Martirosyan, Nara M.; Hwang, Eunjin; Wanjohi, Reubenson
Using an ex-post facto, non-experimental approach, this research examined the impact of English language proficiency and multilingualism on the academic performance of international students enrolled in a four-year university located in north central Louisiana in the United States. Data were collected through a self-reported questionnaire from 59…
Freberg, Miranda E.
The purpose of the study was to investigate how English language proficiency is related to teacher judgments of students' academic and interpersonal competence. It was hypothesized that English Language Learner (ELL) students would generally be perceived as having weaker academic and interpersonal skills than their non-ELL counterparts regardless…
Choi, Ick Kyu
At the University of California, Los Angeles, the Test of Oral Proficiency (TOP), an internally developed oral proficiency test, is administered to international teaching assistant (ITA) candidates to ensure an appropriate level of academic oral English proficiency. Test taker performances are rated live by two raters according to four subscales.…
Language proficiency constitutes a crucial barrier for prospective international teaching assistants (ITAs). Many US universities administer screening tests to ensure that ITAs possess the required academic oral English proficiency for their TA duties. Such ITA screening tests often elicit a sample of spoken English, which is evaluated in terms of…
Guglielmi, R. Sergio
The hypothesis that native language (L1) proficiency promotes English acquisition and overall academic achievement, a key theoretical assumption underlying bilingual education, was tested using latent growth modeling of data from 899 limited-English-proficient (LEP) eighth graders who were followed for 12 years in the National Education…
Dev, Smitha; Qiqieh, Sura
The present study aims to find out the relationship between English Language proficiency, self-esteem, and academic achievement of the students in Abu Dhabi University (ADU). The variables were analyzed using "t" test, chi-squire and Pearson's product moment correlation. In addition, Self-rating scale, Self-esteem inventory and Language…
Green, James A.
Non-local ethnicity or nationality and lower English proficiency have been linked with poor performance in health professional education. This study sought to compare the relative contributions of ethnicity and English proficiency, and to do so in a context where students had not been selected via interviews or some other proxy for language…
Shneyderman, Aleksandr; Abella, Rodolfo
This study was conducted to explore the effects of a two-way immersion bilingual program on maintenance/acquisition of Spanish-language proficiency and on reading and mathematics achievement in English over a period of 4 academic years. The researchers used Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) techniques to compare the effects of two different…
Romhild, Anja; Kenyon, Dorry; MacGregor, David
This study examined the role of domain-general and domain-specific linguistic knowledge in the assessment of academic English language proficiency using a latent variable modeling approach. The goal of the study was to examine if modeling of domain-specific variance results in improved model fit and well-defined latent factors. Analyses were…
Hopes, Diana L.
The intent of this study was to examine predictor variables significant in developing English Language Learners' (ELLs) English language proficiency skills and academic achievement in reading, math, and writing. Using a sequential mixed methods design, the study sought to unveil how state and federal mandates in assessments and programmatic…
Kaliyadan, Feroze; Thalamkandathil, Nazer; Parupalli, Srinivas Rao; Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Balaha, Magdy Hassan; Al Bu Ali, Waleed Hamad
Introduction: All medical schools in Saudi Arabia have English as the primary official medium of instruction. Most of the high school education, however, is delivered in Arabic and hence the transition to an English based learning environment tends to be difficult for some students. Our study aims to correlate English language proficiency with academic performance among medical students in their preparatory year. Methods: A cross-sectional study design was used. Test scores of 103 preparatory year students (54 female and 49 male) were analyzed after the students completed an English language course and medical introductory course in their preparatory year. The total score obtained in the English course assessment was compared to each component of the medical content assessment. Results: A significantly positive correlation (Spearman's Rho, at 0.01 levels) was seen between the scores of the English exam and the written exam (P <0.001) and the oral exam (P = −0.003) parts respectively of the medical examination. Significant correlation with the English exam score was not obtained for the other components of the medical assessment, namely; student assignments, presentations and portfolios. Conclusion: English language proficiency is an important factor in determining academic proficiency of medical students in our college at the preparatory year level. PMID:26629471
Studies have been conducted to determine the impact of English language on the academic achievement of international students in higher education institutions in the United States. The results of these investigations have been varied and at times contradictory. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to investigate studies from 1987-2009 that…
Frantz, Roger S.; Bailey, Alison L.; Starr, Laura; Perea, Luis
The current focus across the U.S. on student college and career readiness standards makes clear that both instruction and assessment of academic English will continue to be important for school-age English learner (EL) students. This article presents an overview and summary of key literature on academic language (usually academic English);…
Since 2000, the General English Proficiency Test, a newly developed test of English, has been phased in by the Language Training and Testing Center in Taiwan. It has become the most universally used test of English in Taiwan, a fact that can be evidenced by its aggregate number of registered test takers. This article first describes the…
Carhill, Avary; Suarez-Orozco, Carola; Paez, Mariela
This study aims to increase understanding of factors that account for academic English language proficiency in a sample of 274 adolescent first-generation immigrant students from China, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Central America, and Mexico. Previous research has shown the importance of English language proficiency in predicting academic…
Kiany, G. Reza
This study sought to determine whether extroversion or introversion has anything to do with English-as-a-foreign-language learning and content-subject learning of Iranian non-English major postgraduates currently studying in the United Kingdom. Subjects were given the Persian form of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire twice and asked to report…
Padilla, Amado M.; Fan, Lorraine; Xu, Xiaoqiu; Silva, Duarte
A Mandarin/English two-way immersion elementary program is described from its inception and implementation through the fifth grade, the culminating year of the program. All students in all grades were assessed on their oral/listening, reading, and writing performance in Mandarin using program-created assessment measures. Fifth-grade students also…
O'Malley, J. Michael
The 1978 Children's English and Services Study (United States) contains five findings for limited English proficient children aged 5-14, e.g., one-third are served by bilingual education/English (second language); Federal and state support for special types of instruction are received predominantly by limited English proficient children within the…
Rooy, Susan Coetzee-Van
More and more learners of English from the Expanding Circle are travelling to Outer Circle contexts to learn English or to improve their English proficiency. This is also the case for some Korean families who moved to Potchefstroom, South Africa. This phenomenon poses challenges in terms of assessment of English proficiency, and emphasizes the…
Although researchers often acknowledge the importance of linguistically rich interactions in the academic language development of emergent bilingual students, few studies have explicitly examined the role of linguistic peer support and the underlying structure of social relationships in the second language learning experiences and outcomes of…
Coombe, Christine; Davidson, Peter
The Common Educational Proficiency Assessment (CEPA) is a large-scale, high-stakes, English language proficiency/placement test administered in the United Arab Emirates to Emirati nationals in their final year of secondary education or Grade 12. The purpose of the CEPA is to place students into English classes at the appropriate government…
Assessment and Accountability Comprehensive Center, 2009
The "Framework for High-Quality English Language Proficiency Standards and Assessments" (Framework) was conceived as a critical tool in states' efforts to ensure that their English learner (EL) students achieve English language proficiency (ELP) and, also, achieve at high levels academically. Building on the best knowledge from relevant research…
Min, Lau Sing; Sungif, Nur Atiqah Md.; Yusup, Farah Nabillah Mior
In the Malaysian education system, English has always played an important role. In acknowledging its importance, Malaysian University English Test (MUET) has been introduced to enable continued emphasis on this role. MUET has been made compulsory for those who wish to pursue a first degree programme in local universities. This study aims to…
Benner, Aprile D.; Lau, Anna S.; Kim, Su Yeong
This study examined the role of adolescents’ and mothers’ self-reports of English and heritage language proficiency in youth’s academic and emotional adjustment among 444 Chinese American families. Adolescents who were proficient in English tended to exhibit higher reading achievement scores, math achievement scores, and overall GPA. Mothers who were English proficient tended to have children with higher academic achievement and fewer depressive symptoms. Results also indicated that adolescents’ heritage language maintenance was associated with positive adjustment, particularly amongst foreign-born youth and for youth whose parents were highly proficient in the heritage language. Mother-adolescent match in heritage language proficiency was related to higher math achievement scores and overall GPA. Additionally, higher heritage language proficiency was associated with fewer depressive symptoms for foreign-born but not U.S.-born youth. Overall, the findings suggest that proficiency in both the English and heritage language may confer advantages to Chinese American youth. PMID:19636729
Liu, Lisa L; Benner, Aprile D; Lau, Anna S; Kim, Su Yeong
This study examined the role of adolescents' and mothers' self-reports of English and heritage language proficiency in youth's academic and emotional adjustment among 444 Chinese American families. Adolescents who were proficient in English tended to exhibit higher reading achievement scores, math achievement scores, and overall GPA. Mothers who were English proficient tended to have children with higher academic achievement and fewer depressive symptoms. Results also indicated that adolescents' heritage language maintenance was associated with positive adjustment, particularly amongst foreign-born youth and for youth whose parents were highly proficient in the heritage language. Mother-adolescent match in heritage language proficiency was related to higher math achievement scores and overall GPA. Additionally, higher heritage language proficiency was associated with fewer depressive symptoms for foreign-born but not U.S.-born youth. Overall, the findings suggest that proficiency in both the English and heritage language may confer advantages to Chinese American youth.
Chen, M C; Lin, Huey-Ju
Questionnaires were administered to 120 students. Cluster analysis was used to examine whether specific groups could be described by a writing self-efficacy scale, English writing anxiety scale, and a written General English Proficiency Test. Three clusters were observed. Demographic variables were compared for each cluster, including age, sex, program of study, years of English instruction, native language, and number of English speaking acquaintances. Efforts to reduce writing anxiety and promote writing self-efficacy could enhance writing scores of participants.
Biagini, Joyce; And Others
A revision of a manual first produced in 1980, this guide is designed to help local school districts in Minnesota meet the educational needs of their limited-English-proficient (LEP) students in academically and administratively expedient ways. The chapters in the manual, which correspond to topics pertinent to designing and maintaining an LEP…
Albers, Craig A.; Kenyon, Dorry M.; Boals, Timothy J.
Although numerous English language proficiency (ELP) measures currently exist, many were developed prior to the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB). These pre-NCLB measures typically focused on social language proficiency, whereas post-NCLB measures are linked to ELP standards and focus on academic language proficiency (ALP). ELP measures are…
Whiteside, Katie E; Gooch, Debbie; Norbury, Courtenay F
Children learning English as an additional language (EAL) often experience lower academic attainment than monolingual peers. In this study, teachers provided ratings of English language proficiency and social, emotional, and behavioral functioning for 782 children with EAL and 6,485 monolingual children in reception year (ages 4-5). Academic attainment was assessed in reception and Year 2 (ages 6-7). Relative to monolingual peers with comparable English language proficiency, children with EAL displayed fewer social, emotional, and behavioral difficulties in reception, were equally likely to meet curriculum targets in reception, and were more likely to meet targets in Year 2. Academic attainment and social, emotional, and behavioral functioning in children with EAL are associated with English language proficiency at school entry.
Liu, Lisa L.; Benner, Aprile D.; Lau, Anna S.; Kim, Su Yeong
This study examined the role of adolescents' and mothers' self-reports of English and heritage language proficiency in youth's academic and emotional adjustment among 444 Chinese American families. Adolescents who were proficient in English tended to exhibit higher reading achievement scores, math achievement scores, and overall GPA. Mothers who…
Akresh, Ilana Redstone; Massey, Douglas S.; Frank, Reanne
We develop and test a conceptual model of English language acquisition and the strength of the latter in predicting social and cultural assimilation. We present evidence that the path to English proficiency begins with exposure to English in the home country and on prior U.S. trips. English proficiency, then, has direct links to the intermediate migration outcomes of occupational status in the U.S., the amount of time in the U.S. since the most recent trip, and the co-ethnic residential context in the U.S. In turn, pre-migration characteristics and the intermediate characteristics work in tandem with English proficiency to determine social assimilation in the U.S., while cultural assimilation is primarily determined by pre-migration habits. A shift in focus to English use is desirable in studies of immigrant integration. PMID:24576636
Moore, Paul J.; Harrington, Michael
Policy-makers and practitioners in Australian higher education increasingly view English language proficiency (ELP) as a tripartite construct consisting of English proficiency for academic study, interpersonal communication, and more recently, the workplace. This paper examines this assumption and identifies the significant implications it has for…
Shneyderman, Aleksandr; Froman, Terry
The time it takes for an English Language Learner (ELL) to reach reading proficiency in English depends on the grade level of entry into the English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) program and on the student's initial English proficiency level. The summary table below presents the average years to English proficiency across different grade…
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship(s) between a student's Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP) levels of proficiency and Response to Intervention tier (RtI) assignment for academic instruction and the Texas English Language Proficiency Assessment System (TELPAS) scores. The CALP levels were derived from…
KAPLAN, ROBERT B.
THE AUTHOR BELIEVES THAT ENGLISH LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY SHOULD NOT BE MADE A COLLEGE ENTRANCE REQUIREMENT FOR FOREIGN STUDENTS. HE ALSO BELIEVES, HOWEVER, THAT INSTITUTIONS WHICH ARE NOT ABLE TO PROVIDE ADEQUATE TRAINING IN ENGLISH FOR FOREIGN STUDENTS SHOULD NOT ENCOURAGE THESE STUDENTS TO ENROLL. THE CONSORTIUM PLAN WHEREBY SCHOOLS WITH NO…
Guillen, Leonor; And Others
This resource book is a collection of articles, annotated references, and resource lists to supplement the accompanying handbook and trainer's guide for educators planning or working with English language programs for limited English proficient (LEP) students. The first part presents resources of interest to administrators adapting programs for a…
Sawir, Erlenawati; Marginson, Simon; Forbes-Mewett, Helen; Nyland, Chris; Ramia, Gaby
"International student security" refers to the international student's maintenance of a stable capacity for self-determining human agency. The article focuses on the role of English-language proficiency in the security of students from English as Foreign Language countries, drawing on evidence from a program of semistructured interviews…
Lin, Chih-Kai; Zhang, Jinming
Research on the relationship between English language proficiency standards and academic content standards serves to provide information about the extent to which English language learners (ELLs) are expected to encounter academic language use that facilitates their content learning, such as in mathematics and science. Standards-to-standards…
Haas, Eric; Tran, Loan; Huang, Min
When is the right moment to transition an English learner student from part-time participation in English language development classes into full-time participation in mainstream English-only classes? English learner students should be moved into full-time mainstream English-only classes when they are sufficiently fluent in English to be able to…
Science as a second language: Analysis of Emergent Bilinguals performance and the impact of English language proficiency and first language characteristics on the Colorado measures of academic success for science
Bruno, Joanna K.
In an age when communication is highly important and states across the nation, including Colorado, have adopted Common Core State Standards, the need for academic language is even more important than ever. The language of science has been compared to a second language in that it uses specific discourse patterns, semantic rules, and a very specific vocabulary. There is a need for educators to better understand how language impacts academic achievement, specifically concerning Emergent Bilinguals (EBs). Research has identified the need to study the role language plays in content assessments and the impact they have on EBs performance (Abedi, 2008b; Abedi, Hofestter & Lord, 2004; Abedi & Lord, 2001). Since language is the means through which content knowledge is assessed, it is important to analyze this aspect of learning. A review of literature identified the need to create more reliable and valid content assessments for EBs (Abedi, 2008b) and to further study the impact of English proficiency on EBs performance on standardized assessments (Solorzano, 2008; Wolf, & Leon, 2009). This study contributes to the literature by analyzing EBs performance on a state-level science content assessment, taking into consideration English language proficiency, receptive versus productive elements of language, and students' home language. This study further contributes by discussing the relationship between language proficiency, and the different strands of science (physical, life, and earth) on the state science assessment. Finally, this study demonstrates that home language, English language proficiency, and receptive and productive elements of language are predictive of EBs' achievement on the CMAS for science, overall and by strand. It is the blending of the social (listening and speaking) with the academic (reading and writing) that is also important and possibly more important.
Bosher, Susan; Rowekamp, Jenise
There has been a growing awareness and concern in recent years about the language proficiency and academic preparedness of refugee/immigrant students at the post-secondary level. Using this population at the General College, University of Minnesota, as subjects, this paper investigate's the relationship between English language proficiency, as…
International students represent a significant proportion of the college student population in the United States (Institute of International Education, 2015). They contribute to campus research, diversity, and the economy. In order to maintain these academic, cultural, and economic profits, universities should investigate the factors related to…
... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Limited English proficient. 300.27 Section 300.27... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.27 Limited English proficient. Limited English proficient has the meaning given the term in section 9101(25) of the ESEA. (Authority:...
... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Limited English proficient. 300.27 Section 300.27... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.27 Limited English proficient. Limited English proficient has the meaning given the term in section 9101(25) of the ESEA. (Authority:...
... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limited English proficient. 300.27 Section 300.27... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.27 Limited English proficient. Limited English proficient has the meaning given the term in section 9101(25) of the ESEA. (Authority:...
Miller, Rhonda D.; Katsiyannis, Antonis
How to address the educational needs of students with limited English proficiency (LEP) is a particularly challenging and often controversial endeavor. Failure to address the needs of students with LEP often results in denial of meaningful educational opportunities and leads to disproportionate representation in special education programs. This…
Giambo, Debra A.
The educational accountability systems of both the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 and the state of Florida (as of 1999) were modeled after Texas' system, despite its flaws. NCLB reaches for all students to achieve academic proficiency and designates students with limited English proficiency (LEP) as an important subgroup. As we work with…
Fass-Holmes, Barry; Vaughn, Allison A.
Many American universities require international applicants whose native language is not English to submit English proficiency exam scores presumably because of proficiency's potential to predict future academic success. The present study provides evidence, however, that such applicants can succeed academically despite struggling with English.…
Badgett, Kevin; Harrell, Scott; Carman, Carol A.; Lyles, Lance
In the performance-driven culture of education today, though arguments regarding the definition of student success abound, few argue its importance. This issue is complicated with an additional dimension for those who are learning English as a second language. For those students who lack proficiency in the English language, academic content must…
Gottlieb, Margo; Katz, Anne; Ernst-Slavit, Gisela
Teachers of English language learners in 21st-century classrooms face a daunting task. The nature of language is complex, learners' needs are diverse, academic content challenges students, and the demand for accountability is an educational reality. "Paper to Practice: Using the TESOL English Language Proficiency Standards in PreK-12 Classrooms"…
Henry, Denfield L.; Nistor, Nicolae; Baltes, Beate
Multiple studies propose that English proficiency dictates English language learners' (ELLs) performances on mathematics assessments. The current study investigates the predictive power of English proficiency on mathematics scores, while controlling for gender, socioeconomic status (SES), and grade level among ELLs at a south Florida elementary…
Validates an instrument for measuring non-natives' English-speaking proficiency, using Filipinos in the U.S. Navy. Shows significant correlations between test scores, the age at which English was first spoken, and military rank, suggesting an interaction between English-speaking proficiency and occupational advancement. (RL)
Malone, Margaret E.
This article presents a review of the Canadian Academic English Language (CAEL) Assessment, a high stakes standardized test of the English language. It is a topic-based test that integrates listening, reading, writing and speaking. The test is designed to describe the level of English language proficiency of test takers planning to study at…
Batalova, Jeanne; Fix, Michael
This article examines the 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL) to develop a profile of immigrant adults with varying levels of oral English proficiency. The NAAL data on adult limited English proficient (LEP) immigrants are used here to examine their education levels, workforce involvement, incomes, use of public benefits,…
Lee, Okhee; Buxton, Cory A.
Despite the expectation that all students should achieve high academic standards, content area instruction and English for speakers of other languages instruction for English language learners (ELLs) have traditionally been conceptualized as separate domains, resulting in educational inequities for ELLs. This is because effective instruction to…
Freeman, Donald; Katz, Anne; Garcia Gomez, Pablo; Burns, Anne
The expansion of English teaching in state education systems places increasing demands on English language teachers and how they are trained. A major thrust of these efforts has focused on improving teachers' English language proficiency. This expectation is manifested in policy and pedagogical directives that teachers "teach English in…
The study addresses the degree of transfer of literacy dimensions of academic proficiency (AP), that is, reading comprehension and writing, across three languages--Russian (L1), Hebrew (L2), and English (L3)--and investigates whether a common conceptual source underlies the linguistic and cognitive operations of the trilingual learner (Grosjean,…
Burnham-Massey, Laurie; Pina, Marilyn
Examines the effects of bilingual instruction on English academic achievement of limited English proficient (LEP) students. Finds that bilingual education is an effective instructional program for LEP students. (MG)
Johnson, C. Michael
Mathematics proficiency of English language learners (ELLs) on the Maryland School Assessments (MSA) for mathematics continues to lag behind the proficiency level of students who are proficient English speakers. The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a statistically significant relationship between English language learner's…
Munoz, Marco A.; Clavijo, Catherine
While the number of limited English proficient (LEP) students has grown nationwide, these students' academic achievement levels have lagged significantly behind those of their language majority peers. Dropout rates among LEP students are also high. The Newcomer Program within Kentucky's Jefferson County Public Schools is a full-day transitional…
Goda, Yoshiko; Yamada, Masanori; Matsuda, Takeshi; Kato, Hiroshi; Saito, Yutaka; Miyagawa, Hiroyuki
Our research project focuses on learning strategies and motivation among academic procrastinators in computer assisted language learning (CALL) settings. In this study, we aim to compare them according to students' levels of English proficiency. One hundred and fourteen university students participated in this research project. Sixty-four students…
Texas Education Agency, Austin.
A study by the Texas Education Agency examined the variables contributing to the academic success of economically disadvantaged and language minority students. Data were collected from seven high-achieving elementary schools with high poverty rates and high percentages of limited English proficient (LEP) students via teacher questionnaires;…
Dowdy, Erin; Dever, Bridget V.; DiStefano, Christine; Chin, Jenna K.
Students with limited English proficiency (LEP) make up one of the fastest growing segments of the student population; however, LEP status is often related to poor academic and behavioral outcomes. Teacher-reported behavioral rating scales can be informative measurements to screen and identify students at risk for behavioral and emotional…
Cons, Andrea M.
This study explores the following research question: How do secondary English learners (ELs) and Re-designated fluent English proficient students (RFEPs) use academic words in analytical writing in comparison to native English speakers (NESs)? It highlights previously overlooked differences in academic word use in the writing of students who are…
Mojica, Tammy C.
The purpose of the study was to compare the relationship between grade eight English language proficiency as measured by the ACCESS for ELL's assessment (Assessing Comprehension and Communication in English State to State for English Language Learners) and achievement test outcomes on the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment, a state mandated…
Chan, Donna M.
Addresses the need for appropriate curricula for Limited English Proficient (LEP) exceptional Chinese children. Discusses immigration history, demographics, legal issues, culture, language, and learning style to provide a context for understanding student needs. (JHZ)
Alderman, Donald L.
Puerto Rican students took the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT), the Prueba de Aptitud Academica (PAA), and the Pruebas de Aprovechamiento Academico. The strength of the relationship between scores on the SAT given in English and the PAA given in Spanish increased as proficiency in English as a second language increased (Author/BW)
Henry, Denfield L.
English language learners (ELLs) at a south Florida elementary school have consistently struggled with the mathematics segment of the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test. Examining the relationship between ELLs' mathematics scores and English proficiency might provide local educators with ideas for reversing a downward trend in ELLs' mathematics…
Wolf, Mikyung Kim; Farnsworth, Tim; Herman, Joan
The No Child Left Behind Act has made a great impact on states' policies in assessing English language learner (ELL) students. The legislation requires states to develop or adopt sound assessments to validly measure the ELL students' English language proficiency (ELP). Although states have moved rapidly to meet these requirements, they face…
Kieffer, Michael J.
Educators have growing concerns about students who learn to read proficiently by third grade but fall behind in later grades. This study investigates the prevalence of "late-emerging" reading difficulties among English language learners (ELLs) and native English speakers from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds, using longitudinal data on…
Hong, O S
1. As the population of adults with limited English proficiency plays an increasingly important role in the United States workplaces, there has been a growing recognition that literacy and limited English skills affect health and safety training programs. 2. Several important principles can be used as the underlying framework to guide teaching workers with limited English proficiency: clear and vivid way of teaching; contextual curriculum based on work; using various teaching methods; and staff development. 3. Two feasible strategies were proposed to improve current situation in teaching health and safety to workers with limited English proficiency in one company: integrating safety and health education with ongoing in-house ESL instruction and developing a multilingual video program. 4. Successful development and implementation of proposed programs requires upper management support, workers' awareness and active participation, collaborative teamwork, a well structured action plan, testing of pilot program, and evaluation.
Cheatham, Gregory A.; Jimenez-Silva, Margarita; Wodrich, David L.; Kasai, Masahiro
The purpose of this analog study was to determine if increased access to information about a hypothetical English Language Learner (ELL) students' language proficiency increased preservice teachers' recognition that limited English proficiency is the likely cause of student difficulties. We find that the provision of increasing levels of…
TESOL International Association, 2006
Using TESOL's 1997 landmark publication, ESL Standards for Pre-K-12 as a building block, the new 2006 PreK-12 English Language Proficiency Standards expands the scope and breadth of ESL content standards: (1) Connects language to the specific core curriculum content areas of English language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies; (2)…
Troia, Gary A.
