using data from the 2004 administration of the National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE). Results indicated that learning community participation was positively and…
Myers, Emily; Davis, Beth Ellen; Stobbe, Gary; Bjornson, Kristie
Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) are at increased risk for poor psychosocial outcomes as adults. We described community and social participation in adolescents with ASDs as they transitioned from adolescence to adulthood, and identified adolescent factors associated with community and social participation outcomes in adulthood. We…
Krupar, Allyson M.; Prins, Esther
Participation has become so central to adult education for community development that even the World Bank supports participatory programming. This article analyses how participation is conceptualised in "Training for Transformation" (TfT), a Freirean-inspired curriculum used in international community development settings. TfT seeks to…
Kiang, Lisa; Supple, Andrew J; Stein, Gabriela L; Gonzalez, Laura M
Research on the academic adjustment of immigrant adolescents has been predominately conducted in large cities among established migration areas. To broaden the field's restricted focus, data from 172 (58% female) Asian American adolescents who reside within a non-traditional or emerging immigrant community in the Southeastern US were used to examine gender differences in academic adjustment as well as school, family, and cultural variables as potential mediators of gender differences found. Results suggest that girls report significantly higher educational goals, intrinsic academic motivation, and utility value of school compared to boys. These gender differences are statistically mediated by ethnic exploration and family processes, most prominently, family respect. School connectedness and perceived discrimination are also associated with academic adjustment at the bivariate level, suggesting that academic success may be best promoted if multiple domains of influence can be targeted.
Dunlop, Anne L.; Logue, Kristi M.
Objective Using comparative analysis, we examined the factors that influence the engagement of academic institutions in community disaster response. Methods We identified colleges and universities located in counties affected by four Federal Emergency Management Agency-declared disasters (Kentucky ice storms, Hurricanes Ike and Gustav, California wildfires, and the Columbia space shuttle disintegration) and performed key informant interviews with officials from public health, emergency management, and academic institutions in those counties. We used a comparative case study approach to explore particular resources provided by academic institutions, processes for engagement, and reasons for engagement or lack thereof in the community disaster response. Results Academic institutions contribute a broad range of resources to community disaster response. Their involvement and the extent of their engagement is variable and influenced by (1) their resources, (2) preexisting relationships with public health and emergency management organizations, (3) the structure and organizational placement of the school's disaster planning and response office, and (4) perceptions of liability and lines of authority. Facilitators of engagement include (1) the availability of faculty expertise or special training programs, (2) academic staff presence on public health and emergency management planning boards, (3) faculty contracts and student practica, (4) incident command system or emergency operations training of academic staff, and (5) the existence of mutual aid or memoranda of agreements. Conclusion While a range of relationships exist between academic institutions that engage with public health and emergency management agencies in community disaster response, recurrent win-win themes include co-appointed faculty and staff; field experience opportunities for students; and shared planning and training for academic, public health, and emergency management personnel. PMID:25355979
Freudenberg, Nicholas; Pastor, Manuel; Israel, Barbara
Environmental exposures impose a disproportionate health burden on low-income populations and communities of color. One contributing factor may be the obstacles such communities face to full participation in making policy decisions about environmental health. This study described and analyzed the characteristics that contributed to communities' capacity to participate in making environmental decisions and suggested steps public agencies could take to achieve more meaningful participation. By strengthening community capacity, advancing authentic participation, and building democratic power, it might be possible to alter current patterns of health inequities. Strengthening participation by working with communities to develop the capacities needed to be effective in such processes is a key role for local, state, and national environmental agencies.
Brear, Michelle; Hammarberg, Karin; Fisher, Jane
Participatory health research (PHR) involves equitable community participation in all aspects of the research process. It is a potentially beneficial approach to research in resource-constrained countries. Measuring participation in specific activities and aspects is necessary for understanding the community and research-related benefits of PHR. The aims of this scoping review were to: develop a measure of lay-community participation in aspects and activities of PHR in resource-constrained countries; and use the measure to assess the nature and extent of reported participation. Directed content analysis was used to identify aspects and activities reported in peer-reviewed articles identified through a systematic search, develop the Comprehensive Community Participation in Research Framework (CCPRF) and use it to measure participation. Total and aspect participation scores, which considered both the nature and extent of participation, were calculated for articles reporting extensive participation. Eighty-five articles detailing 66 studies were included. Nine aspects and 49 activities of research were included in the CCPRF. Community participation was reported in a median of 5/9 (range 1-9) aspects and 8/49 (range 1-35) activities. The review provided diverse examples, and enabled development of a more comprehensive measure, of participation. It highlighted limited lay-community participation is reported in research labelled participatory from resource-constrained countries. As participation in all aspects of PHR is rarely achieved, strategic planning of more limited participation is imperative. More detailed and systematic planning, assessment and reporting of participation, guided by a comprehensive measure like the CCPRF, is required to develop evidence regarding the benefits of participation in various research activities.
Wenrich, J. William; and others
The School of Natural Resources and the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan aided the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in promoting public education about, and participation in, the Susquehanna River Basin Project. (SE)
Woods, Kristin LeAnne
Community college students who transfer to four-year universities face a variety of academic, social, and psychological challenges as they adjust to new postsecondary institutions (Laanan, 2001; Townsend, 2008). Student success through the transfer process is positively influenced by accumulated knowledge, skills, and experiences from the…
... community participation? 2551.24 Section 2551.24 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE SENIOR COMPANION PROGRAM Eligibility and Responsibilities of a Sponsor § 2551.24 What are a sponsor's responsibilities for securing community...
Park, Albert; Hartzler, Andrea L; Huh, Jina; McDonald, David W; Pratt, Wanda
Online health communities provide popular platforms for individuals to exchange psychosocial support and form ties. Although regular active participation (i.e., posting to interact with other members) in online health communities can provide important benefits, sustained active participation remains challenging for these communities. Leveraging previous literature on homophily (i.e., "love of those who are like themselves"), we examined the relationship between vocabulary similarity (i.e., homophily of word usage) of thread posts and members' future interaction in online health communities. We quantitatively measured vocabulary similarity by calculating, in a vector space model, cosine similarity between the original post and the first reply in 20,499 threads. Our findings across five online health communities suggest that vocabulary similarity is a significant predictor of members' future interaction in online health communities. These findings carry practical implications for facilitating and sustaining online community participation through beneficial effects of homophily in the vocabulary of essential peer support.
This study investigates the benefits of a community blogging platform for students in an online LIS program. Using a web survey and descriptive content analysis methods, this paper empirically addresses how student blogging communities can be effectively foster connections amongst instructors and students, and enhance perceptions of learning…
Marske, Charles E.; Vago, Steven
As the university becomes more of a bureaucracy than a community, changes occur in the law, power structures, and student faculty relationships, and members of the community are turning to the courts to resolve disputes they once settled informally. (Author/MSE)
Cooley-Strickland, Michele; Quille, Tanya J.; Griffin, Robert S.; Stuart, Elizabeth A.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Furr-Holden, Debra
Community violence is recognized as a major public health problem (WHO, "World Report on Violence and Health," 2002) that Americans increasingly understand has adverse implications beyond inner-cities. However, the majority of research on chronic community violence exposure focuses on ethnic minority, impoverished, and/or crime-ridden communities…
Smith, William H.; Rogers, Jessica G.; Hansen, Thomas N.; Smith, Charles V.
To recruit and train the next generations of pediatric clinician-scientists, the American Pediatric Society (APS) and Society for Pediatric Research (SPR) initiated a program in 1991 to support medical students with interests in research and pediatrics to conduct research at institutions other than their respective medical schools. Since 1991, the APS-SPR Medical Student Research Program (MSRP) has funded 732 of 2209 applicants from 132 U.S. or Canadian medical schools for 8 to 12 weeks of research under the direction of experienced investigators. PubMed-attributable publications tabulated in 2001 for MSRP applicants through 2000 indicated that participants had published more actively than had non-participant applicants. Male non-participants exhibited greater publication activities than did female non-participants, but female and male participants published equally. Of all MSRP participants between 1991 and 1996, as of 2008, 36% were in pediatrics, and a remarkable 29% were in academic pediatrics. PMID:19092716
Chung, Bowen; Ngo, Victoria; Ong, Michael; Pulido, Esmeralda; Jones, Felica; Gilmore, James; Mtume, Norma; Johnson, Megan Dwight; Tang, Lingqi; Wells, Kenneth; Sherbourne, Cathy; Miranda, Jeanne
Objective Community Engagement and Planning (CEP) could improve dissemination of depression quality improvement in under-resourced communities; but its effects on provider training participation relative to more standard technical assistance or Resources for Services (RS) are unknown. To compare effects of CEP, which trains networks of healthcare and social-community agencies jointly, and RS, which provides technical support to individual programs, on program and staff-level participation in depression quality improvement trainings. Methods Matched programs from healthcare and social-community programs in two communities were randomized to RS or CEP. Data were from 1622 eligible staff members from 95 enrolled programs. Measures: Primary outcomes: for programs, any staff trained; and for staff, total hours of training. Secondary outcomes: training in specific depression collaborative care components. Results CEP programs relative to RS were more likely to participate in any trainings across sectors (p<.001) and from social-community sectors (p<.001), but not from healthcare. Among staff participating in trainings, CEP relative to RS had greater mean training hours (p<.001) overall and for each depression care component (cognitive behavioral therapy, care management, other trainings, p<.001) except medication management. Conclusions Compared with RS, CEP to implement depression quality improvement increased program and staff training participation overall. CEP had a greater effect on any staff training participation within social-community sectors than RS, but not within healthcare. CEP may be an effective strategy to promote staff participation in depression improvement in under-resourced communities. PMID:25930037
Rifkin, Susan B
The year 2008 marked the 30 year anniversary of Primary Health Care, the health policy of all member nations of the WHO. Community participation was one of the key principles of this policy. This article reviews the experiences of and lessons learned by policy makers, planners and programme managers in attempting to integrate community participation into their health programmes. The lessons, identified in an earlier article by the author, are still relevant today. They help to identify three reasons why integrating community participation into health programmes is so difficult. These reasons are: (1) the dominance of the bio-medical paradigm as the main planning tool for programmes, leading to the view of community participation as an intervention; (2) the lack of in-depth analysis of the perceptions of community members regarding the use of community health workers; and (3) the propensity to use a framework that limits investigation into what works, why and how in community participation in health programmes. Despite these challenges, evidence suggests that community participation has contributed to health improvements at the local level, particularly in poor communities, and will continue to be relevant to programme professionals.
Dyer, William Leonard
This ethnographic study contextualized identity development and maintenance within the field of community music through case studies of four performing groups and interviews with seven current members. The underlying question guiding this research was how does participatory music making contribute to the development and maintenance of identity in…
The project described attempted to analyze the informal and nonformal educational practices within certain community agencies that are part of an emergent social movement in Cape Town, South Africa. The paper focuses on a critical discussion of internal participatory democratic practices within the agencies. (CH)
The increasing demand of constituents to conduct analyses in order to help inform the decision-making process has led to the need for Institutional Research (IR) guidelines for community college educators. One method of maintaining the quality of research conducted by IR staff is to include professional development about ethics. This article…
Adams, Alexandra K.; LaRowe, Tara L.; Cronin, Kate A.; Prince, Ronald J.; Wubben, Deborah P.; Parker, Tassy; Jobe, Jared B.
Healthy Children, Strong Families (HCSF) is a 2-year, community-driven, family-based randomized controlled trial of a healthy lifestyles intervention conducted in partnership with four Wisconsin American Indian tribes. HCSF is composed of 1 year of targeted home visits to deliver nutritional and physical activity curricula. During Year 1, trained…
Recent advances in technology are transforming our lives, but in many cases they are also limiting the way children are exposed to local communities and physical spaces. Technology can help young people actively connect with their neighborhoods, but doing that requires different methods and tools from the ones typically available in schools,…
Clinton, Amanda; Amesty, Elvia
The present project analysed the use of participatory models during the process of application of a prevention program with preschool-aged children in Maracaibo, Venezuela. Relevant phases in achieving community collaboration are delineated and challenges are discussed. Results indicate that participatory models provided an effective means of…
A study of participatory evaluation by learning teams at 10 rural sites of the Empowerment Zones/Enterprise Communities program showed the importance of separating indicators of participation from project impacts. Evaluation of three categories was recommended: citizen participation (process indicators), impact of participation on individuals and…
Dixon, Marion W.
A case study of an economically distressed rural Kentucky school district examined the theory that educational policy can enable community participation and that participation can enable policy implementation by affecting school governance and expanding the services provided. Primary data were gathered via interviews with four parent participants,…
Schubert, Carol A.; Mulvey, Edward P.; Lidz, Charles W.; Gardner, William P.; Skeem, Jennifer L.
To address several key questions in social science research, repeated interviews of individuals drawn from difficult populations are required. This article describes an approach for addressing the challenges associated with longitudinal interview studies, including locating research participants, obtaining reliable and valid interview data over…
Hagler, LaTesha R.
As the number of historically underrepresented populations transfer from community college to university to pursue baccalaureate degrees in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), little research exists about the challenges and successes Latino students experience as they transition from 2-year colleges to 4-year universities. Thus, institutions of higher education have limited insight to inform their policies, practices, and strategic planning in developing effective sources of support, services, and programs for underrepresented students in STEM disciplines. This qualitative research study explored the academic and social experiences of 14 Latino engineering community college transfer students at one university. Specifically, this study examined the lived experiences of minority community college transfer students' transition into and persistence at a 4-year institution. The conceptual framework applied to this study was Schlossberg's Transition Theory, which analyzed the participant's social and academic experiences that led to their successful transition from community college to university. Three themes emerged from the narrative data analysis: (a) Academic Experiences, (b) Social Experiences, and (c) Sources of Support. The findings indicate that engineering community college transfer students experience many challenges in their transition into and persistence at 4-year institutions. Some of the challenges include lack of academic preparedness, environmental challenges, lack of time management skills and faculty serving the role as institutional agents.
Adamu, Abebaw Yirga
This study investigated factors that contributed to the participation of a rural community in health education. It was conducted in the Awi zone of the Amhara region in Ethiopia. The participants were rural community members and health extension workers. Purposive and snowball sampling techniques were used to recruit rural community members, whereas convenient sampling was used to recruit health extension workers. Data was collected through in-depth individual interviews, and focus group discussions. The study revealed various factors contributing to the participation of a rural community in health education, including attainability of the objectives of health education, profiles of the health extension workers, peer influence, organization of the health education program in terms of place and time, and meaningfulness of the health education in terms of rural community lives. Although the ultimate goal of participation in health education is similar for all rural community members, they were attracted to the program by one or more than one different factor. Efforts aimed at enhancing participation of a rural community in health education program should address each factor that contributes to the participation of community members.
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Who may participate in a community-based service... (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE COMMUNITY-BASED SERVICE-LEARNING PROGRAMS Eligibility To Participate § 2517.300 Who may participate in a community-based service-learning...
The scholarship in building community capacity by way of cultivating community social capital and community spirit through neighborhood design has spawned heated debates in urban and community studies. This paper contributes to this scholarship by examining the neighborhood contexts of grassroots participation in Chinese contemporary urban communities. In particular, it explores the relationship between neighborhood communal space and community participation, using a city-wide survey of 1,809 households in 39 commodity housing estates in the city of Guangzhou. It is found that local residents’ participation in community affairs is conditioned by both the social milieu (measured by the overall level of social cohesion) and the physical environment (indicated by effects of communal space) of a neighborhood. Notably, communal space exerts positive indirect effects on grassroots participation by facilitating the development of place-based social capital and neighborhood attachment. These findings point to a civic virtue of communal space and provide nascent evidence regarding neighborhood contexts of grassroots participation in urban China. PMID:26640314
Joshi, Ashish; Meza, Jane; Costa, Sergio; Puricelli Perin, Douglas Marcel; Trout, Kate; Rayamajih, Atul
Introduction The purpose of this study is to examine the role of information and communication technology (ICT) in enhancing community outreach, academic and research collaboration, and education and support services (IT-CARES) in an academic setting. Methods A survey was deployed to assess the ICT needs in an academic setting. The survey was developed using the Delphi methodology. Questionnaire development was initiated by asking key stakeholders involved in community outreach, academic, research, education, and support to provide feedback on current ICT issues and future recommendations for relevant ICT tools that would be beneficial to them in their job, and to capture current ICT issues. Participants were asked to rate the level of importance of each ICT question on five-point Likert scales. Results The survey was sent to 359 participants, including faculty, staff, and students. The total number of respondents was 96, for a 27 percent response rate. The majority of the participants (54.1 percent, n = 46) placed a high importance on learning the available research capabilities of the college. The majority of the participants placed moderate (43.5 percent, n = 37) to high importance (40 percent, n = 34) on having an intranet that could support collaborative grant writing. A majority of the participants attributed high importance to learning to interact with the online learning management system Blackboard. A majority of the participants agreed that social media should being more actively utilized for diverse activities for academic and research purposes. Conclusion The study helped to identify the current needs and challenges faced by professionals and students when interacting with ICT. More research is needed in order to effectively integrate the use of ICT in the field of higher education, especially related to the modern global public health context. PMID:24159275
Farmer, Jane; Currie, Margaret; Kenny, Amanda; Munoz, Sarah-Anne
This article explores what happened, over the longer term, after a community participation exercise to design future rural service delivery models, and considers perceptions of why more follow-up actions did or did not happen. The study, which took place in 2014, revisits three Scottish communities that engaged in a community participation research method (2008-2010) intended to design rural health services. Interviews were conducted with 22 citizens, healthcare practitioners, managers and policymakers all of whom were involved in, or knew about, the original project. Only one direct sustained service change was found - introduction of a volunteer first responder scheme in one community. Sustained changes in knowledge were found. The Health Authority that part-funded development of the community participation method, through the original project, had not adopted the new method. Community members tended to attribute lack of further impact to low participation and methods insufficiently attuned to the social nuances of very small rural communities. Managers tended to blame insufficient embedding in the healthcare system and issues around power over service change and budgets. In the absence of convincing formal community governance mechanisms for health issues, rural health practitioners tended to act as conduits between citizens and the Health Authority. The study provides new knowledge about what happens after community participation and highlights a need for more exploration.
Hasford, Julian; Loomis, Colleen; Nelson, Geoffrey; Pancer, S. Mark
This comparative study examined how participation in an early childhood development (ECD) program, "Better Beginnings, Better Futures," for children (ages 4-8) relates to sense of community (SOC) in later adolescence (ages 18-19). Youths' stories (N = 96) about community experiences, collected by semistructured, open-ended interviews,…
Andrew, Nicola; Ferguson, Dorothy; Wilkie, George; Corcoran, Terry; Simpson, Liz
This paper analyses the current standing of nursing within the wider United Kingdom (UK) higher education (HE) environment and considers the development of academic identity within the sector, introducing a technology mediated approach to professional learning and development. A community of practice (CoP) is a way of learning based on collaboration among peers. Individuals come together virtually or physically, with a common purpose, defined by knowledge rather than task [Wenger, E., 1998. Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning and Identity, sixth ed. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge]. In 2008, a small team of academics at Glasgow Caledonian University, School of Nursing, Midwifery and Community Health created and implemented iCoP, a project undertaken to pilot an international CoP, where novices and expert academics collaborated to debate and discuss the complex transition from clinician to academic. Although not intended as a conventional research project, the developmental journey and emerging online discussion provide an insight into the collective thoughts and opinions of a multi-national group of novice academics. The article also highlights the key challenges, problems and limitations of working in an international online arena with professionals who traditionally work and thrive in a face to face, real time environment.
Allen, David F.
Academic confidence cultivated within the context of learning communities may be an important key to student success. This study examined the structural relationships of four constructs on academic performance and persistence for summer bridge learning community (SBLC) and non-SBLC members. Constructs included (1) student background, (2) academic…
Bond, Eleanor F
The University of Washington School of Nursing faculty partnered with leaders of a local community with the shared intention of improving health services for needy populations and preparing nursing students to collaborate with communities in caring for such populations. The resulting clinic has operated for more than a decade and has continually grown, now serving about 1,000 patients per month. More than 300 students have completed clinical or research activities at the clinic. Challenges have included provision of culturally informed, evidence-based care; integration of mental and primary health care services; chronic disease management; leveraging community partnerships in support of needy populations; and fiscal sustainability. A new project uses team-based approaches to implement interprofessional, relationship-centered care for families of newborns.
Mack, Ana C.
This study examined differences in academic performance and self-regulated learning based on levels of student participation in Supplemental Instruction (SI) sessions in two introductory undergraduate biology and chemistry courses offered at University of Central Florida in the Spring 2006 semester. The sample consisted of 282 students enrolled in the biology class and 451 students enrolled in chemistry. Academic performance was measured using students' final course grades and rates of withdrawal from the courses. The self-regulated learning constructs of motivation, cognition, metacognition, and resource management were measured using the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ). Relationships between students' gender and ethnic background and levels of SI participation were also analyzed in this research. Findings in both biology and chemistry courses revealed a statistically significant decrease in student motivation from beginning to end of semester. In chemistry, frequent SI participants also showed statistically significantly higher levels of motivation at the end of the semester than occasional and non-SI participants. There were no statistically significant gains in cognitive, metacognitive, and resource management strategies from beginning to end of semester. However, statistically significant differences in resource management were observed at the end of the semester among SI attendance groups in both courses. Students in the high SI attendance group were more likely to use learning resources than those who did not participate regularly or did not participate at all. Statistically significant differences in academic performance based on students' SI participation were found in both biology and chemistry courses. Frequent SI participants had significantly higher final percentage grades and were more likely to receive grades of A, B, or C, than those who either did not attend SI regularly of did not participate at all. They were also less
Pérez Mendoza, S; Ascanio, S V
Action Community regarding health is but part of a long-term project started out back in the 1960. As far as Latin America was concerned the so-called experience did not work out; notwithstanding, it has become an Attention-Getter among the countries of the area once again. How so? Because of the Primary-Approach. Understood as an approach based on the global development of society, self-involvement lies at the cornerstone of the whole process. The health section gives full measure of the primary-approach theoretical framework and propose alternatives to get it of the ground. Professionals from the health section aim at "self-involvement" as activity performed willingly. Besides as it were, it should be supervised by experts. Nowadays the venezuelan government promotes action community claiming it will endorse the Primary-Approach on health granted the national health system bill is approved. Amid such context dentistry most meet the challenge of upcoming changes, so must fellow-dentists who, in the end, will dominate center stage. The process must narrow down to actions with will stem from its own dynamics along the way. Needless to say, these actions can not be easily foreseen, let alone do they guarantee success.
This article focuses on the life history of a university academic, and the ways in which he learned in different communities of practice during his career. This account raises questions about the applicability of situated learning theory to a knowledge-based organisation, and argues that both the external context and the individuals within the…
Wotring, Kathleen E.; Bol, Linda
This study examined how community college students (n = 650) vary by generation and other characteristics in their evaluation of academic activities as cheating. A Likert-type instrument was developed based on the literature, pilot tested, and subjected to factor analysis. Results of MANOVA found no difference by generation in the evaluation of…
Ewing, Robyn; Freeman, Mark; Barrie, Simon; Bell, Amani; O'Connor, Donna; Waugh, Fran; Sykes, Chris
Academic mentoring is increasingly being used by many universities as a tool to enhance the quality of research-led teaching, promote cross-faculty collaboration and encourage a mentoring culture and community. This article reports on a pilot project established to investigate the benefits of building flexibility into a structured academic…
Sandberg, Scott; Morris, Cele; Sutherland, Timothy
This paper details community engagement activity of an academic library coordinated within a broader university strategic plan. The Anderson Library at Indiana University Northwest (IU-Northwest) supports a service called the Northwest Indiana Center for Data and Analysis. Created in 1996 with funding made available from the Indiana University…
Busby, Danielle R.; Lambert, Sharon F.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.
African American adolescents are exposed disproportionately to community violence, increasing their risk for emotional and behavioral symptoms that can detract from learning and undermine academic outcomes. The present study examined whether aggressive behavior and depressive and anxious symptoms mediated the association between exposure to…
Kiang, Lisa; Supple, Andrew J.; Stein, Gabriela L.; Gonzalez, Laura M.
Research on the academic adjustment of immigrant adolescents has been predominately conducted in large cities among established migration areas. To broaden the field's restricted focus, data from 172 (58% female) Asian American adolescents who reside within a non-traditional or emerging immigrant community in the Southeastern US were used to…
Adams, Julie, Ed.
The 2002 newsletter of Senate Rostrum contains the February and October issues. The February issue covers the Accrediting Commission for Community and Junior Colleges' January 2002 hearing on Draft A of the proposed new accreditation standards. Members of the Academic Senate attended the meeting in order to voice their concerns regarding the new…
Visher, Mary G.; Mayer, Alexander K.; Johns, Michael; Rudd, Timothy; Levine, Andrew; Rauner, Mary
Community college students often lack an academic plan to guide their choices of coursework to achieve their educational goals, in part because counseling departments typically lack the capacity to advise students at scale. This randomized controlled trial tests the impact of guaranteed access to one of two alternative counseling sessions (group…
Golan, Daphna; Shalhoub-Kevorkian, Nadera
This article is based on an action-oriented study of 13 community-engaged courses at 11 institutions of higher education in Israel. These courses were not part of peace education programs but rather accredited academic courses in various disciplines, all of which included practice and theory. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate how these…
McCutcheon, Lynn E.; Campbell, Janice D.
Studies the relationship between video game playing and academic achievement. Compares matched groups of community college psychology students, differing in the amount of their game playing. There were no differences between frequent and infrequent players on measures of psychology class attendance, locus of control, or grade point average.…
Ramirez, Jennifer, Ed.
Volume 9.1.1 [v9 n1 Winter 2002, Commemorative Anniversary issue] of "Academic Leadership" includes the following articles: (1) "Growing our Own Leaders" by Gary Filan; (2) "Facilitating Change: Leadership's Major Challenge" by Paul Elsner and Larry Christiansen; (3) "Servant Leadership: Robert K. Greenleaf's Legacy and the Community College" by…
Learning styles have been an area of interest in educational psychology for many decades. However, community college students have been overlooked in learning styles research. To enhance teacher efficacy and student success, it is important to continue to evaluate the relationship between learning styles and academic achievement. The purpose of…
Schwartz, David; Kelly, Brynn M; Mali, Luiza V; Duong, Mylien T
Adolescents who have been exposed to violence in the community often experience subsequent difficulties with academic achievement. Because competence in the classroom is a salient developmental task during the adolescent years, outcomes in this critical context can then have broader implications for social and psychological functioning. In the current study, we tested a hypothesized progression in which the association between violence exposure and deficient achievement is presumed to potentiate friendships with academically disengaged peers. We followed 415 urban adolescents (53 % girls; average age of 14.6 years) for a one-year period, with two annual assessment of psychosocial functioning. Exposure to violence in the community and academic engagement were assessed with a self-report inventory; reciprocated friendships were assessed with a peer interview; and achievement was indexed based on a review of school records. Consistent with our hypotheses, neighborhood violence was associated with deficient classroom achievement. Poor achievement, in turn, mediated associations between community violence exposure and low academic engagement among friends. Our findings highlight pathways though which exposure to community violence potentially predicts later dysfunction.
The community college is a major site preparing students for nursing careers, an important role at a time of a national shortage. However, many of the low socioeconomic status (SES), minority students who aspire to associates degrees in nursing display low levels of academic preparedness. An analysis of 3-year institutional data from a single…
Frerichs, Leah; Kim, Mimi; Dave, Gaurav; Cheney, Ann; Hassmiller Lich, Kristen; Jones, Jennifer; Young, Tiffany L.; Cene, Crystal W.; Varma, Deepthi S.; Schaal, Jennifer; Black, Adina; Striley, Catherine W.; Vassar, Stefanie; Sullivan, Greer; Cottler, Linda B.; Brown, Arleen; Burke, Jessica G.; Corbie-Smith, Giselle
Community-academic research partnerships aim to build stakeholder trust in order to improve the reach and translation of health research, but there is limited empirical research regarding effective ways to build trust. This multisite study was launched to identify similarities and differences among stakeholders' perspectives of antecedents to…
Academic Senate for California Community Colleges, 2009
The Rostrum is a quarterly publication of the Academic Senate for California Community Colleges. The following articles are included in this issue: (1) A Modest Proposal: Simplifying Articulation, Respecting Local Autonomy, and Responding to "Common Course Numbering" Mandates by Michelle Pilati; (2) Resolving the TBA Dilemma: A Tale of…
Smith, Rachel A.
Residential learning communities often focus on easing first-year students' transitions to college by emphasizing the creation of peer social and academic relationships. However, this relational process is most often examined through analyzing individual student characteristics, behaviors, and attitudes. This study used network analysis to…
This study focuses on the academic performance of community college transfer students at four-year institutions. It uses a nationally representative sample from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS: 88/2000) and the Postsecondary Education Transcript Study (PETS). Results from an Ordinary Least Squares regression model suggest…
Strategic, academically based community service holds promise for creating the structural change needed to reduce deprivation and inhuman suffering found in urban areas. The early history of the modern urban university, particularly in the late 19th century, is an example and can provide a model for further development of this mission. (MSE)
Yapici, I. Ümit
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of Blended Cooperative Learning Environment (BCLE) in biology teaching on students' classroom community sense, their academic achievement and on their levels of satisfaction. In the study, quantitative and qualitative research methods were used together. The study was carried out with 30 students in…
McKenney, Cynthia B.; Cejda, Brent D.
As women now comprise 39% of the chief academic officer (CAO) positions, the focus of this investigation was the career paths and mobility factors of women CAOs in public comprehensive community colleges. This survey of 142 women resulted in eight distinct, common pathways by which women attain this rank. The typical profile of a female CAO is a…
Lipe, Kaiwipunikauikawekiu; Lipe, Daniel
This article chronicles how the authors, two Indigenous activist-academics, live into their consciousness, privileges, and responsibilities by realizing their roles through genealogical reflection. In particular, they focus on their responsibilities as change agents because of their reciprocal and interdependent roles as community members, as…
Lowry, Kelly Walker; Ford-Paz, Rebecca
Early career faculty members at academic medical centers face unique obstacles when engaging in community-based participatory research (CBPR). Challenges and opportunities for solutions pertaining to mentorship, time demands, unfamiliarity of colleagues with CBPR approaches, ethical review regulations, funding, and publication and promotion are discussed.
Scales, Peter C.; Roehlkepartain, Eugene C.; Neal, Marybeth; Kielsmeir, James C.; Benson, Peter L.
Three large and diverse data sets were used to study the relations among 6th?12th grade students' community service and service-learning experiences, academic success, and socioeconomic status (SES). Principals in high-poverty, urban, and majority nonwhite schools were more likely to judge service-learning's impact on student attendance,…
Santa Rita, Emilio, D., Jr.
This paper proposes a model for developmental academic advising (DAA) at New York's Bronx Community College (BCC) and reviews the purposes of DAA and barriers to its implementation. The first section presents a conceptual model of DAA and its priorities, indicating that it functions as an active attempt to stimulate personal and intellectual…
Acevedo-Gil, Nancy; Santos, Ryan E.; Alonso, LLuliana; Solorzano, Daniel G.
This qualitative study examines the experiences of Latinas/os in community college English and math developmental education courses. Critical race theory in education and the theory of validation serve as guiding frameworks. The authors find that institutional agents provide academic validation by emphasizing high expectations, focusing on social…
Crumley, Kristie; Demarest, Kate
Carroll Community College connects students to their peers and to educators who share similar academic, personal, and career interests. Students get involved in hands-on experiences inside and outside of the classroom. The results include higher retention, reduced student anonymity, and an institutional commitment to student success.
Nistor, Nicolae; Baltes, Beate; Schustek, Monika
Purpose: Online programs rely on the use of educational technology for knowledge sharing in academic virtual communities of practice (vCoPs). This poses the question as to which factors influence technology acceptance. Previous research has investigated the inter-relationship between educational technology acceptance (ETA) and the vCoP context…
Mullen, Carol A.; Bettez, Silvia C.; Wilson, Camille M.
Creating desirable academic departments for individuals' well-being and quality scholarship is an important effort as well as a novel idea. The focus of this reflective article is twofold: (a) We present a social capital theory of social justice covenants as a product and process of community building, and (b) we share the multiple lived…
Coffey, Nancy; Canales, Mary K.; Moore, Emily; Gullickson, Melissa; Kaczmarski, Brenda
Food insecurity is a growing concern for Eau Claire County residents in Western Wisconsin. A community-academic partnership studied food insecurity through the voices of families struggling to access food and institutions that assist with hunger related problems. Data were collected through focus groups held in urban and rural parts of the county.…
Meagher, Eileen M.
This paper sees existing academic communities the following way: faculty centered, discipline centered, competitive in nature, static in structure, lecture based "teaching," banking concept of learning, one dominant discourse--"Standard English," narrow in research interests, and focus on individual achievement of faculty and students. The paper…
Hobbs, Ruby L., Comp.
This report on the effectiveness of Shelby State Community College's (SSCC) Academic and Developmental Services (A/D) Program consists primarily of statistical tables that describe three cohorts of full- and part-time students; i.e., those currently enrolled students who entered the college in fall 1985, 1986, or 1987. Data are presented on basic…
Gabbard, Anita; Mupinga, Davison M.
Community colleges act as the gateway for students to higher education. Many of these colleges realize this mission through open-door policies where students lacking in basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills can enroll. But, this open-access policy often creates challenges when meeting academic standards. Based on data collected from…
Bazer, Gerald, Ed.
Brief descriptions are provided of 54 community college programs identified as outstanding by the National Council of Instructional Administrators. Organized alphabetically by program title, the descriptions include the name of the college president, the name of a contact person, and the name, address, and telephone number of the college. The…
Online learning communities are frequently created for higher education students; however, these are most often designed to cater to a particular unit or subject. In an effort to strengthen the Bachelor of Arts course at the University of New England, the author sought to create an online space that would promote an interdisciplinary and collegial…
Firmin, Michael W.; Warner, Susan C.; Rose, Stephanie Firebaugh; Johnson, Courtney B.; Firmin, Ruth L.
Learning Communities (LC) in higher education can serve as powerful connectors among individuals, particularly when integrating minority and White students. We conducted 24 in-depth interviews, using qualitative research methodology, with the 2004 cohort of LC students from a private, selective, Midwest university. Seniors at the time of…
Rural community colleges are faced with issues similar to their urban counterparts, but many challenges for rural schools are further exacerbated by limited resources, geographic isolation, and a static economy. This paper argues that the difference between success and failure can be the ability to create strong partnerships. Of the 15 colleges in…
Finn, Heather B.; Avni, Sharon
This qualitative study offers critical insight into how language policy interacts with daily classroom decisions at a large and highly diverse urban community college in the United States. Specifically, it examines the challenges that faculty teaching developmental writing courses for English language learners experience when determining what…
Newbill, Sharon L.; Cardinali, Gina; Morahan, Page S.; Chang, Shine; Magrane, Diane
Abstract Background: Academic medicine has initiated changes in policy, practice, and programs over the past several decades to address persistent gender disparity and other issues pertinent to its sociocultural context. Three career development programs were implemented to prepare women faculty to succeed in academic medicine: two sponsored by the Association of American Medical Colleges, which began a professional development program for early career women faculty in 1988. By 1995, it had evolved into two programs one for early career women and another for mid-career women. By 2012, more than 4000 women faculty from medical schools across the U.S and Canada had participated in these intensive 3-day programs. The third national program, the Hedwig van Ameringen Executive Leadership in Academic Medicine® (ELAM) program for women, was developed in 1995 at the Drexel University College of Medicine. Methods: Narratives from telephone interviews representing reflections on 78 career development seminars between 1988 and 2010 describe the dynamic relationships between individual, institutional, and sociocultural influences on participants' career advancement. Results: The narratives illuminate the pathway from participating in a career development program to self-defined success in academic medicine in revealing a host of influences that promoted and/or hindered program attendance and participants' ability to benefit after the program in both individual and institutional systems. The context for understanding the importance of these career development programs to women's advancement is nestled in the sociocultural environment, which includes both the gender-related influences and the current status of institutional practices that support women faculty. Conclusions: The findings contribute to the growing evidence that career development programs, concurrent with strategic, intentional support of institutional leaders, are necessary to achieve gender equity and diversity
The goal of NSF's ADVANCE Program is to help increase the participation of women in the scientific and engineering workforce through the increased representation and advancement of women in academic science and engineering careers. The Program tries to address this under representation by focusing on support for men and women with three approaches: institutional (Institutional Transformation), grass-root (Leadership), and individual (Fellows) support. The ADVANCE Program alternates with a round of Institutional and Leadership awards in one year and a Fellows competition the next. Since its inception in 2001, NSF has had two competitive rounds for each of the three award types and will have spent approximately 75 M\\ by the end of the next fiscal year (2004). The first and second ADVANCE Institutional Transformation competitions (FY 2001 and 2003) received over 70 proposals each. These awards are for multi-year support in the amount of 3-4M\\ each. Details and access to the websites for the ADVANCE programs of each institution can be found in NSF's ADVANCE webpage at http://nsf.gov/home/crssprgm/advance/itwebsites.htm. The number of proposals submitted for the Leadership awards competition dropped from 35 in 2001 to 26 in 2003, despite an increase in the allowed award size for the second round. In terms of projected goals, this part of ADVANCE is perhaps the most eclectic. Some Leadership awards were made to professional societies to work specifically with their respective scientific communities in identifying needs that might be peculiar to a field of science. In the first round of the Leadership awards, PI Mary-Anne Holmes of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln and collaborators received a grant to work with the Association of Women Geoscientists to determine the current status of women geoscientists in the US. These grantees hope to disseminate the information gathered under this award broadly in order to educate women students and faculty on strategies to
Zahir, Abdul; Ullah, Asad; Shah, Mussawar; Mussawar, Arsalan
Background: The aim of this study was to determine the role of community participation in prevention of dengue fever in The Swat district located in the Northern area of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, which experienced a dengue fever outbreak in August, 2013. A total number of 8,963 dengue cases with 0.4% case fatality ratio were registered during the outbreak. Methods: A sample size of 354 respondents were proportionally allocated to each residential colony and then randomly selected. The association of independent variable (Community participation) and dependent variable (practices for control) were tested by using Chi Square test. Results: Results regarding perception of practices for dengue control with community participation showed that: practices for control had significant association with organization of people to eradicate dengue mosquitoes (p=0.00), community leaders (p=0.04), community efforts (p≤0.01), use of insecticides by community people (p=0.00) and involvement of community people in awareness campaign (p=0.00). Similarly, significant associations were found between practices for control and community shared information during dengue outbreak (p=0.00), community link with health department, NGO, Other agencies (p=0.02). Conclusion and Global Health Implications: We conclude that the spread of dengue epidemic was aided by the ignorance, laziness of the community people and government agencies. However, the people, religious scholars, leaders and government agencies were not organized to participate in dengue prevention and eradication, hence, the chances of dengue infection increased in community. The study recommends mobilizing local communities and activating local leadership with active participation of Government and non-government organizations for initiation of preventive strategies. PMID:28058191
Lestari, Sri; Kotani, Koji; Kakinaka, Makoto
This paper examines voluntary participation in community forest management, and characterizes how more participation may be induced. We implemented a survey of 571 respondents and conducted a case study in Central Java, Indonesia. The study's novelty lies in categorizing the degrees of participation into three levels and in identifying how socio-economic factors affect people's participation at each level. The analysis finds that voluntary participation responds to key determinants, such as education and income, in a different direction, depending on each of the three levels. However, the publicly organized programs, such as information provision of benefit sharing, are effective, irrespective of the levels of participation. Overall, the results suggest a possibility of further success and corrective measures to enhance the participation in community forest management.
Bergh, Patricia A.