This study evaluated the efficacy of the computer-assisted intervention program known as Fast ForWord Language? in a sample of migrant students in Grades 1 through 6 who were native Spanish speakers. Fast ForWord Language? combines intensive training in multiple receptive English language skills with adaptive acoustic waveform lengthening and…
Halle, Tamara; Hair, Elizabeth; Wandner, Laura; McNamara, Michelle; Chien, Nina
The development of English language learners (ELLs) was explored from kindergarten through eighth grade within a nationally representative sample of first-time kindergartners (N = 19,890). Growth curve analyses indicated that, compared to native English speakers, ELLs were rated by teachers more favorably on approaches to learning, self control, and externalizing behaviors in kindergarten and generally continued to grow in a positive direction on these social/behavioral outcomes at a steeper rate compared to their native English-speaking peers, holding other factors constant. Differences in reading and math achievement between ELLs and native English speakers varied based on the grade at which English proficiency is attained. Specifically, ELLs who were proficient in English by kindergarten entry kept pace with native English speakers in both reading and math initially and over time; ELLs who were proficient by first grade had modest gaps in reading and math achievement compared to native English speakers that closed narrowly or persisted over time; and ELLs who were not proficient by first grade had the largest initial gaps in reading and math achievement compared to native speakers but the gap narrowed over time in reading and grew over time in math. Among those whose home language is not English, acquiring English proficiency by kindergarten entry was associated with better cognitive and behavioral outcomes through eighth grade compared to taking longer to achieve proficiency. Multinomial regression analyses indicated that child, family, and school characteristics predict achieving English proficiency by kindergarten entry compared to achieving proficiency later. Results are discussed in terms of policies and practices that can support ELL children's growth and development.
Halle, Tamara; Hair, Elizabeth; Wandner, Laura; McNamara, Michelle; Chien, Nina
The development of English language learners (ELLs) was explored from kindergarten through eighth grade within a nationally representative sample of first-time kindergartners (N = 19,890). Growth curve analyses indicated that, compared to native English speakers, ELLs were rated by teachers more favorably on approaches to learning, self control, and externalizing behaviors in kindergarten and generally continued to grow in a positive direction on these social/behavioral outcomes at a steeper rate compared to their native English-speaking peers, holding other factors constant. Differences in reading and math achievement between ELLs and native English speakers varied based on the grade at which English proficiency is attained. Specifically, ELLs who were proficient in English by kindergarten entry kept pace with native English speakers in both reading and math initially and over time; ELLs who were proficient by first grade had modest gaps in reading and math achievement compared to native English speakers that closed narrowly or persisted over time; and ELLs who were not proficient by first grade had the largest initial gaps in reading and math achievement compared to native speakers but the gap narrowed over time in reading and grew over time in math. Among those whose home language is not English, acquiring English proficiency by kindergarten entry was associated with better cognitive and behavioral outcomes through eighth grade compared to taking longer to achieve proficiency. Multinomial regression analyses indicated that child, family, and school characteristics predict achieving English proficiency by kindergarten entry compared to achieving proficiency later. Results are discussed in terms of policies and practices that can support ELL children’s growth and development. PMID:22389551
... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How does a school identify a Limited English Proficient....134 How does a school identify a Limited English Proficient student? A student is identified as limited English proficient (LEP) by using a nationally recognized scientifically research-based test....
... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How does a school identify a Limited English Proficient....134 How does a school identify a Limited English Proficient student? A student is identified as limited English proficient (LEP) by using a nationally recognized scientifically research-based test....
... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true How does a school identify a Limited English Proficient....134 How does a school identify a Limited English Proficient student? A student is identified as limited English proficient (LEP) by using a nationally recognized scientifically research-based test....
... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Announcement of Funding Awards; Limited English Proficiency Initiative Program (LEPI... funding under the Notice of Funding Availability (NOFA) for the Limited English Proficiency Initiative... origin, are limited in the English proficiency (LEP). Each agency is to examine the services they...
... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How does a school identify a Limited English Proficient....134 How does a school identify a Limited English Proficient student? A student is identified as limited English proficient (LEP) by using a nationally recognized scientifically research-based test....
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does a school identify a Limited English Proficient....134 How does a school identify a Limited English Proficient student? A student is identified as limited English proficient (LEP) by using a nationally recognized scientifically research-based test....
Yu, Jin H.
A family literacy program designed for parents of preschool and elementary school children is described and evaluated. Participants were 20 Korean families in which the parents had limited English proficiency. Parents read with children and were instructed in the use of reading strategies that could be used at home. Various whole language…
Dodge, Diane T.; And Others
A handbook for teachers in small school districts who are faced with the need to include increasing numbers of students with limited English proficiency (LEP) in their regular classroom programs is presented. The handbook is designed to help teachers develop effective strategies to adapt curricula and instructional materials to meet this…
Wei, Meifen; Tsai, Pei-Chun; Chao, Ruth Chu-Lien; Du, Yi; Lin, Shu-Ping
The aim of this study was to examine the moderators of (a) general or cross-cultural advisory working alliances and (b) perceived English proficiency on the association between acculturative stress and psychological distress. A total of 143 East Asian international students completed an online survey. Results from a hierarchical regression…
Rodriguez, Cathi Draper; Higgins, Kyle
The number of children with Limited English Proficiency (LEP) in schools is increasing drastically. Included in this number are young children with LEP and developmental delays. This article provides information on second-language acquisition, details the type of programming used to educate children with LEP, and offers strategies to use when…
Firgens, Emily; Matthews, Hannah
The Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG), the largest source of federal funding for child care assistance available to states, provides low-income families with help paying for child care. Studies have shown that low-income LEP (limited English proficient), as well as immigrant families, are less likely to receive child care assistance.…
... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Limited English proficient. 300.27 Section 300.27 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION...
... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Limited English proficient. 300.27 Section 300.27 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION...
Solorzano, Ronald W.
The report and review of literature discusses instructional and assessment practices associated with limited-English-proficient (LEP) adults, and recommends that literacy providers use alternative forms of instruction and assessment for this population that are based on: (1) an explicit emphasis on writing; (2) use of the learner's own cultural…
Talebi, Seyed Hassan
General English (L2) proficiency and reading strategies are believed to be highly effective in successful reading performance. However, available studies rarely investigated the combined effects of these two variables on successful reading. To fill this gap, 78 university students were divided into four groups of different degrees of these two…
Shaul, Marnie S.
In school year 2003-2004, state data showed that the percentage of students with limited English proficiency scoring proficient on a state's language arts and mathematics tests was lower than the state's annual progress goals in nearly two-thirds of the 48 states for which data was obtained. To help these students progress academically, state and…
This study predicted the English proficiency of Korean students using the components of the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) and number of months spent in the formal study of English. There were 302 Korean students, ages 14-18, who were requested to answer the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) and an English ability…
Guo, Qian; Koretz, Daniel
The large number of limited English proficient (LEP) children in U.S. schools and the uncertainty about the impact of bilingual education versus English immersion on their achievement warrant rigorous investigation of the effects of "English immersion laws." We estimated the impact of "Question 2", the Massachusetts English…
Wu, Chia-Pei; Lin, Huey-Ju
This study utilized the Oxford Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) and an English writing anxiety scale to examine the relationship between learning strategies and English writing anxiety in 102 university-level English language learners (ELLs) with Limited English Proficiency (LEP) in a university in Taiwan. Kruskal Wallis Test…
Wolf, Mikyung Kim; Everson, Phil; Lopez, Alexis; Hauck, Maurice; Pooler, Emilie; Wang, Joyce
Currently, states are moving forward with developing or adopting new English language proficiency (ELP) assessments aligned with the new academic standards in order to meet accountability requirements. In this transition, it is essential to identify areas of improvement for current ELP assessment practices and discuss ways to implement effective…
Secada, Walter G.; And Others
This program information guide describes two approaches, Cognitively Guided Instruction (CGI) and Active Mathematics Teaching (AMT), for teaching academic skills in mathematics to limited English proficient (LEP) students. CGI is based on four related teacher competencies: knowing how specific mathematical content is organized in children's minds;…
Christensen, Laurene L.; Albus, Debra A.; Liu, Kristin K.; Thurlow, Martha L.; Kincaid, Aleksis
English language learners (ELLs) with disabilities are required to participate in all state and district assessments similar to their peers without disabilities. This includes assessments used for the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) Title I accountability purposes for demonstrating proficiency in academic content, assessments used…
Rosenthal, Judith W.
Between 1980 and 1990, the total number of Asian, Hispanic, American Indian, and foreign undergraduates increased by more than 50% at public and private, four-year and two-year colleges. Many of these students may be of limited English proficiency, suggesting that the traditional science lecture/lab format may need modification to incorporate the theory of second language acquisition as it pertains to the practice of content instruction. Various methods exist to improve science instruction for limited English proficient undergraduates. These included the adjunct and tutorial models, sheltered or bridge science instruction, faculty development, and science instruction in the students' native language. Any plan for science education reform at the collegiate level or for increasing minority participation in science must address the needs of the growing population of undergraduates who speak English as a second language.
English Learners, students who are not proficient in English and speak a non-English language at home, make up more than 10 percent of the nation's K-12 student body. Achieving proficiency in English for these students is a major goal of both state and federal education policy, motivating the provision of bilingual education policies. Using data…
Cook, Allison A.
The IDEA Oral Language Proficiency Test (IPT-I), forms C and D, aims to determine the level of English oral language proficiency as it relates to accepted levels of NonEnglish speaking (NES), limited English speaking (LES), and fluent English speaking (FES) designations in order to place students in an appropriate classroom setting. The test was…
Hrastinski, Iva; Wilbur, Ronnie B.
There has been a scarcity of studies exploring the influence of students' American Sign Language (ASL) proficiency on their academic achievement in ASL/English bilingual programs. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of ASL proficiency on reading comprehension skills and academic achievement of 85 deaf or hard-of-hearing signing…
Murray, Neil; Hicks, Margaret
As the university student body becomes ever more diverse, the place and nature of English language provision is coming under unprecedented scrutiny and is the object of greater regulation. Today, more than ever before, institutions of higher education are being called to account for the way in which they support this diverse population in respect…
... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; Limited English... translated materials and other programs that support the assistance of persons with limited English... Following Information Title of Proposal: Limited English Proficiency Initiative (LEPI) Program. OMB...
The purpose of this paper is to compare the efficiency of the core schema-based instruction (SBI) in learning English prepositions between two groups that were placed depending on learners' level of English proficiency. The SBI in the present study refers to a way of teaching in which the schematic core meaning of a given lexical item is provided.…
Kim, Jennifer Sun; Vanderwood, Michael L.; Lee, Catherine Y.
This study examined the predictive validity of curriculum-based measures in reading for Spanish-speaking English learners (ELs) at various levels of English proficiency. Third-grade Spanish-speaking EL students were screened during the fall using DIBELS Oral Reading Fluency (DORF) and Daze. Predictive validity was examined in relation to spring…
Goto, Kenichi; Maki, Hideki; Kasai, Chise
Maki, Wasada, and Hashimoto developed the Minimal English Test (MET), which is a five-minute English as a Second Language (ESL) test. The Maki Group has, since the development of the MET, investigated correlations between the scores on the MET and the scores on other ESL tests, the reliability of the MET, and what kind of ESL proficiency the MET…
This study investigates the relationship between proficiency in English and language-related attitudes among Swedish professionals at the English-speaking AstraZeneca R&D site in Molndal, Sweden. AstraZeneca is the result of a merger between a Swedish and a British pharmaceutical company, and the aim of the study is to see to what extent their…
Ochoa, Salvador Hector; And Others
A study of the language proficiency assessment practices of 859 school psychologists, when working with bilingual or limited English proficient students, found that 62 percent of school psychologists conducted their own assessments and most often used the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised or the Test de Vocabulario en Imagenes Peabody.…
Yang, Chin Wen; Sherman, Helene; Murdick, Nikki
The purpose of this research study was to investigate and classify particular categories of mathematical errors made by students with Limited English Proficiency. Participants included 15 general education teachers, two English as Second Language teachers, and 91 Limited English Proficiency students. General education teachers provided mathematics…
Kenyon, Dorry M.; MacGregor, David; Li, Dongyang; Cook, H. Gary
One of the mandates of the No Child Left Behind Act is that states show adequate yearly progress in their English language learners' (ELLs) acquisition of English language proficiency. States are required to assess ELLs' English language proficiency annually in four language domains (listening, reading, writing, and speaking) to measure their…
... English proficiency provide for the needs of those adults? 472.33 Section 472.33 Education Regulations of....33 How must projects that serve adults with limited English proficiency provide for the needs of those adults? (a) Projects serving adults with limited English proficiency or no English...
... English proficiency provide for the needs of those adults? 472.33 Section 472.33 Education Regulations of....33 How must projects that serve adults with limited English proficiency provide for the needs of those adults? (a) Projects serving adults with limited English proficiency or no English...
... English proficiency provide for the needs of those adults? 472.33 Section 472.33 Education Regulations of....33 How must projects that serve adults with limited English proficiency provide for the needs of those adults? (a) Projects serving adults with limited English proficiency or no English...
Mulkey, Sarah B.; Swearingen, Christopher J.; Melguizo, Maria S.; Reeves, Rachel N.; Rowell, Jacob A.; Gibson, Neal; Holland, Greg; Bhutta, Adnan T.; Kaiser, Jeffrey R.
Children with early surgery for congenital heart disease (CHD) are known to have impaired neurodevelopment; their performance on school-age achievement tests and their need for special education remains largely unexplored. The study aimed to determine predictors of academic achievement at school-age and placement in special education services among early CHD surgery survivors. Children with CHD surgery at <1 year of age from 1/1/1998─12/31/2003 at the Arkansas Children’s Hospital were identified. Out-of-state births and infants with known genetic and/or neurologic conditions were excluded. Infants were matched to an Arkansas Department of Education database containing standardized assessments at early school-age and special education codes. Predictors for achieving proficiency in literacy and mathematics and the receipt of special education were determined. 256 children who attended Arkansas public schools and had surgery as infants were included; 77.7% had either school-age achievement-test scores or special education codes of mental retardation or multiple disabilities. Scores on achievement tests for these children were 7–13% lower than Arkansas students (p<0.01). They had an 8-fold increase in the receipt of special education due to multiple disabilities (OR 10.66, 95% CI 4.23─22.35) or mental retardation (OR 4.96, 95% CI 2.6─8.64). Surgery after the neonatal period was associated with reduced literacy proficiency and cardiopulmonary bypass during the first surgery was associated with reduced mathematics proficiency. Children who had early CHD surgery were less proficient on standardized school assessments and many received special education. This is concerning since achievement- test scores at school-age are “real-world” predictors of long-term outcomes. PMID:24000004
Cons, Andrea Marie
This study investigated the specific ways secondary English learners (ELs) and redesignated fluent English-proficient learners (RFEPs) use academic vocabulary that assesses interpretive reading and analytical writing ability. The research examines how ELs and RFEPs, formerly ELs, differ in use and misuse of academic words. The study extends…
This preliminary study examined the effect of proficiency and study abroad experience on L2 learners' ability to produce routines. Participants were 64 Japanese students in an English-medium university in Japan. They were divided into three groups: Group 1 had lower proficiency with no study abroad experience, Group 2 had higher proficiency but no…
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; Limited English... transmission of data. Title of Proposal: Limited English Proficiency Initiative Program Reporting. OMB...
A review of selected research studies and practices on the teaching of literacy to limited English proficient (LEP) students suggests that there is considerable variation in the way literacy is defined. Several methods currently being used to develop LEP students' literacy skills are reviewed. Many LEP students continue to be taught reading skills…
Friedenberg, Joan E.
This critical review of the literature examines the characteristics and needs of limited English proficient (LEP) adults and the programs and services typically available to them. The complexities of the LEP population are explored first, including differences in education, English proficiency, labor market experience, and economic status.…
Jia, Fanli; Gottardo, Alexandra; Chen, Xi; Koh, Pohwee; Pasquarella, Adrian
The main focus of this study was to refine our understanding of the link between English proficiency and mainstream acculturation in adolescent Chinese immigrants. The sample consisted of 112 adolescents in grades 7-12 living in urban areas in southern Ontario, Canada. English proficiency was assessed individually using standardised tests of…
Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction, 2015
The "Washington English Language Proficiency Assessment" (WELPA) is a No Child Left Behind (NCLB)-compliant instrument that is used in Grades K-12 as a formal and standardized method of measuring language proficiency. The test results provide important information for classifying English Language Learners (ELLs) and subsequently for…
Mui, Ada C.; Kang, Suk-Young; Kang, Dooyeon; Domanski, Margaret Dietz
This study examined the association between English language proficiency and health outcomes in a regional probability sample (n = 205) of elderly Chinese and Korean immigrants. Data support that these two Asian ethnic subgroups differ in English proficiency and health-related quality of life. Chinese and Korean elders had poorer health than the…
The research reported here investigated the relationship between students' use of language learning strategies and their English proficiency, and then interpreted the data from two models in information-processing theory. Results showed that the students' English proficiency significantly affected their use of learning strategies, with high-level…
PEOPLE (Pruebas de Expresion Oral y Percepcion de la Lengua Espanol) was developed as a test to help distinguish between a language difference and a language deficit in non English proficient (NEP) and limited English proficient (LEP) elementary Hispanic students. PEOPLE was developed, pilot tested in 14 school districts in Los Angeles County with…
McConnell, Beverly B.
Begun in 1980 with 358 students, the Yakima (Washington) Public Schools' Basic Education for Limited English Proficient Students (BELEPS) Program served 1,250 grade K-12 students (94% Hispanic) in 1985. Its four programs were based on the degree of the students' English proficiency, and taught (1) reading only in Spanish, (2) reading in Spanish…
Smyk, Ekaterina; Restrepo, M. Adelaida; Gorin, Joanna S.; Gray, Shelley
Purpose: This study examined the development and validation of a criterion-referenced Spanish-English Language Proficiency Scale (SELPS) that was designed to assess the oral language skills of sequential bilingual children ages 4-8. This article reports results for the English proficiency portion of the scale. Method: The SELPS assesses syntactic…
This study compares native English, Spanish, Lao, Chinese, Korean, Vietnamese, Arabic, and all other ELL students over one, two, three, and four-year spans to determine if certain groups appear to face more difficulties in developing early reading mastery by third grade. This study also examines whether socio-economic status impacts the…
Newman, Aaron J; Tremblay, Antoine; Nichols, Emily S; Neville, Helen J; Ullman, Michael T
We investigated the influence of English proficiency on ERPs elicited by lexical semantic violations in English sentences, in both native English speakers and native Spanish speakers who learned English in adulthood. All participants were administered a standardized test of English proficiency, and data were analyzed using linear mixed effects (LME) modeling. Relative to native learners, late learners showed reduced amplitude and delayed onset of the N400 component associated with reading semantic violations. As well, after the N400 late learners showed reduced anterior negative scalp potentials and increased posterior potentials. In both native and late learners, N400 amplitudes to semantically appropriate words were larger for people with lower English proficiency. N400 amplitudes to semantic violations, however, were not influenced by proficiency. Although both N400 onset latency and the late ERP effects differed between L1 and L2 learners, neither correlated with proficiency. Different approaches to dealing with the high degree of correlation between proficiency and native/late learner group status are discussed in the context of LME modeling. The results thus indicate that proficiency can modulate ERP effects in both L1 and L2 learners, and for some measures (in this case, N400 amplitude), L1-L2 differences may be entirely accounted for by proficiency. On the other hand, not all effects of L2 learning can be attributed to proficiency. Rather, the differences in N400 onset and the post-N400 violation effects appear to reflect fundamental differences in L1-L2 processing.
Gorzycki, Meg; Howard, Pamela; Allen, Diane; Desa, Geoffrey; Rosegard, Erik
Academic reading proficiently is characterized by the ability to perform cognitive tasks associated with interpreting text. Researchers developed an externally validated Informal Academic Reading Proficiency Test to gauge undergraduates' academic reading proficiency. A cross-sectional study of 23 classes completed the reading test in 2014. This…
Coniam, David; Falvey, Peter
The "Language Proficiency Assessment for Teachers of English" (LPATE) is a test of standards of English language ability for Hong Kong primary and secondary school teachers of English. The impetus for the creation of the LPATE arose, in 1996, because of concerns in business and education communities over falling English language…
Education Service Center Region 4, Houston, TX.
A project was conducted to identify and evaluate available microcomputer software for use in helping limited English-proficient (LEP) and English-as-a-second-language (ESL) vocational students to develop career awareness and basic and employability skills. During the project, a literature review was completed in order to identify the special needs…
This paper presents the results of a survey of English Academic Style Manuals conducted between 2004 and 2007, designed to establish whether English Academic Discourse is sufficiently well-defined as a concept to be useful for translation research. Although, with the current emphasis on genre and disciplinary differences, it is fashionable today…
Thomas, Kevin J A
This study examines how household and parental-level determinants affect English proficiency among the children of African immigrants in the US. Within immigrant families, the study finds that children's level of proficiency has a stronger positive association with the proficiency of their mothers than with that of their fathers. Children's level of English proficiency significantly increases as the number other English-proficient children within their household increases. These impacts are stronger on the proficiency levels of first compared to second generation children. Levels of proficiency are, however, lowest among children in families from Portuguese speaking countries followed by their counterparts in families from countries where indigenous languages and Arabic are dominant. Although proficiency levels generally improve with increasing generational status, these improvements are smallest for children in families from Portuguese speaking countries. Except for children in families from English speaking countries, the largest improvements to proficiency with increasing generational status was observed among children in families from indigenous language backgrounds. PMID:25589796
Thorpe, Andy; Snell, Martin; Davey-Evans, Sue; Talman, Richard
There is an established, if weak, inverse relationship between levels of English language proficiency and academic performance in higher education. In response, higher education institutions (HEIs) insist upon minimum entry requirements concerning language for international applicants. Many HEIs now also offer pre-sessional English courses to…
van Goor, Roel; Heyting, Frieda
Differential academic language proficiency is an issue of major educational concern, bearing on problems varying from pupil performance, to social prospects, and citizenship. In this paper we develop a conception of the language-acquiring subject, and we discuss the consequences for understanding differential language proficiency in schools.…
This article investigates the effects of the maintenance of Japanese as a heritage language on English and overall academic achievement. The interrelationships among Japanese oral and writing proficiency, SAT I Verbal, SAT I, and high school grade point average (GPA) were examined. The participants were 31 second generation Japanese-American…
The globalisation of education has meant that English medium universities are enrolling unprecedented numbers of students for whom English is not a first language. This, in turn, has put increased pressure on institutions to ensure they have in place suitable measures for screening applicants in respect of their English language proficiency and…
Liu, Kristin K.; Anderson, Michael
This article studies accessible assessment design to large-scale English language proficiency assessments that are now mandatory for elementary and secondary English language learners in public schools. Using a modified Delphi approach, a panel of 33 experts from the areas of assessment, English as a second language or bilingual education, and…
Andrade, Maureen Snow
Higher education institutions in the United States recognize the economic and educational benefits of international students. Although non-native English speakers (NNES) submit evidence of English language proficiency for admission purposes, many struggle with the demands of English. This study draws on qualitative and quantitative data to provide…
Language learning motivation is one of vital factors which strongly correlates to the success in second language acquisition. Listening proficiency, as one of the basic language abilities, is paid much attention in English instruction, but presently the college English listening teaching is a weak link in English language teaching in China, which…
This article presents a preliminary investigation of the inter-relationships between English learners' tolerance for ambiguity, their classroom work styles, and their level of English proficiency. The study population comprised 46 English as a foreign language (EFL) students attending a technical college in Taiwan. The findings indicated that a…
Chen, Jun; Intaraprasert, Channarong
The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of reading strategies by the university Business English majors in relation to their levels of reading proficiency. The participants were 926 university Business English majors from 6 universities in southwest China. The Strategy Questionnaire for Business English Reading (SQBER) and the…
Admiraal, Wilfried; Westhoff, Gerard; de Bot, Kees
In this longitudinal study, we examined the effects of the use of English as the language of instruction in the first 4 years of secondary education in The Netherlands on the students' language proficiency in English and Dutch, and achievement in subject matters taught through English. Compared to a control group in regular secondary education,…
This paper examines the influence of age of immersion and proficiency in a second language on speech movement consistency in both a first and a second language. Ten monolingual speakers of English and 20 Bengali-English bilinguals (10 with low L2 proficiency and 10 with high L2 proficiency) participated. Lip movement variability was assessed based…
Shaul, Marnie S.
This report examines: how long children with limited English proficiency need to become proficient, what approaches are used to teach them, and what requirements the Office for Civil Rights (OCR) expects school districts to meet. Researchers reviewed available studies; talked to experts; reviewed Department of Education survey data; contacted 12…
Jee, Rebecca Y.
Voxy, an English-language-learning company, has developed a custom, in-house proficiency exam, the Voxy Proficiency Assessment (VPA), which is given to all learners at the beginning and end of their courses. Using Multinomial Logistic Regression (MLR), the impact of covariates, such as total learning activities completed and total number of…
Singh, Niharika; Mishra, Ramesh Kumar
Though many previous studies have reported enhanced cognitive control in bilinguals, few have investigated if such control is modulated by language proficiency. Here, we examined the inhibitory control of high and low proficient Hindi-English bilinguals on an oculomotor Stroop task. Subjects were asked to make a saccade as fast as possible towards…
San Miguel, Caroline; Rogan, Fran
The increase in nursing students for whom English is an additional language requires clinical facilitators to assess students' performance regarding clinical skills, nursing communication and English language. However, assessing language proficiency is a complex process that is often conflated with cultural norms and clinical skills, and facilitators may lack confidence in assessing English language. This paper discusses an evaluation of a set of guidelines developed in a large metropolitan Australian university to help clinical facilitators make decisions about students' English language proficiency. The study found that the guidelines were useful in helping facilitators assess English language. However, strategies to address identified language problems needed to be incorporated to enable the guidelines to also be used as a teaching tool. The study concludes that to be effective, such guidelines need embedding within a systematic approach that identifies and responds to students who may be underperforming due to a low level of English language proficiency.