Strategic planning decisions and determinations in higher education present significant challenges even during relatively uneventful economic periods. In times of economic turbulence, the only predictable factor is a constantly diminishing funding base. Community colleges in particular are affected most directly and immediately by downturns in the…
Potter, Deborah Anne
Publicly funded programs in many industrialized countries increasingly require the participation of citizens. In this article, I explore the "situated motives" of family members who participated alongside professionals in implementing children's mental health programs in two communities in the United States. I conducted in-depth interviews with family members and observed monthly meetings of Community Collaboratives to assess how family members understood their participation. The inductive data analysis demonstrates that family members participated (a) as a therapeutic outlet, (b) to pay it forward, (c) to gain new skills, (d) to have a voice, and/or (e) to empower the community. I then use Giddens' concepts of "life politics" and "emancipatory politics" to explore how these accounts variously reflected lay members' orientations as consumers, empowered individuals, and/or citizen advocates. In the absence of articulated and specific objectives for family participation, these "situated motives" were salient and had implications for how policy was implemented.
Topps, Maureen; Strasser, Roger
With the burgeoning role of distributed medical education and the increasing use of community hospitals for training purposes, challenges arise for undergraduate and postgraduate programs expanding beyond traditional tertiary care models. It is of vital importance to encourage community hospitals and clinical faculty to embrace their roles in medical education for the 21st century. With no university hospitals in northern Ontario, the Northern Ontario School of Medicine and its educational partner hospitals identified questions of concern and collaborated to implement changes. Several themes emerged that are of relevance to any medical educational program expanding beyond its present location. Critical areas for attention include the institutional culture; human, physical and financial resources; and support for educational activities. It is important to establish and maintain the groundwork necessary for the development of thriving integrated community-engaged medical education. Done in tandem with advocacy for change in funding models, this will allow movement beyond the current educational environment. The ultimate goal is successful integration of university and accreditation ideals with practical hands-on medical care and education in new environments.
This qualitative study critically explores the barriers experienced by diverse rural community stakeholders in facilitating environments that enable age-friendly social participation. Twenty-six semi-structured interviews were conducted across two rural Australian communities with stakeholders from local government, health, social care, and community organizations. Findings identify that rural community stakeholders face significant difficulties in securing resources for groups and activities catering to older adults, which subsequently impacts their capacity to undertake outreach to older adults. However, in discussing these issues, questions were raised in relation to whose responsibility it is to provide resources for community groups and organizations providing social initiatives and whose responsibility it is to engage isolated seniors. These findings provide a much-needed critical perspective on current age-friendly research by acknowledging the responsibilities of various macro-level social structures-different community-level organizations, local government, and policy in fostering environments to enable participation of diverse rural older adults.
Mornar, Vedran; Fertalj, Krešimir; Kalpić, Damir
Introduction of a complex ERP system like SAP into a heterogeneous academic environment like the University of Zagreb is far from being a trivial task. The University comprises more than 30 constituents, called faculties or academies, geographically dispersed, with long and specific traditions. Financing according to the lump sum principle, enforced in Croatia as a side effect of the in Europe obligatory and omnipresent Bologna process, requires a unified view on the educational institutions in order to provide a more just and appropriate financing scheme than the current one. After the experience with own development to support educational tasks and student administration, for standard financial and administration tasks SAP has been chosen as the most appropriate platform. The developer was selected after public bidding and the authors' institution was chosen for the pilot project. The authors were playing principal roles in the process of successful deployment and still expect to offer their expertise for implementation in the rest of the University. However, serious risks stemming from lack of motivation by some constituents are present.
Landry, Alicia S.; Chittendon, Nikki; Coker, Christine E. H.; Weiss, Caitlin
This article describes the perceived physical and psychological health impacts of community gardening on participants in the Mississippi Delta. Themes identified include the use of gardening as an educational tool and as a means to increase self-efficacy and responsibility for personal and community health. Additional benefits of gardening as…
García, Amelia Molina
This paper presents the conditions and characteristics of a rural community education program in the Mexican context. The scheme of operation and participation of young people called Community Instructors (Instructores Comunitarios or IC) is innovative and worthy of recognition as a learning area, not only for school purposes but as one which…
Woo, David James
As new technologies continue to shape society, there has been a greater need for communities of practice to facilitate changing teaching and learning practices through technology in schools. Legitimate peripheral participation through these communities of practice has become an essential means to spread and support this technology integration…
Goldfarb, Katia Paz; Grinberg, Jaime
Describes the leadership conditions that encouraged authentic participation of community members in a Venezuelan community center to advance social justice. Argues that urban educational transformation might succeed in terms of practicing social justice, if leadership facilitates and creates urban sanctuaries and creates a trusting environment…
Torres, Irene; Simovska, Venka
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the debate concerning community participation in school-based health education and health promotion, with regard to food and nutrition. Design/methodology/approach: Based on empirical data generated over the course of one year of fieldwork in three rural communities and schools in Ecuador, the…
Illinois Community Coll. Board, Springfield.
This report concerns integrating academic and occupational instruction at the community college level. Such integration would be conducive to preparing a competitive workforce, providing a broader educational foundation, shifting from teaching to learning, and building bridges between disciplines in the community college. There are several…
Steck, Laura West; Engler, Jennifer N.; Ligon, Mary; Druen, Perri B.; Cosgrove, Erin
This article discusses an application of the Lewinian/Kolb experiential learning model in the context of undergraduate participation in the Missouri Community Action Poverty Simulation (CAPS) program. CAPS is designed to simulate common, everyday experiences among people living in poverty as participants take on the roles of family members working…
Tannenbaum, Arnold S.; And Others
Four papers are presented in this research report. Cooke and Tannenbaum present the theoretical background, methodology, and results of a study exploring the relation of formal and informal participation to the distribution of control in community colleges. Data, collected from students, faculty, and administrators of five "formally participative"…
Community health studies of traffic-related air pollution have been hampered by the cost and participant burden associated with collecting household-level exposure data. The current study utilized a novel participant-based approach to collect indoor and outdoor air monitoring da...
Community participation in the governance of school systems is a recurrent theme of educational reform in developed and developing countries alike. This article analyses the effort of one developing country -- Nepal -- to promote broader participation in educational decision-making through local school governance structure. It looks at how the…
Soria, Krista M.; Thomas-Card, Traci
In this study, we explored whether college students' motivations for participating in community service were associated with their perceptions that service enhanced their desire to continue participating in communityfocused activities after graduation, after statistically controlling for demographic variables and other variables of interest.…
This paper presents results of a qualitative study describing classroom participation in pre-college mathematics classes taught by seven successful community college faculty members. The analysis reveals high levels of student participation coupled with low complexity, which can result in detrimental opportunities for students to learn…
Adomokai, Rosemary; Sheate, William R
The participation of communities in the process of environmental decision-making in Nigeria and the Niger Delta region in particular is a relatively new process. There are many practical problems ranging from financial support, methods used and the willingness of identified stakeholders to participate. This paper seeks to highlight recent developments in community participation and environmental decision-making in the Niger Delta, using the EIA Decree of 1992 as a reference point. The EIA Decree of 1992 is the only legislation that refers to participation of the communities when environmental decisions are being made. The study reported here aimed to examine differences and similarities between the identified stakeholders interviewed in the research, in order to highlight areas of improvement that will encourage positive changes to the process and foster better relations between the stakeholders. The paper provides a brief background to community participation in the Niger Delta region and reports on the research approach adopted. Interviews with stakeholders in the EIA process were undertaken to provide a better understanding of public participation in practice under the EIA Decree. While participation was found to be now firmly on the agenda, there is still much to do to engender greater awareness of EIA and the potential benefits participation can hold.
Savard, Annie; Lin, Terry Wan Jung; Lamb, Natasha
This pilot study sought to examine the mathematical knowledge for teaching that pre-service teachers used when participating in an online community, and to gain insight into their epistemological stance. The participants of this study were among the pre-service teachers in a large urban university, chosen as they were completing their mathematics…
Community health studies of traffic-related air pollution have been hampered by the cost and participant burden associated with collecting household-level exposure data. The current study utilized a participant-based approach to collect indoor and outdoor air monitoring data from...
Orlin, Margo N.; Palisano, Robert J.; Chiarello, Lisa A.; Kang, Lin-Ju; Polansky, Marcia; Almasri, Nihad; Maggs, Jill
Aim: Participation in home, extracurricular, and community activities is a desired outcome of rehabilitation services for children and young people with cerebral palsy (CP). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of age and gross motor function on participation among children and young people with CP. Method: Five hundred…
Wang, Greg G.
Purpose: This study sets out to investigate the e-learning participation and completion phenomenon in the US corporate HRD online communities and to explore determinants of e-learning completion. Design/methodology/approach: Based on the HRD Learning Participation Theory (LPT), this study takes a two-stage approach. Stage one adopts an interview…
Coats, A J
The morale of the medical professional is at an historic low in many countries. The recent case of a UK general practitioner being convicted of being a mass murderer, combined with increasing criticism of medical negligence and malpractice and an excessive influence of the large pharmaceutical companies has lead to the perception that the profession is under siege. Our professional leadership have not had sufficient public awareness to allay these concerns, and the resulting dip in morale is fast turning into a dangerous rout. We must review what has lead to this situation and what we should be doing now to put it right.Clinical research is under attack and the motives and ethics of large pharmaceutical company sponsorships of clinical trials is under increasing question. At this time there is a risk that medicine, and academic medicine in particular, will lose its attractiveness and the pace of achievements we have seen and benefited from in the last 2 decades may slow. The public debate should move on, it should move on to evaluate how much it would cost to reduce medical error rates to an acceptable level (to stop them altogether is impossible). It should move on to how we can get clinical trials designed and paid for by the public purse rather than merely grumbling that pharmaceutical companies take too much control of trials that they almost alone now appear to be sponsoring. And we should move on to debate about the role and status of the medical profession in the modern era. We can no longer do our best in secret and expect the public to trust us unquestioningly. The public wants and needs to be involved in our decision-making problems and errors. Only through informed debate will we improve health for the while population, now and in the future.
Anwar, Samsul; Bustaman, Aslam; Radiansyah, Arsil; Angraini, Pradiba; Fasli, Riny; Salwiyadi, Salwiyadi; Bastian, Reza Akbar; Oktiviyari, Ade; Akmal, Imaduddin; Iqbalamin, Muhammad; Adil, Jamalul; Henrizal, Fenni; Darmayanti, Darmayanti; Pratama, Rovy; Fajar, Jonny Karunia; Setiawan, Abdul Malik; Imrie, Allison; Kuch, Ulrich; Groneberg, David Alexander; Sasmono, R. Tedjo; Dhimal, Meghnath; Müller, Ruth
Background Dengue virus infection is the most rapidly spreading vector-borne disease in the world. Essential research on dengue virus transmission and its prevention requires community participation. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the factors that are associated with the willingness of communities in high prevalence areas to participate in dengue research. The aim of this study was to explore factors associated with the willingness of healthy community members in Aceh province, Indonesia, to participate in dengue research that would require phlebotomy. Methodology/Principal Findings A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out in nine regencies and municipalities of Aceh from November 2014 to March 2015. Interviews using a set of validated questionnaires were conducted to collect data on demography, history of dengue infection, socioeconomic status, and knowledge, attitude and practice regarding dengue fever. Two-step logistic regression and Spearman’s rank correlation (rs) analysis were used to assess the influence of independent variables on dependent variables. Among 535 participants, less than 20% had a good willingness to participate in the dengue study. The factors associated with good willingness to participate were being female, working as a civil servant, private employee or entrepreneur, having a high socioeconomic status and good knowledge, attitude and practice regarding dengue. Good knowledge and attitude regarding dengue were positive independent predictors of willingness to participate (OR: 2.30 [95% CI: 1.36–3.90] and 3.73 [95% CI: 2.24–6.21], respectively). Conclusion/Significance The willingness to participate in dengue research is very low among community members in Aceh, and the two most important associated factors are knowledge and attitude regarding dengue. To increase participation rate, efforts to improve the knowledge and attitude of community members regarding dengue fever and dengue-related research is required
This article examines an important policy initiative that creates self-sustaining partnerships among community stakeholders, including academic institutions. The Community Action for a Renewed Environment (CARE) model of collaborative problem-solving (CPS) builds community capacity and knowledge while addressing the challenges of toxic pollution…
Guided by positioning theory and poststructural views of second language learning, the two descriptive case studies presented in this article explored the links between social positioning and the language learning experiences of two talkative students in an academic ESL classroom. Focusing on the macro- and micro-level contexts of communication,…
Within the academy, signals of a scholar's academic influence are made manifest in indices like the "h"-index, which rank output. In open scholarly networks, however, signals of influence are less codified, and the ways in which they are enacted and understood have yet to be articulated. Yet the influence scholars cultivate in open…
White, Kiri; Boehm, Emilia; Chester, Andrea
Peer review of teaching is a collegial process designed to help academics reflect on and improve their teaching practice. Considerable research supports the value of peer review of teaching. However, uptake of voluntary programs is typically low. Few studies have examined the predictors of engagement in voluntary peer review. This study surveyed…
Ewing, Maureen; Howell, Jessica
Strong academic performance in college, as measured by first-year grades, is important for a host of reasons, but perhaps the most critical reason is that students who perform well in their first year of college are more likely to earn a bachelor's degree (Adelman, 2006). Research shows that Advanced Placement Program® (AP®) students, particularly…
Guerrero, Michael D.
Interviews with four U.S.-born, Latina, novice bilingual teachers revealed their lack of real opportunities to acquire the academic Spanish so crucial to their development as bilingual teachers. Educational policy governing Spanish-English bilingualism and biliteracy for the bilingual teacher education "pipeline" is at best incidental…
Musso, Mariel F.; Kyndt, Eva; Cascallar, Eduardo C.; Dochy, Filip
Many studies have explored the contribution of different factors from diverse theoretical perspectives to the explanation of academic performance. These factors have been identified as having important implications not only for the study of learning processes, but also as tools for improving curriculum designs, tutorial systems, and students'…
Gilmour, Heather B.
NCAA data indicates that Division III student-athletes are graduating at higher rates than their non-athlete peers. Graduation rate data alone do not provide a full understanding of student-athletes' academic success. The data thus far simply show empirically that student-athletes have a higher federal six-year graduation rate, but…
Eime, Rochelle M; Payne, Warren R
A decline in youth (12-25 years) participation in sport and physical activity has been reported. School programs that are delivered within schools by external agencies are a key strategy to promote participation in sport and physical activity. It is important that there is a transfer for participants from school-based sport to community opportunities. This study explored the structural links between participation programs conducted in schools and participation in community-based sporting clubs. The study in Victoria, Australia, involved a survey of 49 State Sports Governing Organisations (SSGOs), focus group discussions with 15 representatives from eight of these bodies, in-depth analysis of one school-based sports program that involved the coordinator from the SSGO, three teachers, four parents and one teacher/parent from six participating schools. A majority of SSGOs (59.1%) reported delivering programs within school settings; however they acknowledged that this structure does not represent an efficient or effective way to develop community-level club sports participation and club membership. Facilitators and barriers for transferring participation in school-based sport programs to sustained participation and membership in community club sport are discussed. It is recommended that sports organisations tailor their school-based programs using recognised health promotion planning principles (including community engagement) rather than continuing their current 'one-size-fits-all' approach. This will assist SSGOs and clubs to develop sustainable participation programs and increase club membership. It is recognised that such a change will have significant resource implications due to increased demands on time and human resources.
Reeves, Tony; Gomm, Phil
The human desire to join and participate in communities can be seen as an attempt to satisfy some of our universal human needs. The theory of communities of practice has been widely used to explain how and why humans participate in multiple communities, and a key requirement of a community of practice (CoP) is that members engage in "joint…
Deng, Yun; Hou, Jinghui; Ma, Xiao; Cai, Shuqin
Online entertainment communities have exploded in popularity and drawn attention from researchers. However, few studies have investigated what leads people to remain active in such communities at the postadoption stage. We proposed and tested a dual model of entertainment-based and community-based mechanisms to examine the factors that affect individuals' continued participation in online entertainment communities. Survival analysis was employed on a longitudinal dataset of 2,302 users collected over 2 years from an online game community. Our results were highly consistent with the theoretical model. Specifically, under the entertainment-based mechanism, our findings showed that the intensities of initial use and frequent use were positive predictors of players' activity lifespan. Under the community-based mechanism, the results demonstrated that the number of guilds a player was affiliated with and the average number of days of being a guild member positively predict players' lifespan in the game. Overall, our study suggests that the entertainment-based mechanism and community-based mechanism are two key drivers that determinate individuals' continued participation in online entertainment communities.
Ka'opua, Lana Sue; Mitschke, Diane; Lono, Joelene
The cancer burden falls heavily on Native Hawaiian women, and of particular concern are those living in medically underserved communities where participation in potentially helpful clinical studies may be limited. Difficulty in accrual of Native Hawaiian women to a culturally-grounded intervention led researchers to conduct focus groups aimed at exploring attitudes towards research, use of a traditional Hawaiian practice for family discussion, and study promotion. Social marketing theory guided the development of discussion questions and a survey. Through purposive sampling, 30 women from medically underserved communities were recruited. Content analysis was used to identify major discussion themes. Findings indicate that lack of informational access may be a major barrier to participation. Study information disseminated through community channels with targeted outreach to social and religious organizations, promotion through face-to-face contact with researchers, and culturally tailored messages directed to families were preferred. Community oriented strategies based on linkages with organizational networks may increase participation.
Mbunda, Theodora; Tarimo, Edith A. M.; Bakari, Muhammad; Sandström, Eric; Kulane, Asli
In sub-Saharan Africa, the burden of HIV is high among young people and it is of the utmost importance that they be recruited into vaccination trials. Since community members influence the willingness of young people to participate in the vaccination trials, ascertaining their opinions is essential to overcoming barriers to such participation. Here, in seven focus group discussions we explored the views of 44 community members identified as someone they felt close by youth in Tanzania. The transcripts of these discussions were examined using content analysis. Our participants expressed that community members would be directly involved in the decisions of young people about whether or not to participate in an HIV vaccine trial. In general, they felt that community members would provide social support for youth during the trial and perceived that youth might have misconceptions concerning the vaccine and trial process. The participants pointed out structural factors such as substance use, poverty, stigma and unemployment that are barriers to participation. In conclusion, involvement of community members could be an integral part of the recruitment and retention of young people in HIV vaccine trials in Tanzania. PMID:27997617
Nare, L.; Odiyo, J. O.; Francis, J.; Potgieter, N.
A study has been done in Luvuvhu Catchment to develop a framework for effective community participation in water quality monitoring and management. Community participation and involvement in development has since the 1970s gathered momentum among the non-governmental organisations (NGOs) fraternity but has never gained clear status with Governments world over. In South Africa the policy and legal frameworks for community consultation, involvement and participation are clearly spelt out on paper starting with the country’s constitution. The division of the country into Water Management Areas (WMA) and the formation of Catchment Management Agencies (CMA), Water User Associations (WUAs) for example, was meant to increase participation of stakeholders including communities in the management of water resources. These efforts have not translated into effective participation by local communities in the management of water resources because there is no link between the national water quality management frameworks and community based development structures. An extensive review of development frameworks including community based structures has been undertaken. The most critical frameworks identified were the national water quality management framework (Directorate of Water Quality Monitoring and Catchment Management Agencies), community based structures and local government structures and systems (municipalities, provincial and national structures). There was no flow of information between the national water quality framework and community based development structures and therefore linkages were created between the lower tiers of the catchment management system (sub catchment fora and WUAs) to allow for information from the Directorate of Quality Monitoring to reach communities and vice versa. The lower tiers of the catchment management system should serve as specialised committees under the community development structures. The municipalities who control and fund
Ding, Ning; Berry, Helen L; O'Brien, Léan V
The links between social capital and mental wellbeing are established but the direction of the social capital-wellbeing relationship is rarely systematically examined. This omission undermines the validity of social capital as a basis for health interventions. The aim of this paper was to explore the short-term (one-year) reciprocal relationship between community participation - an important component of social capital - and mental wellbeing. We used nationally representative Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey data, 2005-11. The HILDA Survey is an annual cohort study from which was extracted a sub-sample of panel data (the same people participating across multiple waves) enabling us to use fixed effects regression methods to model the longitudinal association of mental health and participation controlling for individual heterogeneity. The results showed that better mental wellbeing in one year was generally related to more community participation the next year, while greater past community participation was linked to better mental wellbeing the next year independent of (i) initial mental wellbeing, (ii) multiple potentially confounding factors and (iii) unobserved and time-constant heterogeneity. Political participation was marginally related to worse mental health in both directions. The results also showed that the association between community participation and mental wellbeing the next year is weaker for those with poor initial wellbeing than for initially healthier respondents. Our findings may inform the trial and scientific evaluation of programs aimed at increasing informal social connectedness and civic engagement to promote mental wellbeing.