A study of the effects of English language proficiency and scientific reasoning skills on the acquisition of science content knowledge of Hispanic English language learners and native English language-speaking students participating in grade 10 science classes
Torres, Hector Neftali, Sr.
lends support to Cummins' theoretical framework, which indicates that learning science content subject matter requires cognitive academic language proficiency (CALP). The study also indicates that CALP maybe the combination of high order English language proficiency and high levels of reasoning skills. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)
inadequate language proficiency was involved in some aviation accidents, the International Civil Aviation Organization ( ICAO ) is requiring its contracting...paired with its readback. Each readback was scored for accuracy. The ICAO Language Proficiency Rating Scale guided encoding English language
Rivera, Charlene, Ed.
Selected papers from a symposium that was a component of the National Institute of Education's Assessment of Language Proficiency of Bilingual Persons Project are presented. The project's objectives were to pursue basic research on the nature of language proficiency and its measurement and to provide teachers with current knowledge of language…
Itaya, Lisa E; Glassman, Paul; Gregorczyk, Suzanne; Bailit, Howard L
California is home to one-third of the U.S. population with limited English proficiency (LEP). Studies indicate that treating LEP patients without professional interpreters can result in miscommunication, decreased patient satisfaction, and serious medical errors. To address this problem, federal laws require all health care institutions receiving federal monies to provide interpretation services to their LEP patients at no cost to the patient. In this study we surveyed 122 students and fifty-six faculty members from the five California dental schools with respect to number, communication strategies, impact on education and clinic finances, and student and faculty perceptions regarding serving LEP patients in their clinics. Over 50 percent of students surveyed spoke a foreign language either fluently or moderately fluently. Students reported that about 10 percent of their patients required interpreters, that untrained interpreters (e.g., family, friends, bilingual students) worked adequately, but that LEP patients were more difficult to treat. To comply with federal laws, dental schools are confronted with the challenge of covering the cost of providing language services to LEP patients.
Razmjoo, Seyyed Ayatollah; Neissi, Sina
The relationship between identity processing styles and language proficiency in English as foreign language (EFL) was investigated among the Persian EFL learners. 266 Persian candidates taking part in a Ph.D. examination at Shiraz University took part. The Language Proficiency Test was used to measure language proficiency in English. The Identity Styles Inventory was used to measure normative, informational, and diffuse-avoidant identity processing styles. Relationships between normative and informational styles and language proficiency and its subscales (grammar, vocabulary, and reading) were positive and significant. Negative relationships between diffuse-avoidant style and language proficiency and its subscales (grammar, vocabulary, and reading) were observed. There were significant sex differences for diffuse-avoidant style and for vocabulary.
Bleakley, Hoyt; Chin, Aimee
Are U.S. immigrants’ English proficiency and social outcomes the result of their cultural preferences, or of more fundamental constraints? Using 2000 Census microdata, we relate immigrants’ English proficiency, marriage, fertility and residential location variables to their age at arrival in the U.S., and in particular whether that age fell within the “critical period” of language acquisition. We interpret the differences between younger and older arrivers as effects of English-language skills and construct an instrumental variable for English-language skills. Two-stage-least-squares estimates suggest that English proficiency increases the likelihood of divorce and intermarriage. It decreases fertility and, for some, ethnic enclave residence. (JEL J24, J12, J13, J61) PMID:20119509
Balakrishnan, Vamsi; Roper, Jamie; Cossey, Kori; Roman, Crystal; Jeanmonod, Rebecca
We examined triage nurses' assessment of patients' language proficiency compared to patients' self-reported proficiency and the impact of language discordance on door-to-room time and patient satisfaction. This was a prospective study of emergency department walk-in patients. Patients completed a survey in which they identified their language proficiency. On a Likert scale, patients ranked how well they felt they were understood and how satisfied they were with the triage process. Nurses completed surveys identifying the patient's primary language and how well they felt they understood the patient. Door-to-room times were obtained from medical records. 163 patients were enrolled. 66% of patients identified themselves as having good English proficiency, while 34% of patients had limited English proficiency. Nurses misclassified 27% of self-identified Spanish-speaking patients as being English proficient. Spanish-speakers felt less satisfied with triage than English-speakers (p < 0.01). There were no differences in door-to-room time. Triage nurses overestimate patient language skills. Spanish-speaking patients feel less satisfied with triage than English-speakers.
For second-language learners, "academic" language and "social" language are inextricably interwoven. Using examples from several primary classrooms, the author critiques current conceptualizations of second-language learning that distinguish between basic interpersonal communication skills and cognitive academic language proficiency (CALP). She…
Zhao, Huafang; Maina, Nyambura
This is one of several studies conducted by the Office of Shared Accountability that evaluated students identified as eligible for English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) services in Montgomery County (Maryland) Public Schools (MCPS). This study has two major purposes: (1) to examine English proficiency levels and progress in English…
Cho, Seokhee; Yang, Jenny; Mandracchia, Marcella
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Mentoring Mathematical Minds (M3) units on gains in mathematics achievement and English proficiency of mathematically promising English language learners (MPELLs) in the third grade. The M3 program, developed by Gavin et al., was implemented for 1 year with treatment MPELLs (n = 86) but not…
Douglas, Scott Roy; Kim, Marcia
English for Academic Purposes (EAP) programs designed to meet postsecondary English language proficiency requirements are a common pathway to higher education for students from non-English-speaking backgrounds. Grounded in a Canadian context, this study seeks to examine the prevalence of Task-Based Language Teaching (TBLT) in EAP, common examples…
Merlin, Shirley B.
The report describes the development and implementation of an English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) program for limited-English-proficient employees of the poultry industry. The program, undertaken at James Madison University (Virginia), was funded initially in 1991 by the federal government and has continued with funding from two poultry companies.…
Paez, Mariela M.
This article describes English language proficiency and bilingual verbal ability for a sample of 209 students aged 10 to 16 from three immigrant groups--Chinese, Dominican, and Haitian. Sources of data included structured student interviews, parent interviews, and individual language assessments. On average, students' English language proficiency…
The current study explored the effects of English as a foreign language (EFL) learners' proficiency level on English-medium instruction (EMI) in an online tutoring project. Sixteen Taiwanese college students (tutees) collaborated with preservice teachers (tutors) in the United States in an EMI online tutorial project. The online tutor-tutee…
Ahmad, Badrul Hisham; Jusoff, Kamaruzaman
Due to the alarming signals of declining proficiency level among English Language learners in Malaysia, this study set out to learn more about the learners' perceptions of the teachers' code-switching in English Language classrooms. The objectives of this study were to investigate: a) learners' perceptions of teachers' code-switching, b) the…
Kang, Hannah S.; Haddad, Eileen; Chen, Chuansheng; Greenberger, Ellen
Research Findings: Previous research has suggested that children from immigrant families face multiple stressors associated with acculturation. One component of acculturation that has not been widely explored in relation to children's socioemotional development is limited English proficiency (LEP). Given that English is the main language used in…
Guzman-Orth, Danielle; Laitusis, Cara; Thurlow, Martha; Christensen, Laurene
This paper is the second in a series from Educational Testing Service (ETS) that conceptualizes next-generation English language proficiency (ELP) assessment systems for K-12 English learners (ELs) in the United States.The first paper articulated a high-level conceptualization of next-generation ELP assessment systems (Hauck, Wolf, & Mislevy,…
The No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) requires that all public school students, including English language learners, achieve proficiency in reading, math, and science by 2014 as measured on state assessments. English language learners enrolled in public schools for the first time receive a 1-year deferment from these state assessments in subjects…
Terrazas, Aaron; Fix, Michael
With 1 in 10 children in US schools having limited English proficiency, school districts across the country face challenges in meeting the students' educational needs and finding enough qualified bilingual and English as a Second Language educators. This report identifies international teacher exchanges as an innovative, near-term strategy for…
Castro Garcés, Angela Yicely; López Olivera, Silvio Fabián
This paper reports on the findings of a research study carried out in the Bachelor of Arts in English program of study at a Colombian university. It aims at identifying the communication strategies used by four pre-service English teachers with A2 and B2 levels of language proficiency and, also, at examining how these communication strategies…
Beal, Carole R.; Adams, Niall M.; Cohen, Paul R.
The study focused on the relationship of English proficiency and math performance in a sample of high school students, including 47% English language learners (ELLs). Data sources included state math test scores, study-specific pre- and posttest scores, problem solving in an online math tutorial, and responses to a self-report assessment of…
Makewa, Lazarus Ndiku; Role, Elizabeth; Tuguta, Ellen
This paper looked at students' perceived level of English proficiency among Dodoma secondary schools in Tanzania. Factors like attitude, anxiety, classroom activities, motivation, and learning resources were considered as influencing English learning. The study was guided by three theories: Input Hypothesis, Interlanguage and Vygotsky's theory of…
Makewa, Lazarus Ndiku; Role, Elizabeth; Tuguta, Ellen
This paper looked at students' perceived level of English proficiency among Dodoma secondary schools in Tanzania. Factors like attitude, anxiety, classroom activities, motivation, and learning resources were considered as influencing English learning. The study was guided by three theories: Input Hypothesis, Inter-language and Vygotsky's theory of…
Some of the instructional techniques developed by the mathematics reform movement are effective with Limited English Proficient (LEP) students, whether instruction is provided in the student's native language or in English. The following assumptions lead to good instruction: (1) students are capable of learning advanced mathematics regardless of…
Royer, James M.; Carlo, Maria S.
Measures of linguistic competence for limited-English-proficient students are discussed. The results for 134 students in grades 3 through 6 from a study of the reliability and validity of the Sentence Verification Technique tests as measures of listening and reading comprehension performance in native languages and English are reported. (TJH)
Myartawan, I. Putu Ngurah Wage; Latief, Mohammad Adnan; Suharmanto
The present study aimed to investigate the correlation between learner autonomy psychologically defined in the study as a composite of behavioral intentions to do autonomous learning and self-efficacy in relation to autonomous learning, and English proficiency. The sample comprised 120 first semester English-majored students of a state university…
Pelayo, Jose Maria G., III; Kutschera, P. C.; Capili, Claire Ann P.
The study focuses on the background of Social Science and Humanities students (specifically in the course General Psychology) on their English education and competence. This research aims to identify the common factors of these students in terms of their English Proficiency. The students will answer survey questions that will give us information…
Cha, Kijoo; Goldenberg, Claude
This study examined how emergent bilingual children's English and Spanish proficiencies moderated the relationships between Spanish and English input at home (bilingual home language input [BHLI]) and children's oral language skills in each language. The sample comprised over 1,400 Spanish-dominant kindergartners in California and Texas. BHLI was…
O'Neill, Thomas R; Marks, Casey; Wendt, Anne
The purpose of this research was to provide sufficient information to the National Council of State Boards of Nursing (NCSBN) to make a defensible recommended passing standard for English proficiency. This standard was based upon the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL). A large panel of nurses and nurse regulators (N = 25) was convened to determine how much English proficiency is required to be minimally competent as an entry-level nurse. Two standard setting procedures were combined to produce recommendations for each panelist. In conjunction with collateral information, these recommendations were reviewed by the NCSBN Examination Committee, which decided upon an NCSBN recommended standard, a TOEFL score of 220.
Peets, Kathleen F; Bialystok, Ellen
This study examined the relationship between performance on standardized measures of language proficiency and conversational measures of the same features used in academic discourse among 24 monolingual and 25 bilingual kindergarteners. Academic discourse performance was considered for both its linguistic and its genre features in two discourse forms: narrative and explanation. Bilinguals performed more poorly than monolinguals on standardized measures of language proficiency, yet they performed similarly to monolinguals in the discourse-based linguistic and genre features. Moreover, genre features were more strongly related to linguistic features assessed through discourse than to standardized tests of these same features. These findings indicate that standardized measures of language proficiency underrepresent the abilities of bilingual children and that children's second language proficiency may be more accurately reflected in conversation.
Cooke, Nancy L.; Mackiewicz, Sara Moore; Wood, Charles L.; Helf, Shawnna
Parents with Limited English Proficiency (LEP) may find it difficult to become involved in their children's education due to their lack of English proficiency. The present study examined the effects of using audio prompting to assist mothers with LEP in teaching their preschool children English vocabulary. Mothers were trained to tutor their…
Estrada, Peggy; Wang, Haiwen
For English learners (ELs), reclassifying to fluent English proficient (RFEP) signifies reaching a milestone indicating the ability to function in mainstream classes without support. Little is known about the discrepancy between the number of ELs who meet reclassification criteria and the number who are reclassified as fluent English proficient,…
Chen, Jenn-Yeu; Su, Jui-Ju; Lee, Chao-Yang; O'Seaghdha, Padraig G.
Chinese and English speakers seem to hold different conceptions of time which may be related to the different codings of time in the two languages. Employing a sentence-picture matching task, we have investigated this linguistic relativity in Chinese-English bilinguals varying in English proficiency and found that those with high proficiency…
Charubusp, Sasima; Chinwonno, Apasara
This study investigated the effects of Academic Literacy-Based Intervention (ALI) on 30 undergraduate Thai university students' English reading proficiency. Based on the English reading proficiency test, these students were sub-classified into 2 groups, 15 in the high English reading proficiency group and 15 in the low English reading proficiency…
Wilbur, Ronnie B.
There has been a scarcity of studies exploring the influence of students’ American Sign Language (ASL) proficiency on their academic achievement in ASL/English bilingual programs. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of ASL proficiency on reading comprehension skills and academic achievement of 85 deaf or hard-of-hearing signing students. Two subgroups, differing in ASL proficiency, were compared on the Northwest Evaluation Association Measures of Academic Progress and the reading comprehension subtest of the Stanford Achievement Test, 10th edition. Findings suggested that students highly proficient in ASL outperformed their less proficient peers in nationally standardized measures of reading comprehension, English language use, and mathematics. Moreover, a regression model consisting of 5 predictors including variables regarding education, hearing devices, and secondary disabilities as well as ASL proficiency and home language showed that ASL proficiency was the single variable significantly predicting results on all outcome measures. This study calls for a paradigm shift in thinking about deaf education by focusing on characteristics shared among successful deaf signing readers, specifically ASL fluency. PMID:26864688
Hrastinski, Iva; Wilbur, Ronnie B
There has been a scarcity of studies exploring the influence of students' American Sign Language (ASL) proficiency on their academic achievement in ASL/English bilingual programs. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of ASL proficiency on reading comprehension skills and academic achievement of 85 deaf or hard-of-hearing signing students. Two subgroups, differing in ASL proficiency, were compared on the Northwest Evaluation Association Measures of Academic Progress and the reading comprehension subtest of the Stanford Achievement Test, 10th edition. Findings suggested that students highly proficient in ASL outperformed their less proficient peers in nationally standardized measures of reading comprehension, English language use, and mathematics. Moreover, a regression model consisting of 5 predictors including variables regarding education, hearing devices, and secondary disabilities as well as ASL proficiency and home language showed that ASL proficiency was the single variable significantly predicting results on all outcome measures. This study calls for a paradigm shift in thinking about deaf education by focusing on characteristics shared among successful deaf signing readers, specifically ASL fluency.
Scott, Jessica A; Hoffmeister, Robert J
For many years, researchers have sought to understand the reading development of deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) students. Guided by prior research on DHH and hearing students, in this study we investigate the hypothesis that for secondary school DHH students enrolled in American Sign Language (ASL)/English bilingual schools for the deaf, academic English proficiency would be a significant predictor of reading comprehension alongside ASL proficiency. Using linear regression, we found statistically significant interaction effects between academic English knowledge and word reading fluency in predicting the reading comprehension scores of the participants. However, ASL remained the strongest and most consistent predictor of reading comprehension within the sample. Findings support a model in which socio-demographic factors, ASL proficiency, and word reading fluency are primary predictors of reading comprehension for secondary DHH students.
Crane, Eric W.; Barrat, Vanessa X.; Huang, Min
This study examines the relationship between performance on Utah's English proficiency assessment and English language arts and mathematics content assessments by English language learner students and compares the performance of English language learner and non-English language learner students on the content assessments. Two research questions…
Crane, Eric W.; Barrat, Vanessa X.; Huang, Min
This document summarizes a study that examines the relationship between performance on Utah's English proficiency assessment and English language arts and mathematics content assessments by English language learner students and compares the performance of English language learner and non-English language learner students on the content…
Espinosa, K E; Massey, D S
"We replicate prior research into the determinants of English language proficiency among immigrants using a dataset that controls for potential biases stemming from selective emigration, omitted variables, and the mismeasurement of key constructs. In general, we reproduce the results of earlier work, leading us to conclude that despite inherent methodological problems, research based on cross-sectional censuses and surveys yields fundamentally accurate conclusions. In particular, we find unambiguous evidence that English proficiency rises with exposure to U.S. society, and we reaffirm earlier work showing a clear pattern of language assimilation among Mexican migrants to the United States."
Chiang, Vico; Crickmore, Barbara-Lee
Post-graduate international nursing students who seek continuing education are accepted by nursing programs in a number of Western countries. Teaching experience from an Australian school of nursing program reflected that although these students demonstrated the minimum English proficiency required by the university, advanced English and communication proficiency related to clinical practice was required when they received clinical placements in an unfamiliar environment.
Scarborough, Rebecca H., Ed.
Keynote papers from Delaware's first annual statewide conference on the education of children of limited English proficiency (LEP) are presented in this document. They include: "Delaware's Initiatives in the Education of Children of Limited English Proficiency" (William B. Keene); "Research and Issues in the Education of LEP…
Analysis of English language learner performance on the biology Massachusetts comprehensive assessment system: The impact of english proficiency, first language characteristics, and late-entry ELL status
Mitchell, Mary A.
This study analyzed English language learner (ELL) performance on the June 2012 Biology MCAS, namely on item attributes of domain, cognitive skill, and linguistic complexity. It examined the impact of English proficiency, Latinate first language, first language orthography, and late-entry ELL status. The results indicated that English proficiency was a strong predictor of performance and that ELLs at higher levels of English proficiency overwhelmingly passed. The results further indicated that English proficiency introduced a construct-irrelevant variance on the Biology MCAS and raised validity issues for using this assessment at lower levels of English proficiency. This study also found that ELLs with a Latinate first language consistently had statistically significant lower performance. Late-entry ELL status did not predict Biology MCAS performance.
Tang, Amy S; Kruger, Jenna F; Quan, Judy; Fernandez, Alicia
Resident physicians' use of professional interpreters drives communication with hospitalized patients with limited English proficiency (LEP). We surveyed residents from three specialties across two hospitals affiliated with one academic medical institution about their communication with their last hospitalized LEP patient. Among 149 respondents (73% response rate), 71% reported using professional interpreters for fewer than 60% of hospital encounters. Most (91%) perceived their quality of communication with hospitalized LEP patients as worse than with English-speaking patients. Professional interpreter use varied substantially by resident and by hospital encounter, with more reporting use of ad hoc interpreters, their own language skills, or not talking to the patient due to time constraints during pre-rounds (39%), team rounds (49%), or check-ins (40%) than during procedural consents (9%) or family meetings (17%). The reported variation suggests targets for quality improvement efforts and the need for clear enforceable guidelines on resident communication with hospitalized LEP patients.
Guerrero, Michael D.
Explains why it is difficult for the majority of bilingual-education teachers to develop teacher-like proficiency in Spanish in the context of the United States. Explores the "subtractive" orientation of U.S. society toward bilingualism that favors replacing the native language with English. (SLD)
Non-English speaking students lack the confidence and preparation to be verbally actively engaged in the classroom. Students may frequently display hesitation in learning to speak English, and may also lack a teacher's guidance in becoming proficient English speakers. The purpose of this research is to examine how teachers build academic…
In this article, I address the present-day political and pedagogical implications of the imposition of one year of English only immersion on limited English proficient (LEP) students. The article also presents a case study of an inner-city community in Massachusetts during the early years -- 1968-1974 -- of transition from English only to…
Alharbi, Heba Awadh
In English as a foreign language (EFL) contexts, the absence of authentic language learning situations outside the classroom presents a significant challenge to improving students' English communication skills. Specific obstacles in the learning environment can also result in students' limited use of English inside the classroom. These issues…
Jennings, Jennifer; Sohn, Heeju
How do proficiency-based accountability systems affect inequality in academic achievement? This article reconciles mixed findings in the literature by demonstrating that three factors jointly determine accountability's impact. First, by analyzing student-level data from a large urban school district, we find that when educators face accountability…
Guerrero, Michael D.
Examines key educational policies and practices that limit opportunities for bilingual education teachers to obtain academic language proficiency in Spanish. Bilingual-education teacher training cannot make up for ground lost by educators who lack prior attainment of math and science Spanish-language skills. Effective Spanish-language competency…
Brown, Chris; Schale, Codi L.; Nilsson, Johanna E.
Vietnamese immigrant and refugee women (N = 83) were surveyed regarding their mental health, English language proficiency, age of arrival, length of stay, and income. English language proficiency and age of arrival correlated with reduced symptomatology. Moreover, English language proficiency was the sole predictor of somatic distress. (Contains 1…
Chang, Xin; Wang, Pei
To investigate the influence of L2 proficiency and syntactic similarity on English passive sentence processing, the present ERP study asked 40 late Chinese-English bilinguals (27 females and 13 males, mean age = 23.88) with high or intermediate L2 proficiency to read the sentences carefully and to indicate for each sentence whether or not it was…
Ng, Manwa L; Chen, Yang
The present study examined English sentence stress produced by native Cantonese speakers who were speaking English as a second language (ESL). Cantonese ESL speakers' proficiency in English stress production as perceived by English-speaking listeners was also studied. Acoustical parameters associated with sentence stress including fundamental frequency (F0), vowel duration, and intensity were measured from the English sentences produced by 40 Cantonese ESL speakers. Data were compared with those obtained from 40 native speakers of American English. The speech samples were also judged by eight native listeners who were native speakers of American English for placement, degree, and naturalness of stress. Results showed that Cantonese ESL speakers were able to use F0, vowel duration, and intensity to differentiate sentence stress patterns. Yet, both female and male Cantonese ESL speakers exhibited consistently higher F0 in stressed words than English speakers. Overall, Cantonese ESL speakers were found to be proficient in using duration and intensity to signal sentence stress, in a way comparable with English speakers. In addition, F0 and intensity were found to correlate closely with perceptual judgement and the degree of stress with the naturalness of stress.
Uccelli, Paola; Galloway, Emily Phillips; Barr, Christopher D.; Meneses, Alejandra; Dobbs, Christina L.
Despite a long-standing awareness of academic language as a pedagogically relevant research area, the construct of academic-language proficiency, understood as a more comprehensive set of skills than just academic vocabulary, has remained vaguely specified. In this study, we explore a more inclusive operationalization of an academic-language…
Garcia, Eugene E.; Lawton, Kerry; Diniz de Figueiredo, Eduardo H.
This study analyzes the Arizona policy of utilizing a single assessment of English proficiency to determine if students should be exited from the ELL program, which is ostensibly designed to make it possible for them to succeed in the mainstream classroom without any further language support. The study examines the predictive validity of this…
Bien-Aime, Joseph C.
This study investigated the effectiveness of a variety of teaching techniques, including both standard English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) methods and the teacher's own strategies, in improving the English language proficiency of 15 Haitian and 5 Hispanic third-graders. The students were administered oral and written pretests and found to be…
LeDuc, Ellen H.
Minimal class participation by students with limited English proficiency (LEP), and LEP student failure to pass regular classroom tests were addressed through cooperative learning in a second grade science class. Classroom techniques used included strategies for using the scientific method of investigation, hands-on activities, experiments, music,…
Li, Jiaqi; Marbley, Aretha Faye; Bradley, Loretta J.; Lan, William
The authors examined the help-seeking attitudes of 109 Chinese international students studying in the United States. Results revealed that significant relationships exist among acculturation, ethnic identity, English proficiency, and attitudes toward seeking professional counseling services. Limitations and recommendations for future research are…
Southern Poverty Law Center (NJ1), 2013
Fueled by two decades of historic immigration, American demographics are changing. Many school districts are often ill prepared to meet the needs of limited English proficient (LEP) students and families. This Teaching Tolerance booklet points administrators to best practices in the effort to create a supportive learning environment for all…
Spano, Sedra G.
Information about limited-English-proficient (LEP) students in the Austin (Texas) Independent School District (AISD) is summarized. In the 1990-91 school year, 5,047 students in the AISD were served in LEP programs at elementary schools (3,933 students), middle schools (555 students), and secondary schools (559 students). Most were Spanish…
Beers, Elizabeth A.
This report describes an early intervention program to elicit emergent literacy skills in Potentially English Proficient kindergarten students. The school is located in a suburb of a large city near a naval base. The problem, lack of literacy readiness skills, was documented with a battery of tests given prior to entrance in kindergarten and the…
Bensinger-Lacy, Molly; And Others
Four papers discuss the status of materials and methods for teaching limited-English-proficient (LEP) students of all ages. "Elementary Literacy Materials" (Molly Bensinger-Lacy) describes materials and activities used in the Fairfax County (Virginia) Public Schools' program for nonliterate LEP elementary students, and provides…
The typical public school classroom is more diverse, linguistically and ethnically, than 20 years ago, with a dramatic increase in the proportion of limited-English-proficient (LEP) students. This pattern is reflected in secondary as well as elementary schools. Research indicates many of these students are at risk of failure or dropping out. A…
This article looks at how arts integration can boost the language development of limited English proficient students in kindergarten through second grade. I first review existing research on how young children learn and describe the special challenges faced by children who must learn in an unfamiliar language. I then identify arts-based mechanisms…
Willette, JoAnne; And Others
A study estimated the size of the population of adults and out-of-school youth with limited English proficiency (LEP) who need vocational education and related employment services and projected the size of this population from the time of the study to the year 2000. Research procedures included a literature review, an analysis of 1980 U.S. census…
Boehlke, Lisa; Rummel, Mary Kay
An approach is described for developing the language of limited English proficient (LEP) students using process writing with content drawn from across the curriculum. This is proposed in the context of recent research in second language reading that has focused on developing metacognitive awareness and use of reading strategies, and that less…
This dissertation has examined English proficiency as a mediating social factor within the occupational structure of Puerto Rico. It included an analysis of the educational records of 641 students majoring in industrial engineering, nursing, education and finance of the University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez from 1998-2000. The investigation…
Salehi, Mohammad; Rezaee, Abbas Ali
The study was conducted with 3,385 participants who took an English language proficiency test as a partial requirement for entering a PhD program in different fields of education. This test has three sections which are grammar, vocabulary and reading comprehension. To determine the construct validity of the test, a series of analyses were done.…
Discussion of barriers to effective learning when librarians teach students with limited English proficiency focuses on second language acquisition theories and teaching practices derived from them which can significantly impact outcomes of information literacy instruction. Includes a checklist for course preparation and instruction. (Author/LRW)
Cochran, Connie E.
This manual was developed, as a result of a state policy establishing high school graduation requirements for limited-English-proficient (LEP) students, to provide teachers with resources for improving instruction of the LEP population. The manual describes classroom strategies based on current theory and research on second language acquisition.…
Arkoudis, Sophie; Baik, Chi; Bexley, Emmaline; Doughney, Lachlan
This report presents the "English Language Proficiency" (ELP) and Employability Framework", which has been designed to inform and support higher education institutions' (HEIs) policies and practices on ELP and graduate employability. The "Framework" was developed through a review of the national and international…
Van Moere, Alistair; Suzuki, Masanori; Downey, Ryan; Cheng, Jian
This paper discusses the development of an assessment to satisfy the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Language Proficiency Requirements. The Versant Aviation English Test utilizes speech recognition technology and a computerized testing platform, such that test administration and scoring are fully automated. Developed in…
Iino, Atsushi; Yabuta, Yukiko
This paper introduces a case course with videoconferencing as a way of Synchronous Computer Mediated Communication (SCMC) for foreign language education in Japan. Research questions were to see the effects of videoconferencing on the learners' speaking ability and general English language proficiency, and also to see how the learners'…
Bermudez, Andrea B.; Rakow, Steven J.
Underrepresentation of minority students in gifted and talented (G/T) programs is a well established fact. A study examined procedures and criteria used to identify, place, and instruct gifted and talented students with limited English proficiency (GT/LEPs) in Texas, California, Colorado, Florida, Arizona, and New York public schools, to help…
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Inmates with disabilities and inmates who are limited English proficient. 115.16 Section 115.16 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Detainees with disabilities and detainees who are limited English proficient. 115.116 Section 115.116 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Residents with disabilities and residents who are limited English proficient. 115.316 Section 115.316 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Inmates with disabilities and inmates who are limited English proficient. 115.16 Section 115.16 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Detainees with disabilities and detainees who are limited English proficient. 115.116 Section 115.116 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Residents with disabilities and residents who are limited English proficient. 115.316 Section 115.316 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile...
Kibishi, Hiroshi; Hirabayashi, Kuniaki; Nakagawa, Seiichi
In this paper, we propose a statistical evaluation method of pronunciation proficiency and intelligibility for presentations made in English by native Japanese speakers. We statistically analyzed the actual utterances of speakers to find combinations of acoustic and linguistic features with high correlation between the scores estimated by the…
The input factors that may cause variation in bilingual proficiency were investigated in 38 French-English bilinguals aged six to eight, of middle-to-high socio-economic status, attending an international state school in France. Data on children's current and cumulative language exposure and family background were collected through questionnaires…
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Residents with disabilities and residents... Facilities Prevention Planning § 115.216 Residents with disabilities and residents who are limited English proficient. (a) The agency shall take appropriate steps to ensure that residents with disabilities...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Residents with disabilities and residents... Facilities Prevention Planning § 115.216 Residents with disabilities and residents who are limited English proficient. (a) The agency shall take appropriate steps to ensure that residents with disabilities...
Yildirim, Rana; Akcayoglu, Duygu Ispinar
This study reports on an investigation into the impact of strategy-based English language instruction (SBELI) on the language proficiency of gifted learners. The participants were students who were identified as gifted and thus received additional out-of-school training for a few days a week in Adana Science and Arts Centre. Their ages ranged from…
Nguyen, Duy; Reardon, Leigh J
This study applies the Commission on Social Determinants of Health model to identify the effect of ethnicity/race and English proficiency on the health of older immigrants. California Health Interview Survey data of foreign-born respondents aged 65 and over were used to examine the four outcomes of health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The study included 1,196 immigrant Latinos, Asians, and non-Hispanic Whites. The results show that ethnicity/race-based differences in HRQOL exist. Furthermore, the results indicate that English proficiency has a significant moderating relationship on racial/ethnic background. The likelihood of reporting more Limited Combined Days increased with lower levels of English proficiency for both Latino and Asian-American old adults as compared to non-Hispanic Whites. In addition to focusing on racial disparities, health promotion efforts with older immigrants need to examine language-based stratification. Social work and gerontological advocates need to develop and employ evidence-based interventions that reach limited-English-proficient older immigrants to address the health, psychosocial, and access to health care challenges they face.
Umatilla Education Service District, OR.
This packet of materials was developed (1) to address the liability concerns of woodworking instructors by providing safety instruction materials and tests for limited English proficient (LEP) or Spanish-speaking students, and (2) to provide some ideas, strategies, and resources for working effectively with LEP students in the vocational…
Snowden, Lonnie R.; Masland, Mary; Guerrero, Rachel
As noted in the supplement to the U.S. Surgeon General's report on mental health (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2001), overcoming language access barriers associated with limited English proficiency (LEP) should help to eliminate racial and ethnic disparities in mental health care access and quality. Federal policy requires…
Ariza, Maria J.
This study followed longitudinal achievement data from Hispanic students with limited proficiency in English who participated in a pilot instructional program. The program involved bilingual curriculum content (BCC) in the home language and was initiated in the winter of 1983-84 and continued through the 1986-87 school year. Six elementary schools…
A model of literacy instruction for limited-English-proficient (LEP) adults is described that is designed to increase effective parent involvement in children's education. Through the implementation of this model, LEP parents acquire language and parenting skills that allow them to participate more fully in their child's educational process. The…
Secada, Walter G.; Carey, Deborah A.
This document provides research-based information to help school district personnel select appropriate mathematics education programs for their limited English proficient (LEP) elementary school students. A review of the mathematics education literature is discussed in the context of the reform movement in school mathematics. Two instructional…
Chyu, Chi-oy W.
The Nested Spiral Approach (NSA) is a teaching technique designed for students of limited English proficiency that integrates four aspects of motivated learning: contents, language, culture, and real life experiences. The approach consists of: (1) effective use of student strengths; (2) three teaching cycles for each lesson; and (3) five steps in…
Massachusetts State Dept. of Education, Boston.
This documents provides a comprehensive list (including the name of the dictionary, name and address of the publisher, ISBN, and cost) of dictionaries in numerous languages approved for limited-English-proficient student use when taking MCAS (Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System) tests. Examples are provided for 55 different languages.…
Ravi, Sunil Kumar; Chengappa, Shyamala K.
The present study aimed at exploring the semantic and syntactic processing differences between native and second languages in 20 early high proficient Kannada--English bilingual adults through accuracy and reaction time (RT) measurements. Subjects participated in a semantic judgement task (using 50 semantically correct and 50 semantically…
This paper reports a follow-up study that explored the relationship between EFL learners' critical literacy practices and the English language proficiency. It investigated four focal EFL learners' critical literacy practices in their dialogic interaction and also analyzed 39 students' views on their critical literacy learning. The four focal…
Grant, Carl A.
The paper examines the research on teacher training particularly as it relates to preservice and inservice teacher preparation of teachers to work with limited-English-proficient (LEP) students. It highlights successful programmatic patterns and innovations based on research for preparing teachers to work with LEP students. A discussion of…
Cheng, Li-Rong Lilly
This article discusses "difficult discourse" or the psychological and sociological difficulties that arise in the conflict of language, ideology, and cultural identity occurring between students/families who are limited English proficient (LEP) and the American mainstream education system. A case example of a fifth-grade Asian student is provided…
Brown, Annie; Iwashita, Noriko; McNamara, Tim
This report documents two coordinated exploratory studies into the nature of oral English-for-academic-purposes (EAP) proficiency. Study I used verbal-report methodology to examine field experts? rating orientations, and Study II investigated the quality of test-taker discourse on two different Test of English as a Foreign Language? (TOEFL®) task…
Charbonnet, Lara King
The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in perceptions regarding students' proficiency in reading and writing skills between 12th grade English teachers and college English Composition instructors. A purposive, nonrandom sample of 12th grade English teachers and college English Composition instructors from West Tennessee were…
Zwiep, Susan Gomez; Straits, William J.
This paper presents findings from a 4-year project that developed and implemented a blended inquiry science and English Language Development (ELD) program in a large urban California school district. The sample included over 2,000 students in Kindergarten through 5th grade. Participating students' English and science achievement was compared to a…
Grasparil, Theresa A.; Hernandez, David A.
Poor literacy achievement among English learners has contributed significantly to their high dropout rates, poor job prospects, and high poverty rates. The National Literacy Panel on Language Minority Children and Youth has suggested that English learners benefit from the same direct, systematic instruction in the five essential components of…
The Omani government attaches great importance to English in the education of Omani youth and their preparation for a multicultural world of employment. It has therefore poured large resources into English language teaching in the nation's schools, colleges and universities. Unfortunately, these efforts have not yielded gains proportionate to this…
Principes de la conception de tests destines a l'evaluation prealable d'etudiants etrangers venant etudier en Grande-Bretagne (Criteria for the Development of English Proficiency Tests for Foreign Students Enrolling in British Universities).
Describes the criteria behind the development of the English Language Testing Service system, a new language proficiency evaluation instrument developed by the British Council. This system is based on an analysis of foreign students' communication needs in the context of their professional training and academic life. Societe Nouvelle Didier…
Chang, Sandy Ming-San
As an initial step toward understanding which features of academic language make science-based expository text difficult for students with different English language proficiency (ELP) designations, this study investigated fifth-grade students' thoughts on text difficulty, their knowledge of the features of academic language, and the relationship between academic language and reading comprehension. Forty-five fifth-grade students participated in the study; 18 students were classified as English language learners (ELLs) and 27 students were fluent-English speakers. Participants read two science passages, answered comprehension questions, and engaged in a retrospective interview which probed their knowledge on the academic language features of vocabulary, grammar, and discourse. Qualitative analysis was used to code students' thoughts about the challenges to reading comprehension and to identify the challenges that were related to academic language. Quantitative analyses were conducted to examine whether students' knowledge of academic language features and reading comprehension differed by students' ELP designations, as well as to investigate the relationship between students' knowledge of academic language features and reading comprehension. Results for the qualitative analysis revealed that students found difficult vocabulary, reading abilities, and prior knowledge as the greatest challenges to comprehending the science passages. Results from the quantitative analyses indicated that ELL students' knowledge of academic vocabulary, grammar, discourse knowledge, and reading comprehension (as measured by multiple-choice questions) were significantly lower than the fluent-English speaking students. The results also indicated that vocabulary, not grammar or discourse features, was significantly related to students' comprehension scores. The results have implications for understanding the features of academic language that influence students' comprehension of expository
Kiram, Johannah Jamalul; Sulaiman, Jumat; Swanto, Suyansah; Din, Wardatul Akmam
This paper seeks to investigate the relationship between language learning strategies and proficiency in English. Fifty-six pre-university students (22 males, 34 females) of University Malaysia Sabah participated in this study. Oxford's Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) self-report questionnaire was adopted to identify the students' language learning strategies, whereas their proficiencies were judged based on their Malaysian University English Test (MUET) Results. Pearson's correlation coefficient, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient and the t-test were utilized to make statistical interpretation about the relationship. The knowledge obtained from this study will be helpful for future studies on how to improve the quality of learning and proficiency in English.
Jennings, Jennifer; Sohn, Heeju
How do proficiency-based accountability systems affect inequality in academic achievement? This paper reconciles mixed findings in the literature by demonstrating that three factors jointly determine accountability's impact. First, by analyzing student-level data from a large urban school district, we find that when educators face accountability pressure, they focus attention on students closest to proficiency. We refer to this practice as educational triage, and show that the difficulty of the proficiency standard affects whether lower or higher performing students gain most on high-stakes tests used to evaluate schools. Less difficult proficiency standards decrease inequality in high-stakes achievement, while more difficult ones increase it. Second, we show that educators emphasize test-specific skills with students near proficiency, a practice that we refer to as instructional triage. As a result, the effects of accountability pressure differ across high and low-stakes tests; we find no effects on inequality in low-stakes reading and math tests of similar skills. Finally, we provide suggestive evidence that instructional triage is most pronounced in the lowest performing schools. We conclude by discussing how these findings shape our understanding of accountability's impacts on educational inequality. PMID:27122642
Jennings, Jennifer; Sohn, Heeju
How do proficiency-based accountability systems affect inequality in academic achievement? This paper reconciles mixed findings in the literature by demonstrating that three factors jointly determine accountability's impact. First, by analyzing student-level data from a large urban school district, we find that when educators face accountability pressure, they focus attention on students closest to proficiency. We refer to this practice as educational triage, and show that the difficulty of the proficiency standard affects whether lower or higher performing students gain most on high-stakes tests used to evaluate schools. Less difficult proficiency standards decrease inequality in high-stakes achievement, while more difficult ones increase it. Second, we show that educators emphasize test-specific skills with students near proficiency, a practice that we refer to as instructional triage. As a result, the effects of accountability pressure differ across high and low-stakes tests; we find no effects on inequality in low-stakes reading and math tests of similar skills. Finally, we provide suggestive evidence that instructional triage is most pronounced in the lowest performing schools. We conclude by discussing how these findings shape our understanding of accountability's impacts on educational inequality.
Salimi, Esmaeel Ali; Farsi, Mitra
This study on evaluating an English program of studies for foreign students seeking admission to the UE Graduate School attempts to examine the prevailing conditions of foreign students in the UE Graduate School with respect to their competence and competitiveness in English proficiency. It looks into the existing English programs of studies in…
Bley-Vroman, Robert; Yoshinaga, Naoko
Investigates the knowledge of multiple wh-questions such as "Who ate what?" by high-proficiency Japanese speakers of English. Acceptability judgments were obtained on six different types of questions. Acceptability of English examples was rated by native speakers of English, Japanese examples were judged by native speakers of Japanese,…
This study investigated the influence of general vocabulary knowledge, science vocabulary knowledge, and text based questioning on the science reading comprehension of three types of students who varied in their English language proficiency. Specifically, grade 5 English-Only speakers, English Language Learners in the United States, and students…
The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 requires all states to assess the English proficiency of English language learners each school year. Under Title I and Title III of No Child Left Behind, states are required to measure the annual growth of students' English language development in reading, listening, writing, and speaking and in comprehension…
O'Neill, Thomas R; Tannenbaum, Richard J; Tiffen, Jennifer
When nurses who are educated internationally immigrate to the United States, they are expected to have English language proficiency in order to function as a competent nurse. The purpose of this research was to provide sufficient information to the National Council of State Boards of Nursing (NCSBN) to make a defensible recommended passing standard for English proficiency. This standard was based upon the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL). A large panel of nurses and nurse regulators (N = 25) was convened to determine how much English proficiency is required to be minimally competent as an entry-level nurse. Two standard setting procedures, the Simulated Minimally Competent Candidate (SMCC) procedure and the Examinee Paper Selection Method, were combined to produce recommendations for each panelist. In conjunction with collateral information, these recommendations were reviewed by the NCSBN Examination Committee, which decided upon an NCSBN recommended standard, a TOEFL score of 220. Because the adoption of this standard rests entirely with the individual state, NCSBN has little more to do with implementing the standard, other than answering questions and providing documentation about the standard.
Zwiep, Susan Gomez; Straits, William J.
This paper presents findings from a 4-year project that developed and implemented a blended inquiry science and English Language Development (ELD) program in a large urban California school district. The sample included over 2,000 students in Kindergarten through 5th grade. Participating students' English and science achievement was compared to a similar group of students who were using the district's established English language development curriculum. Student performance on statemandated English and science assessments were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U tests for overall performance and by number of years of treatment. Modest but statistically significant improvement was found for students who participated in the blended program. Results from this study suggest that restricting instructional minutes for science to provide additional time for ELD and English language arts may be unnecessary. Rather, allowing consistent time for science instruction that incorporates ELD instruction along with inquiry science experiences may provide the authentic and purposeful context students need to develop new language without restricting access to science content.
Scarpino, Shelley E.
Purpose: This study was conducted to determine if phonological production proficiency in bilingual Spanish-English preschoolers could be predicted by their language environment, language ability, and phonological production proficiency in their other language. Method: Participants were 199 Latino children and their families. Children ranged in age…
The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether students who enter high school in ninth grade and score proficient or advanced on their CST in English Language Arts remain proficient or advanced 2 years later in 11th grade. The effects of NCLB will be considered as a contributing factor to the difference in student scores. This study was…
Bermudez, Andrea B.; Rakow, Steven J.
A study was conducted to determine teachers' level of awareness of the cultural and linguistic behaviors of gifted and talented Hispanic limited-English-proficient students that could mask a student's giftedness and result in inappropriate identification. (Author/VWL)
Moore, Kathleen A.; Rutherford, Camille; Crawford, Keith A.
Postsecondary international students who are also English language learners face a number of challenges when studying abroad and often are provided with services to support their learning. Though some research examines how institutions can support this population of students, few studies explore how technology is used to support language…
A study compared two methods for assessing English proficiency of limited-English-proficient school-age children, for purposes of placement in bilingual and monolingual education programs. The two instruments used were the Idea Oral Language Proficiency Test (forms C and D) (IPT), which assesses oral English proficiency, and the Woodcock-Munoz…
Schrauf, Robert W.
This research focuses on patterns of English proficiency and use-of-English among older immigrants living in linguistically concentrated, ethnic neighborhoods. A sample (n=60) of older Puerto Ricans, who moved from the island to the mainland in their twenties, were divided into English proficiency groups (fluent, high intermediate, low intermediate) via the Adult Language Assessment Scales. Participants then provided self-ratings of their English proficiency (understanding, speaking, reading, and writing), their use of English in social domains (language spoken with own-family, in-laws, spouse, children, neighbors, and workmates), and their use of English in private psychological domains (language of talking to oneself, counting, writing notes to oneself, thinking, dreaming, praying, and expressing feelings). Finally, all participants completed the Puerto Rican Bicultural Scale. Results show a cohort of immigrant elders whose first language is protected by their ethnic neighborhoods but whose domestic and private lives are increasingly permeated by English. In particular, children emerge as powerful forces of language socialization in English for their parents. Further, there are important individual differences by level of proficiency, with a lowest proficiency group that is less acculturated, lower in socioeconomic status, and even more linguistically isolated than groups with higher proficiency. In essence, level of second language proficiency is a potent source of intracultural variation. Methodologically, the paper makes the important point that self-rated patterns of language use are consistent with scores on formal measures of proficiency. The paper also provides empirical verification of the logic of dividing language use into external, social speech and internal, psychological speech. PMID:19184621
Schrauf, Robert W
This research focuses on patterns of English proficiency and use-of-English among older immigrants living in linguistically concentrated, ethnic neighborhoods. A sample (n = 60) of older Puerto Ricans, who moved from the island to the mainland in their twenties, were divided into English proficiency groups (fluent, high intermediate, low intermediate) via the Adult Language Assessment Scales. Participants then provided self-ratings of their English proficiency (understanding, speaking, reading, and writing), their use of English in social domains (language spoken with own-family, in-laws, spouse, children, neighbors, and workmates), and their use of English in private psychological domains (language of talking to oneself, counting, writing notes to oneself, thinking, dreaming, praying, and expressing feelings). Finally, all participants completed the Puerto Rican Bicultural Scale. Results show a cohort of immigrant elders whose first language is protected by their ethnic neighborhoods but whose domestic and private lives are increasingly permeated by English. In particular, children emerge as powerful forces of language socialization in English for their parents. Further, there are important individual differences by level of proficiency, with a lowest proficiency group that is less acculturated, lower in socioeconomic status, and even more linguistically isolated than groups with higher proficiency. In essence, level of second language proficiency is a potent source of intracultural variation. Methodologically, the paper makes the important point that self-rated patterns of language use are consistent with scores on formal measures of proficiency. The paper also provides empirical verification of the logic of dividing language use into external, social speech and internal, psychological speech.
Ercikan, Kadriye; Chen, Michelle Y.; Lyons-Thomas, Juliette; Goodrich, Shawna; Sandilands, Debra; Roth, Wolff-Michael; Simon, Marielle
The purpose of this research is to examine the comparability of mathematics and science scores for students from English language backgrounds (ELB) and non-English language backgrounds (NELB). We examine the relationship between English reading proficiency and performance on mathematics and science assessments in Australia, Canada, the United…
Greenberg Motamedi, Jason
This Regional Educational Laboratory Northwest descriptive study examines how long it took English learner students to gain English proficiency and reclassify as former English learner students at elementary schools in seven Seattle-area school districts. Analyzing test scores of 17,733 students, the study found that the average time to…
Matson, Pamela A.; Ellen, Jonathan M.
Abstract Background Television viewing is associated with an increased risk for obesity in children. Latino children are at high risk for obesity and yet little is known about differences in television viewing habits within this population. The purpose of this study is to determine if hours of television viewed by young children with low-income Latina mothers differs by maternal ethnic subgroup and English language proficiency. Methods This was a cross-sectional analysis of data from the Welfare, Children, & Families: A Three City Study. Participants were 422 low-income Latina mothers of Mexican and Puerto Rican descent with children ages 0–4 years old. The dependent variable was hours of daily television viewed by the child. The independent variable was maternal ethnic subgroup and English language proficiency. Analyses involved the use of multiple negative binomial regression models, which were adjusted for demographic variables. Results Multivariable regression analyses showed that compared to children with mothers of Mexican descent, children of mothers of Puerto Rican descent watch more daily television (<2 years old, incidence rate ratio (IRR)=4.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.68, 10.42; 2–4 years, IRR=1.54, 95% CI 1.06, 2.26). For children with mothers of Mexican descent, higher maternal English language proficiency was associated with higher amounts of child television viewing (IRR=1.29, 95% CI 1.04, 1.61). No relationship was found for children of Puerto Rican descent. Conclusions Child television viewing varies in low-income Latino children by maternal ethnic subgroup and English language proficiency. Interventionists must consider the varying sociocultural contexts of Latino children and their influence on television viewing. PMID:23301653
Wilson, Jane; Fang, Chloe; Rollins, Jenice; Valadez, Destinee
This project sought to gain a closer look at the contrast of oral language opportunities experienced by English learners and native speakers of English in order to draw implications for practicing teachers. Specifically, the authors explored how often and when English learners and native speakers of English engage in academic speaking in K-8…
Fairfax County Schools, VA.
A curriculum for use with limited English proficient students in English-as-a-second-language or special education classes who are enrolled in the driver education course is described. The 14 lessons require a basic proficiency in understanding, speaking, reading, and writing English. The lessons cover such topics as vocabulary and idioms related…
This commentary reviews recent literature on a number of problematic issues arising from the use of English proficiency tests by registration bodies as the sole assessment of the professional communication skills of overseas qualified health professionals from non-English-speaking backgrounds. It discusses differences between the assessment…
Feeley, Joan T.
When working with limited English proficient (LEP) children who have been mainstreamed into regular elementary school classrooms, teachers must keep in mind that the first order of business is to help the students build a store of knowledge about English--how it sounds, what it looks like in print, and what it means. Teachers will discover that it…
Chen, Jin; Lin, Jianghao; Li, Xinguang
This article aims to find out the validity of rhythm measurements to capture the rhythmic features of Chinese English. Besides, the reliability of the valid rhythm measurements applied in automatically scoring the English rhythm proficiency of Chinese EFL learners is also explored. Thus, two experiments were carried out. First, thirty students of…
Lucas, Tamara; Villegas, Ana Maria
In 1999-2000, over one-third of all students in the 30 Abbott districts spoke a native language other than English, and more than one-tenth were considered limited English proficient (LEP). The proportions of LEP students varied considerably across the districts, but they comprised between 5% and 29% of total enrollments in 18 of the districts.…
Ramirez, Arnulfo G.; Politzer, Robert L.
A revised Spanish/English oral-proficiency test battery was administered to 40 Spanish-surnamed pupils equally divided by sex at grade levels 1, 3, 5, and 7. The test battery included parallel Spanish and English versions of: (1) a 12-item vocabulary pretest, (2) a 32-item vocabulary-by-domain test consisting of four sections--home, neighborhood,…
Tsai, Yau; Tsou, Chia-Hsiau
The adoption of standardised English Language Proficiency (ELP) tests as a tool for assessing students' English competence for graduation is becoming more and more common in higher education in Taiwan. This paper focuses on university undergraduate students and uses data from a questionnaire survey to investigate their views of the application of…
Tran, Tammie M.