Buch, Kim; Spaulding, Sue
Learning communities have become an integral part of the educational reform movement of the past two decades and have been heralded as a promising strategy for restructuring undergraduate education. This study used a matched control group design to examine the impact of participation in a psychology learning community (PLC) on a range of student…
Moreno-Jiménez, M Pilar; Ríos Rodríguez, M Luisa; Martín, Macarena Vallejo
This article describes the development and validation of a new instrument, the scale (SCAP) which measures community participation (CP) and socio-political participation (SPP). The sample consists of 756 participants in Málaga, residents whose average age is 38.78 years old (SD = 13.96) and of whom 58.5% are women. The results endorse the psychometric qualities of the instrument. We present descriptive analysis of the items, the dimensionality of the scale and its internal consistency. The external evidence of validity shows positive and statistically significant correlations with sense of community and empowerment, variables theoretically related to participation. A confirmatory factor analysis confirms the two-dimensional structure (CP and SPP). Further analysis show a higher CP in women. This instrument extends the quantitative research on citizen participation.
Kanter, Martha; Lewis, Merillee
In the California Community Colleges (CCC), students who participate in athletics must be enrolled in a minimum of 12 credit units during the season of participation and must maintain a grade point average (GPA) of at least 2.0. In 1989, a study was conducted to determine whether there were differences in the educational goal achievement of…
Springer, Ken; Diffily, Deborah
We explored the extent to which intensity and breadth of participation in an after-school program (ASP) predicted academic achievement, as measured by changes in grades and attendance. The sample comprised 719 2nd-grade through 8th-grade Boys and Girls Clubs of Greater Dallas members during the 2009-2010 academic year. With respect to intensity,…
Jodry, Liz; Robles-Pina, Rebecca A.; Nichter, Mary
This emergent theory describes the relationships and factors within the context of home, school, and community that enabled six Hispanic students to participate in an advanced diploma program. The research is in keeping with the mandates from several federal initiatives to develop "asset-based" paradigms for educating Hispanic youth.…
Culley, Marci R; Hughey, Joseph
Qualitative case study findings are presented. We examined whether public participation in a hazardous waste dispute manifested in ways consistent with theories of social power; particularly whether participatory processes or participants' experiences of them were consistent with the three-dimensional view of power (Gaventa, Power and powerlessness: quiescence and rebellion in an appalacian valley, 1980; Lukes, Power: A radical view, 1974; Parenti, Power and the powerless, 1978). Findings from four data sources collected over 3 years revealed that participatory processes manifested in ways consistent with theories of power, and participants' experiences reflected this. Results illustrated how participation was limited and how citizen influence could be manipulated via control of resources, barriers to participation, agenda setting, and shaping conceptions about what participation was possible. Implications for community research and policy related to participation in hazardous waste disputes are discussed.
Academic Advising Issues in Pennsylvania's Community Colleges. A Summary of the Proceedings of the Conference on Academic Advising in Pennsylvania's Community Colleges (Williamsport, Pennsylvania, March 26-27, 1987).
Martin, William J., Ed.
This conference proceedings provides a summary of presentations on five academic advising issues of concern to Pennsylvania's community colleges. The first topic addressed during the conference was "Models of Academic Advising." The presentation by Richard A. Kratz, Preston Pulliams, John Hariston, Dolores Hill, and Sharon Gavin…
Smith, Emilie Phillips; Atkins, Jacqueline; Connell, Christian M
This study examined family, school, and community factors and the relationships to racial-ethnic attitudes and academic achievement among 98 African American fourth-grade children. It has been posited that young people who feel better about their racial-ethnic background have better behavioral and academic outcomes, yet there is a need for more empirical tests of this premise. Psychometric information is reported on measures of parent, teacher, and child racial-ethnic attitudes. Path analysis was used to investigate ecological variables potentially related to children's racial-ethnic attitudes and achievement. Parental education and level of racial-ethnic pride were correlated and both were related to children's achievement though in the final path model, only the path from parental education level was statistically significant. Children whose teachers exhibited higher levels of racial-ethnic trust and perceived fewer barriers due to race and ethnicity evidenced more trust and optimism as well. Children living in communities with higher proportions of college-educated residents also exhibited more positive racial-ethnic attitudes. For children, higher racial-ethnic pride was related to higher achievement measured by grades and standardized test scores, while racial distrust and perception of barriers due to race were related to reduced performance. This study suggests that family, school, and community are all important factors related to children's racial-ethnic attitudes and also to their academic achievement.
Giddens, Jean; Hrabe, David; Carlson-Sabelli, Linnea; Fogg, Louis; North, Sarah
The purpose of this article is to present findings from a study which evaluated the effectiveness of a virtual community (an emerging pedagogical application) on student engagement and academic performance. Virtual communities mirror real-life through unfolding patient histories and relationship development over time. Students also become more engaged in learning by creating personally meaningful knowledge of a concept (Rogers & Stone, 2007). Virtual communities offer one teaching strategy to assist students in learning complex, health-related content in a contextualized manner. This quasi-experimental study involved first-semester baccalaureate nursing students enrolled in a course at two campuses of a nursing program at a large university in the Southwest. Three key strategies assessed the impact of the virtual community on student engagement and learning: third-party observational measurement, end-of-class student/faculty surveys, and use of knowledge items in student exams for the class. Significant differences between the control and experimental group were found regarding learning engagement and communication exchanges; the groups appeared similar in ratings of quality of instruction and academic performance. Use of virtual communities can help nursing educators address the recent Carnegie Foundation study's (Benner, Sutphen, Leonard & Day, 2010) counsel to implement "pedagogies of contextualization" in which theoretical and factual information about diseases and conditions are placed in the context of a patient's experience.
Essuman, Ato; Akyeampong, Kwame
In 1987, the government of Ghana embarked on a process to decentralise education management to districts as part of wider social and democratic governance reforms. A central part of this reform was the prescription of active community participation in the affairs of schools within their locality. This paper explores the different meanings…
Printy, Susan M.
Improving the quality of teachers in schools is a keystone to educational improvement. New and veteran teachers alike need to enhance their content knowledge and pedagogical skills, but they must also examine, and often change, their underlying attitudes, beliefs, and values about the nature of knowledge and the abilities of students. Best accomplished collectively rather than individually, the interactions between teachers as they undertake the process of collaborative inquiry create "communities of practice." This dissertation investigates the importance of science and mathematics teachers' participation in communities of practice to their professional capabilities. The study tests the hypothesis that the social learning inherent in community of practice participation encourages teachers to learn from others with expertise, enhances teachers' sense of competence, and increases the likelihood that teachers' will use student-centered, problem-based instructional techniques aligned with national disciplinary standards. The researcher conceptualizes communities of practice along two dimensions that affect social learning: legitimate participation in activities and span of engagement with school members. Differences in teachers' subject area and the curricular track of their teaching assignment contribute to variation in teachers' participation in communities of practice along those dimensions. Using data from the National Educational Longitudinal Study, first and second follow-up, the study has two stages of multi-level analysis. The first stage examines factors that contribute to teachers' participation in communities of practice, including teachers' social and professional characteristics and school demographic and organizational characteristics. The second stage investigates the professional impact of such participation on the three outcome variables: teacher learning, teacher competence, and use of standards-based pedagogy. Hierarchical linear models provide
Roncarolo, Federico; Adam, Caroline; Bisset, Sherri; Potvin, Louise
Food insecurity is steadily increasing in Canada. The objective of this paper is to determine if food capacities and satisfaction of recently enrolled participants in food security interventions are associated with the intervention having either a traditional or an alternative type of approach. Participants having recently accessed traditional (n = 711) or alternative community interventions (n = 113) in the Montreal metropolitan area, Canada, were interviewed with a questionnaire. The categorizing variable was participation in a community organization providing either traditional interventions, aimed to help people cope with the urgent need of food, or alternative interventions, aimed at first assistance, in addition to the creation of long-term solutions such as social integration and skills development. Participants' food and nutrition-related capacities and food satisfaction are studied. Multilevel regression models were used to assess whether participants took part in a traditional or alternative interventions. These interventions do not reach the same population. Relative to participants in alternative food security interventions, participants in traditional interventions demonstrated less capacity for accessing information about food safety and healthiness, and perceived their diet as less healthy. Traditional food security participants also paid less attention to the nutritional properties of food and reported less satisfaction with quantity, variety and taste of the food they accessed. The reasons why individuals who may benefit the most from alternative interventions were unlikely to participate should be investigated. The potential that food security interventions may inadvertently reinforce social inequalities in health should be considered in future intervention research.
Resnick, Paul J; Janney, Adrienne W; Buis, Lorraine R; Richardson, Caroline R
Starting a new online community with a limited number of members who have not self-selected for participation in the community is challenging. The space must appear active to lure visitors to return; when the pool of participants is small, a large fraction must be converted from lurkers to contributors, and contributors must receive responses quickly to encourage continued participation. We report on strategies for overcoming these challenges and our experience implementing them within an online community add-on to an existing Internet-mediated walking program. Concentrated study recruitment increased the effective membership size. Having few conversation spaces rather than many specialized ones, staff seeding of the forums before members were invited to visit, and staff posting of new topics when there were conversation lulls, all helped to make the forums appear active. In retrospect, using even fewer separate spaces and displaying a flat rather than nested reply structure would have made the forums appear even more active. Contests with small prizes around participation in the forums and around meeting walking goals generated a lot of discussion; a contest for first-time posters was especially effective at moving lurkers to post. Staff efforts to elicit participation by asking questions had mixed success. Staff replies to posts that had not received member replies created a feeling of responsiveness despite limited membership.
Mohni, Mary; Rogers, Jolene; Zeitz, Al
Iowa Lakes Community College responded to a national need for wind-energy technicians. The Wind-Energy and Turbine Program aligned industry and academic competencies with experiential learning components to foster exploration of additional renewable energy applications. Completers understand both the physical and academic rigor a career in wind…
Birchwood, James; Daley, Dave
Less is understood about the relationship between ADHD symptoms and academic performance in adolescents than the relationship in younger children. As such, the aim of the present study was to investigate the prospective relationship between ADHD symptoms and academic performance in a community adolescent sample. Three hundred and twenty-four…
Martinez, Beate M. Winter
The purpose of this study is to describe the difference in the academic achievement of urban Hispanic high school students based on the small learning community theme. The study used a quantitative method of ex post facto research to examine how the academic achievement of Hispanic high school students differs across the themes of small…
Hardinger, Regina Gail
Many educational administrators in Georgia continue to struggle with low student academic achievement and low high school graduation rates. DuFour's professional learning community (PLC) theory suggests a positive relationship between levels of PLC implementation and academic achievement and between levels of PLC implementation and graduation…
Santa Rita, Emilio
The study described in this report was launched in Fall 1978 at Bronx Community College (BCC) to determine the efficacy of two procedures for enhancing the academic survival and study skills of students in academic difficulty. Introductory material looks at BCC's Operation Second Chance (OSC), one of these treatment procedures, which employs…
Amado, Angela Novak; Stancliffe, Roger J; McCarron, Mary; McCallion, Philip
As more individuals with intellectual/developmental disabilities are physically included in community life, in schools, neighborhoods, jobs, recreation, and congregations, the challenge of going beyond physical inclusion to true social inclusion becomes more apparent. This article summarizes the status of the research about community participation and social inclusion, summarizes some debates and points of contention, notes emerging research issues, and highlights needed areas of research. It is clear that most research on these topics has been conducted with individuals who are in paid formal services, and there are great needs for understanding the community participation of individuals who live on their own or with their families, as well as researching social inclusion by focusing on the attitudes and experiences of community members themselves, not just individuals with disabilities and paid providers.
Charnley, Susan; Engelbert, Bruce
This article discusses an 8-year, ongoing project that evaluates the Environmental Protection Agency's Superfund community involvement program. The project originated as a response to the Government Performance and Results Act, which requires federal agencies to articulate program goals, and evaluate and report their progress in meeting those goals. The evaluation project assesses how effective the Superfund community involvement program is in promoting public participation in decisions about how to clean up hazardous wastes at Superfund sites. We do three things in the article: (1) share our experience with evaluating an Agency public participation program, including lessons learned about methods of evaluation; (2) report evaluation results; and (3) address a number of issues pertaining to the evaluation of public participation in environmental decision-making. Our goal is to encourage more environmental managers to incorporate evaluation into their public participation programs as a tool for improving them. We found that written mail surveys were an effective and economical tool for obtaining feedback on EPA's community involvement program at Superfund sites. The evaluation focused on four criteria: citizen satisfaction with EPA information about the Superfund site, citizen understanding of environmental and human health risks associated with the site, citizen satisfaction with opportunities provided by EPA for community input, and citizen satisfaction with EPA's response to community input. While the evaluation results were mixed, in general, community members who were most informed about and involved in the cleanup process at Superfund sites generally were also the most satisfied with the community involvement process, and the job that EPA was doing cleaning up the site. We conclude that systematic evaluation provides meaningful and useful information that agencies can use to improve their public participation programs. However, there need to be
Freeman, Toby; Baum, Frances E; Jolley, Gwyneth M; Lawless, Angela; Edwards, Tahnia; Javanparast, Sara; Ziersch, Anna
Community participation is a key principle of comprehensive primary health care (PHC). There is little literature on how community participation is implemented at Australian PHC services. As part of a wider study conducted in partnership with five South Australian PHC services, and one Aboriginal community controlled health service in the Northern Territory, 68 staff, manager, regional health executives, and departmental funders were interviewed about community participation, perceived benefits, and factors that influenced implementation. Additional data were collected through analysis of policy documents, service reports on activity, and a web-based survey completed by 130 staff. A variety of community participation strategies was reported, ranging from consultation and participation as a means to improve service quality and acceptability, to substantive and structural participation strategies with an emphasis on empowerment. The Aboriginal community controlled health service in our study reported the most comprehensive community participation. Respondents from all services were positive about the benefits of participation but reported that efforts to involve service users had to compete with a centrally directed model of care emphasising individual treatment services, particularly at state-managed services. More empowering substantive and structural participation strategies were less common than consultation or participation used to achieve prescribed goals. The most commonly reported barriers to community participation were budget and lack of flexibility in service delivery. The current central control of the state-managed services needs to be replaced with more local management decision making if empowering community participation is to be strengthened and embedded more effectively in the culture of services.
Desveaux, Laura; Rolfe, Debbie; Beauchamp, Marla; Goldstein, Roger; Brooks, Dina
The aim of the present study was to describe the perspectives of individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who participated in a minimally supervised maintenance exercise intervention and identify the barriers and facilitators associated with participation. The intervention was delivered in a community center and was designed to maintain exercise capacity and quality of life following discharge from pulmonary rehabilitation. This study utilized qualitative focus groups (FGs) involving individuals with COPD (n = 12) who had been attending the maintenance community program for at least 6 months. All individuals who met the inclusion criteria for the FGs consented to participate. Four themes were identified: (1) issues around attendance; (2) perceived benefits of the program; (3) perceived burdens of the program; and (4) recommendations for program improvement. Participants expressed more benefits than barriers, stating that their experience of improved function and quality of life facilitated their attendance. Barriers included exacerbations, fatigue, access to transportation, and weather. Participants endorsed the benefits of a community-based maintenance exercise program after pulmonary rehabilitation. Minimally supervised community-based programs with access to a case manager may provide a useful approach to enhancing adherence to exercise.
Richardson, Anne E.
The urgent environmental issues of today require science-literate adults to engage in business and political decisions to create solutions. Despite the need, few adults have the knowledge and skills of science literacy. This doctoral dissertation is an analytical case study examining the science-learner identity development of Exploratorium Field Trip Explainers. Located in San Francisco, CA, the Exploratorium is a museum of science, art, and human perception dedicated to nurturing curiosity and exploration. Data collected included semi-structured interviews with sixteen former Field Trip Explainers, participant observation of the current Field Trip Explainer Program, and review of relevant documentation. Data analysis employed constant comparative analysis, guided by the communities of practice theoretical framework (Wenger, 1998) and the National Research Council's (2009) Six Strands of Science Learning. Findings of this research indicate that Exploratorium Field Trip Explainers participate in a community of practice made up of a diverse group of people that values curiosity and openness to multiple ways of learning. Many participants entered the Field Trip Explainer Program with an understanding of science learning as a rigid process reserved for a select group of people; through participation in the Field Trip Explainer community of practice, participants developed an understanding of science learning as accessible and a part of everyday life. The findings of this case study have implications for research, theory, and practice in informal adult science learning, access of non-dominant groups to science learning, and adult workplace learning in communities of practice.
Castañeda, Sheila F.; Giacinto, Rebeca E.; Medeiros, Elizabeth A.; Brongiel, Ilana; Cardona, Olga; Perez, Patricia; Talavera, Gregory A.
This collaborative study sought to address Latina breast cancer (BC) disparities by increasing health literacy (HL) in a community health center situated on the US-Mexico border region of San Diego County. An academic-community partnership conducted formative research to develop a culturally tailored promotora-based intervention with 109 individuals. The Spanish language program, entitled Nuestra Cocina: Mesa Buena, Vida Sana (Our Kitchen: Good Table, Healthy Life), included six sessions targeting HL, women’s health, BC risk reduction, and patient-provider communication; sessions include cooking demonstrations of recipes with cancer-risk-reducing ingredients. A pilot study with 47 community health center Latina patients was conducted to examine the program’s acceptability, feasibility, and ability to impact knowledge and skills. Pre- and post-analyses demonstrated that participants improved their self-reported cancer screening, BC knowledge, daily fruit and vegetable intake, and ability to read a nutrition label (p<0.05). Results of the pilot study demonstrate the importance of utilizing patient-centered culturally appropriate noninvasive means to educate and empower Latina patients. PMID:27271058
Castañeda, Sheila F; Giacinto, Rebeca E; Medeiros, Elizabeth A; Brongiel, Ilana; Cardona, Olga; Perez, Patricia; Talavera, Gregory A
This collaborative study sought to address Latina breast cancer (BC) disparities by increasing health literacy (HL) in a community health center situated on the US-Mexico border region of San Diego County. An academic-community partnership conducted formative research to develop a culturally tailored promotora-based intervention with 109 individuals. The Spanish language program, entitled Nuestra Cocina: Mesa Buena, Vida Sana (Our Kitchen: Good Table, Healthy Life), included six sessions targeting HL, women's health, BC risk reduction, and patient-provider communication; sessions include cooking demonstrations of recipes with cancer-risk-reducing ingredients. A pilot study with 47 community health center Latina patients was conducted to examine the program's acceptability, feasibility, and ability to impact knowledge and skills. Pre- and post-analyses demonstrated that participants improved their self-reported cancer screening, BC knowledge, daily fruit and vegetable intake, and ability to read a nutrition label (p < 0.05). Results of the pilot study demonstrate the importance of utilizing patient-centered culturally appropriate noninvasive means to educate and empower Latina patients.
Taniguchi, Kyoko; Hirakawa, Yukiko
School management in many sub-Saharan African countries has been enhanced through community participation in an attempt to improve education quality. This study uses field research in a rural district of Malawi to assess how community and parent participation differs between schools, the intentions of communities and parents when carrying out…
...-learning program? 2517.300 Section 2517.300 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE COMMUNITY-BASED SERVICE-LEARNING PROGRAMS Eligibility To Participate § 2517.300 Who may participate in a community-based service-learning...