The problem. This research study explores an important issue in the field of TESOL (Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages) and second language acquisition (SLA). Its purpose is to examine the relationship between Vietnamese students' L1 grammar knowledge and their English grammar proficiency. Furthermore, it investigates the extent to…
Buron, Lawrence; Beecroft, Erik; Bell, Stephen; Price, Cristofer; Gemmen, Eric
As a reflection of the importance attached to successfully educating children whose native language is not English, the U.S. Department of Education's longitudinal study of Chapter 1 assistance, "Prospects," includes a component devoted to the analysis of limited-English-proficient (LEP) students. Chapter 1, renamed Title 1 in 1994, is…
Mahfouz, Safi M.; Ihmeideh, Fathi M.
This study aims to investigate Jordanian university students' attitudes towards using video and text chat discourse with anonymous native speakers of English to improve their English proficiency. To achieve this aim, a questionnaire was designed. The study sample consisted of 320 university students enrolled in two Jordanian universities. Results…
Mauranen, Anna; Hynninen, Niina; Ranta, Elina
English is unquestionably the world language of academia--yet its most notable characteristic, being predominantly used by non-native speakers, has not seriously been taken on board in ESP descriptive studies. The project English as an academic lingua franca (ELFA) based at the University of Helsinki investigates academic discourses, branching out…
Examines the learning and use of academic English words by students who differ socioculturally. Argues that the Greco-Latin vocabulary of English offers various levels of potential difficulty for students from different class, cultural, or linguistic social factions. Infers some changes to practices in native and second language academic English…
Alavinia, Parviz; Hassanlou, Adel
The current study was aimed at investigating the relationship between academic Iranian EFL learners' extroversion/introversion and their writing performance. The participants of the study were some 52 BA learners majoring in English language literature in Urmia and Tabriz state universities. The chosen sample comprised of both males and females…
Guerrero, Michael D.
This article examines the primary assumption underlying the recent passage of propositions aimed at meeting the need of English language learners (ELLs). The assumption is that English language learners normally need only one year of intensive structured English immersion to learn English well enough to be academically successful in an all-English…
Wolf, Mikyung Kim; Guzman-Orth, Danielle; Hauck, Maurice Cogan
This paper is the third in a series concerning English language proficiency (ELP) assessments for K-12 English learners (ELs). The series, produced from Educational Testing Service (ETS), is intended to provide theory- and evidence-based principles and recommendations for improving next-generation ELP assessment systems, policies, and practices…
For English learners reclassifying to fluent English proficient signifies reaching a milestone indicating the ability to function in mainstream classes without support. Employing a longitudinal, multimethod approach, I describe patterns of reclassification using administrative data for 7 cohorts of students over 2 years in a large urban district.…
Carrillo, Ida S.; Carrillo, Federico M.
A guide to designing programs in English language arts for limited English proficient (LEP) students is intended for school districts to use in developing their own program manuals based on locally relevant needs. An introductory section gives background for LEP program development, and subsequent sections outline (1) identification procedures for…
Cook, Gary; Linquanti, Robert; Chinen, Marjorie; Jung, Hyekyung
The Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), as amended by the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 inaugurated important changes in assessment and accountability for English Learner (EL) students. Specifically, Title III of the law required states to develop or adopt English-language proficiency (ELP) standards aligned with language demands of…
Cook, Gary; Linquanti, Robert; Chinen, Marjorie; Jung, Hyekyung
The "Elementary and Secondary Education Act" ("ESEA"), as amended by the "No Child Left Behind Act of 2001" inaugurated important changes in assessment and accountability for English Learner (EL) students. Specifically, Title III of the law required states to develop or adopt English-language proficiency (ELP)…
Chang, Chi-Cheng; Tseng, Kuo-Hung; Tseng, Ju-Shih
The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of English proficiency (low vs. high) and material presentation mode (single channel vs. dual channel) on English listening comprehension, cognitive load and learning attitude in a ubiquitous learning environment. An experimental learning activity was implemented using PDA as a learning…
Wolf, Mikyung Kim; Kao, Jenny; Griffin, Noelle; Herman, Joan L.; Bachman, Patina L.; Chang, Sandy M.; Farnsworth, Tim
The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) has had a great impact on states' policies in assessing English language learner (ELL) students. The legislation requires states to develop or adopt sound assessments in order to validly measure the ELL students' English language proficiency, as well as content knowledge and skills. While states have moved…
Wolf, Mikyung Kim; Kao, Jenny; Herman, Joan; Bachman, Lyle F.; Bailey, Alison; Bachman, Patina L.; Farnsworth, Tim; Chang, Sandy M.
The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act has made a great impact on states' policies in assessing English language learner (ELL) students. The legislation requires states to develop or adopt sound assessments in order to validly measure the ELL students' English language proficiency (ELP), as well as content knowledge and skills. Although states have…
Wolf, Mikyung Kim; Herman, Joan L.; Bachman, Lyle F.; Bailey, Alison L.; Griffin, Noelle
The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB, 2002) has had a great impact on states' policies in assessing English language learner (ELL) students. The legislation requires states to develop or adopt sound assessments in order to validly measure the ELL students' English language proficiency, as well as content knowledge and skills. While states…
Chang, Xin; Wang, Pei
To investigate the influence of L2 proficiency and syntactic similarity on English passive sentence processing, the present ERP study asked 40 late Chinese-English bilinguals (27 females and 13 males, mean age = 23.88) with high or intermediate L2 proficiency to read the sentences carefully and to indicate for each sentence whether or not it was correct. Sentences were classified into literal translation sentences with the similar structure between the two languages and free translation sentences with the different structure. Behavioral data showed: shorter reaction times and higher accuracy rates occurred in the high-proficient group than those in the intermediate-proficient group; shorter reaction times and higher accuracy rates were observed in literal translation sentences than those in free translation sentences. ERP results showed literal translation sentences elicited an enhanced P200 and P600 while free translation sentences elicited a larger N400. The high-proficient group showed a larger P600 in syntactic violations and double violations while the intermediate-proficient group evoked an enhanced N400 in semantic violations and double violations. Literal translation sentences caused a larger P200 while free translation sentences elicited more negative-going N400. Behavioral and ERP data revealed the influence of L2 proficiency and syntactic similarity on L2 sentence processing, and L2 proficiency played a predominate role.
Kiram, J. J.; Sulaiman, J.; Swanto, S.; Din, W. A.
This study aims to construct a mathematical model of the relationship between a student's Language Learning Strategy usage and English Language proficiency. Fifty-six pre-university students of University Malaysia Sabah participated in this study. A self-report questionnaire called the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning was administered to them to measure their language learning strategy preferences before they sat for the Malaysian University English Test (MUET), the results of which were utilised to measure their English language proficiency. We attempted the model assessment specific to Multiple Linear Regression Analysis subject to variable selection using Stepwise regression. We conducted various assessments to the model obtained, including the Global F-test, Root Mean Square Error and R-squared. The model obtained suggests that not all language learning strategies should be included in the model in an attempt to predict Language Proficiency.
Galinato, Jose; Montie, Mary; Shuman, Clayton; Patak, Lance; Titler, Marita
Patients use call light systems to initiate communication with their health care team. Little is known how this process is affected when language barriers exist between an English-speaking nurse and a patient with limited English proficiency (LEP). The aims of this study are to describe (a) the perceptions of nurses regarding their communication with patients with LEP, (b) how call lights affect their communication with patients with LEP, and (c) the perceptions of nurses on the impact of advancement in call light technology on patients with LEP. Using focus groups, nurses were asked about their interactions with patients with LEP. The following themes emerged: barriers to communication, formal tools for communication, gestures and charades, reliance on family, creating a better call light system, and acceptability of Eloquence™. This results show that call lights affect the interaction of nurses with patients with LEP and complex issues arise in the subsequent communication that is initiated by the call light.
Bumgarner, Erin; Martin, Anne; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
Accumulating evidence suggests that children's approaches to learning (ATL) at kindergarten entry predict their academic achievement years later. However, the gains associated with ATL may be diminished for Hispanic immigrant children, many of whom are English language learners (ELLs). We tested whether ATL predicted math scores in a sample of…
Equal Educational Opportunity and Nondiscrimination for Students with Limited English Proficiency: Federal Enforcement of Title VI and "Lau v. Nichols." Equal Educational Opportunity Project Series, Volume III.
Commission on Civil Rights, Washington, DC.
This report focuses on issues relating to the development and implementation of educational programs for and placement of national origin minority students identified as having limited English proficiency. It examines the present-day barriers that prevent students with limited English proficiency from having an equal opportunity to participate in…
Zhou, Yao; Dai, Zhongxin
Knowledge of English vocabulary contributes to the learner's proficiency of English as a foreign language, but how the learner's lexical knowledge behaves in the contribution. Researchers in mainland China have conducted studies of various kinds in order to find out how the learner's lexical knowledge correlates with his proficiency. This article…
Jimenez, Nathalia; Jackson, Douglass L.; Zhou, Chuan; Ayala, Nelly C.; Ebel, Beth E.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Patients with limited English proficiency (LEP) are at risk for undertreated pain. The goal of this study was to examine the association between parental language proficiency, interpreted care, and postsurgical pediatric pain management. METHODS This was a retrospective matched cohort study among children <18 years of age. Children of LEP and English-proficient (EP) parents were matched according to age group, surgical procedure, and admission date. Mean number of daily pain assessments and mean daily pain scores were compared between language groups. We also compared the association between pain scores and type of medication given (opioid versus nonopioid). Within the LEP group, similar analyses compared pain assessment and treatment of children whose families received ≥2 professional interpretations per day versus those who received lower rates of interpretation. RESULTS A total of 474 children (237 LEP and 237 EP) were included in the study. Children of LEP parents had fewer pain assessments (mean: 7 [95% confidence interval: 2–13] vs 9 [95% confidence interval: 4–15]; P = .012), and higher levels of pain recorded before receiving opioid analgesics, compared with children of EP parents (P = .003). Within the LEP group, children with ≥2 interpretations per day had lower pain scores after medication administration (P < .05) and were more likely to receive opioids at pain levels similar to those of EP families. CONCLUSIONS Children of LEP parents received fewer pain assessments and were less likely to receive opioid analgesics for similar levels of pain compared with children of EP parents. More frequent use of professional interpreters when assessing pain may aid in reducing the gap in pain management between LEP and EP pediatric patients. PMID:24435597
Kim, Yoon Kyong; Curby, Timothy W; Winsler, Adam
Little is known about 2nd language development among young, low-income, language-minority children. This article examined the longitudinal English development of low-income, dual language learners (DLLs) in Miami (n = 18,532) from kindergarten through 5th grade. Growth curve modeling indicated that social skills, good behavior, Spanish (L1) competence in preschool, having a mother born in the United States, and attending larger schools with fewer DLLs were associated with higher initial levels of English proficiency in kindergarten and/or steeper growth over time. Survival analyses indicated that it took about 2 years for half of the sample to become proficient in English according to the school district's criterion. Higher initial proficiency in kindergarten, not receiving free/reduced lunch, not being Hispanic or Black, strong cognitive, language, and socioemotional skills at age 4, and maternal education were associated with faster attainment of English proficiency. It is important for teachers, parents, researchers, and policy makers to understand that DLL students come from diverse backgrounds and that poverty and other factors influence the speed of English language development for DLLs.
Sarkar, Madhurima; Asti, Lindsey; Nacion, Kristine M; Chisolm, Deena J
Health literacy (HL) research among Hispanics currently focuses on individuals with limited English proficiency but impacts of HL on healthcare outcomes among other English language proficiency groups is relatively unknown. Regression models assessed associations between HL and healthcare outcomes for Hispanics overall (n = 4013) and for proficiency level sub-populations using the 2007 Pew Hispanic Health Survey. Overall, Hispanics with adequate HL percieved US medical care as "excellent," were more satisfied with their doctor's help, and reported "excellent" overall health. In the sub-population analysis, "excellent" perception of US healthcare was associated with HL among the Spanish and English dominant groups. Among bilinguals, adequate HL was associated with decreased use of traditional medicine. The effect of adequate HL varied within English proficiency groups. HL research that focuses only on Spanish dominant speakers can exclude a substantial percentage of English proficient or bilingual populations who have low HL.
Verdonschot, Rinus Gerardus; Nakayama, Mariko; Zhang, Qingfang; Tamaoka, Katsuo; Schiller, Niels Olaf
An essential step to create phonology according to the language production model by Levelt, Roelofs and Meyer is to assemble phonemes into a metrical frame. However, recently, it has been proposed that different languages may rely on different grain sizes of phonological units to construct phonology. For instance, it has been proposed that, instead of phonemes, Mandarin Chinese uses syllables and Japanese uses moras to fill the metrical frame. In this study, we used a masked priming-naming task to investigate how bilinguals assemble their phonology for each language when the two languages differ in grain size. Highly proficient Mandarin Chinese-English bilinguals showed a significant masked onset priming effect in English (L2), and a significant masked syllabic priming effect in Mandarin Chinese (L1). These results suggest that their proximate unit is phonemic in L2 (English), and that bilinguals may use different phonological units depending on the language that is being processed. Additionally, under some conditions, a significant sub-syllabic priming effect was observed even in Mandarin Chinese, which indicates that L2 phonology exerts influences on L1 target processing as a consequence of having a good command of English. PMID:23646107
Halle, Tamara; Hair, Elizabeth; Wandner, Laura; McNamara, Michelle; Chien, Nina
The development of English language learners (ELLs) was explored from kindergarten through eighth grade within a nationally representative sample of first-time kindergartners (N = 19,890). Growth curve analyses indicated that, compared to native English speakers, ELLs were rated by teachers more favorably on approaches to learning, self-control,…
Anderson, Alida; Loughlin, Sandra M.
Teacher and student academic discourse was examined in an urban arts-integrated school to better understand facilitation of students' English language learning. Participants' discourse was compared across English language arts (ELA) lessons with and without classroom drama in a third-grade classroom of English learning (EL) students (N = 18) with…
Valenti, Elizabeth C.
College dropout is a complex problem resulting in an array of negative repercussions for students, universities, and society. The study explored the impact of reading proficiency on academic success in a college-level introductory psychology course offered in both traditional and accelerated formats. A quantitative, quasi-experimental design was…
Li, Xin; Yan, Wenfan
This study followed the comparative research mode of description, interpretation, juxtaposition and comparison. Based on the literatures and data collected on the topic, the paper compared and analyzed the past, present and future of APTHS (academic proficiency test for high schools) in the two countries. Some contemplations on the common issues…
Nalukenge, Betty; Wamala, Robert; Ocaya, Bruno
Purpose: Introduction of law school admission examinations has increased the debate regarding the relevance of prior studies for the enrollees in the program. The key issues of contention are whether prior studies reliably predict academic achievement of enrollees, and demonstrate proficiencies required for admission in the program. The purpose of…
Jackson, Carrie N.; van Hell, Janet G.
Using a self-paced reading task, the present study explores how Dutch-English L2 speakers parse English "wh"-subject-extractions and "wh"-object-extractions. Results suggest that English native speakers and highly-proficient Dutch-English L2 speakers do not always exhibit measurable signs of on-line reanalysis when reading subject-versus…
Simon, Lisa; Hum, Lauren; Nalliah, Romesh
Legal protections in the United States mandate that individuals with limited English proficiency (LEP) have equal access to health care. However, LEP populations are at higher risk of poor health. Dental school clinics offer lower cost care by supervised dental students and often provide care for LEP patients. The aims of this study were to survey dental students about their clinical experience with LEP patients, the interpreter resources available at their dental school clinics, and the extent of instruction on these topics. Academic deans at 19 dental schools (30.6% of 62 invited schools) distributed the survey to their students, and the survey was completed by 325 students (4.2% of students at the 19 participating schools). Among the responding students, 44% reported their dental school clinic lacked formal interpreter services, and most of the respondents reported receiving minimal instruction on caring for LEP patients. Only 54% of the responding students reported feeling adequately prepared to manage LEP patients following graduation. These results suggest there is limited access to interpreter services for students while in dental school. A large proportion of these dental students thus reported feeling unprepared to treat LEP patients after graduation.
Duszak, Anna; Lewkowicz, Jo
The language in which to publish is a complex issue for academics in Poland. With the growth of English as the global lingua franca it may appear to be the obvious language of choice. Yet, publishing in English inevitably brings with it linguistic challenges. It also raises concerns of a social and ideological nature. Choosing to publish in Polish…
Introduction. The greatest importance of the continuing professional development is the use of 3-5 languages, with at least 2-3 on the level of native/first language to form varied cooperative networks for the creation of new knowledge. English for Academic Purposes activity as a form of life activity is a basic demand for studying English for…
This is the 2010-11 annual report on the academic progress of English language learners in the Miami-Dade County Public Schools. The purpose of the report is to: (1) Describe the demographic characteristics of students classified as English Language Learners (ELL) in the Miami-Dade County Public Schools (M-DCPS); (2) Provide data regarding ELL…
Donnelly, Whitney Bray; Roe, Christopher J.
Often, English-language development (ELD) is taught during a dedicated time of the school day. There is often a mismatch between the content of ELD and the lessons taught during core instruction provided during the remainder of the day. During core instruction, teachers use specially designed academic instruction in English strategies to ensure…
Pae, Hye K.
The aim of this study was to apply Rasch modeling to an examination of the psychometric properties of the "Pearson Test of English Academic" (PTE Academic). Analyzed were 140 test-takers' scores derived from the PTE Academic database. The mean age of the participants was 26.45 (SD = 5.82), ranging from 17 to 46. Conformity of the participants'…
Council of Chief State School Officers, 2012
Many states have begun the process of developing or adapting English Language Proficiency (ELP) standards to align with the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and the forthcoming Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). This need stems not only from a desire to ensure that "all" students receive the rigorous and systematic education…
Fong, Carlton J.; Krause, Jaimie M.; Acee, Taylor W.; Weinstein, Claire Ellen
The study investigated motivational differences and higher education outcomes between limited English proficiency (LEP) Hispanic students compared with non-LEP Hispanic students. With a sample of 668 Hispanic community college students, we measured various forms of achievement motivation informed by self-determination theory, grade point average…
Deysson, Sandra Lynn
This study focused on the aspect of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) and the Virginia Department of Education (VDOE) that require the inclusion of all limited English proficient (LEP) students in testing situations, simultaneously making an effort to close the achievement gap. NCLB indicates that each state is to assess students in a language…
Wang, Tuntiga; Rajprasit, Krich
Theoretically, beliefs about English language learning have a psychological factor, such as predicting the rate of success or failure among learners in the classroom context. However, learners with different levels of language proficiency may perceive such beliefs in a different way, which may lead to the development of special needs, in terms of…
Bérubé, Daniel; Marinova-Todd, Stefka H.
The classroom demographics in French immersion (FI) programs across Canada are changing: There are a growing number of multilingual students who are learning English as a second language (L2) and French as a third language (L3). However, little is known about the development of French language proficiency and reading skills of multilingual…
This study examined the relationship between attachment, travel experiences, and English proficiency and international students' acculturative stress and depressive symptoms. A total of 91 graduate international students completed online surveys. Pearson correlations showed that both attachment anxiety and avoidance were positively correlated with…
Uchikoshi, Yuuko; Marinova-Todd, Stefka H.
This study describes the language proficiency and early literacy skills of Cantonese-speaking English language learners (ELLs) in kindergarten. A total of 113 Cantonese-speaking kindergarteners in Canada and the United States, composed of three subsamples from three different locations participated in this study. Results showed that on average,…
This paper reports on a mixed-methods approach to evaluate rater performance on a local oral English proficiency test. Three types of reliability estimates were reported to examine rater performance from different perspectives. Quantitative results were also triangulated with qualitative rater comments to arrive at a more representative picture of…
Ernst, Jeremy V.; Li, Songze; Williams, Thomas O.
The ever-changing student population of engineering design graphics students necessitates broader sets of instructor adeptness. Specifically, preparedness to educate and provide adequate educational access to content for students with identified categorical disabilities and Limited English Proficiency (LEP) is now an essential readiness skill for…
Sunderman, Gretchen L.; Priya, Kanu
This study investigates the phonological nature of the lexical links in the bilingual lexicon using different-script bilinguals. Highly proficient Hindi-English bilinguals performed a translation recognition task (i.e., decide whether two words presented sequentially are a correct translation pair). For the critical trials, the second word was a…
Roca-Varela, Mª Luisa; Palacios, Ignacio M.
This paper examines some of the best known proficiency tests in English, with particular focus on the oral component. Attention is paid to the following issues, among others: the weighting of oral elements in testing, the criteria used for the assessment of oral skills and the relation of these to the general guidelines in the "Common…
Revis, Kathy G.
The purpose of this study was to discover if there was a statistically significant relationship between the self-reported instructional leadership practices of North Carolina superintendents and the achievement of their students with limited English proficiency (LEP) and students with disabilities (SWDs) as measured by the percent of students who…
Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie; Deng, Shiying; Alvarez, Rocio; Li, Jing
The current study uses Garcia Coll et al.'s (1996) developmental competence model of ethnic minority children and Kim's (1999) racial triangulation theory as frameworks for investigating the mechanisms whereby early adolescent English proficiency relates to perceived discriminatory experiences and adolescent depressive symptoms. Data from 444…
Chan, Hoi Wing
This paper reports on how and why proficient learners of English in Hong Kong participated in popular culture, out-of-class activities, with an emphasis on their development of learner autonomy. Autonomy in language learning is defined as an individual's ability and responsibility to take charge of his or her own learning . Out-of-class…
This study examines the academic motivation, in a Turkish context, of Turkish pre-service English teachers to contribute field research. Students (n=287) completed the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS) and a demographic questionnaire. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, a one-way ANOVA, independent sample t-test, and Pearson product…
Cabassa, Leopoldo J; Molina, Gregory B; Baron, Melvin
Stigma, low health literacy, lack of knowledge, and misconceptions about depression are considered pervasive barriers contributing to the disparities Latino adults with limited English proficiency (LEP) face in accessing and receiving high-quality depression care. The development of culturally and linguistically appropriate health literacy tools, such as fotonovelas, can help address these barriers to depression care in the Latino community. Fotonovelas are booklets that use posed photographs with simple text bubbles to portray soap opera stories that convey educational messages. The aim of this study is to describe the development of a depression fotonovela adapted for Latinos with LEP. We present the conceptual model that informed this depression literacy tool and illustrate how findings from several studies were used to identify educational messages. Our production process delineates practical steps of how to use a multistakeholder approach to develop a health-related fotonovela. Implications for practice of this innovative depression literacy tool are discussed.
Snowden, Lonnie R; Masland, Mary; Guerrero, Rachel
As noted in the supplement to the U.S. Surgeon General's report on mental health (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2001), overcoming language access barriers associated with limited English proficiency (LEP) should help to eliminate racial and ethnic disparities in mental health care access and quality. Federal policy requires remedial action to overcome language barriers: Under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Medicaid and other federally funded programs must provide assistance to LEP persons. Some state-level public and mental health authorities have responded by instituting "threshold language" policies. The history and terms of federal civil rights policy, and of threshold-language-policy-inspired initiatives, should be understood by everyone concerned with overcoming ethnic disparities in mental health services use. Concerned parties should promote implementation of required measures for language assistance and help to evaluate their implementation and effectiveness.
Miquel-Verges, Franscesca; Donohue, Pamela K; Boss, Renee D
Assess the needs of Latino families with limited English proficiency (LEP) whose infant is discharged from the NICU. Parent interviews at discharge and 1 month later. Thirty-six mothers were interviewed. Thirty nine percentage had <8th grade education; half earned <$10,000 annually. Twenty-eight percentage had no primary support person inside the US. Only half felt very prepared for their infants' discharge. Many expressed general worry about their infant's medical condition (53%) and development (81%), but few (15%) could identify specific risk factors. One-third of families sought emergency medical care for their infant within 1 month of discharge. Less than half were aware of early intervention programs. Safe infant discharge from the NICU must address families' needs. Latino parents with LEP have deficits in knowledge about their infant's medical condition and available resources that place these vulnerable infants at further risk.
Background The number of households in the United States that are not proficient in the English language is growing and presenting a challenge to the health care system. Over nineteen percent of the US population speak a language other than English in the home. This increase in language discordance generates a greater need to find and implement accommodations in the clinical setting to insure accurate and efficient diagnosis and treatment as well as provide for patient safety. Aim: The purpose of this study is to determine the percentage of patients accessing the chiropractic college teaching clinics who are not proficient in the English language and to what extent the colleges provide accommodations for that language disparity. Methods The clinic directors and deans of the Association of Chiropractic Colleges were surveyed via an on-line survey engine. The survey queried the percentage of the patient population that is not English language proficient, the accommodations the college currently has in place, if the college has a language specific consent to treat document and if the college has a written policy concerning patients without English proficiency. Results Fifty percent of the contacted chiropractic colleges responded to the survey. In the respondent college clinics 16.5% of the patient population is not proficient in English, with over 75% speaking Spanish. All but one of the respondents provide some level of accommodation for the language non-concordance. Forty five percent of the responding colleges employ a language specific consent to treat form. The implementation of accommodations and the use of a language specific consent to treat form is more prevalent at colleges with a higher percentage of non-English speaking patients. Conclusions The percentage of patients with limited English proficiency accessing services at the teaching clinics of the chiropractic colleges mirrors the numbers in the general population. There is a wide disparity in the
Appel, Randy; Wood, David
The correct use of frequently occurring word combinations represents an important part of language proficiency in spoken and written discourse. This study investigates the use of English-language recurrent word combinations in low-level and high-level L2 English academic essays sourced from the Canadian Academic English Language (CAEL) assessment.…
Chaloupka, Diana; Papierniak, Kathleen, Ed.
Developed for vocational educators of short-term or long-term programs, this manual presents a complete competency-based curriculum in building maintenance for the advanced limited English proficient student. Following instructions on use of the manual and recommended references, a student tracking system and record sheet are provided, which list…
Singh, Niharika; Mishra, Ramesh K.
Many studies have confirmed the presence of a bilingual advantage which is manifested as enhanced cognitive and attention control. However, very few studies have investigated the role of second language proficiency on the modulation of conflict-monitoring in bilinguals. We investigated this by comparing high and low proficient Hindi-English bilinguals on a modified saccadic arrow Stroop task under different monitoring conditions, and tested the predictions of the bilingual executive control advantage proposal. The task of the participants was to make an eye movement toward the color patch in the same color as the central arrow, ignoring the patch to which the arrow was pointing. High-proficient bilinguals had overall faster saccade latency on all types of trials as compared to the low proficient bilinguals. The overall saccadic latency for high proficiency bilinguals was similarly affected by the different types of monitoring conditions, whereas conflict resolution advantage was found only for high monitoring demanding condition. The results support a conflict-monitoring account in a novel oculomotor task and also suggest that language proficiency could modulate executive control in bilinguals. PMID:23781210
Singh, Niharika; Mishra, Ramesh K
Many studies have confirmed the presence of a bilingual advantage which is manifested as enhanced cognitive and attention control. However, very few studies have investigated the role of second language proficiency on the modulation of conflict-monitoring in bilinguals. We investigated this by comparing high and low proficient Hindi-English bilinguals on a modified saccadic arrow Stroop task under different monitoring conditions, and tested the predictions of the bilingual executive control advantage proposal. The task of the participants was to make an eye movement toward the color patch in the same color as the central arrow, ignoring the patch to which the arrow was pointing. High-proficient bilinguals had overall faster saccade latency on all types of trials as compared to the low proficient bilinguals. The overall saccadic latency for high proficiency bilinguals was similarly affected by the different types of monitoring conditions, whereas conflict resolution advantage was found only for high monitoring demanding condition. The results support a conflict-monitoring account in a novel oculomotor task and also suggest that language proficiency could modulate executive control in bilinguals.
Academic language is the linguistic glue that holds the tasks, texts, and tests of school together. If students can't use this glue well, their academic work is likely to fall apart. According to the author of this article, "academic language" is defined as the set of words and phrases that (1) describe content-area knowledge and procedures; (2)…
Sajjadi, Samad; Ahmadi, Majid; Heidarpour, Maryam; Yakta, Ali Salahi; Khadembashi, Naghmeh; Rafatbakhsh, Mohammad
Background: Despite its inevitable significance, the effect of in-service English education on medical professionals has rarely been studied longitudinally. The reason can be issues such as physicians’ heavy workload, commuting problems, inappropriate class times, and inexperienced teaching staff. Materials and Methods: A needs assessment worksheet was administered to faculty members of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences in Tehran and the responses were analyzed. A project for the promotion of faculty members’ English proficiency was formulated. Then, following a placement test, 235 applicants from the university colleges and hospitals were classified into 28 homogeneous groups. After four terms of instruction, the participants’ scores on the pre- and post- assessments were analyzed. Results: There was significant improvement in participants’ total scores on different communicative skills (P<0.001). Regarding individual skills also, they achieved meaningful gains on listening (P<0.001), writing (P = 0.038), and grammar (P<0.001), but failed to progress significantly on reading comprehension (P = 0.523). Conclusion: The administration of in-service education for skill-oriented courses, over a long period, can be quite encouraging and should be further strengthened. Regular instructions on each individual skill on the one hand and on their combination on the other are essential for success in such education. PMID:23264797
Chen, Stephen H.; Zhou, Qing; Uchikoshi, Yuuko; Bunge, Silvia A.
The present study examined whether bilingualism-related advantages in self-regulation could be observed: (a) among Chinese American immigrant children with varying levels of Chinese and English proficiencies, and (b) across different domains of self-regulation in laboratory, home, and classroom contexts. A socioeconomically diverse sample of first- and second-generation Chinese American immigrant children between ages 7 and 10 (n = 223) was administered assessments of Chinese and English language proficiencies and a multi-method, multi-informant battery of self-regulation measures. Multiple regression analyses suggested that controlling for covariates (child age, gender, and SES), children's bilingualism-related advantages were limited to higher performance only on computerized tasks of cognitive flexibility, and only among children with higher degrees of fluency in both Chinese and English. By contrast, proficiencies in one language (either Chinese or English) were uniquely and positively associated with other domains of self-regulation, including parent and teacher-reported effortful control. These results suggest that the bilingual advantage for self-regulation may be observed as a continuous variable among immigrant children with varying levels of bilingual fluency; however, this advantage may not extend across all domains and contexts of self-regulation. PMID:25324795
Chen, Stephen H; Zhou, Qing; Uchikoshi, Yuuko; Bunge, Silvia A
The present study examined whether bilingualism-related advantages in self-regulation could be observed: (a) among Chinese American immigrant children with varying levels of Chinese and English proficiencies, and (b) across different domains of self-regulation in laboratory, home, and classroom contexts. A socioeconomically diverse sample of first- and second-generation Chinese American immigrant children between ages 7 and 10 (n = 223) was administered assessments of Chinese and English language proficiencies and a multi-method, multi-informant battery of self-regulation measures. Multiple regression analyses suggested that controlling for covariates (child age, gender, and SES), children's bilingualism-related advantages were limited to higher performance only on computerized tasks of cognitive flexibility, and only among children with higher degrees of fluency in both Chinese and English. By contrast, proficiencies in one language (either Chinese or English) were uniquely and positively associated with other domains of self-regulation, including parent and teacher-reported effortful control. These results suggest that the bilingual advantage for self-regulation may be observed as a continuous variable among immigrant children with varying levels of bilingual fluency; however, this advantage may not extend across all domains and contexts of self-regulation.
McGrath, Lisa; Kaufhold, Kathrin
Academic Literacies and English for Specific Purposes perspectives on the teaching of academic writing tend to be positioned as dichotomous and ideologically incompatible. Nonetheless, recent studies have called for the integration of these two perspectives in the design of writing programmes in order to meet the needs of students in the…
Iwashita, Noriko; Brown, Annie; McNamara, Tim; O'Hagan, Sally
The study reported in this paper is an investigation of the nature of speaking proficiency in English as a second language in the context of a larger project to develop a rating scale for a new international test of English for Academic Purposes, TOEFL iBT (Brown et al. 2005). We report on a large-scale study of the relationship between detailed…
Landau, Ruth E; Beck, Alan; Glickman, Larry T; Litster, Annette; Widmar, Nicole J Olynk; Moore, George E
Veterinary schools and colleges generally include communication skills training in their professional curriculum, but few programs address challenges resulting from language gaps between pet owners and practitioners. Due to shifting US demographics, small animal veterinary practices must accommodate an increasing number of limited English proficient (LEP) Spanish-speaking pet owners (SSPOs). A national survey was conducted to assess the interest and preparedness of US veterinary students to communicate with LEP SSPOs when they graduate. This online survey, with more than 2,000 first-, second-, and third-year US veterinary students, revealed that over 50% of students had worked at a practice or shelter that had LEP Spanish-speaking clients. Yet fewer than 20% of these students described themselves as prepared to give medical information to an LEP SSPO. Over three-fourths of respondents agreed that communication with LEP SSPOs was important for veterinarians in general, and two-thirds agreed that communication with LEP SSPOs was important for themselves personally. Ninety percent of students who described themselves as conversant in Spanish agreed that they would be able to communicate socially with SSPOs, while only 55% said they would be able to communicate medically with such clients. Overall, two-thirds of students expressed interest in taking Spanish for Veterinary Professionals elective course while in school, with the strongest interest expressed by those with advanced proficiency in spoken Spanish. Bridging language gaps has the potential to improve communication with LEP SSPOs in the veterinary clinical setting and to improve patient care, client satisfaction, and the economic health of the veterinary profession.
Okafor, Maria-Theresa C; Carter-Pokras, Olivia D; Picot, Sandra J; Zhan, Min
Although over 1.5 million African immigrants live in the US, few studies have examined the relationship of language acculturation to health outcomes among African immigrant adults. The primary objective of this research was to investigate the relationship between English proficiency and current self-rated health among African immigrant adults. Using a cross-sectional design, a secondary data analysis was performed on baseline data from the African immigrant adult subsample (n = 763) of the 2003 New Immigrant Survey, a longitudinal study of lawful permanent residents. Limited English proficiency (LEP), increased duration of US residence, older age at immigration, being male, less than 12 years of education, poor pre-migration health, and chronic disease were associated with good/fair/poor current self-rated health. Findings support consideration of pre-migration health and chronic disease in future acculturation and health studies, and provision of linguistically competent interventions for LEP African immigrants at risk for poor health outcomes.
Franquiz, Maria E.; Salinas, Cinthia
Secondary school teachers face remarkable challenges when they are asked to incorporate language objectives because the traditional approach to the education of English Language Learners (ELL) separates English language development from content instruction. The underlying assumption is that English language proficiency is a prerequisite for…
Parker, Caroline E.; O'Dwyer, Laura M.; Irwin, Clare W.
This study examined student and program characteristics that are related to English proficiency and content area achievement for English language learner (ELL) students in one urban district in Connecticut. The study found that ELL students in special education had English proficiency scores significantly lower than the mean for all ELL students…
DeCamp, Lisa Ross; Kieffer, Edith; Zickafoose, Joseph S.; DeMonner, Sonya; Valbuena, Felix; Davis, Matthew M.; Heisler, Michele
The objective of this study is to inform medical home implementation in practices serving limited English proficiency Latino families by exploring limited English proficiency Latina mothers’ experiences with, and expectations for, pediatric primary care. In partnership with a federally-qualified community health center in an urban Latino neighborhood, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 38 low-income Latina mothers. Eligible participants identified a pediatric primary care provider for their child and had at least one child 3 years old or younger, to increase the probability of frequent recent interactions with health care providers. Interview transcripts were coded and analyzed through an iterative and collaborative process to identify participants’ satisfaction with and expectations for pediatric primary care. About half of the mothers interviewed were satisfied with their primary care experiences. Mothers suggested many ways to improve the quality of pediatric primary care for their children to better meet the needs of their families. These included: encouraging providers to invest more in their relationship with families, providing reliable same-day sick care, expanding hours, improving access to language services, and improving care coordination services. Limited English proficiency Latina mothers expect high-quality pediatric primary care consistent with the medical home model. Current efforts to improve primary care quality through application of the medical home model are thus relevant to this population, but should focus on the parent-provider relationship and timely access to care. Promoting this model among practices that serve limited English proficiency Latino families could improve engagement and satisfaction with primary care. PMID:22350630
Hill, Laura E.; Weston, Margaret; Hayes, Joseph M.
Former English Learner students who have improved their facility with English to such a degree that they have been reclassified by their school districts as fluent in the English language are among the best performing students in the state. Because these Reclassified Fluent English Proficient (RFEP) students have much better academic outcomes than…
Liao, Hung-Chang; Wang, Ya-Huei
This study examined whether students studying literature in complementary learning clusters would show more improvement in medical humanities literacy, critical thinking skills, and English proficiency compared to those in conventional learning clusters. Ninety-three students participated in the study (M age = 18.2 years, SD = 0.4; 36 men, 57 women). A quasi-experimental design was used over 16 weeks, with the control group (n = 47) working in conventional learning clusters and the experimental group (n = 46) working in complementary learning clusters. Complementary learning clusters were those in which individuals had complementary strengths enabling them to learn from and offer assistance to other cluster members, hypothetically facilitating the learning process. Measures included the Medical Humanities Literacy Scale, Critical Thinking Disposition Assessment, English proficiency tests, and Analytic Critical Thinking Scoring Rubric. The results showed that complementary learning clusters have the potential to improve students' medical humanities literacy, critical thinking skills, and English proficiency.
Snowden, Lonnie R; Masland, Mary C; Peng, Carol J; Wei-Mien Lou, Christine; Wallace, Neal T
The importance of providing timely, effective mental health services is increasingly recognized worldwide, and language barriers are a formidable obstacle to achieving this objective. Threshold language policy is one response implemented by California and other states within the U.S., in accordance with Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, and national origin in programs receiving federal funding. This policy mandates language assistance services for Medicaid enrollees whose primary language is other than English once their population size reaches a designated level. Medicaid is the federal-state-funded health insurance program for specific classifications of low-income Americans. This study evaluated the impact of threshold language policy on Vietnamese, Cantonese, Hmong, and Cambodian limited English proficiency persons' use of public mental health services in California. Using random-effects regression on 247 observations, we regressed aggregate Vietnamese, Cantonese, Hmong, and Cambodian Medicaid mental health service penetration rates on an indicator of the threshold language policy's implementation, while controlling for a linear time trend and the effects of non-threshold language assistance programming. Immediately after implementation, threshold language policy requirements were associated with a penetration rate increase among this population. The penetration rate increase became greater after accounting for the impact of concurrent language assistance. However, this increase diminished over time. The findings indicate that, at least in the short run, language assistance measures requiring reasonable accommodations once populations of LEP persons reach a specified size have detectable effects on their mental health service use. These requirements increase the number of mental health consumers, but appear to provide declining benefit over time. California's threshold language policy provides
Background To meet federal requirements under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act, the state of California instituted policies requiring that comprehensive mental health services in native languages be made available to limited English proficiency (LEP) populations when concentrations exceed “threshold” levels. Methods This paper builds on promising results from quantitative evaluations by reporting on qualitative interviews with Latino and Vietnamese LEP clients in mental health services (N = 20) to examine the awareness, impact, and implications of these threshold language policies. Results Results suggest that, while individuals are often not aware of the policies themselves, the language-related services they receive that are prompted by the policies are critical to treatment initiation and retention. Results also convey the complexities of using interpreters for sensitive psychological topics, and suggest that, for LEP individuals seeking mental health treatment, providers who speak their native languages are generally preferred. Conclusions Access to language-appropriate services seems to be an important part of why LEP populations seek mental health treatment. However, there are multiple variables that factor into the usage and usefulness of such services. PMID:24295426
Cabassa, Leopoldo J; Contreras, Sandra; Aragón, Rebeca; Molina, Gregory B; Baron, Melvin
In this study, the authors examined reactions of Latino adults with limited English proficiency (LEP) to a culturally and linguistically adapted depression fotonovela, titled "Secret Feelings." Fotonovelas are popular health education tools that use posed photographs, text bubbles with simple text, and dramatic narratives to engage audiences and raise their awareness and knowledge about specific health issues. Four focus groups (N = 32) were conducted at an adult school program (e.g., GED classes). Content analysis was used to generate themes from transcripts and memos. "Secret Feelings" was viewed as an entertaining, engaging, and educational tool that helped combat stigma toward depression and its treatments in the Latino community. Despite learning about depression, participants reported they wanted more information about the causes of depression, the process of recovery, and felt that the story did not shift their apprehensions toward antidepressants. The findings suggest that "Secret Feelings" is a promising depression literacy tool for Latinos with LEP that can raise awareness and knowledge about depression and its treatments, reduce stigma toward depression and antidepressant medications, and model appropriate help-seeking behaviors.
According to Beck, McKeown, and Kucan's Three Tier Model (2002), when it comes to language instruction the distinction between academic vocabulary words and content specific words has a significant bearing on the language success of English language learners (ELLs). In this article, the author describes strategies that give teachers and parents…
Brooks, Katie; Thurston, Linda P.
This study used an ecobehavioral approach to investigate the conditional probability that English language learning (ELL) students would engage in academic tasks in urban middle school content area classrooms within different instructional grouping configurations. These configurations included whole class, small group, one-to-one, and individual…
Short, Deborah J.; Fidelman, Carolyn G.; Louguit, Mohammed
This article describes a study examining the effects of Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) model instruction on the academic language performance of middle and high school English language learners. The SIOP model is an approach for teaching content curriculum to students learning through a new language. Teachers employ techniques…
Chakraborty, Rahul; Shanmugam, Ramalingam
The study explored the influence of second language proficiency on the kinematic duration of single words. Participants produced real and novel words with variable stress targets (e.g., trochaic and iambic) embedded in first language (L1) and second language (L2) sentence frames. Participants were monolingual English speakers (n=10) and Bengali-English bilinguals with early exposure to English (n=10) and late exposure to English (n=10). Bengali was the L1 and English was the L2 for all 20 bilingual participants. Duration of lip movements for the target real and novel words was analysed. Results suggest that kinematic duration of single words was not influenced by speakers' L2 proficiency. However, L2 proficiency influenced foreign accent ratings for the real words, but not the novel words. Kinematic duration and perception of accent were not correlated, which might imply that accent reduction might not always be a direct consequence of shorter word duration.
Brown, Jean E.
A list of 26 periodicals for use as supplementary instruction for gifted English students presents information on title, frequency of publication, and on publisher (along with a brief annotation) for publications in six categories: literary anthology; cultural and historical heritage; humor; literary criticism; literary, political, and social…
English textbooks are widely used in every discipline in the majority of colleges and universities in Taiwan. To prepare college students for their future careers, it is necessary they be given systematic training and practice in reading these books. However, due to time constraints, most content teachers focus on the delivery of content rather…
There is growing evidence that the lack of competence of university ESL (English as a second language) students in academic writing affects their overall academic performance. Olivas and Li (2006) connected low second-language proficiency levels in English to poor academic performance of international students studying at both university and…
This research aimed to investigate; students' English academic achievement, beliefs about English language learning, English language learning strategies, and the relationship of them. Descriptive and correlational design, quantitative methods were applied in this research. The students' final English scores of the first year, BALLI, and SILL were…
Hauck, Maurice Cogan; Wolf, Mikyung Kim; Mislevy, Robert
This paper is the first in a series from Educational Testing Service (ETS) concerning English language proficiency (ELP) assessments for K-12 English learners (ELs). The goal of this paper, and the series, is to present research-based ideas, principles, and recommendations for consideration by those who are conceptualizing, developing, and…
Emergency Immigration Education Act Programs. Summer ESL Welcome Program for Students of Limited English Proficiency, Summer Bilingual Program, Projects Omega, Wise, and Bell. Summer 1994. OER Report.
Roman, Elliott M.
The Emergency Immigration Education Act supported three distinct programs in New York City in the summer of 1994: (1) the Summer English as a Second Language (ESL) Welcome Program for Students of Limited English Proficiency; (2) the Summer Bilingual Program; and (3) Projects Omega, Wise, and Bell. The projects served 3,443 students in all. The…
New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Bilingual Education.
In question and answer form, this document presents information about limited English proficient (LEP) students and programs for them in the New York City (New York) schools. City and state regulations govern the identification of LEP students and their selection for English as a second language (ESL) or bilingual programs. The Board of Education…
Baron, Patricia A.; Papageorgiou, Spiros
The purpose of this study was to collect recommendations for minimum score requirements (cut scores) on the "TOEFL Junior"® English language proficiency test in order to guide decisions on the placement of learners into English as a second language (ESL) support classes. The TOEFL Junior test, intended primarily for students ages 11 and…
Cackley, Alicia Puente
According to Census data, more than 12 million adults in the United States report they do not speak English well or at all. Proficiency in reading, writing, speaking, and understanding the English language appears to be linked to multiple dimensions of adult life in the United States, including financial literacy--the ability to make informed…
Pecoraro, Diane; Phommasouvanh, Bounlieng
The Limited English Proficient (LEP) Parent Involvement Project, a collaborative project between two state agencies, aims to help refugee and immigrant parents to be effective in their new American culture. Materials are provided that were developed for use in various adult education settings such as English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) classes,…
Powers, Donald E.; Kim, Hae-Jin; Weng, Vincent Z.
To facilitate the interpretation of test scores from the redesigned TOEIC® (listening and reading) test as a measure of English language proficiency, we administered a self-assessment inventory to TOEIC examinees in Japan and Korea that gathered perceptions of their ability to perform a variety of everyday English language tasks. TOEIC scores…
Powers, Donald E.; Kim, Hae-Jin; Yu, Feng; Weng, Vincent Z.; VanWinkle, Waverely
To facilitate the interpretation of test scores from the new TOEIC[R] (Test of English for International Communications[TM]) speaking and writing tests as measures of English-language proficiency, we administered a self-assessment inventory to TOEIC examinees in Japan and Korea, to gather their perceptions of their ability to perform a variety of…
Arens, Sheila A.; Stoker, Ginger; Barker, Jane; Shebby, Susan; Wang, Xin; Cicchinelli, Lou F.; Williams, Jean M.
This study responds to regional and national needs by examining the impact on students' English language proficiency of a particular set of ELL-specific classroom materials in combination with a specific teacher professional development program. The classroom materials used in this study, entitled On Our Way to English (OWE), were authored by…
Chou, Fang-Yu; Kuang, Lily Y.; Lee, Jeannette; Yoo, Grace J.; Fung, Lei-Chun
Objective: This paper summarizes the barriers and challenges in cancer care reported from a validation project of a self-management intervention handbook from Chinese-American cancer patients with limited English proficiency (LEP). Methods: Seven health-care providers (HCPs) and 16 Chinese-American cancer survivors with LEP were invited to validate a self-management intervention handbook through networking sampling method. Bilingual versions were developed and validated using the repeated translation process. Online and paper-based survey and interview were conducted to collect information on the perception of barriers and experiences on cancer care. Data were analyzed by the content analysis method. Results: The HCPs reported a bilingual self-management handbook which is useful and feasible for patient self-management. The challenges in giving cancer care to LEP patients included: patients do not engage in discussion, different cultural health beliefs, unable to speak to patients in their primary language, and patients are less likely to discuss emotional and social challenges during treatments. The common barriers and experiences during cancer care included: limited understanding about treatment/medication and side effects, language barriers such as unable to communicate to make the decision, unable to understand information related to resources and do not know what questions to ask, and do not know what to expect during their cancer treatment. Conclusions: The current findings highlight the need of cancer self-management support for culturally diverse LEP cancer patients. Further research can include applying the supportive intervention to all LEP cancer patients. PMID:27981169
Al-Khairy, Mohamed Ali
This study attempted to investigate Saudi English-major undergraduates studying at Taif University to identify a) the types of academic writing Saudi English-major undergraduates carry out at English departments, b) Saudi English-major undergraduates' writing problems, c) the reasons behind Saudi English-major undergraduates' writing problems and…
This study examined why some high achievers on the course final exam were unsuccessful on the proficiency exam in English. We hypothesized that the learning motives and learning behaviors (learning strategy, learning time) had different effects on the outcomes of the exams. First, the relation between the variables was investigated using structural equation modeling. Second, the learning behaviors of students who got good marks on both exams were compared with students who did well only on the course final exam. The results were as follows. (a) Learning motives influenced test performance via learning behaviors. (b) Content-attached motives influenced all variables concerning learning behaviors. (c) Content-detached motives influenced all variables concerning learning behaviors that were related only to the course final exam. (d) The students who got good marks on both exams performed the learning behaviors that were useful on the proficiency exam more frequently than the students who did well only on the course final exam.
Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie; Deng, Shiying; Alvarez, Rocio; Li, Jing
The current study uses Garcia Coll et al.'s (1996) developmental competence model of ethnic minority children and Kim's (1999) Racial Triangulation Theory as frameworks for investigating the mechanisms whereby early adolescent English proficiency relates to perceived discriminatory experiences and adolescent depressive symptoms. Data from 444 adolescents (239 girls and 205 boys, with a mean age of 13.0 for Wave 1 and 17.0 for Wave 2) and their parents living in major metropolitan areas of Northern California were collected. The structural equation modeling analyses indicate that self-reported low levels of English proficiency among Chinese American adolescents in middle school are related to these same students later reporting that they speak English with an accent in high school, which in turn relates significantly to their perceiving that they have been stereotyped as perpetual foreigners. For girls, a perpetual foreigner stereotype relates to perceptions of chronic daily discrimination, increasing the risk of depressive symptoms. For boys, the path is different: a perpetual foreigner stereotype is apparently related to discriminatory victimization experiences, which increase the risk of depressive symptoms. PMID:21244164
Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie; Deng, Shiying; Alvarez, Rocio; Li, Jing
The current study uses García Coll et al.'s (1996) developmental competence model of ethnic minority children and Kim's (1999) racial triangulation theory as frameworks for investigating the mechanisms whereby early adolescent English proficiency relates to perceived discriminatory experiences and adolescent depressive symptoms. Data from 444 adolescents (239 girls and 205 boys, with a mean age of 13.0 years for Wave 1 and 17.0 years for Wave 2) and their parents living in major metropolitan areas of Northern California were collected. The structural equation modeling analyses indicate that self-reported low levels of English proficiency among Chinese American adolescents in middle school are related to these same students later reporting that they speak English with an accent in high school, which in turn relates significantly to their perceiving that they have been stereotyped as perpetual foreigners. For girls, a perpetual foreigner stereotype relates to perceptions of chronic daily discrimination, increasing the risk of depressive symptoms. For boys, the path is different: A perpetual foreigner stereotype is apparently related to discriminatory victimization experiences, which increase the risk of depressive symptoms.
Neal, Heather N.
Academic language plays a key role in reading comprehension, disciplinary thinking, and overall academic success. However, many approaches to teaching academic language, such as a focus on academic vocabulary, overlook other language features that can pose challenges for students. Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL), arguably one of the three…
DiCerbo, Patricia A.; Anstrom, Kristina A.; Baker, Lottie L.; Rivera, Charlene
Academic English (AE) refers to the language used in school to help students acquire and use knowledge. This article reviews current literature to determine what is known about the nature of AE within the context of K-12 schooling. It describes how AE is conceptualized in the education research literature, how these conceptualizations are realized…
August, Diane; Artzi, Lauren; Barr, Christopher
The Common Core State Standards and the Next Generation Science Standards require students to understand and produce academic language that appears in informational text. Vocabulary is a critical domain of academic language, but English language learners (ELLs) come to the English Language Arts classroom with more limited English vocabulary than…
Adzmi, Nor Aslah; Bidin, Samsiah; Ibrahim, Syazliyati; Jusoff, Kamaruzaman
The purpose of this study was to analyse the academic English language lacks and needs of Industrial Design students in Universiti Teknologi MARA Kedah (UiTM). It highlights the lacks and needs for English for Academic Purposes in helping the students to succeed in the program through the usage of English language. The research tools used were in…
Hill, Laura E.; Weston, Margaret; Hayes, Joseph M.