...-learning program? 2517.300 Section 2517.300 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE COMMUNITY-BASED SERVICE-LEARNING PROGRAMS Eligibility To Participate § 2517.300 Who may participate in a community-based service-learning...
Many academic development initiatives build on community-based approaches, such as communities of practice or learning communities. While these initiatives are largely successful for the individual academics involved, low participation rates prevent wide-reaching impact on learning about teaching. The research discussed in this article aims at…
Medina, N.; Fernández, G.; Cruz, T.; Jordán, N.; Trenche, M.
Background School violence is a worldwide public health issue with negative effects on education. Official statistics and reports do not include daily occurrences of violent behavior that may precede severe incidents. Objectives This project aimed to engage school community members in the development, validation and implementation of an observation instrument to identify characteristics of school violence. Methods The role of members of each participating school community in all phases of the research is described. Results (or Lessons Learned) The input of community members contributed to enrich the process by providing insight into the problem studied and a more informed framework for interpreting results. Conclusions Taking into account distinctive features of each particular school made results meaningful to the school community and fostered a sense of empowerment of community members as they recognized their knowledge is essential to the solution of their problems. PMID:27346771
Jeffery, Vivienne; Ervin, Kaye
A small rural health service undertook a major needs analysis in 2008 to identify gaps in service delivery and duplication of services. This exercise was intended to inform strategic direction but the result was consumer and community consultation and outcomes that far exceeded everyone's expectations. Organisations often pay lip service to the concept of community participation and consultation and the importance of consumer involvement. Turning this rhetoric into action is challenging and requires dedicated staff, organisational support and momentum for it to occur. The project described resulted in targeted, purposeful action regarding community engagement, and the findings and outcomes are reflective of this. The unexpected findings required an organisational shift, which was embraced by the health service and resulted in collaborative partnerships with consumers and organisations that are proving beneficial to the entire community and outlying areas. Few organisations would demonstrate the willingness to accommodate such change, or undertake a needs analysis that is chiefly community driven.
Rowe, Christopher; Santos, Glenn-Milo; Vittinghoff, Eric; Wheeler, Eliza; Davidson, Peter; Coffin, Philip O.
Aims To describe characteristics of participants and overdose reversals associated with a community-based naloxone distribution program and identify predictors of obtaining naloxone refills and using naloxone for overdose reversal. Design Bivariate statistical tests were used to compare characteristics of participants who obtained refills and reported overdose reversals, versus those who did not. We fitted multiple logistic regression models to identify predictors of refills and reversals; zero-inflated multiple Poisson regression models were used to identify predictors of number of refills and reversals. Setting San Francisco, California, U.S.A. Participants Naloxone program participants registered and reversals reported from 2010-2013. Measurements Baseline characteristics of participants and reported characteristics of reversals. Findings 2500 participants were registered and 702 reversals were reported from 2010-2013. Participants who had witnessed an overdose [AOR=2.02(1.53-2.66); AOR=2.73(1.73-4.30)] or used heroin [AOR=1.85(1.44-2.37); AOR=2.19(1.54-3.13)], or methamphetamine [AOR=1.71(1.37-2.15); AOR=1.61(1.18-2.19)] had higher odds of obtaining a refill and reporting a reversal, respectively. African American [Adjusted Odds Ratio=0.63(95%CI=0.45-0.88)] and Latino [AOR=0.65(0.43-1.00)] participants had lower odds of obtaining a naloxone refill whereas Latino participants who obtained at least one refill reported a higher number of refills [Incidence Rate Ratio=1.33(1.05-1.69)]. Conclusions Community naloxone distribution programs are capable of reaching sizeable populations of high-risk individuals and facilitating large numbers of overdose reversals. Community members most likely to engage with a naloxone program and use naloxone to reverse an overdose are active drug users. PMID:25917125
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Who may participate in a community-based service-learning program? 2517.300 Section 2517.300 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... Eligibility To Participate § 2517.300 Who may participate in a community-based service-learning...
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Who may participate in a community-based service-learning program? 2517.300 Section 2517.300 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... Eligibility To Participate § 2517.300 Who may participate in a community-based service-learning...
Zakrajsek, Andrea Gossett; Hammel, Joy; Scazzero, Joseph A.
Background: Increasingly, people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (I/DD) are supported to participate in least-restricted settings in the community. However, little is known about desired community participation choice and control of people with I/DD, nor effective strategies to support full participation. Furthermore, service…
Hammel, Joy; Jones, Robin; Gossett, Andrea; Morgan, Elizabeth
This participatory action research study focused on identifying community participation goals, barriers, and supports/strategies in partnership with people who have experienced a stroke. Goals demonstrate that participation is more than activity performance in context; instead, it relates to "being a part of" the community and having access to participation opportunities and supports. Results of community site audits from the first 20 participants document environmental (physical, cognitive, social) and system level barriers, as well as effective strategies for promoting participation via environmental modification and systems level changes. A consumer-directed, Web-based tool for documenting participation barriers and sharing strategies is discussed.
Seow, Poh-Sun; Pan, Gary
Extracurricular activities (ECA) have become an important component of students' school life and many schools have invested significant resources on extracurricular activities. The authors suggest three major theoretical frameworks (zero-sum, developmental, and threshold) to explain the impact of ECA participation on students' academic…
Elemen, Jennifer E.
The purpose of this quantitative study was to analyze high school leadership praxis for its inclusion of students in organizational leadership dialogue and decision-making and the influences of these factors on student achievement and civic participation. Survey questionnaire data were provided by 215 full-time enrolled undergraduate students from…
Linden, Hannah M.; Reisch, Lisa M.; Hart, Alton; Harrington, Margaret A.; Nakano, Connie; Jackson, J. Carey; Elmore, Joann G.
Participation of African Americans in research trials is low. Understanding the perspectives of African American patients toward participation in clinical trials is essential to understanding the disparities in participation rates compared with whites. A qualitative study was conducted to discover attitudes of the African American community regarding willingness to participate in breast cancer screening and randomized clinical trials. Six focus groups consisting of 8 to 11 African American women (N = 58), aged 30 to 65, were recruited from local churches. Focus group sessions involved a 2-hour audiotaped discussion facilitated by 2 moderators. A breast cancer randomized clinical trial involving an experimental breast cancer treatment was discussed to identify the issues related to willingness to participate in such research studies. Six themes surrounding willingness to participate in randomized clinical trials were identified: (1) Significance of the research topic to the individual and/or community; (2) level of trust in the system; (3) understanding of the elements of the trial; (4) preference for “natural treatments” or “religious intervention” over medical care; (5) cost-benefit analysis of incentives and barriers; and (6) openness to risk versus a preference for proven treatments. The majority (80%) expressed willingness or open-mindedness to the idea of participating in the hypothetical trial. Lessons learned from this study support the selection of a culturally diverse research staff and can guide the development of research protocols, recruitment efforts, and clinical procedures that are culturally sensitive and relevant. PMID:17666974
McKendrick, John; Scott, Gill; Sinclair, Stephen
This article examines whether young people in a deprived area are disaffected with education, training and employment, or disengaged from participation in their community. It draws upon evidence from the Drumchapel Aspirations Survey, a study of the attitudes, aspirations and skills of young people from one of the most deprived areas of Glasgow.…
Mogulof, Melvin B.
The extent of citizen participation is influenced by local community factors, the character of Federal agency policy, and the purposes of Federal legislators and administrators. The latter include: decrease of alienation, engagement of the "sick" individual in the healing process, creation of a neighborhood power force able to influence the…
Seider, Scott C.; Gillmor, Susan; Rabinowicz, Samantha
This study considered the impact of the SERVE Program at Ignatius University upon participating students' expected political involvement. The SERVE Program is a community service learning program sponsored jointly by Ignatius University's philosophy and theology departments. Through a mixed methods research design, the authors found that Ignatius…
Odebode, Stella O.
This paper assessed the participation of elderly women in community welfare activities in Oyo State, Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 120 elderly women from six out of the twelve political wards in the study area. Both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection were used to elicit information from the…
Khetani, Mary A.; Cohn, Ellen S.; Orsmond, Gael I.; Law, Mary C.; Coster, Wendy J.
The authors examined the extent to which parent expectations, perceptions about resource availability and supports, and strategies used to promote participation in home and community activities varied by setting and activity type. Sixteen 90-min semistructured interviews were completed with families receiving Part C early intervention services in…
Van Stelle, Kit R.; Moberg, D. Paul
The current study assessed the effectiveness of a prison-based substance abuse treatment therapeutic community (TC) providing treatment to male inmates dually diagnosed with both substance abuse and mental health disorders. The findings show a short-term impact of the program on arrest after release, with program participants significantly less…
Morcom, Veronica Elizabeth; MacCallum, Judith Anne
The development of an inclusive community is underpinned by values that support an appreciation of diversity. This paper is based on a larger research project, "student leadership in a primary classroom", which developed different ways for students to interact with each other. The focus not only promoted full student participation in…
This description of the Canadian government's assessment of the social impact of hydrocarbon exploration in the Arctic demonstrates barriers to citizen involvement: ad hoc nature, travel and child care problems, and lack of enough volunteers. Recommendations for community participation in impact assessment are given. (SK)
Nash, Andy, Ed.
This guide is a combination of very up-to-date English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) standards and curricula text and a radical, community organization and action guidebook. The guide's aim is to help people learn English so that they can participate actively in American democracy and to assert their rights and extract a larger share of power and…
Seguin, Rebecca A.; Heidkamp-Young, Eleanor; Kuder, Julia; Nelson, Miriam E.
Background: Strength training (ST) is an important health behavior for aging women; it helps maintain strength and function and reduces risk for chronic diseases. This study assessed change in physical fitness following participation in a ST program implemented and evaluated by community leaders. Method: The StrongWomen Program is a nationally…
Verdonschot, Manon M. L.; de Witte, L. P.; Reichrath, E.; Buntinx, W. H. E.; Curfs, L. M. G.
Study Design: A systematic review of the literature. Objectives: To describe which environmental factors have an impact on community participation of persons with an intellectual disability. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted for the period of 1996-2006 in Pubmed, CINAHL and PSYCINFO. Search terms were derived from the…
Bell, Frances; Mackness, Jenny; Funes, Mariana
We investigated how participants associated with each other and developed community in a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) about Rhizomatic Learning (Rhizo14).We compared learner experiences in two social networking sites (SNSs), Facebook and Twitter. Our combination of thematic analysis of qualitative survey data with analysis of participant…
Jones, Jeffrey N.; Bench, Joshua H.; Warnaar, Bethany L.; Stroup, John T.
Educators, policymakers, and other concerned adults share an interest in promoting lifelong patterns of community service in youth. Practitioners and researchers alike highlight the importance of youth participation in afterschool service activities so the author's focus in this paper is on youth involved in PeaceJam, an innovative…
Hoffman, Jennifer L.; Horton, David, Jr.
This paper presents an overview of partial tuition waivers for athletic participation among community colleges in Washington State and its implications for state and federal gender equity policy and legislation. Using a mixed-methods approach, this article presents findings from Equity in Athletics Disclosure Act data, document analysis, and…
Tapia-Conyer, Roberto; Méndez-Galván, Jorge; Burciaga-Zúñiga, Pierre
Community participation is vital to prevent and control the spread of dengue in Latin America. Initiatives such as the integrated management strategy for dengue prevention and control (IMS-Dengue) and integrated vector management (IVM) incorporate social mobilisation and behavioural change at the community level as part of a wider strategy to control dengue. These strategies aim to improve the efficacy, cost-effectiveness, environmental impact and sustainability of vector control strategies. Community empowerment is a key aspect of the strategy as it allows the local population to drive eradication of the disease in their environment. Through the patio limpio campaign, the concept of community participation has been employed in Mexico to raise awareness of the consequences of dengue. patio limpio consists of training local people to identify, eliminate, monitor and evaluate vector breeding sites systematically in households under their supervision. A community participation programme in Guerrero State found that approximately 54% were clean and free of breeding sites. Households that were not visited and assessed had a 2·4-times higher risk of developing dengue than those that were. However, after a year, only 30% of trained households had a clean backyard. This emphasises the need for a sustainable process to encourage individuals to maintain efforts in keeping their environment free of dengue.
Uzwiak, Beth A; Curran, Siobhan
Belizean health policy supports a primary health care (PHC) strategy of universal access, community participation, and multisectoral collaboration. The principals of PHC were a key part of Belize's emergent national identity and built on existing community-based health strategies. Ethnographic research in western Belize, however, reveals that ongoing health reform is removing providers from participatory arenas. In this article, we foreground a particular moment in Belizean health history--the rise and demise of multisectoral collaboration--to question what can constitute meaningful community participation in the midst of health reform. Many allied health providers continue to believe in the potential of PHC to alleviate the structural causations of poor health and to invest in PHC despite a lack of state support. This means that providers, the majority women, are palliating the consequences of neoliberal reform; it also means that they provide spaces of contestation to the consumer "logic" of this reform.
Torri, Maria Costanza
Community participation in local health has assumed a central role in the reforms of public healthcare, being increasingly associated with the issue of decentralization of the health system. The aim of this paper is to raise questions regarding the structural approaches to multicultural social policy in Chile and to analyze the results of its implementation. The article analyzes the case study of Makewe Hospital, one of the pioneering experiences of intercultural health initiative in Chile. The Makewe Hospital, which involves the indigenous community of the Mapuche, provides interesting insights to understand the dynamics of multicultural social policy and presents an example of a successful initiative that has succeeded in involving local communities in multicultural health policy. This case study discusses the effectiveness of grassroots participation in multicultural healthcare provision and presents the main strengths and challenges for the replicability of this experience in other settings.
Santa Rita, Emilio
Between Fall 1976 and Spring 1978, a study was conducted at Bronx Community College (BCC) to determine: (1) the effect of probationary status on students' subsequent academic performance as measured by grade point average (GPA); (2) whether a response-to-probation phenomenon continued beyond the semester of probation; and (3) the effects of…
Thomas, Elizabeth C; Snethen, Gretchen; Salzer, Mark S
Understanding age-related expectations for community participation can aid mental health providers and policy makers in the design and tailoring of age-appropriate services to better meet consumers' participation needs. This study seeks to describe and compare the amount, importance, and sufficiency of community participation in younger adult, middle-aged adult, and older adult consumers. Participants were 879 adults with serious mental illnesses who completed the Temple University Community Participation Measure as part of several studies (only baseline data were analyzed). One-way analysis of variance tests and chi-square analyses were used to evaluate the effect of age group on community participation outcomes. The amount and importance of participation in specific participation areas differed across age groups in developmentally appropriate ways. For older adults, a greater percentage of areas considered important were done enough, and fewer participation days were needed in certain areas for participation to be considered sufficient. Consumers reported participating in the community to meet basic needs (e.g., running errands), but participation appeared lower in areas typically identified as important to various age groups across the life span (e.g., working). Results support the use of developmental frameworks for delivering mental health services and identify particular areas of community participation that policy and practice efforts might focus on to help individuals participate to a greater degree in areas that are important to them. Implications for policy making, program evaluation, and individual interventions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record
Knifsend, Casey A; Graham, Sandra
Although adolescents often participate in multiple extracurricular activities, little research has examined how the breadth of activities in which an adolescent is involved relates to school-related affect and academic performance. Relying on a large, multi-ethnic sample (N = 864; 55.9% female), the current study investigated linear and non-linear relationships of 11th grade activity participation in four activity domains (academic/leadership groups, arts activities, clubs, and sports) to adolescents' sense of belonging at school, academic engagement, and grade point average, contemporarily and in 12th grade. Results of multiple regression models revealed curvilinear relationships for sense of belonging at school in 11th and 12th grade, grade point average in 11th grade, and academic engagement in 12th grade. Adolescents who were moderately involved (i.e., in two domains) reported a greater sense of belonging at school in 11th and 12th grade, a higher grade point average in 11th grade, and greater academic engagement in 12th grade, relative to those who were more or less involved. Furthermore, adolescents' sense of belonging at school in 11th grade mediated the relationship of domain participation in 11th grade to academic engagement in 12th grade. This study suggests that involvement in a moderate number of activity domains promotes positive school-related affect and greater academic performance. School policy implications and recommendations are discussed.
Salas-Lopez, Debbie; Deitrick, Lynn; Mahady, Erica T; Moser, Kathleen; Gertner, Eric J; Sabino, Judith N
Expressed barriers to writing for publication include lack of time, competing demands, anxiety about writing and a lack of knowledge about the submission process. These limitations can be magnified for practitioners in non-university environments in which there are fewer incentives or expectations regarding academic publication productivity. However, as members of professional disciplines, practitioners have both the responsibility and, oftentimes, the insights to make valuable contributions to the professional literature. Collaborative writing groups can be a useful intervention to overcome barriers, provide the necessary skills and encouragement as well as produce publications and conference presentations that make worthy additions to the professional body of knowledge. This article discusses the evolution and outcomes of writing groups at Lehigh Valley Health Network and describes how this strategy can be adopted by other academic community hospitals to promote professional development and publication.
Mahoney, Joseph L.; Lord, Heather; Carryl, Erica
This longitudinal study evaluated after-school program (ASP) participation and the development of academic performance (school grades, reading achievement) and teacher-rated motivational attributes (expectancy of success, effectance motivation) over a school year. Participants were 599 boys and girls (6.3 to 10.6 years) from an urban,…
This study addressed the problem of underachieving female English as second language students in the Persian Gulf Region. The purpose of this correlational study was to explore the relationship between parental participation, as measured by a middle school parent-participation survey, and students' academic achievement, as measured by parent…
Vieira, Mauro; Calvo, Maria Cristina Marino
This article presents a model for the evaluation of community participation in municipal (county) health systems. The theoretical basis for this evaluative study was the existing Brazilian legislation on community participation in drafting health strategies and overseeing health policy implementation. The indicators and measures were validated using the expert consensus technique. The proposed model has 26 indicators divided into five evaluative dimensions that reflect the legislation's adequacy for the structure, organization, representativeness, health planning participation, and autonomy of the Municipal Health Councils. Its applicability was tested in 24 municipalities in Santa Catarina State, Brazil. The data analysis indicated the best results for the dimension "planning system in the Unified National Health System" and the worst for "structure" and "autonomy". Only two municipalities showed good results for the final summary indicator. The study demonstrated the feasibility and adequacy of the proposed evaluation model.
Suwannapong, N; Tipayamongkholgul, M; Bhumiratana, A; Boonshuyar, C; Howteerakul, N; Poolthin, S
Due to the absence of dengue vaccination, vector control is the only measure to prevent dengue outbreaks. The key element of dengue prevention is to eliminate vector habitats. Clean household environment, preventive behaviors of household members and community participation in dengue prevention and control are key successful elements. This study aimed to investigate the associations between environmental factors, dengue knowledge, perception and preventive behaviors of household and collaboration of community members and household risk of dengue by using mixed methods. One dengue epidemic province was selected from each region of Thailand including Bangkok. Two districts, one from the highest and another from the lowest dengue incidence areas, were selected from those provinces. The household leaders, community members, and local authorities in highest dengue incidence areas were interviewed by using questionnaire and through group interviews. The environment of each selected household was observed. Of 4,561 households, 194 were reported having dengue case(s) in the past year and that outdoor solid waste disposal significantly influenced household risk of dengue (OR=1.62; 95% CI=1.16-2.29). In contrast, having gardening areas reduced dengue risk at household level by 32%. High level of community participation in dengue prevention and control in uninfected areas and the information from local authorities and community members reconfirmed that community participation was the key factor against dengue outbreaks. Sustainable process of encouraging community members to eliminate vector breeding sites such as outdoor solid waste disposal is likely to lead to an achievement in dengue prevention and control.
Guzman, Sergio A.
This dissertation investigated community college students' perceptions about educational counseling, its value, and its relationship with academic and social integration into the college environment. In an attempt to explore students' perceptions, a quantitative study was conducted at four California community colleges. The survey was distributed…
Jamestown Community Coll., NY.
This contract between the faculty association of Jamestown Community College and the Board of Trustees of Jamestown Community College covers the academic year 1973-1974. Articles of the agreement cover recognition, association and instructors' rights, rights of the Board, deductions and professional dues, conditions of employment, appointment and…
Smith, Pete; Rust, Chris
The academic community in higher education is becoming increasingly fragmented, with arguably the greatest fault line between research and teaching. This paper argues that, through the reinvention of the undergraduate curriculum to focus on student engagement in research and research-type activities, a truly inclusive community of academic…
Examined in this study were faculty perceptions of students who do not continue their college education. Also examined was how urban and rural community colleges faculty perceived academic preparation, work ethics, and institutional support as predictors of student success. In this predictive study of community college faculty, 36 faculty members…
A major challenge for the increasing multicultural and multilingual community college student population has been the difficulty in accessing the register features which define academic writing. In this study, an analysis of clause structures using writing samples collected from 45 community-college students, 15 from African-American, Haitian and…
McClenney, Kay; Dare, Donna
This is the second article in a three-part series on reimagining the community college student experience, describing a new model for academic pathways, key design principles, examples from colleges leading the way, and implementation challenges. Community colleges are beginning to embrace the task of reimagining students' educational experiences.…
Risley, Rod; King, Stephanie B.
All-USA Community College Academic Team national winners attending senior colleges were compared with both a general population of community college transfer students as well as senior college native students based on their responses to the National Survey on Student Engagement (NSSE). Results indicated that the national winners' levels of…
The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore faculty perceptions about effective leadership skills, knowledge, and qualities as identified by female community college academic senators and to examine the relationship of those perceptions to the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) leadership competencies. Examining the…
Owens, Carol L.
In 1999, the United States Department of Education began its Small Learning Community Program in an effort to support the breakup of large schools into smaller learning communities. In an effort to improve the academic success rate of students, President George W. Bush signed into law the "No Child Left Behind Act of 2001" (NCLB). NCLB…
This paper reports on the work of a small group of Education academics to build a professional learning community in a regional university in the north of England. Their efforts form part of a "Leading Learning" school-university partnership serving schools in disadvantaged communities in inner city Leeds. This is designed to support…
Mosby, John R.
For many African American college students, the challenges to achieve academic success are overwhelming. The disproportionate number of African American male students enrolled in the community college system is of substantial concern because community colleges have not traditionally been successful in producing African American male graduates and…
Srivastava, S; Andersen, A; Das, I; Cheng, C
Purpose: Radiation outcome among institutions can be interpreted meaningfully if the dose delivery and prescription to the target volume is documented accurately and consistently. ICRU-83 recommended specific guidelines in IMRT for target volume definitions and dose reporting. This retrospective study evaluates the pattern of IMRT dose prescription and recording in an academic institution (AI) and a community hospital (CH) models in a single institution with reference to ICRU-83 recommendation. Materials & Methods: Dosimetric information of 625 (500 from academic and 125 from community) patients treated with IMRT was collected retrospectively from the AI and a CH. The dose-volume histogram (DVH) for the target volume of each patient was extracted. Standard dose parameters such as D2, D50, D95, D98, D100, as well as the homogeneity index (HI) defined as (D2-D98)/D50 and monitor units (MUs) were collected. Results: Significant dosimetric variations were observed in disease sites and between AI and CH. The variation in the mean value of D95 for AI is 98.48±4.12 and for CH is 96.41±4.13. A similar pattern was noticed for D50 (104.18±6.04 for AI and 101.05±3.49 for CH). Thus, nearly 95% of patients received dosage higher than 100% to the site viewed by D50 and varied between AI and CH models. The average variation of HI is found to be 0.12±0.08 and 0.11±0.08 for AI and CH model, showing better IMRT treatment plans for academic model compared to community. Conclusion: Even with the implementation of ICRU-83 guidelines, there is a large variation in dose prescription and delivery in IMRT. The variation is institution and site specific. For any meaningful comparison of the IMRT outcome, strict guidelines for dose reporting should be maintained in every institution.
Academic medical centres have traditionally been bastions of teaching and research. Outreach to the community at large and involvement in community affairs have sometimes been lacking in the overall mission and activities of academic medical centres. This paper provides an historical perspective first on the numerous achievements of a physician and surgeon and then on the topic of involvement in community affairs by reviewing the many contributions of America's pioneer gynaecological surgeon and one of the four physician founders of the Johns Hopkins Hospital and School of Medicine in 1889 - Dr Howard Atwood Kelly.
Clarke, Rosemary; Coote, Susan
Purpose. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of people with multiple sclerosis of a community based, group exercise programme. Method. A pragmatic programme evaluation approach using qualitative research design was adopted. Focus groups were used to gather data from 14 participants who had taken part in a RCT of community based exercise interventions for PwMS who used at most a stick to walk outdoors. Data were transcribed verbatim and thematic analysis was used to first identify categories and then to group them into themes. Results. Three themes emerged, psychological benefits, physical benefits, and knowledge gained. The psychological benefits included the role of the group as a social and motivational factor, empowerment, confidence, hope, sense of achievement, and pride. Physical benefits were improved energy and reduced fatigue and improved ability and participation. Knowledge gained caused a shift from thoughts that exercise might do harm, to sufficient knowledge that would give participants confidence to exercise themselves. The role of the group was a key element in the positive outcomes. Conclusions. The qualitative analysis supports the findings of the main trial confirming positive effects of community exercise interventions by reducing the impact of MS and fatigue and improving participation. PMID:26491567
Marston, Cicely; Hinton, Rachael; Kean, Stuart; Baral, Sushil; Ahuja, Arti; Costello, Anthony
Abstract The Global strategy for women’s, children’s and adolescents’ health (2016–2030) recognizes that people have a central role in improving their own health. We propose that community participation, particularly communities working together with health services (co-production in health care), will be central for achieving the objectives of the global strategy. Community participation specifically addresses the third of the key objectives: to transform societies so that women, children and adolescents can realize their rights to the highest attainable standards of health and well-being. In this paper, we examine what this implies in practice. We discuss three interdependent areas for action towards greater participation of the public in health: improving capabilities for individual and group participation; developing and sustaining people-centred health services; and social accountability. We outline challenges for implementation, and provide policy-makers, programme managers and practitioners with illustrative examples of the types of participatory approaches needed in each area to help achieve the health and development goals. PMID:27152056
Marston, Cicely; Hinton, Rachael; Kean, Stuart; Baral, Sushil; Ahuja, Arti; Costello, Anthony; Portela, Anayda
The Global strategy for women's, children's and adolescents' health (2016-2030) recognizes that people have a central role in improving their own health. We propose that community participation, particularly communities working together with health services (co-production in health care), will be central for achieving the objectives of the global strategy. Community participation specifically addresses the third of the key objectives: to transform societies so that women, children and adolescents can realize their rights to the highest attainable standards of health and well-being. In this paper, we examine what this implies in practice. We discuss three interdependent areas for action towards greater participation of the public in health: improving capabilities for individual and group participation; developing and sustaining people-centred health services; and social accountability. We outline challenges for implementation, and provide policy-makers, programme managers and practitioners with illustrative examples of the types of participatory approaches needed in each area to help achieve the health and development goals.
Patten, Emma; O'Meara, Peter; Dickson-Swift, Virginia
Few studies have considered the impact of rural migration on rural community engagement. The objective of this research was to undertake a scoping review about the inclusion and exclusion of newcomers in rural community participation to inform design of inclusive participation processes. The scoping review used the six stages of Arksey and O'Malley's methodological framework. Narrative analysis of the articles was structured using three themes of inclusion and exclusion derived from the literature: interpersonal, socio-cultural norms, and structural and organisational processes. Inclusion and exclusion at the interpersonal level is intricate and often represents broader social rules and tensions that newcomers must navigate in order to become involved. Social norms, such as fear of outsiders and difference, can exclude newcomers from participating in a rural community. Newcomer's awareness of these issues means they are mindful of how they contribute and give respect to the social position of existing residents. Despite this, resistance to change is experienced by newcomers when contributing in organisational contexts. Formal participation processes can harness the practice and value of rural hospitality that newcomers experience as inclusionary. Deliberately designing group processes and operational norms for inclusion can reduce tensions when change occurs and prevent group loss due to exclusionary practices.
Greenwood, Debra Abston
Service-learning has a rich history in higher education, with a multitude of studies indicating positive learning, community engagement, and moral development outcomes of student participants. The majority of the research findings, however, have represented four-year colleges. And while there are limited outcome studies of service-learning in…
Simmons, Vani Nath; Klasko, Lynne B.; Fleming, Khaliah; Koskan, Alexis M.; Jackson, Nia T.; Noel-Thomas, Shalewa; Luque, John S.; Vadaparampil, Susan T.; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Quinn, Gwendolyn P.; Britt, Lounell; Waddell, Rhondda; Meade, Cathy D.; Gwede, Clement K.
The Tampa Bay Community Cancer Network (TBCCN) was formed as a partnership comprised of committed community based organizations (grassroots, service, health care organizations) and a National Cancer Institute designated cancer center working together to reduce cancer health disparities. Adhering to principles of community-based participatory research, TBCCN’s primary aims are to develop and sustain outreach, training, and research programs that aim to reach medically underserved, multicultural and multilingual populations within the Tampa Bay tri-county area. Using a participatory evaluation approach, we recently evaluated the partnerships’ priorities for cancer education and outreach; perspectives on the partnerships’ adherence to CBPR principles; and suggestions for sustaining TBCCN and its efforts. The purpose of this paper is to describe implementation and outcomes of this participatory evaluation of a community/academic partnership, and to illustrate the application of evaluation findings for partnership capacity-building and sustainability. Our evaluation provides evidence for partners’ perceived benefits and realized expectations of the partnership and illustrates the value of ongoing and continued partnership assessment to directly inform program activities and build community capacity and sustainability. PMID:25863014
Simmons, Vani Nath; Klasko, Lynne B; Fleming, Khaliah; Koskan, Alexis M; Jackson, Nia T; Noel-Thomas, Shalewa; Luque, John S; Vadaparampil, Susan T; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Britt, Lounell; Waddell, Rhondda; Meade, Cathy D; Gwede, Clement K
The Tampa Bay Community Cancer Network (TBCCN) was formed as a partnership comprised of committed community based organizations (grassroots, service, health care organizations) and a National Cancer Institute designated cancer center working together to reduce cancer health disparities. Adhering to principles of community-based participatory research, TBCCN's primary aims are to develop and sustain outreach, training, and research programs that aim to reach medically underserved, multicultural and multilingual populations within the Tampa Bay tri-county area. Using a participatory evaluation approach, we recently evaluated the partnerships' priorities for cancer education and outreach; perspectives on the partnerships' adherence to CBPR principles; and suggestions for sustaining TBCCN and its efforts. The purpose of this paper is to describe implementation and outcomes of this participatory evaluation of a community/academic partnership, and to illustrate the application of evaluation findings for partnership capacity-building and sustainability. Our evaluation provides evidence for partners' perceived benefits and realized expectations of the partnership and illustrates the value of ongoing and continued partnership assessment to directly inform program activities and build community capacity and sustainability.
Pivik, Jayne R; Goelman, Hillel
A process evaluation of a consortium of academic researchers and community-based service providers focused on the health and well-being of children and families provides empirical and practice-based evidence of those factors important for community-based participatory research (CBPR). This study draws on quantitative ratings of 33 factors associated with CBPR as well as open-ended questions addressing the benefits, facilitators, barriers, and recommendations for collaboration. Eight distinct but related studies are represented by 10 academic and 9 community researchers. Even though contextual considerations were identified between the academic and community partners, in large part because of their focus, organizational mandate and particular expertise, key factors for facilitating collaboration were found across groups. Both community and academic partners reported the following as very important for positive collaborations: trust and mutual respect; adequate time; shared commitment, decision making, and goals; a memorandum of understanding or partnership agreement; clear communication; involvement of community partners in the interpretation of the data and information dissemination; and regular meetings. The results are compared to current models of collaboration across different contexts and highlight factors important for CBPR with community service providers.
Southerland, Jodi; Behringer, Bruce; Slawson, Deborah L
Research suggests that stakeholder investment is maximized when partnerships understand the assumptions held by partners of the benefits to be derived and contributions to be made to the partnership. In 2011, representatives from seven rural county high schools and five university departments participated in a planning workshop designed to identify elements of an effective community-academic partnership to address adolescent obesity disparity in Southern Appalachia. The purpose of this investigation was to examine key elements of partnership building by way of the Give-Get Grid partnership tool. Content analysis was conducted to identify emerging themes. University representatives consistently identified more proposed program contributions as well as benefits than their high school partners. University personnel responses generally pertained to their level of participation and investment in the partnership, whereas high school personnel tended to identify contributions fundamental to both partnership and program success. Additionally, content analysis uncovered programmatic facilitators and potential barriers that can be instrumental in program planning and forming program messages. Findings suggest that although partners often share common goals, perceptions of the value of investment and benefits may vary. The Give-Get Grid can be used during the program-planning phase to help identify these differences. Implications for practice are discussed.
Tomioka, Kimiko; Kurumatani, Norio; Hosoi, Hiroshi
Background Population-based data examining the relationship between social participation (SP) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) are scarce. This study examined the cross-sectional relationship between SP and IADL in community-dwelling elderly persons. Methods Self-administered questionnaires were mailed to 23 710 residents aged ≥65 years in Nara, Japan (response rate: 74.2%). Data from 14 956 respondents (6935 males and 8021 females) without dependency in basic activities of daily living (ADL) were analyzed. The number, type, and frequency of participation in social groups (SGs) were used to measure SP. SGs included volunteer groups, sports groups, hobby groups, senior citizens’ clubs, neighborhood community associations, and cultural groups. IADL was evaluated using the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence. Logistic regression models stratified by gender were used. Results After adjustment for putative confounding factors, including demographics, health status, life-style habits, ADL, depression, cognitive function, social networks, social support, and social roles, participation in various SGs among both genders was inversely associated with poor IADL, showing a significant dose-response relationship between an increasing number of SGs and a lower proportion of those with poor IADL (P for trend <0.001). A significant inverse association between frequent participation and poor IADL was observed for all types of SGs among females, whereas the association was limited to sports groups and senior citizens’ clubs among males. Conclusions Our results show that participation in a variety of SGs is associated with independent IADL among the community-dwelling elderly, regardless of gender. However, the beneficial effects of frequent participation on IADL may be stronger for females than for males. PMID:27180933
Cacioppo, Stephanie; Norman, Greg J.; Cacioppo, John T.
The reliance on small samples and underpowered studies may undermine the replicability of scientific findings. Large sample sizes may be necessary to achieve adequate statistical power. Crowdsourcing sites such as Amazon’s Mechanical Turk (MTurk) have been regarded as an economical means for achieving larger samples. Because MTurk participants may engage in behaviors which adversely affect data quality, much recent research has focused on assessing the quality of data obtained from MTurk samples. However, participants from traditional campus- and community-based samples may also engage in behaviors which adversely affect the quality of the data that they provide. We compare an MTurk, campus, and community sample to measure how frequently participants report engaging in problematic respondent behaviors. We report evidence that suggests that participants from all samples engage in problematic respondent behaviors with comparable rates. Because statistical power is influenced by factors beyond sample size, including data integrity, methodological controls must be refined to better identify and diminish the frequency of participant engagement in problematic respondent behaviors. PMID:27351378
Turkey, like many developing countries, is facing considerable problems in terms of low school attendance rates, late enrolment and early dropout of girls in particular. Numerous studies have already been conducted, both in Turkey and elsewhere, to determine the factors affecting school enrolment of boys and girls. Existing studies in Turkey, however, have focused extensively on the association between household-level factors and school participation, ignoring the role of the broader environment in which children live. Using a recent, large-scale and nationally representative data set, this paper investigates school participation at both primary and secondary levels in Turkey, giving specific attention to community- level factors. In taking into account socioeconomic context variables using the multilevel modelling method, this study contributes significantly to current school participation literature in Turkey. The author's findings highlight the importance of community/context factors in explaining low school enrolment in Turkey. The results of the study can help policy makers develop a systematic understanding of the relationship between socioeconomic context and school participation, and enable them to make more appropriate decisions for improving school participation across the country.
Pulver, Lisa K; Tett, Susan E; Coombes, Judith
Background Multicentre drug use evaluations are described in the literature infrequently and usually publish only the results. The purpose of this paper is to describe the experience of Queensland hospitals participating in the Community-Acquired Pneumonia Towards Improving Outcomes Nationally (CAPTION) project, specifically evaluating the implementation of this project, detailing benefits and drawbacks of involvement in a national drug use evaluation program. Methods Emergency departments from nine hospitals in Queensland, Australia, participated in CAPTION, a national quality improvement project, conducted in 37 Australian hospitals. CAPTION was aimed at optimising prescribing in the management of Community-Acquired Pneumonia according to the recommendations of the Australian Therapeutic Guidelines: Antibiotic 12th edition. The project involved data collection, and evaluation, feedback of results and a suite of targeted educational interventions including audit and feedback, group presentations and academic detailing. A baseline audit and two drug use evaluation cycles were conducted during the 2-year project. The implementation of the project was evaluated using feedback forms after each phase of the project (audit or intervention). At completion a group meeting with the hospital coordinators identified positive and negative elements of the project. Results Evaluation by hospitals of their participation in CAPTION demonstrated both benefits and drawbacks. The benefits were grouped into the impact on the hospital dynamic such as; improved interdisciplinary working relationships (e.g. between pharmacist and doctor), recognition of the educational/academic role of the pharmacist, creation of ED Pharmacist positions and enhanced involvement with the National Prescribing Service, and personal benefits. Personal benefits included academic detailing training for participants, improved communication skills and opportunities to present at conferences. The principal
Jopang, Yupin; Petchmark, Suthep; Jetsrisuparb, Arunee; Sanchaisuriya, Kanokwan; Sanchaisuriya, Pattara; Schelp, Frank Peter
The study was conducted to assess the achievement of a thalassemia screening program at a community level supported by village health volunteers (VHVs) of 2 subdistricts in the northeast of Thailand. One subdistrict served as the intervention and the other as the control area. A training program was organized for the village health volunteers from the intervention area. Essential information about the risk and danger of thalassemia was given to the participants who wanted to have children in the community as well. Of the 206 individuals who wanted to have children living in the intervention area, 190 (92.2%) agreed to undergo screening. Of the 196 individuals within the control area, only 26 (13.3%) voluntarily participated in the screening tests. Attitude toward prevention and knowledge about the disease improved significantly in both areas, but the differences between the scores were statistically significantly higher for individuals living in the intervention area.
Garneau, Chelsea L; Adler-Baeder, Francesca
Studies of coparents typically center on the relationship between parents who share a biological child; limited attention in research on community-based programs is given to the coparenting relationship within a stepfamily, even though clinicians note the challenges inherent in this relationship. We examined changes in coparenting agreement, parenting efficacy, and parental involvement for 96 stepparents following participation in a coparenting-focused community education program. A significant main effect of time was found for improvement in coparenting agreement, yet a significant time × gender interaction effect suggests that this is driven by improvements for stepmothers only. Parenting efficacy improved, regardless of gender, race, residence, or curriculum. A significant time × race interaction effect on change in parental involvement indicates increases in parental involvement for European American participants only. Finally, increases in coparenting agreement were associated with increases in parenting efficacy, and increases in parenting efficacy were associated with increases in parental involvement.
Penrod, L. E.; Gadd, C. S.