Former English Learner students who have improved their facility with English to such a degree that they have been reclassified by their school districts as fluent in the English language are among the best performing students in the state. Because these Reclassified Fluent English Proficient (RFEP) students have much better academic outcomes than…
Greene, Dana Huffman
Growing numbers of English Language Learners (ELLs) in the United States have become a trend in recent years; and North Carolina, including the region of this study, is no exception to this trend. As a result of the national rise in ELLs, NCLB was enacted with the goal of increasing academic achievement and closing the achievement gap between…
Flores, Glenn; Abreu, Milagros; Tomany-Korman, Sandra C.
BACKGROUND: Approximately 3.5 million U.S. schoolchildren are limited in English proficiency (LEP). Disparities in children's health and health care are associated with both LEP and speaking a language other than English at home, but prior research has not examined which of these two measures of language barriers is most useful in examining health care disparities. OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to compare primary language spoken at home vs. parental LEP and their associations with health status, access to care, and use of health services in children. METHODS: We surveyed parents at urban community sites in Boston, asking 74 questions on children's health status, access to health care, and use of health services. RESULTS: Some 98% of the 1,100 participating children and families were of non-white race/ethnicity, 72% of parents were LEP, and 13 different primary languages were spoken at home. "Dose-response" relationships were observed between parental English proficiency and several child and parental sociodemographic features, including children's insurance coverage, parental educational attainment, citizenship and employment, and family income. Similar "dose-response" relationships were noted between the primary language spoken at home and many but not all of the same sociodemographic features. In multivariate analyses, LEP parents were associated with triple the odds of a child having fair/poor health status, double the odds of the child spending at least one day in bed for illness in the past year, and significantly greater odds of children not being brought in for needed medical care for six of nine access barriers to care. None of these findings were observed in analyses of the primary language spoken at home. Individual parental LEP categories were associated with different risks of adverse health status and outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Parental LEP is superior to the primary language spoken at home as a measure of the impact of language barriers on children
Kim, James S.; Sunderman, Gail L.
The accountability requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 place high-poverty schools and racially diverse schools at a disadvantage because they rely on mean proficiency scores and require all subgroups to meet the same goals for accountability. In this article, student achievement data from six states are used to highlight…
Mojica, Cynthia M.; Glenn, Beth A.; Chang, Cindy; Bastani, Roshan
Despite the availability of effective early detection technologies, more than half (61%) of colorectal cancers in the United States and 55% in California are identified at an advanced stage. Data on colorectal cancer patients (N = 35,030) diagnosed from 2005 to 2007 were obtained from the California Cancer Registry. Multivariate analyses found a relationship among neighborhood concentration of recent immigrants, neighborhood rates of limited English proficiency, and late-stage colorectal cancer diagnosis. Hispanics living in neighborhoods with a greater percentage of recent immigrants (compared to the lowest percentage) had greater odds (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.22, 2.02) of late-stage diagnosis whereas Hispanics living in neighborhoods with the highest percentage of limited English proficiency (compared to the lowest percentage) had lower odds (OR .71, 95% CI .51, .99) of late-stage diagnosis. These relationships were not observed for other ethnic groups. Results highlight the complex relationship among race/ethnicity, neighborhood characteristics, and colorectal cancer stage at diagnosis. PMID:26504808
Vela, Monica; Fritz, Cassandra; Jacobs, Elizabeth A
Limited English proficient (LEP) patients are at risk of disparities in health and health care quality. These disparities can be mitigated by providing care in a language they understand. Undergraduate medical education provides an opportunity to stress that language barriers negatively impact the quality and safety of health care for LEP patients and to teach students how to overcome them. Because the preponderance of LEP patients in the USA is Spanish speaking, the majority of US medical schools have established medical Spanish coursework for interested students. However, 70 % of medical schools note significant obstacles to delivering this curriculum. The most commonly cited obstacles include a lack of time to deliver it, heterogeneous student skill levels, and insufficient faculty support. We also note that educators need to make sure not to propagate disparities and medical errors for LEP patients. We provide recommendations for establishing medical students' linguistic and cultural competence for the care Spanish-speaking limited English proficiency patients, with the caution that this instruction must be coupled with education as to when to call on an interpreter if participants are not fluent in Spanish at the end of the course.
Parker, Caroline; O'Dwyer, Laura; Irwin, Clare
English learner students are one of the fastest growing subgroups in America's schools, and gaps between English learner students and their native English-speaking peers in academic outcomes remain large in most districts and states. This study examines data for all English learner students in grades K-12 in the study district who took the…
This study presents a quantitative analysis of cohesion of the academic writing of Chinese English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) graduate students by applying Halliday and Hansen's (1976) model. Six Chinese graduate students from a Midwestern university were selected for the study, representing two proficiency levels in written English--advanced and…
The rapidly increasing use of English language proficiency test scores by universities around the world to select international students has resulted in a range of admissions, marketing, academic and teaching support staff interacting with the tests in different ways. To date, there has been little research investigating the assessment literacy…
Mukundan, Jayakaran; Mahvelati, Elaheh Hamed; Nimehchisalem, Vahid
Intensive English programs are courses in which students participate in a higher number of classes in a shorter period. The available literature on intensive English courses indicates inconsistent results necessitating further research in this area. This study investigated the effect of an intensive English program on a group of Malaysian…
Rogers, Catherine L.; Dalby, Jonathan; Nishi, Kanae
This study compared the intelligibility of native and foreign-accented English speech presented in quiet and mixed with three different levels of background noise. Two native American English speakers and four native Mandarin Chinese speakers for whom English is a second language each read a list of 50 phonetically balanced sentences (Egan, 1948).…
Yoo, Hanwook; Manna, Venessa F.
This study assessed the factor structure of the Test of English for International Communication (TOEIC®) Listening and Reading test, and its invariance across subgroups of test-takers. The subgroups were defined by (a) gender, (b) age, (c) employment status, (d) time spent studying English, and (e) having lived in a country where English is the…
This study investigated language learning strategies used by 418 EFL learners in Taiwan and looked for relationships between learning strategy use and the patterns of strategy use based on language proficiency. The participants reported using compensation strategies most frequently and affective strategies least frequently. The most frequently…
Seethaler, Pamela M.; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas; Compton, Donald L.
The purpose of this study was to assess the added value of dynamic assessment (DA) for predicting individual differences in year-end first-grade calculation (CA) and word-problem (WP) performance as a function of limited English proficiency (LEP) status. Beginning first graders (129 LEP; 163 non-LEP) were assessed on brief and static mathematics…
Seethaler, Pamela M.; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas; Compton, Donald L.
The purpose of this study was to assess the added value of dynamic assessment (DA) beyond more conventional static measures for predicting individual differences in year-end 1st-grade calculation (CA) and word-problem (WP) performance, as a function of limited English proficiency (LEP) status. At the start of 1st grade, students (129 LEP; 163…
Chin, Aimee; Daysal, N. Meltem; Imberman, Scott A.
Texas requires a school district to offer bilingual education when its enrollment of limited English proficient (LEP) students in a particular elementary grade and language is twenty or higher. Using school panel data, we find a significant increase in the probability that a district offers bilingual education above this 20-student cutoff. Using…
Ortiz, Alba A., Ed.; Polyzoi, Eleoussa, Ed.
An exploratory and descriptive study is reviewed which examined the identification and placement of 334 limited English proficient Hispanic students (grades 2-5) in learning disability programs. Ss' eligibility folders were examined to determine why they had been referred initially, how they were assessed, and to document the initial placement…
Panikkar, Bindu; Woodin, Mark A.; Brugge, Doug; Desmarais, Anne Marie; Hyatt, Raymond; Goldman, Rose; Pirie, Alex; Goldstein-Gelb, Marcy; Galvão, Heloisa; Chianelli, Monica; Vasquez, Ismael; McWhinney, Melissa; Dalembert, Franklin; Gute, David M.
In this community based research initiative, we employed a survey instrument predominately developed and administered by Teen Educators to assess occupational health risks for Haitian, Salvadoran, and Brazilian immigrants (n = 405) in Somerville, MA, USA. We demonstrate that a combined analysis of ethnicity, years in the US, and English proficiency better characterized the occupational experience of immigrant workers than considering these variables individually. While years in the US (negatively) and English proficiency (positively) explained the occurrence of health risks, the country of origin identified the most vulnerable populations in the community. Brazilians, Salvadorans, and other Hispanic, all of whom who have been in the US varying length of time, with varying proficiency in English language had twice the odds of reporting injuries due to work compared to other immigrants. Although this observation was not significant it indicates that years in the US and English proficiency alone do not predict health risks among this population. We recommend the initiation of larger studies employing c community based participatory research methods to confirm these differences and to further explore work and health issues of immigrant populations. This study is one of the small number of research efforts to utilize a contemporaneous assessment of occupational health problems in three distinct immigrant populations at the community level within a specific Environmental Justice context and social milieu. PMID:23222180
Ribot, Krystal M.; Hoff, Erika
Relations between bilingual children's patterns of conversational code-switching (responding to one language with another), the balance of their dual language input, and their expressive and receptive proficiency in two languages were examined in 115 2½-year-old simultaneous Spanish-English bilinguals in the U.S. Children were more likely to…
Wanchid, Raveewan; Charoensuk, Valaikorn
The purposes of this study were to investigate the effects of the use of paper-based and weblog-based electronic portfolios on the writing achievement of limited English proficiency students, to survey the students' attitudes towards the use of the portfolio assessment, and to compare the viewpoints of the students in the control and experimental…
Rosa, Carlos M.; And Others
A study was undertaken to examine psychometric properties of "La Prueba Riverside de Realizacion en Espanol" (PRRE) and the "Spanish Assessment of Basic Education" (SABE) when administered to a sample of limited-English-proficient students, grades 1 through 8. Spanish-language versions of both tests were used for the study.…
Moss, Marc; Puma, Michael
This report presents descriptive findings from the Language Minority/Limited English Proficiency Student Supplement of "Prospects," a six-year longitudinal evaluation concerning the impact of federal Chapter 1 programs. These programs provide supplemental instruction to low-achieving elementary and secondary school students in low-income schools.…
Rodriguez, Astrid Sussette
Developing literacy and language proficiency in English is essential to thrive in school and in the workforce in American society. Research on cross-linguistic influences on text-level skills is scant, especially studies investigating reading comprehension among language-minority adults. The present study investigated the effects of…
Adamsky, Richard A.; And Others
The first part of this document provides a brief account of a project to develop learning modules on the microcomputer and the microscope for use with limited English-proficient speakers of other languages who are enrolled in vocational education courses. The bulk of the document consists of appendixes presenting the modules themselves. The…
O'Conner, Rosemarie; Abedi, Jamal; Tung, Stephanie
This study describes enrollment and achievement trends of limited English proficient (LEP) students in New Jersey public schools between 2002/03 and 2008/09. It documents achievement gaps between LEP and general education students in language arts literacy and math. The study's main findings include: (1) From 2002/03 to 2008/09, LEP student…
O'Conner, Rosemarie; Abedi, Jamal; Tung, Stephanie
This study describes enrollment and achievement trends of limited English proficient (LEP) students in New Jersey public schools between 2002/03 and 2008/09. It documents achievement gaps between LEP and general education students in language arts literacy and math. The study's main findings include: (1) From 2002/03 to 2008/09, LEP student…
Ribot, Krystal M; Hoff, Erika
Relations between bilingual children's patterns of conversational code-switching (responding to one language with another), the balance of their dual language input, and their expressive and receptive proficiency in two languages were examined in 115 2½-year-old simultaneous Spanish-English bilinguals in the U.S. Children were more likely to code-switch in response to Spanish than English. Children's expressive vocabulary scores were higher in English than in Spanish, while their English and Spanish receptive language scores were not different. Analyses of subgroups of children with different but consistent patterns of code-switching confirmed that children who code-switched to English showed greater English skills, specifically in the expressive domain. Children who did not code-switch were more balanced bilinguals in both expressive and receptive skills. Children with other code-switching patterns showed still different profiles of dual language expressive and receptive proficiency. These findings reveal that some, but not all, bilingual children show different profiles of expressive and receptive skill in their two languages and that these proficiency profiles are related to their language choices in conversation.
Wang, Min-Fen; Bakken, Lori L.
Introduction: Academic writing for publication is competitive and demanding for researchers. For the novice English-as-a-second-language (ESL) researcher, the pressure to publish compounds the difficulties of mastering the English language. Very few studies have used ESL graduate and post-graduate students as academic writing research subjects.…
The study utilised a fine-grained diagnostic checklist to assess first-year undergraduates in Hong Kong and evaluated its validity and usefulness for diagnosing academic writing in English. Ten English language instructors marked 472 academic essays with the checklist. They also agreed on a Q-matrix, which specified the relationships among the…
Jackson, Daniel O.
This article describes the implementation of technology-mediated tasks in an English for academic purposes (EAP) curriculum at a Japanese university. The course addressed the needs of English majors at the school by enabling more efficient completion of academic work, including essay writing. One way that technology supported this goal was through…
Behrens, Susan; Mercer, Cindy
The academic demands of classroom English require students to think about language structure in ways that they are not used to. Everybody "knows" much English grammar intuitively but the academic rules themselves can be difficult to articulate. This goes for punctuation, too: errors often reflect students' lack of explicit knowledge of grammatical…
A study investigated the consistency of criteria for academic English skills as applied by teachers of academic English and science lecturers in a South African historically black university. Both groups were asked to evaluate first-year students' essays on the greenhouse effect. Results indicated a wide variation in scores and judgments within…
Asfaha, Yonas Mesfun; Beckman, Danielle; Kurvers, Jeanne; Kroon, Sjaak
A major question in L2 reading research is whether L2 reading is a language or a reading problem. Existing research, mainly carried out in Western contexts, demonstrates that L2 reading is influenced by L1 reading and L2 proficiency. This study applied the L2 reading theory in a non-Western context (Eritrea, East Africa) with L1 reading acquired…
Man, Jonathan P; Weinkauf, Justin G; Tsang, Monica; Sin, Don D
National factor(s) influencing publication output in the highest ranked medical journals are largely unknown. We sought to examine the relationship between national research funding and English proficiency on publication output. We identified all original research articles appearing in the five highest ranked general medical journals between 1997 and 2001. Using the country of the corresponding author as the source nation for each article, we determined a standardized publication rate across developed nations. We used multiple regression techniques to determine the influence of national expenditures on research and scores from the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL), a surrogate for English proficiency, on publication output. There was a significant relationship of national spending on research and TOEFL scores to publication output of developed countries (p = 0.04; p < 0.01, respectively). These two variables explained approximately 71.5% of the variation in publication rate across developed nations around the world (R = 0.85; p < 0.01). Normalized for population size, English-speaking nations and certain northern European countries such as Denmark, The Netherlands, Switzerland, and Sweden had the highest rate of publication in the five highest ranked general medical journals, while Asian countries had generally low rates of publication. Research spending and English proficiency were strongly associated with publication output in the highest ranked general medical journals. While these data cannot be considered definitive due to their observational nature, they do suggest that for English-language medical journals, research funding and English proficiency may be important determinants of publication.
Grover, Amy; Deakyne, Sara; Bajaj, Lalit; Roosevelt, Genie E
Appropriate interpretation is imperative for families with limited English proficiency (LEP). We compared throughput times for ED visits involving families with LEP based on type of interpretation provided: in-person interpretation, remote telephonic interpretation or bilingual providers. This study is a secondary analysis of a prospective study of caretaker satisfaction with different interpreter modalities. We queried the medical record for event time stamps, clinical factors and disposition. The in-person cohort (116 min) had a significantly shorter total throughput time than telephonic (141 min) and bilingual provider (153 min) cohorts (P < 0.0001), due to a difference in time seen by provider to disposition. Time seen by provider to disposition remained statistically significantly shorter for the in-person cohort when compared to telephonic interpretation when controlling for potential confounders such as admission rate (P = 0.006). In-person interpretation significantly decreased ED throughput times and may be an important consideration in the choice of interpreter modality.
Ong, Brandon N; Yip, Mei Po; Feng, Sherry; Calhoun, Rebecca; Meischke, Hendrika W; Tu, Shin-Ping
Effective communication during a medical emergency is crucial for an appropriate emergency medical services (EMS) response. This exploratory qualitative study explored intentions to use 9-1-1 in a Chinese speaking community and the barriers and facilitators to accessing EMS. Focus groups with Chinese adults who self-reported limited English proficiency were conducted. An inductive iterative approach was used to categorize and connect themes identified in the discussions. Language difficulties, negative perceptions of EMS, perceived costs of using emergency services, and no previous experience with 9-1-1 were commonly described as barriers to calling EMS during emergencies. Positive past experiences with EMS and encountering an emergency situation perceived as too great to manage alone are common facilitators for calling 9-1-1. Further exploration is necessary to assess barriers to calling 9-1-1 unique to specific communities, test findings, and tailor interventions to improve EMS communication.
Moore, Rashid A.; Zainuddin, Hanizah
Most research conducted on the amount of time English language learners (ELLs) require for the acquisition of academic English suggests that 4-10 years are required to be near or on par with fully proficient English (FEP) peers. In this study, data from three administrations (1999, 2000, and 2001) of the FCAT writing test of the Florida Writing…
Mounty, Judith L.; Pucci, Concetta T.; Harmon, Kristen C.
A primary tenet underlying American Sign Language/English bilingual education for deaf students is that early access to a visual language, developed in conjunction with language planning principles, provides a foundation for literacy in English. The goal of this study is to obtain an emic perspective on bilingual deaf readers transitioning from…
Yan, Jin; Huizhong, Yang
The College English Test (CET), designed in accordance with the requirements of the National College English Teaching Syllabus and as a result of the need for China's reform and its open-door policy in the 1980s, is the world's largest language test administered nationwide. Owing to its scientific approach, consistent marking, rigorous…
This newsletter presents key observations from a review of BC post-secondary institutional websites undertaken to assess any differences in admission requirements for entry into standard First Year English courses and in institutional English admission requirements. Recommendations are made on possible actions that could be taken to clarify…
Aitken, Joan E.
The paper offers ideas for assessing and teaching English language learners (ELL)--English as Second Language (ESL, 2L, CLD) learners--through dynamic evaluation using children's literature. Given the increased demands within the general education classroom, the teacher needs ways to combine assessment procedures with effective instructional…
Ismail, Nur Salina; Atek, Engku Suhaimi Engku; Azmi, Mohd Nazri Latiff; Mohamad, Mahani
For many learners, language class can be anxiety-provoking than other courses. Mostly, university students are seen to have language anxiety especially in their second language learning. They tend to be nervous when using English language in the formal situation like in classroom. English Outdoor Programme (EOP) in 2011 as part of informal setting…
This paper concerns the teaching of English to learners who are studying, or will soon study, engineering and who are expected to do at least part of their studying through textbooks written in English. Such students, especially in universities in developing countries, often find themselves very poorly equipped by their secondary education for…
Blackwell, Jacqueline Rushin
The purpose of this research is to identify teaching strategies and practices that impact the vocabulary and language development for English Language Learners. Today, there are over 3.5 million non-English speaking students enrolled in public classrooms and the number has continued to climb over the past decade. Many ELL students live in poverty…
Ninety percent of Puerto Rican public school students who graduate from high school lack the basic English skills needed to succeed in university studies. This lack may be the result of Spanish being used as the major language of instruction at all levels in the public school system; when students graduate, they are limited English proficient…
Haas, Eric; Huang, Min; Tran, Loan; Yu, Airong
The purpose of this study was to examine the cumulative progress of English learner students in Utah in English language proficiency (ELP) and in academic content knowledge in both English language arts (ELA) and mathematics. This study identified students in grades kindergarten, 3, and 6 who were designated as English learner students in 2006/07…
This article considers a case of local language socialization and accommodation in a multilingual community of practice: the use of English as an additional academic language for specific purposes at a bilingual Swiss university and its implications for teaching. The acronym ELF(A) is used throughout as short for English as a Lingua Franca (in…
Tse, Chi-Shing; Altarriba, Jeanette
By administering Simon, Simon switching, and operation-span working memory tasks to Cantonese-English bilingual children who varied in their first-language (L1, Cantonese) and second-language (L2, English) proficiencies, as quantified by standardized vocabulary test performance, the current study examined the effects of L1 and L2 proficiency on attentional control performance. Apart from mean performance, we conducted ex-Gaussian analyses to capture the modal and positive-tail components of participants' reaction time distributions in the Simon and Simon switching tasks. Bilinguals' L2 proficiency was associated with higher scores in the operation span task, and a shift of reaction time distributions in incongruent trials, relative to congruent trials (Simon effect in μ), and the tail size of reaction time distributions (τ) regardless of trial types in the Simon task. Bilinguals' L1 proficiency, which was strongly associated with participants' age, showed similar results, except that it was not associated with the Simon effect in μ. In contrast, neither bilinguals' L1 nor L2 proficiency modulated the global switch cost or local switch cost in the Simon switching task. After taking into account potential cognitive maturation by partialling out the participants' age, only (a) scores in the working memory task and (b) RT in incongruent trials and (c) Simon effect in μ in the Simon task could still be predicted by bilinguals' L2 proficiency. Overall, the current findings suggest that bilingual children's L2 proficiency was associated with their conflict resolution and working memory capacity, but not goal maintenance or task-set switching, when they performed the cognitive tasks that demanded attentional control. This was not entirely consistent with the findings of college-age bilinguals reported in previous studies. PMID:25232345
Bohát, Róbert; Rödlingová, Beata; Horáková, Nina
Corpus of High School Academic Texts (COHAT), currently of 150,000+ words, aims to make academic language instruction a more data-driven and student-centered discovery learning as a special type of Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL), emphasizing students' critical thinking and metacognition. Since 2013, high school English as an additional…
Salamonson, Yenna; Everett, Bronwyn; Koch, Jane; Andrew, Sharon; Davidson, Patricia M
Students who speak English as a second language (ESL) face considerable challenges in English language universities, but little is known about the relationship between English-language acculturation and academic performance. A prospective, correlational design was used to validate the English Language Acculturation Scale (ELAS), a measure of the linguistic aspect of acculturation, and to determine the relationship between English-language acculturation and academic achievement among 273 first-year nursing students. Exploratory factor analyses demonstrated that the ELAS was a valid and reliable measure (alpha = .89). When ELAS scores were examined in relation to students' grades, students with the lowest ELAS scores also had the lowest mean subject grades, highlighting the need to place greater emphasis on identifying English-language acculturation among ESL students.
Latterman, Caroline Kennelly
This experiment measured teachers' attitudes towards African American English and Academic English. Participants were graduate students of Education at a college in New York City. They completed a paper-and-pencil questionnaire that assessed their explicit attitudes towards the two varieties, as well as a Psycholinguistic Experiment that was…
Schroeder, Rui M.
This study reports on the three-year development and validation of a new assessment tool--the Academic Spoken English Strategies Survey (ASESS). The questionnaire is the first of its kind to assess the listening and speaking strategy use of non-native English speaking (NNES) graduate students. A combination of sources was used to develop the…
Frequent use of non-finites is an important feature of English academic writing (Chafe & Danielewicz, 1987), but teachers and students in the Chinese environment are not aware of it. To investigate the problems that can be found in academic writings by Chinese students is significant in two aspects: academic writing by Chinese EFL students…
State Univ. of New York, Oneonta. Coll. at Oneonta. Eastern Stream Center on Resources and Training.
This new edition provides helpful information to busy mainstream teachers seeking practical advice on how they can more effectively include, instruct, and nurture limited-English-proficient (LEP) migrant students. Most of the strategies promoted are recommended for all students, not just LEP students. Chapter 1 presents cultural information to…
Rafieyan, Vahid; Rafieyan, Ali; Rafieyan, Navid; Rafieyan, Saeid; Rafieyan, Parvaneh; Rafieyan, Mohamad
The very information structure of written communication depends not just on the writer's meaning and purpose but rather on the extent to which writer and reader share knowledge of pragmatic features of the language. To assess the actual effect of developing target language pragmatic competence through telecollaboration on improving English as…
Sylven, Liss Kerstin; Sundqvist, Pia
Today, playing digital games is an important part of many young people's everyday lives. Claims have been made that certain games, in particular massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) provide L2 English learners with a linguistically rich and cognitively challenging virtual environment that may be conducive to L2 learning, as…
Tinloy, Marion; And Others
This training manual is designed to improve understanding of Chinese American children, their families, and the issues surrounding the assessment process, to assist educators in creating a more appropriate assessment and learning environment for the limited English speaking Chinese American child. Three training modules are included; each module…
Serpa, Fernando A.
This study evaluated equal educational opportunities available to Maine's language minority students, using information from four 1997 fact-finding meetings that included representatives from the U.S. Department of Education's Office of Civil Rights, local school superintendents, English as a Second Language (ESL) teachers and professionals,…
Trute, Joy W.