Physician satisfaction with EMR implementations has been reported in a number of recent studies. Most of these have reported on implementation of an EMR in a uniform practice setting rather than comparing satisfaction with implementation between settings. Our objectives in this study were to: 1) compare and contrast the attitudes of academic-based and community-based primary care physicians toward EMR use 6 months after implementation, and 2) investigate some of the factors influencing their attitudes toward the EMR implementation. Although physicians in both settings regularly use computers, the academic-based physicians use computers for a wider range of activities. Both groups endorse improvements in quality and communication as well as concern over rapport with the patient and privacy. There is considerable discrepancy between the two settings in ratings of the impact on workflow, with the community-based physicians being much more positive about the EMR. Factors that may account for this discrepancy may include overall expectations of computer systems as well as different rates of adaptation to use of the system. PMID:11825244
Corbin, J Hope; Fernandez, Maria E; Mullen, Patricia D
Established in 2002, Latinos in a Network for Cancer Control is a community-academic network supported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Cancer Institute. The network includes >130 individuals from 65 community and academic organizations committed to reducing cancer-related health disparities. Using an empirically derived systems model--the Bergen Model of Collaborative Functioning--as the analytic frame, we interviewed 19 partners to identify challenges and successful processes. Findings indicated that sustained partner interaction created "meaningful relationships" that were routinely called on for collaboration. The leadership was regarded positively on vision, charisma, and capacity. Limitations included overreliance on a single leader. Suggestions supported more delegation of decision making, consistent communication, and more equitable resource distribution. The study highlighted new insights into dynamics of collaboration: Greater inclusiveness of inputs (partners, finances, mission) and loosely defined roles and structure produced strong connections but less network-wide productivity (output). Still, this profile enabled the creation of more tightly defined and highly productive subgroups, with clear goals and roles but less inclusive of inputs than the larger network. Important network outputs included practice-based research publications, cancer control intervention materials, and training to enhance the use of evidence-based interventions, as well as continued and diversified funding.
Kelaher, Margaret; Dunt, David; Berman, Naomi; Curry, Steve; Joubert, Lindy; Johnson, Victoria
This study evaluates the impacts of three well-established community arts programmes in Victoria, Australia, on the mental health and well-being outcomes of participants typically from disadvantaged backgrounds during 2006-07. It employs a theoretical framework that reconciles evidence-based practice in health and the phenomenological nature of community arts practice. Self-determination theory (SDT) was used to do this with SDT-derived psychometric instruments [arts climate and Basic Psychological Needs Scales (BPNS)]. Self-administered surveys using these instruments as well as a measure of social support were undertaken on two occasions. Two overlapping but distinct samples were defined and analysed cross-sectionally. These were a (pre-)survey at the commencement of rehearsals for the annual performance (n = 103) and a (post-)survey following the performance (n = 70). The most significant change (MSC) technique was used to study the arts-making process and how it contributes to outcomes. Using these mixed-methods approach, impacts on the climate of the arts organizations, participant access to supportive relationships and participant's mental health and well-being were studied. There were positive changes in the BPNS (p = 0.00), as well as its autonomy (p = 0.04) and relatedness (p = 0.00) subscales. Social support increased from 65.3% in the pre-survey to 82.4% in the post-survey (p = 0.03). MSC data indicated that the supportive, collaborative environment provided by the arts organizations was highly valued by participants and was perceived to have mental health benefits.Overall, the study demonstrated the potential health promoting effects of community arts programmes in disadvantaged populations. Its multi-method approach should be further studied in evaluating other community arts programmes.
Garrow, Amanda; Tawse, Stephen
This paper considers a phenomenological research study that attempted to explore how new academics were introduced to the assessment process within a Higher Education context. Two key educational perspectives have shaped the interpretation of the studies findings. These are Nonaka and Takeuchi's [Nonaka, I., Takeuchi, H., 1995. The Knowledge Creating Company: How Japanese Companies Create the Dynamics of Innovation. Oxford University Press, New York] model of knowledge conversion and Lave and Wenger's work on communities of practice (1991, 2002). Three key findings emerged from this work. Firstly, the study highlights a number of issues relating to the types of support and guidance that new academics receive. These were divided into formal and informal types that either promoted conformity or facilitated challenge. Secondly, the study suggests that the ways in which experienced academic staff communicate their assessment knowledge and interact with new academics may require further consideration. Finally, the study raises questions about the type of academic that the organisation would wish to develop.
George, Asha S.; Mehra, Vrinda; Scott, Kerry; Sriram, Veena
Background Community participation is a major principle of people centered health systems, with considerable research highlighting its intrinsic value and strategic importance. Existing reviews largely focus on the effectiveness of community participation with less attention to how community participation is supported in health systems intervention research. Objective To explore the extent, nature and quality of community participation in health systems intervention research in low- and middle-income countries. Methodology We searched for peer-reviewed, English language literature published between January 2000 and May 2012 through four electronic databases. Search terms combined the concepts of community, capability/participation, health systems research and low- and middle-income countries. The initial search yielded 3,092 articles, of which 260 articles with more than nominal community participation were identified and included. We further excluded 104 articles due to lower levels of community participation across the research cycle and poor description of the process of community participation. Out of the remaining 160 articles with rich community participation, we further examined 64 articles focused on service delivery and governance within health systems research. Results Most articles were led by authors in high income countries and many did not consistently list critical aspects of study quality. Articles were most likely to describe community participation in health promotion interventions (78%, 202/260), even though they were less participatory than other health systems areas. Community involvement in governance and supply chain management was less common (12%, 30/260 and 9%, 24/260 respectively), but more participatory. Articles cut across all health conditions and varied by scale and duration, with those that were implemented at national scale or over more than five years being mainstreamed by government. Most articles detailed improvements in service
Background Community engagement and participation has played a critical role in successful disease control and elimination campaigns in many countries. Despite this, its benefits for malaria control and elimination are yet to be fully realized. This may be due to a limited understanding of the influences on participation in developing countries as well as inadequate investment in infrastructure and resources to support sustainable community participation. This paper reports the findings of an atypical systematic review of 60 years of literature in order to arrive at a more comprehensive awareness of the constructs of participation for communicable disease control and elimination and provide guidance for the current malaria elimination campaign. Methods Evidence derived from quantitative research was considered both independently and collectively with qualitative research papers and case reports. All papers included in the review were systematically coded using a pre-determined qualitative coding matrix that identified influences on community participation at the individual, household, community and government/civil society levels. Colour coding was also carried out to reflect the key primary health care period in which community participation programmes originated. These processes allowed exhaustive content analysis and synthesis of data in an attempt to realize conceptual development beyond that able to be achieved by individual empirical studies or case reports. Results Of the 60 papers meeting the selection criteria, only four studies attempted to determine the effect of community participation on disease transmission. Due to inherent differences in their design, interventions and outcome measures, results could not be compared. However, these studies showed statistically significant reductions in disease incidence or prevalence using various forms of community participation. The use of locally selected volunteers provided with adequate training, supervision and
Njoh, Ambe J.
A community water supply project in Cameroon illustrates the following constraints on community participation in development: paternalistic authorities, prescriptive role of the state, selective participation, bias toward "hard" issues, inattention to negative results, group conflicts, gatekeeping, pressure for immediate results,…
Cazden, Courtney B.
An educator participating in a community college Puente class as both participant and observer analyzes the structure and experience of one writing assignment representative of the program's objectives. The Puente program combines teaching, counseling, and mentoring to California community college students as a means of promoting learning,…
Lee, Cheng-Jong; Tseng, Chun-Chi; Liu, Mei-Yu
The aim of this study was to discuss the Research of Community Tai Chi Chuan Participants' Leisure Benefits and Well-being. A questionnaire survey was conducted on the community Tai Chi Chuan participants in Taoyuan city. A total of 500 valid questionnaires were retrieved, and the data were analyzed with SPSS 12.0 and AMOS 7.0 structural equation model analysis (SEM). The findings were as followed: 1) The background variables of the community Tai Chi Chuan participants in Taoyuan City: Gender had no difference in the factor of ``psychological benefit'' of leisure benefits. Occupation, age, education, the number of times a week to participate community Tai Chi Chuan and participation in seniority reached significant difference in leisure benefits. 2) The background variables of the community Tai Chi Chuan participants in Taoyuan City: gender, occupation, age, education, the number of times a week to participate community Tai Chi Chuan, participation in seniority reached significant difference in well-being. 3) The study showed community Tai Chi Chuan participants' leisure benefits had a significant positive correlation in well-being. Based on the findings, suggestions were proposed to related Taiwan Tai Chi Chuan promotion for reference.
Erlich, Richard J.; Russ-Eft, Darlene F.
We investigated whether the social cognitive theory constructs of self-efficacy and self-regulated learning apply to academic advising for measuring student learning outcomes. Community college students (N = 120) participated in an individual academic-advising session. We assessed students' post-intervention self-efficacy in academic planning and…
Szaflarski, Magdalena; Vaughn, Lisa M.; Chambers, Camisha; Harris, Mamie; Ruffner, Andrew; Wess, Yolanda; Mosley, LaSharon; Smith, Chandra
African Americans face the most severe burden of HIV among all racial and ethnic groups. Direct involvement of faith leaders and faith communities is increasingly suggested as a primary strategy to reduce HIV-related disparities, and Black churches are uniquely positioned to address HIV stigma, prevention, and care in African American communities. The authors describe an academic-community partnership to engage Black churches to address HIV in a predominantly African American, urban, southern Midwest location. The opportunities, process, and challenges in forming this academic-community partnership with Black churches can be used to guide future efforts toward engaging faith institutions, academia, and other community partners in the fight against HIV. PMID:28239643
Hytönen, Kaisa; Palonen, Tuire; Lehtinen, Erno; Hakkarainen, Kai
In order to address the requirements of future education in different fields of academic professional activity, a model called Academic Apprenticeship Education was initiated in Finland in 2009. The aim of this article is to analyse the development of expert networks in the context of a 1-year Academic Apprenticeship Education model in the field…
Adams, Gina; McDaniel, Marla
Smaller immigrant communities can face barriers to participating in prekindergarten programs, in particular lack of knowledge about the program, language barriers and enrollment logistics. Community-based organizations working with these communities can support outreach efforts and play a role in overcoming all of these barriers. This study…
Munford, Luke A; Sidaway, Mark; Blakemore, Amy; Sutton, Matt; Bower, Pete
Background Community assets are promoted as a way to improve quality of life and reduce healthcare usage. However, the quantitative impact of participation in community assets on these outcomes is not known. Methods We examined the association between participation in community assets and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) (EuroQol-5D-5L) and healthcare usage in 3686 individuals aged ≥65 years. We estimated the unadjusted differences in EuroQol-5D-5L scores and healthcare usage between participants and non-participants in community assets and then used multivariate regression to examine scores adjusted for sociodemographic and limiting long-term health conditions. We derived the net benefits of participation using a range of threshold values for a quality-adjusted life year (QALY). Results 50% of individuals reported participation in community assets. Their EuroQol-5D-5L scores were 0.094 (95% CI 0.077 to 0.111) points higher than non-participants. Controlling for sociodemographic characteristics reduced this differential to 0.081 (95% CI 0.064 to 0.098). Further controlling for limiting long-term conditions reduced this effect to 0.039 (95% CI 0.025 to 0.052). Once we adjusted for sociodemographic and limiting long-term conditions, the reductions in healthcare usage and costs associated with community asset participation were not statistically significant. Based on a threshold value of £20 000 per QALY, the net benefits of participation in community assets were £763 (95% CI £478 to £1048) per participant per year. Conclusions Participation in community assets is associated with substantially higher HRQoL but is not associated with lower healthcare costs. The social value of developing community assets is potentially substantial. PMID:28183807
Townley, Greg; Brusilovskiy, Eugene; Salzer, Mark S
Despite a wealth of studies examining the relationship between urbanicity (i.e., living in an urban area) and psychological distress, there is a paucity of research examining the relationship between urbanicity, community living, and community participation of adults with serious mental illnesses. This study addresses this knowledge gap by assessing urban and non-urban differences in community participation, sense of community, mental health stigma, and perceptions of the neighborhood environment among individuals with serious mental illnesses living independently throughout the United States. A total of 300 individuals with serious mental illnesses recruited from 21 outpatient mental health service organizations in 15 states completed a phone survey about their community living and participation experiences. Urbanicity was examined at two spatial scales (block group and county), and independent-samples t-tests were employed to assess urban and non-urban differences in community living and participation variables. Levels of community participation and perceptions of neighborhood quality and crime were higher in urban block groups; sense of community was higher in urban counties; and perceptions of mental health stigma were higher in non-urban counties. Results inform the methodological literature on best practices for assessing urbanicity, as well as interventions aimed at increasing community participation and improving aspects of the built and social environment that affect individuals who experience mental health distress.
Gray, Kathleen; Elliott, Kristine; Wale, Janet
The Internet has become a major source of health information for the general public and has the potential to influence health behaviours; however, most people lack the knowledge and skills to use it insightfully. This paper reports on the evaluation of a community education program, in which a team of clinicians and consumer representatives from a large metropolitan hospital partnered with a major public library to provide free interactive workshops for the general public. The aim of the workshops was to improve participants' ability to find and use evidence-based health information on the Internet. The aim of the evaluation reported here was to study participation in and impact of these workshops. Researchers administered pre- and post-workshop surveys to 89 members of the general public who participated in a workshop. This study found not only similarities in participants' pre-workshop use of online health information compared with population-level studies but also some interesting differences. The workshop was found to have an overall positive impact on changing the way participants intended to look for and use health information in the future, and on improving their knowledge about evidence-based health information, with 63.5% of respondents stating that they would use health information in the future to ask a doctor new questions. These findings offer important evidence of the need to plan nuanced health literacy education and information strategies for the general public.
Llovet, Ignacio; Dinardi, Graciela; De Maio, Fernando G
Chagas disease (CD) causes 12,500 deaths annually in Latin America. As a neglected disease primarily associated with poverty, it is a major driver of health inequity. Argentina's efforts to control vector transmission have been unsuccessful. Using new survey data (n=400 households), we compare the social patterning of the burden of CD by examining socio-demographic predictors of self-reported CD and the presence of vinchucas in two areas of rural northern Argentina known to have experienced different interventions in surveillance and control. Our analyses suggest that Avellaneda, an area known for horizontal intervention strategies which nurture community participation is quite distinct from Silipica, an area which has experienced a vertical intervention strategy since 1990. Avellaneda has higher level of self-reported Chagas infection and lower level of vinchuca presence; Silipica has pronounced and statistically significant differences patterned by the head of household's level of educational attainment. A greater awareness of the disease and its transmission, along with community mobilisation and spraying, may bring about more self-reported CD and less vinchuca presence in Avellaneda than in Silipica. This suggests that strategies based on community participation may be effective in reducing the social patterning of the burden of disease, even in poor places.
Wright, Kynna; Suro, Zulma
Many underserved school-age children do not meet the recommended guidelines for physical activity. While children ultimately depend on parents, they also look to schools for their access to developmentally appropriate physical activity. The present randomized controlled trial study utilized a community-academic partnered participatory research approach to evaluate the impact of a culturally sensitive, comprehensive, school-based, program, Kids N Fitness(©), on body mass index (BMI), and child physical activity behavior, including: daily physical activity, team sports participation, attending PE class, and TV viewing/computer game playing, among underserved children ages 8-12 (N = 251) in Los Angeles County. All measures were collected at baseline, 4 and 12 months post-intervention. Students who participated in the KNF program had significant decreases in BMI Z-score, TV viewing, and an increase in PE class attendance from baseline to the 12 month follow-up. Our study shows the value of utilizing community-academic partnerships and a culturally sensitive, multi-component, collaborative intervention.
Cooper, Lisa A; Purnell, Tanjala S; Ibe, Chidinma A; Halbert, Jennifer P; Bone, Lee R; Carson, Kathryn A; Hickman, Debra; Simmons, Michelle; Vachon, Ann; Robb, Inez; Martin-Daniels, Michelle; Dietz, Katherine B; Golden, Sherita Hill; Crews, Deidra C; Hill-Briggs, Felicia; Marsteller, Jill A; Boulware, L Ebony; Miller, Edgar R Iii; Levine, David M
Cardiovascular health disparities persist despite decades of recognition and the availability of evidence-based clinical and public health interventions. Racial and ethnic minorities and adults in urban and low-income communities are high-risk groups for uncontrolled hypertension (HTN), a major contributor to cardiovascular health disparities, in part due to inequitable social structures and economic systems that negatively impact daily environments and risk behaviors. This commentary presents the Johns Hopkins Center to Eliminate Cardiovascular Health Disparities as a case study for highlighting the evolution of an academic-community partnership to overcome HTN disparities. Key elements of the iterative development process of a Community Advisory Board (CAB) are summarized, and major CAB activities and engagement with the Baltimore community are highlighted. Using a conceptual framework adapted from O'Mara-Eves and colleagues, the authors discuss how different population groups and needs, motivations, types and intensity of community participation, contextual factors, and actions have shaped the Center's approach to stakeholder engagement in research and community outreach efforts to achieve health equity.
Cooper, Lisa A.; Purnell, Tanjala S.; Ibe, Chidinma A.; Halbert, Jennifer P.; Bone, Lee R.; Carson, Kathryn A.; Hickman, Debra; Simmons, Michelle; Vachon, Ann; Robb, Inez; Martin-Daniels, Michelle; Dietz, Katherine B.; Golden, Sherita Hill; Crews, Deidra C.; Hill-Briggs, Felicia; Marsteller, Jill A.; Boulware, L. Ebony; Miller, Edgar R. III; Levine, David M.
Cardiovascular health disparities persist despite decades of recognition and the availability of evidence-based clinical and public health interventions. Racial and ethnic minorities and adults in urban and low-income communities are high-risk groups for uncontrolled hypertension (HTN), a major contributor to cardiovascular health disparities, in part due to inequitable social structures and economic systems that negatively impact daily environments and risk behaviors. This commentary presents the Johns Hopkins Center to Eliminate Cardiovascular Health Disparities as a case study for highlighting the evolution of an academic-community partnership to overcome HTN disparities. Key elements of the iterative development process of a Community Advisory Board (CAB) are summarized, and major CAB activities and engagement with the Baltimore community are highlighted. Using a conceptual framework adapted from O’Mara-Eves and colleagues, the authors discuss how different population groups and needs, motivations, types and intensity of community participation, contextual factors, and actions have shaped the Center’s approach to stakeholder engagement in research and community outreach efforts to achieve health equity. PMID:27440977
Roma, Elisa; Jeffrey, Paul
Acceptance and adequate use of water and sanitation technologies in least developed countries is still a chimera, with one billion people using unimproved water supply sources and 2.5 billion not benefitting from adequate sanitation. Public participation in water and sanitation planning and pre-implementation phases has become increasingly important for technology providers seeking solutions to implementation challenges towards the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Based on the principle that successful implementation of WATSAN technologies ultimately depends on recipients' ability to absorb a technology and adapt it to their own needs, this study analyses the impacts of participatory methods adopted by community-based sanitation (CBS) providers on communities' receptivity of the transferred systems. A fieldwork activity was undertaken in Indonesia and a multiple case study approach adopted to analyse indicators of receptivity of the transferred technologies. Conclusions show that community involvement through participatory methods in the implementation of CBS systems can enhance the process of acceptance and management of the technologies, thereby increasing the progress towards the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals.
Kerr, David C. R.; Shaman, Jeffrey; Washburn, Isaac J.; Vuchinich, Samuel; Neppl, Tricia K.; Capaldi, Deborah M.; Conger, Rand D.
Background There is evidence that seasonal variation in depressive symptoms is common in the population. However, research is limited by a reliance on longterm retrospective methods. Methods Seasonal patterns were tested in two samples of community participants recruited in separate prospective studies in the Midwestern (n = 556 males/females) and Pacific Northwestern (n = 206 males) United States. Participants completed self-report measures of depressive symptoms 10–19 times from ages 14–36 years (n = 8,316 person observations). These data were compared with local meteorological conditions (e.g., solar radiation) recorded across the 2 weeks prior to each self-report. Results In within-subjects analyses, participants’ depressive symptoms and the probability of clinically significant symptoms varied with the time of year, as hypothesized (highest in the weeks of early Winter; lowest in early Fall). However, effects sizes were modest and were not explained by recent sunlight or other meteorological conditions. Limitations Samples were not nationally representative. Participants did not complete retrospective reports of seasonal depression or measures of current vegetative symptoms. Conclusions Neither time of the year or recent seasonally linked meteorological conditions were powerful influences on depressive symptoms experienced by community populations in relevant geographic regions. Prior studies may have overestimated the prevalence and significance of seasonal variation in depressive symptoms for the general population. PMID:24075247
Wagner, Jeffrey P.
Overall, pretest-posttest results for achievement, behavior, and engagement for at-risk boys not eligible (n = 13) and eligible (n = 9) for participation in the free or reduced price lunch program who completed a school-year long academic support study center program were not statistically different over time and end of school year for cumulative…
Knifsend, Casey A.; Graham, Sandra
Although adolescents often participate in multiple extracurricular activities, little research has examined how the breadth of activities in which an adolescent is involved relates to school-related affect and academic performance. Relying on a large, multi-ethnic sample (N = 864; 55.9% female), the current study investigated linear and non-linear…
Coelho, Sónia D; Sousa, Ana C A; Isobe, Tomohiko; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Nogueira, António J A; Tanabe, Shinsuke
Concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDDs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), chlordane compounds (CHLs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), were measured in duplicate diet samples from 21 volunteers at a Portuguese academic community (University of Aveiro). Overall, the levels of the target compounds were low, with detection frequencies varying widely depending on the compounds and with brominated flame retardants (BFRs) registering the lowest detection frequencies. Among PCB congeners, nondioxin-like PCBs were predominant and detected in the majority of the samples. Organochlorine pesticides were also detected in the majority of the samples, with 100% detection for DDTs and HCHs. Estimated daily intakes (EDIs) were calculated using lower and upper bound estimations, and in both cases values were far below the currently established tolerable daily intakes for PCBs and OCs and the reference doses for PBDEs and HBCDDs.
Vivolo, Alana M; Matjasko, Jennifer L; Massetti, Greta M
Violence, including its occurrence among youth, results in considerable physical, emotional, social, and economic consequences in the US. Youth violence prevention work at the Division of Violence Prevention (DVP) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) emphasizes preventing youth violence-related behaviors, injuries, and deaths by collaborating with academic and community partners and stakeholders. In 2000 and 2005, DVP funded the National Academic Centers of Excellence (ACE) for Youth Violence Prevention. Most ACE Centers focus on building community capacity and competence so that evidence-based programs for youth violence prevention can be successfully implemented through effective and supportive research-community partnerships. This commentary provides historical information about the ACE Program, including the development, goals, accomplishments of the Centers, and the utilization of a community-based participatory research approach to prevent youth violence.
Health-care parameters for Natives living in isolated northern areas of Canada show rates of life expectancy, morbidity, and infant mortality far worse than the Canadian average. Improving access to medical facilities has not affected these statistics. Socioeconomic factors such as inadequate housing and lack of sewage systems are likely contributors to poor health, as is an attitude of hopelessness and impotence on the part of Native people. Health-care providers have recognized the need for health promotion as well as treatment, but have often instituted programs that blame the victim. An approach to health education that embodies community development, participation, and the fostering of a positive self-image is discussed. The implication of this approach is that when Native Canadian groups can identify their own health problems, have access to the information needed for their solution, and develop the confidence and assertiveness to act, change may occur at a community, as well as an individual, level. PMID:21253037
Kumar, Rajiv; Mukherjee, Abhijit; Singh, V P
Road traffic noise pollution is a global hazard, and rapid urbanization has aggravated the problem. This paper explores a novel approach which involves a smartphone user community to monitor the prevalent noise. The system involves a client application on smartphones that records noise, processes the information and communicates to a server and shares the information as visual noise levels on Google® Maps. A fuzzy logic-based classification of noise is proposed. Results from residential, commercial, and industrial areas of the northern region of India are demonstrated. The noise levels are generally found to be higher than the prescribed standards. The experiment demonstrates the huge potential of user community participation in monitoring noise pollution.
What kind of "war" did Japanese chemists fight during World War I, and what impact did their experiences have on Japanese chemistry in its aftermath? By focusing on the role of Jōji Sakurai (1858-1939), this paper attempts to answer these questions by looking at the drastic changes in the international relationships of the Japanese chemical community caused by the war. It examines how the Japanese National Research Council was established in 1920 as part of the International Research Council, a product of the reconfiguration of international scientific powers triggered by World War I. This paper argues that Sakurai advocated the establishment of the National Research Council after the American model of wartime mobilisation of science, coordinated fractured Japanese chemical communities for international functions, and facilitated Japan's participation and increased influence in international scientific associations such as the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, established in 1919.
Overbaugh, Richard C.; Nickel, Christine E.
This pre-test/post-test study explores students' (n = 262) sense of academic community, including their perspectives of the value of academic community, plus course satisfaction and perceived learning in nearly identical blended and online sections of an educational foundations course. Students in both delivery modes were generally satisfied with…
Hawkins, Jaclynn; Kieffer, Edith; Sinco, Brandy; Spencer, Michael; Anderson, Michael; Rosland, Ann-Marie
Purpose The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of gender on participation in a community-based, culturally tailored diabetes lifestyle intervention, led by trained community health workers (CHW), and conducted with African Americans and Latinos with type 2 diabetes. Methods This study utilized data collected from 180 participants. Multivariable binary and cumulative logistic regression models were used to analyze associations between gender and race/ethnicity with study completion and participation in three aspects of the intervention: group classes, CHW home visits, and CHW-accompanied doctor visits. Results Among Latinos, men were less likely than women to complete the study, attend >x classes, and complete # CHW home visits. There were no gender differences in participation seen among African-Americans. Conclusions Diabetes management interventions may need to adapt their designs to optimize retention and participation of Latino men. Among African American men, the CHW model may be promising. Reasons for low participation among Latino men should receive more study. Future studies should assess whether similar findings apply in other communities and populations. PMID:23859885
Palis, Leila Ann
It was not known if and to what extent there was a relationship between the degree to which community college students believed that learning was enhanced when teachers tailored instruction to individual learning styles and student perceived academic locus of control (PAC). Learning styles theory and locus of control theory formed the theoretical…
Robillard, Douglas, Jr., Ed.
This volume of New Directions for Community Colleges contains the following articles: (1) "Toward a Definition of Deaning," by Douglas Robillard, Jr.; (2) "The Dean as Chief Academic Officer," by John Stuart Erwin; (3) "The Dean and the Faculty," by Hans A. Andrews; (4) "The Dean and the President," by Hans J. Kuss; (5) "Aspects of Difficult…
Fantuzzo, John; LeBoeuf, Whitney; Rouse, Heather; Chen, Chin-Chih
In light of persistent Black-White achievement gaps for boys, this study examined publicly monitored risks believed to be associated with being behind academically for an entire subpopulation of African American boys in a large urban public school district. Also examined were indicators of academic engagement hypothesized to mediate the relations between risks and low achievement. Findings indicated that the Black-White achievement gap for boys was matched by a comparable difference in risk experiences. Multilevel linear regression models controlling for poverty found that both the type and accumulation of risk experiences explained a significant amount of variation in reading and mathematics achievement for the subpopulation of African American boys. Socio-familial risks were related to the poorest academic outcomes. Academic engagement indicators significantly mediated relations between risks and achievement. Implications of this research for collective school and community actions to make race, gender, and place matter in educational public policy were discussed.
Bozlak, Christine Taggart; Kelley, Michele A
Because of the harmful effects of secondhand smoke, communities are organizing to pass clean indoor air policies. With youth being considered one of the most vulnerable populations to this health hazard, it can be strategic to campaigns and beneficial to the youth's development to involve them in efforts to control this toxin. However, youth participation in health campaigns is limited because of barriers inherent in these initiatives. This article presents lessons learned from a qualitative case study on the youth involvement in a successful local clean indoor air campaign. Through the analysis of semistructured interviews with the adult members of the campaign, group interviews and questionnaire completion by the youth members of the campaign, and additional insight made possible by participant observation, recommendations are provided to engage and sustain youth involvement in local public health initiatives.
Little, Mark Douglas
The purpose of this study was to find predictors of academic success, persistence, retention, and completion for students enrolled in community college developmental education mathematics courses utilizing an accelerated emporium model learning environment. Instructional practices have been shown to have a powerful impact on the desire and…
Tolley, Patricia Ann Separ
The purpose of this correlational study was to examine the effects of a residential learning community and enrollment in an introductory engineering course to engineering students' perceptions of the freshman year experience, academic performance, and persistence. The sample included students enrolled in a large, urban, public, research university…
The academic achievement, dropout rate, and demographics of students enrolled in traditional face-to-face and online courses at a community college located in the suburbs of New York State were examined. Courses offered during the fall 2010 semester in both instructional delivery models were selected from arts and humanities, behavioral science,…
Strickland, C June; Logsdon, Rebecca G; Hoffman, Barbara; Hill, Teresa Garrett
American Indian tribes shoulder a heavy burden in health inequities and recognize the value of partnerships with academic institutions. This article describes a unique education model developed through a partnership between a school of nursing and 2 Pacific Northwest tribes to provide clinical education for students. Over 3 years, students and faculty worked with 2 tribal communities to design research and implement education programs.
Nadasen, Denise; List, Alexandra
Students' re-enrollment in the subsequent semester after their first semester at a four-year institution is a strong predictor of retention and graduation. This is especially true for students who transfer from a community college to a four-year institution because of the many external or non-academic factors influencing a student's decision to…
Randolph, Terresa Shavawn
Using a qualitative design, this study offers an understanding of the lived experience of students with attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD), learning disability (LD), or traumatic brain injuries (TBI) who are integrating into an academic community within a higher education institution located in the southern United States. Additionally,…
Robles, Stacey Y.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of a freshman orientation course on the academic performance and retention of new community college students. The study was designed to obtain both qualitative and quantitative data. A survey was distributed to students who attended Coral College (a pseudonym), California, from the fall of…
Woo, Jennie H.
This study examines whether financial aid, specifically federal Pell grants, is associated with academic success for low-income community college students in California. Previous studies in this series of MPR Research Briefs have examined transfer patterns and the types of financial aid typically received by students in this sector. This report…
Foa, Edna B.; Hembree, Elizabeth A.; Cahill, Shawn P.; Rauch, Sheila A. M.; Riggs, David S.; Feeny, Norah C.; Yadin, Elna
Female assault survivors (N = 171) with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were randomly assigned to prolonged exposure (PE) alone, PE plus cognitive restructuring (PE/CR), or wait-list (WL). Treatment, which consisted of 9-12 sessions, was conducted at an academic treatment center or at a community clinic for rape survivors. Evaluations…
Knopf, John A.; Hahn, Robert A.; Proia, Krista K.; Truman, Benedict I.; Johnson, Robert L.; Muntaner, Carles; Fielding, Jonathan E.; Jones, Camara Phyllis; Fullilove, Mindy T.; Hunt, Pete C.; Qu, Shuli; Chattopadhyay, Sajal K.; Milstein, Bobby
Context Low-income and minority status in the United States are associated with poor educational outcomes, which, in turn, reduce the long-term health benefits of education. Objective This systematic review assessed the extent to which out-of-school-time academic (OSTA) programs for at-risk students, most of whom are from low-income and racial/ethnic minority families, can improve academic achievement. Because most OSTA programs serve low-income and ethnic/racial minority students, programs may improve health equity. Design Methods of the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used. An existing systematic review assessing the effects of OSTA programs on academic outcomes (Lauer et al 2006; search period 1985–2003) was supplemented with a Community Guide update (search period 2003–2011). Main Outcome Measure Standardized mean difference. Results Thirty-two studies from the existing review and 25 studies from the update were combined and stratified by program focus (ie, reading-focused, math-focused, general academic programs, and programs with minimal academic focus). Focused programs were more effective than general or minimal academic programs. Reading-focused programs were effective only for students in grades K-3. There was insufficient evidence to determine effectiveness on behavioral outcomes and longer-term academic outcomes. Conclusions OSTA programs, particularly focused programs, are effective in increasing academic achievement for at-risk students. Ongoing school and social environments that support learning and development may be essential to ensure the longer-term benefits of OSTA programs. PMID:26062096
Kennedy, Betty M; Prewitt, T Elaine; McCabe-Sellers, Beverly; Strickland, Earline; Yadrick, Kathy; Threadgill, Paula; Champagne, Catherine M; McGee, Bernestine B; Bogle, Margaret L
Collaboratively, the nutritional health problems of the Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) region were examined and opportunities identified for conducting research interventions. To combat the nutritional health problems in the LMD, community residents yielded to a more comprehensive and participatory approach known as community-based participatory research (CBPR). Community residents partnered with academic researchers and other organizational entities to improve the overall quality of diet and health in their respective communities using CBPR. The collaborative work in the LMD focused on interventions conducted in each of three specific communities across three states: Marvell, Arkansas (Marvell NIRI), and its surrounding public school district; Franklin Parish in Louisiana (Franklin NIRI); and the city of Hollandale, Mississippi (Hollandale NIRI). This paper examined some of the research interventions conducted in Franklin, Hollandale, and Marvell NIRI respectively, how leadership emerged from each of these communities, and lessons learned as a result of the CBPR model.
Lardeux, Frédéric; Depickère, Stéphanie; Aliaga, Claudia; Chavez, Tamara; Zambrana, Lilian
Background Triatoma infestans is the main vector of Chagas disease in the southern cone countries. Present control strategies based on indoor and outdoor residual insecticide spraying are not sufficient to control disease transmission, particularly in Bolivia. Techniques based on the management of the human environment may be good alternatives or supplements. Methods Social and entomological surveys were carried out in four villages of Bolivia situated in the dry inter-Andean Valleys and the Chaco region. Risk factors for house infestation by T. infestans were identified, and an eco-health intervention based on education and community participation was carried out to reduce the risks of house infestation. It consisted of implementing simple and low cost vector control techniques such as coating of mud walls, cleaning activities and removal of poultry that enter rooms to lay eggs. Results The eco-health intervention significantly reduced the number of infested bedrooms, the mean abundance of T. infestans in bedrooms and beds, especially in the Chaco region. Mud wall coating was well accepted and could be proposed as a supplementary tool to the National Program of Chagas Disease Control to enhance the effects of insecticide sprayings. Conclusions Even if cleaning activities were still neglected, community participation proved to be effective in reducing house infestation. PMID:25604766
Goldberg-Freeman, Clara; Kass, Nancy; Gielen, Andrea; Tracey, Patricia; Bates-Hopkins, Barbara; Farfel, Mark
Health researchers are increasingly interested in how best to engage communities in their health-related research studies. To help determine how researchers have interacted with community members in their research, we conducted a survey of full-time faculty from the Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions regarding researchers' beliefs and experiences with community-based research. Approximately 41% of respondents who conducted human subject studies had enrolled local residents in their research. Researchers whose studies were based in the surrounding community were significantly more likely to involve community members in all stages of their research (e.g., selection of the problem, project planning, data collection, interpretation and dissemination of results, or developing an intervention) than were faculty whose studies enrolled community members as research participants but whose studies were not set in the community. Over 90% of all faculty respondents agree that community involvement improves the relevance of their research, although almost 60% had not done so. Most faculty value community involvement, but they want more institutional support for such activities and they seek better skills to involve community. Few studies have surveyed researchers who enroll community members as research participants to document practices regarding community involvement in the research process. Given that the majority (73.6%) of faculty responded that they intend to include local residents in their upcoming studies, future research to evaluate interventions designed to facilitate community involvement, especially in the inner city, would help stakeholders identify best practices for involving and engaging communities in health research.
Objective. Epidemiologic and community health studies of traffic-related air pollution and childhood asthma have been limited by resource intensive exposure assessment techniques. The current study utilized a novel participant-based approach to collect air monitoring data f...
Pribadi, W; Muzaham, F; Santoso, T; Rasidi, R; Rukmono, B; Soeharto
A study was undertaken to involve a hyperendemic community in Berakit village near Tanjung Pinang to participate actively in the control of malaria. Weekly chemoprophylaxis with chloroquine was given to all villagers of RK I with a population of about 700 for a period of one year. Nine cadres were selected from the community by the villagers for the distribution of the drug and coordinated by the head of the village. About 14-19 families were supervised by one cadre who was responsible for the weekly distribution of the drug to these families. The weekly dosage of the drug was adjusted according to age. The drug was taken in the presence of the cadres to assure the intake, and recorded by each cadre. The results showed that 93.7% of the villagers have taken the drug regularly. The remaining 6.3% of them showed refusal and irregular intake, or moved to another village during the period of prophylaxis. Although the drug has a bitter taste, most of the children were able to tolerate it. In general, mild side effects were reported and infrequently observed. Implementation of community participation to control malaria in this village showed good results which was reflected in the results of the malariometric surveys carried out before and after one year chemoprophylaxis. The spleen rate of about 600 villagers of RK I examined was 54.3% and the parasite rate 13.2% before the drug intervention. After one year chemoprophylaxis the spleen rate decreased to 21.7% and the parasite rate to 4.5% showing a significant difference.
Merrill, Jacqueline; Hripcsak, George
In order to assess the mission and strategic direction in an academic department of biomedical informatics, we used social network analysis to identify patterns of common interest among the department's multidisciplinary faculty. Data representing faculty and their self-identified research methods and expertise were analyzed by applying a network modularity algorithm to detect community structure. Three distinct communities of practice emerged: empirical discovery and prediction; human and organizational factors; and information management. This analysis made intuitive sense and served the goal of stimulating discussion from new perspectives. The findings will guide future direction and faculty recruitment efforts. Communities of practice present a novel view of interdisciplinarity in biomedical informatics.
de Araujo Guerra Grangeia, Tiago; de Jorge, Bruno; Franci, Daniel; Martins Santos, Thiago; Vellutini Setubal, Maria Silvia; Schweller, Marcelo; de Carvalho-Filho, Marco Antonio
Background Emergency clerkships expose students to a stressful environment that require multiple tasks, which may have a direct impact on cognitive load and motivation for learning. To address this challenge, Cognitive Load Theory and Self Determination Theory provided the conceptual frameworks to the development of a Moodle-based online Emergency Medicine course, inspired by real clinical cases. Methods Three consecutive classes (2013–2015) of sixth-year medical students (n = 304) participated in the course, during a curricular and essentially practical emergency rotation. “Virtual Rounds” provided weekly virtual patients in narrative format and meaningful schemata to chief complaints, in order to simulate real rounds at Emergency Unit. Additional activities such as Extreme Decisions, Emergency Quiz and Electrocardiographic challenge offered different views of emergency care. Authors assessed student´s participation and its correlation with their academic performance. A survey evaluated students´ opinions. Students graduating in 2015 answered an online questionnaire to investigate cognitive load and motivation. Results Each student produced 1965 pageviews and spent 72 hours logged on. Although Clinical Emergency rotation has two months long, students accessed the online course during an average of 5.3 months. Virtual Rounds was the most accessed activity, and there was positive correlations between the number of hours logged on the platform and final grades on Emergency Medicine. Over 90% of students felt an improvement in their clinical reasoning and considered themselves better prepared for rendering Emergency care. Considering a Likert scale from 1 (minimum load) to 7 (maximum load), the scores for total cognitive load were 4.79±2.2 for Virtual Rounds and 5.56±1.96 for real medical rounds(p<0,01). Conclusions A real-world inspired online course, based on cognitive and motivational conceptual frameworks, seems to be a strong tool to engage students in
Foster, Jennifer W; Chiang, Fidela; Burgos, Rosa I; Cáceres, Ramona E; Tejada, Carmen M; Almonte, Asela T; Noboa, Frank R M; Perez, Lidia J; Urbaez, Marilín F; Heath, Annemarie
There are multiple challenges in adhering to the principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR), especially when there is a wide range of academic preparation within the research team. This is particularly evident in the analysis phase of qualitative research. We describe the process of conducting qualitative analysis of data on community perceptions of public maternity care in the Dominican Republic, in a cross-cultural, CBPR study. Analysis advanced through a process of experiential and conversational learning. Community involvement in analysis provided lay researchers an imperative for improvements in maternity care, nurses a new perspective about humanized care, and academic researchers a deeper understanding of how to create the conditions to enable conversational learning.