A practicum is reported that was designed to organize collaborative efforts among primary, English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL), and bilingual teachers at an elementary school with a 1,200-student enrollment. The school had seen a transition from a white, middle-class to a racially mixed and transient community, with large segments from…
Mistar, Junaidi; Umamah, Atik
This paper was a subset report of a research project on skill-based English learning strategies by Indonesian EFL learners. It focusses on the attempts to reveal: (1) the differences in the use of strategies of learning speaking skill by male and female learners, and (2) the contribution of strategies of learning speaking skill on the learners'…
The author relates how his school has a very active English Language Learner (ELL) program. ELL students typically have varying levels of social and academic language, but almost always have some English proficiency. Recently, his school established a Newcomer Program that drastically changed the school system. They acquired students lacking any…
Research is clear that English language learners (ELLs) perform better academically and achieve greater language proficiency when they have high-quality English language instruction.1 Like all supplemental services, these necessary supports require additional funding above the average per-student amount. The federal government provides grant…
Zhang, Ying; Elder, Catherine
This study investigates the impact of raters' language background on their judgements of the speaking performance in the College English Test-Spoken English Test (CET-SET) of China, by comparing the rating patterns of non-native English-speaking (NNES) teacher raters, who are currently employed to assess performance on the CET-SET, with those of…
This article discusses the danger of subtractive English in higher education in Norway. If the use of a mother tongue as the medium of communication at the highest academic levels ceases, is drastically reduced and replaced through the use of a foreign tongue, we may speak of subtractive learning. If the mother tongue is being replaced by a foreign tongue in academic writing, in research and university level teaching, the mother tongue will stagnate. The vocabulary needed has not been allowed to develop at the highest academic level. The author maintains that the Norwegian language is threatened as an academic language and here discusses the following five phenomena, all contributing to this threat: 1. The increasing use of English words in Norwegian academic, bureaucratic or technological language. 2. The sale of more academic literature in English and stagnation of academic literature in Norwegian. 3. The recruitment of teaching staff who do not speak Norwegian. 4. The growth in Master degree courses taught in English. 5. The financial rewards being given to academic staff publishing in an international language (read: English) instead of in the mother tongue.
Goldburg, Maxine E.
Learner-centered methodology like peer review is problematic in the pluralism of the ESL classroom when teaching academic English composition. A distinct complication is the form writing instruction should take given the interaction and variations between ESL students' L1 background, experiences, schema, and the meaning of academic literacy in…
Cao, Fan; Tao, Ran; Liu, Li; Perfetti, Charles A.; Booth, James R.
The assimilation hypothesis argues that second language learning recruits the brain network for processing the native language, whereas the accommodation hypothesis argues that learning a second language recruits brain structures not involved in native language processing. This study tested these hypotheses by examining brain activation of a group of native Chinese speakers, who were late bilinguals with varying levels of proficiency in English, when they performed a rhyming judgment to visually presented English word pairs (CE group) during fMRI. Assimilation was examined by comparing the CE group to native Chinese speakers performing the rhyming task in Chinese (CC group), and accommodation was examined by comparing the CE group to native English speakers performing the rhyming task in English (EE group). The CE group was very similar in activation to the CC group, supporting the assimilation hypothesis. Additional support for the assimilation hypothesis was the finding that higher proficiency in the CE group was related to increased activation in the Chinese network (as defined by the CC > EE), including the left middle frontal gyrus, the right inferior parietal lobule, and the right precuneus, and decreased activation in the English network (as defined by the EE > CC), including the left inferior frontal gyrus and the left inferior temporal gyrus. Although most of the results support assimilation, there was some evidence for accommodation as the CE group showed less activation in the Chinese network including the right middle occipital gyrus, which has been argued to be involved in holistic visuospatial processing of Chinese characters. PMID:23654223
Cao, Fan; Tao, Ran; Liu, Li; Perfetti, Charles A; Booth, James R
The assimilation hypothesis argues that second language learning recruits the brain network for processing the native language, whereas the accommodation hypothesis argues that learning a second language recruits brain structures not involved in native language processing. This study tested these hypotheses by examining brain activation of a group of native Chinese speakers, who were late bilinguals with varying levels of proficiency in English, when they performed a rhyming judgment to visually presented English word pairs (CE group) during fMRI. Assimilation was examined by comparing the CE group to native Chinese speakers performing the rhyming task in Chinese (CC group), and accommodation was examined by comparing the CE group to native English speakers performing the rhyming task in English (EE group). The CE group was very similar in activation to the CC group, supporting the assimilation hypothesis. Additional support for the assimilation hypothesis was the finding that higher proficiency in the CE group was related to increased activation in the Chinese network (as defined by the CC > EE), including the left middle frontal gyrus, the right inferior parietal lobule, and the right precuneus, and decreased activation in the English network (as defined by the EE > CC), including the left inferior frontal gyrus and the left inferior temporal gyrus. Although most of the results support assimilation, there was some evidence for accommodation as the CE group showed less activation in the Chinese network including the right middle occipital gyrus, which has been argued to be involved in holistic visuospatial processing of Chinese characters.
Tiewtrakul, T; Fletcher, S R
Although English has been the international aviation language since 1951, formal language proficiency testing for key aviation personnel has only recently been implemented by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). It aims to ensure minimum acceptable levels of English pronunciation and comprehension universally, but does not attend to particular regional dialect difficulties. However, evidence suggests that voice transmissions between air traffic controllers and pilots are a particular problem in international airspace and that pilots may not understand messages due to the influence of different accents when using English. This study explores the potential impact of 'non-native English' in pilot-air traffic control transmissions using a 'conversation analysis' technique to examine approach phase recordings from Bangkok International Airport. Results support that communication errors, defined by incidents of pilots not understanding, occur significantly more often when speakers are both non-native English, messages are more complex and when numerical information is involved. These results and their possible implications are discussed with reference to the development of ICAO's new language proficiency standards. Statement of Relevance: This study builds on previous work and literature, providing further evidence to show that the risks caused by language and linguistics in aviation must be explored more deeply. Findings are particularly contemporary and relevant today, indicating that recently implemented international standards would benefit from further exploratory research and development.
August, Diane; Artzi, Lauren; Mazrum, Julie
This brief reviews previous research related to the development of science knowledge and academic language in English language learners as well as the role of English language proficiency, learning in a second language, and first language knowledge in science learning. It also describes two successful CREATE interventions that build academic and…
Cabassa, Leopoldo J.; Contreras, Sandra; Aragón, Rebeca; Molina, Gregory B.; Baron, Melvin
In this study, the authors examined reactions of Latino adults with limited English proficiency (LEP) to a culturally and linguistically adapted depression fotonovela, titled “Secret Feelings.” Fotonovelas are popular health education tools that use posed photographs, text bubbles with simple text, and dramatic narratives to engage audiences and raise their awareness and knowledge about specific health issues. Four focus groups (N = 32) were conducted at an adult school program (e.g., GED classes). Content analysis was used to generate themes from transcripts and memos. “Secret Feelings” was viewed as an entertaining, engaging, and educational tool that helped combat stigma toward depression and its treatments in the Latino community. Despite learning about depression, participants reported they wanted more information about the causes of depression, the process of recovery, and felt that the story did not shift their apprehensions toward antidepressants. The findings suggest that “Secret Feelings” is a promising depression literacy tool for Latinos with LEP that can raise awareness and knowledge about depression and its treatments, reduce stigma toward depression and antidepressant medications, and model appropriate help-seeking behaviors. PMID:21807951
Salinas, Jennifer J.; Hilfinger Messias, DeAnne K.; Morales-Campos, Daisy; Parra-Medina, Deborah
Objectives To examine the relationship between English language proficiency (ELP), physical activity and physical activity-related psychosocial measures (i.e. exercise self-efficacy, exercise social support, perceptions of environmental supports) among Mexican-origin women in South Carolina and Texas. Design Adjusted robust regression and interaction modeling to evaluate baseline questionnaire data on self-reported ELP with CHAMPS leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), accelerometry data, Physical Activity Self-Efficacy, Physical Activity Social Support and Environmental Support for Physical Activity in 118 Mexican-origin women. Results The adjusted regression revealed a significant association between ELP and perceived physical activity self-efficacy (β= 234.2, p=.004), but not with physical activity social support. In South Carolina, CHAMPS leisure-time MVPA (411.4 versus 114.3 minutes, p<.05) was significantly different between women in the high ELP quartile and those in the very low quartile. Among high ELP Mexican-origin women, participants in Texas reported significantly higher MVPA measured by accelerometry (p=.042) than those in South Carolina. Conclusion Our findings indicate that ELP was associated with physical activity and that contextual factors may also play a role. PMID:24509031
Lange, Cheryl M; Lane-Outlaw, Susan; Lange, William E; Sherwood, Dyan L
This study examines reading and mathematics academic growth of deaf and hard-of-hearing students instructed through an American Sign Language (ASL)/English bilingual model. The study participants were exposed to the model for a minimum of 4 years. The study participants' academic growth rates were measured using the Northwest Evaluation Association's Measure of Academic Progress assessment and compared with a national-normed group of grade-level peers that consisted primarily of hearing students. The study also compared academic growth for participants by various characteristics such as gender, parents' hearing status, and secondary disability status and examined the academic outcomes for students after a minimum of 4 years of instruction in an ASL/English bilingual model. The findings support the efficacy of the ASL/English bilingual model.
Barrett, Neil E.; Liu, Gi-Zen
English has become the de facto language for communication in academia in many parts of the world, but English language learners often lack the language resources to make effective oral academic presentations. However, English for academic purposes (EAP) research is beginning to provide valuable insights into this emerging field. This literature…
Drawn on the sociocultural paradigm, I examined teacher-student communication with emphasis on teacher's talk and its role on international students' learning English as a Second Language in an English for Academic Purposes classroom in a global campus in the U.S. Developmental data analyses of class observations, teacher and student interviews,…
Based on the analysis of the questionnaire survey on learning motivation and learning needs of postgraduates and their demands and suggestions on English teaching, the paper makes a beneficial exploration on English course model for postgraduates in agricultural universities. Under the guidance of academic game theory, the "language skills+…
Que, Hua; Li, Xuemei
This study looks into the changing voice of Chinese Post-80s' students in English academic writing. Data were collected qualitatively through interviews with four Chinese Post-80s overseas graduate students and through an examination of their English essays with a focus on discursive features. Findings indicate that Chinese Post-80s' voice is…
Chen, Jin; Belkada, Safia; Okamoto, Toshio
This paper describes an experimental study aimed at investigating the learning effectiveness of a Web-based course called "Academic English" (EAP) for Japanese learners of English. The main focus of the study was to examine the form, function, and impact of interaction in the course. Twenty university-level EFL students participated in…
Dutro, Susana; Levy, Ellen; Moore, David W.
Susana Dutro and Ellen Levy are leaders of E.L. Achieve, an organization dedicated to assisting educators in equipping English learners for academic achievement. They see adolescent English learners regularly confronting the challenge of developing the language needed to fully participate in middle and high school classrooms. Their approach to…
LaRocque, Geraldine E.
Testing Marshall McLuhan's thesis that the educational system favors the visually oriented student and militates against the audile-tactile youngster, this pilot study attempted to discover whether or not academically successful ninth-grade English students have a different sensory response pattern than unsuccessful ninth-grade English students.…
Individuals need communicative competence for personal fulfillment and development, active citizenship, social inclusion and employment. Aim of the research is to work out English for Academic Purposes activity organization model and its introducing sequence for promoting communicative competence. Content: the search for English for Academic…
Olsson, Anna; Sheridan, Vera
This empirical study surveyed academic staff at a Swedish university about their experiences and perceptions of the use of English in their academic fields. The objective was to examine how the influence of English in disciplinary domains might affect the viability of Swedish in the academic sphere and to investigate how it might disadvantage…
Aliakbari, Mohammad; Abol-Nejadian, Rezvan
Although a large body of research has been dedicated to examining emotional intelligence (EI) and learning styles in relation to different factors in academic setting, the relationship between these two variables still necessitates more exploration and deeper study, especially in the Iranian context. To this end, 60 English for Academic Purposes…
Strike, Tony; Taylor, John
This paper sets out findings from research that considered the interplay between English national policy developments in human resources management in higher education and the personal stories of academic staff as career participants. Academic careers are pursued in an institutional and national policy context but it was not clear that the formal…
Akyildiz, Seçil Tümen; Semerci, Çetin
This study aimed at investigating the effect of the cognitive coaching-supported reflective teaching approach in English language teaching on the academic success of students and on the permanence of success. It was conducted during the spring semester of 2013/2014 academic year at the School of Foreign Languages, Firat University, Elazig, Turkey.…
Crossman, Katie; Pinchbeck, Geoffrey
Immigrants and the children of immigrants who have completed their schooling in Canadian school settings, commonly referred to as Generation 1.5, are increasingly identified in the research literature as academically at risk due to inadequately developed academic language proficiency and learning strategies. This article describes the design,…
Haas, Eric; Huang, Min; Tran, Loan; Yu, Airong
The purpose of this study was to examine the cumulative progress of English learner students in Nevada in English language proficiency (ELP) and in academic content knowledge in both reading and mathematics. This study identified students in grades kindergarten, 3, and 6 who were designated as English learner students in 2006/07 and examined their…
Lo, Ya-yu; Anderson, Adrienne L.; Bunch-Crump, Kimberly
Many educators in public schools in the United States experience challenges in meeting the unique needs of the growing population of English learners who must simultaneously attain academic skills while acquiring English language proficiency. Such unique needs intensify for English learners with reading disabilities. Morphological awareness is key…
Young, Lynne; O'Brien, Trudy
Describes a program designed to improve English skills in university students learning English as a second language through a Canadian literature and history component. Reading lists are appended. (AM)
This study selects postgraduate students in the first grade as the participants, based on their needs analysis, classroom presentations and performance of assignments completion, through the methodology of case study, the results show that students at the university level even the graduate levels still struggle with academic English. Thus, this…
Weaver, Roslyn; Jackson, Debra
Academic writing skills are essential to the successful completion of preregistration nursing programs, yet the development of such skills is a challenge for many nursing students, particularly those who speak English as a second language (ESL). It is vital to develop and evaluate strategies that can support academic writing skills for ESL nursing students. This qualitative study evaluated a four-day academic writing intervention strategy designed to support ESL first-year nursing students. Data from the program showed two major areas of difficulty for participants relating to academic writing: problems understanding course content in English, and problems expressing their understanding of that content in English. The participants noted a key benefit of this program was the provision of individual feedback. Programs such as this intervention successfully meet the demands of ESL nursing students, although ongoing support is also needed.
Al Hamdany, Hayder; Picard, Michelle
This paper explores the perceptions of Iraqi students of three different English Programs (a general English for academic purposes program, a pre-enrolment English program and the English component of a disciplinary bridging program) at an Australian University as reflected in their language learning narratives. It focuses specifically on the…
Uriarte, Miren; Karp, Faye; Gagnon, Laurie; Tung, Rosann; Rustan, Sarah; Chen, Jie; Berardino, Michael; Stazesky, Pamela
English language learners (ELLs), their teachers, and the schools and programs where they are enrolled face a triple challenge: (1) students must be taught and learn English at a level of proficiency high enough to allow them access to academic content; (2) students must be taught and learn academic content at a level comparable to that of English…
Hijikata, Yuko; Nakatani, Yasuo; Shimizu, Maki
Academic reading has been less emphasized compared with academic writing as a site of research inquiry. Although some studies have examined reading strategy use in academic reading (e.g., Block, 1986; Plakans, 2009), these studies used short passages only, and there have been a few studies that have focused on the mental representation constructed…
Rinaldi, Claudia; Samson, Jennifer
The most salient difficulty in assessing English language learner (ELL) students who exhibit academic difficulties is identifying whether the problem is one of English proficiency or of a learning disability. In many cases, the symptoms are shared and difficult to disentangle, but obtaining a comprehensive picture of the child is vital for…
August, Diane; Branum-Martin, Lee; Cardenas-Hagan, Elsa; Francis, David J.
The goal of this study was to assess the effectiveness of an intervention--Quality English and Science Teaching (QuEST)--designed to develop the science knowledge and academic language of middle grades English language learners studying science in their second language and their English-proficient classmates. Ten sixth-grade science teachers in 5…
Examines similarities and differences in the degree of commitment and detachment in English, Bulgarian, and Bulgarian English research articles in linguistics. Analysis shows considerable difference in the overall distribution of hedges and boosters throughout the introductions, discussions, and conclusions of the articles, which may lead to…
Singh, Manesha Kaur Rajendra; Singh, Manjet Kaur Mehar; Eng, Lin Siew
Speaking is an important skill that needs to be mastered as it is the best way to communicate with other people in order to deliver opinions and express ideas, but the fact is that secondary school students' ability in speaking English is low in Malaysia. It is caused by several factors such as lack of vocabulary, poor pronunciation, weak grammar…
Prior, Anat; MacWhinney, Brian; Kroll, Judith F
We present a set of translation norms for 670 English and 760 Spanish nouns, verbs and class ambiguous items that varied in their lexical properties in both languages, collected from 80 bilingual participants. Half of the words in each language received more than a single translation across participants. Cue word frequency and imageability were both negatively correlated with number of translations. Word class predicted number of translations: Nouns had fewer translations than did verbs, which had fewer translations than class-ambiguous items. The translation probability of specific responses was positively correlated with target word frequency and imageability, and with its form overlap with the cue word. Translation choice was modulated by L2 proficiency: Less proficient bilinguals tended to produce lower probability translations than more proficient bilinguals, but only in forward translation, from Ll to L2. These findings highlight the importance of translation ambiguity as a factor influencing bilingual representation and performance. The norms can also provide an important resource to assist researchers in the selection of experimental materials for studies of bilingual and monolingual language performance. These norms may be downloaded from www.psychonomic.org/archive.
Prior, Anat; MacWhinney, Brian; Kroll, Judith F.
We present a set of translation norms for 670 English and 760 Spanish nouns, verbs and class ambiguous items that varied in their lexical properties in both languages, collected from 80 bilingual participants. Half of the words in each language received more than a single translation across participants. Cue word frequency and imageability were both negatively correlated with number of translations. Word class predicted number of translations: Nouns had fewer translations than did verbs, which had fewer translations than class-ambiguous items. The translation probability of specific responses was positively correlated with target word frequency and imageability, and with its form overlap with the cue word. Translation choice was modulated by L2 proficiency: Less proficient bilinguals tended to produce lower probability translations than more proficient bilinguals, but only in forward translation, from L1 to L2. These findings highlight the importance of translation ambiguity as a factor influencing bilingual representation and performance. The norms can also provide an important resource to assist researchers in the selection of experimental materials for studies of bilingual and monolingual language performance. These norms may be downloaded from www.psychonomic.org/archive. PMID:18183923
Keifer, Matthew C; Reyes, Iris; Liebman, Amy K; Juarez-Carrillo, Patricia
Audience response systems (ARS) have long been used to improve the interactivity of educational activities. Most studies of ARS have addressed education of literate trainees. How well these devices work with low-literacy subjects is not well studied. Information gathering on the training audience is an important use of ARS and helpful in improving the targeting of training information. However, obtaining demographic information from vulnerable populations with reasons to be concerned about divulging information about themselves has not been tested. In addition, a culturally competent method to effectively collect demographic and evaluation data of this growing population is essential. This project investigated the use of ARS to gather information from Hispanic immigrant workers, many of whom are socially vulnerable and have limited English proficiency (LEP) and low-literacy. Workers attended focus groups and were asked to use ARS devices or clickers to respond to questions. Questions were both categorical (multiple choice) and open-ended numerical (text entry), and varied from simple queries to more sensitive points regarding immigration. Most workers answered the one-key response categorical questions with little difficulty. In contrast, some participants struggled when responding to numerical questions, especially when the response required pressing multiple clicker keys. An overwhelming majority of participants reported that the clickers were comfortable and easy to use despite the challenges presented by the more complex responses. The error rate increased as question complexity increased and the trend across three ordered categories of response complexity reached statistical significance. Results suggest that ARS is a viable method for gathering dichotomous or higher-order categorical information from LEP and low-literacy populations in a group setting while assuring anonymity. However, it is recommended that clickers be developed and tested with fewer, bigger
Öztürk, Yusuf; Köse, Gül Durmusoglu
Lexical bundles such as "on the other hand" and "as a result of" are extremely common and important in academic discourse. The appropriate use of lexical bundles typical of a specific academic discipline is important for writers and the absence of such bundles may not sound fluent and native-like. Recent studies (e.g. Adel…
Beeber, Linda S; Lewis, Virginia S; Cooper, Carolyn; Maxwell, Lauren; Sandelowski, Margarete
Latina mothers of infants and toddlers are at high risk for developing serious depressive symptoms if they are newly immigrated and have limited English proficiency (LEP). Depressive symptoms compromise these mothers and result in severe consequences for their U.S.-born children. A randomized clinical trial of a short-term, in-home psychotherapy intervention for symptomatic mothers in an area of the United States where bilingual mental health providers were scarce used teams of English-speaking advanced practice psychiatric mental health nurses and bilingual community interpreters who were trained in a conduit, consecutive model of interpretation. The article describes the development of a theoretically congruent interpreter model, the training program that supported it, the challenges that surfaced and lessons learned during successful implementation in the field. Future refinements in progress and uses of the model are discussed.
Embedding international benchmarks of proficiency in English in undergraduate nursing programmes: challenges and strategies in equipping culturally and linguistically diverse students with English as an additional language for nursing in Australia.
Glew, Paul J
To meet the expected shortfalls in the number of registered nurses throughout the coming decade Australian universities have been recruiting an increasing number of students from culturally and linguistically diverse (CaLD) backgrounds. Given that international and domestic students who use English as an additional language (EAL) complement the number of native English speaking nursing students, they represent a valuable nurse education investment. Although university programmes are in a position to meet the education and learning needs of native English speaking nursing students, they can experience considerable challenges in effectively equipping EAL students with the English and academic language skills for nursing studies and registration in Australia. However, success in a nursing programme and in preparing for nurse registration can require EAL students to achieve substantial literacy skills in English and academic language through their engagement with these tertiary learning contexts. This paper discusses the education implications for nursing programmes and EAL students of developing literacy skills through pre-registration nursing studies to meet the English language skills standard for nurse registration and presents intervention strategies for nursing programmes that aim to build EAL student capacity in using academic English.
Hayes, Katherine; Rueda, Robert; Chilton, Susan
This article contains a description of the Dual Proficiency (DP) program in an urban elementary school located in the heart of a large south-western city, as well as the teachers who designed and now implement DP, and the immigrant community participating by choice in DP. We write from a context where, ironically, the number of English language…
Baker, Scott; Lesaux, Nonie; Jayanthi, Madhavi; Dimino, Joseph; Proctor, C. Patrick; Morris, Joan; Gersten, Russell; Haymond, Kelly; Kieffer, Michael J.; Linan-Thompson, Sylvia; Newman-Gonchar, Rebecca
As English learners face the double demands of building knowledge of a second language while learning complex grade-level content, teachers must find effective ways to make challenging content comprehensible for students. This updated English learner practice guide, "Teaching Academic Content and Literacy to English Learners in Elementary and…
Lillis, Theresa; Curry, Mary Jane
Scholars around the world are under increasing pressure to publish their research in the medium of English. However, little empirical research has explored how the global premium of English influences the academic text production of scholars working outside of English-speaking countries. This article draws on a longitudinal text-oriented…
Indiana State Commission for Higher Education, Indianapolis.
This guide to Indiana's academic standards in English/Language Arts, Mathematics, Science, and the Social Studies for Grade 8 students begins with a note to students and another note to parents. The guide spells out what students should know and be able to do in each subject, at each grade level. The guide also lists 10 things parents can do to…
Indiana State Dept. of Public Instruction, Indianapolis.
This guide to Indiana's academic standards in English/Language Arts, Mathematics, Science, and the Social Studies for Grade 6 students begins with a note to students and another note to parents. The guide spells out what students should know and be able to do in each subject, at each grade level. The guide also lists 10 things parents can do to…
Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis.
This guide to Indiana's academic standards in English/Language Arts, Mathematics, Science, and the Social Studies for Grade 5 students begins with a note to students and another note to parents. The guide spells out what students should know and be able to do in each subject, at each grade level. The guide also lists 10 things parents can do to…
Indiana State Dept. of Public Instruction, Indianapolis.
This guide to Indiana's academic standards in English/Language Arts, Mathematics, Science, and the Social Studies for Grade 7 students begins with a note to students and another note to parents. The guide spells out what students should know and be able to do in each subject, at each grade level. The guide also lists 10 things parents can do to…
Learner motivation is considered a vital factor in second language instruction. An analysis of motivation types and degrees can reveal learners' expectations and learning objectives. The present study analyzes the motivational patterns of a group of English for academic and professional purposes (EAPP) learners while focusing on types and degrees…
Kim, Won Gyoung; García, Shernaz B.
Long-term, adolescent English language learners (ELLs) experience persistent academic underachievement in spite of several years of schooling; yet, the research on this topic is scant. To increase our understanding of these students' educational experiences, we explored perceptions of 13 long-term ELLs about their schooling in the context of their…
Mertin, Patricia Anne
This ethnographic study examines the role of Japanese students' culture and its effects on the rate of acquisition of academic English. It is based on observation of classes in Japanese schools, both in Japan and Germany, as well as in an international school, together with interviews, questionnaires, student responses and case studies over a…
Bai, Li; Millwater, Jan; Hudson, Peter
Research capacity building has become a prominent theme in higher education institutions in China and across the world. However, Chinese Teaching English as a Foreign Language academics' research output has been quite limited. In order to build their research capacity, it is necessary to understand their perceptions about research. This case study…
California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.
As a preliminary version of the rationale and content for the English-language arts portion of the "Survey of Academic Skills: Grade 12," this booklet describes elements of the new reading and editing tests to be used to complement a direct writing assessment in this part of the 1987-88 California Assessment Program (CAP). After a brief…